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Moving people : Denver strategic transportation plan

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Moving people : Denver strategic transportation plan
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Department of Public Works, City and County of Denver
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Transportation planning
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DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN 2008


Letter from Mayor John Hickenlooper
Dear Denver Community,
Join us as we embark on an exciting new vision in transportation.
The Denver Strategic Transportation Plan stretches from todays reality to tomorrows promise of an
efficient, safe and sustainable transportation system that reflects our communitys values and keeps
pace with our diverse travel needs.
This plan was created by the Denver community under the leadership of Denver Public Works, with
support from other City agencies. It incorporates vast input from Denver residents and private sector
transportation experts. It is an innovative plan that represents a new way of thinking about how we get
people where they need to go. It sheds a traditional focus on car trips and concentrates instead on
person trips, opening our thinking to a broad range of transportation options.
During the extensive public process that helped shape this plan, we heard our communitys strong
desire for multimodal solutions to our current and future transportation needs. You asked for solutions
that reduce our dependence on cars and our need to continue to widen our roadways, solutions that
incorporate rapid transit, bicycles and walking as daily travel options.
The Strategic Transportation Plan delivers these options for every part of our community. It is a plan
that will allow all of us to make better transportation choices that support our personal and collective
values. It asks something of all of us in exchange for maintaining Denver far into the future as a livable,
connected community.
As gasoline prices rise to unprecedented levels, and with uncertainty surrounding future availability
of fossil fuels, there is no better time to introduce this innovative plan for meeting Denvers ongoing
transportation needs.
Welcome aboard!
Sincerely,
John W. Hickenlooper
Mayor
2 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Letter from Guillermo Bill Vidal
Dear Denverite,
I am pleased to present Denver's Strategic Transportation Plan (STP), a road map for transportation
policy now and into the future. The STP examines Denver's transportation system against our current
and future mobility needs, community objectives and values, and provides a blueprint for future travel
in the Mile High City.
As a thriving city at the heart of a growing metropolis, Denver anticipates a growing population, placing
much greater demands on our existing transportation system. The STP identifies and prioritizes those
needs.
Because Denver is primarily a city of mature neighborhoods and districts, it was important to adopt
an innovative approach in exploring how our existing transportation infrastructure combined with
strategic investments in myriad multimodal solutions will keep Denver moving.
This Strategic Transportation Plan is innovative, indeed. Denver's team of planners and engineers
identified 12 travel sheds within the City. These study areas, defined by geographical boundaries, have
characteristics and facilities serving similar travel patterns. By analyzing travel sheds rather than merely
measuring demand on high-traffic corridors, the STP recognizes the importance of moving people, not
just cars.
Key to this innovative analysis is the recognition that mobility and livability depend on multimodal
transportation solutions. In other words, a viable urban system must incorporate a variety of options for
daily travel: transit, bicycles, walking and automobiles.
This plan addresses the desires of a broad base of community interests to find multimodal solutions
to our future transportation demands. The STP outlines those opportunities in each of Denver's 12
travel sheds, providing information for all the strategies and pointing out the physical, operational and
behavioral improvements and investments necessary to meet our mobility needs.
Talented, experienced staff at Denver Public Works and other City departments, professional consultants
and an engaged public created the STP. I hope you share my appreciation for this progressive analysis
on how we can keep Denver moving!
Sincerely,
Guillermo Bill Vidal
Manager, Denver Public Works


Acknowledgements
STP Project Management
Bob Kochevar
Public Works RTD FasTracks Liason
Mark Najarian Crissy Fanganello Alan Eckman
Formerly Public Works Project Manager Public Works Project Manager Consultant Project Manager, AECOM
Guillermo Bill Vidal Lesley Thomas Brian Mitchell
Public Works Manager Public Works Deputy Manager / City Engineer Public Works City Traffic Engineer
STP Advisory Committee
Rick Garcia
Denver City Council District 1
John Desmond Jerry Jaramillo Landri Taylor
Downtown Denver Partnership Kiewit Construction/Colorado Contractors Association, Inc. Park Creek Metro District
Peggy Lehmann Mike Dino
Denver City Council District 2 Patton Boggs LLP
Larissa Ottinger
Denver Citizen
George Thorn
Mile High Development
Marcia Johnson Joaquin Dulitzky
Denver City Council District 5 Merrill Lynch
Carla Perez Dave Webster
Formerly with Denver Metro Chamber of Commerce Inter-Neighborhood Cooperation (INC)
Barbara Kelley
Denver Planning Board
Andy Goetz Liz Rao
Intermodal Transportation Institute, University of Denver Denver Regional Transportation District
Allison Billings Greg Goldfogel Richard Scharf
Formerly with Transportation Solutions Retailer/Restaurateur Denver Metro Convention and Visitors Bureau
Alice Borodkin Pam Hutton George Scheuernstuhl
Colorado House of Representatives Colorado Department of Transportation Formerly with Denver Regional Council of Governments
STP Technical Committee
AECOM
Colorado Department of Transportation
David Evans & Associates, Inc.
Denver Community Planning and Development
Denver Public Works
Denver Regional Council of Governments
Denver Regional Transportation District
Fehr & Peers Associates, Inc.
Felsburg Holt & Ullevig
George K. Baum & Company
HNTB
Jacobs Carter Burgess
Matrix Design Group, Inc.
Ordonez & Vogelsang LLC
Parsons Brinckerhoff (PB)
Pat Noyes & Associates
PBS&J
Short Elliott Hendrickson Inc. (SEH)
URS Corporation
STP Key City Staff Committee
Budget & Management Office Denver Office of Cultural Affairs
City Attorney's Office Denver Public Library
Community Planning and Development Environmental Health
Denver International Airport Office of Economic Development
Parks and Recreation
Public Works
Theatres and Arenas
4 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Contents
DENVER'S TRANSPORTATION
Transformation 06
A summary of Denvers new Strategic Transportation Plan ...
DENVER'S TRANSPORTATION
Process os
A multidisciplinary effort with a variety of stakeholders ...
Supporting documents are the basis for next steps
Plan team includes partners from local and regional representatives as well as
city agencies
Public outreach and engagement includes website, meetings and focus groups
DENVER'S TRANSPORTATION
Challenge 10
The challenge is multifaceted, with several moving parts ...
More people are going places and more often
Traffic congestion is increasing
Denvers transportation system affects both the region and you
DENVER'S TRANSPORTATION
Vision 14
A greater variety of transportation options and mobility choices ...
Community input helped guide the STP team
Community values provided the basis for recommendations
DENVER'S TRANSPORTATION
Innovation i6
A transformative approach to transportation ...
Plans for travel sheds, not just travel corridors
Accounts for mobility as the movement of people, not just cars
DENVER'S TRANSPORTATION
Strategy is
Achieving the desired outcome ...
Maintenance and efficiency are fundamental priorities
A balance of behavioral, operational and physical recommendations
Comprehensive recommendations for each travel shed
DENVER'S TRANSPORTATION
Glossary 48


Denvers Transportation Transformation
Vision
A great city is livable for all of its citizens now
and in the future.
The STP creates a multimodal transportation
system to support a livable, connected and
sustainable city.
MULTIMODAL---------------
Safe pedestrian linkages
Comprehensive bicycle system
Dependable transit options
Efficient and well-maintained
infrastructure
SAFE, EFFICIENT, RELIABLE
Connected multimodal system
Safe transportation network
Manage congestion
Accessible to all
Innovation
A transformative approach to transportation.
Plans for travel sheds, not just travel corridors.
Move people, not just vehicles.
Does not grow Denvers road footprint.
TRAVEL SHEDS
Travel sheds are study areas defined by geo-
graphical boundaries that have characteristics
and facilities serving similar travel patterns.
By analyzing travel sheds rather than measuring
demand on high traffic corridors, the STP
recognizes the importance of moving people,
not just vehicles.
Strategy
Maintenance and efficiency are fundamental
to our current transportation system, followed
by improvements and planning for future
transportation.
A balance of behavioral, physical and
operational recommendations are included.
The result is a comprehensive plan for each
travel shed.
Transit Support Operational Jh, Safety '
Maximize efficiency and safety
4Sicycle, Pedestrian
Maintain existing infrastructure
Transportation
Demand and
Traffic Management
6 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


moving people
t 1,1 ' CONNECTED----------------------
Link land use and transportation
Hj|^H Enhance connections between
jfHBM modes
Offer transportation choices
GREEN & SUSTAINABLE
Limit roadway footprint
Align with Greenprint Denver
Promote alternative public
transit modes
Improve air and water quality
Provide alternatives to
fossil fuel use
HEALTHY, LIVABLE COMMUNITY!
Mixed-use streets support great
neighborhoods
Provide transportation choices that
improve the communitys health and
well-being
Promote pedestrian-friendly,
mixed-use development
Integrate land use and
transportation choices
PERSON TRIPS
Most transportation planning is based on vehicle travel rather than moving people. The Denver STP uses person trips."
Maximum number of cars on a street
Distribution of people served by these
cars
The same number of people on a bus
The same number of people on a
pedestrian and bicycle-friendly street
Behavioral, physical and operational factors interact to
encourage people to walk, bike and use transit.
The result is a comprehensive list of potential projects and strategies for each travel shed.
Maintenance of infrastructure
Bicycle, pedestrian and street gaps
Transportation demand and traffic management
Transit support strategies
Operational and safety strategies
Transit and roadway improvements
Major improvements and studies
OCTOBER 2008
7


Process
The Strategic Transportation Plan (STP) is a multimodal transportation
plan initiated by the Denver Department of Public Works, with support
from other city agencies and interested stakeholders, to understand
and address the current and future transportation needs of the City
and County of Denver. The STP also serves as a unigue and innovative
approach to identifying future system needs and community values,
and provides a method to incorporate them into future transportation
decisions and solutions. The STP builds upon several previous city
planning efforts, including:
Denver Comprehensive Plan (2000)
Bicycle Master Plan Update (2001)
Blueprint Denver (2002)
Game Plan (2003)
Pedestrian Master Plan (2004)
Downtown Multimodal Access Plan (2006)
Greenprint Denver (2006)
The ideas and strategies incorporated in Blueprint Denver were
adopted as a supplement to Plan 2000 [Denvers Comprehensive
Plan 2000], Several key elements central to the success of Plan 2000
provided the framework for Blueprint Denver, which includes the
following vision as related to the transportation system: "... residents
will enjoy a greater variety of convenient transportation options and
alternative mobility choices. Plan 2000 also lists certain objectives
that must be pursued to achieve the vision of success. These
objectives include creating a city wide land-use and transportation
plan, and supporting the development of a clean, efficient and
innovative transportation system.
There are several key concepts that are central to Blueprint Denvers
successful implementation. The plan directs growth to Areas of
Change and manages and limits change in Areas of Stability. This
is accomplished, in part, by improving the function of streets.
Multimodal streets accommodate more trips by more people in the
same amount of space by improving transit and providing better
pedestrian and bicycle facilities. Multimodal streets consider all
types of transportation to be egually important. In accordance with
Plan 2000, implementing the tools presented in the plan will enhance
existing multimodal and intermodal transportation connections while
also ensuring that future development will feature a range of diverse
and well-integrated transportation choices. The result will be an
improved environment for pedestrians, bicyclists and transit users
and less reliance on single-occupant vehicles.
Making the Blueprint Denver Vision a Reality
Blueprint Denver (2002) was the first step in planning an integrated
land-use and transportation strategy for Denver, and called for
an expanded transportation study. The STP implements the
transportation component of Blueprint Denver by identifying both
short- and long-term needs for the Denver transportation system.
The STP determines transportation-related strategies for Denver to
accommodate projected regional population growth of 1.3 million
people by the year 2030. The STP supports the development of a
clean, efficient and innovative transportation system. The STP also
identifies transportation improvements to complement and support
the regional FasTracks program, a 12-year, public transportation
expansion plan for the Denver region, developed in 2004 by the
Regional Transportation District (RTD). It identifies the transportation
improvements from our other partners: CDOT, DRCOG, and the
private sector. The STP considers future growth and transportation
system demands, and balances these demands with community-
identified needs. The result: a comprehensive approach to investing
city resources wisely on the right projects and the right solutions.
8 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


The Strategic Transportation Plan Team
The project team for the STP was led by Denver Public Works staff
and included engineering and transportation planning consultants,
an advisory committee, a technical committee, and a key staff
committee.
Advisory Committee
Mayor John Plickenlooper appointed a wide range of stakeholders with
an interest in the outcome of the process to the advisory committee.
Committee members included Denver City Council members,
regional agency representatives and interested citizens. The role of
the advisory committee was to provide advice on policy and political
considerations, general plan direction and consistency of the STP
with Blueprint Denver, as well as to make recommendations to the
Manager of Public Works.
Technical Committee
The technical committee included representatives of the public, city
agencies, technical and regional staff. Technical committee members
provided advice and direction for the study based on their technical
expertise and assisted in guiding the final recommendations.
Key Staff Committee
The key staff committee included representatives from various city
departments. Key staff members provided review and feedback on
the STP process, and advised the project team of any concurrent
interdepartmental goals or other city efforts for consideration.
Public Outreach & Community Process
The public was engaged throughout the STP process through the STP
website (KeepDenverMoving.com), as well as through a series of town
meetings, focus groups, and outreach to community groups. Public
input was used to determine the community values that guided the
STP process, performance measures, and final recommendations.
KeepDenverMoving.com
The website developed for the STP, KeepDenverMoving.com, was
used to share information with the public and solicit public input.
The website was updated with reports, presentation materials and
minutes from community meetings. The site also provided online
forms for community comments, surveys and worksheets, to facilitate
discussions about community values and priorities for transportation
in Denver.
Town Meetings and Focus Groups
Town meetings, which included presentations and guestion-and-
answer sessions, were held during the STP process. Open focus
group discussions also were used during the analysis and revolved
around three areas of the city used as pilot locations to determine
travel areas of focus. These successful community participation
events effectively conveyed citywide transportation needs to the
project team. A total of six meetings were held to solicit this important
community input.
OCTOBER 2008 I 9


Challenge
More people are going places and more often. Each time a person
goes somewhere, whether to work, shopping or on an errand, it is
counted as a trip. Today in the U.S., the majority of trips are taken
as single occupants in a private automobile rather than carpooling,
walking, biking or using transit. Of all trips taken in our nations metro
areas, 50% are 3 miles or less and 28% are 1 mile or less. The majority
of trips less than 1 mile are taken using a private vehicle rather than
another mode of transportation. Yet, when asked:
52% of Americans want to walk or bike more;
55% of Americans would prefer to drive less and walk more;
71% of adults biked or walked to school in 1975. Today,
only 17% of children do so; and
8% of children were overweight in 1975. Today, 25% of children
are overweight.
In addition, the following trends are affecting the individual
transportation trip choices that we make:
Increase in fuel costs and the impetus to decrease reliance on
fossil fuel sources.
Need to reduce air pollution and improve public health.
Initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Emphasis on sustainable transportation creating technically
and environmentally sound solutions to the problems of urban
transportation.
It is also important to note that more than 30% of Americans do not
drive because they are elderly, not yet of driving age, are unable to
drive due to a disability, or they simply cannot afford to drive. The
overall percentage of non-drivers is likely to increase as the Baby
Boomer generation ages beyond 65 and as gas prices continue to
rise.
In Denver, the results of the STP public involvement process and
a project-related community values survey (2005) were even more
telling. For the public outreach efforts, the Community Values
Worksheet was developed as a tool to initiate public discussion about
what is important to the community and how these values should
be applied to decisions about the future transportation system. The
outcome was consistent with the national data, indicating that many
people would prefer to commute less by automobile and instead
use an alternative mode of transportation. Clearly, while many
people desire to use alternate modes of transit, there are physical,
behavioral and operational impediments to changing their reliance
on the automobile. The results also confirmed that providing a more
connected transportation system with multimodal options cannot be
achieved easily and will reguire significant planning to accommodate
the range of system users and their needs. The end strategy needs
to consider many different facets of the transportation system, and
ensure that it functions effectively and efficiently.
At an STP town maatino thp nublin waa aakad-
What would it take to reduce your number of trips If you could improve the transportation conditions of
taken by private automobile? your current commute, what would you suggest?
Job or shopping closer to my home
More convenient/faster bus service
Better sidewalks around my house
and destination
Free transit pass
Bike lanes or bike paths from my
home to my destination
Light rail station I can walk to
or convenient park-n-Ride
Other
Higher gas prices
Higher parking fees
Direct bus route with no transfers
Available housing near rail stops
Bus stop closer to my home
-27%
-20%
Better transit service
Better sidewalks to and from
transit stop
0%
Other
Fewer delays due to traffic
congestion
Less expensive transit fees
Cheaper parking near work
Safer roadways
Better traffic information before
leaving home or work
More parking near work


Citizens of Denver have confirmed that there is no single, easy solution to the challenges of providing a
successful and functional multimodal transportation system. Key issues to address range from location of
jobs, services and transit stops; cost of fuel, parking and transit; and quality and convenience of transit service
bike lanes and sidewalks.
10 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Traffic congestion is increasing. It is characterized by slow speeds,
longer trip times and increased delays. Traffic congestion is primarily
attributed to the number of vehicles on a road exceeding the capacity
of that road to carry vehicles during peak times. Traffic congestion
impacts include:
Increased stress and frustration can lead to road rage, which
can increase accidents and reduce the overall health of people.
Wasted fuel and increased air pollution is a result of increased
idling, acceleration and braking.
Regional economic health is reduced since drive time is a
non-productive activity.
Local businesses are affected with higher shipping costs and
decreased reliability to provide timely deliveries and service.
Personal/leisure time with family and friends is lost due to the
time it takes to travel.
Individual vehicle trips continue to grow in the City and County
of Denver and throughout the metropolitan area, meaning traffic
congestion will continue to grow. Due to continued growth in Denver
and the region, all types of trips will grow at a steady rate through
the year 2030. Though the total number of trips is growing, the
transportation system (primarily the roads on which we drive) is not
changing. This means that the width of the roads, and therefore
the number of lanes in our existing transportation system, are not
increasing significantly. This is especially true when compared to the
increase in population and overall increase in the number of trips
people are taking. So, while more people whether in vehicles, on
bicycles, using transit or walking are forecast to be on the streets,
the streets are not growing to accommodate the increase. Even with
transit improvements through the RTD FasTracks program, vehicle
delay is climbing and will increase rapidly after 2015.
The Denver transportation system affects the region as a whole.________________________________________________
The Denver transportation system is a major factor in sustaining the quality of life and economic health of the region. Creating balance in future
multimodal investments in the travel system is important. Comparing the 2005 regional congestion map to the 2035 regional congestion map, it is
clear that congestion will continue to increase over time, particularly on major thoroughfares accessing the regional hub.
OCTOBER 2008 I 11


Challenge
The Transportation System Affects You
The Denver transportation system directly and indirectly affects your quality of life, environmental and community health, and the economic
vitality for you, your family, your neighborhoods, and your businesses.
Over the past several years, our primary reliance on motor vehicles has resulted in increases in:
Urban Sprawl
People choose to live farther away from their workplace in order
to afford housing but dont always take into consideration the
price of transportation as part of their daily, weekly, monthly or
annual costs. These costs are not limited to financial costs of gas,
insurance, car payments, and parking, but also include personal
costs due to travel that takes time away from family, friends and
outside interests.
Traffic Congestion
A transportation system that is well-connected, such as the grid
system, allows traffic to be more evenly dispersed. A transportation
system that is not well-connected concentrates traffic onto major
corridors, even if only a short trip is necessary. Analysis of data
shows that most trips on major roadways are for 1 mile or less and
often are a result of a lack of connectivity. Because Americans are
taking more trips, the total number of miles driven continues to
increase, as does our reliance on the automobile.
Number and Length of Automobile Trips
Separation of land uses leads to numerous trips, even if many are
for short distances. For instance, you may do your shopping in one
shopping center or two adjacent shopping centers, but because
of the layout of the parking lot, the focus of circulation and access
on vehicular movement, too often it is easier to get in your car to
drive from one location to the next, even if you may only be moving
a few hundred feet or, at most, a couple of blocks.
Consumption of Land for Parking and Roadways
Roadways alone account for an average 30% of any citys land
use. Parking adds to the overall percentage of a citys land that
is dedicated strictly to automobiles, and in some cities takes up
more land area than all other land uses combined.
Safety Concerns
More vehicles on the road and increasing traffic congestion often
lead to frustration and impatience. This frustration and impatience
often results in drivers making riskier movements. The situation
is complicated by the fact that as Americans, we are all guilty of
occasionally driving too fast because we are rushing to work or to
pick up the kids, or we are distracted by talking on the phone or
performing some other task while driving. The combination of multi-
tasking and frustration can lead to increased potential for conflicts.
Community & Environmental Health Impacts
Air and water quality are negatively impacted due to the burning of
fossil fuels. The increases in traffic volume impact the level of noise
near major roadways and excessive signage lends to visual clutter
and an overall sense of disorganization of our roadways.
Health Issues (including respiratory illnesses, obesity and mental
health)
Reliance on automobiles as the predominant mode of transportation
has influenced the built environment of American cities. The
placement of buildings is often dictated by the ease of access and
circulation by automobiles rather than people. Automobile access
can affect the width and continuity of sidewalks, placement of
parking, relationship of the street and adjacent buildings, and the
overall public place that a street should or could be. Although this
is less true in older cities, younger cities like Denver have in many
ways grown up around the automobile.
Together, community planners and transportation and health
professionals are recognizing that transportation and the built
environment play a role in the health of our local neighborhoods,
communities and cities, as well as individual health. The success of
our urban corridors and the overall transportation system affect the
2030 Dailv Trin Distribution bv County
Of the total 5.4 million predicted daily trips in 2030,
2.2 million (41 %) of the trips will stay within the city
and 3.2 million (59%) will begin or end outside the city.
I
1
Broomfield and
Boulder counties
Source: STP 2030 Model
1
Denver i _
International .
Airport E
i '!: ' 2%
rj §j| ro,
i- ,y,, -
£ -r-
irk
K
liUJk
As part of the STP data analysis, daily
trips were analyzed to determine origin-
destination patterns of Denver trips by
county.The figure to the left shows patterns
of travel within Denver and the interaction
with the surrounding counties for the year
2030. The results show that less than half
(41%) of Denver trips remain within the
city. The strongest outside interaction with
Denver are with Arapahoe and Douglas
counties, with more than a quarter of the
trips to or from Denver beginning or ending
in those counties. Adams and Jefferson
counties each have about the same
interaction with Denver, with approximately
15%. Relatively, Boulder and Broomfield
have minor (2%) interaction with Denver.
Arapahoe and
Douglas counties
12 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


economic, environmental, community, and physical health of every
citizen as well as the city and the region. This situation is not unique
to Denver. Every city in America has streets that are unattractive
and, in many instances, unhealthy.
It is becoming more difficult for Americans to maintain a healthy,
active lifestyle because in many ways, we have designed activity out
of our daily routines in favor of more automated, sedentary lifestyles.
One need only pick up the newspaper or magazine to find evidence
that Americans are facing alarming increases in obesity and obesity-
related diseases such as diabetes. In fact, the Centers for Disease
Control indicates that todays generation of children is likely to be
the first to have a life expectancy shorter than their parents, the root
cause of which can be traced (at least in part) to inactivity.
Simultaneously, many American communities are preparing and
planning for the Baby Boomer generation to retire and anticipate
increases in the non-driving population, as well as an increase in
adults who may need mobility-assisted devices. Combined, the total
non-driving population of Americans is currently estimated at more
than 30% and is expected to increase as the Baby Boomers age.
Current statistics and projections of health in Denver show that the
number of adults with a healthy body weight has been declining
since 2003, as has the number of adults who engage in physical
activity. One of the factors linked to obesity and physical fitness is
the poor condition and lack of connectivity of sidewalks and striped
bicycle lanes or designated off-street bicycle paths, particularly in
lower-income or high-risk neighborhoods.
Summary
Blow Denver as a community chooses to improve its transportation
system in the future will impact you and your family. Blow you and
your family use Denvers transportation system also can inform future
improvements to the system. In Denver and across America, the
demand for efficient, safe and reliable transportation has historically
focused on the automobile. As Americans, we indicate in polls and
surveys thatwewanttowalk, bike and take transit more often. Elowever,
our behavior illustrates a continued preference to drive. Multimodal
investments in infrastructure may influence our future behavior, but
infrastructure alone cannot change anyones behavior.

The chart to the right illustrates the
complex interaction of a multimodal
system and the potential for behavioral,
operational and physical changes to
impact the transportation system as
a whole. Shown in blue, person trips
increase over time, while lane miles, in
yellow, are not increasing. Vehicle delays,
in red, continue to increase along with
peak bus hours and rail service. It is clear
that all elements of a multimodal network
including walking, biking, transit and
automobiles are needed to lower the
impact of increased person trips.
To achieve an accurate picture about mobility throughout the travel shed, the STP
project team used person trips to measure demand on the transportation system.
6000
OCTOBER 2008 I 13


Vision
What We Heard From You: Community Values & Desired Outcomes
Denver is fortunate to be at the heart and soul of the Denver
metro area. The city benefits from a concentration of cultural and
entertainment venues, a high number and variety of jobs, and a wide
range of housing choices. The city is further enhanced by the highest
level of existing and future RTD bus and rail transit service, relatively
dense development, a widespread grid street system, a network of
bicycle and pedestrian trails and routes, and a climate with over 300
sunny days, allowing ample opportunity for walking and biking. There
is no doubt that Denver is fortunate and has much to be proud of, but
there is still room for improvement.
Through the STP, Denver seeks to build on these assets by investing
in a more balanced, multimodal transportation system. Guided by
input from the public process and refined by technical experts, this
comprehensive and cooperative approach resulted in a plan that
combines community-identified needs and desired outcomes with
strategies and viable solutions.
Analysis of the community responses indicated that although there
is a desire for change to the transportation system among Denvers
citizens, there was no clear solution. So the STP team combined
the community values and desired outcomes identified during the
process. The team used the following five primary areas to guide the
STP and future improvements to the transportation system:
A MULTIMODAL Transportation System:
Safe pedestrian connections
Comprehensive bicycle system
Dependable transit options
Efficient and well-maintained infrastructure
A SAFE, EFFICIENT & RELIABLE Transportation System:
Connected multimodal system
Safe transportation network
Manage congestion
Accessible to all
A CONNECTED Transportation System:
Link land use and transportation
Enhance connections between modes
Offer transportation choices
A GREEN & SUSTAINABLE Transportation System:
Limit roadway footprint
Align with Greenprint Denver
Promote alternative public transit modes
Improve air and water guality
Provide alternatives to fossil fuel
A Transportation System that supports a HEALTHY, LIVABLE
COMMUNITY:
Mixed-use streets support great neighborhoods
Provide transportation choices that improve community
health and well-being
Promote pedestrian-friendly, mixed-use development
Integrate land use and transportation choices
14 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Together, these five primary areas provide guidance to the city in the
consideration and prioritization of future transportation improvements.
However, it is important to acknowledge that improvements to the
system and the success of the system will depend in large part on
the users of the system and the transportation choices they make.
Simply put, a successful multimodal transportation system reguires
both infrastructure and system improvements as well as a willing
population to embrace such change.
OCTOBER 2008 I 15


Innovation
Understanding the challenge and mapping out a solution
In order to plan for a future that is multimodal and supports the
community values generated through the public input process, the
project team developed an innovative approach that combined the
technical modeling and analysis found in a traditional transportation
planning effort, with a more comprehensive look at citywide
transportation needs and community desires. The STP process
included the following key elements to plan for a multimodal future:
Use of geographical areas called travel sheds to provide an
analysis of the transportation system that looks at an area with
similar travel patterns;
Measurement of all trips in a travel shed instead of only
studying vehicle demand in major corridors;
Use of travel shed and program improvement
recommendations that help establish priorities for
transportation funding;
Use of person trips instead of just auto trips to evaluate
impacts caused by all types of travel, including bicycles,
pedestrians, transit and private and commercial vehicles;
Measurement of transportation capacity instead of only
counting lane miles; and
Limiting the transportation footprint.
Travel Sheds
The travel shed idea was derived from the theory of a watershed.
A watershed is a broad look at the inter connection of streams and
tributaries that drain into a larger river basin. A travel shed takes a
broad look at the collection of streets and mobility routes that feed
into the larger, connected transportation system. The project team
identified 12 travel sheds in the City and County of Denver on which
to focus the analysis. Travel shed boundaries were based on areas
that shared similar characteristics, such as trips that start and finish
in the same area and geographic features that create barriers to
travel movement. Use of travel sheds also accounted for mobility
issues that cause the individual travel sheds to be inter connected.
The use of travel sheds allowed for a broader community analysis.
The project team could then analyze the effectiveness of the layout
of streets, including the grid and arterial system, transit routes, bike
routes, and pedestrian throughways, how they connect and how well
people move through the system.
It is not the goal of the STP to eliminate automobiles from the
transportation system. In order to preserve Denvers neighborhoods
and communities and thus its quality of life, Denver as a city and
regional leader must focus on increasing the person trip capacity
of its existing roadways by finding a greater balance among all the
modes.
The project team used the concepts of person trip demand and person trip capacity to identify gaps in the transportation system. As can
be seen by the graphic below, the person trip capacity of a street is much different for various types of transportation.
Maximum number of cars on a street
Distribution of people served by these cars
16 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Travel Shed Example Diagram
Person Trips
Another innovative idea used by the project team was the use of
person trips. Traditionally, transportation planning has focused
on automobile or vehicle trips by measuring vehicle miles traveled
(VMT). The STP project team determined that person trips is a more
accurate measure by which to evaluate the impacts caused by all
types of travel, including bicycles, pedestrians, public transit and
private and commercial vehicles. The use of person trips allowed the
project team to identify the existing travel conditions for all modes
in each travel shed and forecast conditions for 2030. The project
team analyzed the total number of trips taken by all modes of travel
in the corridors within each travel shed and called this person-trip
demand. The demand was then compared to the total person-trip
capacity. If the demand for person trips exceeded the capacity, this
was highlighted as a gap in the transportation system. The gaps
found in each travel shed highlighted the areas within the city that
need further evaluation to better understand transportation needs
and potential solutions. Once the mobility needs were evaluated,
recommendations were then categorized into transportation
improvement strategies for each travel shed.
The same number of people on a bus The same number of people on a pedestrian and bicycle-friendly street
OCTOBER 2008 I 17


