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Denver Union Stations urban design standards and guidelines

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Denver Union Stations urban design standards and guidelines
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Skidmore, Owings and Merrill LLP
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Denver, CO
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City and County of Denver
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Denver Union Station
Urban Design Standards and Guidelines
April 7, 2009
City and County of Denver
Prepared by:
Union Station Neighborhood Co.
SOM Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP


City and County of Denver


Denver Union Station
Design Standards and Guidelines
Adopted April 7,2009
Brad Buchanan
Chair, Denver Planning Board
Dennis I luiiipl il 1CTT CA&A
Co -Chair, Denver Landmark Preservation Commission
Peter J. Park
Manager, Community Planning and Development, City and County of Denver
Adopted and published as enabled by Section 59-314(e) and Section 30-6(2)
pursuant to Section 12-18 of the Denver Revised Municipal Code.
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines


City and County of Denver


Acknowledgements
Submitted by:
Union Station Neighborhood Co.
Prepared by:
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP
City and County of Denver:
Landmark Preservation Commission
Planning Board
Community Planning and Development
Consultants:
Ronald Straka, FAIA
Hargreaves Associates
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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City and County of Denver


Table of Contents
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Preface-the Vision 1
1.2 Scope and Purpose of the Urban Design Standards and Guidelines 1
1.3 Denver Union Station 6
2 Site-Wide Urban Design Standards and Guidelines 15
2.1 General Intent Statements 15
2.2 Authority Provisions of the Zoning 17
2.3 Site Circulation 18
2.4 Site Planning 22
2.5 Building Design 26
2.6 Public Space Design 33
2.7 Lighting 37
2.8 Signage 39
3. Sub-Area 1 Special Urban Design Standards and Guidelines 41
3.1 Introduction 41
3.2 General Intent Statements 41
3.3 Site Circulation 42
3.4 Site Planning 43
3.5 Building Design 47
3.6 Public Space Design 50
3.7 Lighting 53
3.8 Signage 54
4. Sub-Area 2 Special Urban Design Standards and Guidelines 55
4.1 Introduction 55
4.2 General Intent Statements 55
4.3 Site Circulation 55
4.4 Site Planning 57
4.5 Building Design 61
4.6 Public Space Design 64
4.7 Lighting 69
4.8 Signage 69
5. Design Review and Approval Process 71
Appendix - Sustainability Vision 75
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Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines


ICONS
SIGNATURE BUILDING / FACADE
HISTORIC BUILDING / FACADE
FRAMWORK BUILDING/
EMPHASIZED CORNER / SPECIAL FACADE
FRAMEWORK BUILDING DEFINING STREET/
OPEN SPACE
BUILDINGS OVER 140'HEIGHT
TRANSIT ARCHITECTURE
17TH STREET PROMENADE
SPECIAL PUBLIC SPACE
OPEN SPACE / CORRIDORS / EDGE
PUBLIC PLAZA
SPECIAL STREET
TRANSIT MALL
PEDESTRIAN BRIDGES
PEDESTRIAN PATHS
.... BIKEWAYS PEDESTRIAN PATHS
---- VIEW CORRIDORS
> IMPORTANT VIEWS
.... RR/CML
y} LOCAL ENTRYWAYS/GATEWAYS
REGIONAL ENTRYWAYS / GATEWAYS
Fig 1.1: Urban Design Framework Diagram
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City and County of Denver


1. Introduction
1.1 PREFACE-THE VISION
The Denver Union Station (DUS) site represents an historic opportunity to create a regional
transit center and a unique place in Denver, a distinctive urban experience in the heart of
the city. The project will integrate an efficient multi-modal network of transit linkages with
walkable and resonant urban public spaces and dynamic, economically successful mixed-use
development in a district that completes the growth of downtown Denver to the west and
forms a memorable gateway to the city and the region.
The Urban Design Standards & Guidelines are intended to provide a framework for guiding
the design of public infrastructure and private development on the DUS site. They are
intended to realize the following goals and objectives:
1. To create a cohesive and dynamic new mixed-use district built around an ambitious
multi-modal transportation network.
2. To restore the historic Denver Union Station building to prominence and centrality as
the symbolic gateway to Denver and the region.
3. To concentrate multiple regional transportation modes in a singleTransit District that
will be a new gateway to the city and the region.
4. To reaffirm the importance of 17th Street as a visual and connection axis between DUS
and Downtown to the east and DUS and the Commons Park and Highlands
to the west.
5. To provide the city with new public spaces imbued with design qualities that convey
the values of the city and region that enhance the neighborhood amenities.
6. To weave this new district into the existing and emerging urban fabrics of adjacent
neighborhoods by forming strong internal and external links, while establishing
the western anchor of Downtown.
7. To assist in achieving national and local goals of improved air quality, energy
conservation, improved mobility and eased congestion on the region's freeways and
major streets.
8. To foster sustainable design practices for the public spaces, transportation facilities, and
private development.
This area the DUS site and its urban context is like no other in the city. Its unique
characteristics should inspire us to achieve excellence in public space design, building design,
infrastructure and implementation. This new urban place should:
1. Rise to a level of urban design and building design excellence commensurate with the
ambitions of the transit program.
2. Be understood to be of Denver, not merely in Denver.
3. Be inspired by the unique urban history, location and natural environment of the place.
4. Embody the optimism of the West, be forward-looking and innovative.
5. Become a destination and place in its own right.
1.2 SCOPE AND PURPOSE OF THE URBAN DESIGN STANDARDS AND GUIDE
LINES
The Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines (DS&G) will pertain to the DUS site
only (see Figure 1.1). The purpose of this document is to promote a coherent set of design
standards and guidelines for the DUS site that will allow new projects to play a role in realizing
the urban design potential of the site. The design standards and guidelines are intended to
promote design excellence in urban design and architecture.
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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1.2.1 Area of Applicability DUS Site and the LargerTransit District
The Design Standards and Guidelines will be used to review all new construction on the DUS
site, as well as exterior alterations to the historic Station building. The DUS site is defined as
the 19.5 acres that were purchased by the partner agencies in 2001 and zoned T-MU-30 with
waivers and conditions in 2004. The larger Transit District refers to the DUS site plus the
four block area encompassed by the extensions of 16th and 18th Streets from the DUS site
westward to the Consolidated Main Line (CML).
The DUS site is bounded byWynkoop Street on the east and Wewatta Street on the west. The
eastern boundary runs from 16th Street to 18th Street. The western boundary runs along
Wewatta Street to include the triangular site between the old Wewatta Street ROW and the
curving alignment of newWewatta Street and extends north to 20th Street to encompass the
rail tracks north of the station.
For purposes of these Standards and Guidelines, the DUS site has been divided into two
Sub-Areas. Sub-Area 1 includes the historic station building and the area between 16th
and 18th Streets and from Wynkoop Street to 25 feet beyond the west side (track side) of the
station. Sub-Area 2 includes the balance of the DUS site between the boundary 25 feet
west of the station building and Wewatta Street, and from the old Wewatta ROW to 20th
Street.
These Design Standards and Guidelines do not extend beyond the 19.5-acre DUS site to the
rest of the Transit District. They may influence an amendment ofThe Commons Urban Design
Standards and Guidelines (December 1997) to take into account the presence of the new
transit facilities and other aspects of the DUS site.
Fig 1.2: Relation of DUS to The Commons and Lower Downtown districts
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DEVELOPMENT FOOTPRINT
DECK OVERCRT
PRIMARY GDP BOUNDARY
Fig 1.3: Primary GDP Sub-Area Key Plan
1.2.2 Relationship to Existing Guidelines
These design standards and guidelines supplement the existing Design Standards for
Landmark Structures and Districts (March, 1995) and Contemporary Design in Historic
Districts: New Construction and Additions and Alterations to Existing Structures (September
2006), both of which remain fully in effect for Sub-Area 1 of the DUS site. The DUS Design
Standards and Guidelines will be used to review all new construction on the DUS site, as well
as exterior alterations to the historic Station.
Sub-Area 1 is the Union Station Denver Landmark area, which is subject to design review and
approval through the Landmark Preservation Commission. Sub-Area 2 has design review
established through the DUS Zoning Ordinance (T-MU-30 with waivers and conditions,
Ordinance #707, Series of 2004), which establishes an urban design review and approval
process.
1.2.3 How to Use This Document
It is a fundamental intent of these design standards and guidelines that the entire DUS site
be understood as a distinctive and internally coherent urban entity, despite being subject to
two different review and approvals processes. Therefore, users need to consult the general
sections (1,2, and 5), as well as the section pertaining to the Sub-Area in which a particular
project falls. Section 2 is explicitly intended to define the urban design objectives, standards
and guidelines common to the entire DUS site the means by which the site can be shaped
as a coherent whole. Each of the two sub-areas has its own section because each presents
unique conditions, as well as being subject to different approval processes.
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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Intent
Intent statements are provided to define the goals which the standards and guidelines have
been created to achieve. In circumstances where the appropriateness or applicability of a
standard or guideline is in question or under negotiation, the intent statement will serve to
provide additional direction.
Standards
Design standards provide specific direction based on the stated intent. Standards are
objective and quantifiable, using the terms"shall"or"will"to indicate that compliance is
required.
Guidelines
Design guidelines provide flexibility to the review process by allowing the applicant
additional design considerations that promote the goals defined by the intent statements.
Guidelines use the term "should" to denote that they are considered important considerations
in achieving the stated intent. They can also provide acceptable alternatives to the standards
when it can be demonstrated that they meet one or more of the following conditions:
The guideline better achieves the stated intent;
The intent which the standard was created to address will not be achieved by
application of the standard in a particular circumstance;
Unique site factors make the standard impractical and/or cost prohibitive and
alternatives are proposed.
1.2.4 Definitions
Bicycle Circulation The route by which bicycle riders travel to, from, and through the site,
including shared rights-of-way and dedicated bicycle paths.
Building accessories any fitments and fixtures attached to the exterior of a building that
are not essential components of the building structure or envelope, such as signage, lighting,
canopies, or marquees.
CML-Consolidated Main Line, rail freight lines running north-south through the Central
Platte Valley
CPV-Central Platte Valley
CPD Denver's Department of Community Planning & Development
CRT -Commuter Rail Terminal
DPW- Denver's Department of Public Works
DUS/Historic Station building Denver Union Station, the historic station building
DUS site the 19.5-acre project area
Elevated Deck the connection from the east side of the site over the CRT to the west side
of the site
GDP Denver Union Station General Development Plan, 2009
HOV High-Occupancy Vehicle, such as a public or regional bus
Human scale a visual concept relating to the manner in which the built environment is
perceived in relation to the human figure
Lay-by a lane adjacent to through-traffic lanes which vehicles enter temporarily to pick up
or drop off passengers
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LoDo Lower Downtown Historic District
LOV Low-Occupancy Vehicle, such as a taxi or private auto
LPC Landmark Preservation Commission
LRT Light Rail Transit
MP/MPS Denver Union Station Master Plan (2004) and Master Plan Supplement, 2008
OCS Overhead Catenary System
Pedestrian-active Design Public walking surface and adjacent facades that promote an
active pedestrian environment through the provision of high pedestrian traffic-generating
uses such as retail, service-oriented, commercial, and residential and residential-oriented uses.
Entrances and lobbies are also considered to generate high levels of pedestrian traffic.
Pedestrian-friendly Design Design of the public walking surface and adjacent facades
that uses high-quality materials, human-scale modules, and other devices to promote a
pleasant pedestrian experience where there might not be active uses.These facades engage
the passer-by without necessarily being interactive.
Pedestrian Circulation -The manner by which pedestrians travel to, from, and through the
site, including public rights-of-way, public and private sidewalks, private walkways, stairways,
and escalators and elevators.
Pedestrian Walk -The area of the streetscape that is reserved for pedestrian traffic.The
pedestrian walk must remain clear and unobstructed at all times for ease of pedestrian travel
and regular maintenance.
Private Development- Buildings and associated accessories and features constructed by
private entities.
Private vehicles Includes, but is not limited to, personal vehicles and taxis.
Public space Collectively refers to any publicly-accessible park or plaza and certain streets
and streetscapes.
ROW- Dedicated City Right of Way.
Street wall-The cumulative effect of adjacent buildings facing onto and providing a
consistent edge to a public or private street.
Train Hall -The CRT platform area west of the historic DUS building.
Train Room-The main waiting room of the historic DUS building.
Transit District Geographically defined as the area from Wynkoop Street to the
Consolidated Main Line(CML) between 16th and 18th Streets, and also including the
southern and northern extensions to 15th and 20th Streets between the track side of the
Historic Station and Wewatta Street.
Vehicular Circulation-The manner by which public and private vehicles travel to, from,
and through the site.
View corridor-The 160-foot-wide 17th Street corridor above the sill (elevation 5209) of the
second story windows of the DUS building to provide an unobstructed view to and from the
Train Room.
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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1.3 DENVER UNION STATION HISTORY CONTEXT AND VISION
Original Station in 1881
The Station in 1894 after the fire
\
.. *
Union Station in 1895
1914 Station
1.3.1 Building and Site History
Built in four stages, two of which remain today, Denver Union Station has changed
dramatically over its 12 decades, and remains the most prominent railroad building in Denver.
Union Station, also known as Union Depot or Union Terminal, was designed by architect
W.E.Taylor of Kansas City and constructed by a team including contractors A.H. Garfield, W.R.
Barton, and J.H. McGonigle in 1881. From the beginning, the building provided a magnificent
land mark for early Denver an elaborate example of the Italianate style or Victorian Eclectic
style, featuring a 128-foot tall central tower on the axis of 17th Street.
Generally considered to be "a masterpiece of railroad Gothic," Union Station was set back from
and looked out overWynkoop Street. The original facade measured 503 feet in length and
was essentially comprised of five sections: a tower-topped center pavilion, two end pavilions,
and two slightly lower, recessed connecting sections. The building was constructed of locally
sourced materials, with a primary structural stone of pinkish rhyolite quarried in Castle Rock
and sandstone trim quarried in Morrison. All sections were topped by mansard roofs with
bracketed eaves, elaborate coping, and end-clerestory windows. Each fagade section and the
ends were further marked by a central, double-height entryway topped by a gabled parapet.
Double hung windows topped by stilted flat arches lined the first floor level, while the second
floor featured stilted segmented arches. The building wings were detailed in an identical
manner to give the appearance of symmetry, but in reality the spaces between the doors
and windows of the north wing were narrower, reducing the length of this section by some
30 feet. Where the Wynkoop Street facade was well detailed and modulated, the track-side
facade was simpler, with long uninterrupted rows of double hung windows.
In 1892, single-story, stone wings were added to each end of the structure, providing
additional space for mail, baggage, and freight handling and extending the length of the
building to 880 feet. The following year, a sheet metal and iron truss canopy was added
along the full length of the train sidefagade of the station. While the wings were demolished
in about 1990, a small portion of the canopy survives along the north wing. The remainder
of the canopy has been replaced over the years with a series of newer canopies and smaller
enclosures.
The next major change to the building came in 1894 when a spectacular fire destroyed the
center pavilion and damaged the wing roofs. Plans were immediately drawn up by the
architects Van Brunt and Howe of Kansas City to replace the center pavilion. The new design
for this section, done in the Richardsonian Romanesque style, featured a 168-foot tall square
central tower with comer turrets and 14-foot diameter clocks. Much of the stonework,
window types and openings were retained from the original building, however the roof
was entirely replaced with a simple hip that eliminated all detail except simple hip-roofed
dormers.
By 1914, traffic at Union Station had reached a point where the central passenger services
room had become inadequate in size and therefore was demolished to make way for a new
center pavilion. Also at this time, the Wynkoop side of the station had become much more
active with local street car lines looping onto the site, serving the bustling warehouse district
(now known as Lower Downtown), which had become heavily populated with railroad
related businesses.
The new pavilion, popularly referred toasthe'Train Room", was designed by Gove and Walsh
of Denver in a Renaissance Revival style. Finished in 1914, this premier example of the Beaux-
Arts style is the central Train Room that remains standing today. The building is constructed
of terra cotta with a granite base and topped by a mansard roof. The most prominent features
are the parapet with its large clock in a round arch pediment over rows of tall round-arched
windows on the street and track sides of the building. There are five such windows on the
track side and three windows flanked by matching niches on the street side. Windows on the
end bays and sides are double hung with flat arches above the canopy and segmented arches
below. Thetrackand street sides of theTrain Room are nearly identical providing a prominent
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City and County of Denver


