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Denver living streets

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Denver living streets
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Denver Living Streets Initiatives
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City planning
Pedestrian facilities design
Sidewalks
Street life

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LIVING STREETS
December 2014


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Denver Living Streets Initiative (LSI) is a multi-sector partnership created in 2007 to support the creation of great places
with transportation options that work for everyone. Denver City and County staff compiled this report to document the
purpose of the Living Street effort and to highlight relevant projects that illustrate its concepts.
During the public outreach phase of the project, from 2008-2010, a Living Streets Task Force provided valuable input and
served as an important partner in the project. The Living Streets Task Force was comprised of the following organizations:
American Association of Retired Persons
Bicycle Colorado
Bike Denver
Colorado Department of Transportation
Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment
Denver Cruisers
Downtown Denver Partnership
Denver Regional Council of Governments
Federal Boulevard Partnership
Inter-Neighborhood Cooperation
Kaiser Permanente
LiveWell Westwood
Metro Mayors Caucus
Regional Transportation District (RTD)
Transit Alliance
Transportation Solutions
City of Denver Agencies:
Community Planning & Development
Public Works
Environmental Health
Office of Economic Development
Parks & Recreation
Greenprint Denver (now the Mayors Office of Sustainability)
Budget & Management Office
Human Rights & Community Partnerships
Denver Living Streets


CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION..
PAGES 3-4
The Introduction provides background on the Living Streets Initiative, which started in 2007. It also contains an overview
of this document, highlighting key themes and topics, including an answer to the question What are Living Streets?
CONTEXT.
PAGES 5-6
Provides the framework for the Living Streets Initiative, including how it coincides with other policy goals in Denver. These
pages also provide an overview of key transportation concepts and the balance between land use and transportation.
LIVING STREETS
PAGES 7-10
This section defines and illustrates Living Streets. The reader will find an overview of the major categories of Living
Streets -- Destination, Multimodal, and Connecting -- as well as an introduction to the performance measures, or expected
outcomes, that help to demonstrate the many positive impacts of Living Streets.
TOOLBOX.. pages 11-18
The Toolbox illustrates a variety of tools that are utilized to cultivate Living Streets. Many of the tools depend on private
sector investment and partnership for implementation. The toolbox is categorized into three sections: Roadway tools,
Public Realm tools, and Private Realm tools.
CASE STUDIES................................ ............PAGES 19-30
Denver has already implemented Living Streets throughout the city. The case studies highlight how many of the tools from
the toolbox have been applied with great success, largely due to public-private partnerships.
MOVING FORWARD
PAGES 31-32
What are the next steps for the Living Streets Initiative? These pages highlight recommended next steps for continuing to
implement Living Streets in Denver.
Denver Living Streets
2


INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND AND OVERVIEW
Denver Living Streets Initiative (LSI) is a multi-sector partnership created in 2007 to support the creation of
great places with transportation options that work for everyone. This partnership was created as a forum to
explore and discuss new opportunities for building a multimodal street network; determine which opportunities
were relevant and appropriate for Denver; evaluate the benefits and trade-offs associated with the opportunities;
and, finally, to understand the best path towards implementation. The Initiative sought partnerships within the
City, with outside organizations, and with the general public in order to best define the initiative for Denver,
understand existing operational concerns, determine appropriate trade-offs, and facilitate a sense of ownership
with those involved.
During its public outreach phase, LSI involved a series of public meetings and educational workshops. The
Initiative also included an Education and Engagement Series that, starting in 2008, brought national and
international experts to Denver to talk about living streets concepts.
This document summarizes many of the concepts and goals that were established through the public outreach
phase, reflecting input from the many LSI partners including the Living Streets Task Force, community leaders,
public officials, and the public at large.
To learn more about LSI and to view documents from previous public outreach visit the project web page:
www. denvergov. org/l ivingstreets
3
Denver Living Streets


I DOCUMENT OVERVIEW
The purpose of this document is to define Living Streets, establish important goals and concepts for Living Streets,
highlight successful examples of Living Streets in Denver, and to recommend steps for continuing to implement a Living
Streets network. The document establishes three types of Living Streets Destination, Multimodal, and Connecting and
creates a Toolbox for implementing Living Streets.
WHAT ARE
LIVING STREETS?
Living Streets is a city-building philosophy
of working together to provide a network
of streets, combined with adjacent land
uses and buildings, that accommodate
pedestrians, bicyclists, vehicles, and
transit while creating great spaces and
places.
Living Streets are vibrant places where
people of all ages and physical abilities
feel comfortable using any mode of
travel walking, biking, transit, and
private vehicles. While Living Streets
are designed to maximize the efficiency
of a corridors capacity to move people,
they also integrate the use and form of
adjacent buildings to achieve great places
for people.
Living Streets are similar to complete
streets since they are designed to enable
safe, convenient, and comfortable
travel for users of all ages and abilities,
regardless of mode of transportation.
Living Streets look beyond the curb and
sidewalk, however, and acknowledge the
important role that the use and form of
buildings play in the character of a street.
PARTNERSHIPS
Creating a Living Street is a coordinated
effort that requires money, time and
a lot of discussion. Partnerships
between the City and the private sector
are often an important component to
implementing successful improvements.
For example, private property owners
may form a Special District to maintain
new streetscape improvements in
recognition of the value those amenities
can contribute to their area (examples are
highlighted in Living Streets case studies
on pages 19-30).
LIVING STREETS
TOOLBOX
A street is made up of several components that work together to create
a balanced, multimodal corridor. Living Streets address all components
of the street: (1) The Private Realm, which contains the buildings and
other uses that line a street; (2) the Pedestrian Realm, which is the
area between the building and curb; and (3) The Roadway, or the area
between the curbs. The Living Streets Toolbox contains a variety of
potential tools, divided into the three areas shown below, that can be
used to design or redesign a street in accordance with Living Streets
principles. The Living Streets Toolbox is found on pages 11-18.
ROADWAY
The area between the curbs.
____________________________I
PEDESTRIAN REALM
The area between private property and the curb or roadway.
PRIVATE REALM
The private development that lines a street. This area includes buildings and parking.
WHAT IS A SPECIAL DISTRICT?
Special districts, formed by private property owners, are a common tool for
implementing and maintaining Living Streets. They are formed when property
owners along a corridor agree to an additional property assessment that
is used to fund construction and/or maintenance of improvements such as
street trees, planters, and special paving. Special districts include Local
Maintenance Districts (LMDs) and General Improvement Districts (GIDs).
4
Denver Living Streets


CONTEXT
OUR TRANSPORTATION NETWORK
The Living Streets philosophy builds upon existing City plans and policies. Living Streets represent the essential balance
between transportation and land use that is called for in Blueprint Denver. They also draw from the Citys Strategic
Transportation Plan, which calls for measuring travel through person trips in order to maximize the multimodal capacity
of each street.
BALANCING
LAND USE AND
TRANSPORTATION
Denvers Living Streets Initiative is part of
a citywide strategy to connect land use and
transportation decisions. Blueprint Denver,
adopted in 2002, is an integrated land use
and transportation plan that shapes the
future of Denver. It recognizes the vital role
of transportation policy, which influences how
we get from home to work, how much time we
spend commuting, and the choices we have to
get from one place to another. Blueprint Denver
also emphasizes the importance of land use
decisions. For example, when a mix of uses
such as retail, office, and residential are placed
closed to one another, travel time from one
location to another can be greatly reduced.
TRANSPORTATION
CONCEPTS
Street Network Each street contributes to a larger,
interconnected network. The network depends
on different types of streets that serve different
functions. Together, the network serves all users
including vehicles, transit, bikes, and pedestrians.
Person Trips Denvers STP uses person trips to
understand the capacity of a street to move people.
This approach captures trips by vehicles, transit,
bicyclists, and pedestrians.
Blueprint Denver and the Citys Strategic
Transportation Plan (STP) recommend an
efficient, multimodal transportation system that
complements a balanced mix of land uses.
The STP focuses on creating a balanced,
multimodal system that will enable Denver to
grow without expanding its roadway footprint.
The concepts outlined to the right are essential
components of the Citys transportation
network.
The concepts outlined to the right come from
the STP and the Living Streets Initiative.
H Connected Grid Denvers rectilinear grid of
streets provides high connectivity and efficient
routing options. During peak travel times, heavy
traffic can be disbursed to different streets,
providing relief for the system as a whole.
Travel Sheds Travel sheds are geographic areas
that serve similar travel patterns. By focusing on
travel sheds, rather than high-traffic corridors,
Denver can focus on how to move all users on a
variety of facilities including streets, bike routes, and
transit routes.
Nodes The character of a street varies along its
entire length. Nodes, often commercial in nature,
are the activity center of a street. Nodes are usually
focused on a major intersection(s) and may include
several blocks where activity and connectivity is
high, or higher than in other locations on a corridor.
5
Denver Living Streets


I KEY COMPONENTS
The success of Living Streets requires transportation strategies that are built by balancing operational, physical, and
behavioral components. All three components influence the quality of our multimodal transportation network.
Behavioral
Behavioral components
depend on how Denverites
use the transportation network.
Behavioral changes can reduce
travel by single-occupancy
vehicles and promote alternative
modes of transport such as
walking, biking, and transit.
Ultimately, safety for all modes
depends on users following
Example: commuters leave
their car at home in order to
carpool, take transit, or bike.
Operational
Operational components relate
to the safety and efficiency of
existing facilities in the public
right-of-way. They can improve
the functioning of a street with
minimal physical changes,
such as special signals that
help position transit to move
efficiently.
Physical
Physical components are the
facilities, or physical attributes,
that compose a street. New
facilities, such as wider
sidewalks or bike facilities,
can be added to a street to
change its character and to
accommodate and/or improve
the safety for more modes.
Example: leading or all-
pedestrian signal phases,
which allow pedestrians to
begin crossing the street
before vehicles.
Example: a sidewalk is
expanded to provide a
wider space for pedestrian
movements.
Denver Living Streets
6


LIVING STREETS
WHAT IS THE LIVING STREETS INITIATIVE?
Living Streets is a city-building philosophy of working together to provide a network of streets, combined with adjacent
land uses and buildings, that accommodate pedestrians, bicyclists, vehicles, and transit while creating great spaces and
places. Living Streets considers the entire system of streets and how each corridor fits into the larger, multimodal network.
Living Streets recognizes how the entire street works as a whole, including the roadway, sidewalk, and buildings.
WHAT ARE
LIVING STREETS
GOALS
Foster Partnerships: The Living Streets Task force, an
important component of the Living Streets Initiative, was
comprised of representatives from a variety of sectors. As
Denver builds a Living Streets network, partnerships, and
ongoing conversations between the public and private sector
are essential.
Create Livability: Living Streets integrate the
transportation network with the use and form of buildings
to achieve great destinations. Living Streets consider many
aspects of livability including public health, active living,
economic development, diversity, and the environment.
LMNG STREETS?
Living Streets are vibrant places where
people of all ages and physical abilities feel
comfortable using any mode of travel walking,
biking, transit, and private vehicles. While
Living Streets are designed to maximize the
efficiency of a corridors capacity to move
people, they also integrate the use and form of
adjacent buildings to achieve great places for
people.
Living Streets are similar to complete streets
since they are designed to enable safe,
convenient, and comfortable travel for users
of all ages and abilities, regardless of mode of
transportation. Living Streets look beyond the
curb and sidewalk, however, and acknowledge
the important role that the use and form of
buildings play in the character of a street.
Explore and Implement Community Needs: Living
Streets recognizes that each street is different. Together,
the network of streets provide choices so that people of all
ages and mobility levels feel safe and comfortable driving,
riding transit, bicycling, and walking.
Create a Balance of Services and Investments: The
creation of Living Streets requires balancing improvements
with desired transportation services. For example, an
investment that reduces the number of travel lanes for
cars in order to create space for bike lanes and sidewalks
may impact on-street parking or the number of cars that be
accommodated without delay.
Incorporate Green Infrastructure: Green infrastructure
practices have a number of environmental and economic
benefits including improved water and air quality, reduced
flood risks, increased property values, and enhanced
human health.
Denver Living Streets


