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The Justice Center campus framework plan

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Title:
The Justice Center campus framework plan
Creator:
David Owen Tryba Architects
DMJM Design
AECOM
Mundus Bishop Design
Fehr and Peers
MNA, Inc.
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
City and County of Denver
Publication Date:

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Courthouses
City planning

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Auraria Library
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Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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THE JUSTICE CENTER
IN DENVERS CIVIC CENTER
___ -FRAMEWORK PLA>


DAVID OWEN TRYBA ARCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS BISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & PEERS I MNA, INC


JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
THE JUSTICE CENTER
CAMPUS
IN DENVERS CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT
- FRAMEWORK PLAN -
JUNE 2006
i


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
John W. Hickenlooper, Mayor
Justice Center
James Mejia, Justice Center Policy
Manager
Nick Koncilja, Justice Center Deputy
Policy Manager
Community Planning and
Development
Peter J. Park, Manager
Tyler Gibbs, Manager of Planning
Services, Urban Design and
Graphics
Kiersten Faulkner, Project Manager,
Justice Center Design and
Development Standards and
Guidelines
Department of Public Works
Lesley Thomas, Deputy Manager
Dave Bufalo, Design and
Construction Management
Nick Kontas, Design and
Construction Management
Walt Hime, Development
Engineering Services
Madie Martin, Design and
Construction Management
Karl Schmeling, Development
Engineering Services
Dave Weaver, Traffic Operations
Stu Williams, Director Capital
Projects
Office of Cultural Affairs
Erin Trapp, Public Art Program
Asset Management
Kurt Schumacher, Asset Management
David Owen Tryba Architects
David Owen Tryba, FAIA
Bill Moon, AIA
David Daniel, AIA
Ki-woo Kim
DMJM/AECOM
Andrew M. Cupples
Mundus Bishop Design
Tina Bishop, ASLA
Pat Mundus, ASLA
Joe McGrane
Ryan Godderz
Fehr & Peers Transportation
Jeremy Klop, Transportation Planner
MNA, Inc
Mace Pemberton, Civil Engineer
Elaine Shiramizu Graphic Design
Department of Law Elaine Shiramizu
Karen Aviles, Assistant City Attorney
Scott Johnson, Assistant City Attorney
DAVID OWEN TRYBA ARCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS BISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & PEERS I MNA, INC


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction______________________________
Introduction.......................
How Will this Document be Used.....
Relationship to Other Planning Documents
Project Orientation and Scope......
Definitions........................
Vision and Goals...................
3
5
6
6
10
11
Urban Design_______________________________________________________________
Guiding Principles............................................... 14
The Relationship Between The Civic Center and The Justice Center
Campus........................................................... 14
Street Hierarchy................................................. 16
Site Planning and Landscape Design............................... 34
Architecture_______________________________________________________________
Guiding Principles............................................... 42
Architectural Form of The Courthouse............................. 44
Architectural Form of The Detention Facility..................... 50
Architectural Form of The Post Office/ Parking Garage.......... 54
Architectural Form of Future Development on The South Side of 14th
Avenue........................................................... 58
Architectural Form of Future Development West of Fox Street.... 60
Campus-wide Goals__________________________________________________________
Objectives of The Organization of Internal Programs.............. 64
The Need for a Regional Architectural Response................... 64
The Lasting Effects of Quality Material and Attention to Craft. 65


Integration and Importance of Public Art.
Signage........................................................... 73
Integration of Utilities and Systems.............................. 79
Security.......................................................... gp
Environmental Sustainability...................................... 37
Lighting.......................................................... 84
Storm Water Management............................................ 35
Grey Water Management............................................. 35
Accessibility..................................................... 35
Appendices
Revised Post Office/Parking Garage Building Program.............. gg
Traffic Study.................................................... 92
Image Credits.................................................... 98
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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
INTRODUCTION
1


The architects sphere of influence (is) to emphasize the essential relation between a building and its
setting, the necessity ofprotecting the aspect of the approaches, the desirability of grouping buildings
in harmonious ensembles, of securing dominance of some buildings over others so that by the willing
submission of the less to the greater there may be created a larger, more monumental unity; a unity com-
prising at least a group of buildings with their surroundings, ifpossible entire districts andfinally even,
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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
INTRODUCTION
History
The City of Denvers criminal justice facilities have been constrained for more than 2 decades. In |
November 2001 Denver citizens rejected a $325 million bond issue for an all-inclusive jail, four ar-
raignment courts and parking at a 17-acre industrial site at Sixth Avenue and 1-25. The site would have
accommodated both pre and post-adjudication jail facilities and a few arraignment courtrooms. It sub-
sequently became clear that district, juvenile and county courtrooms at the City & County Building were
overcrowded and that a new proposal should accommodate criminal and juvenile courtrooms as well as
a pretrial detention facility.
In 2002, Denver acquired the five acre Rocky Mountain News site, on West Colfax Avenue in the Civic
Center District where the Citys other offices, courts and facilities are located.
In April 2004, the Urban Land Institute examined the merits of building a downtown Justice Center for
criminal courts and pretrial detention; eventually adding post-trial facilities at Smith Road. The ULI
recommended that the City separate the Courthouse and the Detention Facility, acquiring the block west
of the News site to do so. They further recommended that Juvenile/Family Courts be co-located in the
new Courthouse and that a new parking facility be added to serve the Courthouse and Jail.
On May 3, 2005, Denver voters approved the extension of $378 million in general obligation bonds
to fund construction of the Justice Center. Mayor Hickenlooper and the City Council determined that
- consistent with the sites importance as the city, state and regions governmental and cultural hub an
international design competition should be held to select signature architects for the new Courthouse,
Detention Center, and Post Office/Parking Garage.
The Mayor and City Council further proposed that a comprehensive approach to justice be adopted
including supervised diversion programs and alternative sentencing aimed at mitigating jail time for
non-violent, petty offenders. As a result, the Crime Prevention and Control Commission was established
to address these and other issues, including recidivism.
3


Citizen Advisory Committee (CAC) Golden Triangle Billie Bramhall Steve Erickson Thomas Hoaglund Dennis Humphries Anne Lindsey Bill Wenk Mickey Zeppelin Silver Triangle Evan Makovsky Les Lindauer Golden Triangle Museum District Linda Nugent Ed Robran Downtown Denver Partnership John Desmond Linda Rockwood Downtown Denver Residents Organization John Maslanik Inter-neighborhood Cooperation Alan Gass Capital Hill United Neighbors Dick Kisseberth City Council Jeanne Robb, District #6 Role of the Master Urban Design Architect The Master Urban Design Architects (MUDA) role is to develop the site plan and urban design for the Jus- tice Center Campus as an extension and enhancement of the Civic Center District to create a larger, more monumental unity. The team is committed to a framework for development that responds to the Civic Center District Plan, Civic Center Park Master Plan and adjacent neighborhood plans. These plans represent the collective vision, pri- orities and values of diverse stakeholders, respecting the historic precedent of the District. The Framework Plan is the product of a collaborative process, which included the signature architects, City agencies and adjacent neighborhoods. The MUDA and the City expect the principles to be challenged as a reflection of the democratic dialogue inherent in good civic space. That conversation should both inspire and inform a better outcome for todays citizen and tomorrows. The MUDA will act both as convener of the collaboration and advocate for the City, the public realm, historic precedent and the future. The MUDA is the Citys representative should conflict arise among architects or planning documents. Though the MUDA will make recommendations to the City, the Justice Center Management Team will make final decisions. Citizen Advisory Committee (CAC) The Citizen Advisory Committee is composed of 16 neighborhood representatives from the surrounding area. The mission of the CAC is to review building and landscape design, and any additional information necessary to provide informed feedback. In addition at each meeting, depending on the topic, different users and City staff are invited to attend. The CAC will meet as needed to give guidance to the Justice Center Architectural Teams. Design reviews will occur at 50 percent and 100 percent of both schematic design and design development. The Denver Justice Center Project is a significant addition to the Citys public build- ings. As such the input of community leaders is critical to the projects success.
Executive Committee Manager Public Works Director of Capital Projects - Public Works Director of Capital Projects - Budget Management Office Justice Center Policy Manager - Mayors Office Master Urban Design Architect - David Owen Tryba Architects Manager Community Planning and Development Executive Committee The Executive Committee will review and approve design issues impacting the whole campus, budget revi- sions affecting contingencies, consultant contracts and any issue that cannot be resolved at the individual project level. The Committee will make all final recommendations to the Manager of Public Works or the Mayor on all un- resolved issues and changes to the Justice Center Project scope. The Committee wifi meet as needed; though each member wifi be involved in the project on a daily basis. Major Construction Milestones Construct Post Office/ Parking Garage Start July 17, 2006 Finish June 15, 2007 Commission and Move into Post Office/ Parking Garage Start June 15, 2007 Finish Aug. 24, 2009 Construct Courthouse and Detention Facility Start Jan. 7,2007 Finish Sept. 18,2009 Commission & Move into Courthouse and Detention Facility Start Sept. 21, 2009 Finish Dec. 31, 2009
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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
HOW WILL THIS DOCUMENT BE USED
The Justice Center Campus Framework Plan sets forth the guiding principles, intent, standards and
guidelines for the urban fabric linking the Campus with the Civic Center District, the Golden Triangle,
the Silver Triangle and the Central Business District. It respects and responds to the historic precedent
of the City Beautiful character of Denvers Civic Center District. The Framework Plan is the guardian
of the public realm and as such addresses and fully integrates the Justice Center Campus into the Civic
Center District, adjacent neighborhoods and multi-modal transportation corridors. It includes informa-
tion and direction for site planning, connections and streets, building envelopes and architecture, urban
design, public art and signage for the Justice Center Campus.
Edward Bennetts 1917 plan for Civic Center offered a vision and set of principles that nearly ninety
years later continue to instruct the consistent scale, strong east/west axis, grand boulevards and the
thorough integration of architecture and landscape of Civic Center. It is important to note, however, that
though few of the buildings reflected on the 1917 plan were built, the character of todays Civic Center
resonates with the Bennett Plan.
The Bennett Plan, 1917
The goal for this Plan is to provide a similar framework for the next hundred years. By emphasizing
context and precedent, the Plan endeavors to evoke contemporary responses, reflecting the craft, charac-
ter and demands of contemporary citizens, technology and complexity.
Denvers Civic Center embraces the post-Victorian, neo-classical Capitol, the art modeme City and
County Building, the modernist Gio Ponti art museum, the neo-traditional Michael Graves library, the
new city office building and a variety of public statues, monuments and sculptures. This diversity of de-
sign, program, material and craft are strengthened and connected through the symmetry, scale, elegance
and legibility of the Bennett framework.
It is precisely this legacy that the Framework Plan seeks to emulate. It is a legacy of collaboration, a
balance of foreground and background buildings, a full integration of interior and exterior public space
and an abiding commitment to great Civic Art that should inspire not constrain todays architects and
tomorrows.
5


RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER PLANNING DOCUMENTS
Several previous planning efforts inform this document: the Park Master Plan for Civic Center Civic
Center District Plan; Civic Center Historic District Design Guidelines; Golden Triangle Neighborhood
Plan; Golden Triangle Design Guidelines and Silver Triangle Design Guidelines; as well as the Den-
ver Justice Center Final Program report dated 06/21/05. This Justice Center Campus Framework Plan
represents the continued refinement and collaboration of these plans and reports into a narrowed focus,
resulting in the most appropriate urban design and architectural response for the specific site. The cur-
rent Framework Plan will supplement not replace these other technical documents. Denvers Justice
Center Project Management Team will reconcile conflicts that arise among the various documents.
Primarily an urban design framework document, this Framework Plan along with the schematic designs
of each of the three campus buildings will serve as the basis for the Planned Unit Development (PUD)
that will become the governing regulation for the Justice Center Campus.
The design team should also be familiar with the requirements of the International Building Code and
the Denver Fire Code. The MUDA recommends that the design teams consult with police, fire and
building code experts early in the planning phase.
PROJECT ORIENTATION AND SCOPE
Orientation (Refer to diagram)
The Civic Center District spans in an east/west direction from the State Capitol to Speer Boulevard. The
Justice Center Campus comprised of three proposed structures the Courthouse, the Detention Facil-
ity, and the Post Office/Garage Building resides in the Civic Center district core and between the Silver
Triangle Neighborhood to the north and the Golden Triangle Neighborhood to the south.
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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
Civic Center District Boundary
Piirio Pontor flictriot and luctioo Pantar Pammic Qminrlariac liiotioo flontor flamniio RminHan/
7


Area Of Influence (Refer to diagram)
The Justice Center Campus should enhance and advance the legacy of Denvers Civic Center District.
Organized around parks and framed by grand avenues, the Districts buildings house the executive,
legislative, judicial and cultural functions of City and State government. Denvers Civic Center District
has the potential to become one of the nations few, fully realized civic centers. Its adoption early in the
20th Century, relied on a well articulated ideology emphasizing accessibility, utility, harmony and
celebration.1 That spirit, prevalent in Denvers public buildings, parks, monuments and streets should
be reflected in the Justice Center Campus through its urban design and architecture. It is in this spirit
that the principles set forth in the Framework Plan are intended to influence the areas shown on the adja-
cent diagram by ensuring that the Justice Center Campus enhances the connections between the evolving
neighborhoods and the historic context of the Civic Center District core.
Bond Funded Construction (Refer to diagram)
Parcels to be developed in the current scope of construction at the Justice Center Campus using appro-
priated bond funds include:
The full block bounded by West Colfax Avenue, Delaware Street, Gene Amole Way and West
14th Avenue.
The full block bounded by West Colfax Avenue, Gene Amole Way, Fox Street and West 14th
Avenue.
The parcel on the southwest comer of West 14th Avenue and Elati Street.
North end of the 1300 block between Elati and Delaware Streets bounded by the L-alley.
Improvements to the Smith Road County Jail (not shown).
Public Right-of-Way areas to be developed in the current scope of construction at the Justice Center
Campus using appropriated bond funds include:
From the curb to property line on the east side of Fox Street from the southern curb of Colfax
Avenue to the northern curb of 14th Avenue
Gene Amole Way from the northern property line on the north side of Colfax Avenue to the
southern property lines aligned on the south side of 14th Avenue
From the curb to property line on the west side of Delaware Street from the south curb of
Colfax Avenue to the northern curb of 14th Avenue
The resulting triangular civic space at the redefined intersection of Tremont, 13th Street and
Colfax Avenue.
1 William H. Wilson, The City Beautiful Movement, Johns Hopkins University Press 1989, p.235.
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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
Scope And Opportunities
Bond Funded Construction
Area Of Influence
9
P ^ 0 rSW 11


DEFINITIONS
The following terms are used throughout the document to describe the design parameters:
Guiding Principles: The primary assumptions guiding the philosophy and direction for the de-
sign and development of the Justice Center Campus.
Intent: Statements of the goals that the design review criteria seek to achieve.
Design Standards: Criteria providing specific direction based on the stated intent. Standards ar-
ticulate the issues fundamental to achieving the stated intent. The term shall is used to indicate
compliance is required. Design standards may be waived if the intent statements can be better
achieved through Guidelines (see Guidelines).
Design Guidelines: Design guidelines reinforce the objectives defined by the intent statements.
Guidelines use the term should to denote they are considered relevant to achieving the stated
intent, and will be pertinent to the review process but will not be required for approval. Guide-
lines will, however, be strongly considered when there is a request to waive a related standard.
Community Planning and Development will make final decisions about when a guideline may be
used in lieu of a standard.
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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
VISION AND GOALS
To build upon Denvers City Beautiful Tradition of design excellence through the full integra-
tion of sculpture, landscape, architecture and planting, in order to uplift the human spirit.
To use this historic precedent to establish a context for form that enhances and connects a fam-
ily of civic buildings to the adjacent neighborhoods.
To establish a cohesive campus of world-class urban and architectural design.
The City & County Building In The Past
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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
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Urban Design
Guiding Principles
Create a cohesive and connected civic campus including architecture, urban design, landscape, signage,
public art, utilities and systems.
Respect and strengthen Denvers civic precedent:
- N/S and E/W Axes as well as the influence of the 45-degree downtown grid shift
- Continuity of the street
- Tradition of Denvers parkways and boulevards
- Build-to lines
- Grand, monumental entries and plazas
- Network of open and enclosed, interior and exterior Civic Space
- Contrast of civic versus commercial building siting and architecture
The Relationship Between The Civic Center District and The Justice Center Campus
The larger campus, known as the Civic Center District, extends from the State Capitol west to Speer
Boulevard between Colfax and 14th Avenues and includes the Capitol, Lincoln Park, Civic Center, City
& County Building, United States Mint and the Justice Center Campus Courthouse, Detention Center
and Post Office/Parking Garage. These individual elements contribute to a sense of place beyond their
individual contributions. Previous planning efforts, namely the Civic Center District Plan and the Park
Master Plan for Civic Center, recognize this and call for an integrated vehicular and pedestrian system
within a cohesive urban framework.
The Justice Center Campus and its individual elements Courthouse, Detention Center and Post Office
/Parking Garage must contribute more than their individual presence. The Justice Center Campus must
be a cohesive, connected hierarchy of urban, civic spaces connected by a legible street hierarchy that is a
logical extension of the District. The Justice Center Campus must be fully integrated into the Civic Cen-
ter District through a language of continuity defined by a family of buildings and streets.
The Justice Center Campus must be defined by common language and components including signage,
lighting, paving, plant material, site furnishings and design elements. A successful Campus must:
Reflect the spatial organization of the Campus through the full integration of a family of
buildings and streets.
Respect historic precedent including build-to lines, parkways and boulevards, monumental
entries and plazas.
Integrate function into design.
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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
The Campus & The Site
State Capitol
Civic Center
City & County
Building
US Mint
Justice
Center
Gateway Park
and Mail
\ /WK?"
15


Street Hierarchy
The establishment of a cohesive Justice Center Campus depends on creating a well-established and executed
pedestrian and vehicular street network that articulates the Campus civic role. This comprehensive network
must extend throughout the Civic Center District to achieve a cohesive urban identity.
The Framework Plan builds upon the District Plan and establishes two tiers of hierarchy Grand Avenues
and Shared Streets. The Grand Avenues elevate the civic nature of the District while maintaining mandated
traffic flow. The Shared Streets further defined as Urban Courts and Urban Lanes safely blend vehicular,
bicycle and pedestrian traffic to favor the pedestrian experience.
Continuity of Greensward
Greensward: Continuous park-like ground that is green with
grass or turf and linear rows of street trees.
Grand Avenues Colfax & 14th Avenues
Colfax and 14th Avenues shall serve as a set of paired axes, providing the framework for the extension of
Denvers governmental center from the State Capitol to Speer Boulevard, in order to strengthen and reinforce
the Civic Axis of the Civic Center District.
The most sophisticated traffic analysis tools have been used to analyze the impacts of modifying Colfax
Avenue between Bannock and Welton Streets from six lanes to a five-lane cross-section.
Currently it takes approximately five minutes, 40-seconds to travel from Grant Street to Kalamath Street
during the evening rush hour. Accounting for projected traffic growth over the next 20 years, the analysis
demonstrates that modifying Colfax to five lanes would increase the average time to travel this same section
to 7 minutes about 80-seconds longer than current conditions.
Traffic analysis was used to evaluate the impact of reducing 14th Avenue between Speer Boulevard and
Bannock Street to a two-lane cross-section with on street parking, from the current three-lanes of traffic.
Currently it takes approximately 70-seconds to travel from Speer Boulevard through
Bannock Street on 14th Avenue during the evening rush hour. Projecting traffic growth to 2030, narrowing
14th Avenue to two-lanes of travel with on street parking, would take an average of 14-seconds longer than
current conditions a total of 84 seconds. It is with these considerations that the vision of the paired Grand
Avenues is presented to represent an appropriate balance between pedestrian activity and neighborhood con-
nections with vehicular mobility.
Intent
Create a formal entry to the City through the Civic Center District that will elevate the civic nature of the
Justice Center Campus.
Establish generous pedestrian ways with ample breathing space adjacent to civic buildings;
Increase pedestrian activity.
Utilize quality, craft and consistency to reinforce connections.
Provide appropriate lighting and amenities to livable mixed-use streets that are comfortable and safe for
pedestrians.
Build upon the principles of the Civic Center District Plan establish a continuous greensward from the
State Capitol to Speer Boulevard.
Create a visual connection from downtown Denver, specifically from Trinity Church to the Courthouse
along Tremont Street at Colfax Avenue.
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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
Grand Avenues and Shared Streets
Grand Avenue
Set of paired axes that create the framework
to extend Denver's governmental campus
from State Capitol to Speer Boulevard
A continuous greensward consisting of
a generous tree lawn and pedestrian
space
Primary mixed use civic roads that
accomodate vehicular traffic but have a
pedestrian orientation
Extensive civic spaces integrated with
the road design to provide for connectivity,
gathering and congregating
Urban Lane
Secondary mixed use civic roads that
accomodate vehicular traffic and provide
a pedestrian orientation
Pedestrian areas for gathering and
congregating are oriented to the street
edge and building entries


Street Hierarchy, continued
Grand Avenues Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue, continued
Colfax Avenue Looking East
Vision of Colfax Avenue Standards
Colfax Avenue is a critical connection in the citys transportation network and a key pedestrian con-
nection between Downtown, the Silver Triangle, the Justice Center Campus and the Golden Triangle
neighborhood.
Between Welton and Bannock Streets, Colfax Avenue shall have two travel lanes in each direction
and a center landscaped /art median. The pedestrian realm shall extend from the State Capitol to Speer
Boulevard and shall include a continuous, linear detached walk adjacent to a generous tree lawn with a
consistent patterning of street trees and street furnishings, including RTD bus stops.
Colfax Avenue shall have a low, but elevated center median that expresses the civic nature of the Civic
Center District. The intent is to open the viewshed from Colfax Avenue to the State Capitol, City &
County Building and the Justice Center Campus, especially the Courthouse. The medians shall provide
opportunities for public art and safe pedestrian crossing.
The northern intersection of Colfax Avenue and Tremont Street shall be reconfigured to improve vehic-
ular and pedestrian traffic flow and to provide an urban plaza connecting the Justice Center Campus with
downtown Denver. The plaza shall reinforce critical views between Trinity Church and the Courthouse
and shall be developed with water, plantings, rich paving and site furnishings that are fully integrated
with the Justice Center Campus, expressing its civic role.
Vision of Colfax Avenue Section Diagram

100' RjOM
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______________________________________JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
Street Hierarchy, continued
Grand Avenues Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue, continued
Vision of Colfax Avenue, continued
As funding is available, two additional pedestrian and civic spaces shall be improved along Colfax
Avenue, between Bannock and Speer, to include water, plantings, rich paving materials and site furnish-
ings.
Gene Amole Way and the civic room between the Detention Facility and Courthouse shall be linked
visually and physically with Colfax Avenue and function as a major civic place.
Refer to the street cross-sections for dimensional standards of pedestrian, vehicular and landscape
zones. All right-of-way improvements shall meet CCD Public Works standards and regulations or writ-
ten variances shall be obtained.
Curb cuts shall not be allowed on Colfax Avenue. Existing curb cuts shall be removed.
The full Colfax Avenue vision will be implemented when the following criteria are met: the Denver
Fire Department Station #1 (Colfax & Speer) is relocated, the Justice Center Traffic Study and the City-
wide Transportation Study support changes, a Traffic Impact Study is completed, the Colorado Depart-
ment of Transportation approves the proposed modifications to Colfax Avenue and adequate funding is
available.
The mid-block pedestrian crossing signal between Gene Amole and Delaware shall be moved to the
intersection of Gene Amole and Colfax Avenue
19


Street Hierarchy, continued
Grand Avenues Colfax and 14th Avenues, continued
Colfax Avenue Section Diagram Opening Day
Colfax Avenue Opening Day of Justice Center Campus Standards
Colfax Avenue shall remain in its current alignment and configuration, including attached walks, a
center median and center turn lanes.
A new consistent patterning of street trees and street furnishings shall be installed.
Between Fox and Delaware Streets, the center median shall be modified to eliminate the easternmost
turn lane and to become a low, but elevated median expressing the civic nature of the Civic Center
District and providing views to the State Capitol, City & County Building and the Justice Center Cam-
pus especially the Courthouse. The median shall offer opportunities for public art and safe, convenient
pedestrian crossing.
The northern intersection of Colfax Avenue and Tremont Street shall be reconfigured to improve traffic
flow and to provide an urban plaza connecting the Justice Center Campus with downtown Denver. The
plaza shall reinforce critical views between Trinity Church and the Courthouse and shall be developed
with water, plantings, rich paving and site furnishings that express its civic role and are integrated with
the Justice Center Campus.
Refer to the street cross-sections for dimensional standards of pedestrian, vehicular and landscape
zones. All right-of-way improvements shall meet CCD Public Works standards and regulations or writ-
ten variances shall be obtained.
Curb cuts shall not be allowed on Colfax Avenue. Existing curb cuts shall be removed upon develop-
ment.
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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
Opening Day of Justice Center Grand Avenues
Cherokee St.

