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City and County of Denver climate adaptation plan

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City and County of Denver climate adaptation plan
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Climate Resiliency Committee, City and County of Denver
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Denver, CO
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City and County of Denver
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English

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Climate change mitigation

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Auraria Library
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Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
City and County of Denver
Climate Adaptation Plan


JUNE 24, 2014
Dear Neighbors:
Recognizing that climate change is among the defining issues of the 21st century, Denver strives to be one
of the most sustainable cities in the nation an innovative and climate resilient city. We are committed to
facing the challenges through preparedness, collaboration and cost-effective strategies.
Under those guiding principles, over the past 18 months the Department of Environmental Health has led
a citywide committee dedicated to developing Denver's Climate Adaptation Plan. The objectives of the
plan are to prepare for and mitigate the risks associated with potential climate impacts to Denver, including
higher temperatures, more extreme weather events, changes to annual snowpack and the resultant change
to downstream flows.
This Climate Adaptation Plan provides a collaborative path forward to protect what we cherish so that future
generations will enjoy economic opportunity, effective and efficient infrastructure, parks and open spaces,
and an environment conducive to supporting resident health and well-being.
Over the next year, we will begin to incorporate short- and long-term priorities into agency strategic plans,
our Peak Performance efforts and the city's nationally accredited environmental compliance program, the
Environmental Management System. We will also be releasing an updated Climate Action Plan, which has
guided citywide efforts to improve air quality, reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.
I encourage you to read Denver's Climate Adaptation Plan and join us in creating a vibrant city that is
environmentally responsible and resilient to climate challenges.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Members of Denver's Climate Resiliency Committee and Technical Advisory Groups
Environmental Health Liz Babcock Cindy Bosco Zach Clayton General Services David Basich Kate Taft
Elizabeth Clay Dave Erickson Tom Herrod Meghan Hughes Office of Sustainability Sonrisa Lucero Jerome Tinianow
Kerra Jones Amy Laughlin Doug Linkhart Office of Economic Development Tim Martinez
Paul Schmiechen Jessica Scott Gregg Thomas Celia Vanderloop Community Planning and Development David Gaspers Todd Wenskoski
Denver International Airport Scott Morrissey Budget and Management Office Derrick Kuhl Laura Perry
Office of Emergency Management Patricia Williams Denver Water* Laurna Kaatz
Parks and Recreation Sara Davis Gordon Robertson Production Team Joanna Smith Design
Health and Human Services Valerie Brooks Public Works Paul Sobiech Brian Schat Meister Consultants Group**
*Partnership with outside agency **Adaptation Plan Consultant


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgements 1
Tables 3
Figures 4
List of Acronyms 5
Executive Summary 6
Chapter 1: Introduction to Climate Adaptation 7
1.1 Plan Contents 7
1.2 Introduction to Climate Change 7
1.3 Climate Impacts on the Front Range 8
1.3.1 Climate Observations and Projections for Colorado 8
1.3.2 Importance of Climate Projections for Denver 9
Increase in Temperature and Urban Heat Island Effect 9
Increase in Extreme Weather Events 11
Reduced Snowpack and Earlier Snowmelt 12
1.4 Climate Mitigation vs. Climate Adaptation 13
1.5 Why Climate Adaptation is Important 13
1.6 Denver's Climate Adaptation Plan 15
Chapter 2: Denver's Current Climate Change Resiliency Programs and Efforts 16
2.1 Agency Descriptions 16
2.2 Current Resilience Efforts 19
2.2.1 Buildings and Energy 19
2.2.2 Health and Human Services 21
2.2.3 Land Use and Transportation 21
2.2.4 Urban Natural Resources 23
2.2.5 Water Consumption 23
2.2.6 Food and Agriculture 25
2.3 Current Denver Programs with Climate Adaptation, Climate Mitigation and Combined-Benefits 25
Chapter 3: Vulnerability Assessment 27
3.1 Background 27
3.2 Conducting the Vulnerability Assessment 27
3.2.1 Vulnerability Assessment: Sensitivity Analysis 28
3.2.2 Vulnerability Assessment: Adaptive Capacity 29
3.2.3 Vulnerability Assessment: Qualifying Vulnerability 29
3.3 Identification of Priority Vulnerability and Priority Planning Areas 30
Chapter 4: Short-Term Climate Adaptation Activities 33
4.1 Short-Term Climate Adaptation Actions by Sector 33
4.1.1 Buildings and Energy Sector 33
4.1.2 Health and Human Services Sector 35
4.1.3 Land Use and Transportation Sector 36
4.1.4 Urban Natural Resources Sector 37
4.1.5 Water Consumption Sector 39
Climate Adaptation Plan | 2


Chapter 5: Medium and Long-Term Climate Adaptation Activities 40
5.1 Buildings and Energy Sector 41
5.1.1 Goal 1: Reduce vulnerability to building energy supply disruptions 42
5.1.2 Goal 2: Reduce vulnerability of buildings to extreme weather 44
5.2 Health and Human Services Sector 45
5.2.1 Goal 1: Safeguard health of Denver residents in the context of climate impacts 46
5.2.2 Goal 2: Preserve ability of health care and other service providers to provide utilities during extreme heat events 47
5.3 Urban Natural Resources Sector 48
5.3.1 Goal 1: Enhance and preserve existing urban forest resources 50
5.3.2 Goal 2: Ensure all Denver streams are fishable and swimmable 51
5.4 Water Consumption Sector 53
5.4.1 Goal 1: Reduce per capita use of potable water 55
5.5 Land Use and Transportation sector 58
5.5.1 Goal 1: Improve mobility within the City and its communities 59
5.5.2 Goal 2: Prepare and enable urban infrastructure to adapt to climate impacts 60
5.6 Food and Agriculture sector 62
5.6.1 Goal 1: Increase food security 63
5.6.2 Goal 2: Protect local agricultural resources against increased threat of pests, invasive species and noxious weeds 63
Chapter 6: Next Steps 64
6.1 Implementation 64
6.2 Consolidation 65
6.3 Areas for Additional Analysis 65
6.3.1 Climate Projections and Vulnerabilities 65
6.3.2 Planning Scale and Integration 65
6.3.3 Adaptive Management 66
6.3.4 Metrics and Accountability 66
6.3.5 Community Engagement 66
Appendix A: Glossary 67
Appendix B: Summary Table of Vulnerabilities 69
Appendix C: Activities supporting Denver's adaptation strategies 74
Tables
Table 2.1: Current City operations with climate adaptation and mitigation benefits 25
Table 3.1: Vulnerability scoring matrix 29
Table 3.2: Priority climate change vulnerabilities 31
Table 4.1: Summary of short-term adaptation activities for buildings and energy sector 33
Table 4.2: Summary of short-term adaptation activities for health and human services sector 35
Table 4.3: Summary of short-term adaptation activities for land use and transportation sector 36
Table 4.4: Summary of short-term adaptation activities for urban natural resources sector 37
Table 4.5: Summary of short-term adaptation activities for water consumption sector 39
Table 5.1: Building and energy sector high priority vulnerabilities 41
Table 5.2: Summary of goals and strategies for increasing resilience in the buildings and energy sector 42
Table 5.3: Activities for increasing energy efficiency 43
Table 5.4: Activities for increasing cooling infrastructure 43
Table 5.5: Activities for increasing alternative and distributed generation 44
Table 5.6: Activities for encouraging construction of resilient buildings 45
Table 5.7: Health and human services sector high priority vulnerabilities 45
Table 5.8: Summary of goals and strategies for increasing resilience in the health and human services sector 46
Climate Adaptation Plan | 3


Table 5.9: Activities for reducing health impacts of extreme weather events 47
Table 5.10: Activities to reduce health vulnerabilities from vector-borne diseases 47
Table 5.11: Activities to develop utilities and IT systems that are resilient to power outages 48
Table 5.12: Urban natural resources sector priority vulnerabilities 49
Table 5.13: Summary of goals and strategies for increasing resilience in the urban natural resources sector 49
Table 5.14 Activities supporting standards and regulations to strengthen and protect urban forest resources 50
Table 5.15: Activities to increase Denver's canopy coverage and maintain existing street resources 51
Table 5.16: Activities to expand fire mitigation and forest management programs 51
Table 5.17: Activities for maintaining and enhancing the health of Denver water bodies 52
Table 5.18: Activities to improve and maintain surface water quality 53
Table 5.19: Activities to improve water and wastewater infrastructure to reduce risk of overflows or spills 53
Table 5.20: Water consumption sector priority vulnerabilities 54
Table 5.21: Summary of goals and strategies for increasing resilience in the water consumption sector 54
Table 5.22: Activities to continue and expand water conservation planning programs 55
Table 5.23: Activities to encourage the use of water conserving technologies and products in buildings 56
Table 5.24: Activities for water-conserving irrigation techniques 56
Table 5.25: Activities for water-conserving landscaping techniques 57
Table 5.26: Activities to expand recycled water infrastructure and use 57
Table 5.27: Land use and transportation sector priority vulnerabilities 58
Table 5.28: Summary of goals and strategies for increasing resilience in the land use and transportation sector 58
Table 5.29: Activities to create transit oriented and sustainable neighborhoods 59
Table 5.30: Activities to develop alternative transportation options 60
Table 5.31: Activity to integrate pavement option and alternatives that reduce the urban heat island effect 61
Table 5.32: Activity to integrate pavement options and alternatives that reduce stormwater runoff 61
Table 5.33: Activities to integrate climate change into planning and zoning considerations 62
Table 5.34: Food and agriculture sector priority vulnerabilities 62
Table 5.35: Summary of goals and strategies for increasing resilience in the food and agriculture sector 62
Table 5.36: Activities to encourage local agriculture 63
Table 5.37: Activities to identify, assess, and communicate invasive species and other threats to natural resources 64
Figures
Figure 1.1: Observed rise in globally averaged combined land and ocean surface temperatures from 1850-2012 7
Figure 1.2: Observed change in average surface temperature from 1901 -2012 8
Figure 1.3: Difference in the average minimum and average maximum temperatures in each season in the
Arkansas Valley and North Central Mountains in Colorado from 1957-2006 8
Figure 1.4: Daytime and nighttime surface temperatures increase over urbanized areas 10
Figure 1.5: Boulder, CO received record amounts of rainfall within a 2 day time span in September, 2013 11
Figure 1.6: An increase in the number of fires greater than 1,000 acres on US Forest Service Land in CO from 1970-2010 11
Figure 1.7: Changes in observed spring snowmelt dates for the western United States from 1948 2002 12
Figure 2.1: Certifiably Green Denver 20
Figure 2.2: Denver Energy Challenge 20
Figure 2.3: Denver Light Rail 22
Figure 2.4: Green infrastructure along the South Platte River 23
Figure 2.5: Cherry Creek Fresh Market 25
Figure 4.1: Metro Denver's percent urban tree canopy cover 38
Climate Adaptation Plan | 4


LIST OF ACRONYMS
BMO: Budget Management Office
BPS: By-Product Synergy Network
CAO: City Attorney Office
CDOT: Colorado Department of Transportation
CH4: Methane
CHP: Combined Heat and Power Technology
C02;Carbon dioxide
CPD: Department of Community Planning and
Development
DEAP: Denver Energy Assurance Plan
DEH: Department of Environmental Health
DFD: Denver Fire Department
DGS: Department of General Services
DHHA: Denver Health and Hospital Authority
DHS: Department of Human Services
DIA: Denver International Airport
DMNS: Denver Museum of Nature & Science
DPR: Department of Parks and Recreation
DPS: Denver Public Schools
DPW: Department of Public Works
DRH: Denver Road Home
DS: Development Services
DW: Denver Water
EMS: Environmental Management System
EV: Electric Vehicle
GES: Globeville Elyria-Swansea neighborhoods
GHG: Greenhouse gas
IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change
IRP: Integrated Resource Plan
LEAP: Low Income Energy Assistance Program
MCG: Meister Consultants Group
MW: Megawatts
NDCC: North Denver Cornerstone Collaborative
N20: Nitrous oxide
NOx: Nitrous oxides
OED: Office of Economic Development
OEMHS/OEM: Office of Emergency Management
and Homeland Security
OHR: Office of Human Resources
OOS: Office of Sustainability
PPB: Parts per billion
PPM: Parts per million
RID: Regional Transportation District
STP: Strategic Transportation Plan
TOD:Transit Oriented Development
UDFCD: Urban Drainage and Flood Control
District
UTC: Urban Tree Canopy
VBZD: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
VOCs: Volatile organic compounds


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
In 2007, Denver unveiled its Climate Action Plan and set a greenhouse gas reduction goal to reduce emissions by 10
percent per capita below 1990 levels. Denver is on track to meet this goal and continues to be proactive in reducing
city-wide per capita emissions. However, the planet is warming and the resulting effects have the potential to harm
Denver's social, economic, and environmental sectors. Along with mitigation practices aimed to reduce greenhouse
gas emissions, Denver must address and prepare for the impacts of climate change already occurring and those
projected to occur, in order to prosper in the future. Supplementing Denver's Climate Action Plan, the Climate
Adaptation Plan offers collaborative strategies to adapt to a future climate with higher temperatures, more extreme
weather events, and changes to annual snowpack. Denver recognizes climate change
as a defining issue of the 21 st century and remains committed to facing the challenges
of a changing climate through preparedness, forward thinking, and cost-effective
strategies. Denver strives to not only be one of the greenest cities in the nation, but
also one of the most innovative and climate resilient cities in the face of rapid climate
change. The objectives of the Climate Adaptation Plan are to prepare, mitigate, and
plan for risks associated with the following potential climate impacts to Denver:
1. An increase in temperature and urban heat island effect
2. An increase in frequency of extreme weather events
3. Reduced snowpack and earlier snowmelt
Denver's Climate Adaptation Plan was prepared with the following values understood: The City and County of Denver
is preparing for a hotter and more variable climate. The Plan provides a collaborative path forward to prepare for
these climate changes, protecting what we cherish so future generations will enjoy a quality of life characterized by
economic opportunity, parks and open spaces, recreational activities, and an environment conducive to support
residents' health and well-being. The focus of this Plan is to identify adaptation strategies within Denver City
agencies and community organizations that will lead to future adaptation efforts Denver can implement. Successful
implementation of the Plan supports a vibrant Denver that is resilient to climate challenges and continues to prosper
as a world-class city where everyone matters.
Long-term planning and coordinated implementation are needed to address the social, economic and environmental
consequences of climate change impacts on Denver. In response, Denver convened a working group made up of
department representatives in spring, 2012 to begin assessing the impacts Denver may
face as a result of a changing climate. In coordination with City agencies, the working
group identified Denver's top vulnerabilities to climate change.These were used as a
framework to establish short, medium, and long-term climate adaptation activities.
These activities will allow Denver to reach its long-term vision to be one of the most
innovative and resilient cities in the face of climate change. The short, medium, and
long-term activities are categorized by sectors throughout the Climate Adaptation
Plan. The sectors refer to broad planning areas that will be affected by climate change
impacts. The sectors used in the Climate Adaptation Plan are: buildings and energy,
health and human services, land use and transportation, urban natural resources,
water consumption, and food and agriculture. Each sector is facing different impacts from climate change and can
adapt in different ways. Systematically examining which climate impacts affects each sector helps identify where
climate adaptation action is most needed, allowing Denver to create forward-thinking and cost-effective adaptation
strategies.
A resilient community
will be able to enjoy
economic opportunity,
parks, open spaces,
recreational activities, and
an environment conducive
to support resident's health
and well being.
Denver's Climate Adaptation
Plan visions to provide a
collaborative path forward
to prepare for a hotter
climate, protecting what we


CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION TO CLIMATE ADAPTATION
7.7 Plan Contents
Denver's Climate Adaptation Plan is the result of a collaborative effort of Denver City Agencies and Denver Water.
Staff from the various agencies began meeting in the spring of 2012 to (1) identify vulnerabilities to climate change
and (2) identify responses that would allow Denver to adapt to potential climate change issues. Chapter 1 of this
plan provides an introduction to climate change and includes discussion of observed and expected climate trends in
Colorado, the Front Range, and Denver. Chapter 2 identifies the agencies that have been involved in Denver's climate
change adaptation planning and highlights adaptation activities the agencies were already involved with prior to the
writing of this plan. Chapter 3 provides a summary of major concerns or vulnerabilities Denver will likely encounter
as the climate changes. In response to these vulnerabilities, short, medium and long-term adaptation activities were
developed. Chapter 4 provides a description of short-term (one to two years) adaptation activities, and Chapter
5 discusses longer-term goals and strategies for adapting to a changing climate. Finally, Chapter 6 provides a
discussion of future steps Denver will take to implement and continue climate change adaptation activities.
7.2 Introduction to Climate Change
There is mounting evidence that our planet is warming rapidly. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
{IPCC) states "warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are
unprecedented over decades to millennia."1
Global climate change refers to long term average trends in weather,
like temperature and precipitation, across a region.2 When referring
to global climate change it is important to look at long-term climate
trends, generally 30 years or more, rather than short-term patterns
which reflect natural climate variability. From 1880 to 2012, the
globally averaged combined land and ocean surface temperature
shows a warming of 0.85 degrees Celsius (1.53F) (figure 1.1), and
virtually the entire globe has seen an increased average surface
temperature from 1901 -2012 (figure 1.2).3 Globally, the atmosphere
and oceans have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have
diminished, and sea level has risen. The IPCC concludes that it is
undisputable that the global climate is warming.4
Since the industrial revolution began in the 1750s, the atmospheric
concentrations of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (C02),
methane (Chi4), and nitrous oxide (N20) have all increased
dramatically. In 2011, the concentrations of these greenhouse gases
were 391 parts per million (ppm), 1803 parts per billion (ppb), and
324 ppb, respectively, which exceed the pre-industrial revolution
levels by 40%, 150%, and 20% respectively.5 C02 levels are higher
now than at any time in at least 800,000 years.6 There is widespread scientific consensus that the increases in
emissions are primarily the result of the burning of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, gasoline, and diesel), industrial
agriculture, and land-use change, and that this increase in greenhouse gases is the dominant cause of the warming
global climate.7
Figure 1.1: Observed rise in globally averaged combined land
and ocean surface temperatures from 1850-2012 (IPCC, 2013)
Climate Adaptation Plan | 7


7.2 Introduction to Climate Change (Cont.)
The IPCC has identified specific effects of global climate change
that are impacting climate conditions in many locations around
the globe including: warmer days and fewer colder nights, higher
frequency and duration of warm days and nights, increased
frequency of heavy precipitation events, increased intensity and
duration of droughts, increase in tropical cyclone activity, and
increased incidence of global sea level rise.8 These impacts and
their implications differ in different regions of the world. It is
imperative that Denver recognizes its most critical climate change
impacts and acts to mitigate and adapt to these changes in order
to become a city resilient to climate change.
Figure 1.2: Observed change in average surface temperature
from 1901-2012 (IPCC, 2013)
1.3 Climate Impacts on the Front Range
1.3.1 Climate Observations and Projections for Colorado
Historical climate trends show that the western United States is warming and Colorado is experiencing increased
temperatures and a drier climate (figure 1.3).9 According to a Western Water Assessment report, the following are
observed and projected climate changes in Colorado:10
Statewide, temperatures have increased about 2F over 30 years, with slightly more observed warming on
the Front Range.
Climate models project Colorado will warm 4F (2.5 to 5.5F) by 2050 relative to a 1971 -2000 baseline.
Temperatures in the Front Range are predicted to be similar to temperature regimes that currently occur
near the Colorado-Kansas border by 2050.
Typical summer temperatures in 2050 are projected to be as warm as or warmer than the hottest 5% of
summers that have occurred since 1900.
The January climate of the Eastern Plains of Colorado is expected to reflect that currently experienced by
areas approximately 150 miles further south, making for fewer extreme cold months and more extreme
warm months.
April 1 st snowpack is expected to decline in Colorado's mountains as the projected warming increases the
fraction of precipitation falling as rain, and also increases moisture loss from the snowpack.
Peak runoff has shifted earlier by 1 -4 weeks over the last 30 years. By 2050, warming is projected to shift
runoff an additional 1 -3 weeks earlier and reduce late summer streamflows.
Droughts are projected to increase in frequency and severity.11
Winter Spring Summer Autumn Annual
Arkansas Tmax +2.1 +3.8 +0.4 +1.0 +1.8
Valley Tmin +3.2 +3.0 +1.4 +1.4 +2.2
North Central Tmax +1.3 +4.6 +1.8 -0.1 +1.9
Mountains Tmin +2.7 +4.7 +3.0 +2.7 +3.2
Figure 1.3: Difference in the average minimum and average maximum temperatures in each season in
the Arkansas Valley and North Central Mountains in Colorado from 1957-2006.
Red indicates a significant temperature difference (Ray, 2008)
Climate Adaptation Plan | 8 :


1.3.2 Importance of Climate Projections for Denver
The Climate Adaptation Plan has identified the following three key potential impacts for Denver based on climate
change projections for the Front Range:
1. Increase in temperature and urban heat island effect
2. Increase in extreme weather events
3. Reduced snowpack and earlier snowmelt
Increase in Temperature and Urban Heat Island Effect12
Urban heat islands refer to the elevated temperatures in developed areas compared to more rural surroundings.
Urban heat islands are a result of surface properties of building materials, such as pavement and asphalt, combined
with reduced vegetation. On a hot, sunny, summer day, surfaces exposed to the sun can reach 50 to 90F hotter
than the air temperature, while shaded or moist surfaces, often in more rural surroundings, remain close to air
temperatures (figure 1.4). On average the difference in daytime surface temperatures between developed and
rural areas is 18 to 27F and the difference in nighttime temperatures is 9 to 18F. Denver, being highly urbanized,
already sees an urban heat island effect and the increased temperatures due to climate change would exacerbate
that effect. The projected increase in temperature along with increased heating due to the urban heat island effect
will have several impacts to Denver including: increased energy consumption, human health issues, and a change
in water quality in the rivers and streams that run through the city.
During the summer months, elevated temperatures in Denver will increase
energy demand for cooling. This adds additional stress on the electric grid
during peak periods of demand. This generally occurs on hot, sunny, summer
weekday afternoons when offices and homes are running cooling systems,
lights, and appliances. For every 1F increase in temperature, the peak urban
electric demand increases 1.5 to 2%.13 Steadily increasing temperatures may
result in overloaded cooling systems causing power outages. An increase in energy consumption using the carbon-
intensive fuel mixture that powers our region at the current time also causes higher levels of air pollution as well as
further release of C02 into the atmosphere. Ground level ozone concentrations may also increase with an increase in
average temperature in Denver.
Ground level ozone is created by chemical reactions between nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds
(VOCs) in the presence of sunlight. Major sources of NOx and VOCs are emissions from industrial facilities and electric
utilities, motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents.14 If all other variables are equal, such as levels
of NOx and VOC emissions and wind speed and direction, ground level ozone levels will be higher in hotter and
sunnier weather.15 Therefore, elevated air temperatures due to climate change and the urban heat island effect have
the potential to increase the rate of ground level ozone formation in Denver. Ground level ozone is a component of
urban smog and has adverse health effects on the respiratory system, particularly those of children and the elderly.16
An increase in temperatures and
urban heat island effect can impair
Denver's air quality, water quality,
and affect human health.
Some of these adverse health effects include:
More difficulty breathing deeply and vigorously.
Shortness of breath and pain when taking a deep breath.
Coughing and sore or scratchy throat.
Aggravation of lung diseases such as asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis.
The lungs are more susceptible to infection.
The lungs may continue to be damaged even when the symptoms have disappeared.17
1
Heat island information in this section is retrieved from EPA's "Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies" document, unless otherwise noted.
Climate Adaptation Plan | 9


Increase in Temperature and Urban Heat Island Effect (Cont.)
Denver already suffers from days with elevated ground level ozone concentrations in the summer months, so
increases in temperatures and urban heat island effect will only add to currently observed concentrations.
Increased temperatures and heat waves can cause public health emergencies due to increased daytime temperatures
and reduced nighttime cooling. Citizens may not be able to cool down and seek relief from extreme daytime
temperatures. The Center for Disease Control estimates that from 1979 to 1999, excessive heat exposure contributed
to more than 8,000 premature deaths in the United States.18 A report released by the Rocky Mountain Climate
Institute and the City of Fort Collins found that the number of 90F or higher days in Fort Collins increased 162% from
1961 -2013 and the number of heat waves (three
consecutive days at 90 or higher) increased 533%
from 1961 -2013.19 This increase in number of
90 days and heat waves is anticipated to bring
changes to water use and needs, human health
and comfort, agriculture, and ecosystems.20 It
has been suggested by policy makers and health
professionals that the harmful health impacts of
climate change may be partially offset by a decline
in excess winter deaths in temperate countries as
winters warm. A recent study published online21
concluded that in England and Wales no evidence
exists that excess winter deaths will decrease if
winters warm with climate change. Whether this
conclusion is valid for other countries with temperate
climates is still being debated.
Fluman health can also be affected by changing disease patterns due to shifts in trade and transport of diseases as
a result of changing climate patterns and increased temperatures.22 These disease vectors can spread quickly in a
dense, urban environment. Vulnerable populations such as low income residents, the elderly, children, and people
with compromised or less developed immune systems will face disproportionate risks and difficulties regarding
health impacts of increased temperatures. Adverse effects on Denver's health levels may also increase medical
costs associated with allergies and respiratory conditions.23
Denver Water completed a simple sensitivity assessment to examine how a 5F increase in average temperature
could change water supply and demand. Findings show available water supplies could decrease by 20%,
while water use could simultaneously increase by 7 percent assuming a continuation of current patterns of
consumption.24 Denver Water is preparing for warming, as well as other future uncertainties, by incorporating these
findings into their long-term Integrated Resource Plan (//?P).The//?Pis Denver Water's long-term decision-making
guide and includes the complete water system, water collection, treatment, distribution, efficiency, recycling,
conservation, and demand.25
Increased air temperatures can also cause an increase in water temperatures in streams, rivers, and lakes. Elevated
surface temperatures are transferred to stormwater during rain events, which is released in a water body and raises
the temperature. Studies have shown that during rain events runoff from urban areas was about 20 to 30F hotter
than runoff from nearby rural areas.26 This impairs water quality and compromises aquatic species'metabolism and
reproduction. Elevated water temperatures can inhibit aquatic life, especially if a species can only survive in a small
range of water temperatures.
Climate Adaptation Plan 110


Increase in Extreme Weather Events
An extreme weather event is defined as "an event that is rare at a particular place and time of year."27 Extreme
weather events in Colorado include heat waves, drought, flooding, wildfires, and storms. As mentioned above,
there are numerous impacts resulting from an increased amount of heat waves in Denver. A Natural Resource
Defense Council study estimates by mid century Denver's number of extreme heat days2 will increase by 79 days
from the historical average of nine days, for a total of 88 extreme
heat days per summer, causing an increase in the adverse effects on
human health and the environment.28
Unlike increasing temperatures, there has been no clear long
term trend in total average yearly rainfall in Colorado. However,
Colorado has experienced extreme weather in the form of heavy
downpours.29 Heavy downpours can have several negative impacts
such as flash floods and mudslides. Also, nutrient and debris loading
in waterways resulting from heavy rain events can cause a decrease
in water quality, impacting human health and aquatic ecosystems.
Flash floods and mudslides can cause property damage and cost
human lives.30 The 2013 Colorado Flood is a recent example of how
a heavy rain event can impact an area. After a dry summer, many
communities along the Front Range received most of their normal
annual rainfall in the span of five days. This produced catastrophic
flooding that caused an estimated $2 billion in property losses and
10 fatalities (figure 1.5).31
Figure 1.5: Boulder, CO received record amounts of rainfall
within a 2 day time span in September, 2013.
(Climate Central, 2013)
An increase in spring temperatures, earlier snowmelt, hot, dry summers, and stressed forests from pest infestation
all contribute to an increase in the number of large wildfires in Colorado (figure 1.6 ). Compared to the 1970s, in
the past decade there were:
Seven times more fires larger than 10,000 acres each year
Nearly five times more fires larger than 25,000 acres each year
Twice as many fires over 1,000 acres each year
In Colorado, the number of fires greater than 1,000 acres burning each year on Forest Service land has doubled since
the 1970s. In 2012, more than 4,000 fires, including The Waldo Canyon Fire in Colorado Springs and the High Park
fire near Fort Collins, caused a total of $500 million in property damage across the state. Wildfires also contribute to
poor air quality in Denver, again impacting human health and the
environment.34 In addition, fires can severely damage forested areas
and watersheds that are critical to Denver's drinking water supply.
Denver Water receives its drinking water supply from watersheds in
the mountains and foothills, so healthy ecosystems in these forested
areas are imperative to ensure drinking water for Denver residents.
Catastrophic wildfires have a high probability of occurring in certain
forest types that are unhealthy due to tree density. In 1996 and
2002, two major wildfires occurred above Denver Water's reservoirs.
Subsequent rain events resulted in significant erosion, transporting
large volumes of sediment into these water supply reservoirs. The
sediment resulted in water quality impacts to the water supply that
caused increased water treatment and management COStS, and a Figure l.f An increase in the number of fires greater than
reduction in Storage capacity. 1,000 acres on U.S. Forest Service Land in Colorado from
1970-2010 (Climate Central, 2012)
2
Occurs when a location's temperature, dew point temperature, cloud cover, wind speed, and surface atmospheric pressure throughout the day combine to cause heat related deaths.
Climate Adaptation Plan 111


Reduced Snowpack and Earlier Snowmelt
Denver Water provides the citizens of Denver with reliable, high-quality drinking water. The source of Denver
Water's water supply comes from streamflows driven by the annual snowmelt.35 As the snowpack melts earlier due
to warmer spring temperatures, streamflows shift to earlier in the spring and has the potential to result in less water
available to fill reservoirs for use during the summer months when consumers use it most.
OBSERVED SPRING SNOWMELT DATES
As noted earlier, there is no long-term trend in annual average precipitation in Colorado. Increasing temperature
trends; however, have been observed and are projected to continue into the future. Warming alone can have
significant impacts to the water systems in Denver and across the
mountainous watersheds that supply Denver Water's drinking
water. Warmer spring temperatures, along with factors such as
dust-on-snow events, are already triggering earlier snowmelt
(figure 1.7).36
50
45
40
130
I-
) 20+ days earlier
^ 15-20 days earlier
! 10-15 days earlier
5-10 days earlier
5-10 days later
10-15 days later
ll5-20 days later
^ 20+days later
120
110
Dust-on-snow events result from deposition of soils originating
from the desert southwest and the Colorado Plateau and Great
Basin onto snowpack in Colorado. Land-use changes in the 35
regions where the dust originates, such as grazing, oil and gas
drilling, agriculture, and off-road vehicle use, causes disturbances
in the soil. During strong wind events these soil particles are
picked up and transported hundreds of miles from the source
and have been deposited in the mountains of Colorado.37 When
the snowpack begins to melt, the dust is exposed and absorbs
more solar radiation, causing faster snowmelt and earlier spring runoff.38 Snowpack helps keep water at high
elevations and feeds streams, rivers, and reservoirs throughout the year. Earlier snowmelt decreases the amount of
snow available later in the year for summer and fall streamflows, which can potentially impact water resources and
needs, river recreation, and the aquatic environment.
Figure 1.7: Changes in observed spring snowmelt dates for the
western United States from 1948 2002. Spring snowmelt is 20+
days earlier on the Front Range.
(ICLEI, 2011)
Additionally, earlier snowmelt and warmer average temperatures may cause soil moisture to decline during the summer,
increasing drought stress in trees and making them more susceptible to wildfires.39 Increased temperatures may also
make forests more susceptible to mountain pine beetle infestation. The mountain pine beetle has killed more than
70,000 square miles of trees across the west over the past decade.40 Stressed trees, due to lack of soil moisture during the
growing season, can become more vulnerable and lose their ability to fight infestation. Also, warmer winter temperatures
decrease the amount of deepfreezes that typically keep the mountain pine beetle population in check.
It is evident that climate change will have various impacts on Denver, and it is important to plan for climate change
so that Denver continues to provide long-term prosperity for its people and businesses by securing the basic
resources on which economic activity and quality of life depend.
Climate Adaptation Plan 112


7.4 Climate Mitigation vs. Climate Adaptation
As Denver is preparing for the impacts of climate change it is important to note the difference between climate
mitigation and climate adaptation.
Climate mitigation refers to "efforts to reduce or prevent emission of greenhouse gases." Mitigation can
include greater use of renewable energy sources, making older equipment more energy efficient, or
changing management practices or consumer behavior. It can range from designing plans to increase
public transportation and bicycle pathways to protecting natural carbon sinks such as forests and natural
vegetation. Any practice that decreases the amount of greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere to
reduce the rate and severity of global climate change is considered climate mitigation.41
Climate adaptation refers to "efforts by society or ecosystems to prepare for or adjust to future climate
change." Adaptation can consist of a wide variety of actions by an individual, community, or organization to
prepare for, or respond to, climate change impacts. Examples of climate adaptation include breeding crop
varieties more tolerant of heat and drought and upgrading current infrastructure to better withstand climate
changes.42
r ~ ^
Climate mitigation activities reduce the amount
of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Sourcing
renewable energy instead of fossil fuels is one
example of a climate mitigation technigue.
r ^
Climate adaptation activities are efforts to
prepare or adjust to future climate changes.
Updating building infrastructure to better
withstand a hotter climate is one example of
adapting to climate change.
V__________________________________________________J
Climate mitigation and adaptation should be implemented simultaneously to effectively reduce climate change
impacts and prepare for a future of change. If greenhouse gas emissions are not reduced through mitigation
efforts, then the ability to adapt will be impacted by the rapid pace and severity of climate change. Since the effects
of climate change are already happening it is also necessary to include adaptation as an important part of climate
change planning.
7.5 Why Climate Adaptation is Important343
Reducing global greenhouse gas emissions is critical to avoiding the worst effects of rapid climate change.
While we work on reducing emissions to help mitigate the impacts of global climate change, it is also Denver's
responsibility to prepare for climate change. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is only one part of the climate
change puzzle; we cannot wait for a crisis to occur to begin adapting to climate change impacts. Climate change
adaptation is a critical component of City planning for the following reasons:
Climate change is already happening: As mentioned above, Colorado is already experiencing an increase
in average temperature and temperatures are projected to continue to rise. The climate system responds
slowly to reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, meaning that the climate today is being affected by
emissions from the past. C02 can remain in the atmosphere for up to 200 years, so many of the changes
predicted through at least the middle of the 21st century will be driven in part by current greenhouse gas
concentrations. Therefore, climate mitigation will help with long-term climate change impacts, but will do
little to alter the near-term impacts that have already been set in motion.
3
Unless otherwise noted, information in this section was retrieved from ICLEI document, "Preparing for Climate Change: A Guidebook for Local, Regional, and State Governments."
Climate Adaptation Plan 113


1.5 Why Climate Adaptation is Important (Cont.)
It is unlikely that greenhouse gas emissions will be stabilized or reversed in the near term: Over the past
20 years, 75% of C02 emissions were due to burning of fossil fuels. Avoiding the worst climate impacts
will require reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the point where the concentrations in the atmosphere
stabilize and then decline. Due to the current global dependence on fossil fuels and the time required for
new technologies that reduce or replace fossil fuels to become available to the global market, C02 emissions
are not likely to stabilize soon enough to avoid projected climate change impacts.
Climate change will have largely negative economic consequences: Climate change will affect a wide array
of economic sectors including: agriculture, forestry, water supply, health, energy, transportation, recreation,
and tourism. Non-economic resources such as biodiversity, air quality, and water quality will also be
affected. Planning for specific regional impacts to Denver will help reduce economic costs to these sectors.
Planning for the future can benefit the present: Many projected climate change impacts are more extreme
versions of events already happening in the present. For example, the Front Range is expected to see an
increase in frequency and severity of drought. Implementing a stringent water conservation program today
will decrease Denver's vulnerability to more frequent and severe drought, and also benefit management of
current droughts.
Proactive planning is more effective and less costly than responding reactively to climate change
impacts as they happen: Being proactive and flexible to anticipate and address expected climate change
impacts can save money and protect the well being of the community. It has been found that one dollar
of hazard mitigation today can prevent the spending of four dollars of post-disaster reconstruction in the
future.44 This can also be applied to incremental climate changes. For example, considering the impacts of
climate change on streamflows and drought while designing a reservoir can ensure that the reservoir meets
future water supply needs, and may be less costly than expanding the reservoir in the future.
Climate readiness is a potential competitive advantage for Denver, and can generate additional
community benefits: Proactive investments can ensure Denver remains economically competitive for
new business development. Investment in resilient systems, such as green infrastructure, can enhance the
livability of neighborhoods.
Denver has a responsibility to plan for the future: Denver will be impacted by climate change and future
residents will be benefited by adaptation planning completed today that result in Denver being a more
resilient city to climate change impacts.
r
Overallproactive and strategic planning for climate change can reduce vulnerabilities to climate change
impacts. Climate adaptation planning can save Denver money in the long term, as well as promote human
health and lead to a community resilient to local climate change impacts.

J
Climate Adaptation Plan 114


7.6 Denver's Climate Adaptation Plan
The City and County of Denver recognizes the importance of implementing a climate adaptation plan along with
a climate mitigation plan to effectively reduce climate change risks to the city. The Climate Adaptation Plan was
drafted based on Denver's most pressing vulnerabilities.4 Pressing vulnerabilities are defined here as systems
that are highly sensitive to climate change and lacking the capability to adapt to the changing climate. These
vulnerabilities will be the ones most impacted by climate change. City agencies and partners were asked to assess
their vulnerabilities based on the three selected climate change impacts to Denver (increase in temperature and
urban heat island effect, increase in extreme weather events, and reduced snowpack and earlier snowmelt). Once
vulnerabilities by agency were established, the ones determined to be most pressing were grouped by sector in
order for the City to develop and prioritize short, medium, and long-term climate adaptation strategies.
The sectors addressed in the Climate Adaptation Plan are:
Buildings and Energy
Health and Human Services
Land Use and Transportation
Urban Natural Resources
Water Consumption
Food and Agriculture
City agencies will be held accountable for climate adaptation strategies through a city-wide Environmental
Management System (EMS). EMS targets are audited annually allowing agencies to track implementation and
measure success of climate adaptation strategies.
With vulnerabilities, responsible agencies, and sectors identified, Denver established long-term adaptation goals
for the City. For our long-term goals, short-term activities were identified that move the City towards these goals.
Short-term activities were established by each agency and placed within the Environmental Management System
(EMS). EMS is a tool used to incorporate environmental considerations into the City's day-to-day operations. With
EMS, climate adaptation strategies are integrated within agency's existing goals, processes, and plans, and are
analyzed annually. This allows agencies to track implementation and measure success of adaptation activities.
Quarterly updates will be scheduled to discuss progress and barriers among agency staff, and yearly targets
and progress will be released in a report coordinated by the Department of Environmental Health. Through the
use of EMS each agency will be held accountable to implement short-term climate adaptation activities that
address their established pressing vulnerabilities. Incorporating additional short-term adaptation activities in
annual planning cycles will move Denver forward in tackling our long-term climate adaptation goals. Short-term
adaptation strategies and related EMS activities are discussed in Chapter 4, and long-term adaptation goals are
discussed in Chapter 5.
4
Chapter 3 provides a complete overview of the Vulnerability Assessment.
Climate Adaptation Plan 115


CHAPTER 2:
DENVER S CURRENT CLIMATE CHANGE
Resiliency Programs and Efforts
Many of Denver's current programs increase Denver's ability to adapt to climate change impacts already occurring
on the Front Range. These programs offer benefits of climate adaptation that continue to enhance Denver's
sustainability, livability, and resiliency towards climate change. Resilience towards climate change results from
coordinated and independent adaptation and mitigation activities to manage and react to issues brought about
by climate change in Denver. Not all of Denver's climate change adaptation planning will result in new strategies
and objectives. Rather, in many cases, Denver will continue programs and policies that contain co-benefits of best
management practices and climate resiliency. Also, many of the current programs and policies offer co-benefits
between climate adaptation and climate mitigation. Included in this chapter are examples of actions currently
being implemented by multiple City agencies and partners.
Denver agencies participating in adaptation activities are briefly discussed below.
2.7 Agency Descriptions
Department of Environmental Health (DEH): As the health department for the City/County of Denver, the
mission of DEH is to build healthy communities. The Department's Environmental Quality Division provides
environmental regulatory compliance services for City owned facilities and activities, ensuring Denver's
compliance with environmental laws protecting public health and the environment. DEH is engaged in
climate adaptation planning and expects to respond more frequently to extreme heat events affecting
vulnerable populations, and increases in vector-borne diseases. DEH initiated the agency-wide climate
adaptation planning process to address city-wide vulnerabilities resulting from changing climate conditions.
Office of Emergency Management and Homeland Security (OEMHS/OEM): OEMHS provides planning,
training, exercises, and educational outreach programs related to natural and man-made disasters to assist
and prepare citizens, government agencies, and private/non-profit organizations prior to, during, and
after a local emergency or disaster. OEMHS acknowledges that climate change can have a severe impact
on the health and safety of Denver residents. Plans need to be in place to clearly identify the roles and
responsibilities of City agencies during an extreme weather event, including how Denver would notify the
public about how to respond during such an event.
Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR): DPR is dedicated to customer satisfaction and enriching
lives by providing innovative programs and safe, beautiful, sustainable places. Due to expected climate
changes for Denver, DPR is preparing for a reduction in water supplies dedicated for irrigation and stresses
to ecosystems, plants, and riparian corridors. DPR will continue to assess how increasing temperatures,
extreme weather events, and early snowmelt will affect Denver's natural environment, public spaces,
green infrastructure, and citizens utilizing parks and recreation services. Also, DPR's facilities can serve as
important venues for educating the public about climate change.
Climate Adaptation Plan 116


2.1 Agency Descriptions (Cont.)
Department of Public Works (DPW): DPWaims to deliver high quality, cost effective, efficient, and safe
public infrastructure to enhance the quality of life in Denver. As one of the largest departments within
the City and County of Denver, DPW provides a wide range of services from snow removal and trash
collection to designing and managing capital improvement projects in the City. Denver expects an increase
in extreme weather events resulting in more frequent and severe localized storm events. The resulting
vulnerabilities affecting DPW include stresses to stormwater management, flood control, and decreased
water quality. DPW is beginning to assess how paving materials and gray infrastructure such as concrete,
pipes, and sewers, may exacerbate Denver's urban heat island effect. DPW\ooks to develop technologies
and approaches that enhance Denver's adaptive capacity, including those related to watershed resilience.
Department of General Services (DGS): DGS provides internal and external support services, including
purchasing, facilities management, central services, and energy/sustainability operations. DGS faces
vulnerabilities associated with increased demands for energy and water in the summer months due to
expected higher temperatures. Resulting impacts include a potential for increased costs and the possibility
of decreased productivity within the City's workforce. DGS must budget for increased utility costs associated
with maintaining current cooling and heating set points. DGS will analyze heating and cooling set points
during occupied and unoccupied hours in order to make any modifications necessary to avoid an increase
of utility costs. DGS also will address the vulnerabilities by continuing strategic initiatives such as energy
efficient upgrades, retrofitting, energy audits, and environmentally preferred purchasing.
Department of Community Planning & Development (CPD): CPD is responsible for planning and
regulating land use and development in Denver. CPD provides policy and planning expertise and
enforces land use, design, and construction standards to enhance and protect Denver's natural and built
environments. CPD will address climate impacts and vulnerabilities resulting in extreme heat events, higher
water and energy consumption on private property, and assess climate change planning needs within urban
design standards and development plans. In preparation for a changing climate, CPD will utilize land use
policies to guide development in Denver in a manner that is sustainable and forward thinking.
Office of Economic Development (OED): OED creates a local environment that stimulates balanced
growth through job creations, business assistance, housing options, neighborhood redevelopment, and the
development of a skilled workforce. OED strives to be a driving force that advances economic prosperity
for the City of Denver, its businesses, neighborhoods, and residents. OED expects to monitor the in-and-
out migration of the workforce and businesses in Denver or other regions. OED must prepare for possible
changes in tourism as a result of potentially shorter winter season and longer summer season. Also, OED
is cognizant of resource constraints for industries relying on water supplies and the resulting impacts
on production and services. OED will continue many of its sustainable initiatives such as low interest
financing for energy efficient appliances or renewable energy upgrades. Broadly, OED remains committed
to providing assistance to attract and retain successful companies and individuals to Denver in conjunction
with a changing climate.
Denver International Airport (DIA):The City of Denver owns and operates Denver International
Airport. Under the city charter, the management, operation, and control of DIA are delegated to the City's
Department of Aviation. DIA's primary vulnerability to a changing climate is the potential for increased
interruptions of flight schedules due to extreme weather events. Other impacts include higher energy
consumption in the summer months, damage to runways or infrastructure due to extreme heat or weather,
and an increase in high winds reducing the number of runways available for use.
Climate Adaptation Plan 117


2.1 Agency Descriptions (Cont.)
Department of Human Services (DHS): DHS partners with the community to protect those in harm's
way and to help all people in need. DHS strives to provide a structure which enables those in need of
assistance or protection to have a proven, timely path to safety and self sufficiency, allowing DHS to focus
on preventions and strengthening the community. Climate change is expected to disproportionately affect
vulnerable populations and DHS expects to respond to more frequent extreme heat events, higher energy
consumption and demand, and the possibility of long-term disruptions of service delivery, all affecting
Denver's vulnerable populations.
Budget Management Office (BMO): BMO facilitates fiscally responsible service delivery by ensuring and
managing a balanced annual budget and strategic citywide capital plan, while informing and developing
solutions to achieve efficient and effective operations. BMO's vision is to be a trusted partner in fiscally
sound decision making. A primary vulnerability affecting BMO is an increased need for funds to address
potential increased utility expenditures, maintenance, and capital improvements resulting from climate
impacts and stress. Also, extreme weather events may cause severe damage to Denver's self-insured
property. In response, city agencies will partner with BMO to analyze potential funding streams and/or
budget allocations for future climate adaptation projects.
Partnership Denver Water (DW): Denver Water serves high-quality water and promotes its efficient use
to 1.3 million people in the City of Denver and many surrounding suburbs. Established in 1918, the utility
is a public agency funded by water rates and new tap fees, not taxes. Denver Water actively incorporates
climate adaptation planning in its future supply and demand planning by identifying potential impacts,
assessing vulnerabilities, and planning for potential changes due to a warmer climate. The City and County
of Denver actively partners with Denver Water on climate adaptation planning. Future partnership includes
collaboration on scenario planning research to guide future planning using a unified approach between
Denver Water and the City and County of Denver. Denver Water is not integrated into the City-wide EMS, but
are active participants in short, medium, and long-term climate adaptation planning.