I LIVING STREETS EXAMPLE
Not all Living Streets look the same, but there are common elements that demonstrate the principles of a Living Street,
illustrated below.
BEFORE
A five-lane street with no
amenity zone on the sidewalk
to buffer pedestrians from the
roadway. The street is primarily
designed to accommodate
private vehicles. Land uses
are low-density and parking is
located in front of the building.
Surface parking
next to the sidewalk
detracts from
the pedestrian
experience.
Sidewalks that lack an amenity
zone, or buffer, with trees are
uncomfortable for pedestrians.
Without bulb-outs and a clearly
marked crosswalk, the area for
pedestrian crossings is less
clear for both vehicles and
pedestrians.
Wider travel lanes and the
absence of on-street parking
may encourage cars to travel
above the speed limit, which
can impact safety for bicyclists
and pedestrians.
AFTER
A travel lane is traded for
on-street parking and striped
bike lanes. The pedestrian
network is enhanced with wide
sidewalks, street trees, seating,
and bulb-outs and crosswalks
that make it more comfortable
to cross the street. New
buildings placed close to the
sidewalk provide a mix of uses
to generate pedestrian activity.
A shared travel lane
accommodates transit as
well as private vehicles.
New mixed use
buildings line the
sidewalk, improving the
pedestrian experience
and adding activity to
the street.
Wider sidewalks
separated from the
roadway by trees and
amenities create an
inviting environment for
pedestrians and transit
riders.
Green infrastructure
such as porous paving
in the parking lane and
planters designed to
treat stormwater provide
environmental and
aesthetic benefits.
Special material in the
crosswalk creates a
more visible crossing
area for pedestrians.
On-street bike lanes
provide a dedicated
space for bicyclists.
Denver Living Streets
8


FRAMEWORK
The Living Streets framework recognizes that streets vary in their function and should evolve to support the Citys ongoing
growth. The framework establishes three functional categories of streets that, in combination, are critical to the success
of the overall transportation network: Connecting, Multimodal, and Destination streets. The experience on a given corridor
may vary throughout the day or over time. This means that a corridor may be a Destination Street in one location and a
Multimodal Street in another, or that a street can evolve overtime from one type to another.
TYPES OF
LIVING STREETS
DESTINATION STREETS
Destination Streets are designed to accommodate each mode and serve as the place
where travel trips end and/or begin. Lined with a mix of land uses, typically at higher
densities, Destination Streets provide an excellent walking environment.
Key Features: Denver Examples:
Prioritize pedestrians Tennyson Street
Slower speeds 16th Street Downtown
Mix of higher intensity land uses Larimer Square
Excellent walking environment
MULTIMODAL STREETS
Multimodal Streets are designed to move high capacities of people. Unlike
Connecting Streets, they place less priority on throughput. Instead, multimodal
streets engage with adjacent land uses and are more comfortable for bicycles and
pedestrians.
Key Features: Denver Examples:
Accommodate mix of modes E 12th Avenue
Mixed travel speeds E 16th Avenue
Variety of medium intensity land uses 14th Street Downtown
Comfortable for bikes and peds
CONNECTING STREETS
Connecting Streets often provide direct routes at higher speeds with a focus on
transit. They typically carry higher volumes and longer trips/commutes. These streets
may be collector or arterial streets.
Key Features: Denver Examples:
Designed to move people more efficiently Colorado Boulevard
Often have higher speeds South Broadway
Often have lower intensity land uses Federal Boulevard
Prioritize transit

9
Denver Living Streets


I EXPECTED OUTCOMES
Continuing to build a Living Streets network is anticipated to create many benefits for Denver including increased
transportation options, community development, economic development, public health benefits, and improved air and
water quality. Understanding the impacts of Living Streets will require the collection of data to measure changes within
each of these areas.
Transportation Options:
Streets and their supporting street network will provide options that work for drivers, transit
riders, pedestrians, and bicyclists regardless of physical ability or age. Taken as a whole, the
street network will serve all users.
Community Development:
Streets will create destinations that are part of a high-quality urban environment. Living
Streets incorporate buildings that relate to the sidewalk, land uses that catalyze activity, and
streetscape amenities that create place. All of these factors contribute to building strong, vibrant
communities.
Economic Development:
Living Streets attract investments that create jobs and provide fiscal return. Even lower-cost
investments by the public or private sector, such as new bike lanes, can generate increased
economic activity on the street and provide an affordable transportation option for households.
Public Health Benefits:
A balanced street network supports active lifestyles and the physical environment will create
greater opportunities for physical activity. Studies show that people are more likely to walk if
they live in neighborhoods with sidewalks and if they have local destinations, such as grocery
stores and services, in walking distance from their home.
Air and Water Quality:
More trips via transit, bicycling, and walking will benefit the environment through the air-
emissions reductions commensurate with reduced auto dependency. Reduced congestion
results in fewer idling vehicles. Green infrastructure uses soils and vegetation to treat pollutants
found in stormwater runoff and to help reduce the urban island heat effect.
H Equity:
The Living Streets network is intended to extend throughout all of Denvers neighborhoods.
Currently, due to limited City dollars for capital costs and no dedicated City budget for the
maintenance of features such as street trees and sidewalks, it is challenging to implement and
maintain Living Streets without private sector partnerships. As Denver continues to implement
Living Streets, it is essential to identify strategies and funding mechanisms that allow the
creation of Living Streets in all contexts, even on corridors that do not have private-sector
resources like special districts, in order to ensure an equitable distribution of the Living Streets
network.
Denver Living Streets
10


TOOLBOX
TOOLS FOR LIVING STREETS
Growing the Living Streets network depends on a variety of tools for designing and redesigning Denvers streets. The
Living Streets Toolbox contains many elements, from streetscaping to travel lanes, that are utilized to make all types of
Living Streets, including Connecting, Multimodal. A summary of these tools is outlined on the following pages. The case
studies, beginning on page 19, highlight how the City and its partners have already utilized many of these tools.
PARTNERSHIPS
Creating a Living Street is a coordinated effort
that requires money, time and partnerships. The
toolbox for each realm of the street Private,
Pedestrian, and Roadway includes a range
of potential partners. Partnerships are often
required to successfully implement Living
Streets improvements.
LIVING STREETS
TOOLBOX
The City is a vital partner for
leadership and funding. In
addition to basic infrastructure
and services, the City offers
funding tools such as bonds,
which are approved by Denver
voters.
Private property owners and
businesses along a corridor,
often organized into a special
district, can contribute funding
and valuable support for a
Living Street project.
9
\F^>
Both the State of Colorado and
the Federal Government have
funding sources and programs
that can be valuable tools
street reconstruction projects.
Tools are Flexible: The tools described on the following
pages provide a starting point for creating a Living
Street, but they do not set specific rules or standards.
Tools may be modified or tailored to a particular streets
context and characteristics, and there may be some
tools or techniques that are not covered in the Toolbox
but are still appropriate for a certain corridor.
Not Every Tool is Appropriate for Every Street:
Just as each corridor is different and part of a greater
network, the tools utilized on each Living Street will
vary. Certain tools, such as a bike boulevard or median,
are not appropriate for some streets depending on
characteristics such as traffic volume. The toolbox
highlights which tools fit particularly well with the three
types of Living Streets Destination, Multimodal, and
Connecting.
Other valuable partners
include community groups,
health foundations, and non-
profits invested in creating
sustainable streets.
Certain Tools May Require Trade-offs: Creating a
Living Street may require tough decisions, or trade-offs.
For example, in order to create wide sidewalks or to add
a bike lane to a corridor, travel lanes or on-street parking
may need to be removed or reduced in width, which
could increase traffic congestion for vehicles on that
street. Creating a Living Street depends on evaluating
the benefits and trade-offs that come with each tool.
Denver Living Streets


TOOLBOX AREAS
The Living Streets Toolbox is divided into three areas of the street: (1) Private Realm: tools that address the private
property, or buildings, lining the street; (2) Pedestrian Realm: tools that address the area between the building and the
curb; and (3) Roadway: tools that apply in the area between the curbs.
4
4
ROADWAY
The area between the curbs.
PEDESTRIAN REALM
The area between private property and the curb or roadway.
PRIVATE REALM
The private development that lines a street. This area includes buildings and
off-street_parking.
Denver Living Streets
12


TOOLBOX
TOOLS: PRIVATE REALM
PRIVATE REALM
HOW AND WHO?
Changes to the private
realm are largely dependent
on the private sector.
Private land owners and
developers are responsible
for redevelopment or new
construction on their property.
What they can build is
shaped by the zoning for
that property. As part of new
development, private property
owners are often required
to make changes in the
pedestrian realm as well. The
quality of the private realm
and pedestrian realm are
closely linked.
PRIVATE REALM TOOLS
The private realm is the area behind the sidewalk where private property buildings and off-street parking are
located. The mix and intensity of land uses, as well as the form and design of buildings, greatly influence the quality of
a street. The Citys zoning code is the primary tool that shapes the private realm. Zoning establishes the rules for land
use and building design, which then determines what private owners and developers can do with their property along
a particular corridor. The use and design of the private realm has a large impact on the quality of the pedestrian realm
and every building has an obligation to contribution to the pedestrian realm through its use, form, and design.
DENVER ZONING CODE HOW ZONING SHAPES THE PRIVATE REALM
Every property has zoning that sets rules about how the property can be used when it is developed or redeveloped.
These rules include what uses are allowed, where buildings and parking are placed, and the design of buildings.
Building Placement: Is the building close to the street
with parking behind, or is it setback with parking in front? Are
pedestrian entries oriented to the sidewalk?
Use. Does the land use, or mix of uses, draw people to the
street? Streets with a mix of uses, such as retail, residential,
and office, tend to generate the most pedestrian activity.
Design and Form: Do buildings have lots of windows at the
ground floor for people to enjoy while walking by? Are there
pedestrian entrances oriented to the sidewalk?
13
Denver Living Streets


TOOLBOX: ZONING
Denvers zoning code is context-based, which helps to ensure that new uses and development are compatible
with the adjacent neighborhood. The code also uses a form-based approach to inform how buildings relate to their
surroundings. The following examples show how different zone districts shape the private realm along the street.
Zoning also contributes to the quality of the pedestrian realm through building setbacks, which can make the
sidewalk wider, as well as building entrances and windows that make the street more interesting for pedestrians. New
development or redevelopment is a great opportunity to integrate Living Streets concepts into an area.
RESIDENTIAL EXAMPLE: U-RH-2.5
Neighborhood Context:
Urban (U)
Dominant Character:
Row House (RH)
Max Building Height:
2.5 Stories
This zone district is often
appropriate for Multimodal
Living Streets in an urban
residential setting.
Building Placement: Residential buildings in
the Urban Neighborhood Context typically have
consistent, moderate setbacks along the street
with front entries oriented to the sidewalk.
Use. Allows single-, two-, and multi-family
residential uses. Multi-family uses help to generate
more activity on the street.
Design and Form: Buildings are typically oriented
to the street, have shallow front setbacks, and are
required to have a pedestrian entrance facing the
street, which helps to create pedestrian activity.
MAIN STREET EXAMPLE: C-MS-5
Neighborhood Context:
Urban Center (C)
Dominant Character:
Main Street (MS)
5
Max Building Height:
5 Stories
Building Placement: All buildings typically have
a consistent orientation toward the street with
shallow front setbacks and parking to the rear or
side of buildings.
Use. Allows a variety of residential, commercial,
and retail uses. A mix of uses on the street
generates the most pedestrian activity.
This zone district is often
appropriate for Multimodal
and Destination Streets in a
dense, urban setting.
Design and Form: Buildings are oriented toward
the street and are required to have pedestrian-
friendly features such as windows at the ground
floor to activate the sidewalk.
COMMERCIAL EXAMPLE: S-CC-3
Neighborhood Context:
Suburban (S)
Dominant Character:
Commercial Corridor
(CC)
Max Building Height:
3 Stories
This zone district is well-suited
for Connecting Streets in a
less dense, suburban setting.
Building Placement: Commercial buildings
may or may not orient toward the sidewalk. They
typically have deep front setbacks with parking
and/or landscaping in front of the building.
Use. Allows a range of residential, commercial,
and retail uses. Often these corridors have a
single predominant use, such as commercial.
Design and Form: Buildings have varying
orientation to the street and often have
landscaping or parking in front. Commercial
buildings must have ground floor windows.
Denver Living Streets
14


