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Denver strategic parking plan, 2010

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Title:
Denver strategic parking plan, 2010
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Department of Public Works, City and County of Denver
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Denver, CO
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City and County of Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

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Strategic planning
City planning

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Auraria Library
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Auraria Library
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Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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DENVER
STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
CO-PROJECT MANAGERS
Crissy Fanganello, PublicWorks
Steve Gordon, Community Planning and Development
SPP PROJECT LEADS
Cindy Patton, PublicWorks
Steve Nalley, Community Planning and Development
PROJECTTEAM
Matt Wager, PublicWorks
Sean Mackin, PublicWorks
Scott Bauman, PublicWorks
Nola Owens, PublicWorks
PW EXECUTIVE MANAGEMENT
Guillermo "Bill"Vidal, Manager of PublicWorks and Deputy Mayor
Lesley Thomas, Deputy Manager Engineering Services
Bob Kochaver, Deputy Manager Operations
George Delaney, Deputy Manager Finance
Ann Williams, Manager's Office Communications
CPD EXECUTIVE MANAGEMENT
Peter Park, Manager of Community Planning and Development
Molly Urbina, Deputy Manager of Community Planning and
Development
MAYORS PARKING COMMISSION NON MEMBERS
Diane Barrett, Mayor's Office
Rob Duncanson, PublicWorks
Chad Fuller, Dept, of Finance
Bo Martinez, Office of Economic Development
Tim Martinez, Office of Economic Development
Brian Mitchell, PublicWorks
Susan Moore, Mayor's Office
Sean Maley, CRL Associates
Lindsey Strudwick, PublicWorks
Tina Scardina, PublicWorks
Roxanne white, Mayor's Office
MAYORS PARKING COMMISSION -
CURRENTTERM MEMBERS
Aylene McCallum
David Booth
John Imbergamo
Joseph Dolan
Joseph Vostrejs
Julie Bender
Loren Ginsburg
Mark Schaefer
Mike Mills
Monica Strobel
Paul Schnaitter
Randy Weeks
San Ong
Tawni Cummings
Timothy Sabus
SPP TECHNICAL ADVISORY GROUP DEPARTMENT
REPRESENTATION
Mayor's Office
Greenprint Denver
Planning Services, CPD
Development Services/Zoning
Dept, of Law
Budget Management Office
Development Engineering Services, PW
Traffic Engineering Services, PW
Policy and Planning, PW
Community Planning and Development
Dept, of Finance
Treasury
Office of Economic Development
Theaters and Arenas
Real Estate


CONTENTS

WHAT IS THE STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN?........................................................ 2
HOWTO USETHIS PLAN......................................................................... 2
WHY DO A STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN?........................................................... 3
WHY DOES PARKING MATTER?................................................................... 4
WHO IS IMPACTED?........................................................................... 8
WHY MANAGE PARKING?....................................................................... 11
PARKING MANAGEMENT 101.................................................................... 14

THE PROJECT TEAM........................................................................ 18
TECHNICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE............................................................ 18
PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT AND ENGAGEMENT PROCESS............................................... 19
SUPPORTING POLICY DOCUMENTS AND REGULATORY TOOLS....................................... 21

DENVER'S EXISTING PARKING CONDITIONS.................................................. 26
VISION #1: ACKNOWLEDGE A VARIETY OF LAND USE PATTERNS AND CONTEXTS.................... 27
VISION #2: MANAGE PARKING AS AN ASSET................................................. 27
VISION #3: ENCOURAGE AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO PARKING MANAGEMENT..................... 30

THE PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX................................................... 32
||DEMAND......................................................................... 33
H LOCATION....................................................................... 36
0TIME............................................................................ 38
0 PRICING........................................................................ 42
SUPPLY........................................................................ 45
APPLYING THE TOOLBOX............................................................. 46
AREA MANAGEMENT PLANS............................................................ 47

IMPLEMENTING THE STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN.............. ................................. 54
KEY RECOMMENDATIONS................................................................... 54
11 DEMAND ............................................................................ 57
El LOCATION .......................................................................... 59
El TIMING............................................................................. 62
Q PRICING 63
El SUPPLY............................................................................. 64
IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARY................................................................. 66
GLOSSARY
70


INTRODUCTION
4
WHAT IS THE STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN?
The Strategic Parking Plan (SPP) is a comprehensive, city-wide framework that
helps articulate and clarify the vision and approach for parking management
in the City and County of Denver. It does not focus on parking management in
one area or neighborhood but serves to align policy-makers, city staff, residents,
business and property owners, and all other stakeholders so that parking goals
outlined in the plan are shared and reflect a common vision for the city as a whole.
The SPP explores innovative strategies and parking values from a variety of user
perspectives so that the implementation tools set forth can achieve the best
balance possible.
HOWTO USE THIS PLAN
The completion of the SPP document does not mean that the work is done.
Instead, the vision for parking management documented in this plan will become
a part of daily decision making for parking-related programs and policies in the
coming years. As new parking conditions and opportunities arise, city staff, policy-
makers, and the public can refer to the SPP for direction so that parking decisions
benefit the city as a whole. In order for outcomes to be successful, it is imperative
that all stakeholders understand and commit to the vision. Parking needs will
change over time and the SPP serves as a dynamic roadmap as the City navigates
through new circumstances. The tools provided in the Strategic Parking Plan will
need to be validated again and again as the City grows and changes so that each
parking management strategy considers the needs of individual stakeholders
and the health of the overall city. Use this plan to understand the vision and new
implementation tools but also let it serve as a call to action to be involved and
informed as parking, and the city as a whole, continues to evolve.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION


WHY DOES PARKING MATTER?
The design and availability of parking has the potential to shape both the look and
feel of a city, the quality of life of its citizens and visitors, and the potential for new
growth and development. The need to accommodate parking must be balanced
with other competing goals for the built environment such as livability and
economic development. It is important to acknowledge that it is impossible to
accommodate the land consumption that would be required to park every vehicle
since it would prevent the City from achieving its goals of being a sustainable,
livable community.
PARKING:
Impacts the look and feel of a city and its neighborhoods
Is shaped across multiple levels of policy, regulation and administration
Is an important component of the overall land use and transportation
system
Can affect traffic congestion
Has cost and value associated with every space
Is dynamic and varies based on the surrounding land use and time of day
Is part of a larger city system with many stakeholders
May require trade offs in our behavior, expectations, and choices.
Demand is most intense where there are centers of activity, mixes of land
uses, and where land is valuable.
Takes up land as one off-street space = 300 square feet of physical space.
Structures cost upwards of $30,000 per space.
Affects housing affordability
Can contribute to urban sprawl and pollution
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION
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EVERYONE PAYS FOR PARKING
Whether it is through a direct or indirect charge or an impact, parking is never
free. Even in situations where parking appears to be free, like at grocery stores
or shopping centers, the real costs of parking are often hidden. Businesses that
provide free parking might fund the cost of providing parking through their
annual operating budgets. Other businesses might even pass on those costs
through the price of their goods or services. Likewise, the parking spot on the
street in front of a home has a cost that is paid for by tax receipts.
The cost of parking, however, is more than just physical. The opportunity costs
associated show that parking is worth much more than the amount of quarters
it takes to plug a meter. Its value is evident in terms of economic development,
land use, the health and connectivity of the overall transportation system, and
environmental sustainability.
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT COSTS
Effective parking policies and management strategies directly impact local
economic development. Parking supply is often a key consideration for
businesses considering Denver as a location since they must consider access for
both employees and customers. Customers think about parking as they make
decisions regarding where to shop, do business, and play. Customers may choose
to go elsewhere If the parking associated with a particular business or commercial
area is limited, perceived as too far away, is too expensive, or is inconvenient.
The Urban Land Institute document,"Ten Principles for Rebuilding Neighborhood
Retail (2004)", encourages balancing a walkable environment with convenient
access in urban shopping locations. It advocates for"high visibility, a sense of
personal security, and adequate convenient parking"as necessities for successful
retail but warns that"without them retail will likely fail, regardless of the
sophistication of the shopping environment or the quality of the tenants". The
parking decisions made by the affected stakeholders and their economic impacts
are important since it relies on tax revenues from retail sales to fund city services
for both residents and businesses. In some cases, there is a relationship between
the provision of parking and economic vitality. The goal is to achieve what is often
a delicate balance between local area interests and overall city and community
interests to create lively, attractive, and sustainable places.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION
5


COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH LAND USE AND NEIGHBORHOODS
In a typical North American city, the amount of space dedicated to roadways
accounts for about 30% of the total land use. Land used specifically for parking
simply adds to the overall percentage of space that is dedicated primarily to
automobiles.
In addition, the visual impact of too much surface parking in an area can be
striking. If the supply of surface parking is underutilized, it may also be perceived
as unsafe or may not attract new development. The decision to use large areas
for surface parking in urban areas where land values are high may not be the
most cost-effective or efficient use of land for both individual community and city
interests.
Finally, parking requirements for new development may significantly impact
construction costs and impact the financial feasibility of a project. Denver is
currently poised to invite new development of many shapes and sizes. This growth
will contribute much to the vitality of different neighborhoods as well as the
city as a whole. Future land choices should support the City's goals of providing
affordable housing choices, increased services, jobs, and neighborhood retail.
TRANSPORTATION COSTS
Parking is an important component of the overall transportation and mobility
network since the design and location of parking can influence personal travel
choices. If there is a reasonable chance of free and available parking at one's
destination, it is more likely that an individual will choose a private automobile for
the trip. Free and abundant parking provides no incentive to utilize alternative
forms of transportation prioritizing the use of personal vehicles over walking,
cycling, or transit use. In addition, the location of parking can directly impact
safety, circulation, and access for users of other transportation modes. The use
of on-street parking should be weighed against other potential uses of available
right-of-way such as bike lanes or dedicated transit lanes. While congestion and
air pollution levels increase with additional vehicles on the road, decreasing the
number of vehicles on the road could reduce parking demand, traffic congestion,
and pollution levels.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION


ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY COSTS
The quality of Denver's environment is impacted when land is dedicated to
parking uses. Large surface parking lots can contribute to a "heat island effect"
when asphalt absorbs and retains heat from the sunlight. Additionally, ground
covered with asphalt or concrete is impermeable, which inhibits natural drainage
and can carry run-off water containing oil, gas, grease or other fluids into storm
drains, rivers, or streams. This ultimately impacts the City's overall water quality.
Land dedicated to cars for roadways or parking should instead be balanced with
opportunities for green spaces where plants and trees help improve air and water
quality.
DIRECT COSTS
Parking requires substantial capital and operating expenditures that are not
always recovered from those who use the spaces. The City and County of Denver
currently manages tens of thousands of on and off-street parking spaces, however,
only a fraction of those spaces produce revenue. Numerous parking lot and
garage operators manage thousands of additional private spaces. Each space
has an associated cost in terms of land value, maintenance, and management
expenses.
Land utilized for on-street parking is a scarce resource in Denver since the City is
almost completely developed. It is costly to build additional parking especially
when it requires the construction of underground or raised structures. In addition,
each space must be maintained to make sure it is safe, accessible, and complies
with zoning requirements or other city standards. Successful parking systems
also require constant monitoring and administrative management to make sure
that they are meeting the needs of users and citywide goals. Parking studies, data
collection, and other evaluation strategies are costly and time consuming but are
often necessary in order to calibrate the usefulness of the overall system.
Active parking management has a significant cost impact for municipalities. Many
cities devote full-time staff teams to the management of parking operations and
enforcement. Enforcement teams that monitor parking management compliance
require personnel and equipment resources. Parking technologies that improve
customer service and performance for users, such as online citation payment
websites or the installation of new, more convenient meter technologies also
represent significant capital investments for the City. Finally, the maintenance of
no parking
m

DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION
7


on and off-street parking facilities includes costs such as resurfacing concrete and
asphalt, striping, and signage to ensure that parking spaces are functional and
clearly marked. Although meters and enforcement activities generate citation or
fine revenue for the City, expenditures to keep parking inventory and programs
running effectively often cut deeply into any profits.
In 2008 the City and County of Denver spent roughly $13 million dollars on
parking personnel and administration and another $234,000 on court system costs
for parking-related cases. The Denver Police Department spent roughly $23,000
addressing parking-related issues or calls. Costs for capital and maintenance
needs were almost $2.3 million. Finally, debt service payments for garages and
pay stations totaled $1.95 million. The combination of parking-related personnel,
administration, technology, capital, and maintenance expenses in 2008 totaled
nearly $18 million.
Figures from revenue-generating parking sources such as lots, garages, meters,
pay stations, and fines or citations totaled just over $26 million in 2008. The net
balance of $8 million dollars makes up less than 1% of the City and County of
Denver's General Fund, a main operating account that funds both parking and
non-parking related programs and improvements across the city.
WHO IS IMPACTED?
The desire to park anywhere, for any length of time and at little or no cost is not
surprising since parking often provides access to goods and services. However,
with a limited supply available, users must decide what they value when selecting
a parking space.
Understanding user behavior and tradeoffs associated with parking choices help
us clarify the nature of different stakeholder groups. Drivers may choose a parking
location based on how important it is for them to be in close proximity to their
destination while another may choose a space because of its cost. An individual
attending a sporting event for several hours may be more willing to park farther
away from his or her destination than a shopper who needs to quickly pick up
dry cleaning, carry bags of groceries, or drop-off/pick-up children. While parking
choices differ based on each person's needs and circumstances, they all impact
quality of life. These indicators help clarify the parking needs, preferences and
behaviors of different user groups and form "parking demand profiles."
Demand profiles categorize users into groups of people whose parking needs are
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION
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similar in terms of location, time and duration. These profiles can often provide a
conceptual picture of parking patterns in a given area. Three main parking user
profiles are employees, customers, and residents.
EMPLOYEES
Employees typically prefer to park in close proximity to their workplace but
may be willing to park further away if it means they can safely leave their car
unattended. Cost influences parking location for employees, especially if parking is
not provided by the employer. Employee drivers might be willing to park further
away if parking cost less. Employees may also be more likely to shift to other
modes of travel such as transit, walking, carpooling or bicycling.
CUSTOMERS
Customer demand profiles will vary significantly based on their destination
and trip purpose. Some may only need to park for a short span of time and will
therefore place a higher priority on being able to park quickly and conveniently
near their destination. Customers who are shopping for leisure, attending a movie,
or enjoying a dinner out may be more willing to park further away depending on
the duration of their stay. Customers who are visiting more mixed-use areas with
a variety of destinations can be encouraged to "park once" in a centralized facility
and walk between destinations.
RESIDENTS
The needs of residents in mixed-use or predominantly residential neighborhoods
have varied parking preferences. Residents may have off-street parking provided
in a garage or other facility or they may rely solely on available on-street spaces.
They have both long and short-term parking needs as well as guest parking needs.
In addition, most residents have a strong preference to park in close proximity to
their homes. When possible, residents should be encouraged to utilize existing
off-street parking facilities so that access to on-street parking is maintained for
other uses or for residents with parking needs. In highly desirable areas with
conditions that must accommodate urban retail and residential parking, permit
programs or other strategies may be necessary in order to balance competing
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION


parking demands. It is important to understand the overall parking supply and
demand needs of a given area before determining what type of parking strategy
to employ. The following table summarizes different factors that determine a
user's choice of parking location and facility.
Parking Facility Choices
Decision Factor On-Street Facilities Off-Street Facilities
Location On-street parking, if available, is dispersed geographically throughout an area and may be closer or further from any single use depending on availability. Off-street parking is concentrated in a single facility and may or may not be public or dedicated to one use.
Convenience If parking is widely available, users will likely be able to park close to their destination. In situations where parking is in high demand and street spaces are not readily available, street parking may be perceived as inconvenient. Dedicated parking attached to a single use may not be open to the general public. Parking in a structure may be perceived as inconvenient.
Visibility and Information Since on-street parking is dispersed, users can easily assess parking options without altering driving path but may cruise multiple blocks looking for parking. Time restrictions are not always readily visible while driving. Users may be unfamiliar with the price, time restrictions or public nature of a structure or lot and, without visible signage, may be reluctant to turn into the lot or structure.
Safety Areas with good pedestrian lighting and lots of activity have fewer safety concerns associated with on-street parking. Some users, however, may not feel comfortable parallel parking on busy streets. Others may not feel comfortable parking in areas that feel unsafe or have less desirable uses. Underground garages and large or poorly lit structures can be perceived as unsafe by users. If so, these facilities may only be used if other parking is unavailable. If a structure is well designed and patrolled, it may be perceived as safer than on-street parking.
110
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION
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WHY MANAGE PARKING?
The need for management strategies to ensure the efficient use of existing parking
inventory is supported by an understanding of the direct costs or opportunity
costs associated with parking.
Successful parking management increases the availability of parking for users who
need or value it most in a given situation. The intended outcome of a parking
management program is a balanced parking system that efficiently prioritizes and
matches user profiles to available supply. The anticipated result is that as many
people as possible have the opportunity to reach their intended destinations and
pursue their activities as planned. While this may not mean everyone is able to
park directly in front of their destinations, the goal is to provide parking options
that are within a reasonable distance. Some areas may not require significant
levels of management while other areas with high demand or limited supplies may
require more intensive management to support needs that vary by times of day.
The absence of parking management can result in negative outcomes. If demand
consistently exceeds supply in high-demand, mixed-use areas; the result may
compromise quality of life from both the resident and business/retail perspectives.
Although parking has been actively managed in Denver for some time, one of the
recent transformations in parking policy is a new focus on management strategies
that better allocate and prioritize parking resources for a variety of user groups.
Instead of applying a standardized management program across the board,
strategies are customized to target specific needs in specific areas. The overall
result is a parking system that makes the most efficient use of existing resources.
This approach can be applied in both commercial and residential areas and
increases the certainty of finding a parking space by providing more options to
shoppers, residents, and visitors.
The following two diagrams describe the impacts of both unmanaged and
managed parking.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION
i i-----mwn r


More regulated
Olstance trom destination
> Less regulated
The first step in customizing a strategy is to recognize that management
techniques do not impact all user groups in the same way. Different user groups
will respond differently to management controls based on their trip purpose, the
availability and convenience of alternate transportation modes, and how easy it is
to access competing destinations. Different types of user groups have legitimate
claims to the same limited parking supplies but they also have different tolerances
that dictate how far from their destination they are willing to park. The diagram on
the following page displays the parking tolerances of different user groups.
Ignoring these behavior traits can result in unbalanced restrictions that favor
one group without accommodating others. While overly restrictive practices are
commonly faulted for deterring customers from visiting certain areas, rules that
are too relaxed can also be responsible for the same unfavorable outcomes.
112
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION
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£
+8-i-
0
1 7"
I
£ 6--
5--
4-
3- -
2- -
90 nnn- -

spaces
*. User Type
B ki^nes
B Com trailers
H Residents
^ Cuslotners
Sludents
B Employees
+1500
Pittance from most desirable spaces (FEET)
The ability to provide balanced parking management for all users is especially
challenging with on-street spaces since they are accessible to the public on a first-
come, first-served basis. This approach places the default priority on serving those
who arrive first, an approach that does not always meet the needs of the various
users. For example, employees who traditionally arrive first dominate areas that
operate with first-come, first-served parking. This prevents subsequent customers
from accessing the spaces nearest to goods and services and creates an air of
inconvenience. Deterring customers from visiting prevents them from supporting
local businesses and can impact the success of the local economy.
Management tools must be carefully calibrated to reflect and balance how and
why stakeholder groups value parking and the associated behavior traits. While
no one group has a "right" to a space, understanding the different perspectives
of users can help clarify the best use of the parking space as an asset. A balanced
approach to parking management intends to improve customer service for the
parking user, but does not mean that every person will be able to park exactly
where they want for free.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION
13


PARKING MANAGEMENT 101
Before creating management strategies, it is essential to better understand the
complexities of parking. The following discussion presents a set of key parking
management"principles". This set of parking principles describe the nature of
parking universally and provide a base understanding of parking operations.
While some of the parking principles presented here may seem simple or intuitive,
it is crucial that they be fully understood prior to implementing the SPP parking
management vision.
PRINCIPLE 1: PARKING SUPPLY/ INVENTORY AND DEMAND
Parking supply or inventory refers to the total number of spaces available for use.
Parking in a given area is supplied through many types of facilities that are owned,
managed and used differently.
Parking is typically categorized into on-street and off-street parking. These two
categories differ in several important ways. Off-street parking falls into four
categories:
City owned off-street public parking
City owned off-street private parking
Privately-owned off-street public parking
Privately owned off-street parking that is dedicated to a specific use
The majority of on-street parking in Denver is located in the public right-of-way
and is managed by the City and County of Denver's Public Works department.
There are critical differences between on and off-street parking when viewed
from an administrative or management perspective. The supply of on-street
parking is relatively fixed and the City's ability to expand that supply is constrained
to changes that can be made through street reconfiguration or re-striping.
Conversely, off-street parking supply can be expanded more readily through
construction of new facilities including surface lots and structured or underground
garages. However, the costs associated with new or expanded facilities can be
very high.
Parking "demand" refers to the amount of parking that is used at a specific time
and place. The factors that influence demand are important pieces of the parking
management puzzle. Demand is influenced by vehicle ownership, the popularity
14
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION
i r


of an area, the nature of the surrounding uses, availability of alternative forms of
transportation, and other external factors like fuel costs.
Demand rates typically fluctuate and differ on a daily, weekly, seasonal or even
annual basis. The parking characteristics of an area are directly related to the
nature of these cycles. For example, demand at an office park will peak during the
day on weekdays but demand at restaurants and theatres may peak on weekends
or evenings.
PRINCIPLE 2: OCCUPANCY OR UTILIZATION
Parking occupancy is one of the central concepts in parking management.
Whether in reference to on-street parking or to an off-street lot or garage, parking
occupancy describes the percentage of spaces that are occupied at any given
time. Parking occupancy rates, also called "utilization", reflect the relationship
between parking supply and demand. A low occupancy rate in an area means that
there are many spaces that are empty or unused. While this may be convenient
for drivers traveling to that destination, lower occupancy rates can also mean
that oversupplies of parking or inappropriate parking prices exist in the area. By
contrast, an area, block face, or lot that is completely occupied could mean that
the available parking supply needs additional management to accommodate
demand.
Ideally, the occupancy of parking facilities should be high enough to ensure that
they are occupied at a level that justifies that parking as a necessary land use, but
not so high that it is unreasonably difficult to find a space. Generally, parking is
considered "at capacity" when available spaces are 85% occupied.
PRINCIPLE 3: DURATION ANDTURNOVER
Parking duration refers to the length of time a vehicle occupies a space. Parking
turnover describes how frequently a parking space becomes available or"turns
over"during an hour. The rate at which spaces become available is important
since it describes the number of opportunities different users will have to occupy
a space. For example, a vehicle belonging to a dry cleaner shop employee could
either occupy a parking space in front that shop for a full 8 hours (providing access
for 1 person) or it could turn over every 30 minutes and provide convenient access
for 16 different customers.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION
15
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himn n-i-


Ideally, both on and off-street parking should be managed so that they can
accommodate a range of different stay durations based on the needs of the
surrounding land uses. A popular retail or commercial area, for example, requires
conveniently located parking spaces that are regulated for"short term use"-
anywhere between 30 minutes and two hours. Parking around entertainment or
restaurant districts may require parking durations that are longer than two hours.
PRINCIPLE 4: ENFORCEMENT
The enforcement of parking regulations is an important component of the parking
system. Parking rules and restrictions are put in place to support parking goals
such as turnover or access. The success of parking management strategies are
often tied to the level of enforcement provided. Parking citations or fines are
issued to encourage compliance with rules and to maintain the intent of the
parking management philosopies in place within a given area. While enforcement
is often necessary to ensure that rules and restrictions are observed, there are
significant resource implications associated from both a labor and equipment
standpoint. A clear definition of existing resources and implications are an
important consideration when selecting a management tool or designing a
parking management program for an area.
The Denver Right of Way Enforcement (ROWE) team is committed to providing
quality customer service and management of the public right of way. The ROWE
team, which includes a staff of Vehicle Control Agents (VCAs), is responsible for
monitoring parking management strategies for the entire city. This team can
issue citations for on-street, off-street and private property parking violations as
well as administer vehicle booting and towing for the City. They provide parking
enforcement for sporting events, special events, holidays, concerts, and after-
hours university events to balance the needs of special event attendees and the
residences or businesses that are impacted. They routinely perform field checks
and investigations of contested tickets to ensure that enforcement is appropriate
and just. In addition to managing on-street parking, the ROWE team also handles
the enforcement of certain right-of-way permits including major encumbrance
permits and special parking permits.
Efforts from the ROWE and VCA teams directly support parking strategies in
an area. Enforcement that acknowledges and works to support the needs of
an area is focused on customer service. If parking management strategies and
complementing enforcement are designed well, it increases the likelihood that the
16
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION
mmm-m i-n i----r i-------1
ii r ---- n i


desired goals objectives of an area are achieved (e.g. increased turnover, access,
utilization). Under these conditions, parking can truly function as an asset and
meet the diverse needs of various stakeholders so that it is easier for those user
groups to function within the system.
PRINCIPLE 5: PARTNERSHIP
Internal policy guidance provided by previous City and County of Denver planning
documents sets a clear vision for the future. However, the management of day-
to-day parking operations within a diverse land use and transportation system
is a more complicated endeavor. To achieve success, partnerships with external
stakeholders are an imperative component of any parking management program.
Partnerships with those who are impacted most by parking policies can help
ensure that strategies are reasonable and are tailored to achieve specific desired
outcomes. Extensive stakeholder input and buy-in is needed to effectively
understand the implications or potential effects of new policies. Input is
necessary from a broad cross section of stakeholders including business alliances,
improvement districts, property and business owners, residential neighborhood
organizations, and other interested individual citizens or organizations.
Conversations with stakeholders should begin early in the development of a
parking management strategy and continue over a period of time to ensure that
actions are monitored for success and are regularly calibrated to meet the desired
outcomes.
Parking management within Denver may also involve regional entities such as
the Regional Transportation District (RTD) or the Denver Regional Council of
Governments (DRCOG). As such, parking management goals and objectives
should be communicated to regional partners so that every opportunity exists to
further collaborate and combine efforts.
It is only through efforts to collaborate that a parking management program can
succeed and achieve a broader vision for a livable, sustainable city.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION
17
mi iiiiinniiim


PROCESS


THE PROJECT TEAM
The SPP was led by a dedicated team of professionals and co-managed by City
staff from Public Works and Community Planning and Development. The team
worked with national parking consultants, led by Wilbur Smith & Associates, to
develop a framework based on best practices and input from other city agencies,
the public, and a variety of stakeholders. The partnership between Community
Planning and Development and Public Works acknowledges the impact of
parking on both land use and transportation decisions and reflects the City's goal
of becoming a more multimodal and sustainable city. Since various agencies,
ordinances, and policies regulate parking in Denver, the project team also included
engineering, planning, zoning, and policy professionals including key staff from
Parking Operations, Right of Way Enforcement, the Parking Violations Bureau and
the Office of the Parking Magistrate.
Much of the team involved with the SPP development process already manage
daily parking operations and are acutely aware of current conditions and parking
needs. These team members will also be responsible for implementing the SPP
framework and monitoring the strategies moving forward. This section introduces
the SPP project team as well as the related departments and agencies that have
provided support throughout the plan development process.
TECHNICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE
In addition to Public Works and Community Planning and Development, the
Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) consisted of key staff members from
other city departments, agencies and groups that have an interest in parking.
Representatives on the TAC included staff from Budget Management, the Finance
and Treasury offices, City and County of Denver Courts, Development Services,
Parks and Recreation, Theaters & Arenas, and the Office of Economic Development.
Each of these groups offered unique insights and perspectives related to parking
around the city and provided valuable advice and direction throughout the plan
development process.
18
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PROCESS