2.2 Current Resilience Efforts
2.2.1 Buildings and Energy
Many of the current actions and programs within the Buildings and Energy sector offer climate adaptation and
climate mitigation co-benefits. Implementing energy efficiency and alternative energy measures, including
energy efficient appliances, solar energy generation capacity, increased insulation, and energy efficient building
techniques all reduce the amount of energy demand being added to the grid in Denver if lifestyles do not
otherwise change. Reduced energy demand adds increased resilience, especially in the summer months when the
grid is at the highest risk to be overloaded. Energy efficient appliances, solar energy generation capacity, increased
insulation, and energy efficient building techniques all result in less greenhouse gas emissions than their traditional
counterparts. Current programs are reducing Denver's per capita greenhouse gas emissions, as well as creating
resilience in Denver's building stock that can withstand an increase in energy demands and prolonged heat waves
that result from climate change.
Many of Denver's current city operations in the building and energy sector have both
climate mitigation and climate adaptation benefits, such as incorporating solar energy
and improving energy efficiency
Solar Power Plant Capacity: The City and County of Denver has an installed capacity of 9.4 Megawatts
(MW) of solar PV on city facilities capable of powering the equivalent of 9,400 homes.45 8MW of Denver's
9.4MW solar plant capacity is located at DIA. DIA is also the first airport to implement an ISO 14001-certified
environmental management system covering the entire airport, which will facilitate its ability to incorporate
additional climate change adaptation measures.
Encouragement of private sector solar capacity: Denver was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy
to receive funding starting in 2008 for the Solar America Cities grant to increase penetration of solar energy
in the Denver market. Denver also worked closely with the Colorado Solar Energy Industries Association to
develop the 12 best practices for the Solar Friendly Communities program. Denver became the first certified
Solar Friendly Community in Colorado. The City and County of Denver also partnered with the State of
Colorado and the Federal Executive Board to launch (through Group Energy) Solar Benefits Coloradoa
solar discount program available to 150,000 local, state and federal employees in Colorado. By leveraging
economies of scale, the program was able to realize the lowest installed costs for residential PV in the
country.
3.2 MW Landfill Gas-to-Energy Plant: The gas to energy plant at Denver Arapahoe Disposal Site has a
capacity to power the equivalent of 3,000 homes.46
EnergyCAP Utility Tracking: The City and County of Denver is Xcel Energy's largest customer due to
street lighting and City building demands. The City has transitioned to an electronic system allowing the
City to view its energy consumption data and can track its energy use per building and quickly respond to
inefficiencies or spikes in energy use.
Continual Commissioning Program: Denver has implemented energy audits and a retro-commissioning
program which have identified 500 operational and capital improvement opportunities. Identifying
opportunities to pursue energy efficiency upgrades increases the resiliency of Denver's buildings and
infrastructure, while reducing costs associated with rising energy demands.47 ARRA-funded retrofits,
combined with energy audits and retro-commissioning, has resulted in a 23% reduction in energy use across
core City facilities.
Climate Adaptation Plan 119


2.2.1 Buildings and Energy (Cont.)
City Energy Project: Denver is one often cities nationally participating in the City Energy Project, with
specific goals and plans to increase energy efficiency in commercial buildings. In most large American
cities, the operation of buildings account for the majority of energy use and carbon pollutionin Denver
it is as much as 50 percent. Operations of a relatively small number of large buildings often account for a
considerable portion of a city's energy use. Fortunately, we have the technology to make these buildings
vastly more energy efficient, and by doing so, cities will slash energy waste, save money for their citizens,
and improve their quality of life. Denver, like most major cities, needs to focus a large amount of resources
on increasing energy efficiency in commercial buildings. This effort results in less GHG in our atmosphere,
reduced energy demands, and overall better air quality and a healthier, more resilient Denver. To facilitate
this effort, Denver applied for and has been accepted as one of 10 cities to participate in the City Energy
Project. The City Energy Project is a national initiative to create healthier and more prosperous American
cities by improving the energy efficiency of buildings. Working in partnership, the Project and Denver will
support innovative and practical solutions that reduce pollution, boost local economies, and create healthier
environments. Denver's participation in the City Energy Project will help shape and define next-generation
energy efficiency efforts in our community.
LEED Standard and Enterprise Green Community Standard: Denver requires new municipal
construction and major renovations to earn a minimum of LEED Gold Certification.48 Also, all affordable
housing projects receiving City subsidies must meet the Enterprise Green Communities Standards,49 using
building methods and materials that promote environmental quality, economic vitality, and social benefits.
Denver's Building Code: Denver is on track to adopt the 2015 International Building Code which results in
up-to-date building and energy efficiency standards for all new construction in Denver.
Low Interest Financing: Denver's Office of Economic Development provides low-interest loans for energy
intensive businesses to invest in renewable energy or energy efficiency projects.
Denver Energy Challenge and Certifiably Green Denver: The Denver Energy Challenge offers free energy
advising and exclusive rebates and energy loans for energy improvements.50 Residential successes from the
Denver Energy Challenge include:
1. In 2011,2,262 homes participated and saved
1,035,396 kWhs and 164,733 therms, equating to a
reduction of 1,769 tons of C02.5
2. In 2012,2,857 homes participated and saved
1,279,900 kWhs and 371,546 therms, equating to a
reduction of 3,168 tonsofC02.
3. In 2013,1,891 homes participated and saved 676,915
kWhs and 114,532 therms, equating to a reduction of
1,196 tons of C02.
Certifiably Green Denver helps local businesses eliminate,
avoid, and reduce pollution and waste through source
reduction, reuse, recycling, and treatment alternatives.
(figures 2.1 and 2.2)
Denver Energy Assurance Plan (DEAP): DEAP provides
guidance in preparing for, responding to, coordinating, and
recovering from natural or human caused energy disruptions; for their building in a matter of months
measures to manage energy supply shortages; and strategies (photo: Cascade Solar usa).
to reduce energy demand. Denver will face increased
temperatures and more extreme heat days, intensifying energy demand and usage in the summer months.
The Denver Energy Assurance Plan is an important step towards preparing for climate change impacts, such
as energy disruption.
5
Over life of the measure.
CERTIFIABLY
GREENDENVER
Figure 2.1: Certifiably Green Denver
Figure 2.2: With help from low-cost energy loans through the
Denver Energy Challenge, Postmodern was able to finance
2nd i net-a 11 nnnrrn/ r\ c^r\ r\t nnnnrlflc 2nd -a fiill enhr ewetam
>: Climate Adaptation Plan | 20 :<


2.2.2 Health and Human Services
Monitoring of air quality, water quality, and vector populations and providing community assistance offer climate
adaptation benefits. Continuous monitoring of air quality and water quality protects the public from any adverse
health effects associated with decreased air quality or water quality. Review of long term data also allows Denver
to recognize the relationship among factors such as increased air temperature and the associated effects on air
and water quality. Vector monitoring prepares Denver for the potential increase of pests or changing patterns
of vectors, protecting public health. Ensuring vulnerable populations have access to basic resources through
community assistance is essential to adapt to climate change impacts that disproportionately affect low income
populations, such as rising energy consumption and increased public health impacts. Additionally, Denver's Road
Home (DRH) works to provide homes and shelter to the homeless population around Denver. The homeless are
extremely vulnerable to climate impacts such as extreme heat, cold, and weather events, so providing homes for
the homeless increases Denver's overall resiliency to climate change.
Air Quality, Stream Water Quality, and Vector Monitoring:The Department of Environmental Health
monitors Denver's air quality, stream water quality, and vector (disease carrying organism) populations.
Air and stream water quality monitoring allows Denver to protect the health of its citizens and better
understand ecosystem changes. Robust vector monitoring and controls prepares Denver for the potential
increase of pests or changing migration patterns of vectors or other animals.52
Community Assistance: Denver's Department of Human Services administers several benefit programs
ensuring families and individuals have the basic resources necessary to meet financial, medical, nutritional,
and housing needs. Examples include the Low Income Energy Assistance Program (LEAP), housing and
shelter assistance, and robust child and protective services.53
Denver's Road Home: DRH is a collaborative effort between the City and County of Denver, Mile High
United Way, homeless service providers, foundations, businesses, faith-based organizations and the
greater community. It is a ten-year plan to provide permanent housing, shelters, and services to the
homeless population in Denver. After year eight DRH added 2,795 housing opportunities, generated 6,702
employment and training opportunities, prevented 6,199 families and individuals from becoming homeless
through eviction prevention assistance, mentored 1,208 families and seniors out of homelessness, housed
2,275 individuals, and leveraged over $63 million in public and private dollars to help people.54
Cold Weather Plan: Denver's Department of Human Services and DRH provide emergency shelters for
the homeless in the case of frigid temperatures. The Cold Weather Plan may also provide framework for
initiating an Extreme Heat Plan to ensure citizens have a safe place to stay in the case of extreme heat events
in Denver.
2.2.3 Land Use and Transportation
Many of Denver's programs within the Land Use and Transportation sector offer climate adaptation and climate
mitigation co-benefits. The Land Use and Transportation goals relate to reducing the amount of vehicles on the
road, promoting public transportation, bicycles, and walking as primary modes of transportation, and increasing
more dense, mixed-use, transportation-oriented development in order to create resilient communities. Reduced
amounts of vehicles on the road result in less greenhouse gas emissions and ground level ozone, creating a
healthier community.This in turn reduces impacts on air quality and ground level ozone that result from an increase
in air temperatures from climate change. Mixed use transportation-oriented development provides resilient
communities where residents have access to services, amenities, alternative transportation options, can practice
resource-conserving lifestyles, and are more likely to know their neighbors.
Denver's current city programs provide opportunities for biking, walking, and public transportation as
primary modes of transportation.
Climate Adaptation Plan | 21


2.2.3 Land Use and Transportation (Cont.)
Denver Moves: The Department of Public Works'Complete Streets policy and transportation plan, Denver
Moves, support the goal of increasing Denver's bicycle and walking commute mode share to 15% by 2020
and installing a network of 442 miles of multi-use and bicycle facilities.55
Bicycle Sharing B-Cyde Program: In 2010, Denver B-cycle, a 501 c3 nonprofit organization, launched its
community wide bicycle sharing program. By the end of 2013, the program operated 82 stations with more
than 700 bicycles available to rent.56
Transit Oriented Development:Transit oriented development plans locate development near public
transit stations. Denver strives to provide affordable housing and mixed-use development near transit
locations.57 The Denver Union Station Project, expected to be completed in May, 2014, will serve as a multi-
modal transportation hub, integrating multiple rail lines, buses, taxis, shuttles, vans, and limousines, as well
as bicycles and pedestrians58 (figure 2.3).
Transit Oriented Development Strategic Plan Update: The TOD Strategic plan is intended to be a short-
term, implementation-driven document that guides the critical city-led actions needed for successful TOD
in Denver. The strategic plan focuses the multiple efforts of various city departments and agencies into a
concise work program for Denver over the next five to six years, providing a foundation to guide public and
private investment at rail stations.
Blueprint Denver and Denver's Zoning Code: Integrates land use and transportation planning to support
mixed use development and increased density in areas serviced by multi-modal transportation networks to
minimize the need for single-occupant vehicle travel.
Sustainable Neighborhoods Program:The sustainable neighborhoods program provides residents the
ability to become involved in increasing the livability of their neighborhood while reducing their ecological
footprint. With the help of the Department of Environmental Health, neighborhoods can become certified
under the Sustainable Neighborhoods Program by focusing on initiatives to better their neighborhood
under the broad categories of water, air, land, energy, and people.
Figure 2.3: Denver Light Rail (en.wikipedia.org)
Climate Adaptation Plan | 22 :


2.2.4 Urban Natural Resources
Denver's programs in the Urban Natural Resources sector also offer climate adaptation and climate mitigation
co-benefits. Activities offer climate mitigation by increasing the amount of trees and green space within Denver
which offer climate sequestration benefits, reducing the amount of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. An increase
in trees and green space offer several climate adaptation benefits as well. First,
they reduce the amount of impervious surfaces in Denver which decreases the
severity of the urban heat island effect and increases the ability of the City to
deal with extreme runoff events. Also, tree cover produces shade which offers
relief and cooling for citizens during extreme heat events. Implementing green
infrastructure also reduces the nutrient load entering our waterways during
rain events, improving water quality. Ecosystem health is also important to
protect watersheds west of Denver that provide critical water supply for Denver's
residents, and for wildlife around Denver.
Denver was named a top 10 Best
U.S. City for Urban Forests by
the nonprofit American Forests.
Urban forests provide many
climate adaptation benefits such
as increased shade for cooling
and improved air quality.
Mile High Million Program: In 2006, Denver adopted a goal of planting
one million trees in the metropolitan area by 2025. Through this program, 250,000 trees were planted in
the metro area offering multiple climate adaptation and mitigation benefits such as increased shade and
cooling, while also engaging the public towards natural resource stewardship.59 With the help of the Mile
High Million Program, the City of Denver's urban tree canopy reached 19.7%, and metro Denver's urban tree
canopy averaged 16.4%.60 The program is still in operation, but the goal has changed from a simple count of
new plantings to strategic management of the existing canopy of over two million trees.
Green Infrastructure: The Department of Public Works utilizes green infrastructure as a tool to promote
efficient and natural stormwater infiltration, while promoting air quality, water quality, and carbon reduction
and sequestration (figure 2.4).
Figure 2.^ Example of green infrastructure along the South
Platte River near downtown Denver (epa.gov/region8/green-
infrastructure)
2.2.5 Water Consumption
Denver area programs in the Water Consumption sector offer climate adaptation and mitigation co-benefits. The
installation of low flow water fixtures saves water and energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Reducing the
amount of water we consume through irrigation efficiency and water recycling programs makes Denver more
resilient in response to stressed water supplies, particularly during the hot, dry summer months. Denver Water
offers extensive programs to encourage water conservation practices and to encourage low-water use landscaping.
More dense land use also provides water conservation benefits.
Climate Adaptation Plan | 23


2.2.5 Water Consumption (Cont.)
Denver Water Conservation Programs: Denver Water is pursuing a multi-pronged water strategy to secure
water for the future through water efficiency measures, reuse and supply augmentation. Denver Water's
robust conservation program is targeted to help every type of customer
save water.The conservation program includes rebates and incentives
for residential and commercial customers to replace inefficient water
fixtures with new, more efficient ones; summer water use rules enforced
by water monitors; requirements for new properties to amend their
soil (to make it retain more water); tiered water rates (the more water
you use, the more you pay) to discourage water waste; and much more.
Denver Water also promotes water conservation through its Use Only
What You Need campaign, which was designed to create overarching
community awareness about wise water use.61 To read more on Denver
Water's conservation efforts, visit denverwater.org/conservation, this provides a detailed look at current
water conservation programs and activities.
Irrigation Efficiency and Recycled Water System: Many of Denver Water's public space customers,
including school districts, park and recreation districts, universities and more are participating in Denver
Water's Water Budget program. These customers receive monthly reports on water consumption compared
with an efficient use target. Many of these customers have upgraded to Central Control irrigation systems
enabling them to automatically adjust irrigation schedules to real-time weather conditions, detect leaks, and
improve staff efficiency. Several of these customers, including Denver's Parks and Recreation Department,
Denver Public Schools and Xcel Energy, have connected to the recycled water system. In addition to Denver's
DPR, additional recycled water customers currently include: the Denver Zoo, the Rocky Mountain Arsenal
Wildlife Refuge, East High School grounds, and Westerly Creek School grounds.62 Denver Water supplies
about 7,000 acre-feet of recycled water a year and plans to supply about 17,500 acre-feet at buildout.63
Retrofitted and Updated Water Fixtures in City Buildings: Between 2006 and 2011, Denver partnered
with Denver Water to install 400 low flow water fixtures in public restrooms, saving over 2 million gallons of
water per year.64
Denver Water's Integrated Resource Plan: Denver Water's history of long-term planning is responsible
for the highly reliable water system available in a rapidly growing, semi-arid region that benefits customers
today. As part of its long-term planning process, Denver Water is working on an Integrated Resource Plan
(IRP) to help guide decisions about the water system in its entirety for the next 40 years. Issues addressed
in the IRP include potential future challenges to the water system, such as climate change; demographic
change; new water use patterns; changes to watersheds including beetle kill and forest fires; and economic
and regulatory changes. A wide variety of supply and demand management approaches will be considered
and evaluated across financial, environmental and social costs, a process called "triple bottom-line"analysis.
Denver Water's Water Quality Program: Denver Water takes its water quality and safety very seriously. Each
year more than 10,000 samples are collected and nearly 50,000 tests are conducted to ensure Denver's water
is as clean and safe as possible. Denver Water vigilantly safeguards its mountain water supplies, and before
the water reaches your tap, it's carefully filtered and treated.
Denver Water's Supply Monitoring Program: Denver Water collects readings at stream gauges and
reservoirs throughout the system to track streamflow, diversions, snowpack and other water-supply data.
Daily streamflow, reservoir levels and diversions are available on the Water Supply page at denverwater.org.
Denver Water's From Forests to Faucets: Denver Water has partnered with the U.S. Forest Service and plans
to match the U.S. Forest Service's $16.5 million investment, totaling $33 million, toward forest treatment and
watershed protection projects over a five-year period in priority watersheds critical to Denver's water supply.
This helps protect the ecosystems from an increased risk of fire as well as mountain pine beetle infestation,
protecting water supply, water quality, and overall ecosystem health.65
Recycled water is treated wastewater
reused for irrigation, industrial use,
and in parks and golf courses. Using
recycled water reduces the amount
of water Denver needs to take from
reservoirs and the energy needed to
make water potable.
Climate Adaptation Plan | 24


2.2.6 Food and Agriculture
Denver has a current sustainability goal to have a more sustainable local food economy. A more robust local food
system makes Denver more resilient to disruptions to food systems occurring in other regions. Also, local food
managed with a robust local-oriented distribution system travels far less
to get from farm to table, resulting in less greenhouse gas emissions
during transportation. Programs such as Denver's Farmers Markets
provide healthy and affordable food for all of Denver's residents, create
jobs, and honor both people and the planet.
Denver Farmer's Markets: Denver offers many farmers markets
throughout the metro area that offer local food, art, jewelry, and
more. A local food economy can increase Denver's resilience
towards climate change disruptions occurring in other regions.
2.3 Current Denver Programs with Climate Adaptation, Climate
Mitigation and Combined-Benefits
The current Denver programs discussed above all have climate adaptation benefits, but many of them offer
co-benefits that serve both climate adaptation and climate mitigation. Table 2.1 displays examples of current
programs including those that offer both climate adaptation and mitigation.
Figure 2.5: Cherry Creek Fresh Market is one provider
of fresh, local food in Denver, (farmersmarketonline.
com/fm/CherryCreekFreshMa rket.htm I)
Table 2.1 Current Denver programs with climate adaptation, climate mitigation or combined benefits
Current Denver Program Buildings & Energy Climate Adaptation Climate Mitigation
Solar Power Plant Capacity/Private sector solar capacity yes yes
3.2 MW Landfill Gas-to-Energy Plant yes yes
EnergyCAP Utility Tracking yes yes
Continual Commissioning Program yes yes
City Energy Project yes yes
LEED Standard Enterprise Green Community Standard yes yes
Denver's Building Code yes yes
Low Interest Finance yes yes
Denver Energy Challenge and Certifiably Green Denver yes yes
Denver Energy Assurance Plan yes yes
Climate Adaptation Plan | 25


Table 2.1 (Cont.)
Current Denver Program Health & Human Services Climate Adaptation Climate Mitigation
Air Quality, Stream Water Quality, and Vector Monitoring yes no
Community Assistance yes no
Denver's Road Home yes no
Cold Weather Plan yes no
Land Use & Transportation
Denver Moves yes yes
Bicycle Sharing B-Cycle Program yes yes
Transit Oriented Development yes yes
Transit Oriented Development Strategic Plan Update yes yes
Blueprint Denver and Denver's Zoning Code yes yes
Sustainable Neighborhoods Program yes yes
Urban Natural Resources
Mile High Million
yes
Green Infrastructure yes yes
Water Consumption
Denver Water Conservation Programs yes yes
Irrigation Efficiency and Recycled Water System yes yes
Retrofitted and Updated Water Fixtures in City Buildings yes yes
Denver Water's Integrated Resource Plan yes yes
Denver Water's Water Quality Program yes no
Denver Water's Supply Monitoring Program yes no
From Forests to Faucets yes yes
Food & Agriculture
Denver Farmer's Markets yes no
Continuing and building upon current Denver programs that provide climate adaptation, climate mitigation, and co-
benefits will improve Denver's overall climate resiliency as well as aid in reaching long-term climate adaptation goals.
Climate Adaptation Plan | 26


CHAPTER 3:
VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT
3.7 Background
Vulnerability assessments are a key tool for informing climate change adaptation planning. Vulnerability is defined
as, "the degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change,
including climate variability and extremes."66 Stated another way, systems that are sensitive to climate and less
able to adapt to changes are generally considered to be vulnerable to climate change impacts. Vulnerability
assessments are a vital part of adaptation planning because they identify:
1. Which systems are likely to be most affected by the projected change in climate; and
2. Why these systems are likely to be vulnerable, including the interaction between climate shifts and
existing stressors.67
Knowing which systems are most vulnerable enables managers to set priorities
for adaptation planning and provides a basis for developing appropriate
management responses. Knowing why systems are vulnerable enables managers
to identify appropriate short and long-term climate change adaptation strategies.
The level or degree of vulnerability a system faces can be ranked according to
the sensitivity of a particular system to climate change and its capacity to adapt
to those changes.68 Sensitivity is the degree to which a built, natural or human
system is directly or indirectly affected by changes in climate conditions (i.e. temperature and precipitation) or
specific climate change impacts. If the system is likely to be affected by projected climate change, it would be
considered sensitive to climate change.69 Adaptive capacity describes the ability of a built, natural or human system
to accommodate changes in climate with minimum disruption or minimum additional cost. Generally, systems that
have high adaptive capacity are better able to deal with climate change impacts.70
Vulnerability is defined as "the
degree to which a system is
susceptible to, or unable to cope
with, adverse effects of climate
change, including climate
variability and extremes."
3.2 Conducting the Vulnerability Assessment
The first step in conducting Denver's vulnerability assessment was to identify the most significant effects of climate
change in Denver. Denver Department of Environmental Health convened a climate adaptation working group
consisting of City agency and department representatives. This group reviewed available information and agreed
that a number of others in the Denver area had already compiled, analyzed, and summarized a great deal of
information and literature regarding likely climate impacts in Denver. Extensive efforts had already been conducted
by Denver Water, Boulder County, and the State of Colorado. Through review of these efforts, peer-reviewed
literature, and individual expertise the working group concluded that the most critical climate change impacts in
Denver are:71
1. Increase in temperature and urban heat island effects;
2. Higher frequency of extreme weather events; and
3. Reduced snowpack and earlier snowmelt.
Identifying which systems are most vulnerable to climate change enables managers to set
priorities for adaptation planning.
Climate Adaptation Plan | 27


3.2 Conducting the Vulnerability Assessment (Cont.)
The Climate Adaptation Working Group met regularly during 2012 and 2013 to identify vulnerabilities associated
with the three most-likely principal climate change impacts. This multi-agency y-------------------------
"bottom-up"approach was strongly favored because engaged participation Primary Agencies and
from many agencies and partners with responsibilities for adapting to climate Organizations Involved in the
change will be needed for effective efforts. The process takes longer with such Vulnerability Assessment
an approach, but long-term engagement is more likely when the process is
inclusive. Budget and
Management Office
This working group identified vulnerabilities that affected individual agencies
and Denver as a whole. For example, extreme heat events may cause roadways
to degrade more quickly than under previous climate conditions. This
vulnerability would affect Public Works more than other agencies, whereas
higher energy costs to cool buildings during extreme heat events would affect
multiple agencies and partners. Additionally, the working group understood
that some vulnerabilities would be more important to address than others.
Accordingly, the working group used a system to rank the importance of the
vulnerabilities by sensitivity and adaptive capacity.
3.2.1 Vulnerability Assessment: Sensitivity
Analysis
Denver International
Airport
Denver Water
Department of
Community Planning
and Development
Department of
Environmental Health
Department of General
Services
Department of Human
Services
The next step in conducting the vulnerability analysis was to conduct a
sensitivity analysis by agency and sector.The working group evaluated each
of the vulnerabilities identified in the first step with this question in mind: will
the systems associated with this vulnerability be significantly affected by projected
changes in climate? Sensitivity was evaluated by considering:
1. Who or what could be impacted?
2. How do weather and/or climate currently affect this system?
3. To what degree is the system sensitive to climate change?
4. Are the stresses to the system projected to get worse, stay the same or
improve? Do new stresses to the system emerge altogether (ex: new
Department of Parks and
Recreation
Department of Public
Works
Office of Economic
Development
Office of Emergency
Management
Office of Sustainability
_______________________J
infectious diseases/decline of species, etc.)?
5. How exposed is the system to climate change (greater exposure = higher sensitivity)?
6. Is the system subject to existing stress unrelated to climate change (stressed systems are more likely to be
more sensitive)?
7. Will climate change cause the demand for a resource to exceed supply?
8. What is the impact threshold for the system (ex: thresholds that cause pavements to crack, temperature in
which species/landscapes are affected)?
Based on this subjective analysis the level of sensitivity was ranked with a score ranging from low sensitivity to
climate change (represented by SO) to high sensitivity to climate change (S4).
Climate Adaptation Plan | 28


3.2.2 Vulnerability Assessment: Adaptive Capacity
Along with the sensitivity analysis, each agency evaluated associated systems'adaptive capacity, or its ability to be
modified to accommodate future climatic changes or variability, with the question: to what extent are the systems
associated with this planning area able to accommodate changes in climate at minimum disruption or cost?
Adaptive capacity for each vulnerability was ranked with a score of low adaptive capacity (ACO not able to be
modified) to high adaptive capacity (AC4 highly capable of being modified), using the following criteria:
1. What does the system have in order for it (that allows it?) to adapt?
2. What does the system need in order for it to adapt?
3. Are there barriers to the system's ability to adapt (ex: regulatory/design standards, large number
competing for use of the system, large number of ownership/jurisdiction of a system, biological or
physical barriers that limit flexibility)?
4. Is the rate of climate change faster than the system's ability to adapt?
5. Are there efforts under way to address impacts of climate change related to systems in this planning area?
3.2.3 Vulnerability Assessment: Qualifying Vulnerability
Once scorings were agreed upon for sensitivity and adaptive capacity, the results were placed in a scoring matrix
to identify an overall vulnerability score. The vulnerability scores ranged from potential opportunity (PO) to a low
vulnerability score (VI), to a high vulnerability score (V5).
Table 3.1 Vulnerability scoring matrix:
ADAPTIVE
CAPACITY LOW
TO HIGH
SENSITIVITY LOW TO HIGH
SO SI S2 S3 S4
ACO V2 V3 V4 V5 V5
AC1 VI V2 V3 V4 V5
AC2 VI VI V2 V3 V4
AC3 PO VI VI V2 V3
AC4 PO PO PO VI V2
PO = potential opportunity VI = low vulnerability V5= high vulnerability6
A full table of the vulnerabilities by Department is provided in Appendix B which lists vulnerabilities by department
and includes the scoring values for sensitivity, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Where insufficient information
was available or little input was received from the working group the vulnerability was not ranked (NR).
Source: City of Flagstaff, 2012. City of Flagstaff Resiliency and Preparedness Study
Climate Adaptation Plan | 29


3.2.3 Vulnerability Assessment: Qualifying Vulnerability (Cont.)
Key findings of the assessment for ranked vulnerabilities indicate the following:7
r
There were 65 ranked vulnerabilities relating to an increase in
temperature and urban heat island effect
V____________________________________________________________________
"\
J
None of the vulnerabilities ranked V5 (highly
vulnerable)
37% of vulnerabilities ranked V3 or V4
51 % of vulnerabilities ranked V2 or V1 (low vulnerability)
12% of vulnerabilities ranked PO (potential opportunity)
r ^
There were 42 ranked vulnerabilities relating to a higher
frequency of extreme weather events
L_______________________________________________________________J
None of the vulnerabilities ranked V5
43% of vulnerabilities ranked V3 or V4
43% of vulnerabilities ranked V2 or V1
14% of vulnerabilities ranked PO
r ^
There were 8 ranked vulnerabilities relating to reduced
snowpack and earlier snowmelt
V_______________________________________________________________J
None of the vulnerabilities ranked V4 or V5
63% of vulnerabilities ranked V3
37% of vulnerabilities ranked V2 or less
None of the vulnerabilities ranked PO
3.3 Identification of Priority Vulnerabilities and Priority Planning Areas
The working group considered vulnerabilities ranked V3 and greater as a priority vulnerability and a priority
planning area.8 Table 3.2 presents a summary of priority vulnerabilities associated with the three primary climate
change impacts used in Denver's Climate Adaptation Plan. Included in Table 3.2 are the priority vulnerability, Denver
agencies affected by the priority vulnerability and the sector associated with the priority vulnerability.
7
Denver Water vulnerabilities were not ranked
8
A full list of climate vulnerabilities is included in Appendix B
Climate Adaptation Plan | 30


Table 3.2: Priority Climate Change Vulnerabilities9
Climate Impact Priority Vulnerability Affected Departments Sector
Increase in temperature and urban heat island effect Higher energy consumption and demand in the summer months DGS, DEH, DIA, CPD, DHS* Buildings and Energy
Higher maintenance and equipment costs for Denver buildings DGS, OED*, CPD* Buildings and Energy
Building design standards not addressing climate change scenarios OEM, CPD* Buildings and Energy
Decrease in quality of living/reduced comfort or reduced occupant comfort in buildings/impacts to productivity DPW, CPD, DEH, DGS, DPR, DHA* Health and Human Services
Extreme heat events affecting vulnerable populations CPD, DEH, DHS, DPR Health and Human Services
Increase in vector borne diseases/increased use of pesticides DEH, OEM Health and Human Services
Increase in number and/or severity of high ozone days DEH, DHHA* Health and Human Services
Challenging environmental regulations DIA Health and Human Services
Regulatory barriers to the adoption of adaptation strategies CPD, DPW* Land Use and Transportation
Design standards not addressing climate change scenarios DPW, UDFCD* Land Use and Transportation
Climate induced in-and out- migration of workforce populations and businesses OED, BMO* Land Use and Transportation
Stress on trees and urban landscaping DPR Urban Natural Resources
Warming of stream and lake systems affecting aquatic species and human recreation DPR, DEH Urban Natural Resources
Higher water demands (City and private) possible higher cost of water and consumption in summer months CPD, DEH, DPR, DW* Water Consumption
Reduced amount of water available from independent ditch water supplies for irrigation. DPR, DW* Water Consumption
Increased threat of pests, invasive species and noxious weeds. DPR Food and Agriculture
9
(*) Represents City agencies or community organizations effected by priority vulnerability, but did not take part in the vulnerability assessment
Climate Adaptation Plan | 31


Table 3.2: Priority Climate Change Vulnerabilities9
Climate Impact Priority Vulnerability Affected Departments Sector
Higher frequency of extreme weather events Denver buildings structurally vulnerable to extreme weather events OEM, CPD* Buildings and Energy
Unanticipated increase in emergency management funding and impacts on self-insured property BMO Buildings and Energy
Ensuring health care services for people with chronic conditions during extreme weather events OEM Health and Human Services
Increased stress on storm water management systems DPW, CPD, DPR, UDFCD* Land Use and Transportation
Air quality impacts and increased ozone from increased frequency of drought-induced wildfires DEH, OEM Health and Human Services
Long-term disruption in services delivery DHS Land Use and Transportation
Interruptions to transportation and stress or damage to physical infrastructure and public assets CPD, DPR Land Use and Transportation
Increase in high wind days; reduced amount of runways available DIA Land Use and Transportation
Interruptions in business and flight schedule DIA Land Use and Transportation
Degradation of surface water quality including microbial contaminants DEH, DPW Urban Natural Resources
Park damages and debris generation, damage to riparian corridors and stress on landscapes and trees DPR, DEH Urban Natural Resources
Contaminant loading from increased flooding and heavy rain spells DPW Urban Natural Resources
Stormwater management and flood control DIA Urban Natural Resources
Reduced snowpackand earlier snowmelt Changes in ski tourism may lead to fewer travelers/fewer flights DIA Land Use and Transportation
Decrease in water quality due to low-water flow in discharge areas during summer season DPW, DEH, DPR Urban Natural Resources
Increase in frequency, size and duration of wildfires in mountain parks DPR Urban Natural Resources
Climate change adaptation is a necessary effort as some level of climate change is already happening and additional,
more significant impacts are projected. Accordingly, the working group identified climate change vulnerabilities
affecting Denver and next, with the assistance of Meister Consultants Group (MCG), identified climate change
adaptation strategies and activities that could be implemented to adapt to a hotter and drier Denver (Chapters 4 and 5).
Climate Adaptation Plan | 32


CHAPTER 4:
SHORT-TERM CLIMATE ADAPTATION ACTIVITIES
As a first step toward addressing Denver's vulnerabilities related to climate
change, Denver's agency staff selected short-term adaptation activities to
implement based on agency expertise, feasibility, and the ability to synergize
within existing strategic goals. The activities address the expected climate
change impacts of (1) an increased temperature and urban heat island effect
and (2) an increase in frequency of extreme weather events in Denver, and (3)
reduced snowpack and earlier snowmelt.
Short-term climate adaptation
activities will be embedded into the
city-wide EMS and implemented
within one to two years.
Agency staff identified short-term adaptation activities they felt could be implemented within one or two years.
The short-term adaptation activities were subsequently embedded within the EMS, as previously described in
Section 1.6. Due to the short-term nature and expectation that these activities will be implemented within one to
two years, these activities are largely those that can be accomplished directly by City agencies.
4.1 Short-Term Climate Adaptation Actions by Sector
4.1.1 Buildings and Energy Sector
Table 4.1 identifies short-term adaptation activities associated with the Buildings and Energy Sector and the
principal agencies involved.
Table 4.1: Summary of Short Term Adaptation Activities for Buildings and Energy Sector
Climate Impact Vulnerability EMS Adaptation Activities Responsible Agency Agency Plan
Increase in Higher energy consumption 1) Reduce energy use in City Department of General Strategic
temperature and and demand in summer facilities by 2.5% per square foot Services Initiatives
urban heat island effect months over 2011 baseline 2) Reduce energy use in Facilities Management portfolio by 2.5% per square foot over 2011 baseline 3) Complete 95% of Priority 1 and 2 deficiencies and operational improvements identified in 2013 Facility Condition and Assessment studies within 6 months of project completion 4) Complete Facility Condition and Assessment studies on 8-10 facilities Year End Report
Climate Adaptation Plan | 33


Table 4.1: Summary of Short Term Adaptation Activities for Buildings and Energy Sector
Climate Impact Vulnerability EMS Adaptation Activities Responsible Agency Agency Plan
Increase in temperature and urban heat island effect Climate induced in and out migration of workforce populations and businesses 1) Complete outreach to the top 20 energy companies in Denver 2) Begin implementation of the By-Product Synergy Network (BPS) Office of Economic Development Jumpstart 2013
Increase in temperature and urban heat island effect Higher energy demands and use Approve and implement DIA Energy Management Program and Energy Team Charter Denver International Airport Energy
EMS Activities
Reduce energy use in City facilities and in Facilities Management Portfolio: DG5 will work with other
Denver agencies to implement capital, operational, and behavioral improvements. The energy use and
reduction will be measured using annual building utility data.
Complete Priority 1 and 2 deficiencies: DGS recommendations will be uploaded into their Infer
database as work order requests. The requests will be reviewed and assigned as work orders to
Facilitates staff. A report will be generated using the Infer database to determine the status of each
recommendation to ensure completion.
Facility Condition Assessments: DGS will procure on-call energy services and manage building
assessments. The assessments provide valuable information regarding both immediate and long term
liabilities. The identified liabilities can then be reviewed against expected climate changes.
Outreach to Energy Businesses: OED plans to continue outreach to executives of the top 20 energy
companies in 2013 to express the City's appreciation for their contribution to the job base and explore
ways in which Denver can be a better partner. This effort is aimed to communicate that the City
understands the significant value both traditional and renewable energy companies have to the local
economy, and the impacts they have on efforts to curb climate change. For example, Denver recently
signed onto a Memorandum of Understanding with the state to buy more natural gas-fueled vehicles.
By-Product Synergy Network (BPS): OED, in collaboration with the US Business Council on Sustainable
Development, plans to initiate a regional By-Product Synergy Network for Colorado. The BPS network
will match under-valued waste or by-product streams from one firm to another to create new sources
of revenue and supply chain benefits, while reducing environmental burden. The strategy reduces
the overall volume of waste from manufacturing facilities that is transported to landfills. In addition,
the network creates valuable connections among manufacturing facilities in Colorado to advance
sustainable business practices in Colorado, which ultimately serves to increase a company's cost-
competitiveness, improve regional self-sufficiency, and strengthen the financial viability of local
businesses. As a result, the private sector is less susceptible to climate disruptions in other areas of the
country and the world which advances the national security, economic viability, and resilience to climate
change of communities. Project development will be executed in eight phases and reach completion
once funding, partners, and network memberships are secured. After completion, ongoing operations
to identify and facilitate by-product synergies will begin in 2014.
DIA Energy Management Program:The DIA Energy Management Program will improve energy related
procedures, re-commission and optimize major energy using equipment and facilities, and install cost-
effective energy efficiency measures. Increasing energy efficiency and optimizing energy management
will reduce costs, reduce emissions, and increase DIA's overall resiliency to climate change impacts.
Climate Adaptation Plan | 34


4.7.2 Health and Human Services Sector
Table 4.2 identifies short-term adaptation activities associated with the Health and Human Services Sector. The
principal agencies involved in the Health and Human Services Sector are DEH, OEMHS, and DHS.
Table 4.2: Summary of Short Term Adaptation Activities for Health and Human Services Sector
Climate Impact Vulnerability EMS Activities Responsible Agency Agency Plan
Increase in temperature and urban heat island effect Extreme heat affecting vulnerable populations Define extreme heat event; specify how DEH will interact/ cooperate with other agencies such as Public Health or the Office of Emergency Management Department of Environmental Health Emergency Operations Plan (OEMHS)
Increase in vector-borne diseases Write a city-wide vector control plan in which both existing and emerging vectors are discussed Department of Environmental Health Vector Control Plan
Increase in temperature and urban heat island effect, and extreme weather events Extreme heat affecting vulnerable populations 1) Draft an extreme heat annex for the Emergency Operations Plan 2) Create and execute an extreme events educational campaign for the public Office of Emergency Management and Homeland Security Emergency Operations Plan n/a
Increase in temperature and urban heat island effect Extreme heat affecting vulnerable populations Specify how DHS will interact/ cooperate with other agencies, or OEMHS, during extreme heat events Department of Human Services Emergency Operations Plan (OEMHS)
EMS Activities
Define Extreme Heat Event: DEH and OEMHS will identify the conditions or events that will trigger
Denver's declaration of an extreme heat event. Such an event will necessitate coordination with other city
agencies, particularly DEH and OEMHS. To complete this task, DEH will work with OEMHS to establish a local
definition of an extreme heat event. This will provide a basis for promptly reacting to conditions that may
negatively affect Denver, particularly its vulnerable populations.
Draft an Extreme Heat Annex: OEMHS will draft this annex to include a local definition of an "extreme
heat event" in Denver and establish thresholds to activate emergency operations, based on lessons learned
during a city-wide exercise in May 2013 to determine gaps in the City's current response to an extreme heat
event. The annex will include a plan for cooling centers if needed, and outline the roles and responsibilities
of agencies during an extreme heat event. An extreme heat annex allows Denver to be prepared and
organized during extreme heat events and reduces the risk of costly, adverse public health effects. OEMHS
tested the City's ability to respond to an extreme heat event in 2013.
Climate Adaptation Plan | 35


EMS Activities (Cont.)
Extreme Heat Educational Campaign: OEMHS plans to initiate a community wide extreme heat
educational campaign to better prepare the general public for an extreme heat event. OEMHS will collect
community input from a public survey to determine how concerned the public is about extreme heat in
Denver, and how the public would like to receive information about extreme heat hazards. OEMHS will use
all methods that the public identifies in the survey to ensure public engagement methods are reaching as
many people as possible. Some of the potential methods include: 1) an extreme heat brochure, 2) posting
the information on the OEMHS website, 3) adding extreme heat to all presentations OEMHS gives to the
community, and 4) engaging schools in an extreme heat educational program for children. Expected
outcomes include increased outreach through the public information campaign and a measurement of how
well prepared for an extreme heat event the public feels as a result of the campaign.
Extreme Heat Protocol: When conditions are declared an extreme heat event, DHS will implement an
outlined process partnering with other agencies to protect and to assist Denver's citizens assuring basic
needs are met. This strategy responds to impacts on vulnerable populations during extreme heat events
by reducing public health concerns and protecting the well-being of Denver's citizens. DHS will collaborate
with OEMHS and other agencies, to establish a local definition of extreme heat and an efficient course of
action.
Vector Control Plan: DEH expects that a warmer climate will result in more vectors than currently observed
due to an expanded season, which could result in an increase in vector-borne diseases. This activity
responds to an increased presence of animal vectors carrying an expanded array of disease-causing
organisms in Denver. Working with Parks and Recreation along with other agencies, DEH will complete a
draft Vector Control Plan which will provide technical advice to DEH and Parks and Recreation personnel on
the management and control of insect and animal disease vectors
4.1.3 Land Use and Transportation Sector
Table 4.3 identifies short-term adaptation activities associated with Land Use and Transportation, led principally by CPD.
Table 4.3: Summary of Short Term Adaptation Activities for Land Use and Transportation
Climate Impact Vulnerability EMS Activities Responsible Agency Agency Plan
ALL Design standards not addressing climate change scenarios Address climate change in upcoming Golden Triangle Small Area Plan Department of Community Planning and Development Golden Triangle Small Area Plan
Increase in urban heat island effect/ extreme weather events Increased stress on stormwater management Begin scoping process and update of Streetscape standards to address climate adaptation Departments of Community Planning and Development, Public Works and Parks and Recreation Streetscape Standards
Climate Adaptation Plan | 36


EMS Activities
Golden Triangle Small Area Plan and others: CPD will release a Golden Triangle Small Area Plan
addressing unique planning issues of that area. The Golden Triangle is bounded by Lincoln-Broadway,
Colfax, and Speer Boulevard. The Plan will identify key development and infrastructure strategies with a
specific focus on impacts and opportunities related to zoning, building heights, multi-modal streets, and
place making. CPD plans to include climate change as a consideration during planning by increasing park
spaces and emphasizing sustainability. The Golden Triangle Small Area Plan will serve as an example to
prompt further planning efforts to include climate change considerations in their plan and serve as a model
for adaptation strategies in other neighborhood-level plans.
Streetscape Standards update: The City's Streetscape Standards set guidelines for the design of city
streets and was last updated in 1993. CPD plans to begin the scoping process in 2014 or 2015 and expects
to complete the updated streetscape design standards in 2016. CPD will consider expected climate change
impacts for Denver during the update process. The updated guidelines will align regulatory tools with an
expected future that is hotter and likely drier.
4.7.4 Urban Natural Resources Sector
Table 4.4 identifies short-term adaptation activities associated with Urban Natural Resources Sector; the principal
agencies are DPR and DPW.
Table 4.4: Summary of Short-Term Adaptation Activities for Urban Natural Resources
Climate Impact Vulnerability EMS Activities Responsible Agency Agency Plan
Increase in temperature and urban heat island Stress on trees and urban landscaping 1) Publish and begin the outreach of the Metro Denver Urban Forest Assessment Metro Denver Urban Forest Assessment
effect 2) Initiate a contract to inventory existing trees within the City in preparation for a Tree and Shade Master Plan 3) Update the right-of-way tree list that focuses on trees that can thrive in future climates Department of Parks and Recreation Tree and Shade Master Plan Right-of-Way Tree List Storm
Higher frequency of extreme weather events Stormwater management and flood control Include a discussion section on climate adaptation and mitigation in the Storm Drainage Master Plan documentation update currently underway by DPW planning staff Department of Public Works Storm Drainage Master Plan
Contaminant loading from increased flooding and heavy rain spells Include climate adaptation and mitigation in discussion and documentation related to 6 year Water Quality Strategic Implementation Plan currently underway by DPW planning staff Water Quality Strategic Impl- ementation Plan
Climate Adaptation Plan | 37


EMS Activities
Metro Denver Urban Forest Assessment:72 There is growing recognition that trees provide long-term
environmental, economic, and health benefits critical to vibrant and livable cities. To affirm the relevance
of Metro Denver's urban forest, the Metro Denver Urban Forest Assessment was conducted to quantify
the distribution of tree canopy cover and the value of the ecosystem services provided by its 10.7 million
trees. This serves as a platform for planning the future urban forest by mapping locations of potential tree
planting sites and valuing ecosystem services provided by an additional 4.25 million trees. This assessment
provides data on the location of sites in Denver where there is elevated heat to be used as a guide to the
planting of new trees in order to mitigate the urban heat island effect. Additionally, its findings will be used
to inform the public and key decision makers on the value and benefit the urban forest provides.
Metro Denver's urban tree canopy (UTQ, defined as the area covered by the leaves and branches of trees, covers
15.7% of the 721 square mile study area. It provides $551 million in property value increases, energy savings,
carbon storage, stormwater reduction, and air quality benefits annually. Adding an additional 4.25 million trees
will fill nearly one-half of the region's vacant tree sites, increasing the UTC from 16% to 31% once trees mature. The
annual value of ecosystem services will increase to $1 billion. The asset value of Metro Denver's urban forest is $13
billion, or $5,897 per tree, calculated at a 4.125% discount rate for 100 years.
In 2013, UTC covered approximately 19.7% of the City, a relatively high amount compared to the overall average
found for Metro Denver. Also, approximately 50% of the land area is impervious surfaces such as roads, buildings,
water and sidewalks, while only 31% of the City is grass and bare soil that can be easily planted with trees, leaving
1.1 million vacant planting sites.
Denver has 2.2 million existing trees and 3.7 trees per capita. Denver's urban forest produces ecosystem services
and property value benefits valued at $122 million annually.This is the highest value of benefits in Denver.
Property value increases account for 76% of the total amount, followed by stormwater runoff reduction from
rainfall interception (20%), and cooling energy savings (4%). Planting 68,316 trees in 49% of the vacant sites in hot
spots would help mitigate the urban heat island effect, thereby improving air quality and human health.The asset
value of the City's UTC is $2.9 billion and will increase to $6 billion, or $2,176 per tree, when UTC reaches 31.1%.
Figure 4.173 displays Metro Denver's percent UTC cover by city in the study area.
Figure 4.1: Metro Denver's percent urban tree canopy cover by city. Darker shaded green
represents higher percent cover.
Climate Adaptation Plan | 38


EMS Activities (Cont.)
Tree and Shade Master Plan: As the climate changes the urban forest has the potential to become
stressed. Different tree species react differently to stress. The City Forester's Office is beginning a multi-year
inventory and risk assessment of the trees in the parks, parkways and golf courses. Once this inventory is
complete, a Tree and Shade Master Plan can be created to allow for strategic planting and management of
the urban forest to benefit a population experiencing increased temperature.
Right-of-Way Plant Growing List: The City Forester is responsible for permitting the planting of all trees
planted in public property and the public right of way. A list of approved trees for planting is published by
the City Forester's Office. As the climate changes the trees planted today must have characteristics that will
allow them to survive decades into the future in order for them to reach their mature size to provide optimal
benefits. The list of trees approved for planting will be reviewed annually and updated with species that are
demonstrating the ability to thrive in climates similar to those that Denver is anticipating in the next forty years.
Storm Drainage Master Plan: The stormwater master planning efforts will plan and design infrastructure
for sustainability and resilience related to climate impacts. DPW staff will work with regional organizations
to update existing criteria to reflect the existing climate information as changes in rainfall, storm frequency,
and intensity are better understood.
Water Quality Strategic Implementation Plan: Water quality strategic planning is ongoing by DPW
and the Water Quality Task Force. Strategic planning encapsulates floodplain, lakes, streams, rivers, and
stormwater issues relating to water quality.
4.7.5 Water Consumption Sector
Table 4.5 identifies short-term adaptation activities associated with the Water Consumption Sector and the
principal agencies involved.
Table 4.5: Summary of Short Term Adaptation Activities for Water Consumption Sector
Climate Impact Vulnerability EMS Activities Responsible Agency Agency Plan
Reduced snowpack and earlier snowmelt Reduced amount of water available from independent ditch water supplies for irrigation Implement Phase II of the Central Control Master Plan Department of Parks and Recreation Central Control Master Plan
Higher water demands and consumption in summer months Require xeric planting or low water use landscape plantings in the urban design standards and guidelines for Cherry Creek East Department of Community Planning and Development Cherry Creek East Urban Design Standards and Guidelines
Climate Adaptation Plan | 39


EMS Activities
Central Control Master Plan: DPR has been actively pursuing water conservation initiatives for over 20
years. The 2010 Central Control Master Plan provides a five-year plan for the complete build out of irrigation
central control systems. Central control provides the greatest water management capabilities with the most
efficient use of labor when used in tandem with flow sensing and a master valve. DPR is comprised of many
large independent sites, with limited personnel to individually manage each site with stand-alone controllers.
Central control allows necessary seasonal and weather related schedule adjustments of multiple sites quickly
from centrally located computer instead of requiring staff to make multiple trips to adjust each controller
on site. Flow sensing also provides DPR with the capability to monitor and analyze water use through
consumption reporting, which allows the opportunity to maximize the efficient use of water.
Urban Design Standards and Guidelines for Cherry Creek East: Under the landscape section of the
urban design standards and guidelines, CPDwill require xeric planting, or low-water use landscape
plantings in Cherry Creek East.The urban design standards and guidelines for Cherry Creek East could
become a model for other neighborhoods. As Denver expects more frequent and intense droughts,
drought-tolerant landscaping provides a smart solution to address the trade-off between water quantity
and green infrastructure. Cherry Creek East is bordered by Steele Street, Cherry Creek North Drive, Alameda
Avenue, Colorado Boulevard, and 1 st Avenue. The area supports a mix of residential and office uses and
some of the highest residential and employment densities in all of Cherry Creek, as well as the greatest
diversity of housing types.
Integrating these short-term activities into Denver's EMS puts Denver on the right track to meet its long-term
climate adaptation goals, as discussed in the following chapter.
CHAPTER 5:
MEDIUM AND LONG-TERM CLIMATE ADAPTATION ACTIVITIES
Chapter 4 provided a description of short-term (one to two years) adaptation activities various Denver agencies are
implementing to adapt to what likely will be a hotter and drier Denver. Chapter 5 discusses longer-term goals and
strategies for adapting to a changing climate. The longer-term (medium-term and long-term) climate adaptation
goals and strategies were developed for each sector through collaboration among Denver agency partners,
community organizations, DEH, and Meister Consultants Group. These longer-term adaptation goals correspond
to the priority vulnerabilities previously identified in Chapter 3. Strategies for meeting these adaptation goals are
introduced along with proposed activities for implementation of the strategies. Whereas the short-term adaptation
activities discussed in Chapter 4 were primarily those that would be implemented by Denver and partner agencies,
the longer-term term adaptation activities discussed in the following sub sections will need to be implemented
by both Denver and partner agencies and the private community. Medium-term goals and strategies would be
expected to be implemented in two to five years and long-term-term goals and strategies would be expected to be
implemented in five to ten years.

