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Transit oriented Denver : transit oriented development strategic plan, 2014

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Transit oriented Denver : transit oriented development strategic plan, 2014
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Community Planning and Development, City and County of Denver
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City and County of Denver
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Transit oriented development
City planning
Public transit

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T D A M C T
M IM O
rv d i-i r m t r n
U n FL IM I L U
n r m \/ r d
U L IM V L n
TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIC PLAN 2014
DENVER
THE MILE HIGH CITY


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER
MAYOR MICHAEL B. HANCOCK
DENVER CITY COUNCIL
District 1 Susan Shepherd
District 2- Jeanne Faatz
District 3 Paul D. Lopez
District 4 Peggy Lehmann
District 5 Mary Beth Susman (President)
District 6 Charlie Brown
District 7 Chris Nevitt
District 8 Albus Brooks
District 9 Judy Montero
District 10 Jeanne Robb
District 11 Christopher Herndon
At- Large Robin Kniech
At-Large Deborah Ortega
DENVER PLANNING BOARD
Kenneth Ho, Chairman
Andy Baldyga
Jim Bershof
Shannon Gifford
Anna Jones
Brittany Morris Saunders
Sharon Nunnally
Susan Pearce
ArleenTaniwaki
Julie Underdahl
Dave Webster
COMMUNITY PLANNING AND
DEVELOPMENT
Brad Buchanan, Executive Director
Steve Gordon, Planning Services Director
Caryn Champine
David Gaspers
Steven Chester
Andrea Santoro
Deirdre Oss
Andrea Burns
FINANCE
Cary Kennedy, Deputy Mayor and Chief
Financial Officer
Gretchen Hollrah, Deputy Manager
Andrew Johnston
Tim Hambidge
OFFICE OF ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT
Paul Washington, Executive Director
Jeff Romine
PUBLIC WORKS
Jose Cornejo, Manager
Crissy Fanganello, Transportation
Director
Ryan Billings
Jenn Hillhouse
Emily Snyder
Justin Schmitz
Mike Anderson
PARKS AND RECREATION
Lauri Dannemiller, Manager
Gordon Robertson, Parks Director
David Marquardt, Parks Planning
Manager
REGIONAL
TRANSPORTATION DISTRICT
Bill Sirois, Senior Manager,TOD and
Planning Coordination
Kate Iverson, Manager, TOD
Patrick McLaughlin
CONSULTANTS
Daniel lacofano, MIG Principal
J.J. Folsom, MIG Project Manager
Chase Mullen, MIG
Daniel Guimond, EPS Principal
Brian Duffany, EPS
Chris Ryerson, EPS
Beth Vogelsang, OV Consulting
Chris Volgelsang, OV Consulting
The work that provided the basis for this publication was supported by funding under an award with the Federal Transit Administration Cooperative Agreement
No. CO-79-IOOO.The substance and findings of the work are dedicated to the public. The author and publisher are solely responsible for the accuracy of the
statements and interpretations contained in this publication. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those
of the Author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Federal Government.


SETTING THE STAGE 6

TYPOLOGY 16
WHAT IS ATYPOLOGY? 18
DOWNTOWN 20
URBAN CENTER 22
GENERAL URBAN 24
URBAN 26
SUBURBAN 28
ACTION PLAN
It -
T
, ,!£>
INTRODUCTION
TOD CONTINUUM
METHODOLOGY
WALKSHEDS
ISTRATEGIZE
CATALYZE
ENERGIZE
CITY-WIDE POLICY
RECOMMENDATIONS
34
35
38
42
46
52j
60^
68
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER
The Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Strategic
plan is intended to guide the critical City-led actions
needed for successful TOD in Denver. Since the 2006
TOD Strategic Plan, multiple stations have been planned
and needed infrastructure improvements have been
identified. Multiple city departments and agencies
have policies, goals, and strategies that broadly and
specifically address TOD. This strategic plan does not
revise station area plans or alter long-standing TOD
policies; rather, it focuses these multiple efforts into a
concise work program for the City.
Strategic Planning is an important step to successful TOD implementation for several reasons:
Station area plans have identified needed, but unfunded, investments
Barriers to TOD implementation exist at multiple stations
Stations are at varying levels of market and development readiness for TOD
The City has limited resources to implementTOD
Alignment of City departments'approaches toTOD improves implementation efficiency
Some station areas best suited for near-term TOD may require focused financing strategies for needed
investments

HOW TO USE THE TOD STRATEGIC PLAN
Denver's TOD Strategic Plan provides a foundation to guide public and private investment at rail stations. Residents,
business owners, builders, and public employees can use this strategic framework to eliminate or reduce barriers to
TOD, create realistic financing plans, and direct growth and investment to rail stations with the best opportunity for
development in the next 5 to 6 years.
The TOD Strategic Plan contains both city-wide, high-level policy recommendations and on the ground, station-level
action items with the intent to foster implementation ofTOD at rail stations and support the development of transit
communities in Denver. As a strategic plan, this document is intended to facilitate the implementation of existing
recommendations and projects identified in adopted city plans, including Comprehensive Plan 2000, Blueprint
Denver, neighborhood plans, and station area plans.


2000 Denver Comprehensive Plan
BluePrint Denver
Station Area Planning
___ Neighborhood Planning
T ransitOrientedD ENVER
AND
YOU
IF YOU ARE
IF YOU ARE
A RESIDENT OR BUSINESS OWNER A DEVELOPER OR BUILDER IN A
IN A STATION AREA I STATION AREA
AND MAY WANT TO!
Expand, start, or relocate a business
Purchase real estate
Renovate an existing home or
building
Improve the streetscape
Verify whether your proposed
project fits within adopted
neighborhood and city goals and
objectives
Residents and business owners in
Denver can use the TOD Strategic
Plan as a guide for making real
estate decisions, renovating
property, or opening a store. The
vision for individual station areas
can be found in the appropriate
adopted station area plan with
the strategic plan containing
additional information regarding
city-led investments and
implementation activity.

AND MAY WANT TO!
Purchase real estate
Reuse an existing building
Construct a new building
Identify where public investment
may be directed
Identify likely hot spots for new
development
Understand the City's development
focus areas
Align your design/development
ideas with neighborhood and city
goals and objectives
Developers or builders in Denver
can use the TOD Strategic Plan to
get information on the City's TOD
focus areas, identify properties
for new development, and take
advantage of city investments
in station areas. Developers
and builders take on the critical
responsibility of constructing
office, retail, and a mix of
housing options within station
areas necessary to increase the
walkable, urban nature of the
city and reconnect all of Denver's
neighborhoods together._____________
IF YOU ARE
AND MAY WANT TO:
Remove barriers to TOD
Direct public funds efficiently
Determine projects that result
in the maximum return on city
investment
Pursue local and federal funding
forTOD infrastructure and
implementation of projects
Public employees should
use theTOD Strategic Plan
to establish a city-wide TOD
implementation work program,
direct city funds efficiently to
the most opportunistic areas,
determine the projects that offer
the maximum return on public
investment, and pursue funding
for key infrastructure projects.
City plans provide the vision
for station areas, while theTOD
Strategic Plan is intended to assist
in implementing that vision.
in
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 6


INTRODUCTION 8
TOD PRINCIPLES 10
CONTEXT FORTOD 12
READINESS FORTOD 14
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER
When Denver's TOD strategic plan was produced in
2006, the idea of having a more systematic approach to
transit oriented development was a new, uncharted, and
unproven idea. Since 2006, many regions have embarked
on their own strategic planning for development
around stations. Denver's strategic plan for transit-
oriented development is different than many otherTOD
Strategic plans.This plan outlines the city's approach to
implementTOD over the next six years; it is not a vision-
setting document for station areas nor is it a region-wide
policy document produced by a metropolitan planning
organization to promote TOD.
12006 TOD STRATEGIC PLAN
The 2006 plan has proved invaluable for guiding
TOD related policies in the city, fostering external
partnerships, and setting a work program ofTOD
planning and investment. Over half of Denver's stations
00 have received neighborhood and stakeholder led
planning efforts (small area and general development
plans), infrastructure analysis has occurred, and
investment has taken place. The City transitioned to a
form-based, context-sensitive zoning code in 2010 and
many stations now have transit and TOD supportive
zoning. And TOD has happened in Denver, whether it is
the Denver Housing Authority's Mariposa project at 10th
and Osage or the booming development around Denver
Union Station, development has often followed public
investment at stations.
MOVING TOWARDS IMPLEMENTATION
All of this has informed the City on what TOD is to Denver
and what it can be in the future. Development around
rail stations is part of Denver striving to become a world-
class city. To be competitive with the best and brightest
regions of the world, Denver needs an exceptional transit
system with great stations that connect to walkable
communities. The City needs to tackle affordable
housing issues, broaden transportation choices, and
meet the demands of changing demographics. With this
in mind, The City of Denver has evolved the definition of
TOD to an idea of developing transit communities that
are walkable, livable places that provide citizens with
access to most of their daily needs. SixTOD principles
now outline what makes a great transit community, and
the typology has been altered to better reflect what
ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE 2006 TOD STRATEGIC PLAN
Long-range planning for 21 station areas
Established or strengthened external partnerships
Implemented TOD Typology through new form-based, context-sensitive zoning
TOD Fund established to create and preserve affordable housing at station areas
Millions of dollars spent on infrastructure in TOD areas
Collaborated with Denver Urban Renewal Authority on TIF opportunities at multiple stations
Reduced parking requirements in TOD areas
Bike sharing stations at multiple stations


Denver knows about development around stations while
meshing with the neighborhood context that has been
established in the Denver Zoning Code.
For Denver to succeed in establishing more walkable
places through transit communities, the action items
need to be prioritized and realistic funding strategies
must be considered. This document lays out the
foundation of an implementation action plan through
research and analysis of the existing state of transit-
oriented development, provides city-wide and station
specific recommendations, and establishes a system
to track and monitor Denver's success so the City can
continue to refine and improve its strategic moves in the
future.
DEFINING TOD IN DENVER
HowTOD is defined in Denver ties closely with the
understanding of its existing walkable urban places.
These walkable places provide access to daily amenities
without the use of the automobile and are typically
some of our most desirable neighborhoods. The
characteristics and benefits of these neighborhoods are
key to understanding the most important principles of
good transit-oriented development. The pedestrian-
friendly design, the mix of uses, variety of housing
and mobility choices, healthy lifestyle options, and
abundance of destinations add up to make a livable,
vibrant place. But the reality of TOD in Denver is that
many rail stations are not located in existing walkable
neighborhoods, but instead, are located in areas that act
as barriers to connecting all of Denver's neighborhoods
together. How development occurs around these
stations is critical to Denver becoming a world-class
transit community, delivering a more complete network
of walkable urban places.
The definition of transit oriented development in Denver
is more than just development in station areas; it is part
of building transit communities around rail stations that
mend the urban fabric more tightly together, growing
Denver into a more seamless, walkable, and vibrant
community.
TOD PRINCIPLES
The following TOD principles establish a base line for
Denver neighborhoods to envision and plan for great
transit commmunities.
DEFINITIONS
TRANSIT COMMUNITY
Denver's transit communities are walkable places that provide destinations like shopping, dining, jobs, parks,
and schools most of ones daily activities easily accessed from home by foot, bicycle, and transit. These
communities tend to have a variety of housing types, provide the opportunity for a healthy lifestyle, and are
designed to maximize resident access to public transportation by focusing activities on a major transit stop.
TRANSIT-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT
Transit-oriented development in Denver generally describes a development in an existing or planned transit
community that adds to the walkable, vibrant, mixed-use environment and is oriented towards frequent, high-
quality transit service that connects the community to the rest of the region.
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 10
Achieve a high level of connectivity
at station areas. The more walkable
and bikeable a station area is, the
greater amount of access is granted to
the most people. This is true in both
stations that are located in areas with a
strong market development potential,
as well as stations that simply need
to serve existing neighborhoods. As
each station increases its reach into the
larger community, access to the region's
economy is improved.
Entry Point access to the regional
economy
First/Last Mile walk, bike, bus to
the station
Access to All connect to new and
existing neighborhoods
Innovation drives Denver to take its
place in the global economy, leading
the Rocky Mountain region in building
healthy, sustainable, and equitable
communities. Transit communities have
proven to be more environmentally,
socially, and economically sustainable
than areas dependent on one mode
of transportation. Seeking innovative
thinking around TOD in Denver can
foster sustained, responsible, economic
growth.
Sustainable economic, social,
environmental
Equitable opportunities for all
Global Economy compete on the
world stage
Be an intrinsically efficient place to live,
play, and do business. By consciously
placing homes, jobs, civic uses, shopping,
entertainment, parks and other daily
necessities close to transit stations, cities
make possible short, walkable trips and
reduce long, ineffcient travel. A greater
percentage of jobs and housing placed
close together at rail stations throughout
the region can lead to better use of
infrastructure dollars.
one place to live, work,
and play decreases need for regional
trips
reduce cost of
infrastructure per household
jobs and homes nearby
reduce travel times and long
commutes


shift
place
Make places not just to travel through,
but rather to stop, linger, converse,
and generally live life. These activities
happen in the public realm the streets
and open space between buildings.
Great public spaces with easy access
encourage people to come outdoors,
promoting a feeling of safety and visual
interest for pedestrians. An activated
public place becomes a destination,
strengthening the livability of the
community.
mix
Provide a balanced mix of
complementary uses and activities
within close proximity, increasing the
chances that people can reach a majority
of their daily needs by foot, bicycle,
or transit. A strong mix of uses keeps
streets active and safe while making
many daily trips walkable. Transit
communities' balanced mix of uses and
activities provides residents a true choice
of lifestyles, leading to a more resilient
place to live, work, and play.
Lead the region's effort to shift into a
new way of thinking about personal
mobility. The shift from being a car-
dependent city to a multi-modal city is
taking place all over the world. A true
multi-modal city goes beyond needed
transit improvements. A complete
network needs high-ease-of-use bike
and pedestrian facilities, car sharing, bike
sharing, and other new ways to make
getting around without the use of a car
a reality.
Active promote safety and visual Choice housing, jobs, shopping, Car Free/Car Lite becoming
interest transit options non-/less car dependent for most
Vibrant bring together people and Diversity mix of incomes and age trips
activities groups Public Space more room for 1
Destination public life happens in Resilient stands up through pedestrians and bikes, less for cars 1
the streets and open space changing economic conditions Reduce and Energize-carbon 1 emissions go down, healthy living 1 goes up 1
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 11


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 12
Cities have unique attributes that set them apart from
their peers. Denver is no different the mountains,
glorious sunny days, a vibrant downtown, and
great neighborhoods are some of Denver's great
characteristics. The mountains and sunshine may
be fortunate acts of nature, but downtown and our
neighborhoods are acts of foresight, hard work, and
timely investments. Many of Denver's neighborhoods
are well connected to each other and to downtown,
forming an urban fabric and community that is
the envy of many cities in the United States. These
neighborhoods grew up at a time when development
patterns followed the prominent transportation system
of the early 1900's, the streetcar, and the subsequent
system that provided access to downtown from the
were followed by periods of economic stagnation.
Today, Denver has diversified its growing economy to
soften cyclical economic patterns, becoming a favorite
home of startup tech companies, innovative industrial
manufacturing firms and businesses that embrace
a unique corporate culture. This diversification has
allowed Denver to weather the most recent economic
downtown better than most, especially within the Rocky
Mountain West. Denver has strengthened its downtown
into a vibrant walkable urban center of jobs, housing,
cultural destinations, parks, and entertainment. Denver
is consistently ranked as one of the fastest growing cities
in the country and is a desired destination of highly-
educated workers, driving construction of more office,
retail and housing choices in the next five years.
close-in suburbs. Not all neighborhoods however are
well connected to the rest of Denver they may have
their own strong characteristics but whether it is a
geographic barrier such as the South Platte River, or
more likely the man-made barriers of a freeway or freight
railroad corridors, they lack the seamless connections
that would bring all of Denver together.
CENTER OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN WEST
As Denver has evolved over the last 150 years as
the center of the Rocky Mountain West, growth and
development has historically followed a boom or bust
cycle. Booms such as the gold rush of 1859 and the
oil and telecom booms of the late 1970's and 1980's
A PROVEN TRACK RECORD
Denver has a long history of tackling transformative
transportation projects that set the stage for successful
and sustainable future growth, essentially leading
its own way to prosperity. A consistency in Denver's
urban evolution is that development patterns follow
the construction of these transportation projects -
railroads towns, streetcar suburbs, and freeway bedroom
communities are all products of the access given
by a new transportation investment. Within Denver's
first decade as a city, the railroads bypassed the city in
favor of Cheyenne as part of the first transcontinental
railroad. Civic leaders founded the Denver Pacific


Railroad to connect to the Union Pacific line in Wyoming,
allowing a "one-seat ride"from coast to coast through
Denver and ensuring long-term growth for the region.
Starting in the 1880's through the 1920's, the Denver
Tramway Company expanded streetcar and interurban
service throughout the city, opening up development
opportunities in neighborhoods like Berkeley and
Washington Park. More recently, billions have been
spent on key transportation investments with the T-REX
project and RTD FasTracks program that is now changing
the way residents connect to homes, jobs, shopping, and
entertainment destinations. These strategic moves have
positioned Denver to benefit from the rapidly occurring
shift of the millennial and baby boomer generations
looking for a more livable, walkable place to call home.
those man-made barriers that have separated some
of our most disconnected neighborhoods. Other
stations may have a superior market location or
stronger connectivity, but still lack essential planning,
entitlements, or infrastructure to promote development.
Removing barriers to transit-oriented development and
improving multi-modal first and last mile connections
around rail stations can fill in the missing urban fabric
between Denver's new rail transit system, established
neighborhoods, and emerging areas. By doing so,
Denver can grow into a more seamless, walkable
community that provides its citizens with great access to
daily needs, whether that is a place to work, to study, to
shop or run in the park.
g South Denver suburban
<£ neighborhoods such as Hampden
and Southmoor Park boom in
population
The 16th Street Mall, a pedestrian
and transit mall, opens in
Downtown
Light Rail begins service,
connecting Downtown with the
Broadway Station
Southeast Corridor
completed as part of the
TREX project, adding 19
miles to the existing rail
system
City and County of Denver
compeltes its first TOD Strategic
Plan
I960
1980
2000
2020-
I960
The RegionalTransportation
District is established as a regional
authority to provide public
transportation
Now Denver can build upon its strong economy, vibrant
downtown and growing transportation infrastructure to
lead its own way again.
CHALLENGE AND OPPORTUNITY
The challenge and the opportunity that is transit
oriented development in Denver is the concept of
building transit communities around rail stations in
order to weave the urban fabric more tightly together.
In other words, more closely connect the suburban
and urban neighborhoods to Denver's urban centers
and Downtown. Many of the passenger rail stations
located on the expanding rail system are placed
outside of Denver's existing walkable places, near
SEAMLESS CONNECTIONS
Denver strives to be a world-class city where everyone
can be part of the community. World-class cities
have exceptional transit and great station areas that
seamlessly connect to walkable neighborhoods. To
accomplish that, Denver is taking a system wide
approach to implement not justTOD, but transit
communities for all of Denver's citizens.
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 13


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 14
Over the last several years, Denver has collectively begun to re-imagine the
city's perception of itself. Is Denver a car-centric city or a burgeoning transit
city? Is the ideal a single-family home with a two-car garage or a townhouse
in a cool neighborhood? Are people moving to Denver because of the
mountains or the urbanism?
Even though cars are still a prevalent mode of transportation for some,
riding a bike to work is no longer unusual and living in more efficient, infill
locations is often a top request of homebuyers. Denver is one of the fastest
growing big cities in the country, attracting some of the brightest minds and
most innovative businesses. Thousands of housing units are being built in
Downtown and nearby neighborhoods, as millennials and baby boomers
both look for how a neighborhood feels more than simply their home's square
footage. The national trend towards people looking to live in more mixed
use communities that are walkable and have great transit access indicates a
significant shift away from the prevalent land use and transportation choices
of the last 70 years. Denver is ready to handle the expected growing demand
for more walkable, livable communities.
Denver can build upon the energy that Downtown and its strong
neighborhoods have fostered by expanding the size and amount of walkable
places and reconnecting neighborhoods. As some of the fastest growing
neighborhoods, such as Union Station and the Lower Highlands, begin to fill
in, investors will look to find the next "hot" location. Many of the close-in rail
stations in Denver areas with redevelopment promise, improving market
conditions, and great connectivity to the energy of Downtown Denver
provide a unique opportunity for the next wave of urban infill development.
These stations can extend the walkable nature of Denver neighborhoods,
provide new job opportunities, and increase housing choices to people
looking to make Denver home.
What specific trends can be identified that indicate a strong readiness forTOD
in Denver?
Here are a few:


Ki ^.1*j i l i j*i *.vj t i.'
70% OF HOUSHOLDS = MARKET FORTOD DENVER ISTHE #1 CITY FOR MILLENNIALS
DENVER HOUSEHOLDS BYTYPE TOP 7 GAINERS OF POPULATION AGED 25-34 FROM 2000-2010
DENVER IS GROWING
TOTAL POPULATION______
tttttttttl
1990 467,610
ttttttttttt
2000 554,636
2012 634,265
ttttftttttttftt
2030 753,720
THE POPULATION IS AGING
COLORADO HOUSEHOLDS BY TYPE
100%
65+
- 45-64
18-44
<18
1990 2040
COLORADO IS DENSIFIYING
COLORADO URBAN POPULATION
1950 2010
REGIONAL RAILTRANSIT IS EXPANDING
REGIONAL RAILTRANSIT SYSTEM SIZE
PEOPLE ARE DRIVING LESS BIKE INFRASTUCTURE IS GROWING BIKING&WALKING IS INCREASING
DENVER REGION PER CAPITA VMT MILES OF BIKE LANES IN DENVER DENVER MODE SHARE
2012
20111
2010
20091
2008
20071
-
- ($%)


-C^D
20 40 60 80 100
miles
c$%)
120 140
9%
8%
7%
6%
5%
4%
3%
2%
1%
X % % X X X X
Sources: US Census, DRCOG, RTD, City and County of Denver
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 15


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 16


WHAT IS ATYPOLOGY? 18
DOWNTOWN 20
URBAN CENTER 22
GENERAL URBAN 24
URBAN 26
SUBURBAN 28
FUNCTIONAL OVERLAYS 30
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 17


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 18
One of the most valuable planning outcomes of Denver's
2006 TOD Strategic Plan was the establishment of a
typology of station types that helped set expectations
for station development. At the time, many stations
lacked a plan to provide guidance, and the typology
provided a launching point for planning activity within
21 station areas. These plans establish the vision for
individual station areas and provide recommendations
to achieve implementation.
In 2010, the City adopted a new city-wide form- and
context-based zoning code. The new zoning code
is a valuable tool to better implement the vision
in the station area plans, set clear expectations for
development, and provides predictability for property
owners. The zoning code's neighborhood contexts set
expectations similar to the typology established in 2006
for station areas. This update builds upon the existing
typology, with revisions to mesh with the neighborhood
context established in the Denver zoning code, reflect
the vision established in the various station area plans,
and acknowledge other neighborhood interests or
development activity around the stations.
Denver's Station Typology classifies each station area
into one of five context types based on characteristics
commonly found in places served by rail transit. These
characteristics group into five categories:
Land use mix
Street and block pattern
Building placement and location
Building heights
Mobility
In addition, some stations receive a functional overlay
designation that establishes a key functional aspect
to the station area context and their associated
expectations. The purpose of the station typology is
three-fold:
Provide a snapshot of aspirational character
Set expectations for development
Establish a level of magnitude for possible
investments


CITYWIDE TYPOLOGY
Urban Center
General Urban
0 Urban
Suburban
OVERLAY
Entertainment
Institution
Innovation
STATION TYPOLOGY
Downtown Mixed use, highest density, tallest buildings, high pedestrian activity, transit hub, and historic
areas
Urban Center Mixed use, high density, grid and alley block pattern, high pedestrian activity, and multi-
modal
General Urban Multi-family residential, grid and alley block pattern, main streets, corner stores, and multi-
modal
Urban Grid and alley block pattern, predominantly single family residential, main streets, corner stores, and
multi-modal
Suburban Town centers, community open spaces and residential neighborhoods
Functional Overlays:
Innovation Allowing a wide range and diversity of TOD land uses, activities and building forms to
accommodate new types of development such as advanced manufacturing, research and development,
creative design studios, and more.
Institutional Academic campuses, medical and government centers with a significant amount of jobs
Entertainment Major destinations typically evenings and weekends
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 19


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 20
Mixed use, highest density, tallest buildings, high pedestrian activity,
transit hub, historic areas
Downtown rail stations are unique as they are located
in the most intensely used land in the region, with civic,
institutional and entertainment uses sharing the same
spaces as high density residential, office and commercial
uses. Buildings are mostly mid- to high-rise structures
located in a consistent pattern of small blocks and linear
streets. Downtown stations have the highest level of use
due to downtown being the center of the regional transit
system. Downtown streets have the most pedestrian
activity and extensive set of bicycle facilities of all station
types. All downtown rail stations are walk-up stations,
but a few stations have specific functions Pepsi Center
and Mile High Station serve as entertainment stations,
and Auraria West Station serves as an institutional station.
Street and
Land Use Mix Block Pattern
Building
Placement Building Height Mobility
Strong mix of uses
Mid to high-rise
buildings with a
mix of multi-family,
commercial, office,
civic, institutional and
entertainment uses
Regular, smaller
blocks
Regular pattern of
pedestrian/vehicle
connections
Unique triangular
blocks where grids
meet
Buildings built-to
sidewalks
Continuous street wall
Consistent orientation
Parking at rear/side or
structured
Context-sensitive
heights in historic
districts
Consistent mid to
high-rise in other
districts
Highest priority to
pedestrian
High level of bicycle
facilities
Center of multi-modal
transit system
Linear streets
Consistent alleys




TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 22
urban center
mixed use, high density, grid & alley block pattern, high
pedestrian activity, multi-modal
OVERLAY
Entertainment
Institution
Innovation
Urban Center rail stations typically serve or are planned
I to serve as a destination for surrounding neighborhoods
with strong transit use and a high level of pedestrian and
bicycle activity. Urban Centers have a mix of uses, with
mid- to high-rise multi-family residential integrated with
mixed-use commercial buildings. The intended high
intensity nature of urban centers positions these stations
as regional employment hubs. Buildings front sidewalks
with consistent pedestrian entrances and are located
within a pattern of regular, smaller blocks and linear
streets. Many urban center stations have one or more
major land owners.
Land Use Mix
Strong mix of uses
Mid-high rise
Multi-family
Mixed-use
commercial
Destination for
surrounding
neighborhoods
Potential job center
Street and
Block Pattern
Regular, smaller
blocks
Regular pattern
of ped/vehicle
connections
Linear streets
Mostly alleys
Building
Placement
Buildings built to
sidewalk or very
shallow setbacks
Consistent orientation
Parking at rear/side or
structured
Building Height
Consistent mid- to
high-rise residential,
mixed-use, and
commercial
structures;
Maximum height at
the core is typically
20 stories with
transitions
Mobility
Strong transit use
High level of ped/bike
use