termination of the view along 17th Street from both the east and the west. Both sides have
canopies of varying sizes located below the sills of the monumental windows. Much of this
original canopy remains along the Wynkoop side, extending continuously along the front and
sides to the first door on the wings.
Also in 1914, the tracks were raised about five feet to make room for three "subways" or
underground tunnels that connected the station to the various tracks and related platforms.
Platform uses alternated between passenger and freight or"trucking"platforms. In order to
provide protection from the weather, umbrella-type concrete canopy structures were later
added to the passenger platforms.
In 1906,the"Mizpah Arch" was erected in front of the building at 17th Street to greet travelers,
only to be demolished in 1931 due to concerns over traffic safety. Twentyyears later, in
1952, the iconic"UNION STATION Travel by Train" signs were added to the parapets. Further
alterations and additions over the years have included the addition of new canopies and
passenger structures to the track side of the building and the closure of two of the three
subways.
Just as the building has changed overtime, so too has the site. The original structure
featured a grand park-like lawn along the Wynkoop Street side, lined with mature perimeter
street trees and enclosed with a lowwrought-iron fence. In 1880, Wynkoop Street was a
dirt track with virtually no adjacent development, however in the following decades, the
Lower Downtown Historic District a collection of masonry warehouses and commercial
buildings grew up around the station. Following the 1914 center pavilion addition, much of
the landscaping was removed, except at the corners, and was replaced with a driveway and
parking area for cars. Since that time, the parking area has continued to grow, replacing any
landscaping remaining on the site, culminating in 2003 with the addition of a central entry
plaza and clearer vehicular drop off and parking access.
1.3.2 Overview of the DUS Transit Elements
The 19.5-acre DUS site purchased in 2001 by the partner agencies was intended by the
subsequent "DUS Master Plan"[2004] to contain the termini of the transportation modes. In
other words, the DUS site was synonymous with theTransit District. However, as the"DUS
Master Plan"evolved into the"DUS Master Plan Supplement"[2008], the termini and stations
of the various transportation modes were relocated both within the 19.5-acre DUS site and
the surrounding area. Most notably, the Light Rail Transit Station was relocated to a position
along the CML between 16th Street and 18th Street. The Regional Bus Station, which had
been located under the plaza areas between the historic station building and Wynkoop
Street, is now located under the 17th Street ROW between the historic station and the CML,
extending under bothWewatta Street and Chestnut Place. The routes of the 16th Street Mall
Shuttle and Downtown Circulator were extended to the vicinity of the Light Rail Station at the
CML.
In this and other ways the reconfiguration of the transit modes expanded the boundaries of
the Transit District to encompass the entire area between Wynkoop Street and the CML, from
16th Street to 18th Street, along with the rest of the original 19.5-acre DUS site.
The following paragraphs describe the configuration of each transit mode and its relationship
to the DUS site. While the arrangement of the modes has been established through the
Master Plan Supplement and subsequent design work, these Standards and Guidelines are
intended to provide direction to the architectural, landscape, and other features that define
and connect the modes and to the new buildings that will define it. These elements, along
with the transportation facitlities, will contribute to establishing DUS as a regional destination
and place for people.
The Mizpah Arch
The Travel by Train sign
The tree-lined front court of the original DUS
DUS as seen from 17th St today
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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Commuter Rail Terminal (CRT)
The CRT will be located at grade directly to the west of the historic Denver Union Station
building. The eight new tracks terminate at this location and accommodate RTD commuter
trains, Amtrak trains and the Ski Train. The entire CRT is located within the DUS site, Sub-Area
2. It will be partially protected by a canopy structure referred toastheTrain Hall. The historic
Train Room will continue to serve as a waiting area for passengers, as well as providing other
services. The CRT will be surrounded by new development buildings along Wewatta Street
between 16th and 18th Streets. At the north end, development will be built over the rail
tracks, while the building along 16th will define the end oftheTrain Hall and the head-end
platform. The new mixed-use buildings will play an important role in creating the setting of
Regional Bus Station
The Regional Bus Station is an underground facility located within the 17th Street ROW
extending from the historic station to the LRT Station. The eastern half lies within the Sub-
Area 2 of the DUS site. Bus access to the station is provided in two locations, one location on
the DUS site and the other in the CPV. A ramp extended from the HOV lane at 18th Street will
provide bus access to the underground station.
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City and County of Denver


Light RailTransit Station
The Light Rail Transit Station lies along the CML between 16th Street and 18th Street. It sits
outside the DUS site, but is an important part of the largerTransit District.
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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1 6th Street Mall Shuttle
The 16th Street Mall Shuttle will continue to operate on 16th Street adjacent to the DUS
site. However, the Shuttle will continue past Wewatta Street to Chestnut Place and then
17th Street to serve the LRT Station area, which will be the Shuttle's new western terminus.
Between Wynkoop Street and Chestnut Place, the Shuttle will operate in mixed traffic.
Downtown Circulator
The Downtown Circulator will enter the DUS site at 18th and Wynkoop Street. It will then
descend to the Regional Bus Station using the ramp from 18th Street. There are no at grade
Circulator stops anticipated in the DUS site.
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City and County of Denver


Bicycle Access
Bicycle access to and through theTransit District and DUS site is an important component
of the multimodal transportation system at DUS. One existing route, the Wynkoop Street
bike lanes, passes along the east side of the DUS site and connects to the regional and local
bike system. Access through the DUS site is expected to be on 16th Street. Bycicle access
is allowed on all streets Bike facilities such as bike racks, and possibly a bike station, will be
provided at convenient locations throughout the transit district.
1.3.3 Development Context
The DUS site can be thought of as a"hinge"or"link"district between one of Denver's oldest
neighborhoods, the Lower Downtown Historic District, and one of its newest mixed-use
neighborhood, the Commons. In a broader context, the DUS site and theTransit District are a
"cap stone", anchoring Downtown at its western end.
BIKE RATH ATCREEKLEVEL
BIKE RATHATROAD LEVEL
BIKE RATH IN A PEDESTRIAN DISMOUNT AREA
PROPOSED CPV BIKE WAY CONNECTIONS
DISMOUNT AREA
CHERRY CREEK ACCESS POINT
POSSIBLE BIKE FACILITIES
Fig 1.2f Existing and Proposed Bicycle Routes
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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Across Wynkoop Street from Sub-Area 1 lies the Lower Downtown Historic District, which is
largely made up of structures dating to the late 19th century or early 20th century. Historic
buildings tend to be 55 to 85 feet tall and constructed of brick. While numerous structures
have been built within the district in recent years, most of the newer buildings have
conformed to the scale of the historic structures, as well as to their predominantly masonry
construction.
To the west of Sub-Area 2 lie the new neighborhoods of the Commons, Riverfront, and
Prospect. In these districts more contemporary styles prevail and more metal and glass
curtain walls are employed for building enclosures.
While these two neighborhoods provide the context, it does not necessarily follow that the
DUS site should promote a blend of historic and contemporary architectural styles. The
height allowances in the DUS site zoning transition from the lower scale of Lower Downtown
to the mid- and high-rise buildings of Riverfront Park and the Commons.
Fig 1.3a: Private development parcels within the DUS site and adjacent to it
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City and County of Denver


Fig 1.3b: DUS as a hinge neighborhood between LoDo and The Commons
1.3.4 Denver Union Station General Development Plan
The GDP includes two areas: the DUS site is the primary area and the remainder of the
Transit District (the Commons Neighborhood) to the west is the secondary area. The
purpose of including the Commons area is to acknowledge the various existing regulatory
documents and processes that may apply to DUS-constructed improvements. These
regulatory documents include (but are not limited to) the Commons PUD zoning, the Major
Encumbrance Permit issued to the CPV Metropolitan District, and the Commons Design
Standards and Guidelines.The GDP was adopted by the planning Board on April 7,2009.

The Icehouse Lofts to the north of DUS
The EPA Building to the south of DUS
The Millennium Bridge over the CML
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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City and County of Denver