Strategy
Moving People
Forward
In order to achieve the desired multimodal transportation outcomes
for Denver, numerous types of improvement strategies are
recommended, ranging from annual maintenance to longer-term
projects. Maintenance of infrastructure generally consumes the
majority of annual funding. All of the improvement strategy categories
are divided into the following segments:
Behavioral
Operational
Physical
Support efforts within the Denver community
to reduce travel by single-occupancy vehicles
and promote alternative modes of travel
such as walking, biking and use of the
public transit system.
Improvement of the function or efficiency of
existing facilities in the public right-of-way
with minimal changes to the physical
footprint and eguipment.
A new facility that can be added to or
changed within the public right-of-way.
Strategies for Behavioral Change
Partner with other internal agencies and external organizations
to study, educate, support and implement specific approaches to
reduce single-occupancy vehicular travel.
Transportation Demand and Traffic Management
Fund promotional and operational programs designed to encourage
the use of alternative travel modes, carpooling and other trip-
reduction strategies. Those include promotion of existing and
future transportation management organizations (TMOs) similar to
Transportation Solutions, the existing TMO in the Cherry Creek area.
Strategies for Operational and Physical Changes
Meeting the operational and physical goals of the STP reguires a
substantial investment in maintaining the operational functions and
physical infrastructure of the transportation system. Maintenance of
the existing system comprises a significant portion of the overall
Denver Public Works budget. In 2007, approximately $12 million
of Public Works $22 million Capital Improvement Program (CIP)
was appropriated to annual maintenance programs, which include
street repaving, bridge maintenance, traffic-signal reconstruction,
and sign replacement. In November 2007, Denver citizens voted
to approve the dedication of 2.5 mills in increased property taxes
annually to repair infrastructure. This additional mill levy funding is
being utilized to augment Public Works annual capital maintenance
budget. Approximately $32 million was appropriated to Public Works
capital maintenance programs in 2008 from this mill levy. Voters also
approved the 2007 Better Denver Bond Program, a comprehensive
effort to invest in the ongoing maintenance and enhancement of many
city facilities, as well as the construction of new city facilities. Both
the Better Denver Bond Program and maintenance mill levy initiatives
have significantly increased Public Works ability to address existing
maintenance needs, and will be crucial to supporting a multimodal
transportation system.
Maintenance of Infrastructure
Maintenance of infrastructure is critical to achieving a long service
life of transportation assets, such as signs and signals, pavements,
bridges, sidewalks and trails. Investment to maintain these assets
is more cost effective than allowing them to deteriorate to the point
where full replacement is necessary. The benefit of a properly
maintained infrastructure also includes improved traffic flow, a safer
travel environment, and less frustration and vehicle-repair costs for
the traveling public.
18 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Bicycle, Pedestrian and Street Gaps
Bicycle improvements include filling in missing links in the bicycle
network, major capital projects such as bicycle grade separations
(bridges), and annual staffing and program costs to support efforts to
encourage bicycle and pedestrian travel. Pedestrian improvements
include critical connections to complete uniform linkages, upgrades
to substandard sidewalk sections, and right-of-way acguisition for
new sidewalk construction. Street gap projects such as filling a
gap in the street grid across a gulch will provide a more complete
transportation network.
Transit Support Strategies
Key investments include upgrading transit service freguency,
expanding hours of operations, expanding transit route structure,
enhancing transit stops and passenger amenities, and improving
transit operations by implementing strategies such as Transit
Signal Priority (TSP), an operational strategy that gives priority to
the movement of transit vehicles through traffic signal-controlled
intersections.
Operational and Safety Strategies
Recommendations include limited capacity improvements (such as
turn lanes), traffic signal upgrades, safety improvements, medians, and
pedestrian and bike enhancements that can be implemented within
the existing rights-of-way. Primary focus should be directed toward
improvements like signal timing changes, signing and pavement
markings, Intelligent Transportation Systems, and coordination
needed for multimodal connectivity and improved safety.
Transit and Roadway Improvements
Improvements such as complete intersection- or interchange-
reconstruction projects can be implemented to eliminate capacity
constraints and improve safety. Improvements such as lane
balancing and transit service expansion remove gaps in the system
so that congestion is reduced and transit ridership is increased.
Access control could be implemented on a roadway by constructing
medians that help define where turns are allowed from driveways to
improve overall function.
Major Improvements and Studies
The most complex solutions in the travel sheds often involve major
investments and right-of-way acguisition. Significant up-front studies
are often necessary to determine the most appropriate transportation
investments and to achieve consensus among stakeholders. Several
projects/studies of this magnitude are already underway, including
the 1-70 East Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), the 56th Avenue
Environmental Assessment (EA), and RTDs FasTracks Program.
Map of Investment Corridors
Define future transportation options
^ Provide multimodal improvements
L Maximize efficiency and safety
Maintain existing infrastructure
Setting Priorities to Maximize Our Investment
A key to the plan strategy is the establishment of priorities to maximize the funding available. Maintenance, maximizing efficiency and improving
system safety are essential. Providing multimodal improvements help serve the expected increase in person-trip demand without increasing the
roadway footprint, and continued planning through major studies defines the future transportation network as a system.
OCTOBER 2008 I 19


Strategy
Policies for Moving People Forward
The Denver STP analysis developed recommendations for Denvers
travel future. Strategies and project lists for 2015 and beyond for each
travel shed were generated using traditional transportation solutions,
but the STP has an emphasis on multimodal solutions that not only
help mangage congestion, but also are necessary to keep Denver
moving.
Short-Term Steps
Many of the studies and projects identified in the STP are underway
as a result of FasTracks and the traditional sources of funding from
CDOT, the federal government and the private sector. Thanks to the
Better Denver bond package that passed in November 2007, several
of the identified projects have or will receive funding to move forward.
The Speer-Leetsdale Major Investment Corridor and the process to
begin a NEPA-like study of the Quebec Major Investment Corridor
also have been started.
Long-Term Steps
Development of New Funding
Be a leader in finding new local and regional solutions to fund
transportation improvements and programs. Look at options
for transportation infrastructure finance, including the potential
for public and private partnerships. As the employment and
entertainment center of the metropolitan area, Denver attracts
a very high level of traffic from the surrounding region, making
transportation a regional issue with the need for regional solutions.
Plan for Moving People Beyond 2015
Pursue the further expansion of a comprehensive regional
transportation program beyond 2015. Multimodal improvements in
regional transportation, especially in the area of transit, will increase
the person-trip capacity of our streets. However, beyond FasTracks
there are no improvements of this type to follow. Continuing to
make physical and operational improvements to alternative modes
of transportation will provide travel options that reduce fossil fuel
dependency and absorb growing demands. This will continue to
be an important strategy to meet our transportation needs beyond
2030.
For the long-term (2015 and beyond) the City and County of
Denver must continue to pursue options to maintain and improve
the multimodal transportation system. Implementation of the
recommendations in the STP will reguire action in several areas to
solve the long-term transportation issues that may arise. The following
steps can be taken now to plan for the future:
Completion of FasTracks
Implementation of the RTD FasTracks program is an integral part
of providing more multimodal options throughout the Denver area.
Meeting the current construction schedule of FasTracks is the
central strategy to absorb the growing demand on the system while
managing congestion to levels that exist today.
Leverage Available Non-City Funding
Continue to leverage federal and state matching funds to complete
new infrastructure projects and maintain the existing transportation
system through capital improvement planning and programming.
Support Sustainable Growth and Urban Infill
Ensure that the transportation investments support sustainable
growth through redevelopment and urban infill, particularly within
the Areas of Change as defined by Blueprint Denver as well as in
alignment with the goals of sustainable growth as outlined by the
mayors Greenprint Denver goals.
Encourage Shifts in Travel Behavior
Educate the public about transportation options and provide
incentives to promote behavioral changes. Infrastructure
investments must be maximized to include and encourage use
of all modes of transportation, including transit, pedestrian and
bicycle options, and increased use of travel demand management
such as telecommuting and flexible work schedules. Together,
these mobility options and tools will add up to a healthier future for
the entire metropolitan area by providing the city and its residents
the opportunity to get the most out of the investments made to the
transportation system.
20 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Denver and the metro region are continuing to grow.
Projections indicate more than 1.3 million additional
people will move to the metro area by 2030.

OCTOBER 2008 I 21


Travel Shed Recommendations
The final recommendations for each travel shed are based on an analysis of person-trip demand compared to the person-trip capacity. Projects
and strategies were developed, categorized and prioritized based on available funding. The individual and general recommendations are outlined
for each travel shed and are based on the community values and technical analysis during the STP planning process.
Legend
Travel Sheds
Other Projects/Studies
22 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN
tlavana


Travel Sheds Other Projects / Studies
a) Central Denver 24 The following areas of the city are being
b) Downtown 26 specifically analyzed by major studies that are underway or recently completed:
c) East Central 28 1. 56th Avenue EA
d) East Colfax 30 II. 1-70 EIS
e) East Side 32 III. Valley Highway EIS /
f) Gateway 34 Broadway NEPA
g) Hampden 36
h) Northwest 38
i) River North 40
j) Southwest 42
k) Speer/Leetsdale 44
1) West Side 46
OCTOBER 2008 I 23


Central Denver Travel Shed
Travel Shed Boundaries
The Central Denver Travel Shed is loosely bordered by Clarkson
Street to the west, 40th Avenue to the north, York Street and
University Boulevard to the east, and Evans Avenue to the south.
Major arterial roads run through the travel shed, including Colfax
Avenue, 6th Avenue, 8th Avenue, East 1st Avenue, I-25, East Evans
Avenue, Downing Street and University Boulevard. The East Colfax
and Speer/Leetsdale Travel Sheds pass through the Central Denver
Travel Shed.
Travel Shed Characteristics
All major arterial roads in the Central Denver Travel Shed are city-
owned roadways with the exception of I-25 and Colfax Avenue, which
are designated state highways and/or part of the interstate system
owned by CDOT. The Central Denver Travel Shed is a grid system
with many intersects that provide good connectivity for travel. One
exception is Washington Park, which limits traffic flowing east-west
in the southern portion of the travel shed. Roadways in this area
are older and more urban, with narrow lanes and limited control for
turning from driveways. The sidewalks on major arterials, although
numerous, are in poor condition and are substandard when compared
to current design guidelines. Bicycle routes run throughout the travel
shed, although signage and connectivity are both inconsistent. Many
missing links exist for bike paths in this area, particularly along the
Cherry Creek Trail.
Trips in the Travel Shed
Almost two-thirds of trips through the Central Denver Travel Shed are
pass-through, meaning they neither start nor end within the travel
sheds boundaries. One-third of trips begin within the travel shed and
end outside the shed. Less than 2% of trips both begin and end
within the sheds boundaries. The total amount of travel in the Central
Denver Travel Shed is expected to increase by more than 33% by
the year 2030. In addition, trips that pass through the travel shed are
expected to increase at a higher rate than trips that begin within the
sheds boundaries.
Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations
Current north-south capacity is anticipated to meet 2030 demand
in the north and central portions of the Central Denver Travel Shed.
However, in the south end of the shed, north-south demandwill exceed
capacity. The same is true for future east-west demand despite the
recent addition of the Southeast Corridor light rail line. Attention to this
travel shed focused on maintenance and improvements to existing
infrastructure without adding additional roadway capacity. Enhancing
existing transit as well as expanding bicycle and pedestrian access
to connect neighborhoods, the Cherry Creek shopping area, and
the Southeast Corridor light rail stations will address some of the
anticipated capacity issues.
Legend
Study Area Boundry
(e) Future Transit Station
_ ^gji Future Transit Line
O Existing Transit Station
Existing Transit Line
Investment Corridors
IK3 Bike Routes and Trails
__ Forecast Growth in Person Trips to
and from Travel Shed
| Blueprint Denver Areas of Change
A. Iso refer to overlapping travel sheets: East Colfax, Speer/Eeetseiak
RANDOLPH AVE
E 31ST A'
E 26THA
E 17THA'
E COLFAX A'
E 13THAV
E 8TH At
E 1ST At
E ALAMEDA A'
E VIRGINIA At
5
o
E LOUISIANA AVpJ
E EVANS AVI
24 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Recommendations
Form of Improvement Implementation Time Frame
Behavioral Operational Physical 2015 Future
Maintenance of Infrastructure I 1
Periodically update signal progression plans on major arterials
Mill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 50 total traffic signals, 7 bridges, 272 lane miles, alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps)
State highway surface treatment program
Bicycle and Pedestrian System Gaps I 1
Cherry Creek Trail safety upgrades (along 1 st Ave. from Downing to University)
Bike trail north of Buchtel between University and Franklin
Improve bike route designation through City Park
Install improved pedestrian crossings or traffic calming in the vicinity of the new I-25 LRT stations
Enhance bicycle connectivity within travel shed
Install more visible signage for on-street routes
Identify new bike routes to the Southeast Corridor LRT stations
Widen sidewalks along 17th Ave.
Provide countdown pedestrian heads at 17th/18th/York, University/Ohio, Downing/Exposition, Downing/ Kentucky, and University/1 st Ave. intersection
Facilitate the enhancement of pedestrian crossings within the travel shed
Pedestrian bridge between the University LRT station and the neighborhoods to the north
Prohibit right turns on red in the Cherry Creek and 17th Ave. pedestrian districts
Add pedestrian route lighting to improve access to LRT and bus stops
Transit Support Strategies I I I 1
Provide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stops
Operational and Safety Strategies I I I 1
University/Evans intersection improvements
Left turn channelization at Alameda/Downing
17th/18th/York/Josephine reconstruction (See East Colfax)
York/31 st/Martin Luther King intersection improvements
York/Bruce Randolph intersection improvements
Transit and RoadwiBV iBBrovements I I I 1
Realign 19th Ave. through Childrens Hospital redevelopment
Reconstruct 40th Ave. including curb, gutter and sidewalk from Franklin to York St.
Increase transit service between LRT stations and Cherry Creek (FastConnects) *
Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future" has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identification of projects will evolve.
Note 2. Refer to the glossary for definitions of terminology.
OCTOBER 2008 I 25


Downtown Travel Shed
Travel Shed Boundaries
Interstate 25 loosely borders the Downtown Travel Shed to the
northwest. The shed is bordered by Logan Street to the east and
11th Avenue to the south. Several major arterial roads run through
this travel shed, including Colfax Avenue, Broadway, Lincoln Street,
Park Avenue, Auraria Parkway and Speer Boulevard.
Travel Shed Characteristics
The Downtown Travel Shed is the employment and attraction epicenter
of the Denver Metro region. Several barriers define the boundaries
of this shed and limit connectivity, including I-25, the Platte River,
Speer Boulevard and Cherry Creek. These barriers also limit mobility
within the shed since few access points restrict ways to traverse the
sheds several waterways and the interstate. Connectivity challenges
exist at intersections such as Colfax and Broadway. Adding to the
complexity of the travel shed is the fact that the majority of land in the
Downtown Travel Shed was designated as an Area of Change by
the 2002 Blueprint Denver plan.
Trips in the Travel Shed
Traffic flows into the Downtown Travel Shed via Speer Boulevard,
Park Avenue, Auraria Parkway, Colfax Avenue and Broadway/Lincoln
Streets, as well as existing light rail lines. More than 72% of vehicle
and transit trips end in the Downtown Travel Shed. Approximately 7%
of existing transit trips pass through the shed. These percentages
are expected to remain consistent, but as FasTracks expands,
transit stops will multiply. By 2030, an increase of 40% in total trips
is expected for the Downtown Travel Shed. Transit trips alone will
increase by 94%.
Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations
Due to the drastic increase in transit trips forecast for this travel
shed, major improvements in transit are recommended and are
already underway. Travel routes in the FasTracks plan will converge
at Denvers Union Station, which is within the Downtown Travel Sheds
boundaries. Construction of the West, Gold, North Metro, I-70 East,
and U.S. 36 transit improvements will significantly increase transit
capacity in the downtown area. The construction of these rail lines
will reguire ongoing coordination between RTD, DRCOG, CDOT and
the City and County of Denver.
26 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Recommendations
Form of Improvement Behavioral Operational Physical Implementation Time Frame 2015 Future
Maintenance of Infrastructure 1 1
Mill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 5 total traffic signals, 23 bridges, 113 lane miles, alleys, signs
and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps)
Downtown signal retiming V-
State highway surface treatment program V- V-
Bicvde and Pedestrian Svstem Gaps 1 1
Enhance pedestrian crossings that link adjacent neighborhoods and major attractions to downtown V-
Signal timing changes such as Barnes Dance, leading pedestrian intervals and countdown signals V-
Design treatments such as high-visibility crosswalk markings, advance stop lines, pavers, colored concrete,
additional signage, and sign-mounted flashers *
Pedestrian crossing enhancements at Platte St. and 16th St. V-
16th Ave./Broadway bicycle connection V-
Bike station at Denver Union Station (DUS) V-
Lawrence pedestrian underpass of southbound Speer Blvd. V-
12th Ave. Cherry Creek ramp V-
California St. sidewalk/streetscape V-
14th St. streetscape V-
Colfax Ave. and 14th Ave. pedestrian improvements (Justice Center) V-
Continue to build upon the downtown bike lane grid V-
Provide a new connection between the Pepsi Center and Cherry Creek Trail away from Speer/Wewatta V-
Connect the Platte River Trail to the Auraria Campus with the West Corridor Project V-
Add a bike lane to Water St. (15th St. 23rd Ave.) V-
Construct a new bridge from Elitch Gardens to the Childrens Museum V-
Transit ^^^Ht Sk^Hies 1 1
Downtown circulator service from DUS to Civic Center and Cultural Complex, including street reconstruction and stops V- V-
Convert downtown circulator to fixed guideway V-
Support existing or potential transportation management associations (TMAs) V- V-
16th Street Mall reconstruction V-
Welton/Downing corridor stations master plan V-
Civic Center Station Plan V-
Provide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stops V-
^^Mlional and 1 1
Galapago St./Colfax Ave./Welton St. intersection operational improvements V-
All downtown streets should have minimum sidewalk width of 16 feet on both sides V-
One-way circulation system is maintained on numbered streets V-
Four-lane one-way streets are candidates for narrowing V-
Colfax Ave. / Speer Blvd. grade-separated interchange V-
Signal upgrades:
Colfax Ave. and Glenarm PI. V-
16th St. and Wynkoop St. V-
15th, 16th, 17th, 18th streets and Wewatta St. V-
16th, 17th, 18th. 20th streets and Chestnut St. V-
Speer Blvd. and Wewatta St. V-
East Colfax Avenue / Grant Avenue intersection improvements V-
Transit and Roadwav Improvements 1 1 1 1
Central Street promenade: Central Street from 16th St. to 20th St. V-
Golden Triangle/Central Business District access improvements V-
Larimer St. reconstruction from 15th St. to 17th St. V-
Reconfigure Colfax Ave./Tremont St./13th St./Delaware St. intersection V-
Broadway median, 20th St. to Blake St. V-
Reconfigure intersections along Broadway at 19th St. and 21st St. V-
Cherry Creek to 15th, Wewatta St. roadway improvements V-
Major Improvements and Studies 1 1 1 1
Denver Union Station implementation V-
Complete multimodal reconstruction of Broadway/Lincoln (STP Investment Corridor) V-
Complete multimodal reconstruction of Colfax (STP Investment Corridor) >/
Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future" has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identification of projects will evolve.
Note 2. Refer to the glossary for definitions of terminology.
OCTOBER 2008 I 27


East Central Travel Shed
Travel Shed Boundaries
Several streets loosely border the East Central Travel Shed, including
South Downing Street, University Boulevard and Broadway to the
west; 1-70 to the north; Monaco Parkway and Holly Street to the east;
and Quincy Avenue to the south. Colorado Boulevard, Colfax Avenue
and Evans Avenue are main arterial roads that run through the East
Central Shed. The travel shed has three other travel sheds that pass
through it: the East Colfax, Speer/Leetsdale and Hampden Travel
Sheds. The East Side Travel Shed overlaps the eastern edge.
Travel Shed Characteristics
Colorado Boulevard has been designated as an Investment Corridor
to facilitate multimodal north-south connections and to support
the vision of Blueprint Denver. Evans Avenue also is a designated
Investment Corridor within this travel shed.
Trips in the Travel Shed
Trips to and from Downtown Denver primarily pass through the
northern part of the East Central Travel Shed. In addition, the
percentage increase in trips by 2030 is expected to be the highest
in the northern section. Trips in the southern end of the travel shed
are primarily pass-through trips to adjacent areas. In the eastern
part of the travel shed, north-south trips flow from south of the Lowry
neighborhood to Stapleton.
Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations
Improvements within this travel shed focus on land use within the
two designated improvement corridors. Enhancements to transit and
improvements to pedestrian and bicycle connections will address
safety and access issues along Colorado Boulevard. The Evans
Avenue corridor also needs enhanced transit and attention to traffic
operations, freight management and safety issues. In addition, the
same improvements are recommended for 17th Avenue, 18th Avenue,
York and Josephine streets.
Legend
Study Area Boundry
(e) Future Transit Station
_ ^gji Future Transit Line
O Existing Transit Station
Existing Transit Line
Investment Corridors
E3 Bike Routes and Trails
__ Forecast Growth in Person Trips to
and from Travel Shed
| Blueprint Denver Areas of Change
Also refer to overlapping travel sheds: East Colfax, East Side, SpeerjEeetsdale, Hampden
28 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future" has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identification of projects will evolve.
Note 2. Refer to the glossary for definitions of terminology.
OCTOBER 2008 I 29


East Colfax Travel Shed
Travel Shed Boundaries
Several streets loosely border the East Colfax Travel Shed, including
Emerson Street to the west, 23rd Avenue to the north, Alton Street to
the east and 9th Avenue to the south. Major arterial roads that run
through the shed include Colfax Avenue, Colorado Boulevard, Park
Avenue, Monaco Parkway, and Quebec Street. In addition, several
paired couplets, meaning sister one-way streets, include 13th and
14th avenues, 17th and 18th avenues and Josephine and York streets.
The East Colfax Travel Shed passes through the Central Denver, East
Central and East Side travel sheds from west to east.
Travel Shed Characteristics
East Colfax spans eight Denver neighborhoods and touches a
broad range of land uses, although surrounding streets are primarily
residential.
Trips in the Travel Shed
Currently, about 75% of the traffic in the East Colfax Travel Shed are
pass-through trips. These pass-through trips are expected to increase
slightly to roughly 78% by 2030 due to the continued development of
Downtown Denver, including its new residential developments. The
East Colfax Travel Shed is also a major transit corridor and has one
of the highest levels of ridership in the RTD system.
Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations
Due to a modest projected increase of pass-through trips in the
East Colfax Travel Shed, major capacity-related improvements are
not recommended for this area. Instead, attention should focus on
safety enhancements as well as pedestrian- and bicycle-connectivity
improvements. A streetcar is suggested for the corridor as part of the
continuing Colfax Avenue revitalization efforts.
Also refer to overlapping travel sheds: Central Denver, East Central, East Side
I il S HI f j I I I !} i M
Legend
Study Area Boundry
Future Transit Station
- - Future Transit Line
O Existing Transit Station
Existing Transit Line
Investment Corridors
E3 Bike Routes and Trails
_ Forecast Growth in Person Trips to
and from Travel Shed
| Blueprint Denver Areas of Change
30 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Recommendations
Form of Improvement Implementation Time Frame
Behavioral Operational Physical 2015 Future
Maintenance of Infrastructure I 1
Mill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 4 total traffic signals, 2 bridges, 209 lane miles, alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps)
State highway surface treatment program
Bicycle and Pedestrian System Gaps I 1
Widen sidewalks to facilitate pedestrian connectivity and access to transit
Construct missing sidewalk connection (Colfax Ave. between Gaylord and Vine streets)
Transit Support Strategies I 1
Improve pedestrian connections to surrounding neighborhoods
Improve transit connections in developing areas
Implement pedestrian and transit improvements along East Colfax Ave. within the existing BIDS
Provide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stops
OBBtfional and Saf^fc StMMies I 1
Evaluate and implement more signalized pedestrian crossings
Mark pedestrian zones, bike facilities and bus stops clearly
Target high-accident locations for improvement *
Improve street lighting *
Signal upgrade at 13th and Josephine streets * *
Regional signal systems control (traffic signal system improvement project eligible)
Transit and Roadway Improvements I I I 1
17th/18th/York/Josephine reconstruction
Upgrade intersection at Colorado Blvd. and 17th Ave.
Corridor transit upgrade (like streetcar, bus rapid transit, etc.)
Bus transit priority/intelligent transportation system improvements (Senate Bill 1 project) Evaluate moving/consolidating access points on Colfax Ave.
Major Improvements and Studies I I I 1
Colfax Ave. and Colorado Blvd. intersection reconstruction
Complete multimodal reconstruction of Colfax Ave. (STP investment corridor)
Complete multimodal reconstruction of Colorado Blvd. (STP investment corridor)
Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future" has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identification of projects will evolve.
Note 2. Refer to the glossary for definitions of terminology.
OCTOBER 2008 I 31


East Side Travel Shed
Travel Shed Boundaries
Several streets loosely border the East Side Travel Shed, including
Monaco Parkway to the west, 1-70 to the north, Central Park Boulevard/
Yosemite Street to the east and Alameda Avenue to the south. Two
major arterial roads run through the East Side Travel Shed, including
Colfax Avenue and Quebec Street. The East Colfax Travel Shed
passes through the travel shed along Colfax.
Travel Shed Characteristics
Much of the East Side Travel Shed is designated as an Area of
Change by Blueprint Denver. A significant portion of the travel
shed consists of well-established residential neighborhoods, but the
area also includes two of Denvers largest redevelopment projects:
Stapleton and Lowry.
Trips in the Travel Shed
Due to recent and future redevelopment in the area, the East Side
Travel Shed will see significant growth in person trips. Traffic demand
in some areas of the travel shed will double by 2030.
Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations
Improvements within the East Side Travel Shed focus on maintaining
mobility and safety. Attention to bicycle and pedestrian routes and
facilities will encourage multimodal transportation within the area and
connect people to transit.
Also refer to overlapping travel shed: East Coif as
Legend
Study Area Boundry
() Future Transit Station
. ^gji Future Transit Line
O Existing Transit Station
Existing Transit Line
Investment Corridors
-E3 Bike Routes and Trails
__ Forecast Growth in Person Trips to
and from Travel Shed
| Blueprint Denver Areas of Change
E. 29th Ave
100% by 2030[
E. 26th Ave.
E. 23rd Ave.
Montview Blvd.
E. Colfax Ave.
E. 14th Ave.
E. 13th Ave.
E. 12th Ave.
E. 10th Ave.
E. 8th Ave.
E. 4th Ave.
E. 1st Ave.
20% by 2030!
E. Cedar Ave.
E. Alameda Ave.
32 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Recommendations
Form of Improvement
Behavioral Operational Physical
Implementation Time Frame
Maintenance of Infrastructure
Mill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 20 total traffic signals, 8 bridges, 334 miles,
alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps)
State highway surface treatment program
Biculeand Pedestrian fcstem Gap
Coordinate with Parks and Recreation to develop on- and off-street bike routes
Construct missing sidewalk connections as properties redevelop
Upgrade pedestrian access on Quebec St. from 6th Ave. to 13th Ave.
Upgrade pedestrian access on 23rd Ave. from Monaco Pkwy. to Quebec St.
Add Lowry Blvd.-Westerly Creek grade separated trail crossing
Transit Support Strategies
Support existing or potential transportation management associations (TMAs) (Stapleton TMA)
Provide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stops
Operational and Safety Strategies
Quebec intersection improvements at 13th St. and 23rd Ave.
Target high accident locations for improvement
Improve street lighting
Regional signal systems control (traffic signal system improvement project eligible)
Transit and Roadwf Irovements___________________________________________
Evaluate conversion of two-way roadways to one-way street couplets
Evaluate addition of new travel lanes within the travel shed
Evaluate construction of reversible lanes within the travel shed
Add/improve turn lanes within the travel shed
Construct bus pullouts within the travel shed
Improve street connectivity between Denver and Aurora in the vicinity of Stapleton
Central Park Blvd. interchange
Stapleton road improvements
Major Improvements and Studies
Major Investment Corridor Study of Quebec St. (NEPA) and implementation
Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future" has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identification of projects will evolve.
Note 2. Refer to the glossary for definitions of terminology.
OCTOBER 2008 I 33