Q SHARED STRUCTURED PARKING
A majority of parking is typically structured due to
the intensity of development and high land values.
Urban Centers have a strong mix of complementary
uses, which present opportunities to utilize parking
management strategies such as shared and joint
parking agreements.
Q EMPLOYMENT FOCUS
Urban Centers may be regional employment hubs
where companies, looking for urban amenities and
frequent transit service, locate. As a result, high
density multi-family residential and hotel uses are
also found in urban center stations.
O HIGHER EASE-OF-USE BICYCLE
INFRASTRUCTURE
The high intensity nature of Urban Centers creates
the possibility of using high ease of use bicycle
infrastructure such as protected bike lanes and cycle
tracks to reduce conflicts between multiple modes
of travel.
0
HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSIT
Key to facilitating a dense development pattern
where one can move about without an automobile
is the availability of transit throughout the day.
Urban Centers not only have high frequency rail
service, but are typically transfer points for multiple
high frequency bus lines.
Q SMALLER PROGRAMMED PLAZAS &
OPEN SPACES
High quality urban open space is key to making
urban center stations desirable places to live, work,
and play. Activating public open spaces helps make
TOD areas become a focal point and destination for
the community.
Q PEDESTRIAN INFRASTRUCTURE
Strong pedestrian access to rail stations from all
directions increases the density and activity levels of
urban center stations. Infrastructure such as pedestrian
bridges that cross over the rail line is typical at urban
center stations.
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 23


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 24
general urban
multi-family residential, grid & alley block pattern, main
streets, corner stores, and multi-modal
OVERLAY
Entertainment
Institution
Innovation
General Urban rail stations are characterized by their
significant amount of mid to high-density multifamily
residential areas. These areas have a variety of building
forms, such as urban houses, rowhouses, and mid to
high-rise apartment and/or condominium buildings,
as well as some limited single family and two family
' residential uses. Commercial areas, generally consisting
of low to mid rise structures, are both embedded in the
neighborhood and located along busier, mixed-use
arterials. Buildings have shallow or moderate setbacks,
with consistent pedestrian orientation and parking
located behind or to the side. Areas around general
urban stations have a regular, smaller block pattern with
linear streets and alleys. Due to the higher residential
densities, transit use is strong, especially along high
capacity transit corridors. There is a general balance of
pedestrian, bicycle and vehicle travel modes.
Land Use Mix
Mix of uses with
heavy emphasis on
higher density multi-
family residential
areas with rowhouses
and apartment
buildings
Commercial uses
located on key mixed-
use and main streets
Street and
Block Pattern
Regular, smaller
blocks
Regular pattern of
pedestrian/vehicle
connections
Linear streets
Mostly alleys
Building
Placement
Consistent shallow to
moderate setbacks
Consistent entrance
orientation to the
street
Parking accessed from
the alley or side yard
Building Height
Mid- to high-rise
residential structures
Low- to mid-rise
commercial structures
at appropriate
locations
Mobility
Strong transit use,
especially along
high capacity transit
corridors
Balance of ped/bike/
vehicle use


Q ADAPTIVE REUSE OPPORTUNITIES
General Urban stations are found in existing urban
areas of the City, many with strong opportunities
to reuse existing buildings for new uses. These
opportunities range from small main street
storefronts to outdated manufacturing facilities and
warehouses.
Q WIDE ARRAY OF RESIDENTIAL TYPES
The variety of mid to high-density multifamily
residential areas is a signature characteristic of
General Urban stations. The mix of housing types
and significant densities creates a vibrant, active
community.
O BALANCE OF ALL MODES
General Urban stations typically have a strong
multi-modal transportation network. Pedestrian
and bicycle access is balanced with vehicular travel
throughout the station area.
0 SOME HIGHER EASE-OF-USE BIKE
FACILITIES
Although less intense than an urban center station,
some higher ease of use bicycle facilities, such as a
protected bike lane may be found in General Urban
stations.
Q EMBEDED COMMERCIAL
Commericial uses are typically service oriented and
located in low to mid-rise structures embedded
within the residential areas of the community.
Q RTD PARKING
Commuter parking lots or structures can be found at
some General Urban stations. This parking demand
should be balanced between the need to provide
current vehicular access to the station and future
development opportuntities.
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 25


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 26
urban
multi-family residential, grid & alley block pattern, main streets, corner stores, and
multi-modal
OVERLAY
l|||||||l Entertainment
Institution
Innovation
Urban rail stations are lower-scale "walk-up" stations,
providing transit access to existing neighborhoods
primarily characterized by single-unit and two-unit
residential uses, small-scale multi-unit residential uses
and embedded commercial areas. Buildings have
shallow or moderate setbacks, with consistent pedestrian
orientation and parking located behind or to the side.
Areas around urban stations have a regular, smaller block
pattern with linear streets and alleys. Due to the lower
residential densities but strong street grid, transit use is
moderate, with higher use along high capacity transit
corridors during peak commuting periods. There is a
general balance of pedestrian, bicycle and vehicle travel
modes.
Land Use Mix Street and Block Pattern Building Placement Building Height
Primary single- Regular, smaller Consistent, moderate Low-scale structures
unit and two-unit blocks setbacks Some mid-rise at nodes or along
residential uses on small lots Linear streets Consistent entrance
Small-scale multi- Mostly alleys orientation to the street arterials
family residential such as rowhouses and garden court apartments Embedded commercial Parking from the alley or side yard
Mobility
Moderate transit
use, greater along
high capacity transit
corridors and peak
hour commuting
times
Balance of pedestrian/
bike/vehicle use


Q LOWER SCALE RESIDENTIAL
Single family and small-scale multifamily residential
areas are found in Urban stations, resulting in
a lower residential density and less-intense
environment compared to most other stations.
O BALANCE OF ALL MODES
Urban stations typically have a strong multi-modal
transportation network. Pedestrian and bicycle
access is balanced with vehicular travel throughout
the station area.
Q EMBEDDED LOW SCALE COMMERCIAL
Urban stations tend to have neighborhood serving
commercial uses tucked into the predominantly
residential nature of the area.
0
WALK UP STATION
Existing neighborhoods typcially are adjacent to the
rail platforms at Urban stations, with limited or no
commuter parking available.
Q MODERATE TRANSIT USE
Transit use in Urban stations is generally moderate
due to lower residential densities. Higher transit
use may be found along high capacity corridors
during peak commuting periods.
Q PEDESTRIAN ORIENTED
Even though Urban stations are less dense, a human
scale to the neighborhood is apparent. A strong
street and alley block pattern is still prevalent.
Buildings front the street, with vehicular parking
located behind.
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 27


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 28
suburban
town centers, community open spaces and residential neighborhoods
OVERLAY
Entertainment
Institution
Innovation
Suburban rail stations are characterized by their higher
level of transit service and pedestrian orientation than
the surrounding, auto-oriented context. These stations
may take on the qualities of a town center, having a mix
of uses with some mid-to-high-rise buildings oriented
towards the transit station, but with significant amounts
of surface or structured parking for commuters. A public
plaza or open space serving as a community gathering
place is a desired amenity. Residential neighborhoods
consisting of single-unit and two-unit residential uses
and small-scale multi-unit residential uses are found
further from the station. Other commercial uses are
found along major arterial streets. Block sizes and street
types vary greatly, but smaller blocks and pedestrian
friendly streets are found near the station, with larger
blocks that provide development flexibility further away.
Buildings with shallow setbacks are placed in front of
parking lots near the station, with deeper setbacks on
arterials and parking in front of buildings further from the
station.
Land Use Mix
Mixed of uses
oriented to the station
Public plaza or open
space as central
gathering place
Primarily 1-unit,
2-unit, and small-scale
mf residential further
from station
Commercial uses
along arterials
Street and
Block Pattern
Mix of block sizes,
smaller blocks and
pedestrian streets
near station, larger
blocks further from
station
Best connectivity near
the station
Large blocks have
mid-block pedestrian
passages
Building
Placement
Deep setbacks
Parking in front of
building
Building Height Mobility
Low-rise structures Auto-oriented
Some mid/high-rise Regional bike trails
structures


Q REGIONAL PARK AND RIDE
Suburban stations have large parking resevoirs
for the influx of commuters accessing the station
during the workweek. These park-n-ride facilities
typically have an associated bus transfer center.
Q LARGE SCALE DEVELOPMENT
Parcels may become assembled by one or more
major property owners for the purpose of large
scale development at the station, possibly in the
form of a town center. These developments create
opportunities for a greater mix of uses and higher
degree of walkability compared to surrounding
auto-oriented neighborhoods.
O LARGER OPEN SPACES AND PLAZAS
A centralized open space that serves as a
community gathering place is a desired amenity
in Suburban stations. These spaces can become
a destination for surrounding neighborhoods
if activated with markets, concerts, and other
opportunities to walk, look, and linger.
0 HIGH AMOUNT OF RETAIL AND
PARKING
Suburban stations with new development may
become a retail destination for nearby auto-
oriented neighborhoods. Retail uses in Suburban
stations typically require a higher parking ratio to
meet demand than other station areas.
Q REGIONAL BIKEINFRASTRUCUTRE
Commuters must travel longer distances to reach
Suburban stations. Regional trail systems increase
the bicycle commuting shed to neighborhoods
otherwise requiring an automobile to reach the
station.
Q MORE WALKABLE THAN SURROUNDING
AREAS
Suburban stations, although not having the same
residential densities or intensity of uses of any
of the urban type stations, still are considerably
more walkable than surrounding, auto-oriented
neighborhoods and commercial centers.
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 29


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 30
These designations are applied to stations that have a key functional aspect on top of their context type that provides
additional context and clarifies future expectations.
INNOVATION
A.
INSTITUTIONAL
ENTERTAINMENT
Innovation stations are characterized
by their high degree of mixed use,
adaptive reuse of existing structures,
and creative approach to business.
These stations typically are found
in existing industrial areas, but may
have experienced new housing and
retail arriving with the rail station.
Under-utilized warehouses are being
reused by young companies looking
for space, often seeking synergy
and cooperation with other like-
minded companies. Many of these
businesses have corporate cultures
that emphasize sustainable building
design, green technology, and high-
quality of life employee amenities
like transit passes, car-sharing, and
bicycle parking. Businesses may
include advanced manufacturing,
research and development, and
creative design studios.
'' ^Memorial Hermann Hospital
Houston Zoo
Institutional stations have specific
uses that bring unique attributes to
station areas. This overlay typically
applies to stations with one or more
large land owners that have multiple
buildings located in a campus
setting. Universities, government
centers, and medical campuses
are typical uses. Stations have a
large concentration of jobs and a
significant amount of daily visitors,
resulting in a high level of transit
ridership and internal trip capture via
walking and biking.
Entertainment stations are designed
for accommodating major events
when a large amount of passengers
arrive and depart during a limited
period of time. Ample surface
parking is typically located at these
sites to serve non-transit users.
As the region continues to grow,
market demand for reuse of this
surface parking into commercial and
residential development may present
itself.


FUNCTIONAL OVERLAY STATIONS
TYPOLOGY
S Downtown
Urban Center
General Urban
0 Urban
Suburban
OVERLAY
l|||||||l Entertainment
Hi Institution
Innovation
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 31


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 32


INTRODUCTION 34
TOD CONTINUUM 35
METHODOLOGY 38
WALKSHEDS 42
STRATEGIZE 46
CATALYZE 52
ENERGIZE 60
CITY-WIDE POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS 68
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 33


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 34
Rail stations in Denver have experienced varied and
sporadic development activity over the last decade.
TOD has occurred as expected at some stations
but failed to materialize at others. This may not be
surprising once one begins to examine the wide array of
stations in Denver, all with different market conditions,
infrastructure needs and existing land use patterns while
also having very different existing and aspirational TOD
characteristics. Since Denver stations do not fit into a
one-size fits all category, this plan sets out to establish
a stronger understanding of the variables currently
impacting station areas and to formulate an updated
TOD action plan.
The project team developed a methodology to evaluate
TOD readiness which helped categorize stations into
three logical groupings with similar challenges and
opportunities forTOD. Much of theTOD evaluation
utilized a 10-minute walkshed instead of the standard
half-mile radius to create a more accurate snapshot
of each station area. Even though each station in the
evaluation lands in a specific group, the status of each
station is not considered static, instead, each station
should be perceived to be on a TOD development
continuum. Each group of stations has a tool kit to
guide planning, policy, and infrastructure decisions and
each station receives specific action items to advance
development at stations. The intention of each set of
station recommendations is to be actively moving the
station forward on the continuum.
This action plan lays out a strategic approach to
implementing TOD in Denver over the next six years. As
with most communities, Denver is dealing with limited
resources to implement public improvements to help
attract development around rail stations. The grouping
of stations in a logical order assists in identifying key
action items for each station, including the most realistic
and efficient opportunities to provide city resources at
stations with the greatest opportunity for near-term
development.


TOD CONTINUUM CATEGORIES
The TOD continuum is a tool that provides a quick
snapshot of the current potential for development
at stations and monitor outcomes of future action
items. The stations are grouped, based on the station
evaluation results, into the three continuum categories
- Strategize, Catalyze, Energize each with a specialized
tool kit to guide planning, policy, and infrastructure
decisions. Each station has more specific action items
with the intention to remove barriers to development
and strengthen the station area's market potential.
STRATEGIZE
Stations that are still in pre-development planning
phases either because the rail line is not complete or
due to market or development factors that make TOD
unlikely in the near term. Station areas with low market
potential in the near term and current conditions
<
indicate low development readiness. Planning is needed
to guide future investment and infrastructure projects in
these stations.
CATALYZE
Station areas with above average market conditions
for TOD, but with a need for specific infrastructure or
amenity improvements to achieve the desired type
of development. Catalytic infrastructure and amenity
investments are needed, and should yield the sought-
after TOD results.
ENERGIZE
Station areas where there are above average market
conditions forTOD and no significant development or
infrastructure deficiencies impeding TOD from occurring.
These station areas typically need more targeted, short
term actions to achieve intensified TOD activity.
STATION EVALUATION MATRIX
61stand Pena
| Auraria West
Decatur-Federal
Central Park Blvd
Belleview
Sports Authority Field
Alameda
m
Pepsi Center/
Elitch Gardens
Colfax at
Auraria
l-25/Broadway
o
CL
3
Q
s
CL
o
>
LU
D
40th and Airport
Colorado
National Western
Stock Show
Peoria^B 41 stand Fo-;
Colorado & Smith
Dayton
, Nine Mile
38th and Blake
Knox
Sheridan
a
Lousiana/Pearl
9
South moor
University of Denver
| Welton/Downing
' Corridor
I Yale
LOW MEDIUM HIGH
MARKET READINESS
STATION STATUS CORRIDOR TO D C HA RATERIST ICS
Under-construction Southeast East Central Other (Gold/NorthMetro/Southwest) HIGH
Open West 'do!' Inw
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 35


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 36
TOD MONITORING TOOL
As a tool to monitor the success of the action items implemented over the next six years, staff can revise the
contained in this plan, theTOD Continuum can be Continuum scoring as necessary to maintain a strong
updated at any time to provide a current snapshot of the understanding of the current level of TOD success. When
state of TOD in Denver. Since each station location on theTOD Strategic Plan is updated in the future, this
the Continuum is fluid, recommendations such as a new monitoring will provide the opportunity to examine
station area plan, a specific infrastructure investment, what action items have had the greatest success in
or the approval of an assessment district may result implementing TOD and how to improve the City's
in a change in station scoring, essentially moving the strategic approach to TOD in the future,
station along in the continuum. As the action plan is


DENVER UNION STATION: MOVING THROUGH THE CONTINUUM
Denver Union Station has been the traditional hub of transit in Denver since the 1870's. But the source of that
prominence, a major rail yard, also eventually served as a barrier to development as train travel waned during the
mid-20th century. Today, billions of dollars in private investment is following a many decades long effort, including
dozens of incremental steps, to redevelop the station and surrounding area. Union Station has truly moved through
the TOD continuum; an initial strategy, catalytic investment, and energizing final touches.
STRATEGIZE
As early as the 1970's, planning
efforts began to contemplate
the consolidation of the rail yard
into a streamlined rail corridor.
This consolidated main line
(CML) would free up acres of
development opportunity on the
edge of Downtown and improve
access to the South Platte River.
CATALYZE
Lower Downtown redevelopment
began to gain momentum
in the 1980's and 90's, and
implementation of the CML and
planning for future infrastructure
needs began. With the passing of
Fastracks in 2004, which included
the reuse of Union Station as
the Downtown rail station for
multiple commuter rail, light rail,
and bus lines, comprehensive
planning, financing, infrastructure,
and development agreements
occurred.
ENERGIZE
Thoughtful urban design moves,
wayfinding, and multi-modal last
mile connections were developed
to enhance the DUS experience
for residents, workers, and visitors.
The historic train hall is adapted to
not only serve travelers, but also
houses a hotel, restaurants, and a
market. Construction of multiple
commerical and residential
buildings cements the future of
Union Station as one of the largest
TODs in the country.
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 37


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 38
STATION EVALUATION CRITERIA
To create the TOD Continuum, an evaluation was
developed to categorize stations in order to guide the
City's planning, policy and investment priorities.
RESOURCES
A number of existing regional or city-wide TOD
plans were reviewed to ascertain best practices and
approaches, including:
Sustainable Transit Communities Study-Scorecard Analysis
Summary, Office of the Mayor, Los Angeles, California,
2011. This study generated a methodology to help
identify ten SustainableTransit Communities as part of
former Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa's 2008 Housing That
Works plan.
Transit-Oriented Development Strategic Plan, Metro TOD
Program, 2011. This study devised a typology to help
categorize the existing and potential transit stations in
the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area in order to guide
Metro's investment strategy and priorities.
Central Maryland TOD Strategy: A Regional Action Plan
for Transit-Centered Communities, Central Maryland
Transportation Alliance, 2009. This plan provided
a comprehensive view ofTOD challenges and
opportunities in Central Maryland and devised multiple
"screens" to categorize station areas in an effort to inform
and educate a variety of stakeholders including state and
local governments and agencies, area developers, and
non-profit advocates.
PROCESS
TheTOD readiness evaluation builds on the station
area typology to provide direction on station area
recommendations and specifically on potential
investment priorities. An iterative process was used to
discern key issues to be addressed in the plan:
Plan Emphasis: City-led catalytic actions
Plan Goals: City interest in transit oriented
development
Station Recommendations: Action items
needed to advance development at stations
m Investment Prioritization: Type and location for
key infrastructure investment
Based on lessons learned from other TOD plans,
the project team developed an evaluation strategy
using three primary market and economic factors as
summarized below:
Market Readiness
The Market Readiness indicator helps determine
whether the station area real estate market is capable
of supporting new development by evaluating the
strength of market demand and market timing. Criteria
included: population density, employment density,
TOD demographics, land values, residential price
appreciation, commercial rents, and market activity
(permit values).
Development Potential
The Development Readiness indictor evaulates
whether the legal, physical, and infrastructure
framework of the station area is ready to support new
development, and determines the potential capacity
for new development. Criteria included: plan in place,
transit-supportive zoning, developable land (vacant
+ underutilized), ownership fragmentation, special
district (in place), and cost of infrastructure needed.
Transit-Oriented Characteristics
The Transit-Oriented Readiness indicator evaluates how
likely it is that station area development will be transit-
oriented; that is, are the quantity and quality of access,
amenities, and services in and near a station area
sufficient to support TOD? Criteria included: physical
form (block size), pedestrian access (walk score), bicycle
access, number of parks, and transit service frequency.
Depending on data availability, criteria were evaluated
based on either a standard Vi mile radius station area or
a Vi mile walk-shed (10 minute walk) calculated using
GIS network analyst.
STATION STATUS RESEARCH
In order to use the information gained during the
station evaluation, a through understanding of the
current status of each stations planning, infrastructure,
and entitlement stage was neccessary. The project
team assembled and analyzed relevant documents,
utilized GIS analysis, and performed additional
infrastructure costing exercises to establish each
stations current status.


TOD CHARACTERISTICS DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL MARKET READINES
DATA ANALYSIS
Measure Variable
Household Growth (2000 2010) Annual Percent Change
Employment Growth (2000-2010) Percent of Area with Transit Supportive Zoning
TOD Demographics Location Quotient
(Non-Family Households, Households with no Kids, Householders 25-34 and 55 to 64)
PropertyValues Dollar Amount of Actual Value (Assessor)
Residential Sales Price App. (2000 2010) Annual Percentage Change
Office Rents Average Commercial Rents Dollar per square foot (Co-Star)
Retail Rents Avgerage Commercial Rents Dollar per square foot (Co-Star)
Commercial Development To Date Dollar Amount of Permit Value
Residential Development To Date Dollar Amount of Permit Value
Planning Completed to Date None/ Station Area Plan / GDP
Zoning Percentage of Area with transit supportive zoning
Parcelization Number of Parcels per Acre
Vacant Land Acres ofVacant Land
Redevelopment Land Acres of Improved Value/Land Value <1.0
Ownership Number of Owners/ (Acres ofVacant + Acres of Redevelopable Land)
Urban Renewal Area or Special District Yes/No
Infrastructure Investment Dollars ofTOD Infrastructure Investment to Date 1
Infrastructure Needs Dollars ofTOD Infrastructure Investment Needed 1
Employment Density Jobs/Acre
Population Density Population/Acre
Physical Form Percentage of Blocks =< 4.0 acres
Community Amenity Access Walk Score
Park Access Number of Parks
Transit Service Number of Bus Stops and Peak HourTrain Frequency Combined Location Quotient
Bicycle Access Linear Feet of Dedicated Bicycle Routes
Bike Share B-Cycle Station
Automobile Ownership Number of Vehicle Households Location Quotient
Note: Location quotient is a way of quantifying how concentrated a particular industry, cluster, occupation, or demographic group is in a region as compared to the nation. It can reveal what makes a particular region
"unique" in comparison to the national average.
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 39


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 40
STATION EVALUATION
The 34 stations under consideration (downtown stations were not evaluated) were each scored for all criteria across
the three indicators. To present the results and categorize the stations into the final typology, the scores were plotted
in graph form, with Market Readiness on the horizontal axis and the Development Readiness on the vertical axis. The
TOD Readiness scores were then used to inform the policy implications and investment recommendations for each
resulting category.
General observations and notes on the station evaluation include:
Stations on existing rail lines tend to score higher on both development and market readiness.
Stations closer to downtown typically have better TOD characteristics.
Catalyze stations are close-in stations and/or found in industrial areas.
Urban Center stations have a strong combination of market and development readiness with high
development capacity.
Some stations may move through the continuum quickly as planning occurs and development activity begins.
The Heat Map visualizes the TOD Continuum scoring Strategize stations are generally cool, Catalyze stations
are generally warm, and Energize stations are generally hot for near-term TOD potential.
East line stations have a weaker market readiness score but have high development potential.
West line stations have a stronger market readiness score but less development potential.
TOD CONTINUUM


The distinctions between each of the continuum categories are not hard lines intended to "lock" a station into place,
rather, the TOD Continuum is fluid, with stations generally moving from left to right, low to high on the graph. Some
stations have a unique situation or known issue that required professional judgment to place it in the category most
reflective of its current status. Specific stations that did not clearly score in its ultimate TOD Continuum category
include:
STRATEGIZE STATIONS
40th & Colorado: Neighborhood
planning efforts are on-going
at this station. The station may
move to Catalyze once a small
area plan is adopted and specific
recommendations have been
identified.
Nine Mile and Dayton: These
stations have boundaries that are
in both Denver and Aurora. For the
analysis, these stations only utilized
data collected for parcels in Denver.
Southmoor: This station lacks a TOD
strategy despite indicating strong
market and development readiness.
CATALYZE STATIONS
Alameda: This station likely moves
to Energize once major stormwater
infrastructure investments are
completed.
Welton/Downing Corridor: These
stations scored similar to Energize
stations. The stations are in
Catalyze due to several identified
infrastructure needs, as well as RTD
studying a potential change in transit
mode (light rail to streetcar).
ENERGIZE STATIONS
University of Denver: This station is
near its aspirational character, with a
major institutional owner controlling
much of the development potential.
Yale: This station has limited
development potential, with small
moves needed to unlock any
opportunities that exist near the
station.
SCORING HEAT MAP
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Development
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Transit Oriented
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CATALYZE
ENERGIZE
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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 41


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 42
WHAT IS AWALKSHED?
Transit Oriented Development areas are generally
identified by their walkshed, which covers the distance
assumed people will walk to get to a transit station. For
light rail and commuter rail, it is estimated that people
are willing to walk approximately one half mile. For bus
transit riders, that distance is typically one quarter mile.
In the past, Community Planning and Development
(CPD) has mapped TOD walksheds by simply buffering
the station with a half mile radius "as the crow flies,"
which does not necessarily represent the area where
people are physically able to walk. By looking at this
buffer distance, as opposed to the actual walkshed, it
is easy to promote development that is not accessible
within a half mile walk.
CREATING WALKSHEDS
In order to produce more accurate representations of the
transit station walksheds, CPD's GIS staff utilized ESRI's
Network Analyst to map the distance against a walk
network, taking into account barriers such as interstates,
major arterials, rivers, and railroads, and incorporating
off-street trails and other pedestrian connections.
The process of mapping the walksheds began with
preparing the base data, or the walk network, against
which the analysis would be run. The street network
was modified to exclude streets where people do not
walk, such as highways and highway on- and off ramps.
Pedestrian bridges and off-street trails were added in, as
well as future connections and network intersections.
STEPS TO CREATE WALKSHEDS
Remove highways and highway ramps
Addpedestrian bridges
Add off-street trails
A dd funded and under construction connections
The dataset is populated with key attributes for distance,
walk speeds, and time traveled, which allow the software
to map all possible half mile routes traveling away
from each station in any direction. The analysis used a
walk speed of 3 miles per hour for 10 minutes, which
yields a one half mile distance. The speed and time
are irrelevant, however, as long as the variables yield
the desired distance. Once all possible walk routes
are generated, a polygon is derived generalizing the
accessible area.
KEY FINDINGS
The most complete walksheds are those with
strategically located pedestrian connections, or with the
least disrupted street grid. The Louisiana-Pearl station
area walkshed is a good example of how a clean street
grid can maximize the walkable area. However, even in
that case, comparing the buffer to the walkshed reveals
160 acres and 633 living units that are not actually
accessible within the half mile walk.
By mapping the half mile walksheds as derived from
the walk network, planners are also able to assess
connectivity, identify barriers, and evaluate where
potential infrastructure improvements would be most
beneficial. Such analysis allows planners to more
effectively plan for future development in each transit
station area.
DENVER UNION STATION


Key infrastructure improvements, such as a pedestrian bridge over a freeway, can connect
entire neighborhoods to rail stations. These first and last mile connections increase the reach
of a station into the community, improving resident and business access to the rest of the RTD
passenger rail system and the regional economy.
Station areas with a strong grid of streets, bicycle facilities and pedestrian paths can maximize
the stations connectivity with existing neighborhoods and new development opportunities.
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 43