Colfax Avenue
14th Avenue
21


Street Hierarchy, continued
Grand Avenues Colfax and 14th Avenues, continued
14th Avenue Looking East
Vision of 14th Avenue Standards
14th Avenue shall have two travel lanes for east-bound traffic, a parking lane on the south, detached
walks, generous tree lawns with a consistent patterning of street trees and site furnishings.
Gene Amole Way and the civic room between the Detention Facility and Courthouse shall be linked
visually and physically with 14th Avenue to function as a major civic place.
Bulb-outs shall be placed on the south side of 14th Avenue to aid pedestrian crossing.
Refer to the street cross-sections for dimensional standards of pedestrian, vehicular and landscape
zones. All right-of-way improvements shall meet CCD Public Works standards and regulations or writ-
ten variances shall be obtained.
Curb cuts shall not be allowed on the Grand Avenues. Existing curb cuts shall be removed upon devel-
opment.
Vision of 14th Avenue Section Diagram
.=---- 3' */- BUILD-TO LINE
ALIGN WITH CUT 4
CCUNTT BUILDING
2
-f-
&& ROW.
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______________________________________JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
Street Hierarchy, continued
Grand Avenues Colfax and 14th Avenues, continued
14th Avenue Opening Day Standards
14th Avenue shall generally remain in its current alignment and configuration, including detached
walks with a new consistent patterning of street trees and street furnishings and a bike lane.
Between Elati Street and Delaware Street, 14th Avenue shall have two travel lanes for east-bound
traffic, a parking lane on the south, detached walks, generous tree lawns with a consistent patterning of
street trees and site furnishings.
Bulb-outs shall be placed on the south side of 14th Avenue at the intersections of Delaware and Elati
Streets, to aid pedestrian crossing.
Refer to the street cross-sections for dimensional standards of pedestrian, vehicular and landscape
zones. All right-of-way improvements shall meet CCD Public Works standards and regulations or writ-
ten variances shall be obtained.
Curb cuts shall not be allowed on the Grand Avenues. Existing curb cuts shall be removed upon devel-
opment.
23


Vision of Grand Avenues
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Street Hierarchy, continued
Grand Avenues Colfax and 14th Avenues, continued
Standards for Amenities
Pedestrian walks shall be of a rich paving material of a quality and character that respects the architec-
ture of the Justice Center Campus. A continuous paving material and pattern shall extend along both sides
of Colfax and 14th Avenues for the entire length of the Campus.
As Colfax and 14th Avenues continue to develop, the same continuous paving material and pattern shall
extend from the State Capitol to Speer Boulevard.
Street trees shall be installed in the pattern and rhythm shown on the Framework diagram (7 trees per
block) and shall be of a consistent species or habit.
On 14th Avenue and the longer-term Colfax Avenue Vision, the outer row of street trees shall be installed
in the center of the tree lawn.
On the south side of Colfax Avenue and north side of 14th Avenue, a second alternating row of street
trees 7 per block shall be installed approximately five (5) feet from the back of sidewalk. The spacing
shall be approximately 35 feet on center, as measured linearly along each row.
Denver Parkway globe lights shall be installed as the pedestrian street lights in the pattern and rhythm
shown on the Framework Plan diagram (four per block). Typical light spacing shall be approximately 70
feet on center, spaced logically and uniformly in relationship to street trees.
Street lighting shall be compatible with Xcel Energy supplied and maintained fixtures. Street lighting
shall be spaced logically and uniformly in sequence with street trees and street furnishings.
Civic site furnishings shall be installed in the pattern and rhythm shown on the Framework Plan diagram.
The furnishings shall reflect the civic nature of the Justice Center Campus and provide a cohesive layer
that is fully integrated with the architecture. At a minimum, furnishings shall consist of pedestrian light-
ing, benches, trash receptacles.
Light levels for pedestrian fixtures shall match the light levels of the pedestrian fixtures at Civic Center
and along Speer Boulevard.
Landscaped areas shall have automated irrigation systems with separate drip irrigation zone for trees.
Rain sensors and low angle nozzles shall be used to conserve water.
Material
Guidelines
Buildings on north side of Colfax Avenue and south side of 14th Avenue should provide pedestrian ac-
tive, neighborhood scale ground floor retail.
The south side of 14th Avenue and north side of Colfax Avenue should be a continuous street wall
extending from Speer Boulevard to the State Capitol, providing an important frame for the siting of civic
buildings.
25


Street Hierarchy, continued
Shared Streets
Urban Courts Bannock Street; Gene Amole Way; Fox Street
Urban Uanes Delaware Street; Cherokee Street
The north-south streets, between Colfax and 14th Avenues and beginning with Bannock Street on the east
and extending to Fox Street on the west, shall serve as civic spaces, creating a mixed-use public realm
with a pedestrian orientation. While they provide vehicular access, these Shared Streets will be civic
spaces where a variety of activities will occur including walking, biking and congregating. The Shared
Streets are defined as Urban Courts and Urban Lanes. Bannock Street, Gene Amole Way and Fox Street
shall be developed as Urban Courts. Delaware and Cherokee Streets shall be developed as Urban Lanes.
Intent
Provide for a variety of activities for the Justice Center Campus, the Civic Center District and the neigh-
borhood, including walking, biking and congregating.
Establish a pedestrian orientation that gives pedestrians the primary right-of-way while allowing for
bicycles, but subordinating vehicular traffic.
Create a human scale at the street and building entry.
Create a series of logical, clear and safe pedestrian and bike connections between Downtown, the Silver
Triangle and the Golden Triangle.
Establish a vital, well-scaled and vibrant north-south pedestrian connection on Gene Amole Way that
also serves as the central civic room between the Detention Facility and the Courthouse.
Establish a vibrant civic space of rich materials that unites the space and its two principal buildings,
while providing interest, human-scale, and connectivity.
General Standards for Urban Courts Bannock Street; Gene Amole Way; Fox Street
Urban Courts shall extend visually from building edge to building edge (or from building edge to park
at the City & County Building) through a cohesive horizontal plane of paving materials and an integrated
family of civic furnishings.
Road alignments and site elements such as plantings, furnishings and paving shall be used to define
vehicular routes, to slow vehicular traffic and to ensure pedestrian connectivity.
Traffic speeds shall be reduced to afford a safe pedestrian environment.
Rich paving materials of a quality that respects the architecture shall extend across driving lanes and
through the intersections of Colfax and 14th Avenues.
Refer to the street cross-section for dimensional standards of pedestrian, vehicular and landscape zones.
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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
Shared Streets Hierarchy
Open Space
Visual framework of green or "open" space
that extends from the State Capitol to
Speer Boulevard
______Sh a red Street
Mixed use civic realm that accomodates
vehicular traffic with a pedestrian
orientation
Restores a human-scale to the street
Low traffic speed
Ensures pedestrian connectivity
Civic Spaces
Active pedestrian areas/piazzas that
connect civic buildings, neighborhoods
and streets
Pedestrian oriented spaces with water,
lighting, landscaping, and site furnishings


Street Hierarchy, continued
Shared Streets, continued
Fox Street Section Diagram
Bannock Street
Bannock Street shall have one way traffic with a minimum of three travel lanes and one parking lane
on the west. A central plaza shall extend from the City & County Building to Civic Center along the
Civic Axis. No curb cuts.
Gene Am ole Way
Gene Amole Way shall have two-way traffic with one travel lane in each direction. Parking shall not
be allowed. The street shall be designed as an integral extension of the civic space between the two
principle buildings. For example, the two lanes of traffic could be separated by a landscaped area of
trees, water and civic furnishings that encourage pedestrian activity.
Gene Amole Way shall have a consistent character that extends from Colfax Avenue to 14th Avenue.
It shall consist of appropriately scaled civic space(s) to allow for gathering, define building entries and
provide intimate places. The character of Gene Amole Way shall respect the solemn nature of the Jus-
tice Center Campus.
Gene Amole Way shall have a three-part composition with a center civic space, transitional spaces to
the north and south of the civic space and at the intersections at Colfax and 14th Avenues.
Fox Street
Fox Street shall have two-way traffic with one travel lane in each direction. One curb cut will be
allowed to provide access forjudge and magistrate parking. Potential locations for the curb cut are indi-
cated on the Framework Plan diagram, but only one shall be provided.
Final access location and cross-section shall be approved by CCD Public Works.
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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
Gene Amole Way
29


Street Hierarchy, continued
Civic Space
Shared Streets, continued
General Standards for Urban Lanes Cherokee Street and Delaware Street
Urban Lanes shall be cohesive streets with a consistent character on each edge. A horizontal plane of
paving materials and integrated family of civic furnishings shall be used.
Site elements such as plantings, furnishings and paving shall be used to define pedestrian routes, to
slow vehicular traffic and to ensure pedestrian connectivity.
Traffic speeds shall be reduced, ensuring a safe pedestrian environment.
Rich paving materials of a quality that respects the architecture shall extend to all pedestrian surfaces,
including the comers at Colfax and 14th Avenues.
Refer to the street cross-section for dimensional standards of pedestrian, vehicular and landscape
zones.
Cherokee Street
Cherokee Street shall have two-way traffic with two travel lanes and one parking lane on the east. A
central plaza shall extend from the City & County Building to the U.S. Mint along the Civic Axis. Two
curb cuts shall be allowed to access the Mayors parking.
Delaware Street
Delaware Street shall be a two-way street with one lane of traffic in each direction and a parking lane
on the west. The parking lane shall also double as a staging area for truck inspections at the U.S. Mint.
Two curb cuts shall be allowed on the west side of the street to provide for access for the Detention
Facility sally port (potential locations for the curb cut are indicated on the Framework Plan diagram).
One curb cut will be allowed on the east side to provide service access for the U.S. Mint.
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Cherokee Street
31


Street Hierarchy, continued
Shared Streets, continued
Shared Streets Precedent
General Standards for Amenities
Civic site furnishings shall be installed in a pattern and rhythm that articulates the civic role of the
street and its location within the street hierarchy. Furnishings shall provide a cohesive layer that is fully
integrated with the architecture of the Justice Center Campus. At a minimum, furnishings shall consist
of pedestrian lighting, benches, and trash receptacles and shall comply with the Civic Center District
standards
Pedestrian lights shall be provided. Typical light spacing shall be approximately 70 feet on center,
spaced logically and uniformly in relationship to the building architecture, street alignment and street
trees.
Light levels for pedestrian fixtures shall match the light levels of the surrounding neighborhood streets.
Light levels for Gene Amole Way shall be consistent with its role as the central civic room. Light lev-
els may exceed those specified for Grand Avenues and Shared Streets.
Street lighting shall be compatible with Xcel Energy supplied and maintained fixtures. Street lighting
shall be spaced logically and uniformly in sequence with street trees and street furnishings; and shall
comply with the Civic Center District standards.
Street trees shall be provided for aesthetics and shade, and to enhance civic spaces and security mea-
sures. Selection of tree species shall conform with Denver Forestrys recommended tree lists. Tree
spacing shall be approximately 35 feet on center for shade trees, as measured for each row of trees; and
25 feet on center for ornamental and evergreen trees.
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_____________________________JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
Street Hierarchy, continued
Shared Streets, continued
Guidelines for Shared Streets Urban Courts and Urban Lanes
The Shared Streets should be designed in accordance with the civic setting envisioned for the entire
Justice Center Campus. They should be designed as integral components of the larger landscape of the
Justice Center Campus, integrated with larger civic spaces and reflect the meaning of justice as embod-
ied by the Justice Center Campus.
New, urban civic spaces should be established on Cherokee Street at the US Mint and the City &
County Building. These civic spaces should replace existing surface parking lots immediately adjacent
to each building. They should be designed to accentuate building entries and as active pedestrian places
with water, lighting, landscaping and site furnishings.
Shared Streets Precedent
33



Site Planning and Landscape Design
How the buildings sit in the framework of the Justice Center Campus
V
A
3
Three buildings the Courthouse, Detention Facility and Post Office/Parking Garage comprise the
Justice Center Campus. The Courthouse and Detention Facility, are envisioned as architectural master-
pieces, each designed by a different signature architect. The Post Office/Parking Garage should offer a
strong, consistent urban edge to 14th Avenue and a transition to the Golden Triangle Neighborhood.
Colfax Avenue Looking East Grand Avenue
The civic setting is key to the overall success of the Justice Center Campus, requiring extensive col-
laboration among the signature architects and the Framework Plan. Site-planning and landscape design
should inform the design of the buildings as much as the buildings inform each other and the civic realm
of the District.
Intent
Provide a civic setting reflecting the solemn nature of the Justice Center while also creating a vibrant,
active place during on-peak and off-peak hours.
Extend the Civic Center District as a permeable, approachable family of civic facilities and spaces.
Strengthen the civic axis established by the State Capitol, the symmetry of Civic Center and the City &
County Building, as prescribed by the Bennett and DeBoer plans.
Balance security with the importance of openness, accessibility and visibility.
Reinforce and enhance established civic setbacks to create open breathing space for civic buildings.
Establish a hierarchy of human scaled civic spaces, orienting the buildings to one another as a network
of urban piazzas and open spaces that reflect a cohesive campus setting.
Fulfill the Justice Center Campus civic responsibility to provide a safe, inviting, and pedestrian scaled
connections to the larger District and adjacent neighborhoods.
Include active uses on the first level of all public civic buildings.
Preserve views of the State Capitol and the mountains.
Extend the formal character of the Civic Center District by placing civic buildings to form a consistent
relationship to the street and provide appropriate civic frontage prominently oriented to Colfax Avenue
Contrast the civic and commercial buildings by differentiating the relationship to the street, level of
articulation and extent of landscape and street furnishings.
Provide for efficient, effective and appropriate maintenance for plazas and open space.
Utilize site planning and site design to allow for the expansion of the Courthouse to the west.
Utilize site planning and site design to preclude expansion of the Detention Facility.
Integrate art, landscape and architecture into a seamless, green campus setting.
Integrate functional requirements such as security measures, storm-water detention and utilities into the
site planning and site and landscape design.
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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
Tremont Place Looking toward New Proposed Civic Space
Landscaping With Water Feature
35


Site Planning and Landscape Design, continued
Standards for All Civic Spaces in the Justice Center Campus
*
Civic Piazza Precedent
Primary Central Civic Room between Detention Facility and Courthouse; Courthouse Entry Court
on Fox St.; Intersection of Tremont Place, 13th Street and Colfax Avenue
Secondary Service Court on Delaware Street and Pedestrian Crossings at Gene Amole Way
A series of civic spaces (outdoor rooms) shall be established to define Campus entries, building entries
and service courts, linking the three buildings into a cohesive whole.
Site design and site elements such as public art and lighting and landscape design, shall define a clear
visual and physical orientation to the Justice Center Campus.
An active civic piazza shall be created at the intersection of Tremont Street with the north edge of Col-
fax Avenue as a prelude to the Justice Center Campus. Site and landscape design shall establish a clear
visual connection between Trinity Church and the Courthouse. The civic piazza shall include plantings,
water, public art and site furnishings such as benches and lighting.
A central civic room shall be created between the Detention Facility and the Courthouse on Gene
Amole Way, providing a public space that directly orients the buildings towards one another.
Integrate the design of functional elements such as storm-water detention and security measures into
the site design and site furnishings of the Campus.
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______________________________________JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
Site Planning and Landscape Design, continued
Standards for Courthouse Site
The Courthouse shall be sited along a build-to line as measured from the right-of-way of 30 feet +/-
along the south side of Colfax Avenue.
The Courthouse shall be sited along a minimum building setback, as measured from a distance of 25
feet from the right-of-way along the west side of Gene Amole Way and along the east side of Fox Street.
An active civic piazza shall be created at the intersection of Tremont Street with the north edge of Col-
fax Avenue as a prelude to the Justice Center Campus. Site and landscape design shall establish a clear
visual connection between Trinity Church and the Courthouse. The civic piazza shall include plantings,
water, public art and site furnishings such as benches and lighting.
A central civic room shall connect the Courthouse with the Detention Facility. It shall be of a scale
and arrangement that is compatible with the scale of the two primary buildings, connecting them both
visually and physically. The civic room shall be developed with water, plantings, rich paving and site
furnishings that express its civic role.
Curb cuts shall not be allowed on the Grand Avenues (Colfax & 14th Avenues). Existing curb cuts
shall be removed upon development.
Landscaping shall be provided and compatible with the civic qualities of the Campus.
Integrate green technologies into the design of civic spaces. Accommodate water quality best-manage-
ment-practices. Use porous pavement and landscaping, hardy, drought-tolerant and climate-appropriate
landscape to conserve water. Integrate the design of storm water facilities and features to complement
and enhance the civic setting of the Justice Center Campus.
Storm water conveyance and detention components shall be integral site design features such as veg-
etative swales of horticultural or ornamental displays and also function as water elements.
Refer to Storm Water Management for additional, more detailed standards and guidelines.
Guidelines for Courthouse Site
Provide for views to the Courthouse along Speer Boulevard and Tremont Street. Create a strong visual
connection along Tremont Street between Trinity Church and the Courthouse.
37


Vision of Site Plan
-fe
Site Plan Opening Day
Notes
O Central Civic Room with
Visual & Physical Connection
Courthouse and
Detention Center
O Gene Amole Shared Street
Separated Two-Way Traffic
with Central Median
Q Secondary Civic Room
O Raised Terrace or Series of
Terraces
9 Main Entries Along Civic Axis
O Public Art Opportunity
O Tremont Plaza With Water.
Public Art. Visual Connection
to Courthouse
Q Primary Colfax Crossing
O Primary 14th Avenue Crossing
0 Visual Connection Between
Trinity Church & Courthouse
Lantern
3) Pedestrian Visual Connection
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_______________________________________JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
Site Planning and Landscape Design, continued
Provide no more than two curb cuts on Fox Street and avoid curb cuts on Gene Amole Way.
Utilize stairs, raised terraces, sloping lawns or a combination to elevate the main floor of the Court-
house above street level.
Primary, functional entries shall be located along the civic axis on Gene Amole Way and Fox Street.
Functional or ceremonial entries shall be located on the Grand Avenues.
Standards for Detention Facility Site
Site the Detention Facility along a build-to line, as measured from the right-of-way, of 30 feet +/- along
the south side of Colfax Avenue and the north side of 14th Avenue.
The Detention Facility shall be sited along a minimum building setback, as measured from the right-of-
way, of 20 feet along the east side of Delaware Street and along the west side of Gene Amole Way.
Connect the Courthouse with the Detention Facility with a central civic room, of a scale and arrange-
ment compatible with the scale of the two primary buildings and connecting them visually and physi-
cally. The civic room shall include water, light, landscape and site furnishings.
Curb cuts are not allowed on the Grand Avenues (Colfax &14th Avenues). Existing curb cuts shall be
removed upon development.
Landscaping shall be provided and compatible with the civic qualities of the Justice Center Campus.
Integrate green technologies into the design of civic spaces. Accommodate water quality best-manage-
ment-practices. Use porous pavement and landscaping, hardy, drought-tolerant and climate-appropriate
landscaping to conserve water. Integrate the design of storm water facilities and features to complement
and enhance the civic setting of the Justice Center Campus.
Storm water conveyance and detention components shall be integral site design features such as veg-
etative swales of horticultural or ornamental displays and also function as water elements.
Refer to Storm Water Management for additional and more detailed standards and guidelines.
39


Site Planning and Landscape Design, continued
Standards for Post Office/Parking Garage
Site the Post Office/Parking Garage along a build-to line of five feet as measured from the 14th Street
right-of-way for the entire length of the building.
Provide active uses, such as retail or office, on the first level. Place prominent entries along all street-
facing public rights-of-way.
One curb cut shall be provided for vehicular access into the parking garage. The curb cut shall be
placed perpendicular to the street.
No more than one curb cut will be allowed on any street face. Curb cuts shall not be allowed on the
Grand Avenues (Colfax & 14th Avenues). Existing curb cuts shall be removed upon development.
Sidewalks, alleys and landscape zones immediately adjacent to the Post Office/Parking Garage shall be
brought to current City & County of Denver standards.
Landscaping shall be provided and compatible with the civic qualities of the Campus.
Guidelines for Post Office Building/Parking Garage
Proportions of the openings on each parking level should be compatible with the proportions of the
main Campus buildings.
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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
ARCHITECTURE
41


Architecture
The State Capitol
r i
The Governmental Core of Civic Center District is a family of civic buildings, constructed over more
than a century, creating a precedent for urban form. The Justice Center Campus inherits this legacy and
should build on it by thoroughly understanding its origins, existing context and contemporary influence.
The design of the Campus should respond to historic precedent and the local environment by participat-
ing fully in connecting and enhancing the urban fabric. The three structures will contribute individually
and collectively to the overall experience of the Campus and District.
Guiding Principles
Build upon the architectural legacy of the City Beautiful movement manifested in the Civic Center
District.
Integrate the structures of the Justice Center Campus into a the cohesive family of buildings within the
Civic Center core.
Maintain a sense of timelessness within the Justice Center Campus that is consistent with the Civic
Center District.
Establish and maintain the civic responsibilities of the individual structures within the larger urban
context.


JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
Location and Context Plan
Potential Entries
Potential Civic Spaces
Influential Buildings
Existing Buildings
Justice Center Campus
iu
The State Capitol
'^b
Civic Center Park
i n
'4-
tilet
16 th Ave.