The Project Team
Technical Advisory Committee
Public Involvement and Engagement Process
Supporting Policy Documents and Regulatory Tools
The SPP team also engaged the Mayor's Parking Commission (MPC) to solicit
feedback on best practices research and the policy directions explored. The MPC
is an appointed body enabled by the Mayor's Office It consists of a variety of
stakeholders who represent residential and commercial interests as well as other
organizations. This body meets regularly to provide an opportunity for input and
to review existing and proposed parking policies and management practices.
PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT AND ENGAGEMENT
PROCESS
Throughout the process it was critical to engage members of the public who
the subject matter experts on parking conditions in areas where they live, work,
and play. The SPP team used a variety of methods to engage the public, share
findings, and elicit feedback. The input gained from this process was invaluable
and allowed the project team to hear a diverse set of experiences and opinions.
As a result of this process, the SPP reflects a wider range of perspectives and
tools that can helpd balance user needs. In addition, the involvement of so many
internal and external groups sets the stage for future partnerships throughout the
implementation of the plan.
FOCUS GROUPS
Key stakeholders were invited to join the project team at several meetings
throughout the SPP development process to review plan goals and objectives
and to discuss specific issues. Focus groups included individuals from parking
management companies, parking facilities operations, and enforcement
professions. Groups also included City of Denver zoning administrators, City
finance and budget management staff, business and retail district representatives,
development and architecture professionals, and neighborhood and resident
representatives. These focus groups provided attendees an opportunity to discuss
the variety of perspectives that all must be considered in order to balance parking
demand across different user groups. These meetings allowed the project team to
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PROCESS
19


dig deeper into specific parking topics with the people who know them best.
PUBLIC MEETINGS
Three public meetings were held at key points throughout the course of the
plan development process to gain an understanding of community stakeholders
parking values, needs, and desires. Public meetings also provided an important
opportunity to share SPP development updates, educate on best practices
research, and solicit feedback from meeting attendees. The public meeting
formats varied but typically included an open house, a formal presentation from
the project team, and time for questions and answers.
UPDATESTO NEIGHBORHOOD ASSOCIATIONS AND BUSINESS
ORGANIZATIONS
SPP team members also attended several meetings at the request of
neighborhood associations/organizations and business alliances in order to
provide updates on the plan development process. These smaller meetings
provided an additional opportunity for the project team to hear back from various
stakeholders, identify needs, and brainstorm parking management strategies.
WEBSITE
A website hosted on Denvergov.org was developed to provide updates and
information regarding the SPP. Information regarding parking research, best
practices, the SPP approach, study timeline, public engagement opportunities,
and presentation materials from public meetings were available throughout the
process at www.denvergov.org/parking. The website also provided an additional
opportunity for members of the public to provide feedback on parking-related
issues through an online survey and comment form.
20
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PROCESS


SUPPORTING POLICY DOCUMENTS AND
REGULATORYTOOLS
Since the SPP will be used in conjunction with existing City documents, it is
important that it is designed to support the broad set of goals established for
Denver by the Comprehensive Plan (2000). The SPP builds on Blueprint Denver
(2002), which is the Comprehensive Plan's key implementation document and
presents an integrated land use and transportation vision for the entire City of
Denver. Additional planning documents such as the Strategic Transportation
Plan (2008) and Greenprint Denver (2006) also present complementary policy
frameworks and implementation strategies that were considered in the
development of the SPP.
COMPREHENSIVE PLAN 2000
Comprehensive Plan 2000 established a vision for Denver's future that is
summarized as "a city that is livable for its people, now and in the future."
In terms of parking policy, the plan outlines the following objectives and
strategies:
Objective 2: Stewardship of Resources
Strategy 2-F: Conserve resources by introducing shared parking at activity
centers
Strategy 9-C: Explore opportunities for shared parking and evaluate the
need for new shared parking structures within major urban centers such as
Downtown, Cherry Creek and the Central Platte Valley. Where appropriate,
reduce parking spaces required by the Denver Zoning Ordinance.
i'T[[
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PROCESS
II IH I


BLUEPRINT DENVER (2002)
Blueprint Denver established a specific policy framework as the city's integrated
land use and transportation plan. Blueprint Denver encourages and promotes a
more efficient use of transportation systems, expanded mode choices, appropriate
and mixed land uses, and the revitalization of declining neighborhoods.
Collectively, the recommendations in Blueprint Denver establish a comprehensive
strategy to channel growth in a way that positively impacts the city.
Areas of Change: As Denver's land use policies channel new growth and
development towards designated "areas of change," a complementary parking
policy will be needed to ensure that parking pressures are adequately managed
as both activities and the intensities of uses increases. Similarly, parking
requirements, including the potential reduction of parking ratios for mixed-use
development or developments near transit stations, play an important role in
facilitating and accelerating the desired types of development.
Areas of Stability: Ensuring that Denver's residential neighborhoods within
designated Areas of Stability retain their existing character will require a
carefully crafted parking policy. Off-street parking requirements and on-street
management must be designed in a way that enhances existing neighborhood
character while allowing for adaptive reuse and limited development. At the same
time, parking resources must be managed to meet the needs of all stakeholders.
Multi-Modal Streets and Innovative Transit Options: Parking policy can be a useful
tool to promote the use of alternative modes and control the volumes or behavior
of auto traffic along particular streets. Restrictions or the pricing of parking can
encourage travelers to use other modes. While widespread access to free parking
is undoubtedly convenient for drivers, it will be difficult for Denver to achieve
substantial changes in travel behavior while such conditions exist. Similarly,
appropriate management of on-street parking can discourage behaviors such
as double parking and cruising that can interfere with the efficient operations
of traffic. The design and location of both on and off-street parking can shape
the character of streets and potentially reduce conflicts between modes. Finally,
parking is an important consideration in transit accessibility. Plans for parking
at and around Denver's transit facilities will play a role in determining who uses
transit, how they access transit facilities, and the kinds of impacts those facilities
have on surrounding neighborhoods.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PROCESS
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THE STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN
The Strategic Transportation Plan (STP) was completed in fall 2008. The STP is a
multimodal transportation plan created to understand and address the current
and future transportation needs of the City and County of Denver. The STP
commits to multimodal transportation as the answer to growth management
in Denver. The STP evaluates demand in terms of"people trips" not"vehicular
trips" meaning that all modes are included. The STP analysis concluded that
the expected continued growth in person-trip demand means that Denver's
infrastructure cannot accommodate unlimited trips by single occupancy
vehicle. In the same way, Denver's infrastructure and limited available land
cannot accommodate the parking demands that are generated by endless single
occupancy vehicle trips. The STP supports the Comprehensive Plan 2000 and
Blueprint Denver by focusing on multimodal alternatives and a well balanced
approach to transportation.
GREENPRINT DENVER
Greenprint Denver (2006) is an initiative of Mayor John Hickenlooper to promote
sustainable development and ecologically-friendly practices. The initiative sets
goals including a 10% reduction in per capita greenhouse gas emissions by 2012
from the 1990 emissions rate. Greenprint supports smart growth decision-making
as a way to promote economic opportunity and a better quality of life for all
residents. Greenprint also promotes the availability of affordable communities so
that Denver's residents will have continued access to jobs and essential services.
REGULATORY TOOLS
The City regulates the supply of private parking through requirements and
protocols detailed in the City's municipal code and, in particular, the Denver
Zoning Code.
Denver's parking and land use policies of the 1950s focused on automobile-
oriented development and a separation of land uses. These policies and static
regulations led to the application of free and abundant parking that quickly
covered large areas with surface lots throughout Denver.The City's former
zoning ordinance was established in 1956, and while it was amended on several
occasions, over time it became inadequate to efficiently accommodate Denver's
anticipated growth and travel demands.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PROCESS
23


The Denver Zoning Code, adopted by City Council on June 21,2010, is the first
major revision since 1956. The new code takes a smarter approach to parking
by building on guidance from Blueprint Denver, Comprehensive Plan 2000 and
research and analysis done as part of the Strategic Parking Plan process. The
updated code presents a new method for defining parking requirements in
different parts of the city by establishing neighborhood contexts. This philosophy
enables and encourages smart growth development and promotes multimodal
access and use. Like the SPP, the Denver Zoning Code recognizes that there is
no one-size-fits-all approach to parking management. New parking base rate
requirements are now simplified and many are reduced. Parking requirements
have also been calibrated by neighborhood context.
The Intent of Parking Regulations in the Denver Zoning Code:
Balance adequate off-street parking requirements with city-wide objectives
that encourage pedestrian-friendly environments and the use of multiple
modes of transportation. This includes mass transit and bike parking
requirements to reduce vehicle parking demand.
Provide a variety of mechanisms to meet parking needs while promoting
development and reinvestment in existing buildings, including historic
structures.
Recognize, through parking reductions, the parking efficiencies
gained through mixed use development, mixed income development,
development proximate to rail and bus transit, and their collective impact
on parking demand.
Promote bicycle use by providing safe and convenient bike parking.
Provide minimum requirements for different types of bike parking facilities
and the amount of bicycle spaces.
Encourage comprehensive, efficient, multi-site parking strategies.
Minimize the visual impacts of parking areas, structures and garages on
streets, open spaces, and adjoining development.
Design surface parking and parking structures to be visually compatible
with the surrounding development, convenient for users, and mitigate
the negative impact of vehicle noise, headlights, lighting and mechanical
systems.
Integrate the function and appearance of parking structures into building
24
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PROCESS


groups so as to minimize negative impacts on public space and the
pedestrian environment.
Design parking structure facades to reflect the predominant fenestration
(transparency) patterns of area buildings and to the extent possible wrap
street facing elevations with active uses, especially at street level.
There are multiple parking reductions and exemptions available in the Denver
Zoning Code. Examples of these provisions are listed below and more information
is available in Article 10 of the Denver Zoning Code.
Exemptions:
Small Zone Lots
Small Ground-Floor Retail Uses in Mixed Use Projects
Historic Structures built prior to 1967
Preservation of Existing Trees
Reductions:
Vehicle Parking Reduction for Affordable Housing and Senior Housing
Vehicle Parking Reduction for Proximity to Multi-Modal Transportation
Options
Vehicle Parking Reduction for On-Site Car and Bike Sharing Programs
Parking Reduction for Assisted Living Facilities
The Denver Zoning Code framework was adopted, but its terms will continue
to evolve and meet the changing needs of the city. Revisions to Denver Zoning
Code base rates increases development opportunities, but can also subject the
remaining parking supply to greater demand pressures. Changes will require
parking management decisions to be more strategic and flexible in order to
support the City's sustainability, livability and access goals.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PROCESS
25


la
VISION
DENVER'S EXISTING PARKING CONDITIONS
Prior to launching the SPP effort, Denver Public Works commissioned a Strategic
Parking Plan Phase One Study to identify and explore existing relationships
between parking demand and supply in 11 vibrant areas of the City. The study
areas were specifically chosen as typologies to represent different types of land
uses and activities.
The study was designed to inform questions like:
How much parking supply actually exists in the area and what are the
parking demands?
Can existing parking supplies accommodate the parking demands of the
surrounding land uses?
How well utilized are the different types of spaces available in an area (i.e.
on-street spaces, off-street spaces, public spaces, and private spaces)?
Parking supply data was gathered by counting the total number of existing spaces
in each identified study area. This number included all public on-street spaces as
well public and private off-street spaces within set boundaries. Parking utilization
data was collected by counting the number of actual vehicles parked during peak
periods. This exercise provided a glimpse into the nature of parking demand and
parking utilization in each area. In addition, land use information from the City
Assessor's database and field observations were both considered to study the
relationship between parking demand and a given land use mix type as it varied
across the study area typologies.
Areas types studied were:
Two main street districts
Two town center districts
Two school campus districts
Two hospital campus districts
A shopping district
A business center
A high rise residential district
26
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN VISION


Denver's Existing Parking Conditions
Vision #1: Acknowledge a Variety of Land Use Patterns and Contexts
Vision #2: Manage Parking as an Asset
Vision #3:lntegrated Approach to Parking Management
National parking experts consider parking to be at capacity when 85% of the
available parking is occupied. The results from the Denver study indicated that in
all of the 11 study areas, at least 25% of the total parking supply within the study
area boundaries was vacant during the peak parking period. While the bulk of
the underutilized parking supply was primarily in private off-street parking lots,
the results of the study suggested that there were spaces available during peak
parking periods in all 11 study areas.
Although available parking was identified within each study area, each of the 11
study areas also suffered from one or more hot spots where parking demand was
greater than the available parking supply.
The study also confirmed that the existing land uses in each study area generated
parking demands at different times. Office uses that generated parking demand
during regular business hours had much less parking activity in the evenings.
Restaurant uses with very little demand during the AM peak hours generated
much more parking activity in the evenings.
The SPP Phase One study highlights the need for parking management strategies
that better utilize available supplies. To be most effective, however, the strategies
must recognize a given area's unique characteristics and be calibrated for its
specific needs. This understanding provided an impetus to create the SPP, a plan
to detail both parking management strategies and the considerations necessary to
select the best tools.
VISION #1: ACKNOWLEDGE A VARIETY OF LAND
USE PATTERNS AND CONTEXTS
The Phase One study revealed that parking demands differ depending on context.
Just as there are a variety of parking users with different needs, the city is also
made up of a variety of land uses, building forms and transportation facilities. It is
unrealistic to expect one set of parking management strategies and programs to
be effective across the board since actions that are appropriate for downtown may
prove ineffective in the more suburban areas of Denver.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN VISION
27


Urban Center
General Urban
Neighborhood Context Characteristics Downtown Urban Center General Urban Neighborhood
Level of transit availability Highest frequency High frequency High to Moderate frequency
Land use and density characteristics Highest-density characterized by a mix of multi- unit residential, commercial, office, civic, in- stitutional, and entertainment in large build- ings containing one or more uses. Moderate to high-density characterized by a mix of multi- unit residential, mixed use com- mercial strips and commercial centers. Moderate density characterized by multi-unit resi- dential. Single- unit and two- unit residential uses are found throughout. Commercial areas are embedded within residential areas.
Mobility characteristics and parking demand High prior- ity given to the pedestrian. High levels of bicycle use The hub of the multi-modal transit system. Fewer opportu- nities for free on and off-street parking, high demand for on- street spaces. There are high levels of pedes- trian activities and bicycle use with greatest access to multi- modal trans- portation. High demand for both time-limited and priced parking spaces. High demand for on- street spaces. There is a bal- ance of pedes- trian, bicycle and vehicle reliance with greater access to multi- modal transpor- tation. Higher demand for on- street spaces as off street space availability is constrained.
Examples Central Business District, Golden Triangle, LODO Cherry Creek, Broadway and Lincoln through Capitol Hill and Uptown. Capitol Hill, Cheesman Park, Cherry Creek North
28
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN VISION


Urban
Neighborhood
Urban Edge
Neighborhood
Suburban
Neighborhood
Moderate to low
frequency
Low to moderate
density character-
ized by single-unit
and two-unit resi-
dential uses. Medi-
um-scale multi-unit
residential uses and
commercial areas are
typically embedded
in residential areas.
There is a balance of
pedestrian, bicycle
and vehicle reliance
with greater ac-
cess to multi-modal
transportation.
Moderate demand
for on-street and off
street spaces.
32nd & Lowell, Old
South Pearl, His-
toric Gaylord Street,
Washington Park,
Berkeley
Low frequency
Low to moderate den-
sity characterized by a
mix elements from both
Urban and Suburban
neighborhoods. Pri-
marily single-unit and
two-unit residential.
Small-scale multi-unit
residential uses and
commercial areas are
typically embedded in
residential areas.
Moderate reliance on
the automobile with
some pedestrian and
bicycle activity and
low to medium level of
access to multi-modal
transportation. Lower
demand for on-street
spaces as uses provide
free off-street
parking.
Colfax east of Monaco
Pkwy, Morrison Rd.
Lowest frequency
Low to moderate
density characterized
by single-unit and
multi-unit residential,
commercial strips
and centers, and of-
fice parks. Uses are
typically separated by
major streets.
High reliance on the
automobile with some
access to pedestrian
and bicycle facili-
ties and multi-modal
transportation. Lowest
demand for on-street
spaces as most uses
provide free off-street
parking.
Tiffany Plaza (Hamp-
den), Northfield
Stapleton,
29th Town Center
Urban
Urban Edge
Suburban
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN VISION
niiHH


Before an area can consider new parking management strategies, it must first
identify the unique characteristics that influence parking demand and behaviors.
These characteristics may include the level of transit service, density and land use
mix, the nature of retail and employment, and development constraints. Defining
characteristics first will help the community select the most appropriate parking
strategies for their goals. Refer to the table on the previous page for examples of
different neighborhood contexts and their associated characteristics.
VISION #2: MANAGE PARKING AS AN ASSET
The SPP vision is to actively manage the existing supply of parking from an asset
management approach. For an asset to be fruitful, it must be managed on a day-
to-day basis in correspondence with a long-range plan. Parking is undoubtedly
a public asset that can be valued in terms of convenience, financial importance,
and land use. The SPP advocates for the use of this asset to support economic
development; neighborhoods with distinct character; efficient use of land; a
multi-model network with a variety of transportation choices; and a sustainable
environment with good air and water quality. Parking is a tool that can be used to
achieve the long-term goals set forth by Denver's existing planning documents. To
be effective, however, benefits should always be weighed against the associated
behavioral, operational or physical costs. In that regard, parking fees and fines
should be set to, at a minimum, cover the annual costs of administrative, capital,
operations, and maintenance required to keep the asset healthy and sustainable.
VISION #3: ENCOURAGE AN INTEGRATED
APPROACH TO PARKING MANAGEMENT
In addition to the extensive partnerships required for effective parking
management, tremendous levels of coordination will be required to deal with
a variety of complex situations. The SPP advocates for management strategies
that are created as a result of coordination with various stakeholders groups. If
management strategies are too preoccupied with achieving a singular outcome
or with appeasing one user group, the result is unbalanced. An integrated
management approach, however, recognizes the surrounding context and the
influence a different area's characteristics can have on a given situation. Since
parking needs can vary dramatically by area, the SPP recommends that parking
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN VISION
mmmwm ~n_i rr i----------1
ii nil----! i n


management in Denver not be designed as a one-size-fits-all calculation.The
presence of so many variables means that a one-size-fits-all approach to parking
management cannot adequately balance needs or provide the most efficient
use of available inventory. Instead, parking management should be designed
to balance the localized needs of different user groups as well as complement
the City's overall parking goals. Localized parking management decisions may
be made on a micro-scale, such as a single block face, or they may be made at a
neighborhood, district, or area-wide scale. Regardless of the size, defining desired
parking management outcomes provides the opportunity for participation
and input from key community stakeholders regarding parking conditions and
goals. Approaching parking management from this perspective will lead to more
thoughtful management plans that can better address needs. This approach
can also lead to management measures that are reasonable and encourage
compliance.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN VISION
31


MANAGEMENT
TOOLBOX
THE PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX
The Parking Management Toolbox is based on the SPP vision. Parking
management decisions should carefully consider each area's context, treat parking
as a valued public asset, and seek to balance user needs based on stakeholder
input. To achieve this vision, the SPP recommends a standardized process created
to yield a customized set of management tools that allow parking to support
healthy thriving communities.
The SPP recommends that City staff, along with involvement from a diverse group
of stakeholders, evaluate parking strategies using the following five-step process.
Each step includes a new set of tools with incremental strategies to deal with
parking from an asset-management perspective.
DEMAND
Parking demand tools mitigate or reduce the demand for parking
B LOCATION
Parking location tools implement strategies that can move demand away from the
core and into areas with excess parking supply and clearly locate or define where
parking is available for users
TIME
Parking time tools introduce or modify time restrictions to encourage turnover and
better use of parking spaces. Influencing factors include surrounding land uses,
time of day, and availability of supply
PRICING
Pricing tools provide a wide range of flexibility. When appropriately calibrated,
these tools can reduce occupancy in high demand areas and create a market for
off-street parking
SUPPLY
Supply tools evaluate the availability of the existing parking supply and work to
32
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX


The Parking Management Toolbox
Demand, Location, Timing, Pricing, Supply
Applying the Toolbox
Area Management Plan
optimize its use to the maximum extent possible before building/developing new
supply.
This five-step process provides stakeholders and City parking management
staff a consistent way to evaluate existing parking conditions and develop a
progressive set of parking management tools to use as conditions change over
time. The process is designed to grow in management intensity from Step One
to Step Five. Step One tools (Demand) are usually easier to administer, utilize
fewer resources, and have less of an impact on stakeholders. As such, Demand
tools should be the first set of strategies considered. In contrast, Step Five tools
including the construction of additional parking supply should only be considered
when all other management options prove insufficient. As the last step in the
process, Supply tools represent a more intensive strategy with significant resource
implications. Applying tools in this way will help ensure that parking regulations
are not overly burdensome from either the stakeholder or resource perspectives.
Understanding user parking demand profiles and behaviors is critical in situations
where the physical supply of parking is limited. Predicting how different user
groups will respond to different management controls will be an important step
in selecting tools. The five-step process can better target the use of City resources
towards management strategies that are appropriate for each area.
DEMAND
Demand management tools are the first set of strategies to evaluate when
considering increased parking management in an area. Demand strategies work
by reducing the number of total vehicle trips in an area, which in turn reduces the
parking supply needed for those vehicles. Demand management tools include a
broad range of strategies and can be designed to target employers, employees,
visitors, customers, or residents. Demand tools should also be designed with an
area's context in mind. Downtown and urban center areas have higher levels of
transit access and may have different opportunities than a suburban or lower-
density area. A significant piece to any successful demand management program
is outreach to increase participation in the program. Demand strategies may
incentivize behaviors such as increased use of alternative transportation but they
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX
33


are most effective in reducing peak parking demand.
Transportation management associations (TMAs) are private, non-profit
organizations that provide transportation-related information within a defined
geographic area. Often led by an executive board and funded by public-private
partnerships, these organizations serve member companies or individuals
by organizing programs and providing education to support the efficient
use of transportation systems within an area. They can also serve to facilitate
conversations regarding shared parking arrangements or serve as a feedback
mechanism for stakeholders on the success of parking management strategies.
Membership in a TMA can also bring financial savings to a business or property
owner because it provides support and information regarding affordable
transportation choices. TMAs can be great partners in the implementation of
demand strategies.
The following list is not intended to be an exhaustive list of demand strategies.
Rather, it suggests examples of how demand management programs can be
especially useful in improving the function of parking as it relates to the overall
transportation system. Since demand tools are less intensive in terms of the
five-step process, they are often overlooked. However, their positive impact
on the parking system should be considered and credited. Demand strategies
that are coupled with the proper education and evaluation can result in lasting
institutional shifts in travel behavior.
The following are examples of demand strategies:
TRANSIT INCENTIVES OR SUBSIDIES
Transit incentives provide reason to try alternative modes of transportation. They
alleviate parking demand by encouraging commuters and residents to shift
away from single occupancy vehicles as a primary mode of travel. These types
of programs may include subsidized transit passes, fare free transit zones, or
other fare discount programs. They are often administered or managed through
individual employers, schools, businesses or neighborhood organizations in
conjunction with the local transit provider.
BICYCLE PARKING AND SHOWER FACILITIES
Commuters often shy away from bicycle travel because changing from cycling
clothing into work clothing is perceived to be inconvenient. Inadequate facilities
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX


or fear of theft can also deter individuals from choosing bicycle transportation.
Bicycle parking, storage and shower/changing rooms provide convenience and
security for cyclists, making it easier for individuals to choose this mode.
There are many types of bicycle storage facilities and choices can vary depending
on placement and the regulations associated with that building or area. Bicycle
parking is typically sorted into two categories; short and long-term parking. Short-
term parking is needed where bicycles will only be parked for a short amount
of time. Short-term parking should be very convenient and accessible. Long-
term parking is needed adjacent to uses where bicycles will be left for several
hours. It should offer both security and protection from the weather. Areas
where individuals will be staying for hours at a time may also be appropriate
for additional facilities such as lockers, storage rooms, washrooms and clothes
changing facilities. Showers can also be provided to incentivize bicycling as a
commuter mode.
RIDESHARING PROGRAMS (CARPOOL AND VANPOOL)
Ridesharing is a common and cost effective alternative mode for areas that are
not well served by public transit. Ridesharing is typically targeted at commuters
who can choose to rideshare either part or full-time depending on their schedules.
It can be an important mobility option for non-drivers as well. Programs are
often formalized through regional entities such as the Denver Regional Council
of Governments (DRCOG), or they can operate more informally through notices
posted on bulletin boards or other communication networks. TMAs, transit
agencies and community transportation organizations can also provide matching
services for ridesharing programs.
CAR-SHARING
Car-sharing programs provide individuals access to a centrally owned and
maintained fleet of vehicles on a per-hour or per-day basis. Programs are typically
membership based, which allows members to reserve cars for specific timeframes
and pay only for the time the car is needed. Fees are based on a combination of
hourly, overhead, and mileage costs. Car-sharing programs are effective because
they distribute the fixed costs of car ownership into the marginal cost of every
trip made. Participation in the program can reduce the total number of trips since
participants are required to make all their trips during a set reserve time.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX
35


BIKE-SHARING
Similar to car-sharing, bike-share programs provide access to bicycles at a variety
of locations across a city or within a given area. These programs complement
existing transit or other alternative transportation programs by allowing
participating individuals to switch back and forth between modes. Similar to the
car-sharing program, users are able to check out bicycles for a certain duration
of time and pay a marginal fee either through a membership or per use. The
programs work to offer affordable access to bicycles to reduce the number of
vehicles trips made for short distance outings.
FLEXIBLE WORK SCHEDULES/TELECOMMUTING
Flexible work schedules are an option to stagger employee trips and make better
use of existing parking inventory. Targeted towards commuters, this program
allows employers and employees to develop suitable schedules that meet the
organization's needs without generating the typical morning or afternoon peak
demands.
H LOCATION
Location management is the second step in the five-step process and attempts
to shift parking patterns away from high demand areas to take better advantage
of existing, underutilized parking supply. The following management tools
are simply intended to alter users' choice of location by providing additional
information and directing them to other parking opportunities to make supplies
more readily available.
The following are examples of location strategies:
WAYFINDING AND INFORMATION
Drivers can spend significant amounts of time searching for on-street parking
rather than quickly entering an off-street lot where spaces are available but
perhaps less visible. This behavior often occurs because drivers have difficulty
locating available, public off-street facilities. Improved directional and facility
signage can increase the efficiency of the parking system and reduce motorist
uncertainty by assuring them that spaces are available near their destination.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX


Implementing both wayfinding and informational signage programs can increase
the use of off-street facilities by providing drivers with information about facility
location, parking availability, and parking pricing. Wayfinding and signage can
also shift users to satellite lots that might otherwise be unknown or be considered
off-limits. Signage that communicates pertinent information can greatly reduce
cruising and driver stress during peak occupancy periods.
Different types of wayfinding strategies include signs at gateway locations,
directional signage to parking facilities, and informational signage. Gateway and
directional signs indicate the direction of travel (ahead, left, or right) to nearby
parking facilities. Facility signs should display parking rates, time limits, and
other pertinent information. Parking wayfinding signs can be either static or
dynamic. Dynamic electronic signage offers the greatest flexibility for wayfinding
programs as these signs have the ability to display parking availability and other
transportation related information in real time. Wireless networking and real-
time message signs can provide users with information on availability and direct
motorists to parking locations. Custom text messages can also provide up-to-date
information regarding availability. Signs should always be visible and legible to
drivers.
SHARED PARKING
Currently, much of Denver's existing parking supply exists in private off-street
facilities that are dedicated to specific uses and therefore inaccessible to the
general public. Shared parking allows property owners to share a common
parking facility so that two or more distinct uses can share the same parking
supply rather than maintaining two separate facilities. Shared parking makes
better use of the aggregate spaces that are available. Since uses may have peak
parking demands that differ by time of day, different uses may be able to share
fewer total parking spaces than the total they would need if each were providing
its own spaces. Shared parking encourages a holistic view of parking supply. It
reduces the need for smaller parking lots located in different areas, pools resources
during peak demand times, improves development feasibility, helps increase
densities, and promotes mixed-use and pedestrian activity.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX
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Two shared parking types are currently regulated in the Denver Zoning Code:
1 .Traditional Shared Parking
Traditional shared parking is used to meet the minimum parking requirement for
two or more distinct uses within a mixed-use developments, or for multiple uses
that are located near one another and have different peak parking demands and/
or operating hours. This type of shared parking requires zoning approval and a
city review process.
2. Accessory Parking Spaces
This type of shared parking provides flexibility for uses to share accessory parking
spaces when existing spaces are not fully utilized. Property owners can charge a
fee or create another type of arrangement to make unused parking available. In
this scenario, the existing parking supply meets the minimum requirement for the
property owner and provides additional parking resources to the area. This type of
shared parking can often be arranged outside of a city process. Business owners,
residents, commuters, etc. can approach the owners of these accessory spaces to
discuss shared parking arrangements that are mutually beneficial.
HTIME
Time management tools limit the amount of time some or all users can remain
parked in certain areas. Such tools promote turnover in high demand areas and
work to shift users with longer term parking needs into off-street facilities or more
remote locations. The rate at which spaces become available is important since
it translates to the number of opportunities different users will have to occupy a
space and thus access a business, residence, or activity.
Parking needs vary based on the purpose of a trip. Time management restrictions
can be set to promote accessibility of spaces for certain trip purposes while
discouraging them to be used for others.
Very short time periods: Defined as 3 to 10 minutes, this time increment
corresponds with a very high turnover rate. Regulating spaces to adhere
to this time period is only appropriate in limited cases where there is a high
demand for deliveries or loading. Drop-off spaces near schools or transit
stations are uses that might benefit from spaces regulated to this time
increment.
38
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX


Short time periods: Defined as 15 to 30 minutes, this time increment allows
for quick errands. Regulating to this time period is appropriate for spaces
that are immediately adjacent to uses like post offices, convenience stores,
dry cleaners, and banks.
Medium time periods: Defined as 30 minutes to four hours. This time
range accommodates virtually all visitor and customer trip needs common
to commercial areas including longer shopping trips as well as dining and
entertainment excursions. Spaces should be regulated to accommodate 90
minutes or more if the spaces are intended to accommodate restaurant or
entertainment uses. Limiting spaces to three or four hours of continuous
use will effectively exclude commuter or residential use.
Long time periods: Defined as 8 hours or more, these longer time periods
accommodate commuters and residential parking.
A high rate of turnover established through time limits is an effective way to
make desirable parking spaces available to a large number of users. It is also a
mechanism to prioritize different types of parking activities. The City's parking
permit program (including the Residential Parking Permit program) is an example
of how time restrictions are used to prioritize different users at different times.
Activity Regulatory Time Period (Hours)
0 12 3 4 9
Optimal Location (Blocks)
8+ 1_____________2____________3______ 4+
Pick-Up & Drop-Off
* Delrveries
* School
* Transit
Very *lft (3-10 minutes}
Short Errands
Bank
Post ollice
Dry cleaners
Short <14-30 minutes)
Shopping & Entertainment
Dmng
Movies
Longer errands
Medium (30 minutes 4 reus)
Commuter & Employee
* Work
* Transit station
* Part & ride
3^ Adjacert to desired
Ov strut
sanettocMwe
"rS-
On-oroH-slieet
l-Zbtocteway
3^ Ujersdeslmalion
~~ Wiling distance
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX
39


TIMELIMITS
Ideally, both on and off-street parking should be managed to accommodate a
range of different stay durations based on the demand profiles of anticipated
users.Time limits that do not consider different user needs can frustrate customers
with trip purposes that do not fit the restrictions. Inefficient time limit restrictions
can also enable employees to work the system. For example, employees may hope
to avoid a parking citation by moving their cars every two-hours.
Time limits offer one way to create a ready supply of short-term parking by limiting
the length of time each vehicle can stay parked in a particular space. This regular
turnover makes more efficient use of the existing parking supply. A system of time
limits on-street will encourage longer-term parkers to shift to off-street parking or
nearby on-street spaces that are not time limited. Introducing or adjusting time
limits may also help regulate mixed-use areas that are not ready for Step Four -
Pricing. Time restrictions can accommodate or discourage multiple user groups
by assigning different block-faces with different stay restrictions. For example,
four-hour time limits may be appropriate around light rail stations as a mechanism
to exclude commuters from parking on-street all day.
Parking time limits are very common throughout the U.S. and are typically one
of the first kinds of on-street restrictions to be imposed in smaller downtowns
and commercial areas. In mixed-use areas, time limits may encourage longer-
term parkers to move into residential areas to avoid parking restrictions. The
competition between residential parkers, visitors, and employees can be mitigated
by providing information for on and off-street parking opportunities, re-
calibrating time limits or by implementing a permit program. Regardless, effective
implementation of time limits requires regular enforcement.
MANAGEMENT HOURS
Most on-street management regulations are not in effect 24 hours a day.
Adjusting the specific hours and days of the week when restrictions are enforced is
a way to address parking demand generated by specific uses. Management hours
are typically aligned with standard business hours. As a city grows with activities
that run later into the evening, management hours may expand to include night
time activities.
As a general rule, management tools should be active when parking demands
40
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX


are high. Similarly, management rules should be relaxed at times when parking
demand is not sufficient to require management. Management hours should be
tailored to the needs of specific areas. An entertainment district might require
active parking management in the evenings while a neighborhood school area
might be served by management from the early morning to late afternoon.
Extensions into the evenings or on Sundays may be required in order to help the
parking system function more smoothly. Particular care should be taken when
extending restrictions in residential areas to ensure that residents have access to
street parking if necessary. The advantages of tailored management hours should
be weighed against enforcement resource implications as well as the potential for
public confusion due to multiple rules. Community education and outreach for
any significant management change is advised.
PERMIT PARKING
Permit parking programs are an important tool used to reserve street parking
in specific areas for certain users. While these programs promote a balance
of parking availability for different user groups, they also have associated
administration costs. If not designed correctly, these programs can fail to achieve
their objective.
The Residential Parking Permit (RPP) is an example of an program that was
introduced to protect neighborhoods in high demand areas from parking impacts.
For example, after the introduction of the Southeast Corridor RTD Light Rail line,
several neighborhoods located next to high demand stations were given RPP
designation to limit the impacts of rail users. While on-street spaces should be
typically be available for public use, there are areas where additional restrictions
are necessary to balance the competing needs of customers, employees, and
residents. Although several user groups have a legitimate need for parking supply
at any given time, the program can make it hard for all stakeholders to achieve
parking compliance when it is biased to one particular group. The program
is not currently designed to serve or balance the needs of those that create
demand within an area (i.e commuters, business owners, and employees). In
addition, several RPP areas are not actively enforced due to resources. As we
move towards a more customer-service based approach to parking, it is critical
for all impacted stakeholders to understand the value of an on-street space from
different perspectives. Certainly no one group has a "right" to on-street parking,
but stakeholders should be realistically confident that the available parking in an
area can support their needs. An expansion of the permit program to include
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX
i ii ii i-in -1 i-nnun n i-


additional user groups according to available supply would better coordinate
the use of existing inventory at different times. In addition, the SPP recommends
setting the permit fees to recover the administrative and material costs of the
program.
PRICING
Step Four of the process introduces pricing strategies. Charging a fee for both on
and off-street parking both limits stay duration and increases the predictability
of finding a parking space. Many successful commercial districts have found that
appropriate on-street pricing ensures better parking availability and supports
vitality high demand areas. A common misperception of merchants is that pricing
will deter customers. In reality, pricing often improves the customer experience
since it increases the likelihood of finding a parking spot near a preferred
destination.
PARKING PRICING MANAGEMENTTOOLS
Pricing is an extremely versatile and powerful tool that can be used many different
ways depending on the environment of an area and the desired outcome(s). It
promotes convenience and turnover more explicitly than the tools available in the
previous three steps. People may value free parking and choose to walk several
blocks or they may value convenience and decide to pay for a space directly in
front of their destination. Decisions often are based on the reason for a trip and
pricing is one of the most effective ways to instigate a shift in parking behavior
across all user types. While it is effective, pricing must be carefully calibrated
to avoid unintended consequences. If the on-street price of parking is too low,
demand for spaces will exceed supply and could result in a shortage. Introducing
or raising the cost of parking often encourage users to consider all the on and off-
street parking options available before defaulting to an on-street space.
There are two general forms of pricing strategies that should be considered. The
first and most common approach is to implement on-street prices in tandem with
time limits.The second approach involves variable pricing, which introduces a
fluctuating price for high-demand spaces.
42
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX


TIME LIMITS WITH PRICING
Pricing provides long-term parkers with the flexibility to choose on-street parking,
but also introduces a price to further encourage a shift to off-street facilities. As a
result, convenient spaces are released for short-term visitors. When street parking
is free, parkers have no incentive to pay for off-street parking. On-street pricing
can encourage users to consider the most appropriate parking facility based on
their individual needs.
Time limits and pricing are typically combined to manage areas that have
significant short-term parking shortages. Parking that is regulated by both time
limits and pricing increases turnover and can generate revenue. These systems
include "traditional" metering where a users pay for a set increment of time. Such
systems are user-friendly and relatively easy to enforce. However, as with time
restrictions, pricing with time limits can encourage long-term parkers to park and
then re-park to avoid tickets. Some users may "feed" meters throughout the day
so that they can bypass the time limit and remain parked at the same location.
Enforcement efforts must be designed to support the goals of pricing restrictions.
VARIABLE PRICING
Many existing lots and garages in Denver are underutilized, in part due to the
current inexpensive rate of on-street parking. Variable pricing offers additional
flexibility with the ability to fluctuate rates according to demand. With this system,
no explicit time limit is set but hourly parking prices increase with longer parking
durations, making long-term parking more expensive with each successive
hour. For example, pricing in a high demand area may be set at $1.00 for the
first hour, $1.25 for the second hour, and $1.50 for the third hour. Variable rate
pricing structures prioritize on-street parking for short term uses while shifting
longer-term parkers to off-street facilities. On-street parking in the core areas of
the district are the most convenient and can command higher or variable prices.
Parking located away from the core can be priced slightly lower or at a flat rate
to favor long-term parkers. Event pricing recognizes the market value of a special
event and assigns a rate to on or off-street spaces accordingly. New technology
allows for advanced meter capabilities that make variable parking easier to
implement. New pay stations and "smart" meters make it easy to change rates if
adjustments are necessary.
}
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX


m
COORDINATING ON AND OFF-STREET PRICING
On-street management efforts function more smoothly if they are coordinated
with off-street facilities. Users typically prefer on-street parking over off-street
options since the per hour cost of on-street parking is often lower and may be
considered more convenient. Where possible, on-street and off-street prices
should be set to encourage long term parking to occur off-street, reserving
the more convenient on-street spaces for short term parkers. This encourages
commuters or employees to use alternative modes while still providing short-term
parking for customers. Coordinating on and off-street parking prices is challenging
for several reasons. While the City can adjust prices on-street, it is unable to
directly set rates in private garages that make up the majority of Denver's paid off-
street supply. An on-street parking pricing system that encourages better use of
off-street public parking facilities is recommended.
PARKING CASH-OUT
Parking cash-out allows employees to choose between free or subsidized parking
and the out-of pocket equivalent cost of the parking space. Employees may
choose to "cash-out" from a parking space and apply the money towards a lower
cost alternative mode. A study on parking cash-out summarized results from
seven worksites and estimated a 26 percent reduction in parking demand (Donald
Shoup:The High Cost of Free Parking, 1992). The key elements to promote cash-
out include excellent transit service, limited parking supply and high parking
prices, and land prices.
PARKING DISTRICTS
The intent of a parking district is to consider the existing parking supply on a
district-wide, aggregate basis rather than as individual lots (public or private).
The ability to form an off-street parking district is already available to private
developers and business owners within the City of Denver. A revenue-sharing
parking district, however, allows a district to share in the revenue generation
associated with pricing for an area's on and off-street spaces. Shared parking
districts can optimize total parking supply in an area, although the specifics
vary with each arrangement. The potential for revenue-sharing might be used
to incentivize the use of pricing management tools. If successful, incremental
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX


revenue resulting from on and off-street pricing could be used to provide
additional services, streetscape improvements or additional supply. However, any
district arrangement must consider the indirect costs associated with a district.
For example, costs for the enforcement necessary to make the system work may
impact the total amount of net revenue generated.
Any tool that may alter the City's revenues and expenditures for parking should
be carefully considered. Revenues derived from parking go into the City's general
fund and are often put to use in other areas of the city to provide services or cover
deficiencies in both parking and non-parking related areas. With that in mind, any
revenue shared with new parking districts could impact the City's ability to pay for
other city needs.
In some cases the benefits that result from the use of revenue-sharing may deem
it the best management approach. Since the SPP recommends introducing
strategies that result in best parking management, the feasibility and cost/benefit
of revenue-sharing of any proposed area must be evaluated on a case-by-case
basis to determine if it provides stakeholders with the best parking management
tool and does not negatively impact the health or sustainability of the City.
The SPP recommends an Area Management Planning process to determine
whether revenue-sharing is an appropriate tool for an area.The Area Management
Planning process will be covered in the next section. This analysis will require
significant stakeholder involvement.
HSUPPLY
In many cases, pricing strategies may prevent the need to add unnecessary
supply. The SPP recommends the thorough exploration of tools associated with
each of the previous four steps before considering the addition of new supply.
However, if parking demand consistently outweighs supply after considering
Step One through Step Four, it may be necessary to explore additional parking
supply. An expansion of parking supply can occur through the construction of
additional off-street parking facilities or by increasing the use-dedicated parking
requirement in the Zoning Code. Increasing off-street parking requirements can
have a number of adverse impacts and is not a recommended solution. Expanding
the parking supply through the construction of new facilities is costly and will
require private and/or public funds. Accommodating additional parking will also
make single occupancy vehicle trips easier. Finally, the addition of supply can
y
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX


introduce garage and surface lots that may not represent the best use of land in
a given area. As a result, an expansion of supply should only be considered when
it is clear that parking management alone cannot address conditions. In some
cases, land may not be available where parking is needed. In other cases, the cost
of land may prohibit the feasibility of adding supply.
APPLYING THE TOOLBOX
There are a variety of positive outcomes that can result from the implementation
of a thoughtful parking management program. A program designed from the
tools described above can encourage the most efficient utilization of existing
resources and balance the needs of a variety of users.
However, parking management programs also have the potential to create
negative outcomes if they are implemented incorrectly or incompletely. Parking
non-compliance, or parking violations, can frustrate users in several ways. First,
if a management strategy is not enforced and spaces are continually unavailable,
customers and visitors are discouraged from returning to an area. However, if
regulations are too stringent or inappropriate for an area, seemingly arbitrary
parking citations can also discourage return visits. Incorrect parking controls may
also result in parking spillover. Spillover is when users visiting commercial districts,
schools, or special events park on side streets and adjoining blocks to avoid paying
for parking, thereby spilling over into adjacent neighborhoods. Each of these
negative outcomes has dangerous economic implications for businesses and the
city at large and provides evidence for why more customized strategies should
be pursued. In some cases, special parking strategies may be needed for certain
events in addition to the regular day-to-day parking management practicies.
Parking management strategies should always be monitored to avoid unintended
negative consequences.
Parking management strategies that are designed well and encourage
compliance may decrease the amount of revenue generation for the city from
parking fines. However, the goal of the SPP is to equip parking operations staff,
residents, business owners and other stakeholders with tools that are calibrated
to achieve benefits that go far beyond that of revenue generation. Under proper
management, residents and visitors can throughout the city and support business
and community development. These are benefits that positively impact the
sustainability and livability of the city.
46
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX


AREA MANAGEMENT PLANS
Denver's popularity is due in part to its composition of distinct areas. From quiet
neighborhoods to bustling urban centers, each has a unique contribution to the
overall Denver fabric. Growth in these areas can lead to increased vitality however,
changing conditions may warrant new strategies in order to realize that success.
Parking policies have the power to impact changing conditions both positively
and negatively. They can either promote accessibility and support the activities of
an area or they can create frustrating customer or resident experiences.
The five step parking management process was designed with tools that can be
used either individually or in different combination to address specific parking
needs. These tools can be used on a micro scale to address more localized
parking conditions or they can be applied on a larger scale to create a more
comprehensive parking system in an area. The infinite combinations possible
with the toolbox allow flexibility for parking management staff and impacted
stakeholders to customize solutions that best meet the defined needs.
The SPP advocates that parking management decisions be made on two
scales moving forward. First, Public Works Traffic Engineering Services staff will
continue to manage smaller parking issues on a day-to-day basis along with
partner agencies and directly impacted stakeholders. These more localized
parking-related issues might be triggered by complaints or by new small-scale
developments. After an analysis of the situation, the team will decide on a parking
management strategy to be applied to one or more blocks. For example, the team
will look for opportunities to reclaim on-street parking from loading zones that are
no longer necessary due to a change of land use.
While day-to-day parking management will continue to troubleshoot localized
parking conditions around the city, growth or changing conditions in other areas
may require a more comprehensive approach. For areas that have high demand,
diverse user groups, or a complex mix of land uses, the SPP recommends the
development of an Area Management Plan (AMP) in order to identify context-
specific strategies that address a larger area and engage a variety of stakeholders
for input. The intent of the AMP process is to work with communities to determine
the desired outcomes, the level of management that will be provided in an area,
the right amount of parking that will be provided, and the user groups that will
be prioritized at any given time. The AMP process is an innovative approach to
engage a community in the identification of management tools that support the
health, growth, and/or preservation of that area's unique characteristics.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX
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-----------------------------1 I---------------------------------------
mwn r


Each AMP will be comprised of a different set of tools based on an area's specific
needs, however, the general process of identifying those tools will follow the same
five-step process outlined in the Parking Management Toolbox. Strategies will be
implemented following the Demand, Location,Time, Pricing, and Supply order
so less intensive opportunities are identified before more intensive strategies are
considered.
/X.
The first step in any AMP is to analyze existing conditions based on the specific
characteristics of an area. As described in the Vision section, area differences may
include level of transit availability, land use and density characteristics, mobility
characteristics and parking demand. With these differences in mind, areas will
typically align with one of the following contexts as established in Denver's zoning
code; Downtown, Urban Center, General Urban, Urban Neighborhood, Urban
Edge Neighborhood, Suburban Neighborhood. Parking is in high demand in
Downtown areas with high-rise office buildings, commercial services, and ground-
floor retail. As a result, Downtown areas may have more opportunity for variable
pricing strategies with parking rates that vary due to time of day, special events,
or demand. Urban Centers and Urban Neighborhoods, however, are characterized
by a mix of land use and transportation types that all have different parking needs.
Suburban Centers are generally located in areas with less density and adequate
surface parking for customers and patrons provided by each land use.
The following section illustrates a hypothetical AMP process to explain how an
area might utilize the five-steps and the Parking Management Toolbox. Using this
process stakeholders can work towards understanding existing conditions and
identifying the desired outcome based on specific parking needs.
Note: The following hypothetical scenario is only an example and does not
represent actual data or the standard result of an AMP process. Each AMP process
will be unique and will yield different results.
STEP 1: DEFINE COMMUNITY
Hypothetical management scenario: The AMP area is an embedded commercial
district surrounded by an urban neighborhood. The area is connected by several
bus routes. Public on-street parking in the area is currently free and unrestricted.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX
rm
i
, r


STEP 2: IDENTIFY PARKING CONDITIONS
Stakeholders in an area often trigger an AMP process. Since they are regular users
of the parking in an area, stakeholders are usually the first to be aware of and
report difficulties or abuses to parking management strategies that are currently
in place. The level of enforcement in a given location and the number of phone
calls from impacted stakeholders are two indicators of parking conditions that
may need attention. There may be opportunities to develop an AMP in concert
with a neighborhood or area-wide planning process.
Various groups should be involved in the AMP process to identify parking
conditions from all stakeholder perspectives and make sure those view points are
documented and well understood.
Sample questions to ask in this process include:
Who is affected by parking in this area?
What are the varying perspectives of parking in the area?
Is there currently anyone documenting these opinions (i.e. City Council
offices, property owners, neighborhood associations)?
Hypothetical Management Scenario:
Residents adjacent to a small embedded commercial district have complained to
a City Council office that customers and employees of businesses are spilling over
into the neighborhood and preventing homeowners and tenants from accessing
on-street spaces. In response, business owners claim that the lack of parking
supply has created an inconvenient parking situation for visitors and may result in
loss of business if the situation continues or worsens.
STEP 3: DEFINE ISSUES AND COLLECT DATA
In Step 3, a partnership of City and community stakeholders work together to
better understand the issues that have been raised. They design a data collection
effort to better understand actual occupancy, utilization, and turnover rates.
Once collected, this data will be used paint a picture of existing conditions
including the behavior and needs of different user groups in the area.
Important questions to explore in Step 3 include:
What is the appropriate area of analysis for the AMP and the data
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX
49


collection?
Where is parking supply available and what is the amount of inventory?
Is the majority of parking inventory private or is it available to the public?
When is parking available?
Who are the different users of parking in the area?
What are the parking preferences of these different user groups?
What are the peak demand times and the associated user groups?
What are the duration/turnover rates along the main commercial street and
the adjacent residential streets?
Hypothetical Management Scenario:
The City team and stakeholder group collect data during the day, evening,
weekday, and weekend. They find:
Overall, parking occupancy is highest between 11:00 am 1:00 pm.
Most of the off-street parking supply within the study area is dedicated to private,
commercial uses and is restricted to allow only the patrons or employees of those
stores or offices. However, at peak times, these dedicated lots are only about 50%
occupied.
One small off-street public parking lot is convenient but charges $5 a day. The lot
opens at 7:00 am and closes at midnight. This lot does not exceed 25% occupancy
even at peak parking times.
On-street parking is nearly 100% occupied along the commercial corridor during
peak parking times. The data reveals that many of the cars parked along the
commercial corridor turn over infrequently. This indicates that spaces are being
used by long-term parkers like employees or residents.
On-street occupancy in the residential neighborhoods is high on blocks directly
adjacent to the commercial corridor. However, more spaces are available on the
exterior blocks.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX


STEP 4: DEVELOP AREA SPECIFIC PARKING GOALS
In Step 4, City staff and community stakeholders use the information they have
gathered to develop shared parking objectives based on both context and various
user needs. The following questions may help articulate common goals.
Is user priority different at different times of the day?
Are there other parking users that should be accommodated at that time?
Are there parking users that should be discouraged at any time or
encouraged to park elsewhere?
What is the desired level of parking occupancy for the different segments
of the study area?
Which users need to park close to their destinations?
What types of users can and will park farther from their destinations?
What is the desired rate of turnover for the different segments of the study
area?
Do different parking users need to park for different lengths of time or will
one duration accommodate all users?
Hypothetical Management Scenario:
City staff and community members work together to create a common list of
objectives for AMP parking outcomes.
On the commercial street, customers are identified as priority users for on-
street spaces. Delivery vehicles should also be accommodated.
Residents are also identified as the priority users of on-street spaces on the
residential streets.
Employees need to park somewhere but are not a priority user group in
either area.
Off-street lots should be nearly full (at or over 90% occupied).
On-street parking on the commercial corridor should be 85% occupied so
that it is primarily full but has several spaces open at any given time.
On-street parking in residential areas should be less full (60-75%) so that
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX
51


residents will always be able to park relatively near their homes.
On-street spaces along the commercial corridor should turn over frequently
(every 30 to 90 minutes).
Off-street spaces should be reserved for visitors and customers who will
be in the area for more extended periods of time (2-4 hours) as well as for
employees (6-8 hours).
On-street spaces within the residential areas should be available to
residents but if capacity is left over can also be used on a more short- term
basis by other users.
STEP 5: DEVELOP A MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
Once data is collected and clear parking objectives are set, City staff and
community stakeholder's work together to develop an AMP using the successive
five-step process in the Parking Management Toolbox. Tools that fall within
Demand strategies are considered first before moving down the list to Location,
Time, Pricing, and Supply strategies. Tools are considered based on their ability to
address existing conditions, balance stakeholder needs, and promote sustainable
vitality and a high quality of life in the area.
Hypothetical Management Scenario:
City and area stakeholders move through the five-step process and decide on the
management tools described below:
Demand -
Business stakeholders agree to encourage employees to ride alternative
transportation. They will make schedule information available and offer transit
subsidies. Several shops also agree to install additional bike storage for cyclists.
Resident stakeholders agree to encourage neighbors to use available private, off-
street parking resources such as garages and driveways to free up on-street supply
for guests or deliveries.
Location -
The operator of the public, off-street surface lot agrees to improve signs so that
information regarding hours of operation, rates, and payment options is more
readily available. This may encourage visitors who are staying in the area for
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX
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longer amounts of time to utilize the lot and leave on-street parking spaces to
visitors with shorter trips. Business owners with private use-dedicated lots enter
into arrangements to share off-street parking resources with other shops in
exchange for help with lot maintenance costs.
Time -
City staff work with both business and residential stakeholders to design and
implement time restrictions on the high demand commercial corridor and on
alternating adjacent residential streets. Time restrictions will allow visitors to park
for two hours before being required to move their cars. Residents work together
to determine whether a Residential Parking Permit program is appropriate to
protect neighbors from spillover from the new restrictions and consider the
impacts the program will have on their parking needs.
Pricing -
As the commercial corridor becomes increasingly vibrant, City staff monitor the
utilization rates and the effectiveness of the time restrictions. After working with
business owners and residents to assess changing conditions, they identify several
blocks along the commercial corridor that have the potential to be metered if
growth and demand continues.
Supply -
As properties develop and uses change, new off-street parking opportunities
are possible. In addition, business owners continue to share parking and work
with private off-street lots to create options that are convenient for visitors and
employees.
This hypothetical scenario illustrates the intent behind an AMP process. While
each process will be unique based on an area's context and specific issues, there
will be a consistent emphasis on collaboration and data collection to make
decisions. Once each management tool is applied, it will be followed by an
evaluation period where stakeholders and the City can monitor success so that
tools and associated enforcement efforts are calibrated to address conditions.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX 53
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IMPLEMENTATION
IMPLEMENTING THE STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN
This three-part section identifies action items that support the vision of the SPP.
These action items are divided into two categories; key recommendations and
next-steps recommendations specific to the five-step process introduced in the
Parking Management Toolbox. Finally, an implementation matrix provides a
summary of all recommendations and a goal time-frame for implementation.
KEY RECOMMENDATIONS
ACKNOWLEDGE A VARIETY OF LAND USE PATTERNS AND CONTEXTS
Recognize that Denver is made up of a variety of land uses, building forms and
transportation facilities. Manage both on- and off-street parking contextually, not
through a one size fits all approach. Take time to define area characteristics first in
order to select the most appropriate parking strategies for an area's goals.
MANAGE PARKING AS AN ASSET
Actively manage the existing supply of parking from an asset management
approach. Recognize the value of each on- and off-street parking space to the
surrounding area's activities as well as to the City as a whole. Use the asset to
support economic development; neighborhoods with distinct character; efficient
use of land; a multi-modal network with a variety of transportation choices;
and a sustainable environment with good air and water quality. Effectively
weigh benefits against the associated behavioral, operational or physical costs.
Set parking fees and fines so they, at a minimum, cover the annual costs of
administrative, capital, operations, and maintenance required to keep the asset
healthy and sustainable.
54
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Implementing the Strategic Parking Plan
Key Recommendations
Next Steps Demand, Location, Time, Pricing, Supply
Implementation Summary
ENCOURAGE AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO PARKING MANAGEMENT
Provide opportunities for input from key community stakeholders regarding
parking conditions and goals. Create management strategies that balance the
needs of diverse user groups with strategies that complement the City's overall
parking goals.
OPTIMIZETHE USE OF EXISTING PARKING RESOURCES BEFORE BUILDING
NEW FACILITIES
Explore parking management tools designed to better manage existing supply
(Step One through Step Four) before considering the addition of new faciliites.
Consider the direct and indirect costs of parking and parking management before
the application of any strategy.
INTEGRATETHESPP VISION INTO OTHER PLANNING PROCESSES
The vision set forth in the SPP should be applied in all planning processes moving
forward. Efforts for Area or Neighborhood Plans, Station Area Plans, Corridor Plans,
Urban Design Guidelines and Standards, General Development Plans or citywide
initiatives should reflect the SPP philosophy and/or recommend strategies
outlined within the five-step process.
EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVNESS OF APPLIED PARKING TOOLS AND
PROVISIONS IN THE DENVER ZONING CODE
Follow the application of each parking management strategy or tool with an
evaluation period where stakeholders and City staff can monitor impacts and
adjust as needed.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION
55