TOOLBOX
TOOLS: PEDESTRIAN REALM
PEDESTRIAN REALM
HOW AND WHO?
Although the pedestrian
realm is typically within the
public right-of-way, it is often
constructed, modified, and
maintained by adjacent
property owners. In some
cases, the City may construct
improvements in the
pedestrian realm as part of a
publicly-funded construction
project.
The pedestrian realm is divided
into two components: (1) the
pedestrian zone, where people
walk; and (2) the amenity zone,
which separates the walkway
from the curb.
PEDESTRIAN REALM TOOLS
Amenity Pedestrian
Zone Zone
The pedestrian realm is the area where the public and private realms meet. It is located between the curb and private
property. It contains the sidewalk as well as streetscape elements including street trees and plants, pedestrian seating,
lighting and signage. Oftentimes, the pedestrian realm is constructed and maintained by adjacent property owners.
TOOLBOX: PEDESTRIAN ZONE
Sidewalk Width
Wider sidewalks with amenity zones are more accommodating
and comfortable for pedestrians. The appropriate sidewalk width
depends on a variety of factors including pedestrian volume
and the character of the street. Sidewalks with an amenity zone
that separates the pedestrian zone from the roadway should
be a goal for all Living Streets. Sidewalks with an amenity zone
are often called detached and those without are often called
attached.
I________I__________I I_________I__________I
Amenity Pedestrian Amenity Pedestrian
Zone Zone Zone Zone
Sidewalk Material
Sidewalks should be part of every Living Street. Enhanced
paving, which includes colored concrete, patterned concrete or
pavers can increase the quality of the sidewalk for pedestrians
and greatly improves the image of a corridor. The appropriate
paving material for a sidewalk often depends on the context of
the surrounding blocks. In many cases, property owners form a
special district to construct and maintain special paving.
15
Denver Living Streets


TOOLBOX: AMENITY ZONE
Trees, Planters, and Green Infrastructure
Street trees and planters, located in the amenity zone, are a vital
component to the street. Trees provide shade for pedestrians
and buffer the sidewalk from the roadway. Both trees and plants
create an attractive environment for pedestrians and improve
water quality and air quality. These tools should be part of every
Living Street. Plantings along the street may be designed to
minimize stormwater runoff and provide water quality treatment, a
practice known as green infrastructure. This is an effective way to
incorporate environmental enhancements that improve water and
air quality while improving streetscape aesthetics.
Street Furniture
This tool includes a variety of elements such as benches, tables,
bus stops, trash cans, and bike parking. These amenities create
an attractive pedestrian environment and help to make the street
a place for people to enjoy. Quality, coordinated street furniture is
essential to placemaking on Multimodal and Destination streets.
Lighting
Pedestrian-scaled lights keep the street safe at night for
pedestrians, transit riders, and bicyclists. Lighting is important
for each type of Living Street. Lights enable all users to travel
safely during all hours. Lighting should look similar to other street
furniture and complement the rhythm of street trees on a corridor.
Pedestrian lights are often only implemented when property
owners form a special district to maintain them.
The image above
shows green
infrastructure, where
plantings provide
stormwater treatment.
Wayfinding Signage
Just as street signs guide vehicles along the roadway, wayfinding
signs help pedestrians navigate their way along a corridor.
Wayfinding signage and banners also contribute to the aesthetics
of a street by creating a unique image and helping to brand a
node or district. This tool is often only implemented when property
owners form a special district to maintain streetscape amenities
such as signage.
DEVELOPING TOOLS
The following are examples of developing tools that have not been fully tested but can be utilized as a way to enhance
a street for pedestrians and/or cyclists.
Parklets
Parklets are exten-
sions of the sidewalk
into an on-street park-
_ ing lane. They can
create a mini-park or
outdoor cafe, greatly enhancing the
pedestrian experience by creating the
feel of a wider sidewalk and a place
for people to gather.
On-Street Bike Parking
Although bike parking
is often found in the
I- pedestrian realm,
it can also be in
the roadway in the
vehicular parking lane. This allows a
large number of bikes to park in one
very visible location.
Pilot Projects
Pilot projects include
a wide range of
tools to temporarily
enhance a street for
pedestrians, such
as temporary planters or painted
crosswalks. The Better Block
demonstration projects in Denver are
a good example
Denver Living Streets
16


TOOLBOX
HOW AND WHO?
In most cases, the City and/
or the State is responsible for
improvements in the roadway.
Sometimes, especially if there
is new development that
requires the construction of
completely new streets, the
private developer constructs
the roadway.
ROADWAY TOOLS
The roadway is the area between the curbs. It is typically the portion of the street that accommodates travel for
vehicles, transit, and bicycles. It can also include pedestrian elements such as enhanced crosswalks and medians.
The City typically is responsible for changes to the roadway but sometimes its constructed and maintained by the
private sector.
TOOLBOX: VEHICULAR
TOOLBOX: TRANSIT
S Travel Lanes
Travel lanes, including turn
lanes, are how vehicles
move on the street. On
some streets, travel
lanes may be narrowed,
converted to transit only,
or removed to accommodate other modes.
This may entail trade-offs such as more
congestion or loss of on-street parking.
SParking Lanes
On-street parking lanes
may be parallel or
diagonal. They often
provide a buffer between
the pedestrian realm and
moving traffic.
Shared Lane
Shared transit lanes allow
buses to travel in the same
lanes as other vehicles.
Buses cannot move as
quickly as they do in
dedicated lanes that are
exclusively for use by transit.
Dedicated Lane
A dedicated transit lane
allows a bus, street car, or
light rail to travel in its own
lane, separate from other
vehicles, sometimes only
during peak hours. This
often enables higher transit
speeds and capacities.
17
Denver Living Streets


TOOLBOX: PEDESTRIAN
TOOLBOX: BICYCLE
Enhanced Crosswalks
Enhanced crosswalks,
which are often coordinated
with materials in the
pedestrian realm, utilize
materials such as colored
or patterned concrete to
clearly signal to vehicles
where the pedestrian crossing
is located, which increases
comfort for walkers.
Shared Street Facilities
Bike facilities where
cyclists share the roadway
with other vehicles.
Examples include sharrows
and bike boulevards, which
are most appropriate on
residential streets with low
traffic volumes.
Bulb-outs
Bulb-outs, also known as
curb extensions, extend
the sidewalk at the end
of a block in order to
minimize the distance that
pedestrians must travel
to cross a street. These
can be a good location for
green infrastructure.
Dedicated Space Facilities
These facilities are
generally in the roadway
but provide a space that
is exclusive to cyclists,
such as bike lanes. These
tools may also include
intersection treatments like
a bike box.
Medians & Pedestrian Refuge Islands
Medians increase pedestrian
safety by providing a refuge
in the middle of the street
for people and reducing the
walking distance across the
roadway. They are also a
good location for plantings
and green infrastructure. Planted
medians are typically maintained by a
special district.
Fully Protected.Facilities
Facilities in which the
travel space for cyclists
is completely separated
from other modes, such
as a protected bike lane
or shared sidewalk trails.
These tools often include
intersection treatments like
a bike box.
TOOLBOX: OPERATIONAL
Priority Transit Signals
This tool consists of traffic signals that give priorities to transit, such as buses, to proceed at a green light
prior to other modes.
Signal Timing that Prioritizes Pedestrians
Signal timing strategies such as leading pedestrian intervals or all-pedestrian phases can allow pedestrians
to cross the street in advance of turning vehicles so that they have a safer experience crossing the street.
B Bicycle Signals
This tool includes signals that tell bicyclists when to turn, as well as signals that give bicycles their own
phase within the signal to proceed at a green light, or to turn, prior to other modes.
Denver Living Streets
18


AFTER BEFORE
CASE STUDY
Tennyson Street
Tennyson Street, a mixed use main street in northwest Denver, was transformed with a
comprehensive streetscaping project in 2011 to 2012. The project enhanced an already popular
corridor, lined with local businesses and historic storefronts, creating a Destination Street that
draws patrons from the surrounding neighborhoods as well as the greater Denver area.
WHY
Tennyson Street, between W. 38th and
W. 44th Avenues, has a long history
as a neighborhood retail district. It is
a walkable, compact corridor with an
eclectic mix of retailers, shops, offices,
and residences. Architecturally, there
is great variety in both density and
character, with single-family detached
Victorian homes on the same block
with newly constructed multi-story infill
developments.
Most of the businesses on the street
are locally owned. The district benefits
from the vibrancy of an artistic mix of
shops and galleries. Nearby residents
and visitors from other parts of the city
enjoy strolling the street and window
shopping, checking out a gallery, or
lingering at a sidewalk cafe.
The streetscape improvements
completed in 2012 created a true
pedestrian destination. The project
capitalized on the passion and
commitment of businesses on the street,
creating a welcoming front door for this
vibrant retail district.
19
Denver Living Streets


WHAT
Prior to this project, Tennyson Street had charming destinations but a lackluster streetscape environment. The two-lane
street with on-street parking had the beginnings of a pedestrian-friendly corridor, but narrow, cracked sidewalks and a
lack of consistent streetscaping detracted from the streets walkability. The new streetscape improvements created a
continuous 10-foot wide pedestrian walkway. Although the curbs were not relocated, the sidewalk was effectively widened
through repairs to cracked concrete and redesigning the amenity zone. The project beautified the street with 54 new street
trees, the addition of public art, and consistent, scored concrete along all of the sidewalks from 38th to 44th Avenue. Bulb-
outs reduced crossing distances for pedestrians and helped to slow down traffic by narrowing the roadway at the end of
each block. New bike racks made the street more friendly to bicyclists.
TENNYSON STREET TOOLBOX
PRIVATE REALM
PEDESTRIAN REALM
D Neighborhood Context:
Urban (U)
ffVR Dominant Character: Main Street (MS)
and Mixed Use (MX)
ROADWAY
Sidewalk Width
Created a continuous 10-foot wide pedestrian
walkway.
Sidewalk Material
Enhanced sidewalks with scored concrete
pattern.
Parking Lanes
On-street parking lanes retained but some spaces
were removed to make room for bulb-outs.
Trees & Planters
Added 54 new street trees.
Bulb-outs
Added bulb-outs at pedestrian crossings.
Street Furniture
Added public art, benches, and bicycle
parking to the streetscape.
Lighting
Added new pedestrian-scaled lighting.
Denver Living Streets
20


CASE STUDY
Tennyson Street
HOW
Creating a Living Street is a coordinated effort that requires money, time and partnerships. This
page summarizes how Tennyson Street became a Living Street thanks to the Citys partnership
with the local property and business owners, who formed a Local Maintenance District (LMD) to
assess themselves to raise money for the maintenance of the streetscape improvements.
TIMELINE
2007
Denver voters approve
the Better Denver
Bonds program,
which includes $2.1
million for streetscape
improvements to
Tennyson Street.
2010
Public workshops on
the project begin.
2012
Construction complete
in spring 2012.
2009
Property owners
along the street
form a Local
Maintenance
District (LMD)
to fund
maintenance of the
improvements.
2011
Construction starts
in early 2011.
Denver Living Streets


EXPECTED OUTCOMES
Tennyson Street is anticipated to create the following benefits. Overtime, data collection will help to verify these assumptions.
More modes, more people
The streetscape improvements made the street more
accommodating to pedestrians who can walk to Tennyson to enjoy
the businesses and amenities on the corridor. New bike racks and
calmer traffic should also encourage cyclists on the street.
Sense of place, high quality people places
An attractive streetscape environment created a new front door
for this pedestrian-centered corridor. Public art and amenities
have helped to create a true sense of place where people want to
gather.
Attracting investment in an area
The project is anticipated to benefit businesses along the
corridor and encourage them to invest in improvements to their
properties.
Active lifestyles, physical activity
Now that the street is more accommodating to a variety of
modes, more people should feel comfortable walking or biking,
rather than driving, which supports an active lifestyle.
PROJECT
BENEFITS
The investment made into the
Tennyson Street streetscape
has greatly enhanced the
pedestrian-friendly nature of
the street. Restaurant goes,
shoppers, and art aficionados
now have a safe, attractive,
and inviting experience on
Tennyson and foot traffic has
increased tremendously. For
sure that helped encourage
renovations to buildings and
attracted new tenants. David
Decker, Byers Street Properties
Air-emission reductions
The improvements are anticipated to create more pedestrian
and bicycle trips, which should reduce auto trips and vehicle
emissions. New street trees should also improve the air quality
along the corridor.
LESSONS LEARNED
Each Living Streets project results in valuable lessons that will inform future efforts. The following points summarize
some of the major lessons learned from Tennyson Street:



Partnerships with the private sector were key, especially for the maintenance of new street
improvements.
Public art that is integrated into the streetscape is a unique and effective way to create an
attractive, vibrant street.
Green infrastructure practices, such as street plantings that treat stormwater runoff, could
have been explored as part of the project.
Denver Living Streets