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER
TRANSIT ORIENTED
CHARACTISTICS- BYWALKSHED
MEDIUM'
UofDi


DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL AND MARKET READINESS
enver
V
The system wide scoring map represents each
station's market readiness by a color, and
development potential by size. The transit-
oriented characteristics of each station is
displayed by walkshed on the border.
in o
D Q.
HIGH
LOW 5 O
HIGH
LOW
7 Oth & Osage
Welton/Downing Corridor
Colfax at Auraria

Colorado
#
Decatur-Federal
z
$
Sheridan

Louisiana & Feral

41 st & Fox Mile High Stadium 125 & Broadway
Knox
Pepsi Center
Alameda
MEDIUM-HIGH......
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 45


TRANSIT ORIENTED CHARACTISTICS
-BYWALKSHED
O
*
: 40th and Airport
61st and Pena
"H*
Peoria
4
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Dayton
Southmoor
Nine Mile
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National Western Stock Show
INTRODUCTION
Planning needs to occur at the beginning of the continuum when market
readiness and development readiness is low. This is when the City and its
partners set the vision for a station area. This process establishes a path
to move forward into the Catalyze and Energize categories. Regardless
of the station aspirations and characteristics, there are four fundamental
components to ensure a station area advances through the continuum.
1. Consider the overall city vision
2. Consider the definition of transit communities and TOD Principles
3. Engage our partners
4. Plan to implement
TOOLKIT
Planning comes in different shapes and sizes. Citywide planning documents
provide guidance at a higher level and help to bring all the pieces together.
These tools provide an opportunity for more detailed evaluation and
visioning for a specific geography in the city.
Blueprint Denver
Blueprint Denver provides citywide policy guidance for land use and
transportation decisions. Blueprint Denver organizes the city into Areas of
Change, where most growth and multi-modal transportation investments
will be directed; and Areas of Stability, where maintaining and enhancing
the current character and valued attributes of the neighborhood will be the
focus. The plan establishes concept land uses for all land in the city which
includes building blocks and guiding principles for development character.
It also establishes a street typology which brings together the function of a
street with the land use character. This document provides a solid foundation
for our station areas. In some cases this guidance is sufficient to set the stage
for implementation. In some areas more detailed guidance and planning is
needed before implementation can occur.
Small Area Plans
Small area plans are approved by Planning Board and adopted by City
Council. As adopted policy, they have standing that can be used as a
basis for funding and regulatory decisions for the city. They typically are
comprehensive in nature and cover topics such as land use, urban design,
parks and recreation, health, mobility, infrastructure, and economic
development. These efforts capture a smaller geography. Station area
planning can occur as part of a larger neighborhood planning effort.
Following this approach is recommended when the station area has a close
relationship to a neighborhood and a larger geography is needed in order to
capture the proper planning context.
General Development Plans
A General Development Plan (GDP) is a regulatory tool administered
through the Denver Zoning Code and establishes a framework for phased
development intended to occur on larger sites over a longer period of time.
40th and Colorado


The GDP process does not result in a site-specific development plan, but is designed to implement recommendations
from City-adopted small area plans (including station area plans), documenting master plan level concepts for land
use, publicly-accessible open space, wet and dry utilities, associated multi-modal street network, development
phasing and concepts for design guidelines.
Infrastructure Studies
Infrastructure studies examine the cost and feasibility of plan recommendations and action items related to City-
led investments in station areas. Example infrastructure studies include multi-modal connectivity, stormwater, and
parking management.
KEY DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES
National Western Stock Show Master Plan for the National Western Complex underway in 2014
40th and Colorado ULC property provides affordable housing opportunity
Peoria City-owned property along Peoria
40th & Airport DIA-owned land and significant ownership consolidation
61st and Pena DIA-owned land and significant ownership consolidation
STATION SCORING
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 47


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 48
Corridor East Corridor 1-225
Opening 2016 Opened 2006
Projected Ridership 1,370 Ridership 1,339
RTD Parking Spaces 200 RTD Parking Spaces 250
U-IN
urban innovation
SU
suburban
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium -Low
Low
Medium Low
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium Low
Medium Low
Low
Plan
Infrastructure Analysis
Zoning
Infrastructure Investment



$$
Plan
Infrastructure Analysis O
Zoning
Infrastructure Investment $
Complete the Elyria Swansea Neighborhood Plan
and 40th and Colorado Next Steps Study
Time frame: 2014/2015
Monitor and respond to any changing
development conditions along the city boundary
Time frame: on-going
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Determine and initiate implementation of priority
projects established by above efforts
Time frame: 2016-2018
Monitor and respond to any demands or needed
improvements for multi-modal connectivity to
the station from Denver neighborhoods
Time frame: on-going


Action Plan I Status (Score I Typology (Facts
Corridor East
Opening 2016
Projected Ridership 2,760
RTD Parking Spaces 800
uc
urban center
Corridor North Metro
Opening 2016
Projected Ridership 220
RTD Parking Spaces 40
GU-E
general urban entertainment
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Low
Medium
Medium Low
Plan Plan C
Infrastructure Analysis Infrastructure Analysis O
Zoning Zoning c
Infrastructure Investment $$$$ Infrastructure Investment $$$
Implement regulations consistent with the plan
such as zoning and urban design standards and
guidelines
Time frame: 2014/2015
Continue to lead and engage in the on-going
planning and implementation efforts for the
Elyria Swansea neighborhood and the Stockshow
Complex Master Plan effort.
Time frame: 2014/2015
Determine and initiate implementation of priority
projects established by above efforts
Time frame: 2016-2018
Complete

In-progress
O
None
$- 0 $$-
1 1,000,000
$$s-
1,000,000-9,999,999
$$$$
10,000,000+
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 49


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 50
Corridor 1-225
Opened 2006
Ridership 6,730
RTD Parking Spaces 1,225
Corridor East
Opening 2016
Projected Ridership 3,730
RTD Parking Spaces 550
SU SU- IN
suburban suburban innovation
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium Low
Medium Low
Medium Low
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium Low
Medium
Low
Plan
Infrastructure Analysis
Zoning
Infrastructure Investment
$
Plan
Infrastructure Analysis O
Zoning O
Infrastructure Investment $$$$
Monitor and respond to future development
opportunities, infrastructure needs
Time frame: on-going
Continue efforts with DRCOG Sustainable
Communities Initiative (SCI) including
implementation of catalytic projects
focused on development opportunities,
parking and affordable housing
Time frame: 2014/2015
Consider the continuation of SCI efforts
to organize stakeholders on further
strategizing and implementing TOD along
the East Corridor (Denver and Aurora)
Time frame: on-going
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Monitor and respond to future
development opportunities, infrastructure
needs and/or DIA parking management
opportunities
Time frame: on-going


Action Plan I Status (Score I Typology (Facts
Corridor East
Opening 2016
Corridor East
Opening 2016
Projected Ridership 3/140
RTD Parking Spaces 1/079
su
suburban
Corridor Southeast
Opened 2006
Ridership 6,387
RTD Parking Spaces 788
SU
suburban
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium High
Medium High
Medium Low
Plan C Plan
Infrastructure Analysis O Infrastructure Analysis
Zoning Zoning O
Infrastructure Investment $ Infrastructure Investment $$
Consider the continuation of SCI efforts to
organize stakeholders on further strategizing and
implementing TOD along the East Corridor (Denver
and Aurora)
Time frame: on-going
Monitor and respond to future development
opportunities, infrastructure needs and/or DIA
related parking management opportunities
Time frame: on-going
Consider a General Development Plan when
appropriate
Time frame: on-going
Monitor and respond to any change in market
and development conditions that would be
conducive to creating a TOD strategy for the
station area
Time frame: on-going
Complete

In-progress
O
None
$- 0 $$-
1 1,000,000
$$s-
1,000,000-9,999,999
$$$$
10,000,000+
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 51


TRANSIT ORIENTED CHARACTISTICS
-BYWALKSHED
INTRODUCTION
Auraria West
Stations that fall within Catalyze are stations that either have high
development readiness and low market readiness or have low development
readiness and high market readiness. Regardless, these station areas
already have a vision and a path forward. They just need action to adjust the
development or market readiness and begin realizing the vision.
Evans

Perry
0
41 st and Fox
The City's focus in the coming years is to re-assess Denver's role in
catalyzing these stations. In the past, the City has relied upon the private
market to lead development and market readiness. There has since been
a shift in philosophy upon the realization that 1) TOD offers significant
opportunities citywide; and 2) Given the competitive market climate,
TOD often cannot happen on its own if there is a signficicant market or
development impediment. Research indicates that stations within this
phase of the continuum provide the best opportunity for the strategic use
of city investment resources. This is because Denver can get the most for
its public investment and will quickly see a return by kick starting market or
development readiness.
Catalyze station areas with average to above average market conditions
for TOD typically need specific infrastructure or amenity improvements
to achieve the desired type of development. Catalytic infrastructure and
amenity investments, such as new streets, sidewalks, bicycle facilities, park
space, and stormwater improvements should yield the sought-after TOD
results.
3
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Knox Court
Alameda
Sheridan
38th and Blake
TOOLKIT
While there are different ways to catalyze investment in a station area, the city
has the greatest success through infrastructure investment. These projects
typically include:
Multi-modal street reconstruction
Last mile improvements (e.g. bicycle/pedestrian paths and bridges)
Storm water drainage improvements
Parking structures
Parkland improvements or creation
Decatur-Federal
Colorado
Welton/Downing Corridor
HIGH


STATION SCORING
KEY DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES
Decatur-Federal DHA owned land and significant ownership consolidation
Knox Court/Perry TOD sites located on Colfax Ave and near Sloan's Lake Park
41st and Fox-TOD opportunities at the former Denver Post facility
Welton/Downing Corridor Multiple small development sites, including RTD surface parking lots
38th and Blake ULC property provides affordable housing opportunity
Alameda RTD Transit Oriented Communities Pilot Project
Colorado Final phases of Colorado Center development
Sheridan ULC property provides affordable housing opportunity
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER S3


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 54
Corridor East
Opening 2016
Projected Ridership 1,870
RTD Parking Spaces 200
Corridor West
Opened 2013
Ridership 2,309
RTD Parking Spaces 1,900
GU-IN
general urban innovation
UC-E
urban center entertainment
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium
Medium
Medium High
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium
High
Medium High
Plan
Infrastructure Analysis
Zoning
Infrastructure Investment
Plan
Infrastructure Analysis C
Zoning
Infrastructure Investment $$$
Coordinate with CPD, PW and DoF on Time frames
for funding and implementation of prioritized
infrastructure investments
Time frame: 20 1 4/20 7 5
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Coordinate with CPD, PW and DoF on Time frames for
funding and implementation of prioritized infrastructure
investment
Time frame:2014/2015
Maintain Implementing Partnership as studies and projects
move forward
Time frame: On-Going
Explore zone district map amendments to implement plan
Timeframe: On-going
CO
u
31st and 36th Outfall System
38th Outfall System
35th and 36th at Brighton Signalization
Brighton Reconstruction
Downing Two Way conversion
Lawrence St. removal
Marion Two Way conversion
37th Ped improvements
Pedestrian route improvements
Proposed Bike route additions
Neighborhood Lighting
Sidewalk Construction Phase I and II
Marion St. Sidewalks (36th to Walnut)
13th Ave Realignment (River to Federal)
New Riverfront Park Drive
New Riverfront Park
Sloan's Lake Floodplain removal
Weir Gulch Floodplain removal


Catalysts I Action Plan I Status (Score I Typology (Facts
Corridor Central
Opened 1994
Ridership 5,381
RTD Parking Spaces 302
Corridor West
Opened 2013
Ridership 1,699
RTD Parking Spaces 800
UC GU
urban center general urban
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium High
Medium High
Medium High
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium Low
Medium Low
Medium High
Plan Plan
Infrastructure Analysis C Infrastructure Analysis O
Zoning Zoning
Infrastructure Investment $$$$ Infrastructure Investment $
Coordinate with CPD, PW and DoF on Time frames
for funding and implementation of prioritized
infrastructure investment
Time frame: 20 7 4/20 7 5
Coordinate with CPD, PW and DoF on Time
frames for funding and implementation of
prioritized infrastructure investment
Time frame: 20 7 4/20 75
Broadway Corridor Bike Facility
Re-purpose of Elati Bridge
Sheridan Ave. Sidewalks
(15th to 17th & 8th to 10th)
Complete In-progress O None $- 0 $$- 1 1,000,000 $$s-
1,000,000-9,999,999
$$$$
10,000,000
$1,000,001 $2,500,000 $2,500,001 $10,000,000
$10,000,001 -$25,000,000
$0-$1,000,000
$25,000,001 $52,500,000
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 55


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 56
Corridor West Corridor Southwest
Opened 2002 Opened 2000
CO -1 Ridership 8,105 Ridership 1,913
u 03 U_ RTD Parking Spaces 0 RTD Parking Spaces 99
Typology 1 GU-IS general urban institutional 1 U-IN urban innovation
Market Readiness | Medium Low | Market Readiness | Medium
Score Development Potential | High | Development Potential 1 Medium Low
TOD Characteristics | Medium High TOD Characteristics 1 Medium
Plan
Infrastructure Analysis
Zoning
Infrastructure Investment
$
Plan
Infrastructure Analysis
Zoning
Infrastructure Investment
$$$
c
CL
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o
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u
<
i/i
U
Coordinate with CPD, PW and DoF on Time frames
for funding and implementation of prioritized
infrastructure investment
Time frame: 20 7 4/20 7 5
13th Ave. Reconstruction
(Platte River to Mariposa)
Coordinate with CPD, PW and DoF on Time
frames for funding and implementation of
prioritized infrastructure investment
Time frame: 20 7 4/20 7 5
Delaware Reconstruction
(Harvard to Ashbury)
Harvard Gulch Floodplain Removal
South Platte River Floodplain Removal


Catalysts (Action Plan (Status (Score (Typology (Facts
Corridor West
Opened 2013
Ridership 785
RTD Parking Spaces 0
Corridor West
Opened 2013
Ridership 660
RTD Parking Spaces 0
u u
urban urban
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium
Medium
Medium
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium Low
Medium Low
Medium
Plan Plan
Infrastructure Analysis Infrastructure Analysis
Zoning Zoning
Infrastructure Investment $ Infrastructure Investment $
Coordinate with CPD, PW and DoF on Time frames
for funding and implementation of prioritized
infrastructure investment
Time frame: 20 7 4/20 7 5
Coordinate with CPD, PW and DoF on Time
frames for funding and implementation of
prioritized infrastructure investment
Time frame: 20 74/20 75
Colfax Reconstruction
Colfax Reconstruction
Complete

In-progress
O
None
$- 0 $$-
1 1,000,000
$$s-
1,000,000-9,999,999
$$$$
10,000,000
$0-$1,000,000 $1,000,001 -$2,500,000 $2,500,001 $10,000,000 $10,000,001 $25,000,000
$25,000,001 $52,500,000
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 57


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 58
Corridor Gold
Opening 2016
Projected Ridership 2,703
RTD Parking Spaces 150
Corridor Central
Opened 1994
Ridership 9,231
RTD Parking Spaces 0
GU-IN
general urban innovation
GU
general urban
Market Potential
Development Readiness
TOD Characteristics
Medium Low
Medium
Medium
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium High
Medium Low
High
Plan
CO
D
03
Infrastructure Analysis
Zoning
Infrastructure Investment
O

$$$
Consider need and opportunity for holistic zone
district changes
Time frame: on going
c
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Consider a more detailed infrastructure analysis
and financing plan to provide more specific
direction on catalytic projects
Time frame: 20 7 4/20 7 5
CO
u
Bike/Ped Connectivity
38th Ave. Reconstruction
Bike Blvd. along 41st
Inca St. Improvements (36th to 46th)
Fox St. Improvements (38th to 45th)
38th and Fox St. Intersection Improvements
38th and Navajo Intersection Improvements
Northwest Subarea Drainage Improvements
38th Ave. Drainage and Transportation Improvements
44th Ave. Improvements (Broadway to Fox St)
Plan
Infrastructure Analysis
Zoning
Infrastructure Investment $$
Consider a more detailed infrastructure analysis
to provide more specific direction on catalytic
projects
Time frame: 20 7 4/20 75
27th Street Storm Drain Improvements


Complete
In-progress O None
$1,000,001 -$2,500,000
$- 0 $$" 1 1,000,000
* $2,500,001 -$10,000,000
$$s 1,000,000-9,999,999
$10,000,001 -$25,000,000
$$$$ 10,000,000
$0-$1,000,000
$25,000,001 $52,500,000
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 59


TRANSIT ORIENTED CHARACTISTICS
-BYWALKSHED
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5 Belleview
3
D
LU
I V
j Yale
%
Central Park Blvd
V
University of Denver
4%
l-25/Broadway
Â¥
Mile High Stadium
i *
5 Pepsi Center/Elitch Gardens
3
D
'
i Louisiana &Peral
HIGH
INTRODUCTION
This is the theoretical "end" or "peak" to the continuum. Stations in this
category have high development and market readiness and are essentially
"TOD ready". While there is likely work to be done, it is generally left to the
private sector. These stations typically have had all the city intervention
necessary to implementTOD. The goal is for all stations to become an
"Energize"station. There is not a set toolkit for these stations, as the action
items are tailored to the unique characteristics and opportunities of the
specific station. In many cases, the responsibility will be on an external party;
however, action items listed are those that the city will have a supporting role
at some level.


STATION SCORING
I-
41st an* 1 Foxf

£=ipir
ts Ail
atm
Tuiarin Writ
KEY DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES
Broadway TOD opportunities at former Gates Rubber Factory
Yale Smaller-scale TOD site near station
Belleview Single ownership of largeTOD site adjacent to station
Central Park Single ownership of largeTOD site adjacent to station
TRANSIT ORIENTED


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 62
Corridor Central Corridor Southeast
Opened 1994 Opened 2006
Ridership 4,032 Ridership 1,787
RTD Parking Spaces 0 RTD Parking Spaces 59
GU
general urban
UC
urban center
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium High
High
Low
Plan
Infrastructure Analysis
Zoning
Infrastructure Investment
$$$
Plan
Infrastructure Analysis C
Zoning
Infrastructure Investment $$$
c
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Continue to improve first and last mile
connections as opportunities arise
Time frame: on-going
Continue to improve first and last mile
connections beyond the new development area
Time frame: on-going
Monitor and support the progress of the
Belleview Station development
Time frame: on-going


Action Plan I Status (Score I Typology (Facts
Corridor Southeast
Opened 2006
Ridership 4,052
Corridor Southeast
Opened 2006
Ridership 4,052
RTD Parking Spaces 540
U-IS
urban institutional
Corridor Southeast
Opened 2006
Ridership 1,396
RTD Parking Spaces 0
U
urban
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium High
Medium Low
Medium
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium High
Medium
Medium High
Plan Plan
Infrastructure Analysis Infrastructure Analysis
Zoning Zoning
Infrastructure Investment $$$ Infrastructure Investment $
Monitor future investment and planning of the Monitor parking management
campus to ensure transit supportive investment Jjme frame:on.gojng
Time frame: on-going
Complete

In-progress
O
None
$- 0 $$-
1 1,000,000
$$s-
1,000,000-9,999,999
$$$$
10,000,000+
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 63


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER
Corridor
Opened
Ridership
RTD Parking Spaces
Southeast
2006
1,691
129
Corridor Central
Opened 1994
Ridership 16,829
RTD Parking Spaces 0
SU GU-IS
suburban general urban institutional
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium
Low
Medium Low
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium
Medium High
Medium High
c
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3
Plan
Infrastructure Analysis C
Zoning
Infrastructure Investment $
Study, design and construct a pedestrian crossing
at Yale Avenue and Yale Circle
Time frame: 20 7 6-20 78
Plan
Infrastructure Analysis
Zoning
Infrastructure Investment $
Monitor opportunities for last mile connections
such as Colfax Ave crossings
Time frame: on-going


Action Plan (Status (Score (Typology I Facts
Corridor Southeast
Opened 2006
Ridership 5,761
RTD Parking Spaces 363
uc
urban center
Corridor East
Opening 2016
Corridor East
Opening 2016
Projected Ridership 2,180
RTD Parking Spaces 1,500
UC
urban center
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium High
Medium High
Medium High
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium High
Medium High
Medium High
Plan
Infrastructure Analysis
Zoning
Infrastructure Investment $$$
Plan
Infrastructure Analysis
Zoning
Infrastructure Investment $$$
Monitor opportunities for last mile connections
such as bike share and Evans Avenue crossing
improvements
Time frame: on-going
Continue discussions with RTD on Joint
Development Program opportunities on RTD
parking lot
Time frame: on-going
Continue to seek opportunities for incremental
implementation of the Intermodal Transportation
Center
Time frame: on-going
Study, fund, design and construct connection of
Smith east of Havana Street
Time frame: 20 7 6-20 78
Study, fund, design and construct 40th Avenue
over Sand Creek
Time frame: 2019-
Complete

In-progress
O
None
$- 0 $$-
1 1,000,000
$$s-
1,000,000-9,999,999
$$$$
10,000,000+
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 65


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 66
Corridor Central Corridor Central
Opened 2002 Opened 2002
Ridership 1,340 Ridership 20,000
RTD Parking Spaces 0 RTD Parking Spaces 1,259
D-E
downtown entertainment
D-E
downtown entertainment
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium
High
Medium
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
Medium
Medium High
High
Plan
Infrastructure Analysis
Zoning
Infrastructure Investment
$
Plan
Infrastructure Analysis
Zoning
Infrastructure Investment $
c
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C
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Monitor new development and connectivity
opportunities that may trigger additional planning
Time frame: on-going
Monitor new development and connectivity
opportunities that may trigger additional
planning
Time frame: on-going


Action Plan (Status (Score (Typology I Facts
Corridor Central
Opened 1994
Ridership 14,002
RTD Parking Spaces 1,248
UC
urban center
Market Readiness
Development Potential
TOD Characteristics
High
High
Medium
Plan £)
Infrastructure Analysis
Zoning £)
Infrastructure Investment $
Complete 1-25 & Broadway Station Area Plan
Time frame: 20 7 4-20 75
Work with property owner and RTD to address
parking management and joint development
opportunities
Time frame: 20 7 6-20 78
Complete

In-progress
O
None
$- 0 $$-
1 1,000,000
$$s-
1,000,000-9,999,999
$$$$
10,000,000+
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 67


TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 68
A strategic approach to implementing TOD in Denver includes short and long-term actions that span multiple City
departments. In order to catalyze development at the stations with the best opportunities for development in the
next 6 years, the City needs to identify City-wide TOD policies and specific action recommendations at the department
level, finding realistic financing strategies to fund necessary planning, infrastructure, and marketing activities. This
section identifies recommendations that cut across the TOD implementing agencies and require a coordinated effort
to implement city-led investments that remove barriers to station area development.
Administration Community
and Management Planning and
Development
1.1 Establish a TOD Action
Team
Time frame:2014/2015
1.2 Appoint a TOD Steward
Time frame:2014/2015
1.3 Explore emerging
partnership opportunities to
implement TOD
Time frame: on-going
2.1 Integrate Transit
Communities and TOD
Principles into updates to
the Comprehensive Plan and
Blueprint Denver
Time frame: on-going
2.2 Explore Opportunities for
Non-Rail Station TOD Planning
Time frame:2014/2015
Evaluate Denver's role
in transit planning and
implementation
Time frame: 2014/2015
Apply parking
management strategies at
TODs
Time frame: on-going
(


Department of Office of Economic Parks and
Finance Development Recreation
4.1 Utilize Denver TOD
financing principles
Time frame: on-going
4.2 Utilize Denver TOD
financing mechanisms
Time frame: on-going
4.3 Create station area
financing plans for designated
"catalyze" stations
Time frame:2014/2015
5.1 Business recruitment
strategies for TOD areas
Time frame: on-going
5.2 Housing and
neighborhood development
strategies for TOD areas
Time frame: on-going
5.3 Strategic Lending Tools for
TOD areas
Time frame: on-going
5.4 Key strategic projects that
impact TOD
Time frame: on-going
6.1 Park, open space, and
recreation structure in TOD's
Time frame: on-going
6.2 Completing the vision for
a City in a Park
Time frame: on-going
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ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT
1.1 ESTABLISH A TOD ACTION TEAM
1.2 APPOINT A TOD STEWARD
1.3 EXPLORE EMERGING PARTNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES
TO IMPLEMENT TOD
The following recommendations relate to how the City coordinates efforts to
implementTOD across multiple departments and offices.
1.1 Establish a TOD Action Team Timeframe: 2014/2015
Establish a TOD Action Team comprised of a point person from each of the
departments/offices most responsible for development around stations:
Community Planning and Development, Department of Public Works,
Department of Finance, Denver Parks and Recreation Department, and the
Office of Economic Development, with a focus on reducing internal conflicts
and promoting strategies and programs that encourage successful TOD.
Include external TOD partners, such as RTD, DHA, DRCOG, and DURA, on this
team on an as-needed basis. This team could meet on a monthly basis or as
needed to address development and infrastructure projects in station areas
and provide support to an appointed TOD staff person.
1.2 AppointaTOD Steward Time frame: 2014/2015
Appoint a senior level staff person to act as a champion for TOD related
policies and projects. The position should have the authority to coordinate
and direct city departmental activities related to station/TOD development
and investment. As this position becomes more defined, consider the roles of
the position to include real estate development assistance to both property
owners and potential developers. If needed, expand this position to a small
team of TOD professionals with specific expertise in TOD related activities -
planning, infrastructure, and finance.
1.3 Explore emerging partnership opportunities to implement TOD
Time frame: on-going
As various City departments and agencies work to coordinate efforts to im-
plementTOD, additional opportunities may arise to identify strategic actions
that remove barriers to development at stations. Examples of opportunities
to partner with on-going or upcoming initiatives include:
State-wide construction defect law reform
North Denver Cornerstone Collaborative
DenverTOD Fund
DRCOG Sustainable Communities Initiative
Denver Shared Space Project
City and County of Denver Climate Adaption Plan
Mile High Connects


COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
2.1 INTEGRATE TRANSIT COMMUNITIES AND TOD
PRINCIPLES INTO UPDATES TO THE COMPREHENSIVE
PLAN AND BLUEPRINT DENVER
2.2 EXPLORE OPPORTUNITIES FOR NON-RAIL STATION
TOD PLANNING
Transit-oriented development is at the heart of numerous planning efforts
developed by the Community Planning and Development Department;
beginning with Comprehensive Plan 2000 and Blueprint Denver and
continuing with dozens of neighborhood, station area, and general
development plans since those plans were adopted in the early 2000's.
Looking more holistically at howTOD improves the walkable nature
of the City and fosters residents and employees ability to move about
the community to access their daily needs is an on-going focus of the
department.
2.1 Integrate Transit Communities and TOD Principles into updates to the
Comprehensive Plan and Blueprint Denver Time frame: on-going
Include the transit communities concept and TOD principles into upcoming
updates to the City's Comprehensive Plan and Blueprint Denver, the City's
intregrated land use and transportation plan. The vision of transit oriented
development in Denver goes beyond just development around rail stations;
instead it is encapsulated into the larger concept of building transit
communities around our rail stations that provide a person's daily needs
without the use of an automobile. The transit communities concept and TOD
principles can help bring Denver's neighborhoods closer together as one city.
These ideas should evolve in the city-wide plan updates in order to provide
value to multiple city-wide inititives, such as sustainability goals and resiliency
measures.
2.2 Explore opportunities for non-rail station TOD planning
Time frame: 20 7 4/20 7 5
Explore opportunities to plan and implement transit oriented development
along future enhanced transit corridors. Enhanced transit corridors could
include bus, bus-rapid transit, and streetcar modes.
As the RTD Fastracks program moves forward with implementation,
most Denver rail stations will be operational in the next few years and
opportunities to foster development around transit will move beyond rail
stations. Existing bus lines that exhibit strong ridership may evolve into
high frequency, high capacity transit utilizing some elements of a fixed route
service in the future. These enhanced transit corridors, if implemented, have
the potential to spur transit oriented development.
An immediate opportunity for non-rail TOD planning exists at Civic Center
Station. RTD anticipates extensive near-term renovations to this key bus
transfer center in Downtown. Local and regional buses currently serve the
station and future enhanced bus, bus-rapid transit, or streetcar service could
be added within the next 5 years. The city should explore TOD opportunities
at this station and continue to foster implementing partnerships with RTD,
the State of Colorado, private land owners, and other stakeholders.
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PUBLIC WORKS
3.1 EVALUATE DENVER'S ROLE IN TRANSIT PLANNING
AND IMPLEMENTATION
3.2 APPLY PARKING MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AT TODS
The Public Works Department is involved with the planning and
implementation ofTOD at multiple levels, including, but not limited
to: addressing multi-modal connectivity, managing stormwater runoff,
developing and applying parking management strategies, and enforcing
right-of-way utilization. As an implementing agency, the department must
manage multiple, sometimes conflicting demands on city resources. Public
Works has identified two major topics relating to station area development
that require additional strategies as the City strives to remove barriers and
implementTOD.
3.1 Evaluate Denver's role in transit planning and
implementation Time frame: 2014/2015
Lead the City in continuing to evaluate its role in transit and work with
regional partners to develop strategies to meet current and future service
demands. Public transit service for Denver is provided by RTD. RTD provides
transit service for the entire Denver region, including express and local bus
service, park-n-ride facilities and a rapid transit system that is now being
greatly expanded through the FasTracks program.The City and County of
Denver (CCD) has not been a primary provider of public transit service, but
has worked closely with RTD for the planning and support of transit service
for Denver residents, workers and visitors on a regional basis.
The 2008 Denver Strategic Transportation Plan (STP) laid a roadmap for
transportation in Denver that emphasizes multimodal transportation
solutions and improving the efficiency of the transportation system in moving
people. In addition to city-wide policies for a balanced transportation system,
the STP provides strategies and recommendations for transportation system
improvements throughout the city.
The 2002 Blueprint Denver Plan developed "Enhanced Transit Corridors"that
provide Denver with the opportunity to focus growth in a way that benefits
the city as a whole. These corridors will provide enhanced mobility through
excellent access to efficient forms of transportation including walking, biking,
buses, and rail transit.
Investment Strategies The City and County of Denver has made many
investments in transit, and continues to investigate additional opportunities
to build upon the vision of maximizing person carrying trip capacity
developed in the Strategic Transportation Plan. When considering the
creation of a multimodal transportation system, transit and the associated
amenities become vitally important as the City works towards meeting
the goal of creating a livable, connected and sustainable city in the future.
Investment strategies include:
Directly Funded Investments
Programmatic Investments
Regulatory Investments
System Preservation Investments
Transit Related Plans and Coordination


The City and County of Denver understands the significant role transit plays in
being a world-class city. Across the country, cities are seeing their roles shift
from reacting to transit needs and responsibilities to proactively planning for
and implementing transit service.The City will continue to evaluate its role in
transit and work with regional partners to develop strategies to meet current
and future service demands.
3.2 Apply parking management strategies at TODs
Time frame: on-going
Parking Management Strategies for anyTOD area should align with the City's
three-fold vision for parking management as identified in the 2010 Denver
Strategic Parking Plan (SPP). The SPP establishes a management philosophy
for the City of Denver to guide parking-related decision-making that (1)
manages parking as a valued asset, (2) acknowledges a variety of land use
patterns and contexts, and (3) encourages an integrated approach to parking
management with a commitment to stakeholder outreach.
The SPP introduces a five-step process that sequences parking strategies
incrementally to best address parking needs. Each of the five steps -
Demand, Location,Time, Pricing, and Supply is coupled with an array of
strategies that can be used singularly or in combination to achieve a parking
management goal for on and/or off-street parking around a TOD area.
Applying this process and toolbox, coupled with stakeholder input, will help
implement the most effective parking management strategy for a TOD area
as parking patterns and needs change with phased development that adds
density and activity in an area.
The SPP helps identify strategies that ensure a proper balance of supply
and demand for different users. In a TOD area, the goal is to utilize limited
parking resources wisely and promote efficient use of RTD parking facilities
from opening day onward while maintaining convenient parking to support
adjacent business and residential uses. Strategies applied may include but are
not limited to:
Current Strategies
Transportation Demand Management strategies including employer or
community funded transit passes or car/bike sharing
Shared or accessory parking agreements between RTD-owned/managed
lots and nearby multi-family, commercial, or office parking inventories. This
includes opportunities to share off-street or structured parking inventory to
reduce development costs. (Subject to zoning approval).
On-Street Time Limited Parking Restrictions and/or a combination of on and
off street strategies considering parking options in the vicinity.
Appropriate pricing strategies to manage demand for the TOD core and
ncentivize the use of other higher inventory lots and garages further out
from the core.
Other creative parking management tools can be found in the Strategic
Parking Plan (SPP).
Potential Future Strategies
Customer Service Developers, CCD, and RTD partner to revamp and/or
create a consistent wayfinding strategy at stations/park-n-ride areas for
consistency across transit locations to improve customer access and provide
a consistent and informative customer experience. This could include
intelligent/dynamic parking wayfinding systems with real-time occupancy
information.
Maximization of Existing Assets Identify new opportunities for RTD/CCD
agencies to work collaboratively on active parking management strategies
that can better leverage on and off-street assets in and around station areas.
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FINANCE
4.1 UTILIZE DENVER TOD FINANCING PRINCIPLES
4.2 UTILIZE DENVER TOD FINANCING MECHANISMS
4.3 CREATE STATION AREA FINANCING PLANS FOR
DESIGNATED "CATALYZE" STATIONS
Developing financing strategies is a critical step in implementing TOD in
Denver. The Department of Finance will take a leading role in working with
the other departments to identify strategies to fund TOD investments. The
following are recommendations for financing investments at the stations with
the greatest opportunity forTOD development in the next six years.
4.1 Utilize Denver TOD financing principles Time frame: on-going
Lessons learned from Denver and other national TOD experiences (including
the peer city case studies found in the appendix) suggest the following key
principles as a basis for the City's funding and financing strategy.
Value Capture Investment at rail stations results in accessibility
improvements which translate to a larger walk shed and expanding the
influence of the rail station on the surrounding area. The larger influence
area leads to greater development potential and appreciation in property
values that could be utilized to generate revenue streams through the use
of special districts or tax increment. Capturing the value around TOD rail
stations to fund local benefits is a principal that needs to be contemplated in
conjunction with City planning and community goals.
Corridor Level Funding The revenue potential of value capture is
multiplied by creating larger and broader districts. Expanding an individual
TOD station district beyond approximately a V2 mile radius is problematic
due to a lack of nexus as determined in a benefit study. However, corridor
approaches like the Atlanta Beltline Tax Assessment District that combines
multiple stations, or even entire corridors, have a larger tax base and therefore
greater revenue potential, resulting in increased ability to use corridor wide
value capture to achieve corridor objectives.
Incentive Successful station areas across the nation typically include
programs which provide incentives or bonuses to encourage TOD
development in line with planning objectives.The incentives can take the
form of encouraging rezoning into higher intensity TOD by the City cost
sharing in the public realm portions of a project.
Partnering The alignment of various stakeholder interests to achieve
common goals.The City, RTD, property owners, and non-profits all have
different, but related, interests in promoting and investing in TOD rail stations.
There are opportunities to create public private partnerships (P3s) among
these various entities to address infrastructure and amenity needs. An
example of an effective partnership is the DenverTOD Fund which acquires
and preserves sites for affordable housing at TOD rail stations.


4.2 Utilize Denver TOD financing mechanisms Time frame: on-going
The financing mechanisms that make the most sense for DenverTOD rail
stations are special districts, tax increment financing and sales tax sharing.
Special Districts There are two broad categories of special districts,
improvement districts and metropolitan districts. They are typically used for
the installation, operation and maintenance of public improvements enjoyed
primarily by a locality or neighborhood versus the entire City.The common
feature all special districts share is they provide a localized benefit or service
to the same local population paying for the benefit or service. District creation
in Denver requires significant public involvement, approval by City Council
and a vote of the affected property owners if taxation is involved.
Improvement Districts There are two categories of improvement
districts, districts created understate statutes and those created under
the City's charter. Statutory districts include Business Improvement
Districts (BIDs), General Improvement Districts (GIDs), and Special
Improvement Districts (SIDs). Each of these district types provide for a
localized benefit and payment mechanism, but have different inherent
purposes. BIDs are geared for economic development activities as they
affect only non-residential property and funds can be spent on marketing
for the district as well as infrastructure financing. GIDs and SIDs are geared
for installing, operating and maintaining public infrastructure.Typically
GIDs raise revenue by taxation and SIDs raise revenue by assessments.
Charter districts are Local Improvement Districts (LIDs) and Local
Maintenance Districts (LMDs). Charter districts raise revenue through
assessments borne by the property owners receiving a local benefit.
There is a symbiotic relationship between LIDs and LMDs. LIDs are used
to pay for the installation of public improvements and LMDs are used to
maintain the improvements or provide services over time. Typically the
decision to use either a statutory or a charter district is based on dollar
amounts involved and number of property owners involved. Larger dollar
amounts usually cause the district to be formed as a statutory district.
Districts are structured so each property is paying its proportionate share
of the improvements based on benefit received. However, the greatest
challenge with improvement districts lies in convincing multiple property
owners that it is in their own best interests to approve a district to pay for
area-wide improvements. One approach is to tie the City's investments to
a commitment by the property owners to organize and pay for their fair
share of the operations and maintenance costs.
Metro Districts A Title 32 Metropolitan District (Metro District) is an
independent special district. Once created, a metro district functions
independently within the parameters established in its service plan
authorized by City Council. Within these parameters, a Metro District has
the ability to impose taxes, assessments, rates, fees, tolls and charges to
raise revenues which can be spent on acquisition, installation, financing
and maintenance of public improvements.The service plan does restrict
the district's power to a defined local area. Since Metro Districts require
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a vote of the affected property owners as part of the creation process,
Metro Districts are generally considered when there are few large land
holds or developer-driven single-entity projects.
Tax Increment Financing (TIF) Tax Increment Financing is a mechanism
to capture incremental taxes that are created when a vacant or underutilized
property is redeveloped to a higher and better use.The resulting increase
in property values generates an incremental amount of revenue that can be
utilized to fund TOD projects. Currently in order to use the TIF mechanism in
Denver, a project site must meet the definitions of blight as defined in statutes
and reported by the Denver Urban Renewal Authority (DURA).
Urban Renewal TIF Through DURA, TIF continues to be one of the City's
effective tools for redevelopment at infill locations including a number of
TODs. Some station areas would potentially qualify as an urban renewal
area, however not all TODs will meet the urban redevelopment area blight
requirements so this funding source cannot be used in all locations.
Area-Wide TIF This tool is not currently available in the state of
Colorado, but has been used in Dallas after a change was made to Texas
statutes.The cost of needed infrastructure improvements in under-
developed station areas typically exceeds existing revenues. Therefore,
the City should continue to seek out additional revenue sources. The City
could also pursue legislative approval for an Area-Wide TOD TIF district
that enables revenues to be utilized within the TOD system when TOD
areas are ready for catalytic investments similar to the Dallas TOD TIF
District. That would allow for a diverse multiple-station TOD TIF district
based on TOD-specific criteria rather than the current urban renewal area
blight criteria.This option requires new State legislation to be passed,
and given recent legislative efforts to restrict the use of TIF, may generate
opposition from taxing entities affected by TIF, most notably counties and
school districts. Legislation for this type of district would potentially be
supported by other RTD member cities on the FasTracks lines who also
struggle to fund needed station area improvements. One option that
might have broader support would be to have theTIF apply only to City
tax increment and not that of other taxing entities such as school districts.


4.3 Create station area financing plans for designated
"catalyze" stations. Time frame: 2014/2015
A Station Area Financing Plan can be used to determine how to best fund
and finance infrastructure improvements determined to be of benefit to all
of a station area's properties. Catalyze stations have identified investments
that are needed to facilitate development and may require a range of funding
sources. The cost of these investments should be equitably allocated to
the benefiting parties, both public and private. Financing plans are needed
for Catalyze stations and should be categorized by specific characteristics.
Key characteristics to consider include 1) stations with predominately one
landowner and a master developer, 2) stations qualifying for urban renewal
that can utilize TIF, or 3) stations with sufficient development value or
expected sufficient change in value to support a value capture financing
district.
Station Area Financing Plans should be developed at a minimum with the
following elements:
Identification of capital improvement needs
Assessment of funding responsibilities based on benefit (Benefit
Study)
Creation of a cost allocation matrix
Creation of possible financing entities (e.g., GIDs, Metro Districts,
Urban Redevelopment Areas)
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OFFICE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
5.1 BUSINESS RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES FOR TOD AREAS
5.2 HOUSING AND NEIGHBORHOOD DEVELOPMENT
STRATEGIES FOR TOD AREAS
5.3 STRATEGIC LENDING TOOLS FOR TOD AREAS
5.4 KEY STRATEGIC PROJECTS THAT IMPACT TOD
The Office of Economic Development (OED) has made transit-oriented
development a priority for the city. The office's strategic planning effort,
JumpStart, has included multiple recommendations that both apply broadly
and specifically towards development at rail stations and enhanced transit
corridors. As OED continues to update their strategic plan for economic
development in Denver, the office will evaluate and recommend strategies
that promote transit-oriented development. JumpStart 2014 has multiple
TOD-applicable strategies categorized into four areas, Business Recruitment,
Housing and Neighborhood Development, Strategic Lending, and Key
Strategic Projects.
5.1 Business recruitment strategies for TOD areas
Time frame: on-going
Manufacturing/Flex Businesses: Identify areas with a focus on transit-
accessibility for creation and development of next-generation reserach,
production, and logistics businesses. These identified areas will help to assure
job and business opportunities for middle-wage/middle-skilled jobs for city
residents.
Key Business/Development Areas: Develop an integrated, powerful
presentation that identifies key statistical/demographic information, industry
clusters, tax analysis, incentives and strategic advantages of Denver for
businesses and commercial real estate investors considering Denver sites for
expansion or location.
Retail Development Program:
Designate and market specific areas of the city, including specific key
TOD areas, to recruit new, and support existing unique, urban retailers
(Retail Development Corridors).
Identify development opportunities in the city (Retail Development
Opportunities) to recruit ethnic grocery stores, home furnishing
and improvement stores, fashion/clothing stores, and general
merchandisers (collectively,Target Retailers).


Establish business development tools to support Targeted Retailers
in-store construction, development, and operational/workforce
issues.
Create a retail website designed for retailers, developers and
shoppers to include OED programs and services, online mapping of
Retail Development Opportunities and Retail Corridors, market and
customer information, and site information.
Active Lifestyle Business Sector: Grow Denver's active lifestyle sector,
through coordination with support organizations, working directly with
lifestyle sector businesses develop information/analysis to demonstrate
the type and size of this sector, create tools and strategies to meet business
needs; and identify business recruitment targets.
International Companies: Consider the creation of an international
economic zone(s) in specific areas where Enterprise Zones and Foreign
Trade Zones can be coupled with general fund tax policies that encourage
relocation of international companies.
Small Business Support: Establish and grow programs and services for
entrepreneurs and business expansion supporting new business and job
development in TOD areas. These tools include a Small Business Resource
Directory, a new downtown business center (located 1 block from a light rail
station), and early stage capital prioritizing business areas.
5.2 Housing and neighborhood development strategies for
TOD areas Time frame: on-going
Affordable Housing Construction & Preservation:
Support the development of at least 600 additional affordable and
workforce housing units through public, non-profit, and private
partners for the development community to add 3,000 net-new
affordable housing units by 2018 (Mayor's 3x5 Initiative).
Include a range of housing types and affordability with mixed-
use development at or near station areas. Housing types should
include small-scale rowhouse developments to larger multi-family
developments.
Analyze Average Median Income (AMI) ratios of affordable units to
determine priority locations (Target Workforce Housing Locations).
Partner with a developer to acquire and rehabilitate or construct a
mixed income development in a Target Workforce Housing Location.
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Establish a sustainable preservation fund for affordable housing,
using best practices from across the country, including innovative
ideas and input from local stakeholders.
Continue and grow homeowner opportunities in single-family and
multi-family development to ensure a range of housing types and
ages at station areas for a diverse population.
Food Sourcing and Production:
Increase low-income Denver residents'access to healthy and fresh
food by facilitating the siting and expansion of healthy food retailers,
community gardens or farms, food hubs and farmer's markets in
station areas.
5.3 Strategic Lending Tools for TOD areas Time frame: on-going
Job Creating Business Sectors: Research and identify Denver's top
five primary job creating business sectors, with an emphasis on high
concentrations of middle skill employment opportunities, industry growth
dynamics and export potential (Targeted Lending Industries).
Qualified Business Loans: Offer low interest rate, subordinated, long-
term loans to qualified businesses in Targeted Lending Industries that are
expanding or may consider growing into a Targeted Area.
5.4 Key Strategic Projects that impact TOD Time frame: on-going
Localized Mass Transit Analysis: Conduct and publish an economic analysis
discussing the impact of how neighborhood-serving mass transit would
impact business and retail activity, property values and economic activity in
identified Denver core corridors.
Strategic Transit-Oriented Development: Support appropriately scaled
commercial, mixed-use and workforce housing development in identified


development-ready TOD areas along existing and next phase transit lines.
Work with a range of private and public partners to encourage or facilitate
strategic redevelopment projects and investment at or near market-ready
station areas. Some priority examples include:
Aerotropolis: Assist Aerotropolis Appointee and DIA leadership
in evaluating project and development choices and structuring
partnerships to maximize regional economic outcomes.
National Western Stock Show Area: Develop materials
demonstrating development and partnership opportunities within
key opportunities sites; market to a targeted, select group of
large agri-businesses to relocate as an anchor tenant; solicit other
businesses with an interest in being part of an agri-business focused
area.
Arapahoe Square: Encourage, support and coordinate continued
investment and development of commercial, mixed use and mixed
income projects along Welton Street.
Globeville, Elyria-Swansea: Provide technical assistance, business/
community outreach and prioritize resources to maximize business
opportunities, housing development and neighborhood services to
the 1-70 corridor neighborhoods of Globeville and Elyria-Swansea.
Welton Corridor: Continue technical and financial support
to property owners to redevelop Welton Street into an iconic
neighborhood retail, hospitality and business services district.
Sun Valley: Continued partnership with DHA and DPS to pursue a
concerted effort to improve educational attainment, employment
opportunities and mixed income housing options through a
neighborhood-scale TOD.
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PARKS AND RECREATION
6.1 PARK, OPEN SPACE, AND RECREATION STRUCTURE IN
TOD'S
6.2 COMPLETING THE VISION FOR A CITY IN A PARK
Transit Communities and development around Denver's rail stations have
some of the highest population densities and intensities of uses in the region.
Easy physical and visual access to public spaces encourages use and promotes
safety. In turn, activating public open spaces in transit communities helps
make TOD areas become a focus point and destination for the community.
The Denver Parks and Recreation Department establishes a framework for
providing the right types and mix of parks and open space in TOD knowing
that access to open space is critical to maintaining a high quality of life for
Denver's citizens.
6.1 Park, Open Space, and Recreation Structure in TOD's
As TOD's develop and grow through the City and County of Denver, the
City and developers should follow the four values framing Denver Park and
Recreation's "Game Plan" of Sustainable Environments, Equity and Service,
Engagement of the Public, and ensuring Sound Economics.
Sustainable Environments: Denver's park and recreation system has the
potential to be a national model in protecting natural and built resources.
The "Game Plan" provides direction that will strengthen Denver Parks and
Recreation's leadership in protecting our resources through new strategies
and policies for environmental responsibility, preservation of historic places
and structures, and high standards of design, construction, maintenance,
and programming. Developers of TOD's should work with Denver Parks and
Recreation in establishing minimum water requirements, planting pallets,
and ratios of natural open space to active recreational open space within
each TOD area. The balance of natural open space to active recreational
open space should be framed in the pocket, neighborhood, community, and
regional park structure utilized throughout the city's system of parks and
open space.
Equity: Parks, parkways, natural areas, and recreation centers should vary
across the city, reflecting geography as well as the needs, character, and
history of neighborhoods. Access to these spaces and amenities should be
distributed equitably across the city, and should rely on updated standards
utilized by Denver's Department of Parks and Recreation. The framework of
pocket parks, neighborhood, community, and regional parks should also be
applied when developing in new or expanding existing TOD areas.
Engagement: Denver residents are always encouraged to participate in
every aspect of the park and recreation system, including programming, park
design and maintenance.
Sound Economics: Ensuring a sustainable park and recreation system
requires adequate funding. Denver's ability to develop new parks and
programs is directly related to funds needed for maintenance of an existing


system while securing funds for improvements and acquisitions. Denver
Parks and Recreation with Denver's Budget Office should coordinate efforts
to research and implement a new policy for funding parks, recreation, and
open space needs in a TOD's and other areas of growth across the city.
Funding policies with new development and redevelopment may include
development impact fees, coupled with a dedicated source of funding to
assist with capital maintenance needs.
6.2 Completing the vision for a City in a Park
To realize the"Game Plans"vision for a City in a Park, the Department's master
plan starts with places that include neighborhood streets and public spaces,
schoolyards, and places to gather. The"Game Plan"proposes to make every
neighborhood greener and then extend outward to the broader fabric of
recreation centers, playing fields, and community amenities. In a water-wise,
arid city, that"green"varies in form.
Street Tree Canopy Cover: Street trees play an important part in defining
urban form, in addition to providing environmental and economic benefits.
In new TOD areas, requirements should hold provision for a tree canopy cover
of 15 percent to 18 percent of the developable area.
Open Space: Provide at least one-half acre of public open space within
one-half mile of every resident's home that can be reached without crossing
a major barrier. Basic infrastructure should include consideration of a
loop walking trail, shade, seating, open play area, picnic area, plantings,
focal elements such as public art, multi-use courts, community gardens,
playground, and some natural open space. In addition to providing at least
one-half acre of public open space within one-half mile of every resident's
home, 8 to 10 acres of parkland is the performance goal for every 1,000
residents. Structure of appropriate park and open space should follow the
scaled space of pocket parks, neighborhood parks, community parks, and
regional parks.
Recreation: Playing fields, recreation centers, and public pools offer
opportunities for team sports and pick-up games, as well as programs
and services that enhance health, well-being and quality of life. NewTOD
developments should look at proximities and determine whether standards
are being met in provision of one baseball field or softball field for every 5,000
residents, in addition to one soccer or multi-use field for every 5,000 residents.
At least 75 percent of Denver residents should have safe pedestrian or transit
access to a recreation center. Coordination of access is necessary with Denver
Public Works and RTD.
TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 83


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TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIC PLAN 2014

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 2MAYOR MICHAEL B. HANCOCK DENVER CITY COUNCILDistrict 1 Susan Shepherd District 2 Jeanne Faatz District 3 Paul D. Lopez District 4 Peggy Lehmann District 5 Mary Beth Susman (President) District 6 Charlie Brown District 7 Chris Nevitt District 8 Albus Brooks District 9 Judy Montero District 10 Jeanne Robb District 11 Christopher Herndon AtLarge Robin Kniech At-Large Deborah OrtegaDENVER PLANNING BOARDKenneth Ho, Chairman Andy Baldyga Jim Bershof Shannon Giord Anna Jones Brittany Morris Saunders Sharon Nunnally Susan Pearce Arleen Taniwaki Julie Underdahl Dave WebsterCOMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENTBrad Buchanan, Executive Director Steve Gordon, Planning Services Director Caryn Champine David Gaspers Steven Chester Andrea Santoro Deirdre Oss Andrea BurnsFINANCECary Kennedy, Deputy Mayor and Chief Financial Ocer Gretchen Hollrah, Deputy Manager Andrew Johnston Tim HambidgeOFFICE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTPaul Washington, Executive Director Je Romine PUBLIC WORKSJose Cornejo, Manager Crissy Fanganello, Transportation Director Ryan Billings Jenn Hillhouse Emily Snyder Justin Schmitz Mike AndersonPARKS AND RECREATIONLauri Dannemiller, Manager Gordon Robertson, Parks Director David Marquardt, Parks Planning ManagerREGIONAL TRANSPORTATION DISTRICTBill Sirois, Senior Manager, TOD and Planning Coordination Kate Iverson, Manager, TOD Patrick McLaughlinCONSULTANTSDaniel Iacofano, MIG Principal J.J. Folsom, MIG Project Manager Chase Mullen, MIG Daniel Guimond, EPS Principal Brian Duany, EPS Chris Ryerson, EPS Beth Vogelsang, OV Consulting Chris Volgelsang, OV Consulting ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThe work that provided the basis for this publication was supported by funding under an award with the Federal Transit Administ ration Cooperative Agreement No. CO-79-1000. The substance and ndings of the work are dedicated to the public. The author and publisher are solely responsible for the accuracy of the statements and interpretations co ntained in this publication. Any opinions, ndings, and conclusions or recommendations expres sed in this publication are those of the Author(s) and do not necessarily reect the views of the Federal Government.