Create an evaluation process for Community Planning and Development staff to
monitor the effectiveness of Denver Zoning Code provisions including vehicle and
bicycle parking base rates to determine whether they are calibrated appropriately.
Include an evaluation of the use of reductions or exceptions including shared
parking allowances and transit-proximate reductions to see if these tools are being
utilized.
Both Community Planning and Development and Denver Public Works need
to be involved to monitor the success of applied tools, base rates, reductions
or exceptions and be aware of potential impacts they may have on stakeholder
groups.
PILOTTHE AREA MANAGEMENT PLAN PROGRAM
Evaluate necessary resource needs to pilot the AMP program for one
location. Estimated timeline for first AMP pilot is in 2011.
While Denver Public Works and Traffic Engineering Services will continue to
monitor parking conditions throughout the city and manage those conditions on
a daily basis, some areas will require more intensive planning efforts and could be
candidates for Area Management Plans or AMP processes. The SPP recommends
that the City pilot an AMP to design strategies that reflect the asset management
approach set forth in this document.
Status: City staff are currently preparing for a pilot AMP program by assessing
potential program resource needs. Over the next several years, the goal is
to use the Area Management Plan process to address larger areas that need
a more comprehensive approach to parking management. It is important
that City staff fully understand the resource implications in order to develop
a successful program. A pilot program will provide a test case to inform what
funding and personnel resources are required moving forward. For example,
consultant resources might be required to collect data on an area's parking
utilization, turnover, and duration habits in depth. This valuable data can provide
stakeholders and City staff with real information to use when selecting the most
appropriate parking management strategies for an area.
In addition, because the creation of an area management plan will be an intensive
process, it is necessary to allocate the appropriate amount of staff time to ensure
that AMPs are efficient, thorough and are poised to achieve a high-level of buy in
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amongst stakeholders. Staff teams will include advisory members from multiple
city departments to ensure that parking management decisions align with and
support other City goals, policies, and objectives set for that specific area.
At this time, City staff estimate that the first pilot AMP will begin in 2011. The
program will expand as resources allow.
NEXT STEPS -D DEMAND
ENCOURAGETHE USE OF MULTIPLE MODES OF TRANSPORTATION
Car-sharing
Monitor the popularity of car-sharing programs in Denver.
Evaluate the results of on-street car-sharing spaces in the downtown area
after designated pilot period.
Encourage car-sharing programs as a better use of the overall alternative
transportation system.
Monitor and adjust provisions regarding car-sharing parking reductions in
the Denver Zoning Code as needed.
Car-sharing has recently come to Denver. Several new companies offering car-
sharing services have started hubs in Denver and are offering services to registered
users. Each company has a number of vehicles ranging in type and size stationed
throughout the Denver area in both on-street and off-street locations. Car-sharing
is an important complement to the overall alternative transportation system as it
can reduce the number of cars needed for each household.
Status: Car-share operators prefer highly visible parking spaces to make their
services convenient and attractive for users. Denver Public Works has partnered
with a non-profit car-share company to provide several highly desirable, on-street
parking spaces for car-share use only in the Downtown area. Spaces are also
available in off-street lots in the Highlands and Capitol Hill neighborhoods. These
previously metered spaces are located in high-demand areas Downtown and will
be dedicated to car-share use for a pilot period. During the pilot period, car-share
staff and City representatives will study the rate of on-street car share vehicle
usage and meter revenue impacts to determine whether the program will be
expanded into the future.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION
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Bicycling and Pedestrian Programs and Facilities
Prioritize bicycle and pedestrian movements in Denver by working to
expand a safe and connected network of routes for both modes.
Complete the "Denver Moves: Making Bicycle and Pedestrian Connections
in the Mile High City" planning effort to identify investment areas for better
bicycle and pedestrian connections in on and off-street locations.
Encourage support for bike-sharing programs to complement the overall
alternative transportation system.
Monitor and adjust bicycle parking requirements in the Denver Zoning
Code as needed.
Bicycling continues to gain popularity as a commuting choice and recreation
activity in Denver. As a parking management strategy Demand tool, bicycling
can both reduce traffic congestion as well as reduce the demand for parking by
shifting drivers to a new mode. The expansion of a safe and connected bicycling
network should be encouraged throughout Denver.
Status: To encourage cycling habits in the City, Denver Public Works is working
to extend the striped bike lanes and sharrow networks within the city. Since
2007, the number of striped bicycle lanes within the City and County of Denver
has doubled. In addition, Denver Public Works allocated resources to update
the Denver Bike Map and provide free copies to the cycling community via local
libraries, recreation centers and several bike shops.
In addition, the City and County of Denver launched "Denver Moves: Making
Bicycle and Pedestrian Connections in the Mile High City". This effort will focus
on the linkages between on and off-street routes and the creation of a stronger,
integrated system that connects people to destinations. The effort concentrates
on linking pedestrians and cyclists to destinations so that cycling and walking
become more viable, efficient, and pleasant ways of moving around the City.
Denver Moves is a collaborative effort between Denver Parks and Recreation and
Denver Public Works with support from Denver Environmental Health. More
information regarding this effort is available at www.denvermoves.org.
Lastly, the Denver Biking Sharing initiative "B-Cycle" launched in April 2010.
Like car-share, this new system allows for short trip connections to transit or
other alternative modes by bicycle. Cyclists can pay a small sum to use one of
hundreds of bikes located at over 40 different locations throughout the City. More
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION
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information regarding B-Cycle is available at www.bcycle.com.
ENCOURAGE PRIVATE DEVELOPERS AND EMPLOYERSTO UTILIZETRAVEL
DEMAND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AND PROGRAMS
Travel Demand Management (TDM)
Encourage private developers and employees to utilize ideas from this plan
to manage parking demand through creative strategies.
Continue to supportTransportation Management Associations or
organizations as they work with property/business owners and employees
to institutionalize TDM strategies.
TDM strategies challenge the notion that a single occupancy vehicle is the
best form of mobility. Private developers, employers, and business owners are
encouraged to integrate TDM strategies including secure bicycle parking, showers,
transit subsidies, carpool programs, or flex-time schedules to reduce vehicle
parking demands.
Status: Currently the City supports several Transportation Management
Associations or Organizations (TMAs and TMOs) that work directly with employers
or property owners throughout the city to promote alternative transportation and
TDM. They also work with other likeminded organizations and regional entities
like the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) to examine funding
sources for region-wide strategies that expand transportation options.
In addition, a funding source established through the DRCOG Transportation
Improvement Program (TIP) provides resources to selected projects that promote
and facilitate alternative modes of travel such as carpooling, vanpooling, transit,
cycling and walking. These projects can explore additional mode-types or
connections that can decrease overall parking demand.

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DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION
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NEXT STEPS B LOCATION
ENHANCE DENVER'S PARKING-RELATED INFORMATION AND RESOURCES.
Online Parking Resources
Create an integrated parking website that serves as a primary source of
information for all parking related matters.
Explore online capacity to provide additional administrative functions
including permit applications and real time parking conditions
annoucements.
The current City and County of Denver website offers many resources regarding
parking, however, the SPP recommends that existing online resources be
reorganized and enhanced so that stakeholders can quickly navigate through the
most comprehensive and updated information available. An improved website
can better connect stakeholders to pertinent information regarding parking
policies and procedures. It will also connect stakeholders to City staff who can
best answer specific questions and encourage broader participation in the
creation and implementation of parking management strategies.
In addition, explore ways that online administrative functions can be enhanced.
There may be opportunity to provide online applications for parking permits such
as the Residential Parking Permits or special occupancy permits. This service can
provide additional user convenience, consistency, and efficiency. A well-designed
website can also serve as a primary portal to alert stakeholders of changes or
announcements so that conditions such as major construction or special events
are communicated and alternative parking options are clearly explained.
Status: Denver Public Works has allocated resources to reorganize online web
resources available through www.denvergov.org. The availability of online
applications will be updated as resources allow.
IMPROVE WAY FINDING ANDTHE AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION FOR
OFF-STREET PARKING FACILITIES
Way Finding and Information
Encourage parking operators and providers to offer better information
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about off-street availability
Monitor success of Park NOW Denver and adjust or expand to other high
parking demand areas throughout the city
The location, cost, and public availability of off-street facilities are not always clear
to drivers. Even if a facility is open to the public, the rules of that location such as
parking rates or hours of operation are often hard to determine. Confusion or lack
of information often results in a driver default to on-street parking. Encouraging
parking operators to provide better information about off-street parking
availability can increase utilization these facilities.
Status: The City and County of Denver in conjunction with the Downtown Denver
Parternship has developed Park NOW Denver, a public parking recognition
program that will help drivers find off-street parking locations and provide more
information regarding these lots and garages. Participating lots will be required
to meet a certain set of criteria so that parking users can be assured of a consistent
parking experience. Participating lots must provide clear information regarding
rate information, payment options, hours of operation, and contact information
should a customer have questions. In addition, new wayfinding signage posted
around the downtown area will help drivers identify participating off-street
parking lots. Encouraging the use of off-street faciliites will free up on-street
spaces for short-term parkers. The Public Parking Recognition Project is currently
being piloted and, if deemed successful, the program could extend to other urban
center areas throughout the city.
USE NEW LANGUAGE IN DENVER'S ZONING CODETO SUPPORT SHARED
PARKING ARRANGEMENTS.
Shared Parking
Develop a "Shared Parking FAQs" brochure or webpage with information
on shared parking as it relates to the Denver Zoning Code as well as private
agreements.
Evaluate the use of Denver Zoning Code shared parking arrangements and
monitor and adjust those provisions as needed.
The Denver Zoning Code was adopted in June 2010 and includes new language
to support Location tools for parking management. New provisions encourage
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION
61


developers to coordinate with surrounding uses to share parking resources
according to travel behavior needs and use patterns. Shared parking can also
provide developers with potential parking reduction incentives. Whether land
uses are changing, evolving, developing or are established; there is a great
opportunity for private property owners and developers to seek out shared
parking arrangements to maximize the use of existing resources and limited land
supplies to meet parking needs. Shared parking arrangements that result in base
rate reductions require City approval but many shared parking partnerships can
be arranged without formal approval. The SPP recommends that businesses,
residents, or other stakeholders explore shared parking opportunities in their
neighborhoods. Attention to stakeholder input and behavior is essential for the
design of an successful shared strategy that meets the diverse needs of a variety of
users.
Status: A"Shared Parking FAQs" brochure or webpage with tips and important
information regarding private shared parking arrangements will be created as
resources allow.
NEXT STEPS-HTIMING
SUPPORT PARKING ACCESS NEEDS AND EXPLORE NEW TECHNOLOGIES
Continue to work with stakeholders to determine time restrictions that
support parking and access needs.
Utilize new technologies to understand user behaviors and calibrate time
restrictions.
The SPP recommends calibrating time restrictions with the needs of the activities
and stakeholders in an area. If a block is primarily occupied by upscale restaurants
or other entertainment uses, on-street parking may need to accomodate stays of
two to three hours in these areas. One-hour restrictions on this block may annoy
restaurant patrons and could impact economic vitality for business owners.
The availability of new technologies increase opportunities to collect valuable
data before making parking managemnet decisions. For example, license-plate
recognition technologies provide information on duration and turnover behaviors
and indicate the origination points of visitors. In addition, new meter technologies
can also provide stay or duration data that informs user behavior patterns. These
technologies can allow city staff to study behavior in specific areas of the city so
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION
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that AMPs or more localized parking management decisions can better meet the
needs of adjacent land uses.
NEXT STEPS- PRICING
UTILIZETHE MOST UP-TO-DATE AND CONVENIENT TECHNOLOGY TO
SUPPORT ON-STREET PARKING MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES.
Utilize new Smart Meters to improve customer service and performance
through user payment flexibility.
Match parking demand with rates that support on-street parking
management.
Smart Meter technology offers more flexibility and programming options so
that different pricing and time structures match conditions and demand rates.
They have the capacity to offer variable pricing rates in high demand areas or
be programmed for special event pricing. Smart Meters are wirelessly linked
and have the ability to send alerts to meter technician teams when there are
jams or other meter errors. Digital display screens on each meter allow Right of
Way Enforcement Teams to communicate with users. Messaging can change
depending on circumstances. For instance, a display may read,"No Parking -
Street Sweeping," which can save drivers from receiving a citation when parking
is prohibited. If parking is free on a particular day, the display might read "Free
Parking Today" to alert a user that payment is not required.
Status: By mid-Summer 2010, over 4,500 new"IPS Smart Meters" were installed
throughout Denver replacing older, traditional meter heads. Once the installation
is complete, the concentration of new meters will be in Downtown Denver and in
urban center areas like Cherry Creek. Smart Meters are solar powered, wireless,
and accept new forms of payment including Visa and MasterCard credit and debit
cards in addition to coins. While parking keys will no longer be compatible, Smart
Meters will accept"ParkSmart Denver"cards that are sold at different locations
throughout the City. This new meter technology means that users will no longer
be required to carry change providing additional options and convenience to
users.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION
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STRENGTHEN RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER PARKING PROVIDERS TO
UNDERSTAND THE IMPACTS OF ON AND OFF-STREET PARKING RATES.
Periodically perform rate surveys in Downtown and other high demand
areas to understand how current rates impact existing parking supply and
demand.
Cities like Boulder and Colorado Springs own, operate and manage the majority of
on and off-street parking in their downtown areas. A single managing authority
makes it easy to coordinate on and off-street rates and encourages drivers to
utilize all different types of facilities. In Downtown Denver, however, a number
of public and private entities mange the different types of parking supply. Rate
surveys can inform City parking staff about the interplay of supply and demand.
This effort will help City staff understand the market threshold for parking
pricing so that all existing resources are used efficiently regardless of ownership.
Extremely low or high rates can have unintended consequences on the overall
parking system. Rate surveys also help City staff understand and anticipate
parking behaviors by various user groups. This exercise can also work in tandem
with the Park NOW Denver public parking recognition program explained in the
Location strategies section.
NEXT STEPS-H SUPPLY
MAXIMIZE THE USE OF EXISTING PARKING RESOURCES BEFORE BUILDING
ADDITIONAL PARKING SUPPLY
Explore opportunities to maximize existing supply including shared parking
arrangements, the evaluation of unused loading-zones, etc. that are no
longer needed, and the promotion of new, public off-street public facilities.
Denver is an established city with the majority of its high-demand areas built-
out or redeveloping with a higher intensity. These land patterns provides limited
opportunity to create vast new supplies of parking. City planning professionals
and area property developers strive to use available real estate to its highest
and best use as defined by both land use patterns, Smart Growth principles,
and City policy guidance. New sources of parking supply are costly, especially
when structured or underground. In addition, surface parking lots often detract
from vibrant places. The five-step parking management process recognizes the
significant financial and land costs associated with adding additional parking
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION
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and focuses instead on maximizing the use of existing parking resources to the
greatest extent possible.
Shared parking opportunities as discussed above in the Location strategies section
can maximize supply by allowing uses with different demand profiles to use the
same parking inventories at different times. In the same vein, each property owner
throughout the city should assess the parking patterns of their stakeholders and
any potential shared opportunities that exist in the adjacent area.
Several additional opportuniites exist to maximize parking. There may be
locations where lots can be re-configured or re-striped to create new spaces in
accordance with the Denver Zoning Code. Off-street lots could relocate dumpsters
or other large items to make use of spaces that were previously inaccessible. In
addition, City staff will continue to assess areas where uses have changed to add
supply. For example, loading zones that are no longer required can be reclaimed
as on-street inventory following an evaluation of needs. Finally, residents can
reorganize or clear out personal garages to provide additional off-street options in
neighborhoods.
Status: Denver Public Works Traffic Engineering Services will continue to evaluate
loading zones or no-parking zones for additional on-street parking opportunities
as conditions change. Municipal developments throughout the city have also
added public parking spaces in high-demand areas. For example, a new parking
garage located on the new Denver Justice Center Campus in Downtown Denver
offers over 600 new spaces some of which are publically available for use. In
addition, the Denver Botanic Gardens recently completed a new public parking
structure that increased parking from 180 to 300 spaces.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION
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IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARY
RECOMMENDATIONS TIMEFRAME
ONGOING 1-3 YEARS 3-5 YEARS FUTURE
Key Recommendations
Acknowledge a variety of land use patterns and contexts
Manage parking as an asset
Encourage an integrated approach to parking management
Optimize the use of existing parking resources before building new facilities
Integrate the SPP vision into other planning processes
Evaluate the effectiveness of applied parking tools and provisions in the Denver Zoning Code
Pilot the Area Management Plan program
Demand
Encourage the use of multiple modes of transportation
Monitor the popularity of car-sharing programs in Denver
Evaluate the results of on-street car-sharing spaces in the downtown area after designated pilot period
Monitor and adjust provisions regarding car-sharing parking reductions in the Denver Zoning Code as needed
Prioritize bicycle and pedestrian movements in Denver by working to expand a safe and connected network of routes for both modes
Complete the "Denver Moves" planning effort to identify investment areas for better bicycle and pedestrian connections in on and off-street locations
Encourage support for bike-sharing programs to complement the overall alternative transportation system
Monitor and adjust bicycle parking requirements in the Denver Zoning Code as needed.
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DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION


IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARY
RECOMMENDATIONS TIMEFRAME
ONGOING 1-3 YEARS 3-5 YEARS FUTURE
Encourage private developers and employers to utilize Travel Demand Management strategies and programs
Encourage private developers and employees to utilize ideas from this plan to manage parking demand through creative strategies
Continue to supportTransportation Management Associations or organizations as they work with property/business owners and employees to institutionalize TDM strategies
Location
Enhance Denver's parking-related information and resources
Create an integrated parking website that serves as a primary source of information for all parking related matters.
Explore online capacity to provide additional administrative functions including permit applications and real time parking conditions annoucements.
Improve way finding and the availability of information for off-street parking facilities
Encourage parking operators and providers to offer better information about off-street availability
Monitor success of Park NOW Denver and adjust or expand to other high parking demand areas throughout the city
Use new language in the Denver Zoning Code to support shared parking arrangements
Develop a "Shared Parking FAQs" brochure or webpage with information on shared parking as it relates to the Denver Zoning Code as well as private agreements.
Evaluate the use of Denver Zoning Code shared parking arrangements and monitor and adjust those provisions as needed.
Timing
Support parking needs and explore new technologies
Continue to work with stakeholders to determine time restrictions that support parking and access needs
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION
67


IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARY
RECOMMENDATIONS TIMEFRAME
ONGOING 1-3 YEARS 3-5 YEARS FUTURE
Utilize new technologies to understand user behaviors and calibrate time restrictions
Pricing
Utilize the most up-to-date and convenient technology to support on-street parking management strategies
Utilize new Smart Meters to improve customer service and performance through user payment flexibility
Match parking demand with rates that support on-street parking management
Strengthen relationships with other parking providers to understand the impacts of on- and off-street parking rates
Periodically perform rate surveys in Downtown and other high- demand areas to understand how current rates impact existing parking supply and demand
Supply
Maximize the use of existing parking resources before building additional parking supply
Explore opportunities to maximize existing supply including shared parking arrangements, the evaluation of unused loading- zones, etc. that are no longer needed, and the promotion of new, public off-street public facilities.
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GLOSSARY
Area Management Plan (AMP) An area specific parking plan for places in Denver that have high utilization rates,
diverse user groups, or a complex mix of land uses that will identify context-specific strategies that cover a larger scale
and engages a variety of stakeholders.
B-Cycle The Denver bike sharing program launched in April 2010, provides bikes to make short trip connections to
bike docking stations located throughout the City.
Blueprint Denver Blueprint Denver is the first step in implementing the vision of Denver's Comprehensive Plan
2000. It serves s an integrated land use and transportation plan and was adopted in 2002 as a supplement to the
Comprehensive Plan. Key land use concepts include directing growth and redevelopment to Areas of Change, while
preserving Areas of Stability.
Car Sharing programs that provide individuals access to a centrally owned and maintained fleet of vehicles on a
per-hour or per-day basis.
Debt Service-The series of payments of interest and principal required on a debt over a given period of time.
Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000 A document created to define the vision of what Denver residents want for
their community through a series of goals, visions of success, objectives and strategies.
Denver Moves A Citywide effort to increase bicycle and pedestrian connections, to focus on the linkages between
on and off street routes and to create of a stronger, integrated system that connects people to destinations.
Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) A nonprofit association of 55 local governments dedicated
to enhancing and protecting the quality of life in the nine-county Denver region.
Denver Right-of-Way Enforcement (ROWE) A team tasked with providing quality customer service and
management for on-street parking in the public right-of-way.
Denver Strategic Transportation Plan (STP)-Aroad map for transportation policy now and into the future.
Acknowledges that Denver's infrastructure cannot accommodate unlimited trips by single occupancy vehicles.
Identifies travel sheds within the City and recognizes the importance of moving people, not just cars.
Denver Zoning Code the compilation of land use and building form regulations for the City. Adopted in 2010 as
the first major revision to the zoning code since 1954. It simplifies and reduces many parking base requirements,
introduces parking exemptions and reductions, and calibrates requirements by neighborhood context.
DRCOG Transportation Improvement Programs (TIP) A funding tool established through the Denver Regional
Council of Governments to promote alternative modes of travel.
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DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN GLOSSARY


Dynamic Wayfinding- Signs that are electronic and can change to alert users of changing parking conditions.
Flexible Work Schedules An option to stagger employee trips to make better use of the existing parking inventory.
Gateway Signs A type of wayfinding strategy that alerts a user of an entrance into a location.
Greenprint Denver An action agenda initiated by the mayor's office to support sustainable development for the
City and County of Denver and to improve the environment with transportation-related goals, including an emphasis
on increased public transit access and use and a decreased reliance on single-occupancy vehicles.
Heat Island Effect The affect that a large surface parking lot has on increasing temperatures by absorbing and
retaining heat.
Kiosks / Smart Meters Used to employ variable pricing.
Managed Parking Parking facilities that are monitored and maintained by management, either public or private.
Are maintained with meters, signage, enforcement, etc.
Management Hours The hours when parking is managed, should be tailored to meet specific needs.
Mayor's Parking Commission (MPC) An appointed body enabled by the Mayor's Office. It consists of a variety
of stakeholders who represent residential and commercial interests as well as other organizations. They review and
provide input for existing and proposed parking policies and management practices.
Mixed Use A development that mixes residential, commercial, and office space within the same buildings and
districts.
Multimodal Streets streets that accommodate and move various forms of travel including public transit (bus or
rail), bicycling, walking, and automobiles.
Off-Street Parking Parking that is provided outside of the right-of-way of a public street, typically in a surface
parking lot or public structure. (BP Denver) Falls into four categories: City-owned public parking, City-owned private
parking, privately-owned public parking, and privately-owned parking that is dedicated to a specific use.
On-Street Parking Parking that is provided within the right-of-way of a public street, typically in designated parallel
of diagonally striped spaces adjacent to moving traffic lanes. (BP Denver) Are publically accessible on a first-come,
first-served basis.
Park NOW Denver A public parking recognition program that will help drivers find off-street parking locations
and provide other pertinent parking information. This program was developed by the City and County of Denver in
conjunction with the Downtown Denver Partnership.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN GLOSSARY
71


Parking Capacity- An area is considered "at capacity" with 85% of spaces are full.
Parking "cashout"- a strategy to reduce vehicle trips that allows employees to opt out of having a parking space and
instead receive compensation.
Parking Demand The amount of parking used at a specific time and place. It is influenced by vehicle ownership,
the popularity of an area, the nature of uses in an area, availability of alternative forms of transportation, and other
external factors such as fuel costs.
Parking Demand Profiles A tool that categorizes users into groups of people whose parking needs are similar in
terms of location, time, and duration. These profiles aid in providing a conceptual picture of parking in a given area.
Parking District A concept that seeks to more effectively use the existing parking supply on a district-wide basis
rather than as individual lots.
Parking Duration Describes how long a vehicle occupies a parking space.
Parking Occupancy/Utilization The percentage of parking spaces occupied at a given time, also called "utilization".
This reflects the relationship between parking demand and supply.
Parking Supply Inventory-The number of total spaces available for use.
Parking Turnover Rates a way to describe how often a parking space becomes available, or "turns over" during an
hour.
"ParkSmart Denver"Cards Declining balance cards that allow users to pay at parking meters without using a credit
card or coins.
Permit Parking A tool used to reserve street parking in specific areas for certain users.
Regional Transportation District (RTD) The regional public transportation agency for the six County Denver metro
areas.
Residential Parking Permit (RPP) An ordinance introduced to protect neighborhoods in high-demand areas from
parking impacts
Ridesharing Carpooling, is a useful method of transport for those living in areas not served well by public transit.
Right-of-way (ROW) Publicly owned property used for transportation and utility infrastructure, including sidewalks,
through travel lanes, parking lanes, tree lawn areas between detached sidewalks and streets, roadway median strips,
parkways, bridges, and alleys.
Shared Parking parking that is shared by more than one user, such that multiple property owners share a common
parking facility. Consists of traditional shared parking which requires zoning approval, and accessory shared parking,
which provides flexibility to meet parking demand and can be arranged outside of a city process.
Smart Growth A concept that encourages growth that economically, environmentally, and fiscally sustainable that
72
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN GLOSSARY


makes the most efficient use of public infrastructure.
Smart Meters smart meters are solar powered, wireless, and accept new forms of payment including VISA,
MasterCard and debit cards.
Strategic Parking Plan (SPP) Comprehensive city-wide framework that helps articulate and clarify the vision and
approach for parking in the City and County of Denver.
Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) Staff from Public Works, Community Planning and Development, and other
City departments that contributed to the SPP.
Time Limits A defined time period that a vehicle may remain in a parking space.
Transit Incentives/Subsidies A strategy to reduce parking demand where a user is encouraged to use transit
options instead of a single occupancy vehicle.
Transportation Management Associations (TMAs) Private, non-profit organizations that provide transportation-
related information within a defined geographic area.
Transportation Management Associations or Organizations (TMAs orTMOs) Groups that get City support that
work directly with employers or property owners to create TDM programs
Travel Demand Management (TDM) Strategies that challenge the notion that a single occupancy vehicle is the
best form of mobility, such strategies include bicycle parking, showers, transit subsidies, carpool programs, and flex-
time schedules to reduce vehicle parking demands.
Unmanaged parking Parking that is not managed, has no meters or signs limiting duration.
Variable Pricing With this system there is no time limit for parking, but hourly parking prices increase with longer
parking durations, making longer-term parking more expensive with each successive hour.
Vehicle Control Agents (VCAs) Part of the ROWE, this team is responsible for monitoring parking management
strategies for the City, they issue citations and administer vehicle booting and towing as well was provide parking
enforcement for special events.
Wayfinding signs that direct an intended user to a location; for instance, signs directing drivers to public off-street
parking facilities.
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN GLOSSARY
73