Gateway Travel Shed
Travel Shed Boundaries
Several streets loosely border the Gateway Travel Shed, including
Chambers Road/Pena Boulevard to the west, Pena Boulevard to the
north, Picadilly Road to the east and 40th and 38th avenues to the
south. Four major arterial roads run through the shed, including Pena
Boulevard, Tower Road, 56th Avenue and E-470.
Travel Shed Characteristics
Denver International Airport (DIA) and Rocky Mountain Arsenal
National Wildlife Refuge are two important land uses within this area
and limit connectivity through the travel shed. Trips to and from DIA
generate most of the traffic on Pena Boulevard. Much of the area is a
designated Area of Change by Blueprint Denver.
Trips in the Travel Shed
The Gateway Travel Shed is expected to be one of the fastest growing
sheds in the City and County of Denver. Person trips are expected to
triple in some areas by 2030.
Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations
As Pena Boulevard is the main connector to the airport, improvements
to the corridor should enhance access and flow to DIA while serving
other travel demand in the area. The Gateway Travel Shed will need
an integrated multimodal transportation system to meet demand
generated by new transit-oriented development a byproduct of
FasTracksand the future East Corridor light rail line. Enhanced bicycle
and pedestrian routes with new and widened roads will be reguired
to connect users to transit. In addition, expanded bus systems will
support travel demand.
Legend
Study Area Boundry
Future Transit Station
Future Transit Line
o Existing Transit Station
HH- Existing Transit Line
Investment Corridors
E3 Bike Routes and Trails
Forecast Growth in Person Trips to and from Travel Shed
Blueprint Denver Areas of Change
34
DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Recommendations
Form of Improvement Implementation Time Frame
Behavioral Operational Physical 2015 Future
Maintenance of Infrastructure__________________________________________________________________________
Construct new traffic signals (25 locations)
State highway surface treatment program
Mill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 5 total traffic signals, 5 bridges, 249 lane
miles, alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps)
Bicycle and Pedestrian System Gaps_____________________________________________________________________
Bicycle and pedestrian facilities to support East Corridor rail stations
Improve bicycle and pedestrian trail system connecting neighborhoods and communities
Transit Support Strategies_____________________________________________________________________________
Encourage transit ridership by adding priority treatments (FastConnects)
Encourage transit-oriented development
Enhance transit routes to serve as feeders to major transit corridors
Introduce bus routes and bus facilities to support East Corridor commuter rail (FastConnects)
Encourage new transit connections and increased bus service to support development
Provide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stops
Transit and Roadway Improvements_______________________________________________________________________
Identify funding for design and construction of 64th Ave./Pe_Pena a Blvd. Station
Identify funding for design and construction of 72nd Ave./Dunkirk St. Station
Widen 48th Ave. to four lanes with Pena Blvd. right-of-way and construct two traffic signals at the Pena ramps
Widen 56th Ave. to four lanes with Pena Blvd. right-of-way and construct two traffic signals at the Pena ramps
Intersection improvements at Peoria St. and 56th Ave.
Intersection improvements at Chambers Rd. and 56th Ave.
Reconstruct Tower Rd. bridge over First Creek to accommodate four travel lanes and a bicycle /
pedestrian connection under the bridge
Construct Telluride St. as two-lane arterial south of 56th Ave. and four-lane arterial north of 56th Ave.
Widen Tower Rd. to six-lane arterial
Construct Dunkirk St. as two-lane arterial north of current terminus
Widen Picadilly Rd. to four-lane arterial north of 48th Ave. and six-lane arterial south of 48th Ave.
Widen 38th Ave. to four-lane arterial from Himalaya Rd. to Picadilly Rd.
Widen 48th Ave. to six-lane arterial from Chambers Rd. to Picadilly Rd.
Widen 56th Ave. environmental assessment implementation (Quebec St. to Havana St.)
Widen 56th Ave. environmental assessment implementation (Havana St. to Pena Blvd.)
Construct 64th Ave. as four-lane arterial
Construct 71st Ave. as two-lane arterial east of Tower Rd. and four-lane arterial west of Tower Rd.
Construct grade-separated crossings of Pena Blvd. at 45th Ave., 51st Ave., and 60th Ave. (refer to 64th
station access study for 60th Ave. grade separation)
Major Improvements and Studies_________________________________________________________________________
East Corridor FasTracks
Pena Blvd. NEPA study
Complete multimodal reconstruction of 56th Ave. (Investment Corridor)
Complete multimodal reconstruction of Tower Rd. (Investment Corridor)























Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future" has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identification of projects will evolve.
Note 2. Refer to the glossary for definitions of terminology.
Travel Shed Stats
OCTOBER 2008 I 35


Hampden Travel Shed
Travel Shed Boundaries
The Hampden Travel Shed is loosely bordered by Sheridan Boulevard
to the west, Yale Avenue to the north, South Yosemite Street to the
east and Hampden Avenue to the south. Eight major arterials run
through this travel shed: South Sheridan Boulevard, South Federal
Boulevard, South Santa Fe Drive, South Broadway, South University
Boulevard, South Colorado Boulevard, 1-25 and Hampden Avenue.
The Hampden travel shed crosses through both the East Central and
Southwest travel sheds.
Travel Shed Characteristics
The Hampden Travel Shed has been identified as a major investment
corridor. The Hampden Avenue corridor has several changes in
functional characteristics. Hampden changes from a high-speed
freeway to a low-speed arterial that inhibits mobility. Unbalanced
travel lanes combined with inefficient and overcapacity intersections
limit mobility in the travel shed. Pedestrian facilities are substandard
or missing along the corridor. Pedestrian facilities at transit stops,
recreational areas, commercial areas and crossing barriers such as
Santa Fe Drive are insufficient.
Trips in the Travel Shed
Trips in the Hampden corridor are generally long trips or connect to
two major north-south light rail lines, the southeast and southwest
corridors. Existing light rail lines have a high number of riders.
Person-trip growth rate is modest compared to other areas in the city.
However, because the corridor is already congested, the increase in
person trips is expected to cause deterioration in regional mobility.
Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations
The Hampden Travel Shed will reguire significant capital investments
to achieve an increase in mobility. Multiple municipalities have
jurisdiction over the Hampden corridor, meaning that inter-agency
coordination and cooperation will be key in shaping the future of
the area. Projected increased use of the southeast and southwest
corridor light rail lines means that additional transit feeder/connecting
systems will need to be added along with pedestrian and bicycle
connections. The improvements to the corridor will be complex and
regional.
Also refer to overlapping travel sheds: East Central, Southwest
Legend
Study Area Boundry
(e) Future Transit Station
_ ^gji Future Transit Line
O Existing Transit Station
Existing Transit Line
Investment Corridors
IK3 Bike Routes and Trails
__ Forecast Growth in Person Trips to
and from Travel Shed
| Blueprint Denver Areas of Change
36 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Rfimmimfindations
Form of Improvement Implementation Time Frame
Behavioral Operational Physical 2015 Future
Maintenance of Infrastructure_____________________________________________________________________________________
State highway surface treatment program
Mill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 15 total traffic signals, 20 bridges, 391 lane miles, alleys,
signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps)
Bicycle and Pedestrian System Gaps________________________________________________________________________________
Bear Creek Trail Fenton St. to Lamar St.
Bear Creek Trail Construction Phase 2 (Lamar St. to Wadsworth Blvd.)
Bike/pedestrian bridge over Santa Fe Dr near Englewood Station
Hampden Ave. sidewalk gap closures near Southmoor Station, Monaco St. & I-25
Missing sidewalk:
Federal Blvd., Amherst Ave. to Hampden Ave.
Sheridan Blvd., just north of Hampden Ave.
Hampden Ave., Wellshire Golf Course frontage
Hampden Ave. from Colorado Blvd. to Happy Canyon Rd.
Hampden Ave. from Happy Canyon Rd. to Dayton Way
Special crossing on Sheridan Ave.; Quincy Ave. to Hampden Ave.
Special crossing on Hampden Ave. at Raleigh St. intersection
Pedestrian improvements at Hampden Ave. and Tamarac St. intersection
Pedestrian improvements at Hampden Ave. and Monaco Pkwy. intersection
Pedestrian improvements at Hampden Ave. and Tiffany Plaza intersection
Pedestrian improvements to connect Yale Station from Highline Canal to west
Transit Support Strategies________________________________________________________________________________________
Expand existing parking, build new parking at transit stations (part of TOD planning)
Provide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stops
Support existing or potential transportation management associations (TMAs) (Southeast Corridor TMA)
Enhance transit routes to serve as feeders to major transit corridors
Increase bus service on Hampden Ave. connecting southeast and southwest corridor LRT Rail (FastConnects)
Implement FastConnects at Sheridan Blvd., Englewood Station and Southmoor Station
Operational and Safety Strategies_________________________________________________________________________________
Yosemite St. at Jefferson Ave. intersection turn-lane improvements
East Yale Way at Colorado Blvd. intersection turn-lane improvements
Signal upgrades on Hampden Ave. at Akron, Florence, Poplar, Roslyn, Galena, Holly, Sherman and Brady streets
Regional signal systems control (traffic signal system improvement project eligible)
Transit and Roadway Improvements__________________________________________________________________________________
Widen Yale Ave. to 4 lanes from Holly St. to Monaco Pkwy.
University Blvd. at Harvard St. intersection improvements
University Blvd. at Hampden Ave. intersection reconstruction
Happy Canyon Rd./Dahlia St. at Hampden Ave. intersection reconstruction
Lane balancing on southbound Havana St. from Yale Ave. to Florence St.
Widen Hampden to 6 lanes from Colorado Blvd. to i-25
Hampden Ave. at Knox Court grade-separated interchange
Santa Fe Blvd. at Dartmouth Ave. grade-separated interchange
Hampden Ave. at Brady Court grade-separated interchange
Develop and implement access control plans on Hampden Ave., Federal Blvd. and Sheridan Blvd.
Reconstruct interchange at Hampden Ave. and Sheridan Blvd.
Reconstruct interchange at Hampden Ave. and Federal Blvd.
Replace Broadway bridge at Hampden Ave.
Major Improvements and Studies____________________________________________________________________________________
Major investment corridor study of Hampden Ave. (NEPA) and Implementation
Complete multimodal reconstruction of Federal Blvd. (STP Investment Corridor)
Complete multimodal reconstruction of Colorado Blvd. (STP Investment Corridor)




























Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future" has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identification of projects will evolve.
Note 2. Refer to the glossary for definitions of terminology.
OCTOBER 2008
37


Northwest Travel Shed
Travel Shed Boundaries
The Northwest Travel Shed is loosely bordered by Sheridan Boulevard
and Harlan Street to the west, 52nd Avenue to the north, 1-25 to the
east and Colfax Avenue to the south. Five major arterial roads run
through this travel shed, including 1-70, Federal Boulevard, Colfax
Avenue and Speer Boulevard.
Travel Shed Characteristics
Interstate 70 and 1-25 serve as barriers to connectivity in the Northwest
Travel Shed. Federal and Sheridan boulevards are key north-south
corridors, while 32nd Street, 38th Street and Speer Boulevard provide
connections to 1-25 and Downtown Denver. The travel shed includes
a large percentage of residential areas that value the walkability of
their neighborhoods. Federal Boulevard, a major transit corridor in
the travel shed, is designated as a commercial corridor in Blueprint
Denver and serves to accommodate travel resulting from downtowns
special events. Blueprint Denver designates much of this travel shed
as an Area of Stability, although isolated Areas of Change exist.
Trips in the Travel Shed
Trips to and from Downtown Denver characterize most of the traffic in
the Northwest Travel Shed. Other trip patterns include trips to the East
Colfax Corridor, the Southwest Travel Shed and trips south toward
West Colfax and 6th Avenue. Growth in person trips by the year
2030 is modest compared to other travel shed study areas.
Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations
Pedestrian-oriented improvements are a focus within this travel shed.
Improved and expanded transit routes along 32nd and 38th streets
as well as Speer and Federal boulevards will serve the increased
travel demands in this area. Investments to Federal Boulevard should
focus on transit, pedestrian amenities, safety improvements and
access-control elements. Bikeways and bike facilities also should be
included as this travel shed is redeveloped.
Legend
Study Area Boundry
(e) Future Transit Station
_ ^gji Future Transit Line
O Existing Transit Station
Existing Transit Line
Investment Corridors
IK3 Bike Routes and Trails
__ Forecast Growth in Person Trips to
and from Travel Shed
| Blueprint Denver Areas of Change
38 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Recommendations
Form of Improvement Implementation Time Frame
Behavioral Operational Physical 2015 Future
Maintenance of Infrastructure 1
State highway surface treatment program
Mill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 50 total traffic signals, 43 bridges, 471 lane miles, alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps)
Bicycle and Pedestrian System Gaps 1
Construct missing sidewalk connections (Sheridan Blvd. from 17th to 25th streets)
Sidewalk and pedestrian amenity improvements along Federal Blvd.
Bicycle commuter marketing campaign
Clear Creek bike trail adjacent to 48th Ave.
Denver portion of grade separation of 52nd Ave. at Clear Creek
Add bike lanes on 16th St. north of Highlands pedestrian bridge
43rd Ave. bridge across BNSF line Inca St. bike/pedestrian bridge over 38th Ave. underpass: Inca St. alignment
Sidewalk and pedestrian amenities on Tennyson St. between 38th and 44th streets
Transit SuMBrt StMMies 1
Provide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stops
Transit enhancements on 38th Ave.
Transit enhancements on Federal Blvd.
Transit enhancements on 32nd Ave./Speer Blvd. Complete a transit station study for the RTD Gold Line stop in Denver
Operational and Safety Strategies 1
Safety improvements at 38th Ave. and Federal Blvd.
Safety improvements at 32nd Ave. and Speer Blvd.
Signal upgrades on Sheridan Blvd. at 26th St.
Signal upgrades on Federal Blvd. at 44th St.
Add a traffic signal at Lakeside Amusement Park (on Sheridan Blvd.)
Add ITS along Federal Blvd. from Colfax Ave. to Speer Blvd.
Add VMS at Invesco Field access points
Enhance incident management routes for 6th Ave. using ITS
Transit and Roadwfli iHBrovements I 1
Widen Pecos St. from I-70 to 52nd St.
38th Ave. and Sheridan Blvd. intersection improvements
38th Ave. underpass enhancements Sheridan Blvd. at Colfax Ave. intersection improvements
Mrior ImBrovements and Studies I 1
Complete multimodal reconstruction of Federal Blvd. (STP investment corridor)
Northwest Rail FasTracks
U.S. 36 Bus Rapid Transit FasTracks
Gold Line FasTracks Complete multimodal reconstruction of 38th Ave. (STP investment corridor)
Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future" has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identification of projects will evolve.
Note 2. Refer to the glossary for definitions of terminology.
OCTOBER 2008 I 39


River North Travel Shed
Travel Shed Boundaries
The River North Travel Shed is loosely bordered by 1-25 to the west;
1-70 to the north; Josephine, Williams and Downing streets to the east;
Park Avenue to the southwest; and Welton Street to the southeast.
Four major arterial roads run through this travel shed, including 1-25,
1-70, Park Avenue and Brighton Boulevard/Broadway.
Travel Shed Characteristics
Much of the River North Travel Shed is designated as an Area
of Change by Blueprint Denver. The area is isolated from central
Denver with fewer intersects to main arterials, which makes travel
more of a challenge. 1-25, 1-70, the Platte River and railroad lines
all serve as barriers to connectivity between the River North Travel
Shed and surrounding areas. Most of the streets in this study area
follow downtowns diagonal street grid, which leads to complicated
intersections at the boundaries of the shed where streets meet the
traditional grid pattern.
Trips in the Travel Shed
The River North Travel Shed is largely free from congestion, although
minor congestion exists at the intersections of Park Avenue West and
Broadway; 38th and Downing streets; and 38th Street and Brighton
Boulevard. Congestion is expected to increase at these intersections
along with anticipated growth. Currently there is adeguate pedestrian
and bicycle mobility within established residential neighborhoods
and recently redeveloped areas. Plowever, much of the area remains
industrial and could benefit from the enhancement of multimodal
facilities. The Central Corridor light rail line runs along the eastern
edge of the travel shed. Growth of person trips is anticipated at
higher rates than other study areas since the shed is predominantly
designated as an Area of Change by Blueprint Denver.
Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations
The River North Travel Shed has changed significantly in recent years
and will continue to redevelop and rejuvenate. Development in the
area has triggered an interest in multimodal transportation options.
Improvements in this area should focus on bicycle and pedestrian
connections to the new commuter rail station that is planned within
the travel sheds boundaries as well as implementing the vision of
Blueprint Denver.
A s/v/
^20% 412%
^2oU2o!PAV
Study Area Boundry
Future Transit Station
Future Transit Line
Existing Transit Station
Existing Transit Line
Investment Corridors
Bike Routes and Trails
Forecast Growth in Person Trips to
and from Travel Shed
Blueprint Denver Areas of Change
40 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Recommendations
Form of Improvement Implementation Time Frame
Behavioral Operational Physical 2015 Future
Maintenance of Infrastructure I 1
State highway surface treatment program
Mill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 20 total traffic signals, 7 bridges, 106 lane miles, alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps
Bicycle and Pedestrian System Gaps I 1
46th Ave. Platte River connection
47th Ave. & York St. bike/pedestrian crossing of Union Pacific Railroad
Cole/Clayton neighborhood connections across 40th Ave.
40th Ave. bus stop and sidewalk improvements
43rd Ave. bike and pedestrian bridge
Curtis Park connection to Platte River Trail
Include pedestrian amenities in Denargo Market/29th Ave. area
Transit Sunart StiAaies I 1
38th Ave./Blake St. Station operational study (next phase)
Swansea Station master plan
Encourage high-density and mixed-use developments that support increased transit service (38th Ave./Blake St.) Provide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stops
OBBtfional and Saf^fc StMMies I 1
Welton St. signal improvements based on I-70 East Corridor rail changes
Revisit 2-way conversion project recommendations based on future infastructure improvements (i-70 East)
Transit and Roadway Improvements I I 1
Reconstruct Brighton Blvd. from 31 st to 44th streets (including medians and sidewalk)
31st St. & Brighton Blvd. intersection improvement
Arkins and 31 st St. signalization with Denargo Market (29th St. and Brighton Blvd.)
Downing/Marion/38th streets geometric and signal improvements
Create double left eastbound 40th St. to northbound Josephine St.
Major Improvements and Studies I I I 1
North Corridor FasTracks 38th St. roadway widening from Blake St. to Brighton Blvd.
Additional river crossing (35th or 36th streets)
Potential i-70 East EIS realignment will require improvements to 46th Ave.
Washington St. improved to 4 lanes from 47th to 52nd avenues
Complete multimodal reconstruction of Brighton Blvd./N. Broadway (STP Investment Corridor) * *
Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future" has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identification of projects will evolve.
Note 2. Refer to the glossary for definitions of terminology.
OCTOBER 2008 I 41


Southwest Travel Shed
Travel Shed Boundaries
The Southwest Travel Shed is loosely bordered by Wadsworth
Boulevard to the west; Colfax Avenue to the north; 1-25, Tejon Street,
pan Street, Logan Street and Santa Fe Drive to the east; and Bowles
Avenue to the south. Seven major arterial roads run through this travel
shed, including 6th Avenue, Colfax Avenue, Alameda Avenue, Evans
Avenue, Federal Boulevard, Sheridan Boulevard and Flampden
Avenue. The Flampden Travel Shed overlaps with the southern portion
of the Southwest Travel Shed.
Travel Shed Characteristics
There is a strong industrial presence in this travel shed as well as
a major and highly utilized bike path along the South Platte River.
Designated investment corridors according to Blueprint Denver
include Federal Boulevard, Alameda Avenue and Evans Avenue. The
area north of Alameda is designated as an Area of Change.
Trips in the Travel Shed
Travel patterns in the Southwest Travel Shed are predominantly to
and from Downtown Denver and the WestColfax/6th Avenue corridor.
Federal Boulevard serves as a continuous north-south corridor while
Alameda and Evans serve as continuous east-west routes that support
cross-town transit. Growth in person trips is modest compared to
other study areas.
Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations
Improvements in the Southwest Travel Shed need to address
cross-town trips along Flampden and Evans avenues and improve
connectivity and reliability of transit in the area. Federal Boulevard
improvements should focus on enhancements to transit, pedestrian
amenities, safety improvements and access control. Improvements
along Evans Avenue should address transit, freight issues, safety
improvements and traffic operations elements. Recommendations
for Flampden Avenue include transportation demand and traffic
management efforts to address the increasing congestion. Alameda
Avenue reguires additional traffic operations and safety elements.
Finally, improvements to pedestrian and bicycle connections are
recommended for all Areas of Change.
Also refer to overlapping travel shed: Hampden
Legend
(9
' S '
Study Area Boundry
Future Transit Station
Future Transit Line
Existing Transit Station
Existing Transit Line
Investment Corridors
Bike Routes and Trails
Forecast Growth in Person Trips to
and from Travel Shed
Blueprint Denver Areas of Change
42 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Recommendations
Form of Improvement Behavioral Operational Physical Implementation Time Frame 2015 Future
Maintenance of Infrastructure 1
State highway surface treatment program
Mill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 40 total traffic signals, 55 bridges, 761 lane
miles, alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps)
Bicycle and Pedestrian System Gaps 1
Bike/pedestrian bridge over Santa Fe Dr., Kalamath St., CML, I-25 and South Platte River along Bayaud Ave.
Bikeway along Quincy Ave. from Lowell Blvd. to Pierce St.
Bike connection to Grant Ranch
Grade-separated crossing on Alameda Ave. for Weir Gulch Trail
lliff Ave. bridge connection to Evans LRT station
At-grade link to Florida Trail *
Transit SuMBrt StMMies 1
Alameda Station: S. Cherokee St. bike/pedestrian path
Transit enhancements on Federal Blvd.
Enhance transit routes to serve as feeders to major transit corridors
Conduct a transit station study to determine the space available for expansion and enhancement (Evans, Alameda)
Provide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stops *
OBBtfional and Saf^fc StMMies 1
Alameda Ave./Morrison Rd./Knox Ct. south side signal changes and bulb outs
Add ITS from Dartmouth Ave. to North Federal Blvd. along Alameda Ave./Morrison Rd./Knox Ct.
Retime signals along Evans Ave. from Federal Blvd. to Lowell Blvd.
Transit and RoadvuflV MBrovements 1
Broadway/l-25 NEPA implementation
Broadway reconstruction:
Iowa to Asbury Ave.
Wesley to Yale Ave.
Asbury to Wesley Ave.
Gates redevelopment
Quincy Avenue between Pierce St. and Sheridan Blvd.
Iowa Ave. underpass improvements between Broadway St. and Santa Fe Dr. including bike and pedestrian
connections
Alameda Ave. from Santa Fe Dr. to Lincoln St.
Santa Fe Dr./Kalamath St./CML Underpass
Evans Ave. operational improvements: Broadway St. to Evans Ave. LRT Station
Alameda Ave. widening from Lipan St. to Santa Fe Dr.
Major Improvements and Studies I I I 1
Complete multimodal reconstruction of Federal Blvd. (STP investment corridor)
Complete multimodal reconstruction of Alameda Ave. (STP investment corridor)
Complete multimodal reconstruction of Evans Ave. (STP investment corridor)
Valley Highway EIS Implementation including Federal Blvd. from 5th to 7th avenues, Phase I & II record of
decision
Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future" has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identification of projects will evolve.
Note 2. Refer to the glossary for definitions of terminology.
OCTOBER 2008 I 43


Speer / Leetsdale Travel Shed
Travel Shed Boundaries
The Speer/Leetsdale Travel Shed follows the corridor from 14th Avenue
and Speer Boulevard to the north, along 1st Avenue to Steele Street,
to Alameda Avenue, to Leetsdale Drive, to Parker Road in the south.
The travel shed includes all surrounding areas. Several major arterial
roads cross the travel shed, including Broadway, Lincoln Street,
University Boulevard, Colorado Boulevard and Monaco Parkway.
Several arterial roads that do not cross the corridor are considered a
part of this travel shed, including 6th Avenue, 8th Avenue, Alameda
Avenue and Cherry Creek Drive. The Speer/Leetsdale Travel Shed
crosses through the Central Denver and East Colfax travel sheds.
Travel Shed Characteristics
The Speer/Leetsdale Travel Shed spans 15 long-established
neighborhoods. The Cherry Creek trail system is a major bicycle and
pedestrian amenity for the city, although the creek serves as a barrier
to street-grid connectivity in the travel shed.
Trips in the Travel Shed
Speer Boulevard carries high volumes of traffic between the Cherry
Creek area and downtown Denver. In 2005, 57% of travel in this shed
was pass-through trips, and the number is expected to increase
to 60% by 2030. Demands on this corridors transportation system
are expected to grow while traffic volume is expected to increase
moderately. The greatest increase is anticipated north of Alameda
between Colorado Boulevard and Quebec Street.
Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations
Due to the projected increases in traffic congestion, the Speer/
Leetsdale Travel Shed was designated a major investment corridor.
Considerations in this area include increased bicycle and pedestrian
connections, improved bus service, HOV or transit bypass lanes and
fixed guideway transit systems such as light rail or streetcar.
Also refer to overlapping travel sheds: Central Denver, East Central
Legend
Study Area Boundry
(e) Future Transit Station
_ ^gji Future Transit Line
O Existing Transit Station
Existing Transit Line
Investment Corridors
IK3 Bike Routes and Trails
__ Forecast Growth in Person Trips to
and from Travel Shed
| Blueprint Denver Areas of Change
44 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Recommendations
Form of Improvement Implementation Time Frame
Behavioral Operational Physical 2015 Future
Maintenance of Infrastructure 1
Complete radium street repavement within the travel shed
Mill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 50 total traffic signals, 14 bridges, 501 lane miles, alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps)
State highway surface treatment program
Bicycle and Pedestrian System Gaps 1
Cherry Creek trail safety upgrades (along 1st Ave. from Downing St. to University Blvd.)
Cherry Creek trail elimination of at-grade road crossings at Holly St. and Monaco Pkwy.
1 st Ave. streetscape (Steele St. to Colorado Blvd.)
Leetsdale Blvd./Kearney St. bicycle/pedestrian overpass
Bike trail through Burns Park with improved Leetsdale Blvd. crossing at Cedar Ave.
Highline Canal Trail grade separation at Leetsdale Blvd. (coordinate w/ intersection reconstruction project)
Widen sidewalks on Colorado Blvd. bridge over Cherry Creek
Pedestrian crossing improvements along 1st Ave between University Blvd. and Steele St.
Pedestrian crossing improvements at 1 st Ave./Steele St., Ellsworth Ave./Steele St., and Bayaud Ave./Steele St.
Bike stations at major activity centers
Pedestrian districts with gateway" treatments and wider sidewalks around high-priority areas (Cherry Creek shopping center & Cherry Creek North)
Transit Sunart StiAaies 1
Provide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stops
Implement transit-signal priority at traffic signals (FastConnects)
Support existing or potential transportation management associations (TMAs) *
Enhance transit routes to serve as feeders to major transit corridors
Encourage transit ridership by adding pedestrian/bicycle connections to surrounding community
Operational and Safety Strategies 1
Regional signal system controls (traffic signal system improvement project eligible)
Mark pedestrian and bicycle facilities and bus stops clearly
Turn-lane improvements at arterial-arterial and arterial-collector intersection
Initiate red light, neighborhood cut-through and speed enforcement
Physical/operational improvements at high hazard locations *
Increase promotion and marketing of new programs
Transit and Roadvuaf lnrovements 1
Widen Alameda Ave. from Steele St. to Colorado Blvd. Cherry Creek Drive South street reconstruction (University Blvd. to Colorado Blvd.)
Leetsdale Blvd./Colorado Blvd./Bayaud Ave. intersection reconstruction
Leetsdale Blvd./Parker Rd./Mississippi Ave. intersection reconstruction
Leetsdale Blvd./Quebec St. intersection reconstruction
Leetsdale Blvd./Monaco Pkwy. intersection reconstruction (potentially grade-separated)
Develop access control plans along arterial corridors
Dedicated bus lanes or separate busways (FastConnects)
Consider HOV lanes on arterial streets
Consider installation of landscaped medians during all improvement projects
Major Improvements and Studies I 1
Major investment corridor study of Speer Blvd./Leetsdale Blvd. (NEPA) and implementation
Complete multimodal reconstruction of Colorado Blvd.
Complete multimodal reconstruction of Broadway/Lincoln streets
Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future" has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identification of projects will evolve.
Note 2. Refer to the glossary for definitions of terminology.
Lane Miles
>06 *
-I y VJSide
Sidew£jlkJEfTieS
43b,
Bicycle Trail / Lane