Climate Adaptation Plan | 40
:<


5.1 Buildings and Energy Sector
Residential, commercial, and industrial buildings shelter Denver residents and house businesses and institutions
key to the region's economic vitality. Ensuring these facilities are able to withstand climate impacts, require
less energy during extreme temperature conditions, operate continuously during extreme weather events, and
maintain a reliable power supply are high priorities for Denver's adaptation planning.
In addition, adaptation activities in this sector are closely linked to the City's energy and greenhouse gas emissions
reduction activities. Reducing the vulnerabilities affecting Denver's buildings and energy systems are closely linked
to mitigating global climate change, lowering energy expenditures, and reducing local and regional air pollution.
As described in Chapter 3, Denver is expected to face increasing temperatures, extreme weather events, and
shifting stream flows, all of which will significantly affect Denver's built environment. Higher temperatures will
increase electricity demand, especially during extreme heat events, placing greater strain on the energy grid. In
some cases, building codes and design standards may not be adequate to withstand the increases in extreme
weather conditions, which will also increase the need for building maintenance and repairs. Higher emergency
management funding needs and insurance premiums may place additional financial burdens on the City and on
private property owners.Table 5.1 summarizes climate vulnerabilities for the Buildings and Energy sector and notes
which City departments and community organizations will be most directly affected by each.
Table 5.1: Buildings and Energy Sector High Priority Vulnerabilities
Priority Vulnerabilities Identified by Denver Affected City Departments Affected Community Organizations
Higher energy consumption and demand in the summer months General Services Environmental Health Community Planning & Development Economic Development Denver International Airport Office of Strategic Partnerships Xcel Energy Colorado Energy Office Denver Housing Authority U.S. Green Building Council (Colorado Chapter)
Higher maintenance costs for Denver building maintenance and building equipment General Services Economic Development Denver Housing Authority Denver Metro Building Owners and Managers Association
Design standards do not address climate change scenarios Emergency Management Community Planning & Development U.S. Green Building Council (Colorado Chapter) _

Denver buildings structurally vulnerable to extreme
weather events
Emergency Management
Community Planning &
Development
Unanticipated increase in emergency management
funding and impacts on self-insured property
Budget Management Office
To adapt to these climate impacts, Denver has identified two key goals for the Buildings and Energy sector:
Reduce vulnerability to building energy supply disruptions
Reduce vulnerability of buildings to extreme weather
Four strategies have been identified to achieve these goals, as summarized in Table 5.2 and described in detail
below. Each is supported by a variety of medium and long-term activities. Selected example activities are listed,
and a full summary of activities is provided in Appendix C.
Climate Adaptation Plan | 41


Table 5.2: Summary of Goals and Strategies for Increasing Resilience in the Buildings and Energy Sector
Goal 1
Reduce vulnerability to building energy supply disruptions
Strategy 1: Energy efficiency to reduce the demand for energy thereby reducing pressure on
the grid during extreme heat days
Strategy 2: Cooling infrastructure to cool the City thereby reducing the demand for energy.
Stragety 3: Alternative and distrubuted generation to diversify the City's energy mix and
increase distributed generation
Goal 2
J
Reduce vulnerability of buildings to extreme weather
Strategy 1: Encourage construction of resilient buildings
5.1.1 Goal 1: Reduce vulnerability to building energy supply disruptions
Reducing stress on the electricity grid in a hotter, drier climate requires both supply and demand-side strategies. Denver
has identified three strategies that support the goal of reducing vulnerability to building energy supply disruptions:
Strategy 1: Energy efficiency
The City of Denver has been actively engaged in promoting energy efficiency as a climate mitigation strategy through
the Denver Climate Action Plan and the Denver Energy Challenge. Other community partners, including the Colorado
Energy Office and Xcel Energy, also have a number of programs directed at increasing energy efficiency. However,
energy efficiency can also serve as an adaptation strategy; lowering total consumption reduces demand during
extreme heat events, mitigating the risk of outages.
Denver has developed a number of, medium and
long-term activities that encourage energy
conservation in municipal facilities and
in the wider community. Example
activities are described below in
table 5.3; Appendix C includes
a more complete list of
activities.
j4
XET
It,
Q Xcel Energy#
ELECTRIC VEHICLE O
powered at the plug
Climate Adaptation Plan I 42


Table 5.3: Activities for increasing energy efficiency in the buildings and energy sector
Example Activities Time Frame (long/medium-term) Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Increase commercial building energy efficiency through a variety of mechanisms, including commercial building energy benchmarking and disclosure options through the City Energy Project Medium-term DEH Denver Water, CPD, DPW, and OED In progress
Adopt the 2015 International Energy Conservation Code Medium-term CPD DEH Not started
Use energy performance contracting model to generate funds for capital improvements at City facilities Medium-term DGS BMO, DPW, and CAO In progress
Strategy 2: Cooling infrastructure
Green infrastructuresuch as shade trees, open space, green roofs, and other techniquescan be used to reduce
the urban heat island effect during hot days, as well as increase water infiltration and improve air quality. For
example, shaded areas can be up to 15-45F cooler than their surroundings during the hottest hours of the day.74
Trees and other vegetation also remove heat from the air through evapotranspiration, reducing ground-level air
temperatures. Other built environment design elements, such as light colored pavement or roofing materials, can
also serve to reduce surface temperatures by reflecting sunlight away from buildings and streets.75 Denver plans to
undertake a number of activities by the end of this decade to increase the use of natural and cooling infrastructure
in the city (see below and Appendix C).This will reduce the effects of rising temperatures community-wide,
reducing overall energy demand and placing less stress on energy infrastructure during extreme weather events.
Table 5.4: Activities for increasing cooling infrastructure in the buildings and energy sector
Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status
(long/medium-term) Agency Agencies
Reduce urban heat island effect through infrastructure such as shade trees, urban gardens, green roofs, and lighter colored hardscapes Long-term DPW DPR In progress
City facilities permanently commit to save energy by regulating thermostats all year long and allowing a relaxing dress code, eliminating personal appliances, replacing desktop computers with laptops and tablets, and expand to private sector facilities Medium-term DGS Mayor's office In progress
Develop non-vegetation shade structures Medium-term DPR ^^progress
Climate Adaptation Plan | 43 :<


Strategy 3: Alternative and distributed generation
Denver can enhance the stability of its energy system by expanding distributed renewable energy generation.
Distributed generation refers to electricity from multiple small energy sources. Like energy efficiency, distributed
energy generation can reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and can also serve as an adaptation
strategy. Distributed energy can help reduce demands on centralized power generation, thus enhancing reliability
of the system during extreme heat events. In particular, solar energy systems offer synergies during extreme heat
events because daily solar insulation (full sun hours) periods overlap with peak demand for cooling. Because
distributed energy systems are not centralized the system is less likely to be totally knocked off line during an
extreme weather event. These systems and other interconnected, distributed generation technologies could
supplement available electricity supply during peak load periods.
Some off-grid distributed energy systems could also provide backup power for facilities in the event of a power
outage or could be used to expand demand response programs. Distributed generators provide the framework for
community-based micro-grids, which could eventually operate independently of the larger utility network. There
are also opportunities to expand off-grid utility networks through district energy systems.These off-grid solutions
would reduce the risk of demand outpacing available grid-provided electricity by allowing discrete sectors to
remain in operation even in the face of a generalized outage of the grid.
Table 5.5: Activities for increasing alternative and distributed generation
Example Activities Time Frame (long/medium-term) Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Update solar site assessment of City facility rooftops and other City-owned locations, and solicit proposals for eligible sites Medium-term 1 ^^>t started
Identify opportunities for the city to become a subscriber in community solar gardens Medium-term DGS CAO In progress
Develop community-scale renewable and district energy pilot systems and remove existing regulatory barriers Medium-term DEH CPD and OED Not Started
Install sustainable energy generation systems such as wind systems on local properties "" J 1 In progress
5.7.2 Goal 2: Reduce vulnerability of buildings to extreme weather
Denver also seeks to reduce the vulnerability of buildings to extreme weather. Current building codes and design
standards need to be reviewed to ensure they are adequate not only for past and current climate conditions, but
for the projected future climate of the Denver region as well. In order to better protect community assets, existing
buildings may need to be retrofitted and new buildings may need to be constructed to higher standards to ensure
resilience to more extreme weather.
Strategy 1: Encourage construction of resilient buildings
The vulnerability of buildings to extreme weather can be reduced by incentivizing resilience-building retrofits to
existing structures, and providing regulatory support to apply climate-informed design and construction standards
to new buildings. Increasing a building's structural integrity will provide protection against high winds, heavy or
prolonged precipitation, and other extreme weather impacts, reducing damage to buildings and the associated
cost to property-owners. See below and Appendix C for activities design to increase building resilience in Denver.
Climate Adaptation Plan | 44 :<


Table 5.6: Activities for encouraging construction of resilient buildings
Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status
(long/medium-term) Agency Agencies
Develop incentives or regulation to improve resiliency of buildings in areas facing increased risk of flood Medium-long- term CPD/ Development Services DPW Not started
Publish a guide on steps that commercial and residential property owners can take to make their existing buildings more resilient to climate change Medium-term DEH m OEDandOEM Not started
Require construction of"safe rooms"as described in the 2015 ICC building code to protect citizens during extreme weather events Medium-term Development! Er
5.2 Health and Human Services Sector
As mentioned in Chapter 1, Colorado has already seen a 2F increase in temperatures over the past 30 years, and
climate models project Colorado will warm by another 2.5F by 2025 relative to the 1950-1999 baseline.76 Also,
because Denver is a highly urbanized area with high percentages of impervious surfaces, Denver will see an even
higher increase in temperatures than rural Colorado communities. This increase in temperature may create negative
health impacts for the community and the most vulnerable populations may be disproportionately affected by these
impacts. Denver will experience increased daytime and nighttime temperatures, leaving less nighttime cooling relief
for residents. Also, hot, sunny days can result in an increased rate of ground level ozone formation, contributing to
urban smog and compromising Denver residents'health. Warmer weather can also facilitate the movement of disease
vectors, such as mosquitoes, that can spread diseases quickly in a dense, urban environment.
It is important for Denver to adapt to climate impacts brought by an increase in temperatures and urban heat island
effect to protect the health and vitality of Denver's residents. Ensuring health care providers are able to provide
care during extreme heat events and providing relief during extreme daytime temperatures will be necessary to
adapt to a hotter, drier Denver, while maintaining a community of healthy residents. Table 5.7 illustrates Denver's
priority vulnerabilities for the Health and Fluman Services sector and the associated affected City departments and
community organizations.
Table 5.7: Health and human services sector high priority vulnerabilities
Priority Vulnerabilities Addressed Affected City Departments Affected Community Organizations
Decrease in quality of living/reduced comfort or reduced occupant comfort in buildings/impacts to productivity Public Works Community Planning and Development Environmental Health General Services Parks and Recreation Denver Metro Building Owners and Managers Association U.S. Green Building Council, Colorado Chapter
Extreme heat events affecting vulnerable populations Community Planning and Development Environmental Health Fluman Services Parks and Recreation Flomeless shelters, Nursing homes,
Increase in vector borne diseases/increased use of pesticides Environmental Health Emergency Management
Ensuring health care services for people with chronic conditions during extreme weather events Emergency Management
Climate Adaptation Plan | 45


5.2 Health and Human Services Sector (Cont.)
To adapt to these climate impacts, Denver has identified two key goals for the Health and Human Services Sector:
Safeguard health of Denver residents in the context of climate impacts
Preserve ability of health care and other human service providers to continue service during extreme events
A set of strategies were identified in order to achieve each goal, as summarized in Table 5.8 and described below. A
set of medium-term and long-term activities were then identified to support each strategy.
Table 5.8: Summary of goals and strategies for increasing resilience in the Health and Human Services sector
5.2.1 Goal 1: Safeguard health of Denver residents in the context of
climate impacts
Denver can maintain and improve the health of its residents by preparing for anticipated risks and educating and
informing its residents on how to respond appropriately to the changing climate. Hotter conditions will increase
risk of heat-related illness and increase populations of disease-spreading agents. The strategies outlined below can
mitigate these challenges through integrated planning and responsive policies.
Strategy 1: Reduce health impacts of extreme weather events
Climate change will likely bring increasingly frequent and severe heat waves and extreme weather events. These
changes have the potential to negatively affect human health in direct and indirect ways. Health affects related
to heat exposure can range from mild heat rashes to heat stroke. Heat exposure can also aggravate chronic health
conditions such as cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Heat also increases ground-level ozone concentrations,
causing direct lung injury and increasing the severity of respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease. Extreme weather in the form of storms may also impact health. Direct effects of
extreme weather include drowning from floods and injuries sustained from building structural collapse. Indirect
effects include aggravation of chronic diseases due to interruptions in health care service and significant mental
health concerns from interrupted care and geographic displacement. Suggested activities to mitigate the health
effects of extreme weather are:
Safeguard health of Denver citizens in the context of climate impacts
Strategy 1: Reduce health impacts of extreme weather events
Strategy 2: Reduce health vulnerabilities from vector-borne diseases
Preserve ability of health care providers to provide utilities during
extreme heat events
Strategy 1: Develop energy and IT systems that are reslient to power
outages
Climate Adaptation Plan | 46 :<


Table 5.9: Activities for reducing health impacts of extreme weather events
Example Activities Time Frame (long/medium-term) Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Increase the number of shelter spaces available to homeless and at-risk populations Long-term Road Home OEM and DHS In progress
Designate public cooling shelters for extreme heat events Medium-term DPR OEM In progress
Adopt a severe weather ordinance to allow shelters to expand the number of persons served during extreme weather events Medium-term Road Home DEH, DHHS and OEM Not started
Strategy 2: Reduce health vulnerabilities from vector-borne diseases
Climate is one of many variables known to affect the rates of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases (VBZD). "Vector-
borne disease"is the term commonly used to describe an illness caused by an infectious microbe that is transmitted
to people by blood-sucking arthropods (insects or arachnids). Zoonotic refers to a disease that can be transmitted
from animals to people or, more specifically, a disease that normally exists in animals but that can infect humans.
The changing climate may result in altered distribution ofVBZD prevalent in the U.S.This could cause formerly-
prevalent diseases such as malaria and dengue fever to re-emerge. For example, as temperature increases, the
malaria parasite reproduces at a higher rate and mosquitoes take blood meals more frequently than during cooler
periods. Proposed example adaptation activities for this strategy include;
Table 5.10 Activities to reduce health vulnerabilities from vector-borne diseases
Example Activities Time Frame (long/medium-term) Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Work with partners to develop water VBZD surveillance system to improve prediction of epidemics and prevent incidents leading to epidemics Medium-term DEH OEM In progress
Evaluate and scale the VBZD control program as warranted Medium-term DEH DPR In progress
5.2.2 Goal 2: Preserve ability of health care and other service providers
to provide utilities during extreme heat events
Denver residents and health care patients will need access to services even during extreme events. During
Hurricane Sandy, many of New York's health care providers were without power, and had no access to long-term
back-up generation services. Patient records were inaccessible, and many critically ill patients had to be transferred
to other facilities. Denver needs to prepare its healthcare network for climate-related disruptions. Activities are
presented below to address this vulnerability.
Climate Adaptation Plan | 47


Strategy 1: Develop utility and IT systems that are resilient to power outages
Extreme weather will likely strike Denver, but some of the cost and impact can be reduced with the deployment of
more resilient infrastructure. One example of resilient infrastructure is Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technology.
CHP technologies generate efficient and reliable electricity and heat (or cooling) near the consumer. Distributed
CHP power plants can form nodes for microgrids that can supply heat and electricity to people and businesses even
if portions of the network are knocked offline. The conventional driver for a CHP plant is gas-fired turbines. Due to
a high exhaust temperature and flow, gas turbines are able to generate a large amount of heat, which can then be
converted to steam, hot water, chilled water, and/or electricity. Example long-term and medium-term adaptation
activities for Denver are listed below and in Appendix C.
Table 5.11: Activities to develop utilities and IT systems that are resilient to power outages
Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status
(long/medium-term) Agency Agencies
Explore programs for hospitals and other Long-term DEH OED Not started
service facilities to install off-grid distributed alternative energy systems with islanding capabilities OEM
Explore incentives for hospitals and other Medium-term DEH OED Not started
service providers to identify power needs for critical systems and obtain adequate back-up generation capacity OEM
Advise hospitals and other service providers to Medium -term DEH OED Not started
evaluate whether critical infrastructure is at risk OEM
to flash flooding and identify risk mitigation solutions DPH
5.3 Urban Natural Resources Sector
In Denver, the Urban Natural Resources sector is affected by a variety of climate impacts. An increase in
temperature and urban heat island effect can put stress on trees and vegetation which provides Denver with
cooling and shade benefits, as well as carbon sequestration. Trees and vegetation may also be affected by an
increase in frequency and intensity of droughts, suffering from prolonged time without a rain event. An increase
in surface temperatures also increases water temperatures, which degrades water quality and negatively impacts
aquatic ecosystems. Extreme weather events such as heavy downpours cause increased nutrient loads entering
Denver's waterways, also degrading water quality.
It is important to adapt to climate impacts affecting Denver's Urban Natural Resources sector to ensure residents
receive maximum benefits from ecosystem services urban natural resources can provide. Trees can provide
shade for cooling during extreme heat events as well as decrease impervious surface cover, mitigating some of
the impacts of the urban heat island effect. Like trees, vegetative cover also provides urban heat island effect
mitigation benefits. Vegetation also acts as a natural filtering mechanism during rain events so Denver's waterways
are not being overloaded with pollutants that degrade water quality, allowing Denver's residents to enjoy lakes and
streams for fishing and other recreational activities. Table 5.12 illustrates Denver's priority vulnerabilities for the
Urban Natural Resources sector and the associated affected City departments and community organizations.
Climate Adaptation Plan | 48


Table 5.12: Urban Natural Resources sector priority vulnerabilities
Priority Vulnerabilities Addressed Affected City Departments Affected Community Organizations
Stress on trees and urban landscaping Parks and Recreation 1
Park damages and debris generation, damage to riparian corridors and stress on landscapes and trees Parks and Recreation Environmental Health Greenway Foundation
Warming of stream and lake systems affecting aquatic species Parks and Recreation Greenway Foundation
Degradation of surface water quality including microbial contaminants Environmental Health Public Works Denver Water, UDFCD
Contaminant loading from increased flooding and heavy rain spells Public Works Denver Water, UDFCD
Decrease in water quality due to low-water flow in discharge areas Public Works Environmental Health Parks and Recreation Denver Water, UDFCD
To adapt to these climate impacts, Denver has identified two key goals for the Urban Natural Resources sector:
Enhance and preserve existing urban forest resources
Ensure all Denver streams are fishable and swimmable
A set of strategies were identified in order to achieve each goal, as summarized in Table 5.13 and described below.
A set of medium-term and long-term activities were then identified to support each strategy.
Table 5.13: Summary of goals and strategies for increasing resilience in the Urban Natural Resources sector
Goal 1
Enhance and preserve existing urban forest resources
Strategy 1: Standards and regulations to strengthen and protect urban forest resources
Strategy 2: Increase Denver's canopy coverage and maintain existing street resources
Strategy 3: Expand fire mitigation and forest management programs in Denver's Mountain Parks
Goal 2
Ensure all Denver streams are fishable and swimmable
Strategy 1: Maintain and enhance health of Denver water bodies
Strategy 2: Improve and maintain surface water quality
Strategy 3: Improve water and wastewater infrastructure to reduce risk of overflows or spills
Climate Adaptation Plan | 49


5.3.1 Goal 1: Enhance and preserve existing urban forest resources
Terrestrial resources, such as street trees, forests and other plant life, will face harsher growing conditions due to
rising temperatures and shifting rainfall patterns.These natural resources provide Denver with valuable ecosystem
services, such as shading and water management as well as serving as shelter and food sources for many species.
Denver has developed strategies to preserve and expand these valuable resources in a changing climate.
Strategy 1: Standards and regulations to strengthen and protect urban forest resources
The conservation organization American Forests, www.americanforests.org, has found that Denver is doing much
better than other cities in protecting and developing its urban forest. Through a combination of an in-depth
survey, independent data and a vote by a blue-ribbon panel of leading urban forest experts, the nonprofit has
named the 10 best U.S. cities for urban forests: Austin, Charlotte, Denver, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, New York,
Portland, Sacramento, Seattle and Washington, D.C. American Forests observed that Denver and the remaining
nine top cities recognized that trees don't just provide aesthetic value, they also help in a number of other ways,
including increasing property values, reducing energy costs and lowering medical costs by improving human
health. For example, Denver estimates its urban forest provides $122 million worth of annual property value and
environmental services.78
Protecting Denver's urban forest will be a focus of future adaptation activities including the following:
Table 5.14: Activities supporting standards and regulations to strengthen and protect urban forest resources
Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status
(long/medium-term) Agency Agencies
Update the right of way tree list thatfocuses on those that can thrive in future climates Medium-term DPR DPW In progress
Conduct outreach campaign to educate and encourage residents to plant trees that can thrive in future climates Medium -term DPR DPW In progress
Strategy 2: Increase Denver's urban forest and canopy coverage
Denver's urban forest, aside from making Denver attractive to residents and visitors, provides benefits that support
climate adaptation efforts. The Arbor Day Foundation's79 publication extolling the value of trees to a community
notes that an acre of forest absorbs six tons of carbon dioxide and releases four tons of oxygen, meeting the needs
of 18 people. Denver's more than 19,000 acres of urban forest and tree canopy shades 19.7 percent of Denver and
saves 56,471 mega watt hours each year in cooling, equaling more than $6.7 million dollars in energy savings.80
Protecting and enhancing Denver's urban forest is an important adaptation strategy; example activities to support
this strategy include:

Climate Adaptation Plan | 50


Table 5.15: Activities to increase Denver's urban forest and canopy coverage
Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status
(long/medium-term) Agency Agencies
Implement/complete theTree and Shade Master Plan while ensuring the Plan includes a component specifically addressing the additional services required to adapt to climate change Medium-term DPR OEM In progress
Continue to participate in Emerging Pests in Medium and DPR DEH In progress
Colorado Roundtable and the Denver Pest long-term CPD
Roundtable to find best practices to reduce stress on urban landscapes OEM
Strategy 3: Expand fire mitigation and forest management programs in Denver's Mountain Parks
In the southwest alone, since 2000, the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, and New Mexico have experienced
several successive worst fires or fire seasons in their respective histories, as measured in lives lost and property
destroyed.81 Climate change may be contributing to the increase in severe fires in Colorado and the Mountain
West. As a result, the fire season has begun earlier in the spring and lasted later into to the fall. Climate change has
also weakened the trees'ability to resist diseases and insect infestations. A visible example is the mountain bark
beetles, whose attacks have killed millions of trees on public and private lands, leaving them standing as prime fuel
for fires in Colorado and the Mountain West every fire season. Accordingly, it is important that climate adaptation
efforts in Denver's Mountain Parks continue and adapt to changing forest conditions.
Table 5.16: Activities to expand fire mitigation and forest management programs in Denver's Mountain Parks
Example Activity Time Frame Lead Supporting Status
(long/medium-term) Agency Agencies
Continue aggressive fire mitigation program Medium and DPR OEM and DFD In progress
in Mountain Parks and support fire mitigation programs by others long-term
5.3.2 Goal 2: Ensure all Denver streams are fishable and swimmable
Denver has made the preservation of its water bodies a priority through its existing 2020 Sustainability
Goals. Climate impacts are projected to directly impact Denver's streams. Storms will generate debris,
increase runoff and potentially introduce contaminants into existing water bodies. Warming will cause
changes in aquatic ecosystems, which will need to be carefully monitored to maintain current species
composition and ecological health. Community organizations such as Denver Water and the Urban
Drainage and Flood Control District (UDFCD) will also play a large role in ensuring all Denver's streams
are fishable and swimmable, and reaching the City's 2020 Sustainability Goal for water quality. Below are
a number of strategies to ensure all Denver streams are fishable and swimmable.
Community Target
"Ensure all Denver rivers and streams are fishable and swimmable."
Municipal Target
"Achieve and maintain 100% compliance with existing and future
MS4 permit requirements and reduce storm water outfall E. coli dry weather discharges in priority S. Platte river basins
under current permit to 126 colony forming units (cfu)/l00 milliters (ml)."
Climate Adaptation Plan | 51


5.3.2 Goal 2: Ensure all Denver streams are fishable and swimmable (Cont.)
Strategy 1: Maintain and enhance health of Denver water bodies
Urban stream corridors provide many critical functions in the life of Denver's residents. During storm events
they function to convey storm runoff. This function will be even more important during extreme weather. Their
linear nature is well suited to trails and a variety of recreational activities. Denver residents seek an active outdoor
lifestyle and value natural areas for beauty and the appreciation of wildlife. Accordingly, thoughtful treatment of
urban stream corridors creates and maintains community assets that are important to Denver's current and future
residents.82 Therefore it is critical to enhance and preserve floodplains, wetlands, and riparian areas particularly as
the climate becomes hotter and drier. Future activities in Denver water bodies include:
Table 5.17: Activities for maintaining and enhancing the health of Denver water bodies
Continue noxious weed abatement program Medium-and long-term DPR DEH In progress
Continue to implement the South Platte River Vision Implementation Plan, the Gulch Master Plan and Natural Area Management Plans Medium-and- long term DPR/DPW OED,DEH and NDCC In progress
Continue to implement the Water Quality Master Plan Medium-and- long term Err
Strategy 2: Improve and maintain surface water quality
Denver has a goal to have fishable and swimmable waters in all our rivers and streams by 2020. In order to meet
that goal, the City has implemented a number of programs and studies to improve water quality in Denver.
The City has developed a program to improve stormwater infrastructure with the intent of protecting
water quality in the river. To date, the program has successfully reduced the amount of E. coli entering the
South Platte River from the City's storm sewers.
The City is developing a Water Quality Strategic Plan which will identify areas where additional water
quality treatment is needed and will allow the City to prioritize use of limited resources to areas where they
will be most effective.
Organizations such as Denver Water and the UDFCD also have programs and beneficial studies to improve water
quality in Denver. Denver Water"takes its water quality very seriously"and provides detailed information about
their water treatment process, as well as annual water quality reports available to the public.83 UDFCD provides
examples of best management practices around the city that reduce stormwater runoff and improve water
quality. UDFCD also provides a detailed report and fact sheets about urban storm drainage criteria, which leads to
healthy water bodies around Denver.
Example activities aimed at improving water quality as the climate changes include:
Climate Adaptation Plan | 52


Table 5.18: Activities to improve and maintain surface water quality
Partner with Denver Water to expand water quality monitoring in Denver watersheds Medium-and long-term DW DEH Not started
Include climate adaptation and mitigation in discussion and documentation related to 6-year Water Quality Strategic Implementation Plan currently underway by DPW planning staff Medium-term DPW DEH In progress
Prioritize and implement UDFCD gulch improvement projects, Re-gulch Mater Plans and Natural Area Management Plans Medium-term 3 L
Strategy 3: Improve water and wastewater infrastructure to reduce risk of overflows or spills
The heavy rainfall and resulting flooding in September 2013 illustrated the impact of extreme weather on
infrastructure such as storm sewers, dams and waterways. As the climate changes, it is likely that risks for
infrastructure failure will increase in Denver. Existing studies indicate that small increases in weather and climate
extremes have the potential to bring large increases in damages to existing infrastructure. Almost all of today's
infrastructure has been designed using climatic design values calculated from historical climate data on the
assumption that past extremes will represent future conditions.85 Changes in climate will require changes to
these climatic design values, as well as larger societal changes. Denver staff will work with regional organizations
to update existing criteria to reflect the existing climate information as changes in rainfall, storm frequency, and
intensity are better understood.
Table 5.19: Activities to improve water and wastewater infrastructure to reduce risk of overflows or spills
Example Activity Time Frame Lead Supporting Status
(long/medium-term) Agency Agencies
Incorporate green infrastructure and other Medium-term DPW CPD In progress
climate resilient design structures within storm system designs in the Storm Drainage Master Plan documentation update DPR
5.4 Water Consumption Sector
Denver, being situated in a semi-arid climate, traditionally receives only about 15 inches of precipitation in a
year.86 The majority of the precipitation in Colorado falls on the western slope, while about 80% of the population
resides on the Front Range.87 These settings naturally make long-term water supply planning a high priority for
Denver Water. A warmer climate coupled with continued growth in the Denver-metro area further emphasizes
the criticality of robust long-term water resources planning. Projected hydrologic changes to Denver Water's
collection system due to a warmer climate may include changes in snowpack lifespan and magnitude, more intense
and frequent droughts and floods, increases in evaporation and evapotranspiration, decreases in soil moisture,
changes to watersheds from forest fires and pest infestation, changes in water quality of rivers and streams,
and changes in water needs. These potential changes make it essential for Denver Water to prepare for climate
change. Unfortunately, no single strategy is sufficient to prepare for a changing and unknown future.88 Denver
Water is committed to ensuring its customers have an adequate water supply for the future through aggressive
conservation efforts, innovative recycled water systems and the securing new supplies.89
Climate Adaptation Plan | 53


5.4 Water Consumption Sector (Cont.)
The City and County of Denver supports Denver Water in their adaptation efforts. Specifically, the City will
coordinate with Denver Water to reduce water demand and increase the use of recycled water. Table 5.20 illustrates
Denver's priority vulnerabilities for the Water Consumption sector and the associated affected City Departments
and community organizations.
Table 5.20: Water Consumption Sector Priority Vulnerabilities
Priority Vulnerabilities Addressed Affected City Departments Affected Community Organizations
Higher water demands (City and private)and consumption in Community Planning and Denver Water,
summer months Development Watts to Water
Environmental Health
Parks and Recreation
To adapt to these climate impacts, Denver has identified a key goal for the Water Consumption sector. All activities
and strategies address the following goal:
Reduce per capita use of potable water
A set of strategies were identified in order to achieve each goal, as summarized in Table 5.21 and described below.
A set of medium-term and long-term activities were then identified to support each strategy.
Table 5.21: Summary of Goals and Strategies for Increasing Resilience in the Water Consumption Sector
Goal 1
Reduce per capita use of potable water
Strategy 1: Continue and expand water conservation planning and programs
Strategy 2: Encourage the use of water conserving technologies and products in buildings
Strategy 3: Water-conserving irrigation techniques
Strategy 4: Water-conserving landscaping techniques
Strategy 5: Expand recycled water infrastructure and use
Water Quantity Community Goal
"Work with Denver Water to reduce per capita use of potable water in Denver by 22% over a 2001 baseline, and
take additional steps using the City's independent authority in partnership with the Denver community to keep
the rate of increase in absolute consumption of potable water below the rate of population increase."
Climate Adaptation Plan | 54


5.4.1 Goal 1: Reduce per capita use of potable water
As mentioned in Chapter 2, Denver Water has many conservation programs in place to successfully reduce the
per capita use of potable water. Denver Water uses a three-pronged approach to ensure Denver's residents have
adequate water supply: conserve, recycle, and supply.90 Through extensive conservation programs and the
expansion of recycled water, Denver is working to reduce the demand for potable water instead of solely relying
on developing new supply sources to meet Denver's water needs. Denver Water residential customers (Denver and
suburbs), use approximately 85 gallons of water per day.91 It has been proposed that Denver residents could easily
get by on 50 gallons of water per day.92 Through public campaigns such as "Use only what you need"and rebates
for high efficiency fixtures and irrigation products, such as toilets and low precipitation rate irrigation nozzles,
customers are using more than 20 percent less on average than they were prior to the 2002 drought, even as
population has increased. Continued water conservation efforts will be essential to enable continued decreases in
water use to help adapt to a possibly drier Denver.
Strategy 1: Continue and expand water conservation planning and programs
As noted in Chapters 2 and 4, Denver has current operations that help the City conserve water including retrofit
of water fixtures and irrigation systems and assistance provided to Denver Public Schools to retrofit water fixtures,
saving more than 250 million gallons of water per year since 2007. In 2008, Denver Water began updating its
Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) to help guide decisions related to Denver's water system over the next 40 years. The
new IRP addresses a broader range of water issues compared to last IRPs including:
Potential challenges to the water system, such as climate change; more severe and frequent droughts;
changes in demographics and water use patterns; changes to watersheds, including beetle kill and forest
fires; Colorado River water shortages; and economic and regulatory changes
New opportunities for conservation, water-use efficiency and environmental enhancements
The frequency of water-use restrictions for customers
Water quality
Priorities for improving and maintaining the water treatment and distribution systems94
Incorporating climate change impacts and conservation measures into long-term water supply planning plays an
important role in increasing Denver's resiliency to climate change.
Table 5.22: Activities to continue and expand water conservation planning programs
Example Activities Time Frame (long/medium-term) y Supporting Agencies Status
Fully implement DPR GamePlan: Green infrastructure, wise water management water conservation plans Long-term DPR ml DPW and DW In progress
Continue implementation of Denver Water's Integrated Resource Plan Long-term DW 1 progress
Continuing to assess Denver Water's resilience to climate change using the latest local climate projections, coordinate and be aware of new City adaptation policies and adjust practices accordingly Medium-term DW CPD and DPW In progress
Climate Adaptation Plan | 55


Strategy 2: Encourage the use of water conserving technologies and products in buildings
In the United States we use almost 5 billion gallons of water daily at a shared energy cost of 150 million kilowatt-
hours.95 Denver residential customers (Denver residents and suburbs) each use an average of 85 gallons of water
per day. Efficiency of water use brings a variety of benefits including reduced costs and lower energy use, and
prepares a community to be adaptable to changing conditions. Denver is a leader in water conservation and will
continue in that role in the future through adaptation to a future drier environment.
Table 5.23: Activities to encourage the use of water conserving technologies and products in buildings
Include reporting on water use in a building energy disclosure benchmark to track and monitor water use in major commercial properties around Denver Medium-term DEH,DW DW In progress
Collaborate with Denver Water to pilot a neighbor-to-neighbor comparison of water use on utility bills to encourage conservation behavior in residences Medium-term DEH, DW DPW, CPD, DW In progress
Continue and promote water efficient rebates for residential, commercial, and industrial buildings Medium-term DW 1 In progress
Strategy 3: Water-conserving irrigation techniques
Parks and Recreation are upgrading irrigation systems to make them more efficient and effective to adapt to
changing climate conditions. Denver's Parks are being upgraded with central control irrigation systems to achieve
greater water efficiency and to reduce the time and expense of maintenance and repair. In addition, Denver Water
offers commercial buildings rebates for 25% of the purchase price to install smart irrigation controllers, as well as
rebates for the purchase of high efficiency or rotary nozzles for irrigation systems. Also, Denver Water offers free
large scale irrigation system audits for large irrigation customers to identify ways that they can cut back on water
use. Continuing and building upon programs like these will help improve irrigation techniques and lower per-
capita use of potable water.
Table 5.24: Activities for water-conserving irrigation techniques
Example Activities
Time Frame Lead
(long/medium-term) Agency
Supporting
Agencies
Status
Continue to increase the efficiency of park irrigation systems, including conversions to recycled water where feasible Medium-term DPR DW In progress
Continue to improve and expand upon Denver Water's irrigation conservation programs Medium-term In progress
Climate Adaptation Plan | 56


Strategy 4: Water-conserving landscaping techniques
Colorado averages only about 15 inches of precipitation a year. Using Xeriscape techniques promotes efficient
irrigation and sustainable practices that can reduce water use while allowing for attractive landscapes. Xeriscape uses
low-water use plants to create a landscape that is sustainable in Colorado's semi-arid climate.96 Xeriscaped landscapes
do not require as much water and upkeep as traditional lawns because the plants used are adapted to the dry climate
on the Front Range. Increased use of Xeriscape techniques will be a feature in Denver as the climate changes.
Table 5.25: Activities for water-conserving landscaping techniques
Example Activity Time Frame (long/medium-term) Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Advocate for and implement xeric landscaping Medium-term CPD/ Development Services, DW DPR and Mayor's office In progress
Strategy 5: Expand recycled water infrastructure and use
Recycled water is treated wastewater used for irrigation, commercial and industrial use, freeing up potable water
for other purposes. Denver Water expects ultimately to deliver 17,500 acre-feet (approximately 5.7 billion gallons) of
recycled water each year. Recycled water serves irrigation customers at Denver Public Schools, several Denver parks
and zoo, and is planned for Denver International Airport.
Additionally, the Denver Museum of Nature & Science (DMNS), in collaboration with Denver Water, is using heat pump
technology and recycled water to heat and cool its recently completed 125,000 square foot wing.The system, which is
expected to be at least 50 percent more efficient than traditional HVAC systems, utilizes recycled water to sink/source
heat for the heat pumps, before the water is ultimately returned to the recycled water system.
In May 2013 House Bill 13-1044 was signed into law by Governor Hickenlooper authorizing the use of gray water.
Gray water complements recycled water in that it can substitute for potable drinking water. Gray water is wastewater
collected from fixtures within residential, commercial or industrial buildings for the purpose of being put to beneficial
uses. Sources of gray water include discharges from sinks, bathtubs and showers and laundry machines. Gray water
does not include wastewater from toilets, urinals, kitchen sinks or dishwashers. Gray water may only be used in areas
where the local city or county has adopted an ordinance approving the use of gray water. Denver's adoption of a gray
water ordinance will further reduce demand for treated potable water thereby conserving this important resource.
Table 5.26: Activities to expand recycled water infrastructure and use
Example Activities Time Frame (long/medium-term) Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Expand the use of recycled water (purple pipe) Medium-term DW DPW and DPR In progress
Develop a gray water ordinance for Denver Medium-term Mayor's Office DEHand DW Not started
Climate Adaptation Plan | 57


5.5 Land Use and Transportation sector
Climate change impacts will be exacerbated by current urban land-use patterns which heavily utilize surfaces that
increase surface temperatures and contribute to less efficient stormwater management. Climate change is expected
to disrupt existing urban transportation networks, which were not built to withstand projected conditions.
Expanding transportation options will enhance the resilience of communities. Transitioning towards pedestrian-
friendly communities will decrease reliance on automobiles and other more at-risk transportation methods. The
following strategies are designed to cover the range of techniques and activities which can adapt Denver's land
use and transportation systems to create a more resilient urban landscape.The City of Denver has identified the
following vulnerabilities as priorities, as summarized below.
Table 5.27: Land Use and Transportation Sector Priority Vulnerabilities
Priority Vulnerabilities Addressed Affected City Departments Affected Community Organizations
Increase in extreme heat events and increased stress on storm water management and increased flooding Public Works Community Planning and Development Parks and Recreation Red Cross
Regulatory barriers to the adoption of adaptation strategies Community Planning and Development
Design standards not addressing climate change scenarios Public Works
Climate induced in-and out- migration of workforce populations and businesses Office of Economic Development Chamber Commerc^^^^^^^^|
Long-term disruption in services delivery Human
Interruptions to transportation and stress or damage to physical infrastructure and public assets Community planning and development Public Works Denver Regional Council of Governments ^
To adapt to these climate changes, Denver has identified two key goals for the Land Use and Transportation sector:
Improve mobility options within the City and its communities
Prepare and enable urban infrastructure to adapt to climate impacts
A set of strategies were identified in order to achieve each goal, as summarized in Table 5.28 and described below.
A set of medium-term and long-term activities were then identified to support each strategy.
Table 5.28: Summary of Goals and Strategies for Increasing Resilience in the Land Use and Transportation Sector
_______________Goal 1________________J
Improve mobility within the City and its communities
Strategy 1: Create transit oriented and sustainable neighborhoods
Strategy 2: Increase alternative transportation options
________________Goal 2__________________J
Prepare and enable urban infrastructure to adapt to climate impacts
Strategy 1: Integrate pavement options and alternatives that reduce the urban heat island effect
Strategy 2: Integrate pavement options and alternatives that reduce stormwater runoff
Strategy 3: Integrate climate change into planning and zoning considerations
Climate Adaptation Plan | 58


5.5.1 Goal 1: Improve mobility within the City and its communities
Denver believes that expanding transportation options, and making communities more accessible to a broadened
array of transit choices can reduce the vulnerability of Denver's transportation network. Expanded transportation
options include bicycles, walkways, and expansion of mass transit options.
Municipal Target
"Provide incentives and other programs to City employees so that no more than 55% of these
employees commute in single-occupant vehicles."
Community Target
"Provide mobility options (transit, car-pooling, biking, walking) that reduce personal travel in
Denver done in single-occupant vehicles to no more than 60% of all trips."
Strategy 1: Create transit oriented and sustainable neighborhoods
The Regional Transportation District's FasTracks Project is a catalyst for development at and around the system's
transit stations. This Transit Oriented Development {TOD) is characterized by a pedestrian-oriented environment
that allows people to live, work, shop and play in places accessible by transit. The primary benefits of TOD include:
Reducing sprawl and protecting existing neighborhoods
Reducing commute times and traffic congestion
Improving environmental quality and open space preservation
Encouraging pedestrian activity and discouraging automobile dependency
An example of where TOD may have a major beneficial impact is the Globeville Elyria-Swansea (GES) neighborhoods
in Denver.Two FasTracks Stations will be constructed near the GES neighborhoods. These stations will play an
increasingly important role for transportation as the reconstruction of Interstate 70 gets underway, just south of
the GES neighborhoods.10 The GES neighborhoods suffered from neglect for years that produced cracked sidewalks
and haphazard road systems and alienated neighborhoods. These projects will lead to new transportation and
housing opportunities and less reliance on automobile-centric options.
Table 5.29: Activities to create transit oriented and sustainable neighborhoods
Example Activities Time Frame (long/medium-term) Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Implement Strategic Transportation Plan for Transit Oriented Development Long-term DPW CPD and RTD In progress
Improve connectivity in Globeville Elyria- Swansea neighborhoods and add pedestrian bridges, in tandem with I-70 Reconstruction Long-term DPW CPD, CDOT, NDCC and DEH In progress
Update the Denver Comprehensive Plan and Blueprint Denver Long-term CPD PW Not started
Implement the Transit Oriented Development Strategic Plan Long-term CPD PW In progress
Continue to improve social connectivity in communities through programs such as the Sustainable Neighborhoods Program Medium-term OED OEM In progress
10
Read more: I-70 remake at heart of plan to revive Denver's Swansea neighborhood The Denver Post -http://www.denverpost.com/news/ci_24737851/i-70-remake-at-heart-plan-revive-
denvers#ixzz2ohn2HpNo
Climate Adaptation Plan | 59


Strategy 2: Increase alternative transportation options
Denver's Strategic Transportation Plan {STP) advocates transportation choices that move people rather than simply
automobiles. The STP offers transportation options to link land use with transportation, limit roadway footprints,
and offers transportation choices that improve the health and well-being of Denver's residents.
Transportation choices include electric vehicles (EV) which are a form of low-carbon transportation, and Denver
has started to install charging stations in the City to support their use. Supporting an EV agenda is not only good
for public health and the environment, it also helps create a demand for jobs within Denver's growing clean
technology industry. An increased use in low-carbon EVs would reduce ground level ozone levels and forms of
air pollution in Denver, particularly in areas immediately adjoining highways increasing resilience to anticipated
climate impacts. Denver is working to reduce barriers for the EV-traveling public, from permitting to parking.
Ten free electric vehicle charging stations are now open to the public at Denver International Airport's east and
west parking garages. Ten charging stations are also located in downtown Denver and Cherry Creek. The Denver
Performing Arts Center (Level 4), the Art Museum Cultural Facilities Garage (Level 3), and at the Denver Museum of
Nature and Science all have EV charging stations as well. Additionally, in order to advance infrastructure Executive
Order 123 requires all new City-owned parking lots and garages over 100 spaces available for use by the public to
have at least one parking space equipped exclusively for EVs.11
Table 5.30: Activities to increase alternative transportation options
Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status
(long/medium-term) Agency Agencies
Strategic Transportation Plan (STP): Promote and encourage multi-modal transportation and maintain current transit infrastructure (Built environment's ability to withstand multiple climate scenarios, air quality) Medium-to long-term DPW CPD and OED In progress
Promote and install electric vehicle charging stations within the county and expand X0123- chptr4 (EV parking lot standard) into a City ordinance Medium-to long-term DPW DEHandDIA In progress
5.5.2 Goal 2: Prepare and enable urban infrastructure to adapt to
climate impacts
Existing built urban infrastructure, such as road networks and walking pathways, were not designed for projected
climatic conditions. Built infrastructure must be maintained and adapted for climate change and contribute to
mitigating impacts where possible. Strategies are outlined below to both prepare infrastructure for climate change
and reduce the impacts of the urban heat island effect on Denver residents.
Strategy 1: Integrate pavement options and alternatives that reduce the urban heat island effect
The albedo effect is a strong contributor to factors influencing the Earth's temperature. Albedo is a measure of how
much sunlight is reflected by a material. For example, forest leaves have a low albedo, meaning that they reflect a
limited amount of incoming sunlight back into the atmosphere and absorb the rest where the light may be converted
to heat. Alternatively, snow has a high albedo reflecting about 80 percent of the incoming sunlight back into the sky
as visible light.97 Building materials having high albedo can be effective in combating urban heat island effect.
11
Read more: Denver Airport opens 10 free electric vehicle charging stations The Denver Post -http://www.denverpost.com/breakingnews/ci_24452679/denver-airport-opens-10-free-electric-vehicle-
charging#ixzz2oiHefw7K
Climate Adaptation Plan | 60


5.5.2 Goal 2: Prepare and enable urban infrastructure to adapt to
climate impacts (Cont.)
Urban areas can be much warmer than nearby more pristine surroundings. The low albedo (reflectivity) of roofs
and pavements can contribute to the higher urban temperatures. For example, asphalt roads can absorb 95 percent
of sunlight whereas concrete may only absorb 50 percent of incoming sunlight. Installing reflective building
materials can be an effective means of adapting to warmer summers in Denver.
Table 5.31: Activity to integrate pavement options and alternatives that reduce the urban heat island effect
Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status
(long/medium-term) Agency Agencies
Install high-albedo hardscape when resurfacing Medium-to DPW DPR, CPD, OED, and In progress
roads, multi-use paths, and city parking lots, and identify life-cycle costs associated with concrete vs. asphalt long-term DEH
Strategy 2: Integrate green infrastructure, pavement options, and alternatives that reduce stormwater runoff
It was noted earlier that extreme weather can exert demands on infrastructure particularly pertaining to
stormwater runoff. Permeable paving is a range of sustainable materials and techniques for permeable pavements
with a base and sub base that allow the movement of stormwater through the surface. In addition to reducing
runoff, this effectively traps and removes suspended solids from the stormwater to improve water quality. In
Denver the use of permeable pavement to reduce stormwater runoff is another opportunity for climate adaptation.
In addition, landscaping can be designed to encourage retention of stormwater on properties and tree lawns,
effectively reducing runoff and removing suspended solids from stormwater.
Table 5.32: Activities to integrate green infrastructure, pavement options, and alternatives that reduce stormwater runoff
Example Activities Time Frame (long/medium-term) Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Integrate green infrastructure for retaining stormwater during development stage Long-term DPW 1 ^^^rogress
Require permeable pavement for a portion of parking lots larger than one acre Medium-term DPW H Not started
Strategy 3: Integrate climate change into planning and zoning considerations
Climate change is having an impact on planning and zoning considerations of new and existing projects. For
example, in November 2013, the Boston Redevelopment Authority approved new planning and zoning initiatives
in response to observed and expected effects of climate change.98 The initiatives were developed to assess
whether new development is accounting for higher average temperatures, more frequent and longer extreme heat
events and droughts, more severe freezing rain and heavy rainfall events, and increased wind gusts as well as sea
level rise. Additionally, the initiatives will require analysis of secondary weather event impacts on developments
such as interruptions to utilities, communications systems, and transportation networks.The following adaptation
activities will help Denver adapt to the impacts of climate change.
Climate Adaptation Plan | 61


Table 5.33: Activities to integrate climate change into planning and zoning considerations
Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status
(long/medium-term) Agency Agencies
Conduct climate preparedness survey of major City employers and business owners to identify planning opportunities Medium-term oos DEHandOED Not started
5.6 Food and Agriculture sector
Climate change will affect the types of plants that are adapted to survive in Denver's climate, affecting the
robustness of local agriculture. The following strategies are designed to cover the range of techniques and activities
that can adapt Denver's food and agricultural systems to changing conditions.The City of Denver has identified the
following vulnerabilities as priorities, as summarized below.
Table 5.34: Food and Agriculture Sector Priority Vulnerabilities
Priority Vulnerability Identified by Denver Affected Departments Affected Community Organizations
Reduced amount of water available for Parks and Recreation Denver Urban Gardens
irrigation and changes to ditch water supplies
Increased threat of pests, invasive species and Parks and Recreation Denver Urban Gardens
noxious weeds
To adapt to these climate changes, Denver has identified the following key goals for the Food and Agriculture
sector:
Increase food security
Protect local agricultural resources against increased threat of pests, invasive species and noxious weeds
A set of strategies were identified in order to achieve each goal, as summarized in Table 5.35 and described below.
A set of medium-term and long-term activities were then identified to support each strategy.
Table 5.35: Summary of goals and strategies for increasing resilience in the Food and Agriculture Sector
Goal 1
Increase food security
Strategy 1: Encourage local agriculture
_______________Goal 2_________________)
Protect local agricultural resources against increased threat of pests, invasive species and noxious weeds
Strategy 1: Identify, asess and communicate invasive species and other threats to local natural
resources
Climate Adaptation Plan | 62


5.6.7 Goal 1: Increase food security
Food security means having access at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life. Researchers and
government organizations use the term "food insecurity"to describe this condition. In 2011, Denver's food
insecurity rate was 18 percent for the overall population, while 25 percent of children in Denver lived in food
insecure families.99 In the case of extreme weather events and prolonged droughts, access to adequate food will
become critical. Having a robust local food system allows continuous access to food supply when transportation
from distant places may be disrupted, ensuring Denver families have continuous food security.
Strategyl: Encourage local agriculture
Locally grown food can offer many advantages to the consumer. The average distance local food travels from farm
to table is far less than the average distance industrial agricultural foods travel to reach a grocery store. This reduction
in miles traveled greatly reduces transportation related carbon dioxide emissions, air pollution, and ground level
ozone formation. In addition, as mentioned above, local food options can increase Denver's food security ensuring
residents have access to food during any climate related disruptions that may occur during transportation of food
over long distances. Purchasing locally grown food also supports local farms and keeps those farms near Denver
now and in the future, boosting Denver's economy. Therefore, encouraging local agriculture will increase Denver's
resiliency to climate related food supply disruptions while at the same time support our local economy.
Table 5.36: Activities to encourage local agriculture
Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status
(long/medium-term) Agency Agencies
Encourage a broad range of food outlets Medium-term To Be Determined DEH, and In progress
and regional food hubs for processing and Denver
distribution of local food Sustainable Food Policy Council (Mayor- appointed commission)
5.6.2 Goal 2: Protect local agricultural resources against increased
threat of pests, invasive species and noxious weeds
Climate change may introduce new pests, diseases, and invasive species into Denver's climate, or exacerbate problems
with existing species. A number of activities are proposed to help understand and respond to these threats.
Strategy 1: Identify, assess, and communicate invasive species and other threats to local natural resources
Invasive species are plants, animals, or other organisms that are introduced to a given area outside their original
range and cause harm in their new home. Typically they have no natural enemies to limit their reproduction and
they usually spread rampantly. Invasive species are recognized as one of the leading threats to biodiversity and
impose large costs to agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and other human enterprises, as well as to human health.
Climate Adaptation Plan | 63


Table 5.37: Activities to identify, assess, and communicate invasive species and other threats to local natural resources
Example Activities Time Frame (long/medium-term) Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Partner with Colorado State University Extension to support education and outreach programs on integrated pest management and other sustainable forming techniques for local agriculture Medium-term DPR DEH and NDCC Not started
Support a public outreach campaign integrating social media to help Denver residents identify, tag (via crowd-sourcing) and assist the City in managing key invasive species populations Medium-term DPR DEH In progress
CHAPTER 6:
NEXT STEPS
Earlier chapters of this plan presented practical activities Denver agencies, businesses, and residents can implement to
prepare for and adjust to what will likely be a warmer and drier Denver.This chapter contains several components, including:
1. Discussion of the overall approach for implementing adaptation activities.
2. Discussion of the future consolidation of this adaptation plan with Denver's greenhouse gas mitigation plan.
3. Climate adaptation planning and implementation will be iterative. Climate conditions are expected to be
more dynamic and changeable, and our understanding is incomplete. We fully expect that this plan will need
to be updated and modified as conditions change and our understanding of best practices changes. In fact,
our adaptation planning activities revealed a number of areas where additional effort will be necessary. A
high level overview of those areas is included here.
6.1 Implementation
This plan identifies early steps in what will likely be a long-term effort to adapt to changing climate conditions in Denver.
It has been said,"to plan is human, to implement is divine."Accordingly, to have meaningful impact on adapting to a
changing climate many of the activities identified within this plan will need to be implemented. Already, as identified in
Chapter 4, Denver agencies have embedded adaptation activities that can and are being implemented in the next couple
of years into the Environmental Management System (EMS).
To ensure that selected medium and long-term adaptation activities are implemented, DEH will convene staff from other
Denver agencies in early 2015 to identify those additional adaptation strategies the staff believes can be implemented.
The identification process will begin by reviewing and updating, if necessary, the list of climate-related vulnerabilities
faced by Denver agencies and residents. The adaptation activities identified in Chapter 5 and Appendix C of this plan
will be reviewed and updated as needed. Medium or long-term adaptation activities selected by Denver agencies will be
embedded in the Denver EMS and subsequently monitored for successful implementation.
Denver's Climate Resilience Committee meets on a regular basis with the purpose of preparing Denver for a rapidly-
changing climate. A description of the Climate Resilience Committee is found in Memorandum 123-G attached to
Executive Order 123.100 Memorandum 123-G notes that this plan will be integrated into individual Agency Strategic
Plans, Peak Performance Reviews and Capital Improvement Plans.
Staff in various Denver agencies will plan future activities using strategic planning, Peak Performance Reviews and
Capital Improvement Plans. Strategic planning is used to set priorities, focus energy and resources, strengthen
operations, ensure that employees and other stakeholders are working toward common goals, and assess and
Climate Adaptation Plan | 64


6.7 Implementation (Cont.)
adjust the organization's direction in response to a changing environment.101 Peak Performance invests in Denver's
employees by giving them the tools to solve city problems.Through the Peak Performance initiative, City employees
have identified inefficiencies and embraced a new culture of innovation and improvement to eliminate inadequacies
and provide the best service possible.102 Performance reviews begin with meaningful strategic plans that depict
and measure the ways agencies support city-wide priorities.103 Capital Improvement Plans typically identify a capital
improvement project which can be any improvement to, construction or acquisition of buildings, viaducts, roads,
streets, streetscape projects, pedestrian malls, plazas, designated parks or other real property of a permanent nature.104
Starting in early 2015, DEH and Denver's Climate Resilience Committee will meet to identify ongoing strategic
planning efforts through which strategic plans are being created or updated.The Committee will make
recommendations as to how adaptation activities can be incorporated into the subject strategic plan. The
Committee will also recommend on-going processes to ensure that adaptation planning and implementation can
be regularly incorporated within other planning efforts. Peak Performance reviews will be suggested with the
intent of finding improvements in agency plans. Similarly, the Committee will poll committee members regarding
capital improvement projects under consideration.The capital improvement project will be evaluated to identify
where adaptation practices can be incorporated into the project to guard against future extreme storms or heat.
6.2 Consolidation
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions has been a fixture in Denver since before 2007. Denver has also adopted 2020
sustainability goals related to climate change that include a reduction of total community-wide CO2 emissions from
Denver to below the level of emissions in 1990, (i.e. less than 11.8 million metric tons of CO2). Denver's 2007 Climate Action
Plan details strategies and activities to achieve this goal. Because CO2 reduction strategies (mitigation) often include an
adaptation component it makes sense to include mitigation and adaptation in one plan. Accordingly, DEH plans to combine
the Climate Action Plan (GHG mitigation) with this Climate Adaptation Plan in late 2014 or 2015.
6.3 Areas for Additional Analysis
6.3.1 Climate Projections and Vulnerabilities
The range of climate projections is large, and contains a great deal of uncertainty, especially at a regional or
local level. The science is expected to continually change and improve, although it may be many years before
uncertainties are narrowed significantly. This plan is based upon broad characterizations of current knowledge in
order to move the City forward rather than wait for more certainty. Subsequent iterations of this plan will require
review of up-to-date climate understanding. Similarly, the vulnerability analysis of this plan focused, for the most
part, on built infrastructure and natural ecosystems within Denver, and modifications of the City's current abilities
to respond to these systems. Less attention is paid to economic vulnerabilities, disparities for different social groups
in the community, and the ability of community institutions and regional partners to cooperate and coordinate in
response to vulnerabilities. Subsequent iterations of the plan will incorporate additional focus in these areas.
6.3.2 Planning Scale and Integration
This plan focuses on actions that the City and County can take to adapt to a changing climate, within a relatively
short timeframe. Long-term climate adaptation will require cooperation and planning at multiple scales: regionally
across political jurisdictions; with a broad variety of stakeholders in the larger community; among federal, state,
and local agencies; and within ecosystem sheds, such as watersheds or foodsheds. In addition, future planning will
need to more fully address integration across existing silos, and address interdependencies between systems. For
example, water, wastewater, and stormwater system planning will need better integration, as will water planning
with land use and building codes. Planning that encompasses a longer time horizon than used in this document
will also be necessary.
Climate Adaptation Plan | 65