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS SETTING THE STAGE 6 TYPOLOGY 16 ACTION PLAN 32 INTRODUCTION 8 DEFINITION OF TOD 9 TOD PRINCIPLES 10 CONTEXT FOR TOD 12 READINESS FOR TOD 14 WHAT IS A TYPOLOGY? 18 DOWNTOWN 20 URBAN CENTER 22 GENERAL URBAN 24 URBAN 26 SUBURBAN 28 INTRODUCTION 34 TOD CONTINUUM 35 METHODOLOGY 38 WALKSHEDS 42 STRATEGIZE 46 CATALYZE 52 ENERGIZE 60 CITYWIDE POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS 68

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 4HOW TO USE THE TOD STRATEGIC PLANDenvers TOD Strategic Plan provides a foundation to guide public and private investment at rail stations. Residents, business owners, builders, and public employees can use this strategic framework to eliminate or reduce barriers to TOD, create realistic nancing plans, and direct growth and investment to rail stations with the best opportunity for development in the next 5 to 6 years. The TOD Strategic Plan contains both city-wide high-level policy recommendations and on the ground, station-level action items with the intent to foster implementation of TOD at rail stations and support the development of transit communities in Denver. As a strategic plan, this document is intended to facilitate the implementation of existing recommendations and projects identied in adopted city plans, including Comprehensive Plan 2000, Blueprint Denver, neighborhood plans, and station area plans. The Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Strategic plan is intended to guide the critical City-led actions needed for successful TOD in Denver. Since the 2006 TOD Strategic Plan, multiple stations have been planned and needed infrastructure improvements have been WHY A STRATEGIC PLAN? Strategic Planning is an important step to successful TOD implementation for several reasons: Station area plans have identied needed, but unfunded, investments Barriers to TOD implementation exist at multiple stations Stations are at varying levels of market and development readiness for TOD The City has limited resources to implement TOD Alignment of City departments approaches to TOD improves implementation eciency Some station areas best suited for near-term TOD may require focused nancing strategies for needed investments identied. Multiple city departments and agencies have policies, goals, and strategies that broadly and specically address TOD. This strategic plan does not revise station area plans or alter long-standing TOD policies; rather, it focuses these multiple eorts into a concise work program for the City.

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 5 TRANSITORIENTEDDENVER2000 Denver Comprehensive Plan BluePrint Denver Station Area Planning Neighborhood PlanningA RESIDENT OR BUSINESS OWNER IN A STATION AREAAND MAY WANT TO: Expand, start, or relocate a business Purchase real estate Renovate an existing home or building Improve the streetscape Verify whether your proposed project ts within adopted neighborhood and city goals and objectivesA DEVELOPER OR BUILDER IN A STATION AREA AND MAY WANT TO: Purchase real estate Reuse an existing building Construct a new building Identify where public investment may be directed Identify likely hot spots for new development Understand the Citys development focus areas Align your design/development ideas with neighborhood and city goals and objectivesA PUBLIC EMPLOYEE AND MAY WANT TO: Remove barriers to TOD Direct public funds eciently Determine projects that result in the maximum return on city investment Pursue local and federal funding for TOD infrastructure and implementation of projectsIF YOU ARE IF YOU ARE IF YOU AREAND YOU USERS GUIDEResidents and business owners in Denver can use the TOD Strategic Plan as a guide for making real estate decisions, renovating property, or opening a store. The vision for individual station areas can be found in the appropriate adopted station area plan with the strategic plan containing additional information regarding city-led investments and implementation activity. Developers or builders in Denver can use the TOD Strategic Plan to get information on the Citys TOD focus areas, identify properties for new development, and take advantage of city investments in station areas. Developers and builders take on the critical responsibility of constructing oce, retail, and a mix of housing options within station areas necessary to increase the walkable, urban nature of the city and reconnect all of Denvers neighborhoods together. Public employees should use the TOD Strategic Plan to establish a city-wide TOD implementation work program, direct city funds eciently to the most opportunistic areas, determine the projects that oer the maximum return on public investment, and pursue funding for key infrastructure projects. City plans provide the vision for station areas, while the TOD Strategic Plan is intended to assist in implementing that vision.

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 6 SETTING THE STAGE

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 7 INTRODUCTION 8 TOD PRINCIPLES 10 CONTEXT FOR TOD 12 READINESS FOR TOD 14

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 8 INTRODUCTION SETTING THE STAGEWhen Denvers TOD strategic plan was produced in 2006, the idea of having a more systematic approach to transit oriented development was a new, uncharted, and unproven idea. Since 2006, many regions have embarked on their own strategic planning for development around stations. Denvers strategic plan for transitoriented development is dierent than many other TOD Strategic plans. This plan outlines the citys approach to implement TOD over the next six years; it is not a visionsetting document for station areas nor is it a region-wide policy document produced by a metropolitan planning organization to promote TOD. 2006 TOD STRATEGIC PLANThe 2006 plan has proved invaluable for guiding TOD related policies in the city, fostering external partnerships, and setting a work program of TOD planning and investment. Over half of Denvers stations have received neighborhood and stakeholder led planning eorts (small area and general development plans), infrastructure analysis has occurred, and investment has taken place. The City transitioned to a form-based, context-sensitive zoning code in 2010 and many stations now have transit and TOD supportive zoning. And TOD has happened in Denver, whether it is the Denver Housing Authoritys Mariposa project at 10th and Osage or the booming development around Denver Union Station, development has often followed public investment at stations.MOVING TOWARDS IMPLEMENTATIONAll of this has informed the City on what TOD is to Denver and what it can be in the future. Development around rail stations is part of Denver striving to become a worldclass city. To be competitive with the best and brightest regions of the world, Denver needs an exceptional transit system with great stations that connect to walkable communities. The City needs to tackle aordable housing issues, broaden transportation choices, and meet the demands of changing demographics. With this in mind, The City of Denver has evolved the denition of TOD to an idea of developing transit communities that are walkable, livable places that provide citizens with access to most of their daily needs. Six TOD principles now outline what makes a great transit community, and the typology has been altered to better reect what ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE 2006 TOD STRA TEGIC PLAN Long-range planning for 21 station areas Established or strengthened external partnerships Implemented TOD Typology through new form-based, context-sensitive zoning TOD Fund established to create and preserve aordable housing at station areas Millions of dollars spent on infrastructure in TOD areas Collaborated with Denver Urban Renewal Authority on TIF opportunities at multiple stations Reduced parking requirements in TOD areas Bike sharing stations at multiple stations

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 9 INTRODUCTION SETTING THE STAGEDenver knows about development around stations while meshing with the neighborhood context that has been established in the Denver Zoning Code. For Denver to succeed in establishing more walkable places through transit communities, the action items need to be prioritized and realistic funding strategies must be considered. This document lays out the foundation of an implementation action plan through research and analysis of the existing state of transitoriented development, provides city-wide and station specic recommendations, and establishes a system to track and monitor Denvers success so the City can continue to rene and improve its strategic moves in the future. DEFINING TOD IN DENVERHow TOD is dened in Denver ties closely with the understanding of its existing walkable urban places. These walkable places provide access to daily amenities without the use of the automobile and are typically some of our most desirable neighborhoods. The characteristics and benets of these neighborhoods are key to understanding the most important principles of DEFINITIONSTRANSIT COMMUNITY Denvers transit communities are walkable places that provide destinations like shopping, dining, jobs, parks, and schools most of ones daily activities easily accessed from home by foot, bicycle, and transit. These communities tend to have a variety of housing types, provide the opportunity for a healthy lifestyle, and are designed to maximize resident access to public transportation by focusing activities on a major transit stop. TRANSIT-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT Transit-oriented development in Denver generally describes a development in an existing or planned transit community that adds to the walkable, vibrant, mixed-use environment and is oriented towards frequent, highquality transit service that connects the community to the rest of the region. good transit-oriented development. The pedestrianfriendly design, the mix of uses, variety of housing and mobility choices, healthy lifestyle options, and abundance of destinations add up to make a livable, vibrant place. But the reality of TOD in Denver is that many rail stations are not located in existing walkable neighborhoods, but instead, are located in areas that act as barriers to connecting all of Denvers neighborhoods together. How development occurs around these stations is critical to Denver becoming a world-class transit community, delivering a more complete network of walkable urban places. The denition of transit oriented development in Denver is more than just development in station areas; it is part of building transit communities around rail stations that mend the urban fabric more tightly together, growing Denver into a more seamless, walkable, and vibrant community.TOD PRINCIPLESThe following TOD principles establish a base line for Denver neighborhoods to envision and plan for great transit commmunities.

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 10 TOD PRINCIPLESconnect innovate efficient Achieve a high level of connectivity at station areas. The more walkable and bikeable a station area is, the greater amount of access is granted to the most people. This is true in both stations that are located in areas with a strong market development potential, as well as stations that simply need to serve existing neighborhoods. As each station increases its reach into the larger community, access to the regions economy is improved. Innovation drives Denver to take its place in the global economy, leading the Rocky Mountain region in building healthy, sustainable, and equitable communities. Transit communities have proven to be more environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable than areas dependent on one mode of transportation. Seeking innovative thinking around TOD in Denver can foster sustained, responsible, economic growth. Be an intrinsically ecient place to live, play, and do business. By consciously placing homes, jobs, civic uses, shopping, entertainment, parks and other daily necessities close to transit stations, cities make possible short, walkable trips and reduce long, inecient travel. A greater percentage of jobs and housing placed close together at rail stations throughout the region can lead to better use of infrastructure dollars. SETTING THE STAGE Entry Point access to the regional economy First/Last Mile walk, bike, bus to the station Access to All connect to new and existing neighborhoods Sustainable economic, social, environmental Equitable opportunities for all Global Economy compete on the world stage Location one place to live, work, and play decreases need for regional trips Shared Resources reduce cost of infrastructure per household Balance jobs and homes nearby reduce travel times and long commutes

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 11 place mix shift Make places not just to travel through, but rather to stop, linger, converse, and generally live life. These activities happen in the public realm the streets and open space between buildings. Great public spaces with easy access encourage people to come outdoors, promoting a feeling of safety and visual interest for pedestrians. An activated public place becomes a destination, strengthening the livability of the community. Provide a balanced mix of complementary uses and activities within close proximity, increasing the chances that people can reach a majority of their daily needs by foot, bicycle, or transit. A strong mix of uses keeps streets active and safe while making many daily trips walkable. Transit communities balanced mix of uses and activities provides residents a true choice of lifestyles, leading to a more resilient place to live, work, and play. Lead the regions eort to shift into a new way of thinking about personal mobility. The shift from being a cardependent city to a multi-modal city is taking place all over the world. A true multi-modal city goes beyond needed transit improvements. A complete network needs high-ease-of-use bike and pedestrian facilities, car sharing, bike sharing, and other new ways to make getting around without the use of a car a reality. SETTING THE STAGE Active promote safety and visual interest Vibrant bring together people and activities Destination public life happens in the streets and open space Choice housing, jobs, shopping, transit options Diversity mix of incomes and age groups Resilient stands up through changing economic conditions Car Free/Car Lite becoming non-/less car dependent for most trips Public Space more room for pedestrians and bikes, less for cars Reduce and Energize carbon emissions go down, healthy living goes up

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 12Cities have unique attributes that set them apart from their peers. Denver is no dierent the mountains, glorious sunny days, a vibrant downtown, and great neighborhoods are some of Denvers great characteristics. The mountains and sunshine may be fortunate acts of nature, but downtown and our neighborhoods are acts of foresight, hard work, and timely investments. Many of Denvers neighborhoods are well connected to each other and to downtown, forming an urban fabric and community that is the envy of many cities in the United States. These neighborhoods grew up at a time when development patterns followed the prominent transportation system of the early 1900s, the streetcar, and the subsequent system that provided access to downtown from the close-in suburbs. Not all neighborhoods however are well connected to the rest of Denver they may have their own strong characteristics but whether it is a geographic barrier such as the South Platte River, or more likely the man-made barriers of a freeway or freight railroad corridors, they lack the seamless connections that would bring all of Denver together.CENTER OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN WESTAs Denver has evolved over the last 150 years as the center of the Rocky Mountain West, growth and development has historically followed a boom or bust cycle. Booms such as the gold rush of 1859 and the oil and telecom booms of the late 1970s and 1980s were followed by periods of economic stagnation. Today, Denver has diversied its growing economy to soften cyclical economic patterns, becoming a favorite home of startup tech companies, innovative industrial manufacturing rms and businesses that embrace a unique corporate culture. This diversication has allowed Denver to weather the most recent economic downtown better than most, especially within the Rocky Mountain West. Denver has strengthened its downtown into a vibrant walkable urban center of jobs, housing, cultural destinations, parks, and entertainment. Denver is consistently ranked as one of the fastest growing cities in the country and is a desired destination of highlyeducated workers, driving construction of more oce, retail and housing choices in the next ve years. A PROVEN TRACK RECORDDenver has a long history of tackling transformative transportation projects that set the stage for successful and sustainable future growth, essentially leading its own way to prosperity. A consistency in Denvers urban evolution is that development patterns follow the construction of these transportation projects railroads towns, streetcar suburbs, and freeway bedroom communities are all products of the access given by a new transportation investment. Within Denvers rst decade as a city, the railroads bypassed the city in favor of Cheyenne as part of the rst transcontinental railroad. Civic leaders founded the Denver Pacic CONTEXT FOR TOD SETTING THE STAGE1900 1880 1900 1920 1940 1880 1920 1940 1870 1880s 1917 1948 1950 1894 1890-1940 1871Denver and Pacic Railroad connects with the transcontinental railroad First streetcar service reaches Curtis Park Denvers rst streetcar suburb Denvers population soars from 4,759 in 1870 to 35,000 in 1880 Peak of Streetcar and interurban transit service in Denver Valley Highway completed, now Interstate 25 The Union Depot and Railroad Company built the city's rst Union Station. It cost $525,000 and opened on June 1, 1881. Washington Park, Berkeley, Park Hill and other streetcar neighborhoods developed Last streetcar service is discontinued

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 13 ACTION PLAN SETTING THE STAGE 1960 1980 2000 2020 1960 1980 2000 2020 1950s 1982 1994 2006 2006 2010 2004 2000 1988 1969South Denver suburban neighborhoods such as Hampden and Southmoor Park boom in population The 16th Street Mall, a pedestrian and transit mall, opens in Downtown Light Rail begins service, connecting Downtown with the Broadway Station City and County of Denver compeltes its rst TOD Strategic Plan Southeast Corridor completed as part of the TREX project, adding 19 miles to the existing rail system The Regional Transportation District is established as a regional authority to provide public transportation Southwest Corridor begins service Fastracks is passed, a multi-billion dollar public transportation expansion plan Redevelopment of DHAs Mariposa project begins Wynkoop Brewing Company opens in LoDo, sparking the transformation of the neighborhood.Railroad to connect to the Union Pacic line in Wyoming, allowing a one-seat ride from coast to coast through Denver and ensuring long-term growth for the region. Starting in the 1880s through the 1920s, the Denver Tramway Company expanded streetcar and interurban service throughout the city, opening up development opportunities in neighborhoods like Berkeley and Washington Park. More recently, billions have been spent on key transportation investments with the T-REX project and RTD FasTracks program that is now changing the way residents connect to homes, jobs, shopping, and entertainment destinations. These strategic moves have positioned Denver to benet from the rapidly occurring shift of the millennial and baby boomer generations looking for a more livable, walkable place to call home. Now Denver can build upon its strong economy, vibrant downtown and growing transportation infrastructure to lead its own way again. CHALLENGE AND OPPORTUNITYThe challenge and the opportunity that is transit oriented development in Denver is the concept of building transit communities around rail stations in order to weave the urban fabric more tightly together. In other words, more closely connect the suburban and urban neighborhoods to Denvers urban centers and Downtown. Many of the passenger rail stations located on the expanding rail system are placed outside of Denvers existing walkable places, near those man-made barriers that have separated some of our most disconnected neighborhoods. Other stations may have a superior market location or stronger connectivity, but still lack essential planning, entitlements, or infrastructure to promote development. Removing barriers to transit-oriented development and improving multi-modal rst and last mile connections around rail stations can ll in the missing urban fabric between Denvers new rail transit system, established neighborhoods, and emerging areas. By doing so, Denver can grow into a more seamless, walkable community that provides its citizens with great access to daily needs, whether that is a place to work, to study, to shop or run in the park.SEAMLESS CONNECTIONSDenver strives to be a world-class city where everyone can be part of the community. World-class cities have exceptional transit and great station areas that seamlessly connect to walkable neighborhoods. To accomplish that, Denver is taking a system wide approach to implement not just TOD, but transit communities for all of Denvers citizens.

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 14 READINESS FOR TOD SETTING THE STAGE Over the last several years, Denver has collectively begun to re-imagine the citys perception of itself. Is Denver a car-centric city or a burgeoning transit city? Is the ideal a single-family home with a two-car garage or a townhouse in a cool neighborhood? Are people moving to Denver because of the mountains or the urbanism? Even though cars are still a prevalent mode of transportation for some, riding a bike to work is no longer unusual and living in more ecient, inll locations is often a top request of homebuyers. Denver is one of the fastest growing big cities in the country, attracting some of the brightest minds and most innovative businesses. Thousands of housing units are being built in Downtown and nearby neighborhoods, as millennials and baby boomers both look for how a neighborhood feels more than simply their homes square footage. The national trend towards people looking to live in more mixed use communities that are walkable and have great transit access indicates a signicant shift away from the prevalent land use and transportation choices of the last 70 years. Denver is ready to handle the expected growing demand for more walkable, livable communities. Denver can build upon the energy that Downtown and its strong neighborhoods have fostered by expanding the size and amount of walkable places and reconnecting neighborhoods. As some of the fastest growing neighborhoods, such as Union Station and the Lower Highlands, begin to ll in, investors will look to nd the next hot location. Many of the close-in rail stations in Denver areas with redevelopment promise, improving market conditions, and great connectivity to the energy of Downtown Denver provide a unique opportunity for the next wave of urban inll development. These stations can extend the walkable nature of Denver neighborhoods, provide new job opportunities, and increase housing choices to people looking to make Denver home. What specic trends can be identied that indicate a strong readiness for TOD in Denver? Here are a few:

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 15 READINESS FOR TOD SETTING THE STAGEMILES OF BIKE LANES IN DENVER COLORADO URBAN POPULATIONTHE POPULATION IS AGING DENVER HOUSEHOLDS BY TYPE COLORADO HOUSEHOLDS BY TYPE DENVER REGION PER CAPITA VMTBIKING & WALKING IS INCREASINGTOTAL POPULATION TOP 7 GAINERS OF POPULATION AGED 25 FROM 200070% OF HOUSHOLDS = MARKET FOR TODDENVER IS THE #1 CITY FOR MILLENNIALS DENVER IS GROWING REGIONAL RAIL TRANSIT IS EXPANDING COLORADO IS DENSIFIYING 1990 2000 2012 2030467,610 554,636 634,265 753,720BIKE INFRASTUCTURE IS GROWING 19945.3 mi200215.8 mi200634.9 mi201347 mi201681 miREGIONAL RAIL TRANSIT SYSTEM SIZE PEOPLE ARE DRIVING LESS DENVER MODE SHARE SEATTLE PORTLAND DENVER DALLAS AUSTIN HOUSTON WASHINGTON D.C. Sources: US Census, DRCOG, RTD, City and County of Denver

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 16 TOD TYPOLOGY

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 17 WHAT IS A TYPOLOGY? 18 DOWNTOWN 20 URBAN CENTER 22 GENERAL URBAN 24 URBAN 26 SUBURBAN 28 FUNCTIONAL OVERLAYS 30

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 18One of the most valuable planning outcomes of Denvers 2006 TOD Strategic Plan was the establishment of a typology of station types that helped set expectations for station development. At the time, many stations lacked a plan to provide guidance, and the typology provided a launching point for planning activity within 21 station areas. These plans establish the vision for individual station areas and provide recommendations to achieve implementation. In 2010, the City adopted a new city-wide formand context-based zoning code. The new zoning code is a valuable tool to better implement the vision in the station area plans, set clear expectations for development, and provides predictability for property owners. The zoning codes neighborhood contexts set expectations similar to the typology established in 2006 for station areas. This update builds upon the existing typology, with revisions to mesh with the neighborhood context established in the Denver zoning code, reect the vision established in the various station area plans, and acknowledge other neighborhood interests or development activity around the stations. WHAT IS A TYPOLOGY?Denvers Station Typology classies each station area into one of ve context types based on characteristics commonly found in places served by rail transit. These characteristics group into ve categories: Land use mix Street and block pattern Building placement and location Building heights Mobility In addition, some stations receive a functional overlay designation that establishes a key functional aspect to the station area context and their associated expectations. The purpose of the station typology is three-fold: Provide a snapshot of aspirational character Set expectations for development Establish a level of magnitude for possible investments TYPOLOGY

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 19 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Nine Mile Nine Mile Dayton Dayton Belleview Belleview Southmoor Southmoor Yale Yale Colorado Colorado University of Denver University of Denver Evans Evans Louisiana Pearl Louisiana Pearl Broadway Broadway Alameda Alameda 10th and Osage 10th and OsageDowntown Urban Center General Urban Urban Suburban Entertainment Institution InnovationSheridan SheridanAuraria West Auraria West Sports Authority Field at Mile High Sports Authority Field at Mile High Pepsi Center Pepsi Center 41st and Fox 41st and Fox Union Station Union Station NWSS NWSS 38th and Blake 38th and Blake Welton/Downing Corridor Welton/Downing Corridor 40th and Colorado 40th and Colorado Central Park Blvd Central Park Blvd Peoria Peoria 40th and Airport 40th and Airport 61st and Pena 61st and Pena Colfax at Auraria Colfax at AurariaPerry Perry Knox Knox Decatur-Federal Decatur-FederalTYPOLOGY OVERLAY STATION TYPOLOGY Downtown Mixed use, highest density, tallest buildings, high pedestrian activity, transit hub, and historic areas Urban Center Mixed use, high density, grid and alley block pattern, high pedestrian activity, and multimodal General Urban Multi-family residential, grid and alley block pattern, main streets corner stores, and multimodal Urban Grid and alley block pattern, predominantly single family residential, main streets, corner stores, and multi-modal Suburban Town centers, community open spaces and residential neighborhoodsFunctional Overlays: Innovation Allowing a wide range and diversity of TOD land uses, activities and building forms to accommodate new types of development such as advanced manufacturing, research and development, creative design studios, and more. Institutional Academic campuses, medical and government centers with a signicant amount of jobs Entertainment Major destinations typically evenings and weekends TYPOLOGYCITYWIDE TYPOLOGY

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 20downtownDowntown rail stations are unique as they are located in the most intensely used land in the region, with civic, institutional and entertainment uses sharing the same spaces as high density residential, oce and commercial uses. Buildings are mostly midto high-rise structures located in a consistent pattern of small blocks and linear streets. Downtown stations have the highest level of use due to downtown being the center of the regional transit system. Downtown streets have the most pedestrian activity and extensive set of bicycle facilities of all station types. All downtown r ail stations are walk-up stations, but a few stations have specic functions Pepsi Center and Mile High Station serve as entertainment stations, and Auraria West Station serves as an institutional station. Denver Union StationPepsi Center Elitch GardensConvention Center 16th & California 16th & Stout 16th & Stout 18th & California 18th & Stout 20th & Welto n Sports Authority Field at Mile High Auraria West CampusColfax at AurariaPepsi Center Elitch GardensConvention Center 16th & California Denver Union Station 18th & California 18th & Stout 20th & Welto n Sports Authority Field at Mile High Auraria West CampusColfax at Auraria Entertainment Institution InnovationOVERLAY TYPOLOGYLand Use MixStrong mix of uses Mid to high-rise buildings with a mix of multi-family, commercial, oce, civic, institutional and entertainment usesStreet and Block PatternRegular, smaller blocks Regular pattern of pedestrian/vehicle connections Unique triangular blocks where grids meet Linear streets Consistent alleysBuilding PlacementBuildings built-to sidewalks Continuous street wall Consistent orientation Parking at rear/side or structuredBuilding HeightContext-sensitive heights in historic districts Consistent mid to high-rise in other districts MobilityHighest priority to pedestrian High level of bicycle facilities Center of multi-modal transit systemMixed use, highest density, tallest buildings, high pedestrian activity, transit hub, historic areas

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 21 TYPOLOGY

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 22urban center !! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Nine Mile Nine Mile Dayton DaytonBelleview BelleviewSouthmoor Southmoor Yale YaleColorado ColoradoUniversity of Denver University of Denver Evans Evans Louisiana Pearl Louisiana PearlBroadway Broadway Alameda Alameda10th and Osage 10th and OsageSheridan SheridanAuraria West Auraria West Sports Authority Field at Mile High Sports Authority Field at Mile High Pepsi Center Pepsi Center41st and Fox 41st and Fox NWSS NWSS 38th and Blake 38th and Blake Welton/Downing Corridor Welton/Downing Corridor 40th and Colorado 40th and ColoradoCentral Park Blvd Central Park BlvdPeoria Peoria 40th and Airport 40th and Airport61st and Pena 61st and PenaColfax at Auraria Colfax at AurariaPerry Perry Knox KnoxDecatur-Federal Decatur-Federal Entertainment Institution InnovationOVERLAYUrban Center rail stations typically serve or are planned to serve as a destination for surrounding neighborhoods with strong transit use and a high level of pedestrian and bicycle activity. Urban Centers have a mix of uses, with midto high-rise multi-family residential integrated with mixed-use commercial buildings. The intended high intensity nature of urban centers positions these stations as regional employment hubs. Buildings front sidewalks with consistent pedestrian entrances and are located within a pattern of regular, smaller blocks and linear streets. Many urban center stations have one or more major land owners.Land Use Mix Building HeightMobility Street and Block Pattern Building PlacementRegular, smaller blocks Regular pattern of ped/vehicle connections Linear streets Mostly alleys Buildings built to sidewalk or very shallow setbacks Consistent orientation Parking at rear/side or structured Consistent midto high-rise residential, mixed-use, and commercial structures; Maximum height at the core is typically 20 stories with transitions Strong transit use High level of ped/bike usemixed use, high density, grid & alley block pattern, high pedestrian activity, multi-modalStrong mix of uses Mid-high rise Multi-family Mixed-use commercial Destination for surrounding neighborhoods Potential job center TYPOLOGY

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 23 TYPOLOGY SHARED STRUCTURED PARKINGA majority of parking is typically structured due to the intensity of development and high land values. Urban Centers have a strong mix of complementary uses, which present opportunities to utilize parking management strategies such as shared and joint parking agreements.HIGHER EASEOFUSE BICYCLE INFRASTRUCTUREThe high intensity nature of Urban Centers creates the possibility of using high ease of use bicycle infrastructure such as protected bike lanes and cycle tracks to reduce conicts between multiple modes of travel.EMPLOYMENT FOCUSUrban Centers may be regional employment hubs where companies, looking for urban amenities and frequent transit service, locate. As a result, high density multi-family residential and hotel uses are also found in urban center stations.HIGH FREQUENCY TRANSITKey to facilitating a dense development pattern where one can move about without an automobile is the availability of transit throughout the day. Urban Centers not only have high frequency rail service, but are typically transfer points for multiple high frequency bus lines. SMALLER PROGRAMMED PLAZAS & OPEN SPACESHigh quality urban open space is key to making urban center stations desirable places to live, work, and play. Activating public open spaces helps make TOD areas become a focal point and destination for the community. PEDESTRIAN INFRASTRUCTUREStrong pedestrian access to rail stations from all directions increases the density and activity levels of urban center stations. Infrastructure such as pedestrian bridges that cross over the rail line is typical at urban center stations. 1 1 4 2 2 5 3 3 6 5 6 4