City and County The Mint Detention Courthouse
Building Facility
-tc-=n

43


Architectural Form of The Courthouse
I

CITY AND COUNTY
BUILDING
auito to *
LINE
z
C. |
UHJ3TO
LINE
A Visual and Architectural Relationship with the Existing
Civic Buildings
Intent
Maintain the continuity of the setback street wall as the consistent landscaped urban edge of the Grand
Avenues at Colfax and 14th Avenues.
Recognize the symbolic and literal presence of the Courthouse by establishing a visual and architec-
tural relationship with the City & County Building
Ensure that the Courthouse is fully integrated into the family of civic buildings.
Tie the urban framework of the District together by incorporating a vertical marker that connects the
established Civic Center axis with the axis of travel along Tremont Street terminated by the Trinity
Church spire.
Advance the dialogue created by the precedent of interior and exterior open and enclosed public
spaces.
Purposefully define civic spaces to emphasize a more pedestrian architectural scale.
Closely evaluate the existing programmatic space requirements to uncover creative solutions that pro-
mote cost and construction efficiencies and offer additional amenities to the citizens.
Standards
Adhere to the build-to-lines and setbacks for the Courthouse prescribed in the Urban Design section of
this document.
The Courthouse shall recognize the consistency of base, middle and top in the Civic Center District
family of buildings, establishing horizontal references to the base, middle and top of the City & County
Building.
The Courthouse shall recognize the modulation of scale apparent in the State Capitol and City & Coun-
ty Building and shall incorporate similar devices to maintain an appropriate monumental yet pedestrian
experience.
The Courthouse shall emphasize the base of the building through a change of materials, textures, colors
and/or patterns.
The Courthouse shall respond to the Civic Center and Tremont Street axes through the use of a vertical
marker.
The Courthouse shall provide fully integrated, four-sided architecture.
The Courthouse shall respect the historic integration of the Civic Center core buildings as well as being
a product its time and place.
The Consistency of Base, Middle and Top of The City &
County Building
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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
A. State Capitol
B. City &County
Building
C. Trinity United
Methodist Church
45


Architectural Form of The Courthouse, continued
Guidelines
The axes from the State Capitol to Speer, in both the Bennett and DeBoer Plans should instruct the
orientation of the new building, to advance the long term goal of creating a gateway to Speer Boulevard.
The Courthouse should recognize the prominence of the City & County Building and should not rise
above its height. This height is beneath the height restrictions of the View Preservation Ordinance and
the existing zoning (B-8-G) and therefore should govern.
A vertical axis should mark the horizon between Civic Center and Tremont, serving as both beacon
and point of orientation. This vertical marker may extend beyond the View Plane Ordinance but should
respect both the Ordinance and the other vertical markers in the District (See Page 62 Diagram.). Plan-
ning Board approval is required if the vertical marker exceeds the ordinance.
The Courthouse should recognize the regulating lines at the ground plane that extend throughout the
Civic Center core and derive form from this understanding.
Base, middle and top of the building should be part of the overall design concept, resonant with the
architectural scaling compatible with the legacy buildings of the Civic Center.
The Courthouse should be incorporated into the family of civic buildings in the District; paying par-
ticular attention to precedents of mass, form, scale, materiality and craft.
The Courthouse should reflect the proportions of the historic structures as articulated through sizes and
patterns expressive of underlying structural elements such as reveals, sills, lintels, banding, belt cours-
ing, pilasters and piers.
The Courthouse should reflect an architecture of this place conveying an underlying message of justice.
The Courthouse program should provide civic amenities to Denver citizens.
The Courthouse should employ monumental entries, fenestration and human-scaling elements to cel-
ebrate the life of the street and its potential relationship to the internal program.
The Courthouse should utilize various scales of ceremonial and secondary entries to contribute to four-
sided architecture and active street-life.
Face the two main public entries towards the central civic room on Gene Amole Way, emphasizing
access through architectural detailing and site elements such as broad pedestrian paths, terraces, plazas
and/or artwork.
Avoid long, blank facades on the ground level and provide active uses visible through transparent win-
dows wherever possible.
Where windows are not possible, modulate architecture through detailing and articulation to provide
interest.
Provide a Colfax Avenue facade that reflects the importance of the location, either with a main entry or
significant architectural detailing.
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47


Guidelines, continued
Design the 14th Avenue facade with entries, fenestration and active uses, compatible with security
requirements, to emphasize the importance of the elevation.
Design the Fox Street elevation as a primary facade to accommodate possible future expansion of a
civic mall to the west, with a central open space aligned on the civic axis and with buildings that define
Colfax and 14th Avenues and the mall.
Provide fenestration patterns that reflect the proportions of the City & County Building. Use glass with
a reflective rating not to exceed 0.20.
Provide signage and wayfinding elements that reflect an appearance of timeless permanence consistent
with the Civic Center District. These elements should be consistent and coordinated throughout the Jus-
tice Center Campus.
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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
Civic Buildings are Monumental with Human-Scaled Elements
Large Monumental Scale Elements
Intermediate Scale Elements Bridging Between the Large
Scale and the Small Scale
Small/Human Scale Elements
49


Architectural Form of The Detention Facility
Significant Horizontal Elements on the Elevation of the
Mint
14th Avenue Looking West
Intent
Maintain the continuity of the setback street wall as the urban edge of the Grand Avenues at Colfax and
14th Avenues.
Recognize the civic presence and heightened security of the historic US Mint building and maintain
a similar atmosphere at the Detention Facility by establishing a visual and architectural relationship
between the two structures.
Ensure the design of the Detention Facility is fully integrated into the family of civic buildings.
Reinstate the principles of the historic Bennet and DeBoer plans by establishing an axial relationship
from the Detention Facility to the future gateway at Speer Boulevard.
Purposefully define civic spaces to emphasize a more pedestrian architectural scale.
Closely evaluate the existing programmatic space requirements to uncover creative solutions that pro-
mote cost and construction efficiencies.
Standards
Adhere to the build-to-lines and setbacks for the Detention Facility prescribed in the Urban Design sec-
tion of this document.
The Detention Facility shall recognize the consistency of base, middle and top in the Civic Center
District family of buildings and shall establish horizontal references to the base middle and top of the
historic US Mint building.
The Detention Facility shall recognize the modulation of scale apparent in the State Capitol and City
& County Building and shall incorporate similar devices to maintain an appropriately monumental yet
pedestrian experience.
The Detention Facility shall emphasize the base of the building through a change of materials, textures,
colors and/or patterns.
The Detention Facility shall provide fully integrated, four-sided architecture.
The Detention Facility shall not expand its capacity in the Civic Center District.
Guidelines
The axes from the State Capitol to Speer, in both the Bennett and DeBoer plans should instruct the
orientation of the new building.
The Detention Facility should recognize and respect the historic US Mint as its neighbor and should
not rise above its relative height. This relative height is beneath the height restrictions of the View Pres-
ervation Ordinance and the existing zoning (B-8-G) and therefore should govern.
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Family of Civic Buildings
51


Guidelines, continued
The Detention Facility should recognize the existence of regulating lines at the ground plane that ex-
tend throughout the core of the Civic Center and derive form from this understanding.
Base, middle and top of the building should be part of the overall design concept, resonant with the
architectural scale of the legacy buildings of the Civic Center.
The Detention Facility should be actively incorporated into the family of the Districts civic buildings,
paying particular attention to precedents of mass, form, scale, materiality and craft.
The Detention Facility should reflect the proportions of the historic structures, articulated through bay
sizes and patterns expressing underlying structural elements such as reveals, sills, lintels, banding, belt
coursing, pilasters and piers.
The Detention Facility should reflect an architecture of this place and convey an underlying message of
justice.
The Detention Facility should employ monumental entries, fenestration and human-scaling elements,
celebrating the life of the street and its relationship to the internal program.
The Detention Facility should utilize various scales of ceremonial and secondary entries that contribute
to four-sided architecture.
Face the main public entry toward the public right-of-way on Gene Amole Way and emphasize access
through architectural detailing and site elements such as broad pedestrian paths, terraces, plazas and/or
artwork.
Avoid long, blank facades. Create the appearance of active uses visible through transparent windows
wherever possible.
Where windows are not possible, modulate architecture through detailing and articulation to provide
interest.
Provide a Colfax Avenue facade that reflects the importance of the location, either with a main entry or
significant architectural detailing.
Emphasize the importance of the 14th Avenue facade by designing functional or ceremonial entries and
fenestration, compatible with security requirements.
Provide fenestration patterns that reflect the proportions of the historic US Mint Building. Use glass
with a reflective rating not to exceed 0.20.
Provide signage and wayfinding elements reflecting the timeless permanence of the Civic Center Dis-
trict. These elements should be coordinated throughout the Justice Center Campus, in a collaboration
among stakeholders and designers
Design the Detention Facility to preclude expansion or additions in the Civic Center District.
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Architectural Form of The Post Office/Parking Garage
Intent
Design a building that is compatible with, and respectful of, the architecture of the legacy buildings of the
Civic Center, neither detracting from nor mimicing the structures.
Use quality durable cladding materials on all facades visible from the public right of way compatible with
the legacy buildings of the Civic Center
Design the structure as part of the Campus.
Maintain the continuity of the street wall as the southern urban edge of 14th Avenue.
The Post Office/Parking Garage should be fully integrated into the family of civic buildings.
Recognize civic roles of the historic US Mint building and Detention Facility by establishing a visual and
architectural relationship between the three structures.
Serve as a transition from the civic scale and uses of the Justice Center Campus and Civic Center core to
the pedestrian scale and active uses of the Golden Triangle neighborhood.
Closely evaluate the existing programmatic space requirements to uncover creative solutions that promote
cost and construction efficiencies while maximizing appropriate neighborhood uses and appropriate archi-
tecture.
Provide appropriate architecture from every vantage point.
Establish vehicular and pedestrian traffic patterns that reflect the pedestrian scale of the Justice Center
Campus and adjacent neighborhoods.
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Standards
Adhere to the build-to-lines and setbacks for the Post Office/Parking Garage prescribed in the Urban De-
sign section of this document.
The Post Office/Parking Garage shall recognize the consistency of base, middle and top in the Civic Center
District family of buildings and shall establish horizontal references to the base middle and top of the his-
toric US Mint building.
The Post Office/Parking Garage shall recognize the modulation of scale apparent in the State Capitol and
City & County Building and shall incorporate similar devices to maintain an appropriate monumental yet
pedestrian experience.
The Post Office/Parking Garage shall emphasize the base of the building through a change of materials,
textures, colors and/or patterns.
The Post Office/Parking Garage shall provide fully integrated four-sided architecture.
Provide for 65-85 percent of the first floor facade facing the public right-of-way to be clear glass windows
(reflective rating not to exceed 0.20) or storefront system.
All floors shall be horizontally and vertically aligned on all facades.
Provide an exterior building skin of quality, durable materials, including masonry, stone, architectural con-
crete or architectural metals in a fenestration pattern of solid and transparent elements, with the same level
of detail and interest of the other the Justice Center Campus buildings.
Use detail and articulation to provide interest on all elevations visible from the public right-of-way.
All interior parking structure lighting shall be downcast and shielded and not visible from any public
right-of-way.
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Architectural Form of The Post Office/Parking Garage, continued Guidelines The scale of the Post Office/Parking Garage should be consistent with the scale of the Detention Facil- ity and the historic US Mint. It should be subordinate in massing to the Courthouse and City & County Building. The uses within the Post Office/Parking Garage should distinguish it as a building for the neighborhood while the architectural response should strengthen the Civic Center core. The Post Office/Parking Garage should recognize and respect the historic US Mint and Detention Facil- ity as its neighbors and should not rise above their relative heights. This relative height is beneath the height restrictions of the View Preservation Ordinance and the existing zoning (B-8-G) and therefore should govern. The Post Office/Parking Garage should activate the streets Delaware, Elati and 14th Avenue by wrapping the building with active, retail and commercial uses. Base, middle, and top of the building should be part of the overall design concept, resonant with the architectural scale of the legacy buildings of the Civic Center. A roof is not required for the upper floor of parking but lighting should be carefully designed to avoid unwanted glare and spillage. The Post Office/Parking Garage should be folly integrated into the family of civic buildings in the Dis- trict, paying particular attention to precedents of mass, form, scale, materiality and craft. The Post Office/Parking Garage should reflect the proportions of the historic structures, articulated through bay sizes and patterns that express underlying structural elements, such as reveals, sills, lintels, banding, belt coursing, pilasters and piers. The Post Office/Parking Garage should reflect an architecture of this place demonstrating a relationship to the civic quality of the Campus architecture. The Post Office/Parking Garage should employ monumental entries that offer opportunities for verti- cal circulation, fenestration and human-scale, celebrating the life of the street and its relationship to the internal program. The Post Office/Parking Garage should provide retail opportunities at the comers along 14th Avenue to maximize activity and connectivity to the Campus. Face the main public entry toward the public rights-of-way. The Post Office/Parking Garage should respond to the Citys parking program, which dictates the re- quired number of spaces and uses. Provide signage and wayfinding elements that reflect the timeless permanence of the Civic Center Dis- trict. These elements should be consistent throughout the Justice Center Campus, in terms of material, scale, font and design. Retail signage should encourage activity on the street while maintaining the dignity of the District.
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Post Office/Parking Garage Conceptual Diagram Office / Retail
Post Office

14th Avenue
Mixed Use Civic Parking Structure with Retail
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Architectural Form for Future Development on The South Side of 14th Avenue
Intent
Maintain the continuity of the street wall as the southern urban edge of 14th Avenue and face of the Civic
Campus.
Ensure future buildings are fully integrated into the family of civic buildings.
Enhance the transition from the civic scale and uses of the Justice Center Campus and Civic Center core to
the pedestrian scale and active uses of the Golden Triangle neighborhood.
Promote a mix of residential and commercial use that enhance the transition from the Civic Center core to
the Golden Triangle neighborhood.
Standards
Adhere to the build-to-lines and setback for 14th Avenue prescribed in the Urban Design section of this
document.
Future buildings shall recognize the modulation of scale apparent in the State Capitol and City & County
Building and shall incorporate similar devices to maintain an appropriately monumental yet pedestrian experi-
ence.
Future buildings shall emphasize the base of the building through a change of materials, textures, colors
and/or patterns.
Future buildings shall provide fully integrated, four-sided architecture.
Guidelines
The scale of future buildings should be consistent with the scale of the buildings in the Justice Center Cam-
pus and should be subordinate in massing to the proposed Courthouse and City & County Building.
Future buildings should activate the street by wrapping the building with active, retail and commercial uses.
Base, middle and top of the buildings should be part of the overall design concept, resonant with the architec-
tural scale of the legacy buildings of the Civic Center District.
Future buildings should be fully integrated into the Districts family of civic buildings, paying particular at-
tention to precedents of mass, form, scale, materiality and craft.
Future buildings should reflect the proportions of the existing historic structures, articulated through bay
sizes and patterns expressing the underlying structural elements, such as reveals, sills, lintels, banding, belt
coursing, pilasters and piers.
Future buildings should reflect an architecture of this place and demonstrate a relationship to the civic quality
of the Campus architecture.
Future buildings should employ monumental entries that offer opportunities for vertical circulation, fenestra-
tion and human-scaled elements, celebrating the life of the street and its relationship to the internal program.
Face the main public entry towards the public rights-of-way.
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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
Related Potential Development
Potential Entries
Potential Civic Spaces
Influential Buildings
Existing Buildings
Potential Future Development
[Justice Center Campus

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59


Architectural Form of Future Development West of Fox Street
~7&
Sketch from Civic Center District Public Charrette
Relationship of Civic Architecture and Landscape
Intent
Maintain the continuity of the street wall as the urban edge of the Grand Avenues at Colfax and 14th
Avenues.
Recognize the symbolic and literal presence of the proposed Courthouse by establishing a visual con-
nection to Speer Boulevard.
Ensure that future buildings are fully integrated into the Districts family of civic buildings.
Continue the dialogue created by the precedent of open and enclosed interior and public spaces through
the creation of a civic mall.
Purposefully define civic spaces in order to reinforce a pedestrian architectural scale.
Standards
Adhere to build-to-lines and setbacks for the grand avenues prescribed in the Urban Design section of
this document.
Future development shall recognize the consistency of base, middle and top in the Civic Center District
family of buildings and shall establish horizontal references to the base middle and top of the City &
County Building.
Future development shall recognize the modulation of scale apparent in the State Capitol and City &
County Building and shall incorporate similar devices to maintain an appropriate monumental yet pedes-
trian experience.
Future development shall emphasize the base of the building through a change of materials, textures,
colors and/or patterns.
Future development shall provide fully integrated four-sided architecture.
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Guidelines
The axes from the State Capitol to Speer, in both the Bennett and DeBoer plans should instruct the
orientation of future development, toward the long term goal of creating a gateway to Speer Boulevard.
Future development should recognize the prominence of the City & County Building and should not
rise above its relative height. This height is beneath the height restrictions of the View Preservation
Ordinance and the existing zoning (B-8-G) and therefore should govern.
Future development should derive form from the regulating lines at the ground plane extending
throughout the Civic Center core.
Base, middle and top of future buildings should be part of the design approach, resonant with the archi-
tectural scaling of the Districts legacy building.
Future development should be fully integrated into the Districts family of civic buildings, with particu-
lar attention to precedents of mass, form, scale, materiality and craft.
Future buildings should reflect the proportions of the existing historic structures, articulated through bay
sizes and patterns expressing the underlying structural elements, such as reveals, sills, lintels, banding, belt
coursing, pilasters and piers.
Future buildings should reflect an architecture of this place and of their time.
Utilize various scales of ceremonial and secondary entries that contribute to four-sided architecture and ac-
tive street-life.
Face the main public entries toward the public right-of-way, emphasizing access through architectural
detailing and site elements such as broad pedestrian paths, terraces, plazas and/or artwork.
Avoid long blank facades at the ground level and provide active uses, visible through transparent win-
dows wherever possible.
Where windows are not possible, modulate architecture through detailing and articulation to engage
street life.
Design a Colfax Avenue facade that emphasizes the location, either with a main entry or significant
architectural detailing.
Design the 14th Avenue facade with entries, fenestration and active uses to emphasis the importance of
the elevation.
Provide fenestration patterns that reflect the proportions of the City & County Building. Use glass with
a reflective rating not to exceed 0.20.
Open and Enclosed Public Spaces
Open and Enclosed Public Spaces
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Justice Center Campus Boundary
Potential Development
%%%%%%
View to The Mountains & Relative Height Restrictions From The Existing
Condition
Area A Elevation = 5451
Area B Elevation = 5523
Area C Elevation = 539V
Area D Elevation 545 V
Area E Elevation 5353*
Area F Elevation = 539 V


Site Section Diagram to be updated
j- Top of Capitol Spire
62
-k--- Maximum Height
Allnwftd hv View Plan
DELAWARE ELATI FOX
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CAMPUS-WIDE GOALS
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Campus-wide Goals
Lack of Civic Responsibilities: Cartoon from the Architec-
tural Review, 1904
Regional Response to Light and Texture
Strong collaboration in the use of the Urban Design and Architectural principles articulated in the
Framework Plan can result in enhanced results throughout the Justice Center Campus. Though many of
these goals are concrete and measurable some of the most important are less tangible.
The primary civic responsibility for each of these structures is to offer an inspired work of architecture
that, taken together, strengthens the dignity of the Civic Center core.
The ultimate success of the Justice Center Campus and its integration into the Civic Center District
depends on the ability of the design and construction teams, in concert with management recommenda-
tions, to maintain and add value throughout from concept to detailed installation. The following top-
ics describe the desired outcomes for the Campus.
Objectives of The Organization of Internal Programs
Careful orchestration of interior program is vital to the creation of a successful public realm, both inte-
rior and exterior. The intentional placement of public and active uses will heighten pedestrian activity,
serving both the Justice Center and connecting neighborhoods. Opportunities to benefit the neighbor-
hood and the City by emphasizing creative uses, program elements and adjacencies are key to a success-
ful public realm. At a minimum the organization of the internal programs should guarantee a safe and
secure environment for the Justice Center occupants and neighbors.
The Need for A Regional Architectural Response
Denvers climate must play a significant role in the architectural expression of every structure in the
Justice Center Campus. This region is blessed with brilliant blue skies that fade to striking sunsets. The
mile-high elevation accounts for atmospheric clarity that influences the quality of light. The strong sun
of the semi-arid climate creates a stunning play of texture and shadow on building facade and public
spaces. The classically designed structures in the District exploit this light through the use of detail and
the layering of structure and enclosure in their facades, achieving a rich depth of experience. Note how
Gio Pontis Art Museum and Michael Graves Central Library utilize the play of light in different ways
to respond to the regions unique climatic characteristics.
Every new structure in the Civic Center District and Justice Center Campus should develop a response
of structure, enclosure and texture that capitalize on the unique climatic characteristics of the region.
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The Lasting Effects of Quality Materials and Attention to Craft
Materials for the architecture and public realm of the Justice Center Campus must be selected carefully.
Quality materials and craft will reflect the enduring character of the Civic Center District. The selection,
detailing and use of materials in the construction of the buildings should reinforce a message appropriate
to the Justice Center timelessness, dignity and the importance of justice and the rule of law to democ-
racy. Materials, detailing and craft should advance the full integration of the Justice Center Campus
buildings and public spaces into the civic family of the Civic Center District, while being true to a strong
aesthetic of the present.
Materials and Craft
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Integration and Importance of Public Art
Intent
Provide opportunities for a variety of expressions of artistic excellence i.e. memorial art, sculpture,
water features etc., fabricated of high quality, durable material serving to inform, direct and delight.
Integrate artwork into open space and plazas.
Though public art does not include signage, public art integrated into wayfinding elements of urban
design and architecture is important to the coherence of the Justice Center Campus.
Public art shall be available and accessible to the public outside the building in plazas and open
space, on the exterior surface of the building or building elements or inside the buildings in areas used
by and accessible to the public
Design and locate artwork to avoid conflicts and hazards for people with disabilities.
Guidelines for Implementation
The Implementation of Public Art is a hierarchy of two parts. The External addresses large-scale works
at key navigation points that will reflect broad concepts of justice. The Internal will address smaller
scale works at designated building interiors, speaking intimately and reflecting individual thoughts of
justice.
Public Art -Exterior
All fountains, statuary, murals, and other forms of public art should be consistent with the scale and
quality of Denvers Civic Center Collection.
Exterior public art work should speak broadly of justice.
A photo inventory of public art in the Civic Center and its surrounding Districts reflects public art
generally well-integrated into the urban design fabric. The Justice Center Campus public art program
should respect this precedent.
Public Art Interior
The interior of the buildings architecture should allow for intimate interaction with smaller scale public
art works, perhaps revolving around the power of the written word.
Consider graphic artists and designers whose specialty is typography design, executing quotes on
justice, from historic and contemporary writers, statesmen, religious leaders, philosophers and scientists.
The collection of this commissioned framed art, in a variety of media and material, could be displayed
in an appropriate part of the architecture, perhaps named Voices of Justice.
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Integration and Importance of Public Art, continued
Spirit of the West: Marking the Way
Intent: Liberty and Justice for All
The Civic Center is home to Denvers important
institutions of democracy. In every aspect of its design,
Civic Center expresses the citizens highest goals:
City and State governments; the business and building
of the City; the values of culture, art, knowledge and
- perhaps most important the role of justice and the
rule of law.
The Justice Center Campus in the Civic Center District
is the bedrock of democracy and the institutions,
buildings and constituencies it serves embody the
values of justice: coherence, durability, transparency,
accessibility and consistency. Thus, the quality of
navigational way finding in the civic realm public
art and signage are key to the legibility of the Justice
Center and the larger context of the Civic Center and its
neighbors.
A thematic approach based on the idea of justice
and differing perspectives of justice should guide
the selection of public art. From large, outdoor
installations to smaller interior works, the theme of
justice will advance the civic quality and durability of
the Justice Center Campus and its relationship to the
Civic Center District.
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Integration and Importance of Public Art, continued
Commemorate Memory
Art is the clothing of a revelation. Joseph Campbell
Approaching Civic Center from the south, via Acoma Street,
downtown is framed by Mark di Suveros powerful abstract
sculpture, Lao Tzu. Sited in the plaza between the Central
Library and the Ponti wing of the art museum, the fiery
red steel reveals Civic Center and downtowns skyscrapers
through the lens of abstraction, giving the viewer an
opportunity to consider how art, culture and knowledge the
values represented in the adjacent buildings impact the life
of the City and the citizen.
Similarly, Donald Lipskis The Yearling, on the Childrens
Lawn of the Central Library, in front of the whimsical facade
of the childrens wing, suggests the playfulness and artistry
within the building.
Public art in the civic realm of the Justice Center Campus
should similarly evoke the context and value of the
institutions it houses. In a contemporary and timeless
fashion, public art ought to resonate with the geography
of place the mountains to the west, the adjacent Cherry
Creek, the durability of the rule of law.
Informing A Spirit of Place Cranmer Park
The breathtaking panorama of the Front Range is visible
from the apex of Cranmer Park, where a sundial sits on a red
sandstone platform. At ones feet, facing west is a graphic
depiction, naming the prominent Rocky Mountain peaks
and informing the viewer of elevation and relationship to
adjacent mountains. These images and words inform the
view, placing the viewer in the bigger context of place, time
and history, fulfilling arts function to illuminate the present
and its connections to both past and future.
Denvers Parks and Parkway System, with Civic Center as
its nexus, defines the public realm of the City.
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Integration and Importance of Public Art, continued
Power of the Written Word Epigraphy
The art of inscriptions evokes memory, representing a tradition
long practiced in Denvers civic realm and providing opportunity to
provoke, enlighten, inform and please.
The study of inscriptions supports the important legacy of public
sculpture and architecture to articulate ideals and aspirations
through the written word. The use of public inscription is rooted
in the ancient words of various cultures and continues as a form of
contemporary expression.
Consistent with historic models, inscriptions speak at elevation and/
or entrance, using the words of poets, statesmen and philosophers.
Inscriptions frequently accompany and enhance sculpture, murals
and paintings, which celebrate and depict the inscription.