AFTER BEFORE
CASE STUDY
14th Street
14th Street in Downtown Denver, known as the Ambassador Street, was redesigned in 2010-
2011 to create a vibrant Multimodal Street that serves a variety of transportation modes,
connects to a mix of higher intensity land uses, and provides an excellent walking and biking
environment. The street exemplifies the goals of the Living Streets Initiative.
WHY
Home to a variety of visitor-oriented
uses including the Colorado Convention
Center, the Denver Performing Arts
Complex, and several hotels,14th
Street was recently transformed into
Denvers Ambassador Street. In 2009,
property owners along the corridor
voted to contribute $4 million to the
overall $14 million cost of a large-scale
streetscaping project to achieve this
vision. Construction was completed in
2010 through 2011.
The project, headed by the City
of Denver, the Downtown Denver
Business Improvement District, and the
Downtown Denver Partnership, was
designed to strengthen the identity of
the Ambassador Street, creating a great
destination for tourists, workers, and
residents to enjoy.
Spanning 12 blocks between Market
Street and ColfaxAvenue, the project
was designed to provide a high-quality
pedestrian environment as well as
enhanced facilities for bicycles.
23
Denver Living Streets


WHAT
Prior to this project, 14th Street had three travel lanes, no bike facilities, and a lackluster pedestrian environment. Utilizing
elements from the Living Streets toolbox, the right-of-way was rebalanced with a focus on pedestrians and bicyclists. The
transformed street has wider sidewalks, a flex lane that serves both parking and travel functions, two travel lanes, a bike
lane, and an on-street parking lane. The improvements entailed significant pedestrian and streetscape enhancements
including new street trees, improved pedestrian lighting, wayfinding signage, granite seating areas, and bulb-outs at
intersections to minimize the pedestrian crossing distance across 14th Street.
14TH STREET TOOLBOX
PRIVATE REALM
PEDESTRIAN REALM
Neighborhood Context:
Downtown (D)
TD
Dominant Character: Lower Downtown
(LD) and Theater District (TD)
ROADWAY
Travel Lanes
Width and number of thru-travel lanes reduced
to create room for bike and ped improvements.
Parking Lanes
On-street parking retained: parking lane on
south and flex parking lane on north.
Dedicated Space Bike Facility
Dedicated 6-foot bike lane added to street.
Enhanced Crosswalks
Colored, patterned concrete added to all
pedestrian crosswalks.
Bulb-outs
Added bulb-outs at pedestrian crossings.
Sidewalk Width
Sidewalks widened to 19 feet on the north
side and 16 feet on the south side.
Sidewalk Material
Enhanced paving and in-ground lighting
added to sidewalks.
Trees & Planters
Large planters and 150 street trees added to
the corridor.
Street Furniture
A cohesive palette of street furniture,
including seating and bike racks, added to the
street.
Lighting
Added new pedestrian-scaled lighting.
Wayfinding Signage
Monument signs with wayfinding for
pedestrians added at each corner.
Denver Living Streets
24


CASE STUDY
14th Street
HOW
Creating a Living Street is a coordinated effort that requires money, time and partnerships. This
page summarizes how 14th Street was transformed into a Living Street through partnerships
and funding. The partnership between the City and County of Denver, the Downtown Denver
Partnership, and the private property owners along the corridor was essential.
PARTNERSHIPS
TIMELINE
GU>
#
The City of Denver contributed
funding to the project through the
Better Denver Bonds program.
Denver voters approved the Better
Denver Bonds in 2007.
w
Private partners included the
Downtown Denver Partnership and
private property owners, who formed
a General Improvement District
(GID) to help pay for the project.
2005
Downtown Denver
Partnership (DDP)
sponsors the 14th
Street Initiative in
cooperation with
the City County of
Denver (CCD). DDP
begins outreach to
14th Street property
owners.
COSTS AND FUNDING
COSTS
$14 million total $1,166,666 per block
CONSTRUCTION COST
The $14 million project was funded by $10 million
in Better Denver Bonds and $4 million from
property owners along the corridor.
$4 million $10 million
$14 million Total
MAINTENANCE FUNDING
The maintenance of the new streetscape
improvements will be paid for by adjacent
property owners, primarily through the General
Improvement District (GID).
Private
w
2008
14th Street designated
a priority street
in Denvers First
Pedestrian Priority
Zone document,
created through DDP.
2010
Construction begins.
2007
Downtown Area
Plan Adopted: calls
for 14th Street to
be transformed in a
pedestrian-oriented,
sustainable street.
Passage of Better
Denver Bonds: $10
million for 14th Street.
2009
Property owners
and electors on 14th
Street vote to form the
General Improvement
District (GIS) and
contribute $4 million
to the project.
2011
Construction
complete.
100%
Denver Living Streets


EXPECTED OUTCOMES
The changes to 14th Street have led to benefits in the following areas (all data provided by the Downtown Denver Partnership).
More modes, more people
The enhanced sidewalks attracted more pedestrians to the
street. There has been an average 111% increase in pedestrian
traffic on non-convention days. Bicycle counts at 14th and
Glenarm more than doubled in both the morning and afternoon.
Sense of place, high quality people places
The new Ambassador Street is now an attractive, well-designed
destination. Since the project started construction five new
sidewalk cafes have opened along the corridor, just one example
of the people-oriented street that was created.
Attracting investment in an area
Public investment attracted private investment along the
improved corridor. Sales tax revenue for the corridor increased
by 37.8%, compared to 23% for the rest of Downtown, between
early 2009 and late 2012.
Active lifestyles, physical activity
The improvements to the street have led to more biking and
walking. Initial bicycle and pedestrian counts on the street show
an increase between 2010 and 2012, indicating that more people
are enjoying active modes of transportation.
PROJECT
BENEFITS
Thanks to the new sense
of place that was created
on 14th Street through the
streetscape project, we have
seen significant investment by
the private sector. There are
four projects currently planned
or under construction that total
approximately $130 million in
value.
- John Desmond, Executive Vice
President of Urban Planning and
Environment, Downtown Denver
Partnership
Air-emission reductions
The higher number of pedestrians and bicyclists on the
street should result in fewer automobile trips and reduced car
emissions. In addition, new street trees and planters should
improve air quality.
LESSONS LEARNED
Each Living Streets project results in valuable lessons that will inform future efforts. The following points summarize
some of the major lessons learned from 14th Street:



Partnerships with the private sector were essential to both the construction and
maintenance of the project.
Creative solutions such as a flex lane, which serves both parking and travel functions
depending on the location, can help to create multimodal balance on a street constrained by
existing right-of-way width.
Green infrastructure practices, such as street plantings that treat stormwater runoff, could
have been considered as part of the project.
Denver Living Streets
26


CASE STUDY
South Broadway
South Broadway is a major north-south arterial that connects the southern half of Denver with
Downtown. The City, working in partnership with local businesses and property owners, started
a process in 2007 to enhance the corridor between Arizona and Yale Avenues. The changes
created a quality Connecting Street that features an enhanced pedestrian environment and a
safer roadway for all modes.
South Broadway is an important
business district that anchors the
southern end of a major north-south
thoroughfare. The corridor is home to
a variety of local merchants, including
several antique shops that attract
customers from throughout the Denver
area.
Although Broadway is a major arterial
with significant vehicular traffic, the
City and its partners recognized
the potential for the street between
Arizona Avenue and Yale Avenue to
become a vibrant destination with
a pedestrian-friendly atmosphere.
Prior to the project, the street
lacked streetscaping and the type
of environment that encourages
pedestrian traffic.
From the local City Council office,
to businesses on the street,
a collaborative effort led to a
transformed street where it is easier
and safer for cars, pedestrians, transit
riders, and bicyclists to enjoy shopping
in this unique commercial district.
27
Denver Living Streets


WHAT
The South Broadway reconstruction project transformed 17 blocks of the corridor, between Arizona and Yale, in three
phases from 2010 through 2013. This major arterial with four travel lanes, a center turn lane, and on-street parking
was reconstructed to create a vibrant street that better serves all modes. Improvements included the widening of the
roadway by up to six feet to create a raised center median. The median provides a refuge for pedestrians crossing the
street and improves aesthetics and air quality along the corridor through the addition of trees and landscaping. The
project also entailed major streetscape enhancements such as new concrete sidewalks with brick accents, a palette of
coordinated street furniture including bus stops and bike racks, pedestrian lighting, landscaped features with corner seat
walls, and new street trees lining the entire corridor. To improve pedestrian safety, corner bulb-outs were added at the
end of the on-street parking lanes on each block.
SOUTH BROADWAY TOOLBOX
PRIVATE REALM
PEDESTRIAN REALM
Neighborhood Context:
Urban (U)
Dominant Character:
Main Street (MS)
ROADWAY
Shared Lane
Retained a shared travel lane for vehicles and
buses.
a Parking Lanes
The project retained on-street parking, providing
a buffer between the sidewalk and traffic.
Sidewalk Material
Built new concrete sidewalks with a scoring
pattern and brick accents.
Trees & Planters
Added new street trees and landscaped
planters with seat walls at corners.
Street Furniture
Added a palette of streetscape furniture
including bus stop benches and bike racks.
Lighting
New pedestrian lighting added to the corridor.
Median
Created a raised median, 6 feet wide in most
locations, with landscaping.
Bulb-outs
New bulb-outs added at the end of each block.
Denver Living Streets
28


CASE STUDY
South Broadway
HOW
South Broadway relied on an important partnership between the City of Denver and local
businesses, who formed Local Maintenance Districts to fund maintenance of the streetscape
improvements. Funding for the $27.5 million project came from the Citys Capital Improvement
Project (CIP), Better Denver Bonds, the States Funding Advancement for Surface
Transportation and Economic Recovery (FASTER) program, and federal improvement funding.
TIMELINE
2008 s"!
Passage of Better
Denver Bonds
2009"
Phase 1 construction
begins (Arizona to
Iowa).
2011"
Phase 2 construction
complete.
Phase 3 construction
begins (Wesley to Iowa).
LMD formed for S.
Broadway between
Wesley and Iowa.
2008
Local Maintenance
District (LMD) formed
for S. Broadway
between Arizona to
Iowa.
2010
Phase 1 construction
complete.
Phase 2 construction
begins (Yale to
Wesley).
LMD formed for S.
Broadway between
Wesley and Yale.
2013
Phase 3 construction
complete.
Denver Living Streets


EXPECTED OUTCOMES
South Broadway is anticipated to create the following benefits. Overtime, data collection will help to verify these assumptions.
More modes, more people
The greatly enhanced streetscape, which focuses on the
pedestrian, should encourage more people to walk along South
Broadway. Bicyclists should also be better accommodated thanks
to new bike racks and a street that is safer for all modes.
Sense of place, high quality people places
Attractive new streetscaping created a quality destination with a
cohesive identity for the 17-block stretch. Quality treatments such
as landscaping and pedestrian lighting create a destination that
attracts people to linger and enjoy the shopping district.
Attracting investment in an area
The improvements to the street should encourage merchants
and property owners in the area to improve their properties and
storefronts, generating more economic activity in the district.
Active lifestyles, physical activity
As more people are drawn to walk and bicycle on the street, it
promotes an active lifestyle with positive health benefits.
Air-emission reductions
The new landscaping, which includes new street trees in the
sidewalk amenity zone and new center median, will help to
improve air quality. Changes that promote use by pedestrians
and bicyclists should contribute to reduced auto emissions.
PROJECT
BENEFITS
The big thing on South
Broadway prior and post
construction has been the
improved, increased and
enhanced safety for all
factions of people that come
down there. In addition to
the improved aesthetics, the
crosswalks, the wider parking
lanes, the pedestrian lights and
traffic signals are a wonderful
addition. These improvements
benefit the property owners,
prospective clients, drivers and
pedestrians alike. It just looks
and feels better. Michael
Sharp, Board Member of South
Broadway Streetscape Local
Maintenance District
LESSONS LEARNED
Each Living Streets project results in valuable lessons that will inform future efforts. The following points summarize
some of the major lessons learned from South Broadway:



Partnerships with the private sector and state/federal government were key to funding both
the construction and maintenance of the project.
Streetscaping and multimodal improvements to a street are an effective way to promote
marketing and economic development for a business corridor.
Green infrastructure practices, such as street or median plantings that treat stormwater
runoff, could have been explored as a component of the project.
Denver Living Streets
30