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 24general urbanGeneral Urban rail stations are characterized by their signicant amount of mid to high-density multifamily residential areas. These areas have a variety of building forms, such as urban houses, rowhouses, and mid to high-rise apartment and/or condominium buildings, as well as some limited single family and two family residential uses. Commercial areas, generally consisting of low to mid rise structures, are both embedded in the neighborhood and located along busier, mixed-use arterials. Buildings have shallow or moderate setbacks, with consistent pedestrian orientation and parking located behind or to the side. Areas around general urban stations have a regular, smaller block pattern with linear streets and alleys. Due to the higher residential densities, transit use is strong, especially along high capacity transit corridors. There is a general balance of pedestrian, bicycle and vehicle travel modes. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Nine Mile Nine Mile Dayton Dayton Belleview Belleview Southmoor Southmoor Yale Yale Colorado Colorado University of Denver University of Denver Evans Evans Louisiana Pearl Louisiana Pearl Broadway Broadway Alameda Alameda10th and Osage 10th and OsageSheridan SheridanAuraria West Auraria WestSports Authority Field at Mile High Sports Authority Field at Mile HighPepsi Center Pepsi Center41st and Fox 41st and Fox NWSS NWSS 38th and Blake 38th and Blake Welton/Downing Corridor Welton/Downing Corridor40th and Colorado 40th and Colorado Central Park Blvd Central Park Blvd Peoria Peoria 40th and Airport 40th and Airport 61st and Pena 61st and PenaColfax at Auraria Colfax at AurariaPerry Perry Knox Knox Decatur-Federal Decatur-Federal Entertainment Institution InnovationOVERLAY multi-family residential, grid & alley block pattern, main streets, corner stores, and multi-modalMix of uses with heavy emphasis on higher density multifamily residential areas with rowhouses and apartment buildings Commercial uses located on key mixeduse and main streets Regular, smaller blocks Regular pattern of pedestrian/vehicle connections Linear streets Mostly alleys Consistent shallow to moderate setbacks Consistent entrance orientation to the street Parking accessed from the alley or side yard Midto high-rise residential structures Lowto mid-rise commercial structures at appropriate locations Strong transit use, especially along high capacity transit corridors Balance of ped/bike/ vehicle useLand Use Mix Building HeightMobility Street and Block Pattern Building Placement TYPOLOGY

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 25 TYPOLOGY ADAPTIVE REUSE OPPORTUNITIESGeneral Urban stations are found in existing urban areas of the City, many with strong opportunities to reuse existing buildings for new uses. These opportunities range from small main street storefronts to outdated manufacturing facilities and warehouses.BALANCE OF ALL MODESGeneral Urban stations typically have a strong multi-modal transportation network. Pedestrian and bicycle access is balanced with vehicular travel throughout the station area.WIDE ARRAY OF RESIDENTIAL TYPESThe variety of mid to high-density multifamily residential areas is a signature characteristic of General Urban stations. The mix of housing types and signicant densities creates a vibrant, active community.SOME HIGHER EASEOFUSE BIKE FACILITIESAlthough less intense than an urban center station, some higher ease of use bicycle facilities, such as a protected bike lane may be found in General Urban stations. EMBEDED COMMERCIALCommericial uses are typically service oriented and located in low to mid-rise structures embedded within the residential areas of the community. RTD PARKINGCommuter parking lots or structures can be found at some General Urban stations. This parking demand should be balanced between the need to provide current vehicular access to the station and future development opportuntities. 1 1 4 2 2 5 3 3 6 5 6 4

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 26urbanUrban rail stations are lower-scale walk-up stations, providing transit access to existing neighborhoods primarily characterized by single-unit and two-unit residential uses, small-scale multi-unit residential uses and embedded commercial areas. Buildings have shallow or moderate setbacks, with consistent pedestrian orientation and parking located behind or to the side. Areas around urban stations have a regular, smaller block pattern with linear streets and alleys. Due to the lower residential densities but strong street grid, transit use is moderate, with higher use along high capacity transit corridors during peak commuting periods. There is a general balance of pedestrian, bicycle and vehicle travel modes. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Nine Mile Nine Mile Dayton Dayton Belleview Belleview Southmoor Southmoor Yale Yale Colorado ColoradoUniversity of Denver University of Denver Evans Evans Louisiana Pearl Louisiana PearlBroadway Broadway Alameda Alameda 10th and Osage 10th and OsageSheridan SheridanAuraria West Auraria WestSports Authority Field at Mile High Sports Authority Field at Mile HighPepsi Center Pepsi Center 41st and Fox 41st and Fox NWSS NWSS 38th and Blake 38th and Blake Welton/Downing Corridor Welton/Downing Corridor40th and Colorado 40th and ColoradoCentral Park Blvd Central Park Blvd Peoria Peoria 40th and Airport 40th and Airport 61st and Pena 61st and Pena Colfax at Auraria Colfax at AurariaPerry PerryKnox KnoxDecatur-Federal Decatur-Federal Entertainment Institution InnovationOVERLAY multi-family residential, grid & alley block pattern, main streets, corner stores, and multi-modalPrimary singleunit and two-unit residential uses on small lots Small-scale multifamily residential such as rowhouses and garden court apartments Embedded commercial Regular, smaller blocks Linear streets Mostly alleys Consistent, moderate setbacks Consistent entrance orientation to the street Parking from the alley or side yard Low-scale structures Some mid-rise at nodes or along arterials Moderate transit use, greater along high capacity transit corridors and peak hour commuting times Balance of pedestrian/ bike/vehicle useLand Use Mix Building HeightMobility Street and Block Pattern Building Placement TYPOLOGY

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 27 TYPOLOGY LOWER SCALE RESIDENTIALSingle family and small-scale multifamily residential areas are found in Urban stations, resulting in a lower residential density and less-intense environment compared to most other stations.BALANCE OF ALL MODESUrban stations typically have a strong multi-modal transportation network. Pedestrian and bicycle access is balanced with vehicular travel throughout the station area.EMBEDDED LOW SCALE COMMERCIALUrban stations tend to have neighborhood serving commercial uses tucked into the predominantly residential nature of the area. WALK UP STATIONExisting neighborhoods typcially are adjacent to the rail platforms at Urban stations, with limited or no commuter parking available.MODERATE TRANSIT USETransit use in Urban stations is generally moderate due to lower residential densities. Higher transit use may be found along high capacity corridors during peak commuting periods.PEDESTRIAN ORIENTEDEven though Urban stations are less dense, a human scale to the neighborhood is apparent. A strong street and alley block pattern is still prevalent. Buildings front the street, with vehicular parking located behind. 1 1 4 2 2 5 3 3 6 5 4 6

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 28suburbanSuburban rail stations are characterized by their higher level of transit service and pedestrian orientation than the surrounding, auto-oriented context. These stations may take on the qualities of a town center, having a mix of uses with some mid-to-high-rise buildings oriented towards the transit station, but with signicant amounts of surface or structured parking for commuters. A public plaza or open space serving as a community gathering place is a desired amenity. Residential neighborhoods consisting of single-unit and two-unit residential uses and small-scale multi-unit residential uses are found further from the station. Other commercial uses are found along major arterial streets. Block sizes and street types vary greatly, but smaller blocks and pedestrian friendly streets are found near the station, with larger blocks that provide development exibility further away. Buildings with shallow setbacks are placed in front of parking lots near the station, with deeper setbacks on arterials and parking in front of buildings further from the station. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Nine Mile Nine Mile Dayton DaytonBelleview BelleviewSouthmoor Southmoor Yale YaleColorado Colorado University of Denver University of Denver Evans Evans Louisiana Pearl Louisiana Pearl Broadway Broadway Alameda Alameda 10th and Osage 10th and Osage Sh eridan Sh eridanAuraria West Auraria WestSports Authority Field at Mile High Sports Authority Field at Mile HighPepsi Center Pepsi Center 41st and Fox 41st and Fox NWSS NWSS 38th and Blake 38th and Blake Welton/Downing Corridor Welton/Downing Corridor 40th and Colorado 40th and Colorado Central Park Blvd Central Park BlvdPeoria Peoria 40th and Airport 40th and AirportColfax at Auraria Colfax at AurariaPerry Perry Knox Knox Decatur-Federal Decatur-Federal Entertainment Institution InnovationOVERLAY town centers, community open spaces and residential neighborhoodsMixed of uses oriented to the station Public plaza or open space as central gathering place Primarily 1-unit, 2-unit, and small-scale mf residential further from station Commercial uses along arterials Mix of block sizes, smaller blocks and pedestrian streets near station, larger blocks further from station Best connectivity near the station Large blocks have mid-block pedestrian passages Deep setbacks Parking in front of building Low-rise structures Some mid/high-rise structures Auto-oriented Regional bike trailsLand Use Mix Building HeightMobility Street and Block Pattern Building Placement TYPOLOGY

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 29 TYPOLOGY ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN REGIONAL PARK AND RIDESuburban stations have large parking resevoirs for the inux of commuters accessing the station during the work week. These park-n-ride facilities typically have an associated bus transfer center.LARGER OPEN SPACES AND PLAZASA centralized open space that serves as a community gathering place is a desired amenity in Suburban stations. These spaces can become a destination for surrounding neighborhoods if activated with markets, concerts, and other opportunities to walk, look, and linger. LARGE SCALE DEVELOPMENT Parcels may become assembled by one or more major property owners for the purpose of large scale development at the station, possibly in the form of a town center. These developments create opportunities for a greater mix of uses and higher degree of walkability compared to surrounding auto-oriented neighborhoods. HIGH AMOUNT OF RETAIL AND PARKINGSuburban stations with new development may become a retail destination for nearby autooriented neighborhoods. Retail uses in Suburban stations typically require a higher parking ratio to meet demand than other station areas. REGIONAL BIKE INFRASTRUCUTRECommuters must travel longer distances to reach Suburban stations. Regional trail systems increase the bicycle commuting shed to neighborhoods otherwise requiring an automobile to reach the station.MORE WALKABLE THAN SURROUNDING AREASSuburban stations, although not having the same residential densities or intensity of uses of any of the urban type stations, still are considerably more walkable than surrounding, auto-oriented neighborhoods and commercial centers. 1 1 4 2 6 2 5 3 3 6 5 4

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 30 These designations are applied to stations that have a key functional aspect on top of their context type that provides additional context and claries future expectations. TYPOLOGY FUNCTIONAL OVERLAYSInnovation stations are characterized by their high degree of mixed use, adaptive reuse of existing structures, and creative approach to business. These stations typically are found in existing industrial areas, but may have experienced new housing and retail arriving with the rail station. Under-utilized warehouses are being reused by young companies looking for space, often seeking synergy and cooperation with other likeminded companies. Many of these businesses have corporate cultures that emphasize sustainable building design, green technology, and highquality of life employee amenities like transit passes, car-sharing, and bicycle parking. Businesses may include advanced manufacturing, research and development, and creative design studios. Institutional stations have specic uses that bring unique attributes to station areas. This overlay typically applies to stations with one or more large land owners that have multiple buildings located in a campus setting. Universities, government centers, and medical campuses are typical uses. Stations have a large concentration of jobs and a signicant amount of daily visitors, resulting in a high level of transit ridership and internal trip capture via walking and biking. Entertainment stations are designed for accommodating major events when a large amount of passengers arrive and depart during a limited period of time. Ample surface parking is typically located at these sites to serve non-transit users. As the region continues to grow, market demand for reuse of this surface parking into commercial and residential development may present itself. INSTITUTIONAL INNOVATIONENTERTAINMENT Gra Gra Gra Gra Gra Gra Gra Gra r nv nv nvi nv nvi vi v lle lle lle e Is Is Is Is s lan lan la la a d, d, Van Van Van Van Van n n n cou cou cou cou cou u ver ver ver ver ver er Riv Riv Riv Riv Riv Riv v Riv Riv Riv v er e er e er er er e er e Nor Nor No Nor Nor Nor or Nor No Nor No o th th th th th t th th th h th Aur Aur Au Aur u ari ari ari r a C a C aC C amp amp amp us us us Spo rts rt Au A A th h h tho h it rit it y F iel el d d H H Ho Ho ust ust t on, n, on, on, n, n n, TX TX TX TX T TX TX L A Liv e, e, e, e, e, Los L Los Los L Los L Lo Los Lo An An An An A An An An A A gel gel gel ge gel ge gel gel gel gel es e es es es es e e e e

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 31 TYPOLOGY ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Nine Mile Nine Mile Dayton Dayton Belleview Belleview Southmoor Southmoor Yale Yale Colorado ColoradoUniversity of Denver University of Denver Evans EvansLouisiana Pearl Louisiana Pearl Broadway Broadway Alameda Alameda 10th and Osage 10th and OsageDowntown Urban Center General Urban Urban Suburban Entertainment Institution InnovationSheridan SheridanAuraria West Auraria West Sports Authority Field at Mile High Sports Authority Field at Mile High Pepsi Center Pepsi Center 41st and Fox 41st and FoxUnion Station Union StationNWSS NWSS 38th and Blake 38th and BlakeWelton/Downing Corridor Welton/Downing Corridor40th and Colorado 40th and ColoradoCentral Park Blvd Central Park BlvdPeoria Peoria40th and Airport 40th and Airport 61st and Pena 61st and PenaColfax at Auraria Colfax at AurariaPerry Perry Knox KnoxDecatur-Federal Decatur-FederalTYPOLOGY OVERLAY FUNCTIONAL OVERLAY STATIONS

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 32 ACTION PLAN

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 33 INTRODUCTION 34 TOD CONTINUUM 35 METHODOLOGY 38 WALKSHEDS 42 STRATEGIZE 46 CATALYZE 52 ENERGIZE 60 CITYWIDE POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS 68

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 34 ACTION PLAN ACTION PLANRail stations in Denver have experienced varied and sporadic development activity over the last decade. TOD has occurred as expected at some stations but failed to materialize at others. This may not be surprising once one begins to examine the wide array of stations in Denver, all with dierent market conditions, infrastructure needs and existing land use patterns while also having very dierent existing and aspirational TOD characteristics. Since Denver stations do not t into a one-size ts all category, this plan sets out to establish a stronger understanding of the variables currently impacting station areas and to formulate an updated TOD action plan. The project team developed a methodology to evaluate TOD readiness which helped categorize stations into three logical groupings with similar challenges and opportunities for TOD. Much of the TOD evaluation utilized a 10-minute walkshed instead of the standard half-mile radius to create a more accurate snapshot of each station area. Even though each station in the INTRODUCTION evaluation lands in a specic group, the status of each station is not considered static, instead, each station should be perceived to be on a TOD development continuum. Each group of stations has a tool kit to guide planning, policy, and infrastructure decisions and each station receives specic action items to advance development at stations. The intention of each set of station recommendations is to be actively moving the station forward on the continuum. This action plan lays out a strategic approach to implementing TOD in Denver over the next six years. As with most communities, Denver is dealing with limited resources to implement public improvements to help attract development around rail stations. The grouping of stations in a logical order assists in identifying key action items for each station, including the most realistic and ecient opportunities to provide city resources at stations with the greatest opportunity for near-term development.

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 35TOD CONTINUUM CATEGORIESThe TOD continuum is a tool that provides a quick snapshot of the current potential for development at stations and monitor outcomes of future action items. The stations are grouped, based on the station evaluation results, into the three continuum categories Strategize, Catalyze, Energize each with a specialized tool kit to guide planning, policy, and infrastructure decisions. Each station has more specic action items with the intention to remove barriers to development and strengthen the station areas market potential. STRATEGIZE Stations that are still in pre-development planning phases either because the rail line is not complete or due to market or development factors that make TOD unlikely in the near term. Station areas with low market potential in the near term and current conditions indicate low development readiness. Planning is needed to guide future investment and infrastructure projects in these stations.CATALYZEStation areas with above average market conditions for TOD, but with a need for specic infrastructure or amenity improvements to achieve the desired type of development. Catalytic infrastructure and amenity investments are needed, and should yield the soughtafter TOD results.ENERGIZEStation areas where there are above average market conditions for TOD and no signicant development or infrastructure deciencies impeding TOD from occurring. These station areas typically need more targeted, short term actions to achieve intensied TOD activity. TOD CONTINUUM Pepsi Center/ Elitch GardensSports Authority Field Auraria WestColfax at AurariaAlameda I-25/Broadway Evans Lousiana/Pearl University of Denver Colorado Yale Southmoor Dayton Nine Mile Belleview Decatur-Federal Knox Perry 38th and Blake Sheridan Colorado & Smith Central Park Blvd Peoria 40th and Airport 61st and PenaNational Western Stock Show41st and FoxWelton/Downing CorridorDEVELOPMENT POTENTIALMARKET READINESS LOW MEDIUMHIGHLOW MEDIUM HIGH Southeast Central West Other (Gold/NorthMetro/Southwest)East Under-construction Open HIGH LOW TOD CHARATERISTICS CORRIDOR STATION STATUSSTATION EVALUATION MATRIX ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 36TOD MONITORING TOOLAs a tool to monitor the success of the action items contained in this plan, the TOD Continuum can be updated at any time to provide a current snapshot of the state of TOD in Denver. Since each station location on the Continuum is uid, recommendations such as a new station area plan, a specic infrastructure investment, or the approval of an assessment district may result in a change in station scoring, essentially moving the station along in the continuum. As the action plan is TOD CONTINUUM implemented over the next six years, sta can revise the Continuum scoring as necessary to maintain a strong understanding of the current level of TOD success. When the TOD Strategic Plan is updated in the future, this monitoring will provide the opportunity to examine what action items have had the greatest success in implementing TOD and how to improve the Citys strategic approach to TOD in the future. ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 37 TOD CONTINUUM DENVER UNION STATION: MOVING THROUGH THE CONTINUUMDenver Union Station has been the traditional hub of transit in Denver since the 1870s. But the source of that prominence, a major rail yard, also eventually served as a barrier to development as train travel waned during the mid-20th century. Today, billions of dollars in private investment is following a many decades long eort, including dozens of incremental steps, to redevelop the station and surrounding area. Union Station has truly moved through the TOD continuum; an initial strategy, catalytic investment, and energizing nal touches.STRATEGIZEAs early as the 1970s, planning eorts began to contemplate the consolidation of the rail yard into a streamlined rail corridor. This consolidated main line (CML) would free up acres of development opportunity on the edge of Downtown and improve access to the South Platte River. CATALYZELower Downtown redevelopment began to gain momentum in the 1980s and 90s, and implementation of the CML and planning for future infrastructure needs began. With the passing of Fastracks in 2004, which included the reuse of Union Station as the Downtown rail station for multiple commuter rail, light rail, and bus lines, comprehensive planning, nancing, infrastructure, and development agreements occurred.ENERGIZEThoughtful urban design moves, waynding, and multi-modal last mile connections were developed to enhance the DUS experience for residents, workers, and visitors. The historic train hall is adapted to not only serve travelers, but also houses a hotel, restaurants, and a market. Construction of multiple commerical and residential buildings cements the future of Union Station as one of the largest TODs in the country. ACTION PLAN ACTION PLANSTRATEGIZE CATALYZE ENERGIZE

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 38STATION EVALUATION To create the TOD Continuum, an evaluation was developed to categorize stations in order to guide the Citys planning, policy and investment priorities. RESOURCES A number of existing regional or city-wide TOD plans were reviewed to ascertain best practices and approaches, including: Sustainable Transit Communities Study-Scorecard Analysis Summary, Oce of the Mayor, Los Angeles, California, 2011. This study generated a methodology to help identify ten Sustainable Transit Communities as part of former Mayor Antonio Villaraigosas 2008 Housing That Works plan. Transit-Oriented Development Strategic Plan, Metro TOD Program, 2011. This study devised a typology to help categorize the existing and potential transit stations in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area in order to guide Metros investment strategy and priorities. Central Maryland TOD Strategy: A Regional Action Plan for Transit-Centered Communities, Central Maryland Transportation Alliance, 2009. This plan provided a comprehensive view of TOD challenges and opportunities in Central Maryland and devised multiple screens to categorize station areas in an eort to inform and educate a variety of stakeholders including state and local governments and agencies, area developers, and non-prot advocates.PROCESS The TOD readiness evaluation builds on the station area typology to provide direction on station area recommendations and specically on potential investment priorities. An iterative process was used to discern key issues to be addressed in the plan: Plan Emphasis: City-led catalytic actions Plan Goals: City interest in transit oriented development Station Recommendations: Action items needed to advance development at stations Investment Prioritization: Type and location for key infrastructure investment METHODOLOGYCRITERIABased on lessons learned from other TOD plans, the project team developed an evaluation strategy using three primary market and economic factors as summarized below: Market ReadinessThe Market Readiness indicator helps determine whether the station area real estate market is capable of supporting new development by evaluating the strength of market demand and market timing. Criteria included: population density, employment density, TOD demographics, land values, residential price appreciation, commercial rents, and market activity (permit values).Development Potential The Development Readiness indictor evaulates whether the legal, physical, and infrastructure framework of the station area is ready to support new development, and determines the potential capacity for new development. Criteria included: plan in place, transit-supportive zoning, developable land (vacant + underutilized), ownership fragmentation, special district (in place), and cost of infrastructure needed.Transit-Oriented CharacteristicsThe Transit-Oriented Readiness indicator evaluates how likely it is that station area development will be transitoriented; that is, are the quantity and quality of access, amenities, and services in and near a station area sucient to support TOD? Criteria included: physical form (block size), pedestrian access (walk score), bicycle access, number of parks, and transit service frequency. Depending on data availability, criteria were evaluated based on either a standard mile radius station area or a mile walk-shed (10 minute walk) calculated using GIS network analyst.STATION STATUS RESEARCHIn order to use the information gained during the station evaluation, a through understanding of the current status of each stations planning, infrastructure, and entitlement stage was neccessary. The project team assembled and analyzed relevant documents, utilized GIS analysis, and performed additional infrastructure costing exercises to establish each stations current status. ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 39 ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN Household Growth (2000 2010) Annual Percent Change Employment Growth (2000-2010) Percent of Area with Transit Supportive Zoning TOD Demographics (Non-Family Households, Households with no Kids, Householders 25-34 and 55 to 64) Location Quotient Property Values Dollar Amount of Actual Value (Assessor) Residential Sales Price App. (2000 2010) Annual Percentage Change Oce Rents Average Commercial Rents Dollar per square foot (Co-Star) Retail Rents Avgerage Commercial Rents Dollar per square foot (Co-Star) Commercial Development To Date Dollar Amount of Permit Value Residential Development To Date Dollar Amount of Permit Value Planning Completed to Date None/ Station Area Plan / GDP Zoning Percentage of Area with transit supportive zoning Parcelization Number of Parcels per Acre Vacant Land Acres of Vacant Land Redevelopment Land Acres of Improved Value/Land Value <1.0 Ownership Number of Owners/ (Acres of Vacant + Acres of Redevelopable Land) Urban Renewal Area or Special District Yes/No Infrastructure Investment Dollars of TOD Infrastructure Investment to Date Infrastructure Needs Dollars of TOD Infrastructure Investment Needed Measure VariableMARKET READINES DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL TOD CHARACTERISTICS DATA ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY Employment Density Jobs/ Acre Population Density Population/Acre Physical Form Percentage of Blocks =< 4.0 acres Community Amenity Access Walk Score Park Access Number of Parks Transit Service Number of Bus Stops and Peak Hour Train Frequency Combined Location Quotient Bicycle Access Linear Feet of Dedicated Bicycle Routes Bike Share B-Cycle Station Automobile Ownership Number of Vehicle Households Location QuotientNote: Location quotient is a way of quantifying how concentrated a particular industry, cluster, occupation, or demographic group is in a region as compared to the nation. It can reveal what makes a particular region unique in comparison to the national average.