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Integration and Importance of Public Art, continued
Power of Myth: Symbols of Democracy
Myth offers the tools to understand the
incomprehensible, to decipher the opaque and to
order events, outcomes and experiences in support
of our needs, our world-view and our position in
the universe. Through the use of story, imagery
or folklore, myth reveals the connections between
people and place through time. Myth has the power
to elevate, enlighten, legitimize, console and inspire.
Myth has been used since the beginning of time to
orient, direct and characterize.
Mythical figures in large, oversized forms characterize
place from Lee Lawries sculpture of Atlas at the
entry to Rockefeller Center to Frederick MacMonnies
bronze Pioneer Fountain at Broadway and Colfax
in Civic Center. The use of large, mythical public
sculpture as wayfinding identifier, symbolizes place,
time and historic context. Operating at various levels
- physical, symbolic and metaphoric mythological
allegory in the civic realm, whether sculpture,
fountain or epigraphy, has the power to transform.
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Integration and Importance of Public Art, continued
Integrated Architectural Detail
The legacy of Public Art in the Civic Center District
reflects the value of quality civic art on many different
levels: the beauty of integrated architectural detailing;
the role of a storyteller; or the presence of the heroic
object.
Examples abound in the Civic Center District, from
the architectural detailing on the Colfax Avenue entry
to the Denver Mint, to the mapping on the floor of the
Atrium of the Webb Municipal Building to the 1920
Alan True Murals in the Greek amphitheatre archways.
It is in the spirit of this inheritance that the importance
of public art remain at the forefront of the Campus.
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Integration and Importance of Public Art, continued
Voices of Justice Precedent: Great Ideas of
Western Man
Walter Paepcke was the founding chairman of Con-
tainer Corporation of America. Venerated for his
support of the arts and humanities, he believed in the
full integration of art and design into industry, for the
benefit of society and business. Container Corpora-
tions Great Ideas of Western Man advertising program
(1950-1975), was inspired by Paepckes determination
to advance the important concepts of Western civiliza-
tion.
CCA commissioned prominent artists, illustrators and
designers to illustrate selected quotes, drawn from a
broad range of thought that included philosophers,
writers, scientists, politicians, cultural and religious
figures. A similar approach might be considered for
appropriate interior spaces of the Justice Center Cam-
pus Detention Facility, Courthouse and Post Office/
Parking Garage.
Just as the Great Ideas campaign communicated broad
and meaningful concepts resulting in enhanced public
awareness of the connection between art, perception
and human thought, so could a program organized
around various concepts of justice, inform and en-
gage.
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Signage
The Justice Center Campus has a special obligation because of the nature of the buildings and the loca-
tion in the Civic Center District. Their function, symbolism, material and timelessness reflect and com-
municate the most sacred principles of a democratic society.
Guiding Principles
Create an identity for the Courthouse, Detention Facility and Post Office/Parking Garage that is com-
patible with the Campus.
The expression of these ideals must be realized through a coordinated aesthetic in the signage program,
consistent with the values of the urban design, architecture and public art of the Campus.
The whole must be greater than the sum of its parts.
A successful way-finding system is comprised of a seamless continuum of elements, throughout the
Justice Center Campus exterior and interior.
The signage protocol should be used throughout the Civic Center District to enhance the connections
between people and place, celebrating the significance of the whole.
Standards
Signage for the Justice Center Campus should be comprehensive a family of sign with consistent
0 Typography typeface; letter spacing; line spacing; scale; reverse type; distance legibility; directories
0 Color palette and materiality
0 Pictographs
0 Maps
All campus signage shall be of high quality design and material, consistent with the Civic Center core.
Provide a hierarchy of signs to include:
0 Identification engraved into prominent facades
0 Dedication plaques or carved locations
0 Direction and Orientation free standing
0 Regulatory rules, regulations, transit
Signage and Wayfinding Resource
Experts Paul Arthur and Romedi Passini
in their book, Wayfinding: People, Signs and
Architecture, establish protocols that are
applicable to the Justice Center Campus Signage
and way finding system.
Reproduced by permission of Romedi Passini and the estate
of Paul Arthur, from the book Wayfinding: People, Signs and
Architecture by Paul Arthur & Romedi Passini, published by Focus
Strategic Communications, Inc; courtesy of Focus Strategic Com-
munications Inc., www.focusse.com.
Campus exterior building signage
0 Provide locations of the building facade for building name, address and identification.
0 Orient signage locations to the public right-of-way.
0 When lighted signs are necessary, indirect and external light sources shall be used.
0 Retail signs on the ground floor of Campus buildings should reflect the same character and qualities
of building and directional signage.
0 Blade signs shall be used at the Post Office/Parking Garage.
Graphics reproduced with permission from @issue:
The Journal of Business & Design V11 N1, published by
Corporate Design Foundation, www.cdf.org.
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Signage, continued
Interior building signage should include:
0 Primary building directory
0 Secondary information directory
0 Directional signage
0 Primary destination identification
0 Court docket information
0 Rules of the court information
0 Room identification
0 Security
0 Maintenance
Design Guidelines
Bad signage contributes to more people getting lost than a poor sense of direction. Signs that are too
small or poorly placed or a directory badly organized or inadequately lit, make navigation for the pedes-
trian or driver impossible.
Consider applying the following four basic rules of thumb. They all apply to interior and exterior
signage and viewing in optimum lighting conditions.
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Design Guidelines
Rule of Thumb #1: X Height and Reverse Type
Research has shown that the most legible type for signage is
black on white, with lower case type having an "x" height that is
in a 3:4 ratio with capital letters. When type is reversed, white
on black, the letters tend to look 10-12% bolder. A drawback of
white-on-black is the optical halo that forms around words. Also,
when using these backgrounds in combination, adjust the type so
they will look consistent in size.
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Can You Read Me Now?
Bad signage contributes to more
people getting lost than a poor sense
of direction. Consider the times that
you failed to see a sign because it
was too small or obscurely placed. Or
stood baffled before a directory that
was illogically organized and badly
lit. In the realm of graphic informa-
tion, wayfinding systems abide by
their own set of rules. Many typefaces
that are easy to read on a printed
page are frustrating to make out in
signage. The same goes for colors.
This is why some designers and their
clients are chagrined to find that the
system that looked so stunning in
miniature mock-up failed miserably
when installed at actual size. Offered
here are a few basic rules of thumb to
keep in mind they all apply to inte-
rior signage and viewing in optimum
lighting conditions. A recommended
source is Wayfinding: People, Signs
and Architecture" by Paul Arthur
and Romedi Passini (Focus Strategic
Communications Inc.).
Design Guidelines continued
Rule of Thumb #2: Distance Legibility
Studies have shown that in normal daylight conditions, people
with 20/20 vision are able to read a 1-inch-high letter (25mm)
from a distance of 50 feet. So, for every additional 50 feet make
the letter 1 inch higher. Approaching a sign from an angle can
reduce legibility by as much as 30-50%. Combine that with less
than perfect eyesight and dim lighting and legibility is diminished
further. So, for directional signs many experts recommend upping
the ratio to 1.75 inches for every 50 feet.
3.5
2
1
sort 100 tt 1 hO If 200 H
6
A
200 tt 300 tl
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Design Guidelines continued
Rule of Thumb #3: Directories
Information on a wayfinding directory should be limited to six items,
which is about as much as a person can take in quickly when
walking by. Information should be organized by direction, not listed
alphabetically or according to what looks graphically interesting.
Reproduced with permission, from @issue:
The Journal of Business & Design V11 N1,
published by Corporate Design Foundation,
www.cdf.org
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Design Guidelines continued
Rule of Thumb #4: Color
Wayfinding signs are not the place to feature subtle corporate
colors or the latest fashion palette. When using a combination of
colors, the higher the contrast the easier the sign can be read.
These boxes show a range of legibility with black on white (1)
being the easiest to make out and gray on purple (15) being one
of the hardest color combinations.
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Integration of Utilities and Systems
Thoughtful site planning, collaborative architectural design and integrated infrastructure and landscape
elements will allow a seamless connection of form and function throughout the Justice Center Campus.
Out of meaningful collaboration and inspired design, challenges can become opportunities for the cam-
pus experience while meeting utilitarian needs.
Standards Public Right-of-Way Utilities
Locate utilities within the street cross-section
Locate within 10 feet of the right-of-way line if more space is required.
Allow planting and landscape amenities within the utility easement.
Standards Campus Utilities
Design and locate surface and subsurface utilities to respond to site, landscape and building design.
Locate utilities within the street cross-section
Locate within 10 feet of the right-of-way line if more space is required.
Allow planting and landscape amenities within the utility easement.
Preferred location for utilities
(5) Alternate location for utilities
No utilities
X
iii
-2--if
Utilities Section Diagram
I
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Security
To achieve the openness and accessibility of an inviting public realm, close attention must be paid to the
design and placement of security elements that enhance rather than detract from the streetscape..
The General Services Administration (GSA) identifies five building security zones for the purposes of
analyzing different security needs. They may be translated into different architectural, landscape and
streetscape responses, depending on the applicable street section. They are:
Beauty in Integrated Systems
Zone 1: Building Interior
Zone 2: Building Perimeter exterior building wall
Zone 3: Building Yard extends from the back of sidewalk to the building perimeter. It may include
area in the public right-of-way and inside the property line. It may also include plazas, walk ways, land-
scaping and public open space.
Accentuate building entry for ease of access.
Provide windows as eyes on the street.
Use a family of site furnishings, bollards, light standards, hardened flag poles, planters and
other hardened furnishings to secure pedestrian access points.
Zone 4: Sidewalk and Tree Lawn/Amenity Zone
This is the zone between the building yard and the curb. It should measure at least 20 feet.
Develop a family of site furnishings with hardened and non-hardened prototypes to be used
according to the results of a risk-assessment study. They include:
Site furnishings
Tables/chairs
Tree grates/vaults
Seasonal displays
Bus stop shelters
Benches/seating
Trash receptacles
Flag poles
Railings/fences
Ash ums
Planters/pot
Bike racks
Newspaper stands/corrals
Zone 5: Curb Lane that portion of the street adjacent to the curb, traditionally used for on-street
parking
Eliminate parking loading and service access.
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Natural Surveillance
Provide windows on all four sides of the building looking out onto building yards, alleys, sidewalks and
streets.
Provide nighttime lighting that is even, with no glare or trespass.
Design space to facilitate observation by increasing the ability to see what is ahead and around.
Territorial Reinforcement
Clearly indicate public routes and spaces and use structural elements to discourage access to private areas.
Clearly define and accentuate building entrances using architectural elements, lighting and landscaping.
Minimize the creation of ambiguous spaces, lacking clues as to their function. Design spaces for intended
purpose, even if they are primarily formal or ceremonial.
Use natural barriers, such as terrain or distance, to physically separate conflicting activities and to provide
clear border definitions for controlled space.
Additional Building Security
Security at all public entrances.
Secured, limited entry at non-public entrances.
Clearly mark zones that transition from public to private areas.
Urban Design Guidelines For Security
Intent
Integrate security measures into the streetscape design and building architecture that is unobtrusive to the public.
Balance security needs with aesthetics to minimize negative impacts on the user and the public.
Standards
Uniformly light an area to ensure there are no dark spots where danger could hide. Provide an even ratio of
minimum to maximum light levels no greater than 1:15.
Transition between areas of different light levels (e.g. the street and a plaza) shall not exceed 15:1.
Provide low light levels that do not cause glare that precludes adequate perception of the environment
under 8 foot candles for full-cutoff or fully shielded fixtures and under 3500 lumens for non-directional
fixtures.
Use exterior security lights that operate within the light levels indicated above.
Use motion sensors to trigger security lighting at loading and/or storage areas.
Use full-cutoff or fully shielded lights in loading or storage areas. Aim motion-controlled lights so that they
are not triggered from outside the area to be illuminated.
Functional and Beautiful Architectural Elements
Integrated Security Designs
Guidelines
Design security features to fully integrate into the architecture, the landscape and the streetscape.
Use landscape features such as rows of trees, terraces or raised building plinths, planters, hardened pedes-
trian lights, benches, kiosks, bollards, flagpoles and receptacles to create unobtrusive barriers.
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Environmental Sustainability
Building Exterior
Intent
Promote healthy buildings.
Conserve energy by promoting energy-efficient technologies and the use of renewable energy.
Conserve water and improve water quality through the use of drought-tolerant and climate-appropriate
landscape.
Conserve raw materials through the use of recycled materials, reducing the solid waste delivered to
landfills.
Reduce environmental noise pollution.
Reduce light pollution.
Provide an example of environmental sustainability for the private sector and the Denver region.
Standards
Use technologies that will result in LEED Certification or better for the courts and detention facilities.
Use technologies that will result in LEED Certification or better for the parking facility.
Guidelines
Use environmentally friendly refrigerants.
Minimize the use of non-renewable resources and production of waste.
Develop external shading devices to promote the use of natural day lighting wherever possible.
Promote the use of drought tolerant landscape design.
Building Interior
Intent
Promote human health.
Standards
Use technologies that will result in LEED Certification or better for the courts and detention facilities.
Use technologies that will result in LEED Certification or better for the parking facility.
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Environmental Sustainability, Continued
Building Interior, Continued
Guidelines
Use natural day-lighting and wherever possible internal light transporting devices.
Encourage interior design for non-secure areas that places open workstations near windows, providing
employees with outdoor views.
Promote a quiet work environment that reduces noise transfer and trespass between the inside and out-
side of the building and between offices and workstations.
Proscribe materials that emit noxious gases and volatile organic compounds.
Use glazing with characteristics that reduce heat gain.
Consider suspended direct and indirect lighting with automatic daylight dimming controls and elec-
tronic ballasts.
Promote the use of recycled materials.
Consider the installation of water recycling systems.
Promote the use of water-based paints in light colors to reflect light.
Separate the venting systems in rest rooms, kitchens, break rooms and copier rooms from the general
circulation.
Eliminate ozone-depleting gases and promote environmentally friendly refrigerants.
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Lighting
Intent
Provide lighting that fosters a safe environment without causing glare and light trespass.
Use lighting to enhance pedestrian circulation, plazas and building entries.
Enhance and provide direction to building entries.
Provide landscape and plaza lighting for security as well as aesthetic enhancement of features such as
public art.
Provide for architectural lighting of civic structures compatible with the surrounding mixed -use neigh-
borhood.
Standards
Use lighting to enhance and/or complement the architectural design intent. Focus architectural lighting
to illuminate only specific architectural elements without creating glare or spill.
Denver Parkway globe lights shall be installed as the pedestrian street lights in the pattern and rhythm
shown on the Framework Plan diagram (four per block). Typical light spacing shall be approximately 70
feet on center, spaced logically and uniformly in relationship to street trees.
Street lighting shall be compatible with Xcel Energy supplied and maintained fixtures. Street lighting
shall be spaced logically and uniformly in sequence with street trees and street furnishings.
Light levels for pedestrian fixtures shall match the light levels of the pedestrian fixtures at Civic Center
and along Speer Boulevard.
Guidelines
Minimize negative off-site impacts onto the public right-of-way and adjacent properties due to light
trespass or glare.
Ensure that on-site illumination does not adversely impact street safety through glare or spill.
Ensure that the source of light is not visible from the street or nearby residences.
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Storm Water Management
Intent
Design drainage facilities and features to complement and enhance the urban design goals of the devel-
opment area.
Standards
Utilize multi-purpose facilities where appropriate; such as integrating drainage facilities and features
with open space or providing underground or rooftop storm water detention.
Design plazas, courtyards and/or open space to accommodate water quality best-management-practices
such as porous pavement and porous landscaping.
Design surface inlet structures to be incorporated into site amenities and/or site features.
Design surface water quality or storm water detention facilities to maintain appropriate plant materials,
discourage the growth of weeds and provide for removal of trash.
Minimize the use of riprap, concrete flow channels.
Minimize he potential for mosquito or insect breeding in water quality and storm water detention
facilities.
Guidelines
All storm water runoff facilities shall be designed using best-management-practices, resulting in safe,
efficient, attractive and environmentally sustainable facilities that meet or further the urban design goals
of the development and maximize opportunities for water quality enhancements.
See also the City and County of Denver Water Quality Management Plan.
Grey Water Management
Intent
Investigate the use of on-site grey water for irrigation or water features.
Explore all sources for grey water including HVAC condensation.
Water Feature as Storm Water Function
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Accessibility
Intent
Provide facilities that recognize and accommodate the needs of all citizens, including those with dis-
abilities, families with children and the elderly.
Recognize the needs of a variety of different types of disabilities, including physical, mental and cogni-
tive.
Serve all populations equally, including visitors, detainees, employees, attorneys and judges.
Provide parking facilities that are conveniently located and accessible for persons with disabilities.
Standards
Meet or exceed the standards of Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 504
of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 as applied to Detention Centers, Courthouses and Parking Structures.
All paths shall be clear, and unobstructed.
Provide accessible parking.
Make secondary entrances available to persons with disabilities when they provide the shortest route
from accessible parking.
Meet or exceed the number of required accessible and van accessible parking spaces.
Provide accessible drop-off locations, consistent with security requirements, close to building entranc-
es.
Provide level floors in the parking structure where van accessible spaces are located.
No speed bumps.
All exterior doors shall comply with Americans with Disabilities Act Section 4.13.
Provide a clear, unobstructed pedestrian path to the front entry.
Guidelines
Provide automatic door openers for both exterior and interior doors.
All building entrances and outdoor areas open to the public should be accessible to persons with dis-
abilities.
Consider using ramps as well as steps.
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APPENDICES
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Revised Post Office/Parking Garage Building Program
The Post Office/Parking Garage Building site is south of 14th Avenue between Delaware and Elati
Streets in the Golden Triangle. Since the United States Post Office occupies the first floor of the parking
garage, this building must be built first, because the Courthouse site is on the block currently occupied
by the Post Office north of 14th Avenue between Fox and Elati Street (Gene Amole Way). Therefore,
all work on the Post Office/Parking Garage must push timeliness, reducing the time between design and
construction.
Post Office/Parking Garage Building Program
The Post Office/Parking Garage is envisioned as a five level structure with no roof. The building will
include the following:
Public retail space
Retail and operations space for the US Postal Service
Maintenance for Public Office Buildings and the Department of Parks and Recreation
Tenant finish will be done only for the USPS area, public retail and maintenance will be built as core and
shell.
Parking
*Post Office 30 long-life vehicles at grade
70 spaces in the garage for employees and customers
* Public 233 spaces
* Sheriffs Dept 164 spaces
* Denver Public Schools 140 spaces
TOTAL 637 spaces
United States Postal Service (USPS) Program
The USPS has been very accepting and responsive to our program suggestions for the new building. As
currently planned, the Post Office will be programmed as a medium-sized facility. Any changes or
modifications to their program will need to be reviewed by the USPS.
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Denver Public Schools (DPS) Program
Current programmatic needs of DPS in the Post Office/Parking Garage are:
DPS requires restricted vehicular access to 140 spaces; Denver Sheriffs passing through the controlled
space is acceptable. Denver Sheriff vehicles parking adjacent to DPS parking is also acceptable.
To the extent it is fiscally feasible, DPS would like to restrict pedestrian access to their space; though
the ability to do this may very limited and cost prohibitive.
DPS prefers their space to be sub-metered for utilities. However, it is acceptable to pro-rate and bill
for the common expenses based on the amount of the garage space dedicated to DPS.
The location of the parking spaces within the garage is not significant. Parking on the top floor of the
parking garage is acceptable. It is expected the spaces will be contiguous.
The number of required handicap spaces required by code will be included in the 140 spaces and do
not need to be contiguous.
Post Office LLV,
Recommended Users
Ingress/Egress
It is assumed that public access will be located on Delaware Street while truck access will be on Elati
Street. Traffic studies currently being completed will verify these assumptions. With the additional
surface parking between Fox and Elati, wayfinding problems should be minimized and the burden on
Delaware traffic should be mitigated.
Timeline
Design on the Post Office/Parking Garage should form six distinct phases:
Phase I 50% Schematic Design
Phase II 100% Schematic Design
Phase III 50% Design Development
Phase IV 100% Design Development
Phase V 100% Construction Documents
Phase VI 100% Construction Administration
After each of these phases, there will be a review period with major stakeholders the US Post Office,
the Sheriffs Department, the Golden Triangle Neighborhood Association, the Downtown Denver Part-
nership, and the Denver Public Schools.
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Elati Street
Post Office/Parking Garage Site & 1st Floor Plan
14th Avenue
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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN
Post Office/Parking Garage 14th Avenue Elevation
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Traffic Study
Project description
The Denver Justice Center Campus is comprised of three new structures the Courthouse, the Detention
Facility and the Post Office/Parking Garage. The project is located within the core of the Civic Center
District between the Silver Triangle Neighborhood to the north and the Golden Triangle Neighborhood
to the south.
The Courthouse and Detention Facility will be located on the two blocks south of Colfax Avenue and
north of 14th Avenue between Fox and Delaware Streets. The Post Office/Parking Garage will be
located across 14th Avenue from the Detention Facility between Elati and Delaware Streets with the
main access off Delaware and a secondary access off Elati for Post Office vehicles only.
The parking structures 637 spaces will accommodate a branch of the United States Post Office (USPS)
and small retail users. The Denver Sheriff Department is located in the block immediately east of the
parking structure, while the Emily Griffith Opportunity School of the Denver Public Schools (DPS) is
located a couple of blocks away. Designated parking spaces will be provided for USPS vehicles, em-
ployees, and customers (100 spaces); for Sheriff Department vehicles (164 spaces); and for DPS em-
ployees (140 spaces); while the remaining 233 spaces will be available to the public.
The most recent transportation study conducted in the area was for the Civic Center District Plan, pre-
pared by Fehr & Peers in 2005. This document was used as a reference for recommended future planned
roadway configurations, forecast volume calculations, and to identify potential traffic impacts within the
project study area.
Study objectives
This Traffic Impact Study (TIS) will document the traffic impacts of the Denver Justice Center and new
parking structure on the surrounding transportation system; and identify any improvements to the system
necessary to meet the City and County of Denver (CCD) standards. The primary objectives are to:
Estimate the amount and distribution of traffic associated with the project;
Evaluate traffic operations at study intersections with existing and future traffic volumes;
Address traffic operations at any locations that do not meet CCD standards; and
Address the specific issues raised by CCD staff related to the project traffic and analysis assumptions.
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Traffic Study, Continued
Issues identified by City and County of Denver staff
CCD staff was involved throughout the process of completing the Justice Center Traffic Study. Com-
ments on the analysis assumptions and other concerns were expressed by the CCD staff following a
November 15, 2005 scoping meeting. Representatives from various CCD departments attended the
meeting including Traffic Engineering Services, Development Engineering Services, and Infrastructure
Planning and Programming.
At this meeting, and follow up e-mail correspondence, key assumptions for the analysis methodology
were established, as well as the study area, the analysis scenarios, the regional distributions, and the
project-related trip assignments. In addition, CCD staff identified the following issues to be addressed
in the study:
The impacts of reducing the future planned roadway network to accommodate the modifications identi-
fied in the Civic Center District Plan, versus maintaining the existing roadway network;
The likely routes for vehicles accessing the project study area and the potential for impacts to traffic
operations within the Golden Triangle;
Pedestrian and bicycle circulation throughout the area; with Colfax Avenue considered a barrier be-
tween Downtown and the Golden Triangle.
The need for a traffic signal at the 14th Avenue/ Elati Street intersection due to the circulation of pedes-
trians between the Justice Center, the new parking structure and the future increase in vehicular traffic
along 14th Avenue
Conclusions and recommendations
Study Conditions
The traffic study for the Justice Center Campus included analysis of AM and PM peak hours for exist-
ing conditions, existing-with-project conditions and 2030 conditions. For 2030, forecast volumes were
analyzed with both the existing roadway network and future planned roadway network. The existing
roadway network for the future conditions, included one planned improvement in the reconfiguration of
the Colfax Avenue intersections at Tremont Place and Delaware Street into a single, signalized intersec-
tion. The future planned roadway network included the following modifications:
Colfax Avenue reduced to a five-lane section between Bannock and Welton Streets;
14th Avenue reduced to a two-lane section with on-street parking between Bannock and Galapago Streets;
The reconfiguration of the intersection of Colfax Avenue and Fox Street/ Glenarm Place/ 12th Avenue;
Delaware Street converted to two-way operations between Colfax and 14th Avenues; and,
A new mid block signalized pedestrian crossing at Colfax Avenue and Gene Amole Way.
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Traffic Study, Continued
Conclusions and recommendations, Continued
Multi-modal Provisions
The transit services, pedestrian accommodations and bicycle facilities were evaluated for the project study
area. The transit services included four bus routes operating along each of the major arterials of the existing
roadway network. The transit routes are not expected to impact future conditions by significantly changes in
current services within the study area. The pedestrian facilities included detached sidewalks, roadway and
intersection crossings with marked crosswalks and intersection pedestrian signal timing including an all-pe-
destrian phase at the Colfax Avenue/ Bannock Street intersection. Three intersections along Colfax Avenue
(Bannock, Cherokee / Court Place, and Delaware Street/ 13th Avenue) and three intersections along 14th
Avenue (Bannock, Cherokee and Elati Streets) have high-level pedestrian activity. In the future, Gene Amole
Way will facilitate a high-level of pedestrian activity, necessitating emphasized crossings of Colfax Avenue and
14th Avenue. The bicycle facilities in the area included an off-street bicycle trail, on-street bicycle lanes, grid
bicycle routes and neighborhood bicycle routes. These facilities are not expected to change.
Intersection Operation
The intersection operations evaluation included capacity analysis and queuing analysis of the 18 study area
intersections and signal warrant analysis of the five unsignalized study area intersections for each of the study
conditions. In general, the results of the analysis indicate the following:
No additional operational impacts when the project-related traffic was added to the existing volumes and
evaluated with the existing roadway network.
Only minor differences in the operational impacts were identified between the two future analysis conditions.
The differences include:
0 The 14th Avenue/ Elati Street intersection northbound approach during the PM peak hour was a LOS D for
the existing roadway network condition and a LOS E for the future planned roadway network condition.
0 The 14th Avenue/ Fox Street intersection southbound approach was LOS E and LOS D during the AM and
PM peak hours, respectively, for the existing roadway network conditions, and LOS F and LOS E for the
AM and PM peak hours, respectively, for the future planned roadway network conditions.
0 The results of the queuing analysis indicated additional impacts for the future planned roadway network
at the Colfax Avenue/ Delaware Street intersection (the 95th percentile queue for the westbound through
movement extended back to the adjacent intersection in the PM peak hour), the 14th Avenue/ Fox Street
intersection (the 95th percentile queue for the northbound approach was 150 feet long in the AM peak hour),
and the 14th Avenue/ Elati Street intersection (the 95th percentile queue for the southbound approach was
110 feet long in the AM peak hour).
The results of the analysis found that the requirements of the Peak Hour Volume Signal Warrant were met by
the volumes and geometry at the 13th Avenue/ Elati Street intersection for the future year 2030 conditions.
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Full Text