This plan focuses on "no and low-regrets" responses, which generally are shorter-term, have co-benefits such as
greenhouse gas reductions, smart-growth principles, and align with overall City development plans. Further
investigation is needed in this arena, to help Denver's adaptation planning assist in positioning Denver for economic
and social benefit. At the same time, additional focus will be needed to address long-term needs that do not result in
economic or social advantage, such as disaster relief or the need to limit development in vulnerable areas.
Throughout this planning process, we have struggled to find a balance between creating measurable actions that
can be implemented, and anticipating long-term needs that are subject to a great deal of uncertainty. We have
chosen to focus on shorter term actions and outcomes, which can be incorporated within the City's Environmental
Management System to assure accountability. As we move forward, additional attention will be needed to establish
clear metrics by which to measure success, assign responsibility and timelines for those actions and metrics, and
provide a scorecard by which to communicate progress and areas for improvement.
Any plan is strengthened by robust community involvement in order to reflect the larger community's vision for
Denver's future, to make sure that community disparities are effectively addressed by planning efforts, priorities
align with that vision, and barriers to achieving that vision are identified and addressed. In addition, building
social resilience within Denver's communities will be extremely important to the success of our adaptation efforts.
Finding ways to work with many different communities to identify their wants and needs, to leverage others'
engagement efforts, and to utilize and build upon existing community assets to strengthen neighborhood capacity
will be important. ___


Appendix A: Glossary12
100-Year Flood Levels: Severe flood levels with a 1 -in-100 likelihood of occurring in any given year.
Adaptation: Adjustment or preparation of natural or human systems to a new or changing environment which moderates
harm or exploits beneficial opportunities.
Adaptive Capacity: The ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) to
moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences.
Carbon Dioxide: A naturally occurring gas, and also a by-product of burning fossil fuels and biomass, as well as land-use
changes and other industrial processes. It is the principal human caused greenhouse gas that affects the Earth's radiative
balance. It is the reference gas against which other greenhouse gases are measured and therefore has a Global Warming
Potential of 1.
Carbon Dioxide Equivalent: A metric measure used to compare the emissions from various greenhouse gases based upon their
global warming potential (GWP). Carbon dioxide equivalents are commonly expressed as"million metric tons of carbon dioxide
equivalents (MMTC02Eq)."The carbon dioxide equivalent for a gas is derived by multiplying the tons of the gas by the associated GWP.
MMTC02Eq = (million metric tons of a gas) (GWP of the gas)
Carbon Footprint: The total amount of greenhouse gases that are emitted into the atmosphere each year by a person,
family, building, organization, or company. A persons carbon footprint includes greenhouse gas emissions from fuel that
an individual burns directly, such as by heating a home or riding in a car. It also includes greenhouse gases that come from
producing the goods or services that the individual uses, including emissions from power plants that make electricity,
factories that make products, and landfills where trash gets sent.
Climate Change: Climate change refers to any significant change in the measures of climate lasting for an extended period of
time. In other words, climate change includes major changes in temperature, precipitation, or wind patterns, among others,
that occur over several decades or longer.
Climate: Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the"average weather,"or more rigorously, as the statistical description in terms
of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands of years. The classical period
is 3 decades, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).These quantities are most often surface variables such as
temperature, precipitation, and wind. Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system.
Emissions: The release of a substance (usually a gas when referring to the subject of climate change) into the atmosphere.
Energy Efficiency: Using less energy to provide the same service
ENERGY STAR: A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency voluntary program that helps businesses and individuals save money
and protect our climate through superior energy efficiency.
Enhanced Greenhouse Effect: The concept that the natural greenhouse effect has been enhanced by increased atmospheric
concentrations of greenhouse gases (such as CO2 and methane) emitted as a result of human activities. These added
greenhouse gases cause the earth to warm.
Fossil Fuel: A general term for organic materials formed from decayed plants and animals that have been converted to crude
oil, coal, natural gas, or heavy oils by exposure to heat and pressure in the earth's crust over hundreds of millions of years.
Global Average Temperature: An estimate of Earths mean surface air temperature averaged over the entire planet.
Global Warming: The recent and ongoing global average increase in temperature near the Earth's surface.
Greenhouse Effect: Trapping and build-up of heat in the atmosphere (troposphere) near the Earth's surface. Some of the heat
flowing back toward space from the Earth's surface is absorbed by water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, and several other gases
in the atmosphere and then reradiated back toward the Earth's surface. If the atmospheric concentrations of these greenhouse
gases rise, the average temperature of the lower atmosphere will gradually increase.
Greenhouse Gas (GHG): Any gas that absorbs infrared radiation in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases include,
carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons,
perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride.
Industrial Revolution: A period of rapid industrial growth with far reaching social and economic consequences, beginning in
England during the second half of the 18th century and spreading to Europe and later to other countries including the United
States. The industrial revolution marks the beginning of a strong increase in combustion of fossil fuels and related emissions of
carbon dioxide.
12
All definitions retrieved from EPA Glossary of Climate Change Terms
Climate Adaptation Plan | 67


Appendix A: Glossary (Cont.)
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): The IPCC was established jointly by the United Nations Environment
Programme and the World Meteorological Organization in 1988. The purpose of the IPCC is to assess information in the scientific
and technical literature related to all significant components of the issue of climate change. The IPCC draws upon hundreds of the
world's expert scientists as authors and thousands as expert reviewers. Leading experts on climate change and environmental,
social, and economic sciences from some 60 nations have helped the IPCC to prepare periodic assessments of the scientific
underpinnings for understanding global climate change and its consequences. With its capacity for reporting on climate change,
its consequences, and the viability of adaptation and mitigation measures, the IPCC is also looked to as the official advisory
body to the world's governments on the state of the science of the climate change issue. For example, the IPCC organized the
development of internationally accepted methods for conducting national greenhouse gas emission inventories.
Methane (CH4): A hydrocarbon that is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential most recently estimated at 25 times
that of carbon dioxide (CO2). Methane is produced through anaerobic (without oxygen) decomposition of waste in landfills,
animal digestion, decomposition of animal wastes, production and distribution of natural gas and petroleum, coal production,
and incomplete fossil fuel combustion.The GWP is from the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (AR4).
Mitigation: A human intervention to reduce the human impact on the climate system; it includes strategies to reduce
greenhouse gas sources and emissions and enhancing greenhouse gas sinks.
Natural Gas: Underground deposits of gases consisting of 50 to 90 percent methane (CH4) and small amounts of heavier
gaseous hydrocarbon compounds such as propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10).
Ozone: Ozone, the triatomic form of oxygen (03), is a gaseous atmospheric constituent. In the troposphere, it is created by
photochemical reactions involving gases resulting both from natural sources and from human activities (photochemical smog).
In high concentrations, tropospheric ozone can be harmful to a wide range of living organisms.Tropospheric ozone acts as a
greenhouse gas. In the stratosphere, ozone is created by the interaction between solar ultraviolet radiation and molecular oxygen
(02). Stratospheric ozone plays a decisive role in the stratospheric radiative balance. Depletion of stratospheric ozone, due to
chemical reactions that may be enhanced by climate change, results in an increased ground-level flux of ultraviolet (UV-) B radiation.
Peak Runoff: The maximum rate at which water is expected to be discharged from an area.
Renewable Energy: Energy resources that are naturally replenishing such as biomass, hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, ocean
thermal, wave action, and tidal action.
Resilience: A capability to anticipate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from significant multi-hazard threats with minimum
damage to social well-being, the economy, and the environment.
Sensitivity: The degree to which a system is affected, either adversely or beneficially, by climate variability or change. The effect
may be direct (e.g., a change in crop yield in response to a change in the mean, range or variability of temperature) or indirect
(e.g., damages caused by an increase in the frequency of coastal flooding due to sea level rise).
Snowpack: A seasonal accumulation of slow-melting snow.
Streamflow: The volume of water that moves over a designated point over a fixed period of time. It is often expressed as cubic
feet per second (ft3/sec).
Urban Heat Island: An urban area characterized by temperatures higher than those of the surrounding non-urban area. As
urban areas develop, buildings, roads, and other infrastructure replace open land and vegetation. These surfaces absorb more
solar energy, which can create higher temperatures in urban areas.
Vector: An organism, typically a biting insect or tick, that transmits a disease or parasite from one animal or plant to another.
Vulnerability: The degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change,
including climate variability and extremes. Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of climate variation to
which a system is exposed; its sensitivity; and its adaptive capacity.
Weather: Atmospheric condition at any given time or place. It is measured in terms of such things as wind, temperature,
humidity, atmospheric pressure, cloudiness, and precipitation. In most places, weather can change from hour-to-hour, day-
to-day, and season-to-season. Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the"average weather", or more rigorously, as the
statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to
thousands or millions of years. The classical period is 30 years, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). These
quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature, precipitation, and wind. Climate in a wider sense is the state,
including a statistical description, of the climate system. A simple way of remembering the difference is that climate is what you
expect (e.g. cold winters) and 'weather' is what you get (e.g. a blizzard).
Climate Adaptation Plan | 68


Appendix B: Summary Table of Vulnerabilities
Climate
Change
Impact
Increase in
tempera-
ture and
urban heat
island ef-
fect
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT OF COMMU- NITY PLANNING AND DEVELOP- MENT DEPARTMENT OF ENVI- RONMENTAL HEALTH DEPARTMENT OF GENERAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND RECREATION DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN SERVICES OFFICE OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT
Decrease Extreme Extreme Higher energy Reduced Extreme Increase in
in quality heat events heat events demands and amount heat events vector-borne
of living/ affecting affecting use in the of water affecting diseases
reduced vulnerable vulnerable summer available for vulnerable
comfort populations popula- irrigation, populations
(Denver tions S4,AC2=V4 changes to
Citizens) ditch water S3, AC3= S3, AC 2 =
Streetscape S3, AC1 = V4 supplies
S3, AC1 = V4 S4,AC2=V4
S4, AC2=V4
Extreme Decrease in Decrease Reduced Decrease in Higher energy Public health
heat quality of in quality occupant quality of liv- rates affecting crises due to
events/ living (Den- of living/ comfort in ing/reduced vulnerable extreme heat
Paving ver Citizens) reduced buildings/ comfort populations events
materials comfort impacts to (Denver
exacerbat- S4, AC2=V4 (Denver productivity Citizens) S3, AC3=
ing urban Citizens) S4,AC2=V4 S3, AC 3/4=
heat island S4, AC2=V4
effect. S4, AC2=V4
S3, AC3=
Higher fleet Higher Higher Higher Extreme Higher water Lack of
mainte- energy energy maintenance heat events rates affecting public access
nance demands/ demands/ costs/HVAC affecting vulnerable to shade
costs costs equipment vulnerable populations or cooling
(Private (Private failures populations centers
S3, property) property) S3, AC3= S3, AC 3/4=
AC3/4=V1/ AC1, S2= S3, AC1 = V4
S4,AC2=V4 S4,AC2=V4
Degrada- Higher wa- Higher Higher build- Stress on Decrease in Blackouts or
tion of ter demand/ water ing equip- street trees quality of liv- brownouts in
roads costs demand/ ment costs and urban ing/ reduced the summer
(Private costs (HVAC, roofs, landscaping comfort
property) (Private hard scape/ (Denver
SI, AC3= VI property) landscape) S3, AC1= / Citizens) SI, AC3= VI
S2,AC3=V4 V4
S2,AC3=V4 S2, AC1 = S2, AC2= J
Impacts to Regulatory Diminished Higher costs Increased Public Private
outdoor barriers to air quality for water threat of health risks/ rail line
workforce the adop- and public pests, inva- vector-borne derailment
tion of health risks sive species, diseases NR
adaptation such as an SI, AC3=V1 and noxious
strategies increase in weeds. S2, AC2=
S3, AC4=V1 respiratory S3, AC2=
S2, AC2= illnesses
/ S2, AC2=
OFFICE OF BUDGET AND DENVERWATER DENVER
ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL
DEVELOPMENT OFFICE AIRPORT
Climate
induced in-
migration of
businesses/
people
S3,AC2=
Increased
need for
funds for en-
ergy/utilities,
maintenance
and capital
improve-
ments
S3, AC2= V4
Impacts to City-wide
industries aesthetic
reliant on standards
water sup- not com pat-
plies ible with cli-
mate changi
S3,AC3= scenarios
NR
Poor air
quality and
increased
tempera-
tures'impact
on tourism
industries
S0,AC4=P0
Lack of cli-
mate changi
planning/
Design
standards
not address-
ing climate
change
scenarios
S0,A4=P0
1) Increased
risk of
drought
2) Higher
energy
demands
NR
S2, AC3
= VI
2) Difficulty
in meeting
increas-
ing water
demand,
especially
plant water-
ing require-
ment
3) Higher
building/
infrastruc-
ture equip-
ment costs
S3, AC3
NR
3) Wa-
tershed
changes/
ecosystem
changes
4) Damaged
infrastruc-
ture such as
pavement
buckling
NR
S2, AC2
Water infra-
structure's
ability to
withstand
multiple
climate
scenarios
NR
Stresses to
interstate
water com-
pacts
6) Increased
use of en-
ergy to cool
aircrafts and
increased
use of pre-
conditioned
aircraft
increasing
electric
costs
S2, AC3= VI
7) Challeng-
ing envi-
ronmental
regulations
NR
S3, AC2=
Climate Adaptation Plan | 69


Appendix B: Summary Table of Vulnerabilities
Climate department department department department of department department of office of office of budget and Denver water Denver
rx______ OF PUBLIC OFCOMMU- OF ENVI- GENERAL SERVICES OF PARKS AND HUMAN SERVICES EMERGENCY ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL
Change
Impact
NITY PLANNING RONMENTAL
AND DEVELOP- HEALTH
MENT
MANAGEMENT | DEVELOPMENT OFFICE
Increased
level of in-
frastructure
monitoring
PO
Degradation
of roads
SI, AC3= VI
Difficulty Lack of cli- Warming of Food inse- Lack of cli- Workforce* Reduced
meeting mate change stream and curity and mate change developmerd fresh water
environ- planning/De- lake systems shortages planning/ implications quality,
mental sign standards affecting Design _ higher con-
regulations not address- aquatic spe- standards not S2, AC2= centration
and compli- ing climate cies PO addressing cli- of pollut-
ance change mate change ants
scenarios S3, AC2= scenarios NR
S2, AC2= NR NR
Flashpoint
of aviation
fuel ex-
ceeded on
hot days
SI, AC3
VI
Climate Adaptation Plan | 70


Appendix B: Summary Table of Vulnerabilities
Climate department department department department of department department of office of office of budget and Denver water Denver
rx______ OF PUBLIC OFCOMMU- OF ENVI- GENERAL SERVICES OF PARKS AND HUMAN SERVICES EMERGENCY ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL
Change
Impact
NITY PLANNING RONMENTAL
AND DEVELOP- HEALTH
MENT
MANAGEMENT | DEVELOPMENT OFFICE
Increased stress on storm water man- agement S3/4, AC2= A/4 Stormwater manage- ment and flood control S3/4, AC2= A/4 Higher microbial burden in surface water S3, AC2= Damages to city facilities SI, AC1 = Park dam- ages: debris generation S3, AC1= / V4 Long-term disruption in services delivery S3, AC1/2= /V4 Current build- ings not built to earthquake code making hem suscep- tible to ex- treme weather events. S3, AC1=V4 Loss of tour- ism dollars S0,AC4=P0 Unanticipat- ed increase in emergen- cy man- agement funding S3,AC2= |Contami- nantload- ing from increased flooding and heavy rain spells NR 1) Inter- ruptions in business and flight schedule S3, AC2
More Interrup- Diminished Increased Stress on Increase Ensuring Low-income Impacts on 4) Damaged 4) Damaged
frequent tions to airqual- costs and landscape in crisis health care workers may self insured infrastruc- infrastruc-
and intense transporta- ity due to availability and trees response for services for need to find property ture ture
localized tion wildfires in of supplies vulnerable people with alternate NR
storm surround- needed by S3, AC1= / populations chronic con- ditions dur- modes of S3,AC2= S2, AC2
events ing areas. agencies V4 ing extreme commuting
causing S3, AC3= S2, AC3=V1 weather in extreme
flooding / SI, AC2=V1 S2, AC3=V1 events weather
NR S2, AC1 = NR
Climate Adaptation Plan | 71


Appendix B: Summary Table of Vulnerabilities
Climate department department department department of department department of office of office of budget and Denver water Denver
rx______ OF PUBLIC OFCOMMU- OF ENVI- GENERAL SERVICES OF PARKS AND HUMAN SERVICES EMERGENCY ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL
Change
Impact
NITY PLANNING RONMENTAL
AND DEVELOP- HEALTH
MENT
MANAGEMENT | DEVELOPMENT OFFICE
Contami- Built envi-
nantload- ronment's
ing from lack of resil-
increased iency and
flooding ability to
and heavy withstand
rain spells multiple climate see-
S3, AC1 = V4 narios
S2, AC2=
Stress or Climate
damage to refugees
physical in- stress on
frastructure community
and public resources
assets S2, AC2=
S3, AC2= VI/
Increased Increased
demands costs and
on staff to availability
respond to of supplies
damaged needed by
infrastruc- agencies
ture S2/3, AC 2/3= VI/ S2, AC3=Vll Jl
Increased Flood eleva-
costs and tion height
availability building
of supplies codes may
needed by be inad-
agencies equate.
S2, AC3= VI
Increased
costs and
availability
of supplies
needed by
agencies
S2,AC3=V1
Higher heat-
ing costs
SO, AC3 = PO
Lack of gen-
erators at City
facilities
NR
Increased
stress on
storm water
manage-
ment
S3/4, AC2=
m
Damage to
riparian cor-
ridors
S3, AC2=
Degradation
or damage
of historic
structures,
wooden
structures,
and green
infrastructure
SI, AC3=V1
Food inse-
curity and
shortages
PO
Increased
costs and
availability
of supplies
needed by
agencies
S2, AC3=V1
Increased
costs and
availability
of supplies
needed by
agencies,
Decrease in
water quality
due to low-
water flow
in discharge
areas. H
S3, AC2=-
Increase in|
frequency,
size, and
duration of
wildfires in
mountain
parks |
S3, AC2=
Reduced
amount of
recreation on
rivers (fish-
ing, rafting)
S3, AC3= '
Damage and
disruption of
services due
to increased
flooding
and heavy
precipitation
events
S2, AC3= VI
Increased
costs and
availability
of supplies
needed by
agencies
S2, AC3= VI
Climate refu-
gees stress on
community
resources and
response
capabilities.
Increase in
emergency
response/
stress on staff
Increased
costs and
availability
of supplies
needed by
agencies
S2, AC3=V1
Increased
costs and
availability
of supplies
needed by
agencies
S2, AC3= VI
Water infra-
structure's
ability to
withstand
multiple
climate
scenarios
NR
9) Storm
water man-
agement
and flood
control
S3, AC2
Increase
in high
wind days:
reduced
amount of
runways
available
S3, AC2 =
Increased
costs and
availability
of supplies
needed by
agencies
Interrup-
tions to
transporta-
tion
Changes in
ski-related
business
SI, AC3 = VI
Increased
need for
funds to
implement
adaptation
strategies
S2,AC2=
Stresses to
interstate
water com-
pacts
NR
8) Changes
in ski (or
tourism) may
lead to fewer
travelers/
fewer flights
S3, AC2 =
Climate Adaptation Plan | 72


Appendix B: Summary Table of Vulnerabilities
Climate
Change
Impact
DEPARTMENT DEPARTMENT DEPARTMENT DEPARTMENT OF DEPARTMENT DEPARTMENT OF OFFICE OF OFFICE OF BUDGET AND DENVER WATER DENVER
OF PUBLIC OFCOMMU- OF ENVI- GENERAL SERVICES OF PARKS AND HUMAN SERVICES EMERGENCY ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL
WORKS NITY PLANNING RONMENTAL RECREATION MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT OFFICE AIRPORT
AND DEVELOP- HEALTH
MENT
Increased
stress on
storm water
manage-
ment
S3/4, AC2=
m
Damage to
riparian cor-
ridors
Degradation
or damage
of historic
structures,
wooden
structures,
and green
infrastructure
SI, AC3=V1j
I---------
Increased
costs and
availability
of supplies
needed by
agencies
cies^H
C3= VI I
S2, AC3=
Decrease in
water quality
due to low-
water flow
in discharge
areas.
S3, AC2^
Increase in
frequency,
size, and
duration of
wildfires in
mountain _
parks^^^H
S3,A(^^H
Food inse- Damage and
curity and disruption of
shortages services due
to increased
flooding
PO and heavy
precipitation
events
Increased Increased Water infra- 9) Storm
costs and costs and structure's water man
availability availability ability to agement
of supplies of supplies withstand and flood
needed by needed by multiple control
agencies agencies climate
scenarios S3, AC2
S2, AC3=V1 S2, AC3= VI NR =
S2, AC3= VI
Increased
costs and
availability
of supplies
needed by
agencies
S2, AC3=V1
Increased
costs and
availability
of supplies
needed by
agencies _
S2,AC3=VlH
Increase
in high
wind days:
reduced
amount of
runways
available
S3, AC2 =
Increased
costs and
availability
of supplies
needed by
agencies
NR
Interrup-
tions to
transporta-
tion
Changes in Increased Stresses to 8) Changes
ski-related need for interstate in ski (or
business funds to water com- tourism) may
implement pacts lead to fewer
SI, AC3 = VI adaptation NR travelers/
strategies fewer flights
S2,AC2= _

Climate Adaptation Plan | 73


Appendix C: Activities supporting Denver's adaptation strategies
This Appendix includes the activities for Denver's six priority sectors:
Buildings & Energy
Health & Human Services
Urban Natural Resources
Water Consumption
Land Use&Transportation
Food & Agriculture
BUILDINGS & ENERGY
Goal 1: Reduce vulnerability to building energy supply disruptions
Strategy 1: Energy efficiency
Energy Efficiency Activities Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Long-term
Encourage green building standards in Office of Economic Development projects OED CPD, DW, DPW Not started
in coordination with Denver Water, Community Planning & Development, and
PublicWorks
Explore zero-net energy building options as part of Sustainable Neighborhoods DEH OED Not started
program
Pilot net-zero building strategies in new City facility DGS Not started
Medium-term
Continue to support energy efficiency/savings in private housing through the activities of the Denver Energy Challenge DEH Denver Water, CPD, DPW, OED In progress
Explore commercial building energy benchmarking and disclosure options through the Natural Resources Defense Council and Institute for Market Transfor- mation's City Energy Project DEH Denver Water, CPD, DPW, OED In progress
Adopt 2015 International Energy Conservation Code CPD/Development Services DEH Not Started
Continue CIP and FIT programs to secure dedicated funding for energy efficiency operations and maintenance projects in annual budgets and future bond issuances DGS BMO In progress
Use energy performance contracting model to generate funds for capital im- provements at City facilities. DGS BMO, DPW, CAO In progress
Improve effectiveness of preventative maintenance programs and ensure continual commissioning and maximum efficiency of mechanical systems in City facilities DGS In progress
Increase market penetration of energy efficiency efforts into the commercial and private markets through technical assistance and outreach using Certifiably Green Denver and the Denver Energy Challenge DEH OED Not Started
Reinvest utility rebates to City into Sustainability Fund to fund future energy ef- ficiency projects in City facilities DGS BMO In progress
Approve and implement City energy management plan DGS DEH, Mayor's Office, OOS Not started
Complete energy efficiency outreach to the top twenty energy users in Denver, if known and not already being served by the utility DEH OED Not Started
Complete energy audits and retro commissioning on City facilities DGS Mayor's Office In progress
Expand energy conservation and sustainability training for employees through City University or similar programs DGS OHR In progress
Climate Adaptation Plan | 74


Appendix C: Activities supporting Denver's adaptation strategies (Cont.)
Energy Efficiency Activities Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Medium-term
Partner with Xcel Energy to pilot LED technology in street lights DPW DGS In Progress
Regularly inspect heat-sensitive data centers to ensure reliable performance DGS DPW Not Started
Personal appliance pilot plug load reduction interventions in municipal buildings DGS Mayor's Office In Progress
BUILDINGS & ENERGY
Goal 1: Reduce vulnerability to building energy supply disruptions
Strategy 2: Cooling Infrastructure
Activities Lead Agency
Long-term
Reduce urban heat island effect through infrastructure such as shade trees, urban ppyy
gardens, green roofs, and lighter colored hardscapes
Supporting Agencies Status
DPR In Progress
Medium-term
Create a contest for residents to win energy efficiency upgrades and cool roofs DEH Not Started
City facilities permanently commit to save energy by regulating thermostats all year long DGS Mayor's Office In Progress
Examine species distribution of street trees with projected climate impacts to ensure existing trees can survive high temperatures and/or drought and provide shade DPR Not Started
Create a"tree bank" where projects can meet shade tree requirements by contributing funds for the installation of trees at other more suitable sites, as selected by the City DPR Not Started
Preserve and enhance cooling infrastructure for extreme events by increasing street tree planting and maintenance, and encouraging green roofs, green water quality infrastructure (wetlands, bioswales), and high albedo surfaces DPR Not Started
Create educational campaign to promote Energy Star qualified roofing products targeted at roofers, builders, and architects DEH Not Started
Develop non-vegetation shade structures DPR In progress
BUILDINGS & ENERGY
Goal 1: Reduce vulnerability to building energy supply disruptions
Strategy 3: Alternative and Distributed Generation
Activities Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Long-term
Update solar site assessment of City facility rooftops and solicit proposals for eligible sitesgardens, green roofs, and lighter colored hardscapes DGS Not Started
Medium-term
Identify opportunities forthedty to become a subscriber in community solar gardens DGS CAO In progress
Develop community-scale renewable and district energy pilot systems and remove exist- ing regulatory barriers DEH CPD.OED Not Started
Support state-wide incentives and regulatory support for efficient back-up power systems in case of blackouts (combined heat and power, solar with battery back-ups, etc.) OEM Not Started
Develop a fourth PVarray at Denver International Airport (DIA Solar IV) DIA In progress
Climate Adaptation Plan | 75


Appendix C: Activities supporting Denver's adaptation strategies (Cont.)
BUILDINGS & ENERGY
Goal 2: Reduce vulnerability of buildings to extreme weather
Strategy 1: Encourage construction of resilient buildings
Activities Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Long-term
Require integration of resilient building design elements in building codes or zoning for major retrofits on existing buildings and new construction CPD/Develop- ment Services Not started
Medium-term
Revise asset management plans to consider climate impacts and make operational adjustments such as increased maintenance and monitoring and accelerated infrastructure refurbishment schedules DGS Not started
Implement financing program for resilient building measures for major retrofits on existing properties and new construction DEH Not started
Develop incentives or regulation to improve resiliency of buildings in areas facing increased risk of flood CPD/Develop- ment Services DPW Not started
Create city-wide design review checklistfor new construction requiring evaluation of building resilience measures DEH CPD Not started
Publish a guide on steps that commercial and residential property owners can take to make their existing DEH OEDOEM Not started
buildings more resilient to climate change
HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
Goal 1: Safeguard health of Denver residents in the context of climate impacts
Strategy 1: Develop protocol for inter-agency coordination and public communication during extreme weather events
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Long-term
Utilize protocols developed during extreme heat planning to develop proceduresforintegrated emergency OEM In progress
planning and communications for other extreme events such as storms, flash floods and wildfires
Medium-term
Establish an extreme heat and air quality notification system for residents and businesses OEM Not started
Continue to Integrate electric and water utilities into extreme heat scenario planning to prepare OEM In progress
for extreme heat events accompanied by blackouts or water restrictions
HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
Goal 1: Safeguard health of Denver residents in the context of climate impacts
Strategy 2: Reduce health impacts of extreme weather events
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Long-term
Increase number of shelter spaces available to homeless and at-risk populations DRH OEM, DHS In progress
Medium-term
Understand how increases in temperature may affect recreational activities DPR Not started
Designate public cooling shelters for extreme heat events DPR OEM In progress
Request a change to the zoning code section to allow faith-based shelters to operate up to 120 days percalendaryear DRH In progress
Adopt a severe weather ordinance to allow shelters to expand number of persons served during extreme weather events DEH, DHS, OEM Not started
Climate Adaptation Plan | 76


Appendix C: Activities supporting Denver's adaptation strategies (Cont.)
Medium-term
Request a change to the zoning code to allow temporary shelters with fewer than 100 residents in any zone, so long as the shelter is located in a structure owned by a non-profit or government for up to 120 days percalendaryear DRH Not started
Conduct surveillance on heat related illness by surveying emergency department visits DEH Not started
Coordinate heat-related resources, donations, and volunteers during extreme events or heat waves OEM Not started
HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
Goal 1: Safeguard health of Denver residents in the context of climate impacts
Strategy 3: Reduce health vulnerabilities from vector-borne diseases
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Long-term
Evaluate areas of stagnant water where mosquitoes can breed DEH DPW, DPR In progress
Medium-term
Work with partners to develop waterVBZD surveillance system to improve prediction of epidemics and prevent incidents leading to epidemics DEH OEM In progress
Evaluate and scale the VBZD control program as warranted DEH DPR In progress
HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
Goal 2: Preserve ability of health care providers to provide services during extreme heat events
Strategy 1: Develop utility and IT systems that are resilient to power outages
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Long-term
Encourage back-up power for pharmacies DEH OEM Not started
Explore programs for hospitals to install off-grid distributed alternative energy systems with islanding capabilities DEH OED, OEM Not started
Medium-term
Pilotan off-grid distributed energy system with islanding capabilities at one or more Denver medical facilities DPH Not started
Build in IT systems for patient records and information and create resilientand redundant telecommunica- tions systems to maintain patient contact with doctors in the event of flooding or outages Denver Health OEM Not started
Advise hospitals to evaluate whether critical infrastructure is at risk to flash flooding and identify risk mitiga- tion solutions DEH OED, OEM, DPH Not started
Explore incentives for hospitals to identify power needs for critical systems and obtain adequate back-up generation capacity DEH OED, OEM Not started
Encourage combined heat and power systems for hospitals for increased off-the-grid functionality in emergencies OED OEM Not started
URBAN NATURAL RESOURCES
Goal 1: Enhance existing urban forest resources and expand range Strategy 1: Enhance standards and regulations to strengthen and protect urban forest resources
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Long-term
Adopt a tree protection ordinance for trees over six inches in diameter to help saplings establish DPR Not started
and encourage growth of urban forest resources
Climate Adaptation Plan | 77


Appendix C: Activities supporting Denver's adaptation strategies (Cont.)
Long-term
Review city ordinance in regards to tree permitting, tree protection on construction sites, heritage or historic trees, incentives and alternatives, planting and irrigation standards, and landscape standards DPR Not started
Evaluate sustainable forestry certification programs as a potential mechanism to increase resil- ience of forest resources DPR Not started
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Medium-term
Drafta new landscape ordinance to accommodate plants that can tolerate city's projected future climate DPR Not started
Update the right of way tree list that focuses on trees that can thrive in future climates DPR DPW In progress
URBAN NATURAL RESOURCES
Goal 1: Enhance existing urban forest resources and expand range
Strategy 2: Increase Denver's canopy coverage and maintain existing street resources
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Medium-term
Implement/complete theTree and Shade Master Plan DPR OOS, OEM In progress
Achieve the City's tree canopy cover goal of 18% of land area DPR In progress
Replace trees planted in public property and public right of way DPR In progress
Continue to participate in Emerging Pests in Colorado Roundtable and the Denver Pest Round- table to find best practices to reduce stress on urban landscapes DPR DEH, CPD, OEM In progress
Continue to follow Colorado Dept, of Agriculture invasive species list to control damage to Den- ver's existing terrestrial ecosystems DPR In progress
Address tree canopy in upcoming community plans CPD Not started
Create a Canopy Keepers program in which people adopt trees and commit to watering new trees for two years DPR Not started
Initiate a contract to inventory existing trees within the city in preparation for the tree and shade master plan DPR Not started
Continue to educate the public on the benefits the urban forest provides to encourage protec- tion of tree resources on private lands based on the Denver Urban Forest Assessment findings DPR
URBAN NATURAL RESOURCES
Goal 1: Enhance existing urban forest resources and expand range
Strategy 3: Expand fire mitigation & forest management programs
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Medium-term
Expand wildfire mitigation program DFD DPR Not started
Pursue/implement forest management technology DPR In progress
Analyze forest management techniques such as prescribed burning and removal of excess vegetation and/or dead fuels DPR DFD Not started
Continue aggressive fire mitigation program in Mountain Parks DPR DFD, OEM In progress
Implement applicable wildfire risk mitigation techniques such as prescribed/controlled burns on pilot forests DPR DFD Not started
Collaborate with Fire Corps to develop community partnerships and recruit volunteers to assist with managing and reducing the fire risks in urban forests DPR DFD Not started
Climate Adaptation Plan | 78


Appendix C: Activities supporting Denver's adaptation strategies (Cont.)
URBAN NATURAL RESOURCES
Goal 2: Ensure all Denver lakes and rivers are fishable and swimmable
Strategy 1: Maintain and enhance health of Denver water bodies
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Long-term
Partner with Denver Water to expand waterway evaluation in Denver watersheds DEH DW Not started
Medium-term
Continue noxious weed abatement program DPR DEH In progress
Managing ecosystem changes, planning for extreme events through Lake Manage- ment Protection Plan DEH In progress
Water conservation, cooling, managing ecosystem changes through RiverVision DEH DPR In progress
Continue to implement the South Platte RiverVision Implementation Plan, the Gulch Master Plan and Natural Area Management Plans DPW/DPR DEH, OED, NDCC In progress
Increase the frequency of waterway monitoring for early identification of changes in river and lake health including turbidity, and contaminant loading DEH In progress
URBAN NATURAL RESOURCES
Goal 2: Ensure all Denver lakes and rivers are fishable and swimmable
Strategy 2: Improve and maintain surface water quality
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Long-term
Partner with public/private sectors to implement the South Platte RiverVision DPR DEH, OED, DPW, In progress
Implementation Plan to improve water quality and residents'river experience NDCC, CPD
Partner with Denver Water to expand water quality monitoring in Denver watersheds DW DEH Not started
Lake aeration to minimize algal blooms DEH Not started
Medium-term
Include climate adaptation and mitigation in discussion and documentation re- lated to 6-year Water Quality Strategic Implementation Plan currently underway by DPW planning staff DPW DEH In-progress
Not started
Further studies on the impacts of warmer lake water on algae growth and the possible increase in taste, odor and water quality issues for water treatment plants DEH
Study/understand effects of warming surface water on animal and plant species DEH Not started
Prioritize and implement UDFCD gulch improvement projects. Re-gulch Master Plan and Natural Area Management Plans DPW, DPR In progress
Monitor beaver dams along water ways for effects on water flow DEH Not started
Develop a waste management plan for debris generated by storms OEM DEH, DPW In progress
URBAN NATURAL RESOURCES
Goal 2: Ensure all Denver lakes and rivers are fishable and swimmable
Strategy 3: Improve water and wastewater infrastructure to reduce risk of overflows or spills
Climate Adaptation Plan | 79


Appendix C: Activities supporting Denver's adaptation strategies (Cont.)
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Long-term
Encourage removal and relocation of water supply and treatment infrastructure DW Not started
which is vulnerable or at high-risk to climate change impacts
Medium-term
Include a discussion section on climate adaptation and mitigation in the Storm DPW CPD, DPR In progress
Drainage Master Plan documentation update
WATER CONSUMPTION
Goal 1: Reduce per capita use of potable water
Strategy 1: Continue and expand water conservation planning and programs
Activities Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Long-term
Continue to use a fee structure that incentivizes reduced wastewater use DPW Complete
Fully Implement DPR GamePlan: Green infrastructure, wise water management, water conservation plans DPR DPW, DW In progress
Medium-term
Continue to assess Denver Water's resilience to climate change using the latest lo- cal climate projections, coordinate and be aware of new City adaptation policies and adjust practices accordingly DW CPD, DPW Not started
Intensify water management and conservation through funding research and incentives DW DPR Not started
Complete construction of Phase II of the Central Control Master Plan DPR DW In progress
WATER CONSUMPTION
Goal 1: Reduce per capita use of potable water
Strategy 2: Encourage the use of water conserving technologies and products in buildings
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Long-term
Include reporting on water use in a building energy disclosure benchmark to DEH DW Not started
trackand monitor water use in major commercial properties around Denver
Medium-term
Encourage the use of water conservation technologies, such as waterless urinals DW and cisterns, through the development of local guidelines that are consistent with the building code OED, CPD In progress
Continue to create a more sustainable built environment in City facilities and the DEH Denver metropolitan area. By using ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager as a bench- marking tool, the Watts To Water partners help properties reduce their energy and water consumption rates by offering program participants free educational sessions, technical support and rebate programs DGS, OOS In progress
Climate Adaptation Plan | 80


Appendix C: Activities supporting Denver's adaptation strategies (Cont.)
Activities Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Medium-term
Continue to engage business community on water conservation through Certifi- ably Green Denver program DEH DW In progress
Expand/offer rebates and market incentives for residential, commercial, industrial and institutional customers by offering free water saving devices, rebates for high- efficiency toilets, and grants for projects that demonstrate water-saving principles DW In progress
Collaborate with Denver Water to pilot a neighbor-to-neighbor comparison of water use on utility bills to encourage conservation behavior in residences DEH DW, DPW, CPD Not started
Develop high water efficiency product standards for fixtures installed in new developments exceeding a certain size threshold DW CPD, DPW, DEH Not started
Develop a leak notification program to inform customers whenever a spike in consumption meets requirements fora potential leak DW Not started
Install Automated Meter Reading (AMR) devices to allow consumers to track water usage and identify wasteful or costly consumption patterns DW DPW Not started
WATER CONSUMPTION
Goal 1: Reduce per capita use of potable water
Strategy 3: Expand use of water-conserving irrigation techniques
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Medium-term
Continue to increase the efficiency of park irrigation systems, including conver- sions to recycled water where feasible DPR DW In progress
Retrofit three City parks with smart irrigation controllers and upgraded distribu- tion systems DPR DW In progress
Review which gulches are most affected by fluctuations in volume, their impact to the city and develop strategies to reduce flooding or shortages during weather events DPR In progress
Install rain sensors on existing irrigation systems DPR DW In progress
Explore purple pipe irrigation for eligible park land DPR DW In progress
WATER CONSUMPTION
Goal 1: Reduce per capita use of potable water
Strategy 4: Expand use of water-conserving landscaping techniques


Implement xeriscape landscape rebates for yards for residential and commercial DW
properties
Conserve soil moisture by mulching DPR
Publish a new plant-growing list that focuses on plants that can thrive in altered DPR
climates
Continue the City's transition to low water use/drought resistant landscaping DPR
within medians, parks, and open space areas
Supporting Agencies Status
DPR In progress
In progress
In progress
In progress
Climate Adaptation Plan | 81


Appendix C: Activities supporting Denver's adaptation strategies (Cont.)
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Medium-term
Advocate for and implementxeric landscaping CPD/DS DPR, Mayor's Office In progress
Installation of synthetic turf for ball fields DPR In progress
Address climate change in upcoming GoldenTriangle Small Area Plan CPD DPW, DPR In progress
Begin scoping process and update of streetscape standards to address climate adaptation DPR In progress
Require xeric planting or low-water use landscape plantings in the urban design standards and guidelines for Cherry Creek East DPR CPD, DPW In progress
WATER CONSUMPTION
Goal 1: Reduce per capita use of potable water
Strategy 5: Expand recycled water infrastructure and use
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Long-term
Continue to work with Denver Water to expand use of recycled water (purple pipe) DPR DW In progress
Medium-term
Expand the use of recycled water (purple pipe) DW DPW, DPR In progress
Continue to partner with Denver Water on continuing recycled water tree species suitability trials DPR DW In progress
Develop a Reclaimed Water Feasibility Study to inform decision makers of the cur- rent and possible future uses of reclaimed water DW DPR, DEH Not started
Develop a gray water ordinance for Denver Mayor's Office DEH Not started
LAND USE&TRANSPORTATION
Goal 1: Improve mobility within the City and its communities
Strategy 1: Create transit oriented and sustainable neighborhoods
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Long-term
Implement StrategicTransportation Plan forTransit Oriented Development DPW CPD, RTD In progress
Improve connectivity in Elyria-Swansea neighborhoods and add pedestrian bridges, in tandem with 1-70 Reconstruction DPW CPD, CDOT, NDCC, DEH In progress
Medium-term
Promote transit-oriented and mixed-use development (encouraging location of high-density homes within walking/biking distance of public transit and essential services) through neighborhood and station area planning CPD OED In progress
Community engagement and public forums to inform long-term, sustainable neighborhood planning NDCC DEH, DPW In progress
LAND USE & TRANSPORTATION
Goal 1: Improve mobility within the City and its communities
Strategy 2: Increase alternative transportation options
Climate Adaptation Plan | 82


Appendix C: Activities supporting Denver's adaptation strategies (Cont.)
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Long-term
StrategicTransportation Plan (STP): Promote and encourage multi-modal trans- portation and maintain current transit infrastructure (built environment's ability to withstand multiple climate scenarios, air quality) DPW CPD.OED In progress
Build out FasTracks RTD DPW In progress
Develop and promote the entry of municipal and community car-sharing programs DPW DEH In progress
Medium-term
Implement Pedestrian Master Plan which shifts focus away from automobile- centric infrastructure planning DPW In progress
Require review of climate risks for new transportation or land use projects prior to project approval DPW BMO, CPD Not started
Develop bike lanes on major transportation routes DPW In progress
Implement Strategic Parking Plans as it relates to adding bicycle parking to the zoning code DPW Not started
Promote and install electric vehicle charging stations within the county and DPW DEH, DIA In progress
expand X0123-chptr 4 (EV parking lot standard) into a City ordinance
LAND USE&TRANSPORTATION
Goal 2: Prepare and enable urban infrastructure to adapt to climate impacts
Strategy 1: Integrate pavement options and alternatives that reduce the urban heat island effect
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Long-term
Annual Paving Plan: Paving options/and increasing use of reclaimed asphalt (built environment's ability to withstand multiple climate scenarios) DPW DIA Not started
Strategic Parking Plan: Implement paving strategies which reduce urban heat island effect by using more green space and reflective pavements DPW Not started
Mandate high-albedo parking surfaces within designated city center area DPW Not started
Medium-term
Install high-albedo hardscape when resurfacing roads, multi-use paths, and city parking lots, and identify life-cycle costs associated with concrete vs. asphalt DPW DPR, CPD, OED, DIA, DEH Not started
Encourage private sector investment in reflective paving. This could include reduced permit fees, subsidized financing, tax breaks, etc. CPD/Development Services DPW Not started
Investigate options for heat-resistant runway paving material DIA Not started
LAND USE & TRANSPORTATION
Goal 2: Prepare and enable urban infrastructure to adapt to climate impacts
Strategy 2: Integrate pavement options and alternatives that reduce stormwater runoff
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Long-term
Increase cleaning regime for storm drains to ensure maximum capacity DPW Not started
Improve drainage in low-lying areas of transport system DPW Notstarted
Integrate green infrastructure for retaining stormwater DPW In progress
Climate Adaptation Plan | 83


Appendix C: Activities supporting Denver's adaptation strategies (Cont.)
Medium-term
Require permeable pavement for a portion of parking lots larger than one acre DPW CPD Not started
Require large redeveloped projects to increase permeability by 15% compared to previous conditions DPW CPD Not started
Initiate a business and public education program regarding storm water DPW OED, DEH In progress
Identify areas at high risk for storm damage OEM DPW Not started
LAND USE&TRANSPORTATION
Goal 2: Prepare and enable urban infrastructure to adapt to climate impacts
Strategy 3: Integrate climate change into planning and zoning considerations
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Long-term
Implement Denver Zoning Code: Division 1.1 to balance conservation and development CPD OED Not started
Explore options to request a climate preparedness survey to be completed as part of approval for new infrastructure projects Development Services CPD, BMO, DEH, OED Not started
Medium-term
Conduct climate preparedness survey of major City employers and business owners OOS DEH, OED Not started
Review which economic sectors are at greatest risk to climate-induced workforce migration and identify which sectors could benefit DEH OED Not started
FOOD & AGRICULTURE
Goal 1: Increase food security
Strategy 1: Encourage local agriculture
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Long-term
Expand city-wide curbside compost collection with a goal of providing service to 100% of eligible residences. DPW DEH In progress
Medium-term
Strengthen regulations to protect the productive capacity of urban gardens DEH OED Not started
Increase participation rate among Coloradans eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) DEH Not started
Create or identify financing resources for new community gardens and work to reduce tax barriers OED/Develop- ment Services CPD, DEH Not started
Establish regional food hubs for processing and distribution of local food DEH OED, CPD In progress
Identify vacant and underutilized lots for potential conversion to community gardens, urban food forests, urban orchards, outdoor agricultural educational facilities, etc. Real Estate OED Not started
Create school gardens at select K-12 schools DPS In progress
Provide education and supplies to increase home gardening and backyard/front yard composting Not started
Climate Adaptation Plan | 84


Appendix C: Activities supporting Denver's adaptation strategies (Cont.)
Medium-term
Pilot a restaurant food composting program DEH Not started
Establish Denver FRESH (Food Retail Expansion to Support Health) to enhance inter- nal city systems that accelerate healthy food retail development in underserved areas DEH OED.CPD In progress
Establish Fresh Food Finance Fund to provide access to capital for developing supermarkets and grocery stores DEH OED.CPD In progress
Expand compost pilot program DPW DEH Not started
Review how food provision and delivery has been and could be affected by DEH OEM Not started
extreme weather events and prioritize action areas
FOOD & AGRICULTURE
Goal 2: Protect local agricultural resources against increased threat of pests, invasive species and noxious weeds
Strategy 1: Identify, assess, and communicate invasive species and other threats to local natural resources
Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status
Medium-term
Partner with Colorado State University Extension to host education and outreach programs on integrated pest management and other sustainable farming tech- niques for local agriculture DPR NDCC, DEH Not started
Identify possible partners to support implementation of invasive species and pest management programs DPR Not started
Establish an inter-agency invasive species work group to identify problem spe- cies, assess risks, and prioritize high-priority infested areas for invasive species removal.This working would coordinate activities, map control efforts, and help educate the public on potential impacts and community actions that can help reduce risks from invasive species DPR Not started
Support a public outreach campaign integrating social media to help Denver residents identify, tag (via crowd-sourcing) and assist the City in managing key invasive species populations DPR DEH In progress
Partner with Colorado State University Extension to host best practice sharing forum on pest management strategies with local farmers DPR NDCC Not started
Climate Adaptation Plan | 85


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ContainerSrc=%5BG%5DContainers%2F_default%2FNo+Container&dnnprintmode=true

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City and County of Denver
Climate Adaptation Plan 2014
DENVER
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH


Full Text

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Climate Adaptation Plan 2014 City and County of Denver

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JUNE 24, 2014 Dear Neighbors: Recognizing that climate change is among the dening issues of the 21st century, Denver strives to be one of the most sustainable cities in the nation an innovative and climate resilient city. We are committed to facing the challenges through preparedness, collaboration and cost-eective strategies. Under those guiding principles, over the past 18 months the Department of Environmental Health has led a citywide committee dedicated to developing Denvers Climate Adaptation Plan. The objectives of the plan are to prepare for and mitigate the risks associated with potential climate impacts to Denver, including higher temperatures, more extreme weather events, changes to annual snowpack and the resultant change to downstream ows. This Climate Adaptation Plan provides a collaborative path forward to protect what we cherish so that future generations will enjoy economic opportunity, eective and ecient infrastructure, parks and open spaces, and an environment conducive to supporting resident health and well-being. Over the next year, we will begin to incorporate shortand long-term priorities into agency strategic plans, our Peak Performance eorts and the citys nationally accredited environmental compliance program, the Environmental Management System. We will also be releasing an updated Climate Action Plan, which has guided citywide eorts to improve air quality, reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. I encourage you to read Denvers Climate Adaptation Plan and join us in creating a vibrant city that is environmentally responsible and resilient to climate challenges. Respectfully, Michael B. Hancock Mayor

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Members of Denvers Climate Resiliency Committee and Technical Advisory Groups Environmental Health Liz Babcock Cindy Bosco Zach Clayton Elizabeth Clay Dave Erickson Tom Herrod Meghan Hughes Kerra Jones Amy Laughlin Doug Linkhart Paul Schmiechen Gregg Thomas Celia Vanderloop Denver International Airport Oce of Emergency Management Patricia Williams Parks and Recreation Sara Davis Gordon Robertson Health and Human Services Valerie Brooks Public Works Paul Sobiech Brian Schat *Partnership with outside agency General Services David Basich Oce of Sustainability Sonrisa Lucero Jerome Tinianow Oce of Economic Development Community Planning and Development David Gaspers Todd Wenskoski Budget and Management Oce Derrick Kuhl Laura Perry Denver Water* Laurna Kaatz Production Team Joanna Smith Design Meister Consultants Group** Climate Adaptation Plan | 1

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements 1 Tables 3 Figures 4 List of Acronyms 5 Executive Summary 6 Chapter 1: Introduction to Climate Adaptation 7 1.1 Plan Contents 7 1.2 Introduction to Climate Change 7 1.3 Climate Impacts on the Front Range 8 1.3.1 Climate Observations and Projections for Colorado 8 1.3.2 Importance of Climate Projections for Denver 9 Increase in Temperature and Urban Heat Island Eect 9 Increase in Extreme Weather Events 11 Reduced Snowpack and Earlier Snowmelt 12 1.4 Climate Mitigation vs. Climate Adaptation 13 1.5 Why Climate Adaptation is Important 13 1.6 Denvers Climate Adaptation Plan 15 Chapter 2: Denvers Current Climate Change Resiliency Programs and Eorts 16 2.1 Agency Descriptions 16 2.2 Current Resilience Eorts 19 2.2.1 Buildings and Energy 19 2.2.2 Health and Human Services 21 2.2.3 Land Use and Transportation 21 2.2.4 Urban Natural Resources 23 2.2.5 Water Consumption 23 2.2.6 Food and Agriculture 25 2.3 Current Denver Programs with Climate Adaptation, Climate Mitigation and Combined-Benets 25 Chapter 3: Vulnerability Assessment 27 3.1 Background 27 3.2 Conducting the Vulnerability Assessment 27 3.2.1 Vulnerability Assessment: Sensitivity Analysis 28 3.2.2 Vulnerability Assessment: Adaptive Capacity 29 3.2.3 Vulnerability Assessment: Qualifying Vulnerability 29 3.3 Identication of Priority Vulnerability and Priority Planning Areas 30 Chapter 4: Short-Term Climate Adaptation Activities 33 4.1 Short-Term Climate Adaptation Actions by Sector 33 4.1.1 Buildings and Energy Sector 33 4.1.2 Health and Human Services Sector 35 4.1.3 Land Use and Transportation Sector 36 4.1.4 Urban Natural Resources Sector 37 4.1.5 Water Consumption Sector 39