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 40STATION EVALUATIONThe 34 stations under consideration (downtown stations were not evaluated) were each scored for all criteria across the three indicators. To present the results and categorize the stations into the nal typology, the scores were plotted in graph form, with Market Readiness on the horizontal axis and the Development Readiness on the vertical axis. The TOD Readiness scores were then used to inform the policy implications and investment recommendations for each resulting category. General observations and notes on the station evaluation include: Stations on existing rail lines tend to score higher on both development and market readiness. Stations closer to downtown typically have better TOD characteristics. Catalyze stations are close-in stations and/or found in industrial areas. Urban Center stations have a strong combination of market and development readiness with high development capacity. Some stations may move through the continuum quickly as planning occurs and development activity begins. The Heat Map visualizes the TOD Continuum scoring Strategize stations are generally cool, Catalyze stations are generally warm, and Energize stations are generally hot for near-term TOD potential. East line stations have a weaker market readiness score but have high development potential. West line stations have a stronger market readiness score but less development potential. METHODOLOGY ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Nine Mile Nine Mile Dayton Dayton Belleview Belleview Southmoor Southmoor Yale Yale Colorado Colorado University of Denver University of Denver Evans Evans Louisiana Pearl Louisiana Pearl Broadway Broadway Alameda Alameda 10th and Osage 10th and OsageSheridan SheridanAuraria West Auraria West Sports Authority Field at Mile High Sports Authority Field at Mile High Pepsi Center Pepsi Center 41st and Fox 41st and Fox Union Station Union Station NWSS NWSS 38th and Blake 38th and Blake Welton/Downing Corridor Welton/Downing Corridor 40th and Colorado 40th and Colorado Central Park Blvd Central Park Blvd Peoria Peoria 40th and Airport 40th and Airport 61st and Pena 61st and Pena Colfax at Auraria Colfax at AurariaPerry Perry Knox Knox Decatur-Federal Decatur-Federal Strategize Catalyze EnergizeTOD CONTINUUM ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 41STRATEGIZE STATIONS40th & Colorado: Neighborhood planning eorts are on-going at this station. The station may move to Catalyze once a small area plan is adopted and specic recommendations have been identied. Nine Mile and Dayton: These stations have boundaries that are in both Denver and Aurora. For the analysis, these stations only utilized data collected for parcels in Denver. Southmoor: This station lacks a TOD strategy despite indicating strong market and development readiness. CATALYZE STATIONSAlameda: This station likely moves to Energize once major stormwater infrastructure investments are completed. Welton/Downing Corridor: These stations scored similar to Energize stations. The stations are in Catalyze due to several identied infrastructure needs, as well as RTD studying a potential change in transit mode (light rail to streetcar).ENERGIZE STATIONSUniversity of Denver: This station is near its aspirational character, with a major institutional owner controlling much of the development potential. Yale: This station has limited development potential, with small moves needed to unlock any opportunities that exist near the station. Market Readiness Development Potential Transit Oriented Characteristics Southmoor Dayton Nine Mile 40th and Colorado Peoria 40th and Airport 61st and Pena National Western Stock Show Welton/Downing Corridor Auraria West Alameda Evans Decatur-Federal Knox Perry Sheridan 38th and Blake 41st and Fox Pepsi Center/Elitch Gardens Sports Authority Field Colfax at Auraria 10th/Osage I-25/Broadway Lousiana/Pearl University of Denver Colorado Yale Belleview Central Park BlvdSTRATEGIZE CATALYZE ENERGIZE MEDIUM-HIGH HIGH MEDIUM MEDIUMLOW LOWThe distinctions between each of the continuum categories are not hard lines intended to lock a station into place, rather, the TOD Continuum is uid, with stations generally moving from left to right, low to high on the graph. Some stations have a unique situation or known issue that required professional judgment to place it in the category most reective of its current status. Specic stations that did not clearly score in its ultimate TOD Continuum category include: METHODOLOGYSCORING HEAT MAP ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 42 WALKSHEDS ACTION PLAN ACTION PLANWHAT IS A WALKSHED?Transit Oriented Development areas are generally identied by their walkshed, which covers the distance assumed people will walk to get to a transit station. For light rail and commuter rail it is estimated that people are willing to walk approximately one half mile. For bus transit riders, that distance is typically one quarter mile. In the past, Community Planning and Development (CPD) has mapped TOD walksheds by simply buering the station with a half mile radius as the crow ies, which does not necessarily represent the area where people are physically able to walk. By looking at this buer distance, as opposed to the actual walkshed, it is easy to promote development that is not accessible within a half mile walk. CREATING WALKSHEDSIn order to produce more accurate representations of the transit station walksheds, CPDs GIS sta utilized ESRIs Network Analyst to map the distance against a walk network, taking into account barriers such as interstates, major arterials, rivers, and railroads, and incorporating o-street trails and other pedestrian connections. The process of mapping the walksheds began with preparing the base data, or the walk network, against which the analysis would be run. The street network was modied to exclude streets where people do not walk, such as highways and highway onand o ramps. Pedestrian bridges and o-street trails were added in, as well as future connections and network intersections. The dataset is populated with key attributes for distance, walk speeds, and time traveled, which allow the software to map all possible half mile routes traveling away from each station in any direction. The analysis used a walk speed of 3 miles per hour for 10 minutes, which yields a one half mile distance. The speed and time are irrelevant, however, as long as the variables yield the desired distance. Once all possible walk routes are generated, a polygon is derived generalizing the accessible area. KEY FINDINGSThe most complete walksheds are those with strategically located pedestrian connections, or with the least disrupted street grid. The Louisiana-Pearl station area walkshed is a good example of how a clean street grid can maximize the walkable area. However, even in that case, comparing the buer to the walkshed reveals 160 acres and 633 living units that are not actually accessible within the half mile walk. By mapping the half mile walksheds as derived from the walk network, planners are also able to assess connectivity, identify barriers, and evaluate where potential infrastructure improvements would be most benecial. Such analysis allows planners to more eectively plan for future development in each transit station area. Remove highways and highway ramps Add pedestrian bridges Add o-street trails Add funded and under construction connections STEPS TO CREATE WALKSHEDSDENVER UNION STATION

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 43 WALKSHEDS ACTION PLAN ACTION PLANEXAMPLE WALKSHEDSStation areas with a strong grid of streets, bicycle facilities and pedestrian paths can maximize the stations connectivity with existing neighborhoods and new development opportunities. Many rail stations access far less than the maximum amount of land within a 10 minute walk due to natural and man-made barriers, such as rivers, freeways and rail freight corridors. These barriers reduce the impact a station can have on nearby neighborhoods. Key infrastructure improvements, such as a pedestrian bridge over a freeway, can connect entire neighborhoods to rail stations. These rst and last mile connections increase the reach of a station into the community, improving resident and business access to the rest of the RTD passenger rail system and the regional economy. Eva Eva Eva Eva E Ev E ns ns ns ns n n Col Col Col Col Col Co Col Col Col C Col C ora ora ora ora ora ora ora ora ora a r do do do do do do do do o Per Per Per Per Pe Pe P ry ry ry ry y

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 44 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! S S Yale Yale Colorado Colorado University of Denver University of Denver Evans Evans Louisiana Pearl Louisiana Pearl Broadway Broadway Alameda Alameda 10th and Osage 10th and OsageSheridan SheridanAuraria West Auraria West Sports Authority Field at Mile High Sports Authority Field at Mile High Denver Union Station Denver Union Station 41st and Fox 41st and Fox NWSS NWSS 38th and Blake 38th and Blake Welton/Downing Corridor Welton/Downing Corridor 40th and Colorado 40th and Colorado Colfax at Auraria Colfax at AurariaPerry Perry Knox Knox Decatur-Federal Decatur-Federal SYSTEM WIDE SCORING ! ! ! 40th and Airport 61st and Pena Peoria Dayton Belleview Yale Central Park Blvd Southmoor NWSS Nine Mile U of D e Auraria West40th & ColoradoEvans PerryTRANSIT ORIENTED CHARACTISTICS BY WALKSHEDLOW MEDIUM-LOW MEDIUM ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 45 ! ! ! Nine Mile Nine Mile Dayton Dayton Belleview Belleview S outhmoor S outhmoor Central Park Blvd Central Park Blvd Peoria Peoria 40th and Airport 40th and Airport 61st and Pena 61st and Pena ! ! ! ! !10th & Osage Welton/Downing Corridor Colfax at Auraria Colorado Decatur-Federal 38th & Blake Sheridan Louisiana & Peral e nver41st & FoxMile High StadiumI25 & Broadway Pepsi Center Knox AlamedaDEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL AND MARKET READINESS MEDIUM-HIGH HIGHThe system wide scoring map represents each stations market readiness by a color, and development potential by size. The transitoriented characteristics of each station is displayed by walkshed on the border. ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 4640th and Airport 61st and Pena Peoria Dayton Southmoor Nine Mile National Western Stock Show 40th and Colorado ! ! STRATEGIZEINTRODUCTIONPlanning needs to occur at the beginning of the continuum when market readiness and development readiness is low. This is when the City and its partners set the vision for a station area. This process establishes a path to move forward into the Catalyze and Energize categories. Regardless of the station aspirations and characteristics, there are four fundamental components to ensure a station area advances through the continuum. 1. Consider the overall city vision 2. Consider the denition of transit communities and TOD Principles 3. Engage our partners 4. Plan to implementTOOLKITPlanning comes in dierent shapes and sizes. Citywide planning documents provide guidance at a higher level and help to bring all the pieces together. These tools provide an opportunity for more detailed evaluation and visioning for a specic geography in the city. Blueprint DenverBlueprint Denver provides citywide policy guidance for land use and transportation decisions. Blueprint Denver organizes the city into Areas of Change, where most growth and multi-modal transportation investments will be directed; and Areas of Stability, where maintaining and enhancing the current character and valued attributes of the neighborhood will be the focus. The plan establishes concept land uses for all land in the city which includes building blocks and guiding principles for development character. It also establishes a street typology which brings together the function of a street with the land use character. This document provides a solid foundation for our station areas. In some cases this guidance is sucient to set the stage for implementation. In some areas more detailed guidance and planning is needed before implementation can occur. Small Area PlansSmall area plans are approved by Planning Board and adopted by City Council. As adopted policy, they have standing that can be used as a basis for funding and regulatory decisions for the city. They typically are comprehensive in nature and cover topics such as land use, urban design, parks and recreation, health, mobility, infrastructure, and economic development. These eorts capture a smaller geography. Station area planning can occur as part of a larger neighborhood planning eort. Following this approach is recommended when the station area has a close relationship to a neighborhood and a larger geography is needed in order to capture the proper planning context.General Development Plans A General Development Plan (GDP) is a regulatory tool administered through the Denver Zoning Code and establishes a framework for phased development intended to occur on larger sites over a longer period of time. ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN TRANSIT ORIENTED CHARACTISTICS BY WALKSHED LOW MEDIUM-LOW

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 47The GDP process does not result in a site-specic development plan, but is designed to implement recommendations from City-adopted small area plans (including station area plans), documenting master plan level concepts for land use, publicly-accessible open space, wet and dry utilities, associated multi-modal street network, development phasing and concepts for design guidelines.Infrastructure StudiesInfrastructure studies examine the cost and feasibility of plan recommendations and action items related to Cityled investments in station areas. Example infrastructure studies include multi-modal connectivity, stormwater, and parking management.KEY DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES National Western Stock Show Master Plan for the National Western Complex underway in 2014 40th and Colorado ULC property provides aordable housing opportunity Peoria City-owned property along Peoria 40th & Airport DIA-owned land and signicant ownership consolidation 61st and Pena DIA-owned land and signicant ownership consolidation ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Nine Mile Nine Mile Dayton Dayton Belleview Belleview Southmoor Southmoor Yale Yale Colorado Colorado University of Denver University of Denver Evans Evans Louisiana Pearl Louisiana Pearl Broadway Broadway Alameda Alameda 10th and Osage 10th and OsageSheridan SheridanAuraria West Auraria West Sports Authority Field at Mile High Sports Authority Field at Mile High Pepsi Center Pepsi Center 41st and Fox 41st and Fox NWSS NWSS 38th and Blake 38th and Blake Welton/Downing Corridor Welton/Downing Corridor 40th and Colorado 40th and Colorado Central Park Blvd Central Park Blvd Peoria Peoria 40th and Airport 40th and Airport 61st and Pena 61st and Pena Colfax at Auraria Colfax at AurariaPerry Perry Knox Knox Decatur-Federal Decatur-Federal HIGH LOW HIGH LOW DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL MARKET READINESS ACTION PLAN ACTION PLANSTATION SCORING

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 48 40TH & COLORADO Corridor Opening Projected Ridership RTD Parking Spaces Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces Complete the Elyria Swansea Neighborhood Plan and 40th and Colorado Next Steps Study Time frame: 2014/2015 Determine and initiate implementation of priority projects established by above eorts Time frame: 2016-2018 Monitor and respond to any changing development conditions along the city boundary Time frame: on-going Monitor and respond to any demands or needed improvements for multi-modal connectivity to the station from Denver neighborhoods Time frame: on-going DAYTON Medium Low Medium Low Low$ Medium -Low Low Medium Low$$ East 2016 1,370 200 I-225 2006 1,339 250 ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN Facts Typology Score Status Action Plan

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 49 Complete In-progress None $0 $$1 1,000,000 $$S-1,000,000 9,999,999 $$$$ 10,000,000+ 61ST & PENA Implement regulations consistent with the plan such as zoning and urban design standards and guidelines Time frame: 2014/2015 Continue to lead and engage in the on-going planning and implementation eorts for the Elyria Swansea neighborhood and the Stockshow Complex Master Plan eort. Time frame: 2014/2015 Determine and initiate implementation of priority projects established by above eorts Time frame: 2016-2018 Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Corridor Opening Projected Ridership RTD Parking Spaces Corridor Opening Projected Ridership RTD Parking Spaces Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment NATIONAL WESTERN STOCK SHOW Low Low High Medium Low Medium Low$$$$ $$$ East 2016 2,760 800 North Metro 2016 220 40 ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN Facts Typology Score Status Action Plan

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 50 Monitor and respond to future development opportunities, infrastructure needs Time frame: on-going Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Continue eorts with DRCOG Sustainable Communities Initiative (SCI) including implementation of catalytic projects focused on development opportunities, parking and aordable housing Time frame: 2014/2015 Consider the continuation of SCI eorts to organize stakeholders on further strategizing and implementing TOD along the East Corridor (Denver and Aurora) Time frame: on-going Monitor and respond to future development opportunities, infrastructure needs and/or DIA parking management opportunities Time frame: on-going Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment $$$$ $ NINE MILE Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces I-225 2006 6,730 1,225 Corridor Opening Projected Ridership RTD Parking Spaces PEORIAEast 2016 3,730 550 Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Medium Low Medium Low Medium Low Medium Low Medium Low ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN Facts Typology Score Status Action Plan

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 51 Monitor and respond to any change in market and development conditions that would be conducive to creating a TOD strategy for the station area Time frame: on-going Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Consider the continuation of SCI eorts to organize stakeholders on further strategizing and implementing TOD along the East Corridor (Denver and Aurora) Time frame: on-going Monitor and respond to future development opportunities, infrastructure needs and/or DIA related parking management opportunities Time frame: on-going Consider a General Development Plan when appropriate Time frame: on-going Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment $ $$ 40TH & AIRPORT Corridor Opening Projected Ridership RTD Parking Spaces East 2016 3,440 1,079 Low Medium High Low Medium High Medium High Medium Low Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces SOUTHMOORSoutheast 2006 6,387 788 ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN Facts Typology Score Status Action Plan Complete In-progress None $0 $$1 1,000,000 $$S-1,000,000 9,999,999 $$$$ 10,000,000+

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 52Welton/Downing CorridorAuraria West Evans Perry 41st and Fox Knox Court Alameda Sheridan 38th and BlakeDecatur-Federal ! ! ! !INTRODUCTIONStations that fall within Catalyze are stations that either have high development readiness and low market readiness or have low development readiness and high market readiness. Regardless, these station areas already have a vision and a path forward. They just need action to adjust the development or market readiness and begin realizing the vision. The Citys focus in the coming years is to re-assess Denvers role in catalyzing these stations. In the past, the City has relied upon the private market to lead development and market readiness. There has since been a shift in philosophy upon the realization that 1) TOD oers signicant opportunities citywide; and 2) Given the competitive market climate, TOD often cannot happen on its own if there is a signcicant market or development impediment. Research indicates that stations within this phase of the continuum provide the best opportunity for the strategic use of city investment resources. This is because Denver can get the most for its public investment and will quickly see a return by kick starting market or development readiness. Catalyze station areas with average to above average market conditions for TOD typically need specic infrastructure or amenity improvements to achieve the desired type of development. Catalytic infrastructure and amenity investments, such as new streets, sidewalks, bicycle facilities, park space, and stormwater improvements should yield the sought-after TOD results.TOOLKITWhile there are dierent ways to catalyze investment in a station area, the city has the greatest success through infrastructure investment. These projects typically include: Multi-modal street reconstruction Last mile improvements (e.g. bicycle/pedestrian paths and bridges) Storm water drainage improvements Parking structures Parkland improvements or creation Colorado CATALYZE ACTION PLAN TRANSIT ORIENTED CHARACTISTICS BY WALKSHED MEDIUM-LOW MEDIUM MEDIUM-HIGH HIGH

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 53 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Nine Mile Nine Mile Dayton Dayton Belleview Belleview Southmoor Southmoor Yale Yale Colorado Colorado University of Denver University of Denver Evans Evans Louisiana Pearl Louisiana Pearl Broadway Broadway Alameda Alameda 10th and Osage 10th and OsageSheridan SheridanAuraria West Auraria West Sports Authority Field at Mile High Sports Authority Field at Mile High Pepsi Center Pepsi Center 41st and Fox 41st and Fox NWSS NWSS 38th and Blake 38th and Blake Welton/Downing Corridor Welton/Downing Corridor 40th and Colorado 40th and Colorado Central Park Blvd Central Park Blvd Peoria Peoria 40th and Airport 40th and Airport 61st and Pena 61st and Pena Colfax at Auraria Colfax at AurariaPerry Perry Knox Knox Decatur-Federal Decatur-Federal HIGH LOW HIGH LOW DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL MARKET READINESS ACTION PLAN ACTION PLANSTATION SCORINGKEY DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES Decatur-Federal DHA owned land and signicant ownership consolidation Knox Court/Perry TOD sites located on Colfax Ave and near Sloans Lake Park 41st and Fox TOD opportunities at the former Denver Post facility Welton/Downing Corridor Multiple small development sites, including RTD surface parking lots 38th and Blake ULC property provides aordable housing opportunity Alameda RTD Transit Oriented Communities Pilot Project Colorado Final phases of Colorado Center development Sheridan ULC property provides aordable housing opportunity

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 54 Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Coordinate with CPD, PW and DoF on Time frames for funding and implementation of prioritized infrastructure investment Time frame: 2014/2015Maintain Implementing Partnership as studies and projects move forwardTime frame: On-Going Explore zone district map amendments to implement planTime frame: On-going Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Coordinate with CPD, PW and DoF on Time frames for funding and implementation of prioritized infrastructure investmentsTime frame: 2014/2015 31st and 36th Outfall System 38th Outfall System 35th and 36th at Brighton Signalization Brighton Reconstruction Downing Two Way conversion Lawrence St. removal Marion Two Way conversion 37th Ped improvements Pedestrian route improvements Proposed Bike route additions Neighborhood Lighting Sidewalk Construction Phase I and II Marion St. Sidewalks (36th to Walnut) $$ $$$ 38TH & BLAKE Corridor Opening Projected Ridership RTD Parking Spaces Facts Typology Score Status Action Plan Catalysts Medium Medium Medium High Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces DECATUR-FEDERAL Medium High Medium High ACTION PLANEast 2016 1,870 200 West 2013 2,309 1,900 13th Ave Realignment (River to Federal) New Riverfront Park Drive New Riverfront Park Sloans Lake Floodplain removal Weir Gulch Floodplain removal

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 55 Coordinate with CPD, PW and DoF on Time frames for funding and implementation of prioritized infrastructure investment Time frame: 2014/2015 Sheridan Ave. Sidewalks (15th to 17th & 8th to 10th) Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Coordinate with CPD, PW and DoF on Time frames for funding and implementation of prioritized infrastructure investment Time frame: 2014/2015 Broadway Corridor Bike Facility Re-purpose of Elati Bridge Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment $$$$ $ ALAMEDA Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces Central 1994 5,381 302 Medium High Medium High Medium High Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces SHERIDANWest 2013 1,699 800 Medium Low Medium Low Medium High ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN Facts Typology Score Status Action Plan Catalysts Complete In-progress None $0 $$1 1,000,000 $$S-1,000,000 9,999,999 $$$$ 10,000,000 $0 $1,000,000 $1,000,001 $2,500,000 $2,500,001 $10,000,000 $10,000,001 $25,000,000$25,000,001 $52,500,000

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 56 13th Ave. Reconstruction (Platte River to Mariposa) Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Coordinate with CPD, PW and DoF on Time frames for funding and implementation of prioritized infrastructure investment Time frame: 2014/2015 Delaware Reconstruction (Harvard to Ashbury)Harvard Gulch Floodplain Removal South Platte River Floodplain Removal Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Coordinate with CPD, PW and DoF on Time frames for funding and implementation of prioritized infrastructure investment Time frame: 2014/2015 $ $$$ AURARIA WEST Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces West 2002 8,105 0 Medium Low High Medium High Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces EVANS Medium Medium Low Medium ACTION PLAN Facts Typology Score Status Action Plan CatalystsSouthwest 2000 1,913 99

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 57 Coordinate with CPD, PW and DoF on Time frames for funding and implementation of prioritized infrastructure investment Time frame: 2014/2015 Colfax Reconstruction Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Coordinate with CPD, PW and DoF on Time frames for funding and implementation of prioritized infrastructure investment Time frame: 2014/2015 Colfax Reconstruction $ $ Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Medium Medium Medium KNOX COURT Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces West 2013 785 0 Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces PERRYWest 2013 660 0 Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Medium Low Medium Low Medium ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN Facts Typology Score Status Action Plan Catalysts Complete In-progress None $0 $$1 1,000,000 $$S-1,000,000 9,999,999 $$$$ 10,000,000 $0 $1,000,000 $1,000,001 $2,500,000 $2,500,001 $10,000,000 $10,000,001 $25,000,000$25,000,001 $52,500,000

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 58 Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Consider a more detailed infrastructure analysis to provide more specic direction on catalytic projectsTime frame: 2014/2015 27th Street Storm Drain Improvements Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Consider need and opportunity for holistic zone district changesTime frame: on goingConsider a more detailed infrastructure analysis and nancing plan to provide more specic direction on catalytic projectsTime frame: 2014/2015 $$ Bike/Ped Connectivity 38th Ave. Reconstruction Bike Blvd. along 41st Inca St. Improvements (36th to 46th) Fox St. Improvements (38th to 45th) 38th and Fox St. Intersection Improvements 38th and Navajo Intersection Improvements Northwest Subarea Drainage Improvements 38th Ave. Drainage and Transportation Improvements 44th Ave. Improvements (Broadway to Fox St) $$$ 41ST & FOX Corridor Opening Projected Ridership RTD Parking Spaces Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces WELTON/DOWNING CORRIDOR Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Medium High Medium Low High ACTION PLAN Facts Typology Status Action Plan CatalystsGold 2016 2,703 150 Central 1994 9,231 0 Market Potential Development Readiness TOD Characteristics Medium Low Medium Medium Score

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 59 ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN Complete In-progress None $0 $$1 1,000,000 $$S-1,000,000 9,999,999 $$$$ 10,000,000 $0 $1,000,000 $1,000,001 $2,500,000 $2,500,001 $10,000,000 $10,000,001 $25,000,000$25,000,001 $52,500,000

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 60Belleview Yale Central Park Blvd University of Denver I-25/Broadway Mile High Stadium Pepsi Center/Elitch Gardens Louisiana & Peral ! ! !INTRODUCTIONThis is the theoretical end or peak to the continuum. Stations in this category have high development and market readiness and are essentially TOD ready. While there is likely work to be done, it is generally left to the private sector. These stations typically have had all the city intervention necessary to implement TOD. The goal is for all stations to become an Energize station. There is not a set toolkit for these stations, as the action items are tailored to the unique characteristics and opportunities of the specic station. In many cases, the responsibility will be on an external party; however, action items listed are those that the city will have a supporting role at some level.ENERGIZE EXAMPLESColfax at Auraria 10th and Osage ENERGIZE ACTION PLAN TRANSIT ORIENTED CHARACTISTICS BY WALKSHED MEDIUM-LOW MEDIUM MEDIUM-HIGH HIGH LOW Way Way Way W Way nd nd d nd nd ing ing i ing ing Inn Inn Inn Inn Inn nn In ova ova ova ova ov ova tiv tiv tiv tiv tiv ti tiv e W e W e W e W e W e W eW ay ay ay ay ay ay ay y ndi ndi ndi ndi ndi ndi d ng ng ng ng ng ng Hig Hig Hig H h e h ase -of -us s s s s eb eb eb eb e b e b ike ik ike ike ike ke ike ike e fa fa fa fa fa a cii cii cii cii cii c i ti tie s Ped d d d d d est est e est est r r ria r ria n P P P P P ass ass ass ass ass age age a s s

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 61 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Hi g h Nine Mile Nine Mile Dayton Dayton Belleview Belleview Southmoor Southmoor Yale Yale Colorado Colorado University of Denver University of Denver Evans Evans Louisiana Pearl Louisiana Pearl Broadway Broadway Alameda Alameda 10th and Osage 10th and OsageSheridan SheridanAuraria West Auraria West Sports Authority Field at Mile High Sports Authority Field at Mile High Pepsi Center Pepsi Center 41st and Fox 41st and Fox NWSS NWSS 38th and Blake 38th and Blake Welton/Downing Corridor Welton/Downing Corridor 40th and Colorado 40th and Colorado Central Park Blvd Central Park Blvd Peoria Peoria 40th and Airport 40th and Airport 61st and Pena 61st and Pena Colfax at Auraria Colfax at AurariaPerry Perry Knox Knox Decatur-Federal Decatur-Federal HIGH LOW HIGH LOW DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL MARKET READINESS ACTION PLAN ACTION PLANSTATION SCORINGKEY DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES Broadway TOD opportunities at former Gates Rubber Factory Yale Smaller-scale TOD site near station Belleview Single ownership of large TOD site adjacent to station Central Park Single ownership of large TOD site adjacent to station

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 62 Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Continue to improve rst and last mile connections beyond the new development areaTime frame: on-goingMonitor and support the progress of the Belleview Station developmentTime frame: on-going Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Continue to improve rst and last mile connections as opportunities ariseTime frame: on-going Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics $$$ $$$ 10TH & OSAGE Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces BELLEVIEW Medium Medium High Medium High High Low ACTION PLAN Facts Typology Score Status Action PlanCentral 1994 4,032 0 Southeast 2006 1,787 59

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 63 Monitor parking management Time frame: on-going Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Monitor future investment and planning of the campus to ensure transit supportive investmentTime frame: on-going Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment $$$ $ UNIVERSITY OF DENVER Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces Southeast 2006 4,052 540 Medium High Medium Low Medium Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces LOUISIANA & PEARLSoutheast 2006 1,396 0 Medium High Medium Medium High ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN Facts Typology Score Status Action Plan Complete In-progress None $0 $$1 1,000,000 $$S-1,000,000 9,999,999 $$$$ 10,000,000+

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 64 Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Monitor opportunities for last mile connections such as Colfax Ave crossingsTime frame: on-going Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Study, design and construct a pedestrian crossing at Yale Avenue and Yale CircleTime frame: 2016-2018 Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics $ $ YALE 38th and Blake Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces Medium Low Medium Low Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces COLFAX AT AURARIA Medium Medium High Medium High ACTION PLAN Facts Typology Score Status Action PlanSoutheast 2006 1,691 129 Central 1994 16,829 0

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 65 Continue to seek opportunities for incremental implementation of the Intermodal Transportation CenterTime frame: on-goingStudy, fund, design and construct connection of Smith east of Havana Street Time frame: 2016-2018 Study, fund, design and construct 40th Avenue over Sand Creek Time frame: 2019Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Medium High Medium High Medium High Monitor opportunities for last mile connections such as bike share and Evans Avenue crossing improvementsTime frame: on-goingContinue discussions with RTD on Joint Development Program opportunities on RTD parking lotTime frame: on-going Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment $$$ $$$ COLORADO Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces Southeast 2006 5,761 363 Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Medium High Medium High Medium High Corridor Opening Projected Ridership RTD Parking Spaces CENTRAL PARKEast 2016 2,180 1,500 ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN Facts Typology Score Status Action Plan Complete In-progress None $0 $$1 1,000,000 $$S-1,000,000 9,999,999 $$$$ 10,000,000+

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 66 Monitor new development and connectivity opportunities that may trigger additional planningTime frame: on-going Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment Monitor new development and connectivity opportunities that may trigger additional planningTime frame: on-going $ $ MILE HIGH STADIUM Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces PEPSI CENTER / ELITCH GARDENS Medium High Medium Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics Medium Medium High High ACTION PLAN Facts Typology Score Status Action PlanCentral 2002 1,340 0 Central 2002 20,000 1,259

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 67 ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN Complete I-25 & Broadway Station Area PlanTime frame: 2014-2015Work with property owner and RTD to address parking management and joint development opportunitiesTime frame: 2016-2018 Plan Infrastructure Analysis Zoning Infrastructure Investment $ BROADWAY Corridor Opened Ridership RTD Parking Spaces Central 1994 14,002 1,248 Market Readiness Development Potential TOD Characteristics High High Medium Facts Typology Score Status Action Plan Complete In-progress None $0 $$1 1,000,000 $$S-1,000,000 9,999,999 $$$$ 10,000,000+