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THE JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUSIN DENVERS CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT -FRAMEWORK PLAN-DAVID OWEN TRYBA ARCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS BISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & PEERS I MNA, INCJUNE 2006

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INC

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLANJUNE 2006 THE JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUSIN DENVERS CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT FRAMEWORK PLAN i

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCACKNOWLEDGEMENTSJohn W. Hickenlooper, Mayor Justice Center James Mejia, Justice Center Policy Manager Nick Koncilja, Justice Center Deputy Policy Manager Community Planning and Development Peter J. Park, Manager Tyler Gibbs, Manager of Planning Services, Urban Design and Graphics Kiersten Faulkner, Project Manager, Justice Center Design and Development Standards and Guidelines Department of Public Works Lesley Thomas, Deputy Manager Dave Bufalo, Design and Construction Management Nick Kontas, Design and Construction Management Walt Hime, Development Engineering Services Madie Martin, Design and Construction Management Karl Schmeling, Development Engineering Services Dave Weaver, Traf c Operations Stu Williams, Director Capital Projects Of ce of Cultural Affairs Erin Trapp, Public Art Program Asset Management Kurt Schumacher, Asset Management Department of Law Karen Aviles, Assistant City Attorney Scott Johnson, Assistant City Attorney David Owen Tryba Architects David Owen Tryba, FAIA Bill Moon, AIA David Daniel, AIA Ki-woo Kim DMJM / AECOM Andrew M. Cupples Mundus Bishop Design Tina Bishop, ASLA Pat Mundus, ASLA Joe McGrane Ryan Godderz Fehr & Peers Transportation Jeremy Klop, Transportation Planner MNA, Inc Mace Pemberton, Civil Engineer Elaine Shiramizu Graphic Design Elaine Shiramizuii

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Introduction............................................................................................ How Will this Document be Used.......................................................... Relationship to Other Planning Documents.......................................... Project Orientation and Scope............................................................... De nitions.............................................................................................. Vision and Goals...................................................................................Urban Design Guiding Principles................................................................................. The Relationship Between The Civic Center and The Justice Center Campus.................................................................................................. Street Hierarchy..................................................................................... Site Planning and Landscape Design....................................................Architecture Guiding Principles................................................................................. Architectural Form of The Courthouse................................................. Architectural Form of The Detention Facility....................................... Architectural Form of The Post Of ce/ Parking Garage....................... Architectural Form of Future Development on The South Side of 14th Avenue................................................................................................... Architectural Form of Future Development West of Fox Street...........Campus-wide Goals Objectives of The Organization of Internal Programs........................... The Need for a Regional Architectural Response................................. The Lasting Effects of Quality Material and Attention to Craft.......... iii 3 5 6 6 10 11 14 14 16 34 42 44 50 54 58 60 64 64 65

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INC Integration and Importance of Public Art............................................. Signage................................................................................................. Integration of Utilities and Systems..................................................... Security................................................................................................ Environmental Sustainability............................................................... Lighting................................................................................................ Storm Water Management................................................................... Grey Water Management..................................................................... Accessibility.........................................................................................Appendices Revised Post Of ce/Parking Garage Building Program....................... Traf c Study.......................................................................................... Image Credits........................................................................................ iv 66 73 79 80 82 84 85 85 86 88 92 98

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN INTRODUCTION1

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INC 2 The architects sphere of in uence (is) to emphasize the essential relation between a building and its setting, the necessity of protecting the aspect of the approaches, the desirability of grouping buildings in harmonious ensembles, of securing dominance of some buildings over others so that by the willing submission of the less to the greater there may be created a larger, more monumental unity; a unity comprising at least a group of buildings with their surroundings, if possible entire districts and nally even, it may be hoped, entire cities. Werner Hegemann and Elbert Peets, Civic Art

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN INTRODUCTIONHistory The City of Denvers criminal justice facilities have been constrained for more than 2 decades. In November 2001 Denver citizens rejected a $325 million bond issue for an all-inclusive jail, four arraignment courts and parking at a 17-acre industrial site at Sixth Avenue and I-25. The site would have accommodated both pre and post-adjudication jail facilities and a few arraignment courtrooms. It subsequently became clear that district, juvenile and county courtrooms at the City & County Building were overcrowded and that a new proposal should accommodate criminal and juvenile courtrooms as well as a pretrial detention facility. In 2002, Denver acquired the ve acre Rocky Mountain News site, on West Colfax Avenue in the Civic Center District where the Citys other of ces, courts and facilities are located. In April 2004, the Urban Land Institute examined the merits of building a downtown Justice Center for criminal courts and pretrial detention; eventually adding post-trial facilities at Smith Road. The ULI recommended that the City separate the Courthouse and the Detention Facility, acquiring the block west of the News site to do so. They further recommended that Juvenile/Family Courts be co-located in the new Courthouse and that a new parking facility be added to serve the Courthouse and Jail. On May 3, 2005, Denver voters approved the extension of $378 million in general obligation bonds to fund construction of the Justice Center. Mayor Hickenlooper and the City Council determined that consistent with the sites importance as the city, state and regions governmental and cultural hub an international design competition should be held to select signature architects for the new Courthouse, Detention Center, and Post Of ce/Parking Garage. The Mayor and City Council further proposed that a comprehensive approach to justice be adopted including supervised diversion programs and alternative sentencing aimed at mitigating jail time for non-violent, petty offenders. As a result, the Crime Prevention and Control Commission was established to address these and other issues, including recidivism. 3The DeBoer Plan, 1924

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCRole of the Master Urban Design Architect The Master Urban Design Architects (MUDA) role is to develop the site plan and urban design for the Justice Center Campus as an extension and enhancement of the Civic Center District to create a larger, more monumental unity. The team is committed to a framework for development that responds to the Civic Center District Plan, Civic Center Park Master Plan and adjacent neighborhood plans. These plans represent the collective vision, priorities and values of diverse stakeholders, respecting the historic precedent of the District. The Framework Plan is the product of a collaborative process, which included the signature architects, City agencies and adjacent neighborhoods. The MUDA and the City expect the principles to be challenged as a re ection of the democratic dialogue inherent in good civic space. That conversation should both inspire and inform a better outcome for todays citizen and tomorrows. The MUDA will act both as convener of the collaboration and advocate for the City, the public realm, historic precedent and the future. The MUDA is the Citys representative should con ict arise among architects or planning documents. Though the MUDA will make recommendations to the City, the Justice Center Management Team will make nal decisions. Citizen Advisory Committee (CAC) The Citizen Advisory Committee is composed of 16 neighborhood representatives from the surrounding area. The mission of the CAC is to review building and landscape design, and any additional information necessary to provide informed feedback. In addition at each meeting, depending on the topic, different users and City staff are invited to attend. The CAC will meet as needed to give guidance to the Justice Center Architectural Teams. Design reviews will occur at 50 percent and 100 percent of both schematic design and design development. The Denver Justice Center Project is a signi cant addition to the Citys public buildings. As such the input of community leaders is critical to the projects success. Executive Committee The Executive Committee will review and approve design issues impacting the whole campus, budget revisions affecting contingencies, consultant contracts and any issue that cannot be resolved at the individual project level. The Committee will make all nal recommendations to the Manager of Public Works or the Mayor on all unresolved issues and changes to the Justice Center Project scope. The Committee will meet as needed; though each member will be involved in the project on a daily basis. Major Construction Milestones Construct Post Of ce/ Parking Garage Start July 17, 2006 Finish June 15, 2007 Commission and Move into Post Of ce/ Parking Garage Start June 15, 2007 Finish Aug. 24, 2009 Construct Courthouse and Detention Facility Start Jan. 7, 2007 Finish Sept. 18, 2009 Commission & Move into Courthouse and Detention Facility Start Sept. 21, 2009 Finish Dec. 31, 20094Citizen Advisory Committee (CAC) Manager Public Works Director of Capital Projects Public Works Director of Capital Projects Budget Management Office Justice Center Policy Manager Mayors Office Master Urban Design Architect David Owen Tryba Architects Manager Community Planning and Development Executive Committee Golden Triangle Billie Bramhall Steve Erickson Thomas Hoaglund Dennis Humphries Anne Lindsey Bill Wenk Mickey Zeppelin Silver Triangle Evan Makovsky Les Lindauer Golden Triangle Museum District Linda Nugent Ed Robran Downtown Denver Partnership John Desmond Linda Rockwood Downtown Denver Residents Organization John Maslanik Inter-neighborhood Cooperation Alan Gass Capital Hill United Neighbors Dick Kisseberth City Council Jeanne Robb, District #6

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN HOW WILL THIS DOCUMENT BE USEDThe Justice Center Campus Framework Plan sets forth the guiding principles, intent, standards and guidelines for the urban fabric linking the Campus with the Civic Center District, the Golden Triangle, the Silver Triangle and the Central Business District. It respects and responds to the historic precedent of the City Beautiful character of Denvers Civic Center District. The Framework Plan is the guardian of the public realm and as such addresses and fully integrates the Justice Center Campus into the Civic Center District, adjacent neighborhoods and multi-modal transportation corridors. It includes information and direction for site planning, connections and streets, building envelopes and architecture, urban design, public art and signage for the Justice Center Campus. Edward Bennetts 1917 plan for Civic Center offered a vision and set of principles that nearly ninety years later continue to instruct the consistent scale, strong east/west axis, grand boulevards and the thorough integration of architecture and landscape of Civic Center. It is important to note, however, that though few of the buildings re ected on the 1917 plan were built, the character of todays Civic Center resonates with the Bennett Plan. The goal for this Plan is to provide a similar framework for the next hundred years. By emphasizing context and precedent, the Plan endeavors to evoke contemporary responses, re ecting the craft, character and demands of contemporary citizens, technology and complexity. Denvers Civic Center embraces the post-Victorian, neo-classical Capitol, the art moderne City and County Building, the modernist Gio Ponti art museum, the neo-traditional Michael Graves library, the new city of ce building and a variety of public statues, monuments and sculptures. This diversity of design, program, material and craft are strengthened and connected through the symmetry, scale, elegance and legibility of the Bennett framework. It is precisely this legacy that the Framework Plan seeks to emulate. It is a legacy of collaboration, a balance of foreground and background buildings, a full integration of interior and exterior public space and an abiding commitment to great Civic Art that should inspire not constrain todays architects and tomorrows. 5The Bennett Plan, 1917

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCPROJECT ORIENTATION AND SCOPEOrientation (Refer to diagram)The Civic Center District spans in an east/west direction from the State Capitol to Speer Boulevard. The Justice Center Campus comprised of three proposed structures the Courthouse, the Detention Facility, and the Post Of ce/Garage Building resides in the Civic Center district core and between the Silver Triangle Neighborhood to the north and the Golden Triangle Neighborhood to the south.RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER PLANNING DOCUMENTSSeveral previous planning efforts inform this document: the Park Master Plan for Civic Center Civic Center District Plan; Civic Center Historic District Design Guidelines; Golden Triangle Neighborhood Plan; Golden Triangle Design Guidelines and Silver Triangle Design Guidelines; as well as the Denver Justice Center Final Program report dated 06/21/05. This Justice Center Campus Framework Plan represents the continued re nement and collaboration of these plans and reports into a narrowed focus, resulting in the most appropriate urban design and architectural response for the speci c site. The current Framework Plan will supplement not replace these other technical documents. Denvers Justice Center Project Management Team will reconcile con icts that arise among the various documents. Primarily an urban design framework document, this Framework Plan along with the schematic designs of each of the three campus buildings will serve as the basis for the Planned Unit Development (PUD) that will become the governing regulation for the Justice Center Campus. The design team should also be familiar with the requirements of the International Building Code and the Denver Fire Code. The MUDA recommends that the design teams consult with police, re and building code experts early in the planning phase. 6

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN7Civic Center District and Justice Center Campus Boundaries Civic Center District Boundary Justice Center Campus Boundary Influential Buildings

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INC 8Area Of In uence (Refer to diagram)The Justice Center Campus should enhance and advance the legacy of Denvers Civic Center District. Organized around parks and framed by grand avenues, the Districts buildings house the executive, legislative, judicial and cultural functions of City and State government. Denvers Civic Center District has the potential to become one of the nations few, fully realized civic centers. Its adoption early in the 20th Century, relied on a well articulated ideology emphasizing accessibility, utility, harmony and celebration. That spirit, prevalent in Denvers public buildings, parks, monuments and streets should be re ected in the Justice Center Campus through its urban design and architecture. It is in this spirit that the principles set forth in the Framework Plan are intended to in uence the areas shown on the adjacent diagram by ensuring that the Justice Center Campus enhances the connections between the evolving neighborhoods and the historic context of the Civic Center District core.Bond Funded Construction (Refer to diagram)Parcels to be developed in the current scope of construction at the Justice Center Campus using appropriated bond funds include: The full block bounded by West Colfax Avenue, Delaware Street, Gene Amole Way and West 14th Avenue. The full block bounded by West Colfax Avenue, Gene Amole Way, Fox Street and West 14th Avenue. The parcel on the southwest corner of West 14th Avenue and Elati Street. North end of the 1300 block between Elati and Delaware Streets bounded by the L-alley. Improvements to the Smith Road County Jail (not shown). Public Right-of-Way areas to be developed in the current scope of construction at the Justice Center Campus using appropriated bond funds include: From the curb to property line on the east side of Fox Street from the southern curb of Colfax Avenue to the northern curb of 14th Avenue Gene Amole Way from the northern property line on the north side of Colfax Avenue to the southern property lines aligned on the south side of 14th Avenue From the curb to property line on the west side of Delaware Street from the south curb of Colfax Avenue to the northern curb of 14th Avenue The resulting triangular civic space at the rede ned intersection of Tremont, 13th Street and Colfax Avenue. William H. Wilson, The City Beautiful Movement, Johns Hopkins University Press 1989, p.235.1. 1.

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN9Scope And Opportunities Bond Funded Construction Area Of Influence

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INC 10DEFINITIONSThe following terms are used throughout the document to describe the design parameters: Guiding Principles: The primary assumptions guiding the philosophy and direction for the design and development of the Justice Center Campus. Intent: Statements of the goals that the design review criteria seek to achieve. Design Standards: Criteria providing speci c direction based on the stated intent. Standards articulate the issues fundamental to achieving the stated intent. The term shall is used to indicate compliance is required. Design standards may be waived if the intent statements can be better achieved through Guidelines (see Guidelines). Design Guidelines: Design guidelines reinforce the objectives de ned by the intent statements. Guidelines use the term should to denote they are considered relevant to achieving the stated intent, and will be pertinent to the review process but will not be required for approval. Guidelines will, however, be strongly considered when there is a request to waive a related standard. Community Planning and Development will make nal decisions about when a guideline may be used in lieu of a standard.

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN 11VISION AND GOALS The City & County Building In The Past To build upon Denvers City Beautiful Tradition of design excellence through the full integration of sculpture, landscape, architecture and planting, in order to uplift the human spirit. To use this historic precedent to establish a context for form that enhances and connects a family of civic buildings to the adjacent neighborhoods. To establish a cohesive campus of world-class urban and architectural design. To create a safe and inviting civic community. To convene an extensive and collaborative public process

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INC 12

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN URBAN DESIGN 13

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INC 14Urban DesignGuiding Principles Create a cohesive and connected civic campus including architecture, urban design, landscape, signage, public art, utilities and systems. Respect and strengthen Denvers civic precedent: N/S and E/W Axes as well as the in uence of the 45-degree downtown grid shift Continuity of the street Tradition of Denvers parkways and boulevards Build-to lines Grand, monumental entries and plazas Network of open and enclosed, interior and exterior Civic Space Contrast of civic versus commercial building siting and architectureThe Relationship Between The Civic Center District and The Justice Center CampusThe larger campus, known as the Civic Center District, extends from the State Capitol west to Speer Boulevard between Colfax and 14th Avenues and includes the Capitol, Lincoln Park, Civic Center, City & County Building, United States Mint and the Justice Center Campus Courthouse, Detention Center and Post Of ce/Parking Garage. These individual elements contribute to a sense of place beyond their individual contributions. Previous planning efforts, namely the Civic Center District Plan and the Park Master Plan for Civic Center, recognize this and call for an integrated vehicular and pedestrian system within a cohesive urban framework. The Justice Center Campus and its individual elements Courthouse, Detention Center and Post Of ce /Parking Garage must contribute more than their individual presence. The Justice Center Campus must be a cohesive, connected hierarchy of urban, civic spaces connected by a legible street hierarchy that is a logical extension of the District. The Justice Center Campus must be fully integrated into the Civic Center District through a language of continuity de ned by a family of buildings and streets. The Justice Center Campus must be de ned by common language and components including signage, lighting, paving, plant material, site furnishings and design elements. A successful Campus must: Re ect the spatial organization of the Campus through the full integration of a family of buildings and streets. Respect historic precedent including build-to lines, parkways and boulevards, monumental entries and plazas. Integrate function into design.

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN The Campus & The Site15

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCStreet HierarchyThe establishment of a cohesive Justice Center Campus depends on creating a well-established and executed pedestrian and vehicular street network that articulates the Campus civic role. This comprehensive network must extend throughout the Civic Center District to achieve a cohesive urban identity. The Framework Plan builds upon the District Plan and establishes two tiers of hierarchy Grand Avenues and Shared Streets. The Grand Avenues elevate the civic nature of the District while maintaining mandated traf c ow. The Shared Streets further de ned as Urban Courts and Urban Lanes safely blend vehicular, bicycle and pedestrian traf c to favor the pedestrian experience.Grand Avenues Colfax & 14th AvenuesColfax and 14th Avenues shall serve as a set of paired axes, providing the framework for the extension of Denvers governmental center from the State Capitol to Speer Boulevard, in order to strengthen and reinforce the Civic Axis of the Civic Center District. The most sophisticated traf c analysis tools have been used to analyze the impacts of modifying Colfax Avenue between Bannock and Welton Streets from six lanes to a ve-lane cross-section. Currently it takes approximately ve minutes, 40-seconds to travel from Grant Street to Kalamath Street during the evening rush hour. Accounting for projected traf c growth over the next 20 years, the analysis demonstrates that modifying Colfax to ve lanes would increase the average time to travel this same section to 7 minutes about 80-seconds longer than current conditions. Traf c analysis was used to evaluate the impact of reducing 14th Avenue between Speer Boulevard and Bannock Street to a two-lane cross-section with on street parking, from the current three-lanes of traf c. Currently it takes approximately 70-seconds to travel from Speer Boulevard through Bannock Street on 14th Avenue during the evening rush hour. Projecting traf c growth to 2030, narrowing 14th Avenue to two-lanes of travel with on street parking, would take an average of 14-seconds longer than current conditions a total of 84 seconds. It is with these considerations that the vision of the paired Grand Avenues is presented to represent an appropriate balance between pedestrian activity and neighborhood connections with vehicular mobility.Intent Create a formal entry to the City through the Civic Center District that will elevate the civic nature of the Justice Center Campus. Establish generous pedestrian ways with ample breathing space adjacent to civic buildings; Increase pedestrian activity. Utilize quality, craft and consistency to reinforce connections. Provide appropriate lighting and amenities to livable mixed-use streets that are comfortable and safe for pedestrians. Build upon the principles of the Civic Center District Plan establish a continuous greensward from the State Capitol to Speer Boulevard. Create a visual connection from downtown Denver, speci cally from Trinity Church to the Courthouse along Tremont Street at Colfax Avenue.16Historic Speer Boulevard Continuity of Greensward Greensward: Continuous park-like ground that is green with grass or turf and linear rows of street trees.

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLANGrand Avenues and Shared Streets 17

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCStreet Hierarchy, continuedGrand Avenues Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue continued Vision of Colfax Avenue Standards Colfax Avenue is a critical connection in the citys transportation network and a key pedestrian connection between Downtown, the Silver Triangle, the Justice Center Campus and the Golden Triangle neighborhood. Between Welton and Bannock Streets, Colfax Avenue shall have two travel lanes in each direction and a center landscaped /art median. The pedestrian realm shall extend from the State Capitol to Speer Boulevard and shall include a continuous, linear detached walk adjacent to a generous tree lawn with a consistent patterning of street trees and street furnishings, including RTD bus stops. Colfax Avenue shall have a low, but elevated center median that expresses the civic nature of the Civic Center District. The intent is to open the viewshed from Colfax Avenue to the State Capitol, City & County Building and the Justice Center Campus, especially the Courthouse. The medians shall provide opportunities for public art and safe pedestrian crossing. The northern intersection of Colfax Avenue and Tremont Street shall be recon gured to improve vehicular and pedestrian traf c ow and to provide an urban plaza connecting the Justice Center Campus with downtown Denver. The plaza shall reinforce critical views between Trinity Church and the Courthouse and shall be developed with water, plantings, rich paving and site furnishings that are fully integrated with the Justice Center Campus, expressing its civic role.Colfax Avenue Looking East 18 Vision of Colfax Avenue Section Diagram

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Street Hierarchy, continuedGrand Avenues Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue continued Vision of Colfax Avenue, continued As funding is available, two additional pedestrian and civic spaces shall be improved along Colfax Avenue, between Bannock and Speer, to include water, plantings, rich paving materials and site furnishings. Gene Amole Way and the civic room between the Detention Facility and Courthouse shall be linked visually and physically with Colfax Avenue and function as a major civic place. Refer to the street cross-sections for dimensional standards of pedestrian, vehicular and landscape zones. All right-of-way improvements shall meet CCD Public Works standards and regulations or written variances shall be obtained. Curb cuts shall not be allowed on Colfax Avenue. Existing curb cuts shall be removed. The full Colfax Avenue vision will be implemented when the following criteria are met: the Denver Fire Department Station #1 (Colfax & Speer) is relocated, the Justice Center Traf c Study and the Citywide Transportation Study support changes, a Traf c Impact Study is completed, the Colorado Department of Transportation approves the proposed modi cations to Colfax Avenue and adequate funding is available. The mid-block pedestrian crossing signal between Gene Amole and Delaware shall be moved to the intersection of Gene Amole and Colfax Avenue 19

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCStreet Hierarchy, continued Grand Avenues Colfax and 14th Avenues continued Colfax Avenue Opening Day of Justice Center Campus Standards Colfax Avenue shall remain in its current alignment and con guration, including attached walks, a center median and center turn lanes. A new consistent patterning of street trees and street furnishings shall be installed. Between Fox and Delaware Streets, the center median shall be modi ed to eliminate the easternmost turn lane and to become a low, but elevated median expressing the civic nature of the Civic Center District and providing views to the State Capitol, City & County Building and the Justice Center Campus especially the Courthouse. The median shall offer opportunities for public art and safe, convenient pedestrian crossing. The northern intersection of Colfax Avenue and Tremont Street shall be recon gured to improve traf c ow and to provide an urban plaza connecting the Justice Center Campus with downtown Denver. The plaza shall reinforce critical views between Trinity Church and the Courthouse and shall be developed with water, plantings, rich paving and site furnishings that express its civic role and are integrated with the Justice Center Campus. Refer to the street cross-sections for dimensional standards of pedestrian, vehicular and landscape zones. All right-of-way improvements shall meet CCD Public Works standards and regulations or written variances shall be obtained. Curb cuts shall not be allowed on Colfax Avenue. Existing curb cuts shall be removed upon development. Colfax Avenue Section Diagram Opening Day20

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Colfax Avenue 14th AvenueOpening Day of Justice Center Grand Avenues21