Tn Person Trips
OCTOBER 2008 I 45
WWW


West Side Travel Shed
Travel Shed Boundaries
The West Side Travel Shed is loosely bordered by Sheridan Boulevard
to the west, 17th Avenue to the north, I-25 to the east and 1st Avenue
to the south. Five major arterial roads run through this travel shed,
including Sheridan Boulevard, Federal Boulevard, Colfax Avenue,
I-25 and 6th Avenue.
Travel Shed Characteristics
Major arterial roads in the West Side Travel Shed are state or interstate
highways, i-25,6th Avenue and Lakewood/Dry Gulch serve as barriers
to connectivity in the West Side Travel Shed due to limited exits and
transects in the street system. Traffic is tunneled to major arteries
that cross i-25 and 6th Avenue. Uncontrolled turns from driveways,
unbalanced or narrow lanes, substandard or missing sidewalks, and
missing bicycle connections characterize many of the roads in this
area.
Trips in the Travel Shed
More than 86% of trips in the West Side Travel Shed are pass-through
trips. The total number of person trips in this shed will increase to
more than 18% by 2030, according to estimates. Trips originating in
the travel shed are expected to increase at a faster rate than pass-
through trips.
Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations
The West Corridor light rail line is expected to increase east-west
capacity to satisfy person-trip demand by 2030. However, increasing
north-south demand is expected to exceed capacity by 2030.
Redevelopment work for the West Corridor light rail line should include
providing better access to light rail stations, increased connectivity
for bicycle and pedestrian paths, and increased north-south street
connections.
Legend
Study Area Boundry
(e) Future Transit Station
_ ^gji Future Transit Line
O Existing Transit Station
Existing Transit Line
Investment Corridors
E3 Bike Routes and Trails
__ Forecast Growth in Person Trips to
and from Travel Shed
| Blueprint Denver Areas of Change
46 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Recommendations
Form of Improvement Implementation Time Frame
Behavioral Operational Physical 2015 Future
Maintenance of Infrastructure I 1
Mill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 20 aging signals, 29 aging bridges, 260 lane miles, alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps)
State highway surface treatment program
Bicycle and Pedestrian System Gaps I 1
Construct missing sidewalkon Sheridan Blvd. from 15th to 17th avenues, and 10th to 15th avenues 10th Ave. and Osage St. pedestrian improvements
Special pedestrian crossing improvements on Colfax Ave.
Extension of Lakewood Gulch trail to the west through Lakewood
Additional north-south crossings of Weir Gulch
Transit Support Strategies I 1
Provide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stops
Encourage transit ridership by enhancing bus stops *
Knox Ct. bicycle & pedestrian connection to West Corridor Light Rail Station
Bike & pedestrian connections at light rail transit stops
Bike lockers and racks at light rail transit stops
Encourage high density and mixed-use developments that support increased transit service (Decatur TOD)
Encourage redevelopment as high-density and mixed-use that works well with transit
Implement pedestrian and transit improvements along West Colfax within the existing BID
Oaatf onal and Saf^to Sti^taaies I 1
Signal retiming on Federal Blvd.
Regional signal system controls (traffic signal systems improvement project eligible) *
Turn lane construction at Federal Blvd. at 10th Ave.
Incident management (6th Ave. alternate routes project)
Special event traffic management (Invesco Field at Mile High)
Transit and Roadway Improvements I 1
Lane balancing (Federal Blvd., 7th Ave. to Colfax Ave.) Intersection improvements:
Sheridan Blvd. at 1st Ave.
Sheridan Blvd. at 6th Ave.
Sheridan Blvd. at 10th Ave.
Sheridan Blvd. at Colfax Ave.
Develop and implement access control plans on Federal Blvd., Sheridan Blvd., and Colfax Ave.
Additional north-south street crossing of Lakewood Gulch between Perry St. and Sheridan Blvd.
Increase transit service through new bus routes (FastConnects)
Local circulator service to/from special event venues and LRT stations
New transit connections and increased bus service in developing areas
Mrior Improvements and Studies I I I 1
Valley Highway EIS implementation including Federal Blvd. from 5th to 7th avenues (See Southwest)
Federal Blvd. EA implementation, Alameda Ave. to 5th Ave. (CDOT)
West Corridor Light Rail transit design & construction (RTD-FasTracks)
New bridge for West Corridor Light Rail at Sheridan Blvd.
New bridge for West Corridor Light Rail at Federal Blvd. Complete multimodal reconstruction of Federal Blvd. (STP investment corridor)
Complete multimodal reconstruction of Colfax Ave. (STP investment corridor)
Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future" has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identification of projects will evolve.
Note 2. Refer to the glossary for definitions of terminology.
OCTOBER 2008 I 47


Glossary
Accessibility: A measure of the ability of all people to travel among various origins and destinations, especially focusing on the extent to
which facilities are barrier-free and useable by all, especially persons with disabilities, including wheelchair users.
Access control: Control of movement onto or off roadways. Strategies include restricting the intersections and interchanges of other
streets, restricting or limiting the number of driveways, or controlling these entrance points in some manner, as with traffic signs, signals or
raised medians. Partial-access restriction that gives preference to through traffic.
Air pollution: The presence of unwanted material in the air in sufficient amounts and under such circumstances as to potentially interfere
with human comfort, health or welfare, or with full use and enjoyment of property.
Alternative modes: Modes of transportation other than automobile. Includes bus and rail transit, carpool, motorcycle or scooter, bicycle,
and pedestrian modes.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): A federal civil rights law enacted in 1990 that mandates the provision of access to public
facilities for persons with disabilities. Title 2 of the law applies to transportation facilities and transit vehicles.
Area of Change: Blueprint Denver defines an Area of Change as a place where growth and change are either desirable or underway.
Many of the Areas of Change are near existing or future transit stations where transit-oriented development (TOD) is desired. Others
are large new development or redevelopment areas such as Downtown Denver, Stapleton Redevelopment, Lowry Redevelopment, and
Gateway/Green Valley Ranch.
Areas of Stability: Blueprint Denver describes Areas of Stability as fairly stable residential neighborhoods where minimal change is
expected during the next 20 years. These areas include the vast majority of Denver. The goal is to maintain the character of these areas,
yet accommodate some new development and redevelopment. Some Areas of Stability need public infrastructure, additional services or
investment in housing to maintain and improve quality of life. Others need development and design standards to maintain their character.
Average Daily Traffic (ADT): The total volume of traffic during a given time period divided by the number of days in that time period
eguals the average traffic in a one-day time period.
Average Wait Time (AWT): Average time spent by passengers at a station or bus stop waiting for transit service.
Average Weekday (AWD): A measurement of average traffic conditions during any one weekday, i.e., Monday through Friday.
Barnes Dance: The innovative concept of halting all traffic at an intersection and allowing pedestrians to cross in any direction, including
diagonally.
Behavioral Strategies: A set of strategies designed to encourage the public to change their travel choices and use of transportation
facilities.
Blueprint Denver: Blueprint Denver is the first step in implementing the vision of Denvers Comprehensive Plan 2000. It serves as an
integrated land use and transportation plan and was adopted in 2002 as a supplement to the Comprehensive Plan. Key land use concepts
include directing growth and redevelopment to Areas of Change, while preserving Areas of Stability. The major transportation concepts
include identification of Enhanced Transit Corridors, implementation of the FasTracks rail system, and the designation of multimodal streets
that are based on land use function rather than just transportation classification.
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT): Buses using and occupying a separate right-of-way for the exclusive use of public transportation services.
A transit mode that combines the guality of rail transit and the flexibility of buses. BRT vehicles can operate on bus lanes, FIOV lanes,
expressways or on ordinary streets. In addition, BRT vehicles are designed to allow rapid passenger loading and unloading, with more
doors than ordinary buses.
Capacity: A measure that accesses the ability to hold and accommodate a certain volume of traffic. For example:
The number of trains or buses that a station can handle in a given time period; or
The number of passengers who can be served in a given time period on a bus, other transit vehicle or station; or
The number of passengers who can be served in a given time period at a given service level on a particular transit service; or
The number of passengers who can be served in a given time period at a given service level in one direction; or
The number of automobiles that can be handled per lane per hour.
Capital Improvements Program (CIP): Denvers Capital Improvements Program (CIP) provides direction for both the acguisition of
new major assets and the repair and rehabilitation of existing assets. These assets include the citys parks, roads, public art, theaters,
curbs and gutters, sidewalks, traffic signals, bike paths, sewer lines, airport, parking spaces, buildings, etc. all commonly known as
infrastructure. The funding sources for these capital expenditures are extremely diverse. They include general obligation and revenue
bonds; federal and state grants; private funds; certificates of participation; tax-increment financing; revenue from special revenue and
enterprise funds; and annually appropriated capital funds.
Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT): The state agency responsible for planning, building and maintaining Colorado's
highway and bridge transportation system (formerly the Colorado Department of Plighways).
Commuter rail: Commuter rail is a transit mode that is a multiple-car, electric- or diesel-propelled train. It is typically used for local,
longer-distance travel between a central city and adjacent suburbs, and can operate alongside existing freight or passenger rail lines or in
exclusive rights of way.
Community Values (CVs): Part of the STPs public involvement process, the community values list reflects what is important to the
community and how these values should be applied to decisions about the future transportation system.
48 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Congestion: Condition on any transportation network or facility that occurs as a measurement of how the use of the automobile affects
speeds, trip times and queuing. Congestion occurs anytime traffic demand is great enough so that the interaction between vehicles slows
the speed of the traffic stream. As demand approaches the capacity of a road (or of the intersections along the road), extreme traffic
congestion sets in.
Corridor: A broad geographic area between two points that connects major sources of trips and includes a number of streets, highways
and transit-route alignments.
Delay: The extra amount of time it takes to traverse a given roadway segment minus the amount of time it would take to traverse that
roadway segment at the posted speed limit if there were no interference, e.g., the amount of time spent not moving due to a traffic signal
being red.
Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000 (Plan 2000): A document created to define the vision of what Denver residents want for their
community through a series of goals, visions of success, objectives and strategies.
Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG): A nonprofit association of 55 local governments dedicated to enhancing and
protecting the quality of life in the nine-county Denver region. DRCOG works to promote a regional perspective toward the most pressing
issues facing the metropolitan area and to address those issues through cooperative local government action. In 1977, DRCOG was
designated as the metropolitan planning organization (MPO) for Boulder, Denver, Douglas and Jefferson counties, as well as portions of
Adams and Arapahoe counties. The DRCOG MPO process creates a partnership among state, local government, and transit operations in
providing transportation improvements.
DRCOG MetroVision Plan: DRCOGs MetroVision Plan is the Denver region's plan for future growth and development. It is adopted by
the DRCOG board of directors, representing 51 municipalities and counties. It is a single, comprehensive guide for regional planning that
integrates previously separate plans for growth, development, transportation, and water-quality management. The plan outlines strategies
to help the region preserve Denvers quality of life while also positioning it to benefit from growth.
Denver Union Station (DUS): Denver's future main hub station for Amtrak and other passenger services. The Denver Union Station
master plan serves as the blueprint for preserving the current station and transforming it into a transportation hub for the entire RTD
FasTracks system. Development of a vision for Denver Union Station was made possible by a unique partnership among four entities: the
City and County of Denver (Denver), the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT), the Denver Regional Council of Governments
(DRCOG) and the Regional Transportation District (RTD).
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS): A document that must be submitted for approval to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
and the U.S. Department of Transportation for transportation projects that significantly affect the human environment. This approval is
necessary before the projects can be designed or constructed.
Enhanced transit corridor: Designation of corridors by Denvers Blueprint Denver for implementation of enhanced bus transit services
such as higher frequency bus service, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), and priorities for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) investments,
including bus priority signalization.
FastConnects: Denver Regional Transporation Districts (RTDs) concept to improve transit service for suburb-to-suburb travel.
FastConnects are designated points where transit services are planned to minimize wait time between transfers. Service is designed
so that buses and trains traveling to multiple destinations are timed to arrive at a major destination or transfer facility at the same time,
minimizing the time a passenger has to wait. Designated FastConnects points will be outside central business districts at locations such as
park-n-Rides, rail stations, designated shopping centers or employment centers where bus routes connect.
FasTracks: The Denver Regional Transportation Districts (RTD) 12-year comprehensive plan approved by the voters in November 2004 to
build and operate high-speed rail lines and expand and improve bus service and park-n-Rides throughout the region, including:
122 miles of new light rail and commuter rail;
18 miles of bus rapid transit service;
57 new transit stations;
21,213 additional parking spaces at transit park-n-Rides;
Enhanced bus service and FastConnects (convenient and timely bus transfer points) throughout the region; and
Redevelopment of Denver Union Station into a multimodal transportation hub at the center of the FasTracks system.
Greenprint Denver: An action agenda initiated by the mayors office to support sustainable development for the City and County of
Denver and to improve the environment with transportation-related goals, including an emphasis on increased public transit access and
use and a decreased reliance on single-occupancy automobiles.
Improvement Strategies: The three major categories or types of improvements to the transportation system used by Denvers STP:
behavioral, operational and physical.
IntelligentTransportation Systems (ITS): The use of automated systems and information technologies on our transportation network,
including communications and safety systems to assist in traveler decisions and traffic flow.
Investment corridors: Key transportation corridors that are vital to community and regional mobility. They generally cross multiple travel
sheds and are key connectors for Blueprint Denvers identified Areas of Change.
Intermodal: Those issues or activities that involve or affect more than one mode of transportation, including transportation connections,
choices, cooperation and coordination of various modes. Also known as "multimodal."
KeepDenverMovlng.com: The Strategic Transportation Plan website used as one tool for public outreach.
OCTOBER 2008 I 49


Level of Service (LOS): A qualitative measure describing operational conditions within a traffic stream, based on service measures such
as speed and travel time, freedom to maneuver, traffic interruptions, comfort and convenience.
Light Rail Transit (LRT): Steel wheel/steel rail transit constructed on city streets, semi-private right-of-way, or exclusive private right-of-
way. A major advantage to this mode is operation in mixed street traffic at grade. LRT vehicles can be coupled into trains, which require
only one operator and often are used to provide express service.
Major investment corridor: Travel shed areas defined by the Strategic Transportation Plan where major capital programs will be required
for future transportation infrastructure investment. Generally, these corridors will involve federal funds, high-capacity, multimodal needs (to
serve both trips within Denver and traveling through the city), and a detailed environmental study.
Mass transit: The general term used to identify bus, fixed rail, or other types of transportation service available to the general public that
move relatively large numbers of people at one time.
Mill levy program: A tax assessed on real estate by the local government. The tax is usually based on the value of property (including the
land) you own.
Modal split: A term that describes how many people use alternative forms of transportation. Frequently used to describe the percentage
of people using private automobiles as opposed to the percentage using public transportation.
Mode (of transportation): A particular form or method of travel (e.g., walking, automobile, bicycling, public transit, bus, train).
Multimodal: Those issues or activities that involve or affect more than one mode of transportation or a path that can be traversed through
different forms of travel. Includes transportation connections, choices, cooperation and coordination of various modes. Also known as
"intermodal."
Multimodal streets: A transportation concept defined in the Blueprint Denver plan that proposes streets be viewed as a means to move
people through various forms of travel and not just through single-occupancy vehicles.
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA): A federal law passed in 1969 considered to be the "national charter" for protection of
the environment. NEPA requires that, to the extent possible, the policies, regulations and laws of the federal government be interpreted and
administered in accordance with the environmental protection goals of the law. NEPA requires the preparation of an environmental impact
analysis (EIS) or study on all major federal actions significantly affecting the human environment.
Operational strategies: A set of Denver STP improvement strategies designed to improve the function or efficiency of existing facilities in
the public right-of-way without changes to the physical equipment or infrastructure.
Peak period or peak hours: The period during which the maximum amount of travel occurs. It may be specified as the morning (a.m.) or
afternoon/evening (p.m.) peak. It is the period when demand for transportation services is heaviest.
Person trips: Travel by a person from one location to another by any means, including walking, by bicycle, on a transit vehicle, or as a
driver or passenger in a private vehicle. The STP uses person trips as a measure of demand on the transportation system.
Public transportation: Passenger transportation service that is local, metropolitan or regional in scope and is available to any person
who pays a prescribed fare. Includes transportation by bus or rail, either publicly or privately owned, which is provided to the public on a
regular and continuing basis. Also known as "mass transit," "mass transportation," "public transit" and "transit."
Physical strategies: A set of Denver STP improvement strategies designed to provide design and construction of new physical facilities
or infrastructure that can be added to or changed within the public right-of-way (ROW).
Program street: STP term for streets requiring a coordinated approach for the design of multimodal improvements.
Public right-of-way (ROW): Publicly owned property used for transportation and utility infrastructure, including sidewalks, through travel
lanes, parking lanes, tree lawn areas between detached sidewalks and streets, roadway median strips, parkways, bridges, and alleys.
Ridership: The number of rides taken by people using a public transportation system or service such as a bus or light rail in a given time
period.
Regional Transportation District (RTD): A special district serving eight counties in the Denver region, created in 1969 by the Colorado
General Assembly to develop, operate and maintain a public transportation system (bus, rail, stations, park-n-Ride lots, etc.).
Strategic Transportation Plan (STP): A multimodal transportation plan prepared by Denvers Department of Public Works with support
from other city agencies, the general public, and interested stakeholders to understand and address the current and future transportation
needs of the City and County of Denver.
Transit Signal Priority (TSP): An operational strategy that facilitates the movement of transit vehicles either buses or on-street rail (light
rail or streetcars) through traffic signal-controlled intersections. Objectives include improved schedule adherence and improved transit
travel time efficiency while minimizing impacts to normal traffic operations. Also known as bus priority signalization or queue jumping.
Transportation Systems Management (TSM): Measures involving operational improvements to existing transportation facilities that
maximize their person-moving capacity, reduce the severity and duration of temporary delays (i.e., crash or weather) and improve safety
by incorporating advanced technologies and communications to optimize the efficiency of transportation systems. The package of TSM
strategies may include a number of options designed to improve traffic flow and increase the number of people using alternate modes of
transportation.
50 I DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Transportation Demand Management (TDM): Measures that focus on ways to increase traffic capacity without major construction of new
travel facilities. This includes developing alternative transportation modes and incentives to use alternate modes so that fewer vehicles
are needed to transport the same number of people. Management strategies include carpooling/vanpooling, bicycling, shuttle systems,
alternative work hours, parking controls, telecommuting, and HOV lanes.
Transportation Management Organization (TMO/TMA): Public-private partnership for a defined geographic area of the city that
develops alternative transport and transportation demand management programs. Also known as Transportation Management Association
(TMA).
Transit-Oriented Development (TOD): Development around transit stations that takes advantage of the proximity to transit access. The
goals of TOD include reduced vehicle use and increased pedestrian access. Elements include compact, mixed-use development patterns
with facilities and design that enhance the environment for pedestrians in terms of safety, walking distances, comfort and the visual appeal
of the surroundings. Sometimes referred to as Transit-Oriented Communities, or Transit Villages.
Travel Shed: Term used within the Denver STP to describe 12 study areas of the city that have transportation characteristics and facilities
that serve similar origin-destination patterns for travel.
Travel time index: The ratio of peak-period travel time to tree-flow travel time expressing the average amount of extra time it takes to travel
in the peak relative to tree-flow travel.
Trip: A one-way movement of a person or vehicle between two points for a specific purpose; sometimes called a one-way trip to
distinguish it from a round trip.
Variable message sign (VMS): An electronic sign that includes provisions for message changes to notify drivers of traffic congestion,
incidents, detours and other safety information.
Volume-to-capacity ratio (v/c ratio): A measure of the amount of traffic on a given roadway in relation to the amount of traffic the roadway
was designed to handle.
OCTOBER 2008 I 51


Full Text

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moving people.DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN | 2008

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2 | DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN Dear Denver Community, Join us as we embark on an exciting new vision in transportation. The Denver Strategic Transportation Plan stretches from todays reality to tomorrows promise of an ef cient, safe and sustainable transportation system that re ects our communitys values and keeps pace with our diverse travel needs. This plan was created by the Denver community under the leadership of Denver Public Works, with support from other City agencies. It incorporates vast input from Denver residents and private sector transportation experts. It is an innovative plan that represents a new way of thinking about how we get people where they need to go. It sheds a traditional focus on car trips and concentrates instead on person trips, opening our thinking to a broad range of transportation options. During the extensive public process that helped shape this plan, we heard our communitys strong desire for multimodal solutions to our current and future transportation needs. You asked for solutions that reduce our dependence on cars and our need to continue to widen our roadways, solutions that incorporate rapid transit, bicycles and walking as daily travel options. The Strategic Transportation Plan delivers these options for every part of our community. It is a plan that will allow all of us to make better transportation choices that support our personal and collective values. It asks something of all of us in exchange for maintaining Denver far into the future as a livable, connected community. As gasoline prices rise to unprecedented levels, and with uncertainty surrounding future availability of fossil fuels, there is no better time to introduce this innovative plan for meeting Denvers ongoing transportation needs. Welcome aboard! Sincerely, John W. Hickenlooper MayorLetter from Mayor John Hickenlooper

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OCTOBER 2008 | 3 Dear Denverite, I am pleased to present Denver's Strategic Transportation Plan (STP), a road map for transportation policy now and into the future. The STP examines Denver's transportation system against our current and future mobility needs, community objectives and values, and provides a blueprint for future travel in the Mile High City. As a thriving city at the heart of a growing metropolis, Denver anticipates a growing population, placing much greater demands on our existing transportation system. The STP identi es and prioritizes those needs. Because Denver is primarily a city of mature neighborhoods and districts, it was important to adopt an innovative approach in exploring how our existing transportation infrastructure combined with strategic investments in myriad multimodal solutions will keep Denver moving. This Strategic Transportation Plan is innovative, indeed. Denver's team of planners and engineers identi ed 12 travel sheds within the City. These study areas, de ned by geographical boundaries, have characteristics and facilities serving similar travel patterns. By analyzing travel sheds rather than merely measuring demand on high-traf c corridors, the STP recognizes the importance of moving people, not just cars. Key to this innovative analysis is the recognition that mobility and livability depend on multimodal transportation solutions. In other words, a viable urban system must incorporate a variety of options for daily travel: transit, bicycles, walking and automobiles. This plan addresses the desires of a broad base of community interests to nd multimodal solutions to our future transportation demands. The STP outlines those opportunities in each of Denver's 12 travel sheds, providing information for all the strategies and pointing out the physical, operational and behavioral improvements and investments necessary to meet our mobility needs. Talented, experienced staff at Denver Public Works and other City departments, professional consultants and an engaged public created the STP. I hope you share my appreciation for this progressive analysis on how we can keep Denver moving! Sincerely, Guillermo Bill Vidal Manager, Denver Public WorksLetter from Guillermo Bill Vidal

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4|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLANAcknowledgementsRick Garcia Denver City Council District 1John Desmond Downtown Denver PartnershipJerry Jaramillo Kiewit Construction/Colorado Contractors Association, Inc.Landri Taylor Park Creek Metro DistrictPeggy Lehmann Denver City Council District 2Mike Dino Patton Boggs LLPLarissa Ottinger Denver CitizenGeorge Thorn Mile High DevelopmentMarcia Johnson Denver City Council District 5Joaquin Dulitzky Merrill LynchCarla Perez Formerly with Denver Metro Chamber of CommerceDave Webster Inter-Neighborhood Cooperation (INC)Barbara Kelley Denver Planning BoardAndy Goetz Intermodal Transportation Institute, University of DenverLiz Rao Denver Regional Transportation DistrictAllison Billings Formerly with Transportation Solutions Greg Goldfogel Retailer/RestaurateurRichard Scharf Denver Metro Convention and Visitors BureauAlice Borodkin Colorado House of RepresentativesPam Hutton Colorado Department of TransportationGeorge Scheuernstuhl Formerly with Denver Regional Council of GovernmentsAECOM Denver Regional Council of GovernmentsHNTB Pat Noyes & Associates Colorado Department of Transportation Denver Regional Transportation DistrictJacobs Carter Burgess PBS&J David Evans & Associates, Inc. Fehr & Peers Associates, Inc. Matrix Design Group, Inc. Short Elliott Hendrickson Inc. (SEH) Denver Community Planning and DevelopmentFelsburg Holt & Ullevig Ordonez & Vogelsang LLC URS Corporation Denver Public Works George K. Baum & Company Parsons Brinckerhoff (PB) Budget & Management Of ce Denver Of ce of Cultural Affairs Parks and Recreation City Attorneys Of ce Denver Public Library Public Works Community Planning and Development Environmental Health Theatres and Arenas Denver International Airport Of ce of Economic Development Guillermo Bill VidalPublic Works ManagerLesley ThomasPublic Works Deputy Manager / City EngineerBrian MitchellPublic Works City Traf c EngineerBob KochevarPublic Works RTD FasTracks LiasonMark NajarianFormerly Public Works Project ManagerCrissy FanganelloPublic Works Project ManagerAlan EckmanConsultant Project Manager, AECOM STP Advisory Committee STP Technical Committee STP Key City Staff Committee STP Project Management

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OCTOBER 2008| 5 ContentsDENVERS TRANSPORTATION DENVERS TRANSPORTATION DENVERS TRANSPORTATIONProcess Vision Transformation Glossary08 06 48 10 14 16 18A multidisciplinary effort with a variety of stakeholders Supporting documents are the basis for next steps Plan team includes partners from local and regional representatives as well as city agencies Public outreach and engagement includes website, meetings and focus groups A greater variety of transportation options and mobility choices Community input helped guide the STP team Community values provided the basis for recommendations A summary of Denvers new Strategic Transportation Plan ... DENVERS TRANSPORTATIONChallengeThe challenge is multifaceted, with several moving parts More people are going places and more often Traf c congestion is increasing Denvers transportation system affects both the region and youDENVERS TRANSPORTATIONInnovationA transformative approach to transportation Plans for travel sheds, not just travel corridors Accounts for mobility as the movement of people, not just carsDENVERS TRANSPORTATION DENVERS TRANSPORTATIONStrategyAchieving the desired outcome Maintenance and ef ciency are fundamental priorities A balance of behavioral, operational and physical recommendations Comprehensive recommendations for each travel shed

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6|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN Denvers Transportation TransformationVision Innovation StrategyA great city is livable for all of its citizens now and in the future. The STP creates a multimodal transportation system to support a livable, connected and sustainable city. Maintenance and ef ciency are fundamental to our current transportation system, followed by improvements and planning for future transportation. A balance of behavioral, physical and operational recommendations are included. The result is a comprehensive plan for each travel shed. A transformative approach to transportation. Plans for travel sheds, not just travel corridors. Move people, not just vehicles. Does not grow Denvers road footprint. BIKE ROUTE COLLECTORTRANSIT / HIGHWAYLOCAL STREETSTRAVEL SHED BOUNDARY ARTERIALTravel sheds are study areas de ned by geographical boundaries that have characteristics and facilities serving similar travel patterns. By analyzing travel sheds rather than measuring demand on high traf c corridors, the STP recognizes the importance of moving people, not just vehicles.TRAVEL SHEDS MULTIMODAL SAFE, EFFICIENT, RELIABLESafe pedestrian linkages Accessible to all Comprehensive bicycle system Connected multimodal system Dependable transit options Safe transportation network Ef cient and well-maintained infrastructure Manage congestion M ajor Imp roveme nts a nd S tudies T ransit Support Strategie s B ic y cle, Pedestrian a nd Street Gap s T ransportati on Dem and an d T raffic Managemen t T Mai nte nan ce of Infrastructure Operational and Safet y Strate g ie s T rans i t an dR oa d wa y Improvements Define future transportation options Maintain existing infrastructure Maximize ef ciency and safety Provide multimodal improvements

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OCTOBER 2008| 7 The result is a comprehensive list of potential projects and strategies for each travel shed. Behavioral, physical and operational factors interact to encourage people to walk, bike and use transit. Most transportation planning is based on vehicle travel rather than moving people. The Denver STP uses person trips.moving people.PERSON TRIPS GREEN & SUSTAINABLE CONNECTED HEAL THY, LIVABLE COMMUNITYOffer transportation choices Provide transportation choices that improve the communitys health and well-being Improve air and water quality Provide alternatives to fossil fuel use Enhance connections between modes Align with Greenprint Denver Link land use and transportation Mixed-use streets support great neighborhoods Limit roadway footprint Promote alternative public transit modes Promote pedestrian-friendly, mixed-use development Integrate land use and transportation choices Maintenance of infrastructureBicycle, pedestrian and street gapsTransportation demand and traf c managementTransit support strategiesOperational and safety strategiesTransit and roadway improvementsMajor improvements and studies BEHAVIORAL OPERATIONAL PHYSICAL Maximum number of cars on a streetDistribution of people served by these cars The same number of people on a busThe same number of people on a pedestrian and bicycle-friendly street

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8|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN ProcessThe Strategic Transportation Plan (STP) is a multimodal transportation plan initiated by the Denver Department of Public Works, with support from other city agencies and interested stakeholders, to understand and address the current and future transportation needs of the City and County of Denver. The STP also serves as a unique and innovative approach to identifying future system needs and community values, and provides a method to incorporate them into future transportation decisions and solutions. The STP builds upon several previous city planning efforts, including: Denver Comprehensive Plan (2000) Bicycle Master Plan Update (2001) Blueprint Denver (2002) Game Plan (2003) Pedestrian Master Plan (2004) Downtown Multimodal Access Plan (2006) Greenprint Denver (2006) The ideas and strategies incorporated in Blueprint Denver were adopted as a supplement to Plan 2000 [Denver s Comprehensive Plan 2000]. Several key elements central to the success of Plan 2000 provided the framework for Blueprint Denver, which includes the following vision as related to the transportation system: residents will enjoy a greater variety of convenient transportation options and alternative mobility choices. Plan 2000 also lists certain objectives that must be pursued to achieve the vision of success. These objectives include creating a city wide land-use and transportation plan, and supporting the development of a clean, ef cient and innovative transportation system. There are several key concepts that are central to Blueprint Denvers successful implementation. The plan directs growth to Areas of Change and manages and limits change in Areas of Stability. This is accomplished, in part, by improving the function of streets. Multimodal streets accommodate more trips by more people in the same amount of space by improving transit and providing better pedestrian and bicycle facilities. Multimodal streets consider all types of transportation to be equally important. In accordance with Plan 2000, implementing the tools presented in the plan will enhance existing multimodal and intermodal transportation connections while also ensuring that future development will feature a range of diverse and well-integrated transportation choices. The result will be an improved environment for pedestrians, bicyclists and transit users and less reliance on single-occupant vehicles. Making the Blueprint Denver Vision a Reality Blueprint Denver (2002) was the rst step in planning an integrated land-use and transpor tation strategy for Denver, and called for an expanded transportation study. The STP implements the transportation component of Blueprint Denver by identifying both shortand long-term needs for the Denver transportation system. The STP determines transportation-related strategies for Denver to accommodate projected regional population growth of 1.3 million people by the year 2030. The STP supports the development of a clean, ef cient and innovative transportation system. The STP also identi es transportation improvements to complement and support the regional FasTracks program, a 12-year, public transportation expansion plan for the Denver region, developed in 2004 by the Regional Transportation District (RTD). It identi es the transportation improvements from our other partners: CDOT, DRCOG, and the private sector. The STP considers future growth and transportation system demands, and balances these demands with communityidenti ed needs. The result: a comprehensive approach to investing city resources wisely on the right projects and the right solutions.When asked how far in advance Denver should plan for transportation needs, 70% of those polled answered 25 years or more.