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 68Community Planning and Development2.1 Integrate Transit Communities and TOD Principles into updates to the Comprehensive Plan and Blueprint DenverTime frame: on-going2.2 Explore Opportunities for Non-Rail Station TOD Planning Time frame: 2014/2015Administration and Management1.1 Establish a TOD Action T eam Time frame: 2014/20151.2 Appoint a TOD StewardTime frame: 2014/20151.3 Explore emerging partnership opportunities to implement TODTime frame: on-goingDepartment of Public Works3.1 Evaluate Denvers role in transit planning and implementationTime frame: 2014/20153.2 Apply parking management strategies at TODsTime frame: on-going CITY WIDE POLICY UPDATE A strategic approach to implementing TOD in Denver includes short and long-term actions that span multiple City departments. In order to catalyze development at the stations with the best opportunities for development in the next 6 years, the City needs to identify City-wide TOD policies and specic action recommendations at the department level, nding realistic nancing strategies to fund necessary planning, infrastructure, and marketing activities. This section identies recommendations that cut across the TOD implementing agencies and require a coordinated eort to implement city-led investments that remove barriers to station area development. ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 69 Department of Finance4.1 Utilize Denver TOD nancing principlesTime frame: on-going4.2 Utilize Denver TOD nancing mechanismsTime frame: on-going4.3 Create station area nancing plans f or designated catalyze stationsTime frame: 2014/2015Oce of Economic Development5.1 Business recruitment strategies for TOD areasTime frame: on-going5.2 Housing and neighborhood development strategies for TOD areasTime frame: on-going5.3 Strategic Lending Tools for TOD areasTime frame: on-going5.4 Key strategic projects that impact TODTime frame: on-goingParks and Recreation 6.1 Park, open space, and recreation structure in TODsTime frame: on-going6.2 Completing the vision for a City in a ParkTime frame: on-going ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 70 CITY WIDE POLICY UPDATE ACTION PLANADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT1.1 EST ABLISH A TOD ACTION TEAM 1.2 APPOINT A TOD STEWARD 1.3 EXPLORE EMERGING PARTNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES TO IMPLEMENT TODThe following recommendations relate to how the City coordinates eorts to implement TOD across multiple departments and oces. 1.1 Establish a TOD Action Team Time frame: 2014/2015 Establish a TOD Action Team comprised of a point person from each of the departments/oces most responsible for development around stations: Community Planning and Development, Department of Public Works, Department of Finance, Denver Parks and Recreation Department, and the Oce of Economic Development, with a focus on reducing internal conicts and promoting strategies and programs that encourage successful TOD. Include external TOD partners, such as RTD, DHA, DRCOG, and DURA, on this team on an as-needed basis. This team could meet on a monthly basis or as needed to address development and infrastructure projects in station areas and provide support to an appointed TOD sta person. 1.2 Appoint a TOD Steward Time frame: 2014/2015Appoint a senior level sta person to act as a champion for TOD related policies and projects. The position should have the authority to coordinate and direct city departmental activities related to station/TOD development and investment. As this position becomes more dened, consider the roles of the position to include real estate development assistance to both property owners and potential developers. If needed, expand this position to a small team of TOD professionals with specic expertise in TOD related activities planning, infrastructure, and nance. 1.3 Explore emerging partnership opportunities to implement TOD Time frame: on-goingAs various City departments and agencies work to coordinate eorts to implement TOD, additional opportunities may arise to identify strategic actions that remove barriers to development at stations. Examples of opportunities to partner with on-going or upcoming initiatives include: State-wide construction defect law reform North Denver Cornerstone Collaborative Denver TOD Fund DRCOG Sustainable Communities Initiative Denver Shared Space Project City and County of Denver Climate Adaption Plan Mile High Connects

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 71 COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN 2.1 INTEGRATE TRANSIT COMMUNITIES AND TOD PRINCIPLES INTO UPDATES TO THE COMPREHENSIVE PLAN AND BLUEPRINT DENVER 2.2 EXPLORE OPPORTUNITIES FOR NONRAIL STATION TOD PLANNINGTransit-oriented development is at the heart of numerous planning eorts developed by the Community Planning and Development Department; beginning with Comprehensive Plan 2000 and Blueprint Denver and continuing with dozens of neighborhood, station area, and general development plans since those plans were adopted in the early 2000s. Looking more holistically at how TOD improves the walkable nature of the City and fosters residents and employees ability to move about the community to access their daily needs is an on-going focus of the department. 2.1 Integrate Transit Communities and TOD Principles into updates to the Comprehensive Plan and Blueprint Denver Time frame: on-goingInclude the transit communities concept and TOD principles into upcoming updates to the Citys Comprehensive Plan and Blueprint Denver, the Citys intregrated land use and transportation plan. The vision of transit oriented development in Denver goes beyond just development around rail stations; instead it is encapsulated into the larger concept of building transit communities around our rail stations that provide a persons daily needs without the use of an automobile. The transit communities concept and TOD principles can help bring Denvers neighborhoods closer together as one city. These ideas should evolve in the city-wide plan updates in order to provide value to multiple city-wide inititives, such as sustainability goals and resiliency measures. 2.2 Explore opportunities for non-rail station TOD planning Time frame: 2014/2015Explore opportunities to plan and implement transit oriented development along future enhanced transit corridors. Enhanced transit corridors could include bus, bus-rapid transit, and streetcar modes. As the RTD Fastracks program moves forward with implementation, most Denver rail stations will be operational in the next few years and opportunities to foster development around transit will move beyond rail stations. Existing bus lines that exhibit strong ridership may evolve into high frequency, high capacity transit utilizing some elements of a xed route service in the future. These enhanced transit corridors, if implemented, have the potential to spur transit oriented development. An immediate opportunity for non-rail TOD planning exists at Civic Center Station. RTD anticipates extensive near-term renovations to this key bus transfer center in Downtown. Local and regional buses currently serve the station and future enhanced bus, bus-rapid transit, or streetcar service could be added within the next 5 years. The city should explore TOD opportunities at this station and continue to foster implementing partnerships with RTD, the State of Colorado, private land owners, and other stakeholders.

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 72 CITY WIDE POLICY UPDATE ACTION PLANPUBLIC WORKS3.1 EVALUATE DENVERS ROLE IN TRANSIT PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION 3.2 APPLY PARKING MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AT TODSThe Public Works Department is involved with the planning and implementation of TOD at multiple levels, including, but not limited to: addressing multi-modal connectivity, managing stormwater runo, developing and applying parking management strategies, and enforcing right-of-way utilization. As an implementing agency, the department must manage multiple, sometimes conicting demands on city resources. Public Works has identied two major topics relating to station area development that require additional strategies as the City strives to remove barriers and implement TOD.3.1 Evaluate Denvers role in transit planning and implementation Time frame: 2014/2015Lead the City in continuing to evaluate its role in transit and work with regional partners to develop strategies to meet current and future service demands. Public transit service for Denver is provided by RTD. RTD provides transit service for the entire Denver region, including express and local bus service, parknride facilities and a rapid transit system that is now being greatly expanded through the FasTracks program. The City and County of Denver (CCD) has not been a primary provider of public transit service, but has worked closely with RTD for the planning and support of transit service for Denver residents, workers and visitors on a regional basis. The 2008 Denver Strategic Transportation Plan (STP) laid a roadmap for transportation in Denver that emphasizes multimodal transportation solutions and improving the eciency of the transportation system in moving people. In addition to citywide policies for a balanced transportation system, the STP provides strategies and recommendations for transportation system improvements throughout the city. The 2002 Blueprint Denver Plan developed Enhanced Transit Corridors that provide Denver with the opportunity to focus growth in a way that benets the city as a whole. These corridors will provide enhanced mobility through excellent access to ecient forms of transportation including walking, biking, buses, and rail transit. Investment Strategies The City and County of Denver has made many investments in transit, and continues to investigate additional opportunities to build upon the vision of maximizing person carrying trip capacity developed in the Strategic Transportation Plan. When considering the creation of a multimodal transportation system, transit and the associated amenities become vitally important as the City works towards meeting the goal of creating a livable, connected and sustainable city in the future. Investment strategies include: Directly Funded Investments Programmatic Investments Regulatory Investments System Preservation Investments Transit Related Plans and Coordination

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 73 ACTION PLAN ACTION PLANThe City and County of Denver understands the signicant role transit plays in being a world-class city. Across the country, cities are seeing their roles shift from reacting to transit needs and responsibilities to proactively planning for and implementing transit service. The City will continue to evaluate its role in transit and work with regional partners to develop strategies to meet current and future service demands. 3.2 Apply parking management strategies at TODs Time frame: on-goingParking Management Strategies for any TOD area should align with the Citys three-fold vision for parking management as identied in the 2010 Denver Strategic Parking Plan (SPP). The SPP establishes a management philosophy for the City of Denver to guide parking-related decision-making that (1) manages parking as a valued asset, (2) acknowledges a variety of land use patterns and contexts, and (3) encourages an integrated approach to parking management with a commitment to stakeholder outreach. The SPP introduces a ve-step process that sequences parking strategies incrementally to best address parking needs. Each of the ve steps Demand, Location, Time, Pricing, and Supply is coupled with an array of strategies that can be used singularly or in combination to achieve a parking management goal for on and/or o-street parking around a TOD area. Applying this process and toolbox, coupled with stakeholder input, will help implement the most eective parking management strategy for a TOD area as parking patterns and needs change with phased development that adds density and activity in an area. The SPP helps identify strategies that ensure a proper balance of supply and demand for dierent users. In a TOD area, the goal is to utilize limited parking resources wisely and promote ecient use of RTD parking facilities from opening day onward while maintaining convenient parking to support adjacent business and residential uses. Strategies applied may include but are not limited to: Current Strategies Transportation Demand Management strategies including employer or community funded transit passes or car/bike sharing Shared or accessory parking agreements between RTD-owned/managed lots and nearby multi-family, commercial, or oce parking inventories. This includes opportunities to share o-street or structured parking inventory to reduce development costs. (Subject to zoning approval). On-Street Time Limited Parking Restrictions and/or a combination of on and o street strategies considering parking options in the vicinity. Appropriate pricing strategies to manage demand for the TOD core and ncentivize the use of other higher inventory lots and garages further out from the core. Other creative parking management tools can be found in the Strategic Parking Plan (SPP).Potential Future Strategies Customer Service Developers, CCD, and RTD partner to revamp and/or create a consistent waynding strategy at stations/park-n-ride areas for consistency across transit locations to improve customer access and provide a consistent and informative customer experience. This could include intelligent/dynamic parking waynding systems with real-time occupancy information. Maximization of Existing Assets Identify new opportunities for RTD/CCD agencies to work collaboratively on active parking management strategies that can better leverage on and o-street assets in and around station areas.

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 74 CITY WIDE POLICY UPDATE ACTION PLANFINANCE4.1 UTILIZE DENVER TOD FINANCING PRINCIPLES 4.2 UTILIZE DENVER TOD FINANCING MECHANISMS 4.3 CREATE STATION AREA FINANCING PLANS FOR DESIGNATED CATALYZE STATIONSDeveloping nancing strategies is a critical step in implementing TOD in Denver. The Department of Finance will take a leading role in working with the other departments to identify strategies to fund TOD investments. The following are recommendations for nancing investments at the stations with the greatest opportunity for TOD development in the next six years. 4.1 Utilize Denver TOD financing principles Time frame: on-goingLessons learned from Denver and other national TOD experiences (including the peer city case studies found in the appendix) suggest the following key principles as a basis for the Citys funding and nancing strategy. Value Capture Investment at rail stations results in accessibility improvements which translate to a larger walk shed and expanding the inuence of the rail station on the surrounding area. The larger inuence area leads to greater development potential and appreciation in property values that could be utilized to generate revenue streams through the use of special districts or tax increment. Capturing the value around TOD rail stations to fund local benets is a principal that needs to be contemplated in conjunction with City planning and community goals. Corridor Level Funding The revenue potential of value capture is multiplied by creating larger and broader districts. Expanding an individual TOD station district beyond approximately a mile radius is problematic due to a lack of nexus as determined in a benet study. However, corridor approaches like the Atlanta Beltline Tax Assessment District that combines multiple stations, or even entire corridors, have a larger tax base and therefore greater revenue potential, resulting in increased ability to use corridor wide value capture to achieve corridor objectives. Incentive Successful station areas across the nation typically include programs which provide incentives or bonuses to encourage TOD development in line with planning objectives. The incentives can take the form of encouraging rezoning into higher intensity TOD by the City cost sharing in the public realm portions of a project. Partnering The alignment of various stakeholder interests to achieve common goals. The City, RTD, property owners, and non-prots all have dierent, but related, interests in promoting and investing in TOD rail stations. There are opportunities to create public private partnerships (P3s) among these various entities to address infrastructure and amenity needs. An example of an eective partnership is the Denver TOD Fund which acquires and preserves sites for aordable housing at TOD rail stations.

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 75 ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN4.2 Utilize Denver TOD financing mechanisms Time frame: on-goingThe nancing mechanisms that make the most sense for Denver TOD rail stations are special districts, tax increment nancing and sales tax sharing. Special Districts There are two broad categories of special districts, improvement districts and metropolitan districts. They are typically used for the installation, operation and maintenance of public improvements enjoyed primarily by a locality or neighborhood versus the entire City. The common feature all special districts share is they provide a localized benet or service to the same local population paying for the benet or service. District creation in Denver requires signicant public involvement, approval by City Council and a vote of the aected property owners if taxation is involved. Improvement Districts There are two categories of improvement districts, districts created under state statutes and those created under the Citys charter. Statutory districts include Business Improvement Districts (BIDs), General Improvement Districts (GIDs), and Special Improvement Districts (SIDs). Each of these district types provide for a localized benet and payment mechanism, but have dierent inherent purposes. BIDs are geared for economic development activities as they aect only non-residential property and funds can be spent on marketing for the district as well as infrastructure nancing. GIDs and SIDs are geared for installing, operating and maintaining public infrastructure. Typically GIDs raise revenue by taxation and SIDs raise revenue by assessments. Charter districts are Local Improvement Districts (LIDs) and Local Maintenance Districts (LMDs). Charter districts raise revenue through assessments borne by the property owners receiving a local benet. There is a symbiotic relationship between LIDs and LMDs. LIDs are used to pay for the installation of public improvements and LMDs are used to maintain the improvements or provide services over time. Typically the decision to use either a statutory or a charter district is based on dollar amounts involved and number of property owners involved. Larger dollar amounts usually cause the district to be formed as a statutory district. Districts are structured so each property is paying its proportionate share of the improvements based on benet received. However, the greatest challenge with improvement districts lies in convincing multiple property owners that it is in their own best interests to approve a district to pay for area-wide improvements. One approach is to tie the Citys investments to a commitment by the property owners to organize and pay for their fair share of the operations and maintenance costs. Metro Districts A Title 32 Metropolitan District (Metro District) is an independent special district. Once created, a metro district functions independently within the parameters established in its service plan authorized by City Council. Within these parameters, a Metro District has the ability to impose taxes, assessments, rates, fees, tolls and charges to raise revenues which can be spent on acquisition, installation, nancing and maintenance of public improvements. The service plan does restrict the districts power to a dened local area. Since Metro Districts require

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 76 CITY WIDE POLICY UPDATEa vote of the aected property owners as part of the creation process, Metro Districts are generally considered when there are few large land holds or developer-driven single-entity projects. Tax Increment Financing (TIF) Tax Increment Financing is a mechanism to capture incremental taxes that are created when a vacant or underutilized property is redeveloped to a higher and better use. The resulting increase in property values generates an incremental amount of revenue that can be utilized to fund TOD projects. Currently in order to use the TIF mechanism in Denver, a project site must meet the denitions of blight as dened in statutes and reported by the Denver Urban Renewal Authority (DURA). Urban Renewal TIF Through DURA, TIF continues to be one of the Citys eective tools for redevelopment at inll locations including a number of TODs. Some station areas would potentially qualify as an urban renewal area, however not all TODs will meet the urban redevelopment area blight requirements so this funding source cannot be used in all locations. Area-Wide TIF This tool is not currently available in the state of Colorado, but has been used in Dallas after a change was made to Texas statutes. The cost of needed infrastructure improvements in underdeveloped station areas typically exceeds existing revenues. Therefore, the City should continue to seek out additional revenue sources. The City could also pursue legislative approval for an Area-Wide TOD TIF district that enables revenues to be utilized within the TOD system when TOD areas are ready for catalytic investments similar to the Dallas TOD TIF District. That would allow for a diverse multiple-station TOD TIF district based on TOD-specic criteria rather than the current urban renewal area blight criteria. This option requires new State legislation to be passed, and given recent legislative eorts to restrict the use of TIF, may generate opposition from taxing entities aected by TIF, most notably counties and school districts. Legislation for this type of district would potentially be supported by other RTD member cities on the FasTracks lines who also struggle to fund needed station area improvements. One option that might have broader support would be to have the TIF apply only to City tax increment and not that of other taxing entities such as school districts. ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 77 4.3 Create station area financing plans for designated catalyze stations. Time frame: 2014/2015A Station Area Financing Plan can be used to determine how to best fund and nance infrastructure improvements determined to be of benet to all of a station areas properties. Catalyze stations have identied investments that are needed to facilitate development and may require a range of funding sources. The cost of these investments should be equitably allocated to the beneting parties, both public and private. Financing plans are needed for Catalyze stations and should be categorized by specic characteristics. Key characteristics to consider include 1) stations with predominately one landowner and a master developer, 2) stations qualifying for urban renewal that can utilize TIF, or 3) stations with sucient development value or expected sucient change in value to support a value capture nancing district. Station Area Financing Plans should be developed at a minimum with the following elements: Identication of capital improvement needs Assessment of funding responsibilities based on benet (Benet Study) Creation of a cost allocation matrix Creation of possible nancing entities (e.g., GIDs, Metro Districts, Urban Redevelopment Areas) ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 78 CITY WIDE POLICY UPDATE OFFICE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT5.1 BUSINESS RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES FOR TOD AREAS 5.2 HOUSING AND NEIGHBORHOOD DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES FOR TOD AREAS 5.3 STRA TEGIC LENDING TOOLS FOR TOD AREAS 5.4 KEY STRA TEGIC PROJECTS THAT IMPACT TODThe Oce of Economic Development (OED) has made transit-oriented development a priority for the city. The oces strategic planning eort, JumpStart, has included multiple recommendations that both apply broadly and specically towards development at rail stations and enhanced transit corridors. As OED continues to update their strategic plan for economic development in Denver, the oce will evaluate and recommend strategies that promote transit-oriented development. JumpStart 2014 has multiple TOD-applicable strategies categorized into four areas, Business Recruitment, Housing and Neighborhood Development, Strategic Lending, and Key Strategic Projects.5.1 Business recruitment strategies for TOD areasTime frame: on-goingManufacturing/Flex Businesses : Identify areas with a focus on transitaccessibility for creation and development of next-generation reserach, production, and logistics businesses. These identied areas will help to assure job and business opportunities for middle-wage/middle-skilled jobs for city residents. Key Business/Development Areas: Develop an integrated, powerful presentation that identies key sta tistical/demographic information, industry clusters, tax analysis, incentives and strategic advantages of Denver for businesses and commercial real estate investors considering Denver sites for expansion or location. Retail Development Program: Designate and market specic areas of the city, including specic key TOD areas, to recruit new, and support existing unique, urban retailers (Retail Development Corridors). Identify development opportunities in the city (Retail Development Opportunities) to recruit ethnic grocery stores, home furnishing and improvement stores, fashion/clothing stores, and general merchandisers (collectively, Target Retailers). ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 79 Establish business development tools to support Targeted Retailers in-store construction, development, and operational/workforce issues. Create a retail website designed for retailers, developers and shoppers to include OED programs and services, online mapping of Retail Development Opportunities and Retail Corridors, market and customer information, and site information. Active Lifestyle Business Sector: Grow Denvers active lifestyle sector, through coordination with support organizations, working directly with lifestyle sector businesses develop information/analysis to demonstrate the type and size of this sector, create tools and strategies to meet business needs; and identify business recruitment targets. International Companies: Consider the creation of an international economic zone(s) in specic areas where Enterprise Zones and Foreign Trade Zones can be coupled with general fund tax policies that encourage relocation of international companies. Small Business Support: Establish and grow programs and services for entrepreneurs and business expansion supporting new business and job development in TOD areas. These tools include a Small Business Resource Directory, a new downtown business center (located 1 block from a light rail station), and early stage capital prioritizing business areas.5.2 Housing and neighborhood development strategies for TOD areas Time frame: on-goingAordable Housing Construction & Preservation: Support the development of at least 600 additional aordable and workforce housing units through public, non-prot, and private partners for the development community to add 3,000 net-new aordable housing units by 2018 (Mayors 3x5 Initiative). Include a range of housing types and aordability with mixeduse development at or near station areas. Housing types should include small-scale rowhouse developments to larger multi-family developments. Analyze Average Median Income (AMI) ratios of aordable units to determine priority locations (Target Workforce Housing Locations). Partner with a developer to acquire and rehabilitate or construct a mixed income development in a Target Workforce Housing Location. ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 80 CITY WIDE POLICY UPDATE Establish a sustainable preservation fund for aordable housing, using best practices from across the country, including innovative ideas and input from local stakeholders. Continue and grow homeowner opportunities in single-family and multi-family development to ensure a range of housing types and ages at station areas for a diverse population. Food Sourcing and Production: Increase low-income Denver residents access to healthy and fresh food by facilitating the siting and expansion of healthy food retailers, community gardens or farms, food hubs and farmers markets in station areas.5.3 Strategic Lending Tools for TOD areas Time frame: on-goingJob Creating Business Sectors : Research and identify Denvers top ve primary job creating business sectors, with an emphasis on high concentrations of middle skill employment opportunities, industry growth dynamics and export potential (Targeted Lending Industries). Qualied Business Loans: Oer low interest rate, subordinated, longterm loans to qualied businesses in Targeted Lending Industries that are expanding or may consider growing into a Targeted Area. 5.4 Key Strategic Projects that impact TOD Time frame: on-goingLocalized Mass Transit Analysis: Conduct and publish an economic analysis discussing the impact of how neighborhood-serving mass transit would impact business and retail activity, property values and economic activity in identied Denver core corridors. Strategic Transit-Oriented Development: Support appropriately scaled commercial, mixed-use and workforce housing development in identied ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 81 ACTION PLAN ACTION PLANdevelopment-ready TOD areas along existing and next phase transit lines. Work with a range of private and public partners to encourage or facilitate strategic redevelopment projects and investment at or near market-ready station areas. Some priority examples include: Aerotropolis: Assist Aerotropolis Appointee and DIA leadership in evaluating project and development choices and structuring partnerships to maximize regional economic outcomes. National Western Stock Show Area: Develop materials demonstrating development and partnership opportunities within key opportunities sites; market to a targeted, select group of large agri-businesses to relocate as an anchor tenant; solicit other businesses with an interest in being part of an agri-business focused area. Arapahoe Square: Encourage, support and coordinate continued investment and development of commercial, mixed use and mixed income projects along Welton Street. Globeville, Elyria-Swansea: Provide technical assistance, business/ community outreach and prioritize resources to maximize business opportunities, housing development and neighborhood services to the I-70 corridor neighborhoods of Globeville and Elyria-Swansea. Welton Corridor: Continue technical and nancial support to property owners to redevelop Welton Street into an iconic neighborhood retail, hospitality and business services district. Sun Valley: Continued partnership with DHA and DPS to pursue a concerted eort to improve educational attainment, employment opportunities and mixed income housing options through a neighborhood-scale TOD.

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 82 CITY WIDE POLICY UPDATEPARKS AND RECREATION 6.1 PARK, OPEN SPACE, AND RECREATION STRUCTURE IN TODS 6.2 C OMPLETING THE VISION FOR A CITY IN A PARK Transit Communities and development around Denvers rail stations have some of the highest population densities and intensities of uses in the region. Easy physical and visual access to public spaces encourages use and promotes safety. In turn, activating public open spaces in transit communities helps make TOD areas become a focus point and destination for the community. The Denver Parks and Recreation Department establishes a framework for providing the right types and mix of parks and open space in TOD knowing that access to open space is critical to maintaining a high quality of life for Denvers citizens. 6.1 Park, Open Space, and Recreation Structure in TODsAs TODs develop and grow through the City and County of Denver, the City and developers should follow the four values framing Denver Park and Recreations Game Plan of Sustainable Environments, Equity and Service, Engagement of the Public, and ensuring Sound Economics. Sustainable Environments: Denvers park and recreation system has the potential to be a national model in protecting natural and built resources. The Game Plan provides direction that will strengthen Denver Parks and Recreations leadership in protecting our resources through new strategies and policies for environmental responsibility, preservation of historic places and structures, and high standards of design, construction, maintenance, and programming. Developers of TODs should work with Denver Parks and Recreation in establishing minimum water requirements, planting pallets, and ratios of natural open space to active recreational open space within each TOD area. The balance of natural open space to active recreational open space should be framed in the pocket, neighborhood, community, and regional park structure utilized throughout the citys system of parks and open space. Equity: Parks, parkways, natural areas, and recreation centers should vary across the city, reecting geography as well as the needs, character, and history of neighborhoods. Access to these spaces and amenities should be distributed equitably across the city, and should rely on updated standards utilized by Denvers Department of Parks and Recreation. The framework of pocket parks, neighborhood, community, and regional parks should also be applied when developing in new or expanding existing TOD areas. Engagement: Denver residents are always encouraged to participate in every aspect of the park and recreation system, including programming, park design and maintenance. Sound Economics: Ensuring a sustainable park and recreation system requires adequate funding. Denvers ability to develop new parks and programs is directly related to funds needed for maintenance of an existing ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN

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TRANSIT ORIENTED DENVER 83 system while securing funds for improvements and acquisitions. Denver Parks and Recreation with Denvers Budget Oce should coordinate eorts to research and implement a new policy for funding parks, recreation, and open space needs in a TODs and other areas of growth across the city. Funding policies with new development and redevelopment may include development impact fees, coupled with a dedicated source of funding to assist with capital maintenance needs.6.2 Completing the vision for a City in a ParkTo realize the Game Plans vision for a City in a Park, the Departments master plan starts with places that include neighborhood streets and public spaces, schoolyards, and places to gather. The Game Plan proposes to make every neighborhood greener and then extend outward to the broader fabric of recreation centers, playing elds, and community amenities. In a water-wise, arid city, that green varies in form. Street Tree Canopy Cover: Street trees play an important part in dening urban form, in addition to providing environmental and economic benets. In new TOD areas, requirements should hold provision for a tree canopy cover of 15 percent to 18 percent of the developable area. Open Space: Provide at least one-half acre of public open space within one-half mile of every residents home that can be reached without crossing a major barrier. Basic infrastructure should include consideration of a loop walking trail, shade, seating, open play area, picnic area, plantings, focal elements such as public art, multi-use courts, community gardens, playground, and some natural open space. In addition to providing at least one-half acre of public open space within one-half mile of every residents home, 8 to 10 acres of parkland is the performance goal for every 1,000 residents. Structure of appropriate park and open space should follow the scaled space of pocket parks, neighborhood parks, community parks, and regional parks. Recreation: Playing elds, recreation centers, and public pools oer opportunities for team sports and pick-up games, as well as programs and services that enhance health, well-being and quality of life. New TOD developments should look at proximities and determine whether standards are being met in provision of one baseball eld or softball eld for every 5,000 residents, in addition to one soccer or multi-use eld for every 5,000 residents. At least 75 percent of Denver residents should have safe pedestrian or transit access to a recreation center. Coordination of access is necessary with Denver Public Works and RTD. ACTION PLAN ACTION PLAN