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INC 22Street Hierarchy, continued Grand Avenues Colfax and 14th Avenues continued Vision of 14th Avenue Standards 14th Avenue shall have two travel lanes for east-bound traf c, a parking lane on the south, detached walks, generous tree lawns with a consistent patterning of street trees and site furnishings. Gene Amole Way and the civic room between the Detention Facility and Courthouse shall be linked visually and physically with 14th Avenue to function as a major civic place. Bulb-outs shall be placed on the south side of 14th Avenue to aid pedestrian crossing. Refer to the street cross-sections for dimensional standards of pedestrian, vehicular and landscape zones. All right-of-way improvements shall meet CCD Public Works standards and regulations or written variances shall be obtained. Curb cuts shall not be allowed on the Grand Avenues. Existing curb cuts shall be removed upon development. Vision of 14th Avenue Section Diagram 14th Avenue Looking East

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN 23Street Hierarchy, continued Grand Avenues Colfax and 14th Avenues continued 14th Avenue Opening Day Standards 14th Avenue shall generally remain in its current alignment and con guration, including detached walks with a new consistent patterning of street trees and street furnishings and a bike lane. Between Elati Street and Delaware Street, 14th Avenue shall have two travel lanes for east-bound traf c, a parking lane on the south, detached walks, generous tree lawns with a consistent patterning of street trees and site furnishings. Bulb-outs shall be placed on the south side of 14th Avenue at the intersections of Delaware and Elati Streets, to aid pedestrian crossing. Refer to the street cross-sections for dimensional standards of pedestrian, vehicular and landscape zones. All right-of-way improvements shall meet CCD Public Works standards and regulations or written variances shall be obtained. Curb cuts shall not be allowed on the Grand Avenues. Existing curb cuts shall be removed upon development. 14th Avenue Section Diagram Opening Day

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCColfax Avenue 14th AvenueVision of Grand Avenues24

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN 25Street Hierarchy, continued Grand Avenues Colfax and 14th Avenues, continued Standards for Amenities Pedestrian walks shall be of a rich paving material of a quality and character that respects the architecture of the Justice Center Campus. A continuous paving material and pattern shall extend along both sides of Colfax and 14th Avenues for the entire length of the Campus. As Colfax and 14th Avenues continue to develop, the same continuous paving material and pattern shall extend from the State Capitol to Speer Boulevard. Street trees shall be installed in the pattern and rhythm shown on the Framework diagram (7 trees per block) and shall be of a consistent species or habit. On 14th Avenue and the longer-term Colfax Avenue Vision, the outer row of street trees shall be installed in the center of the tree lawn. On the south side of Colfax Avenue and north side of 14th Avenue, a second alternating row of street trees 7 per block shall be installed approximately ve (5) feet from the back of sidewalk. The spacing shall be approximately 35 feet on center, as measured linearly along each row. Denver Parkway globe lights shall be installed as the pedestrian street lights in the pattern and rhythm shown on the Framework Plan diagram (four per block). Typical light spacing shall be approximately 70 feet on center, spaced logically and uniformly in relationship to street trees. Street lighting shall be compatible with Xcel Energy supplied and maintained xtures. Street lighting shall be spaced logically and uniformly in sequence with street trees and street furnishings. Civic site furnishings shall be installed in the pattern and rhythm shown on the Framework Plan diagram. The furnishings shall re ect the civic nature of the Justice Center Campus and provide a cohesive layer that is fully integrated with the architecture. At a minimum, furnishings shall consist of pedestrian lighting, benches, trash receptacles. Light levels for pedestrian xtures shall match the light levels of the pedestrian xtures at Civic Center and along Speer Boulevard. Landscaped areas shall have automated irrigation systems with separate drip irrigation zone for trees. Rain sensors and low angle nozzles shall be used to conserve water.Guidelines Buildings on north side of Colfax Avenue and south side of 14th Avenue should provide pedestrian active, neighborhood scale ground oor retail. The south side of 14th Avenue and north side of Colfax Avenue should be a continuous street wall extending from Speer Boulevard to the State Capitol, providing an important frame for the siting of civic buildings. Material

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCStreet Hierarchy, continuedShared StreetsUrban Courts Bannock Street; Gene Amole Way; Fox Street Urban Lanes Delaware Street; Cherokee Street The north-south streets, between Colfax and 14th Avenues and beginning with Bannock Street on the east and extending to Fox Street on the west, shall serve as civic spaces, creating a mixed-use public realm with a pedestrian orientation. While they provide vehicular access, these Shared Streets will be civic spaces where a variety of activities will occur including walking, biking and congregating. The Shared Streets are de ned as Urban Courts and Urban Lanes. Bannock Street, Gene Amole Way and Fox Street shall be developed as Urban Courts. Delaware and Cherokee Streets shall be developed as Urban Lanes. Intent Provide for a variety of activities for the Justice Center Campus, the Civic Center District and the neighborhood, including walking, biking and congregating. Establish a pedestrian orientation that gives pedestrians the primary right-of-way while allowing for bicycles, but subordinating vehicular traf c. Create a human scale at the street and building entry. Create a series of logical, clear and safe pedestrian and bike connections between Downtown, the Silver Triangle and the Golden Triangle. Establish a vital, well-scaled and vibrant north-south pedestrian connection on Gene Amole Way that also serves as the central civic room between the Detention Facility and the Courthouse. Establish a vibrant civic space of rich materials that unites the space and its two principal buildings, while providing interest, human-scale, and connectivity. General Standards for Urban Courts Bannock Street; Gene Amole Way; Fox Street Urban Courts shall extend visually from building edge to building edge (or from building edge to park at the City & County Building) through a cohesive horizontal plane of paving materials and an integrated family of civic furnishings. Road alignments and site elements such as plantings, furnishings and paving shall be used to de ne vehicular routes, to slow vehicular traf c and to ensure pedestrian connectivity. Traf c speeds shall be reduced to afford a safe pedestrian environment. Rich paving materials of a quality that respects the architecture shall extend across driving lanes and through the intersections of Colfax and 14th Avenues. Refer to the street cross-section for dimensional standards of pedestrian, vehicular and landscape zones. 2616th Street Shared Street

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLANShared Streets Hierarchy 27

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCStreet Hierarchy, continuedShared Streets, continued Bannock Street Bannock Street shall have one way traf c with a minimum of three travel lanes and one parking lane on the west. A central plaza shall extend from the City & County Building to Civic Center along the Civic Axis. No curb cuts. Gene Amole Way Gene Amole Way shall have two-way traf c with one travel lane in each direction. Parking shall not be allowed. The street shall be designed as an integral extension of the civic space between the two principle buildings. For example, the two lanes of traf c could be separated by a landscaped area of trees, water and civic furnishings that encourage pedestrian activity. Gene Amole Way shall have a consistent character that extends from Colfax Avenue to 14th Avenue. It shall consist of appropriately scaled civic space(s) to allow for gathering, de ne building entries and provide intimate places. The character of Gene Amole Way shall respect the solemn nature of the Justice Center Campus. Gene Amole Way shall have a three-part composition with a center civic space, transitional spaces to the north and south of the civic space and at the intersections at Colfax and 14th Avenues. Fox Street Fox Street shall have two-way traf c with one travel lane in each direction. One curb cut will be allowed to provide access for judge and magistrate parking. Potential locations for the curb cut are indicated on the Framework Plan diagram, but only one shall be provided. Final access location and cross-section shall be approved by CCD Public Works. Fox Street Section Diagram28Shared Streets Precedent

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Gene Amole WayShared Streets Precedent Gene Amole Way Section Diagram29

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCStreet Hierarchy, continuedShared Streets, continued General Standards for Urban Lanes Cherokee Street and Delaware Street Urban Lanes shall be cohesive streets with a consistent character on each edge. A horizontal plane of paving materials and integrated family of civic furnishings shall be used. Site elements such as plantings, furnishings and paving shall be used to de ne pedestrian routes, to slow vehicular traf c and to ensure pedestrian connectivity. Traf c speeds shall be reduced, ensuring a safe pedestrian environment. Rich paving materials of a quality that respects the architecture shall extend to all pedestrian surfaces, including the corners at Colfax and 14th Avenues. Refer to the street cross-section for dimensional standards of pedestrian, vehicular and landscape zones. Cherokee Street Cherokee Street shall have two-way traf c with two travel lanes and one parking lane on the east. A central plaza shall extend from the City & County Building to the U.S. Mint along the Civic Axis. Two curb cuts shall be allowed to access the Mayors parking. Delaware Street Delaware Street shall be a two-way street with one lane of traf c in each direction and a parking lane on the west. The parking lane shall also double as a staging area for truck inspections at the U.S. Mint. Two curb cuts shall be allowed on the west side of the street to provide for access for the Detention Facility sally port (potential locations for the curb cut are indicated on the Framework Plan diagram). One curb cut will be allowed on the east side to provide service access for the U.S. Mint. 30 Delaware Street Section Diagram Civic Space

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN 31Cherokee Street Civic Space

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INC 32Street Hierarchy, continuedShared Streets, continued General Standards for Amenities Civic site furnishings shall be installed in a pattern and rhythm that articulates the civic role of the street and its location within the street hierarchy. Furnishings shall provide a cohesive layer that is fully integrated with the architecture of the Justice Center Campus. At a minimum, furnishings shall consist of pedestrian lighting, benches, and trash receptacles and shall comply with the Civic Center District standards Pedestrian lights shall be provided. Typical light spacing shall be approximately 70 feet on center, spaced logically and uniformly in relationship to the building architecture, street alignment and street trees. Light levels for pedestrian xtures shall match the light levels of the surrounding neighborhood streets. Light levels for Gene Amole Way shall be consistent with its role as the central civic room. Light levels may exceed those speci ed for Grand Avenues and Shared Streets. Street lighting shall be compatible with Xcel Energy supplied and maintained xtures. Street lighting shall be spaced logically and uniformly in sequence with street trees and street furnishings; and shall comply with the Civic Center District standards. Street trees shall be provided for aesthetics and shade, and to enhance civic spaces and security measures. Selection of tree species shall conform with Denver Forestrys recommended tree lists. Tree spacing shall be approximately 35 feet on center for shade trees, as measured for each row of trees; and 25 feet on center for ornamental and evergreen trees. Shared Streets Precedent

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN 33Street Hierarchy, continuedShared Streets, continued Guidelines for Shared Streets Urban Courts and Urban Lanes The Shared Streets should be designed in accordance with the civic setting envisioned for the entire Justice Center Campus. They should be designed as integral components of the larger landscape of the Justice Center Campus, integrated with larger civic spaces and re ect the meaning of justice as embodied by the Justice Center Campus. New, urban civic spaces should be established on Cherokee Street at the US Mint and the City & County Building. These civic spaces should replace existing surface parking lots immediately adjacent to each building. They should be designed to accentuate building entries and as active pedestrian places with water, lighting, landscaping and site furnishings.Shared Streets Precedent

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCSite Planning and Landscape Design How the buildings sit in the framework of the Justice Center Campus Three buildings the Courthouse, Detention Facility and Post Of ce/Parking Garage comprise the Justice Center Campus. The Courthouse and Detention Facility, are envisioned as architectural masterpieces, each designed by a different signature architect. The Post Of ce/Parking Garage should offer a strong, consistent urban edge to 14th Avenue and a transition to the Golden Triangle Neighborhood. The civic setting is key to the overall success of the Justice Center Campus, requiring extensive collaboration among the signature architects and the Framework Plan. Site-planning and landscape design should inform the design of the buildings as much as the buildings inform each other and the civic realm of the District. Intent Provide a civic setting re ecting the solemn nature of the Justice Center while also creating a vibrant, active place during on-peak and off-peak hours. Extend the Civic Center District as a permeable, approachable family of civic facilities and spaces. Strengthen the civic axis established by the State Capitol, the symmetry of Civic Center and the City & County Building, as prescribed by the Bennett and DeBoer plans. Balance security with the importance of openness, accessibility and visibility. Reinforce and enhance established civic setbacks to create open breathing space for civic buildings. Establish a hierarchy of human scaled civic spaces, orienting the buildings to one another as a network of urban piazzas and open spaces that re ect a cohesive campus setting. Ful ll the Justice Center Campus civic responsibility to provide a safe, inviting, and pedestrian scaled connections to the larger District and adjacent neighborhoods. Include active uses on the rst level of all public civic buildings. Preserve views of the State Capitol and the mountains. Extend the formal character of the Civic Center District by placing civic buildings to form a consistent relationship to the street and provide appropriate civic frontage prominently oriented to Colfax Avenue Contrast the civic and commercial buildings by differentiating the relationship to the street, level of articulation and extent of landscape and street furnishings. Provide for ef cient, effective and appropriate maintenance for plazas and open space. Utilize site planning and site design to allow for the expansion of the Courthouse to the west. Utilize site planning and site design to preclude expansion of the Detention Facility. Integrate art, landscape and architecture into a seamless, green campus setting. Integrate functional requirements such as security measures, storm-water detention and utilities into the site planning and site and landscape design. 34Colfax Avenue Looking East Grand Avenue

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN 35Tremont Place Looking toward New Proposed Civic Space Landscaping as Civic Monument Landscaping With Water Feature

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCSite Planning and Landscape Design, continued Standards for All Civic Spaces in the Justice Center Campus Primary Central Civic Room between Detention Facility and Courthouse; Courthouse Entry Court on Fox St.; Intersection of Tremont Place, 13th Street and Colfax Avenue Secondary Service Court on Delaware Street and Pedestrian Crossings at Gene Amole Way A series of civic spaces (outdoor rooms) shall be established to de ne Campus entries, building entries and service courts, linking the three buildings into a cohesive whole. Site design and site elements such as public art and lighting and landscape design, shall de ne a clear visual and physical orientation to the Justice Center Campus. An active civic piazza shall be created at the intersection of Tremont Street with the north edge of Colfax Avenue as a prelude to the Justice Center Campus. Site and landscape design shall establish a clear visual connection between Trinity Church and the Courthouse. The civic piazza shall include plantings, water, public art and site furnishings such as benches and lighting. A central civic room shall be created between the Detention Facility and the Courthouse on Gene Amole Way, providing a public space that directly orients the buildings towards one another. Integrate the design of functional elements such as storm-water detention and security measures into the site design and site furnishings of the Campus.Civic Piazza Precedent 36

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Site Planning and Landscape Design, continued Standards for Courthouse Site The Courthouse shall be sited along a build-to line as measured from the right-of-way of 30 feet +/along the south side of Colfax Avenue. The Courthouse shall be sited along a minimum building setback, as measured from a distance of 25 feet from the right-of-way along the west side of Gene Amole Way and along the east side of Fox Street. An active civic piazza shall be created at the intersection of Tremont Street with the north edge of Colfax Avenue as a prelude to the Justice Center Campus. Site and landscape design shall establish a clear visual connection between Trinity Church and the Courthouse. The civic piazza shall include plantings, water, public art and site furnishings such as benches and lighting. A central civic room shall connect the Courthouse with the Detention Facility. It shall be of a scale and arrangement that is compatible with the scale of the two primary buildings, connecting them both visually and physically. The civic room shall be developed with water, plantings, rich paving and site furnishings that express its civic role. Curb cuts shall not be allowed on the Grand Avenues (Colfax & 14th Avenues). Existing curb cuts shall be removed upon development. Landscaping shall be provided and compatible with the civic qualities of the Campus. Integrate green technologies into the design of civic spaces. Accommodate water quality best-management-practices. Use porous pavement and landscaping, hardy, drought-tolerant and climate-appropriate landscape to conserve water. Integrate the design of storm water facilities and features to complement and enhance the civic setting of the Justice Center Campus. Storm water conveyance and detention components shall be integral site design features such as vegetative swales of horticultural or ornamental displays and also function as water elements. Refer to Storm Water Management for additional, more detailed standards and guidelines. Guidelines for Courthouse Site Provide for views to the Courthouse along Speer Boulevard and Tremont Street. Create a strong visual connection along Tremont Street between Trinity Church and the Courthouse. 37

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INC 38 Vision of Site PlanSite Plan Opening Day

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Site Planning and Landscape Design, continued Provide no more than two curb cuts on Fox Street and avoid curb cuts on Gene Amole Way. Utilize stairs, raised terraces, sloping lawns or a combination to elevate the main oor of the Courthouse above street level. Primary, functional entries shall be located along the civic axis on Gene Amole Way and Fox Street. Functional or ceremonial entries shall be located on the Grand Avenues. Standards for Detention Facility Site Site the Detention Facility along a build-to line, as measured from the right-of-way, of 30 feet +/along the south side of Colfax Avenue and the north side of 14th Avenue. The Detention Facility shall be sited along a minimum building setback, as measured from the right-ofway, of 20 feet along the east side of Delaware Street and along the west side of Gene Amole Way. Connect the Courthouse with the Detention Facility with a central civic room, of a scale and arrangement compatible with the scale of the two primary buildings and connecting them visually and physically. The civic room shall include water, light, landscape and site furnishings. Curb cuts are not allowed on the Grand Avenues (Colfax &14th Avenues). Existing curb cuts shall be removed upon development. Landscaping shall be provided and compatible with the civic qualities of the Justice Center Campus. Integrate green technologies into the design of civic spaces. Accommodate water quality best-management-practices. Use porous pavement and landscaping, hardy, drought-tolerant and climate-appropriate landscaping to conserve water. Integrate the design of storm water facilities and features to complement and enhance the civic setting of the Justice Center Campus. Storm water conveyance and detention components shall be integral site design features such as vegetative swales of horticultural or ornamental displays and also function as water elements. Refer to Storm Water Management for additional and more detailed standards and guidelines. 39

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCSite Planning and Landscape Design, continued Standards for Post Of ce/Parking Garage Site the Post Of ce/Parking Garage along a build-to line of ve feet as measured from the 14th Street right-of-way for the entire length of the building. Provide active uses, such as retail or of ce, on the rst level. Place prominent entries along all streetfacing public rights-of-way. One curb cut shall be provided for vehicular access into the parking garage. The curb cut shall be placed perpendicular to the street. No more than one curb cut will be allowed on any street face. Curb cuts shall not be allowed on the Grand Avenues (Colfax & 14th Avenues). Existing curb cuts shall be removed upon development. Sidewalks, alleys and landscape zones immediately adjacent to the Post Of ce/Parking Garage shall be brought to current City & County of Denver standards. Landscaping shall be provided and compatible with the civic qualities of the Campus. Guidelines for Post Of ce Building/Parking Garage Proportions of the openings on each parking level should be compatible with the proportions of the main Campus buildings. 40

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN ARCHITECTURE 41

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCArchitectureThe Governmental Core of Civic Center District is a family of civic buildings, constructed over more than a century, creating a precedent for urban form. The Justice Center Campus inherits this legacy and should build on it by thoroughly understanding its origins, existing context and contemporary in uence. The design of the Campus should respond to historic precedent and the local environment by participating fully in connecting and enhancing the urban fabric. The three structures will contribute individually and collectively to the overall experience of the Campus and District. Guiding Principles Build upon the architectural legacy of the City Beautiful movement manifested in the Civic Center District. Integrate the structures of the Justice Center Campus into a the cohesive family of buildings within the Civic Center core. Maintain a sense of timelessness within the Justice Center Campus that is consistent with the Civic Center District. Establish and maintain the civic responsibilities of the individual structures within the larger urban context. 42The State Capitol The McNichols Building Denver Public Library Denver Art Museum New Addition Denver Art Museum

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Location and Context Plan Potential Entries Potential Civic Spaces Influential Buildings Existing Buildings Justice Center Campus 43

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCArchitectural Form of The Courthouse Intent Maintain the continuity of the setback street wall as the consistent landscaped urban edge of the Grand Avenues at Colfax and 14th Avenues. Recognize the symbolic and literal presence of the Courthouse by establishing a visual and architectural relationship with the City & County Building Ensure that the Courthouse is fully integrated into the family of civic buildings. Tie the urban framework of the District together by incorporating a vertical marker that connects the established Civic Center axis with the axis of travel along Tremont Street terminated by the Trinity Church spire. Advance the dialogue created by the precedent of interior and exterior open and enclosed public spaces. Purposefully de ne civic spaces to emphasize a more pedestrian architectural scale. Closely evaluate the existing programmatic space requirements to uncover creative solutions that promote cost and construction ef ciencies and offer additional amenities to the citizens. Standards Adhere to the build-to-lines and setbacks for the Courthouse prescribed in the Urban Design section of this document. The Courthouse shall recognize the consistency of base, middle and top in the Civic Center District family of buildings, establishing horizontal references to the base, middle and top of the City & County Building. The Courthouse shall recognize the modulation of scale apparent in the State Capitol and City & County Building and shall incorporate similar devices to maintain an appropriate monumental yet pedestrian experience. The Courthouse shall emphasize the base of the building through a change of materials, textures, colors and/or patterns. The Courthouse shall respond to the Civic Center and Tremont Street axes through the use of a vertical marker. The Courthouse shall provide fully integrated, four-sided architecture. The Courthouse shall respect the historic integration of the Civic Center core buildings as well as being a product its time and place.A Visual and Architectural Relationship with the Existing Civic Buildings CITY AND COUNTY BUILDING STATE CAPITOL44The Consistency of Base, Middle and Top of The City & County Building

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN A. State Capitol B. City &County Building C. Trinity United Methodist Church A. B. C. D. Proposed New Vertical MarkerVertical Markers 45 D. Proposed New Vertical Marker B. A. C.