MOVING FORWARD
WHAT ARE THE NEXT STEPS?
This document highlights some of Denvers achievements to create a Living Streets network. Since the Living Streets
Initiative began in 2007, the Department of Public Works adopted a Complete Streets Policy that formalizes the practice
of promoting safe and convenient access for all users into plans, programs, and street maintenance, To ensure that the
network expands and that Living Streets principles and tools continue to grow, the following next steps are recommended.
Learn more about how Living Streets is moving forward at www.denvergov.org/livingstreets.
Community support is essential to all aspects of Living Streets
implementation. Community members will play a key role in the
dialogue about how to grow the Living Streets network, including the
trade-offs that are often inherent to designing Living Streets in existing
communities. Upcoming City initiatives, such as the update to Blueprint
Denver, will be a way for community members to engage in the
conversation about what we value as a community and next steps.
COMMUNITY
PARTNERSHIPS
1 - PILOT PROJECTS
ACTION ITEM
Continue to identify and implement
pilot projects that test Living Streets
tools in different contexts. Pilot
projects are often an effective way
to demonstrate tools and test more
permanent improvements.
Involve key community partners
and utilize pilot projects as a
way to raise public awareness
of Living Streets
2
ACTION ITEM
Integrate Living Streets tools with
citywide goals and policies for green
infrastructure.
RESPONSIBLE PARTIES
Leads: Public Works and Community
Planning and Development.
Support from Department of
Environmental Health, Office of
Sustainability, and Parks and
Recreation, as well as community
and private-sector partners.
RESPONSIBLE PARTIES
Lead: Public Works.
Support from Community Planning
and Development, Department
of Environmental Health, Parks
and Recreation, and Office of
Sustainability.
APPROACH
Partnerships with community and
private-sector partners, who can
provide resources, outreach, and
funding, should be explored.
Examples: Better Block Jefferson
Park and Better Block Five
Points;15th Street protected bike
lane; on-street bike corrals on Old
South Pearl Street.
APPROACH
Develop green infrastructure
technical criteria specific to Denvers
unique climate, geography, water
rights issues, and development
patterns. Construct a demonstration
project that showcases best
practices for green infrastructure.
Examples: New York City Green
Infrastructure Program; Philadelphia
Green City, Clean Waters program;
Portland Grey to Green Initiative
- GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE
31
Denver Living Streets


3 - POLICY AND REGULATION
ACTION ITEM
Assess the Citys current policies,
rules, and regulations that govern
street and streetscape design.
Identify issues and conflicts,
especially since existing
policies, rules, and regulations
cross multiple departments
Align policies, rules, and
regulations current and
new among all departments
to ensure a clear, one-stop
approach for customers and to
ensure that the Living Streets
philosophy is achieved.
4-
ACTION ITEM
Evaluate funding models for both
capital and maintenance costs
for Living Streets improvements.
This should be closely linked to
the assessment of City policy and
regulations to ensure that there are
viable methods for implementing the
vision for Living Streets citywide and
in a variety of contexts.
RESPONSIBLE PARTIES
Leads: Public Works and
Community Planning and
Development.
Support from the Fire Department,
Office of Sustainability, and Parks
and Recreation.
RESPONSIBLE PARTIES
Leads: Budget and Management
Office, Public Works, Community
Planning and Development, and
Parks and Recreation.
Support from Office of Economic
Development and Office of
Sustainability.
APPROACH
Due to breadth of project and based
on national examples, resources -
such as additional staff hires will
be required.
Identify funding and dedicated staff
in each department. Consider hiring
a complete streets manager who
can lead effort and oversee an inter-
departmental staff working group.
Examples: Chicago Complete
Streets Document; Boston Complete
Streets Design Guidelines
APPROACH
Explore and evaluate potential
funding sources to cover the cost
of implementing Living Streets-type
improvements equitably throughout
the City. This effort should include
a study of best practices from peer
cities across the United States.
FUNDING MECHANISMS
Example: Federal Boulevard in Denver. The first phase of multi-modal improvements included some elements from
the Living Streets Toolbox, such as a consistent 8-foot sidewalk and a planted median where possible. While there
is no private sector partner along this stretch of the corridor, because it is a designated Parkway/Boulevard, Parks
and Recreation was able to assume maintenance of the planted median. The second phase has benefited from the
ongoing Living Streets discussion. Funding and support of the Living Streets policy will result in the inclusion of street
trees on the east side of the roadway, in addition to the consistent sidewalk and planted medians. Together these
improvements will move Federal closer to the Living Streets vision. The City will also cover maintenance associated
with these enhancements until private property owners along the corridor are able to take on these costs.
Phase 1: the first phase of
the project included some
elements from the Living
Streets Toolbox, including a
consistent 8-foot sidewalk
and planted median where
possible.
More to come: the second
phase of the project will
include street trees on the
east side of the roadway.
Additional amenities, such
as pedestrian lighting,
could be added when a
source for the additional
capital and ongoing
maintenance costs is
identified.
Street Trees
Pedestrian
Lighting
Street Furniture
Denver Living Streets
32




Full Text

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DENVER December 2014 LIVING STREETS

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Denver Living Streets Initiative (LSI) is a multi-sector partnership created in 2007 to support the creation of great places with transportation options that work for everyone. Denver City and County staff compiled this report to document the purpose of the Living Street effort and to highlight relevant projects that illustrate its concepts. During the public outreach phase of the project, from 2008-2010, a Living Streets Task Force provided valuable input and served as an important partner in the project. The Living Streets Task Force was comprised of the following organizations: American Association of Retired Persons Bicycle Colorado Bike Denver Colorado Department of Transportation Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment Denver Cruisers Downtown Denver Partnership Denver Regional Council of Governments Federal Boulevard Partnership Inter-Neighborhood Cooperation Kaiser Permanente LiveWell Westwood Metro Mayors Caucus Regional Transportation District (RTD) Transit Alliance Transportation Solutions City of Denver Agencies: Community Planning & Development Public Works Environmental Health Parks & Recreation Human Rights & Community Partnerships 1

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CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION The Introduction provides background on the Living Streets Initiative, which started in 2007. It also contains an overview of this document, highlighting key themes and topics, including an answer to the question What are Living Streets? PAGES 3-4 CONTEXT Provides the framework for the Living Streets Initiative, including how it coincides with other policy goals in Denver. These pages also provide an overview of key transportation concepts and the balance between land use and transportation. PAGES 5-6 LIVING STREETS Streets -Destination, Multimodal, and Connecting -as well as an introduction to the performance measures, or expected outcomes, that help to demonstrate the many positive impacts of Living Streets. PAGES 7-10 TOOLBOX The Toolbox illustrates a variety of tools that are utilized to cultivate Living Streets. Many of the tools depend on private sector investment and partnership for implementation. The toolbox is categorized into three sections: Roadway tools, Public Realm tools, and Private Realm tools. PAGES 11-18 CASE STUDIES Denver has already implemented Living Streets throughout the city. The case studies highlight how many of the tools from the toolbox have been applied with great success, largely due to public-private partnerships. PAGES 19-30 MOVING FORWARD What are the next steps for the Living Streets Initiative? These pages highlight recommended next steps for continuing to implement Living Streets in Denver. PAGES 31-32 2

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INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND AND OVERVIEW Denver Living Streets Initiative (LSI) is a multi-sector partnership created in 2007 to support the creation of great places with transportation options that work for everyone. This partnership was created as a forum to explore and discuss new opportunities for building a multimodal street network; determine which opportunities understand existing operational concerns, determine appropriate trade-offs, and facilitate a sense of ownership with those involved. During its public outreach phase, LSI involved a series of public meetings and educational workshops. The Initiative also included an Education and Engagement Series that, starting in 2008, brought national and international experts to Denver to talk about living streets concepts. This document summarizes many of the concepts and goals that were established through the public outreach To learn more about LSI and to view documents from previous public outreach visit the project web page: www.denvergov.org/livingstreets 3

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DOCUMENT OVERVIEW highlight successful examples of Living Streets in Denver, and to recommend steps for continuing to implement a Living Streets network. The document establishes three types of Living Streets Destination, Multimodal, and Connecting and creates a Toolbox for implementing Living Streets. WHAT ARE LIVING STREETS? Living Streets is a city-building philosophy of working together to provide a network of streets, combined with adjacent land uses and buildings, that accommodate pedestrians, bicyclists, vehicles, and transit while creating great spaces and places. Living Streets are vibrant places where people of all ages and physical abilities feel comfortable using any mode of travel walking, biking, transit, and private vehicles. While Living Streets of a corridors capacity to move people, they also integrate the use and form of adjacent buildings to achieve great places for people. Living Streets are similar to complete streets since they are designed to enable safe, convenient, and comfortable travel for users of all ages and abilities, regardless of mode of transportation. Living Streets look beyond the curb and sidewalk, however, and acknowledge the important role that the use and form of buildings play in the character of a street. A street is made up of several components that work together to create a balanced, multimodal corridor. Living Streets address all components of the street: (1) The Private Realm, which contains the buildings and other uses that line a street; (2) the Pedestrian Realm, which is the area between the building and curb; and (3) The Roadway, or the area between the curbs. The Living Streets Toolbox contains a variety of potential tools, divided into the three areas shown below, that can be used to design or redesign a street in accordance with Living Streets principles. The Living Streets Toolbox is found on pages 11-18. LIVING STREETS TOOLBOX PARTNERSHIPS Creating a Living Street is a coordinated effort that requires money, time and a lot of discussion. Partnerships between the City and the private sector are often an important component to implementing successful improvements. For example, private property owners may form a Special District to maintain new streetscape improvements in recognition of the value those amenities can contribute to their area (examples are highlighted in Living Streets case studies on pages 19-30). WHAT IS A SPECIAL DISTRICT? Special districts, formed by private property owners, are a common tool for implementing and maintaining Living Streets. They are formed when property owners along a corridor agree to an additional property assessment that is used to fund construction and/or maintenance of improvements such as street trees, planters, and special paving. Special districts include Local Maintenance Districts (LMDs) and General Improvement Districts (GIDs). 4 PRIVATE REALM The private development that lines a street. This area includes buildings and parking. PEDESTRIAN REALM The area between private property and the curb or roadway. ROADWAY The area between the curbs.

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The Living Streets philosophy builds upon existing City plans and policies. Living Streets represent the essential balance between transportation and land use that is called for in Blueprint Denver. They also draw from the Citys Strategic Transportation Plan, which calls for measuring travel through person trips in order to maximize the multimodal capacity of each street. Denvers Living Streets Initiative is part of a citywide strategy to connect land use and transportation decisions. Blueprint Denver, adopted in 2002, is an integrated land use and transportation plan that shapes the future of Denver. It recognizes the vital role we get from home to work, how much time we spend commuting, and the choices we have to get from one place to another. Blueprint Denver also emphasizes the importance of land use decisions. For example, when a mix of uses closed to one another, travel time from one location to another can be greatly reduced. Blueprint Denver and the Citys Strategic Transportation Plan (STP) recommend an complements a balanced mix of land uses. The STP focuses on creating a balanced, multimodal system that will enable Denver to grow without expanding its roadway footprint. The concepts outlined to the right are essential components of the Citys transportation network. The concepts outlined to the right come from the STP and the Living Streets Initiative. TRANSPORTATION CONCEPTS Street Network Each street contributes to a larger, interconnected network. The network depends on different types of streets that serve different functions. Together, the network serves all users including vehicles, transit, bikes, and pedestrians. Connected Grid Denvers rectilinear grid of routing options. During peak travel times, heavy providing relief for the system as a whole. Nodes The character of a street varies along its entire length. Nodes, often commercial in nature, are the activity center of a street. Nodes are usually focused on a major intersection(s) and may include several blocks where activity and connectivity is high, or higher than in other locations on a corridor. Travel Sheds Travel sheds are geographic areas that serve similar travel patterns. By focusing on Denver can focus on how to move all users on a variety of facilities including streets, bike routes, and transit routes. BALANCING LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION Person Trips Denvers STP uses person trips to understand the capacity of a street to move people. This approach captures trips by vehicles, transit, bicyclists, and pedestrians. CONTEXT OUR TRANSPORTATION NETWORK 5

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The success of Living Streets requires transportation strategies that are built by balancing operational, physical, and KEY COMPONENTS Behavioral Behavioral components depend on how Denverites use the transportation network. Behavioral changes can reduce travel by single-occupancy vehicles and promote alternative modes of transport such as walking, biking, and transit. Ultimately, safety for all modes depends on users following Example: commuters leave their car at home in order to carpool, take transit, or bike. Operational Operational components relate existing facilities in the public right-of-way. They can improve the functioning of a street with minimal physical changes, such as special signals that help position transit to move Example: leading or allpedestrian signal phases, which allow pedestrians to begin crossing the street before vehicles. Physical Physical components are the facilities, or physical attributes, that compose a street. New facilities, such as wider sidewalks or bike facilities, can be added to a street to change its character and to accommodate and/or improve the safety for more modes. Example: a sidewalk is expanded to provide a wider space for pedestrian movements. 6