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OCTOBER 2008| 9 The Strategic Transportation Plan TeamThe project team for the STP was led by Denver Public Works staff and included engineering and transportation planning consultants, an advisory committee, a technical committee, and a key staff committee. Advisory Committee Mayor John Hickenlooper appointed a wide range of stakeholders with an inter est in the outcome of the process to the advisory committee. Committee members included Denver City Council members, regional agency representatives and interested citizens. The role of the advisory committee was to provide advice on policy and political considerations, general plan direction and consistency of the STP with Blueprint Denver, as well as to make recommendations to the Manager of Public Works. Technical Committee The technical committee included representatives of the public, city agencies, technical and r egional staff. Technical committee members provided advice and direction for the study based on their technical expertise and assisted in guiding the nal recommendations. Key Staff Committee The key staff committee included representatives from various city depar tments. Key staff members provided review and feedback on the STP process, and advised the project team of any concurrent interdepartmental goals or other city efforts for consideration.Public Outreach & Community ProcessThe public was engaged throughout the STP process through the STP website (KeepDenverMoving.com), as well as through a series of town meetings, focus groups, and outreach to community groups. Public input was used to determine the community values that guided the STP process, performance measures, and nal recommendations. KeepDenverMoving.com The website developed for the STP, KeepDenverMoving.com, was used to shar e information with the public and solicit public input. The website was updated with reports, presentation materials and minutes from community meetings. The site also provided online forms for community comments, surveys and worksheets, to facilitate discussions about community values and priorities for transportation in Denver. Town Meetings and Focus Groups Town meetings, which included presentations and question-andanswer sessions, wer e held during the STP process. Open focus group discussions also were used during the analysis and revolved around three areas of the city used as pilot locations to determine travel areas of focus. These successful community participation events effectively conveyed citywide transportation needs to the project team. A total of six meetings were held to solicit this important community input.

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10|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN More people are going places and more often. Each time a person goes somewhere, whether to work, shopping or on an errand, it is counted as a trip. Today in the U.S., the majority of trips are taken as single occupants in a private automobile rather than carpooling, walking, biking or using transit. Of all trips taken in our nations metro areas, 50% are 3 miles or less and 28% are 1 mile or less. The majority of trips less than 1 mile are taken using a private vehicle rather than another mode of transportation. Yet, when asked: 52% of Americans want to walk or bike more; 55% of Americans would prefer to drive less and walk more; 71% of adults biked or walked to school in 1975. Today, only 17% of children do so; and 8% of children were overweight in 1975. Today, 25% of children are overweight. In addition, the following trends are affecting the individual transpor tation trip choices that we make: Increase in fuel costs and the impetus to decrease reliance on fossil fuel sources. Need to reduce air pollution and improve public health. Initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Emphasis on sustainable transportation creating technically and environmentally sound solutions to the problems of urban transportation. It is also important to note that more than 30% of Americans do not drive because they ar e elderly, not yet of driving age, are unable to drive due to a disability, or they simply cannot afford to drive. The overall percentage of non-drivers is likely to increase as the Baby Boomer generation ages beyond 65 and as gas prices continue to rise. In Denver, the results of the STP public involvement process and a project-related community values survey (2005) were even more telling. For the public outreach efforts, the Community Values Worksheet was developed as a tool to initiate public discussion about what is important to the community and how these values should be applied to decisions about the future transportation system. The outcome was consistent with the national data, indicating that many people would prefer to commute less by automobile and instead use an alternative mode of transportation. Clearly, while many people desire to use alternate modes of transit, there are physical, behavioral and operational impediments to changing their reliance on the automobile. The results also con rmed that providing a more connected transportation system with multimodal options cannot be achieved easily and will require signi cant planning to accommodate the range of system users and their needs. The end strategy needs to consider many different facets of the transportation system, and ensure that it functions effectively and ef ciently. Challenge What would it take to reduce your number of trips taken by private automobile? Citizens of Denver have con rmed that there is no single, easy solution to the challenges of providing a successful and functional multimodal transportation system. Key issues to address range from location of jobs, services and transit stops; cost of fuel, parking and transit; and quality and convenience of transit service, bike lanes and sidewalks. If you could improve the transportation conditions of your current commute, what would you suggest? 13 % 12 % 10 % 10 % 10 % 9 % 9 % 7% 7% 6 % 4 % 3 % Job or shoppin g closer to my hom e M ore convenient / faster bus service F ree trans i t p as s L i g ht rail station I can walk to o r convenient park-n-Ride D irect bus route with no trans f ers Av ailable housing near rail stop s B us stop closer to my hom e O the r Hi g h er gas pr i ce s H i gh er p arki ng fees B ike lanes or bike p aths from m y h ome to my d est i nat i on B etter s id ewa lk s aroun d m y h ouse a n d desti n atio n 2 7% 2 0% 20 % 9% 9% 7 % 4 % 4 % 0% B ette r t r a n s i t se rvi ce O ther F ewer delays due to traffi c c ongestion S afer roadwa ys Better tra ff ic in f ormation be f or e leavin g home or work M ore par ki ng near wor k Less ex p ensive transit fee s C hea pe r pa rkin g near wor k B ette r s i de w a lk s to a n d fr o m trans i t sto p At an STP town meeting, the public was asked:

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OCTOBER 2008| 11 Traf c congestion is increasing. It is characterized by slow speeds, longer trip times and increased delays. Traf c congestion is primarily attributed to the number of vehicles on a road exceeding the capacity of that road to carry vehicles during peak times. Traf c congestion impacts include: Increased stress and frustration can lead to road rage, which can increase accidents and reduce the overall health of people. Wasted fuel and increased air pollution is a result of increased idling, acceleration and braking. Regional economic health is reduced since drive time is a non-productive activity. Local businesses are affected with higher shipping costs and decreased reliability to provide timely deliveries and service. Personal/leisure time with family and friends is lost due to the time it takes to travel. Individual vehicle trips continue to grow in the City and County of Denver and thr oughout the metropolitan area, meaning traf c congestion will continue to grow. Due to continued growth in Denver and the region, all types of trips will grow at a steady rate through the year 2030. Though the total number of trips is growing, the transportation system (primarily the roads on which we drive) is not changing. This means that the width of the roads, and therefore the number of lanes in our existing transportation system, are not increasing signi cantly. This is especially true when compared to the increase in population and overall increase in the number of trips people are taking. So, while more people whether in vehicles, on bicycles, using transit or walking are forecast to be on the streets, the streets are not growing to accommodate the increase. Even with transit improvements through the RTD FasTracks program, vehicle delay is climbing and will increase rapidly after 2015.The Denver transportation system is a major factor in sustaining the quality of life and economic health of the region. Creating balance in future multimodal investments in the travel system is important. Comparing the 2005 regional congestion map to the 2035 regional congestion map, it is clear that congestion will continue to increase over time, particularly on major thoroughfares accessing the regional hub.The Denver transportation system affects the region as a whole.

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12|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN South Platte River Denver International Airport15% 41% INTERNAL DENVER: 5.4 MILLION PERSON TRIPS Arapahoe and Douglas counties Broomfield and Boulder counties Adams and Weld counties Jefferson County 15% D E 26% 16% 2% 70 70 25 25 2030 Daily Trip Distribution by County As part of the STP data analysis, daily trips were analyzed to determine origindestination patterns of Denver trips by county. The gure to the left shows patterns of travel within Denver and the interaction with the surrounding counties for the year 2030. The results show that less than half (41%) of Denver trips remain within the city. The strongest outside interaction with Denver are with Arapahoe and Douglas counties, with more than a quarter of the trips to or from Denver beginning or ending in those counties. Adams and Jefferson counties each have about the same interaction with Denver, with approximately 15%. Relatively, Boulder and Broom eld have minor (2%) interaction with Denver.The Transportation System Affects You The Denver transportation system directly and indirectly affects your quality of life, environmental and community health, and the economic vitality for you, your family, your neighborhoods, and your businesses. 2030DailyTripDistributionbyCounty b u Of the total 5.4 million predicted daily trips in 2030, 2.2 million (41%) of the trips will stay within the city, and 3.2 million (59%) will begin or end outside the city.Source: STP 2030 ModelChallenge Urban Sprawl People choose to live farther away from their workplace in order to af ford housing but dont always take into consideration the price of transportation as part of their daily, weekly, monthly or annual costs. These costs are not limited to financial costs of gas, insurance, car payments, and parking, but also include personal costs due to travel that takes time away from family, friends and outside interests. Traffic Congestion A transportation system that is well-connected, such as the grid system, allows traf fic to be more evenly dispersed. A transportation system that is not well-connected concentrates traffic onto major corridors, even if only a short trip is necessary. Analysis of data shows that most trips on major roadways are for 1 mile or less and often are a result of a lack of connectivity. Because Americans are taking more trips, the total number of miles driven continues to increase, as does our reliance on the automobile. Number and Length of Automobile Trips Separation of land uses leads to numerous trips, even if many are for shor t distances. For instance, you may do your shopping in one shopping center or two adjacent shopping centers, but because of the layout of the parking lot, the focus of circulation and access on vehicular movement, too often it is easier to get in your car to drive from one location to the next, even if you may only be moving a few hundred feet or, at most, a couple of blocks. Consumption of Land for Parking and Roadways Roadways alone account for an average 30% of any citys land use. Parking adds to the overall per centage of a citys land that is dedicated strictly to automobiles, and in some cities takes up more land area than all other land uses combined. Safety Concerns More vehicles on the road and increasing traffic congestion often lead to frustration and impatience. This frustration and impatience often r esults in drivers making riskier movements. The situation is complicated by the fact that as Americans, we are all guilty of occasionally driving too fast because we are rushing to work or to pick up the kids, or we are distracted by talking on the phone or performing some other task while driving. The combination of multitasking and frustration can lead to increased potential for conflicts. Community & Environmental Health Impacts Air and water quality are negatively impacted due to the burning of fossil fuels. The incr eases in traffic volume impact the level of noise near major roadways and excessive signage lends to visual clutter and an overall sense of disorganization of our roadways. Health Issues (including respiratory illnesses, obesity and mental health) Reliance on automobiles as the predominant mode of transportation has influenced the built envir onment of American cities. The placement of buildings is often dictated by the ease of access and circulation by automobiles rather than people. Automobile access can affect the width and continuity of sidewalks, placement of parking, relationship of the street and adjacent buildings, and the overall public place that a street should or could be. Although this is less true in older cities, younger cities like Denver have in many ways grown up around the automobile. Together, community planners and transportation and health professionals are recognizing that transportation and the built environment play a role in the health of our local neighborhoods, communities and cities, as well as individual health. The success of our urban corridors and the overall transportation system affect the Over the past several years, our primary reliance on motor vehicles has resulted in increases in:

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OCTOBER 2008| 13 To achieve an accurate picture about mobility throughout the travel shed, the STP project team used person trips to measure demand on the transportation system.The chart to the right illustrates the complex interaction of a multimodal system and the potential for behavioral, operational and physical changes to impact the transportation system as a whole. Shown in blue, person trips increase over time, while lane miles, in yellow, are not increasing. Vehicle delays, in red, continue to increase along with peak bus hours and rail service. It is clear that all elements of a multimodal network including walking, biking, transit and automobiles are needed to lower the impact of increased person trips. 1000 0 2000 3000 4000 5000 60002005 2015 2030 Person Trips in Thousands Lane Miles Peak Period Bus Hours Peak Period Rail Hours Hours of Vehicle Delayeconomic, environmental, community, and physical health of every citizen as well as the city and the region. This situation is not unique to Denver. Every city in America has streets that are unattractive and, in many instances, unhealthy. It is becoming more dif cult for Americans to maintain a healthy, active lifestyle because in many ways, we have designed activity out of our daily routines in favor of more automated, sedentary lifestyles. One need only pick up the newspaper or magazine to nd evidence that Americans are facing alarming increases in obesity and obesityrelated diseases such as diabetes. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control indicates that todays generation of children is likely to be the rst to have a life expectancy shorter than their parents, the root cause of which can be traced (at least in part) to inactivity. Simultaneously, many American communities are preparing and planning for the Baby Boomer generation to retire and anticipate increases in the non-driving population, as well as an increase in adults who may need mobility-assisted devices. Combined, the total non-driving population of Americans is currently estimated at more than 30% and is expected to increase as the Baby Boomers age. Current statistics and projections of health in Denver show that the number of adults with a healthy body weight has been declining since 2003, as has the number of adults who engage in physical activity. One of the factors linked to obesity and physical tness is the poor condition and lack of connectivity of sidewalks and striped bicycle lanes or designated off-street bicycle paths, particularly in lower-income or high-risk neighborhoods. Summary How Denver as a community chooses to improve its transportation system in the futur e will impact you and your family. How you and your family use Denvers transportation system also can inform future improvements to the system. In Denver and across America, the demand for ef cient, safe and reliable transportation has historically focused on the automobile. As Americans, we indicate in polls and surveys that we want to walk, bike and take transit more often. However, our behavior illustrates a continued preference to drive. Multimodal investments in infrastructure may in uence our future behavior, but infrastructure alone cannot change anyones behavior.

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14|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN What We Heard From You: Community Values & Desired Outcomes Denver is fortunate to be at the heart and soul of the Denver metro area. The city bene ts from a concentration of cultural and entertainment venues, a high number and variety of jobs, and a wide range of housing choices. The city is further enhanced by the highest level of existing and future RTD bus and rail transit service, relatively dense development, a widespread grid street system, a network of bicycle and pedestrian trails and routes, and a climate with over 300 sunny days, allowing ample opportunity for walking and biking. There is no doubt that Denver is fortunate and has much to be proud of, but there is still room for improvement. Through the STP, Denver seeks to build on these assets by investing in a more balanced, multimodal transportation system. Guided by input from the public process and re ned by technical experts, this comprehensive and cooperative approach resulted in a plan that combines community-identi ed needs and desired outcomes with strategies and viable solutions. Analysis of the community responses indicated that although there is a desire for change to the transportation system among Denvers citizens, there was no clear solution. So the STP team combined the community values and desired outcomes identi ed during the process. The team used the following ve primary areas to guide the STP and future improvements to the transportation system:Vision A MULTIMODAL Transportation System: Safe pedestrian connections Comprehensive bicycle system Dependable transit options Ef cient and well-maintained infrastructure A SAFE, EFFICIENT & RELIABLE Transportation System: Connected multimodal system Safe transportation network Manage congestion Accessible to all A CONNECTED Transportation System: Link land use and transportation Enhance connections between modes Offer transportation choices A GREEN & SUSTAINABLE Transportation System: Limit roadway footprint Align with Greenprint Denver Promote alternative public transit modes Improve air and water quality Provide alternatives to fossil fuel A Transportation System that supports a HEALTHY, LIVABLE COMMUNITY : Mixed-use streets support great neighborhoods Provide transportation choices that improve community health and well-being Promote pedestrian-friendly, mixed-use development Integrate land use and transportation choices

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OCTOBER 2008| 15 Together, these ve primary areas provide guidance to the city in the consideration and prioritization of future transportation improvements. However, it is important to acknowledge that improvements to the system and the success of the system will depend in large part on the users of the system and the transportation choices they make. Simply put, a successful multimodal transportation system requires both infrastructure and system improvements as well as a willing population to embrace such change.

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16|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN InnovationUnderstanding the challenge and mapping out a solution In order to plan for a future that is multimodal and supports the community values generated through the public input process, the project team developed an innovative approach that combined the technical modeling and analysis found in a traditional transportation planning effort, with a more comprehensive look at citywide transportation needs and community desires. The STP process included the following key elements to plan for a multimodal future: Use of geographical areas called travel sheds to provide an analysis of the transportation system that looks at an area with similar travel patterns; Measurement of all trips in a travel shed instead of only studying vehicle demand in major corridors; Use of travel shed and program improvement recommendations that help establish priorities for transportation funding; Use of person trips instead of just auto trips to evaluate impacts caused by all types of travel, including bicycles, pedestrians, transit and private and commercial vehicles; Measurement of transportation capacity instead of only counting lane miles; and Limiting the transportation footprint. The project team used the concepts of person trip demand and person trip capacity to identify gaps in the transportation system. As can be seen by the graphic below the person trip capacity of a street is much different for various types of transportation. Maximum number of cars on a street Distribution of people served by these cars Travel Sheds The travel shed idea was derived from the theory of a watershed. A watershed is a br oad look at the inter connection of streams and tributaries that drain into a larger river basin. A travel shed takes a broad look at the collection of streets and mobility routes that feed into the larger, connected transportation system. The project team identi ed 12 travel sheds in the City and County of Denver on which to focus the analysis. Travel shed boundaries were based on areas that shared similar characteristics, such as trips that start and nish in the same area and geographic features that create barriers to travel movement. Use of travel sheds also accounted for mobility issues that cause the individual travel sheds to be inter connected. The use of travel sheds allowed for a broader community analysis. The project team could then analyze the effectiveness of the layout of streets, including the grid and arterial system, transit routes, bike routes, and pedestrian throughways, how they connect and how well people move through the system. It is not the goal of the STP to eliminate automobiles from the transportation system. In order to preserve Denvers neighborhoods and communities and thus its quality of life, Denver as a city and regional leader must focus on increasing the person trip capacity of its existing roadways by nding a greater balance among all the modes.

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OCTOBER 2008| 17 The same number of people on a bus The same number of people on a pedestrian and bicycle-friendly street BIKE ROUTE COLLECTORTRANSIT / HIGHWAYLOCAL STREETSTRAVEL SHED BOUNDARY ARTERIALTravel Shed Example Diagram Person Trips Another innovative idea used by the project team was the use of person trips. T raditionally, transportation planning has focused on automobile or vehicle trips by measuring vehicle miles traveled (VMT). The STP project team determined that person trips is a more accurate measure by which to evaluate the impacts caused by all types of travel, including bicycles, pedestrians, public transit and private and commercial vehicles. The use of person trips allowed the project team to identify the existing travel conditions for all modes in each travel shed and forecast conditions for 2030. The project team analyzed the total number of trips taken by all modes of travel in the corridors within each travel shed and called this person-trip demand. The demand was then compared to the total person-trip capacity. If the demand for person trips exceeded the capacity, this was highlighted as a gap in the transportation system. The gaps found in each travel shed highlighted the areas within the city that need further evaluation to better understand transportation needs and potential solutions. Once the mobility needs were evaluated, recommendations were then categorized into transportation improvement strategies for each travel shed.

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18|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN Strategy Moving People ForwardIn order to achieve the desired multimodal transportation outcomes for Denver, numerous types of improvement strategies are recommended, ranging from annual maintenance to longer-term projects. Maintenance of infrastructure generally consumes the majority of annual funding. All of the improvement strategy categories are divided into the following segments: Behavioral Support efforts within the Denver community to reduce travel by single-occupancy vehicles and promote alternative modes of travel such as walking, biking and use of the public transit system. Operational Improvement of the function or ef ciency of existing facilities in the public right-of-way with minimal changes to the physical footprint and equipment. Physical A new facility that can be added to or changed within the public right-of-way.Strategies for Behavioral ChangePartner with other internal agencies and external organizations to study, educate, support and implement speci c approaches to reduce single-occupancy vehicular travel. Transportation Demand and Traf c Management Fund promotional and operational programs designed to encourage the use of alter native travel modes, carpooling and other tripreduction strategies. Those include promotion of existing and future transportation management organizations (TMOs) similar to Transportation Solutions, the existing TMO in the Cherry Creek area.Strategies for Operational and Physical ChangesMeeting the operational and physical goals of the STP requires a substantial investment in maintaining the operational functions and physical infrastructure of the transportation system. Maintenance of the existing system comprises a signi cant portion of the overall Denver Public Works budget. In 2007, approximately $12 million of Public Works $22 million Capital Improvement Program (CIP) was appropriated to annual maintenance programs, which include street repaving, bridge maintenance, traf c-signal reconstruction, and sign replacement. In November 2007, Denver citizens voted to approve the dedication of 2.5 mills in increased property taxes annually to repair infrastructure. This additional mill levy funding is being utilized to augment Public Works annual capital maintenance budget. Approximately $32 million was appropriated to Public Works capital maintenance programs in 2008 from this mill levy. Voters also approved the 2007 Better Denver Bond Program, a comprehensive effort to invest in the ongoing maintenance and enhancement of many city facilities, as well as the construction of new city facilities. Both the Better Denver Bond Program and maintenance mill levy initiatives have signi cantly increased Public Works ability to address existing maintenance needs, and will be crucial to supporting a multimodal transportation system. Maintenance of Infrastructure Maintenance of infrastructure is critical to achieving a long service life of transpor tation assets, such as signs and signals, pavements, bridges, sidewalks and trails. Investment to maintain these assets is more cost effective than allowing them to deteriorate to the point where full replacement is necessary. The bene t of a properly maintained infrastructure also includes improved traf c ow, a safer travel environment, and less frustration and vehicle-repair costs for the traveling public. The STP is a unique planning approach to help mitigate road congestion by integrating all forms of mobility, including cars, walking, biking and transit. Metro Denver has over 900 miles of bike paths, almost 2,000 miles if you include all the separate bike lanes on our roads This bicycle system will give Denvers citizens just one more wonderful way to enjoy our 300 days of sunshine a year, an accident of climate for which no elected of cial, including me, can take credit. Mayor John Hickenlooper, State of the City Address, July 1, 2008

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OCTOBER 2008| 19Bicycle, Pedestrian and Street Gaps Bicycle improvements include lling in missing links in the bicycle network, major capital pr ojects such as bicycle grade separations (bridges), and annual staf ng and program costs to support efforts to encourage bicycle and pedestrian travel. Pedestrian improvements include critical connections to complete uniform linkages, upgrades to substandard sidewalk sections, and right-of-way acquisition for new sidewalk construction. Street gap projects such as lling a gap in the street grid across a gulch will provide a more complete transportation network. Transit Support Strategies Key investments include upgrading transit service frequency, expanding hours of operations, expanding transit r oute structure, enhancing transit stops and passenger amenities, and improving transit operations by implementing strategies such as Transit Signal Priority (TSP), an operational strategy that gives priority to the movement of transit vehicles through traf c signal-controlled intersections. Operational and Safety Strategies Recommendations include limited capacity improvements (such as tur n lanes), traf c signal upgrades, safety improvements, medians, and pedestrian and bike enhancements that can be implemented within the existing rights-of-way. Primary focus should be directed toward improvements like signal timing changes, signing and pavement markings, Intelligent Transportation Systems, and coordination needed for multimodal connectivity and improved safety. Transit and Roadway Improvements Improvements such as complete intersectionor interchanger econstruction projects can be implemented to eliminate capacity constraints and improve safety. Improvements such as lane balancing and transit service expansion remove gaps in the system so that congestion is reduced and transit ridership is increased. Access control could be implemented on a roadway by constructing medians that help de ne where turns are allowed from driveways to improve overall function. Major Improvements and Studies The most complex solutions in the travel sheds often involve major investments and right-of-way acquisition. Signi cant up-front studies are often necessary to determine the most appropriate transportation investments and to achieve consensus among stakeholders. Several projects/studies of this magnitude are already underway, including the I-70 East Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), the 56th Avenue Environmental Assessment (EA), and RTDs FasTracks Program. Map of Investment Corridors Setting Pr iorities to Maximize Our Investment A key to the plan strategy is the establishment of priorities to maximize the funding available. Maintenance, maximizing ef ciency and improving system safety are essential. Providing multimodal improvements help serve the expected increase in person-trip demand without increasing the roadway footprint, and continued planning through major studies de nes the future transportation network as a system. Major Improvements and Studies Transit Support Strategies Bicycle, Pedestrian and Street Gaps Transportation Demand and Traffic Management T Maintenance of Infrastructure Operational and Safety Strategies Transit and Roadway Improvements Define future transportation options Maintain existing infrastructure Maximize ef ciency and safety Provide multimodal improvements !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! ! ! !! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! !!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!! ! ! ! !! !! !! !!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! ! !! ! !! !! ! !! ! !!!!!!!! ! !! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!! !! !!!!! !!! !!!! !!!!!!! 76 270 225 25 70 6 Colorado MonacoColfaxFederal Broadway UniversityAlameda Hampden Evans 1stSpeerQuebec40thSmi thB r ighton38thPena Tower56th

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20|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN The Denver STP analysis developed recommendations for Denvers travel future. Strategies and project lists for 2015 and beyond for each travel shed were generated using traditional transportation solutions, but the STP has an emphasis on multimodal solutions that not only help mangage congestion, but also are necessary to keep Denver moving.Short-Term StepsMany of the studies and projects identi ed in the STP are underway as a result of FasTracks and the traditional sources of funding from CDOT, the federal government and the private sector. Thanks to the Better Denver bond package that passed in November 2007, several of the identi ed projects have or will receive funding to move forward. The Speer-Leetsdale Major Investment Corridor and the process to begin a NEPA-like study of the Quebec Major Investment Corridor also have been started.Long-Term StepsFor the long-term (2015 and beyond) the City and County of Denver must continue to pursue options to maintain and improve the multimodal transportation system. Implementation of the recommendations in the STP will require action in several areas to solve the long-term transportation issues that may arise. The following steps can be taken now to plan for the future: Completion of FasTracks Implementation of the RTD FasTracks program is an integral part of pr oviding more multimodal options throughout the Denver area. Meeting the current construction schedule of FasTracks is the central strategy to absorb the growing demand on the system while managing congestion to levels that exist today. Leverage Available Non-City Funding Continue to leverage federal and state matching funds to complete new infrastructur e projects and maintain the existing transportation system through capital improvement planning and programming. Development of New Funding Be a leader in nding new local and regional solutions to fund transpor tation improvements and programs. Look at options for transportation infrastructure nance, including the potential for public and private partnerships. As the employment and entertainment center of the metropolitan area, Denver attracts a very high level of traf c from the surrounding region, making transportation a regional issue with the need for regional solutions. Plan for Moving People Beyond 2015 Pursue the further expansion of a comprehensive regional transpor tation program beyond 2015. Multimodal improvements in regional transportation, especially in the area of transit, will increase the person-trip capacity of our streets. However, beyond FasTracks there are no improvements of this type to follow. Continuing to make physical and operational improvements to alternative modes of transportation will provide travel options that reduce fossil fuel dependency and absorb growing demands. This will continue to be an important strategy to meet our transportation needs beyond 2030. Support Sustainable Growth and Urban In ll Ensure that the transportation investments support sustainable gr owth through redevelopment and urban in ll, particularly within the Areas of Change as de ned by Blueprint Denver as well as in alignment with the goals of sustainable growth as outlined by the mayors Greenprint Denver goals. Encourage Shifts in Travel Behavior Educate the public about transportation options and provide incentives to pr omote behavioral changes. Infrastructure investments must be maximized to include and encourage use of all modes of transportation, including transit, pedestrian and bicycle options, and increased use of travel demand management such as telecommuting and exible work schedules. Together, these mobility options and tools will add up to a healthier future for the entire metropolitan area by providing the city and its residents the opportunity to get the most out of the investments made to the transportation system. Strategy Policies for Moving People Forward

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OCTOBER 2008| 21 Denver and the metro region are continuing to grow. Projections indicate more than 1.3 million additional people will move to the metro area by 2030.