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCArchitectural Form of The Courthouse, continued Guidelines The axes from the State Capitol to Speer, in both the Bennett and DeBoer Plans should instruct the orientation of the new building, to advance the long term goal of creating a gateway to Speer Boulevard. The Courthouse should recognize the prominence of the City & County Building and should not rise above its height. This height is beneath the height restrictions of the View Preservation Ordinance and the existing zoning (B-8-G) and therefore should govern. A vertical axis should mark the horizon between Civic Center and Tremont, serving as both beacon and point of orientation. This vertical marker may extend beyond the View Plane Ordinance but should respect both the Ordinance and the other vertical markers in the District (See Page 62 Diagram.). Planning Board approval is required if the vertical marker exceeds the ordinance. The Courthouse should recognize the regulating lines at the ground plane that extend throughout the Civic Center core and derive form from this understanding. Base, middle and top of the building should be part of the overall design concept, resonant with the architectural scaling compatible with the legacy buildings of the Civic Center. The Courthouse should be incorporated into the family of civic buildings in the District; paying particular attention to precedents of mass, form, scale, materiality and craft. The Courthouse should re ect the proportions of the historic structures as articulated through sizes and patterns expressive of underlying structural elements such as reveals, sills, lintels, banding, belt coursing, pilasters and piers. The Courthouse should re ect an architecture of this place conveying an underlying message of justice. The Courthouse program should provide civic amenities to Denver citizens. The Courthouse should employ monumental entries, fenestration and human-scaling elements to celebrate the life of the street and its potential relationship to the internal program. The Courthouse should utilize various scales of ceremonial and secondary entries to contribute to foursided architecture and active street-life. Face the two main public entries towards the central civic room on Gene Amole Way, emphasizing access through architectural detailing and site elements such as broad pedestrian paths, terraces, plazas and/or artwork. Avoid long, blank faades on the ground level and provide active uses visible through transparent windows wherever possible. Where windows are not possible, modulate architecture through detailing and articulation to provide interest. Provide a Colfax Avenue faade that re ects the importance of the location, either with a main entry or signi cant architectural detailing. 46

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN 47Modular Analysis of the City & County Building Contextual Elements in Family of Civic Buildings

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INC Guidelines, continued Design the 14th Avenue faade with entries, fenestration and active uses, compatible with security requirements, to emphasize the importance of the elevation. Design the Fox Street elevation as a primary faade to accommodate possible future expansion of a civic mall to the west, with a central open space aligned on the civic axis and with buildings that de ne Colfax and 14th Avenues and the mall. Provide fenestration patterns that re ect the proportions of the City & County Building. Use glass with a re ective rating not to exceed 0.20. Provide signage and way nding elements that re ect an appearance of timeless permanence consistent with the Civic Center District. These elements should be consistent and coordinated throughout the Justice Center Campus. 48

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN 49Large Monumental Scale Elements Civic Buildings are Monumental with Human-Scaled ElementsIntermediate Scale Elements Bridging Between the Large Scale and the Small Scale Small/Human Scale Elements

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCArchitectural Form of The Detention FacilityIntent Maintain the continuity of the setback street wall as the urban edge of the Grand Avenues at Colfax and 14th Avenues. Recognize the civic presence and heightened security of the historic US Mint building and maintain a similar atmosphere at the Detention Facility by establishing a visual and architectural relationship between the two structures. Ensure the design of the Detention Facility is fully integrated into the family of civic buildings. Reinstate the principles of the historic Bennet and DeBoer plans by establishing an axial relationship from the Detention Facility to the future gateway at Speer Boulevard. Purposefully de ne civic spaces to emphasize a more pedestrian architectural scale. Closely evaluate the existing programmatic space requirements to uncover creative solutions that promote cost and construction ef ciencies. Standards Adhere to the build-to-lines and setbacks for the Detention Facility prescribed in the Urban Design section of this document. The Detention Facility shall recognize the consistency of base, middle and top in the Civic Center District family of buildings and shall establish horizontal references to the base middle and top of the historic US Mint building. The Detention Facility shall recognize the modulation of scale apparent in the State Capitol and City & County Building and shall incorporate similar devices to maintain an appropriately monumental yet pedestrian experience. The Detention Facility shall emphasize the base of the building through a change of materials, textures, colors and/or patterns. The Detention Facility shall provide fully integrated, four-sided architecture. The Detention Facility shall not expand its capacity in the Civic Center District. Guidelines The axes from the State Capitol to Speer, in both the Bennett and DeBoer plans should instruct the orientation of the new building. The Detention Facility should recognize and respect the historic US Mint as its neighbor and should not rise above its relative height. This relative height is beneath the height restrictions of the View Preservation Ordinance and the existing zoning (B-8-G) and therefore should govern.Significant Horizontal Elements on the Elevation of the Mint 5014th Avenue Looking West

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLANFamily of Civic Buildings 51

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INC Guidelines, continued The Detention Facility should recognize the existence of regulating lines at the ground plane that extend throughout the core of the Civic Center and derive form from this understanding. Base, middle and top of the building should be part of the overall design concept, resonant with the architectural scale of the legacy buildings of the Civic Center. The Detention Facility should be actively incorporated into the family of the Districts civic buildings, paying particular attention to precedents of mass, form, scale, materiality and craft. The Detention Facility should re ect the proportions of the historic structures, articulated through bay sizes and patterns expressing underlying structural elements such as reveals, sills, lintels, banding, belt coursing, pilasters and piers. The Detention Facility should re ect an architecture of this place and convey an underlying message of justice. The Detention Facility should employ monumental entries, fenestration and human-scaling elements, celebrating the life of the street and its relationship to the internal program. The Detention Facility should utilize various scales of ceremonial and secondary entries that contribute to four-sided architecture. Face the main public entry toward the public right-of-way on Gene Amole Way and emphasize access through architectural detailing and site elements such as broad pedestrian paths, terraces, plazas and/or artwork. Avoid long, blank faades. Create the appearance of active uses visible through transparent windows wherever possible. Where windows are not possible, modulate architecture through detailing and articulation to provide interest. Provide a Colfax Avenue faade that re ects the importance of the location, either with a main entry or signi cant architectural detailing. Emphasize the importance of the 14th Avenue faade by designing functional or ceremonial entries and fenestration, compatible with security requirements. Provide fenestration patterns that re ect the proportions of the historic US Mint Building. Use glass with a re ective rating not to exceed 0.20. Provide signage and way nding elements re ecting the timeless permanence of the Civic Center District. These elements should be coordinated throughout the Justice Center Campus, in a collaboration among stakeholders and designers Design the Detention Facility to preclude expansion or additions in the Civic Center District. 52

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Modular Analysis of the Mint Contextual Elements in Family of Civic Buildings53

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCArchitectural Form of The Post Of ce/Parking GarageIntent Design a building that is compatible with, and respectful of, the architecture of the legacy buildings of the Civic Center neither detracting from nor mimicing the structures. Use quality durable cladding materials on all faades visible from the public right of way compatible with the legacy buildings of the Civic Center Design the structure as part of the Campus. Maintain the continuity of the street wall as the southern urban edge of 14th Avenue. The Post Of ce/Parking Garage should be fully integrated into the family of civic buildings. Recognize civic roles of the historic US Mint building and Detention Facility by establishing a visual and architectural relationship between the three structures. Serve as a transition from the civic scale and uses of the Justice Center Campus and Civic Center core to the pedestrian scale and active uses of the Golden Triangle neighborhood. Closely evaluate the existing programmatic space requirements to uncover creative solutions that promote cost and construction ef ciencies while maximizing appropriate neighborhood uses and appropriate architecture. Provide appropriate architecture from every vantage point. Establish vehicular and pedestrian traf c patterns that re ect the pedestrian scale of the Justice Center Campus and adjacent neighborhoods.54 Elati Street Looking North

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN 55Standards Adhere to the build-to-lines and setbacks for the Post Of ce/Parking Garage prescribed in the Urban Design section of this document. The Post Of ce/Parking Garage shall recognize the consistency of base, middle and top in the Civic Center District family of buildings and shall establish horizontal references to the base middle and top of the historic US Mint building. The Post Of ce/Parking Garage shall recognize the modulation of scale apparent in the State Capitol and City & County Building and shall incorporate similar devices to maintain an appropriate monumental yet pedestrian experience. The Post Of ce/Parking Garage shall emphasize the base of the building through a change of materials, textures, colors and/or patterns. The Post Of ce/Parking Garage shall provide fully integrated four-sided architecture. Provide for 65-85 percent of the rst oor faade facing the public right-of-way to be clear glass windows (re ective rating not to exceed 0.20) or storefront system. All oors shall be horizontally and vertically aligned on all faades. Provide an exterior building skin of quality, durable materials, including masonry, stone, architectural concrete or architectural metals in a fenestration pattern of solid and transparent elements, with the same level of detail and interest of the other the Justice Center Campus buildings. Use detail and articulation to provide interest on all elevations visible from the public right-of-way. All interior parking structure lighting shall be downcast and shielded and not visible from any public right-of-way. Delaware Street Looking North

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCArchitectural Form of The Post Of ce/Parking Garage, continued Guidelines The scale of the Post Of ce/Parking Garage should be consistent with the scale of the Detention Facility and the historic US Mint. It should be subordinate in massing to the Courthouse and City & County Building. The uses within the Post Of ce/Parking Garage should distinguish it as a building for the neighborhood while the architectural response should strengthen the Civic Center core. The Post Of ce/Parking Garage should recognize and respect the historic US Mint and Detention Facility as its neighbors and should not rise above their relative heights. This relative height is beneath the height restrictions of the View Preservation Ordinance and the existing zoning (B-8-G) and therefore should govern. The Post Of ce/Parking Garage should activate the streets Delaware, Elati and 14th Avenue by wrapping the building with active, retail and commercial uses. Base, middle, and top of the building should be part of the overall design concept, resonant with the architectural scale of the legacy buildings of the Civic Center. A roof is not required for the upper oor of parking but lighting should be carefully designed to avoid unwanted glare and spillage. The Post Of ce/Parking Garage should be fully integrated into the family of civic buildings in the District, paying particular attention to precedents of mass, form, scale, materiality and craft. The Post Of ce/Parking Garage should re ect the proportions of the historic structures, articulated through bay sizes and patterns that express underlying structural elements, such as reveals, sills, lintels, banding, belt coursing, pilasters and piers. The Post Of ce/Parking Garage should re ect an architecture of this place demonstrating a relationship to the civic quality of the Campus architecture. The Post Of ce/Parking Garage should employ monumental entries that offer opportunities for vertical circulation, fenestration and human-scale, celebrating the life of the street and its relationship to the internal program. The Post Of ce/Parking Garage should provide retail opportunities at the corners along 14th Avenue to maximize activity and connectivity to the Campus. Face the main public entry toward the public rights-of-way. The Post Of ce/Parking Garage should respond to the Citys parking program, which dictates the required number of spaces and uses. Provide signage and way nding elements that re ect the timeless permanence of the Civic Center District. These elements should be consistent throughout the Justice Center Campus, in terms of material, scale, font and design. Retail signage should encourage activity on the street while maintaining the dignity of the District. 56

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Mixed Use Civic Parking Structure with Retail Post Office/Parking Garage Conceptual Diagram 14thAvenueDelaware Street Office / Retail Post Office57

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCArchitectural Form for Future Development on The South Side of 14th AvenueIntent Maintain the continuity of the street wall as the southern urban edge of 14th Avenue and face of the Civic Campus. Ensure future buildings are fully integrated into the family of civic buildings. Enhance the transition from the civic scale and uses of the Justice Center Campus and Civic Center core to the pedestrian scale and active uses of the Golden Triangle neighborhood. Promote a mix of residential and commercial use that enhance the transition from the Civic Center core to the Golden Triangle neighborhood. Standards Adhere to the build-to-lines and setback for 14th Avenue prescribed in the Urban Design section of this document. Future buildings shall recognize the modulation of scale apparent in the State Capitol and City & County Building and shall incorporate similar devices to maintain an appropriately monumental yet pedestrian experience. Future buildings shall emphasize the base of the building through a change of materials, textures, colors and/or patterns. Future buildings shall provide fully integrated, four-sided architecture.Guidelines The scale of future buildings should be consistent with the scale of the buildings in the Justice Center Campus and should be subordinate in massing to the proposed Courthouse and City & County Building. Future buildings should activate the street by wrapping the building with active, retail and commercial uses. Base, middle and top of the buildings should be part of the overall design concept, resonant with the architectural scale of the legacy buildings of the Civic Center District. Future buildings should be fully integrated into the Districts family of civic buildings, paying particular attention to precedents of mass, form, scale, materiality and craft. Future buildings should re ect the proportions of the existing historic structures, articulated through bay sizes and patterns expressing the underlying structural elements, such as reveals, sills, lintels, banding, belt coursing, pilasters and piers. Future buildings should re ect an architecture of this place and demonstrate a relationship to the civic quality of the Campus architecture. Future buildings should employ monumental entries that offer opportunities for vertical circulation, fenestration and human-scaled elements, celebrating the life of the street and its relationship to the internal program. Face the main public entry towards the public rights-of-way.58

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Related Potential DevelopmentPotential Entries Potential Civic Spaces Influential Buildings Existing Buildings Potential Future Development Justice Center Campus 59

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCArchitectural Form of Future Development West of Fox StreetIntent Maintain the continuity of the street wall as the urban edge of the Grand Avenues at Colfax and 14th Avenues. Recognize the symbolic and literal presence of the proposed Courthouse by establishing a visual connection to Speer Boulevard. Ensure that future buildings are fully integrated into the Districts family of civic buildings. Continue the dialogue created by the precedent of open and enclosed interior and public spaces through the creation of a civic mall. Purposefully de ne civic spaces in order to reinforce a pedestrian architectural scale. Standards Adhere to build-to-lines and setbacks for the grand avenues prescribed in the Urban Design section of this document. Future development shall recognize the consistency of base, middle and top in the Civic Center District family of buildings and shall establish horizontal references to the base middle and top of the City & County Building. Future development shall recognize the modulation of scale apparent in the State Capitol and City & County Building and shall incorporate similar devices to maintain an appropriate monumental yet pedestrian experience. Future development shall emphasize the base of the building through a change of materials, textures, colors and/or patterns. Future development shall provide fully integrated four-sided architecture. 60Sketch from Civic Center District Public Charrette Relationship of Civic Architecture and Landscape

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Guidelines The axes from the State Capitol to Speer, in both the Bennett and DeBoer plans should instruct the orientation of future development, toward the long term goal of creating a gateway to Speer Boulevard. Future development should recognize the prominence of the City & County Building and should not rise above its relative height. This height is beneath the height restrictions of the View Preservation Ordinance and the existing zoning (B-8-G) and therefore should govern. Future development should derive form from the regulating lines at the ground plane extending throughout the Civic Center core. Base, middle and top of future buildings should be part of the design approach, resonant with the architectural scaling of the Districts legacy building. Future development should be fully integrated into the Districts family of civic buildings, with particular attention to precedents of mass, form, scale, materiality and craft. Future buildings should re ect the proportions of the existing historic structures, articulated through bay sizes and patterns expressing the underlying structural elements, such as reveals, sills, lintels, banding, belt coursing, pilasters and piers. Future buildings should re ect an architecture of this place and of their time. Utilize various scales of ceremonial and secondary entries that contribute to four-sided architecture and active street-life. Face the main public entries toward the public right-of-way, emphasizing access through architectural detailing and site elements such as broad pedestrian paths, terraces, plazas and/or artwork. Avoid long blank faades at the ground level and provide active uses, visible through transparent windows wherever possible. Where windows are not possible, modulate architecture through detailing and articulation to engage street life. Design a Colfax Avenue faade that emphasizes the location, either with a main entry or signi cant architectural detailing. Design the 14th Avenue faade with entries, fenestration and active uses to emphasis the importance of the elevation. Provide fenestration patterns that re ect the proportions of the City & County Building. Use glass with a re ective rating not to exceed 0.20. 61Open and Enclosed Public Spaces Open and Enclosed Public Spaces

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INC Vi e w t o Th e M ou nt a in s &Relative Hei g ht Restrictions F rom The Existin g C onditio n Justice Center Campus Boundary Potential Development Site Section Diagram to be updated 62

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN CAMPUS-WIDE GOALS 63

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCLack of Civic Responsibilities : Cartoon from the Architectural Review, 1904Campus-wide GoalsStrong collaboration in the use of the Urban Design and Architectural principles articulated in the Framework Plan can result in enhanced results throughout the Justice Center Campus. Though many of these goals are concrete and measurable some of the most important are less tangible. The primary civic responsibility for each of these structures is to offer an inspired work of architecture that, taken together strengthens the dignity of the Civic Center core. The ultimate success of the Justice Center Campus and its integration into the Civic Center District depends on the ability of the design and construction teams, in concert with management recommendations, to maintain and add value throughout from concept to detailed installation. The following topics describe the desired outcomes for the Campus. Objectives of The Organization of Internal ProgramsCareful orchestration of interior program is vital to the creation of a successful public realm, both interior and exterior. The intentional placement of public and active uses will heighten pedestrian activity, serving both the Justice Center and connecting neighborhoods. Opportunities to bene t the neighborhood and the City by emphasizing creative uses, program elements and adjacencies are key to a successful public realm. At a minimum the organization of the internal programs should guarantee a safe and secure environment for the Justice Center occupants and neighbors. The Need for A Regional Architectural ResponseDenvers climate must play a signi cant role in the architectural expression of every structure in the Justice Center Campus. This region is blessed with brilliant blue skies that fade to striking sunsets. The mile-high elevation accounts for atmospheric clarity that in uences the quality of light. The strong sun of the semi-arid climate creates a stunning play of texture and shadow on building faade and public spaces. The classically designed structures in the District exploit this light through the use of detail and the layering of structure and enclosure in their faades, achieving a rich depth of experience. Note how Gio Pontis Art Museum and Michael Graves Central Library utilize the play of light in different ways to respond to the regions unique climatic characteristics. Every new structure in the Civic Center District and Justice Center Campus should develop a response of structure, enclosure and texture that capitalize on the unique climatic characteristics of the region. 64Regional Response to Light and Texture

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN The Lasting Effects of Quality Materials and Attention to CraftMaterials for the architecture and public realm of the Justice Center Campus must be selected carefully. Quality materials and craft will re ect the enduring character of the Civic Center District. The selection, detailing and use of materials in the construction of the buildings should reinforce a message appropriate to the Justice Center timelessness, dignity and the importance of justice and the rule of law to democracy. Materials, detailing and craft should advance the full integration of the Justice Center Campus buildings and public spaces into the civic family of the Civic Center District, while being true to a strong aesthetic of the present.Materials and Craft Materials and Craft 65 Conveying the Message of Justice

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCIntegration and Importance of Public ArtIntent Provide opportunities for a variety of expressions of artistic excellence i.e. memorial art, sculpture, water features etc., fabricated of high quality, durable material serving to inform, direct and delight. Integrate artwork into open space and plazas. Though public art does not include signage, public art integrated into way nding elements of urban design and architecture is important to the coherence of the Justice Center Campus. Public art shall be available and accessible to the public outside the building in plazas and open space, on the exterior surface of the building or building elements or inside the buildings in areas used by and accessible to the public Design and locate artwork to avoid con icts and hazards for people with disabilities. Guidelines for Implementation The Implementation of Public Art is a hierarchy of two parts. The External addresses large-scale works at key navigation points that will re ect broad concepts of justice. The Internal will address smaller scale works at designated building interiors, speaking intimately and re ecting individual thoughts of justice. Public Art -Exterior All fountains, statuary, murals, and other forms of public art should be consistent with the scale and quality of Denvers Civic Center Collection. Exterior public art work should speak broadly of justice. A photo inventory of public art in the Civic Center and its surrounding Districts re ects public art generally well-integrated into the urban design fabric. The Justice Center Campus public art program should respect this precedent. Public Art Interior The interior of the buildings architecture should allow for intimate interaction with smaller scale public art works, perhaps revolving around the power of the written word. Consider graphic artists and designers whose specialty is typography design, executing quotes on justice, from historic and contemporary writers, statesmen, religious leaders, philosophers and scientists. The collection of this commissioned framed art, in a variety of media and material, could be displayed in an appropriate part of the architecture, perhaps named Voices of Justice. 66

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Integration and Importance of Public Art, continued Spirit of the West: Marking the Way Intent: Liberty and Justice for All The Civic Center is home to Denvers important institutions of democracy. In every aspect of its design, Civic Center expresses the citizens highest goals: City and State governments; the business and building of the City; the values of culture, art, knowledge and perhaps most important the role of justice and the rule of law. The Justice Center Campus in the Civic Center District is the bedrock of democracy and the institutions, buildings and constituencies it serves embody the values of justice: coherence, durability, transparency, accessibility and consistency. Thus, the quality of navigational way nding in the civic realm public art and signage are key to the legibility of the Justice Center and the larger context of the Civic Center and its neighbors. A thematic approach based on the idea of justice and differing perspectives of justice should guide the selection of public art. From large, outdoor installations to smaller interior works, the theme of justice will advance the civic quality and durability of the Justice Center Campus and its relationship to the Civic Center District. 67

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INC 68Integration and Importance of Public Art, continued Commemorate Memory Art is the clothing of a revelation. Joseph Campbell Approaching Civic Center from the south, via Acoma Street, downtown is framed by Mark di Suveros powerful abstract sculpture, Lao Tzu. Sited in the plaza between the Central Library and the Ponti wing of the art museum, the ery red steel reveals Civic Center and downtowns skyscrapers through the lens of abstraction, giving the viewer an opportunity to consider how art, culture and knowledge the values represented in the adjacent buildings impact the life of the City and the citizen. Similarly, Donald Lipskis The Yearling, on the Childrens Lawn of the Central Library, in front of the whimsical faade of the childrens wing, suggests the playfulness and artistry within the building. Public art in the civic realm of the Justice Center Campus should similarly evoke the context and value of the institutions it houses. In a contemporary and timeless fashion, public art ought to resonate with the geography of place the mountains to the west, the adjacent Cherry Creek, the durability of the rule of law. Informing A Spirit of Place Cranmer Park The breathtaking panorama of the Front Range is visible from the apex of Cranmer Park, where a sundial sits on a red sandstone platform. At ones feet, facing west is a graphic depiction, naming the prominent Rocky Mountain peaks and informing the viewer of elevation and relationship to adjacent mountains. These images and words inform the view, placing the viewer in the bigger context of place, time and history, ful lling arts function to illuminate the present and its connections to both past and future. Denvers Parks and Parkway System, with Civic Center as its nexus, de nes the public realm of the City.

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Integration and Importance of Public Art, continued Power of the Written Word Epigraphy The art of inscriptions evokes memory, representing a tradition long practiced in Denvers civic realm and providing opportunity to provoke, enlighten, inform and please. The study of inscriptions supports the important legacy of public sculpture and architecture to articulate ideals and aspirations through the written word. The use of public inscription is rooted in the ancient words of various cultures and continues as a form of contemporary expression. Consistent with historic models, inscriptions speak at elevation and/ or entrance, using the words of poets, statesmen and philosophers. Inscriptions frequently accompany and enhance sculpture, murals and paintings, which celebrate and depict the inscription. 69

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCIntegration and Importance of Public Art, continued Power of Myth: Symbols of Democracy Myth offers the tools to understand the incomprehensible, to decipher the opaque and to order events, outcomes and experiences in support of our needs, our world-view and our position in the universe. Through the use of story, imagery or folklore, myth reveals the connections between people and place through time. Myth has the power to elevate, enlighten, legitimize, console and inspire. Myth has been used since the beginning of time to orient, direct and characterize. Mythical gures in large, oversized forms characterize place from Lee Lawries sculpture of Atlas at the entry to Rockefeller Center to Frederick MacMonnies bronze Pioneer Fountain at Broadway and Colfax in Civic Center. The use of large, mythical public sculpture as way nding identi er, symbolizes place, time and historic context. Operating at various levels physical, symbolic and metaphoric mythological allegory in the civic realm, whether sculpture, fountain or epigraphy, has the power to transform. 70

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Integration and Importance of Public Art, continued Integrated Architectural Detail The legacy of Public Art in the Civic Center District re ects the value of quality civic art on many different levels: the beauty of integrated architectural detailing; the role of a storyteller; or the presence of the heroic object. Examples abound in the Civic Center District, from the architectural detailing on the Colfax Avenue entry to the Denver Mint, to the mapping on the oor of the Atrium of the Webb Municipal Building to the 1920 Alan True Murals in the Greek amphitheatre archways. It is in the spirit of this inheritance that the importance of public art remain at the forefront of the Campus. 71

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCIntegration and Importance of Public Art, continued Voices of Justice Precedent: Great Ideas of Western Man Walter Paepcke was the founding chairman of Container Corporation of America. Venerated for his support of the arts and humanities, he believed in the full integration of art and design into industry, for the bene t of society and business. Container Corporations Great Ideas of Western Man advertising program (1950-1975), was inspired by Paepckes determination to advance the important concepts of Western civilization. CCA commissioned prominent artists, illustrators and designers to illustrate selected quotes, drawn from a broad range of thought that included philosophers, writers, scientists, politicians, cultural and religious gures. A similar approach might be considered for appropriate interior spaces of the Justice Center Campus Detention Facility, Courthouse and Post Of ce/ Parking Garage. Just as the Great Ideas campaign communicated broad and meaningful concepts resulting in enhanced public awareness of the connection between art, perception and human thought, so could a program organized around various concepts of justice, inform and engage. 72

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN 73SignageThe Justice Center Campus has a special obligation because of the nature of the buildings and the location in the Civic Center District. Their function, symbolism, material and timelessness re ect and communicate the most sacred principles of a democratic society. Guiding Principles Create an identity for the Courthouse, Detention Facility and Post Of ce/Parking Garage that is compatible with the Campus. The expression of these ideals must be realized through a coordinated aesthetic in the signage program, consistent with the values of the urban design, architecture and public art of the Campus. The whole must be greater than the sum of its parts. A successful waynding system is comprised of a seamless continuum of elements, throughout the Justice Center Campus exterior and interior. The signage protocol should be used throughout the Civic Center District to enhance the connections between people and place, celebrating the signi cance of the whole. Standards Signage for the Justice Center Campus should be comprehensive a family of sign with consistent Typography typeface; letter spacing; line spacing; scale; reverse type; distance legibility; directories Color palette and materiality Pictographs Maps All campus signage shall be of high quality design and material, consistent with the Civic Center core. Provide a hierarchy of signs to include: Identi cation engraved into prominent facades Dedication plaques or carved locations Direction and Orientation free standing Regulatory rules, regulations, transit Campus exterior building signage Provide locations of the building faade for building name, address and identi cation. Orient signage locations to the public right-of-way. When lighted signs are necessary, indirect and external light sources shall be used. Retail signs on the ground oor of Campus buildings should re ect the same character and qualities of building and directional signage. Blade signs shall be used at the Post Of ce/Parking Garage. Signage and Way nding ResourceExperts Paul Arthur and Romedi Passini in their book, Way nding: People, Signs and Architecture, establish protocols that are applicable to the Justice Center Campus Signage and way nding system.Reproduced by permission of Romedi Passini and the estate of Paul Arthur, from the book Wayfinding: People, Signs and Architecture by Paul Arthur & Romedi Passini, published by Focus Strategic Communications, Inc; courtesy of Focus Strategic Communications Inc., www.focusse.com.Graphics reproduced with permission from @issue: The Journal of Business & Design V11 N1, published by Corporate Design Foundation, www.cdf.org.

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INC 74Signage, continued Interior building signage should include: Primary building directory Secondary information directory Directional signage Primary destination identi cation Court docket information Rules of the court information Room identi cation Security Maintenance Design Guidelines Bad signage contributes to more people getting lost than a poor sense of direction. Signs that are too small or poorly placed or a directory badly organized or inadequately lit, make navigation for the pedestrian or driver impossible. Consider applying the following four basic rules of thumb. They all apply to interior and exterior signage and viewing in optimum lighting conditions.