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 3 Chapter 5: Medium and Long-Term Climate Adaptation Activities 40 5.1 Buildings and Energy Sector 41 5.1.1 Goal 1: Reduce vulnerability to building energy supply disruptions 42 5.1.2 Goal 2: Reduce vulnerability of buildings to extreme weather 44 5.2 Health and Human Services Sector 45 5.2.1 Goal 1: Safeguard health of Denver residents in the context of climate impacts 46 5.2.2 Goal 2: Preserve ability of health care and other service providers to provide utilities during extreme heat events 47 5.3 Urban Natural Resources Sector 48 5.3.1 Goal 1: Enhance and preserve existing urban forest resources 50 5.3.2 Goal 2: Ensure all Denver streams are shable and swimmable 51 5.4 Water Consumption Sector 53 5.4.1 Goal 1: Reduce per capita use of potable water 55 5.5 Land Use and Transportation sector 58 5.5.1 Goal 1: Improve mobility within the City and its communities 59 5.5.2 Goal 2: Prepare and enable urban infrastructure to adapt to climate impacts 60 5.6 Food and Agriculture sector 62 5.6.1 Goal 1: Increase food security 63 5.6.2 Goal 2: Protect local agricultural resources against increased threat of pests, invasive species and noxious weeds 63 Chapter 6: Next Steps 64 6.1 Implementation 64 6.2 Consolidation 65 6.3 Areas for Additional Analysis 65 6.3.1 Climate Projections and Vulnerabilities 65 6.3.2 Planning Scale and Integration 65 6.3.3 Adaptive Management 66 6.3.4 Metrics and Accountability 66 6.3.5 Community Engagement 66 Appendix A: Glossary 67 Appendix B: Summary Table of Vulnerabilities 69 Appendix C: Activities supporting Denvers adaptation strategies 74 Tables Table 2.1: Current City operations with climate adaptation and mitigation benets 25 Table 3.1: Vulnerability scoring matrix 29 Table 3.2: Priority climate change vulnerabilities 31 Table 4.1: Summary of short-term adaptation activities for buildings and energy sector 33 Table 4.2: Summary of short-term adaptation activities for health and human services sector 35 Table 4.3: Summary of short-term adaptation activities for land use and transportation sector 36 Table 4.4: Summary of short-term adaptation activities for urban natural resources sector 37 Table 4.5: Summary of short-term adaptation activities for water consumption sector 39 Table 5.1: Building and energy sector high priority vulnerabilities 41 Table 5.2: Summary of goals and strategies for increasing resilience in the buildings and energy sector 42 Table 5.3: Activities for increasing energy eciency 43 Table 5.4: Activities for increasing cooling infrastructure 43 Table 5.5: Activities for increasing alternative and distributed generation 44 Table 5.6: Activities for encouraging construction of resilient buildings 45 Table 5.7: Health and human services sector high priority vulnerabilities 45 Table 5.8: Summary of goals and strategies for increasing resilience in the health and human services sector 46

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 4 Table 5.9: Activities for reducing health impacts of extreme weather events 47 Table 5.10: Activities to reduce health vulnerabilities from vector-borne diseases 47 Table 5.11: Activities to develop utilities and IT systems that are resilient to power outages 48 Table 5.12: Urban natural resources sector priority vulnerabilities 49 Table 5.13: Summary of goals and strategies for increasing resilience in the urban natural resources sector 49 Table 5.14 Activities supporting standards and regulations to strengthen and protect urban forest resources 50 Table 5.15: Activities to increase Denvers canopy coverage and maintain existing street resources 51 Table 5.16: Activities to expand re mitigation and forest management programs 51 Table 5.17: Activities for maintaining and enhancing the health of Denver water bodies 52 Table 5.18: Activities to improve and maintain surface water quality 53 Table 5.19: Activities to improve water and wastewater infrastructure to reduce risk of overows or spills 53 Table 5.20: Water consumption sector priority vulnerabilities 54 Table 5.21: Summary of goals and strategies for increasing resilience in the water consumption sector 54 Table 5.22: Activities to continue and expand water conservation planning programs 55 Table 5.23: Activities to encourage the use of water conserving technologies and products in buildings 56 Table 5.24: Activities for water-conserving irrigation techniques 56 Table 5.25: Activities for water-conserving landscaping techniques 57 Table 5.26: Activities to expand recycled water infrastructure and use 57 Table 5.27: Land use and transportation sector priority vulnerabilities 58 Table 5.28: Summary of goals and strategies for increasing resilience in the land use and transportation sector 58 Table 5.29: Activities to create transit oriented and sustainable neighborhoods 59 Table 5.30: Activities to develop alternative transportation options 60 Table 5.31: Activity to integrate pavement option and alternatives that reduce the urban heat island eect 61 Table 5.32: Activity to integrate pavement options and alternatives that reduce stormwater runo 61 Table 5.33: Activities to integrate climate change into planning and zoning considerations 62 Table 5.34: Food and agriculture sector priority vulnerabilities 62 Table 5.35: Summary of goals and strategies for increasing resilience in the food and agriculture sector 62 Table 5.36: Activities to encourage local agriculture 63 Table 5.37: Activities to identify, assess, and communicate invasive species and other threats to natural resources 64 Figures Figure 1.1: Observed rise in globally averaged combined land and ocean surface temperatures from 1850-2012 7 Figure 1.2: Observed change in average surface temperature from 1901-2012 8 Figure 1.3: Dierence in the average minimum and average maximum temperatures in each season in the Arkansas Valley and North Central Mountains in Colorado from 1957-2006 8 Figure 1.4: Daytime and nighttime surface temperatures increase over urbanized areas 10 Figure 1.5: Boulder, CO received record amounts of rainfall within a 2 day time span in September, 2013 11 Figure 1.6: An increase in the number of res greater than 1,000 acres on US Forest Service Land in CO from 1970-2010 11 Figure 1.7: Changes in observed spring snowmelt dates for the western United States from 1948 2002 12 Figure 2.1: Certiably Green Denver 20 Figure 2.2: Denver Energy Challenge 20 Figure 2.3: Denver Light Rail 22 Figure 2.4: Green infrastructure along the South Platte River 23 Figure 2.5: Cherry Creek Fresh Market 25 Figure 4.1: Metro Denvers percent urban tree canopy cover 38

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BMO: Budget Management Oce BPS: By-Product Synergy Network CAO: City Attorney Oce CDOT: Colorado Department of Transportation CH: Methane CHP: Combined Heat and Power Technology CO: Carbon dioxide CPD: Department of Community Planning and Development DEAP: Denver Energy Assurance Plan DEH: Department of Environmental Health DFD: Denver Fire Department DGS: Department of General Services DHHA: Denver Health and Hospital Authority DHS: Department of Human Services DIA: Denver International Airport DMNS: Denver Museum of Nature & Science DPR: Department of Parks and Recreation DPS: Denver Public Schools DPW: Department of Public Works DRH: Denver Road Home DS: Development Services DW: Denver Water EMS: Environmental Management System EV: Electric Vehicle GES: Globeville Elyria-Swansea neighborhoods GHG: Greenhouse gas IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IRP: Integrated Resource Plan LEAP: Low Income Energy Assistance Program MCG: Meister Consultants Group MW: Megawatts NDCC: North Denver Cornerstone Collaborative NO: Nitrous oxide NOx: Nitrous oxides OED: Oce of Economic Development OEMHS/OEM: Oce of Emergency Management and Homeland Security OHR: Oce of Human Resources OOS: Oce of Sustainability PPB: Parts per billion PPM: Parts per million RTD: Regional Transportation District STP: Strategic Transportation Plan TOD: Transit Oriented Development UDFCD: Urban Drainage and Flood Control District UTC: Urban Tree Canopy VBZD: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases VOCs: Volatile organic compounds LIST OF ACRONYMS Climate Adaptation Plan | 5

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In 2007, Denver unveiled its Climate Action Plan and set a greenhouse gas reduction goal to reduce emissions by 10 percent per capita below 1990 levels. Denver is on track to meet this goal and continues to be proactive in reducing city-wide per capita emissions. However, the planet is warming and the resulting eects have the potential to harm Denvers social, economic, and environmental sectors. Along with mitigation practices aimed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, Denver must address and prepare for the impacts of climate change already occurring and those projected to occur, in order to prosper in the future. Supplementing Denvers Climate Action Plan, the Climate Adaptation Plan oers collaborative strategies to adapt to a future climate with higher temperatures, more extreme weather events, and changes to annual snowpack. Denver recognizes climate change as a dening issue of the 21st century and remains committed to facing the challenges of a changing climate through preparedness, forward thinking, and cost-eective strategies. Denver strives to not only be one of the greenest cities in the nation, but also one of the most innovative and climate resilient cities in the face of rapid climate change. The objectives of the Climate Adaptation Plan are to prepare, mitigate, and plan for risks associated with the following potential climate impacts to Denver: 1. An increase in temperature and urban heat island eect 2. An increase in frequency of extreme weather events 3. Reduced snowpack and earlier snowmelt Denvers Climate Adaptation Plan was prepared with the following values understood: The City and County of Denver is preparing for a hotter and more variable climate. The Plan provides a collaborative path forward to prepare for these climate changes, protecting what we cherish so future generations will enjoy a quality of life characterized by economic opportunity, parks and open spaces, recreational activities, and an environment conducive to support residents health and well-being. The focus of this Plan is to identify adaptation strategies within Denver City agencies and community organizations that will lead to future adaptation eorts Denver can implement. Successful implementation of the Plan supports a vibrant Denver that is resilient to climate challenges and continues to prosper as a world-class city where everyone matters. Long-term planning and coordinated implementation are needed to address the social, economic and environmental consequences of climate change impacts on Denver. In response, Denver convened a working group made up of department representatives in spring, 2012 to begin assessing the impacts Denver may face as a result of a changing climate. In coordination with City agencies, the working group identied Denvers top vulnerabilities to climate change. These were used as a framework to establish short, medium, and long-term climate adaptation activities. These activities will allow Denver to reach its long-term vision to be one of the most innovative and resilient cities in the face of climate change. The short, medium, and long-term activities are categorized by sectors throughout the Climate Adaptation Plan. The sectors refer to broad planning areas that will be aected by climate change impacts. The sectors used in the Climate Adaptation Plan are: buildings and energy, health and human services, land use and transportation, urban natural resources, water consumption, and food and agriculture. Each sector is facing dierent impacts from climate change and can adapt in dierent ways. Systematically examining which climate impacts aects each sector helps identify where climate adaptation action is most needed, allowing Denver to create forward-thinking and cost-eective adaptation strategies. A resilient community will be able to enjoy economic opportunity, parks, open spaces, recreational activities, and an environment conducive to support residents health and well being. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Denvers Climate Adaptation Plan visions to provide a collaborative path forward to prepare for a hotter climate, protecting what we cherish. Climate Adaptation Plan | 6

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 7 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO CLIMATE ADAPTATION 1.1 Plan Contents Denvers Climate Adaptation Plan is the result of a collaborative eort of Denver City Agencies and Denver Water. Sta from the various agencies began meeting in the spring of 2012 to (1) identify vulnerabilities to climate change and (2) identify responses that would allow Denver to adapt to potential climate change issues. Chapter 1 of this plan provides an introduction to climate change and includes discussion of observed and expected climate trends in Colorado, the Front Range, and Denver. Chapter 2 identies the agencies that have been involved in Denvers climate change adaptation planning and highlights adaptation activities the agencies were already involved with prior to the writing of this plan. Chapter 3 provides a summary of major concerns or vulnerabilities Denver will likely encounter as the climate changes. In response to these vulnerabilities, short, medium and long-term adaptation activities were developed. Chapter 4 provides a description of short-term (one to two years) adaptation activities, and Chapter 5 discusses longer-term goals and strategies for adapting to a changing climate. Finally, Chapter 6 provides a discussion of future steps Denver will take to implement and continue climate change adaptation activities. 1.2 Introduction to Climate Change There is mounting evidence that our planet is warming rapidly. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC ) states warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia. 1 Global climate change refers to long term average trends in weather, like temperature and precipitation, across a region. 2 When referring to global climate change it is important to look at long-term climate trends, generally 30 years or more, rather than short-term patterns which reect natural climate variability. From 1880 to 2012, the globally averaged combined land and ocean surface temperature shows a warming of 0.85 degrees Celsius (1.53F) (gure 1.1) and virtually the entire globe has seen an increased average surface temperature from 1901-2012 (gure 1.2) 3 Globally, the atmosphere and oceans have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, and sea level has risen. The IPCC concludes that it is undisputable that the global climate is warming. 4 Since the industrial revolution began in the 1750s, the atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO), methane (CH), and nitrous oxide (NO) have all increased dramatically. In 2011, the concentrations of these greenhouse gases were 391 parts per million (ppm), 1803 parts per billion (ppb), and 324 ppb, respectively, which exceed the pre-industrial revolution levels by 40%, 150%, and 20% respectively. 5 CO levels are higher now than at any time in at least 800,000 years. 6 There is widespread scientic consensus that the increases in emissions are primarily the result of the burning of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, gasoline, and diesel), industrial agriculture, and land-use change, and that this increase in greenhouse gases is the dominant cause of the warming global climate. 7 Figure 1.1: Observed rise in globally averaged combined land and ocean surface temperatures from 1850-2012 (IPCC, 2013) Annual Average 1850 1900 1950 2000 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 -0.2 0.4 -0.6 Decade Average Temperature anomoly (C) relative to 1961-1990 Year

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 8 1.2 Introduction to Climate Change (Cont.) The IPCC has identied specic eects of global climate change that are impacting climate conditions in many locations around the globe including: warmer days and fewer colder nights, higher frequency and duration of warm days and nights, increased frequency of heavy precipitation events, increased intensity and duration of droughts, increase in tropical cyclone activity, and increased incidence of global sea level rise. 8 These impacts and their implications dier in dierent regions of the world. It is imperative that Denver recognizes its most critical climate change impacts and acts to mitigate and adapt to these changes in order to become a city resilient to climate change. 1.3 Climate Impacts on the Front Range 1.3.1 Climate Observations and Projections for Colorado Historical climate trends show that the western United States is warming and Colorado is experiencing increased temperatures and a drier climate (gure 1.3) 9 According to a Western Water Assessment report, the following are observed and projected climate changes in Colorado: 10 Statewide, temperatures have increased about 2F over 30 years, with slightly more observed warming on the Front Range. Climate models project Colorado will warm 4F (2.5 to 5.5F) by 2050 relative to a 1971-2000 baseline. Temperatures in the Front Range are predicted to be similar to temperature regimes that currently occur near the Colorado-Kansas border by 2050. Typical summer temperatures in 2050 are projected to be as warm as or warmer than the hottest 5% of summers that have occurred since 1900. The January climate of the Eastern Plains of Colorado is expected to reect that currently experienced by areas approximately 150 miles further south, making for fewer extreme cold months and more extreme warm months. April 1st snowpack is expected to decline in Colorados mountains as the projected warming increas es the fraction of precipitation falling as rain, and also increases moisture loss from the snowpack. Peak runo has shifted earlier by 1-4 weeks over the last 30 years. By 2050, warming is projected to shift runo an additional 1-3 weeks earlier and reduce late summer streamows. Droughts are projected to increase in frequency and severity. 11 Figure 1.2: Observed change in average surface temperature from 1901-2012 (IPCC, 2013) Figure 1.3: Dierence in the average minimum and average maximum temperatures in each season in the Arkansas Valley and North Central Mountains in Colorado from 1957-2006. Red indicates a signicant temperature dierence (Ray, 2008) 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.25 1.5 1.75 2.5 C

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 9 1.3.2 Importance of Climate Projections for Denver The Climate Adaptation Plan has identied the following three key potential impacts for Denver based on climate change projections for the Front Range: 1. Increase in temperature and urban heat island eect 2. Increase in extreme weather events 3. Reduced snowpack and earlier snowmelt Increase in Temperature and Urban Heat Island Effect 1 12 Urban heat islands refer to the elevated temperatures in developed areas compared to more rural surroundings. Urban heat islands are a result of surface properties of building materials, such as pavement and asphalt, combined with reduced vegetation. On a hot, sunny, summer day, surfaces exposed to the sun can reach 50 to 90F hotter than the air temperature, while shaded or moist surfaces, often in more rural surroundings, remain close to air temperatures (gure 1.4) On average the dierence in daytime surface temperatures between developed and rural areas is 18 to 27F and the dierence in nighttime temperatures is 9 to 18F. Denver, being highly urbanized, already sees an urban heat island eect and the increased temperatures due to climate change would exacerbate that eect. The projected increase in temperature along with increased heating due to the urban heat island eect will have several impacts to Denver including: increased energy consumption, human health issues, and a change in water quality in the rivers and streams that run through the city. During the summer months, elevated temperatures in Denver will increase energy demand for cooling. This adds additional stress on the electric grid during peak periods of demand. This generally occurs on hot, sunny, summer weekday afternoons when oces and homes are running cooling systems, lights, and appliances. For every 1F increase in temperature, the peak urban electric demand increases 1.5 to 2%. 13 Steadily increasing temperatures may result in overloaded cooling systems causing power outages. An increase in energy consumption using the carbonintensive fuel mixture that powers our region at the current time also causes higher levels of air pollution as well as further release of CO into the atmosphere. Ground level ozone concentrations may also increase with an increase in average temperature in Denver. Ground level ozone is created by chemical reactions between nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight. Major sources of NOx and VOCs are emissions from industrial facilities and electric utilities, motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents. 14 If all other variables are equal, such as levels of NOx and VOC emissions and wind speed and direction, ground level ozone levels will be higher in hotter and sunnier weather. 15 Therefore, elevated air temperatures due to climate change and the urban heat island eect have the potential to increase the rate of ground level ozone formation in Denver. Ground level ozone is a component of urban smog and has adverse health eects on the respiratory system, particularly those of children and the elderly. 16 1 An increase in temperatures and urban heat island eect can impair Denvers air quality, water quality, and aect human health. Some of these adverse health eects include: More diculty breathing deeply and vigorously. Shortness of breath and pain when taking a deep breath. Coughing and sore or scratchy throat. Aggravation of lung diseases such as asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis. The lungs are more susceptible to infection. The lungs may continue to be damaged even when the symptoms have disappeared. 17

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 10 Increase in Temperature and Urban Heat Island Effect (Cont.) Denver already suers from days with elevated ground level ozone concentrations in the summer months, so increases in temperatures and urban heat island eect will only add to currently observed concentrations. Increased temperatures and heat waves can cause public health emergencies due to increased daytime temperatures and reduced nighttime cooling. Citizens may not be able to cool down and seek relief from extreme daytime temperatures. The Center for Disease Control estimates that from 1979 to 1999, excessive heat exposure contributed to more than 8,000 premature deaths in the United States. 18 A report released by the Rocky Mountain Climate Institute and the City of Fort Collins found that the number of 90F or higher days in Fort Collins increased 162% from 1961-2013 and the number of heat waves (three consecutive days at 90 or higher) increased 533% from 1961-2013. 19 This increase in number of 90 days and heat waves is anticipated to bring changes to water use and needs, human health and comfort, agriculture, and ecosystems. 20 It has been suggested by policy makers and health professionals that the harmful health impacts of climate change may be partially oset by a decline in excess winter deaths in temperate countries as winters warm. A recent study published online 21 concluded that in England and Wales no evidence exists that excess winter deaths will decrease if winters warm with climate change. Whether this conclusion is valid for other countries with temperate climates is still being debated. Human health can also be aected by changing disease patterns due to shifts in trade and transport of diseases as a result of changing climate patterns and increased temperatures. 22 These disease vectors can spread quickly in a dense, urban environment. Vulnerable populations such as low income residents, the elderly, children, and people with compromised or less developed immune systems will face disproportionate risks and diculties regarding health impacts of increased temperatures. Adverse eects on Denvers health levels may also increase medical costs associated with allergies and respiratory conditions. 23 Denver Water completed a simple sensitivity assessment to examine how a 5F increase in average temperature could change water supply and demand. Findings show available water supplies could decrease by 20%, while water use could simultaneously increase by 7 percent assuming a continuation of current patterns of consumption. 24 Denver Water is preparing for warming, as well as other future uncertainties, by incorporating these ndings into their long-term Integrated Resource Plan ( IRP ). The IRP is Denver Waters long-term decision-making guide and includes the complete water system, water collection, treatment, distribution, eciency, recycling, conservation, and demand. 25 Increased air temperatures can also cause an increase in water temperatures in streams, rivers, and lakes. Elevated surface temperatures are transferred to stormwater during rain events, which is released in a water body and raises the temperature. Studies have shown that during rain events runo from urban areas was about 20 to 30F hotter than runo from nearby rural areas. 26 This impairs water quality and compromises aquatic species metabolism and reproduction. Elevated water temperatures can inhibit aquatic life, especially if a species can only survive in a small range of water temperatures. Figure 1.4: Temperatures increase over urbanized areas (heatisland.lbl.gov/ coolscience)

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 11 Increase in Extreme Weather Events An extreme weather event is dened as an event that is rare at a particular place and time of year. 27 Extreme weather events in Colorado include heat waves, drought, ooding, wildres, and storms. As mentioned above, there are numerous impacts resulting from an increased amount of heat waves in Denver. A Natural Resource Defense Council study estimates by mid century Denvers number of extreme heat days 2 will increase by 79 days from the historical average of nine days, for a total of 88 extreme heat days per summer, causing an increase in the adverse eects on human health and the environment. 28 Unlike increasing temperatures, there has been no clear long term trend in total average yearly rainfall in Colorado. However, Colorado has experienced extreme weather in the form of heavy downpours. 29 Heavy downpours can have several negative impacts such as ash oods and mudslides. Also, nutrient and debris loading in waterways resulting from heavy rain events can cause a decrease in water quality, impacting human health and aquatic ecosystems. Flash oods and mudslides can cause property damage and cost human lives. 30 The 2013 Colorado Flood is a recent example of how a heavy rain event can impact an area. After a dry summer, many communities along the Front Range received most of their normal annual rainfall in the span of ve days. This produced catastrophic ooding that caused an estimated $2 billion in property losses and 10 fatalities (gure 1.5) 31 An increase in spring temperatures, earlier snowmelt, hot, dry summers, and stressed forests from pest infestation all contribute to an increase in the number of large wildres in Colorado (gure 1.6 32 ) 33 Compared to the 1970s, in the past decade there were: Seven times more res larger than 10,000 acres each year Nearly ve times more res larger than 25,000 acres each year Twice as many res over 1,000 acres each year In Colorado, the number of res greater than 1,000 acres burning each year on Forest Service land has doubled since the 1970s. In 2012, more than 4,000 res, including The Waldo Canyon Fire in Colorado Springs and the High Park re near Fort Collins, caused a total of $500 million in property damage across the state. Wildres also contribute to poor air quality in Denver, again impacting human health and the environment. 34 In addition, res can severely damage forested areas and watersheds that are critical to Denvers drinking water supply. Denver Water receives its drinking water supply from watersheds in the mountains and foothills, so healthy ecosystems in these forested areas are imperative to ensure drinking water for Denver residents. Catastrophic wildres have a high probability of occurring in certain forest types that are unhealthy due to tree density. In 1996 and 2002, two major wildres occurred above Denver Waters reservoirs. Subsequent rain events resulted in signicant erosion, transporting large volumes of sediment into these water supply reservoirs. The sediment resulted in water quality impacts to the water supply that caused increased water treatment and management costs, and a reduction in storage capacity. Figure 1.5: Boulder, CO received record amounts of rainfall within a 2 day time span in September, 2013. (Climate Central, 2013) Figure 1.6: An increase in the number of res greater than 1,000 acres on U.S. Forest Service Land in Colorado from 1970-2010 (Climate Central, 2012) 2

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Reduced Snowpack and Earlier Snowmelt Denver Water provides the citizens of Denver with reliable, high-quality drinking water. The source of Denver Waters water supply comes from streamows driven by the annual snowmelt. 35 As the snowpack melts earlier due to warmer spring temperatures, streamows shift to earlier in the spring and has the potential to result in less water available to ll reservoirs for use during the summer months when consumers use it most. As noted earlier, there is no long-term trend in annual average precipitation in Colorado. Increasing temperature trends; however, have been observed and are projected to continue into the future. Warming alone can have signicant impacts to the water systems in Denver and across the mountainous watersheds that supply Denver Waters drinking water. Warmer spring temperatures, along with factors such as dust-on-snow events, are already triggering earlier snowmelt (gure 1.7) 36 Dust-on-snow events result from deposition of soils originating from the desert southwest and the Colorado Plateau and Great Basin onto snowpack in Colorado. Land-use changes in the regions where the dust originates, such as grazing, oil and gas drilling, agriculture, and o-road vehicle use, causes disturbances in the soil. During strong wind events these soil particles are picked up and transported hundreds of miles from the source and have been deposited in the mountains of Colorado. 37 When the snowpack begins to melt, the dust is exposed and absorbs more solar radiation, causing faster snowmelt and earlier spring runo. 38 Snowpack helps keep water at high elevations and feeds streams, rivers, and reservoirs throughout the year. Earlier snowmelt decreases the amount of snow available later in the year for summer and fall streamows, which can potentially impact water resources and needs, river recreation, and the aquatic environment. Additionally, earlier snowmelt and warmer average temperatures may cause soil moisture to decline during the summer, increasing drought stress in trees and making them more susceptible to wildres. 39 Increased temperatures may also make forests more susceptible to mountain pine beetle infestation. The mountain pine beetle has killed more than 70,000 square miles of trees across the west over the past decade. 40 Stressed trees, due to lack of soil moisture during the growing season, can become more vulnerable and lose their ability to ght infestation. Also, warmer winter temperatures decrease the amount of deep freezes that typically keep the mountain pine beetle population in check. It is evident that climate change will have various impacts on Denver, and it is important to plan for climate change so that Denver continues to provide long-term prosperity for its people and businesses by securing the basic resources on which economic activity and quality of life depend. Climate Adaptation Plan | 12 Figure 1.7: Changes in observed spring snowmelt dates for the western United States from 1948 2002. Spring snowmelt is 20+ days earlier on the Front Range. (ICLEI, 2011) OBSERVED SPRING SNOWMELT DATES 20+ days earlier 15-20 days earlier 10-15 days earlier 5-10 days earlier 5-10 days later 10-15 days later 15-20 days later 20+days later 50 45 40 35 130 120 110

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 13 1.4 Climate Mitigation vs. Climate Adaptation As Denver is preparing for the impacts of climate change it is important to note the dierence between climate mitigation and climate adaptation. Climate mitigation refers to eorts to reduce or prevent emission of greenhouse gases. Mitigation can include greater use of renewable energy sources, making older equipment more energy ecient, or changing management practices or consumer behavior. It can range from designing plans to increase public transportation and bicycle pathways to protecting natural carbon sinks such as forests and natural vegetation. Any practice that decreases the amount of greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere to reduce the rate and severity of global climate change is considered climate mitigation. 41 Climate adaptation refers to eorts by society or ecosystems to prepare for or adjust to future climate change. Adaptation can consist of a wide variety of actions by an individual, community, or organization to prepare for, or respond to, climate change impacts. Examples of climate adaptation include breeding crop varieties more tolerant of heat and drought and upgrading current infrastructure to better withstand climate changes. 42 Climate mitigation and adaptation should be implemented simultaneously to eectively reduce climate change impacts and prepare for a future of change. If greenhouse gas emissions are not reduced through mitigation eorts, then the ability to adapt will be impacted by the rapid pace and severity of climate change. Since the eects of climate change are already happening it is also necessary to include adaptation as an important part of climate change planning. 1.5 Why Climate Adaptation is Important 3 43 Reducing global greenhouse gas emissions is critical to avoiding the worst eects of rapid climate change. While we work on reducing emissions to help mitigate the impacts of global climate change, it is also Denvers responsibility to prepare for climate change. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is only one part of the climate change puzzle; we cannot wait for a crisis to occur to begin adapting to climate change impacts. Climate change adaptation is a critical component of City planning for the following reasons: Climate change is already happening: As mentioned above, Colorado is already experiencing an increase in average temperature and temperatures are projected to continue to rise. The climate system responds slowly to reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, meaning that the climate today is being aected by emissions from the past. CO can remain in the atmosphere for up to 200 years, so many of the changes predicted through at least the middle of the 21 st century will be driven in part by current greenhouse gas concentrations. Therefore, climate mitigation will help with long-term climate change impacts, but will do little to alter the near-term impacts that have already been set in motion. Climate mitigation activities reduce the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Sourcing renewable energy instead of fossil fuels is one example of a climate mitigation technique. Climate adaptation activities are eorts to prepare or adjust to future climate changes. Updating building infrastructure to better withstand a hotter climate is one example of adapting to climate change. 3 Unless otherwise noted, information in this section was retrieved from ICLEI document, Preparing for Climate Change: A Guidebook for Local, Regional, and State Governments.

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 14 1.5 Why Climate Adaptation is Important (Cont.) It is unlikely that greenhouse gas emissions will be stabilized or reversed in the near term: Over the past 20 years, 75% of CO emissions were due to burning of fossil fuels. Avoiding the worst climate impacts will require reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the point where the concentrations in the atmosphere stabilize and then decline. Due to the current global dependence on fossil fuels and the time required for new technologies that reduce or replace fossil fuels to become available to the global market, CO emissions are not likely to stabilize soon enough to avoid projected climate change impacts. Climate change will have largely negative economic consequences: Climate change will aect a wide array of economic sectors including: agriculture, forestry, water supply, health, energy, transportation, recreation, and tourism. Non-economic resources such as biodiversity, air quality, and water quality will also be aected. Planning for specic regional impacts to Denver will help reduce economic costs to these sectors. Planning for the future can benet the present: Many projected climate change impacts are more extreme versions of events already happening in the present. For example, the Front Range is expected to see an increase in frequency and severity of drought. Implementing a stringent water conservation program today will decrease Denvers vulnerability to more frequent and severe drought, and also benet management of current droughts. Proactive planning is more eective and less costly than responding reactively to climate change impacts as they happen: Being proactive and exible to anticipate and address expected climate change impacts can save money and protect the well being of the community. It has been found that one dollar of hazard mitigation today can prevent the spending of four dollars of post-disaster reconstruction in the future. 44 This can also be applied to incremental climate changes. For example, considering the impacts of climate change on streamows and drought while designing a reservoir can ensure that the reservoir meets future water supply needs, and may be less costly than expanding the reservoir in the future. Climate readiness is a potential competitive advantage for Denver, and can generate additional community benets: Proactive investments can ensure Denver remains economically competitive for new business development. Investment in resilient systems, such as green infrastructure, can enhance the livability of neighborhoods. Denver has a responsibility to plan for the future: Denver will be impacted by climate change and future residents will be beneted by adaptation planning completed today that result in Denver being a more resilient city to climate change impacts. Overall, proactive and strategic planning for climate change can reduce vulnerabilities to climate change impacts. Climate adaptation planning can save Denver money in the long term, as well as promote human health and lead to a community resilient to local climate change impacts.

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 15 1.6 Denvers Climate Adaptation Plan The City and County of Denver recognizes the importance of implementing a climate adaptation plan along with a climate mitigation plan to eectively reduce climate change risks to the city. The Climate Adaptation Plan was drafted based on Denvers most pressing vulnerabilities. 4 Pressing vulnerabilities are dened here as systems that are highly sensitive to climate change and lacking the capability to adapt to the changing climate. These vulnerabilities will be the ones most impacted by climate change. City agencies and partners were asked to assess their vulnerabilities based on the three selected climate change impacts to Denver (increase in temperature and urban heat island eect, increase in extreme weather events, and reduced snowpack and earlier snowmelt). Once vulnerabilities by agency were established, the ones determined to be most pressing were grouped by sector in order for the City to develop and prioritize short, medium, and long-term climate adaptation strategies. The sectors addressed in the Climate Adaptation Plan are: Buildings and Energy Health and Human Services Land Use and Transportation Urban Natural Resources Water Consumption Food and Agriculture With vulnerabilities, responsible agencies, and sectors identied, Denver established long-term adaptation goals for the City. For our long-term goals, short-term activities were identied that move the City towards these goals. Short-term activities were established by each agency and placed within the Environmental Management System (EMS). EMS is a tool used to incorporate environmental considerations into the Citys day-to-day operations. With EMS, climate adaptation strategies are integrated within agencys existing goals, processes, and plans, and are analyzed annually. This allows agencies to track implementation and measure success of adaptation activities. Quarterly updates will be scheduled to discuss progress and barriers among agency sta, and yearly targets and progress will be released in a report coordinated by the Department of Environmental Health. Through the use of EMS each agency will be held accountable to implement short-term climate adaptation activities that address their established pressing vulnerabilities. Incorporating additional short-term adaptation activities in annual planning cycles will move Denver forward in tackling our long-term climate adaptation goals. Short-term adaptation strategies and related EMS activities are discussed in Chapter 4 and long-term adaptation goals are discussed in Chapter 5 4 Chapter 3 provides a complete overview of the Vulnerability Assessment. City agencies will be held accountable for climate adaptation strategies through a city-wide Environmental Management System (EMS). EMS targets are audited annually, allowing agencies to track implementation and measure success of climate adaptation strategies.

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 16 CHAPTER 2: DENVERS CURRENT CLIMATE CHANGE Resiliency Programs and Efforts Many of Denvers current programs increase Denvers ability to adapt to climate change impacts already occurring on the Front Range. These programs oer benets of climate adaptation that continue to enhance Denvers sustainability, livability, and resiliency towards climate change. Resilience towards climate change results from coordinated and independent adaptation and mitigation activities to manage and react to issues brought about by climate change in Denver. Not all of Denvers climate change adaptation planning will result in new strategies and objectives. Rather, in many cases, Denver will continue programs and policies that contain co-benets of best management practices and climate resiliency. Also, many of the current programs and policies oer co-benets between climate adaptation and climate mitigation. Included in this chapter are examples of actions currently being implemented by multiple City agencies and partners. Denver agencies participating in adaptation activities are briey discussed below. 2.1 Agency Descriptions Department of Environmental Health (DEH): As the health department for the City/County of Denver, the mission of DEH is to build healthy communities. The Departments Environmental Quality Division provides environmental regulatory compliance services for City owned facilities and activities, ensuring Denvers compliance with environmental laws protecting public health and the environment. DEH is engaged in climate adaptation planning and expects to respond more frequently to extreme heat events aecting vulnerable populations, and increases in vector-borne diseases. DEH initiated the agency-wide climate adaptation planning process to address city-wide vulnerabilities resulting from changing climate conditions. Oce of Emergency Management and Homeland Security (OEMHS/OEM): OEMHS provides planning, training, exercises, and educational outreach programs related to natural and man-made disasters to assist and prepare citizens, government agencies, and private/non-prot organizations prior to, during, and after a local emergency or disaster. OEMHS acknowledges that climate change can have a severe impact on the health and safety of Denver residents. Plans need to be in place to clearly identify the roles and responsibilities of City agencies during an extreme weather event, including how Denver would notify the public about how to respond during such an event. Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR): DPR is dedicated to customer satisfaction and enriching lives by providing innovative programs and safe, beautiful, sustainable places. Due to expected climate changes for Denver, DPR is preparing for a reduction in water supplies dedicated for irrigation and stresses to ecosystems, plants, and riparian corridors. DPR will continue to assess how increasing temperatures, extreme weather events, and early snowmelt will aect Denvers natural environment, public spaces, green infrastructure, and citizens utilizing parks and recreation services. Also, DPRs facilities can serve as important venues for educating the public about climate change.

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 17 2.1 Agency Descriptions (Cont.) Department of Public Works (DPW): DPW aims to deliver high quality, cost eective, ecient, and safe public infrastructure to enhance the quality of life in Denver. As one of the largest departments within the City and County of Denver, DPW provides a wide range of services from snow removal and trash collection to designing and managing capital improvement projects in the City. Denver expects an increase in extreme weather events resulting in more frequent and severe localized storm events. The resulting vulnerabilities aecting DPW include stresses to stormwater management, ood control, and decreased water quality. DPW is beginning to assess how paving materials and gray infrastructure such as concrete, pipes, and sewers, may exacerbate Denvers urban heat island eect. DPW looks to develop technologies and approaches that enhance Denvers adaptive capacity, including those related to watershed resilience. Department of General Services (DGS): DGS provides internal and external support services, including purchasing, facilities management, central services, and energy/sustainability operations. DGS faces vulnerabilities associated with increased demands for energy and water in the summer months due to expected higher temperatures. Resulting impacts include a potential for increased costs and the possibility of decreased productivity within the Citys workforce. DGS must budget for increased utility costs associated with maintaining current cooling and heating set points. DGS will analyze heating and cooling set points during occupied and unoccupied hours in order to make any modications necessary to avoid an increase of utility costs. DGS also will address the vulnerabilities by continuing strategic initiatives such as energy ecient upgrades, retrotting, energy audits, and environmentally preferred purchasing. Department of Community Planning & Development (CPD): CPD is responsible for planning and regulating land use and development in Denver. CPD provides policy and planning expertise and enforces land use, design, and construction standards to enhance and protect Denvers natural and built environments. CPD will address climate impacts and vulnerabilities resulting in extreme heat events, higher water and energy consumption on private property, and assess climate change planning needs within urban design standards and development plans. In preparation for a changing climate, CPD will utilize land use policies to guide development in Denver in a manner that is sustainable and forward thinking. Oce of Economic Development (OED): OED creates a local environment that stimulates balanced growth through job creations, business assistance, housing options, neighborhood redevelopment, and the development of a skilled workforce. OED strives to be a driving force that advances economic prosperity for the City of Denver, its businesses, neighborhoods, and residents. OED expects to monitor the in-andout migration of the workforce and businesses in Denver or other regions. OED must prepare for possible changes in tourism as a result of potentially shorter winter season and longer summer season. Also, OED is cognizant of resource constraints for industries relying on water supplies and the resulting impacts on production and services. OED will continue many of its sustainable initiatives such as low interest nancing for energy ecient appliances or renewable energy upgrades. Broadly, OED remains committed to providing assistance to attract and retain successful companies and individuals to Denver in conjunction with a changing climate. Denver International Airport (DIA): The City of Denver owns and operates Denver International Airport. Under the city charter, the management, operation, and control of DIA are delegated to the Citys Department of Aviation. DIAs primary vulnerability to a changing climate is the potential for increased interruptions of ight schedules due to extreme weather events. Other impacts include higher energy consumption in the summer months, damage to runways or infrastructure due to extreme heat or weather, and an increase in high winds reducing the number of runways available for use.

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Department of Human Services (DHS): DHS partners with the community to protect those in harms way and to help all people in need. DHS strives to provide a structure which enables those in need of assistance or protection to have a proven, timely path to safety and self suciency, allowing DHS to focus on preventions and strengthening the community. Climate change is expected to disproportionately aect vulnerable populations and DHS expects to respond to more frequent extreme heat events, higher energy consumption and demand, and the possibility of long-term disruptions of service delivery, all aecting Denvers vulnerable populations. Budget Management Oce (BMO): BMO facilitates scally responsible service delivery by ensuring and managing a balanced annual budget and strategic citywide capital plan, while informing and developing solutions to achieve ecient and eective operations. BMOs vision is to be a trusted partner in scally sound decision making. A primary vulnerability aecting BMO is an increased need for funds to address potential increased utility expenditures, maintenance, and capital improvements resulting from climate impacts and stress. Also, extreme weather events may cause severe damage to Denvers self-insured property. In response, city agencies will partner with BMO to analyze potential funding streams and/or budget allocations for future climate adaptation projects. Partnership Denver Water (DW): Denver Water serves high-quality water and promotes its ecient use to 1.3 million people in the City of Denver and many surrounding suburbs. Established in 1918, the utility is a public agency funded by water rates and new tap fees, not taxes. Denver Water actively incorporates climate adaptation planning in its future supply and demand planning by identifying potential impacts, assessing vulnerabilities, and planning for potential changes due to a warmer climate. The City and County of Denver actively partners with Denver Water on climate adaptation planning. Future partnership includes collaboration on scenario planning research to guide future planning using a unied approach between Denver Water and the City and County of Denver. Denver Water is not integrated into the City-wide EMS, but are active participants in short, medium, and long-term climate adaptation planning. 2.1 Agency Descriptions (Cont.) Climate Adaptation Plan | 18

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 19 2.2 Current Resilience Efforts 2.2.1 Buildings and Energy Many of the current actions and programs within the Buildings and Energy sector oer climate adaptation and climate mitigation co-benets. Implementing energy eciency and alternative energy measures, including energy ecient appliances, solar energy generation capacity, increased insulation, and energy ecient building techniques all reduce the amount of energy demand being added to the grid in Denver if lifestyles do not otherwise change. Reduced energy demand adds increased resilience, especially in the summer months when the grid is at the highest risk to be overloaded. Energy ecient appliances, solar energy generation capacity, increased insulation, and energy ecient building techniques all result in less greenhouse gas emissions than their traditional counterparts. Current programs are reducing Denvers per capita greenhouse gas emissions, as well as creating resilience in Denvers building stock that can withstand an increase in energy demands and prolonged heat w aves that result from climate change. Solar Power Plant Capacity: The City and County of Denver has an installed capacity of 9.4 Megawatts (MW) of solar PV on city facilities capable of powering the equivalent of 9,400 homes. 45 8MW of Denvers 9.4MW solar plant capacity is located at DIA. DIA is also the rst airport to implement an ISO 14001-certied environmental management system covering the entire airport, which will facilitate its ability to incorporate additional climate change adaptation measures. Encouragement of private sector solar capacity: Denver was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy to receive funding starting in 2008 for the Solar America Cities grant to increase penetration of solar energy in the Denver market. Denver also worked closely with the Colorado Solar Energy Industries Association to develop the 12 best practices for the Solar Friendly Communities program. Denver became the rst certied Solar Friendly Community in Colorado. The City and County of Denver also partnered with the State of Colorado and the Federal Executive Board to launch (through Group Energy) Solar Benets Colorado a solar discount program available to 150,000 local, state and federal employees in Colorado. By leveraging economies of scale, the program was able to realize the lowest installed costs for residential PV in the country. 3.2 MW Landll Gas-to-Energy Plant: The gas to energy plant at Denver Arapahoe Disposal Site has a capacity to power the equivalent of 3,000 homes. 46 EnergyCAP Utility Tracking: The City and County of Denver is Xcel Energys largest customer due to street lighting and City building demands. The City has transitioned to an electronic system allowing the City to view its energy consumption data and can track its energy use per building and quickly respond to ineciencies or spikes in energy use. Continual Commissioning Program: Denver has implemented energy audits and a retro-commissioning program which have identied 500 operational and capital improvement opportunities. Identifying opportunities to pursue energy eciency upgrades increases the resiliency of Denvers buildings and infrastructure, while reducing costs associated with rising energy demands. 47 ARRA-funded retrots, combined with energy audits and retro-commissioning, has resulted in a 23% reduction in energy use across core City facilities. Many of Denvers current city operations in the building and energy sector have both climate mitigation and climate adaptation benets, such as incorporating solar energy and improving energy eciency.

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 20 2.2.1 Buildings and Energy (Cont.) City Energy Project: Denver is one of ten cities nationally participating in the City Energy Project, with specic goals and plans to increase energy eciency in commercial buildings. In most large American cities, the operation of buildings account for the majority of energy use and carbon pollutionin Denver it is as much as 50 percent. Operations of a relatively small number of large buildings often account for a considerable portion of a citys energy use. Fortunately, we have the technology to make these buildings vastly more energy ecient, and by doing so, cities will slash energy waste, save money for their citizens, and improve their quality of life. Denver, like most major cities, needs to focus a large amount of resources on increasing energy eciency in commercial buildings. This eort results in less GHG in our atmosphere, reduced energy demands, and overall better air quality and a healthier, more resilient Denver. To facilitate this eort, Denver applied for and has been accepted as one of 10 cities to participate in the City Energy Project. The City Energy Project is a national initiative to create healthier and more prosperous American cities by improving the energy eciency of buildings. Working in partnership, the Project and Denver will support innovative and practical solutions that reduce pollution, boost local economies, and create healthier environments. Denvers participation in the City Energy Project will help shape and dene next-generation energy eciency eorts in our community. LEED Standard and Enterprise Green Community Standard: Denver requires new municipal construction and major renovations to earn a minimum of LEED Gold Certication. 48 Also, all aordable housing projects receiving City subsidies must meet the Enterprise Green Communities Standards, 49 using building methods and materials that promote environmental quality, economic vitality, and social benets. Denvers Building Code: Denver is on track to adopt the 2015 International Building Code which results in up-to-date building and energy eciency standards for all new construction in Denver. Low Interest Financing: Denvers Oce of Economic Development provides low-interest loans for energy intensive businesses to invest in renewable energy or energy eciency project s. Denver Energy Challenge and Certiably Green Denver: The Denver Energy Challenge oers free energy advising and exclusive rebates and energy loans for energy improvements. 50 Residential successes from the Denver Energy Challenge include: 1. In 2011, 2,262 homes participated and saved 1,035,396 kWhs and 164,733 therms, equating to a reduction of 1,769 tons of CO. 5 2. In 2012, 2,857 homes participated and saved 1,279,900 kWhs and 371,546 therms, equating to a reduction of 3,168 tons of CO. 3. In 2013, 1,891 homes participated and saved 676,915 kWhs and 114,532 therms, equating to a reduction of 1,196 tons of CO. Certiably Green Denver helps local businesses eliminate, avoid, and reduce pollution and waste through source reduction, reuse, recycling, and treatment alternatives. (gures 2.1 and 2.2) Denver Energy Assurance Plan (DEAP): DEAP provides guidance in preparing for, responding to, coordinating, and recovering from natural or human caused energy disruptions; measures to manage energy supply shortages; and strategies to reduce energy demand. Denver will face increased temperatures and more extreme heat days, intensifying energy demand and usage in the summer months. The Denver Energy Assurance Plan is an important step towards preparing for climate change impacts, such as energy disruption. 5 Over life of the measure. Figure 2.1: Certiably Green Denver Figure 2.2: With help from low-cost energy loans through the Denver Energy Challenge, Postmodern was able to nance and install energy eciency upgrades and a full solar system for their building in a matter of months (photo: Cascade Solar USA).

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 21 2.2.2 Health and Human Services Monitoring of air quality, water quality, and vector populations and providing community assistance oer climate adaptation benets. Continuous monitoring of air quality and water quality protects the public from any adverse health eects associated with decreased air quality or water quality. Review of long term data also allows Denver to recognize the relationship among factors such as increased air temperature and the associated eects on air and water quality. Vector monitoring prepares Denver for the potential increase of pests or changing patterns of vectors, protecting public health. Ensuring vulnerable populations have access to basic resources through community assistance is essential to adapt to climate change impacts that disproportionately aect low income populations, such as rising energy consumption and increased public health impacts. Additionally, Denvers Road Home (DRH) works to provide homes and shelter to the homeless population around Denver. The homeless are extremely vulnerable to climate impacts such as extreme heat, cold, and weather events, so providing homes for the homeless increases Denvers overall resiliency to climate change. Air Quality, Stream Water Quality, and Vector Monitoring: The Department of Environmental Health monitors Denvers air quality, stream water quality, and vector (disease carrying organism) populations. Air and stream water quality monitoring allows Denver to protect the health of its citizens and better understand ecosystem changes. Robust vector monitoring and controls prepares Denver for the potential increase of pests or changing migration patterns of vectors or other animals. 52 Community Assistance: Denvers Department of Human Services administers several benet programs ensuring families and individuals have the basic resources necessary to meet nancial, medical, nutritional, and housing needs. Examples include the Low Income Energy Assistance Program (LEAP) housing and shelter assistance, and robust child and protective services. 53 Denvers Road Home: DRH is a collaborative eort between the City and County of Denver, Mile High United Way, homeless service providers, foundations, businesses, faith-based organizations and the greater community. It is a ten-year plan to provide permanent housing, shelters, and services to the homeless population in Denver. After year eight DRH added 2,795 housing opportunities, generated 6,702 employment and training opportunities, prevented 6,199 families and individuals from becoming homeless through eviction prevention assistance, mentored 1,208 families and seniors out of homelessness, housed 2,275 individuals, and leveraged over $63 million in public and private dollars to help people. 54 Cold Weather Plan : Denvers Department of Human Services and DRH provide emergency shelters for the homeless in the case of frigid temperatures. The Cold Weather Plan may also provide framework for initiating an Extreme Heat Plan to ensure citizens have a safe place to stay in the case of extreme heat events in Denver. Many of Denvers programs within the Land Use and Transportation sector oer climate adaptation and climate mitigation co-benets. The Land Use and Transportation goals relate to reducing the amount of vehicles on the road, promoting public transportation, bicycles, and walking as primary modes of transportation, and increasing more dense, mixed-use, transportation-oriented development in order to create resilient communities. Reduced amounts of vehicles on the road result in less greenhouse gas emissions and ground level ozone, creating a healthier community. This in turn reduces impacts on air quality and ground level ozone that result from an increase in air temperatures from climate change. Mixed use transportation-oriented development provides resilient communities where residents have access to services, amenities, alternative transportation options, can practice resource-conserving lifestyles, and are more likely to know their neighbors. Denvers current city programs provide opportunities for biking, walking, and public transportation as primary modes of transportation. 2.2.3 Land Use and Transportation

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 22 2.2.3 Land Use and Transportation (Cont.) Denver Moves: The Department of Public Works Complete Streets policy and transportation plan, Denver Moves, support the goal of increasing Denvers bicycle and walking commute mode share to 15% by 2020 and installing a network of 442 miles of multi-use and bicycle facilities. 55 Bicycle Sharing B-Cycle Program: In 2010, Denver B-cycle, a 501c3 nonprot organization, launched its community wide bicycle sharing program. By the end of 2013, the program operated 82 stations with more than 700 bicycles available to rent. 56 Transit Oriented Development: Transit oriented development plans locate development near public transit stations. Denver strives to provide aordable housing and mixed-use development near transit locations. 57 The Denver Union Station Project, expected to be completed in May, 2014, will serve as a multimodal transportation hub, integrating multiple rail lines, buses, taxis, shuttles, vans, and limousines, as well as bicycles and pedestrians 58 (gure 2.3) Transit Oriented Development Strategic Plan Update: The TOD Strategic plan is intended to be a shortterm, implementation-driven document that guides the critical city-led actions needed for successful TOD in Denver. The strategic plan focuses the multiple eorts of various city departments and agencies into a concise work program for Denver over the next ve to six years, providing a foundation to guide public and private investment at rail stations. Blueprint Denver and Denvers Zoning Code: Integrates land use and transportation planning to support mixed use development and increased density in areas serviced by multi-modal transportation networks to minimize the need for single-occupant vehicle travel. Sustainable Neighborhoods Program: The sustainable neighborhoods program provides residents the ability to become involved in increasing the livability of their neighborhood while reducing their ecological footprint. With the help of the Department of Environmental Health, neighborhoods can become certied under the Sustainable Neighborhoods Program by focusing on initiatives to better their neighborhood under the broad categories of water, air, land, energy, and people. Figure 2.3: Denver Light Rail (en.wikipedia.org)

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 23 2.2.4 Urban Natural Resources Denvers programs in the Urban Natural Resources sector also oer climate adaptation and climate mitigation co-benets. Activities oer climate mitigation by increasing the amount of trees and green space within Denver which oer climate sequestration benets, reducing the amount of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. An increase in trees and green space oer several climate adaptation benets as well. First, they reduce the amount of impervious surfaces in Denver which decreases the severity of the urban heat island eect and increases the ability of the City to deal with extreme runo events. Also, tree cover produces shade which oers relief and cooling for citizens during extreme heat events. Implementing green infrastructure also reduces the nutrient load entering our waterways during rain events, improving water quality. Ecosystem health is also important to protect watersheds west of Denver that provide critical water supply for Denvers residents, and for wildlife around Denver. Mile High Million Program: In 2006, Denver adopted a goal of planting one million trees in the metropolitan area by 2025. Through this program, 250,000 trees were planted in the metro area oering multiple climate adaptation and mitigation benets such as increased shade and cooling, while also engaging the public towards natural resource stewardship. 59 With the help of the Mile High Million Program, the City of Denvers urban tree canopy reached 19.7%, and metro Denvers urban tree canopy averaged 16.4%. 60 The program is still in operation, but the goal has changed from a simple count of new plantings to strategic management of the existing canopy of over two million trees. Green Infrastructure: The Department of Public Works utilizes green infrastructure as a tool to promote ecient and natural stormwater inltration, while promoting air quality, water quality, and carbon reduction and sequestration (gure 2.4) 2.2.5 Water Consumption Denver area programs in the Water Consumption sector oer climate adaptation and mitigation co-benets. The installation of low ow water xtures saves water and energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Reducing the amount of water we consume through irrigation eciency and water recycling programs makes Denver more resilient in response to stressed water supplies, particularly during the hot, dry summer months. Denver Water oers extensive programs to encourage water conservation practices and to encourage low-water use landscaping. More dense land use also provides water conservation benets. Denver was named a top 10 Best U.S. City for Urban Forests by the nonprot American Forests. Urban forests provide many climate adaptation benets such as increased shade for cooling and improved air quality. Figure 2.4: Example of green infrastructure along the South Platte River near downtown Denver (epa.gov/region8/greeninfrastructure)

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 24 Denver Water Conservation Programs: Denver Water is pursuing a multi-pronged water strategy to secure water for the future through water eciency measures, reuse and supply augmentation. Denver Waters robust conservation program is targeted to help every type of customer save water. The conservation program includes rebates and incentives for residential and commercial customers to replace inecient water xtures with new, more ecient ones; summer water use rules enforced by water monitors; requirements for new properties to amend their soil (to make it retain more water); tiered water rates (the more water you use, the more you pay) to discourage water waste; and much more. Denver Water also promotes water conservation through its Use Only What You Need campaign, which was designed to create overarching community awareness about wise water use. 61 To read more on Denver Waters conservation eorts, visit denverwater.org/conservation, this provides a detailed look at current water conservation programs and activities. Irrigation Eciency and Recycled Water System: Many of Denver Waters public space customers, including school districts, park and recreation districts, universities and more are participating in Denver Waters Water Budget program. These customers receive monthly reports on water consumption compared with an ecient use target. Many of these customers have upgraded to Central Control irrigation systems enabling them to automatically adjust irrigation schedules to real-time weather conditions, detect leaks, and improve sta eciency. Several of these customers, including Denvers Parks and Recreation Department, Denver Public Schools and Xcel Energy, have connected to the recycled water system. In addition to Denvers DPR, additional recycled water customers currently include: the Denver Zoo, the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Wildlife Refuge, East High School grounds, and Westerly Creek School grounds. 62 Denver Water supplies about 7,000 acre-feet of recycled water a year and plans to supply about 17,500 acre-feet at buildout. 63 Retrotted and Updated Water Fixtures in City Buildings: Between 2006 and 2011, Denver partnered with Denver Water to install 400 low ow water xtures in public restrooms, saving over 2 million gallons of water per year. 64 Denver Waters Integrated Resource Plan: Denver Waters history of long-term planning is responsible for the highly reliable water system available in a rapidly growing, semi-arid region that benets customers today. As part of its long-term planning process, Denver Water is working on an Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) to help guide decisions about the water system in its entirety for the next 40 years. Issues addressed in the IRP include potential future challenges to the water system, such as climate change; demographic change; new water use patterns; changes to watersheds including beetle kill and forest res; and economic and regulatory changes. A wide variety of supply and demand management approaches will be considered and evaluated across nancial, environmental and social costs, a process called triple bottom-line analysis. Denver Waters Water Quality Program: Denver Water takes its water quality and safety very seriously. Each year more than 10,000 samples are collected and nearly 50,000 tests are conducted to ensure Denvers water is as clean and safe as possible. Denver Water vigilantly safeguards its mountain water supplies, and before the water reaches your tap, its carefully ltered and treated. Denver Waters Supply Monitoring Program: Denver Water collects readings at stream gauges and reservoirs throughout the system to track streamow, diversions, snowpack and other water-supply data. Daily streamow, reservoir levels and diversions are available on the Water Supply page at denverwater.org. Denver Waters From Forests to Faucets: Denver Water has partnered with the U.S. Forest Service and plans to match the U.S. Forest Services $16.5 million investment, totaling $33 million, toward forest treatment and watershed protection projects over a ve-year period in priority watersheds critical to Denvers water supply. This helps protect the ecosystems from an increased risk of re as well as mountain pine beetle infestation, protecting water supply, water quality, and overall ecosystem health. 65 2.2.5 Water Consumption (Cont.) Recycled water is treated wastewater reused for irrigation, industrial use, and in parks and golf courses. Using recycled water reduces the amount of water Denver needs to take from reservoirs and the energy needed to make water potable.