What is the Strategic Parking Plan?
How do I use the Strategic Parking Plan?
Why do a Strategic Parking Plan?
Why Does Parking Matter?
Who is Impacted?
Why Manage Parking?
Parking Management 101
WHY DO A STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN?
The City of Denver is working to create walkable, transit-oriented neighborhoods
that provide residents and visitors a variety of options in both lifestyle and travel
choice. The City continues to grow in population as more and more people
choose Denver as a place to live, work, and play. According to Blueprint Denver,
the City's integrated land use and transportation plan, Denver's population grew
by 87,000 between 1990 and 2000 to reach a total of 554,000 residents. Between
2000 and 2020, the City anticipates an additional 132,000 residents and 110,000
new jobs. The Denver Strategic Transportation Plan (STP) notes that all types
of travel trips will grow at a steady rate through 2030. If current travel patterns
and mode-splits are maintained, the City's transportation system will struggle to
accommodate this growth. Growth is a problem that many cities envy, however,
it also brings about change for our residents and increased demand on amenities
and resources that are already limited including the availability of parking.
With this in mind, the Strategic Parking Plan process provides the opportunity to:
Force us to look into the future and seek out new opportunities
Understand our current conditions and future needs
Define an overall vision to guide parking management citywide for use
by policy-makers, city staff, and all interested stakeholders; while also
providing direction for day-to-day parking decisions
Develop new strategies to achieve that vision
Invite a variety of stakeholders to create a balanced parking system that
can meet a variety of needs
DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION
3


Full Text

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DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN OCTOBER 2010 OC OC O TO B BE R R 2 01 0

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSCOPROJECT MANAGERS Crissy Fanganello, Public Works Steve Gordon, Community Planning and DevelopmentSPP PROJECT LEADS Cindy Patton, Public Works Steve Nalley, Community Planning and DevelopmentPROJECT TEAM Matt Wager, Public Works Sean Mackin, Public Works Scott Bauman, Public Works Nola Owens, Public WorksPW EXECUTIVE MANAGEMENT Guillermo BillŽ Vidal, Manager of Public Works and Deputy Mayor Lesley Thomas, Deputy Manager Engineering Services Bob Kochaver, Deputy Manager Operations George Delaney, Deputy Manager Finance Ann Williams, Managers O ce CommunicationsCPD EXECUTIVE MANAGEMENT Peter Park, Manager of Community Planning and Development Molly Urbina, Deputy Manager of Community Planning and DevelopmentMAYORS PARKING COMMISSION NON MEMBERS Diane Barrett, Mayors O ce Rob Duncanson, Public Works Chad Fuller, Dept. of Finance Bo Martinez, O ce of Economic Development Tim Martinez, O ce of Economic Development Brian Mitchell, Public Works Susan Moore, Mayors O ce Sean Maley, CRL Associates Lindsey Strudwick, Public Works Tina Scardina, Public Works Roxanne White, Mayors O ceMAYORS PARKING COMMISSION CURRENT TERM MEMBERS Aylene McCallum David Booth John Imbergamo Joseph Dolan Joseph Vostrejs Julie Bender Loren Ginsburg Mark Schaefer Mike Mills Monica Strobel Paul Schnaitter Randy Weeks San Ong Tawni Cummings Timothy Sabus SPP TECHNICAL ADVISORY GROUP DEPARTMENT REPRESENTATION Mayors O ce Greenprint Denver Planning Services, CPD Development Services/Zoning Dept. of Law Budget Management O ce Development Engineering Services, PW Tra c Engineering Services, PW Policy and Planning, PW Community Planning and Development Dept. of Finance Treasury O ce of Economic Development Theaters and Arenas Real Estate

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INTRODUCTION 2 WHAT IS THE STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN? ............................................................................................................................... ...................... 2 HOW TO USE THIS PLAN ............................................................................................................................... ......................................................... 2 WHY DO A STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN ?.............................................................................................................................. ............................ 3 WHY DOES PARKING MATTER ?.............................................................................................................................. ............................................. 4 WHO IS IMPACTED?.............................................................................................................. ................................................................................... 8 WHY MANAGE PARKING ?.............................................................................................................................. ........................................................ 11 PARKING MANAGEMENT 101 ............................................................................................................................... ............................................... 14PROCESS 18 THE PROJECT TEAM ............................................................................................................................... .................................................................. 18 TECHNICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ............................................................................................................................... ................................. 18 PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT AND ENGAGEMENT PROCESS ............................................................................................................................. 19 SUPPORTING POLICY DOCUMENTS AND REGULATORY TOOLS ........................................................................................................... 21VISION 26DENVERS EXISTING PARKING CONDITIONS ............................................................................................................................... .................. 26 VISION #1: A CKNOWLEDGE A VARIETY OF LAND USE PATTERNS AND CONTEXTS ....................... ........................................ ....... 27 VISION #2: MANAGE P ARKING AS AN ASSET ............................................................................................................................... ....... ........... 27 VISION #3: ENCOURAGE AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO PARKING MANAGEMENT ..................................................... ..... ......... 30MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX 32THE PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX ............................................................................................................................... ......................... 32 1 DEMAND ............................................................................................................................... ......................................................................... ...... 33 2 LOCATION ............................................................................................................................... ..................................................... .................. ..... 36 3 TIME ............................................................................................................................... ...................................................... .................. ........ ........ 38 4 PRICING ............................................................................................................................... ............................................................................ ..... 42 5 SUPPLY ............................................................................................................................... ................................................................. .................. 45 APPLYING THE TOOLBOX ............................................................................................................................... ....................................................... 46 AREA MANAGEMENT PLANS ............................................................................................................................... ................................................ 47IMPLEMENTATION 54 IMPLEMENTING THE STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN ............................................................................................................................... .. ....... 54 KEY RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................................................... .................. ...... ........ .............. ....... 54 1 DEMAND ............................................................................................................................... ................................................................ .............. 57 2 LOCATION ............................................................................................................................. .................................................. .............. ............. 59 3 TIMING ............................................................................................................................... ......................................................... ........................ 62 4 PRICING ............................................................................................................................... ................................................................. ............... 63 5 SUPPLY ............................................................................................................................... .......................................... ................ ........................ 64 IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................... ...................... ............ ............ 66GLOSSARY 70CONTENTS

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2 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION WHAT IS THE STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN? The Strategic Parking Plan (SPP) is a comprehensive, city-wide framework that helps articulate and clarify the vision and approach for parking management in the City and County of Denver. It does not focus on parking management in one area or neighborhood but serves to align policy-makers, city sta residents, business and property owners, and all other stakeholders so that parking goals outlined in the plan are shared and re ect a common vision for the city as a whole. The SPP explores innovative strategies and parking values from a variety of user perspectives so that the implementation tools set forth can achieve the best balance possible. HOW TO USE THIS PLAN The completion of the SPP document does not mean that the work is done. Instead, the vision for parking management documented in this plan will become a part of daily decision making for parking-related programs and policies in the coming years. As new parking conditions and opportunities arise, city sta policymakers, and the public can refer to the SPP for direction so that parking decisions bene t the city as a whole. In order for outcomes to be successful, it is imperative that all stakeholders understand and commit to the vision. Parking needs will change over time and the SPP serves as a dynamic roadmap as the City navigates through new circumstances. The tools provided in the Strategic Parking Plan will need to be validated again and again as the City grows and changes so that each parking management strategy considers the needs of individual stakeholders and the health of the overall city. Use this plan to understand the vision and new implementation tools but also let it serve as a call to action to be involved and informed as parking, and the city as a whole, continues to evolve. INTRODUCTION

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3 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION WHY DO A STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN? The City of Denver is working to cr eate walkable, tr ansit-oriented neighborhoods that provide residents and visitors a variety of options in both lifestyle and travel choice. The City continues to grow in population as more and more people choose Denver as a place to live, work, and play. According to Blueprint Denver, the Citys integrated land use and transportation plan, Denvers population grew by 87,000 between 1990 and 2000 to reach a total of 554,000 residents. Between 2000 and 2020, the City anticipates an additional 132,000 residents and 110,000 new jobs. The Denver Strategic Transportation Plan (STP) notes that all types of travel trips will grow at a steady rate through 2030. If current travel patterns and mode-splits are maintained, the Citys transportation system will struggle to accommodate this growth. Growth is a problem that many cities envy, however, it also brings about change for our residents and increased demand on amenities and resources that are already limited including the availability of parking. With this in mind, the Strategic Parking Plan process provides the opportunity to: € Force us to look into the future and seek out new opportunities € Understand our current conditions and future needs € De ne an overall vision to guide parking management citywide for use by policy-makers, city sta and all interested stakeholders; while also providing direction for day-to-day parking decisions € Develop new strategies to achieve that vision € Invite a variety of stakeholders to create a balanced parking system that can meet a variety of needs What is the Strategic Parking Plan? How do I use the Strategic Parking Plan? Why do a Strategic Parking Plan? Why Does Parking Matter? Who is Impacted? Why Manage Parking? Parking Management 101

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4 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION WHY DOES PARKING MATTER? The design and availability of parking has the potential to shape both the look and feel of a city, the quality of life of its citizens and visitors, and the potential for new growth and development. The need to accommodate parking must be balanced with other competing goals for the built environment such as livability and economic development. It is important to acknowledge that it is impossible to accommodate the land consumption that would be required to park every vehicle since it would prevent the City from achieving its goals of being a sustainable, livable community. PARKING:€ Impacts the look and feel of a city and its neighborhoods € Is shaped across multiple levels of policy, regulation and administration € Is an important component of the overall land use and transportation system € Can a ect tra c congestion € Has cost and value associated with every space € Is dynamic and varies based on the surrounding land use and time of day € Is part of a larger city system with many stakeholders € May require trade o s in our behavior, expectations, and choices. € Demand is most intense where there are centers of activity, mixes of land uses, and where land is valuable. € Takes up land as one o -street space = 300 square feet of physical space. € Structures cost upwards of $30,000 per space. € A ects housing a ordability € Can contribute to urban sprawl and pollution

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5 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION EVERYONE PAYS FOR PARKING Whether it is through a direct or indirect charge or an impact, parking is never free. Even in situations where parking appears to be free, like at grocery stores or shopping centers, the real costs of parking are often hidden. Businesses that provide free parking might fund the cost of providing parking through their annual operating budgets. Other businesses might even pass on those costs through the price of their goods or services. Likewise, the parking spot on the street in front of a home has a cost that is paid for by tax receipts. The cost of parking, however, is more than just physical. The opportunity costs associated show that parking is worth much more than the amount of quarters it takes to plug a meter. Its value is evident in terms of economic development, land use, the health and connectivity of the overall transportation system, and environmental sustainability. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT COSTS E ective parking policies and management strategies directly impact local economic development. Parking supply is often a key consideration for businesses considering Denver as a location since they must consider access for both employees and customers. Customers think about parking as they make decisions regarding where to shop, do business, and play. Customers may choose to go elsewhere If the parking associated with a particular business or commercial area is limited, perceived as too far away, is too expensive, or is inconvenient. The Urban Land Institute document, Ten Principles for Rebuilding Neighborhood Retail (2004)Ž, encourages balancing a walkable environment with convenient access in urban shopping locations. It advocates for high visibility, a sense of personal security, and adequate convenient parkingŽ as necessities for successful retail but warns that without them retail will likely fail, regardless of the sophistication of the shopping environment or the quality of the tenantsŽ. The parking decisions made by the a ected stakeholders and their economic impacts are important since it relies on tax revenues from retail sales to fund city services for both residents and businesses. In some cases, there is a relationship between the provision of parking and economic vitality. The goal is to achieve what is often a delicate balance between local area interests and overall city and community interests to create lively, attractive, and sustainable places.

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6 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH LAND USE AND NEIGHBORHOODS In a typical North American city, the amount of space dedicated to roadways accounts for about 30% of the total land use. Land used speci cally for parking simply adds to the overall percentage of space that is dedicated primarily to automobiles. In addition, the visual impact of too much surface parking in an area can be striking. If the supply of surface parking is underutilized, it may also be perceived as unsafe or may not attract new development. The decision to use large areas for surface parking in urban areas where land values are high may not be the most cost-e ective or e cient use of land for both individual community and city interests. Finally, parking requirements for new development may signi cantly impact construction costs and impact the nancial feasibility of a project. Denver is currently poised to invite new development of many shapes and sizes. This growth will contribute much to the vitality of di erent neighborhoods as well as the city as a whole. Future land choices should support the Citys goals of providing a ordable housing choices, increased services, jobs, and neighborhood retail. TRANSPORTATION COSTS Parking is an important component of the overall transportation and mobility network since the design and location of parking can in uence personal travel choices. If there is a reasonable chance of free and available parking at ones destination, it is more likely that an individual will choose a private automobile for the trip. Free and abundant parking provides no incentive to utilize alternative forms of transportation prioritizing the use of personal vehicles over walking, cycling, or transit use. In addition, the location of parking can directly impact safety, circulation, and access for users of other transportation modes. The use of on-street parking should be weighed against other potential uses of available right-of-way such as bike lanes or dedica ted transit lanes. While congestion and air pollution levels increase with additional vehicles on the road, decreasing the number of vehicles on the road could reduce parking demand, tra c congestion, and pollution levels.

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7 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY COSTS The quality of Denvers environment is impacted when land is dedicated to parking uses. Large surface parking lots can contribute to a heat island e ectŽ when asphalt absorbs and retains heat from the sunlight. Additionally, ground covered with asphalt or concrete is impermeable, which inhibits natural drainage and can carry run-o water containing oil, gas, grease or other uids into storm drains, rivers, or streams. This ultimately impacts the Citys overall water quality. Land dedicated to cars for roadways or parking should instead be balanced with opportunities for green spaces where plants and trees help improve air and water quality. DIRECT COSTS Parking requires substantial capital and operating expenditures that are not always recovered from those who use the spaces. The City and County of Denver currently manages tens of thousands of on and o -street parking spaces, however, only a fraction of those spaces produce revenue. Numerous parking lot and garage operators manage thousands of additional private spaces. Each space has an associated cost in terms of land value, maintenance, and management expenses. Land utilized for on-street parking is a scarce resource in Denver since the City is almost completely developed. It is costly to build additional parking especially when it requires the construction of underground or raised structures. In addition, each space must be maintained to make sure it is safe, accessible, and complies with zoning requirements or other city standards. Successful parking systems also require constant monitoring and administrative management to make sure that they are meeting the needs of users and citywide goals. Parking studies, data collection, and other evaluation strategies are costly and time consuming but are often necessary in order to calibrate the usefulness of the overall system. Active parking management has a signi cant cost impact for municipalities. Many cities devote full-time sta teams to the management of parking operations and enforcement. Enforcement teams that monitor parking management compliance require personnel and equipment resources. Parking technologies that improve customer service and performance for users, such as online citation payment websites or the installation of new, more convenient meter technologies also represent signi cant capital investments for the City. Finally, the maintenance of

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8 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION on and o -street parking facilities includes costs such as resurfacing concrete and asphalt, striping, and signage to ensure that parking spaces are functional and clearly marked. Although meters and enforcement activities generate citation or ne revenue for the City, expenditures to keep parking inventory and programs running e ectively often cut deeply into any pro ts. In 2008 the City and County of Denver spent roughly $13 million dollars on parking personnel and administration and another $234,000 on court system costs for parking-related cases. The Denver Police Department spent roughly $23,000 addressing parking-related issues or calls. Costs for capital and maintenance needs were almost $2.3 million. Finally, debt service payments for garages and pay stations totaled $1.95 million. The combination of parking-related personnel, administration, technology, capital, and maintenance expenses in 2008 totaled nearly $18 million. Figures from revenue-generating parking sources such as lots, garages, meters, pay stations, and nes or citations totaled just over $26 million in 2008. The net balance of $8 million dollars makes up less than 1% of the City and County of Denvers General Fund, a main oper ating account that funds both parking and non-parking related programs and improvements across the city. WHO IS IMPACTED? The desire to park anywhere, for any length of time and at little or no cost is not surprising since parking often provides access to goods and services. However, with a limited supply available, users must decide what they value when selecting a parking space. Understanding user behavior and tradeo s associated with parking choices help us clarify the nature of di erent stakeholder groups. Drivers may choose a parking location based on how important it is for them to be in close proximity to their destination while another may choose a space because of its cost. An individual attending a sporting event for several hours may be more willing to park farther away from his or her destination than a shopper who needs to quickly pick up dry cleaning, carry bags of groceries, or drop-o /pick-up children. While parking choices di er based on each persons needs and circumstances, they all impact quality of life. These indicators help clarify the parking needs, preferences and behaviors of di erent user groups and form parking demand pro les.Ž Demand pro les categorize users into groups of people whose parking needs are

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9 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION similar in terms of location, time and duration. These pro les can often provide a conceptual picture of parking patterns in a given area. Three main parking user pro les are employees, customers, and residents. EMPLOYEES Employees typically prefer to park in close proximity to their workplace but may be willing to park further away if it means they can safely leave their car unattended. Cost in uences parking location for employees, especially if parking is not provided by the employer. Employee drivers might be willing to park further away if parking cost less. Employees may also be more likely to shift to other modes of travel such as transit, walking, carpooling or bicycling. CUSTOMERS Customer demand pro les will vary signi cantly based on their destination and trip purpose. Some may only need to park for a short span of time and will therefore place a higher priority on being able to park quickly and conveniently near their destination. Customers who are shopping for leisure, attending a movie, or enjoying a dinner out may be more willing to park further away depending on the duration of their stay. Customers who are visiting more mixed-use areas with a variety of destinations can be encouraged to park onceŽ in a centralized facility and walk between destinations. RESIDENTS The needs of residents in mixed-use or predominantly residential neighborhoods have varied parking preferences. Residents may have o -street parking provided in a garage or other facility or they may rely solely on available on-street spaces. They have both long and short-term parking needs as well as guest parking needs. In addition, most residents have a strong preference to park in close proximity to their homes. When possible, residents should be encouraged to utilize existing o -street parking facilities so that access to on-street parking is maintained for other uses or for residents with parking needs. In highly desirable areas with conditions that must accommodate urban retail and residential parking, permit programs or other strategies may be necessary in order to balance competing

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10 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION parking demands. It is important to understand the overall parking supply and demand needs of a given area before determining what type of parking strategy to employ. The following table summarizes di erent factors that determine a users choice of parking location and facility. Parking Facility ChoicesDecision Factor On-Street FacilitiesO -Street Facilities Location On-street parking, if available, is dispersed geographically throughout an area and may be closer or further from any single use depending on availability. O -street parking is concentrated in a single facility and may or may not be public or dedicated to one use. Convenience If parking is widely available, users will likely be able to park close to their destination. In situations where parking is in high demand and street spaces are not readily available, street parking may be perceived as inconvenient. Dedicated parking attached to a single use may not be open to the general public. Parking in a structure may be perceived as inconvenient. Visibility and Information Since on-street parking is dispersed, users can easily assess parking options without altering driving path but may cruise multiple blocks looking for parking. Time restrictions are not always readily visible while driving. Users may be unfamiliar with the price, time restrictions or public nature of a structure or lot and, without visible signage, may be reluctant to turn into the lot or structure. Safety Areas with good pedestrian lighting and lots of activity have fewer safety concerns associated with on-street parking. Some users, however, may not feel comfortable parallel parking on busy streets. Others may not feel comfortable parking in areas that feel unsafe or have less desirable uses. Underground garages and large or poorly lit structures can be perceived as unsafe by users. If so, these facilities may only be used if other parking is unavailable. If a structure is well designed and patrolled, it may be perceived as safer than on-street parking.

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11 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION WHY MANAGE PARKING? The need for management strategies to ensure the e cient use of existing parking inventory is supported by an understanding of the direct costs or opportunity costs associated with parking. Successful parking management increases the availability of parking for users who need or value it most in a given situation. The intended outcome of a parking management program is a balanced parking system that e ciently prioritizes and matches user pro les to available supply. The anticipated result is that as many people as possible have the opportunity to reach their intended destinations and pursue their activities as planned. While this may not mean everyone is able to park directly in front of their destinations, the goal is to provide parking options that are within a reasonable distance. Some areas may not require signi cant levels of management while other areas with high demand or limited supplies may require more intensive management to support needs that vary by times of day. The absence of parking management can result in negative outcomes. If demand consistently exceeds supply in high-demand, mixed-use areas; the result may compromise quality of life from both the resident and business/retail perspectives. Although parking has been actively managed in Denver for some time, one of the recent transformations in parking policy is a new focus on management strategies that better allocate and prioritize parking resources for a variety of user groups. Instead of applying a standardized management program across the board, strategies are customized to target speci c needs in speci c areas. The overall result is a parking system that makes the most e cient use of existing resources. This approach can be applied in both commercial and residential areas and increases the certainty of nding a parking space by providing more options to shoppers, residents, and visitors. The following two diagrams describe the impacts of both unmanaged and managed parking.

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12 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION The rst step in customizing a strategy is to recognize that management techniques do not impact all user groups in the same way. Di erent user groups will respond di erently to management controls based on their trip purpose, the availability and convenience of alternate transportation modes, and how easy it is to access competing destinations. Di erent types of user groups have legitimate claims to the same limited parking supplies but they also have di erent tolerances that dictate how far from their destination they are willing to park. The diagram on the following page displays the parking tolerances of di erent user groups. Ignoring these behavior traits can result in unbalanced restrictions that favor one group without accommodating others. While overly restrictive practices are commonly faulted for deterring customers from visiting certain areas, rules that are too relaxed can also be responsible for the same unfavorable outcomes. VISION12

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13 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION The ability to provide balanced parking management for all users is especially challenging with on-street spaces since they are accessible to the public on a rstcome, rst-served basis. This approach places the default priority on serving those who arrive rst, an approach that does not always meet the needs of the various users. For example, employees who traditionally arrive rst dominate areas that operate with rst-come, rst-served parking. This prevents subsequent customers from accessing the spaces nearest to goods and services and creates an air of inconvenience. Deterring customers from visiting prevents them from supporting local businesses and can impact the success of the local economy. Management tools must be carefully calibrated to re ect and balance how and why stakeholder groups value parking and the associated behavior traits. While no one group has a rightŽ to a space, understanding the di erent perspectives of users can help clarify the best use of the parking space as an asset. A balanced approach to parking management intends to improve customer service for the parking user, but does not mean that every person will be able to park exactly where they want for free.

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14 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION PARKING MANAGEMENT 101 Before creating management strategies, it is essential to better understand the complexities of parking. The following discussion presents a set of key parking management principlesŽ. This set of parking principles describe the nature of parking universally and provide a base understanding of parking operations. While some of the parking principles presented here may seem simple or intuitive, it is crucial that they be fully understood prior to implementing the SPP parking management vision. PRINCIPLE 1: PARKING SUPPLY/ INVENTORY AND DEMAND Parking supply or inventory refers to the total number of spaces available for use. Parking in a given area is supplied through many types of facilities that are owned, managed and used di erently. Parking is typically categorized into on-street and o -street parking. These two categories di er in several important ways. O -street parking falls into four categories: € City owned o -street public parking € City owned o -street private parking € Privately-owned o -street public parking € Privately owned o -street parking that is dedicated to a speci c use The majority of on-street parking in Denver is located in the public right-of-way and is managed by the City and County of Denvers Public Works department. There are critical di erences between on and o -street parking when viewed from an administrative or management perspective. The supply of on-street parking is relatively xed and the Citys ability to expand that supply is constrained to changes that can be made through street recon guration or re-striping. Conversely, o -street parking supply can be expanded more readily through construction of new facilities including surface lots and structured or underground garages. However, the costs associated with new or expanded facilities can be very high. Parking demandŽ refers to the amount of parking that is used at a speci c time and place. The factors that in uence demand are important pieces of the parking management puzzle. Demand is in uenced by vehicle ownership, the popularity

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15 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION of an area, the nature of the surrounding uses, availability of alternative forms of transportation, and other external factors like fuel costs. Demand rates typically uctuate and di er on a daily, weekly, seasonal or even annual basis. The parking characteristics of an area are directly related to the nature of these cycles. For example, demand at an o ce park will peak during the day on weekdays but demand at restaurants and theatres may peak on weekends or evenings. PRINCIPLE 2: OCCUPANCY OR UTILIZATION Parking occupancy is one of the central concepts in parking management. Whether in reference to on-street parking or to an o -street lot or garage, parking occupancy describes the percentage of spaces that are occupied at any given time. Parking occupancy rates, also called utilizationŽ, re ect the relationship between parking supply and demand. A low occupancy rate in an area means that there are many spaces that are empty or unused. While this may be convenient for drivers traveling to that destination, lower occupancy rates can also mean that oversupplies of parking or inappropriate parking prices exist in the area. By contrast, an area, block face, or lot that is completely occupied could mean that the available parking supply needs additional management to accommodate demand. Ideally, the occupancy of parking facilities should be high enough to ensure that they are occupied at a level that justi es that parking as a necessary land use, but not so high that it is unreasonably di cult to nd a space. Generally, parking is considered at capacityŽ when available spaces are 85% occupied. PRINCIPLE 3: DURATION AND TURNOVER Parking duration refers to the length of time a vehicle occupies a space. Parking turnover describes how frequently a parking space becomes available or turns overŽ during an hour. The rate at which spaces become available is important since it describes the number of opportunities di erent users will have to occupy a space. For example, a vehicle belonging to a dry cleaner shop employee could either occupy a parking space in front that shop for a full 8 hours (providing access for 1 person) or it could turn over every 30 minutes and provide convenient access for 16 di erent customers.

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16 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION Ideally, both on and o -street parking should be managed so that they can accommodate a range of di erent stay durations based on the needs of the surrounding land uses. A popular retail or commercial area, for example, requires conveniently located parking spaces that are regulated for short term useŽ anywhere between 30 minutes and two hours. Parking around entertainment or restaurant districts may require park ing durations that are longer than two hours. PRINCIPLE 4: ENFORCEMENT The enforcement of parking regulations is an important component of the parking system. Parking rules and restrictions are put in place to support parking goals such as turnover or access. The success of parking management strategies are often tied to the level of enforcement provided. Parking citations or nes are issued to encourage compliance with rules and to maintain the intent of the parking management philosopies in place within a given area. While enforcement is often necessary to ensure that rules and restrictions are observed, there are signi cant resource implications associated from both a labor and equipment standpoint. A clear de nition of existing resources and implications are an important consideration when selecting a management tool or designing a parking management program for an area. The Denver Right of Way Enforcement (ROWE) team is committed to providing quality customer service and management of the public right of way. The ROWE team, which includes a sta of Vehicle Control Agents (VCAs), is responsible for monitoring parking management strategies for the entire city. This team can issue citations for on-street, o -street and private property parking violations as well as administer vehicle booting and towing for the City. They provide parking enforcement for sporting events, special events, holidays, concerts, and afterhours university events to balance the needs of special event attendees and the residences or businesses that are impacted. They routinely perform eld checks and investigations of contested tickets to ensure that enforcement is appropriate and just. In addition to managing on-street parking, the ROWE team also handles the enforcement of certain right-of-way permits including major encumbrance permits and special parking permits. E orts from the ROWE and VCA teams directly support parking strategies in an area. Enforcement that acknowledges and works to support the needs of an area is focused on customer service. If parking management strategies and complementing enforcement are designed well, it increases the likelihood that the

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17 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN INTRODUCTION desired goals objectives of an area are achieved (e.g. increased turnover, access, utilization). Under these conditions, parking can truly function as an asset and meet the diverse needs of various stakeholders so that it is easier for those user groups to function within the system. PRINCIPLE 5: PARTNERSHIP Internal policy guidance provided by previous City and County of Denver planning documents sets a clear vision for the future. However, the management of dayto-day parking operations within a diverse land use and transportation system is a more complicated endeavor. To achieve success, partnerships with external stakeholders are an imperative component of any parking management program. Partnerships with those who are impacted most by parking policies can help ensure that strategies are reasonable and are tailored to achieve speci c desired outcomes. Extensive stakeholder input and buy-in is needed to e ectively understand the implications or potential e ects of new policies. Input is necessary from a broad cross section of stakeholders including business alliances, improvement districts, property and business owners, residential neighborhood organizations, and other interested individual citizens or organizations. Conversations with stakeholders should begin early in the development of a parking management strategy and continue over a period of time to ensure that actions are monitored for success and are regularly calibrated to meet the desired outcomes. Parking management within Denver may also involve regional entities such as the Regional Transportation District (RTD) or the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG). As such, parking management goals and objectives should be communicated to regional partners so that every opportunity exists to further collaborate and combine e orts. It is only through e orts to collaborate that a parking management program can succeed and achieve a broader vision for a livable, sustainable city.