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WHAT ARE LIVING STREETS? Living Streets are vibrant places where people of all ages and physical abilities feel comfortable using any mode of travel walking, biking, transit, and private vehicles. While Living Streets are designed to maximize the people, they also integrate the use and form of adjacent buildings to achieve great places for people. Living Streets are similar to complete streets since they are designed to enable safe, convenient, and comfortable travel for users of all ages and abilities, regardless of mode of transportation. Living Streets look beyond the curb and sidewalk, however, and acknowledge the important role that the use and form of buildings play in the character of a street. Living Streets is a city-building philosophy of working together to provide a network of streets, combined with adjacent land uses and buildings, that accommodate pedestrians, bicyclists, vehicles, and transit while creating great spaces and Living Streets recognizes how the entire street works as a whole, including the roadway, sidewalk, and buildings. LIVING STREETS GOALS Foster Partnerships: The Living Streets Task force, an important component of the Living Streets Initiative, was comprised of representatives from a variety of sectors. As Denver builds a Living Streets network, partnerships, and ongoing conversations between the public and private sector are essential. Create Livability: Living Streets integrate the transportation network with the use and form of buildings to achieve great destinations. Living Streets consider many aspects of livability including public health, active living, economic development, diversity, and the environment. Explore and Implement Community Needs: Living Streets recognizes that each street is different. Together, the network of streets provide choices so that people of all ages and mobility levels feel safe and comfortable driving, riding transit, bicycling, and walking. Create a Balance of Services and Investments: The creation of Living Streets requires balancing improvements with desired transportation services. For example, an investment that reduces the number of travel lanes for cars in order to create space for bike lanes and sidewalks may impact on-street parking or the number of cars that be accommodated without delay. Incorporate Green Infrastructure: Green infrastructure practices have a number of environmental and economic human health. LIVING STREETS WHAT IS THE LIVING STREETS INITIATIVE? 7

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Not all Living Streets look the same, but there are common elements that demonstrate the principles of a Living Street, illustrated below. amenity zone on the sidewalk to buffer pedestrians from the roadway. The street is primarily designed to accommodate private vehicles. Land uses are low-density and parking is located in front of the building. A travel lane is traded for on-street parking and striped bike lanes. The pedestrian network is enhanced with wide sidewalks, street trees, seating, and bulb-outs and crosswalks that make it more comfortable to cross the street. New buildings placed close to the sidewalk provide a mix of uses to generate pedestrian activity. Wider sidewalks separated from the roadway by trees and amenities create an inviting environment for pedestrians and transit riders. Special material in the crosswalk creates a more visible crossing area for pedestrians. On-street bike lanes provide a dedicated space for bicyclists. A shared travel lane accommodates transit as well as private vehicles. LIVING STREETS EXAMPLE BEFORE AFTER New mixed use buildings line the sidewalk, improving the pedestrian experience and adding activity to the street. Green infrastructure such as porous paving in the parking lane and planters designed to treat stormwater provide environmental and Surface parking next to the sidewalk detracts from the pedestrian experience. Sidewalks that lack an amenity zone, or buffer, with trees are uncomfortable for pedestrians. Wider travel lanes and the absence of on-street parking may encourage cars to travel above the speed limit, which can impact safety for bicyclists and pedestrians. Without bulb-outs and a clearly marked crosswalk, the area for pedestrian crossings is less clear for both vehicles and pedestrians. 8

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The Living Streets framework recognizes that streets vary in their function and should evolve to support the Citys ongoing growth. The framework establishes three functional categories of streets that, in combination, are critical to the success of the overall transportation network: Connecting, Multimodal, and Destination streets. The experience on a given corridor may vary throughout the day or over time. This means that a corridor may be a Destination Street in one location and a Multimodal Street in another, or that a street can evolve over time from one type to another. DESTINATION STREETS Destination Streets are designed to accommodate each mode and serve as the place where travel trips end and/or begin. Lined with a mix of land uses, typically at higher densities, Destination Streets provide an excellent walking environment. Key Features: Denver Examples: TYPES OF LIVING STREETS MULTIMODAL STREETS Key Features: Multimodal Streets are designed to move high capacities of people. Unlike Connecting Streets, they place less priority on throughput. Instead, multimodal streets engage with adjacent land uses and are more comfortable for bicycles and pedestrians. Denver Examples: CONNECTING STREETS Key Features: Connecting Streets often provide direct routes at higher speeds with a focus on transit. They typically carry higher volumes and longer trips/commutes. These streets may be collector or arterial streets. Denver Examples: FRAMEWORK THREE TYPES OF LIVING STREETS 9

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water quality. Understanding the impacts of Living Streets will require the collection of data to measure changes within each of these areas. Community Development: Streets will create destinations that are part of a high-quality urban environment. Living Streets incorporate buildings that relate to the sidewalk, land uses that catalyze activity, and streetscape amenities that create place. All of these factors contribute to building strong, vibrant communities. Transportation Options: Streets and their supporting street network will provide options that work for drivers, transit riders, pedestrians, and bicyclists regardless of physical ability or age. Taken as a whole, the street network will serve all users. Economic Development: investments by the public or private sector, such as new bike lanes, can generate increased economic activity on the street and provide an affordable transportation option for households. A balanced street network supports active lifestyles and the physical environment will create greater opportunities for physical activity. Studies show that people are more likely to walk if they live in neighborhoods with sidewalks and if they have local destinations, such as grocery stores and services, in walking distance from their home. Air and Water Quality: emissions reductions commensurate with reduced auto dependency. Reduced congestion results in fewer idling vehicles. Green infrastructure uses soils and vegetation to treat pollutants found in stormwater runoff and to help reduce the urban island heat effect. EXPECTED OUTCOMES 10 Equity: The Living Streets network is intended to extend throughout all of Denvers neighborhoods. Currently, due to limited City dollars for capital costs and no dedicated City budget for the maintenance of features such as street trees and sidewalks, it is challenging to implement and maintain Living Streets without private sector partnerships. As Denver continues to implement Living Streets, it is essential to identify strategies and funding mechanisms that allow the creation of Living Streets in all contexts, even on corridors that do not have private-sector resources like special districts, in order to ensure an equitable distribution of the Living Streets network.

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P R I V A T E Private property owners and businesses along a corridor, often organized into a special district, can contribute funding and valuable support for a Living Street project. Growing the Living Streets network depends on a variety of tools for designing and redesigning Denvers streets. The Living Streets Toolbox contains many elements, from streetscaping to travel lanes, that are utilized to make all types of Living Streets, including Connecting, Multimodal. A summary of these tools is outlined on the following pages. The case studies, beginning on page 19, highlight how the City and its partners have already utilized many of these tools. LIVING STREETS TOOLBOX Tools are Flexible: The tools described on the following pages provide a starting point for creating a Living context and characteristics, and there may be some tools or techniques that are not covered in the Toolbox but are still appropriate for a certain corridor. Not Every Tool is Appropriate for Every Street: Just as each corridor is different and part of a greater network, the tools utilized on each Living Street will vary. Certain tools, such as a bike boulevard or median, are not appropriate for some streets depending on types of Living Streets Destination, Multimodal, and Connecting. Certain Tools May Require Trade-offs: Creating a Living Street may require tough decisions, or trade-offs. For example, in order to create wide sidewalks or to add a bike lane to a corridor, travel lanes or on-street parking may need to be removed or reduced in width, which street. Creating a Living Street depends on evaluating PARTNERSHIPS Creating a Living Street is a coordinated effort that requires money, time and partnerships. The toolbox for each realm of the street Private, Pedestrian, and Roadway includes a range of potential partners. Partnerships are often required to successfully implement Living Streets improvements. C I T Y The City is a vital partner for leadership and funding. In addition to basic infrastructure and services, the City offers funding tools such as bonds, which are approved by Denver voters. S T A T E / F E D E R A L Both the State of Colorado and the Federal Government have funding sources and programs that can be valuable tools street reconstruction projects. O T H E R Other valuable partners include community groups, health foundations, and nonsustainable streets. TOOLBOX TOOLS FOR LIVING STREETS 11

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The Living Streets Toolbox is divided into three areas of the street: (1) Private Realm: tools that address the private property, or buildings, lining the street; (2) Pedestrian Realm: tools that address the area between the building and the curb; and (3) Roadway: tools that apply in the area between the curbs. PRIVATE REALM The private development that lines a street. This area includes buildings and off-street parking. PEDESTRIAN REALM The area between private property and the curb or roadway. ROADWAY The area between the curbs. TOOLBOX AREAS 12

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PRIVATE REALM The private realm is the area behind the sidewalk where private property buildings and off-street parking are a street. The Citys zoning code is the primary tool that shapes the private realm. Zoning establishes the rules for land use and building design, which then determines what private owners and developers can do with their property along a particular corridor. The use and design of the private realm has a large impact on the quality of the pedestrian realm and every building has an obligation to contribution to the pedestrian realm through its use, form, and design. PRIVATE REALM TOOLS Use: Does the land use, or mix of uses, draw people to the street? Streets with a mix of uses, such as retail, residential, Building Placement: Is the building close to the street with parking behind, or is it setback with parking in front? Are pedestrian entries oriented to the sidewalk? Design and Form: Do buildings have lots of windows at the pedestrian entrances oriented to the sidewalk? DENVER ZONING CODE HOW ZONING SHAPES THE PRIVATE REALM Every property has zoning that sets rules about how the property can be used when it is developed or redeveloped. These rules include what uses are allowed, where buildings and parking are placed, and the design of buildings. HOW AND WHO? Changes to the private realm are largely dependent on the private sector. Private land owners and developers are responsible for redevelopment or new construction on their property. What they can build is shaped by the zoning for that property. As part of new development, private property owners are often required to make changes in the pedestrian realm as well. The quality of the private realm and pedestrian realm are closely linked. TOOLBOX TOOLS: PRIVATE REALM 13

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TOOLBOX: ZONING Denvers zoning code is context-based, which helps to ensure that new uses and development are compatible with the adjacent neighborhood. The code also uses a form-based approach to inform how buildings relate to their surroundings. The following examples show how different zone districts shape the private realm along the street. Zoning also contributes to the quality of the pedestrian realm through building setbacks, which can make the sidewalk wider, as well as building entrances and windows that make the street more interesting for pedestrians. New development or redevelopment is a great opportunity to integrate Living Streets concepts into an area. RESIDENTIAL EXAMPLE: U-RH-2.5 Dominant Character: Row House (RH) RH Neighborhood Context: Urban (U) U Max Building Height: 2.5 Stories 2.5 Building Placement: Residential buildings in the Urban Neighborhood Context typically have consistent, moderate setbacks along the street with front entries oriented to the sidewalk. Use: Allows single-, two-, and multi-family residential uses. Multi-family uses help to generate more activity on the street. Design and Form: Buildings are typically oriented to the street, have shallow front setbacks, and are required to have a pedestrian entrance facing the street, which helps to create pedestrian activity. MAIN STREET EXAMPLE: C-MS-5 Dominant Character: Main Street (MS) MS Neighborhood Context: Urban Center (C) C Max Building Height: 5 Stories 5 Building Placement: All buildings typically have a consistent orientation toward the street with shallow front setbacks and parking to the rear or side of buildings. Use: Allows a variety of residential, commercial, and retail uses. A mix of uses on the street generates the most pedestrian activity. Design and Form: Buildings are oriented toward the street and are required to have pedestrianfriendly features such as windows at the ground COMMERCIAL EXAMPLE: S-CC-3 Dominant Character: Commercial Corridor (CC) CC Neighborhood Context: Suburban (S) S Max Building Height: 3 Stories 3 This zone district is often appropriate for Multimodal Living Streets in an urban residential setting. This zone district is often appropriate for Multimodal and Destination Streets in a dense, urban setting. Building Placement: Commercial buildings may or may not orient toward the sidewalk. They typically have deep front setbacks with parking and/or landscaping in front of the building. Use: Allows a range of residential, commercial, and retail uses. Often these corridors have a single predominant use, such as commercial. Design and Form: Buildings have varying orientation to the street and often have landscaping or parking in front. Commercial This zone district is well-suited for Connecting Streets in a less dense, suburban setting. 14