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 25 2.2.6 Food and Agriculture Denver has a current sustainability goal to have a more sustainable local food economy. A more robust local food system makes Denver more resilient to disruptions to food systems occurring in other regions. Also, local food managed with a robust local-oriented distribution system travels far less to get from farm to table, resulting in less greenhouse gas emissions during transportation. Programs such as Denvers Farmers Markets provide healthy and aordable food for all of Denvers residents, create jobs, and honor both people and the planet. Denver Farmers Markets: Denver oers many farmers markets throughout the metro area that oer local food, art, jewelry, and more. A local food economy can increase Denvers resilience towards climate change disruptions occurring in other regions. 2.3 Current Denver Programs with Climate Adaptation, Climate Mitigation and Combined-Benefits The current Denver programs discussed above all have climate adaptation benets, but many of them oer co-benets that serve both climate adaptation and climate mitigation. Table 2.1 displays examples of current programs including those that oer both climate adaptation and mitigation. Figure 2.5: Cherry Creek Fresh Market is one provider of fresh, local food in Denver. (farmersmarketonline. com/fm/CherryCreekFreshMarket.html) Table 2.1 Current Denver programs with climate adaptation, climate mitigation or combined benets Current Denver Program Climate Adaptation Climate Mitigation Buildings & Energy Solar Power Plant Capacity/Private sector solar capacity 3.2 MW Landll Gas-to-Energy Plant EnergyCAP Utility Tracking Continual Commissioning Program City Energy Project LEED Standard Enterprise Green Community Standard Denvers Building Code Low Interest Finance Denver Energy Challenge and Certiably Green Denver Denver Energy Assurance Plan yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 26 Table 2.1 (Cont.) Current Denver Program Climate Adaptation Climate Mitigation Health & Human Services Air Quality, Stream Water Quality, and Vector Monitoring Community Assistance Denvers Road Home Cold Weather Plan Denver Moves Bicycle Sharing B-Cycle Program Transit Oriented Development Transit Oriented Development Strategic Plan Update Blueprint Denver and Denvers Zoning Code Sustainable Neighborhoods Program Mile High Million Green Infrastructure Denver Water Conservation Programs Irrigation Eciency and Recycled Water System Retrotted and Updated Water Fixtures in City Buildings Denver Waters Integrated Resource Plan Denver Waters Water Quality Program Denver Waters Supply Monitoring Program From Forests to Faucets Denver Farmers Markets yes no yes no yes no yes no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes no yes yes yes no Land Use & Transportation Urban Natural Resources Water Consumption Food & Agriculture Continuing and building upon current Denver programs that provide climate adaptation, climate mitigation, and cobenets will improve Denvers overall climate resiliency as well as aid in reaching long-term climate adaptation goals.

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 27 CHAPTER 3: VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT 3.1 Background Vulnerability assessments are a key tool for informing climate change adaptation planning. Vulnerability is dened as, the degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse eects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. 66 Stated another way, systems that are sensitive to climate and less able to adapt to changes are generally considered to be vulnerable to climate change impacts. Vulnerability assessments are a vital part of adaptation planning because they identify: 1. Which systems are likely to be most aected by the projected change in climate; and 2. Why these systems are likely to be vulnerable, including the interaction between climate shifts and existing stressors. 67 Knowing which systems are most vulnerable enables managers to set priorities for adaptation planning and provides a basis for developing appropriate management responses. Knowing why systems are vulnerable enables managers to identify appropriate short and long-term climate change adaptation strategies. The level or degree of vulnerability a system faces can be ranked according to the sensitivity of a particular system to climate change and its capacity to adapt to those changes. 68 Sensitivity is the degree to which a built, natural or human system is directly or indirectly aected by changes in climate conditions (i.e. temperature and precipitation) or specic climate change impacts. If the system is likely to be aected by projected climate change, it would be considered sensitive to climate change. 69 Adaptive capacity describes the ability of a built, natural or human system to accommodate changes in climate with minimum disruption or minimum additional cost. Generally, systems that have high adaptive capacity are better able to deal with climate change impacts. 70 3.2 Conducting the Vulnerability Assessment The rst step in conducting Denvers vulnerability assessment was to identify the most signicant eects of climate change in Denver. Denver Department of Environmental Health convened a climate adaptation working group consisting of City agency and department representatives. This group reviewed available information and agreed that a number of others in the Denver area had already compiled, analyzed, and summarized a great deal of information and literature regarding likely climate impacts in Denver. Extensive eorts had already been conducted by Denver Water, Boulder County, and the State of Colorado. Through review of these eorts, peer-reviewed literature, and individual expertise the working group concluded that the most critical climate change impacts in Denver are: 71 1. Increase in temperature and urban heat island eects; 2. Higher frequency of extreme weather events; and 3. Reduced snowpack and earlier snowmelt. Vulnerability is dened as the degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse eects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. Identifying which systems are most vulnerable to climate change enables managers to set priorities for adaptation planning.

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 28 3.2 Conducting the Vulnerability Assessment (Cont.) The Climate Adaptation Working Group met regularly during 2012 and 2013 to identify vulnerabilities associated with the three most-likely principal climate change impacts. This multi-agency bottom-up approach was strongly favored because engaged participation from many agencies and partners with responsibilities for adapting to climate change will be needed for eective eorts. The process takes longer with such an approach, but long-term engagement is more likely when the process is inclusive. This working group identied vulnerabilities that aected individual agencies and Denver as a whole. For example, extreme heat events may cause roadways to degrade more quickly than under previous climate conditions. This vulnerability would aect Public Works more than other agencies, whereas higher energy costs to cool buildings during extreme heat events would aect multiple agencies and partners. Additionally, the working group understood that some vulnerabilities would be more important to address than others. Accordingly, the working group used a system to rank the importance of the vulnerabilities by sensitivity and adaptive capacity. 3.2.1 Vulnerability Assessment: Sensitivity Analysis The next step in conducting the vulnerability analysis was to conduct a sensitivity analysis by agency and sector. The working group evaluated each of the vulnerabilities identied in the rst step with this question in mind: will the systems associated with this vulnerability be signicantly aected by projected changes in climate? Sensitivity was evaluated by considering: 1. Who or what could be impacted? 2. How do weather and/or climate currently aect this system? 3. To what degree is the system sensitive to climate change? 4. Are the stresses to the system projected to get worse, stay the same or improve? Do new stresses to the system emerge altogether (ex: new infectious diseases/decline of species, etc.)? 5. How exposed is the system to climate change (greater exposure = higher sensitivity)? 6. Is the system subject to existing stress unrelated to climate change (stressed systems are more likely to be more sensitive)? 7. Will climate change cause the demand for a resource to exceed supply? 8. What is the impact threshold for the system (ex: thresholds that cause pavements to crack, temperature in which species/landscapes are aected)? Based on this subjective analysis the level of sensitivity was ranked with a score ranging from low sensitivity to climate change (represented by S0) to high sensitivity to climate change (S4). Primary Agencies and Organizations Involved in the Vulnerability Assessment Budget and Management Oce Denver International Airport Denver Water Department of Community Planning and Development Department of Environmental Health Department of General Services Department of Human Services Department of Parks and Recreation Department of Public Works Oce of Economic Development Oce of Emergency Management Oce of Sustainability

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 29 3.2.2 Vulnerability Assessment: Adaptive Capacity Along with the sensitivity analysis, each agency evaluated associated systems adaptive capacity, or its ability to be modied to accommodate future climatic changes or variability, with the question: t o what extent are the systems associated with this planning area able to accommodate changes in climate at minimum disruption or cost? Adaptive capacity for each vulnerability was ranked with a score of low adaptive capacity (AC0 not able to be modied) to high adaptive capacity (AC4 highly capable of being modied), using the following criteria: 1. What does the system have in order for it (that allows it?) to adapt? 2. What does the system need in order for it to adapt? 3. Are there barriers to the systems ability to adapt (ex: regulatory/design standards, large number competing for use of the system, large number of ownership/jurisdiction of a system, biological or physical barriers that limit exibility)? 4. Is the rate of climate change faster than the systems ability to adapt? 5. Are there eorts under way to address impacts of climate change related to systems in this planning area? 3.2.3 Vulnerability Assessment: Qualifying Vulnerability Once scorings were agreed upon for sensitivity and adaptive capacity, the results were placed in a scoring matrix to identify an overall vulnerability score. The vulnerability scores ranged from potential opportunity (PO) to a low vulnerability score (V1), to a high vulnerability score (V5). Table 3.1 Vulnerability scoring matrix: PO = potential opportunity V1= low vulnerability V5= high vulnerability 6 A full table of the vulnerabilities by Department is provided in Appendix B which lists vulnerabilities by department and includes the scoring values for sensitivity, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. Where insucient information was available or little input was received from the working group the vulnerability was not ranked (NR). ADAPTIVE CAPACITY LOW TO HIGH AC0 AC1 AC2 AC3 AC4 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 V2 V1 V1 PO PO V3 V2 V1 V1 PO V4 V3 V2 V1 PO V5 V4 V3 V2 V1 V5 V5 V4 V3 V2 SENSITIVITY LOW TO HIGH 6 Source: City of Flagsta, 2012. City of Flagsta Resiliency and Preparedness Study

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 30 3.2.3 Vulnerability Assessment: Qualifying Vulnerability (Cont.) Key ndings of the assessment for ranked vulnerabilities indicate the following: 7 7 Denver Water vulnerabilities were not ranked 8 A full list of climate vulnerabilities is included in Appendix B There were 65 ranked vulnerabilities relating to an increase in temperature and urban heat island eect There were 42 ranked vulnerabilities relating to a higher frequency of extreme weather events There were 8 ranked vulnerabilities relating to reduced snowpack and earlier snowmelt None of the vulnerabilities ranked V5 (highly vulnerable) 37% of vulnerabilities ranked V3 or V4 51% of vulnerabilities ranked V2 or V1(low vulnerability) 12% of vulnerabilities ranked PO (potential opportunity) None of the vulnerabilities ranked V5 43% of vulnerabilities ranked V3 or V4 43% of vulnerabilities ranked V2 or V1 14% of vulnerabilities ranked PO None of the vulnerabilities ranked V4 or V5 63% of vulnerabilities ranked V3 37% of vulnerabilities ranked V2 or less None of the vulnerabilities ranked PO 3.3 Identification of Priority Vulnerabilities and Priority Planning Areas The working group considered vulnerabilities ranked V3 and greater as a priority vulnerability and a priority planning area. 8 Table 3.2 presents a summary of priority vulnerabilities associated with the three primary climate change impacts used in Denvers Climate Adaptation Plan. Included in Table 3.2 are the priority vulnerability, Denver agencies aected by the priority vulnerability and the sector associated with the priority vulnerability.

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 31 Table 3.2: Priority Climate Change Vulnerabilities 9 Climate Impact Priority Vulnerability Aected Departments Sector Increase in temperature and urban heat island eect Higher energy consumption and demand in the summer months Higher maintenance and equipment costs for Denver buildings Building design standards not addressing climate change scenarios Decrease in quality of living/reduced comfort or reduced occupant comfort in buildings/impacts to productivity Extreme heat events aecting vulnerable populations Increase in vector borne diseases/increased use of pesticides Increase in number and/or severity of high ozone days Challenging environmental regulations Regulatory barriers to the adoption of adaptation strategies Design standards not addressing climate change scenarios Climate induced in-and outmigration of workforce populations and businesses Stress on trees and urban landscaping Warming of stream and lake systems aecting aquatic species and human recreation Higher water demands (City and private) ,possible higher cost of water and consumption in summer months Reduced amount of water available from independent ditch water supplies for irrigation. Increased threat of pests, invasive species and noxious weeds. DGS, DEH, DIA, CPD, DHS* DGS, OED*, CPD* OEM, CPD* DPW, CPD, DEH, DGS, DPR, DHA* CPD, DEH, DHS, DPR DEH, OEM DEH, DHHA* DIA CPD, DPW* DPW, UDFCD* OED, BMO* DPR DPR, DEH CPD, DEH, DPR, DW* DPR, DW* DPR Buildings and Energy Buildings and Energy Buildings and Energy Health and Human Services Health and Human Services Health and Human Services Health and Human Services Health and Human Services Land Use and Transportation Land Use and Transportation Land Use and Transportation Urban Natural Resources Urban Natural Resources Water Consumption Water Consumption Food and Agriculture 9 (*) Represents City agencies or community organizations eected by priority vulnerability, but did not take part in the vulnerability assessment

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 32 Table 3.2: Priority Climate Change Vulnerabilities 9 Climate Impact Priority Vulnerability Aected Departments Sector Higher frequency of extreme weather events Reduced snowpack and earlier snowmelt Denver buildings structurally vulnerable to extreme weather events Unanticipated increase in emergency management funding and impacts on self-insured property Ensuring health care services for people with chronic conditions during extreme weather events Increased stress on storm water management systems Air quality impacts and increased ozone from increased frequency of drought-induced wildres Long-term disruption in services delivery Interruptions to transportation and stress or damage to physical infrastructure and public assets Increase in high wind days; reduced amount of runways available Interruptions in business and ight schedule Degradation of surface water quality including microbial contaminants Park damages and debris generation, damage to riparian corridors and stress on landscapes and trees Contaminant loading from increased ooding and heavy rain spells Stormwater management and ood control Changes in ski tourism may lead to fewer travelers/fewer ights Decrease in water quality due to low-water ow in discharge areas during summer season Increase in frequency, size and duration of wildres in mountain parks OEM, CPD* BMO OEM DPW, CPD, DPR, UDFCD* DEH, OEM DHS CPD, DPR DIA DIA DEH, DPW DPR, DEH DPW DIA DIA DPW, DEH, DPR DPR Buildings and Energy Buildings and Energy Health and Human Services Land Use and Transportation Health and Human Services Land Use and Transportation Land Use and Transportation Land Use and Transportation Land Use and Transportation Urban Natural Resources Urban Natural Resources Urban Natural Resources Urban Natural Resources Land Use and Transportation Urban Natural Resources Urban Natural Resources (Chapters 4 and 5)

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 33 CHAPTER 4: SHORTTERM CLIMATE ADAPTATION ACTIVITIES As a rst step toward addressing Denvers vulnerabilities related to climate change, Denvers agency sta selected short-term adaptation activities to implement based on agency expertise, feasibility, and the ability to synergize within existing strategic goals. The activities address the expected climate change impacts of (1) an increased temperature and urban heat island eect and (2) an increase in frequency of extreme weather events in Denver, and (3) reduced snowpack and earlier snowmelt. Agency sta identied short-term adaptation activities they felt could be implemented within one or two years. The short-term adaptation activities were subsequently embedded within the EMS, as previously described in Section 1.6 Due to the short-term nature and expectation that these activities will be implemented within one to two years, these activities are largely those that can be accomplished directly by City agencies. 4.1 Short-Term Climate Adaptation Actions by Sector 4.1.1 Buildings and Energy Sector Table 4.1 identies short-term adaptation activities associated with the Buildings and Energy Sector and the principal agencies involved. Table 4.1: Summary of Short Term Adaptation Activities for Buildings and Energy Sector Short-term climate adaptation activities will be embedded into the city-wide EMS and implemented within one to two years. Climate Impact Vulnerability EMS Adaptation Activities Responsible Agency Agency Plan Increase in temperature and urban heat island eect Higher energy consumption and demand in summer months 1) Reduce energy use in City facilities by 2.5% per square foot over 2011 baseline 2) Reduce energy use in Facilities Management portfolio by 2.5% per square foot over 2011 baseline 3) Complete 95% of Priority 1 and 2 deciencies and operational improvements identied in 2013 Facility Condition and Assessment studies within 6 months of project completion 4) Complete Facility Condition and Assessment studies on 8-10 facilities Department of General Services Strategic Initiatives Year End Report

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 34 Table 4.1: Summary of Short Term Adaptation Activities for Buildings and Energy Sector Climate Impact Vulnerability EMS Adaptation Activities Responsible Agency Agency Plan Increase in temperature and urban heat island eect Increase in temperature and urban heat island eect Climate induced in and out migration of workforce populations and businesses Higher energy demands and use 1) Complete outreach to the top 20 energy companies in Denver 2) Begin implementation of the By-Product Synergy Network (BPS) Approve and implement DIA Energy Management Program and Energy Team Charter Oce of Economic Development Denver International Airport Jumpstart 2013 Energy EMS Activities Reduce energy use in City facilities and in Facilities Management Portfolio : DGS will work with other Denver agencies to implement capital, operational, and behavioral improvements. The energy use and reduction will be measured using annual building utility data. Complete Priority 1 and 2 deciencies: DGS recommendations will be uploaded into their Infor database as work order requests. The requests will be reviewed and assigned as work orders to Facilitates sta. A report will be generated using the Infor database to determine the status of each recommendation to ensure completion. Facility Condition Assessments: DGS will procure on-call energy services and manage building assessments. The assessments provide valuable information regarding both immediate and long term liabilities. The identied liabilities can then be reviewed against expected climate changes. Outreach to Energy Businesses: OED plans to continue outreach to executives of the top 20 energy companies in 2013 to express the Citys appreciation for their contribution to the job base and explore ways in which Denver can be a better partner. This eort is aimed to communicate that the City understands the signicant value both traditional and renewable energy companies have to the local economy, and the impacts they have on eorts to curb climate change. For example, Denver recently signed onto a Memorandum of Understanding with the state to buy more natural gas-fueled vehicles. By-Product Synergy Network (BPS): OED in collaboration with the US Business Council on Sustainable Development, plans to initiate a regional By-Product Synergy Network for Colorado. The BPS network will match under-valued waste or by-product streams from one rm to another to create new sources of revenue and supply chain benets, while reducing environmental burden. The strategy reduces the overall volume of waste from manufacturing facilities that is transported to landlls. In addition, the network creates valuable connections among manufacturing facilities in Colorado to advance sustainable business practices in Colorado, which ultimately serves to increase a companys costcompetitiveness, improve regional self-suciency, and strengthen the nancial viability of local businesses. As a result, the private sector is less susceptible to climate disruptions in other areas of the country and the world which advances the national security, economic viability, and resilience to climate change of communities. Project development will be executed in eight phases and reach completion once funding, partners, and network memberships are secured. After completion, ongoing operations to identify and facilitate by-product synergies will begin in 2014. DIA Energy Management Program: The DIA Energy Management Program will improve energy related procedures, re-commission and optimize major energy using equipment and facilities, and install costeective energy eciency measures. Increasing energy eciency and optimizing energy management will reduce costs, reduce emissions, and increase DIAs overall resiliency to climate change impacts.

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 35 4.1.2 Health and Human Services Sector Table 4.2 identies short-term adaptation activities associated with the Health and Human Services Sector. The principal agencies involved in the Health and Human Services Sector are DEH, OEMHS, and DHS. Table 4.2: Summary of Short Term Adaptation Activities for Health and Human Services Sector Climate Impact Vulnerability EMS Activities Responsible Agency Agency Plan Increase in temperature and urban heat island eect Increase in temperature and urban heat island eect, and extreme weather events Increase in temperature and urban heat island eect Extreme heat aecting vulnerable populations Increase in vector-borne diseases Extreme heat aecting vulnerable populations Extreme heat aecting vulnerable populations Dene extreme heat event; specify how DEH will interact/ cooperate with other agencies such as Public Health or the Oce of Emergency Management Write a city-wide vector control plan in which both existing and emerging vectors are discussed 1) Draft an extreme heat annex for the Emergency Operations Plan 2) Create and execute an extreme events educational campaign for the public Specify how DHS will interact/ cooperate with other agencies, or OEMHS, during extreme heat events Department of Environmental Health Department of Environmental Health Oce of Emergency Management and Homeland Security Department of Human Services Emergency Operations Plan (OEMHS) Vector Control Plan Emergency Operations Plan n/a Emergency Operations Plan (OEMHS) EMS Activities Dene Extreme Heat Event: DEH and OEMHS will identify the conditions or events that will trigger Denvers declaration of an extreme heat event. Such an event will necessitate coordination with other city agencies, particularly DEH and OEMHS To complete this task, DEH will work with OEMHS to establish a local denition of an extreme heat event. This will provide a basis for promptly reacting to conditions that may negatively aect Denver, particularly its vulnerable populations. Draft an Extreme Heat Annex: OEMHS will draft this annex to include a local denition of an extreme heat event in Denver and establish thresholds to activate emergency operations, based on lessons learned during a city-wide exercise in May 2013 to determine gaps in the Citys current response to an extreme heat event. The annex will include a plan for cooling centers if needed, and outline the roles and responsibilities of agencies during an extreme heat event. An extreme heat annex allows Denver to be prepared and organized during extreme heat events and reduces the risk of costly, adverse public health eects. OEMHS tested the Citys ability to respond to an extreme heat event in 2013.

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 36 EMS Activities (Cont.) Extreme Heat Educational Campaign: OEMHS plans to initiate a community wide extreme heat educational campaign to better prepare the general public for an extreme heat event. OEMHS will collect community input from a public survey to determine how concerned the public is about extreme heat in Denver, and how the public would like to receive information about extreme heat hazards. OEMHS will use all methods that the public identies in the survey to ensure public engagement methods are reaching as many people as possible. Some of the potential methods include: 1) an extreme heat brochure, 2) posting the information on the OEMHS website, 3) adding extreme heat to all presentations OEMHS gives to the community, and 4) engaging schools in an extreme heat educational program for children. Expected outcomes include increased outreach through the public information campaign and a measurement of how well prepared for an extreme heat event the public feels as a result of the campaign. Extreme Heat Protocol: When conditions are declared an extreme heat event, DHS will implement an outlined process partnering with other agencies to protect and to assist Denvers citizens assuring basic needs are met. This strategy responds to impacts on vulnerable populations during extreme heat events by reducing public health concerns and protecting the well-being of Denvers citizens. DHS will collaborate with OEMHS and other agencies, to establish a local denition of extreme heat and an ecient course of action. Vector Control Plan : DEH expects that a warmer climate will result in more vectors than currently observed due to an expanded season, which could result in an increase in vector-borne diseases. This activity responds to an increased presence of animal vectors carrying an expanded array of disease-causing organisms in Denver. Working with Parks and Recreation along with other agencies, DEH will complete a draft Vector Control Plan which will provide technical advice to DEH and Parks and Recreation personnel on the management and control of insect and animal disease vectors 4.1.3 Land Use and Transportation Sector Table 4.3 identies short-term adaptation activities associated with Land Use and Transportation, led principally by CPD. Table 4.3: Summary of Short Term Adaptation Activities for Land Use and Transportation Climate Impact Vulnerability EMS Activities Responsible Agency Agency Plan ALL Increase in urban heat island eect/ extreme weather events Design standards not addressing climate change scenarios Increased stress on stormwater management Address climate change in upcoming Golden Triangle Small Area Plan Begin scoping process and update of Streetscape standards to address climate adaptation Department of Community Planning and Development Departments of Community Planning and Development, Public Works and Parks and Recreation Golden Triangle Small Area Plan Streetscape Standards

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 37 EMS Activities Golden Triangle Small Area Plan and others: CPD will release a Golden Triangle Small Area Plan addressing unique planning issues of that area. The Golden Triangle is bounded by Lincoln-Broadway, Colfax, and Speer Boulevard. The Plan will identify key development and infrastructure strategies with a specic focus on impacts and opportunities related to zoning, building heights, multi-modal streets, and place making. CPD plans to include climate change as a consideration during planning by increasing park spaces and emphasizing sustainability. The Golden Triangle Small Area Plan will serve as an example to prompt further planning eorts to include climate change considerations in their plan and serve as a model for adaptation strategies in other neighborhood-level plans. Streetscape Standards update: The Citys Streetscape Standards set guidelines for the design of city streets and was last updated in 1993. CPD plans to begin the scoping process in 2014 or 2015 and expects to complete the updated streetscape design standards in 2016. CPD will consider expected climate change impacts for Denver during the update process. The updated guidelines will align regulatory tools with an expected future that is hotter and likely drier. 4.1.4 Urban Natural Resources Sector Table 4.4 identies short-term adaptation activities associated with Urban Natural Resources Sector; the principal agencies are DPR and DPW. Table 4.4: Summary of Short-Term Adaptation Activities for Urban Natural Resources Climate Impact Vulnerability EMS Activities Responsible Agency Agency Plan Increase in temperature and urban heat island eect Higher frequency of extreme weather events Stress on trees and urban landscaping Stormwater management and ood control Contaminant loading from increased ooding and heavy rain spells 1) Publish and begin the outreach of the Metro Denver Urban Forest Assessment 2) Initiate a contract to inventory existing trees within the City in preparation for a Tree and Shade Master Plan 3) Update the right-of-way tree list that focuses on trees that can thrive in future climates Include a discussion section on climate adaptation and mitigation in the Storm Drainage Master Plan documentation update currently underway by DPW planning sta Include climate adaptation and mitigation in discussion and documentation related to 6 year Water Quality Strategic Implementation Plan currently underway by DPW planning sta Department of Parks and Recreation Department of Public Works Metro Denver Urban Forest Assessment Tree and Shade Master Plan Right-of-Way Tree List Storm Storm Drainage Master Plan Water Quality Strategic Implementation Plan

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EMS Activities Metro Denver Urban Forest Assessment: 72 There is growing recognition that trees provide long-term environmental, economic, and health benets critical to vibrant and livable cities. To arm the relevance of Metro Denvers urban forest, the Metro Denver Urban Forest Assessment was conducted to quantify the distribution of tree canopy cover and the value of the ecosystem services provided by its 10.7 million trees. This serves as a platform for planning the future urban forest by mapping locations of potential tree planting sites and valuing ecosystem services provided by an additional 4.25 million trees. This assessment provides data on the location of sites in Denver where there is elevated heat to be used as a guide to the planting of new trees in order to mitigate the urban heat island eect. Additionally, its ndings will be used to inform the public and key decision makers on the value and benet the urban forest provides. Metro Denvers urban tree canopy ( UTC ), dened as the area covered by the leaves and branches of trees, covers 15.7% of the 721 square mile study area. It provides $551 million in property value increases, energy savings, carbon storage, stormwater reduction, and air quality benets annually. Adding an additional 4.25 million trees will ll nearly one-half of the regions vacant tree sites, increasing the UTC from 16% to 31% once trees mature. The annual value of ecosystem services will increase to $1 billion. The asset value of Metro Denvers urban forest is $13 billion, or $5,897 per tree, calculated at a 4.125% discount rate for 100 years. In 2013, UTC covered approximately 19.7% of the City, a relatively high amount compared to the overall average found for Metro Denver. Also, approximately 50% of the land area is impervious surfaces such as roads, buildings, water and sidewalks, while only 31% of the City is grass and bare soil that can be easily planted with trees, leaving 1.1 million vacant planting sites. Denver has 2.2 million existing trees and 3.7 trees per capita. Denvers urban forest produces ecosystem services and property value benets valued at $122 million annually. This is the highest value of benets in Denver. Property value increases account for 76% of the total amount, followed by stormwater runo reduction from rainfall interception (20%), and cooling energy savings (4%). Planting 68,316 trees in 49% of the vacant sites in hot spots would help mitigate the urban heat island eect, thereby improving air quality and human health. The asset value of the Citys UTC is $2.9 billion and will increase to $6 billion, or $2,176 per tree, when UTC reaches 31.1%. Figure 4.1 73 displays Metro Denvers percent UTC cover by city in the study area. I l i f f A v e J e w e l l A v e F l o r i d a A v e M i s s i s s i p p i A v e E x p o s i t i o n A v e A l a m e d a A v e 1 s t A v e 6 t h A v e 1 0 t h A v e C O L F A X A V E 2 0 t h A v e 2 6 t h A v e 3 2 n d A v e 3 8 t h A v e 4 4 t h A v e 4 8 t h A v e 5 2 n d A v e Y a l e A v e D a r t m o u t h A v e H a m p d e n A v e M a n s f i e l d A v e Q u i n c y A v e B e l l e v i e w A v e B e r r y A v e S h e r i d a n B l v d T e n n y s o n S t L o w e l l B l v d F e d e r a l B l v d Z u n i S t P e c o s S t H u r o n S t B R O A D W A Y C l a r k s o n S t F r a n k l i n S t Y o r k S t S t e e l e S t C o l o r a d o B l v d D a h l i a S t H o l l y S t M o n a c o P k w y Q u e b e c S t U l s t e r S t Y o s e m i t e S t D a y t o n S t H a v a n a S t L i m a S t P e o r i a S t K i p l i n g S t G a r r i s o n S t C a r r S t W a d s w o r t h B l v d P i e r c e S t H a r l a n S t S h e r i d a n B l v d T e n n y s o n S t L o w e l l B l v d F e d e r a l B l v d Z u n i S t P e c o s S t H u r o n S t B R O A D W A Y C l a r k s o n S t F r a n k l i n S t U n i v e r s i t y B l v d S t e e l e S t C o l o r a d o B l v d D a h l i a S t H o l l y S t M o n a c o P k w y Q u e b e c S t U l s t e r S t Y o s e m i t e S t B e l l e v i e w A v e U n i o n A v e Q u i n c y A v e M a n s f i e l d A v e H a m p d e n A v e D a r t m o u t h A v e Y a l e A v e I l i f f A v e J e w e l l A v e F l o r i d a A v e M i s s i s s i p p i A v e E x p o s i t i o n A v e A l a m e d a A v e 1 s t A v e 6 t h A v e 1 0 t h A v e C o l f a x A v e M o n t v i e w B l v d P o t o m a c S t S a b l e B l v d C h a m b e r s r d L a r e d o S t B u ck l e y R d T e l l u r i d e S t T o w e r R d D u n k i r k S t H i m a l a y a R d L i v e r p o o l S t P i ca d i l l y R d 6 4 t h A v e 7 2 n d A v e H e a t I s l a n d s & N e i g h b o r h o o d T r e e C a n o p y 0 1 2 M i l e sH e a t I s l a n d s W a r m H o t A v e r a g e T r e e C a n o p y C o v e r a g e < 1 5 % 1 5 % 2 5 % > 2 5 % Figure 4.1: Metro Denvers percent urban tree canopy cover by city. Darker shaded green represents higher percent cover. Climate Adaptation Plan | 38

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 39 Tree and Shade Master Plan: As the climate changes the urban forest has the potential to become stressed. Dierent tree species react dierently to stress. The City Foresters Oce is beginning a multi-year inventory and risk assessment of the trees in the parks, parkways and golf courses. Once this inventory is complete, a Tree and Shade Master Plan can be created to allow for strategic planting and management of the urban forest to benet a population experiencing increased temperature. Right-of-Way Plant Growing List: The City Forester is responsible for permitting the planting of all trees planted in public property and the public right of way. A list of approved trees for planting is published by the City Foresters Oce. As the climate changes the trees planted today must have characteristics that will allow them to survive decades into the future in order for them to reach their mature size to provide optimal benets. The list of trees approved for planting will be reviewed annually and updated with species that are demonstrating the ability to thrive in climates similar to those that Denver is anticipating in the next forty years. Storm Drainage Master Plan: The stormwater master planning eorts will plan and design infrastructure for sustainability and resilience related to climate impacts. DPW sta will work with regional organizations to update existing criteria to reect the existing climate information as changes in rainfall, storm frequency, and intensity are better understood. Water Quality Strategic Implementation Plan: Water quality strategic planning is ongoing by DPW and the Water Quality Task Force. Strategic planning encapsulates oodplain, lakes, streams, rivers, and stormwater issues relating to water quality. EMS Activities (Cont.) 4.1.5 Water Consumption Sector Table 4.5 identies short-term adaptation activities associated with the Water Consumption Sector and the principal agencies involved. Table 4.5: Summary of Short Term Adaptation Activities for Water Consumption Sector Climate Impact Vulnerability EMS Activities Responsible Agency Agency Plan Reduced snowpack and earlier snowmelt Reduced amount of water available from independent ditch water supplies for irrigation Higher water demands and consumption in summer months Implement Phase II of the Central Control Master Plan Require xeric planting or low water use landscape plantings in the urban design standards and guidelines for Cherry Creek East Department of Parks and Recreation Department of Community Planning and Development Central Control Master Plan Cherry Creek East Urban Design Standards and Guidelines

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 40 EMS Activities Central Control Master Plan: DPR has been actively pursuing water conservation initiatives for over 20 years. The 2010 Central Control Master Plan provides a ve-year plan for the complete build out of irrigation central control systems. Central control provides the greatest water management capabilities with the most ecient use of labor when used in tandem with ow sensing and a master valve. DPR is comprised of many large independent sites, with limited personnel to individually manage each site with stand-alone controllers. Central control allows necessary seasonal and weather related schedule adjustments of multiple sites quickly from centrally located computer instead of requiring sta to make multiple trips to adjust each controller on site. Flow sensing also provides DPR with the capability to monitor and analyze water use through consumption reporting, which allows the opportunity to maximize the ecient use of water. Urban Design Standards and Guidelines for Cherry Creek East: Under the landscape section of the urban design standards and guidelines, CPD will require xeric planting, or low-water use landscape plantings in Cherry Creek East. The urban design standards and guidelines for Cherry Creek East could become a model for other neighborhoods. As Denver expects more frequent and intense droughts, drought-tolerant landscaping provides a smart solution to address the trade-o between water quantity and green infrastructure. Cherry Creek East is bordered by Steele Street, Cherry Creek North Drive, Alameda Avenue, Colorado Boulevard, and 1st Avenue. The area supports a mix of residential and oce uses and some of the highest residential and employment densities in all of Cherry Creek, as well as the greatest diversity of housing types. Integrating these short-term activities into Denvers EMS puts Denver on the right track to meet its long-term climate adaptation goals, as discussed in the following chapter. CHAPTER 5: MEDIUM AND LONGTERM CLIMATE ADAPTATION ACTIVITIES Chapter 4 provided a description of short-term (one to two years) adaptation activities various Denver agencies are implementing to adapt to what likely will be a hotter and drier Denver. Chapter 5 discusses longer-term goals and strategies for adapting to a changing climate. The longer-term (medium-term and long-term) climate adaptation goals and strategies were developed for each sector through collaboration among Denver agency partners, community organizations, DEH and Meister Consultants Group. These longer-term adaptation goals correspond to the priority vulnerabilities previously identied in Chapter 3 Strategies for meeting these adaptation goals are introduced along with proposed activities for implementation of the strategies. Whereas the short-term adaptation activities discussed in Chapter 4 were primarily those that would be implemented by Denver and partner agencies, the longer-term term adaptation activities discussed in the following sub sections will need to be implemented by both Denver and partner agencies and the private community. Medium-term goals and strategies would be expected to be implemented in two to ve years and long-term-term goals and strategies would be expected to be implemented in ve to ten years.

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 41 5.1 Buildings and Energy Sector Residential, commercial, and industrial buildings shelter Denver residents and house businesses and institutions key to the regions economic vitality. Ensuring these facilities are able to withstand climate impacts, require less energy during extreme temperature conditions, operate continuously during extreme weather events, and maintain a reliable power supply are high priorities for Denvers adaptation planning. In addition, adaptation activities in this sector are closely linked to the Citys energy and greenhouse gas emissions reduction activities. Reducing the vulnerabilities aecting Denvers buildings and energy systems are closely linked to mitigating global climate change, lowering energy expenditures, and reducing local and regional air pollution. As described in Chapter 3 Denver is expected to face increasing temperatures, extreme weather events, and shifting stream ows, all of which will signicantly aect Denvers built environment. Higher temperatures will increase electricity demand, especially during extreme heat events, placing greater strain on the energy grid. In some cases, building codes and design standards may not be adequate to withstand the increases in extreme weather conditions, which will also increase the need for building maintenance and repairs. Higher emergency management funding needs and insurance premiums may place additional nancial burdens on the City and on private property owners. Table 5.1 summarizes climate vulnerabilities for the Buildings and Energy sector and notes which City departments and community organizations will be most directly aected by each. Table 5.1: Buildings and Energy Sector High Priority Vulnerabilities To adapt to these climate impacts, Denver has identied two key goals for the Buildings and Energy sector: Reduce vulnerability to building energy supply disruptions Reduce vulnerability of buildings to extreme weather Four strategies have been identied to achieve these goals, as summarized in Table 5.2 and described in detail below. Each is supported by a variety of medium and long-term activities. Selected example activities are listed, and a full summary of activities is provided in Appendix C Priority Vulnerabilities Identied by Denver Aected City Departments Aected Community Organizations Higher energy consumption and demand in the summer months Higher maintenance costs for Denver building maintenance and building equipment Design standards do not address climate change scenarios Denver buildings structurally vulnerable to extreme weather events Unanticipated increase in emergency management funding and impacts on self-insured property General Services Environmental Health Community Planning & Development Economic Development Denver International Airport Oce of Strategic Partnerships General Services Economic Development Emergency Management Community Planning & Development Emergency Management Community Planning & Development Budget Management Oce Xcel Energy Colorado Energy Oce Denver Housing Authority U.S. Green Building Council (Colorado Chapter) Denver Housing Authority Denver Metro Building Owners and Managers Association U.S. Green Building Council (Colorado Chapter)

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Table 5.2: Summary of Goals and Strategies for Increasing Resilience in the Buildings and Energy Sector Goal 1 Goal 2 Reduce vulnerability to building energy supply disruptions Strategy 1: Energy eciency to reduce the demand for energy thereby reducing pressure on the grid during extreme heat days Strategy 2: Cooling infrastructure to cool the City thereby reducing the demand for energy. Stragety 3: Alternative and distrubuted generation to diversify the Citys energy mix and increase distributed generation Reduce vulnerability of buildings to extreme weather Strategy 1: Encourage construction of resilient buildings 5.1.1 Goal 1: Reduce vulnerability to building energy supply disruptions Reducing stress on the electricity grid in a hotter, drier climate requires both supply and demand-side strategies. Denver has identied three strategies that support the goal of reducing vulnerability to building energy supply disruptions: Strategy 1: Energy eciency The City of Denver has been actively engaged in promoting energy eciency as a climate mitigation strategy through the Denver Climate Action Plan and the Denver Energy Challenge. Other community partners, including the Colorado Energy Oce and Xcel Energy, also have a number of programs directed at increasing energy eciency. However, energy eciency can also serve as an adaptation strategy; lowering total consumption reduces demand during extreme heat events, mitigating the risk of outages. Denver has developed a number of, medium and long-term activities that encourage energy conservation in municipal facilities and in the wider community. Example activities are described below in table 5.3 ; Appendix C includes a more complete list of activities. Climate Adaptation Plan | 42

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 43 Table 5.3: Activities for increasing energy eciency in the buildings and energy sector Strategy 2: Cooling infrastructure Green infrastructuresuch as shade trees, open space, green roofs, and other techniquescan be used to reduce the urban heat island eect during hot days, as well as increase water inltration and improve air quality. For example, shaded areas can be up to 15-45F cooler than their surroundings during the hottest hours of the day. 74 Trees and other vegetation also remove heat from the air through evapotranspiration, reducing ground-level air temperatures. Other built environment design elements, such as light colored pavement or roong materials, can also serve to reduce surface temperatures by reecting sunlight away from buildings and streets. 75 Denver plans to undertake a number of activities by the end of this decade to increase the use of natural and cooling infrastructure in the city (see below and Appendix C ). This will reduce the eects of rising temperatures community-wide, reducing overall energy demand and placing less stress on energy infrastructure during extreme weather events. Table 5.4: Activities for increasing cooling infrastructure in the buildings and energy sector Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Increase commercial building energy eciency through a variety of mechanisms, including commercial building energy benchmarking and disclosure options through the City Energy Project Adopt the 2015 International Energy Conservation Code Use energy performance contracting model to generate funds for capital improvements at City facilities Reduce urban heat island eect through infrastructure such as shade trees, urban gardens, green roofs, and lighter colored hardscapes City facilities permanently commit to save energy by regulating thermostats all year long and allowing a relaxing dress code, eliminating personal appliances, replacing desktop computers with laptops and tablets, and expand to private sector facilities Develop non-vegetation shade structures Medium-term Medium-term Medium-term Long-term Medium-term Medium-term DEH CPD DGS DPW DGS DPR Denver Water, CPD, DPW, and OED DEH BMO, DPW, and CAO DPR Mayors oce In progress Not started In progress In progress In progress In progress

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 44 Strategy 3: Alternative and distributed generation Denver can enhance the stability of its energy system by expanding distributed renewable energy generation. Distributed generation refers to electricity from multiple small energy sources. Like energy eciency, distributed energy generation can reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and can also serve as an adaptation strategy. Distributed energy can help reduce demands on centralized power generation, thus enhancing reliability of the system during extreme heat events. In particular, solar energy systems oer synergies during extreme heat events because daily solar insulation (full sun hours) periods overlap with peak demand for cooling. Because distributed energy systems are not centralized the system is less likely to be totally knocked o line during an extreme weather event. These systems and other interconnected, distributed generation technologies could supplement available electricity supply during peak load periods. Some o-grid distributed energy systems could also provide backup power for facilities in the event of a power outage or could be used to expand demand response programs. Distributed generators provide the framework for community-based micro-grids, which could eventually operate independently of the larger utility network. There are also opportunities to expand o-grid utility networks through district energy systems. These o-grid solutions would reduce the risk of demand outpacing available grid-provided electricity by allowing discrete sectors to remain in operation even in the face of a generalized outage of the grid. Table 5.5: Activities for increasing alternative and distributed generation 5.1.2 Goal 2: Reduce vulnerability of buildings to extreme weather Denver also seeks to reduce the vulnerability of buildings to extreme weather. Current building codes and design standards need to be reviewed to ensure they are adequate not only for past and current climate conditions, but for the projected future climate of the Denver region as well. In order to better protect community assets, existing buildings may need to be retrotted and new buildings may need to be constructed to higher standards to ensure resilience to more extreme weather. Strategy 1: Encourage construction of resilient buildings The vulnerability of buildings to extreme weather can be reduced by incentivizing resilience-building retrots to existing structures, and providing regulatory support to apply climate-informed design and construction standards to new buildings. Increasing a buildings structural integrity will provide protection against high winds, heavy or prolonged precipitation, and other extreme weather impacts, reducing damage to buildings and the associated cost to property-owners. See below and Appendix C for activities design to increase building resilience in Denver. Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Update solar site assessment of City facility rooftops and other City-owned locations, and solicit proposals for eligible sites Identify opportunities for the city to become a subscriber in community solar gardens Develop community-scale renewable and district energy pilot systems and remove existing regulatory barriers Install sustainable energy generation systems such as wind systems on local properties Medium-term Medium-term Medium-term Medium-term DGS DGS DEH CAO CPD and OED Not started In progress Not Started In progress

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 45 Table 5.6: Activities for encouraging construction of resilient buildings 5.2 Health and Human Services Sector As mentioned in Chapter 1 Colorado has already seen a 2F increase in temperatures over the past 30 years, and climate models project Colorado will warm by another 2.5F by 2025 relative to the 1950-1999 baseline. 76 Also, because Denver is a highly urbanized area with high percentages of impervious surfaces, Denver will see an even higher increase in temperatures than rural Colorado communities. This increase in temperature may create negative health impacts for the community and the most vulnerable populations may be disproportionately aected by these impacts. Denver will experience increased daytime and nighttime temperatures, leaving less nighttime cooling relief for residents. Also, hot, sunny days can result in an increased rate of ground level ozone formation, contributing to urban smog and compromising Denver residents health. Warmer weather can also facilitate the movement of disease vectors, such as mosquitoes, that can spread diseases quickly in a dense, urban environment. It is important for Denver to adapt to climate impacts brought by an increase in temperatures and urban heat island eect to protect the health and vitality of Denvers residents. Ensuring health care providers are able to provide care during extreme heat events and providing relief during extreme daytime temperatures will be necessary to adapt to a hotter, drier Denver, while maintaining a community of healthy residents. Table 5.7 illustrates Denvers priority vulnerabilities for the Health and Human Services sector and the associated aected City departments and community organizations. Table 5.7: Health and human services sector high priority vulnerabilities Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Priority Vulnerabilities Addressed Aected City Departments Aected Community Organizations Develop incentives or regulation to improve resiliency of buildings in areas facing increased risk of ood Publish a guide on steps that commercial and residential property owners can take to make their existing buildings more resilient to climate change Require construction of safe rooms as described in the 2015 ICC building code to protect citizens during extreme weather events Decrease in quality of living/reduced comfort or reduced occupant comfort in buildings/impacts to productivity Extreme heat events aecting vulnerable populations Increase in vector borne diseases/increased use of pesticides Ensuring health care services for people with chronic conditions during extreme weather events Medium-longterm Medium-term Medium-term Public Works Community Planning and Development Environmental Health General Services Parks and Recreation Community Planning and Development Environmental Health Human Services Parks and Recreation Environmental Health Emergency Management Emergency Management CPD/ Development Services DEH Development Services DPW OED and OEM Denver Metro Building Owners and Managers Association U.S. Green Building Council, Colorado Chapter Homeless shelters, Nursing homes, Hospitals Hospitals Not started Not started Not started

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 46 5.2 Health and Human Services Sector (Cont.) To adapt to these climate impacts, Denver has identied two key goals for the Health and Human Services Sector: Safeguard health of Denver residents in the context of climate impacts Preserve ability of health care and other human service providers to continue service during extreme events A set of strategies were identied in order to achieve each goal, as summarized in Table 5.8 and described below. A set of medium-term and long-term activities were then identied to support each strategy. Table 5.8: Summary of goals and strategies for increasing resilience in the Health and Human Services sector 5.2.1 Goal 1: Safeguard health of Denver residents in the context of climate impacts Denver can maintain and improve the health of its residents by preparing for anticipated risks and educating and informing its residents on how to respond appropriately to the changing climate. Hotter conditions will increase risk of heat-related illness and increase populations of disease-spreading agents. The strategies outlined below can mitigate these challenges through integrated planning and responsive policies. Strategy 1: Reduce health impacts of extreme weather events Climate change will likely bring increasingly frequent and severe heat waves and extreme weather events. These changes have the potential to negatively aect human health in direct and indirect ways. Health aects related to heat exposure can range from mild heat rashes to heat stroke. Heat exposure can also aggravate chronic health conditions such as cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Heat also increases ground-level ozone concentrations, causing direct lung injury and increasing the severity of respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Extreme weather in the form of storms may also impact health. Direct eects of extreme weather include drowning from oods and injuries sustained from building structural collapse. Indirect eects include aggravation of chronic diseases due to interruptions in health care service and signicant mental health concerns from interrupted care and geographic displacement. Suggested activities to mitigate the health eects of extreme weather are: Goal 1 Goal 2 Safeguard health of Denver citizens in the context of climate impacts Strategy 1: Reduce health impacts of extreme weather events Strategy 2: Reduce health vulnerabilities from vector-borne diseases Preserve ability of health care providers to provide utilities during extreme heat events Strategy 1: Develop energy and IT systems that are reslient to power outages