2. Site-Wide Urban Design Standards and Guidelines
The DUS site, with its concentration of transit functions, dynamic mixed-use development,
and vibrant public spaces will anchor the west end of Downtown Denver, and be comparable
in civic urban presence (yet very different in character) to the Capitol and Civic Center area
at the east end. It will create new development opportunities and activities focused on
transit, along with significant public amenities. The DUS site will become the focal point of
the area, an urban hinge connecting the Commons and the Central Platte Valley with Lower
Downtown.
The DUS site is part of a greater Transit District that stretches from the historic Station
building to the CML. The DUSTransit District has a unique function in the city as the nexus
of the transportation modes being built out as part of the FasTracks program. The historic
Denver Union Station building, a landmark structure, will be given new life and activity as the
symbolic gateway, anchor and destination of the district.
The function and urban form of the area as the center of the region's wider transportation
network will generate a special characterfor this area. The intense concentration of transit
functions, and the number of commuters and other passengers and visitors that will pass
through the area each day, present unique opportunities for the public realm and the
private development. With the transportation architecture of the Commuter Rail Terminal,
the Regional Bus Facility and the Light Rail Station, the DUS site will have a progressive
architectural character that will set it apart from Lower Downtown and the Commons, its
contiguous districts.
This unique character of the transit infrastructure, architecture and the design of the public
realm will extend from the historic Station to the Light Rail Station at the CML along the axis
of 17th Street. While theTransit District will be woven into the fabric of the surrounding area
by way of continuous streetscapes, there should be a sense that one has entered a distinctive
district.
The enhanced sense of arrival from the various transit modes is part of the larger gateway
function of the urban design and transit experience as a whole. While the historic Station is
the centerpiece, it is supported by the transportation architecture, the private development,
and the public spaces.
2.1 GENERAL INTENT STATEMENTS
The following intent statements pertain to the entire DUS site:
Transit creates special opportunities and obligations for new structures in the DUS site:
1. Transit infrastructure, public space, and buildings must be of human scale and
enhance the experience of transit users, residents, and visitors. Transit architecture,
public spaces, private development, and transportation functions will be integrated
into a cohesive, distinctive urban place.
2. The public realm must be clearly legible and form a network of continuous spaces,
providing continuity between the surrounding public streets, and public spaces, and
transit access.
3. The public realm, transit infrastructure, and private development must be designed
and constructed to the highest standards of quality, permanence and civic character.
4. Multimodal transportation is the defining aspect of DUS. Attractive, convenient, and
clear pedestrian circulation will be fundamental to success. All functions
accommodated on the DUS site and in theTransit District must be usable to all people,
to the greatest extent possible, without need for adaptation or specialized design.
5. The DUS site must be recognized as a great public place. Building, public space and
transit structure design should avoid the faddish and ephemeral, hewing to
the dignified and timeless.
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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the northwest end of Downtown Denver
6. While the historic station building sets the tone for this area, new structures must be
forward-looking and innovative, not replicative. The best way to honor the
historic Station building is to design comparably excellent and enduring new
structures that are of out time.
7. The private development buildings have a special obligation to frame and support the
civic nature of the public transportation and to define and activate the public
spaces. The private development buildings will have four public faces, so
each elevation is important. These buildings also provide the greatest opportunity for
retail to serve transit riders, residents, workers and visitors. In addition, there
is an obligation to provide optimal pedestrian environments at all entries to the transit
area.
8. All elements of the DUS sitethe private development, the public spaces, and the
transitmust together create a unique sense of arrival. Likewise, the transit functions
must be apparent and fully accessible by pedestrians from all directions.
9. Ease of orientation to the city and the transit must be achieved. Wayfinding should be
intuitive to the greatest extent possible, but should include a comprehensive signage
program.
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10. The urban design must support the convenience and comfort of all users, workers,
residents and visitors at all times of day and evening, weekdays and weekends.
11. The public spaces of theTransit District must be flexible to accommodate the needs
of transit riders, businesses, residents and the immediate neighborhood, while allowing
the opportunity for a variety of other community activities.
2.2 AUTHORITY PROVISIONS OFTHE ZONING
Urban Design Intention of the Zoning
The Zoning for the DUS site is intended to promote a number of urban design characteristics,
such as pedestrian-oriented activities at ground level, human-scale fagade design, and
spatially defining streets and public spaces. Requirements specific to Sub-Areas 1 and 2 are
detailed below, in Sections 3 and 4 respectively.
The height and bulk provisions of the Zoning (summarized in Figure 2.2) are intended to
shape the general urban form of the DUS site. The Zoning calls for a zero-height limit on the
two Plazas adjacent to the historic Station building in Sub-Area 1. The Zoning allows for new
buildings 65 feet high to be built at the corners of 16th and 18th and Wynkoop Street, with
significant setbacks from the ROW parallel to Wynkoop Street. This height limit is meant to
keep these two flanking structures lower than the roof of the historic station wing buildings;
the setback is intended to preserve oblique views of the central block of the historic Station
from the area of 16th Street and Wynkoop to the south, and 18th and Wynkoop to the north.
The Zoning permits these flanking structures to have an L-shaped plan that returns toward
and abuts the north and south facades of the historic wing buildings.
To the west of the Station, in Sub-Area 2 the Zoning regulates a stepped increase in building
height limits from 70 feet (directly west of the historic Station), 90 feet along portions of 16th
and 18th Streets, and 140 feet with limited areas of 200 and 220 feet along Wewatta Street.
This stepping keeps buildings taller than the historic Station from being built directly adjacent
to it. Furthermore, the Zoning also enshrines the 160-feet wide view corridor of 17th Street
west of the historic Station, above the datum of 5,209 feet above sea level, equivalent to the
base of the high arched windows of the historic Station central block.
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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2.3 SITE CIRCULATION
The DUS site specifically, and theTransit District generally, is intended to be an urban area
where the pedestrian and public transit modes take precedence over vehicular traffic.
However, a substantial number of transit riders will be connecting to and from private
vehicles (taxi, limousine, private auto). Sub-Area 2 includes a major public parking garage
facility, and the mixed use developments will include parking for residents and employees.
Historic and new buildings will require service access and local businesses will expect some
on-street parking to be available. In summary, light-occupancy vehicles cannot be ignored,
but their access needs to be subordinated to the pedestrian flows and transit modes.
Circulation routes for the various modes have been established by the DUS Master Plan
Supplement and the DUS General Development Plan. The Design Standards and Guidelines
proposed for the public ROW are for illustrative purposes only. The detailed design of the
public ROW improvements will be incorporated in site plan submittals.
General Intent Statement
1. To establish a hierarchy for and to coordinate multiple circulation systems rail and
bus transit, vehicle, pedestrian and bicycle within a relatively small area, while retain
ing and reinforcing the overall urban, pedestrian character of adjacent neighborhoods.
2. To facilitate pedestrian linkages between transit modes and between these modes and
the public space network of the DUS site and connections to contiguous areas.
3. To provide consistent connectivity for all users accessing priority destinations including
transit platforms, building entries, and public space amenities.
2.3.1 Transit Circulation
Intent
1. To locate public transit circulation in a way that minimizes conflict with private and
commercial vehicle circulation and with general pedestrian and bicycle movements,
while providing safe and convenient access by users of public transit modes.
2. To promote visibility of vehicle areas and transit facilities by pedestrians and vice versa
as a means of enhancing safety.
Design Standards
1. Transit access points shall be clearly visible from the public realm. If barriers are
required for safety reasons, these shall promote visibility of the transit access points,
rails, or drive ways. However, no chain-linkfences shall be permitted as permanent
barriers.
2. The design of all code-mandated safety and security elements (such as fences,
protective barriers, bollards, tactile warning strips, etc.) shall be coordinated with the
landscape and hardscape design direction with respect to placement, materials, color,
and form.
3. Rubber-tire transit vehicles shall be confined to clearly defined streets or driveways.
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Design Guidelines
1. Whereas all required safety and security provisions must be made to minimize
conflicts between pedestrians and transit vehicles, the planning should consider the
counter-balancing objective of convenient access to transit from the public realm.
2. Every effort should be made not to preclude future revised circulation routes for
rubber-tire transit modes to and through the DUS site.
2.3.2 Pedestrian Circulation
Intent
1. To promote pedestrian accessibility to all areas of the DUS site, except vehicle
driveways, service areas, and dedicated transit ways (such as the track area) as
a means of enhancing walkability of the district and therefore livability of the
neighborhood. The quality of the pedestrian experience has a significant influence on
the success of mixed-use districts.
Design Standards
1. Sidewalks shall be provided along all public streets.
2. Pedestrian access to all public open spaces and transit areas within the DUS site shall
be required.
3. The few areas where pedestrian access will be denied (Bus Station HOV drive, service
areas of commercial buildings) shall be so defined by appropriate signage, changes of
paving materials, bollards, or other barriers.
"The authors, a working group of architects,
product designers, engineers and environ-
mental design researchers, collaborated to
establish the following Principles of Universal
Design to guide a wide range of design disci-
plines including environments, products, and
communications."- [1]
1. Equitable use
2. Flexibility in use
3. Simple and intuitive
4. Perceptible information
5. Tolerance for error
6. Low physical effort
7. Size and space for approach and use'
(from the Center for Universal Design) Wikipedia
4. Pedestrian crossings of streets shall be clearly marked with special paving, texturing, or
color selected in coordination with the landscape and hardscape design of the public
spaces.
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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Design Guidelines
1. Level changes steps, sloped surfaces, ramps should be minimized in the public
areas in order to facilitate pedestrian circulation for people of all abilities.
2. Minimum circulation areas should be maintained for all circulation routes, sidewalks,
transit access areas.
3. Building entrances should be maintained when defining temporary demarcation for
special uses (events) or outdoor commercial spaces.
2.3.3 Bicycle Circulation; Bicycle and Scooter Facilities
Intent
1. To provide safe and convenient access to the DUS site and the transit areas for bicycle
riders.
2. To provide appropriate parking facilities for bicycles and scooters.
Design Standards
1. Defined bicycle lanes or"sharrows"shall be planned in coordination with DPW
wherever feasible within the public ROWs.
2. Bicycle facilities shall be located on the DUS site in relation to the bicycle circulation
and access routes. Design shall provide access to these facilities for bicycles.
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Design Guidelines
1. Major exterior staircases serving public pedestrian routes over the CRT tracks should
be provided with tracks for dismounted riders to guide bicycles up and down these
staircases.
2. The bicycle circulation network within the DUS site should be coordinated with and tie
into any pre-existing or planned bicycle circulation networks in the surrounding area.
3. Parking for scooters should be provided.
2.3.4 Vehicle Circulation
Intent
1. To provide adequate private and commercial vehicle access to the DUS site,
subordinate to the transit and pedestrian circulation.
Design Standards
1. Curbside pick-up and drop-off areas for taxis, limousines, and other non-public LOV
services shall be located in proximity to the transit areas along Wynkoop Street,
Wewatta Street, and Chestnut Place, but not within the 17th Street ROW.
2. Curb cuts and driveways shall be perpendicular to the public streets.
3. Curb cuts and driveways shall be appropriately marked with horizontal and vertical
elements coordinated with the public space design. These elements shall consider the
needs and abilities of all users.
4. Sightlines for entrance/exits to service and parking shall be free of any obstructions.
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Design Guidelines
1. Where possible, curb cuts should be shared by buildings and uses.
2. Curb cuts should be no wider than the minimum City requirements.
2.4 SITE PLANNING
General Intent
1. To establish a hierarchy of site planning elements public spaces, streetscapes,
buildings, parking, and service areas that supports transit access and pedestrian
circulation within the DUS site, while establishing a framework for
the public space design (Section 2.6).
The general location of transit facilities, public spaces, and infrastructure has been established
by the Master Plan Supplement, DUS Zoning, and the General Development Plan, and has
been further defined during the design process for those elements. These facilities the
Regional Bus Station and the Commuter Rail Terminal and associated track alignments are
considered fixed for the purposes of these Site Planning Design Standards and Guidelines.
2.4.1 Streetscape Design
Streetscape design provides for the essential continuity of the public realm between the
public open spaces, transportation facilities, and the development sites. These elements
serve to define the character of theTransit District, and to weave the fabric of the DUS site and
Transit District into the fabric of the existing and future adjacent neighborhoods.
Intent
1. To develop a distinctive hierarchy of streetscapes that respond to the unique
conditions of the site the presence of multiple modes of transportation, the centrality
of the historic Station building, and the civic importance of the new district.
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2. To recognize the primacy of pedestrians in the planning of streets, sidewalks,
intersections, and streetscapes.
3. To ensure that the DUS site and the greaterTransit District constitute a pedestrian-
friendly urban environment that is safe, inviting, and active.
Design Standards
1. The approved Major Encumbrance Permit (2006) issued to the Central Platte Valley
Metropolitan District shall be the basis for the streetscape design ofWewatta Street
and for the design of 16th Street along the south side of the DUS site between
Wynkoop and Wewatta streets.
2. Every sidewalk shall include as a minimum, an eight-foot wide pedestrian walk or clear
zone and a five-foot wide Amenity Zone for trees or other landscape treatment.
3. Street trees and other plantings shall be of high quality, appropriate to an urban setting
and Denver's climate, and be installed using the best planting practices.
Design Guidelines
1. Where possible, sidewalk design should exceed the minimum requirements listed
above, while not exceeding the maximum overall width of 20 feet.
2. Durable, high-quality unit pavers, colored and textured pre-cast concrete units, durable
natural stone, appropriately finished natural concrete, and/or high-quality tinted cast-
in-place concrete should be considered for sidewalks.
3. Required irrigation should be water-conserving.
2.4.2 Building Location, Orientation and Use
The standards and guidelines dealing with building location, orientation and use vary
considerably between sub-areas within the DUS site; see the relevant sub-sections in Sections
3 and 4.
2.4.2.1 Build-To Requirements
Intent
1. To promote the role of the buildings in defining, activating, and creating a strong sense
of place for the transit areas, streetscapes, and public spaces.
Design Standards
1. Any gaps (recesses, returns, or actual breaks) between buildings or parts of buildings
that are not part of a vehicle access shall be treated in a manner consistent with, but
not necessarily identical to, the adjacent streetscape or public space design.
2. Building facades located along 16th, 17th, 18th or Wewatta streets, or streets rights-
of-way extended, shall be located on or near the property line to spatially define the
street space, create a clear urban character and concentrate pedestrian activity. Such
buildings shall provide at least 80 percent of the fagade length at or near the property
line for at least the minimum building height.
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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Design Guidelines
1. The use, size, shape, and design of the adjacent public space and ground floor building
use should influence the build-to approach.
2.4.2.2 Pedestrian Active Use Requirements
Intent
1. To maximize the extent of pedestrian active uses bordering the transit areas, streets,
and public spaces.
2. To provide continuity of pedestrian-oriented uses that supports an active public
environment that is pedestrian in scale, and that engages people passing by, and
that provides eyes on the street.
Design Standards
1. Specific areas for active uses, and standards for percentages, are listed in sections
3.42.2 and 442.2.
2. Where pedestrian active uses are notfeasible, building facades shall have a pedestrian-
friendly design.
Design Guidelines
1. All building facades that are not service areas, regardless of orientation, should
accommodate pedestrian active uses.
2.4.3 Parking Location and Access
This sub-section addresses issues of location and access to parking facilities within the
DUS site. Issues of design are addressed below and in sub-sections 2.5.6,3.4.3, and 443.
Preliminary locations of these access points are shown in figure 2.4
General Intent
1. While it is recognized that parking is necessary for the viability of commercial and
residential components of the mixed-use development, the DUS site specifically, and
the Transit District generally, will be exceptionally well-served by public transit.
Therefore, parking facilities will be kept to a minimum and will have as little visual and
environmental impact on the site as possible.
Parking Facilities General Requirements
Intent
1. To minimize the visual and environmental impact of parking garages, mainly through
location and design.
Design Standards
1. Entrances to parking facilities shall be located in coordination with the City through the
site planning process.
2. Curb cuts and parking access points shall be set perpendicular to the building face.
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3. Parking garage access portals shall have jambs and a soffit measuring at least five feet
in depth perpendicular to the street or alley. These jambs shall be clad in the same
building enclosure system as the adjacent building fagade.The soffit shall consist
of a similarly formal and finished assembly.
Design Guidelines
1. Parking access points should have sightlines sufficient for drivers to identify
pedestrians on adjacent sidewalks.
2.4.4 Service Areas
Intent
1. To physically separate and visually screen service areas from pedestrian areas and
public spaces.
Design Standards
1. Where feasible, service areas shall be located inside the development blocks, hidden
from view from public areas and minimizing impact on pedestrian circulation.
2. Where fully internal service areas are not feasible, the service areas shall be bounded
on three sides by the building being served, with only one side open to the
service drive. The open side shall be screened to the greatest extent possible.
3. Service areas shall not directly face the pedestrian areas or public spaces.
Design Guidelines
1. If possible, service areas should not be located within 25 feet of public entrances to
buildings or transportation facilities.
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2.5 BUILDING DESIGN
The mixed-use buildings are called upon to play an urban design role unique in the city.
While being contemporary in design and "of our time", they must be complementary to and
designed in relation to the historic Denver Union Station building and the new transportation
architecture. They must frame the historic Station and define the space around theTrain
Hall and the access paths to the platforms. They must also play a role in reinforcing the civic
nature of the site and activating the street and adjacent public spaces.
See Sections 3 and 4 for standards and guidelines specific to Sub-Areas 1 and 2.
2.5.1 Building Massing and Form
Intent
1. To frame the historic Denver Union Station building and adjacent public and
transportation spaces.
2. To reinforce the civic role of the transportation architecture and provide a sense of
permanence.
3. To promote sun and sky exposure to public streets, plazas and open space.
4. To provide active edges to streets and public spaces.
Design Standards
1. Several strategies shall be employed to achieve the urban design intent. These might
include the use of proportional systems, breaks in the mass, or changes in material
between uses or parts of the building. Specific standards are listed in Sections 3 and 4
dealing with Sub-Areas 1 and 2 respectively.
Design Guidelines
1. The massing and form of new buildings should take into account the transportation
architecture (Train Hall and related structures) and strongly consider playing the
role of'background buildings"to the primary structures of the site the historic Station
and transit facilities.
2. New buildings, especially those closest to the historic Station, should take into account
the horizontal datum and overall articulation of the various facades of the historic
Station building (Fig. 2.5), while not being required to carry these into the massing and
form of the new buildings.
2. Building forms should respond to their specific locations, whether they occupy a gate
way location or a corner, terminate a view, or perform some other urban design func
tion in the site.
2.5.2 Building Character
Mixed-use buildings need to form a dignified setting for the historic and new transportation
structures, and generally reinforce the civic character of the site.
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2.5.2.1 Materials
Intent
1. To ensure that new buildings near the historic Station are constructed of high-quality
materials and workmanship, so that they may be as enduring as the historic Station
itself.
2. To differentiate the palette of materials used for buildings within the DUS site from the
vernacular architecture of LoDo.
3. To indicate through the selection and detailing of materials for new buildings that the
DUS site is a distinctive and elevated place with respect to the surrounding urban fabric
ofLoDoandtheCPV.
4. To promote the use of materials that express the civic function of the DUS site.
5. To ensure the consistent use of high-quality materials appropriate to an urban
environment.
6. To promote the use of materials that are durable and low maintenance.
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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Design Standards
Existing materials used in the DUS building and
surrounding public spaces
1. Primary building materials shall be used for all four facades of the buildings on the DUS
site, since all sides will be visible from one or another point in the public realm.These
buildings will be "four-sided buildings."
2. Materials shall be high-quality, durable and express a sense of permanence appropriate
to the civic character of the site. The selected materials shall have a timeless quality and
avoid passing trends.
3. Exterior insulation and finishing systems (EIFS), stucco, tilt-up concrete panels, and
concrete masonry units shall not be permitted in any quantities on the facades of
new buildings in the DUS site.
4. Synthetic materials that imitate natural materials are not permitted.
Design Guidelines
1. Preferred exterior building materials are:
Glazed cable wall systems
Glazed curtain wall systems
Metal panel curtain wall systems
Natural stone
Architectural cast stone
Architectural pre-cast concrete
Terracotta
Architecturally finished structural steel
2. If brick is used, its type, color, quality and detailing should be such to elevate it to the
quality of the materials cited in the previous item.
3. Innovative and energy-efficient enclosure systems should be encouraged, as long as
their appearance fulfills the urban design intent and the materials are comparable in
quality to those listed above.
4. Choice of materials should take into account the nature of the transportation
architecture, the historic Station, and other structures in the vicinity.
5. The most durable materials should be used at the ground floor, except for storefronts.
If more delicate materials are used, they must be detailed in such a way as to retain
their initial appearance under normal ground-level use conditions.
6. The number of primary materials used in a given fagade should be limited to two or
three (excluding glazing, trim, mullions and building accessories).
25.2.2 Fenestration
Intent
1. To provide a high degree of transparency at the ground level.
2. To ensure appropriate degrees of transparency at upper floors, depending on uses.
3. To limit the glare from reflective glass.
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Design Standards
1. Commercial ground floor facades facing streets or public open spaces shall provide no
less than 60 percent glazed area. The area to be measured is the entire story, from
ground to the bottom of the structural slab of the first floor above the ground floor.
2. Commercial facades above the ground floor shall provide no less than 40 percent
glazed area, unless the use (interior function) requires a solid/opaquefagade.
3. Residential facades shall provide no less than 20 percent glazed area above the ground
floor and the ground floor shall provide no less than 40 percent transparency.
4. Glazing shall have a maximum reflectance of 20%.
5. No first-surface reflective coatings are permitted.
Design Guidelines
1. Sun shading devices are permitted, as long as they are part of a comprehensive fagade
design.
2. Glazing with a pronounced tint (such as blue, green, brown or gold) beyond the
naturally occurring tint of different varieties of nominally"clear"glass should not be
used.
2.5.2.3 Facade Articulation
Intent
1. To promote the role of building facades in framing the public spaces.
2. To promote visual interest, especially at the ground floor.
Design Standards
1. Buildings with facades measuring 200 feet or less in width shall employ the same
system of facade articulation for the entire length of the facade. Within a single system
of articulation it is possible to introduce variations that account for difference of
exposure, orientation, or use. The four facades shall be consistentand responsive
to adjacent buildings, public spaces, transportation facilities, and internal uses.
2. Buildings shall incorporate a system of scaling elements for the articulation of the
facade. These can take the form of reveals, mullions, or a more pronounced system of
relief (projections and recessions).
3. Parapets and otherforms of terminating the building shall be detailed with a coping or
cap piece appropriate to the building enclosure system.
4. As the"fifth fa$ade"of the building, the roof shall be detailed with care for organization,
appearance, and quality. Mechanical equipment shall be screened from view. Stair
bulkheads, penthouses, and other enclosed building elements shall be clad by an
enclosure system of comparable quality to that of the principal facades. Solar, wind and
other energy collection systems shall be allowed and incorporated into the rooftop
design.
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Design Guidelines
1. Buildings with facades longer than 200 feet should employ multiple masses, variety of
fagade articulation, changes of plane, variations in materials, and other means of
articulation to create visual interest and engagement for pedestrians and to signal
changes of use.
2.5.3 Building Entries
2.5.3.1 Pedestrian Access and Entry
Intent
1. To promote interaction between building entrances and streets and public spaces.
2. To create street-level interest.
3. To promote pedestrian safety by separating pedestrian and vehicle access to buildings.
4. To provide ease of entry for all regardless of ability.
Design Standards
1. Every building or combined structure fronting on a street or public space shall have a
pedestrian entry directly from the street or public space. The only exception to this
Standard regards the parking garage built over the CRT tracks on the north side of the
DUS site.
2. Pedestrian building entries shall be separated from vehicle entries by a minimum of 25
feet.
3 Building entries shall be readily identifiable by pedestrians.
Design Guidelines
1. Canopies or inset entries should be used to protect the entry.
2. The major entry or entries to a building or ground floor uses should be visually
emphasized through scale and architectural variety, enhanced lighting, color, material,
art, or greater level of detail.
2.53.2 Vehicle Access and Entry
Given the configuration of the site in the Master Plan Supplement and General Development
Plan, several vehicle access points for parking and service will need to be incorporated into
the facades of the mixed-use buildings.
Intent
1. To provide safe ingress and egress for vehicles accessing internal parking and service
areas.
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Design Standards
1. Parking access control gates shall be recessed not less than 20 feet from the property
line.
2. Vehicle entrances and pedestrian entrances shall not be combined (except when
combined at an internal hotel drop-off and entrance), and shall be separated by 25
at least feet.
3. Vehicular access points shall not occur at corners.
Design Guidelines
1. In order to minimize the number of curb cuts, parking and service entries should be
combined, where feasible.
2. No off-street vehicle pick-up/drop-off areas associated with building entries are
anticipated in the DUS site area.
2.5.4 Building Accessories
Examples of building accessories:
Canopies
Awnings
Ramps
Stairs
Decorative railings
Balconies
Intent
1. To ensure that building accessories are complementary to and integrated with the
building and public space design. Building accessories extending into the public ROW
require special permits from DPW.
Design Standards
1. All building accessory materials shall be custom-detailed, constructed of high-quality
materials, and produced according to high standards of craftsmanship.
Design Guidelines
1. Building accessories on facades directly fronting on public spaces should take into
account both the specific design of the building fagade to which they are attached, as
well as the public space design.
2. If accessories are seasonal, they should be able to be removed without detriment to the
building finishes, appearance and fagade design.
3. For Lighting, see Section 2.7
4. For Signage, see Section 2.8.
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2.5.5 Building Service Areas
See above, Section 2.4.4
2.5.6 Structured Parking Garages
Intent
1. To minimize the visual impact of parking structures on the pedestrian experience, the
street environment and adjacent properties.
2. To screen from public view the parked vehicles, internal light sources, car headlights
and angled ramps within parking structures.
Design Standards
1. The design standards and guidelines for underground parking facilities shall also apply
to above-grade structured parking.
2. No ground level parking areas shall be permitted.
3. Any parking floors in mixed use building shall be detailed in a manner similar to the
building and shall be flush with floors above and below.
4. Above-grade parking levels shall be developed with opaque spandrel panels, or other
screening devices that shield the headlights of vehicles parked at the perimeter of
these decks. The interior lighting of garages shall be screened from view.
5. Thefagade shall screen both the structural elements and the parked vehicles from
view.The percentage of opening shall be the minimum required for natural ventilation.
6. Above-grade parking structure facades shall be similar to the primary building fagade
design and adjacent buildings in character and quality.
7. Interior lighting of parking structures shall not be directly visible from the public ROW
or adjacent buildings.
8. Concrete structural elements (in situ or pre-cast) shall not be exposed to the street or
public view.
9. No sloped decks or ramps shall be exposed to the street or public space.
Design Guidelines
1. Schemes that locate above-grade structured parking to the interior of building blocks -
i.e., wrapping the parking with other uses are preferred.
2. No more than 50% of a blockfrontage should be above-grade parking (except north of
18th along Wewatta Street).
3. Other schemes and devices that minimize above-grade parking, such as mechanized
parking systems, should be considered.
4. Lighting should evenly illuminate parking areas and be fully shielded from neighboring
buildings.
Screening of above-grade parking structures
should be maximized to meet the relevant legally
required ventilation limits.
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2.6 PUBLIC SPACE DESIGN
General Intent Statement
To plan and design a network of public spaces and pedestrian connections using a
combination of hardscape and landscape elements. Public spaces serve as areas for
relaxation and community interaction, as well as pedestrian circulation. Their design should
create variety and interest in the public realm.The spaces should be designed according
to a hierarchy of importance and elaboration. The spaces should be integrated by specific
elements of continuity, but provide a variety of characters The public space network should
facilitate access to and from both the transportation facilities and the active ground floors of
the historic Station building and the new development sites. Successful public space design
should also contribute to making the open spaces destinations in themselves. The design
should convey the significance of DUS as the hub of regional transportation and the historic
place of arrival and commerce for Denver, the region, and the Rocky Mountain West. Several
key urban design principles apply:
To provide basic protection from the elements for transit users.
To present a distinct and identifiable image for transit facilities.
To create coherent and unified outdoor and indoor spaces for transit.
To promote a distinctive sense of place, with an appropriate sense of civic
permanence.
To respect and complement the historic Station by being a contemporary design.
To promote smooth access to transit from the surrounding streets and plazas.
To promote functional interaction with the surrounding development buildings,
while maintaining integrity as public buildings.
To respect the 17th view corridor protecting views of the historic Station from the
west.
2.6.1 General Public Space Design Requirements
1. Develop a comprehensive design that links all parts of the public space network (see
Fig. 2.d) on the DUS site to theTransit District and adjacent neighborhoods.
2. Design elements of underlying continuity while promoting different uses and
characters of the different spaces. Variations on a theme are encouraged.
3. Public space design must be continuous with and include all outdoor and covered
transportation spaces CRTTrain Hall, elevated deck over CRT, and connections to
below-grade facilities.
4. Incorporate universal access principles into the public spaces to accommodate the
needs of people with a variety of abilities.
5. Promote a strong urban design relationship with the enclosed transportation spaces -
the historic DUSTrain Room and the Regional Bus Station.
6. The varying sun/shade conditions existing in different parts of the public space at
different times of the year shall influence the arrangement of functions, selection of
plants, and organization of amenities.
7. Ensure that public spaces can be activated at all times of the day, evenings and week
ends, not just during peak commuter periods and special events.
8. Accommodate a variety of uses, including temporary and special events.
9. Draw on the unique geography and history of the site, the city and the region as
inspiration for materials, landscape, orientation and views incorporated into the
public spaces.
10. Aspire to design excellence, using high quality materials and craftsmanship.
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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Additional General Requirements from Master Plan Supplement
1. Proportion and articulate public spaces to encourage pedestrian activities within them
and along their edges.
2. Place active uses along the edges of the public spaces to provide visual interest,
amenities, and "eyes on the street."
2.6.2 Landscape
Intent
1. To implement a comprehensive landscape design that supports the different character
and uses of the diverse public open spaces within the DUS site.
2. To use quality plant materials that are of sufficient size and quantities to emphasize
important streets and open space and connections
3. To implement a landscape design that respects the principles of durability,
sustainability, appropriateness to regional climate.
Design Standards
1. The landscape design and plant selection and arrangement shall take into account the
particular characteristics of the local climate.
2. All plants shall be A-Grade or No. 1 Grade, free of any defects, of normal health, height,
leaf density and spread appropriate to the species as defined by the American
Association of Nurserymen or as approved by the City Forester.
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3. Coniferous trees shall not be located within the public amenity zones of the public
streets, but may be considered for other public spaces.
4. Grates, fencing, and other containment of trees or other plantings along sidewalks and
within the public ROW must meet City standards..
5. No artificial trees, shrubs, or plants shall be used.
Design Guidelines
1. Utility and landscape plans should be coordinated to provide ease of maintenance and
to minimize conflicts between plantings and utilities.
2. The plantings should not require excessive amounts of irrigation to remain healthy.
3. The landscape should be successful and visually interesting in all four seasons.
2.6.3 Hardscape
Intent
1. To provide a network of special, decorative pedestrian surfaces for public spaces, public
sidewalks, and certain areas of streets coordinated with the landscape design to form a
comprehensive public realm design.
2. To establish a formal language and set of materials that denotes and defines the public
realm and that connects the DUS public spaces with the surrounding streetscapes.
5. To extend the comprehensive scheme to all surface areas within the public realm or
visible from the public realm and within the DUS site.
6. To implement a quality of paving materials and patterns consistent with the quality of
surrounding architecture and open spaces.
7. To provide safe paving conditions for all persons.
Design Standards
1. Hardscape materials, assemblies and detailing shall not require extraordinary
maintenance.
2. Public vertical circulation elements (monumental staircases, elevators and escalators)
shall be integrated into the comprehensive hardscape design scheme.
3. Tactile paths shall be incorporated to assist the visually impaired navigate the public
space.
Design Guidelines
1. Waterfeatures may be incorporated in one or more of the public spaces.
2. Hardscape material selections should take into account the varying subsurface
conditions throughout the DUS site. Some areas are fully on soil, others on a minimum
overbuild covering of the Regional Bus Station or underground parking, and a portion
is on structure.
3. Materials should be attractive and functional in all seasons and all types of weather.
4. Provide electrical service as appropriate to support temporary installations and special
events.
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2.6.4 Screening, Fencing, Walls and Railings
Intent
1. To screen service areas and utilityfixturesfrom public view.
2. To ensure that such screening elements are designed in coordination with the rest of
the public space design and the adjacent buildings.
3. To provide security for private and common spaces not open to the general public
Design Standards
1. Screening enclosures visible from public spaces shall be incorporated into building
architecture and utilize building materials and architectural detailing compatible with
the building.
2. Screening, fencing, or walls used to shield service areas shall not obstruct the visibility
of transportation vehicles.
3. Such elements shall be purpose-designed and constructed with high-quality materials.
Off-the-shelf assemblies such as typical chain-linkfencing shall not be permitted.
Design Guidelines
1. These elements should be "decorative", the product of thoughtful design and quality
construction, rather than simply utilitarian.
2.6.5 Site Furnishings
Intent
1. To provide outdoor furnishings that encourage and enhance the use, and visual quality
and function of public areas, while maintaining clear pathways to transit and building
entries, cross walks and other destinations.
2. To reinforce the distinctive identity of the district.
3. To provide opportunities for both permanent and temporary arrangements of furnish
ings to meet a variety of seasonal needs and the ability to meet future needs.
Design Standards
1. Site furnishings shall be designed according to a consistent language orform, materials
and color. This design shall be coordinated and consistent with district lighting, and
signage.
2. Public spaces shall have a mix of built-in seating (benches, planter edges, seat walls, or
portions of monumental stairs) and areas for loose seating (seats, benches, tables), and
space for trash receptacles.
3. Location of seating shall take into account the needs of transit users, visitors, and
neighborhood residents and workers.
Design Guidelines
1. Benches should be provided in the sidewalk amenity zone where appropriate to serve
bus stops and other specific needs.
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2.6.6 Provisions for Public Art and Interpretive Displays
Intent
1. To create the conditions for and locations of integral public art, both permanent and
temporary, within the DUS site.
2. To develop interpretative programs, exhibits and displays that communicate the
history and significance of the site and historic Station building and transportation
functions.
3. To encourage those works to engage the specific conditions and characteristics of the
site.
Design Standards
1. The public open space design shall identify locations for works of public art (such as
sculptures).
2. Integrate public art and interpretive displays into embedded and permanent elements
of the public space and transit elements.
Design Guidelines
1. Art should be integrated into buildings and transit infrastructure.
2. Consider inviting artists to work with the public space designers on the design of
functional aspects of the public space.
3. Special landscape designs should be considered for the public art program.
2.7 LIGHTING
The lighting of the buildings, the site and the public open spaces can contribute significantly
to the quality of the DUS site and Transit District as a nighttime destination for commuters,
residents and visitors.
2.7.1 Open Space Lighting
Intent
1. To promote a sense of safety in the public open spaces, streets, and other pedestrian
areas of the site.
2. To ensure clear wayfinding throughout the site.
3. To provide even lighting and avoid extremes of bright, dark, and glare.
4. To promote a district-wide identity, in coordination with the other elements of the
public space design and the transportation architecture.
5. To draw attention to the transportation facilities entrances and other important
destinations within and routes through the site.
6. To support the goals of Dark Skies.
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Design Standards
1. An overall lighting plan shall be developed in order to coordinate with public street
lighting and to establish hierarchy of illuminated areas.
2. Lighting shall be coordinated with the design of the landscape, hardscape, furniture,
signage, and otherfixed and movable elements of the public open space design.
3. Lighting elements shall be selected from a palette of contemporary lighting that
provides compatibility throughout the site..
4. Lighting elements shall be constructed of durable materials suitable to an urban
environment and the climate of Denver.
5. Site lighting shall be even across public spaces, avoiding dark or overly bright areas.
6. Lighting shall be located, oriented, and shielded if need be-so as to reduce glare for
surrounding buildings, especially residential buildings.
7. The lighting scheme shall provide for seasonal and holiday lighting of public spaces.
Design Guidelines
1. Public space lighting should take into account the historic illuminated signage of the
DUS building, including holiday lighting.
2. Landscape area, water features, public art, and other focal points should be illuminated.
2.7.2 Building Lighting
Intent
1. To provide building lighting that is compatible with the public space lighting and the
lighting of the historic Station building.
Design Standards
1. Building lighting shall be general or focus on specific building elements.
2. Building lighting fixtures shall be of architectural quality, consistent with the design of
the building, or hidden from view.
3. The lighting of service areas shall be tightly controlled so that it does not illuminate or
cast glare onto adjacent buildings or private areas.
4. Junction boxes, conduits, and other functional elements shall be concealed from public
view and access.
Design Guidelines
1. Building lighting should not compete with the historic lighting of the DUS building.
2. Building lighting should draw attention to public entrances and other key functional
elements.
3. Building lighting should complement and defer to the public space lighting scheme.
4. Building lighting should promote a sense of safety.
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2.8 SIGNAGE
The DUS site will have several types of signage transportation signage within the
transportation facilities, district signage in the public open spaces and streets, and building
signage identifying individual businesses and structures. Within this last category there may
be private and public groups of signage.
2.8.1 District Signage
Until a district signage master plan is approved, the following principles should apply to any
district signage:
Principles
1. To aid in the creation of a unique identity for the DUS site and the widerTransit District
based on the presence of the many transportation facilities.
2. To identify the key destinations including streets, cross walks, building entries and
transportation facilities.
3. To provide wayfinding to and between transportation facilities to improve intermodal
connections for all users. Signage shall be useful to people of varying heights, mobility,
and sensory impairments.
4. To identify pedestrian routes through the DUS site, such as the elevated deck
connection and the CRT headhouse area.
5. To provide directional signage to nearby destinations such as the Lower Downtown,
Millennium Bridge, the Museum of Contemporary Art, Larimer Square, Confluence
Park, Commons Park, Pepsi Center, and Coors Field.
6. Large format outdoor advertizing (i.e. billboards) shall not be allowed.
2.8.2 Building Signage
Intent
1. To integrate private business signage in a manner that facilitates commerce, enlivens
the public realm, and respects the character of the historic Station,Transit District, and
surrounding area.
2. To ensure that the signs of individual buildings and businesses can express a unique
identity, while not detracting from the more important wayfinding and identification
signage.
3. To encourage creative sign design.
Design Standards
1. All building signs shall conform to the Denver Zoning Code and the district signage
masterplan.
2. Buildings with ground floor uses shall provide a uniform zone for signage over the
ground floor.
3. All signs shall be measured in conformance with Section 59-536-538 of the Denver
Zoning Code.
4. The signage zone shall be provided with electrical power to enable the installation of
illuminated signs.
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5. All building signs shall be constructed of durable materials suited to the urban
environment and climate of Denver.
6. All conduits, junction boxes, and other functional elements shall be completely hidden
from view and safely concealed once the sign is installed.
7. No flashing signs shall be permitted for private buildings or businesses.
8. Advertising signage, if included, shall be presented in fixed installations whose design
is coordinated with the design of the district signage, use high-quality materials and
craftsmanship.
9. Mixed-use buildings shall provide locations on the commercial areas of building fronts
that are designed to accommodate changeable tenant signage.
Design Guidelines
1. The uniform signage zone may extend the full width of the ground floor, but individual
signs for adjacent tenants should be separated byaminimumoflO feet of horizontal
distance.
2. Building signs should not be mounted in locations that may adversely impact the
residential portions of the mixed-use buildings.
3. Special static and dynamic signage may be considered in association with the
transportation facilities.
4. Signs should fit within architectural features of the fagade and complement the
building's architecture.
5. Projecting signs may be used so long as they conform to Section 59-554 of the Denver
Zoning Code or the Comprehensive Sign Plan facilitates the intentions ofVital Signs.
2.9 Sustainability
While most aspects of sustainable design of buildings and public spaces are subject to
building codes and specific sustainablility design standards, please refer to the Sustainability
Vision for the DUS site in the Appendix to this document
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3.
Sub-Area 1 Special Urban Design Standards and Guidelines
3.1 INTRODUCTION
The historic Denver Union Station building ranks among the most significant Historic
Landmarks of the city of Denver and the region. The building fabric has been altered by
fire, changing needs, deliberate alterations, neglect, and the weathering of the elements.
Likewise, the immediate grounds of the Station have changed over time (see Section 2).
While the historic building and its setting were relatively unchanged during the last years of
the 20th century, they will undergo a transformation as the centerpiece of the newTransit
District.
The historic Denver Union Station building is the centerpiece of the entire DUS site and
greaterTransit District, and is the defining structure of Sub-Area 1. Sub-Area 1 extends
from the centerline of the Wynkoop Street ROW to 25 feet beyond the west facade of the
historic Station, and from the centerline of the 16th Street ROW to the north property line
(approximately the centerline of 18th Street extended (see illustration).
As a designated Denver Landmark Structure, any exterior alterations to the historic Station, as
well as the design of the new buildings and public spaces, will be reviewed by the Landmark
Preservation Commission. Therefore, the following design standards and guidelines also
apply: Design Guidelines for Landmark Structures and Historic Districts (March 1995),
Contemporary Design in Historic Districts: New Construction and Additions and Alterations to
Existing Structures (September 2006), and Design Standards for Landmark Lighting (August
1997).
Important Note: the following intent statements, design standards and guidelines are
supplemental to the Site-Wide Urban Design Standards and Guidelines set forth in Section 2,
above. Designers must consult both Section 2 and the relevant Sub-Area section. Site-Wide
standards and guidelines are not repeated in the Sub-Area section, but shall be considered
applicable.
3.2 GENERAL INTENT STATEMENTS
1. Incorporate the Historic Station into the regional multi-modal transportation hub both
physically and functionally so that it once again serves as the iconic gateway to Denver
and the region.
2. Establish the restored and activated historic Station building as a "must-see"
destination, beyond its symbolic function as the center of the multi-modal
transportation network and district.
3. Activate the DUS building with complementary uses, while preserving its physical
integrity and historical place in the community.
4. Ensure that the historic Station building remains the urban focal point of the DUS site
with the build-out of the transportation facilities, private development, and public
spaces.
5. Ensure that new structures, the public space and the historic Station building work
together to form a powerful destination and urban ensemble.
6. Ensure that the historicTrain Room is an integral part of the transit functions,
pedestrian circulation and the public space.
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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3.3
SITE CIRCULATION
Sub-area 1 will be a predominately pedestrian environment with transit and private
vehicles confined to adjacent streets.
3.3.1 Pedestrian Circulation
Intent
1. To ensure that the DUS building will support pedestrian access from the east (LoDo)
side and passage through to the CRT on the west, and vice versa, serving as a vital link
to pedestrian movement.
2. To provide clear pedestrian access routes to and from the historic Station and Lower
Downtown, as well as to and from the transportation facilities and private
development to the west (see fig. 3.3).
Design Standards
1. The entire 160'width of the central Train Room section of the historic Station shall be
kept clear between the front of the station and Wynkoop Street for pedestrian access,
as well as visibility.
2. A pedestrian route approximately 30 feet in width shall be maintained clear and free
of obstructions from Wynkoop Street to the gap between the historic Station
and the South Wing Building.
3. A similarly sized route shall be maintained between Wynkoop Street and the base of
the vertical circulation to the elevated deck at the north of the historic Station.
4. Sidewalk or continuous walkways shall be provided adjacent to all streets.
5. A pedestrian zone of at least 15 feet in width shall be maintained parallel to Wynkoop
Street. This zone shall provide pedestrian continuity with the more typical sidewalk
conditions north and south of the DUS site along Wynkoop Street, but shall be
designed in coordination with the adjacent DUS plazas.
Fig 3.3: Pedestrian Route Clearances
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Design Guidelines
1. Pedestrian access to the existing doorways of the historic wing buildings should be
maintained; see Fig. 3.5.2.
2. If the vertical circulation to the deck is attached to or inside the North Wing building,
the pedestrian circulation zones can be locally modified.
3.3.2 Bicycle Circulation
See Section 2.3.2
3.3.3 Vehicle Circulation
Intent
1. To ensure that the areas where vehicles are present do not interfere with views of
theTrain Room.
Design Standards
1. No pick-up/drop-off areas shall be constructed directly in front of the Train Room.
2. Pick-up/drop-off areas provided along the west side of Wynkoop Street shall not
obstruct the cross walks.
Design Guidelines
1. Traffic calming devices should be considered for Wynkoop Street.
3.4 SITE PLANNING
3.4.1 Streetscape Design
Intent
1. To develop a hierarchy of streetscape designs that recognizes the different functions of
streets and public spaces within the Sub-Area.
2. To integrate the sidewalks, streetscape features, and pedestrian routes into the general
public plaza design.
3. To recognize the change in scale, function and civic stature of the Wynkoop Street
frontage between 16th and 18th.
Design Standards
1. The intersections of Wynkoop Street at 16th Street, 17th Street and 18th Street shall be
treated as integral to the public space design of the DUS plazas.
2. The sidewalk along the western edge of Wynkoop Street within the DUS site shall be
treated as part of the public space design of the DUS plazas.
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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Design Guidelines
1. The 16th Street sidewalk pavement design should be integral to the design of the
street.
2. 18th Street should receive a surface treatment that distinguishes it from the typical
asphalt or concrete street surface to acknowledge its restricted use for buses, parking,
and service access.
16th Street Mall
3. The re-paving of the Wynkoop ROW as an extension of plaza is encouraged. The paving
should serve as a uniform"carpet"linking DUS and Lower Downtown and defining the
entire building face-to-building face area as an "urban room."
3.4.2 Building Location, Orientation and Use
3.4.2.1 Build-To Requirements
See Figure 2.2.
Intent
1. To ensure that buildings frame the historic Station as the center of the urban
composition as similar bookends.
Design Standards
1. The wing buildings shall be located the same distance from and parallel to Wynkoop
Street in order to reinforce the symmetry of the historic Station and its placement on
the site.
2. Building facades facing Wynkoop Street orWynkoop Plaza shall be constructed at or
near the setback line for at least 75 percent of the building frontage.
Design Guidelines
1. Buildings have four sides with public orientation.
2. The new buildings should have a major orientation to the new DUS plaza spaces, as
well as to 16th and 18th Streets and to Wynkoop Street.
3.4.2.2 Pedestrian Active Use Requirements
See Figure 3.4a.
Intent
1. To promote street-level pedestrian active uses to enliven the public realm.
Design Standards
1. Pedestrian active uses shall be provided for all ground floor facades facing 16th Street.
Wynkoop Street, Wynkoop Plaza, and wrapping around the corner of the north side of
the North Wing Building.
2. Pedestrian friendly frontage shall be provided along the west-facing ground floor
facades of the buildings.
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Design Guidelines
1. 15-feet wide zones along the plaza-side and Wynkoop Street side edges of the two
new buildings should be kept free for outdoor uses such as cafe seating served from
the buildings.
2. The 18th Street side of the north building should have pedestrian friendly frontage,
except at the northeast corner where active uses are appropriate.
3. The historic Station should have pedestrian active uses at the ground floor to activate
the plazas.
3.4.3 Parking
Intent
1. To minimize the presence and visibility of parking and parking entrances from public
areas within Sub-Area 1.
Design Standards
1. No above-grade or on-grade parking shall be constructed in Sub-Area 1.
2. Only underground parking shall be permitted in Sub-Area 1.
3. Parking entrances shall be from 16th and 18th Streets-not from Wynkoop Street (see
Fig. 3.4b).
Design Guidelines
1. Signage for parking entrances within Sub-Area 1 should be consistent with the district
signage plan.
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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3.4.4 Service Areas
Intent
See Section 2.4.4.
Design Standards
1. The service areas of Sub-Area 1 shall be located on the west side of this Sub-area, see
Fig. 3.4b).
Design Guidelines
See Section 2.4.4.
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3.5 BUILDING DESIGN
3.5.1 Authority of the Landmarks Preservation Commission
Consult the latest edition of the Design Guidelines for Landmark Structures and Historic
Districts and Contemporary Design in Historic Districts: New Construction and Additions and
Alterations to Existing Structures.
3.5.2 Historic Station
Intent
1. To preserve, rehabilitate and restore the historic Station, in a manner befitting
one of the city's most important Historic Landmarks and according to the standards,
guidelines, and regulations of the Landmark Preservation Commission.
2. To ensure that the historicTrain Room remains in active use and accessible by all transit
users, as well as employees, residents and visitors.
3. To ensure that the historic Station remains the physical and visual terminus of 17th
Street.
Design Standards
1. The creation of new openings and/or the modification of existing historic doors and
windows of the historic Station shall be discouraged.
Design Guidelines
1. There is a non-contributing addition at the west side of the historic Station that should
be considered for removal.
2. While Landmark regulations govern the exterior of historic buildings only, it is strongly
encouraged that the interior public areas of the Station be renovated, using a
combination of preservation, selective restoration and adaptive reuse in order to
support both the enhanced transportation role of the building and the objective of
making the Station a destination and gateway.
3.5.3 Additions to the Historic Station
Intent
To ensure that any new canopies or enclosed construction added to the historic Station
conform to the design standards and guidelines of the Landmarks Preservation Commission.
Design Standards
1. Any new canopies or protective structures associated with passenger movements to
and from the Station shall be ground-mounted and have a minimal and reversible
physical attachment to the historic Station.
2. Such protective structures shall be designed as part of the"family"of transportation
structures in Sub-Area 2.
3. Additions, if required, shall be light and largely transparent, employing glazed curtain
wall or storefront systems for 90% of facades within 25 feet of where the new structure
joins the historic building fabric.
New buildings should respect the massing, scale,
and articulation of the DUS building
The 3 main windows along the eastern facade of the
Station
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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Design Guidelines
iiiiiiifU in
t **
'""ilium
The non-contributing addition on the western
facade of the historic Station
1. Replicative design for additions and new structures built in proximity to the historic
Station is strongly discouraged, because such would convey a false sense of history.
2. The canopy covering the path between the CRT platforms and historic Station should
have as few vertical structural elements as possible, should be as light as possible while
providing continuous cover for transit users to connect to the CRT or the below grade
bus/passenger concourse from the historic station west doors, and should have no
mechanical connection or attachment to the historic station building fabric.
3.5.4 New Buildings
General Intent Statements
The Wing buildings play an important role in framing the historic Station building and
activating the adjacent streets, and Wynkoop Plaza. Several key principles apply:
1. Be respectful and compatible, without being falsely replicative.
2. Be "of our time,"while conveying a sense of permanence and civic gravitas appropriate
to their urban role.
3. Be "contemporary and compatible,"innovative and forward looking, making use of
current technology, while respecting the generally quiet massing of the historic Station.
4. Incorporate scaling elements, ground floor active uses and pedestrian-friendly design.
5. Be loosely symmetrical in massing and fagade articulation. They need not be identical
structures rather than "identical twins," they should be close relatives.
General Design Standard
1. The Wing buildings shall respect the historic nature of the DUS building by not
replicating its general historic styles or specific motifs. Replicative design is not
permitted for new structures.
3.5.4.1 Building Massing and Form
Intent
1. To ensure that new buildings are shaped as secondary, framing buildings,
acknowledging the primacy of the historic Station.
2. To ensure that new buildings whatever their use are shaped by their role as key
components of a civic composition bordering important public spaces and adjacent to
the LoDo Historic District.
Design Standards
1. New buildings shall have generally cubic massing, with vertical walls, right angle
corners, and horizontal roof lines.
2. New buildings flanking the historic Station shall have a "quiet", well-proportioned
massing.
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Design Guidelines
1. The upper stories may overhang the ground floor, as long as the edge of the overhang
remains horizontal and continuous across the entire length ofthefagade.
2. The South Wing building should reinforce the continuity of the 16th Street Mall
environment along its south face (see Fig. 3.5a).
3. The North Wing building at 18th Street should acknowledge and facilitate pedestrian
circulation to and from the staircase connecting the plaza with the elevated waiting
deck of the CRT Station.
3.5.4.2 Materials
See Section 2.5.2.1
3.5.43 Fenestration
See above, Section 2.5.2.2.
3.5.4.4 Facade Articulation
Intent
1. To promote calm, dignified facade articulation that expresses the role of the new
buildings as frames for the historic Station in a civic context.
Design Standards
1. Facades of new buildings shall be articulated by a system of reveals, joints or mull ions
following a proportional system that largely balances the relative visual weight of
horizontal and vertical elements.
2. Vertical breaks or recesses in facades of new buildings shall not be greater than one
foot in depth.
3. Horizontal breaks and recesses other than between the ground floor and the first
story above grade shall also be no more than one foot in depth.
Design Guidelines
1. The different fagade articulation and proportion systems of the historic Station, as well
as the neighboring historic and contemporary structures, should be used to relate to
and complement the context.
3.5.4.5 Building Entries
Intent
1. To promote orientation of building entrances to public spaces and streets.
Design Standards
1. Building entries shall face or be visible from Wynkoop Street, 16th Street, or the
Wynkoop Plaza.
Fig 3.5: Street Wall Continuity
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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Design Guidelines
1. Unless there is an overriding design concept for the building that requires a more
opaque treatment, building entrances and ground floor lobbies should be highly
transparent, being articulated with clear glass doors and a minimum 80% glazed
area.
2. Operable wall systems should be provided to facilitate interaction with the plaza.
3. The South Wing building should incorporate public access from three sides, 16th
Street, Wynkoop Street, and the plaza.
4. The North Wing building need not have a public entrance from 18th Street, given that
the continuation of 18th Street mainly serves access to parking, the building's service
area, and the Regional Bus Station.
3.5.4.6 Building Accessories
See above, Section 2.5.4.
3.5.47 Building Services
See above, Section 2.4.4.
3.6 PUBLIC SPACE DESIGN
General Intent
1. To create a worthy setting for the historic Station and Wing buildings.
2. To facilitate pedestrian access to the entire site.
3. To accommodate permanent and temporary uses.
4. To enhance the sense of safety at all times.
5. To achieve a public space that is unique, active and meaningful in its own right.
3.6.1 DUS Wynkoop Plaza
Intent
1. To form a new urban frame and enhanced setting for the historic Station.
2. To relate Wynkoop Plaza to the historic Station and Lower Downtown Historic District.
3. To provide clear visual and physical access to the Historic Station, transportation
facilities to the west, to the Wing buildings
4. To accommodate programmed activities and to reinforce pedestrian continuity along
Wynkoop Street.
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City and County of Denver