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN 75Reproduced with permission, from @issue: The Journal of Business & Design V11 N1, published by Corporate Design Foundation,Design Guidelines

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCDesign Guidelines continued 76

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Design Guidelines continuedReproduced with permission, from @issue: The Journal of Business & Design V11 N1, published by Corporate Design Foundation, www.cdf.org 77

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INC 78 Design Guidelines continued

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Integration of Utilities and Systems Thoughtful site planning, collaborative architectural design and integrated infrastructure and landscape elements will allow a seamless connection of form and function throughout the Justice Center Campus. Out of meaningful collaboration and inspired design, challenges can become opportunities for the campus experience while meeting utilitarian needs. Standards Public Right-of-Way Utilities Locate utilities within the street cross-section Locate within 10 feet of the right-of-way line if more space is required. Allow planting and landscape amenities within the utility easement. Standards Campus Utilities Design and locate surface and subsurface utilities to respond to site, landscape and building design. Locate utilities within the street cross-section Locate within 10 feet of the right-of-way line if more space is required. Allow planting and landscape amenities within the utility easement. 79 Utilities Section Diagram

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INC Security T o achieve the openness and accessibility of an inviting public realm, close attention must be paid to the design and placement of security elements that enhance rather than detract from the streetscape.. The General Services Administration (GSA) identi es ve building security zones for the purposes of analyzing different security needs. They may be translated into different architectural, landscape and streetscape responses, depending on the applicable street section. They are: Zone 1: Building Interior Zone 2: Building Perimeter exterior building wall Zone 3: Building Yard extends from the back of sidewalk to the building perimeter. It may include area in the public right-of-way and inside the property line. It may also include plazas, walk ways, landscaping and public open space. Accentuate building entry for ease of access. Provide windows as eyes on the street. Use a family of site furnishings, bollards, light standards, hardened ag poles, planters and other hardened furnishings to secure pedestrian access points. Zone 4: Sidewalk and Tree Lawn/ Amenity Zone This is the zone between the building yard and the curb. It should measure at least 20 feet. Develop a family of site furnishings with hardened and non-hardened prototypes to be used according to the results of a risk-assessment study. They include: Site furnishings Benches/seating Ash urns Tables/chairs Trash receptacles Planters/pot Tree grates/vaults Flag poles Bike racks Seasonal displays Railings/fences Newspaper stands/corrals Bus stop shelters Zone 5: Curb Lane that portion of the street adjacent to the curb, traditionally used for on-street parking Eliminate parking loading and service access.The Five Building Security Zones Beauty in Integrated Systems 80

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Natural Surveillance Provide windows on all four sides of the building looking out onto building yards, alleys, sidewalks and streets. Provide nighttime lighting that is even, with no glare or trespass. Design space to facilitate observation by increasing the ability to see what is ahead and around. Territorial Reinforcement Clearly indicate public routes and spaces and use structural elements to discourage access to private areas. Clearly de ne and accentuate building entrances using architectural elements, lighting and landscaping. Minimize the creation of ambiguous spaces, lacking clues as to their function. Design spaces for intended purpose, even if they are primarily formal or ceremonial. Use natural barriers, such as terrain or distance, to physically separate con icting activities and to provide clear border de nitions for controlled space.Additional Building Security Security at all public entrances. Secured, limited entry at non-public entrances. Clearly mark zones that transition from public to private areas. Urban Design Guidelines For SecurityIntent Integrate security measures into the streetscape design and building architecture that is unobtrusive to the public. Balance security needs with aesthetics to minimize negative impacts on the user and the public. Standards Uniformly light an area to ensure there are no dark spots where danger could hide. Provide an even ratio of minimum to maximum light levels no greater than 1:15. Transition between areas of different light levels (e.g. the street and a plaza) shall not exceed 15:1. Provide low light levels that do not cause glare that precludes adequate perception of the environment under 8 foot candles for full-cutoff or fully shielded xtures and under 3500 lumens for non-directional xtures. Use exterior security lights that operate within the light levels indicated above. Use motion sensors to trigger security lighting at loading and/or storage areas. Use full-cutoff or fully shielded lights in loading or storage areas. Aim motion-controlled lights so that they are not triggered from outside the area to be illuminated. Guidelines Design security features to fully integrate into the architecture, the landscape and the streetscape. Use landscape features such as rows of trees, terraces or raised building plinths, planters, hardened pedestrian lights, benches, kiosks, bollards, agpoles and receptacles to create unobtrusive barriers.Functional and Beautiful Architectural Elements Integrated Security Designs 81

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCEnvironmental SustainabilityBuilding Exterior Intent Promote healthy buildings. Conserve energy by promoting energy-ef cient technologies and the use of renewable energy. Conserve water and improve water quality through the use of drought-tolerant and climate-appropriate landscape. Conserve raw materials through the use of recycled materials, reducing the solid waste delivered to land lls. Reduce environmental noise pollution. Reduce light pollution. Provide an example of environmental sustainability for the private sector and the Denver region. Standards Use technologies that will result in LEED Certi cation or better for the courts and detention facilities. Use technologies that will result in LEED Certi cation or better for the parking facility. Guidelines Use environmentally friendly refrigerants. Minimize the use of non-renewable resources and production of waste. Develop external shading devices to promote the use of natural day lighting wherever possible. Promote the use of drought tolerant landscape design. Building Interior Intent Promote human health. Standards Use technologies that will result in LEED Certi cation or better for the courts and detention facilities. Use technologies that will result in LEED Certi cation or better for the parking facility. 82

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Environmental Sustainability, ContinuedBuilding Interior, ContinuedGuidelines Use natural day-lighting and wherever possible internal light transporting devices. Encourage interior design for non-secure areas that places open workstations near windows, providing employees with outdoor views. Promote a quiet work environment that reduces noise transfer and trespass between the inside and outside of the building and between of ces and workstations. Proscribe materials that emit noxious gases and volatile organic compounds. Use glazing with characteristics that reduce heat gain. Consider suspended direct and indirect lighting with automatic daylight dimming controls and electronic ballasts. Promote the use of recycled materials. Consider the installation of water recycling systems. Promote the use of water-based paints in light colors to re ect light. Separate the venting systems in rest rooms, kitchens, break rooms and copier rooms from the general circulation. Eliminate ozone-depleting gases and promote environmentally friendly refrigerants. 83

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCLighting Intent Provide lighting that fosters a safe environment without causing glare and light trespass. Use lighting to enhance pedestrian circulation, plazas and building entries. Enhance and provide direction to building entries. Provide landscape and plaza lighting for security as well as aesthetic enhancement of features such as public art. Provide for architectural lighting of civic structures compatible with the surrounding mixed -use neighborhood. Standards Use lighting to enhance and/or complement the architectural design intent. Focus architectural lighting to illuminate only speci c architectural elements without creating glare or spill. Denver Parkway globe lights shall be installed as the pedestrian street lights in the pattern and rhythm shown on the Framework Plan diagram (four per block). Typical light spacing shall be approximately 70 feet on center, spaced logically and uniformly in relationship to street trees. Street lighting shall be compatible with Xcel Energy supplied and maintained xtures. Street lighting shall be spaced logically and uniformly in sequence with street trees and street furnishings. Light levels for pedestrian xtures shall match the light levels of the pedestrian xtures at Civic Center and along Speer Boulevard.Guidelines Minimize negative off-site impacts onto the public right-of-way and adjacent properties due to light trespass or glare. Ensure that on-site illumination does not adversely impact street safety through glare or spill. Ensure that the source of light is not visible from the street or nearby residences. 67 84

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Storm Water ManagementIntent Design drainage facilities and features to complement and enhance the urban design goals of the development area. Standards Utilize multi-purpose facilities where appropriate; such as integrating drainage facilities and features with open space or providing underground or rooftop storm water detention. Design plazas, courtyards and/or open space to accommodate water quality best-management-practices such as porous pavement and porous landscaping. Design surface inlet structures to be incorporated into site amenities and/or site features. Design surface water quality or storm water detention facilities to maintain appropriate plant materials, discourage the growth of weeds and provide for removal of trash. Minimize the use of riprap, concrete ow channels. Minimize he potential for mosquito or insect breeding in water quality and storm water detention facilities. Guidelines All storm water runoff facilities shall be designed using best-management-practices, resulting in safe, ef cient, attractive and environmentally sustainable facilities that meet or further the urban design goals of the development and maximize opportunities for water quality enhancements. See also the City and County of Denver Water Quality Management Plan.Grey Water ManagementIntent Investigate the use of on-site grey water for irrigation or water features. Explore all sources for grey water including HVAC condensation.Integrated System Elements 85Water Feature as Storm Water Function

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCAccessibilityIntent Provide facilities that recognize and accommodate the needs of all citizens, including those with disabilities, families with children and the elderly. Recognize the needs of a variety of different types of disabilities, including physical, mental and cognitive. Serve all populations equally, including visitors, detainees, employees, attorneys and judges. Provide parking facilities that are conveniently located and accessible for persons with disabilities. Standards Meet or exceed the standards of Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 as applied to Detention Centers, Courthouses and Parking Structures. All paths shall be clear, and unobstructed. Provide accessible parking. Make secondary entrances available to persons with disabilities when they provide the shortest route from accessible parking. Meet or exceed the number of required accessible and van accessible parking spaces. Provide accessible drop-off locations, consistent with security requirements, close to building entrances. Provide level oors in the parking structure where van accessible spaces are located. No speed bumps. All exterior doors shall comply with Americans with Disabilities Act Section 4.13. Provide a clear, unobstructed pedestrian path to the front entry. Guidelines Provide automatic door openers for both exterior and interior doors. All building entrances and outdoor areas open to the public should be accessible to persons with disabilities. Consider using ramps as well as steps. 86

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN APPENDICES 87

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCRevised Post Of ce/Parking Garage Building ProgramThe Post Of ce/Parking Garage Building site is south of 14th Avenue between Delaware and Elati Streets in the Golden Triangle. Since the United States Post Of ce occupies the rst oor of the parking garage, this building must be built rst, because the Courthouse site is on the block currently occupied by the Post Of ce north of 14th Avenue between Fox and Elati Street (Gene Amole Way). Therefore, all work on the Post Of ce/Parking Garage must push timeliness, reducing the time between design and construction. Post Of ce/Parking Garage Building Program The Post Of ce/Parking Garage is envisioned as a ve level structure with no roof. The building will include the following: Public retail space Retail and operations space for the US Postal Service Maintenance for Public Of ce Buildings and the Department of Parks and Recreation Tenant nish will be done only for the USPS area, public retail and maintenance will be built as core and shell. Parking *Post Of ce 30 long-life vehicles at grade 70 spaces in the garage for employees and customers *Public 233 spaces *Sheriffs Dept 164 spaces *Denver Public Schools 140 spaces TOTAL 637 spaces United States Postal Service (USPS) Program The USPS has been very accepting and responsive to our program suggestions for the new building. As currently planned, the Post Of ce will be programmed as a medium-sized facility. Any changes or modi cations to their program will need to be reviewed by the USPS. 88

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Recommended Users89 Denver Public Schools (DPS) Program Current programmatic needs of DPS in the Post Of ce/Parking Garage are: DPS requires restricted vehicular access to 140 spaces; Denver Sheriffs passing through the controlled space is acceptable. Denver Sheriff vehicles parking adjacent to DPS parking is also acceptable. To the extent it is scally feasible, DPS would like to restrict pedestrian access to their space; though the ability to do this may very limited and cost prohibitive. DPS prefers their space to be sub-metered for utilities. However, it is acceptable to pro-rate and bill for the common expenses based on the amount of the garage space dedicated to DPS. The location of the parking spaces within the garage is not signi cant. Parking on the top oor of the parking garage is acceptable. It is expected the spaces will be contiguous. The number of required handicap spaces required by code will be included in the 140 spaces and do not need to be contiguous. Ingress/Egress It is assumed that public access will be located on Delaware Street while truck access will be on Elati Street. Traf c studies currently being completed will verify these assumptions. With the additional surface parking between Fox and Elati, way nding problems should be minimized and the burden on Delaware traf c should be mitigated. Timeline Design on the Post Of ce/Parking Garage should form six distinct phases: Phase I 50% Schematic Design Phase II 100% Schematic Design Phase III 50% Design Development Phase IV 100% Design Development Phase V 100% Construction Documents Phase VI 100% Construction Administration After each of these phases, there will be a review period with major stakeholders the US Post Of ce, the Sheriffs Department, the Golden Triangle Neighborhood Association, the Downtown Denver Partnership, and the Denver Public Schools. 233

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INC Post Of ce/Parking Garage Site & 1st Floor Plan90

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Post Of ce/Parking Garage 14th Avenue Elevation91

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCTraf c StudyProject description The Denver Justice Center Campus is comprised of three new structures the Courthouse, the Detention Facility and the Post Of ce/Parking Garage. The project is located within the core of the Civic Center District between the Silver Triangle Neighborhood to the north and the Golden Triangle Neighborhood to the south. The Courthouse and Detention Facility will be located on the two blocks south of Colfax Avenue and north of 14th Avenue between Fox and Delaware Streets. The Post Of ce/Parking Garage will be located across 14th Avenue from the Detention Facility between Elati and Delaware Streets with the main access off Delaware and a secondary access off Elati for Post Of ce vehicles only. The parking structures 637 spaces will accommodate a branch of the United States Post Of ce (USPS) and small retail users. The Denver Sheriff Department is located in the block immediately east of the parking structure, while the Emily Grif th Opportunity School of the Denver Public Schools (DPS) is located a couple of blocks away. Designated parking spaces will be provided for USPS vehicles, employees, and customers (100 spaces); for Sheriff Department vehicles (164 spaces); and for DPS employees (140 spaces); while the remaining 233 spaces will be available to the public. The most recent transportation study conducted in the area was for the Civic Center District Plan, prepared by Fehr & Peers in 2005. This document was used as a reference for recommended future planned roadway con gurations, forecast volume calculations, and to identify potential traf c impacts within the project study area. Study objectives This Traf c Impact Study (TIS) will document the traf c impacts of the Denver Justice Center and new parking structure on the surrounding transportation system; and identify any improvements to the system necessary to meet the City and County of Denver (CCD) standards. The primary objectives are to: Estimate the amount and distribution of traf c associated with the project; Evaluate traf c operations at study intersections with existing and future traf c volumes; Address traf c operations at any locations that do not meet CCD standards; and Address the speci c issues raised by CCD staff related to the project traf c and analysis assumptions. 92

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Traf c Study, ContinuedIssues identi ed by City and County of Denver staff CCD staff was involved throughout the process of completing the Justice Center Traf c Study. Comments on the analysis assumptions and other concerns were expressed by the CCD staff following a November 15, 2005 scoping meeting. Representatives from various CCD departments attended the meeting including Traf c Engineering Services, Development Engineering Services, and Infrastructure Planning and Programming. At this meeting, and follow up e-mail correspondence, key assumptions for the analysis methodology were established, as well as the study area, the analysis scenarios, the regional distributions, and the project-related trip assignments. In addition, CCD staff identi ed the following issues to be addressed in the study: The impacts of reducing the future planned roadway network to accommodate the modi cations identied in the Civic Center District Plan, versus maintaining the existing roadway network; The likely routes for vehicles accessing the project study area and the potential for impacts to traf c operations within the Golden Triangle; Pedestrian and bicycle circulation throughout the area; with Colfax Avenue considered a barrier between Downtown and the Golden Triangle. The need for a traf c signal at the 14th Avenue/ Elati Street intersection due to the circulation of pedestrians between the Justice Center, the new parking structure and the future increase in vehicular traf c along 14th Avenue Conclusions and recommendations Study Conditions The traf c study for the Justice Center Campus included analysis of AM and PM peak hours for existing conditions, existing-with-project conditions and 2030 conditions. For 2030, forecast volumes were analyzed with both the existing roadway network and future planned roadway network. The existing roadway network for the future conditions, included one planned improvement in the recon guration of the Colfax Avenue intersections at Tremont Place and Delaware Street into a single, signalized intersection. The future planned roadway network included the following modi cations: Colfax Avenue reduced to a ve-lane section between Bannock and Welton Streets; 14th A venue reduced to a two-lane section with on-street parking between Bannock and Galapago Streets; The recon guration of the intersection of Colfax Avenue and Fox Street/ Glenarm Place/ 12th Avenue; Delaware Street converted to two-way operations between Colfax and 14th Avenues; and, A new mid block signalized pedestrian crossing at Colfax Avenue and Gene Amole Way. 93

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCTraf c Study, ContinuedConclusions and recommendations ContinuedMulti-modal Provisions The transit services, pedestrian accommodations and bicycle facilities were evaluated for the project study area. The transit services included four bus routes operating along each of the major arterials of the existing roadway network. The transit routes are not expected to impact future conditions by signi cantly changes in current services within the study area. The pedestrian facilities included detached sidewalks, roadway and intersection crossings with marked crosswalks and intersection pedestrian signal timing including an all-pedestrian phase at the Colfax Avenue/ Bannock Street intersection. Three intersections along Colfax Avenue (Bannock, Cherokee / Court Place, and Delaware Street/ 13th Avenue) and three intersections along 14th Avenue (Bannock, Cherokee and Elati Streets) have high-level pedestrian activity. In the future, Gene Amole Way will facilitate a high-level of pedestrian activity, necessitating emphasized crossings of Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue. The bicycle facilities in the area included an off-street bicycle trail, on-street bicycle lanes, grid bicycle routes and neighborhood bicycle routes. These facilities are not expected to change. Intersection Operation The intersection operations evaluation included capacity analysis and queuing analysis of the 18 study area intersections and signal warrant analysis of the ve unsignalized study area intersections for each of the study conditions. In general, the results of the analysis indicate the following: No additional operational impacts when the project-related traf c was added to the existing volumes and evaluated with the existing roadway network. Only minor differences in the operational impacts were identi ed between the two future analysis conditions. The differences include: The 14th Avenue/ Elati Street intersection northbound approach during the PM peak hour was a LOS D for the existing roadway network condition and a LOS E for the future planned roadway network condition. The 14th Avenue/ Fox Street intersection southbound approach was LOS E and LOS D during the AM and PM peak hours, respectively, for the existing roadway network conditions, and LOS F and LOS E for the AM and PM peak hours, respectively, for the future planned roadway network conditions. The results of the queuing analysis indicated additional impacts for the future planned roadway network at the Colfax Avenue/ Delaware Street intersection (the 95th percentile queue for the westbound through movement extended back to the adjacent intersection in the PM peak hour), the 14th Avenue/ Fox Street intersection (the 95th percentile queue for the northbound approach was 150 feet long in the AM peak hour), and the 14th Avenue/ Elati Street intersection (the 95th percentile queue for the southbound approach was 110 feet long in the AM peak hour). The results of the analysis found that the requirements of the Peak Hour Volume Signal Warrant were met by the volumes and geometry at the 13th Avenue/ Elati Street intersection for the future year 2030 conditions.94

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Traf c Study, ContinuedConclusions and recommendations Continued Comparison to Previous Study The Civic Center District Plan included analysis at six intersections along Colfax Avenue that were included in the project study area for this study. The similar intersections included: Colfax Avenue/ Bannock Street Colfax Avenue/ Court Street Colfax Avenue/ Delaware Street Colfax Avenue/ Gene Amole Way Colfax Avenue/ Glenarm Place Colfax Avenue/ Welton Street The difference in the analysis methodologies for the two documents are: The District Plan was analyzed for the forecast year 2025 instead of the year 2030 used for this study. The District Plan included less growth in background traf c than this traf c study. The District Plan did not include the signalized mid block pedestrian crossing along Colfax Avenue at Gene Amole Way, that is included in this study. Comparison to Previous Study, Continued However when the results of the analysis during the PM peak hour were compared for the six intersection only one intersection differed by more than a single letter grade. In the District Plan the Colfax Avenue/ Delaware Street intersection was reported as LOS E, while the analysis for this study indicated a LOS B for the same intersection. However, the analysis results reported for the District Plan at this intersection included the southeastbound right-turn movement at the adjacent intersection to the north, which was found to incur substantial delay. The effect would be a signi cant reduction to the overall operations reported for the intersection. Summary/Recommendations The project-related traf c does not result in a signi cant impact to the operations within the study area. Narrowing Colfax Avenue results in minimal operational impacts. Narrowing 14th Avenue does not result in any additional operational impacts. The addition of a signalized midb lock pedestrian crossing of Colfax Avenue resulted in queues extending to the adjacent intersection, but did not signi cantly impact the overall roadway operations. The only location that meets the requirements of the Peak Hour Volumes Signal Warrant was the 13th Avenue/ Elati Street intersection, which did not report any operational impacts. A pedestrian actuated signal at the 14th Avenue/ Elati Street intersection should be considered for the high-level of activity between the new parking structure and Justice Center Campus. 95

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INC 96Existing Pedestrian Facilities & Activities Existing Transit Service

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN97Proposed Pedestrian Activity

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D AVI D O WEN T RYBA A RCHITECTS I DMJM DESIGN I AECOM I MUNDUS B ISHOP DESIGN I FEHR & P EERS I MNA, INCImage CreditsKoetter Kim & Associates by Colin Rowe, Fred Koetter, Alan J. Plattus Rizzoli, 1997 Polshek Partnership by Susan Strauss, Sean Sawyer Princeton Architectural Press, 2005 Architecture at Work: DMJM Design Los Angeles by Danette Riddle, Sarah Palmer, Michael Webb Edizioni Press, INC., 2004 New City Space by Jan Gehl & Lars Gemzoe The Danish Architectural Press. 2001 The Architecture of Bohlin Cywinski Jackson by Bohlin Cywinski Jackson Rockport Pub, 1994 Civic Builders by Curtis W. Fentress Academy Press, 2002 KPF: Selected and Current Works The Images Publishing Group Pty Ltd, 1997 Kohn Pedersen Fox: Architecture and Urbanism 1993-2002 by Ian Luna, Kenneth Powell Rizzoli International Publications INC., 2002 New London Architecture by Kenneth Powell Merrell Publishers Limited, 2001 New City Space by Jan Gehl & Lars Gemzoe The Danish Architectural Press. 2001 Radical Landscapes: Reinventing Outdoor Spaces by Jane Amidon Thames & Hudson, 2001 Williams Tsien Obras Works Editorial Gustavo GIli, SA, 1997 The Rebirth of New York Citys Bryant Park by J. William Thompson Spacemaker Press, 1997 Robert A. M. Stern Buildings by Robert A. M. Stern The Monacelli Press, INC., 1996 I. M. Pei: A Pro le in American Architecture by Margaret Donovan Carter Wiseman. 1990 Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg Contemporary World Architects, 1998 Minimalist Gardens by Peter Walker Spacemaker Press, 1997The Urban Landscape by Thomas Balsley Spacemaker Press, 199798

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JUSTICE CENTER CAMPUS FRAMEWORK PLAN Urban Spaces No. 2: The Design of Public Place by John Morris Dixon Visual Reference Publications, INC., 2001 Sillis Candela and Partners Edizioni Press, INC., 2001 Robert A. M. Stern: Buildings and Projects 1993-1998 The Monacellis Press, 1998 a+u: The 20th Century Architecture and Urbanism New York a+u Publishing Co., Ltd., 1994 Fountains: Splash and Spectacle by Marilyn Symmers Rizzoli International Publications INC., 1998 Building Type Basics for Justice Facilities by Todd S. Pillips, Michael A. Griebel, John Wiley & Sons, INC.2003 Chicago Whitecap Books, November 15. 1997 Dan Kiley. The Complete Works of Americas Master Landscape Architect by Jane Amidon Bul nch Press, 1999 A History of Cranbrook by Marsha Miro Cranbrook Art Museum, 1999 The Big Book of Environmental Design by Francisco Asensio Cerver Nacho Asensio, 2000 Design is the Best Defense by Claire Enlow Landscape Architecture Magazine, Volume 95, Number 8, 2005 Editors Choice by Jonathan Lerner Landscape Architecture Magazine, Volume 94, Number 8, 2004 Image of A City by Paul Bennett Landscape Architecture Magazine, Volume 89, Number 6, 1999 Historic Images Denver Public Library, Western History Department Atelier Dreitseitl by Gina Crandell Land Forum 10, Spacemaker Press, 2001 Designed Landscape Forum III Land Forum 13, Spacemaker Press, 2002 SWA Land Forum 14, Spacemaker Press, 2002 Kathryn Gustafon. Sculpting the Land by Leah Levy, Spacemaker Press, 1998The Journal of Business & Design Volume 11 No 1 Corporate Design Foundation 99