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 47 Table 5.9: Activities for reducing health impacts of extreme weather events Strategy 2: Reduce health vulnerabilities from vector-borne diseases Climate is one of many variables known to aect the rates of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases (VBZD). Vectorborne disease is the term commonly used to describe an illness caused by an infectious microbe that is transmitted to people by blood-sucking arthropods (insects or arachnids). Zoonotic refers to a disease that can be transmitted from animals to people or, more specically, a disease that normally exists in animals but that can infect humans. The changing climate may result in altered distribution of VBZD prevalent in the U.S. This could cause formerlyprevalent diseases such as malaria and dengue fever to re-emerge. For example, as temperature increases, the malaria parasite reproduces at a higher rate and mosquitoes take blood meals more frequently than during cooler periods. Proposed example adaptation activities for this strategy include; Table 5.10 Activities to reduce health vulnerabilities from vector-borne diseases 5.2.2 Goal 2: Preserve ability of health care and other service providers to provide utilities during extreme heat events Denver residents and health care patients will need access to services even during extreme events. During Hurricane Sandy, many of New Yorks health care providers were without power, and had no access to long-term back-up generation services. Patient records were inaccessible, and many critically ill patients had to be transferred to other facilities. Denver needs to prepare its healthcare network for climate-related disruptions. Activities are presented below to address this vulnerability. Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Increase the number of shelter spaces available to homeless and at-risk populations Designate public cooling shelters for extreme heat events Adopt a severe weather ordinance to allow shelters to expand the number of persons served during extreme weather events Work with partners to develop water VBZD surveillance system to improve prediction of epidemics and prevent incidents leading to epidemics Evaluate and scale the VBZD control program as warranted Long-term Medium-term Medium-term Medium-term Medium-term Road Home DPR Road Home DEH DEH OEM and DHS OEM DEH, DHHS and OEM OEM DPR In progress In progress Not started In progress In progress

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 48 Strategy 1 : Develop utility and IT systems that are resilient to power outages Extreme weather will likely strike Denver, but some of the cost and impact can be reduced with the deployment of more resilient infrastructure. One example of resilient infrastructure is Combined Heat and Power ( CHP ) technology. CHP technologies generate ecient and reliable electricity and heat (or cooling) near the consumer. Distributed CHP power plants can form nodes for microgrids that can supply heat and electricity to people and businesses even if portions of the network are knocked oine. The conventional driver for a CHP plant is gas-red turbines. Due to a high exhaust temperature and ow, gas turbines are able to generate a large amount of heat, which can then be converted to steam, hot water, chilled water, and/or electricity. Example long-term and medium-term adaptation activities for Denver are listed below and in Appendix C. Table 5.11: Activities to develop utilities and IT systems that are resilient to power outages 5.3 Urban Natural Resources Sector In Denver, the Urban Natural Resources sector is aected by a variety of climate impacts. An increase in temperature and urban heat island eect can put stress on trees and vegetation which provides Denver with cooling and shade benets, as well as carbon sequestration. Trees and vegetation may also be aected by an increase in frequency and intensity of droughts, suering from prolonged time without a rain event. An increase in surface temperatures also increases water temperatures, which degrades water quality and negatively impacts aquatic ecosystems. Extreme weather events such as heavy downpours cause increased nutrient loads entering Denvers waterways, also degrading water quality. It is important to adapt to climate impacts aecting Denvers Urban Natural Resources sector to ensure residents receive maximum benets from ecosystem services urban natural resources can provide. Trees can provide shade for cooling during extreme heat events as well as decrease impervious surface cover, mitigating some of the impacts of the urban heat island eect. Like trees, vegetative cover also provides urban heat island eect mitigation benets. Vegetation also acts as a natural ltering mechanism during rain events so Denvers waterways are not being overloaded with pollutants that degrade water quality, allowing Denvers residents to enjoy lakes and streams for shing and other recreational activities. Table 5.12 illustrates Denvers priority vulnerabilities for the Urban Natural Resources sector and the associated aected City departments and community organizations. Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Explore programs for hospitals and other service facilities to install o-grid distributed alternative energy systems with islanding capabilities Explore incentives for hospitals and other service providers to identify power needs for critical systems and obtain adequate back-up generation capacity Advise hospitals and other service providers to evaluate whether critical infrastructure is at risk to ash ooding and identify risk mitigation solutions Long-term Medium-term Medium -term DEH DEH DEH OED OEM OED OEM OED OEM DPH Not started Not started Not started

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 49 Table 5.12: Urban Natural Resources sector priority vulnerabilities To adapt to these climate impacts, Denver has identied two key goals for the Urban Natural Resources sector: Enhance and preserve existing urban forest resources Ensure all Denver streams are shable and swimmable A set of strategies were identied in order to achieve each goal, as summarized in Table 5.13 and described below. A set of medium-term and long-term activities were then identied to support each strategy. Table 5.13: Summary of goals and strategies for increasing resilience in the Urban Natural Resources sector Priority Vulnerabilities Addressed Aected City Departments Aected Community Organizations Stress on trees and urban landscaping Park damages and debris generation, damage to riparian corridors and stress on landscapes and trees Warming of stream and lake systems aecting aquatic species Degradation of surface water quality including microbial contaminants Contaminant loading from increased ooding and heavy rain spells Decrease in water quality due to low-water ow in discharge areas Parks and Recreation Parks and Recreation Environmental Health Parks and Recreation Environmental Health Public Works Public Works Public Works Environmental Health Parks and Recreation Greenway Foundation Greenway Foundation Denver Water, UDFCD Denver Water, UDFCD Denver Water, UDFCD Goal 1 Goal 2 Enhance and preserve existing urban forest resources Strategy 1: Standards and regulations to strengthen and protect urban forest resources Strategy 2: Increase Denvers canopy coverage and maintain existing street resources Strategy 3: Expand re mitigation and forest management programs in Denvers Mountain Parks Ensure all Denver streams are shable and swimmable Strategy 1: Maintain and enhance health of Denver water bodies Strategy 2: Improve and maintain surface water quality Strategy 3: Improve water and wastewater infrastructure to reduce risk of overows or spills

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 50 5.3.1 Goal 1: Enhance and preserve existing urban forest resources Terrestrial resources, such as street trees, forests and other plant life, will face harsher growing conditions due to rising temperatures and shifting rainfall patterns. These natural resources provide Denver with valuable ecosystem services, such as shading and water management as well as serving as shelter and food sources for many species. Denver has developed strategies to preserve and expand these valuable resources in a changing climate. Strategy 1: Standards and regulations to strengthen and protect urban forest resources The conservation organization American Forests, www.americanforests.org, has found that Denver is doing much better than other cities in protecting and developing its urban forest. Through a combination of an in-depth survey, independent data and a vote by a blue-ribbon panel of leading urban forest experts, the nonprot has named the 10 best U.S. cities for urban forests: Austin, Charlotte, Denver, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, New York, Portland, Sacramento, Seattle and Washington, D.C. American Forests observed that Denver and the remaining nine top cities recognized that trees dont just provide aesthetic value, they also help in a number of other ways, including increasing property values, reducing energy costs and lowering medical costs by improving human health. For example, Denver estimates its urban forest provides $122 million worth of annual property value and environmental services. 78 Protecting Denvers urban forest will be a focus of future adaptation activities including the following: Table 5.14: Activities supporting standards and regulations to strengthen and protect urban forest resources Strategy 2: Increase Denvers urban forest and canopy coverage Denvers urban forest, aside from making Denver attractive to residents and visitors, provides benets that support climate adaptation eorts. The Arbor Day Foundations 79 publication extolling the value of trees to a community notes that an acre of forest absorbs six tons of carbon dioxide and releases four tons of oxygen, meeting the needs of 18 people. Denvers more than 19,000 acres of urban forest and tree canopy shades 19.7 percent of Denver and saves 56,471 mega watt hours each year in cooling, equaling more than $6.7 million dollars in energy savings. 80 Protecting and enhancing Denvers urban forest is an important adaptation strategy; example activities to support this strategy include: Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Update the right of way tree list that focuses on those that can thrive in future climates Conduct outreach campaign to educate and encourage residents to plant trees that can thrive in future climates Medium-term Medium -term DPR DPR DPW DPW In progress In progress

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 51 Table 5.15: Activities to increase Denvers urban forest and canopy coverage Strategy 3: Expand re mitigation and forest management programs in Denvers Mountain Parks In the southwest alone, since 2000, the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, and New Mexico have experienced several successive worst res or re seasons in their respective histories, as measured in lives lost and property destroyed. 81 Climate change may be contributing to the increase in severe res in Colorado and the Mountain West. As a result, the re season has begun earlier in the spring and lasted later into to the fall. Climate change has also weakened the trees ability to resist diseases and insect infestations. A visible example is the mountain bark beetles, whose attacks have killed millions of trees on public and private lands, leaving them standing as prime fuel for res in Colorado and the Mountain West every re season. Accordingly, it is important that climate adaptation eorts in Denvers Mountain Parks continue and adapt to changing forest conditions. Table 5.16: Activities to expand re mitigation and forest management programs in Denvers Mountain Parks 5.3.2 Goal 2: Ensure all Denver streams are fishable and swimmable Denver has made the preservation of its water bodies a priority through its existing 2020 Sustainability Goals. Climate impacts are projected to directly impact Denvers streams. Storms will generate debris, increase runoff and potentially introduce contaminants into existing water bodies. Warming will cause changes in aquatic ecosystems, which will need to be carefully monitored to maintain current species composition and ecological health. Community organizations such as Denver Water and the Urban Drainage and Flood Control District ( UDFCD ) will also play a large role in ensuring all Denvers streams are fishable and swimmable, and reaching the Citys 2020 Sustainability Goal for water quality. Below are a number of strategies to ensure all Denver streams are fishable and swimmable. Community Target Ensure all Denver rivers and streams are shable and swimmable. Municipal Target Achieve and maintain 100% compliance with existing and future MS4 permit requirements and reduce storm water outfall E. coli dry weather discharges in priority S. Platte river basins under current permit to 126 colony forming units (cfu)/100 milliters (ml). Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Example Activity Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Implement/complete the Tree and Shade Master Plan while ensuring the Plan includes a component specically addressing the additional services required to adapt to climate change Continue to participate in Emerging Pests in Colorado Roundtable and the Denver Pest Roundtable to nd best practices to reduce stress on urban landscapes Continue aggressive re mitigation program in Mountain Parks and support re mitigation programs by others Medium-term Medium and long-term Medium and long-term DPR DPR DPR OEM DEH CPD OEM OEM and DFD In progress In progress In progress

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 52 5.3.2 Goal 2: Ensure all Denver streams are shable and swimmable (Cont.) Strategy 1: Maintain and enhance health of Denver water bodies Urban stream corridors provide many critical functions in the life of Denvers residents. During storm events they function to convey storm runo. This function will be even more important during extreme weather. Their linear nature is well suited to trails and a variety of recreational activities. Denver residents seek an active outdoor lifestyle and value natural areas for beauty and the appreciation of wildlife. Accordingly, thoughtful treatment of urban stream corridors creates and maintains community assets that are important to Denvers current and future residents. 82 Therefore it is critical to enhance and preserve oodplains, wetlands, and riparian areas particularly as the climate becomes hotter and drier. Future activities in Denver water bodies include: Table 5.17: Activities for maintaining and enhancing the health of Denver water bodies Strategy 2: Improve and maintain surface water quality Denver has a goal to have shable and swimmable waters in all our rivers and streams by 2020. In order to meet that goal, the City has implemented a number of programs and studies to improve water quality in Denver. The City has developed a program to improve stormwater infrastructure with the intent of protecting water quality in the river. To date, the program has successfully reduced the amount of E. coli entering the South Platte River from the Citys storm sewers. The City is developing a Water Quality Strategic Plan which will identify areas where additional water quality treatment is needed and will allow the City to prioritize use of limited resources to areas where they will be most eective. Organizations such as Denver Water and the UDFCD also have programs and benecial studies to improve water quality in Denver. Denver Water takes its water quality very seriously and provides detailed information about their water treatment process, as well as annual water quality reports available to the public. 83 UDFCD provides examples of best management practices around the city that reduce stormwater runo and improve water quality. UDFCD also provides a detailed report and fact sheets about urban storm drainage criteria, which leads to healthy water bodies around Denver. Example activities aimed at improving water quality as the climate changes include: Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Continue noxious weed abatement program Continue to implement the South Platte River Vision Implementation Plan, the Gulch Master Plan and Natural Area Management Plans Continue to implement the Water Quality Master Plan Medium-and long-term Medium-andlong term Medium-andlong term DPR DPR/DPW DPW DEH OED ,DEH and NDCC In progress In progress In progress

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 53 Table 5.18: Activities to improve and maintain surface water quality Strategy 3: Improve water and wastewater infrastructure to reduce risk of overows or spills The heavy rainfall and resulting ooding in September 2013 illustrated the impact of extreme weather on infrastructure such as storm sewers, dams and waterways. As the climate changes, it is likely that risks for infrastructure failure will increase in Denver. Existing studies indicate that small increases in weather and climate extremes have the potential to bring large increases in damages to existing infrastructure. Almost all of todays infrastructure has been designed using climatic design values calculated from historical climate data on the assumption that past extremes will represent future conditions. 85 Changes in climate will require changes to these climatic design values, as well as larger societal changes. Denver sta will work with regional organizations to update existing criteria to reect the existing climate information as changes in rainfall, storm frequency, and intensity are better understood. Table 5.19: Activities to improve water and wastewater infrastructure to reduce risk of overows or spills 5.4 Water Consumption Sector Denver, being situated in a semi-arid climate, traditionally receives only about 15 inches of precipitation in a year. 86 The majority of the precipitation in Colorado falls on the western slope, while about 80% of the population resides on the Front Range. 87 These settings naturally make long-term water supply planning a high priority for Denver Water. A warmer climate coupled with continued growth in the Denver-metro area further emphasizes the criticality of robust long-term water resources planning. Projected hydrologic changes to Denver Waters collection system due to a warmer climate may include changes in snowpack lifespan and magnitude, more intense and frequent droughts and oods, increases in evaporation and evapotranspiration, decreases in soil moisture, changes to watersheds from forest res and pest infestation, changes in water quality of rivers and streams, and changes in water needs. These potential changes make it essential for Denver Water to prepare for climate change. Unfortunately, no single strategy is sucient to prepare for a changing and unknown future. 88 Denver Water is committed to ensuring its customers have an adequate water supply for the future through aggressive conservation eorts, innovative recycled water systems and the securing new supplies. 89 Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Example Activity Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Partner with Denver Water to expand water quality monitoring in Denver watersheds Include climate adaptation and mitigation in discussion and documentation related to 6-year Water Quality Strategic Implementation Plan currently underway by DPW planning sta Prioritize and implement UDFCD gulch improvement projects, Re-gulch Mater Plans and Natural Area Management Plans Incorporate green infrastructure and other climate resilient design structures within storm system designs in the Storm Drainage Master Plan documentation update Medium-and long-term Medium-term Medium-term Medium-term DW DPW DPW/DPR DPW DEH DEH CPD DPR Not started In progress In progress In progress

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 54 5.4 Water Consumption Sector (Cont.) The City and County of Denver supports Denver Water in their adaptation eorts. Specically, the City will coordinate with Denver Water to reduce water demand and increase the use of recycled water. Table 5.20 illustrates Denvers priority vulnerabilities for the Water Consumption sector and the associated aected City Departments and community organizations. Table 5.20: Water Consumption Sector Priority Vulnerabilities To adapt to these climate impacts, Denver has identied a key goal for the Water Consumption sector. All activities and strategies address the following goal: Reduce per capita use of potable water A set of strategies were identied in order to achieve each goal, as summarized in Table 5.21 and described below. A set of medium-term and long-term activities were then identied to support each strategy. Table 5.21: Summary of Goals and Strategies for Increasing Resilience in the Water Consumption Sector Priority Vulnerabilities Addressed Aected City Departments Aected Community Organizations Higher water demands (City and private)and consumption in summer months Community Planning and Development Environmental Health Parks and Recreation Denver Water, Watts to Water Goal 1 Reduce per capita use of potable water Strategy 1: Continue and expand water conservation planning and programs Strategy 2: Encourage the use of water conserving technologies and products in buildings Strategy 3: Water-conserving irrigation techniques Strategy 4: Water-conserving landscaping techniques Strategy 5: Expand recycled water infrastructure and use Water Quantity Community Goal Work with Denver Water to reduce per capita use of potable water in Denver by 22% over a 2001 baseline, and take additional steps using the Citys independent authority, in partnership with the Denver community, to keep the rate of increase in absolute consumption of potable water below the rate of population increase.

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 55 5.4.1 Goal 1: Reduce per capita use of potable water As mentioned in Chapter 2 Denver Water has many conservation programs in place to successfully reduce the per capita use of potable water. Denver Water uses a three-pronged approach to ensure Denvers residents have adequate water supply: conserve, recycle, and supply. 90 Through extensive conservation programs and the expansion of recycled water, Denver is working to reduce the demand for potable water instead of solely relying on developing new supply sources to meet Denvers water needs. Denver Water residential customers (Denver and suburbs), use approximately 85 gallons of water per day. 91 It has been proposed that Denver residents could easily get by on 50 gallons of water per day. 92 Through public campaigns such as Use only what you need and rebates for high eciency xtures and irrigation products, such as toilets and low precipitation rate irrigation nozzles, customers are using more than 20 percent less on average than they were prior to the 2002 drought, even as population has increased. Continued water conservation eorts will be essential to enable continued decreases in water use to help adapt to a possibly drier Denver. Strategy 1: Continue and expand water conservation planning and programs As noted in Chapters 2 and 4 Denver has current operations that help the City conserve water including retrot of water xtures and irrigation systems and assistance provided to Denver Public Schools to retrot water xtures, saving more than 250 million gallons of water per year since 2007. In 2008, Denver Water began updating its Integrated Resource Plan (IRP ) to help guide decisions related to Denvers water system over the next 40 years. The new IRP addresses a broader range of water issues compared to last IRPs including: Potential challenges to the water system, such as climate change; more severe and frequent droughts; changes in demographics and water use patterns; changes to watersheds, including beetle kill and forest res; Colorado River water shortages; and economic and regulatory changes New opportunities for conservation, water-use eciency and environmental enhancements The frequency of water-use restrictions for customers Water quality Priorities for improving and maintaining the water treatment and distribution systems 94 Incorporating climate change impacts and conservation measures into long-term water supply planning plays an important role in increasing Denvers resiliency to climate change. Table 5.22: Activities to continue and expand water conservation planning programs Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Fully implement DPR GamePlan: Green infrastructure, wise water management water conservation plans Continue implementation of Denver Waters Integrated Resource Plan Continuing to assess Denver Waters resilience to climate change using the latest local climate projections, coordinate and be aware of new City adaptation policies and adjust practices accordingly Long-term Long-term Medium-term DPR DW DW DPW and DW CPD and DPW In progress In progress In progress

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 56 Strategy 2: Encourage the use of water conserving technologies and products in buildings In the United States we use almost 5 billion gallons of water daily at a shared energy cost of 150 million kilowatthours. 95 Denver residential customers (Denver residents and suburbs) each use an average of 85 gallons of water per day. Eciency of water use brings a variety of benets including reduced costs and lower energy use, and prepares a community to be adaptable to changing conditions. Denver is a leader in water conservation and will continue in that role in the future through adaptation to a future drier environment. Table 5.23: Activities to encourage the use of water conserving technologies and products in buildings Strategy 3: Water-conserving irrigation techniques Parks and Recreation are upgrading irrigation systems to make them more ecient and eective to adapt to changing climate conditions. Denvers Parks are being upgraded with central control irrigation systems to achieve greater water eciency and to reduce the time and expense of maintenance and repair. In addition, Denver Water oers commercial buildings rebates for 25% of the purchase price to install smart irrigation controllers, as well as rebates for the purchase of high eciency or rotary nozzles for irrigation systems. Also, Denver Water oers free large scale irrigation system audits for large irrigation customers to identify ways that they can cut back on water use. Continuing and building upon programs like these will help improve irrigation techniques and lower percapita use of potable water. Table 5.24: Activities for water-conserving irrigation techniques Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Include reporting on water use in a building energy disclosure benchmark to track and monitor water use in major commercial properties around Denver Collaborate with Denver Water to pilot a neighbor-to-neighbor comparison of water use on utility bills to encourage conservation behavior in residences Continue and promote water ecient rebates for residential, commercial, and industrial buildings Continue to increase the eciency of park irrigation systems, including conversions to recycled water where feasible Continue to improve and expand upon Denver Waters irrigation conservation programs Medium-term Medium-term Medium-term Medium-term Medium-term DEH,DW DEH, DW DW DPR DW DW DPW, CPD, DW DW In progress In progress In progress In progress In progress

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 57 Strategy 4: Water-conserving landscaping techniques Colorado averages only about 15 inches of precipitation a year. Using Xeriscape techniques promotes ecient irrigation and sustainable practices that can reduce water use while allowing for attractive landscapes. Xeriscape uses low-water use plants to create a landscape that is sustainable in Colorados semi-arid climate. 96 Xeriscaped landscapes do not require as much water and upkeep as traditional lawns because the plants used are adapted to the dry climate on the Front Range. Increased use of Xeriscape techniques will be a feature in Denver as the climate changes. Table 5.25: Activities for water-conserving landscaping techniques Strategy 5: Expand recycled water infrastructure and use Recycled water is treated wastewater used for irrigation, commercial and industrial use, freeing up potable water for other purposes. Denver Water expects ultimately to deliver 17,500 acre-feet (approximately 5.7 billion gallons) of recycled water each year. Recycled water serves irrigation customers at Denver Public Schools, several Denver parks and zoo, and is planned for Denver International Airport. Additionally, the Denver Museum of Nature & Science ( DMNS ), in collaboration with Denver Water, is using heat pump technology and recycled water to heat and cool its recently completed 125,000 square foot wing. The system, which is expected to be at least 50 percent more ecient than traditional HVAC systems, utilizes recycled water to sink/source heat for the heat pumps, before the water is ultimately returned to the recycled water system. In May 2013 House Bill 13-1044 was signed into law by Governor Hickenlooper authorizing the use of gray water. Gray water complements recycled water in that it can substitute for potable drinking water. Gray water is wastewater collected from xtures within residential, commercial or industrial buildings for the purpose of being put to benecial uses. Sources of gray water include discharges from sinks, bathtubs and showers and laundry machines. Gray water does not include wastewater from toilets, urinals, kitchen sinks or dishwashers. Gray water may only be used in areas where the local city or county has adopted an ordinance approving the use of gray water. Denvers adoption of a gray water ordinance will further reduce demand for treated potable water thereby conserving this important resource. Table 5.26: Activities to expand recycled water infrastructure and use Example Activity Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Advocate for and implement xeric landscaping Expand the use of recycled water (purple pipe) Develop a gray water ordinance for Denver Medium-term Medium-term Medium-term CPD/ Development Services, DW DW Mayors Oce DPR and Mayors oce DPW and DPR DEH and DW In progress In progress Not started

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 58 5.5 Land Use and Transportation sector Climate change impacts will be exacerbated by current urban land-use patterns which heavily utilize surfaces that increase surface temperatures and contribute to less ecient stormwater management. Climate change is expected to disrupt existing urban transportation networks, which were not built to withstand projected conditions. Expanding transportation options will enhance the resilience of communities. Transitioning towards pedestrianfriendly communities will decrease reliance on automobiles and other more at-risk transportation methods. The following strategies are designed to cover the range of techniques and activities which can adapt Denvers land use and transportation systems to create a more resilient urban landscape. The City of Denver has identied the following vulnerabilities as priorities, as summarized below. Table 5.27: Land Use and Transportation Sector Priority Vulnerabilities To adapt to these climate changes, Denver has identied two key goals for the Land Use and Transportation sector: Improve mobility options within the City and its communities Prepare and enable urban infrastructure to adapt to climate impacts A set of strategies were identied in order to achieve each goal, as summarized in Table 5.28 and described below. A set of medium-term and long-term activities were then identied to support each strategy. Table 5.28: Summary of Goals and Strategies for Increasing Resilience in the Land Use and Transportation Sector Priority Vulnerabilities Addressed Aected City Departments Aected Community Organizations Increase in extreme heat events and increased stress on storm water management and increased ooding Regulatory barriers to the adoption of adaptation strategies Design standards not addressing climate change scenarios Climate induced in-and outmigration of workforce populations and businesses Long-term disruption in services delivery Interruptions to transportation and stress or damage to physical infrastructure and public assets Public Works Community Planning and Development Parks and Recreation Community Planning and Development Public Works Oce of Economic Development Human Services Community planning and development Public Works Red Cross Chamber of Commerce RTD, Denver Regional Council of Governments Goal 1 Goal 2 Improve mobility within the City and its communities Strategy 1: Create transit oriented and sustainable neighborhoods Strategy 2: Increase alternative transportation options Prepare and enable urban infrastructure to adapt to climate impacts Strategy 1: Integrate pavement options and alternatives that reduce the urban heat island eect Strategy 2: Integrate pavement options and alternatives that reduce stormwater runo Strategy 3: Integrate climate change into planning and zoning considerations

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 59 5.5.1 Goal 1: Improve mobility within the City and its communities Denver believes that expanding transportation options, and making communities more accessible to a broadened array of transit choices can reduce the vulnerability of Denvers transportation network. Expanded transportation options include bicycles, walkways, and expansion of mass transit options. Strategy 1: Create transit oriented and sustainable neighborhoods The Regional Transportation Districts FasTracks Project is a catalyst for development at and around the systems transit stations. This Transit Oriented Development ( TOD ) is characterized by a pedestrian-oriented environment that allows people to live, work, shop and play in places accessible by transit. The primary benets of TOD include: Reducing sprawl and protecting existing neighborhoods Reducing commute times and trac congestion Improving environmental quality and open space preservation Encouraging pedestrian activity and discouraging automobile dependency An example of where TOD may have a major benecial impact is the Globeville Elyria-Swansea ( GES ) neighborhoods in Denver. Two FasTracks Stations will be constructed near the GES neighborhoods. These stations will play an increasingly important role for transportation as the reconstruction of Interstate 70 gets underway, just south of the GES neighborhoods. 10 The GES neighborhoods suered from neglect for years that produced cracked sidewalks and haphazard road systems and alienated neighborhoods. These projects will lead to new transportation and housing opportunities and less reliance on automobile-centric options. Table 5.29: Activities to create transit oriented and sustainable neighborhoods Municipal Target Provide incentives and other programs to City employees so that no more than 55% of these employees commute in single-occupant vehicles. Community Target Provide mobility options (transit, car-pooling, biking, walking) that reduce personal travel in Denver done in single-occupant vehicles to no more than 60% of all trips. 10 Read more: I-70 remake at heart of plan to revive Denvers Swansea neighborhood The Denver Post http://www.denverpost.com/news/ci_24737851/i-70-remake-at-heart-plan-revivedenvers#ixzz2ohn2HpNo Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Implement Strategic Transportation Plan for Transit Oriented Development Improve connectivity in Globeville ElyriaSwansea neighborhoods and add pedestrian bridges, in tandem with I-70 Reconstruction Update the Denver Comprehensive Plan and Blueprint Denver Implement the Transit Oriented Development Strategic Plan Continue to improve social connectivity in communities through programs such as the Sustainable Neighborhoods Program Long-term Long-term Long-term Long-term Medium-term DPW DPW CPD CPD OED CPD and RTD CPD, CDOT, NDCC and DEH PW PW OEM In progress In progress Not started In progress In progress

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 60 Strategy 2: Increase alternative transportation options Denvers Strategic Transportation Plan ( STP ) advocates transportation choices that move people rather than simply automobiles. The STP oers transportation options to link land use with transportation, limit roadway footprints, and oers transportation choices that improve the health and well-being of Denvers residents. Transportation choices include electric vehicles ( EV ) which are a form of low-carbon transportation, and Denver has started to install charging stations in the City to support their use. Supporting an EV agenda is not only good for public health and the environment, it also helps create a demand for jobs within Denvers growing clean technology industry. An increased use in low-carbon EVs would reduce ground level ozone levels and forms of air pollution in Denver, particularly in areas immediately adjoining highways increasing resilience to anticipated climate impacts. Denver is working to reduce barriers for the EV-traveling public, from permitting to parking. Ten free electric vehicle charging stations are now open to the public at Denver International Airports east and west parking garages. Ten charging stations are also located in downtown Denver and Cherry Creek. The Denver Performing Arts Center (Level 4), the Art Museum Cultural Facilities Garage (Level 3), and at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science all have EV charging stations as well. Additionally, in order to advance infrastructure Executive Order 123 requires all new City-owned parking lots and garages over 100 spaces available for use by the public to have at least one parking space equipped exclusively for EVs. 11 Table 5.30: Activities to increase alternative transportation options 5.5.2 Goal 2: Prepare and enable urban infrastructure to adapt to climate impacts Existing built urban infrastructure, such as road networks and walking pathways, were not designed for projected climatic conditions. Built infrastructure must be maintained and adapted for climate change and contribute to mitigating impacts where possible. Strategies are outlined below to both prepare infrastructure for climate change and reduce the impacts of the urban heat island eect on Denver residents. Strategy 1: Integrate pavement options and alternatives that reduce the urban heat island eect The albedo eect is a strong contributor to factors inuencing the Earths temperature. Albedo is a measure of how much sunlight is reected by a material. For example, forest leaves have a low albedo, meaning that they reect a limited amount of incoming sunlight back into the atmosphere and absorb the rest where the light may be converted to heat. Alternatively, snow has a high albedo reecting about 80 percent of the incoming sunlight back into the sky as visible light. 97 Building materials having high albedo can be eective in combating urban heat island eect. 11 Read more: Denver Airport opens 10 free electric vehicle charging stations The Denver Post http://www.denverpost.com/breakingnews/ci_24452679/denver-airport-opens-10-free-electric-vehiclecharging#ixzz2oiHefw7K Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Strategic Transportation Plan (STP): Promote and encourage multi-modal transportation and maintain current transit infrastructure (Built environments ability to withstand multiple climate scenarios, air quality) Promote and install electric vehicle charging stations within the county and expand XO123chptr 4 (EV parking lot standard) into a City ordinance DPW DPW Medium-to long-term Medium-to long-term CPD and OED DEH and DIA In progress In progress

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 61 5.5.2 Goal 2: Prepare and enable urban infrastructure to adapt to climate impacts (Cont.) Urban areas can be much warmer than nearby more pristine surroundings. The low albedo (reectivity) of roofs and pavements can contribute to the higher urban temperatures. For example, asphalt roads can absorb 95 percent of sunlight whereas concrete may only absorb 50 percent of incoming sunlight. Installing reective building materials can be an eective means of adapting to warmer summers in Denver. Table 5.31: Activity to integrate pavement options and alternatives that reduce the urban heat island eect Strategy 2: Integrate green infrastructure, pavement options, and alternatives that reduce stormwater runo It was noted earlier that extreme weather can exert demands on infrastructure particularly pertaining to stormwater runo. Permeable paving is a range of sustainable materials and techniques for permeable pavements with a base and sub base that allow the movement of stormwater through the surface. In addition to reducing runo, this eectively traps and removes suspended solids from the stormwater to improve water quality. In Denver the use of permeable pavement to reduce stormwater runo is another opportunity for climate adaptation. In addition, landscaping can be designed to encourage retention of stormwater on properties and tree lawns, eectively reducing runo and removing suspended solids from stormwater. Table 5.32: Activities to integrate green infrastructure, pavement options, and alternatives that reduce stormwater runo Strategy 3: Integrate climate change into planning and zoning considerations Climate change is having an impact on planning and zoning considerations of new and existing projects. For example, in November 2013, the Boston Redevelopment Authority approved new planning and zoning initiatives in response to observed and expected eects of climate change. 98 The initiatives were developed to assess whether new development is accounting for higher average temperatures, more frequent and longer extreme heat events and droughts, more severe freezing rain and heavy rainfall events, and increased wind gusts as well as sea level rise. Additionally, the initiatives will require analysis of secondary weather event impacts on developments such as interruptions to utilities, communications systems, and transportation networks. The following adaptation activities will help Denver adapt to the impacts of climate change. Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Install high-albedo hardscape when resurfacing roads, multi-use paths, and city parking lots, and identify life-cycle costs associated with concrete vs. asphalt Integrate green infrastructure for retaining stormwater during development stage Require permeable pavement for a portion of parking lots larger than one acre DPW DPW DPW Medium-to long-term Long-term Medium-term DPR, CPD, OED, and DEH CPD In progress In progress Not started

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 62 5.6 Food and Agriculture sector Climate change will aect the types of plants that are adapted to survive in Denvers climate, aecting the robustness of local agriculture. The following strategies are designed to cover the range of techniques and activities that can adapt Denvers food and agricultural systems to changing conditions. The City of Denver has identied the following vulnerabilities as priorities, as summarized below. Table 5.34: Food and Agriculture Sector Priority Vulnerabilities Table 5.33: Activities to integrate climate change into planning and zoning considerations To adapt to these climate changes, Denver has identied the following key goals for the Food and Agriculture sector: Increase food security Protect local agricultural resources against increased threat of pests, invasive species and noxious weeds A set of strategies were identied in order to achieve each goal, as summarized in Table 5.35 and described below. A set of medium-term and long-term activities were then identied to support each strategy. Table 5.35: Summary of goals and strategies for increasing resilience in the Food and Agriculture Sector Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Priority Vulnerability Identied by Denver Aected Departments Aected Community Organizations Conduct climate preparedness survey of major City employers and business owners to identify planning opportunities Reduced amount of water available for irrigation and changes to ditch water supplies Increased threat of pests, invasive species and noxious weeds OOS Medium-term Parks and Recreation Parks and Recreation DEH and OED Not started Denver Urban Gardens Denver Urban Gardens Goal 1 Goal 2 Increase food security Strategy 1: Encourage local agriculture Protect local agricultural resources against increased threat of pests, invasive species and noxious weeds Strategy 1: Identify, asess and communicate invasive species and other threats to local natural resources

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 63 5.6.1 Goal 1: Increase food security Food security means having access at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life. Researchers and government organizations use the term food insecurity to describe this condition. In 2011, Denvers food insecurity rate was 18 percent for the overall population, while 25 percent of children in Denver lived in food insecure families. 99 In the case of extreme weather events and prolonged droughts, access to adequate food will become critical. Having a robust local food system allows continuous access to food supply when transportation from distant places may be disrupted, ensuring Denver families have continuous food security. Strategy1: Encourage local agriculture Locally grown food can oer many advantages to the consumer. The average distance local food travels from farm to table is far less than the average distance industrial agricultural foods travel to reach a grocery store. This reduction in miles traveled greatly reduces transportation related carbon dioxide emissions, air pollution, and ground level ozone formation. In addition, as mentioned above, local food options can increase Denvers food security ensuring residents have access to food during any climate related disruptions that may occur during transportation of food over long distances. Purchasing locally grown food also supports local farms and keeps those farms near Denver now and in the future, boosting Denvers economy. Therefore, encouraging local agriculture will increase Denvers resiliency to climate related food supply disruptions while at the same time support our local economy. Table 5.36: Activities to encourage local agriculture 5.6.2 Goal 2: Protect local agricultural resources against increased threat of pests, invasive species and noxious weeds Climate change may introduce new pests, diseases, and invasive species into Denvers climate, or exacerbate problems with existing species. A number of activities are proposed to help understand and respond to these threats. Strategy 1: Identify, assess, and communicate invasive species and other threats to local natural resources Invasive species are plants, animals, or other organisms that are introduced to a given area outside their original range and cause harm in their new home. Typically they have no natural enemies to limit their reproduction and they usually spread rampantly. Invasive species are recognized as one of the leading threats to biodiversity and impose large costs to agriculture, forestry, sheries, and other human enterprises, as well as to human health. Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Encourage a broad range of food outlets and regional food hubs for processing and distribution of local food To Be Determined Medium-term DEH, and Denver Sustainable Food Policy Council (Mayorappointed commission) In progress

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 64 Table 5.37: Activities to identify, assess, and communicate invasive species and other threats to local natural resources Example Activities Time Frame Lead Supporting Status (long/medium-term) Agency Agencies Partner with Colorado State University Extension to support education and outreach programs on integrated pest management and other sustainable forming techniques for local agriculture Support a public outreach campaign integrating social media to help Denver residents identify, tag (via crowd-sourcing) and assist the City in managing key invasive species populations DPR DPR Medium-term Medium-term DEH and NDCC DEH Not started In progress CHAPTER 6: NEXT STEPS Earlier chapters of this plan presented practical activities Denver agencies, businesses, and residents can implement to prepare for and adjust to what will likely be a warmer and drier Denver. This chapter contains several components, including: 6.1 Implementation This plan identies early steps in what will likely be a long-term eort to adapt to changing climate conditions in Denver. It has been said, to plan is human, to implement is divine. Accordingly, to have meaningful impact on adapting to a changing climate many of the activities identied within this plan will need to be implemented. Already, as identied in Chapter 4 Denver agencies have embedded adaptation activities that can and are being implemented in the next couple of years into the Environmental Management System ( EMS ). To ensure that selected medium and long-term adaptation activities are implemented, DEH will convene sta from other Denver agencies in early 2015 to identify those additional adaptation strategies the sta believes can be implemented. The identication process will begin by reviewing and updating, if necessary, the list of climate-related vulnerabilities faced by Denver agencies and residents. The adaptation activities identied in Chapter 5 and Appendix C of this plan will be reviewed and updated as needed. Medium or long-term adaptation activities selected by Denver agencies will be embedded in the Denver EMS and subsequently monitored for successful implementation. Denvers Climate Resilience Committee meets on a regular basis with the purpose of preparing Denver for a rapidlychanging climate. A description of the Climate Resilience Committee is found in Memorandum 123-G attached to Executive Order 123. 100 Memorandum 123-G notes that this plan will be integrated into individual Agency Strategic Plans, Peak Performance Reviews and Capital Improvement Plans. Sta in various Denver agencies will plan future activities using strategic planning, Peak Performance Reviews and Capital Improvement Plans. Strategic planning is used to set priorities, focus energy and resources, strengthen operations, ensure that employees and other stakeholders are working toward common goals, and assess and 1. Discussion of the overall approach for implementing adaptation activities. 2. Discussion of the future consolidation of this adaptation plan with Denvers greenhouse gas mitigation plan. 3. Climate adaptation planning and implementation will be iterative. Climate conditions are expected to be more dynamic and changeable, and our understanding is incomplete. We fully expect that this plan will need to be updated and modied as conditions change and our understanding of best practices changes. In fact, our adaptation planning activities revealed a number of areas where additional eort will be necessary. A high level overview of those areas is included here.

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 65 6.1 Implementation (Cont.) adjust the organizations direction in response to a changing environment. 101 Peak Performance invests in Denvers employees by giving them the tools to solve city problems. Through the Peak Performance initiative, City employees have identied ineciencies and embraced a new culture of innovation and improvement to eliminate inadequacies and provide the best service possible. 102 Performance reviews begin with meaningful strategic plans that depict and measure the ways agencies support city-wide priorities. 103 Capital Improvement Plans typically identify a capital improvement project which can be any improvement to, construction or acquisition of buildings, viaducts, roads, streets, streetscape projects, pedestrian malls, plazas, designated parks or other real property of a permanent nature. 104 Starting in early 2015, DEH and Denvers Climate Resilience Committee will meet to identify ongoing strategic planning eorts through which strategic plans are being created or updated. The Committee will make recommendations as to how adaptation activities can be incorporated into the subject strategic plan. The Committee will also recommend on-going processes to ensure that adaptation planning and implementation can be regularly incorporated within other planning eorts. Peak Performance reviews will be suggested with the intent of nding improvements in agency plans. Similarly, the Committee will poll committee members regarding capital improvement projects under consideration. The capital improvement project will be evaluated to identify where adaptation practices can be incorporated into the project to guard against future extreme storms or heat. 6.2 Consolidation Reducing greenhouse gas emissions has been a xture in Denver since before 2007. Denver has also adopted 2020 sustainability goals related to climate change that include a reduction of total community-wide CO 2 emissions from Denver to below the level of emissions in 1990, (i.e. less than 11.8 million metric tons of CO 2 ). Denvers 2007 Climate Action Plan details strategies and activities to achieve this goal. Because CO 2 reduction strategies (mitigation) often include an adaptation component it makes sense to include mitigation and adaptation in one plan. Accordingly, DEH plans to combine the Climate Action Plan (GHG mitigation) with this Climate Adaptation Plan in late 2014 or 2015. 6.3 Areas for Additional Analysis 6.3.1 Climate Projections and Vulnerabilities The range of climate projections is large, and contains a great deal of uncertainty, especially at a regional or local level. The science is expected to continually change and improve, although it may be many years before uncertainties are narrowed signicantly. This plan is based upon broad characterizations of current knowledge in order to move the City forward rather than wait for more certainty. Subsequent iterations of this plan will require review of up-to-date climate understanding. Similarly, the vulnerability analysis of this plan focused, for the most part, on built infrastructure and natural ecosystems within Denver, and modications of the Citys current abilities to respond to these systems. Less attention is paid to economic vulnerabilities, disparities for dierent social groups in the community, and the ability of community institutions and regional partners to cooperate and coordinate in response to vulnerabilities. Subsequent iterations of the plan will incorporate additional focus in these areas. 6.3.2 Planning Scale and Integration This plan focuses on actions that the City and County can take to adapt to a changing climate, within a relatively short timeframe. Long-term climate adaptation will require cooperation and planning at multiple scales: regionally across political jurisdictions; with a broad variety of stakeholders in the larger community; among federal, state, and local agencies; and within ecosystem sheds, such as watersheds or foodsheds. In addition, future planning will need to more fully address integration across existing silos, and address interdependencies between systems. For example, water, wastewater, and stormwater system planning will need better integration, as will water planning with land use and building codes. Planning that encompasses a longer time horizon than used in this document will also be necessary.

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6.3.3 Adaptive Management This plan focuses on no and low-regrets responses, which generally are shorter-term, have co-benets such as greenhouse gas reductions, smart-growth principles, and align with overall City development plans. Further investigation is needed in this arena, to help Denvers adaptation planning assist in positioning Denver for economic and social benet. At the same time, additional focus will be needed to address long-term needs that do not result in economic or social advantage, such as disaster relief or the need to limit development in vulnerable areas. 6.3.4 Metrics and Accountability Throughout this planning process, we have struggled to nd a balance between creating measurable actions that can be implemented, and anticipating long-term needs that are subject to a great deal of uncertainty. We have chosen to focus on shorter term actions and outcomes, which can be incorporated within the Citys Environmental Management System to assure accountability. As we move forward, additional attention will be needed to establish clear metrics by which to measure success, assign responsibility and timelines for those actions and metrics, and provide a scorecard by which to communicate progress and areas for improvement. 6.3.5 Community Engagement Any plan is strengthened by robust community involvement in order to reect the larger communitys vision for Denvers future, to make sure that community disparities are eectively addressed by planning eorts, priorities align with that vision, and barriers to achieving that vision are identied and addressed. In addition, building social resilience within Denvers communities will be extremely important to the success of our adaptation eorts. Finding ways to work with many dierent communities to identify their wants and needs, to leverage others engagement eorts, and to utilize and build upon existing community assets to strengthen neighborhood capacity will be important. Climate Adaptation Plan | 66

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 67 Appendix A: Glossary 12 100-Year Flood Levels: S evere ood levels with a 1-in-100 likelihood of occurring in any given year. Adaptation: Adjustment or preparation of natural or human systems to a new or changing environment which moderates harm or exploits benecial opportunities. Adaptive Capacity: The ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) to moderate potential damages, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences. Carbon Dioxide : A naturally occurring gas, and also a by-product of burning fossil fuels and biomass, as well as land-use changes and other industrial processes. It is the principal human caused greenhouse gas that aects the Earths radiative balance. It is the reference gas against which other greenhouse gases are measured and therefore has a Global Warming Potential of 1. Carbon Dioxide Equivalent: A metric measure used to compare the emissions from various greenhouse gases based upon their global warming potential (GWP). Carbon dioxide equivalents are commonly expressed as million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MMT CO 2 Eq). The carbon dioxide equivalent for a gas is derived by multiplying the tons of the gas by the associated GWP. MMTCO 2 Eq = (million metric tons of a gas) (GWP of the gas) Carbon Footprint : The total amount of greenhouse gases that are emitted into the atmosphere each year by a person, family, building, organization, or company. A persons carbon footprint includes greenhouse gas emissions from fuel that an individual burns directly, such as by heating a home or riding in a car. It also includes greenhouse gases that come from producing the goods or services that the individual uses, including emissions from power plants that make electricity, factories that make products, and landlls where trash gets sent. Climate Change: Climate change refers to any signicant change in the measures of climate lasting for an extended period of time. In other words, climate change includes major changes in temperature, precipitation, or wind patterns, among others, that occur over several decades or longer. Climate: Climate in a narrow sense is usually dened as the average weather, or more rigorously, as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands of years. The classical period is 3 decades, as dened by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). These quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature, precipitation, and wind. Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system. Emissions : The release of a substance (usually a gas when referring to the subject of climate change) into the atmosphere. Energy Eciency: Using less energy to provide the same service ENERGY STAR: A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency voluntary program that helps businesses and individuals save money and protect our climate through superior energy eciency. Enhanced Greenhouse Eect: The concept that the natural greenhouse eect has been enhanced by increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (such as CO 2 and methane) emitted as a result of human activities. These added greenhouse gases cause the earth to warm. Fossil Fuel: A general term for organic materials formed from decayed plants and animals that have been converted to crude oil, coal, natural gas, or heavy oils by exposure to heat and pressure in the earths crust over hundreds of millions of years. Global Average Temperature: An estimate of Earths mean surface air temperature averaged over the entire planet. Global Warming: The recent and ongoing global average increase in temperature near the Earths surface. Greenhouse Eect: Trapping and build-up of heat in the atmosphere (troposphere) near the Earths surface. Some of the heat owing back toward space from the Earths surface is absorbed by water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, and several other gases in the atmosphere and then reradiated back toward the Earths surface. If the atmospheric concentrations of these greenhouse gases rise, the average temperature of the lower atmosphere will gradually increase. Greenhouse Gas (GHG): Any gas that absorbs infrared radiation in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases include, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, chlorouorocarbons, hydrochlorouorocarbons, hydrouorocarbons, peruorocarbons, and sulfur hexauoride. Industrial Revolution: A period of rapid industrial growth with far reaching social and economic consequences, beginning in England during the second half of the 18th century and spreading to Europe and later to other countries including the United States. The industrial revolution marks the beginning of a strong increase in combustion of fossil fuels and related emissions of carbon dioxide. 12 All denitions retrieved from EPA Glossary of Climate Change Terms

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 68 Appendix A: Glossary (Cont.) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): The IPCC was established jointly by the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Meteorological Organization in 1988. The purpose of the IPCC is to assess information in the scientic and technical literature related to all signicant components of the issue of climate change. The IPCC draws upon hundreds of the worlds expert scientists as authors and thousands as expert reviewers. Leading experts on climate change and environmental, social, and economic sciences from some 60 nations have helped the IPCC to prepare periodic assessments of the scientic underpinnings for understanding global climate change and its consequences. With its capacity for reporting on climate change, its consequences, and the viability of adaptation and mitigation measures, the IPCC is also looked to as the ocial advisory body to the worlds governments on the state of the science of the climate change issue. For example, the IPCC organized the development of internationally accepted methods for conducting national greenhouse gas emission inventories. Methane (CH4): A hydrocarbon that is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential most recently estimated at 25 times that of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Methane is produced through anaerobic (without oxygen) decomposition of waste in landlls, animal digestion, decomposition of animal wastes, production and distribution of natural gas and petroleum, coal production, and incomplete fossil fuel combustion. The GWP is from the IPCCs Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Mitigation: A human intervention to reduce the human impact on the climate system; it includes strategies to reduce greenhouse gas sources and emissions and enhancing greenhouse gas sinks. Natural Gas: Underground deposits of gases consisting of 50 to 90 percent methane (CH4) and small amounts of heavier gaseous hydrocarbon compounds such as propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10). Ozone: Ozone, the triatomic form of oxygen (O3), is a gaseous atmospheric constituent. In the troposphere, it is created by photochemical reactions involving gases resulting both from natural sources and from human activities (photochemical smog). In high concentrations, tropospheric ozone can be harmful to a wide range of living organisms. Tropospheric ozone acts as a greenhouse gas. In the stratosphere, ozone is created by the interaction between solar ultraviolet radiation and molecular oxygen (O2). Stratospheric ozone plays a decisive role in the stratospheric radiative balance. Depletion of stratospheric ozone, due to chemical reactions that may be enhanced by climate change, results in an increased ground-level ux of ultraviolet (UV-) B radiation. Peak Runo: The maximum rate at which water is expected to be discharged from an area. Renewable Energy: Energy resources that are naturally replenishing such as biomass, hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, ocean thermal, wave action, and tidal action. Resilience: A capability to anticipate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from signicant multi-hazard threats with minimum damage to social well-being, the economy, and the environment. Sensitivity: The degree to which a system is aected, either adversely or benecially, by climate variability or change. The eect may be direct (e.g., a change in crop yield in response to a change in the mean, range or variability of temperature) or indirect (e.g., damages caused by an increase in the frequency of coastal ooding due to sea level rise). Snowpack: A seasonal accumulation of slow-melting snow. Streamow: The volume of water that moves over a designated point over a xed period of time. It is often expressed as cubic feet per second (ft3/sec). Urban Heat Island: An urban area characterized by temperatures higher than those of the surrounding non-urban area. As urban areas develop, buildings, roads, and other infrastructure replace open land and vegetation. These surfaces absorb more solar energy, which can create higher temperatures in urban areas. Vector : An organism, typically a biting insect or tick, that transmits a disease or parasite from one animal or plant to another. Vulnerability: The degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse eects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of climate variation to which a system is exposed; its sensitivity; and its adaptive capacity. Weather: Atmospheric condition at any given time or place. It is measured in terms of such things as wind, temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, cloudiness, and precipitation. In most places, weather can change from hour-to-hour, dayto-day, and season-to-season. Climate in a narrow sense is usually dened as the average weather, or more rigorously, as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years. The classical period is 30 years, as dened by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). These quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature, precipitation, and wind. Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system. A simple way of remembering the dierence is that climate is what you expect (e.g. cold winters) and weather is what you get (e.g. a blizzard).