5. To remain successful overtime:
Attract different types of people at different times of day and at night.
Balance the needs of all users.
Be family-friendly.
Be flexible and responsive to changing needs.
Add to the quality of the pedestrian environment along the adjoining
streets.
Positively interact with the Historic Building, Wing buildings, and the
buildings across.
16th, 18th and Wynkoop Streets.
6. To promote visibility of the central block of the Historic station, as well as to the
pedestrian routes around the north (leading to the deck over the CRT tracks) and south
ends of the historic station.
Design Standards
1. The public space shall contain a mix of hardscape and landscape areas. The
proportions may vary in different parts of the plaza spaces.
2. The public space shall be able to support more active uses in one part of the plaza and
more passive uses in the other.
3. The public space shall be flexible, allowing portions of the public space to be
temporarily converted to use for special or seasonal events.
4. The public space shall be equally complete and effective during all four seasons of the
year.
Fig 3.6: Primary Open Spaces in Sub Area 1
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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5. Free areas 20-feet wide shall be maintained at the face of the historic Station and along
the Wing buildings facing into the plazas in order to accommodate outdoor uses;
however, these outdoor uses shall not interfere with the pedestrian circulation zones
defined in Section 3.3.1 and Fig. 3.3.
6. Provide a visual connection to theTrain Room from the adjacent public space.
7. Views of the large arched windows of the Station from along the 17th Street corridor,
both east and west of the Station, shall be preserved.
Design Guidelines
1. The design should consider the use of water features in forms that are not visually or
physically intrusive when notin use or that impede pedestrian access.
2. The public space elements and amenities should consider the possibility that adjacent
streets might be closed for special events.
3.6.2 Stair to Elevated Deck
Intent
1. To establish a clear and direct pedestrian route through the plaza from Wynkoop Street
to the elevated deck over the CRT tracks.
2. To ensure that this route is safe at all times of the day and evening.
Design Standards
1. The staircase shall be "monumental", capable of allowing seating, while providing a
minimum of 15 feet free width for the passage of pedestrians.
2. The landing of the stair shall be kept clear of significant permanent obstructions for a
distance of 20 feet in order to facilitate access to and from the stair.
3. The stair and associated elements shall be at least 15 feet from the north side of the
historic Station.
Design Guidelines
1. The design of the stair and associated elements should appear as an extension of both
the transportation architecture of Sub-Area 2 and the public space design of
Sub-Area 1.
2. The stair and associated elements should be constructed of durable materials
appropriate for an urban setting and heavy use.
3. Lighting should be provided as part of the overall public space lighting scheme.
4. Signage directing pedestrians to the stair should be provided at strategic points in the
site as part of the district signage plan.
5. The stair and other vertical circulation elements should be coordinated with and even
integrated into the adjoining North Wing building to the greatest extent possible.
3.6.2 Other Public Spaces
Intent
1. To ensure that all areas adjacent to the historic Station are treated as part of the
pedestrian public realm, with respect to hardscape, landscape, lighting, signage and all
other enhancements.
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2. To ensure that passage between the transportation facilities and the public spaces is
free and unimpeded for the anticipated pedestrian flows.
Design Standards
1. Paving and hardscape materials consistent with those of the Wynkoop Plaza shall be
extended to the north, south and west sides of the historic Station (Fig. 3.3).
2. Ensure that a 25 feet wide zone west of the historic Station remains clear for emergency
vehicle access.
Design Guidelines
1. The location of benches, waste receptacles and other site furnishings should be
coordinated with the transit-related pedestrian flow patterns on the west side of the
historic Station.
2. The pavement on the west side of the Station should be smooth enough for rail
passengers to pull wheeled luggage across it without difficulty.
3.7 LIGHTING
3.7.1 Site Lighting
Site Lighting is a site-wide element, as set forth in Section 2.7.1.
Intent
See Section 2.7.1, Intent statements.
Design Standards
See Section 2.7.1, Design Standards.
Design Guidelines
1. The site lighting scheme within Sub-Area 1 should take into account the historic
lighting of the historic Station.
2. Site lighting should take into account the presence of existing residents and
restaurants to the north and east of the plaza.
3. The site lighting within Sub-Area 1 should be coordinated with the lighting of the new
CRT train hall.
3.7.2 Building Lighting
Intent
1. To draw attention to the historic Station building at night as an iconic structure.
2. To provide a hierarchy of building lighting in coordination with the site lighting of the
public ROW and public spaces within Sub-Area 1, as well as with buildings and spaces
in Sub-Area 2.
Design Standards
1. Exterior and interior night lighting of the historic Station building shall be provided in
accordance with the design guidelines set forth in the Design Guidelines for Landmark
Lighting (August 1997).
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2. All sides of the Station shall be lighted, taking into account the historic lighting features,
such as the famous "Travel byTrain"signs.
3. The lighting program for the historic Station shall be coordinated with the DUS plaza
design, as well as the CRT design in Sub-Area 2.
4. The lighting of the Wing buildings shall be even and uniform on all four sides and shall
be secondary to the historic Station.
5. Lighting shall be dimmable after hours.
Design Guidelines
1. Building lighting should take into account the presence of existing residences on the
east side of Wynkoop Street, north of 18th Street, and in the new mixed-use structures
of the DUS site.
3.8 SIGNAGE
3.8.1 Signage
Signage is a site-wide element, as set forth in Section 2.8.1.
Intent
See Section 2.8.1, Intent statements.
Design Standards
See Section 2.8.1, Design Standards.
Design Guidelines
1. While being strategically located and clearly visible, district signage should not
compete with or interfere with views of the historic Station building.
3.8.2 Building Signage
Intent
1. To provide appropriate new identifying signage to support new uses in the historic
Station and adjacent new buildings.
Design Standards
1. New signage on the historic Station building shall be strictly controlled as to size, type,
location, mounting, and overall design. All signage shall conform to the
relevant regulations set forth the Design Guidelines for Lower Downtown Streetscape
(1991).
2. Building signage shall be coordinated with district signage design.
3. Building signage shall not be dynamic within Sub-Area 1, with the exception of
transportation-related signage.
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4.
Sub-Area 2 Special Urban Design Standards and Guidelines
4.1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW
Sub-Area 2 contains the eastern core of the transportation facilities the Commuter Rail
Terminal, the eastern entrances to the Regional Bus Station, as well as the connections
between these facilities and the 16th Street Mall Shuttle. Sub-Area 2 also contains key
pedestrian connectors in the form of elevated walkways between theWynkoop Plaza on the
east and the 17th and 18th Street on the west, as well as an elevated connection to the G
Block.
The historic Station building, located in Sub-Area 1 and immediately bordering Sub-Area 2,
is the dominant structure in the area. However, the highest concentration of new mixed-use
structures is located in Sub-Area 2 at Blocks A and B, which are permitted by Zoning to rise to
220 and 200 feet respectively. In short, Sub-Area 2 contains the most intensive concentration
of the area's distinctive characteristics the CRTTrain Hall, high- and mid-rise mixed-use
development, critical pedestrian routes and transportation access points all facing the
western fagade of the historic Landmark Station.
4.2 GENERAL INTENT STATEMENTS
1. To ensure that the transportation architecture and mixed-use development join the
historic Denver Union Station building in forming a worthy gateway and arrivals
experience for transit riders and visitors.
2. To ensure that the historic Station continues to be understood as the centerpiece of the
Sub-Area, the site and the Transit District as a whole.
3. To ensure that the CRTTrain Hall acquires its own identity, while being compatible
with the historic station. The CRTTrain Hall should be visible from adjacent public
spaces and streets.
4. To extend the civic presence of the historic Station to the rest of the site through
transportation architecture that is progressive and "of our time," while also being
compatible with and deferential to the historic building.
5. To encourage mixed-use development that reinforces the civic nature of the area and
provides a worthy frame to the historic Station, the CRT train hall, and the public realm.
4.3 SITE CIRCULATION
4.3.1 Pedestrian Circulation
Intent
1. To facilitate smooth pedestrian circulation through and within the Sub-Area and to
surrounding streets, and to public spaces in Sub-Area 1 and adjacent areas,
for commuters, residents and visitors.
Design Standards
1. Passages and pedestrian zones shall be sized to accommodate the maximum
projected commuter pedestrian flows, as represented in Fig. 4.3.
2. The passage through the A Block building from the CRT to 16th Street shall be a
minimum of 30 feet in width (or slightly less if the structural bay dimension is 30 feet)
and have adequate height to maximize the view and provide a sense of public rather
than private space.
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Fig 4.3: Morning peak-hour pedestrian circulation flows through the CRT Train Hall and DUS area
3. The elevated deck shall provide a minimum 20-foot wide pedestrian zone.
4. Pedestrian zones approximately 20 feet by 20 feet should be kept clear at the head
of any vertical circulation elements, such as stair-escalator sets serving the
underground Regional Bus Station.
Design Guidelines
1. Pedestrian zones should be kept clear and separate from amenityzonestoaid in
circulation to building entries and transit access.
4.3.2 Vehicle Circulation
Intent
1. To protect the pedestrian character of the DUS site, while facilitating vehicular and
service access to the buildings in Sub-Area 2.
Design Standards
1. Pick-up/drop-off areas provided along Wewatta Street shall not obstruct the crosswalk
or view of the historic station from 17th Street.
Design Guidelines
Service and parking entrances should be combined, if feasible, in order to limit the number of
curb cuts and driveways.
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4.4 SITE PLANNING
4.4.1 Streetscape Design
Intent
See Section 2.4.1, Intent statements
Design Standards
See Section 2.4.1, Design Standards
Design Guidelines
1. There should be pedestrian continuity along the east side ofWewatta Street across the
17th Street ROW.
2. The passageway connecting the head of the commuter rail platforms with 16th Street
and the 16th Street Mall Shuttle stops shall be clearly marked.
3. The extension of 18th Street is primarily a service drive; however, sidewalks and
amenity zones consistent with streetscape treatments elsewhere on the site should be
provided.
4. Consider paving the entire 160'ROW of 17th Street as a crosswalk ofWewatta Street.
4.4.2 Building Location, Orientation and Use
4.4.2.1 Build-To Requirements
Intent
See Section 2.4.2, Intent statements.
Design Standards
See Section 2.4.2, Design Standards.
Design Guidelines
See Section 2.4.2, Design Guidelines.
4.4.2.2 Pedestrian Active Use Requirements
Intent
1. To provide ground floor pedestrian active uses whereever possible, recognizing that
pedestrian-friendly frontage may be necessary in some locations due to interior
functions or transportation facilities.
2. To provide pedestrian active uses to the fullest extent possible at the deck level of the
CRT.
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n \
1