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22 | DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN The nal recommendations for each travel shed are based on an analysis of person-trip demand compared to the person-trip capacity. Projects and strategies were developed, categorized and prioritized based on available funding. The individual and general recommendations are outlined for each travel shed and are based on the community values and technical analysis during the STP planning process.Strategy Travel Shed Recommendations

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OCTOBER 2008 | 23 a) Central Denver 24 b) Downtown 26 c) East Central 28 d) East Colfax 30 e) East Side 32 f) Gateway 34 g) Hampden 36 h) Northwest 38 i) River North 40 j) Southwest 42 k) Speer/Leetsdale 44 l) West Side 46Travel Sheds Other Projects / StudiesThe following areas of the city are being speci cally analyzed by major studies that are underway or recently completed: I. 56th Avenue EA II. I-70 EIS III. Valley Highway EIS / Broadway NEPA

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24|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN Central Denver Travel ShedTravel Shed Boundaries The Central Denver Travel Shed is loosely bordered by Clarkson Str eet to the west, 40th Avenue to the north, York Street and University Boulevard to the east, and Evans Avenue to the south. Major arterial roads run through the travel shed, including Colfax Avenue, 6th Avenue, 8th Avenue, East 1st Avenue, I-25, East Evans Avenue, Downing Street and University Boulevard. The East Colfax and Speer/Leetsdale Travel Sheds pass through the Central Denver Travel Shed. Travel Shed Characteristics All major arterial roads in the Central Denver Travel Shed are cityowned r oadways with the exception of I-25 and Colfax Avenue, which are designated state highways and/or part of the interstate system owned by CDOT. The Central Denver Travel Shed is a grid system with many intersects that provide good connectivity for travel. One exception is Washington Park, which limits traf c owing east-west in the southern portion of the travel shed. Roadways in this area are older and more urban, with narrow lanes and limited control for turning from driveways. The sidewalks on major arterials, although numerous, are in poor condition and are substandard when compared to current design guidelines. Bicycle routes run throughout the travel shed, although signage and connectivity are both inconsistent. Many missing links exist for bike paths in this area, particularly along the Cherry Creek Trail. Trips in the Travel Shed Almost two-thirds of trips through the Central Denver Travel Shed are pass-thr ough, meaning they neither start nor end within the travel sheds boundaries. One-third of trips begin within the travel shed and end outside the shed. Less than 2% of trips both begin and end within the sheds boundaries. The total amount of travel in the Central Denver Travel Shed is expected to increase by more than 33% by the year 2030. In addition, trips that pass through the travel shed are expected to increase at a higher rate than trips that begin within the sheds boundaries. Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations Current north-south capacity is anticipated to meet 2030 demand in the nor th and central portions of the Central Denver Travel Shed. However, in the south end of the shed, north-south demand will exceed capacity. The same is true for future east-west demand despite the recent addition of the Southeast Corridor light rail line. Attention to this travel shed focused on maintenance and improvements to existing infrastructure without adding additional roadway capacity. Enhancing existing transit as well as expanding bicycle and pedestrian access to connect neighborhoods, the Cherry Creek shopping area, and the Southeast Corridor light rail stations will address some of the anticipated capacity issues.Also refer to overlapping travel sheds: East Colfax, Speer/Leetsdale N YORK ST S DO WNING STE 8TH AVEE 6TH AVEE 18TH AVEE 13TH AVEE23RDAVESUNIVERSITY BLVDE 29TH AVEBRUCE RANDOLPH AVE E VIRGINIA AVE E LOUISIANA AVE MLK BLVDE 17TH AVEE 40TH AVEE COLFAX AVEE 1ST AVE E 31ST AVES FRANKLIN STE 26TH AVEE ALAMEDA AVEN DOWNING STBUCHTEL B LVDN FRANKLIN STE EXPOSITION AVEWALNUTSTE 14TH AVEE EVANS AVE 49% by 2030 13% by 2015 43% by 2030 5% by 2015 21% by 2030 16% by 2015 25 70 Legend Investment Corridors Bike Routes and Trails Forecast Growth in Person Trips to and from Travel Shed Future Transit Station Study Area Boundry Future Transit Line Existing Transit Station Existing Transit Line Blueprint Denver Areas of Change

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OCTOBER 2008| 25 RecommendationsTravel Shed Stats2030:272 204 3025% Increase 28% IncreaseLane Miles Sidewalk Miles Bicycle Trail / Lane Miles in Population Growth in Person Trips2005to Form of ImprovementImplementation Time FrameBehavioralOperationalPhysical2015 FutureMaintenance of Infrastructure Periodically update signal progression plans on major arterialsMill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 50 total traf c signals, 7 bridges, 272 lane miles, alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps)State highway surface treatment programBicycle and Pedestrian System Gaps Cherry Creek Trail safety upgrades (along 1st Ave. from Downing to University)Bike trail north of Buchtel between University and FranklinImprove bike route designation through City ParkInstall improved pedestrian crossings or traf c calming in the vicinity of the new I-25 LRT stationsEnhance bicycle connectivity within travel shedInstall more visible signage for on-street routesIdentify new bike routes to the Southeast Corridor LRT stationsWiden sidewalks along 17th Ave.Provide countdown pedestrian heads at 17th/18th/York, University/Ohio, Downing/Exposition, Downing/ Kentucky, and University/1st Ave. intersectionFacilitate the enhancement of pedestrian crossings within the travel shedPedestrian bridge between the University LRT station and the neighborhoods to the northProhibit right turns on red in the Cherry Creek and 17th Ave. pedestrian districtsAdd pedestrian route lighting to improve access to LRT and bus stopsTransit Support Strategies Provide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stopsOperational and Safety Strategies University/Evans intersection improvementsLeft turn channelization at Alameda/Downing17th/18th/York/Josephine reconstruction (See East Colfax)York/31st/Martin Luther King intersection improvementsYork/Bruce Randolph intersection improvementsTransit and Roadway Improvements Realign 19th Ave. through Childrens Hospital redevelopmentReconstruct 40th Ave. including curb, gutter and sidewalk from Franklin to York St.Increase transit service between LRT stations and Cherry Creek (FastConnects)Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identi cation of projects will evolve. Note 2. Refer to the glossary for de nitions of terminology.

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26|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN Travel Shed Boundaries Interstate 25 loosely borders the Downtown Travel Shed to the nor thwest. The shed is bordered by Logan Street to the east and 11th Avenue to the south. Several major arterial roads run through this travel shed, including Colfax Avenue, Broadway, Lincoln Street, Park Avenue, Auraria Parkway and Speer Boulevard. Travel Shed Characteristics The Downtown Travel Shed is the employment and attraction epicenter of the Denver Metr o region. Several barriers de ne the boundaries of this shed and limit connectivity, including I-25, the Platte River, Speer Boulevard and Cherry Creek. These barriers also limit mobility within the shed since few access points restrict ways to traverse the sheds several waterways and the interstate. Connectivity challenges exist at intersections such as Colfax and Broadway. Adding to the complexity of the travel shed is the fact that the majority of land in the Downtown Travel Shed was designated as an Area of Change by the 2002 Blueprint Denver plan. Trips in the Travel Shed Traf c ows into the Downtown Travel Shed via Speer Boulevard, Park A venue, Auraria Parkway, Colfax Avenue and Broadway/Lincoln Streets, as well as existing light rail lines. More than 72% of vehicle and transit trips end in the Downtown Travel Shed. Approximately 7% of existing transit trips pass through the shed. These percentages are expected to remain consistent, but as FasTracks expands, transit stops will multiply. By 2030, an increase of 40% in total trips is expected for the Downtown Travel Shed. Transit trips alone will increase by 94%. Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations Due to the drastic increase in transit trips forecast for this travel shed, major impr ovements in transit are recommended and are already underway. Travel routes in the FasTracks plan will converge at Denvers Union Station, which is within the Downtown Travel Sheds boundaries. Construction of the West, Gold, North Metro, I-70 East, and U.S. 36 transit improvements will signi cantly increase transit capacity in the downtown area. The construction of these rail lines will require ongoing coordination between RTD, DRCOG, CDOT and the City and County of Denver.Downtown Travel Shed 20th St. Lincoln St. Broadway St. Park Ave. Speer Blvd. Auraria Pkwy. 23rd St. 16th St. 20th Ave. Colfax Ave. Colfax Ave. S peer Blvd. 19th Ave. 18th Ave. 17th Ave. 16th Ave. Larimer St. Lawrence St. Arapahoe St. Curtis St. Champa St. Stout St. California St. Market St. Blake St. Wazee St. Wynkoop St. Wewatta St. Delgany St. Welton St. Glenarm Pl. Tremont Pl. Court Pl. 17th St. 18th St. 19th St. 14th St. 15th St. 13th St. Cleveland Pl. Speer Blvd. Grant St. Sherman St. Logan St. 14th Ave. 13th Ave. 12th Ave. Cherokee St. Delaware St. Bannock St. Fox St. Elati St. Kalamath St. Lipan St. Santa Fe Dr. Mariposa St. Osage St. 7th St. 5th St. Little Raven St. Platte St. Lipan St. 21st St. 22nd St. 25th St. 24th St. 27th St. 26th St. Broadway St. Wewatta St. Rio Ct. Chestnut Pl. 15th St. Denver Art Museum Art Museum Expansion Colorado History Museum Denver PavilionsR.E.I. R.E.I.Library U.S. Mint U.S. Mint City/ County Building Denver Art Museum Art Museum Expansion Colorado History MuseumLibraryThe Shops at Tabor Center The Shops at Tabor Center Writer Square Writer Square Larimer Square Larimer SquareDenver Union StationAuraria Higher Education Center Auraria Higher Education Center Six Flags Elitch Gardens Six Flags Elitch Gardens Federal District Federal District Skyline Park Commons Park e Children's M useum e Children's M useum Colorado's Ocean Journey Colorado's Ocean Journey Pepsi Center Pepsi Center Pepsi Center Coors Field Coors Field Colorado Convention Center Colorado Convention Center Colorado Convention Center State Capitol16th Street Mall 16th Street Mall Market Street Station Market Street Station Market Street Station Civic Center Civic Center Civic CenterCity/ County Building City/ County BuildingDenver Performing Arts Complex Civic Center StationSkyline Park 25 48% by 2030 23% by 2015 33% by 2030 17% by 2015 52% by 2030 28% by 2015 18% by 2030 6% by 2015 27% by 2030 12% by 2015 30% by 2030 15% by 2015 Legend Investment Corridors Bike Routes and Trails Forecast Growth in Person Trips to and from Travel Shed Future Transit Station Study Area Boundry Future Transit Line Existing Transit Station Existing Transit Line Blueprint Denver Areas of Change

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OCTOBER 2008| 27 Travel Shed Stats2030:113 71 1784% Increase 40% IncreaseLane Miles Sidewalk Miles Bicycle Trail / Lane Miles in Population Growth in Person Trips2005toRecommendations Form of ImprovementImplementation Time FrameBehavioralOperationalPhysical2015 FutureMaintenance of Infrastructure Mill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 5 total traf c signals, 23 bridges, 113 lane miles, alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps)Downtown signal retimingState highway surface treatment programBicycle and Pedestrian System Gaps Enhance pedestrian crossings that link adjacent neighborhoods and major attractions to downtownSignal timing changes such as Barnes Dance, leading pedestrian intervals and countdown signalsDesign treatments such as high-visibility crosswalk markings, advance stop lines, pavers, colored concrete, additional signage, and sign-mounted ashersPedestrian crossing enhancements at Platte St. and 16th St.16th Ave./Broadway bicycle connectionBike station at Denver Union Station (DUS)Lawrence pedestrian underpass of southbound Speer Blvd.12th Ave. Cherry Creek rampCalifornia St. sidewalk/streetscape14th St. streetscapeColfax Ave. and 14th Ave. pedestrian improvements (Justice Center)Continue to build upon the downtown bike lane gridProvide a new connection between the Pepsi Center and Cherry Creek Trail away from Speer/WewattaConnect the Platte River Trail to the Auraria Campus with the West Corridor ProjectAdd a bike lane to Water St. (15th St. 23rd Ave.)Construct a new bridge from Elitch Gardens to the Childrens MuseumTransit Support Strategies Downtown circulator service from DUS to Civic Center and Cultural Complex, including street reconstruction and stopsConvert downtown circulator to xed guidewaySupport existing or potential transportation management associations (TMAs)16th Street Mall reconstructionWelton/Downing corridor stations master planCivic Center Station PlanProvide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stopsOperational and Safety Strategies Galapago St./Colfax Ave./Welton St. intersection operational improvementsAll downtown streets should have minimum sidewalk width of 16 feet on both sidesOne-way circulation system is maintained on numbered streetsFour-lane one-way streets are candidates for narrowingColfax Ave. / Speer Blvd. grade-separated interchangeSignal upgrades: Colfax Ave. and Glenarm Pl. 16th St. and Wynkoop St. 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th streets and Wewatta St. 16th, 17th, 18th. 20th streets and Chestnut St. Speer Blvd. and Wewatta St.East Colfax Avenue / Grant Avenue intersection improvementsTransit and Roadway Improvements Central Street promenade: Central Street from 16th St. to 20th St.Golden Triangle/Central Business District access improvementsLarimer St. reconstruction from 15th St. to 17th St.Recon gure Colfax Ave./Tremont St./13th St./Delaware St. intersectionBroadway median, 20th St. to Blake St.Recon gure intersections along Broadway at 19th St. and 21st St.Cherry Creek to 15th, Wewatta St. roadway improvementsMajor Improvements and Studies Denver Union Station implementationComplete multimodal reconstruction of Broadway/Lincoln (STP Investment Corridor)Complete multimodal reconstruction of Colfax (STP Investment Corridor)Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identi cation of projects will evolve. Note 2. Refer to the glossary for de nitions of terminology.

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28|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN Travel Shed Boundaries Several streets loosely border the East Central Travel Shed, including South Downing Str eet, University Boulevard and Broadway to the west; I-70 to the north; Monaco Parkway and Holly Street to the east; and Quincy Avenue to the south. Colorado Boulevard, Colfax Avenue and Evans Avenue are main arterial roads that run through the East Central Shed. The travel shed has three other travel sheds that pass through it: the East Colfax, Speer/Leetsdale and Hampden Travel Sheds. The East Side Travel Shed overlaps the eastern edge. Travel Shed Characteristics Colorado Boulevard has been designated as an Investment Corridor to facilitate multimodal nor th-south connections and to support the vision of Blueprint Denver. Evans Avenue also is a designated Investment Corridor within this travel shed. Trips in the Travel Shed Trips to and from Downtown Denver primarily pass through the nor thern part of the East Central Travel Shed. In addition, the percentage increase in trips by 2030 is expected to be the highest in the northern section. Trips in the southern end of the travel shed are primarily pass-through trips to adjacent areas. In the eastern part of the travel shed, north-south trips ow from south of the Lowry neighborhood to Stapleton. Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations Improvements within this travel shed focus on land use within the two designated impr ovement corridors. Enhancements to transit and improvements to pedestrian and bicycle connections will address safety and access issues along Colorado Boulevard. The Evans Avenue corridor also needs enhanced transit and attention to traf c operations, freight management and safety issues. In addition, the same improvements are recommended for 17th Avenue, 18th Avenue, York and Josephine streets.East Central Travel Shed Colfax Bannock St51st Ave 47th Ave 40th Ave 35th Ave28th St 18th St 15th StPark Ave.29th Ave 25th Ave 13th Ave 11th Ave 6th Ave 1st Ave Alameda Ave Mississippi Ave Florida AveQuebec WyIliff Ave Quincy AveUlster StDTC PyUnion AveMansfield Ave Princeton AveEastmoor DrSyracuse WyMartin Luther King Blvd 26th Ave 23rd Ave Montview Blvd 17th Ave 16th Ave 11th Ave 8th Ave 6th Ave Alameda Ave Virginia Ave Mississippi Ave Iowa AveBroadway Franklin Dahlia St Yosemite St D ayton StDam RdColorado Blvd Logan St Clarkson St Holly St Broadway Huron StNavajo StFlorida Ave Louisiana AveCherry Creek DrJewell AveCornell AveHolly PlTamarac DrEvans Ave Iliff Ave Yale AveHappy Canyon RdMonaco StGirard AveFox StFloyd AveHampden Ave Kenyon Ave Oxford Ave Quincy Ave Tufts AveDartmouth AveKalamath StSpeer N BdSpeer S Bd14th Ave 13th Ave 8th Ave 6th Ave 3rd Ave 1st Ave Bayaud Ave. 38th Ave 52nd Ave Smith Rd 48th AveJosephine St Washington St Logan St Clarkson St Lincoln St Corona St Downing St Emerson St Broadway Santa Fe Dr Lipan St Franklin St Williams St University Blvd Steele St Holly St Holly St Monaco St Quebec St Monaco Py Monaco Py Quebec St Dayton St Steele St Valentia St Ivy St Dahlia St Dahlia St Syracuse St Dayton St46th Ave 20th Ave 19th Ave 45th Ave 44th Ave 38th Ave20th StGlobeville Rd Ringsby Ct Arkins CtBrighton RdBlake StWalnut StLarimer StLawrence StArapahoe St Curtis St Champa St Stout St Welton St Glenarm PlJason St Fox St 25 70 25 Buchtel Ave 7.5% by 2030 4.5% by 2015 8% by 2030 8% by 2030 0% by 2015 8% by 2030 3% by 2015 18% by 2030 19% by 2015 18.5% by2030 0.5% by 2015 0% by 2015 Also refer to overlapping travel sheds: East Colfax, East Side, Speer/Leetsdale, Hampden Legend Investment Corridors Bike Routes and Trails Forecast Growth in Person Trips to and from Travel Shed Future Transit Station Study Area Boundry Future Transit Line Existing Transit Station Existing Transit Line Blueprint Denver Areas of Change

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OCTOBER 2008| 29 Travel Shed Stats2030:1,131 809 7518% Increase 26% IncreaseLane Miles Sidewalk Miles Bicycle Trail / Lane Miles in Population Growth in Person Trips2005toRecommendations Form of ImprovementImplementation Time FrameBehavioralOperationalPhysical2015 FutureMaintenance of Infrastructure State highway surface treatment programMill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 60 total traf c signals, 34 bridges, 1,131 lane miles, alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps)Bicycle and Pedestrian System Gaps Colorado LRT Station pedestrian bridgeTransit Support Strategies Transit enhancements on Colorado Blvd.Enhance transit routes to serve as feeders to major transit corridorsTransit enhancements on Evans Ave.Provide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stopsOperational and Safety Strategies Install intelligent transportation systems along Colorado Blvd. from I-70 to Hampden Ave.Transit and Roadway Improvements Reconstruct 40th Ave., including curb, gutter and sidewalk, from York St. to Colorado Blvd.Major Improvements and Studies Complete multimodal reconstruction of Colorado Blvd. (STP investment corridor)Complete multimodal reconstruction of Alameda Ave. (STP investment corridor)Complete multimodal reconstruction of Evans Ave. (STP investment corridor)Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identi cation of projects will evolve. Note 2. Refer to the glossary for de nitions of terminology.

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30|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN East Colfax Travel ShedAlso refer to overlapping travel sheds: Central Denver, East Central, East SideTravel Shed Boundaries Several streets loosely border the East Colfax Travel Shed, including Emerson Str eet to the west, 23rd Avenue to the north, Alton Street to the east and 9th Avenue to the south. Major arterial roads that run through the shed include Colfax Avenue, Colorado Boulevard, Park Avenue, Monaco Parkway, and Quebec Street. In addition, several paired couplets, meaning sister one-way streets, include 13th and 14th avenues, 17th and 18th avenues and Josephine and York streets. The East Colfax Travel Shed passes through the Central Denver, East Central and East Side travel sheds from west to east. Travel Shed Characteristics East Colfax spans eight Denver neighborhoods and touches a br oad range of land uses, although surrounding streets are primarily residential. Trips in the Travel Shed Currently, about 75% of the traf c in the East Colfax Travel Shed are pass-thr ough trips. These pass-through trips are expected to increase slightly to roughly 78% by 2030 due to the continued development of Downtown Denver, including its new residential developments. The East Colfax Travel Shed is also a major transit corridor and has one of the highest levels of ridership in the RTD system. Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations Due to a modest projected increase of pass-through trips in the East Colfax T ravel Shed, major capacity-related improvements are not recommended for this area. Instead, attention should focus on safety enhancements as well as pedestrianand bicycle-connectivity improvements. A streetcar is suggested for the corridor as part of the continuing Colfax Avenue revitalization efforts. 10% by 2030 20% by 2030 20% by 2030.tSgnin w o D .tStdlobmuH .tSkr o Y .tStiorteD .tSelee t S .tSnosidaM .tSnoskcaJ .dvlBodaroloC .tStnomrelC tSailhaD tSaroduE .tSxafriaF .tS e p ar G .tSy l loH .tSyesreJ .tSy e nr a eK .y w kPoca n oM .tStropweN t Scai t n o P .tScebeuQ .tSnylso R t Se s uc ary S .tSr e tslU .tS a nebreV .tSet im es o Y .tSnotlAMontview Blvd. 22nd Ave. 19th Ave. Cheesman Park City Park E. Colfax Ave. 13th Ave. 14th Ave. 17th Ave. 18th Ave..evAkraP21st Ave. 11th Ave. 12th Ave. 10th Ave. Legend Investment Corridors Bike Routes and Trails Forecast Growth in Person Trips to and from Travel Shed Future Transit Station Study Area Boundry Future Transit Line Existing Transit Station Existing Transit Line Blueprint Denver Areas of Change

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OCTOBER 2008| 31 Travel Shed Stats2030:209 153 1221% Increase 23% IncreaseLane Miles Sidewalk Miles Bicycle Trail / Lane Miles in Population Growth in Person Trips2005toRecommendations Form of ImprovementImplementation Time FrameBehavioralOperationalPhysical2015 FutureMaintenance of Infrastructure Mill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 4 total traf c signals, 2 bridges, 209 lane miles, alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps)State highway surface treatment programBicycle and Pedestrian System Gaps Widen sidewalks to facilitate pedestrian connectivity and access to transitConstruct missing sidewalk connection (Colfax Ave. between Gaylord and Vine streets)Transit Support Strategies Improve pedestrian connections to surrounding neighborhoodsImprove transit connections in developing areasImplement pedestrian and transit improvements along East Colfax Ave. within the existing BIDSProvide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stopsOperational and Safety Strategies Evaluate and implement more signalized pedestrian crossingsMark pedestrian zones, bike facilities and bus stops clearlyTarget high-accident locations for improvementImprove street lightingSignal upgrade at 13th and Josephine streetsRegional signal systems control (traf c signal system improvement project eligible)Transit and Roadway Improvements 17th/18th/York/Josephine reconstructionUpgrade intersection at Colorado Blvd. and 17th Ave.Corridor transit upgrade (like streetcar, bus rapid transit, etc.)Bus transit priority/intelligent transportation system improvements (Senate Bill 1 project)Evaluate moving/consolidating access points on Colfax Ave.Major Improvements and Studies Colfax Ave. and Colorado Blvd. intersection reconstructionComplete multimodal reconstruction of Colfax Ave. (STP investment corridor)Complete multimodal reconstruction of Colorado Blvd. (STP investment corridor)Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identi cation of projects will evolve. Note 2. Refer to the glossary for de nitions of terminology.

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32|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN East Side Travel ShedTravel Shed Boundaries Several streets loosely border the East Side Travel Shed, including Monaco Parkway to the west, I-70 to the nor th, Central Park Boulevard/ Yosemite Street to the east and Alameda Avenue to the south. Two major arterial roads run through the East Side Travel Shed, including Colfax Avenue and Quebec Street. The East Colfax Travel Shed passes through the travel shed along Colfax. Travel Shed Characteristics Much of the East Side Travel Shed is designated as an Area of Change by Blueprint Denver A signi cant portion of the travel shed consists of well-established residential neighborhoods, but the area also includes two of Denvers largest redevelopment projects: Stapleton and Lowry. Trips in the Travel Shed Due to recent and future redevelopment in the area, the East Side T ravel Shed will see signi cant growth in person trips. Traf c demand in some areas of the travel shed will double by 2030. Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations Improvements within the East Side Travel Shed focus on maintaining mobility and safety Attention to bicycle and pedestrian routes and facilities will encourage multimodal transportation within the area and connect people to transit. E. 38th Ave. E. 35th Ave.Smith Rd.MLK Blvd. E. 33rd Ave. E. 23rd Ave. Montview Blvd. E. 26th Ave. E. 29th Ave. E. 17th Ave. E. 14th Ave. E. 13th Ave. E. 10th Ave. E. 8th Ave. E. 12th Ave. E. 6th Ave. E. 4th Ave. E. 1st Ave. E. Cedar Ave. E. Alameda Ave. E. Colfax Ave.Quebec St. Yosemite St. Monaco Pkwy. Lowry Blvd.Syracuse st.Central Park Blvd.Uinta Way Q Q Q Lowry Blvd. d. Syrac c S Sy y Syrac S Syrac a Way Uinta Uin Smith Rd. R Central Park Blvd. 95% by 2030 30% by 2030 100% by 2030 20% by 2030 Also refer to overlapping travel shed: East Colfax Legend Investment Corridors Bike Routes and Trails Forecast Growth in Person Trips to and from Travel Shed Future Transit Station Study Area Boundry Future Transit Line Existing Transit Station Existing Transit Line Blueprint Denver Areas of Change

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OCTOBER 2008| 33 Travel Shed Stats2030:334 168 4230% Increase 84% IncreaseLane Miles Sidewalk Miles Bicycle Trail / Lane Miles in Population Growth in Person Trips2005toRecommendations Form of ImprovementImplementation Time FrameBehavioralOperationalPhysical2015 FutureMaintenance of Infrastructure Mill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 20 total traf c signals, 8 bridges, 334 miles, alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps)State highway surface treatment programBicycle and Pedestrian System Gaps Coordinate with Parks and Recreation to develop onand off-street bike routes Construct missing sidewalk connections as properties redevelopUpgrade pedestrian access on Quebec St. from 6th Ave. to 13th Ave.Upgrade pedestrian access on 23rd Ave. from Monaco Pkwy. to Quebec St.Add Lowry Blvd.-Westerly Creek grade separated trail crossingTransit Support Strategies Support existing or potential transportation management associations (TMAs) (Stapleton TMA)Provide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stopsOperational and Safety Strategies Quebec intersection improvements at 13th St. and 23rd Ave.Target high accident locations for improvementImprove street lightingRegional signal systems control (traf c signal system improvement project eligible)Transit and Roadway Improvements Evaluate conversion of two-way roadways to one-way street coupletsEvaluate addition of new travel lanes within the travel shedEvaluate construction of reversible lanes within the travel shedAdd/improve turn lanes within the travel shedConstruct bus pullouts within the travel shedImprove street connectivity between Denver and Aurora in the vicinity of StapletonCentral Park Blvd. interchangeStapleton road improvementsMajor Improvements and Studies Major Investment Corridor Study of Quebec St. (NEPA) and implementationNote 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identi cation of projects will evolve. Note 2. Refer to the glossary for de nitions of terminology.

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34|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN Gateway Travel ShedTravel Shed Boundaries Several streets loosely border the Gateway Travel Shed, including Chambers Road/Pea Boulevar d to the west, Pea Boulevard to the north, Picadilly Road to the east and 40th and 38th avenues to the south. Four major arterial roads run through the shed, including Pea Boulevard, Tower Road, 56th Avenue and E-470. Travel Shed Characteristics Denver International Airport (DIA) and Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge ar e two important land uses within this area and limit connectivity through the travel shed. Trips to and from DIA generate most of the traf c on Pea Boulevard. Much of the area is a designated Area of Change by Blueprint Denver. Trips in the Travel Shed The Gateway Travel Shed is expected to be one of the fastest growing sheds in the City and County of Denver Person trips are expected to triple in some areas by 2030. Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations As Pea Boulevard is the main connector to the airport, improvements to the corridor should enhance access and ow to DIA while serving other travel demand in the area. The Gateway Travel Shed will need an integrated multimodal transportation system to meet demand generated by new transit-oriented development a byproduct of FasTracks and the future East Corridor light rail line. Enhanced bicycle and pedestrian routes with new and widened roads will be required to connect users to transit. In addition, expanded bus systems will support travel demand. 074-E re w o T. dR 64th Ave. 48th Ave. 38th Ave. 40th Ave.0 74-Es r ebma h C. dR56th Ave. 71st Ave.kr i knu D. tSayalami H. dR ennogr A. tS57th Ave. 60th Ave.l ape N. t S a p m a Y t S edir u lle T. tS yllidaci P. dR .Bolling Dr.ayal a mi H. dR36th Dr.rik nuD k .t S 165% by 203090% by 2015 150% by 203090% by 2015 130% by 203080% by 2015 Legend Investment Corridors Bike Routes and Trails Forecast Growth in Person Trips to and from Travel Shed Future Transit Station Study Area Boundry Future Transit Line Existing Transit Station Existing Transit Line Blueprint Denver Areas of Change

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OCTOBER 2008| 35 Travel Shed Stats2030:249 90 5246% Increase 190% IncreaseLane Miles Sidewalk Miles Bicycle Trail / Lane Miles in Population Growth in Person Trips2005toRecommendations Form of ImprovementImplementation Time FrameBehavioralOperationalPhysical2015 FutureMaintenance of Infrastructure Construct new traf c signals (25 locations)State highway surface treatment programMill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 5 total traf c signals, 5 bridges, 249 lane miles, alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps)Bicycle and Pedestrian System Gaps Bicycle and pedestrian facilities to support East Corridor rail stationsImprove bicycle and pedestrian trail system connecting neighborhoods and communitiesTransit Support Strategies Encourage transit ridership by adding priority treatments (FastConnects)Encourage transit-oriented developmentEnhance transit routes to serve as feeders to major transit corridorsIntroduce bus routes and bus facilities to support East Corridor commuter rail (FastConnects)Encourage new transit connections and increased bus service to support developmentProvide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stopsTransit and Roadway Improvements Identify funding for design and construction of 64th Ave./Pe Pea a Blvd. StationIdentify funding for design and construction of 72nd Ave./Dunkirk St. StationWiden 48th Ave. to four lanes with Pea Blvd. right-of-way and construct two traf c signals at the Pena rampsWiden 56th Ave. to four lanes with PeaBlvd. right-of-way and construct two traf c signals at the Pena rampsIntersection improvements at Peoria St. and 56th Ave.Intersection improvements at Chambers Rd. and 56th Ave.Reconstruct Tower Rd. bridge over First Creek to accommodate four travel lanes and a bicycle / pedestrian connection under the bridgeConstruct Telluride St. as two-lane arterial south of 56th Ave. and four-lane arterial north of 56th Ave.Widen Tower Rd. to six-lane arterialConstruct Dunkirk St. as two-lane arterial north of current terminusWiden Picadilly Rd. to four-lane arterial north of 48th Ave. and six-lane arterial south of 48th Ave.Widen 38th Ave. to four-lane arterial from Himalaya Rd. to Picadilly Rd.Widen 48th Ave. to six-lane arterial from Chambers Rd. to Picadilly Rd.Widen 56th Ave. environmental assessment implementation (Quebec St. to Havana St.)Widen 56th Ave. environmental assessment implementation (Havana St. to Pea Blvd.)Construct 64th Ave. as four-lane arterialConstruct 71st Ave. as two-lane arterial east of Tower Rd. and four-lane arterial west of Tower Rd.Construct grade-separated crossings of Pea Blvd. at 45th Ave., 51st Ave., and 60th Ave. (refer to 64th station access study for 60th Ave. grade separation)Major Improvements and Studies East Corridor FasTracksPea Blvd. NEPA studyComplete multimodal reconstruction of 56th Ave. (Investment Corridor)Complete multimodal reconstruction of Tower Rd. (Investment Corridor)Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identi cation of projects will evolve. Note 2. Refer to the glossary for de nitions of terminology.