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The pedestrian realm is the area where the public and private realms meet. It is located between the curb and private property. It contains the sidewalk as well as streetscape elements including street trees and plants, pedestrian seating, lighting and signage. Oftentimes, the pedestrian realm is constructed and maintained by adjacent property owners. PEDESTRIAN REALM TOOLS TOOLBOX: PEDESTRIAN ZONE Wider sidewalks with amenity zones are more accommodating and comfortable for pedestrians. The appropriate sidewalk width depends on a variety of factors including pedestrian volume and the character of the street. Sidewalks with an amenity zone that separates the pedestrian zone from the roadway should be a goal for all Living Streets. Sidewalks with an amenity zone are often called detached and those without are often called attached. Sidewalk Width Sidewalks should be part of every Living Street. Enhanced paving, which includes colored concrete, patterned concrete or pavers can increase the quality of the sidewalk for pedestrians and greatly improves the image of a corridor. The appropriate paving material for a sidewalk often depends on the context of the surrounding blocks. In many cases, property owners form a special district to construct and maintain special paving. Sidewalk Material Amenity Zone Pedestrian Zone PEDESTRIAN REALM HOW AND WHO? Although the pedestrian realm is typically within the public right-of-way, it is often maintained by adjacent property owners. In some cases, the City may construct improvements in the pedestrian realm as part of a publicly-funded construction project. The pedestrian realm is divided into two components: (1) the pedestrian zone, where people walk; and (2) the amenity zone, which separates the walkway from the curb. TOOLBOX TOOLS: PEDESTRIAN REALM Amenity Zone Pedestrian Zone Amenity Zone Pedestrian Zone 15

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TOOLBOX: AMENITY ZONE Trees, Planters, and Green Infrastructure Street trees and planters, located in the amenity zone, are a vital component to the street. Trees provide shade for pedestrians and buffer the sidewalk from the roadway. Both trees and plants create an attractive environment for pedestrians and improve water quality and air quality. These tools should be part of every Living Street. Plantings along the street may be designed to minimize stormwater runoff and provide water quality treatment, a practice known as green infrastructure. This is an effective way to incorporate environmental enhancements that improve water and air quality while improving streetscape aesthetics. Street Furniture This tool includes a variety of elements such as benches, tables, bus stops, trash cans, and bike parking. These amenities create an attractive pedestrian environment and help to make the street a place for people to enjoy. Quality, coordinated street furniture is essential to placemaking on Multimodal and Destination streets. signs help pedestrians navigate their way along a corridor. of a street by creating a unique image and helping to brand a node or district. This tool is often only implemented when property owners form a special district to maintain streetscape amenities such as signage. DEVELOPING TOOLS The following are examples of developing tools that have not been fully tested but can be utilized as a way to enhance a street for pedestrians and/or cyclists. On-Street Bike Parking Although bike parking is often found in the pedestrian realm, it can also be in the roadway in the vehicular parking lane. This allows a large number of bikes to park in one very visible location. Parklets Parklets are exten sions of the sidewalk into an on-street park ing lane. They can create a mini-park or outdoor cafe, greatly enhancing the pedestrian experience by creating the feel of a wider sidewalk and a place for people to gather. Pilot projects include a wide range of tools to temporarily enhance a street for pedestrians, such as temporary planters or painted crosswalks. The Better Block demonstration projects in Denver are a good example Pilot Projects Lighting Pedestrian-scaled lights keep the street safe at night for pedestrians, transit riders, and bicyclists. Lighting is important for each type of Living Street. Lights enable all users to travel safely during all hours. Lighting should look similar to other street furniture and complement the rhythm of street trees on a corridor. Pedestrian lights are often only implemented when property owners form a special district to maintain them. The image above shows green infrastructure, where plantings provide stormwater treatment. 16

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Travel lanes, including turn lanes, are how vehicles move on the street. On some streets, travel lanes may be narrowed, converted to transit only, or removed to accommodate other modes. This may entail trade-offs such as more congestion or loss of on-street parking. ROADWAY The roadway is the area between the curbs. It is typically the portion of the street that accommodates travel for vehicles, transit, and bicycles. It can also include pedestrian elements such as enhanced crosswalks and medians. The City typically is responsible for changes to the roadway but sometimes its constructed and maintained by the private sector. ROADWAY TOOLS TOOLBOX: VEHICULAR Travel Lanes Parking Lanes On-street parking lanes may be parallel or diagonal. They often provide a buffer between the pedestrian realm and Shared transit lanes allow buses to travel in the same lanes as other vehicles. Buses cannot move as quickly as they do in dedicated lanes that are exclusively for use by transit. Shared Lane Dedicated Lane A dedicated transit lane allows a bus, street car, or light rail to travel in its own lane, separate from other vehicles, sometimes only during peak hours. This often enables higher transit speeds and capacities. HOW AND WHO? In most cases, the City and/ or the State is responsible for improvements in the roadway. Sometimes, especially if there is new development that requires the construction of completely new streets, the private developer constructs the roadway. TOOLBOX: TRANSIT TOOLBOX TOOLS: ROADWAY 17

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TOOLBOX: PEDESTRIAN TOOLBOX: BICYCLE TOOLBOX: OPERATIONAL Enhanced crosswalks, which are often coordinated with materials in the pedestrian realm, utilize materials such as colored or patterned concrete to clearly signal to vehicles where the pedestrian crossing is located, which increases comfort for walkers. Enhanced Crosswalks Bulb-outs, also known as curb extensions, extend the sidewalk at the end of a block in order to minimize the distance that pedestrians must travel to cross a street. These can be a good location for green infrastructure. Bulb-outs Shared Street Facilities Bike facilities where cyclists share the roadway with other vehicles. Examples include sharrows and bike boulevards, which are most appropriate on residential streets with low Priority Transit Signals prior to other modes. Bicycle Signals This tool includes signals that tell bicyclists when to turn, as well as signals that give bicycles their own phase within the signal to proceed at a green light, or to turn, prior to other modes. Signal Timing that Prioritizes Pedestrians Signal timing strategies such as leading pedestrian intervals or all-pedestrian phases can allow pedestrians to cross the street in advance of turning vehicles so that they have a safer experience crossing the street. Fully Protected Facilities Facilities in which the travel space for cyclists is completely separated from other modes, such as a protected bike lane or shared sidewalk trails. These tools often include intersection treatments like a bike box. Dedicated Space Facilities These facilities are generally in the roadway but provide a space that is exclusive to cyclists, such as bike lanes. These tools may also include intersection treatments like a bike box. Medians increase pedestrian safety by providing a refuge in the middle of the street for people and reducing the walking distance across the roadway. They are also a good location for plantings and green infrastructure. Planted medians are typically maintained by a special district. Medians & Pedestrian Refuge Islands 18

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Tennyson Street CASE STUDY Tennyson Street, a mixed use main street in northwest Denver, was transformed with a comprehensive streetscaping project in 2011 to 2012. The project enhanced an already popular corridor, lined with local businesses and historic storefronts, creating a Destination Street that draws patrons from the surrounding neighborhoods as well as the greater Denver area. WHY BEFORE AFTER Tennyson Street, between W. 38th and as a neighborhood retail district. It is a walkable, compact corridor with an and residences. Architecturally, there is great variety in both density and character, with single-family detached developments. Most of the businesses on the street from the vibrancy of an artistic mix of shops and galleries. Nearby residents and visitors from other parts of the city enjoy strolling the street and window shopping, checking out a gallery, or lingering at a sidewalk cafe. The streetscape improvements completed in 2012 created a true pedestrian destination. The project capitalized on the passion and commitment of businesses on the street, creating a welcoming front door for this vibrant retail district. 19

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Prior to this project, Tennyson Street had charming destinations but a lackluster streetscape environment. The two-lane street with on-street parking had the beginnings of a pedestrian-friendly corridor, but narrow, cracked sidewalks and a lack of consistent streetscaping detracted from the streets walkability. The new streetscape improvements created a continuous 10-foot wide pedestrian walkway. Although the curbs were not relocated, the sidewalk was effectively widened each block. New bike racks made the street more friendly to bicyclists. TENNYSON STREET TOOLBOX WHAT PRIVATE REALM PEDESTRIAN REALM ROADWAY Sidewalk Width Created a continuous 10-foot wide pedestrian walkway. Trees & Planters Sidewalk Material Enhanced sidewalks with scored concrete pattern. Street Furniture Added public art, benches, and bicycle parking to the streetscape. Parking Lanes On-street parking lanes retained but some spaces were removed to make room for bulb-outs. Bulb-outs Added bulb-outs at pedestrian crossings. Neighborhood Context: Urban (U) U Dominant Character: Main Street (MS) and Mixed Use (MX) MS MX 20 Lighting Added new pedestrian-scaled lighting.

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Creating a Living Street is a coordinated effort that requires money, time and partnerships. This page summarizes how Tennyson Street became a Living Street thanks to the Citys partnership with the local property and business owners, who formed a Local Maintenance District (LMD) to assess themselves to raise money for the maintenance of the streetscape improvements. 2009 2007 Property owners along the street form a Local Maintenance District (LMD) to fund maintenance of the improvements. HOW PARTNERSHIPS Private property owners along the Tennyson Street corridor formed a maintenance district to maintain the streetscape improvements after completion. COSTS AND FUNDING The $2.1 million streetscape project was funded by Better Denver Bonds. TIMELINE The City of Denver paid for the project through the Better Denver Bonds program. Denver voters approved the Better Denver Bonds in 2007. $2 million Total City 2010 Public workshops on the project begin. 2011 Construction starts in early 2011. 2012 Construction complete in spring 2012. Denver voters approve the Better Denver Bonds program, which includes $2.1 million for streetscape improvements to Tennyson Street. C I T Y P R I V A T E Tennyson Street CASE STUDY CONSTRUCTION COST $2.1 million total $525,000 per block CONSTRUCTION FUNDING The maintenance of the new streetscape improvements will be paid for by a Local Maintenance District (LMD), which is an entity formed by adjacent property owners who agree to an additional property tax assessment to fund maintenance costs. MAINTENANCE FUNDING 100% Private 21

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EXPECTED OUTCOMES The streetscape improvements made the street more accommodating to pedestrians who can walk to Tennyson to enjoy the businesses and amenities on the corridor. New bike racks and More modes, more people Sense of place, high quality people places Attracting investment in an area Active lifestyles, physical activity Air-emission reductions An attractive streetscape environment created a new front door for this pedestrian-centered corridor. Public art and amenities have helped to create a true sense of place where people want to gather. corridor and encourage them to invest in improvements to their properties. Now that the street is more accommodating to a variety of modes, more people should feel comfortable walking or biking, rather than driving, which supports an active lifestyle. The improvements are anticipated to create more pedestrian and bicycle trips, which should reduce auto trips and vehicle emissions. New street trees should also improve the air quality along the corridor. LESSONS LEARNED PROJECT BENEFITS Each Living Streets project results in valuable lessons that will inform future efforts. The following points summarize some of the major lessons learned from Tennyson Street: Partnerships with the private sector were key, especially for the maintenance of new street improvements. Public art that is integrated into the streetscape is a unique and effective way to create an attractive, vibrant street. Green infrastructure practices, such as street plantings that treat stormwater runoff, could have been explored as part of the project. 22 The investment made into the Tennyson Street streetscape has greatly enhanced the pedestrian-friendly nature of the street. Restaurant goes, now have a safe, attractive, and inviting experience on increased tremendously. For sure that helped encourage renovations to buildings and attracted new tenants. David Decker, Byers Street Properties

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2011 to create a vibrant Multimodal Street that serves a variety of transportation modes, connects to a mix of higher intensity land uses, and provides an excellent walking and biking WHY Home to a variety of visitor-oriented uses including the Colorado Convention Center, the Denver Performing Arts Street was recently transformed into Denvers Ambassador Street. In 2009, property owners along the corridor streetscaping project to achieve this vision. Construction was completed in 2010 through 2011. The project, headed by the City of Denver, the Downtown Denver Business Improvement District, and the Downtown Denver Partnership, was designed to strengthen the identity of the Ambassador Street, creating a great destination for tourists, workers, and residents to enjoy. Spanning 12 blocks between Market Street and Colfax Avenue, the project was designed to provide a high-quality pedestrian environment as well as enhanced facilities for bicycles. 14th Street CASE STUDY BEFORE AFTER 23

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elements from the Living Streets toolbox, the right-of-way was rebalanced with a focus on pedestrians and bicyclists. The 14TH STREET TOOLBOX WHAT PRIVATE REALM PEDESTRIAN REALM ROADWAY Sidewalk Width Sidewalks widened to 19 feet on the north Trees & Planters Large planters and 150 street trees added to the corridor. Sidewalk Material Enhanced paving and in-ground lighting added to sidewalks. Street Furniture A cohesive palette of street furniture, including seating and bike racks, added to the street. Lighting Added new pedestrian-scaled lighting. pedestrians added at each corner. Travel Lanes Width and number of thru-travel lanes reduced to create room for bike and ped improvements. Parking Lanes On-street parking retained: parking lane on Dedicated Space Bike Facility Enhanced Crosswalks Colored, patterned concrete added to all pedestrian crosswalks. Bulb-outs Added bulb-outs at pedestrian crossings. Neighborhood Context: Downtown (D) D Dominant Character: Lower Downtown (LD) and Theater District (TD) LD TD 24