H
^ =" vf
EXISTING DUS
BUILDING
WYNKOOP STREET
Fig 4.4a: Ground Level active use facades
NORTH
WING
100% Active Use
Frontage
70% Active Use Frontage
G-BLOCK
Pedestrian Friendly Frontage
Design Standards
See Figures 4.4a and 4.4b.
1. Active uses are required to occupy the full extent of the East-West facades of the Block
A cap building facing 16th Street and the head end platform of the Commuter Rail
Terminal, as well as the passageway through the building to 16th Street.
2. Active uses are required to occupy 100% of the two facades bounding the 17th Street
ROW as extended into Sub-Area 2.
3. Active uses are required to occupy 75% of the facades of Blocks A and B facing Wewatta
Street.
4. Where pedestrian active uses are not feasible, ground floor facades shall receive
pedestrian-friendly treatment and architectural cladding fully consistent in quality,
materials, and articulation to the balance of the fagade.
Design Guidelines
1. Active uses are strongly recommended to occupy the full extent of the inner fagade of
the Block B cap building facing the elevated deck area over the rail tracks.
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Deck Over CRT Active Use Frontage
Pedestrian Friendly Frontage
Fig 4.4b: Deck Level active use facades
4.4.3 Parking
4.4.3.1 Underground Parking Garages
See Section 2.4.3 for Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines.
4.43.2 Structured Parking Garages (Integrated)
See Section 2.5.6 for Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines.
4.4.33 Structured Parking Garages (Free-Standing)
A stand-alone parking structure may be constructed over a portion of the CRT tracks between
18th and 20th Streets. This structure will have a very prominent west fagade along Wewatta
Street, as well as south and east facades visible from transit and mixed-use areas, as well as
from the surrounding areas. The design of this structure requires special consideration.
Intent
1. To ensure that a free-standing parking garage engages and enhances the public ROW
and public spaces which it abuts and is compatible in character and quality with
adjacent buildings.
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Design Standards
1. All four sides of the G Block parking structure shall have architecturally-finished fagade
composition consistent with other design attributes of buildings and appropriate for
the particular orientation of thefagade,
2. The public lobby access and elevator core shall be located on a prominent fagade and
be glass, to promote sense of safety, and be illuminated at night.
3. Light fixtures on the garage roof shall be full cutoff hoods to prevent direct light from
shining on adjacent buildings.
4. Lighting shall illuminate the parking areas, but be shielded from the neighboring
buildings or the street.
Design Guidelines
1. Consider a "wrapper"or"liner" building for the long Wewatta Street fagade, one with
planar variations to break up the principal fagade.
2. The urban design role of the parking entry and vertical circulation elements should
be developed in conjunction with the stairs/vertical circulation and bridge to
the CRT station deck.
3. Pedestrian access to the G Block parking structure should be combined with or located
adjacent to the stairs accessing the transit deck over the CRT in order to concentrate
uses and maximize the sense of safety. The access may also be incorporated into the
liner or wrapper building to increase security.
4. The stair tower can also enliven the fagade and should be a vertical marker on 18th St.
for pedestrians coming from the pedestrian bridge over the CML.
5. The roof of the G Block parking structure isthe"fifthfa<;ade"and will be seen from the
surrounding developments. It should include planters or trellises and be part of the
landscape design program.
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6. The roof of the parking structure should be considered as a location for photovoltaic
panels.
7. Plantings are encouraged, either in beds or in planters, on the roof of the garage or the
sides.
4.4.4 Service Areas
See Section 2.4.4for Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines.
4.5 BUILDING DESIGN
General Intent Statements
1. To maintain the historic Station building as the focal point of the new development,
with the new mixed-use buildings of Sub-Area 2 playing the role of complementary
"background"buildings to the historic Station building and transportation
architecture, which provide the centerpiece of this new urban composition.
2. To ensure that new buildings interact with and activate the ground level and deck level
public spaces through the provision of active uses and pedestrian-friendly design.
3. To realize the opportunity for complementary and mutually beneficial functions be
tween the transportation and development buildings.
4.5.1 Building Massing and Form
See Section 2.5.1 for general Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines regarding
building massing and form.
Additional Design Guidelines
1. The building on the triangular site south of 16th Street need not relate to the major
transportation facilities, and should present a pedestrian-friendly fagade along the Old
Wewatta ROW and the other perimeter streets. This building should have a more
distinctive massing and form, because its urban position allows it to function in a
completely different way than the framing buildings of Blocks A and B.
4.5.2 Building Character
4.5.2.1 Materials
Intent
See Section 2.5.2.1
Design Standards
See Section 2.5.2.1.
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Fig 4.5a: Illustrative diagram of the possible massing for theDUS Transit District
Design Guidelines
1. New buildings should employ the highest quality materials for facades, curtain walls,
entrances, and open areas around the building.
2. The Triangle site south of 16th Street could participate more in the material palette of
LoDo and the rest of the CPV.
4.5.2.2 Fenestration
See Section 2.5.2.2 for general Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines regarding
fenestration.
4.5.23 Facade Articulation
See Section 2.5.23 for general Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines regarding
fagade articulation.
Intent
1. To promote interaction between the mixed-use buildings and transportation facilities.
2. To create pedestrian interest at street level through changes in plane, color, materials,
or rhythm.
Design Standards
1. All fagade articulation and primary cladding systems shall be carried to grade, even if
there is no ground floor pedestrian active use; i.e., no utilitarian fagade treatments shall
be permitted except within service areas.
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WYNKOOP STREET
r
Fig 4.5b: Facade Articulation
Design Guidelines
1. The facades of the B-Block building at the track and elevated deck levels should be
articulated with the heavy presence of pedestrians in mind. These facades require
either pedestrian-active uses or pedestrian-friendly design articulation, as shown on
Figs. 4.4a &b.
2. Thefagade of Block A facing 16th Street takes on special importance as one of the
major transportation portals of the district, required to accommodate heavy pedestrian
traffic. Thefagade on 16th Street should be developed in coordination with the
transportation architecture, that is, the Commuter Rail Terminal outdoorTrain Hall
to be both legible as a transportation portal from 16th Street and to promote visibility
of the CRT platform from 16th Street.
4.5.3 Building Entries
See Sections 2.5.3 for general Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines regarding
pedestrian and vehicle entries.
Intent
1. To promote interaction between mixed-use buildings and transportation facilities and
the adjacent public spaces with well articulated entry features that face streets and/or
public spaces.
Design Standards
1. Primary entries shall face streets and/or public spaces and be prominent through use of
recesses or changes of materials, scale, detail or heightened design.
2. Secondary entrances to mixed-use buildings shall be coordinated with the
transportation facilities, which shall take precedence in such matters as the location of
signage and lighting of entries.
3. All pedestrian active uses shall include direct access from the street or public space
without an intermediate building lobby.
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4.5.4 Building Accessories
See Sections 2.5.4for general Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines regarding
building accessories.
Additional Design Standards
1. Any building accessories facing, or built in close proximity to, transportation facilities,
must be coordinated and compatible with those facilities and any structures (such as
OCS, lighting, signage, etc.) that support or are part of the transportation facility.
4.5.5 Building Services
See Sections 2.4.4for Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines regarding building
services.
Additional Design Guidelines
1. No service or utility areas should be accessed directly from, or face into, public spaces
or pedestrian areas of the transportation facilities.
4.5.6 Parking Garages
See Sections 2.4.3 and 4.4.3 for general and specific Intent, Design Standards, and Design
Guidelines regarding parking garages.
SOUTH WING LJ 1
EXISTING DUS J NORTH WING