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18 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PROCESS THE PROJECT TEAM The SPP was led by a dedicated team of professionals and co-managed by City sta from Public Works and Community Planning and Development. The team worked with national parking consultants, led by Wilbur Smith & Associates, to develop a framework based on best practices and input from other city agencies, the public, and a variety of stakeholders. The partnership between Community Planning and Development and Public Works acknowledges the impact of parking on both land use and transportation decisions and re ects the Citys goal of becoming a more multimodal and sustainable city. Since various agencies, ordinances, and policies regulate parking in Denver, the project team also included engineering, planning, zoning, and policy professionals including key sta from Parking Operations, Right of Way Enfor cement, the Parking Violations Bureau and the O ce of the Parking Magistrate. Much of the team involved with the SPP development process already manage daily parking operations and are acutely aware of current conditions and parking needs. These team members will also be responsible for implementing the SPP framework and monitoring the strategies moving forward. This section introduces the SPP project team as well as the related departments and agencies that have provided support throughout the plan development process. TECHNICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE In addition to Public Works and Community Planning and Development, the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) consisted of key sta members from other city departments, agencies and groups that have an interest in parking. Representatives on the TAC included sta from Budget Management, the Finance and Treasury o ces, City and County of Denver Courts, Development Services, Parks and Recreation, Theaters & Arenas, and the O ce of Economic Development. Each of these groups o ered unique insights and perspectives related to parking around the city and provided valuable advice and direction throughout the plan development process. PROCESS

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19 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PROCESS The SPP team also engaged the Mayors Parking Commission (MPC) to solicit feedback on best practices research and the policy directions explored. The MPC is an appointed body enabled by the Mayors O ce It consists of a variety of stakeholders who represent residential and commercial interests as well as other organizations. This body meets regularly to provide an opportunity for input and to review existing and proposed parking policies and management practices. PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT AND ENGAGEMENT PROCESS Throughout the process it was critical to engage members of the public who the subject matter experts on parking conditions in areas where they live, work, and play. The SPP team used a variety of methods to engage the public, share ndings, and elicit feedback. The input gained from this process was invaluable and allowed the project team to hear a diverse set of experiences and opinions. As a result of this process, the SPP re ects a wider range of perspectives and tools that can helpd balance user needs. In addition, the involvement of so many internal and external groups sets the stage for future partnerships throughout the implementation of the plan. FOCUS GROUPS Key stakeholders were invited to join the project team at several meetings throughout the SPP development process to review plan goals and objectives and to discuss speci c issues. Focus groups included individuals from parking management companies, parking facilities operations, and enforcement professions. Groups also included City of Denver zoning administrators, City nance and budget management sta business and retail district representatives, development and architecture professionals, and neighborhood and resident representatives. These focus groups provided attendees an opportunity to discuss the variety of perspectives that all must be considered in order to balance parking demand across di erent user groups. These meetings allowed the project team to The Project Team Technical Advisory Committee Public Involvement and Engagement Process Supporting Policy Documents and Regulatory Tools

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DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PROCESS 20 dig deeper into speci c parking topics with the people who know them best. PUBLIC MEETINGS Three public meetings were held at key points throughout the course of the plan development process to gain an understanding of community stakeholders parking values, needs, and desires. Public meetings also provided an important opportunity to share SPP development updates, educate on best practices research, and solicit feedback from meeting attendees. The public meeting formats varied but typically included an open house, a formal presentation from the project team, and time for questions and answers. UPDATES TO NEIGHBORHOOD ASSOCIATIONS AND BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS SPP team members also attended several meetings at the request of neighborhood associations/organizations and business alliances in order to provide updates on the plan development process. These smaller meetings provided an additional opportunity for the project team to hear back from various stakeholders, identify needs, and brainstorm parking management strategies. WEBSITE A website hosted on Denvergov.org was developed to provide updates and information regarding the SPP. Information regarding parking research, best practices, the SPP approach, study timeline, public engagement opportunities, and presentation materials from public meetings were available throughout the process at www.denvergov.org/parking. The website also provided an additional opportunity for members of the public to provide feedback on parking-related issues through an online survey and comment form.

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DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PROCESS 21 SUPPORTING POLICY DOCUMENTS AND REGULATORY TOOLS Since the SPP will be used in conjunction with existing City documents, it is important that it is designed to support the broad set of goals established for Denver by the Comprehensive Plan (2000). The SPP builds on Blueprint Denver (2002), which is the Comprehensive Plans key implementation document and presents an integrated land use and transportation vision for the entire City of Denver. Additional planning documents such as the Strategic Transportation Plan (2008) and Greenprint Denver (2006) also present complementary policy frameworks and implementation strategies that were considered in the development of the SPP. COMPREHENSIVE PLAN 2000 Comprehensive Plan 2000 established a vision for Denvers future that is summarized as a city that is livable for its people, now and in the future.Ž In terms of parking policy, the plan outlines the following objectives and strategies: € Objective 2: Stewardship of Resources € Strategy 2-F: Conserve resources by introducing shared parking at activity centers € Strategy 9-C: Explore opportunities for shared parking and evaluate the need for new shared parking structures within major urban centers such as Downtown, Cherry Creek and the Central Platte Valley. Where appropriate, reduce parking spaces required by the Denver Zoning Ordinance.

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DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PROCESS 22 BLUEPRINT DENVER 2002 Blueprint Denver established a speci c policy framework as the citys integrated land use and transportation plan. Blueprint Denver encourages and promotes a more e cient use of transportation systems, expanded mode choices, appropriate and mixed land uses, and the revitalization of declining neighborhoods. Collectively, the recommendations in Blueprint Denver establish a comprehensive strategy to channel growth in a way that positively impacts the city. Areas of Change: As Denvers land use policies channel new growth and development towards designated areas of change,Ž a complementary parking policy will be needed to ensure that parking pressures are adequately managed as both activities and the intensities of uses increases. Similarly, parking requirements, including the potential reduction of parking ratios for mixed-use development or developments near transit stations, play an important role in facilitating and accelerating the desired types of development. Areas of Stability: Ensuring that Denvers residential neighborhoods within designated Areas of Stability retain their existing character will require a carefully crafted parking policy. O -street parking requirements and on-street management must be designed in a way that enhances existing neighborhood character while allowing for adaptive reuse and limited development. At the same time, parking resources must be managed to meet the needs of all stakeholders. Multi-Modal Streets and Innovative Transit Options: Parking policy can be a useful tool to promote the use of alternative modes and control the volumes or behavior of auto tra c along particular streets. Restrictions or the pricing of parking can encourage travelers to use other modes. While widespread access to free parking is undoubtedly convenient for drivers, it will be di cult for Denver to achieve substantial changes in travel behavior while such conditions exist. Similarly, appropriate management of on-street parking can discourage behaviors such as double parking and cruising that can interfere with the e cient operations of tra c. The design and location of both on and o -street parking can shape the character of streets and potentially reduce con icts between modes. Finally, parking is an important consideration in transit accessibility. Plans for parking at and around Denvers transit facilities will play a role in determining who uses transit, how they access transit facilities, and the kinds of impacts those facilities have on surrounding neighborhoods.

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DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PROCESS 23 THE STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN The Strategic Transportation Plan (STP) was completed in fall 2008. The STP is a multimodal transportation plan created to understand and address the current and future transportation needs of the City and County of Denver. The STP commits to multimodal transportation as the answer to growth management in Denver. The STP evaluates demand in terms of people tripsŽ not vehicular tripsŽ meaning that all modes are included. The STP analysis concluded that the expected continued growth in person-trip demand means that Denvers infrastructure cannot accommodate unlimited trips by single occupancy vehicle. In the same way, Denvers infrastructure and limited available land cannot accommodate the parking demands that are generated by endless single occupancy vehicle trips. The STP supports the Comprehensive Plan 2000 and Blueprint Denver by focusing on multimodal alternatives and a well balanced approach to transportation. GREENPRINT DENVER Greenprint Denver (2006) is an initiative of Mayor John Hickenlooper to promote sustainable development and ecologically-friendly practices. The initiative sets goals including a 10% reduction in per capita greenhouse gas emissions by 2012 from the 1990 emissions rate. Greenprint supports smart growth decision-making as a way to promote economic opportunity and a better quality of life for all residents. Greenprint also promotes the availability of a ordable communities so that Denvers residents will have continued access to jobs and essential services. REGULATORY TOOLS The City regulates the supply of private parking through requirements and protocols detailed in the Citys municipal code and, in particular, the Denver Zoning Code. Denvers parking and land use policies of the 1950s focused on automobileoriented development and a separation of land uses. These policies and static regulations led to the application of free and abundant parking that quickly covered large areas with surface lots throughout Denver. The Citys former zoning ordinance was established in 1956, and while it was amended on several occasions, over time it became inadequate to e ciently accommodate Denvers anticipated growth and travel demands.

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DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PROCESS 24 The Denver Zoning Code, adopted by City Council on June 21, 2010, is the rst major revision since 1956. The new code takes a smarter approach to parking by building on guidance from Blueprint Denver, Comprehensive Plan 2000 and research and analysis done as part of the Strategic Parking Plan process. The updated code presents a new method for de ning parking requirements in di erent parts of the city by establishing neighborhood contexts. This philosophy enables and encourages smart growth development and promotes multimodal access and use. Like the SPP, the Denver Zoning Code recognizes that there is no one-sizets-all approach to parking management. New parking base rate requirements are now simpli ed and many are reduced. Parking requirements have also been calibrated by neighborhood context. The Intent of Parking Regulations in the Denver Zoning Code: € Balance adequate o -street parking requirements with city-wide objectives that encourage pedestrian-friendly environments and the use of multiple modes of transportation. This includes mass transit and bike parking requirements to reduce vehicle parking demand. € Provide a variety of mechanisms to meet parking needs while promoting development and reinvestment in existing buildings, including historic structures. € Recognize, through parking reductions, the parking e ciencies gained through mixed use development, mixed income development, development proximate to rail and bus transit, and their collective impact on parking demand. € Promote bicycle use by providing safe and convenient bike parking. Provide minimum requirements for di erent types of bike parking facilities and the amount of bicycle spaces. € Encourage comprehensive, e cient, multi-site parking strategies. € Minimize the visual impacts of parking areas, structures and garages on streets, open spaces, and adjoining development. € Design surface parking and parking structures to be visually compatible with the surrounding development, convenient for users, and mitigate the negative impact of vehicle noise, headlights, lighting and mechanical systems. € Integrate the function and appearance of parking structures into building

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DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PROCESS 25 groups so as to minimize negative impacts on public space and the pedestrian environment. € Design parking structure facades to re ect the predominant fenestration (transparency) patterns of area buildings and to the extent possible wrap street facing elevations with active uses, especially at street level. There are multiple parking reductions and exemptions available in the Denver Zoning Code. Examples of these provisions are listed below and more information is available in Article 10 of the Denver Zoning Code. Exemptions: € Small Zone Lots € Small Ground-Floor Retail Uses in Mixed Use Projects € Historic Structures built prior to 1967 € Preservation of Existing Trees Reductions: € Vehicle Parking Reduction for A ordable Housing and Senior Housing € Vehicle Parking Reduction for Proximity to Multi-Modal Transportation Options € Vehicle Parking Reduction for On-Site Car and Bike Sharing Programs € Parking Reduction for Assisted Living Facilities The Denver Zoning Code framework was adopted, but its terms will continue to evolve and meet the changing needs of the city. Revisions to Denver Zoning Code base rates increases development opportunities, but can also subject the remaining parking supply to greater demand pressures. Changes will require parking management decisions to be more strategic and exible in order to support the Citys sustainability, livability and access goals.

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DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN VISION 26 DENVERS EXISTING PARKING CONDITIONS Prior to launching the SPP e ort, Denver Public Works commissioned a Strategic Parking Plan Phase One Study to identify and explore existing relationships between parking demand and supply in 11 vibrant areas of the City. The study areas were speci cally chosen as typologies to represent di erent types of land uses and activities. The study was designed to inform questions like: € How much parking supply actually exists in the area and what are the parking demands? € Can existing parking supplies accommodate the parking demands of the surrounding land uses? € How well utilized are the di erent types of spaces available in an area (i.e. on-street spaces, o -street spaces, public spaces, and private spaces)? Parking supply data was gathered by counting the total number of existing spaces in each identi ed study area. This number included all public on-street spaces as well public and private o -street spaces within set boundaries. Parking utilization data was collected by counting the number of actual vehicles parked during peak periods. This exercise provided a glimpse into the nature of parking demand and parking utilization in each area. In addition, land use information from the City Assessors database and eld observations were both considered to study the relationship between parking demand and a given land use mix type as it varied across the study area typologies. Areas types studied were: € Two main street districts € Two town center districts € Two school campus districts € Two hospital campus districts € A shopping district € A business center € A high rise residential district VISION

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DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN VISION 27 National parking experts consider parking to be at capacity when 85% of the available parking is occupied. The results from the Denver study indicated that in all of the 11 study areas, at least 25% of the total parking supply within the study area boundaries was vacant during the peak parking period. While the bulk of the underutilized parking supply was primarily in private o -street parking lots, the results of the study suggested that there were spaces available during peak parking periods in all 11 study areas. Although available parking was identi ed within each study area, each of the 11 study areas also su ered from one or more hot spots where parking demand was greater than the available parking supply. The study also con rmed that the existing land uses in each study area generated parking demands at di erent times. O ce uses that generated parking demand during regular business hours had much less parking activity in the evenings. Restaurant uses with very little demand during the AM peak hours generated much more parking activity in the evenings. The SPP Phase One study highlights the need for parking management strategies that better utilize available supplies. To be most e ective, however, the strategies must recognize a given areas unique characteristics and be calibrated for its speci c needs. This understanding provided an impetus to create the SPP, a plan to detail both parking management strategies and the considerations necessary to select the best tools. VISION #1: A CKNOWLEDGE A VARIETY OF LAND USE PATTERNS AND CONTEXTS The Phase One study revealed that parking demands di er depending on context. Just as there are a variety of parking users with di erent needs, the city is also made up of a variety of land uses, building forms and transportation facilities. It is unrealistic to expect one set of parking management strategies and programs to be e ective across the board since actions that are appropriate for downtown may prove ine ective in the more suburban areas of Denver. Denvers Existing Parking Conditions Vision #1: Acknowledge a Variety of Land Use Patterns and Contexts Vision #2: Manage Parking as an Asset Vision #3:Integrated Approach to Parking Management

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DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN VISION 28 Downtown Urban Center General Urban Neighborhood Context Characteristics Downtown Urban Center General Urban Neighborhood Level of transit availability Highest frequency High frequency High to Moderate frequency Land use and density characteristics Highest-density characterized by a mix of multiunit residential, commercial, o ce, civic, institutional, and entertainment in large buildings containing one or more uses. Moderate to high-density characterized by a mix of multiunit residential, mixed use commercial strips and commercial centers. Moderate density characterized by multi-unit residential. Singleunit and twounit residential uses are found throughout. Commercial areas are embedded within residential areas. Mobility characteristics and parking demand High priority given to the pedestrian. High levels of bicycle use The hub of the multi-modal transit system. Fewer opportunities for free on and o -street parking, high demand for onstreet spaces. There are high levels of pedestrian activities and bicycle use with greatest access to multimodal transportation. High demand for both time-limited and priced parking spaces. High demand for onstreet spaces. There is a balance of pedestrian, bicycle and vehicle reliance with greater access to multimodal transportation. Higher demand for onstreet spaces as o street space availability is constrained. Examples Central Business District, Golden Triangle, LODO Cherry Creek, Broadway and Lincoln through Capitol Hill and Uptown. Capitol Hill, Cheesman Park, Cherry Creek North

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DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN VISION 29 Suburban Urban Neighborhood Urban Edge Neighborhood Suburban Neighborhood Moderate to low frequency Low frequencyLowest frequency Low to moderate density characterized by single-unit and two-unit residential uses. Medium-scale multi-unit residential uses and commercial areas are typically embedded in residential areas. Low to moderate density characterized by a mix elements from both Urban and Suburban neighborhoods. Primarily single-unit and two-unit residential. Small-scale multi-unit residential uses and commercial areas are typically embedded in residential areas. Low to moderate density characterized by single-unit and multi-unit residential, commercial strips and centers, and ofce parks. Uses are typically separated by major streets. There is a balance of pedestrian, bicycle and vehicle reliance with greater access to multi-modal transportation. Moderate demand for on-street and o street spaces. Moderate reliance on the automobile with some pedestrian and bicycle activity and low to medium level of access to multi-modal transportation. Lower demand for on-street spaces as uses provide free o -street parking. High reliance on the automobile with some access to pedestrian and bicycle facilities and multi-modal transportation. Lowest demand for on-street spaces as most uses provide free o -street parking. 32nd & Lowell, Old South Pearl, Historic Gaylord Street, Washington Park, Berkeley Colfax east of Monaco Pkwy, Morrison Rd. Ti any Plaza (Hampden), North eld Stapleton, 29th Town Center Urban Urban Edge

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DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN VISION 30 Before an area can consider new parking management strategies, it must rst identify the unique characteristics that in uence parking demand and behaviors. These characteristics may include the level of transit service, density and land use mix, the nature of retail and employment, and development constraints. De ning characteristics rst will help the community select the most appropriate parking strategies for their goals. Refer to the table on the previous page for examples of di erent neighborhood contexts and their associated characteristics. VISION #2: MANAGE P ARKING AS AN ASSET The SPP vision is to actively manage the existing supply of parking from an asset management approach. For an asset to be fruitful, it must be managed on a dayto-day basis in correspondence with a long-range plan. Parking is undoubtedly a public asset that can be valued in terms of convenience, nancial importance, and land use. The SPP advocates for the use of this asset to support economic development; neighborhoods with distinct character; e cient use of land; a multi-model network with a variety of transportation choices; and a sustainable environment with good air and water quality. Parking is a tool that can be used to achieve the long-term goals set forth by Denvers existing planning documents. To be e ective, however, bene ts should always be weighed against the associated behavioral, operational or physical costs. In that regard, parking fees and nes should be set to, at a minimum, cover the annual costs of administrative, capital, operations, and maintenance required to keep the asset healthy and sustainable. VISION #3: ENCOURAGE AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO PARKING MANAGEMENT In addition to the extensive partnerships required for e ective parking management, tremendous levels of coordination will be required to deal with a variety of complex situations. The SPP advocates for management strategies that are created as a result of coordination with various stakeholders groups. If management strategies are too preoccupied with achieving a singular outcome or with appeasing one user group, the result is unbalanced. An integrated management approach, however, recognizes the surrounding context and the in uence a di erent areas characteristics can have on a given situation. Since parking needs can vary dramatically by area, the SPP recommends that parking

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DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN VISION 31 management in Denver not be designed as a one-sizets-all calculation. The presence of so many variables means that a one-sizets-all approach to parking management cannot adequately balance needs or provide the most e cient use of available inventory. Instead, parking management should be designed to balance the localized needs of di erent user groups as well as complement the Citys overall parking goals. Localized parking management decisions may be made on a micro-scale, such as a single block face, or they may be made at a neighborhood, district, or area-wide scale. Regardless of the size, de ning desired parking management outcomes provides the opportunity for participation and input from key community stakeholders regarding parking conditions and goals. Approaching parking management from this perspective will lead to more thoughtful management plans that can better address needs. This approach can also lead to management measures that are reasonable and encourage compliance.

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32 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX THE PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX The Parking Management Toolbox is based on the SPP vision. Parking management decisions should carefully consider each areas context, treat parking as a valued public asset, and seek to balance user needs based on stakeholder input. To achieve this vision, the SPP recommends a standardized process created to yield a customized set of management tools that allow parking to support healthy thriving communities. The SPP recommends that City sta along with involvement from a diverse group of stakeholders, evaluate parking strategies using the following ve-step process. Each step includes a new set of tools with incremental strategies to deal with parking from an asset-management perspective. 1 DEMAND Parking demand tools mitigate or reduce the demand for parking 2 LOCATION Parking location tools implement strategies that can move demand away from the core and into areas with excess parking supply and clearly locate or de ne where parking is available for users 3 TIME Parking time tools introduce or modify time restrictions to encourage turnover and better use of parking spaces. In uencing factors include surrounding land uses, time of day, and availability of supply 4 PRICING Pricing tools provide a wide range of exibility. When appropriately calibrated, these tools can reduce occupancy in high demand areas and create a market for o -street parking 5 SUPPLY Supply tools evaluate the availability of the existing parking supply and work to MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX

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33 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX optimize its use to the maximum extent possible before building/developing new supply. This ve-step process provides stakeholders and City parking management sta a consistent way to evaluate existing parking conditions and develop a progressive set of parking management tools to use as conditions change over time. The process is designed to grow in management intensity from Step One to Step Five. Step One tools (Demand) are usually easier to administer, utilize fewer resources, and have less of an impact on stakeholders. As such, Demand tools should be the rst set of strategies considered. In contrast, Step Five tools including the construction of additional parking supply should only be considered when all other management options prove insu cient. As the last step in the process, Supply tools represent a more intensive strategy with signi cant resource implications. Applying tools in this way will help ensure that parking regulations are not overly burdensome from either the stakeholder or resource perspectives. Understanding user parking demand pro les and behaviors is critical in situations where the physical supply of parking is limited. Predicting how di erent user groups will respond to di erent management controls will be an important step in selecting tools. The ve-step process can better target the use of City resources towards management strategies that are appropriate for each area. 1 DEMAND Demand management tools are the rst set of strategies to evaluate when considering increased parking management in an area. Demand strategies work by reducing the number of total vehicle trips in an area, which in turn reduces the parking supply needed for those vehicles. Demand management tools include a broad range of strategies and can be designed to target employers, employees, visitors, customers, or residents. Demand tools should also be designed with an areas context in mind. Downtown and urban center areas have higher levels of transit access and may have di erent opportunities than a suburban or lowerdensity area. A signi cant piece to any successful demand management program is outreach to increase participation in the program. Demand strategies may incentivize behaviors such as increased use of alternative transportation … but they The Parking Management Toolbox Demand, Location, Timing, Pricing, Supply Applying the Toolbox Area Management Plan

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34 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX are most e ective in reducing peak parking demand. Transportation management associations (TMAs) are private, non-pro t organizations that provide transporta tion-related information within a de ned geographic area. Often led by an executive board and funded by public-private partnerships, these organizations serve member companies or individuals by organizing programs and providing education to support the e cient use of transportation systems within an area. They can also serve to facilitate conversations regarding shared parking arrangements or serve as a feedback mechanism for stakeholders on the success of parking management strategies. Membership in a TMA can also bring nancial savings to a business or property owner because it provides support and information regarding a ordable transportation choices. TMAs can be great partners in the implementation of demand strategies. The following list is not intended to be an exhaustive list of demand strategies. Rather, it suggests examples of how demand management programs can be especially useful in improving the function of parking as it relates to the overall transportation system. Since demand tools are less intensive in terms of the ve-step process, they are often overlooked. However, their positive impact on the parking system should be considered and credited. Demand strategies that are coupled with the proper education and evaluation can result in lasting institutional shifts in travel behavior. The following are examples of demand strategies: TRANSIT INCENTIVES OR SUBSIDIES Transit incentives provide reason to try alternative modes of transportation. They alleviate parking demand by encouraging commuters and residents to shift away from single occupancy vehicles as a primary mode of travel. These types of programs may include subsidized transit passes, fare free transit zones, or other fare discount programs. They are often administered or managed through individual employers, schools, businesses or neighborhood organizations in conjunction with the local transit provider. BICYCLE PARKING AND SHOWER FACILITIES Commuters often shy away from bicycle travel because changing from cycling clothing into work clothing is perceived to be inconvenient. Inadequate facilities

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35 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX or fear of theft can also deter individuals from choosing bicycle transportation. Bicycle parking, storage and shower/changing rooms provide convenience and security for cyclists, making it easier for individuals to choose this mode. There are many types of bicycle storage facilities and choices can vary depending on placement and the regulations associated with that building or area. Bicycle parking is typically sorted into two categories; short and long-term parking. Shortterm parking is needed where bicycles will only be parked for a short amount of time. Short-term parking should be very convenient and accessible. Longterm parking is needed adjacent to uses where bicycles will be left for several hours. It should o er both security and protection from the weather. Areas where individuals will be staying for hours at a time may also be appropriate for additional facilities such as lockers, storage rooms, washrooms and clothes changing facilities. Showers can also be provided to incentivize bicycling as a commuter mode. RIDESHARING PROGRAMS CARPOOL AND VANPOOL Ridesharing is a common and cost e ective alternative mode for areas that are not well served by public transit. Ridesharing is typically targeted at commuters who can choose to rideshare either part or full-time depending on their schedules. It can be an important mobility option for non-drivers as well. Programs are often formalized through regional entities such as the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG), or they can operate more informally through notices posted on bulletin boards or other communication networks. TMAs, transit agencies and community transportation organizations can also provide matching services for ridesharing programs. CARSHARING Car-sharing programs provide individuals access to a centrally owned and maintained eet of vehicles on a per-hour or per-day basis. Programs are typically membership based, which allows members to reserve cars for speci c timeframes and pay only for the time the car is needed. Fees are based on a combination of hourly, overhead, and mileage costs. Car-sharing programs are e ective because they distribute the xed costs of car ownership into the marginal cost of every trip made. Participation in the program can reduce the total number of trips since participants are required to make all their trips during a set reserve time.

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36 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX BIKESHARING Similar to car-sharing, bike-share programs provide access to bicycles at a variety of locations across a city or within a given area. These programs complement existing transit or other alternative tr ansportation programs by allowing participating individuals to switch back and forth between modes. Similar to the car-sharing program, users are able to check out bicycles for a certain duration of time and pay a marginal fee either through a membership or per use. The programs work to o er a ordable access to bicycles to reduce the number of vehicles trips made for short distance outings. FLEXIBLE WORK SCHEDULES/TELECOMMUTING Flexible work schedules are an option to stagger employee trips and make better use of existing parking inventory. Targeted towards commuters, this program allows employers and employees to develop suitable schedules that meet the organizations needs without generating the typical morning or afternoon peak demands. 2 LOCATION Location management is the second step in the ve-step process and attempts to shift parking patterns away from high demand areas to take better advantage of existing, underutilized parking supply. The following management tools are simply intended to alter users choice of location by providing additional information and directing them to other parking opportunities to make supplies more readily available. The following are examples of location strategies: WAYFINDING AND INFORMATION Drivers can spend signi cant amounts of time searching for on-street parking rather than quickly entering an o -street lot where spaces are available but perhaps less visible. This behavior often occurs because drivers have di culty locating available, public o -street facilities. Improved directional and facility signage can increase the e ciency of the parking system and reduce motorist uncertainty by assuring them that spaces are available near their destination.

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37 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX Implementing both way nding and informational signage programs can increase the use of o -street facilities by providing drivers with information about facility location, parking availability, and parking pricing. Way nding and signage can also shift users to satellite lots that might otherwise be unknown or be considered o -limits. Signage that communicates pertinent information can greatly reduce cruising and driver stress during peak occupancy periods. Di erent types of way nding strategies include signs at gateway locations, directional signage to parking facilities, and informational signage. Gateway and directional signs indicate the direction of travel (ahead, left, or right) to nearby parking facilities. Facility signs should display parking rates, time limits, and other pertinent information. Parking way nding signs can be either static or dynamic. Dynamic electronic signage o ers the greatest exibility for way nding programs as these signs have the ability to display parking availability and other transportation related information in real time. Wireless networking and realtime message signs can provide users with information on availability and direct motorists to parking locations. Custom text messages can also provide up-to-date information regarding availability. Signs should always be visible and legible to drivers. SHARED PARKING Currently, much of Denvers existing parking supply exists in private o -street facilities that are dedicated to speci c uses and therefore inaccessible to the general public. Shared parking allows property owners to share a common parking facility so that two or more distinct uses can share the same parking supply rather than maintaining two separate facilities. Shared parking makes better use of the aggregate spaces that are available. Since uses may have peak parking demands that di er by time of day, di erent uses may be able to share fewer total parking spaces than the total they would need if each were providing its own spaces. Shared parking encourages a holistic view of parking supply. It reduces the need for smaller parking lots located in di erent areas, pools resources during peak demand times, improves development feasibility, helps increase densities, and promotes mixed-use and pedestrian activity.