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36|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN Hampden Travel ShedAlso refer to overlapping travel sheds: East Central, SouthwestTravel Shed Boundaries The Hampden Travel Shed is loosely bordered by Sheridan Boulevard to the west, Y ale Avenue to the north, South Yosemite Street to the east and Hampden Avenue to the south. Eight major arterials run through this travel shed: South Sheridan Boulevard, South Federal Boulevard, South Santa Fe Drive, South Broadway, South University Boulevard, South Colorado Boulevard, I-25 and Hampden Avenue. The Hampden travel shed crosses through both the East Central and Southwest travel sheds. Travel Shed Characteristics The Hampden Travel Shed has been identi ed as a major investment corridor The Hampden Avenue corridor has several changes in functional characteristics. Hampden changes from a high-speed freeway to a low-speed arterial that inhibits mobility. Unbalanced travel lanes combined with inef cient and overcapacity intersections limit mobility in the travel shed. Pedestrian facilities are substandard or missing along the corridor. Pedestrian facilities at transit stops, recreational areas, commercial areas and crossing barriers such as Santa Fe Drive are insuf cient. Trips in the Travel Shed Trips in the Hampden corridor are generally long trips or connect to two major nor th-south light rail lines, the southeast and southwest corridors. Existing light rail lines have a high number of riders. Person-trip growth rate is modest compared to other areas in the city. However, because the corridor is already congested, the increase in person trips is expected to cause deterioration in regional mobility. Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations The Hampden Travel Shed will require signi cant capital investments to achieve an incr ease in mobility. Multiple municipalities have jurisdiction over the Hampden corridor, meaning that inter-agency coordination and cooperation will be key in shaping the future of the area. Projected increased use of the southeast and southwest corridor light rail lines means that additional transit feeder/connecting systems will need to be added along with pedestrian and bicycle connections. The improvements to the corridor will be complex and regional. 177 22% by 2030 10% by 2015 9% by 2030 2% by 2015 11% by 2030 0% by 2015 14% by 2030 0% by 2015 48%by 2030 10%by 2015 -4% by 2030 -8% by 2015 n e m p o l e v e d e R d e n n a l P r e h t O 2 30 95 88 25 85 Dartmouth AverDe Fet n aSSHampden Avedvl B odarol oCS tSail haDSdvlBlare deF SdvlBnadireh SSdvl B yti srevinUSrD rev i Re tt al PSya wdao r BSdvlBl lewoLStSocanoMSd Rnoyna C yppa HtS et i me soYS rDcaram aTS tCxon K tCydarB 285 Legend Investment Corridors Bike Routes and Trails Forecast Growth in Person Trips to and from Travel Shed Future Transit Station Study Area Boundry Future Transit Line Existing Transit Station Existing Transit Line Blueprint Denver Areas of Change

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OCTOBER 2008| 37 Travel Shed Stats2030:391 259 2413% Increase 21% IncreaseLane Miles Sidewalk Miles Bicycle Trail / Lane Miles in Population Growth in Person Trips2005toRecommendations Form of ImprovementImplementation Time FrameBehavioralOperationalPhysical2015 FutureMaintenance of Infrastructure State highway surface treatment programMill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 15 total traf c signals, 20 bridges, 391 lane miles, alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps)Bicycle and Pedestrian System Gaps Bear Creek Trail Fenton St. to Lamar St.Bear Creek Trail Construction Phase 2 (Lamar St. to Wadsworth Blvd.) Bike/pedestrian bridge over Santa Fe Dr. near Englewood StationHampden Ave. sidewalk gap closures near Southmoor Station, Monaco St. & I-25Missing sidewalk: Federal Blvd., Amherst Ave. to Hampden Ave. Sheridan Blvd., just north of Hampden Ave. Hampden Ave., Wellshire Golf Course frontage Hampden Ave. from Colorado Blvd. to Happy Canyon Rd. Hampden Ave. from Happy Canyon Rd. to Dayton WaySpecial crossing on Sheridan Ave.; Quincy Ave. to Hampden Ave.Special crossing on Hampden Ave. at Raleigh St. intersectionPedestrian improvements at Hampden Ave. and Tamarac St. intersectionPedestrian improvements at Hampden Ave. and Monaco Pkwy. intersectionPedestrian improvements at Hampden Ave. and Tiffany Plaza intersectionPedestrian improvements to connect Yale Station from Highline Canal to westTransit Support Strategies Expand existing parking, build new parking at transit stations (part of TOD planning)Provide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stopsSupport existing or potential transportation management associations (TMAs) (Southeast Corridor TMA)Enhance transit routes to serve as feeders to major transit corridorsIncrease bus service on Hampden Ave. connecting southeast and southwest corridor LRT Rail (FastConnects)Implement FastConnects at Sheridan Blvd., Englewood Station and Southmoor StationOperational and Safety Strategies Yosemite St. at Jefferson Ave. intersection turn-lane improvementsEast Yale Way at Colorado Blvd. intersection turn-lane improvementsSignal upgrades on Hampden Ave. at Akron, Florence, Poplar, Roslyn, Galena, Holly, Sherman and Brady streetsRegional signal systems control (traf c signal system improvement project eligible)Transit and Roadway Improvements Widen Yale Ave. to 4 lanes from Holly St. to Monaco Pkwy.University Blvd. at Harvard St. intersection improvementsUniversity Blvd. at Hampden Ave. intersection reconstructionHappy Canyon Rd./Dahlia St. at Hampden Ave. intersection reconstructionLane balancing on southbound Havana St. from Yale Ave. to Florence St.Widen Hampden to 6 lanes from Colorado Blvd. to I-25Hampden Ave. at Knox Court grade-separated interchangeSanta Fe Blvd. at Dartmouth Ave. grade-separated interchangeHampden Ave. at Brady Court grade-separated interchangeDevelop and implement access control plans on Hampden Ave., Federal Blvd. and Sheridan Blvd.Reconstruct interchange at Hampden Ave. and Sheridan Blvd.Reconstruct interchange at Hampden Ave. and Federal Blvd.Replace Broadway bridge at Hampden Ave.Major Improvements and Studies Major investment corridor study of Hampden Ave. (NEPA) and ImplementationComplete multimodal reconstruction of Federal Blvd. (STP Investment Corridor)Complete multimodal reconstruction of Colorado Blvd. (STP Investment Corridor)Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identi cation of projects will evolve. Note 2. Refer to the glossary for de nitions of terminology.

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38|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN Northwest Travel ShedTravel Shed Boundaries The Northwest Travel Shed is loosely bordered by Sheridan Boulevard and Harlan Str eet to the west, 52nd Avenue to the north, I-25 to the east and Colfax Avenue to the south. Five major arterial roads run through this travel shed, including I-70, Federal Boulevard, Colfax Avenue and Speer Boulevard. Travel Shed Characteristics Interstate 70 and I-25 serve as barriers to connectivity in the Northwest T ravel Shed. Federal and Sheridan boulevards are key north-south corridors, while 32nd Street, 38th Street and Speer Boulevard provide connections to I-25 and Downtown Denver. The travel shed includes a large percentage of residential areas that value the walkability of their neighborhoods. Federal Boulevard, a major transit corridor in the travel shed, is designated as a commercial corridor in Blueprint Denver and serves to accommodate travel resulting from downtowns special events. Blueprint Denver designates much of this travel shed as an Area of Stability, although isolated Areas of Change exist. Trips in the Travel Shed Trips to and from Downtown Denver characterize most of the traf c in the Nor thwest Travel Shed. Other trip patterns include trips to the East Colfax Corridor, the Southwest Travel Shed and trips south toward West Colfax and 6th Avenue. Growth in person trips by the year 2030 is modest compared to other travel shed study areas. Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations Pedestrian-oriented improvements are a focus within this travel shed. Impr oved and expanded transit routes along 32nd and 38th streets as well as Speer and Federal boulevards will serve the increased travel demands in this area. Investments to Federal Boulevard should focus on transit, pedestrian amenities, safety improvements and access-control elements. Bikeways and bike facilities also should be included as this travel shed is redeveloped. L O W E L L B D3 7 T H A V H4 2 N D A V4 3 R D A V4 5 T H A V4 9 T H A V 1 7 T H A VW OL F F S TS T U A R TS TZ E N O B I A S T R A L E I G H S TQ U I T M A N S TPACK INGHOUSERDB R Y A N T S TA L C O T T S T3 4 T H A VO S C EOL A S TL A F A Y E T T E S TZ U N I S TX A V I E R S TW I NONASTV R A I N S TQ U I V A S S TS H O S H O N E S TJ A S O N S TP E N N S Y L V A N I A S TL A R I M E R S T2 1 S T S TG R O V E S TH U MB O L DT S TP A RK AVW 2 2 T H A VR I N G S B YC TW 25 T H A V 1 8 T H AV2 6 T H S T3 0 T H S T3 3 RA R K I N S C TN E W T O NSTW 2 4 T H A VC H A S E S T V A L L E J O S TG LE N A R M P LO G DEN S T2 2 N D A VM A R I O N S TM A R I P O S A STL I P A NS TM E A DE S TW AZE E ST3 1 S T S TW A T E R S TKA L A MATH S TW Y A N D O T S TU M A T I L L A S TO S AGE S TY A T E SS TN A V A J O S TE M E R SONS TD E N V E R P L5 0 T H A V5 1 S T A VB E N T O N S T2 5 T H S T4 6 T H A V S C O T T P L C L Y D E P LE L I O T S TE L M C T D E P EW S TL E AFC TU T I C A S TP E R R Y S TB E AC H C TD E C A T U R S T2 9 T H S T3 8 T H A VW 1 6 T H A V2 2 N D S TW 3 0 T H A VW 3 3 R D A V4 7 T H A V2 0 T H A VC L A R K S O NSTM C FAR LANEDR7TH S T3 3 RD S T4 0 T H A V2 03.10W 4 3 R D A V1 4 T HAVL A W R E N C E S TDENARGORDW I N O N A C TW EL T O N S TCL E A R C R E E K D R4 8 T H N AV4 5 T H A V5 3 RDPL5 3 5 0INSPIRATIONDRE L K P LE LI T C H CI3 4 T H S TT E N N Y S O N S TGL O B E V I L L ER D5 2ND A V1 3 T HS TBECKMANP LT E N N Y S O N S TL AK E S HOREDRF R A N K LIN S TSLOANLK3K I N G S T2 5 T H A V1 7 T H S T2 6 T H A V2 8 T H A VG R E E N C TC H E S T N U T S TH O O K E R S TE L A T I S TD E L G A N Y S TPL A T T E S TI R V I N G S T2 6 T H A VJ U L I A N S TK N O X C TL I N C O L N S TBAN N OCK S TR A R I T A N S TP E C O S S T3 0 T H A VG R ANT S TS H E RMA N ST4 4 T H A V 4 1 S T A VB A L D W I N C TP E RRY S TB A N N O C K S T.1 9 T H S T4 4THS T3 5 T H S TRIOCTSP EER B DS T O U T S TS LOANLK1SLOANLK4B R I G H T O N B D1 2 T H S T2 7 T H S TP E A R L S TW 3 5 T H A VAU RARIASPYW 1 7 T HAVW 4 1 S T A VH U R O N S T25 3 R D A V5 2 N D A VL OGA N S TAU R A R I A NPY5 3 A2 1 STA V4 8 T H D R4 0 TH ST2 7 THA VDIXIEP L14 T H A V1 6 T H S T2 2 N D A VE R I E S T1 8 T H STJ A V A C TW A D S W O R T H B D2203.50P I E R C E S T2 0 3 6 05 3W A SH I N G TON S TS H ERM A NS TLOG A NSTLINCOLN S TC O R ON A S T3 8THS TF O X S TA M E SST2 3 R DA VP E A R L S TWY NK O O P S TC H A M P A S TC A L I F O RN I A STC U R T I S S TT R E MON TPLT E J ONS TD ENA R G O STC LAY S TM AR K ET S TD OWNIN GSTS P E E R S B D1 9 T H A VS P E E R NB D2 4 T H A V31S T A V2 9 T H A V2 8TH S T3 2 N D A V14 T H S T1 7 T H A V1 6 T H A V 1 3 T HAV W A S H I N G T O N S TC OURT PL3 2 N D S TMA R S H A L L S T3 5 T H A VH A R L A N ST3 8 T H A VB L A KE S T20 T H AV24 T H S TA R A P A H O E S TB R O A D WAY5 4AV2 0TH S T1 5 T H S TW A L NUTS TTE N N Y S N S T4 4 T H AV 14% by 2030 0% by 2015 12.5%by 2030 7.5% by 2015 287 25 70 25 95 Legend Investment Corridors Bike Routes and Trails Forecast Growth in Person Trips to and from Travel Shed Future Transit Station Study Area Boundry Future Transit Line Existing Transit Station Existing Transit Line Blueprint Denver Areas of Change

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OCTOBER 2008| 39 Travel Shed Stats2030:471 334 2610% Increase 21% IncreaseLane Miles Sidewalk Miles Bicycle Trail / Lane Miles in Population Growth in Person Trips2005toRecommendations Form of ImprovementImplementation Time FrameBehavioralOperationalPhysical2015 FutureMaintenance of Infrastructure State highway surface treatment programMill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 50 total traf c signals, 43 bridges, 471 lane miles, alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps)Bicycle and Pedestrian System Gaps Construct missing sidewalk connections (Sheridan Blvd. from 17th to 25th streets) Sidewalk and pedestrian amenity improvements along Federal Blvd.Bicycle commuter marketing campaignClear Creek bike trail adjacent to 48th Ave.Denver portion of grade separation of 52nd Ave. at Clear CreekAdd bike lanes on 16th St. north of Highlands pedestrian bridge43rd Ave. bridge across BNSF lineInca St. bike/pedestrian bridge over 38th Ave. underpass: Inca St. alignmentSidewalk and pedestrian amenities on Tennyson St. between 38th and 44th streetsTransit Support Strategies Provide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stopsTransit enhancements on 38th Ave.Transit enhancements on Federal Blvd.Transit enhancements on 32nd Ave./Speer Blvd.Complete a transit station study for the RTD Gold Line stop in DenverOperational and Safety Strategies Safety improvements at 38th Ave. and Federal Blvd.Safety improvements at 32nd Ave. and Speer Blvd.Signal upgrades on Sheridan Blvd. at 26th St.Signal upgrades on Federal Blvd. at 44th St.Add a traf c signal at Lakeside Amusement Park (on Sheridan Blvd.)Add ITS along Federal Blvd. from Colfax Ave. to Speer Blvd.Add VMS at Invesco Field access pointsEnhance incident management routes for 6th Ave. using ITSTransit and Roadway Improvements Widen Pecos St. from I-70 to 52nd St.38th Ave. and Sheridan Blvd. intersection improvements38th Ave. underpass enhancementsSheridan Blvd. at Colfax Ave. intersection improvementsMajor Improvements and Studies Complete multimodal reconstruction of Federal Blvd. (STP investment corridor)Northwest Rail FasTracks U.S. 36 Bus Rapid Transit FasTracksGold Line FasTracksComplete multimodal reconstruction of 38th Ave. (STP investment corridor)Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identi cation of projects will evolve. Note 2. Refer to the glossary for de nitions of terminology.

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40|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN River North Travel ShedTravel Shed Boundaries The River North Travel Shed is loosely bordered by I-25 to the west; I-70 to the nor th; Josephine, Williams and Downing streets to the east; Park Avenue to the southwest; and Welton Street to the southeast. Four major arterial roads run through this travel shed, including I-25, I-70, Park Avenue and Brighton Boulevard/Broadway. Travel Shed Characteristics Much of the River North Travel Shed is designated as an Area of Change by Blueprint Denver The area is isolated from central Denver with fewer intersects to main arterials, which makes travel more of a challenge. I-25, I-70, the Platte River and railroad lines all serve as barriers to connectivity between the River North Travel Shed and surrounding areas. Most of the streets in this study area follow downtowns diagonal street grid, which leads to complicated intersections at the boundaries of the shed where streets meet the traditional grid pattern. Trips in the Travel Shed The River North Travel Shed is largely free from congestion, although minor congestion exists at the intersections of Park A venue West and Broadway; 38th and Downing streets; and 38th Street and Brighton Boulevard. Congestion is expected to increase at these intersections along with anticipated growth. Currently there is adequate pedestrian and bicycle mobility within established residential neighborhoods and recently redeveloped areas. However, much of the area remains industrial and could bene t from the enhancement of multimodal facilities. The Central Corridor light rail line runs along the eastern edge of the travel shed. Growth of person trips is anticipated at higher rates than other study areas since the shed is predominantly designated as an Area of Change by Blueprint Denver. Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations The River North Travel Shed has changed signi cantly in recent years and will continue to r edevelop and rejuvenate. Development in the area has triggered an interest in multimodal transportation options. Improvements in this area should focus on bicycle and pedestrian connections to the new commuter rail station that is planned within the travel sheds boundaries as well as implementing the vision of Blueprint Denver. SOUTH PLATTE RIV ER R 5 2 % b y 203 0 28% 28% b y 201 5 5 1 % y b y 2030 25 % b y 2 0 1 5 2 0 % b y 20 1 5 12 % by 2 0 3 0 1 4 % by 203 0 030 0 030 2 0% b y 203 0 Legend Investment Corridors Bike Routes and Trails Forecast Growth in Person Trips to and from Travel Shed Future Transit Station Study Area Boundry Future Transit Line Existing Transit Station Existing Transit Line Blueprint Denver Areas of Change

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OCTOBER 2008| 41 Travel Shed Stats2030:106 56 1296% Increase 35% IncreaseLane Miles Sidewalk Miles Bicycle Trail / Lane Miles in Population Growth in Person Trips2005toRecommendations Form of ImprovementImplementation Time FrameBehavioralOperationalPhysical2015 FutureMaintenance of Infrastructure State highway surface treatment programMill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 20 total traf c signals, 7 bridges, 106 lane miles, alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb rampsBicycle and Pedestrian System Gaps 46th Ave. Platte River connection47th Ave. & York St. bike/pedestrian crossing of Union Paci c RailroadCole/Clayton neighborhood connections across 40th Ave.40th Ave. bus stop and sidewalk improvements43rd Ave. bike and pedestrian bridgeCurtis Park connection to Platte River TrailInclude pedestrian amenities in Denargo Market/29th Ave. areaTransit Support Strategies 38th Ave./Blake St. Station operational study (next phase)Swansea Station master planEncourage high-density and mixed-use developments that support increased transit service (38th Ave./Blake St.)Provide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stopsOperational and Safety Strategies Welton St. signal improvements based on I-70 East Corridor rail changesRevisit 2-way conversion project recommendations based on future infastructure improvements (I-70 East)Transit and Roadway Improvements Reconstruct Brighton Blvd. from 31st to 44th streets (including medians and sidewalk)31st St. & Brighton Blvd. intersection improvementArkins and 31st St. signalization with Denargo Market (29th St. and Brighton Blvd.)Downing/Marion/38th streets geometric and signal improvementsCreate double left eastbound 40th St. to northbound Josephine St.Major Improvements and Studies North Corridor FasTracks38th St. roadway widening from Blake St. to Brighton Blvd.Additional river crossing (35th or 36th streets)Potential I-70 East EIS realignment will require improvements to 46th Ave.Washington St. improved to 4 lanes from 47th to 52nd avenuesComplete multimodal reconstruction of Brighton Blvd./N. Broadway (STP Investment Corridor)Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identi cation of projects will evolve. Note 2. Refer to the glossary for de nitions of terminology.

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42|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLANTravel Shed Boundaries The Southwest Travel Shed is loosely bordered by Wadsworth Boulevar d to the west; Colfax Avenue to the north; I-25, Tejon Street, Lipan Street, Logan Street and Santa Fe Drive to the east; and Bowles Avenue to the south. Seven major arterial roads run through this travel shed, including 6th Avenue, Colfax Avenue, Alameda Avenue, Evans Avenue, Federal Boulevard, Sheridan Boulevard and Hampden Avenue. The Hampden Travel Shed overlaps with the southern portion of the Southwest Travel Shed. Travel Shed Characteristics There is a strong industrial presence in this travel shed as well as a major and highly utilized bike path along the South Platte River Designated investment corridors according to Blueprint Denver include Federal Boulevard, Alameda Avenue and Evans Avenue. The area north of Alameda is designated as an Area of Change. Trips in the Travel Shed Travel patterns in the Southwest Travel Shed are predominantly to and fr om Downtown Denver and the West Colfax/6th Avenue corridor. Federal Boulevard serves as a continuous north-south corridor while Alameda and Evans serve as continuous east-west routes that support cross-town transit. Growth in person trips is modest compared to other study areas. Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations Improvements in the Southwest Travel Shed need to address cr oss-town trips along Hampden and Evans avenues and improve connectivity and reliability of transit in the area. Federal Boulevard improvements should focus on enhancements to transit, pedestrian amenities, safety improvements and access control. Improvements along Evans Avenue should address transit, freight issues, safety improvements and traf c operations elements. Recommendations for Hampden Avenue include transportation demand and traf c management efforts to address the increasing congestion. Alameda Avenue requires additional traf c operations and safety elements. Finally, improvements to pedestrian and bicycle connections are recommended for all Areas of Change. Southwest Travel ShedAlso refer to overlapping travel shed: Hampden K E N T U C K Y A VI R V I N G S TQ U I N C Y A VT E J O N S TR A L E I G H S T1 4 T H A VF E D E RA L B DB O W L E SA VZ U N I S TDARTMOUTHAVB R O A D W A Y1 STHURONSTNAVA JOSTPIE RCEWYBUCHTELBDL A M A R S TZU N I S TH A M I L T O N P LL O W E L L B D L I P A N S TA L A MEDAAVK N O X C TM I S S I S S I P P I A VM O R R I S O NRDFLORI D A A VHRVARDAV2 N D A V Y A L E A VP E R R Y S TG R A N T S TO S A G E S TILIFF AVFF L O R I D AAF R A NK L I N S TP A T T O N C TB ROA D W A Y F O X S TH A R L A N S TE M E R S O N S TC L A R K S O N S T1 0 T H A VD O W NIN G S TGIRARD AVE X P O S I T I O NA VJ E W E L L A VSP E E RSB DP I E R C E S TPLATTERIVERDRL O U I S I A N A A VL OW EL L B DLouisiana AveT E N N Y S O NS TL O G A N S TS H O S H O N E S TS H E R I D A N B DM I S S I S S I PP I A VB RYA N T STH A M P D E N A VKNOX C TI A6th AveT U F T S A VS A N T A F E D R3 R D A VMA I N S TKAL AMA T HSTL I N C O L N S TQ U I NC YA VB R O A DWA YD E C A T U R S TFLOYD AV1 S T A VD A R T M O U T HALAMEDA AVL O G ANS T R I N C ES TELA T I S TEV A N S A VB E L LEVIEW1 3 T H A VWI N D E M ER E S TC LA R K SO N S TSP E E R N B DC O R O N A S TWA S H I N G T O N S TYO R K ST11 T H A V8T H AVFord Ave. 14% 0% 11% by 2030 1% by 2015 11.5%by 2030 2% 6 285 26 88 A by 2015 25 85 Legend Investment Corridors Bike Routes and Trails Forecast Growth in Person Trips to and from Travel Shed Future Transit Station Study Area Boundry Future Transit Line Existing Transit Station Existing Transit Line Blueprint Denver Areas of Change

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OCTOBER 2008| 43 Travel Shed Stats2030:761 547 5713% Increase 19% IncreaseLane Miles Sidewalk Miles Bicycle Trail / Lane Miles in Population Growth in Person Trips2005toRecommendations Form of ImprovementImplementation Time FrameBehavioralOperationalPhysical2015 FutureMaintenance of Infrastructure State highway surface treatment programMill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 40 total traf c signals, 55 bridges, 761 lane miles, alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps)Bicycle and Pedestrian System GapsBike/pedestrian bridge over Santa Fe Dr., Kalamath St., CML, I-25 and South Platte River along Bayaud Ave.Bikeway along Quincy Ave. from Lowell Blvd. to Pierce St.Bike connection to Grant RanchGrade-separated crossing on Alameda Ave. for Weir Gulch TrailIliff Ave. bridge connection to Evans LRT stationAt-grade link to Florida TrailTransit Support Strategies Alameda Station: S. Cherokee St. bike/pedestrian pathTransit enhancements on Federal Blvd.Enhance transit routes to serve as feeders to major transit corridorsConduct a transit station study to determine the space available for expansion and enhancement (Evans, Alameda)Provide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stopsOperational and Safety Strategies Alameda Ave./Morrison Rd./Knox Ct. southside signal changes and bulb outsAdd ITS from Dartmouth Ave. to North Federal Blvd. along Alameda Ave./Morrison Rd./Knox Ct.Retime signals along Evans Ave. from Federal Blvd. to Lowell Blvd.Transit and Roadway Improvements Broadway/I-25 NEPA implementationBroadway reconstruction: Iowa to Asbury Ave. Wesley to Yale Ave. Asbury to Wesley Ave.Gates redevelopmentQuincy Avenue between Pierce St. and Sheridan Blvd.Iowa Ave. underpass improvements between Broadway St. and Santa Fe Dr. including bike and pedestrian connectionsAlameda Ave. from Santa Fe Dr. to Lincoln St.Santa Fe Dr./Kalamath St./CML UnderpassEvans Ave. operational improvements: Broadway St. to Evans Ave. LRT StationAlameda Ave. widening from Lipan St. to Santa Fe Dr.Major Improvements and Studies Complete multimodal reconstruction of Federal Blvd. (STP investment corridor)Complete multimodal reconstruction of Alameda Ave. (STP investment corridor)Complete multimodal reconstruction of Evans Ave. (STP investment corridor)Valley Highway EIS Implementation including Federal Blvd. from 5th to 7th avenues, Phase I & II record of decisionNote 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identi cation of projects will evolve. Note 2. Refer to the glossary for de nitions of terminology.