wynkoop street
1______C
Fig 4.6: Primary Open Spaces in Sub-Area 2
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4.6 PUBLIC SPACE DESIGN
General Intent Statements
1. To promote pedestrian movement through the site and to and from the transportation
and mixed-use development, by way of a capacious, clearly defined, intuitive and safe
pedestrian network that is activated by uses.
2. To identify the urban design and architecture of Sub-Area 2 as being part of a larger
Transit District extending from Wynkoop Street (Sub-Area 1) to the Light Rail
Transit station at the CML, with extensions to 20th Street and Speer Boulevard.
3. To maintain views to and from the historic Station within the parameters of the Zoning,
the Master Plan Supplement, and the General Development Plan, while creating new
views from transit facilities to public spaces. Views must be considered at pedestrian
level as well as more distant views of the historic Station and Train Hall canopy.
4. To ensure the continuity of the public realm and pedestrian passage through Sub-Area
2 from Sub-Area 1, both at the ground surface and the elevated deck passages.
5. To extend landscape and planting design concepts from the Wynkoop Plazas in Sub-
Area 1, modifying them as required where soil is not present over underground
facilities.
6. To identify appropriate locations for stand-alone works of public art, as well as
integrated public art.
4.6.1 CRT Station Area and Platforms
The CRT platform area should be designed as a single space, an outdoor room defined
by adjacent building facades. It should be designed with a sense of place and cohesive
design. Platforms, waiting areas, and circulation areas should be coordinated to support the
wayfinding and convenience of all users.
Intent
1. To ensure that the CRT pedestrian areas are perceived as continuous with the public
space or"outdoor urban room"of Sub-Area 2, and by extension, with Sub-Area 1, which
directly borders the CRT.
Design Standards
1. The transportation program and its various elements shall be coordinated with the
urban design of the outdoor urban room.
2. The CRT canopy shall provide the required coverage of platforms, while allowing
exhaust from diesel train engines to escape.
3. The CRT canopy structure should be light enough to permit good visibility throughout
the CRT station area, as well as of the ground level of the west elevation of the historic
Station repeated vertical elements (i.e., columns) shall have clear space between
them measuring no less than 12 feet.
4. The CRT canopy structure shall form a continuous whole, supporting the
understanding of the CRT as an outdoor urban room.
5. All structures within a 160 foot corridor extended west from the historic station
centered on 17th Street shall be lower than the sill of the upper windows of the west
fagade of the historic station.
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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Design Guidelines
1. Within the CRT, furnishings, signage and lighting are provided by the transportation
program, but district signage should be present to guide pedestrians to points outside
the CRT area.
4.6.2 Elevated CRT Deck
The elevated CRT deck is an important public space and pedestrian connection that provides
access to the center tracks of the CRT from the north. It also facilitates pedestrian movement
through the site from the Wynkoop Plaza to both 17th and 18th Streets on the west side of
the DUS site, as well as to the B Block building and the parking garage.This route connects
Lower Downtown to the Central Platte Valley not only for transit passengers, butfor residents,
employees, and visitors.
The elevated deck should be designed as an attractive gathering place for rail passengers and
others at all times of the day and night, with its own sense of place, amenities, and seating.
This area, which will be in sunlight at most times of the day throughout the year, presents a
special opportunity for an exciting observation point of the train tracks below.
See Section 4.3.1 for Design Standards pertaining to this element.
Intent
1. To integrate this area into the overall public space scheme and adjacent buildings.
2. To promote pedestrian active uses at deck level.
3. To establish the deck as a unique destination place.
Design Standards
1. The paving ofthe elevated deck shall be a version of the overall hardscape scheme.
2. The required barriers separating users from thecatenary system over the tracks shall be
as transparent as possible, with glass being the preferred material.
3. District signage shall be prominently located to direct pedestrians to transit, 17th
Street, 18th Street, the parking garage, or Wynkoop Street, and other destinations.
4. In addition to the CRT lighting, this area shall receive its own special lighting program
to enhance a sense of safety, as well as to draw pedestrians up from the ground level.
Design Guidelines
1. The elevated nature ofthe deck eliminates opportunities for planting inearth.
Plantings in containers in a form and arrangement related to the overall landscape
scheme for the site should be provided.
2. Pedestrian active uses and building entrances should be promoted at the
corresponding levels ofthe adjacent B-Block buildings; see Fig. 4.4b.
4.6.3 1 7th Street Plaza
The 17th Street Promenade has one short segment within Sub-Area 2. This is a very
important space, serving as a forecourt to the CRT and the access to the Regional Bus
Station from Wewatta Street. This area establishes a transit presence on Wewatta Street. At
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the same time it forms the eastern terminus 17th Street Promenade.The adjacent A and B
Block buildings form a gateway to Sub-Area 2 though this space. The public space requires
special treatment, both for the aforementioned reasons and because it will be a heavily used
pedestrian route.
Intent
1. To develop a special urban place that links the 17th Street Promenade, CRT train hall
and historic Station.
2. To establish the 17th Street Promenade as the defining pedestrian connection for the
Transit District.
3. To provide a safe, attractive, and active connection along the 17th Street Promenade
between Wewatta Street and the Light Rail Station.
4. To provide a major access point to the below-ground Regional Bus Station.
5. To accommodate the numerous pedestrian movements through this area, coordinated
with a crosswalk of Wewatta Street.
Design Standards
1. The salient components of the 17th Street Promenade shall characterize this space,
modified as required to meet its unique conditions.
2. Clear and unobstructed pedestrian paths a minimum of 25 feet wide shall be
maintained adjacent to the A and B Block buildings.
3. The enclosure of the access point to the Regional Bus Station shall be highly
transparent on all four sides.
4. The vertical circulation enclosure shall use forms similar to the CRT train hall canopy.
View of the west-facing facade of DUS which is to
he maintained
5. Coordinate the hardscape, lighting, signage and site accessories with both the 17th
Street Promenade and the CRT.
Design Guidelines
1. Consider providing water features for the 17th Street Plaza in forms that do not impede
pedestrian circulation.
2. Consider this area for stand-alone works of public art, or integrated works of public art.
4.6.4 1 8th Street and Wewatta Street Building Site and Vertical Circulation Core
Refer to Section 4.43.3 for Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines for the G-Block
Parking Garage.
Intent
1. To create a gateway place at the northwest corner of the DUS site as a terminus to
18th Street that gives access to the elevated deck over the CRT, parking garage and
adjacent development.
Design Standards
1. The components of the public space and vertical access at 18th and Wewatta shall be
part of and coordinated with landscaped edges of Wewatta adjacent to the parking
structure.
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2. All elements of the vertical circulation core shall be clearly visible from the public
spaces to the west.
3. The elevator core and cab shall have glass sides.
4. This area shall receive appropriate quantities of site furnishings, as well as district
signage and site lighting.
Design Guidelines
1. This area should take into account the visual and pedestrian connection along 18th
Street to the Pedestrian Bridge crossing the CML.
2. The building should add activity and security to the 18th Street extension and stair by
providing transparency to active uses adjoining the connections.
3. If appropriate, incorporate the vertical circulation into the building.
4.6.5 1 6th Street Mall Shuttle Stop
Existing 16th St Mall Shuttle route
The 16th Street Shuttle pick-up and drop-off areas of 16th Street with access to the CRT will
see some of the heaviest passenger loads of the entire Transit District.
Intent
1. To create and shape the public space on both sides of 16th Street, public passage
through the A Building, and building fagade to denote a significant place in theTransit
District.
Design Standards
1. The pick-up zone (see Fig. 1.2d for stop locations) in particular shall have adequate
waiting/standing area, as well as adequate weather protection in the form of canopy
coverings.
2. Canopy design shall be similar to the forms of the CRTTrain Hall structure.
3. The building fagade shall express a gateway function, either through accessories
(canopy), recess, or some other architectural form.
4.6.6 Old Wewatta ROW
In proximity to the 16th Street Mall Shuttle stop and passage from the CRT, the Old Wewatta
ROW provides views and a pedestrian passage south toward the Pepsi Center, Cherry Creek,
and other nearby destinations.
Intent
1. To maintain views through the ROW to the south.
2. To enhance pedestrian circulation and experience through the ROW to Cherry Creek
and adjacent development.
3. To create a small public plaza.
4. To provide space for services such as bike parking.
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Design Standards
1. A networkof landscape and hardscape shall be integrated into the site-wide public
space, with the forms and motifs carried into the ROW.
2. A minimum 20feet wide clear pedestrian path through the ROW shall be created and
maintained free of plantings and other obstructions.
3. Site furnishings, as well as district signage and site lighting, consistent with those in the
rest of the DUS site shall be provided.
4. Landscape elements shall not impede views to the south or the alignment of the
pedestrian path.
5. The existing rails and tracks shall be reinstated as reminders of the site's history.
Design Guidelines
1. The Old Wewatta ROW should be considered as a location for a segment of the bicycle
network and as a location for bicycle parking and associated facilities.
2. If a bicycle path is provided, it should be in addition to the pedestrian path and safely
separated from it.
4.7 LIGHTING
4.7.1 Site Lighting
District Lighting is a site-wide element, and therefore relies on the Intent statements
and Design Standards and Guidelines set forth in Section 2.7.1. However, some specific
suggestions are made in sub-sections dealing with individual elements of the public space
design and buildings.
See Section 2.7.1, Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines.
4.7.2 Building Lighting
See Section 2.7.2, Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines.
4.8 SIGNAGE
4.8.1 District Signage
District Signage is a site-wide element, and therefore relies on the Intent statements, and
Design Standards and Guidelines set forth in Section 2.8.1.
See Section 2.8.1, Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines.
4.8.2 Building Signage
See Section 2.8.2, Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines.
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5. Design Review and Approval Process
In Denver, most development projects are subject to site plan review and approval processes.
In addition, improvements on the DUS site will be subject to design review and approval
through process established in the Landmark Preservation Ordinance or the DUST-MU-30
zoning. The table provided on the following page (Fig. 5.1) shows the components and
coordination of these review processes. Process and application details are available through
the City's website, Denvergov.org, as noted in the chart.
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City and County of Denver
N>
&Q
^3 &Q
3 s
I S
Phases Recommended Submittals Design Review Process Development/ Site Plan Review
Landmark Urban Design
Any single structure will be subject to one of the two design review processes, not both. Should a structure be located in both areas, CPD will be responsible for coordinating between Landmark and Urban Design. All projects subject to development/site plan review. All development plan review to be coordinated with design review.
Intent Statement Submittal Pre Submittal Conference with Review Team Applicant submits Intent Statement: 1. Location 2. Conformance to GDP 3. Design intent 4. Project scope & program 5. Project uses & adjacent uses 6. Site description 7. Context photos 8. Site Plan 9. Special considerations 10. Project phasing CPD case manager forms multidisciplinary team to discuss process and identify all requirements, presumptions, and considerations, and assign appropriate design review process and site plan review process Applicant meets with team 10-15 days after Intent Statement been submitted
Schematic Design/ Concept Phase/ Preliminary Staff Review Design Review Application (in addition to development review application) Detailed statement of how Design Guidelines have been met (electronic and hard copy) Site plan Ground floor plans Elevations All items under Pre Design Meeting to review application following receipt of agency comments If needed, meeting to reconcile any conflicts between team and design review Concept Review by Preservation Architect usually within 3 weeks: Grant administrative approval OR Schedule for Formal Review at LPC Notify all RNOs within 200, City Council members whose district contains the proposed project or is within 200, and At Large City Council members Written comments from above within 20 days after notice is sent Review: 30 days See denvergov reference for application requirements Development Review Committee (DRC) agencies have 15 working days to review


Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
Phases Recommended Submittals Design Review Process Development/ Site Plan Review
Landmark Urban Design
Design Development/ Formal Phase Review Final application Updated detailed statement of how Design Guidelines have been met and reply to CPD comments (electronic and hard copy) Landscape/Streetscape Plan Building Sections if requested Faijade details & treatments Materials Schedule & Sample Board All items under Schematic Design Renderings optional Comment Review Meeting Staff report with recommendation forwarded to LPC Review: 30 days CPD to recommend approval, approval with conditions or denial and forward to Planning Board CPD to notify RNOs within 200 of the property and the city councilperson in whose district the property is located of their recommendation Urban Design staff recommendation Final Application (see Denvergov) for submittal requirements 15 working days to review Resubmittal as necessary
Design Review Public meetings Planning Board Landmark Preservation Commission (LPC) Landmark Preservation Commission Meeting Formal design review takes place at regularly scheduled meeting of the LPC Applicant presentation Public comment LPC may approve, approve with conditions, ask for restudies, continue the proposal, or deny the application. FOR LPC Submittal 15 sets Project model if requested Staff signs permit on basis of LPC decision Planning Board Public Meeting Hold within 60 days of CPD receiving the application CPD to notify RNOs within 200 of the property and the city councilperson in whose district the property is located at least 15 days prior to the meeting Planning Board to approve, approve with conditions or deny the application and forward the recommendation to the Zoning Administrator not later than 15 days after the meeting Zoning Administrator to approve, approve with conditions or deny the permit application
Final Recordation Phase Final Design Development Documents Signing of approvals and recordation of plans
Amendments Minor (Red-line) Amendments Administrative approval by DRC agencies LPC/Urban Design staff Major Amendment Resubmit to be treated as new application.
Construction/Permitting Final Construction Documents Building Permit submittal