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38 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX Two shared parking types are currently regulated in the Denver Zoning Code: 1. Traditional Shared Parking Traditional shared parking is used to meet the minimum parking requirement for two or more distinct uses within a mixed-use developments, or for multiple uses that are located near one another and have di erent peak parking demands and/ or operating hours. This type of shared parking requires zoning approval and a city review process. 2. Accessory Parking Spaces This type of shared parking provides exibility for uses to share accessory parking spaces when existing spaces are not fully utilized. Property owners can charge a fee or create another type of arrangement to make unused parking available. In this scenario, the existing parking supply meets the minimum requirement for the property owner and provides additional parking resources to the area. This type of shared parking can often be arranged outside of a city process. Business owners, residents, commuters, etc. can approach the owners of these accessory spaces to discuss shared parking arrangements that are mutually bene cial. 3 TIME Time management tools limit the amount of time some or all users can remain parked in certain areas. Such tools promote turnover in high demand areas and work to shift users with longer term parking needs into o -street facilities or more remote locations. The rate at which spaces become available is important since it translates to the number of opportunities di erent users will have to occupy a space and thus access a business, residence, or activity. Parking needs vary based on the purpose of a trip. Time management restrictions can be set to promote accessibility of spaces for certain trip purposes while discouraging them to be used for others. € Very short time periods: De ned as 3 to 10 minutes, this time increment corresponds with a very high turnover rate. Regulating spaces to adhere to this time period is only appropriate in limited cases where there is a high demand for deliveries or loading. Drop-o spaces near schools or transit stations are uses that might bene t from spaces regulated to this time increment.

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39 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX € Short time periods: De ned as 15 to 30 minutes, this time increment allows for quick errands. Regulating to this time period is appropriate for spaces that are immediately adjacent to uses like post o ces, convenience stores, dry cleaners, and banks. € Medium time periods: De ned as 30 minutes to four hours. This time range accommodates virtually all visitor and customer trip needs common to commercial areas including longer shopping trips as well as dining and entertainment excursions. Spaces should be regulated to accommodate 90 minutes or more if the spaces are intended to accommodate restaurant or entertainment uses. Limiting spaces to three or four hours of continuous use will e ectively exclude commuter or residential use. € Long time periods: De ned as 8 hours or more, these longer time periods accommodate commuters and residential parking. A high rate of turnover established through time limits is an e ective way to make desirable parking spaces available to a large number of users. It is also a mechanism to prioritize di erent types of parking activities. The Citys parking permit program (including the Residential Parking Permit program) is an example of how time restrictions are used to prioritize di erent users at di erent times.

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40 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX TIME LIMITS Ideally, both on and o -street parking should be managed to accommodate a range of di erent stay durations based on the demand pro les of anticipated users. Time limits that do not consider di erent user needs can frustrate customers with trip purposes that do not t the restrictions. Ine cient time limit restrictions can also enable employees to work the system. For example, employees may hope to avoid a parking citation by moving their cars every two-hours. Time limits o er one way to create a ready supply of short-term parking by limiting the length of time each vehicle can stay parked in a particular space. This regular turnover makes more e cient use of the existing parking supply. A system of time limits on-street will encourage longer-term parkers to shift to o -street parking or nearby on-street spaces that are not time limited. Introducing or adjusting time limits may also help regulate mixed-use areas that are not ready for Step Four Pricing. Time restrictions can accommodate or discourage multiple user groups by assigning di erent block-faces with di erent stay restrictions. For example, four-hour time limits may be appropriate around light rail stations as a mechanism to exclude commuters from parking on-street all day. Parking time limits are very common throughout the U.S. and are typically one of the rst kinds of on-street restrictions to be imposed in smaller downtowns and commercial areas. In mixed-use areas, time limits may encourage longerterm parkers to move into residential areas to avoid parking restrictions. The competition between residential parkers, visitors, and employees can be mitigated by providing information for on and o -street parking opportunities, recalibrating time limits or by implementing a permit program. Regardless, e ective implementation of time limits requires regular enforcement. MANAGEMENT HOURS Most on-street management regulations are not in e ect 24 hours a day. Adjusting the speci c hours and days of the week when restrictions are enforced is a way to address parking demand generated by speci c uses. Management hours are typically aligned with standard business hours. As a city grows with activities that run later into the evening, management hours may expand to include night time activities. As a general rule, management tools should be active when parking demands

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41 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX are high. Similarly, management rules should be relaxed at times when parking demand is not su cient to require management. Management hours should be tailored to the needs of speci c areas. An entertainment district might require active parking management in the evenings while a neighborhood school area might be served by management from the early morning to late afternoon. Extensions into the evenings or on Sundays may be required in order to help the parking system function more smoothly. Particular care should be taken when extending restrictions in residential areas to ensure that residents have access to street parking if necessary. The advantages of tailored management hours should be weighed against enforcement resource implications as well as the potential for public confusion due to multiple rules. Community education and outreach for any signi cant management change is advised. PERMIT PARKING Permit parking programs are an important tool used to reserve street parking in speci c areas for certain users. While these programs promote a balance of parking availability for di erent user groups, they also have associated administration costs. If not designed correctly, these programs can fail to achieve their objective. The Residential Parking Permit (RPP) is an example of an program that was introduced to protect neighborhoods in high demand areas from parking impacts. For example, after the introduction of the Southeast Corridor RTD Light Rail line, several neighborhoods located next to high demand stations were given RPP designation to limit the impacts of rail users. While on-street spaces should be typically be available for public use, there are areas where additional restrictions are necessary to balance the competing needs of customers, employees, and residents. Although several user groups have a legitimate need for parking supply at any given time, the program can make it hard for all stakeholders to achieve parking compliance when it is biased to one particular group. The program is not currently designed to serve or balance the needs of those that create demand within an area (i.e commuters, business owners, and employees). In addition, several RPP areas are not actively enforced due to resources. As we move towards a more customer-service based approach to parking, it is critical for all impacted stakeholders to understand the value of an on-street space from di erent perspectives. Certainly no one group has a rightŽ to on-street parking, but stakeholders should be realistically con dent that the available parking in an area can support their needs. An expansion of the permit program to include

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42 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX additional user groups according to available supply would better coordinate the use of existing inventory at di erent times. In addition, the SPP recommends setting the permit fees to recover the administrative and material costs of the program. 4 PRICING Step Four of the process introduces pricing strategies. Charging a fee for both on and o -street parking both limits stay duration and increases the predictability of nding a parking space. Many successful commercial districts have found that appropriate on-street pricing ensures better parking availability and supports vitality high demand areas. A common misperception of merchants is that pricing will deter customers. In reality, pricing often improves the customer experience since it increases the likelihood of nding a parking spot near a preferred destination. PARKING PRICING MANAGEMENT TOOLS Pricing is an extremely versatile and powerful tool that can be used many di erent ways depending on the environment of an area and the desired outcome(s). It promotes convenience and turnover more explicitly than the tools available in the previous three steps. People may value free parking and choose to walk several blocks or they may value convenience and decide to pay for a space directly in front of their destination. Decisions often are based on the reason for a trip and pricing is one of the most e ective ways to instigate a shift in parking behavior across all user types. While it is e ective, pricing must be carefully calibrated to avoid unintended consequences. If the on-street price of parking is too low, demand for spaces will exceed supply and could result in a shortage. Introducing or raising the cost of parking often encourage users to consider all the on and o street parking options available before defaulting to an on-street space. There are two general forms of pricing strategies that should be considered. The rst and most common approach is to implement on-street prices in tandem with time limits. The second approach involves variable pricing, which introduces a uctuating price for high-demand spaces.

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43 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX TIME LIMITS WITH PRICING Pricing provides long-term parkers with the exibility to choose on-street parking, but also introduces a price to further encourage a shift to o -street facilities. As a result, convenient spaces are released for short-term visitors. When street parking is free, parkers have no incentive to pay for o -street parking. On-street pricing can encourage users to consider the most appropriate parking facility based on their individual needs. Time limits and pricing are typically combined to manage areas that have signi cant short-term parking shortages. Parking that is regulated by both time limits and pricing increases turnover and can generate revenue. These systems include traditionalŽ metering where a users pay for a set increment of time. Such systems are user-friendly and relatively easy to enforce. However, as with time restrictions, pricing with time limits can encourage long-term parkers to park and then re-park to avoid tickets. Some users may feedŽ meters throughout the day so that they can bypass the time limit and remain parked at the same location. Enforcement e orts must be designed to support the goals of pricing restrictions. VARIABLE PRICING Many existing lots and garages in Denver are underutilized, in part due to the current inexpensive rate of on-street parking. Variable pricing o ers additional exibility with the ability to uctuate rates according to demand. With this system, no explicit time limit is set but hourly parking prices increase with longer parking durations, making long-term parking more expensive with each successive hour. For example, pricing in a high demand area may be set at $1.00 for the rst hour, $1.25 for the second hour, and $1.50 for the third hour. Variable rate pricing structures prioritize on-street parking for short term uses while shifting longer-term parkers to o -street facilities. On-street parking in the core areas of the district are the most convenient and can command higher or variable prices. Parking located away from the core can be priced slightly lower or at a at rate to favor long-term parkers. Event pricing recognizes the market value of a special event and assigns a rate to on or o -street spaces accordingly. New technology allows for advanced meter capabilities that make variable parking easier to implement. New pay stations and smartŽ meters make it easy to change rates if adjustments are necessary.

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44 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX COORDINATING ON AND OFFSTREET PRICING On-street management e orts function more smoothly if they are coordinated with o -street facilities. Users typically prefer on-street parking over o -street options since the per hour cost of on-street parking is often lower and may be considered more convenient. Where possible, on-street and o -street prices should be set to encourage long term parking to occur o -street, reserving the more convenient on-street spaces for short term parkers. This encourages commuters or employees to use alternative modes while still providing short-term parking for customers. Coordinating on and o -street parking prices is challenging for several reasons. While the City can adjust prices on-street, it is unable to directly set rates in private garages that make up the majority of Denvers paid o street supply. An on-street parking pricing system that encourages better use of o -street public parking facilities is recommended. PARKING CASHOUT Parking cash-out allows employees to choose between free or subsidized parking and the out-of pocket equivalent cost of the parking space. Employees may choose to cash-outŽ from a parking space and apply the money towards a lower cost alternative mode. A study on parking cash-out summarized results from seven work sites and estimated a 26 percent reduction in parking demand (Donald Shoup: The High Cost of Free Parking, 1992). The key elements to promote cashout include excellent transit service, limited parking supply and high parking prices, and land prices. PARKING DISTRICTS The intent of a parking district is to consider the existing parking supply on a district-wide, aggregate basis rather than as individual lots (public or private). The ability to form an o -street parking district is already available to private developers and business owners within the City of Denver. A revenue-sharing parking district, however, allows a district to share in the revenue generation associated with pricing for an areas on and o -street spaces. Shared parking districts can optimize total parking supply in an area, although the speci cs vary with each arrangement. The potential for revenue-sharing might be used to incentivize the use of pricing management tools. If successful, incremental

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45 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX revenue resulting from on and o -street pricing could be used to provide additional services, streetscape improvements or additional supply. However, any district arrangement must consider the indirect costs associated with a district. For example, costs for the enforcement necessary to make the system work may impact the total amount of net revenue generated. Any tool that may alter the Citys revenues and expenditures for parking should be carefully considered. Revenues derived from parking go into the Citys general fund and are often put to use in other areas of the city to provide services or cover de ciencies in both parking and non-parking related areas. With that in mind, any revenue shared with new parking districts could impact the Citys ability to pay for other city needs. In some cases the bene ts that result from the use of revenue-sharing may deem it the best management approach. Since the SPP recommends introducing strategies that result in best parking management, the feasibility and cost/bene t of revenue-sharing of any proposed area must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine if it provides stakeholders with the best parking management tool and does not negatively impact the health or sustainability of the City. The SPP recommends an Area Management Planning process to determine whether revenue-sharing is an appropriate tool for an area. The Area Management Planning process will be covered in the next section. This analysis will require signi cant stakeholder involvement. 5 SUPPLY In many cases, pricing strategies may prevent the need to add unnecessary supply. The SPP recommends the thorough exploration of tools associated with each of the previous four steps before considering the addition of new supply. However, if parking demand consistently outweighs supply after considering Step One through Step Four, it may be necessary to explore additional parking supply. An expansion of parking supply can occur through the construction of additional o -street parking facilities or by increasing the use-dedicated parking requirement in the Zoning Code. Increasing o -street parking requirements can have a number of adverse impacts and is not a recommended solution. Expanding the parking supply through the construction of new facilities is costly and will require private and/or public funds. Accommodating additional parking will also make single occupancy vehicle trips easier. Finally, the addition of supply can

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46 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX introduce garage and surface lots that may not represent the best use of land in a given area. As a result, an expansion of supply should only be considered when it is clear that parking management alone cannot address conditions. In some cases, land may not be available where parking is needed. In other cases, the cost of land may prohibit the feasibility of adding supply. APPLYING THE TOOLBOX There are a variety of positive outcomes that can result from the implementation of a thoughtful parking management program. A program designed from the tools described above can encourage the most e cient utilization of existing resources and balance the needs of a variety of users. However, parking management programs also have the potential to create negative outcomes if they are implemented incorrectly or incompletely. Parking non-compliance, or parking violations, can frustrate users in several ways. First, if a management strategy is not enforced and spaces are continually unavailable, customers and visitors are discouraged from returning to an area. However, if regulations are too stringent or inappropriate for an area, seemingly arbitrary parking citations can also discourage return visits. Incorrect parking controls may also result in parking spillover. Spillover is when users visiting commercial districts, schools, or special events park on side streets and adjoining blocks to avoid paying for parking, thereby spilling over into adjacent neighborhoods. Each of these negative outcomes has dangerous economic implications for businesses and the city at large and provides evidence for why more customized strategies should be pursued. In some cases, special parking strategies may be needed for certain events in addition to the regular day-to-day parking management practicies. Parking management strategies should always be monitored to avoid unintended negative consequences. Parking management strategies that are designed well and encourage compliance may decrease the amount of revenue generation for the city from parking nes. However, the goal of the SPP is to equip parking operations sta residents, business owners and other stakeholders with tools that are calibrated to achieve bene ts that go far beyond that of revenue generation. Under proper management, residents and visitors can throughout the city and support business and community development. These are bene ts that positively impact the sustainability and livability of the city.

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47 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX AREA MANAGEMENT PLANS Denvers popularity is due in part to its composition of distinct areas. From quiet neighborhoods to bustling urban centers, each has a unique contribution to the overall Denver fabric. Growth in these areas can lead to increased vitality however, changing conditions may warrant new strategies in order to realize that success. Parking policies have the power to impact changing conditions both positively and negatively. They can either promote accessibility and support the activities of an area or they can create frustrating customer or resident experiences. The ve step parking management process was designed with tools that can be used either individually or in di erent combination to address speci c parking needs. These tools can be used on a micro scale to address more localized parking conditions or they can be applied on a larger scale to create a more comprehensive parking system in an area. The in nite combinations possible with the toolbox allow exibility for parking management sta and impacted stakeholders to customize solutions that best meet the de ned needs. The SPP advocates that parking management decisions be made on two scales moving forward. First, Public Works Tra c Engineering Services sta will continue to manage smaller parking issues on a day-to-day basis along with partner agencies and directly impacted stakeholders. These more localized parking-related issues might be triggered by complaints or by new small-scale developments. After an analysis of the situation, the team will decide on a parking management strategy to be applied to one or more blocks. For example, the team will look for opportunities to reclaim on-street parking from loading zones that are no longer necessary due to a change of land use. While day-to-day parking management will continue to troubleshoot localized parking conditions around the city, growth or changing conditions in other areas may require a more comprehensive approach. For areas that have high demand, diverse user groups, or a complex mix of land uses, the SPP recommends the development of an Area Management Plan (AMP) in order to identify contextspeci c strategies that address a larger area and engage a variety of stakeholders for input. The intent of the AMP process is to work with communities to determine the desired outcomes, the level of management that will be provided in an area, the right amount of parking that will be provided, and the user groups that will be prioritized at any given time. The AMP process is an innovative approach to engage a community in the identi cation of management tools that support the health, growth, and/or preservation of that areas unique characteristics.

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48 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX Each AMP will be comprised of a di erent set of tools based on an areas speci c needs, however, the general process of identifying those tools will follow the same ve-step process outlined in the Parking Management Toolbox. Strategies will be implemented following the Demand, Location, Time, Pricing, and Supply order so less intensive opportunities are identi ed before more intensive strategies are considered. The rst step in any AMP is to analyze existing conditions based on the speci c characteristics of an area. As described in the Vision section, area di erences may include level of transit availability, land use and density characteristics, mobility characteristics and parking demand. With these di erences in mind, areas will typically align with one of the following contexts as established in Denvers zoning code; Downtown, Urban Center, General Urban, Urban Neighborhood, Urban Edge Neighborhood, Suburban Neighborhood. Parking is in high demand in Downtown areas with high-rise o ce buildings, commercial services, and groundoor retail. As a result, Downtown areas may have more opportunity for variable pricing strategies with parking rates that vary due to time of day, special events, or demand. Urban Centers and Urban Neighborhoods, however, are characterized by a mix of land use and transportation types that all have di erent parking needs. Suburban Centers are generally located in areas with less density and adequate surface parking for customers and patrons provided by each land use. The following section illustrates a hypothetical AMP process to explain how an area might utilize the ve-steps and the Parking Management Toolbox. Using this process stakeholders can work towards understanding existing conditions and identifying the desired outcome based on speci c parking needs. Note: The following hypothetical scenario is only an example and does not represent actual data or the standard result of an AMP process. Each AMP process will be unique and will yield di erent results. STEP 1: DEFINE COMMUNITY Hypothetical management scenario: The AMP area is an embedded commercial district surrounded by an urban neighborhood. The area is connected by several bus routes. Public on-street parking in the area is currently free and unrestricted.

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49 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX STEP 2: IDENTIFY PARKING CONDITIONS Stakeholders in an area often trigger an AMP process. Since they are regular users of the parking in an area, stakeholders are usually the rst to be aware of and report di culties or abuses to parking management strategies that are currently in place. The level of enforcement in a given location and the number of phone calls from impacted stakeholders are two indicators of parking conditions that may need attention. There may be opportunities to develop an AMP in concert with a neighborhood or area-wide planning process. Various groups should be involved in the AMP process to identify parking conditions from all stakeholder perspectives and make sure those view points are documented and well understood. Sample questions to ask in this process include: € Who is a ected by parking in this area? € What are the varying perspectives of parking in the area? € Is there currently anyone documenting these opinions (i.e. City Council o ces, property owners, neighborhood associations)? Hypothetical Management Scenario: Residents adjacent to a small embedded commercial district have complained to a City Council o ce that customers and employees of businesses are spilling over into the neighborhood and preventing homeowners and tenants from accessing on-street spaces. In response, business owners claim that the lack of parking supply has created an inconvenient parking situation for visitors and may result in loss of business if the situation continues or worsens. STEP 3: DEFINE ISSUES AND COLLECT DATA In Step 3, a partnership of City and community stakeholders work together to better understand the issues that have been raised. They design a data collection e ort to better understand actual occupancy, utilization, and turnover rates. Once collected, this data will be used paint a picture of existing conditions including the behavior and needs of di erent user groups in the area. Important questions to explore in Step 3 include: € What is the appropriate area of analysis for the AMP and the data

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50 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX collection? € Where is parking supply available and what is the amount of inventory? € Is the majority of parking inventory private or is it available to the public? € When is parking available? € Who are the di erent users of parking in the area? € What are the parking preferences of these di erent user groups? € What are the peak demand times and the associated user groups? € What are the duration/turnover rates along the main commercial street and the adjacent residential streets? Hypothetical Management Scenario: The City team and stakeholder group collect data during the day, evening, weekday, and weekend. They nd: Overall, parking occupancy is highest between 11:00 am … 1:00 pm. Most of the o -street parking supply within the study area is dedicated to private, commercial uses and is restricted to allow only the patrons or employees of those stores or o ces. However, at peak times, these dedicated lots are only about 50% occupied. One small o -street public parking lot is convenient but charges $5 a day. The lot opens at 7:00 am and closes at midnight. This lot does not exceed 25% occupancy even at peak parking times. On-street parking is nearly 100% occupied along the commercial corridor during peak parking times. The data reveals that many of the cars parked along the commercial corridor turn over infrequently. This indicates that spaces are being used by long-term parkers like employees or residents. On-street occupancy in the residential neighborhoods is high on blocks directly adjacent to the commercial corridor. However, more spaces are available on the exterior blocks.

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51 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX STEP 4: DEVELOP AREA SPECIFIC PARKING GOALS In Step 4, City sta and community stakeholders use the information they have gathered to develop shared parking objectives based on both context and various user needs. The following questions may help articulate common goals. € Is user priority di erent at di erent times of the day? € Are there other parking users that should be accommodated at that time? € Are there parking users that should be discouraged at any time or encouraged to park elsewhere? € What is the desired level of parking occupancy for the di erent segments of the study area? € Which users need to park close to their destinations? € What types of users can and will park farther from their destinations? € What is the desired rate of turnover for the di erent segments of the study area? € Do di erent parking users need to park for di erent lengths of time or will one duration accommodate all users? Hypothetical Management Scenario: City sta and community members work together to create a common list of objectives for AMP parking outcomes. € On the commercial street, customers are identi ed as priority users for onstreet spaces. Delivery vehicles should also be accommodated. € Residents are also identi ed as the priority users of on-street spaces on the residential streets. € Employees need to park somewhere but are not a priority user group in either area. € O -street lots should be nearly full (at or over 90% occupied). € On-street parking on the commercial corridor should be 85% occupied so that it is primarily full but has several spaces open at any given time. € On-street parking in residential areas should be less full (60-75%) so that

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52 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX residents will always be able to park relatively near their homes. € On-street spaces along the commercial corridor should turn over frequently (every 30 to 90 minutes). € O -street spaces should be reserved for visitors and customers who will be in the area for more extended periods of time (2 … 4 hours) as well as for employees (6-8 hours). € On-street spaces within the residential areas should be available to residents but if capacity is left over can also be used on a more shortterm basis by other users. STEP 5: DEVELOP A MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Once data is collected and clear parking objectives are set, City sta and community stakeholders work together to develop an AMP using the successive ve-step process in the Parking Management Toolbox. Tools that fall within Demand strategies are considered rst before moving down the list to Location, Time, Pricing, and Supply strategies. Tools are considered based on their ability to address existing conditions, balance stakeholder needs, and promote sustainable vitality and a high quality of life in the area. Hypothetical Management Scenario: City and area stakeholders move through the ve-step process and decide on the management tools described below: Demand Business stakeholders agree to encourage employees to ride alternative transportation. They will make schedule information available and o er transit subsidies. Several shops also agree to install additional bike storage for cyclists. Resident stakeholders agree to encourage neighbors to use available private, o street parking resources such as garages and driveways to free up on-street supply for guests or deliveries. Location The operator of the public, o -street surface lot agrees to improve signs so that information regarding hours of operation, rates, and payment options is more readily available. This may encourage visitors who are staying in the area for

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53 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN PARKING MANAGEMENT TOOLBOX longer amounts of time to utilize the lot and leave on-street parking spaces to visitors with shorter trips. Business owners with private use-dedicated lots enter into arrangements to share o -street parking resources with other shops in exchange for help with lot maintenance costs. Time City sta work with both business and residential stakeholders to design and implement time restrictions on the high demand commercial corridor and on alternating adjacent residential streets. Time restrictions will allow visitors to park for two hours before being required to move their cars. Residents work together to determine whether a Residential Parking Permit program is appropriate to protect neighbors from spillover from the new restrictions and consider the impacts the program will have on their parking needs. Pricing As the commercial corridor becomes increasingly vibrant, City sta monitor the utilization rates and the e ectiveness of the time restrictions. After working with business owners and residents to assess changing conditions, they identify several blocks along the commercial corridor that have the potential to be metered if growth and demand continues. Supply As properties develop and uses change, new o -street parking opportunities are possible. In addition, business owners continue to share parking and work with private o -street lots to create options that are convenient for visitors and employees. This hypothetical scenario illustrates the intent behind an AMP process. While each process will be unique based on an areas context and speci c issues, there will be a consistent emphasis on collaboration and data collection to make decisions. Once each management tool is applied, it will be followed by an evaluation period where stakeholders and the City can monitor success so that tools and associated enforcement e orts are calibrated to address conditions.

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54 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION IMPLEMENTING THE STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN This three-part section identi es action items that support the vision of the SPP. These action items are divided into two categories; key recommendations and next-steps recommendations speci c to the ve-step process introduced in the Parking Management Toolbox. Finally, an implementation matrix provides a summary of all recommendations and a goal time-frame for implementation. KEY RECOMMENDATIONSACKNOWLEDGE A VARIETY OF LAND USE PATTERNS AND CONTEXTS Recognize that Denver is made up of a variety of land uses, building forms and transportation facilities. Manage both onand o -street parking contextually, not through a one size ts all approach. Take time to de ne area characteristics rst in order to select the most appropriate parking strategies for an areas goals. MANAGE PARKING AS AN ASSET Actively manage the existing supply of parking from an asset management approach. Recognize the value of each onand o -street parking space to the surrounding areas activities as well as to the City as a whole. Use the asset to support economic development; neighborhoods with distinct character; e cient use of land; a multi-modal network with a variety of transportation choices; and a sustainable environment with good air and water quality. E ectively weigh bene ts against the associated behavioral, operational or physical costs. Set parking fees and nes so they, at a minimum, cover the annual costs of administrative, capital, operations, and maintenance required to keep the asset healthy and sustainable. IMPLEMENTATION

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55 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION ENCOURAGE AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO PARKING MANAGEMENT Provide opportunities for input from key community stakeholders regarding parking conditions and goals. Create management strategies that balance the needs of diverse user groups with strategies that complement the Citys overall parking goals. OPTIMIZE THE USE OF EXISTING PARKING RESOURCES BEFORE BUILDING NEW FACILITIES Explore parking management tools designed to better manage existing supply (Step One through Step Four) before considering the addition of new faciliites. Consider the direct and indirect costs of parking and parking management before the application of any strategy. INTEGRATE THE SPP VISION INTO OTHER PLANNING PROCESSES The vision set forth in the SPP should be applied in all planning processes moving forward. E orts for Area or Neighborhood Plans, Station Area Plans, Corridor Plans, Urban Design Guidelines and Standards, General Development Plans or citywide initiatives should re ect the SPP philosophy and/or recommend strategies outlined within the ve-step process. EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVNESS OF APPLIED PARKING TOOLS AND PROVISIONS IN THE DENVER ZONING CODE Follow the application of each parking management strategy or tool with an evaluation period where stakeholders and City sta can monitor impacts and adjust as needed. Implementing the Strategic Parking Plan Key Recommendations Next Steps Demand, Location, Time, Pricing, Supply Implementation Summary

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56 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION Create an evaluation process for Community Planning and Development sta to monitor the e ectiveness of Denver Zoning Code provisions including vehicle and bicycle parking base rates to determine whether they are calibrated appropriately. Include an evaluation of the use of reductions or exceptions including shared parking allowances and transit-proximate reductions to see if these tools are being utilized. Both Community Planning and Development and Denver Public Works need to be involved to monitor the success of applied tools, base rates, reductions or exceptions and be aware of potential impacts they may have on stakeholder groups. PILOT THE AREA MANAGEMENT PLAN PROGRAM€ Evaluate necessary resource needs to pilot the AMP program for one location. Estimated timeline for rst AMP pilot is in 2011. While Denver Public Works and Tra c Engineering Services will continue to monitor parking conditions throughout the city and manage those conditions on a daily basis, some areas will require more intensive planning e orts and could be candidates for Area Management Plans or AMP processes. The SPP recommends that the City pilot an AMP to design strategies that re ect the asset management approach set forth in this document. Status: City sta are currently preparing for a pilot AMP program by assessing potential program resource needs. Over the next several years, the goal is to use the Area Management Plan process to address larger areas that need a more comprehensive approach to parking management. It is important that City sta fully understand the resource implications in order to develop a successful program. A pilot program will provide a test case to inform what funding and personnel resources are required moving forward. For example, consultant resources might be required to collect data on an areas parking utilization, turnover, and duration habits in depth. This valuable data can provide stakeholders and City sta with real information to use when selecting the most appropriate parking management strategies for an area. In addition, because the creation of an area management plan will be an intensive process, it is necessary to allocate the appropriate amount of sta time to ensure that AMPs are e cient, thorough and are poised to achieve a high-level of buy in

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57 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION amongst stakeholders. Sta teams will include advisory members from multiple city departments to ensure that parking management decisions align with and support other City goals, policies, and objectives set for that speci c area. At this time, City sta estimate that the rst pilot AMP will begin in 2011. The program will expand as resources allow.NEXT STEPS 1 DEMANDENCOURAGE THE USE OF MULTIPLE MODES OF TRANSPORTATION Car-sharing € Monitor the popularity of car-sharing programs in Denver. € Evaluate the results of on-street car-sharing spaces in the downtown area after designated pilot period. € Encourage car-sharing programs as a better use of the overall alternative transportation system. € Monitor and adjust provisions regarding car-sharing parking reductions in the Denver Zoning Code as needed. Car-sharing has recently come to Denver. Several new companies o ering carsharing services have started hubs in Denver and are o ering services to registered users. Each company has a number of vehicles ranging in type and size stationed throughout the Denver area in both on-street and o -street locations. Car-sharing is an important complement to the overall alternative transportation system as it can reduce the number of cars needed for each household. Status: Car-share operators prefer highly visible parking spaces to make their services convenient and attractive for users. Denver Public Works has partnered with a non-pro t car-share company to provide several highly desirable, on-street parking spaces for car-share use only in the Downtown area. Spaces are also available in o -street lots in the Highlands and Capitol Hill neighborhoods. These previously metered spaces are located in high-demand areas Downtown and will be dedicated to car-share use for a pilot period. During the pilot period, car-share sta and City representatives will study the rate of on-street car share vehicle usage and meter revenue impacts to determine whether the program will be expanded into the future.