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 69 Appendix B: Summary Table of Vulnerabilities Climate Change Impact DEPARTMENT OF COMMU NITY PLANNING AND DEVELOP MENT DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT OF ENVI RONMENTAL HEALTH DEPARTMENT OF GENERAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND RECREATION DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN SERVICES OFFICE OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT OFFICE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BUDGET AND MANAGEMENT OFFICE DENVER WATER DENVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT Increase in tempera ture and urban heat island ef fect Decrease in quality of living/ reduced comfort (Denver Citizens) Streetscape S4, AC2= V4 Extreme heat events/ Paving materials exacerbat ing urban heat island eect. S3, AC3= V2 Higher eet mainte nance S3, AC3/4= V1 / V2 Degrada tion of roads S1, AC3= V1 Impacts to outdoor workforce S3, AC4= V1 Extreme heat events aecting vulnerable populations S3, AC1= V4 Decrease in quality of living (Den ver Citizens) S4, AC2= V4 Higher energy demands/ costs (Private property) S4, AC2= V4 Higher wa ter demand/ costs (Private property) S2, AC3= V4 Regulatory barriers to the adop tion of adaptation strategies S2, AC2= V2 / V3 Extreme heat events aecting vulnerable popula tions S3, AC1= V4 Decrease in quality of living/ reduced comfort (Denver Citizens) S4, AC2= V4 Higher energy demands/ costs (Private property) S4, AC2= V4 Higher water demand/ costs (Private property) S2, AC3= V4 Diminished air quality and public health risks such as an increase in respiratory illnesses S2, AC2= V2 Higher energy demands and use in the summer S4, AC2= V4 Reduced occupant comfort in buildings/ impacts to productivity S4, AC2= V4 Higher maintenance costs/ HVAC equipment failures AC1, S2= V3 Higher build ing equip ment costs (HVAC, roofs, hardscape/ landscape) S2, AC1 = V3 Higher costs for water S1, AC3= V1 Reduced amount of water available for irrigation, changes to ditch water supplies S4, AC2= V4 Decrease in quality of liv ing/ reduced comfort (Denver Citizens) S4, AC2= V4 Extreme heat events aecting vulnerable populations S3, AC1= V4 Stress on street trees and urban landscaping S3, AC1= V3 / V4 Increased threat of pests, inva sive species, and noxious weeds. S3, AC2= V3 Extreme heat events aecting vulnerable populations S3, AC3= V2 Higher energy rates aecting vulnerable populations S3, AC3= V2 Higher water rates aecting vulnerable populations S3, AC3= V2 Decrease in quality of liv ing/ reduced comfort (Denver Citizens) S2, AC2= V2 Public health risks/ vector-borne diseases S2, AC2= V2 Increase in vector-borne diseases S3, AC2 = V3 Public health crises due to extreme heat events S3, AC3/4= V2 Lack of public access to shade or cooling centers S3, AC3/4= V2 Blackouts or brownouts in the summer S1, AC3= V1 Private rail line derailment NR Climate induced inmigration of businesses/ people S3,AC2= V3 Impacts to industries reliant on water sup plies S3,AC3= V2 Poor air quality and increased tempera tures impact on tourism industries S0,AC4= P0 Vulner able outdoor workforce interruptions S0,A4= P0 Investors may require assessments of businesseconomic exposure to climaterelated risks S0,A4= P0 Increased need for funds for en ergy/utilities, maintenance, and capital improve ments S3, AC2= V4 City-wide aesthetic standards not compat ible with cli mate change scenarios NR Lack of cli mate change planning/ Design standards not address ing climate change scenarios NR 1) Increased risk of drought NR 2) Diculty in meeting increas ing water demand, especially plant water ing require ment NR 3) Wa tershed changes/ ecosystem changes NR Water infra structures ability to withstand multiple climate scenarios NR Stresses to interstate water com pacts NR 2) Higher energy demands S2, AC3 = V1 3) Higher building/ infrastruc ture equip ment costs S3, AC3 = V2 4) Damaged infrastruc ture such as pavement buckling S2, AC2 = V2 6) Increased use of en ergy to cool aircrafts and increased use of preconditioned aircraft increasing electric costs S2, AC3= V1 7) Challeng ing envi ronmental regulations S3, AC2= V3

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 70 Appendix B: Summary Table of Vulnerabilities Climate Change Impact DEPARTMENT OF COMMU NITY PLANNING AND DEVELOP MENT DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT OF ENVI RONMENTAL HEALTH DEPARTMENT OF GENERAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND RECREATION DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN SERVICES OFFICE OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT OFFICE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BUDGET AND MANAGEMENT OFFICE DENVER WATER DENVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT Increased level of in frastructure monitoring PO City-wide aesthetic standards not com patible with climate change scenarios NR Lack of climate change planning/ Design standards not ad dressing climate change scenarios NR Degradation of roads S1, AC3= V1 City-wide aesthetic standards not compat ible with climate change scenarios NR Lack of climate change planning/ Design standards not address ing climate change scenarios NR Diculty meeting environ mental regulations and compli ance S2, AC2= V2 Increase in pesticide use S2, AC2= V2 Migration of animal species interact ing with human activities S1, AC3= V1 Public health risks/ Increase in vectorborne diseases S1, AC2= V1 Loss or shifting of biodiversity PO Lack of cli mate change planning/De sign standards not address ing climate change scenarios NR Warming of stream and lake systems aecting aquatic spe cies S3, AC2= V3 Changes in or reduced amount of recreation spent outdoors in the summer months/ increased pressure on recreation centers S3, AC3= V2 Increased cooling needs for visitors and inadequate cooling technology in buildings S3, AC3= V2 Increased number of heat related emergency responses and/or over crowding at cooler parks S3, AC3= V2 Impacts to agency outdoor workforce productivity S3, AC4= V1 Food inse curity and shortages PO Impacts to agency outdoor workforce productivity NR Lack of cli mate change planning/ Design standards not address ing climate change scenarios NR Lack of cli mate change planning/ Design standards not addressing cli mate change scenarios NR Workforce development implications S2, AC2= V2 Low income tenants will need help paying for utilities in the summer S2, AC2= V2 Low-income housing may need to be come more dense with dierent landscaping S2, AC2= V2 City-wide aesthetic standards not compat ible with cli mate change scenarios NR Lack of cli mate change planning/ Design standards not address ing climate change scenarios NR Reduced fresh water quality, higher con centration of pollut ants NR Flashpoint of aviation fuel ex ceeded on hot days S1, AC3 = V1 Impacts to outdoor workforce S3, AC3= V2 City-wide aesthetic standards not com patible with climate change scenarios NR Lack of climate change plan ning/Design standards not address ing climate change scenarios NR

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 71 Appendix B: Summary Table of Vulnerabilities Climate Change Impact DEPARTMENT OF COMMU NITY PLANNING AND DEVELOP MENT DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT OF ENVI RONMENTAL HEALTH DEPARTMENT OF GENERAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND RECREATION DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN SERVICES OFFICE OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT OFFICE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BUDGET AND MANAGEMENT OFFICE DENVER WATER DENVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT Increased stress on storm water man agement S3/4, AC2= V3 / V4 More frequent and intense localized storm events causing ooding NR Stormwater manage ment and ood control S3/4, AC2= V3 / V4 Interrup tions to transporta tion S3, AC3= V2 / V3 Water tem peratures rising PO City-wide aesthetic standards not com patible with climate change scenarios NR Lack of climate change planning/ Design standards not ad dressing climate change scenarios NR Higher microbial burden in surface water S3, AC2= V3 Diminished air qual ity due to wildres in surround ing areas. S1, AC2= V1 Damages to city facilities S1, AC1= V2 Increased costs and availability of supplies needed by agencies S2, AC3= V1 Localized extinctions and loss (or shifting) of biodiversity PO Increased use of chlorine in recreation center pools NR City-wide aesthetic standards not compat ible with cli mate change scenarios NR Lack of cli mate change planning/ Design standards not address ing climate change scenarios NR Park dam ages: debris generation S3, AC1= V3 / V4 Stress on landscape and trees S3, AC1= V3 / V4 Long-term disruption in services delivery S3, AC1/2= V3 / V4 Increase in crisis response for vulnerable populations S2, AC3= V1 Current build ings not built to earthquake code making them suscep tible to ex treme weather events. S3, AC1= V4 Ensuring health care services for people with chronic con ditions dur ing extreme weather events S2, AC1= V3 Loss of tour ism dollars S0,AC4= P0 Low-income workers may need to nd alternate modes of commuting in extreme weather NR Unanticipat ed increase in emergen cy man agement funding S3,AC2= V3 Impacts on self insured property S3,AC2= V3 Contami nant load ing from increased ooding and heavy rain spells NR 4) Damaged infrastruc ture NR 1) Inter ruptions in business and ight schedule S3, AC2 = V3 4) Damaged infrastruc ture S2, AC2 = V2 Increase in extreme weather events

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 72 Appendix B: Summary Table of Vulnerabilities Climate Change Impact DEPARTMENT OF COMMU NITY PLANNING AND DEVELOP MENT DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT OF ENVI RONMENTAL HEALTH DEPARTMENT OF GENERAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND RECREATION DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN SERVICES OFFICE OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT OFFICE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BUDGET AND MANAGEMENT OFFICE DENVER WATER DENVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT Contami nant load ing from increased ooding and heavy rain spells S3, AC1= V4 Stress or damage to physical in frastructure and public assets S3, AC2= V3 Increased demands on sta to respond to damaged infrastruc ture S2/3, AC 2/3= V1 / V2 Increased costs and availability of supplies needed by agencies S2, AC3= V1 Decrease in water qual ity due to low-water ow in discharge areas S3, AC2= V3 Built envi ronments lack of resil iency and ability to withstand multiple climate sce narios S2, AC2= V2 Climate refugees stress on community resources S2, AC2= V1 / V2 Increased costs and availability of supplies needed by agencies S2, AC3= V1 Flood eleva tion height building codes may be inad equate. PO Increased costs and availability of supplies needed by agencies S2, AC3= V1 Decrease in water qual ity due to low-water ow in discharge areas. S3, AC2= V3 Higher heat ing costs S0, AC3 = PO Lack of gen erators at City facilities NR Increased stress on storm water manage ment S3/4, AC2= V3 / V4 Damage to riparian cor ridors S3, AC2= V3 Degradation or damage of historic structures, wooden structures, and green infrastructure S1, AC3= V1 Increased costs and availability of supplies needed by agencies S2, AC3= V1 Decrease in water quality due to lowwater ow in discharge areas. S3, AC2= V3 Increase in frequency, size, and duration of wildres in mountain parks S3, AC2= V3 Reduced amount of recreation on rivers (sh ing, rafting) S3, AC3= V2 Food inse curity and shortages PO Increased costs and availability of supplies needed by agencies S2, AC3= V1 Damage and disruption of services due to increased ooding and heavy precipitation events S2, AC3= V1 Increased costs and availability of supplies needed by agencies S2, AC3= V1 Climate refu gees stress on community resources and response capabilities. PO Increase in emergency response / stress on sta PO Increased costs and availability of supplies needed by agencies S2, AC3= V1 Changes in ski-related business S1, AC3 = V1 Increased costs and availability of supplies needed by agencies S2, AC3= V1 Increased need for funds to implement adaptation strategies S2,AC2= V2 Water infra structures ability to withstand multiple climate scenarios NR Stresses to interstate water com pacts NR Decrease in water quality due to lowwater ow in discharge areas. NR 9) Storm water man agement and ood control S3, AC2 = V3 Increase in high wind days: reduced amount of runways available S3, AC2 = V3 Increased costs and availability of supplies needed by agencies NR Interrup tions to transporta tion NR 8) Changes in ski (or tourism) may lead to fewer travelers/ fewer ights S3, AC2 = V3 Reduced snowpack and earlier snowmelt

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 73 Appendix B: Summary Table of Vulnerabilities Climate Change Impact DEPARTMENT OF COMMU NITY PLANNING AND DEVELOP MENT DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT OF ENVI RONMENTAL HEALTH DEPARTMENT OF GENERAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND RECREATION DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN SERVICES OFFICE OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT OFFICE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BUDGET AND MANAGEMENT OFFICE DENVER WATER DENVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT Built envi ronments lack of resil iency and ability to withstand multiple climate sce narios S2, AC2= V2 Climate refugees stress on community resources S2, AC2= V1 / V2 Increased costs and availability of supplies needed by agencies S2, AC3= V1 Flood eleva tion height building codes may be inad equate. PO Increased costs and availability of supplies needed by agencies S2, AC3= V1 Decrease in water qual ity due to low-water ow in discharge areas. S3, AC2= V3 Higher heat ing costs S0, AC3 = PO Lack of gen erators at City facilities NR Increased stress on storm water manage ment S3/4, AC2= V3 / V4 Damage to riparian cor ridors S3, AC2= V3 Degradation or damage of historic structures, wooden structures, and green infrastructure S1, AC3= V1 Increased costs and availability of supplies needed by agencies S2, AC3= V1 Decrease in water quality due to lowwater ow in discharge areas. S3, AC2= V3 Increase in frequency, size, and duration of wildres in mountain parks S3, AC2= V3 Food inse curity and shortages PO Increased costs and availability of supplies needed by agencies S2, AC3= V1 Damage and disruption of services due to increased ooding and heavy precipitation events S2, AC3= V1 Increased costs and availability of supplies needed by agencies S2, AC3= V1 Climate refu gees stress on community resources and response capabilities. PO Increase in emergency response / stress on sta PO Increased costs and availability of supplies needed by agencies S2, AC3= V1 Changes in ski-related business S1, AC3 = V1 Increased costs and availability of supplies needed by agencies S2, AC3= V1 Increased need for funds to implement adaptation strategies S2,AC2= V2 Water infra structures ability to withstand multiple climate scenarios NR Stresses to interstate water com pacts NR Decrease in water qual ity due to low-water ow in discharge areas. NR 9) Storm water man agement and ood control S3, AC2 = V3 Increase in high wind days: reduced amount of runways available S3, AC2 = V3 Increased costs and availability of supplies needed by agencies NR Interrup tions to transporta tion NR 8) Changes in ski (or tourism) may lead to fewer travelers/ fewer ights S3, AC2 = V3

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 74 Appendix C: Activities supporting Denvers adaptation strategies This Appendix includes the activities for Denvers six priority sectors: Buildings & Energy Health & Human Services Urban Natural Resources Water Consumption Land Use & Transportation Food & Agriculture BUILDINGS & ENERGY Goal 1: Reduce vulnerability to building energy supply disruptions Strategy 1: Energy eciency Energy Eciency Activities Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Long-term Medium-term Encourage green building standards in Oce of Economic Development projects in coordination with Denver Water, Community Planning & Development, and Public Works Explore zero-net energy building options as part of Sustainable Neighborhoods program Pilot net-zero building strategies in new City facility Continue to support energy eciency/savings in private housing through the activities of the Denver Energy Challenge Explore commercial building energy benchmarking and disclosure options through the Natural Resources Defense Council and Institute for Market Transfor mations City Energy Project Adopt 2015 International Energy Conservation Code Continue CIP and FIT programs to secure dedicated funding for energy eciency operations and maintenance projects in annual budgets and future bond issuances Use energy performance contracting model to generate funds for capital im provements at City facilities. Improve eectiveness of preventative maintenance programs and ensure continual commissioning and maximum eciency of mechanical systems in City facilities Increase market penetration of energy eciency eorts into the commercial and private markets through technical assistance and outreach using Certiably Green Denver and the Denver Energy Challenge Reinvest utility rebates to City into Sustainability Fund to fund future energy ef ciency projects in City facilities Approve and implement City energy management plan Complete energy eciency outreach to the top twenty energy users in Denver, if known and not already being served by the utility Complete energy audits and retro commissioning on City facilities Expand energy conservation and sustainability training for employees through City University or similar programs OED DEH DGS DEH DEH CPD/Development Services DGS DGS DGS DEH DGS DGS DEH DGS DGS CPD, DW, DPW OED Denver Water, CPD, DPW, OED Denver Water, CPD, DPW, OED DEH BMO BMO, DPW, CAO OED BMO DEH, Mayors Oce, OOS OED Mayors Oce OHR Not started Not started Not started In progress In progress Not Started In progress In progress In progress Not Started In progress Not started Not Started In progress In progress

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 75 Appendix C: Activities supporting Denvers adaptation strategies (Cont.) Energy Eciency Activities Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Activities Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Activities Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Medium-term Medium-term Long-term Long-term Medium-term Partner with Xcel Energy to pilot LED technology in street lights Regularly inspect heat-sensitive data centers to ensure reliable performance Personal appliance pilot plug load reduction interventions in municipal buildings Reduce urban heat island eect through infrastructure such as shade trees, urban gardens, green roofs, and lighter colored hardscapes Update solar site assessment of City facility rooftops and solicit proposals for eligible sitesgardens, green roofs, and lighter colored hardscapes Create a contest for residents to win energy eciency upgrades and cool roofs City facilities permanently commit to save energy by regulating thermostats all year long Examine species distribution of street trees with projected climate impacts to ensure existing trees can survive high temperatures and/or drought and provide shade Create a tree bank where projects can meet shade tree requirements by contributing funds for the installation of trees at other more suitable sites, as selected by the City Preserve and enhance cooling infrastructure for extreme events by increasing street tree planting and maintenance, and encouraging green roofs, green water quality infrastructure (wetlands, bioswales), and high albedo surfaces Create educational campaign to promote Energy Star qualied roong products targeted at roofers, builders, and architects Develop non-vegetation shade structures Identify opportunities for the City to become a subscriber in community solar gardens Develop community-scale renewable and district energy pilot systems and remove exist ing regulatory barriers Support state-wide incentives and regulatory support for efficient back-up power systems in case of blackouts (combined heat and power, solar with battery back-ups, etc.) Develop a fourth PV array at Denver International Airport (DIA Solar IV) DPW DGS DGS DPW DGS DEH DGS DPR DPR DPR DEH DPR DGS DEH OEM DIA DPR Mayors Oce CAO CPD, OED DGS DPW Mayors Oce In Progress Not Started In Progress In Progress Not Started Not Started In Progress Not Started Not Started Not Started Not Started In progress In progress Not Started Not Started In progress BUILDINGS & ENERGY BUILDINGS & ENERGY Goal 1: Reduce vulnerability to building energy supply disruptions Strategy 2: Cooling Infrastructure Goal 1: Reduce vulnerability to building energy supply disruptions Strategy 3: Alternative and Distributed Generation

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 76 Appendix C: Activities supporting Denvers adaptation strategies (Cont.) Activities Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Medium-term Long-term Long-term Long-term Medium-term Medium-term Require integration of resilient building design elements in building codes or zoning for major retrots on existing buildings and new construction Increase number of shelter spaces available to homeless and at-risk populations Utilize protocols developed during extreme heat planning to develop procedures for integrated emergency planning and communications for other extreme events such as storms, flash floods and wildfires Establish an extreme heat and air quality notication system for residents and businesses Continue to Integrate electric and water utilities into extreme heat scenario planning to prepare for extreme heat events accompanied by blackouts or water restrictions Revise asset management plans to consider climate impacts and make operational adjustments such as increased maintenance and monitoring and accelerated infrastructure refurbishment schedules Implement financing program for resilient building measures for major retrofits on existing properties and new construction Develop incentives or regulation to improve resiliency of buildings in areas facing increased risk of flood Create city-wide design review checklist for new construction requiring evaluation of building resilience measures Publish a guide on steps that commercial and residential property owners can take to make their existing buildings more resilient to climate change Understand how increases in temperature may aect recreational activities Designate public cooling shelters for extreme heat events Request a change to the zoning code section to allow faith-based shelters to operate up to 120 days per calendar year Adopt a severe weather ordinance to allow shelters to expand number of persons served during extreme weather events CPD/Develop ment Services DRH OEM DGS DEH CPD/Develop ment Services DEH DEH DPR DPR DRH OEM OEM OEM, DHS DPW CPD OED OEM OEM DEH, DHS, OEM Not started In progress In progress Not started Not started Not started Not started Not started Not started In progress In progress Not started Not started In progress BUILDINGS & ENERGY HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Goal 2: Reduce vulnerability of buildings to extreme weather Strategy 1: Encourage construction of resilient buildings Goal 1: Safeguard health of Denver residents in the context of climate impacts Strategy 1: Develop protocol for inter-agency coordination and public communication during extreme weather events Goal 1: Safeguard health of Denver residents in the context of climate impacts Strategy 2: Reduce health impacts of extreme weather events

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 77 Appendix C: Activities supporting Denvers adaptation strategies (Cont.) Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Long-term Long-term Long-term Medium-term Medium-term Evaluate areas of stagnant water where mosquitoes can breed Encourage back-up power for pharmacies Explore programs for hospitals to install o-grid distributed alternative energy systems with islanding capabilities Adopt a tree protection ordinance for trees over six inches in diameter to help saplings establish and encourage growth of urban forest resources Work with partners to develop water VBZD surveillance system to improve prediction of epidemics and prevent incidents leading to epidemics Evaluate and scale the VBZD control program as warranted Pilot an off-grid distributed energy system with islanding capabilities at one or more Denver medical facilities Build in IT systems for patient records and information and create resilient and redundant telecommunica tions systems to maintain patient contact with doctors in the event of flooding or outages Advise hospitals to evaluate whether critical infrastructure is at risk to flash flooding and identify risk mitiga tion solutions Explore incentives for hospitals to identify power needs for critical systems and obtain adequate back-up generation capacity Encourage combined heat and power systems for hospitals for increased off-the-grid functionality in emergencies DEH DEH DEH DPR DEH DEH DPH Denver Health DEH DEH OED DPW, DPR OEM OED, OEM OEM DPR OEM OED, OEM, DPH OED, OEM OEM In progress Not started Not started Not started In progress In progress Not started Not started Not started Not started Not started HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES URBAN NATURAL RESOURCES Goal 1: Safeguard health of Denver residents in the context of climate impacts Strategy 3: Reduce health vulnerabilities from vector-borne diseases Goal 2: Preserve ability of health care providers to provide services during extreme heat events Strategy 1: Develop utility and IT systems that are resilient to power outages Goal 1: Enhance existing urban forest resources and expand range Strategy 1: Enhance standards and regulations to strengthen and protect urban forest resources Medium-term Request a change to the zoning code to allow temporary shelters with fewer than 100 residents in any zone, so long as the shelter is located in a structure owned by a non-profit or government for up to 120 days per calendar year Conduct surveillance on heat related illness by surveying emergency department visits Coordinate heat-related resources, donations, and volunteers during extreme events or heat waves DRH DEH OEM Not started Not started Not started Appendix C: Activities supporting Denvers adaptation strategies (Cont.)

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 78 Appendix C: Activities supporting Denvers adaptation strategies (Cont.) Medium-term Medium-term Medium-term Draft a new landscape ordinance to accommodate plants that can tolerate citys projected future climate Update the right of way tree list that focuses on trees that can thrive in future climates Implement/complete the Tree and Shade Master Plan Achieve the Citys tree canopy cover goal of 18% of land area Replace trees planted in public property and public right of way Continue to participate in Emerging Pests in Colorado Roundtable and the Denver Pest Round table to nd best practices to reduce stress on urban landscapes Continue to follow Colorado Dept. of Agriculture invasive species list to control damage to Den vers existing terrestrial ecosystems Address tree canopy in upcoming community plans Create a Canopy Keepers program in which people adopt trees and commit to watering new trees for two years Initiate a contract to inventory existing trees within the city in preparation for the tree and shade master plan Continue to educate the public on the benets the urban forest provides to encourage protec tion of tree resources on private lands based on the Denver Urban Forest Assessment ndings Expand wildre mitigation program Pursue/implement forest management technology Analyze forest management techniques such as prescribed burning and removal of excess vegetation and/or dead fuels Continue aggressive re mitigation program in Mountain Parks Implement applicable wildre risk mitigation techniques such as prescribed/controlled burns on pilot forests Collaborate with Fire Corps to develop community partnerships and recruit volunteers to assist with managing and reducing the re risks in urban forests DPR DPR DPR DPR DPR DPR DPR CPD DPR DPR DPR DFD DPR DPR DPR DPR DPR DPW OOS, OEM DEH, CPD, OEM DPR DFD DFD, OEM DFD DFD Not started In progress In progress In progress In progress In progress In progress Not started Not started Not started Not started In progress Not started In progress Not started Not started URBAN NATURAL RESOURCES URBAN NATURAL RESOURCES Goal 1: Enhance existing urban forest resources and expand range Strategy 2: Increase Denvers canopy coverage and maintain existing street resources Goal 1: Enhance existing urban forest resources and expand range Strategy 3: Expand re mitigation & forest management programs Long-term Review city ordinance in regards to tree permitting, tree protection on construction sites, heritage or historic trees, incentives and alternatives, planting and irrigation standards, and landscape standards Evaluate sustainable forestry certication programs as a potential mechanism to increase resil ience of forest resources DPR DPR Not started Not started Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 79 Appendix C: Activities supporting Denvers adaptation strategies (Cont.) Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Long-term Medium-term Long-term Medium-term Partner with Denver Water to expand water way evaluation in Denver watersheds Continue noxious weed abatement program Managing ecosystem changes, planning for extreme events through Lake Manage ment Protection Plan Water conservation, cooling, managing ecosystem changes through RiverVision Continue to implement the South Platte River Vision Implementation Plan, the Gulch Master Plan and Natural Area Management Plans Increase the frequency of waterway monitoring for early identication of changes in river and lake health including turbidity, and contaminant loading Partner with public/private sectors to implement the South Platte River Vision Implementation Plan to improve water quality and residents river experience Partner with Denver Water to expand water quality monitoring in Denver watersheds Lake aeration to minimize algal blooms Include climate adaptation and mitigation in discussion and documentation re lated to 6-year Water Quality Strategic Implementation Plan currently underway by DPW planning sta Further studies on the impacts of warmer lake water on algae growth and the possible increase in taste, odor and water quality issues for water treatment plants Study/understand eects of warming surface water on animal and plant species Prioritize and implement UDFCD gulch improvement projects, Re-gulch Master Plan and Natural Area Management Plans Monitor beaver dams along water ways for eects on water ow Develop a waste management plan for debris generated by storms DEH DPR DEH DEH DPW/DPR DEH DPR DW DEH DPW DEH DEH DPW, DPR DEH OEM DW DEH DPR DEH, OED, NDCC DEH, OED, DPW, NDCC, CPD DEH DEH DEH, DPW Not started In progress In progress In progress In progress In progress In progress Not started Not started In-progress Not started Not started In progress Not started In progress URBAN NATURAL RESOURCES URBAN NATURAL RESOURCES Goal 2: Ensure all Denver lakes and rivers are shable and swimmable Strategy 1: Maintain and enhance health of Denver water bodies Goal 2: Ensure all Denver lakes and rivers are shable and swimmable Strategy 2: Improve and maintain surface water quality URBAN NATURAL RESOURCES Goal 2: Ensure all Denver lakes and rivers are shable and swimmable Strategy 3: Improve water and wastewater infrastructure to reduce risk of overows or spills

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 80 Appendix C: Activities supporting Denvers adaptation strategies (Cont.) Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Activities Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Long-term Medium-term Long-term Long-term Medium-term Encourage removal and relocation of water supply and treatment infrastructure which is vulnerable or at high-risk to climate change impacts Include a discussion section on climate adaptation and mitigation in the Storm Drainage Master Plan documentation update Continue to use a fee structure that incentivizes reduced wastewater use Fully Implement DPR GamePlan: Green infrastructure, wise water management, water conservation plans Include reporting on water use in a building energy disclosure benchmark to track and monitor water use in major commercial properties around Denver Continue to assess Denver Waters resilience to climate change using the latest lo cal climate projections, coordinate and be aware of new City adaptation policies and adjust practices accordingly Intensify water management and conservation through funding research and incentives Complete construction of Phase II of the Central Control Master Plan DW DPW DPW DPR DEH DW DW DPR CPD, DPR DPW, DW DW Complete In progress Not started CPD, DPW DPR DW Not started In progress Not started Not started In progress WATER CONSUMPTION WATER CONSUMPTION Goal 1: Reduce per capita use of potable water Strategy 1: Continue and expand water conservation planning and programs Goal 1: Reduce per capita use of potable water Strategy 2: Encourage the use of water conserving technologies and products in buildings Medium-term Encourage the use of water conservation technologies, such as waterless urinals and cisterns, through the development of local guidelines that are consistent with the building code Continue to create a more sustainable built environment in City facilities and the Denver metropolitan area. By using ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager as a bench marking tool, the Watts To Water partners help properties reduce their energy and water consumption rates by oering program participants free educational sessions, technical support and rebate programs DW DEH OED, CPD DGS, OOS In progress In progress

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 81 Appendix C: Activities supporting Denvers adaptation strategies (Cont.) Activities Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Medium-term Medium-term Continue to engage business community on water conservation through Certi ably Green Denver program Expand/oer rebates and market incentives for residential, commercial, industrial and institutional customers by oering free water saving devices, rebates for higheciency toilets, and grants for projects that demonstrate water-saving principles Collaborate with Denver Water to pilot a neighbor-to-neighbor comparison of water use on utility bills to encourage conservation behavior in residences Develop high water eciency product standards for xtures installed in new developments exceeding a certain size threshold Develop a leak notication program to inform customers whenever a spike in consumption meets requirements for a potential leak Install Automated Meter Reading (AMR) devices to allow consumers to track water usage and identify wasteful or costly consumption patterns Continue to increase the eciency of park irrigation systems, including conver sions to recycled water where feasible Retrot three City parks with smart irrigation controllers and upgraded distribu tion systems Review which gulches are most aected by uctuations in volume, their impact to the city and develop strategies to reduce ooding or shortages during weather events Install rain sensors on existing irrigation systems Explore purple pipe irrigation for eligible park land DEH DW DEH DW DW DW DPR DPR DPR DPR DPR DW DW, DPW, CPD CPD, DPW, DEH DPW DW DW DW DW In progress In progress In progress In progress In progress In progress In progress Not started Not started Not started Not started WATER CONSUMPTION Goal 1: Reduce per capita use of potable water Strategy 3: Expand use of water-conserving irrigation techniques WATER CONSUMPTION Goal 1: Reduce per capita use of potable water Strategy 4: Expand use of water-conserving landscaping techniques Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Medium-term Implement xeriscape landscape rebates for yards for residential and commercial properties Conserve soil moisture by mulching Publish a new plant-growing list that focuses on plants that can thrive in altered climates Continue the Citys transition to low water use/drought resistant landscaping within medians, parks, and open space areas DW DPR DPR DPR DPR In progress In progress In progress In progress

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 82 Appendix C: Activities supporting Denvers adaptation strategies (Cont.) Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Medium-term Long-term Medium-term Advocate for and implement xeric landscaping Installation of synthetic turf for ball elds Address climate change in upcoming Golden Triangle Small Area Plan Begin scoping process and update of streetscape standards to address climate adaptation Require xeric planting or low-water use landscape plantings in the urban design standards and guidelines for Cherry Creek East Continue to work with Denver Water to expand use of recycled water (purple pipe) Expand the use of recycled water (purple pipe) Continue to partner with Denver Water on continuing recycled water tree species suitability trials Develop a Reclaimed Water Feasibility Study to inform decision makers of the cur rent and possible future uses of reclaimed water Develop a gray water ordinance for Denver CPD/DS DPR CPD DPR DPR DPR DW DPR DW Mayors Oce DPW, DPR DW DPR, DEH DEH DPR, Mayors Oce DPW, DPR CPD, DPW DW In progress In progress In progress In progress In progress In progress In progress In progress Not started Not started Goal 1: Reduce per capita use of potable water Strategy 5: Expand recycled water infrastructure and use WATER CONSUMPTION Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Long-term Medium-term Implement Strategic Transportation Plan for Transit Oriented Development Improve connectivity in Elyria-Swansea neighborhoods and add pedestrian bridges, in tandem with I-70 Reconstruction Promote transit-oriented and mixed-use development (encouraging location of high-density homes within walking/biking distance of public transit and essential services) through neighborhood and station area planning Community engagement and public forums to inform long-term, sustainable neighborhood planning DPW DPW CPD NDCC CPD, RTD CPD, CDOT, NDCC, DEH OED DEH, DPW In progress In progress In progress In progress LAND USE & TRANSPORTATION Goal 1: Improve mobility within the City and its communities Strategy 1: Create transit oriented and sustainable neighborhoods LAND USE & TRANSPORTATION Goal 1: Improve mobility within the City and its communities Strategy 2: Increase alternative transportation options

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 83 Appendix C: Activities supporting Denvers adaptation strategies (Cont.) Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Long-term Medium-term Strategic Transportation Plan (STP): Promote and encourage multi-modal trans portation and maintain current transit infrastructure (built environments ability to withstand multiple climate scenarios, air quality) Build out FasTracks Develop and promote the entry of municipal and community car-sharing programs Implement Pedestrian Master Plan which shifts focus away from automobilecentric infrastructure planning Require review of climate risks for new transportation or land use projects prior to project approval Develop bike lanes on major transportation routes Implement Strategic Parking Plans as it relates to adding bicycle parking to the zoning code Promote and install electric vehicle charging stations within the county and expand XO123-chptr 4 (EV parking lot standard) into a City ordinance DPW RTD DPW DPW DPW DPW DPW DPW CPD, OED DPW DEH BMO, CPD DEH, DIA In progress In progress In progress In progress Not started In progress Not started In progress LAND USE & TRANSPORTATION Goal 2: Prepare and enable urban infrastructure to adapt to climate impacts Strategy 1: Integrate pavement options and alternatives that reduce the urban heat island eect Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Long-term Medium-term Annual Paving Plan: Paving options/and increasing use of reclaimed asphalt (built environments ability to withstand multiple climate scenarios) Strategic Parking Plan: Implement paving strategies which reduce urban heat island eect by using more green space and reective pavements Mandate high-albedo parking surfaces within designated city center area Install high-albedo hardscape when resurfacing roads, multi-use paths, and city parking lots, and identify life-cycle costs associated with concrete vs. asphalt Encourage private sector investment in reective paving. This could include reduced permit fees, subsidized nancing, tax breaks, etc. Investigate options for heat-resistant runway paving material DPW DPW DPW DPW CPD/Development Services DIA DIA DPR, CPD, OED, DIA, DEH DPW Not started Not started Not started Not started Not started Not started LAND USE & TRANSPORTATION Goal 2: Prepare and enable urban infrastructure to adapt to climate impacts Strategy 2: Integrate pavement options and alternatives that reduce stormwater runo Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Long-term Increase cleaning regime for storm drains to ensure maximum capacity Improve drainage in low-lying areas of transport system Integrate green infrastructure for retaining stormwater DPW DPW DPW Not started Not started In progress

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 84 Appendix C: Activities supporting Denvers adaptation strategies (Cont.) Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Long-term Medium-term Implement Denver Zoning Code: Division 1.1 to balance conservation and development Explore options to request a climate preparedness survey to be completed as part of approval for new infrastructure projects Require permeable pavement for a portion of parking lots larger than one acre Require large redeveloped projects to increase permeability by 15% compared to previous conditions Initiate a business and public education program regarding storm water Identify areas at high risk for storm damage CPD Development Services OED CPD, BMO, DEH, OED DPW DPW DPW OEM CPD CPD OED, DEH DPW Not started Not started Not started Not started In progress Not started LAND USE & TRANSPORTATION Goal 2: Prepare and enable urban infrastructure to adapt to climate impacts Strategy 3: Integrate climate change into planning and zoning considerations Medium-term Conduct climate preparedness survey of major City employers and business owners Review which economic sectors are at greatest risk to climate-induced workforce migration and identify which sectors could benet OOS DEH DEH, OED OED Not started Not started Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Long-term Medium-term Expand city-wide curbside compost collection with a goal of providing service to 100% of eligible residences. Strengthen regulations to protect the productive capacity of urban gardens Increase participation rate among Coloradans eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Create or identify nancing resources for new community gardens and work to reduce tax barriers Establish regional food hubs for processing and distribution of local food Identify vacant and underutilized lots for potential conversion to community gardens, urban food forests, urban orchards, outdoor agricultural educational facilities, etc. Create school gardens at select K-12 schools Provide education and supplies to increase home gardening and backyard/front yard composting DPW DEH DEH DEH OED/Develop ment Services DEH Real Estate DPS OED CPD, DEH OED, CPD OED In progress Not started Not started Not started In progress Not started In progress Not started FOOD & AGRICULTURE Goal 1: Increase food security Strategy 1: Encourage local agriculture

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 85 Appendix C: Activities supporting Denvers adaptation strategies (Cont.) Medium-term Pilot a restaurant food composting program Establish Denver FRESH (Food Retail Expansion to Support Health) to enhance inter nal city systems that accelerate healthy food retail development in underserved areas Establish Fresh Food Finance Fund to provide access to capital for developing supermarkets and grocery stores Expand compost pilot program Review how food provision and delivery has been and could be aected by extreme weather events and prioritize action areas DEH DEH DEH DPW DEH OED, CPD OED, CPD DEH OEM Not started In progress In progress Not started Not started FOOD & AGRICULTURE Goal 2: Protect local agricultural resources against increased threat of pests, invasive species and noxious weeds Strategy 1: Identify, assess, and communicate invasive species and other threats to local natural resources Activity Lead Agency Supporting Agencies Status Medium-term Partner with Colorado State University Extension to host education and outreach programs on integrated pest management and other sustainable farming tech niques for local agriculture Identify possible partners to support implementation of invasive species and pest management programs Establish an inter-agency invasive species work group to identify problem spe cies, assess risks, and prioritize high-priority infested areas for invasive species removal. This working would coordinate activities, map control eorts, and help educate the public on potential impacts and community actions that can help reduce risks from invasive species Support a public outreach campaign integrating social media to help Denver residents identify, tag (via crowd-sourcing) and assist the City in managing key invasive species populations Partner with Colorado State University Extension to host best practice sharing forum on pest management strategies with local farmers DPR DPR DPR DPR DPR NDCC, DEH DEH NDCC Not started Not started Not started In progress Not started

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 86 1 IPCC, 2013, Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. 2 ICLEI. 2011. Regional Climate Adaptation Planning Alliance: Report on Climate Change and Planning Frameworks for the Intermountain West. 3 IPCC, 2013. Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. 4 Ibid 5 Ibid 6 Ibid 7 IPCC, 2007. Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. 8 IPCC, 2013. Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013. The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. 9 ICLEI, 2011. Regional Climate Adaptation Planning Alliance: Report on Climate Change and Planning Frameworks for the Intermountain West. 10 Lukas, J., Barsugli, J., Doesken, N., Rangwala, I., and Wolter, K. 2014. Climate change in Colorado: A synthesis to support water resources management and adaptation. A report by the Western Water Assessment for the Colorado Water Conservation Board Updated Edition 11 USGRCP, Global Climate Change Impacts in the US, available at: http://www.globalchange.gov/ 12 EPA, Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies. Urban Heat Island Basics, available at http://www.epa.gov/ heatisland/resources/compendium.htm 13 Ibid 14 EPA, 2012. Ground level ozone basic information, available at: http://www.epa.gov/air/ozonepollution/basic.html 15 EPA, 2012. Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies. Urban Heat Island Basics, available at: http://www.epa. gov/heatisland/resources/compendium.htm 16 EPA, 2012. Ground level ozone: Health eects, available at http://www.epa.gov/airquality/ozonepollution/health.html 17 Ibid 18 EPA, Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies. Urban Heat Island Basics, available at: http://www.epa.gov/ heatisland/resources/compendium.htm 19 Saunders, S., Easley, T., Mezger, M., Findlay, D. 2014. Extreme heat in Fort Collins. 20 Ibid. 21 Staddon, P. L., H. E. Montgomery and M.H. Depledge, 2014. Climate warming will not decrease winter mortality. Nature, avail able at http://www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nclimate2121.html. 22 Public Health and Climate Change: A Guide for Increasing the Capacity of Local Public Health Departments. The Resource Innovation Group and Biositu. 23 Ibid

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 87 24 Denver Water. Climate Change, available at:http://www.denverwater.org/SupplyPlanning/DroughtInformation/ClimateChange/ 25 Denver Water. Integrated Resource Plan, available at: http://www.denverwater.org/SupplyPlanning/Planning/IntegratedResourcePlan/ 26 EPA, Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies. Urban Heat Island Basics, available at: http://www.epa.gov/ heatisland/resources/compendium.htm 27 Ray, A.J., J.J. Barsugli, K.B. Averyt, K. Wolter, M. Hoerling, N. Doesken, B. Udall, and R.S. Webb, 2008. Climate Change in Colora do A Synthesis to Support Water Resources Management and Adaptation. A report by the Western Water Assessment for the Colorado Water Conservation Board, available at: http://wwa.colorado.edu/climate_change/ClimateChangeReportFull.pdf. 28 Altman, Peter, D. Lashof, K. Knowlton, E. Chen, L. Johnson, and Dr. L Kalkstein. 2012, May. Killer Summer Heat: Projected Death Toll from Rising Temperatures in America Due to Climate Change. National Resources Defense Council, available at: http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/killer-heat/. 29 Climate Central, 2013. Climate Colorado: A State of Change, available at: http://www.climatecentral.org/news/biblical1000-year-deluge-strikes-colorado-did-global-warming-play-a-role-16474 30 Ibid 31 Magill, B. (2013, September 19). Epic ooding deals Colorado drought crippling blow, available at: Climate Central website: http://www.climatecentral.org/news/oods-a-near-knockout-punch-to-northern-coloradodrought-16494 32 Climate Central, 2012. The Age of Western Wildres, available at: http://www.climatecentral.org/wgts/wildres/Wildres2012.pdf 33 Climate Central, 2013. Climate Colorado: A State of Change, available at http://www.climatecentral.org/news/report-theage-of-western-wildres-14873 34 Ibid 35 Denver Water. Water Supply, available at: http://www.denverwater.org/SupplyPlanning/WaterSupply/ 36 Lukas, J., Barsugli, J., Doesken, N., Rangwala, I., and Wolter, K. 2014. Climate change in Colorado: A synthesis to support water resources management and adaptation. A report by the Western Water Assessment for the Colorado Water Conservation Board Updated Edition 37 Ibid 38 Ibid 39 Climate Central, 2013. Climate Colorado: A State of Change, available at: http://www.climatecentral.org/news/uncertainty-ahurdle-in-colorado-climate-adaptation-planning-17006 40 Ibid 41 UNEP. (n.d.). Climate change mitigation, United Nations Environment Programme website, available at: http://www.unep. org/climatechange/mitigation/ 42 EPA. (n.d.). Adaptation overview, United States Environmental Protection Agency website, available at: http://epa.gov/cli matechange/impacts-adaptation/adapt-overview.html 43 Snover, A.K., L. Whitely Binder, J. Lopez, E. Willmott, J. Kay, D. Howell, and J. Simmonds. 2007. Preparing for Climate Change: A Guidebook for Local, Regional, and State Governments. In association with and published by ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability, Oakland, CA. 44 ICLEI. 2011. Regional Climate Adaptation Planning Alliance: Report on Climate Change and Planning Frameworks for the Intermountain West. 45 Greenprint Denver Progress Report, available at: http://www.greenprintdenver.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Green PrintReport_FINAL_Spread.pdf 46 Ibid 47 2011 Year-End Report. General Services Strategic Initiatives, available at: https://www.denvergov.org/Portals/347/docu ments/FINAL%20GS%20Strategic%20Initiatives%20Year%20End%20Report%204-5-12.pdf

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 88 48 Executive Order 123, available at: http://www.denvergov.org/humanresources/RulesandPolicies/ExecutiveOrders/tab id/433430/Default.aspx 49 Enterprise Green Communities Standards, available at: http://www.enterprisecommunity.com/solutions-and-innovation/ enterprise-green-communities 50 Denver Energy Challenge information, available at: http://www.denverenergy.org/ 51 Certiably Green Brochure, available at: http://www.denvergov.org/environmentalhealth/EnvironmentalHealth/Environmen talQuality/CertiablyGreenDenver/tabid/444667/Default.aspx 52 2010 Environmental Report. Department of Environmental Health, available at: http://www.denvergov.org/%20environ mentalhealth/EnvironmentalHealth/tabid/444597/Default.aspx 53 Human Services Strategic Plan Update 2012-2015, available at http://www.denvergov.org/Portals/728/documents/Peak%20 Performance/DHS/DHS_StrategicAugust2012_Final.pdf. 54 Denvers Road Home: Denvers Ten Year Plan to End Homelessness 2013 Plan Update, available at: http://www.denversroad home.org/les/DRH_Report_FinalFINAL.pdf 55 Denver Moves Final Plan, available at: http://www.denvergov.org/Portals/708/documents/FINAL_Denver_Moves.pdf 56 Greenprint Denver Progress Report, available at: http://www.greenprintdenver.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/GreenPrin tReport_FINAL_Spread.pdf 57 Transit Oriented Development Strategic Plan, available at: http://www.denvergov.org/Portals/193/documents/full%20 tod%20st%20plan%20.pdf 58 Greenprint Denver Progress Report, available at: http://www.greenprintdenver.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/GreenPrin tReport_FINAL_Spread.pdf 59 Mile High Million information, available at: http://www.milehighmillion.org/ 60 McPherson, G., Xiao, Q., Wu, C., Bartens, J., and Simpson, J. 2013. Urban Forest Assessment for the City of Denver, available at: http://www.denvergov.org/Portals/747/documents/forestry/Denver.pdf 61 Denver Water. Conservation information, available at: http://www.denverwater.org/Conservation/. 62 Denver Water. Updated master plan identies new customers, infrastructure needs, available at: http://www.denverwater. org/WaterQuality/RecycledWater/RecycledWaterNews/MasterPlan/ 63 2011 Water Conservation Report, available at: http://www.denverwater.org/waterquality/recycledwater/ 64 2011 Year End-Report. General Services. Strategic Initiatives Report, available at: https://www.denvergov.org/Portals/347/ documents/FINAL%20GS%20Strategic%20Initiatives%20Year%20End%20Report%204-5-12.pdf 65 Denver Water. Supply and Planning: From Forests to Faucets, available at: http://www.denverwater.org/SupplyPlanning/ WaterSupply/PartnershipUSFS/. 66 Snover, A.K., L. Whitely Binder, J. Lopez, E. Willmott, J. Kay, D. Howell, and J. Simmonds, 2007. Preparing for Climate Change: A Guidebook for Local, Regional, and State Governments. In association with and published by ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability, Oakland, CA. 67 Glick, P., B.A., Stein, and N.A. Edelson, editors, 2011. Scanning the Conservation Horizon: A Guide to Climate Change Vulner ability Assessment. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, D.C. 68 Ibid 69 Snover, A.K., L. Whitely Binder, J. Lopez, E. Willmott, J. Kay, D. Howell, and J. Simmonds, 2007. Preparing for Climate Change: A Guidebook for Local, Regional, and State Governments. In association with and published by ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability, Oakland, CA. 70 Ibid 71 Ray, A.J., J.J. Barsugli, K.B. Averyt, K. Wolter, M. Hoerling, N. Doesken, B. Udall, and R.S. Webb, 2008. Climate Change in Colora do A Synthesis to Support Water Resources Management and Adaptation. A report by the Western Water Assessment for the Colorado Water Conservation Board, available at: http://wwa.colorado.edu/climate_change/ClimateChangeReportFull.pdf.

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 89 72 McPherson, G., Xiao, Q., Wu, C., Bartens, J., and Simpson, J., 2013. Urban Forest Assessment for the City of Denver, available at: http://www.denvergov.org/Portals/747/documents/forestry/Denver.pdf 73 McPherson, G., Xiao, Q., Wu, C., Bartens, J., and Simpson, J. 2013. Urban Forest Assessment for the City of Denver: Final Report, available at: http://www.denvergov.org/Portals/747/documents/forestry/Denver_FinalReport.pdf 74 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Trees and Vegetation. Urban Heat Island Eect Mitigation. November 2013, available at: http://www.epa.gov/heatislands/mitigation/trees.htm 75 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Green Roofs. Urban Heat Island Eect Mitigation, November 2013. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/heatislands/mitigation/greenroofs.htm 76 Ray, A.J., J.J. Barsugli, K.B. Averyt, K. Wolter, M. Hoerling, N. Doesken, B. Udall, and R.S. Webb. 2008. Climate Change in Colora do A Synthesis to Support Water Resources Management and Adaptation. A report by the Western Water Assessment for the Colorado Water Conservation Board, available at: http://wwa.colorado.edu/climate_change/ClimateChangeReportFull.pdf. 77 EPA, Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Urban Heat Island Basics, A Compendium of Strategies, available at http://www.epa.gov/ heatisland/resources/compendium.htm 78 McPherson, G., Xiao, Q., Wu, C., Bartens, J., and Simpson, J. 2013. Urban Forest Assessment for the City of Denver, available at: http://www.denvergov.org/Portals/747/documents/forestry/Denver.pdf 79 Arbor Day Foundation brochure, available at: http://www.arborday.org/trees/benets.cfm 80 Denver Urban Forest Fact Sheet, available at: http://www.denvergov.org/Portals/747/documents/natural_resources/Denver UrbanForestFactSheet.pdf 81 Burton, Lloyd 2013. Wildre Mitigation law in the Mountain States of the American West: A Comparative Assessment. July 82 Urban Drainage and Flood Control District Brochure, available at: http://www.udfcd.org/downloads/pdf/other/good_ex amples_brochure.pdf 83 Denver Water. Water Quality information, available at: http://www.denverwater.org/WaterQuality/ 84 Urban Drainage and Flood Control District. Stormwater Quality, available at: http://www.udfcd.org/ 85 Auld,H., and Maclver,D. 2007. Changing Weather Patterns, Uncertainty and Infrastructure Risks: Emerging Adaptation Re quirements. Adaptation and Impacts Research Division (AIRD), Environment Canada. Occasional Paper 9. 86 Denvers Complex Climate, available at: http://denvercolorado.org/reference-and-education/denvers-complex-climate/ 87 Colorado Water Conservation Board. Water Supply Planning, available at: http://cwcb.state.co.us/water-management/watersupply-planning/Pages/main.aspx 88 Colorado Water Conservation Board, 2011. Statewide Water Supply Initiative 2010, available at: http://cwcb.state.co.us/watermanagement/water-supply-planning/Documents/SWSI2010/SWSI2010.pdf 89 Denver Water. Water Supply Projects, available at: http://denverwater.org/SupplyPlanning/WaterSupplyProjects/ 90 Denver Water, 2011. Solutions magazine: Saving water for the Future, available at: http://www.denverwater.org/docs/ assets/44EC9CA1-A444-8348-68E2A8D5BD36DFA4/Solutions2011.pdf 91 Denver Water Key Facts information page, available at: http://www.denverwater.org/AboutUs/KeyFacts/ 92 Denver cuts water use in drive to convert wasters to savers, 2011. Available at: http://www.denverpost.com/ci_21919023/ denver-cuts-water-use-drive-convert-wasters-savers 93 Denver Water. 2011. Solutions magazine: Saving Water for the Future, available at: http://www.denverwater.org/docs/ assets/44EC9CA1-A444-8348-68E2A8D5BD36DFA4/Solutions2011.pdf 94 Denver Water. Integraded Resource Plan, available at: http://www.denverwater.org/SupplyPlanning/Planning/IntegratedRe sourcePlan/ 95 C.C. Sullivan 2012. Water conservation 101: The Elements of Facility Design, 2012-05-01, in ED+C Magazine. May.

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Climate Adaptation Plan | 90 96 Denver Water. Xeriscape information, available at: http://www.denverwater.org/Conservation/Xeriscape/ 97 Perlin, J. 2009. Keeping Cool with the Albedo Eect, available at: http://www.psmag.com/science-environment/keeptingcool-with-the albedo-eec-3837/ 98 New Planning & Zoning Initiatives Moving Forward, 2013. Available at: http://www.bostonredevelopmentauthority.org/ news-calendar/news-updates/2013/11/14/mayor-menino-announces-new-planning-zoning-initiat 99 Feeding America. Hunger in Your Community. Map the Meal Gap, available at: http://feedingamerica.org/hunger-in-america/ hunger-studies/map-the-meal-gap.aspx. http://feedingamerica.org/hunger-in-america/hunger-studies/map-the-meal-gap/~/ media/Files/a-map-2011/2011-mmg-exec-summary.ashx 100 Denvers Executive Orders, available at: http://govorcl02/Executive_Order/XO_index.html 101 Balanced Score Card, Strategic Planning Basics, available at: http://balancedscorecard.org/BSCResources/StrategicPlanning Basics/tabid/459/Default.aspx 102 Denver Peak Performance information, available at: http://www.denvergov.org/mayorhancock/MayorsOce/ProgramsIni tiatives/PeakPerformance/tabid/444377/Default.aspx 103 Denver Performance Reviews Plans and Budgets information, available at: http://www.denvergov.org/mayor/MayorsOce/ ProgramsInitiatives/PeakPerformance/PerformanceReviews/tabid/444465/Default.aspx 104 Capital Improvement Plan, available at:http://www.denvergov.org/Portals/9/documents/Capital_Improvement_Plan/20132018_CIP_6Year_Plan.pdf 105 Denvers 2020 Goals, available at: http://www.denvergov.org/MayorsOce/Newsroom/tabid/442244/newsid504977/7399/ mid/504977/Mayor-Hancock-Rolls-Out-2020-Sustainability-Goals-for-Newly-Created-Oce/Default.aspx 106 2007 Climate Action Plan, available at: https://www.denvergov.org/Default.aspx?tabid=442244&mid=504977&newsid50497 7=5449&Denvers-Carbon-Footprint-Advisory-Council Recommendations&SkinSrc=%5BG%5DSkins%2F_default%2FNo+Skin& ContainerSrc=%5BG%5DContainers%2F_default%2FNo+Container&dnnprintmode=true

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Climate Adaptation Plan 2014 City and County of Denver