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44|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN Speer / Leetsdale Travel ShedTravel Shed Boundaries The Speer/Leetsdale Travel Shed follows the corridor from 14th Avenue and Speer Boulevar d to the north, along 1st Avenue to Steele Street, to Alameda Avenue, to Leetsdale Drive, to Parker Road in the south. The travel shed includes all surrounding areas. Several major arterial roads cross the travel shed, including Broadway, Lincoln Street, University Boulevard, Colorado Boulevard and Monaco Parkway. Several arterial roads that do not cross the corridor are considered a part of this travel shed, including 6th Avenue, 8th Avenue, Alameda Avenue and Cherry Creek Drive. The Speer/Leetsdale Travel Shed crosses through the Central Denver and East Colfax travel sheds. Travel Shed Characteristics The Speer/Leetsdale Travel Shed spans 15 long-established neighborhoods. The Cherr y Creek trail system is a major bicycle and pedestrian amenity for the city, although the creek serves as a barrier to street-grid connectivity in the travel shed. Trips in the Travel Shed Speer Boulevard carries high volumes of traf c between the Cherry Cr eek area and downtown Denver. In 2005, 57% of travel in this shed was pass-through trips, and the number is expected to increase to 60% by 2030. Demands on this corridors transportation system are expected to grow while traf c volume is expected to increase moderately. The greatest increase is anticipated north of Alameda between Colorado Boulevard and Quebec Street. Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations Due to the projected increases in traf c congestion, the Speer/ Leetsdale T ravel Shed was designated a major investment corridor. Considerations in this area include increased bicycle and pedestrian connections, improved bus service, HOV or transit bypass lanes and xed guideway transit systems such as light rail or streetcar. E1 ST A V EEB UCH T E LBL VDE ALAMEDA AVEE IRVINGTON PLS PL ATTE RIVERDRE EX PO SI T I O N AVEP OL O CLUB D RP O LO F I E L D LNE L EETSD A L EDRSQ U INCE STN S PEER B L V DEL O W R Y B L V DSGRA P E S TE C HERRY C R EEK DRNN KRAMER IA S TS M O NR OE WA YEARIZ O N A AVES H AR R ISO N L NS JA C KSONS TSO N EI D A W A YSH A R R I S O N S TS H U D SON STS EU D O RA S TN J AS M IN E S TS ELM STP O LO CLU B R DSIVYS TS J AS M INE STN MONACO STREET PK W YSGA RFIE L D S TS JERSEY STS HOLL Y STNJ E RSEY STNMA GNOLIA STS BROADW AYN L E YDEN STS FO R EST STH WBEKE N TU CK YAVEW AL AM EDA AVENK E A R N E Y S TE VI R G INI A AVEE 9TH A VES G LE N CO E S TW FL O RI D A A VES BIRCH STH YDE PA R K CI RN I VY S TS P A RKE R RDE ALA M E D A AVESLE YD E N S TS JAS MI N EWA YSQ U E B E C S TS F AIRF A X S TS CHEROKEE S TS I VA NH OE WAYN O NEIDASTN ELATI STN I V ANHOE S TESPO RTS B LVDN NIAGARA STS O LI VE W A YE LO U I SI A N A A V EN JOSE P H I N E STE WYOMING PLE ARKANSAS AV EN Y O RK S TE C O LO RA DO A VEE U T A H P LN ROSEMARY STS K E A R N E Y S TNL O C U S T S TE K A N S A S D RS J OSEPHINE STS MEDEA WA YNGAY LO R D S T N VINE STN R ACE S TE WYOM I N GPLS J E R S E Y WA YSMA G NOLIA L NE CHE R R Y C R E E K D R SS IVY WAYE M I SSI S SI P PIAVEE8 T H PLE LOUI S I A N A AVES FLAMI NG O C TN C L ERM O NT STEMO N TA N A P LE MEX I C O AV E W I O WA A V ENE U D OR A STN H U D SO N STNF ORES TS TN G R A PE S TN GLENCO E S TNHO LLY S TN FA I RF AX STN E LMSTN U I NTA W A YEW ALSH P LN PO PLA RS TS V A LENTIA S TS F R A N K LI N STS IVY S TEC HERRYCREEK DR NNC LARK S O N S TS F ILL M O R E WA YN EME RSON S T N OG DE N STN A SH STS KR AM E RIA STN BE LL AIR ES TN ALBIO NSTNBIR C HSTS CLAYTON WA YN CHER R YSTE8TH AV ES LOCU S T STN O R AN G E CTNDAH L IAS TN S P RUCE STND E X T E R S TS J A SM I NE S TE C E D AR AV EEM APLE AVES GA R FI E LD STE1 1T H AV EN IVY L NE 1S T P LN O LIVE S TNP O N TIACS TN S PRUCECTS DAHLIA STS DE X TE R W AYE F LO RID AA VES RO SE MARY S TN QUIN C E STE MEXICO AVE HUR ON STS B ANNOCKS TS ASH S TEMON T A NAP LS PEARL STS PONTI AC WA YS S TEE LE S TS HUDSON STS POPLAR W AYS LOCUS T S TE 6 T H PLS SHERMAN STW BYERS PL W MAPLE AVESK R A ME RI A S TWC E DAR A V EE 6 TH A V ES GR ANT STS KEA R N EY STW BAYAUD AVEW A R CHER P LNMA R IO N S TSS TEE L E S TS L O GAN STS L EY D EN S TE B A YAUD AVEN RAM P A RT W A YW NE V ADAP LSC O R O NASTS O G D E N S TW ALASKA PLSD O WNING S TS EMERSON STW DAKOTA AVES R AC ES TSGIL PIN STND OWN I N GSTS FIL LMOR E S TSLI N CO L N STNROSL Y NC TS YORK STN G I LP I NSTS A COM A STSMA R ION S TS AL BI O NSTS WILL IAMS ST S GAYLORD STN W IL LIAM SSTS VINE STN F R A NKL I N STS B I R CH STS BEL L AIRE STS C L A Y TONST S H IG H S TS UNI V E RSIT Y BLV DSY OR K S TEOH M WAYSGA YLORD STS AD AM S S TSMADISON S T SMON R OE STS R ACE STS LO G A N STS FOX STS D OWNING S TN C OR ON A STN BRO ADWAYS CO O KS TSVIN E ST S FRANKL IN S TSOG DE N S TS EM ERSON STNB A N N O C K STNL IN C OLN S T NS H E R M A N S T SCOR O N A S TN FOX STN G RANT STNDETROI T STN LOG ANS TSGILPINS TN F I L LMO RE S TN P EARL STE SEVERN DRNA C OMA STN GARF IEL DS T N S T EELE STES E VE R NP LE 7TH AVEEB AYAU D AV ENJ A CKS ONS TN AD AM S STNC OO K STN C L AYTO N STNMONROES TN MADISON S TS ELATI STSS H E R MA NS TSLI NC O LN S TS G R A N T S TNR A C E S TW 8 T H A V ENV INE STS PE A R L STNC I R C LE DRS E U D OR A S TNL OGA N ST SF A I R FAX S T SFORE STS TS E LM STSG INGE R CTE 1STA V EE G ILL P LSQUEB E C S TE OHI O A V EE B YER SA VEN T R E N TON STN I VY S TN U L STER S TNR O S LYN STN WILLOW ST NV ER B E N AS TNWA B A SH ST NU IN T A STE 9TH A V EE1 S T AVEN INCA STES P E ER B LVDN FOX STE C HE R RY CR EE K DRSN GRAN T S TS M O N RO E STN I V AN HO E S TSRO SLYN S TN MARIPOSA STS C OV EW A YE IOW A AV ES POPLAR STSOL IVES TS A LBIO N S TS PO NTI A C S TN ON E I DA P LE C U STER P LE VA LE D RE IOWA AVES F IL B ERT C TE6TH AV E N U EP K W YN R O SLYN S TE 1 0TH AVEE AL A SKA DRW 4TH AVEE 3RD AV EW1 ST A V ES ROSLYN STE 9TH AV EI 25 NBSH I G H S TE K E N TUCK Y C IRW 7TH AVEW9 THA V E E 1 2T H AVEW 11TH AVEW13 T HA V EW 10TH AVEW12THA V ES C HE R R YS TE 3R D A V ENQ UEBEC STP OLO C LUB C I RE 5TH AVEE 4 TH AVEW2 N D AV E W 5 T H A VE W3 RD AVEN RACECTE 13 TH AVE E 14TH AVEE 7 T H AVEE8 TH AVEEIOWA AVEPO LO CLUB LNE 2 ND A V E E1 1THAVESU L S T ER STE 1 4 T H A VEE 6THA V EE 5T H AVEE 10TH AVEE 8TH A VEE 3RD AVE E MISSISSIPPI AVEE14TH A V E E6 T HAV EE 3RD PLE 2 N D A V EE5T HAV EE 4TH AVE E2ND A VEEOH I O A VEE 11TH AVEE 12TH A V EE 8 T H AVEE 13TH AVEE 1 3 T HAV E E 14TH AV EE 10TH AVEE 7TH AVEE OHIO AVEE 1 2 T H AVEE 13T H AVEE 1 1T H A V EE 4THA V EE 4 THA V EE F A I R M OUNT D RS D EXTE R S TS T RE NTON S TS O N EID AS TSQ U E B E C W AYW 14TH AVEN HIGH STN S Y RAC USE S TS KA LA M ATHSTE 5 T H A VES SAN TA FE DRE CEDAR AVEN LIPAN STS N I AGARA STEF L ORIDAA V E 25 85 2 83 4% by 2015 11% by 2030 5% by 2015 8% by 2030 6% by 2015 10% by 2030 5% by 2015 5% by 2030 Legend Investment Corridors Bike Routes and Trails Forecast Growth in Person Trips to and from Travel Shed Future Transit Station Study Area Boundry Future Transit Line Existing Transit Station Existing Transit Line Blueprint Denver Areas of Change Also refer to overlapping travel sheds: Central Denver, East Central

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OCTOBER 2008| 45 Travel Shed Stats2030:501 296 4319% Increase 15% IncreaseLane Miles Sidewalk Miles Bicycle Trail / Lane in Population Growth in Person Trips2005toRecommendations Form of ImprovementImplementation Time FrameBehavioralOperationalPhysical2015 FutureMaintenance of Infrastructure Complete radium street repavement within the travel shedMill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 50 total traf c signals, 14 bridges, 501 lane miles, alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps)State highway surface treatment programBicycle and Pedestrian System Gaps Cherry Creek trail safety upgrades (along 1st Ave. from Downing St. to University Blvd.)Cherry Creek trail elimination of at-grade road crossings at Holly St. and Monaco Pkwy.1st Ave. streetscape (Steele St. to Colorado Blvd.)Leetsdale Blvd./Kearney St. bicycle/pedestrian overpassBike trail through Burns Park with improved Leetsdale Blvd. crossing at Cedar Ave.Highline Canal Trail grade separation at Leetsdale Blvd. (coordinate w/ intersection reconstruction project)Widen sidewalks on Colorado Blvd. bridge over Cherry CreekPedestrian crossing improvements along 1st Ave between University Blvd. and Steele St.Pedestrian crossing improvements at 1st Ave./Steele St., Ellsworth Ave./Steele St., and Bayaud Ave./Steele St.Bike stations at major activity centersPedestrian districts with gateway treatments and wider sidewalks around high-priority areas (Cherry Creek shopping center & Cherry Creek North)Transit Support Strategies Provide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stopsImplement transit-signal priority at traf c signals (FastConnects)Support existing or potential transportation management associations (TMAs)Enhance transit routes to serve as feeders to major transit corridorsEncourage transit ridership by adding pedestrian/bicycle connections to surrounding communityOperational and Safety Strategies Regional signal system controls (traf c signal system improvement project eligible)Mark pedestrian and bicycle facilities and bus stops clearlyTurn-lane improvements at arterial-arterial and arterial-collector intersectionInitiate red light, neighborhood cut-through and speed enforcementPhysical/operational improvements at high hazard locationsIncrease promotion and marketing of new programsTransit and Roadway Improvements Widen Alameda Ave. from Steele St. to Colorado Blvd.Cherry Creek Drive South street reconstruction (University Blvd. to Colorado Blvd.)Leetsdale Blvd./Colorado Blvd./Bayaud Ave. intersection reconstructionLeetsdale Blvd./Parker Rd./Mississippi Ave. intersection reconstructionLeetsdale Blvd./Quebec St. intersection reconstructionLeetsdale Blvd./Monaco Pkwy. intersection reconstruction (potentially grade-separated)Develop access control plans along arterial corridorsDedicated bus lanes or separate busways (FastConnects)Consider HOV lanes on arterial streetsConsider installation of landscaped medians during all improvement projectsMajor Improvements and Studies Major investment corridor study of Speer Blvd./Leetsdale Blvd. (NEPA) and implementationComplete multimodal reconstruction of Colorado Blvd.Complete multimodal reconstruction of Broadway/Lincoln streetsNote 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identi cation of projects will evolve. Note 2. Refer to the glossary for de nitions of terminology.

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46|DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLAN West Side Travel ShedTravel Shed Boundaries The West Side Travel Shed is loosely bordered by Sheridan Boulevard to the west, 17th A venue to the north, I-25 to the east and 1st Avenue to the south. Five major arterial roads run through this travel shed, including Sheridan Boulevard, Federal Boulevard, Colfax Avenue, I-25 and 6th Avenue. Travel Shed Characteristics Major arterial roads in the West Side Travel Shed are state or interstate highways. I-25, 6th A venue and Lakewood/Dry Gulch serve as barriers to connectivity in the West Side Travel Shed due to limited exits and transects in the street system. Traf c is funneled to major arteries that cross I-25 and 6th Avenue. Uncontrolled turns from driveways, unbalanced or narrow lanes, substandard or missing sidewalks, and missing bicycle connections characterize many of the roads in this area. Trips in the Travel Shed More than 86% of trips in the West Side Travel Shed are pass-through trips. The total number of person trips in this shed will incr ease to more than 18% by 2030, according to estimates. Trips originating in the travel shed are expected to increase at a faster rate than passthrough trips. Travel Shed Improvement Recommendations The West Corridor light rail line is expected to increase east-west capacity to satisfy person-trip demand by 2030. However increasing north-south demand is expected to exceed capacity by 2030. Redevelopment work for the West Corridor light rail line should include providing better access to light rail stations, increased connectivity for bicycle and pedestrian paths, and increased north-south street connections. 20% by 2030 7% by 2015 22% by 2030 11% by 2015 18% by 2030 0% by 2015 19% by 2030 7% by 2015 Invesco Field at Mile HighdvlBl are d eFColfax Ave W 17th Ave W 14thAve W 13th AvetSyrreP tCxonKW 10th Ave W 6th Ave W 2nd Ave W 1st AveevAht8 WtSrutac eD tSinuZSt. Anthony Hospital 287 6 40 40 287 25 95 88 Legend Investment Corridors Bike Routes and Trails Forecast Growth in Person Trips to and from Travel Shed Future Transit Station Study Area Boundry Future Transit Line Existing Transit Station Existing Transit Line Blueprint Denver Areas of Change

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OCTOBER 2008| 47 Travel Shed Stats2030:260 127 2021% Increase 23% IncreaseLane Miles Sidewalk Miles Bicycle Trail / Lane Miles in Population Growth in Person Trips2005toRecommendations Form of ImprovementImplementation Time FrameBehavioralOperationalPhysical2015 FutureMaintenance of Infrastructure Mill levy program (eligible maintenance infrastructure includes 20 aging signals, 29 aging bridges, 260 lane miles, alleys, signs and markings, curbs and gutters, curb ramps) State highway surface treatment program Bicycle and Pedestrian System Gaps Construct missing sidewalk on Sheridan Blvd. from 15th to 17th avenues, and 10th to 15th avenues 10th Ave. and Osage St. pedestrian improvements Special pedestrian crossing improvements on Colfax Ave. Extension of Lakewood Gulch trail to the west through Lakewood Additional north-south crossings of Weir Gulch Transit Support Strategies Provide improved shelters, lighting, benches and amenities at bus stops Encourage transit ridership by enhancing bus stops Knox Ct. bicycle & pedestrian connection to West Corridor Light Rail Station Bike & pedestrian connections at light rail transit stops Bike lockers and racks at light rail transit stops Encourage high density and mixed-use developments that support increased transit service (Decatur TOD) Encourage redevelopment as high-density and mixed-use that works well with transit Implement pedestrian and transit improvements along West Colfax within the existing BID Operational and Safety Strategies Signal retiming on Federal Blvd. Regional signal system controls (traf c signal systems improvement project eligible)Turn lane construction at Federal Blvd. at 10th Ave.Incident management (6th Ave. alternate routes project)Special event traf c management (Invesco Field at Mile High)Transit and Roadway Improvements Lane balancing (Federal Blvd., 7th Ave. to Colfax Ave.) Intersection improvements: Sheridan Blvd. at 1st Ave. Sheridan Blvd. at 6th Ave. Sheridan Blvd. at 10th Ave. Sheridan Blvd. at Colfax Ave. Develop and implement access control plans on Federal Blvd., Sheridan Blvd., and Colfax Ave. Additional north-south street crossing of Lakewood Gulch between Perry St. and Sheridan Blvd. Increase transit service through new bus routes (FastConnects) Local circulator service to/from special event venues and LRT stations New transit connections and increased bus service in developing areas Major Improvements and Studies Valley Highway EIS implementation including Federal Blvd. from 5th to 7th avenues (See Southwest) Federal Blvd. EA implementation, Alameda Ave. to 5th Ave. (CDOT) West Corridor Light Rail transit design & construction (RTD-FasTracks) New bridge for West Corridor Light Rail at Sheridan Blvd. New bridge for West Corridor Light Rail at Federal Blvd. Complete multimodal reconstruction of Federal Blvd. (STP investment corridor) Complete multimodal reconstruction of Colfax Ave. (STP investment corridor) Note 1. Funding for implementation of the projects noted as future has yet to be determined. Prioritization and identi cation of projects will evolve. Note 2. Refer to the glossary for de nitions of terminology.

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48 | DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLANAccessibility: A measure of the ability of all people to travel among various origins and destinations, especially focusing on the extent to which facilities ar e barrier-free and useable by all, especially persons with disabilities, including wheelchair users. Access control: Control of movement onto or off roadways. Strategies include restricting the intersections and interchanges of other str eets, restricting or limiting the number of driveways, or controlling these entrance points in some manner, as with traf c signs, signals or raised medians. Partial-access restriction that gives preference to through traf c. Air pollution: The presence of unwanted material in the air in suf cient amounts and under such circumstances as to potentially interfere with human comfor t, health or welfare, or with full use and enjoyment of property. Alternative modes: Modes of transportation other than automobile. Includes bus and rail transit, carpool, motorcycle or scooter, bicycle, and pedestrian modes. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): A federal civil rights law enacted in 1990 that mandates the provision of access to public facilities for persons with disabilities. Title 2 of the law applies to transpor tation facilities and transit vehicles. Area of Change: Blueprint Denver de nes an Area of Change as a place where growth and change are either desirable or underway. Many of the Ar eas of Change are near existing or future transit stations where transit-oriented development (TOD) is desired. Others are large new development or redevelopment areas such as Downtown Denver, Stapleton Redevelopment, Lowry Redevelopment, and Gateway/Green Valley Ranch. Areas of Stability: Blueprint Denver describes Areas of Stability as fairly stable residential neighborhoods where minimal change is expected during the next 20 years. These ar eas include the vast majority of Denver. The goal is to maintain the character of these areas, yet accommodate some new development and redevelopment. Some Areas of Stability need public infrastructure, additional services or investment in housing to maintain and improve quality of life. Others need development and design standards to maintain their character. Average Daily Traf c (ADT): The total volume of traf c during a given time period divided by the number of days in that time period equals the average traf c in a one-day time period. Average Wait Time (AWT): Average time spent by passengers at a station or bus stop waiting for transit service. Average Weekday (AWD): A measurement of average traf c conditions during any one weekday, i.e., Monday through Friday. Barnes Dance: The innovative concept of halting all traf c at an intersection and allowing pedestrians to cross in any direction, including diagonally. Behavioral Strategies: A set of strategies designed to encourage the public to change their travel choices and use of transportation facilities. Blueprint Denver: Blueprint Denver is the rst step in implementing the vision of Denvers Comprehensive Plan 2000. It serves as an integrated land use and transpor tation plan and was adopted in 2002 as a supplement to the Comprehensive Plan. Key land use concepts include directing growth and redevelopment to Areas of Change, while preserving Areas of Stability. The major transportation concepts include identi cation of Enhanced Transit Corridors, implementation of the FasTracks rail system, and the designation of multimodal streets that are based on land use function rather than just transportation classi cation. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT): Buses using and occupying a separate right-of-way for the exclusive use of public transportation services. A transit mode that combines the quality of rail transit and the exibility of buses. BRT vehicles can operate on bus lanes, HOV lanes, expressways or on ordinary streets. In addition, BRT vehicles are designed to allow rapid passenger loading and unloading, with more doors than ordinary buses. Capacity: A measure that accesses the ability to hold and accommodate a certain volume of traf c. For example: The number of trains or buses that a station can handle in a given time period; or The number of passengers who can be served in a given time period on a bus, other transit vehicle or station; or The number of passengers who can be served in a given time period at a given service level on a par ticular transit service; or The number of passengers who can be served in a given time period at a given service level in one direction; or The number of automoblies that can be handled per lane per hour. Capital Improvements Program (CIP): Denvers Capital Improvements Program (CIP) provides direction for both the acquisition of new major assets and the r epair and rehabilitation of existing assets. These assets include the citys parks, roads, public art, theaters, curbs and gutters, sidewalks, traf c signals, bike paths, sewer lines, airport, parking spaces, buildings, etc. all commonly known as infrastructure. The funding sources for these capital expenditures are extremely diverse. They include general obligation and revenue bonds; federal and state grants; private funds; certi cates of participation; tax-increment nancing; revenue from special revenue and enterprise funds; and annually appropriated capital funds. Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT): The state agency responsible for planning, building and maintaining Colorado's highway and bridge transpor tation system (formerly the Colorado Department of Highways). Commuter rail: Commuter rail is a transit mode that is a multiple-car, electricor diesel-propelled train. It is typically used for local, longer -distance travel between a central city and adjacent suburbs, and can operate alongside existing freight or passenger rail lines or in exclusive rights of way. Community Values (CVs): Part of the STPs public involvement process, the community values list re ects what is important to the community and how these values should be applied to decisions about the futur e transportation system.Glossary

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OCTOBER 2008 | 49Congestion: Condition on any transportation network or facility that occurs as a measurement of how the use of the automobile affects speeds, trip times and queuing. Congestion occurs anytime traf c demand is great enough so that the interaction between vehicles slows the speed of the traf c stream. As demand approaches the capacity of a road (or of the intersections along the road), extreme traf c congestion sets in. Corridor: A broad geographic area between two points that connects major sources of trips and includes a number of streets, highways and transit-r oute alignments. Delay: The extra amount of time it takes to traverse a given roadway segment minus the amount of time it would take to traverse that r oadway segment at the posted speed limit if there were no interference, e.g., the amount of time spent not moving due to a traf c signal being red. Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000 (Plan 2000): A document created to de ne the vision of what Denver residents want for their community thr ough a series of goals, visions of success, objectives and strategies. Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG): A nonpro t association of 55 local governments dedicated to enhancing and pr otecting the quality of life in the nine-county Denver region. DRCOG works to promote a regional perspective toward the most pressing issues facing the metropolitan area and to address those issues through cooperative local government action. In 1977, DRCOG was designated as the metropolitan planning organization (MPO) for Boulder, Denver, Douglas and Jefferson counties, as well as portions of Adams and Arapahoe counties. The DRCOG MPO process creates a partnership among state, local government, and transit operations in providing transportation improvements. DRCOG MetroVision Plan: DRCOGs MetroVision Plan is the Denver region's plan for future growth and development. It is adopted by the DRCOG boar d of directors, representing 51 municipalities and counties. It is a single, comprehensive guide for regional planning that integrates previously separate plans for growth, development, transportation, and water-quality management. The plan outlines strategies to help the region preserve Denvers quality of life while also positioning it to bene t from growth. Denver Union Station (DUS): Denver's future main hub station for Amtrak and other passenger services. The Denver Union Station master plan serves as the blueprint for pr eserving the current station and transforming it into a transportation hub for the entire RTD FasTracks system. Development of a vision for Denver Union Station was made possible by a unique partnership among four entities: the City and County of Denver (Denver), the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT), the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) and the Regional Transportation District (RTD). Environmental Impact Statement (EIS): A document that must be submitted for approval to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Depar tment of Transportation for transportation projects that signi cantly affect the human environment. This approval is necessary before the projects can be designed or constructed. Enhanced transit corridor: Designation of corridors by Denvers Blueprint Denver for implementation of enhanced bus transit services such as higher fr equency bus service, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), and priorities for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) investments, including bus priority signalization. FastConnects: Denver Regional Transporation Districts (RTDs) concept to improve transit service for suburb-to-suburb travel. FastConnects ar e designated points where transit services are planned to minimize wait time between transfers. Service is designed so that buses and trains traveling to multiple destinations are timed to arrive at a major destination or transfer facility at the same time, minimizing the time a passenger has to wait. Designated FastConnects points will be outside central business districts at locations such as park-n-Rides, rail stations, designated shopping centers or employment centers where bus routes connect. FasTracks: The Denver Regional Transportation Districts (RTD) 12-year comprehensive plan approved by the voters in November 2004 to build and operate high-speed rail lines and expand and impr ove bus service and park-n-Rides throughout the region, including: 122 miles of new light rail and commuter rail; 18 miles of bus rapid transit service; 57 new transit stations; 21,213 additional parking spaces at transit park-n-Rides; Enhanced bus service and FastConnects (convenient and timely bus transfer points) throughout the region; and Redevelopment of Denver Union Station into a multimodal transportation hub at the center of the FasTracks system. Greenprint Denver: An action agenda initiated by the mayors of ce to support sustainable development for the City and County of Denver and to impr ove the environment with transportation-related goals, including an emphasis on increased public transit access and use and a decreased reliance on single-occupancy automobiles. Improvement Strategies: The three major categories or types of improvements to the transportation system used by Denvers STP: behavioral, operational and physical. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS): The use of automated systems and information technologies on our transportation network, including communications and safety systems to assist in traveler decisions and traf c ow. Investment corridors: Key transportation corridors that are vital to community and regional mobility. They generally cross multiple travel sheds and ar e key connectors for Blueprint Denvers identi ed Areas of Change. Intermodal: Those issues or activities that involve or affect more than one mode of transportation, including transportation connections, choices, cooperation and coor dination of various modes. Also known as "multimodal." KeepDenverMoving.com: The Strategic Transportation Plan website used as one tool for public outreach.

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50 | DENVER STRATEGIC TRANSPORTATION PLANLevel of Service (LOS): A qualitative measure describing operational conditions within a traf c stream, based on service measures such as speed and travel time, fr eedom to maneuver, traf c interruptions, comfort and convenience. Light Rail Transit (LRT): Steel wheel/steel rail transit constructed on city streets, semi-private right-of-way, or exclusive private right-ofway A major advantage to this mode is operation in mixed street traf c at grade. LRT vehicles can be coupled into trains, which require only one operator and often are used to provide express service. Major investment corridor: Travel shed areas de ned by the Strategic Transportation Plan where major capital programs will be required for futur e transportation infrastructure investment. Generally, these corridors will involve federal funds, high-capacity, multimodal needs (to serve both trips within Denver and traveling through the city), and a detailed environmental study. Mass transit: The general term used to identify bus, xed rail, or other types of transportation service available to the general public that move r elatively large numbers of people at one time. Mill levy program: A tax assessed on real estate by the local government. The tax is usually based on the value of property (including the land) you own. Modal split: A term that describes how many people use alternative forms of transportation. Frequently used to describe the percentage of people using private automobiles as opposed to the per centage using public transportation. Mode (of transportation): A particular form or method of travel (e.g., walking, automobile, bicycling, public transit, bus, train). Multimodal: Those issues or activities that involve or affect more than one mode of transportation or a path that can be traversed through dif ferent forms of travel. Includes transportation connections, choices, cooperation and coordination of various modes. Also known as "intermodal." Multimodal streets: A transportation concept de ned in the Blueprint Denver plan that proposes streets be viewed as a means to move people thr ough various forms of travel and not just through single-occupancy vehicles. National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA): A federal law passed in 1969 considered to be the "national charter" for protection of the envir onment. NEPA requires that, to the extent possible, the policies, regulations and laws of the federal government be interpreted and administered in accordance with the environmental protection goals of the law. NEPA requires the preparation of an environmental impact analysis (EIS) or study on all major federal actions signi cantly affecting the human environment. Operational strategies: A set of Denver STP improvement strategies designed to improve the function or ef ciency of existing facilities in the public right-of-way without changes to the physical equipment or infrastructur e. Peak period or peak hours: The period during which the maximum amount of travel occurs. It may be speci ed as the morning (a.m.) or after noon/evening (p.m.) peak. It is the period when demand for transportation services is heaviest. Person trips: Travel by a person from one location to another by any means, including walking, by bicycle, on a transit vehicle, or as a driver or passenger in a private vehicle. The STP uses person trips as a measur e of demand on the transportation system. Public transportation: Passenger transportation service that is local, metropolitan or regional in scope and is available to any person who pays a pr escribed fare. Includes transportation by bus or rail, either publicly or privately owned, which is provided to the public on a regular and continuing basis. Also known as "mass transit," "mass transportation," "public transit" and "transit." Physical strategies: A set of Denver STP improvement strategies designed to provide design and construction of new physical facilities or infrastructur e that can be added to or changed within the public right-of-way (ROW). Program street: STP term for streets requiring a coordinated approach for the design of multimodal improvements. Public right-of-way (ROW): Publicly owned property used for transportation and utility infrastructure, including sidewalks, through travel lanes, parking lanes, tr ee lawn areas between detached sidewalks and streets, roadway median strips, parkways, bridges, and alleys. Ridership: The number of rides taken by people using a public transportation system or service such as a bus or light rail in a given time period. Regional Transportation District (RTD): A special district serving eight counties in the Denver region, created in 1969 by the Colorado General Assembly to develop, operate and maintain a public transpor tation system (bus, rail, stations, park-n-Ride lots, etc.). Strategic Transportation Plan (STP): A multimodal transportation plan prepared by Denvers Department of Public Works with support fr om other city agencies, the general public, and interested stakeholders to understand and address the current and future transportation needs of the City and County of Denver. Transit Signal Priority (TSP): An operational strategy that facilitates the movement of transit vehicles either buses or on-street rail (light rail or str eetcars) through traf c signal-controlled intersections. Objectives include improved schedule adherence and improved transit travel time ef ciency while minimizing impacts to normal traf c operations. Also known as bus priority signalization or queue jumping. Transportation Systems Management (TSM): Measures involving operational improvements to existing transportation facilities that maximize their person-moving capacity reduce the severity and duration of temporary delays (i.e., crash or weather) and improve safety by incorporating advanced technologies and communications to optimize the ef ciency of transportation systems. The package of TSM strategies may include a number of options designed to improve traf c ow and increase the number of people using alternate modes of transportation.

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OCTOBER 2008 | 51Transportation Demand Management (TDM): Measures that focus on ways to increase traf c capacity without major construction of new travel facilities. This includes developing alter native transportation modes and incentives to use alternate modes so that fewer vehicles are needed to transport the same number of people. Management strategies include carpooling/vanpooling, bicycling, shuttle systems, alternative work hours, parking controls, telecommuting, and HOV lanes. Transportation Management Organization (TMO/TMA): Public-private partnership for a de ned geographic area of the city that develops alter native transport and transportation demand management programs. Also known as Transportation Management Association (TMA). Transit-Oriented Development (TOD): Development around transit stations that takes advantage of the proximity to transit access. The goals of TOD include r educed vehicle use and increased pedestrian access. Elements include compact, mixed-use development patterns with facilities and design that enhance the environment for pedestrians in terms of safety, walking distances, comfort and the visual appeal of the surroundings. Sometimes referred to as Transit-Oriented Communities, or Transit Villages. Travel Shed: Term used within the Denver STP to describe 12 study areas of the city that have transportation characteristics and facilities that serve similar origin-destination patter ns for travel. Travel time index: The ratio of peak-period travel time to free- ow travel time expressing the average amount of extra time it takes to travel in the peak r elative to free- ow travel. Trip: A one-way movement of a person or vehicle between two points for a speci c purpose; sometimes called a one-way trip to distinguish it fr om a round trip. Variable message sign (VMS): An electronic sign that includes provisions for message changes to notify drivers of traf c congestion, incidents, detours and other safety infor mation. Volume-to-capacity ratio (v/c ratio): A measure of the amount of traf c on a given roadway in relation to the amount of traf c the roadway was designed to handle.