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58 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION Bicycling and Pedestrian Programs and Facilities € Prioritize bicycle and pedestrian movements in Denver by working to expand a safe and connected network of routes for both modes. € Complete the Denver Moves: Making Bicycle and Pedestrian Connections in the Mile High CityŽ planning e ort to identify investment areas for better bicycle and pedestrian connections in on and o -street locations. € Encourage support for bike-sharing programs to complement the overall alternative transportation system. € Monitor and adjust bicycle parking requirements in the Denver Zoning Code as needed. Bicycling continues to gain popularity as a commuting choice and recreation activity in Denver. As a parking management strategy Demand tool, bicycling can both reduce tra c congestion as well as reduce the demand for parking by shifting drivers to a new mode. The expansion of a safe and connected bicycling network should be encouraged throughout Denver. Status: To encourage cycling habits in the City, Denver Public Works is working to extend the striped bike lanes and sharrow networks within the city. Since 2007, the number of striped bicycle lanes within the City and County of Denver has doubled. In addition, Denver Public Works allocated resources to update the Denver Bike Map and provide free copies to the cycling community via local libraries, recreation centers and several bike shops. In addition, the City and County of Denver launched Denver Moves: Making Bicycle and Pedestrian Connections in the Mile High CityŽ. This e ort will focus on the linkages between on and o -street routes and the creation of a stronger, integrated system that connects people to destinations. The e ort concentrates on linking pedestrians and cyclists to destinations so that cycling and walking become more viable, e cient, and pleasant ways of moving around the City. Denver Moves is a collaborative e ort between Denver Parks and Recreation and Denver Public Works with support from Denver Environmental Health. More information regarding this e ort is available at www.denvermoves.org. Lastly, the Denver Biking Sharing initiative B-CycleŽ launched in April 2010. Like car-share, this new system allows for short trip connections to transit or other alternative modes by bicycle. Cyclists can pay a small sum to use one of hundreds of bikes located at over 40 di erent locations throughout the City. More

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59 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION information regarding B-Cycle is available at www.bcycle.com. ENCOURAGE PRIVATE DEVELOPERS AND EMPLOYERS TO UTILIZE TRAVEL DEMAND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AND PROGRAMS Travel Demand Management (TDM) € Encourage private developers and employees to utilize ideas from this plan to manage parking demand through creative strategies. € Continue to support Transportation Management Associations or organizations as they work with property/business owners and employees to institutionalize TDM strategies. TDM strategies challenge the notion that a single occupancy vehicle is the best form of mobility. Private developers, employers, and business owners are encouraged to integrate TDM strategies including secure bicycle parking, showers, transit subsidies, carpool programs, or ex-time schedules to reduce vehicle parking demands. Status: Currently the City supports several Transportation Management Associations or Organizations (TMAs and TMOs) that work directly with employers or property owners throughout the city to promote alternative transportation and TDM. They also work with other likeminded organizations and regional entities like the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) to examine funding sources for region-wide strateg ies that expand transportation options. In addition, a funding source established through the DRCOG Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) provides resources to selected projects that promote and facilitate alternative modes of trav el such as carpooling, vanpooling, transit, cycling and walking. These projects can explore additional mode-types or connections that can decrease overall parking demand.

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60 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION NEXT STEPS 2 LOCATIONENHANCE DENVERS PARKINGRELATED INFORMATION AND RESOURCES. Online Parking Resources € Create an integrated parking website that serves as a primary source of information for all parking related matters. € Explore online capacity to provide additional administrative functions including permit applications and real time parking conditions annoucements. The current City and County of Denver website o ers many resources regarding parking, however, the SPP recommends that existing online resources be reorganized and enhanced so that stakeholders can quickly navigate through the most comprehensive and updated information available. An improved website can better connect stakeholders to pertinent information regarding parking policies and procedures. It will also connect stakeholders to City sta who can best answer speci c questions and encourage broader participation in the creation and implementation of parking management strategies. In addition, explore ways that online administrative functions can be enhanced. There may be opportunity to provide online applications for parking permits such as the Residential Parking Permits or special occupancy permits. This service can provide additional user convenience, consistency, and e ciency. A well-designed website can also serve as a primary portal to alert stakeholders of changes or announcements so that conditions such as major construction or special events are communicated and alternative parking options are clearly explained. Status: Denver Public Works has allocated resources to reorganize online web resources available through www.denvergov.org. The availability of online applications will be updated as resources allow. IMPROVE WAY FINDING AND THE AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION FOR OFFSTREET PARKING FACILITIES Way Finding and Information € Encourage parking operators and providers to o er better information

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61 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION about o -street availability € Monitor success of Park NOW Denver and adjust or expand to other high parking demand areas throughout the city The location, cost, and public availability of o -street facilities are not always clear to drivers. Even if a facility is open to the public, the rules of that location such as parking rates or hours of operation are often hard to determine. Confusion or lack of information often results in a driver default to on-street parking. Encouraging parking operators to provide better information about o -street parking availability can increase utilization these facilities. Status: The City and County of Denver in conjunction with the Downtown Denver Parternship has developed Park NOW Denver, a public parking recognition program that will help drivers nd o -street parking locations and provide more information regarding these lots and garages. Participating lots will be required to meet a certain set of criteria so that parking users can be assured of a consistent parking experience. Participating lots must provide clear information regarding rate information, payment options, hours of operation, and contact information should a customer have questions. In addition, new way nding signage posted around the downtown area will help drivers identify participating o -street parking lots. Encouraging the use of o -street faciliites will free up on-street spaces for short-term parkers. The Public Parking Recognition Project is currently being piloted and, if deemed successful, the program could extend to other urban center areas throughout the city. USE NEW LANGUAGE IN DENVERS ZONING CODE TO SUPPORT SHARED PARKING ARRANGEMENTS. Shared Parking € Develop a Shared Parking FAQsŽ brochure or webpage with information on shared parking as it relates to the Denver Zoning Code as well as private agreements. € Evaluate the use of Denver Zoning Code shared parking arrangements and monitor and adjust those provisions as needed. The Denver Zoning Code was adopted in June 2010 and includes new language to support Location tools for parking management. New provisions encourage

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62 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION developers to coordinate with surrounding uses to share parking resources according to travel behavior needs and use patterns. Shared parking can also provide developers with potential parking reduction incentives. Whether land uses are changing, evolving, developing or are established; there is a great opportunity for private property owners and developers to seek out shared parking arrangements to maximize the use of existing resources and limited land supplies to meet parking needs. Shared parking arrangements that result in base rate reductions require City approval but many shared parking partnerships can be arranged without formal approval. The SPP recommends that businesses, residents, or other stakeholders explore shared parking opportunities in their neighborhoods. Attention to stakeholder input and behavior is essential for the design of an successful shared strategy that meets the diverse needs of a variety of users. Status: A Shared Parking FAQsŽ brochure or webpage with tips and important information regarding private shared parking arrangements will be created as resources allow.NEXT STEPS 3 TIMINGSUPPORT PARKING ACCESS NEEDS AND EXPLORE NEW TECHNOLOGIES€ Continue to work with stakeholders to determine time restrictions that support parking and access needs. € Utilize new technologies to understand user behaviors and calibrate time restrictions. The SPP recommends calibrating time restrictions with the needs of the activities and stakeholders in an area. If a block is primarily occupied by upscale restaurants or other entertainment uses, on-street parking may need to accomodate stays of two to three hours in these areas. One-hour restrictions on this block may annoy restaurant patrons and could impact economic vitality for business owners. The availability of new technologies increase opportunities to collect valuable data before making parking managemnet decisions. For example, license-plate recognition technologies provide information on duration and turnover behaviors and indicate the origination points of visitors. In addition, new meter technologies can also provide stay or duration data that informs user behavior patterns. These technologies can allow city sta to study behavior in speci c areas of the city so

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63 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION that AMPs or more localized parking management decisions can better meet the needs of adjacent land uses. NEXT STEPS 4 PRICINGUTILIZE THE MOST UPTODATE AND CONVENIENT TECHNOLOGY TO SUPPORT ONSTREET PARKING MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES. € Utilize new Smart Meters to improve customer service and performance through user payment exibility. € Match parking demand with rates that support on-street parking management. Smart Meter technology o ers more exibility and programming options so that di erent pricing and time structures match conditions and demand rates. They have the capacity to o er variable pricing rates in high demand areas or be programmed for special event pricing. Smart Meters are wirelessly linked and have the ability to send alerts to meter technician teams when there are jams or other meter errors. Digital display screens on each meter allow Right of Way Enforcement Teams to communicate with users. Messaging can change depending on circumstances. For instance, a display may read, No Parking … Street Sweeping,Ž which can save drivers from receiving a citation when parking is prohibited. If parking is free on a particular day, the display might read Free Parking TodayŽ to alert a user that payment is not required. Status: By mid-Summer 2010, over 4,500 new IPS Smart MetersŽ were installed throughout Denver replacing older, traditional meter heads. Once the installation is complete, the concentration of new meters will be in Downtown Denver and in urban center areas like Cherry Creek. Smart Meters are solar powered, wireless, and accept new forms of payment including Visa and MasterCard credit and debit cards in addition to coins. While parking keys will no longer be compatible, Smart Meters will accept ParkSmart DenverŽ cards that are sold at di erent locations throughout the City. This new meter technology means that users will no longer be required to carry change providing additional options and convenience to users.

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64 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION STRENGTHEN RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER PARKING PROVIDERS TO UNDERSTAND THE IMPACTS OF ON AND OFFSTREET PARKING RATES. € Periodically perform rate surveys in Downtown and other high demand areas to understand how current rates impact existing parking supply and demand. Cities like Boulder and Colorado Springs own, operate and manage the majority of on and o -street parking in their downtown areas. A single managing authority makes it easy to coordinate on and o -street rates and encourages drivers to utilize all di erent types of facilities. In Downtown Denver, however, a number of public and private entities mange the di erent types of parking supply. Rate surveys can inform City parking sta about the interplay of supply and demand. This e ort will help City sta understand the market threshold for parking pricing so that all existing resources are used e ciently regardless of ownership. Extremely low or high rates can have unintended consequences on the overall parking system. Rate surveys also help City sta understand and anticipate parking behaviors by various user groups. This exercise can also work in tandem with the Park NOW Denver public parking recognition program explained in the Location strategies section.NEXT STEPS 5SUPPLYMAXIMIZE THE USE OF EXISTING PARKING RESOURCES BEFORE BUILDING ADDITIONAL PARKING SUPPLY€ Explore opportunities to maximize existing supply including shared parking arrangements, the evaluation of unused loading-zones, etc. that are no longer needed, and the promotion of new, public o -street public facilities. Denver is an established city with the majority of its high-demand areas builtout or redeveloping with a higher intensity. These land patterns provides limited opportunity to create vast new supplies of parking. City planning professionals and area property developers strive to use available real estate to its highest and best use as de ned by both land use patterns, Smart Growth principles, and City policy guidance. New sources of parking supply are costly, especially when structured or underground. In addition, surface parking lots often detract from vibrant places. The ve-step parking management process recognizes the signi cant nancial and land costs associated with adding additional parking

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65 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION and focuses instead on maximizing the use of existing parking resources to the greatest extent possible. Shared parking opportunities as discussed above in the Location strategies section can maximize supply by allowing uses with di erent demand pro les to use the same parking inventories at di erent times. In the same vein, each property owner throughout the city should assess the parking patterns of their stakeholders and any potential shared opportunities that exist in the adjacent area. Several additional opportuniites exist to maximize parking. There may be locations where lots can be re-con gured or re-striped to create new spaces in accordance with the Denver Zoning Code. O -street lots could relocate dumpsters or other large items to make use of spaces that were previously inaccessible. In addition, City sta will continue to assess areas where uses have changed to add supply. For example, loading zones that are no longer required can be reclaimed as on-street inventory following an evaluation of needs. Finally, residents can reorganize or clear out personal garages to provide additional o -street options in neighborhoods. Status: Denver Public Works Tra c Engineering Services will continue to evaluate loading zones or no-parking zones for additional on-street parking opportunities as conditions change. Municipal developments throughout the city have also added public parking spaces in high-demand areas. For example, a new parking garage located on the new Denver Justice Center Campus in Downtown Denver o ers over 600 new spaces some of which are publically available for use. In addition, the Denver Botanic Gardens recently completed a new public parking structure that increased parking from 180 to 300 spaces.

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66 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARYRECOMMENDATIONS TIME FRAME ONGOING13 YEARS35 YEARSFUTURE Key Recommendations Acknowledge a variety of land use patterns and contextsManage parking as an assetEncourage an integrated approach to parking managementOptimize the use of existing parking resources before building new facilitiesIntegrate the SPP vision into other planning processes Evaluate the e ectiveness of applied parking tools and provisions in the Denver Zoning CodePilot the Area Management Plan program Demand Encourage the use of multiple modes of transportation Monitor the popularity of car-sharing programs in DenverEvaluate the results of on-street car-sharing spaces in the downtown area after designated pilot periodMonitor and adjust provisions regarding car-sharing parking reductions in the Denver Zoning Code as neededPrioritize bicycle and pedestrian movements in Denver by working to expand a safe and connected network of routes for both modesComplete the Denver MovesŽ planning e ort to identify investment areas for better bicycle and pedestrian connections in on and o -street locationsEncourage support for bike-sharing programs to complement the overall alternative transportation systemMonitor and adjust bicycle parking requirements in the Denver Zoning Code as needed.

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67 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARYRECOMMENDATIONS TIME FRAME ONGOING13 YEARS35 YEARSFUTUREEncourage private developers and employers to utilize Travel Demand Management strategies and programs Encourage private developers and employees to utilize ideas from this plan to manage parking demand through creative strategiesContinue to support Transportation Management Associations or organizations as they work with property/business owners and employees to institutionalize TDM strategies LocationEnhance Denvers parking-related information and resources Create an integrated parking website that serves as a primary source of information for all parking related matters.Explore online capacity to provide additional administrative functions including permit applications and real time parking conditions annoucements. Improve way nding and the availability of information for o -street parking facilities Encourage parking operators and providers to o er better information about o -street availabilityMonitor success of Park NOW Denver and adjust or expand to other high parking demand areas throughout the city Use new language in the Denver Zoning Code to support shared parking arrangements Develop a Shared Parking FAQsŽ brochure or webpage with information on shared parking as it relates to the Denver Zoning Code as well as private agreements.Evaluate the use of Denver Zoning Code shared parking arrangements and monitor and adjust those provisions as needed. TimingSupport parking needs and explore new technologies Continue to work with stakeholders to determine time restrictions that support parking and access needs

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68 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARYRECOMMENDATIONS TIME FRAME ONGOING13 YEARS35 YEARSFUTURE Utilize new technologies to understand user behaviors and calibrate time restrictions PricingUtilize the most up-to-date and convenient technology to support on-street parking management strategies Utilize new Smart Meters to improve customer service and performance through user payment exibilityMatch parking demand with rates that support on-street parking management Strengthen relationships with other parking providers to understand the impacts of onand o -street parking rates Periodically perform rate surveys in Downtown and other highdemand areas to understand how current rates impact existing parking supply and demand SupplyMaximize the use of existing parking resources before building additional parking supply Explore opportunities to maximize existing supply including shared parking arrangements, the evaluation of unused loadingzones, etc. that are no longer needed, and the promotion of new, public o -street public facilities.

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70 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN GLOSSARY A r e a M a n a g e m e n t P l a n ( A M P ) Area Management Plan (AMP) … An area speci c parking plan for places in Denver that have high utilization rates, diverse user groups, or a complex mix of land uses that will identify context-speci c strategies that cover a larger scale and engages a variety of stakeholders. B C y c l e B-Cycle … The Denver bike sharing program launched in April 2010, provides bikes to make short trip connections to bike docking stations located throughout the City. B l u e p r i n t D e n v e r Blueprint Denver … Blueprint Denver is the rst step in implementing the vision of Denvers Comprehensive Plan 2000. It serves s an integrated land use and transportation plan and was adopted in 2002 as a supplement to the Comprehensive Plan. Key land use concepts include directing growth and redevelopment to Areas of Change, while preserving Areas of Stability. C a r S h a r i n g Car Sharing … programs that provide individuals access to a centrally owned and maintained eet of vehicles on a per-hour or per-day basis. D e b t S e r v i c e Debt Service … The series of payments of interest and principal required on a debt over a given period of time. D e n v e r C o m p r e h e n s i v e P l a n 2 0 0 0 Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000 … A document created to de ne the vision of what Denver residents want for their community through a series of goals, visions of success, objectives and strategies. D e n v e r M o v e s Denver Moves … A Citywide e ort to increase bicycle and pedestrian connections, to focus on the linkages between on and o street routes and to create of a stronger, integrated system that connects people to destinations. D e n v e r R e g i o n a l C o u n c i l o f G o v e r n m e n t s ( D R C O G ) Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) … A nonpro t association of 55 local governments dedicated to enhancing and protecting the quality of life in the nine-county Denver region. D e n v e r R i g h t o f W a y E n f o r c e m e n t ( R O W E ) Denver Right-of-Way Enforcement (ROWE) … A team tasked with providing quality customer service and management for on-street parking in the public right-of-way. D e n v e r S t r a t e g i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n ( S T P ) Denver Strategic Transportation Plan (STP) … A road map for transportation policy now and into the future. Acknowledges that Denvers infrastructure cannot accommodate unlimited trips by single occupancy vehicles. Identi es travel sheds within the City and recognizes the importance of moving people, not just cars. D e n v e r Z o n i n g C o d e Denver Zoning Code … the compilation of land use and building form regulations for the City. Adopted in 2010 as the rst major revision to the zoning code since 1954. It simpli es and reduces many parking base requirements, introduces parking exemptions and reductions, and calibrates requirements by neighborhood context. D R C O G T r a n s p o r t a t i o n I m p r o v e m e n t P r o g r a m s ( T I P ) DRCOG Transportation Improvement Programs (TIP) … A funding tool established through the Denver Regional Council of Governments to promote alternative modes of travel. GLOSSARY

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71 DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN GLOSSARY D y n a m i c W a y n d i n g Dynamic Way nding … Signs that are electronic and can change to alert users of changing parking conditions. F l e x i b l e W o r k S c h e d u l e s Flexible Work Schedules … An option to stagger employee trips to make better use of the existing parking inventory. G a t e w a y S i g n s Gateway Signs … A type of way nding strategy that alerts a user of an entrance into a location. G r e e n p r i n t D e n v e r Greenprint Denver … An action agenda initiated by the mayors o ce to support sustainable development for the City and County of Denver and to improve the environment with transportation-related goals, including an emphasis on increased public transit access and use and a decreased reliance on single-occupancy vehicles. H e a t I s l a n d E e c t Heat Island E ect … The a ect that a large surface parking lot has on increasing temperatures by absorbing and retaining heat. K i o s k s / S m a r t M e t e r s Kiosks / Smart Meters … Used to employ variable pricing. M a n a g e d P a r k i n g Managed Parking … Parking facilities that are monitored and maintained by management, either public or private. Are maintained with meters, signage, enforcement, etc. M a n a g e m e n t H o u r s Management Hours … The hours when parking is managed, should be tailored to meet speci c needs. M a y o r  s P a r k i n g C o m m i s s i o n ( M P C ) Mayors Parking Commission (MPC) … An appointed body enabled by the Mayors O ce. It consists of a variety of stakeholders who represent residential and commercial interests as well as other organizations. They review and provide input for existing and proposed parking policies and management practices. M i x e d U s e Mixed Use … A development that mixes residential, commercial, and o ce space within the same buildings and districts. M u l t i m o d a l S t r e e t s Multimodal Streets … streets that accommodate and move various forms of travel including public transit (bus or rail), bicycling, walking, and automobiles. O S t r e e t P a r k i n g O -Street Parking … Parking that is provided outside of the right-of-way of a public street, typically in a surface parking lot or public structure. (BP Denver) Falls into four categories: City-owned public parking, City-owned private parking, privately-owned public parking, and pri vately-owned parking that is dedicated to a speci c use. O n S t r e e t P a r k i n g On-Street Parking … Parking that is provided within the right-of-wa y of a public street, typically in designated parallel of diagonally striped spaces adjacent to moving tra c lanes. (BP Denver) Are publically accessible on a rst-come, rst-served basis. P a r k N O W D e n v e r Park NOW Denver … A public parking recognition program that will help drivers nd o -street parking locations and provide other pertinent parking information. This progr am was developed by the City and County of Denver in conjunction with the Downtown Denver Partnership.

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DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN GLOSSARY 72 P a r k i n g C a p a c i t y Parking Capacity … An area is considered at capacityŽ with 85% of spaces are full. P a r k i n g  c a s h o u t Ž Parking cashoutŽ … a strategy to reduce vehicle trips that allows employees to opt out of having a parking space and instead receive compensation. P a r k i n g D e m a n d Parking Demand … The amount of parking used at a speci c time and place. It is in uenced by vehicle ownership, the popularity of an area, the nature of uses in an area, availability of alternative forms of transportation, and other external factors such as fuel costs. P a r k i n g D e m a n d P r o l e s Parking Demand Pro les … A tool that categorizes users into groups of people whose parking needs are similar in terms of location, time, and duration. These pro les aid in providing a conceptual picture of parking in a given area. P a r k i n g D i s t r i c t Parking District … A concept that seeks to more e ectively use the existing parking supply on a district-wide basis rather than as individual lots. P a r k i n g D u r a t i o n Parking Duration … Describes how long a vehicle occupies a parking space. P a r k i n g O c c u p a n c y / U t i l i z a t i o n Parking Occupancy/Utilization … The percentage of parking spaces occupied at a given time, also called utilizationŽ. This re ects the relationship between parking demand and supply. P a r k i n g S u p p l y I n v e n t o r y Parking Supply Inventory … The number of total spaces available for use. P a r k i n g T u r n o v e r R a t e s Parking Turnover Rates … a way to describe how often a parking space becomes available, or turns overŽ during an hour.  P a r k S m a r t D e n v e r Ž C a r d s ParkSmart DenverŽ Cards … Declining balance cards that allow users to pay at parking meters without using a credit card or coins. P e r m i t P a r k i n g Permit Parking … A tool used to reserve street parking in speci c areas for certain users. R e g i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n D i s t r i c t ( R T D ) Regional Transportation District (RTD) … The regional public transportation agency for the six County Denver metro areas. R e s i d e n t i a l P a r k i n g P e r m i t ( R P P ) Residential Parking Permit (RPP) … An ordinance introduced to protect neighborhoods in high-demand areas from parking impacts R i d e s h a r i n g Ridesharing … Carpooling, is a useful method of transport for those living in areas not served well by public transit. R i g h t o f w a y ( R O W ) Right-of-way (ROW) … Publicly owned property used for transportation and utility infrastructure, including sidewalks, through travel lanes, parking lanes, tree lawn areas between detached sidewalks and streets, roadway median strips, parkways, bridges, and alleys. S h a r e d P a r k i n g Shared Parking … parking that is shared by more than one user, such that multiple property owners share a common parking facility. Consists of traditional shared parking which requires zoning approval, and accessory shared parking, which provides exibility to meet parking demand and can be arranged outside of a city process. S m a r t G r o w t h Smart Growth … A concept that encourages growth that economically, environmentally, and scally sustainable that

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DENVER STRATEGIC PARKING PLAN GLOSSARY 73 makes the most e cient use of public infrastructure. S m a r t M e t e r s Smart Meters smart meters are solar powered, wireless, and accept new forms of payment including VISA, MasterCard and debit cards. S t r a t e g i c P a r k i n g P l a n ( S P P ) Strategic Parking Plan (SPP) Â… Comprehensive city-wide framework that helps articulate and clarify the vision and approach for parking in the City and County of Denver. T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e ( T A C ) Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) Â… Sta from Public Works, Community Planning and Development, and other City departments that contributed to the SPP. T i m e L i m i t s Time Limits Â… A de ned time period that a vehicle may remain in a parking space. T r a n s i t I n c e n t i v e s / S u b s i d i e s Transit Incentives/Subsidies Â… A strategy to reduce parking demand where a user is encouraged to use transit options instead of a single occupancy vehicle. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n M a n a g e m e n t A s s o c i a t i o n s ( T M A s ) Transportation Management Associations (TMAs) Â… Private, non-pro t organizations that provide transportationrelated information within a de ned geographic area. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n M a n a g e m e n t A s s o c i a t i o n s o r O r g a n i z a t i o n s ( T M A s o r T M O s ) Transportation Management Associations or Organizations (TMAs or TMOs) Â… Groups that get City support that work directly with employers or property owners to create TDM programs T r a v e l D e m a n d M a n a g e m e n t ( T D M ) Travel Demand Management (TDM) Â… Strategies that challenge the notion that a single occupancy vehicle is the best form of mobility, such strategies include bicycle parking, showers, transit subsidies, carpool programs, and extime schedules to reduce vehicle parking demands. U n m a n a g e d p a r k i n g Unmanaged parking Â… Parking that is not managed, has no meters or signs limiting duration. V a r i a b l e P r i c i n g Variable Pricing Â… With this system there is no time limit for parking, but hourly parking prices increase with longer parking durations, making longer-term parking more expensive with each successive hour. V e h i c l e C o n t r o l A g e n t s ( V C A s ) Vehicle Control Agents (VCAs) Â… Part of the ROWE, this team is responsible for monitoring parking management strategies for the City, they issue citations and administer vehicle booting and towing as well was provide parking enforcement for special events. W a y n d i n g Way nding Â… signs that direct an intended user to a location; for instance, signs directing drivers to public o -street parking facilities.