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Creating a Living Street is a coordinated effort that requires money, time and partnerships. This and funding. The partnership between the City and County of Denver, the Downtown Denver Partnership, and the private property owners along the corridor was essential. Downtown Denver Partnership (DDP) Street Initiative in cooperation with the City County of Denver (CCD). DDP begins outreach to owners. 2007 2005 Downtown Area Plan Adopted: calls be transformed in a pedestrian-oriented, sustainable street. TIMELINE Passage of Better Denver Bonds: $10 2008 a priority street in Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone document, created through DDP. 2009 Property owners Street vote to form the General Improvement District (GIS) and to the project. 2010 Construction begins. 2011 Construction complete. 14th Street CASE STUDY HOW PARTNERSHIPS Private partners included the Downtown Denver Partnership and private property owners, who formed a General Improvement District (GID) to help pay for the project. The City of Denver contributed funding to the project through the Better Denver Bonds program. Denver voters approved the Better Denver Bonds in 2007. C I T Y P R I V A T E MAINTENANCE FUNDING Private COSTS AND FUNDING property owners along the corridor. CONSTRUCTION COST COSTS City Private $14 million Total $4 million $10 million The maintenance of the new streetscape improvements will be paid for by adjacent property owners, primarily through the General Improvement District (GID). 100% 25

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EXPECTED OUTCOMES The enhanced sidewalks attracted more pedestrians to the street. There has been an average 111% increase in pedestrian Glenarm more than doubled in both the morning and afternoon. More modes, more people Sense of place, high quality people places Attracting investment in an area Active lifestyles, physical activity Air-emission reductions The new Ambassador Street is now an attractive, well-designed sidewalk cafes have opened along the corridor, just one example of the people-oriented street that was created. Public investment attracted private investment along the improved corridor. Sales tax revenue for the corridor increased by 37.8%, compared to 23% for the rest of Downtown, between early 2009 and late 2012. The improvements to the street have led to more biking and walking. Initial bicycle and pedestrian counts on the street show an increase between 2010 and 2012, indicating that more people are enjoying active modes of transportation. The higher number of pedestrians and bicyclists on the street should result in fewer automobile trips and reduced car emissions. In addition, new street trees and planters should improve air quality. LESSONS LEARNED Thanks to the new sense of place that was created on 14th Street through the streetscape project, we have the private sector. There are four projects currently planned or under construction that total approximately $130 million in value President of Urban Planning and Environment, Downtown Denver Partnership PROJECT BENEFITS Each Living Streets project results in valuable lessons that will inform future efforts. The following points summarize Partnerships with the private sector were essential to both the construction and maintenance of the project. depending on the location, can help to create multimodal balance on a street constrained by existing right-of-way width. Green infrastructure practices, such as street plantings that treat stormwater runoff, could have been considered as part of the project. 26

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South Broadway is a major north-south arterial that connects the southern half of Denver with Downtown. The City, working in partnership with local businesses and property owners, started a process in 2007 to enhance the corridor between Arizona and Yale Avenues. The changes created a quality Connecting Street that features an enhanced pedestrian environment and a safer roadway for all modes. WHY South Broadway is an important business district that anchors the southern end of a major north-south thoroughfare. The corridor is home to a variety of local merchants, including several antique shops that attract customers from throughout the Denver area. Although Broadway is a major arterial City and its partners recognized the potential for the street between Arizona Avenue and Yale Avenue to become a vibrant destination with a pedestrian-friendly atmosphere. Prior to the project, the street lacked streetscaping and the type of environment that encourages to businesses on the street, a collaborative effort led to a transformed street where it is easier and safer for cars, pedestrians, transit riders, and bicyclists to enjoy shopping in this unique commercial district. South Broadway CASE STUDY BEFORE AFTER 27

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The South Broadway reconstruction project transformed 17 blocks of the corridor, between Arizona and Yale, in three phases from 2010 through 2013. This major arterial with four travel lanes, a center turn lane, and on-street parking was reconstructed to create a vibrant street that better serves all modes. Improvements included the widening of the roadway by up to six feet to create a raised center median. The median provides a refuge for pedestrians crossing the street and improves aesthetics and air quality along the corridor through the addition of trees and landscaping. The project also entailed major streetscape enhancements such as new concrete sidewalks with brick accents, a palette of coordinated street furniture including bus stops and bike racks, pedestrian lighting, landscaped features with corner seat walls, and new street trees lining the entire corridor. To improve pedestrian safety, corner bulb-outs were added at the end of the on-street parking lanes on each block. SOUTH BROADWAY TOOLBOX WHAT PRIVATE REALM PEDESTRIAN REALM ROADWAY Trees & Planters Added new street trees and landscaped planters with seat walls at corners. Sidewalk Material Built new concrete sidewalks with a scoring pattern and brick accents. Street Furniture Added a palette of streetscape furniture including bus stop benches and bike racks. Lighting New pedestrian lighting added to the corridor. Parking Lanes The project retained on-street parking, providing Bulb-outs New bulb-outs added at the end of each block. Neighborhood Context: Urban (U) U Dominant Character: Main Street (MS) MS Median locations, with landscaping. Shared Lane Retained a shared travel lane for vehicles and buses. 28

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South Broadway relied on an important partnership between the City of Denver and local businesses, who formed Local Maintenance Districts to fund maintenance of the streetscape improvements. Funding for the $27.5 million project came from the Citys Capital Improvement Project (CIP), Better Denver Bonds, the States Funding Advancement for Surface Transportation and Economic Recovery (FASTER) program, and federal improvement funding. Passage of Better Denver Bonds 2008 2008 Local Maintenance District (LMD) formed for S. Broadway between Arizona to Iowa. HOW TIMELINE Phase 1 construction complete. Phase 2 construction begins (Yale to Wesley). 2009 Phase 1 construction begins (Arizona to Iowa). 2010 LMD formed for S. Broadway between Wesley and Yale. 2011 Phase 2 construction complete. Phase 3 construction begins (Wesley to Iowa). 2013 LMD formed for S. Broadway between Wesley and Iowa. Phase 3 construction complete. South Broadway CASE STUDY MAINTENANCE FUNDING Private COSTS AND FUNDING The funding for the project came from a variety of city, state, and federal sources. CONSTRUCTION FUNDING CONSTRUCTION COST The maintenance of the new streetscape improvements will be paid for by adjacent property owners through Local Maintenance Districts. 100% PARTNERSHIPS The City of Denver contributed to the project through Better Denver Bonds and its Capital Improvement Project (CIP). C I T Y State FASTER dollars and improvement funding from the federal government were important funding sources. S T A T E / F E D E R A L Private businesses along the corridor formed local maintenance districts to fund maintenance of the improvements. P R I V A T E $27.5 million Total State & Federal $11.5 million City $16 million 29

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EXPECTED OUTCOMES The greatly enhanced streetscape, which focuses on the pedestrian, should encourage more people to walk along South Broadway. Bicyclists should also be better accommodated thanks to new bike racks and a street that is safer for all modes. More modes, more people Sense of place, high quality people places Attracting investment in an area Active lifestyles, physical activity Air-emission reductions Attractive new streetscaping created a quality destination with a cohesive identity for the 17-block stretch. Quality treatments such as landscaping and pedestrian lighting create a destination that attracts people to linger and enjoy the shopping district. The improvements to the street should encourage merchants and property owners in the area to improve their properties and storefronts, generating more economic activity in the district. As more people are drawn to walk and bicycle on the street, it The new landscaping, which includes new street trees in the sidewalk amenity zone and new center median, will help to improve air quality. Changes that promote use by pedestrians and bicyclists should contribute to reduced auto emissions. LESSONS LEARNED PROJECT BENEFITS Each Living Streets project results in valuable lessons that will inform future efforts. The following points summarize some of the major lessons learned from South Broadway: Partnerships with the private sector and state/federal government were key to funding both the construction and maintenance of the project. Streetscaping and multimodal improvements to a street are an effective way to promote marketing and economic development for a business corridor. The big thing on South Broadway prior and post construction has been the improved, increased and enhanced safety for all factions of people that come down there. In addition to the improved aesthetics, the crosswalks, the wider parking lanes, the pedestrian lights and addition. These improvements prospective clients, drivers and pedestrians alike. It just looks and feels better. Michael Sharp, Board Member of South Broadway Streetscape Local Maintenance District Green infrastructure practices, such as street or median plantings that treat stormwater runoff, could have been explored as a component of the project. 30

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This document highlights some of Denvers achievements to create a Living Streets network. Since the Living Streets Initiative began in 2007, the Department of Public Works adopted a Complete Streets Policy that formalizes the practice of promoting safe and convenient access for all users into plans, programs, and street maintenance, To ensure that the network expands and that Living Streets principles and tools continue to grow, the following next steps are recommended. Learn more about how Living Streets is moving forward at www.denvergov.org/livingstreets. MOVING FORWARD WHAT ARE THE NEXT STEPS? Integrate Living Streets tools with citywide goals and policies for green infrastructure. Lead: Public Works. Support from Community Planning and Development, Department of Environmental Health, Parks Sustainability. Develop green infrastructure unique climate, geography, water rights issues, and development patterns. Construct a demonstration project that showcases best practices for green infrastructure. Examples: New York City Green Infrastructure Program; Philadelphia Green City, Clean Waters program; Portland Grey to Green Initiative ACTION ITEM 2 GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE RESPONSIBLE PARTIES APPROACH Continue to identify and implement pilot projects that test Living Streets tools in different contexts. Pilot projects are often an effective way to demonstrate tools and test more permanent improvements. Involve key community partners and utilize pilot projects as a way to raise public awareness of Living Streets ACTION ITEM 1 PILOT PROJECTS Leads: Public Works and Community Planning and Development. Support from Department of Sustainability, and Parks and Recreation, as well as community and private-sector partners. RESPONSIBLE PARTIES Partnerships with community and private-sector partners, who can provide resources, outreach, and funding, should be explored. Examples: Better Block Jefferson Park and Better Block Five Points;15th Street protected bike lane; on-street bike corrals on Old South Pearl Street. APPROACH 31 COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS Community support is essential to all aspects of Living Streets implementation. Community members will play a key role in the dialogue about how to grow the Living Streets network, including the trade-offs that are often inherent to designing Living Streets in existing communities. Upcoming City initiatives, such as the update to Blueprint Denver, will be a way for community members to engage in the conversation about what we value as a community and next steps.

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ACTION ITEM RESPONSIBLE PARTIES APPROACH Assess the Citys current policies, rules, and regulations that govern street and streetscape design. especially since existing policies, rules, and regulations cross multiple departments Align policies, rules, and regulations current and new among all departments to ensure a clear, one-stop approach for customers and to ensure that the Living Streets philosophy is achieved. Leads: Public Works and Community Planning and Development. Support from the Fire Department, and Recreation. Due to breadth of project and based on national examples, resources such as additional staff hires will be required. Identify funding and dedicated staff in each department. Consider hiring a complete streets manager who can lead effort and oversee an interdepartmental staff working group. Examples: Chicago Complete Streets Document; Boston Complete Streets Design Guidelines 3 POLICY AND REGULATION 32 ACTION ITEM RESPONSIBLE PARTIES APPROACH Evaluate funding models for both capital and maintenance costs for Living Streets improvements. This should be closely linked to the assessment of City policy and regulations to ensure that there are viable methods for implementing the vision for Living Streets citywide and in a variety of contexts. Leads: Budget and Management Planning and Development, and Parks and Recreation. Sustainability. Explore and evaluate potential funding sources to cover the cost of implementing Living Streets-type improvements equitably throughout the City. This effort should include a study of best practices from peer cities across the United States. 4 FUNDING MECHANISMS the Living Streets Toolbox, such as a consistent 8-foot sidewalk and a planted median where possible. While there is no private sector partner along this stretch of the corridor, because it is a designated Parkway/Boulevard, Parks ongoing Living Streets discussion. Funding and support of the Living Streets policy will result in the inclusion of street trees on the east side of the roadway, in addition to the consistent sidewalk and planted medians. Together these improvements will move Federal closer to the Living Streets vision. The City will also cover maintenance associated with these enhancements until private property owners along the corridor are able to take on these costs. Phase 1: the project included some elements from the Living Streets Toolbox, including a consistent 8-foot sidewalk and planted median where possible. More to come: the second phase of the project will include street trees on the east side of the roadway. Additional amenities, such as pedestrian lighting, could be added when a source for the additional capital and ongoing maintenance costs is Street Furniture Street Trees Pedestrian Lighting