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City and County of Denver


APPENDIX
SUSTAINABILITY VISION
As the Master Developer of the Primary GDP Area, the Union Station Neighborhood Company
has adopted the following vision regarding that development:
"The Union Station Neighborhood development will be a leading example of sustainable
urban redevelopment in North America. The redevelopment of the 19.5 acre Union Station
Neighborhood District area provides an opportunity to integrate and model sustainable
design, construction and operation, creating a model development for the region and
extending the relevance and significance of this historic site for many decades to come."
To fulfill this vision, Union Station Neighborhood Company has adopted, and the City
acknowledges, the following guiding principles for sustainable development in the Primary
GDP Area:
1. PROMOTE TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATIVES: Build on Denver Union Station's role as
an unprecedented regional transit crossroads to support and encourage multi-modal
site access. Support safe bicycle connections, and energize the pedestrian
environment and links to surrounding areas.
2. ADVANCE SUSTAINABLE URBAN DESIGN: Seamlessly integrate public and private
spaces and functions to create vibrant, inspiring and sustainable places where people
can live, work, play and easily access other parts of the region. Ensure a scale and
density of development necessary to support desired qualities.
3. BUILD GREEN: Demonstrate leadership in high performance green building tech
niques at both the individual building and district levels, in design, construction and
operation. Integrate historic renovations and green development goals in a way that
respects and advances both, with the adaptive reuse of the historic station building as
a centerpiece.
4. MINIMIZE WASTE: Seekto minimize waste site-wide through design, construction and
operation practices (including procurement strategies and reuse/ recycling of waste
generated onsite).
5. REDUCE ENERGY COST AND DEMONSTRATE NEW TECHNOLOGIES: Incorporate energy
efficiency and renewable energy resources to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and related
costs on site.
6. BE CLIMATE WISE: Reduce or eliminate greenhouse gas emissions wherever possible in
development and measure/report on GHG avoided through transit use and other
measures.
7. CLEAR THE AIR: Promote excellent indoor and outdoor air quality, with related public
health and productivity benefits, throughout the development area.
8. CONSERVE WATER: Demonstrate aggressive water conservation practices in all
development, working in partnership with the Denver Water Department.
9. USE STORMWATER AS A RESOURCE: Utilize innovative on-site storm water
management techniques to reduce flood risk and improve water quality and site
aesthetics.
10. ENGAGE VISITORS AND RESIDENTS IN SUSTAINABILITY GOALS: Build on the
unprecedented regional crossroads and marketplace functions of the development to
engage metro area residents and local inhabitants in sustainability goals, lessons and
opportunities.
11. EVOLVE: Adapt to new best practices over time tomorrow's technology, marketplace
and standards may make new practices and achievements possible.
Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines
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Full Text

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Denver Union Station URBAN DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S ANd D GGuU Id D ELINESApril 7, 2009CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVERPrepared by: Union Station Neighborhood Co.SOM Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVERii

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVERiv

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINESv AAcC KNOWLEd D GEMENTSSubmitted by: Union Station Neighborhood Co. Prepared by: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP City and County of Denver: Landmark Preservation Commission Planning Board Community Planning and Development Consultants: Ronald Straka, FAIA Hargreaves Associates

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVERvi

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINESvii TTABLE OF CONTENTS1.I INTROduc DUC TION1.1 Preface the Vision 1.2 Scope and Purpose of the Urban Design Standards and Guidelines 1.3 Denver Union Station 2S SITE-WWId D E URBAN DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S ANd D GGuU Id D ELINES2.1 General Intent Statements 2.2 Authority Provisions of the Zoning 2.3 Site Circulation 2.4 Site Planning 2.5 Building Design 2.6 Public Space Design 2.7 Lighting 2.8 Signage3.S SuU B-AAREA 1 SSPEc C IAL URBAN DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S ANd D GGuU Id D ELINES3.1 Introduction 3.2 General Intent Statements 3.3 Site Circulation 3.4 Site Planning 3.5 Building Design 3.6 Public Space Design 3.7 Lighting 3.8 Signage4.S SuU B-AAREA 2 SSPEc C IAL URBAN DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S ANd D GGuU Id D ELINES4.1 Introduction 4.2 General Intent Statements 4.3 Site Circulation 4.4 Site Planning 4.5 Building Design 4.6 Public Space Design 4.7 Lighting 4.8 Signage 5. DESIGN RREVIEW ANd D AAPPROVAL PPROc C ESSAAPPENd D IX SSuU STAINABILITY VVISION1 1 1 6 15 15 17 18 22 26 33 37 394141 41 42 43 47 50 53 545555 55 55 57 61 64 69 6971 75

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVERviii FRAMWORK BUILDING / EMPH ASIZED CORNER / SPECIAL FACADE FRAMEWORK BUILDING DEFINING STREET / OPEN SPACE SIGNATURE BUILDING / FACADE HISTORIC BUILDING / FACADE ICONS BUILDINGS OVER 140 HEIGHT TRANSIT ARCHITECTURE OPEN SPACE / CORRIDORS / EDGE PUBLIC PLAZA SPECIAL PUBLIC SPACE 17TH STREET PROMENADE SPECIAL STREET TRANSIT MALL PEDESTRIAN BRIDGES VIEW CORRIDORS IMPORTANT VIEWS BIKEWAYS PEDESTRIAN PATHS PEDESTRIAN PATHS RR/CML LOCAL ENTRYWAYS / GATEWAYS REGIONAL ENTRYWAYS / GATEWAYS Downtown NorthN S E W CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCKEXISTING DUS BUILDINGB-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML) Fig 1.1: Urban Design Framework Diagram

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES1 1. IINTROduc DUC TION1.1PREFA PREFA CE E T T HE E VISION VISION The Denver Union Station (DUS) site represents an historic opportunity to create a regional transit center and a unique place in Denver, a distinctive urban experience in the heart of the city. The project will integrate an ecient multi-modal network of transit linkages with walkable and resonant urban public spaces and dynamic, economically successful mixed-use development in a district that completes the growth of downtown Denver to the west and forms a memorable gateway to the city and the region. The Urban Design Standards & Guidelines are intended to provide a framework for guiding the design of public infrastructure and private development on the DUS site. They are intended to realize the following goals and objectives: 1. To create a cohesive and dynamic new mixed-use district built around an ambitious multi-modal transportation network. 2. To restore the historic Denver Union Station building to prominence and centrality as the symbolic gateway to Denver and the region. 3. To concentrate multiple regional transportation modes in a single Transit District that will be a new gateway to the city and the region. 4. To rearm the importance of 17th Street as a visual and connection axis between DUS and Downtown to the east and DUS and the Commons Park and Highlands to the west. 5. To provide the city with new public spaces imbued with design qualities that convey the values of the city and region that enhance the neighborhood amenities. 6. To weave this new district into the existing and emerging urban fabrics of adjacent neighborhoods by forming strong internal and external links, while establishing the western anchor of Downtown. 7. To assist in achieving national and local goals of improved air quality, energy conservation, improved mobility and eased congestion on the regions freeways and major streets. 8. To foster sustainable design practices for the public spaces, transportation facilities, and private development. This area the DUS site and its urban context is like no other in the city. Its unique characteristics should inspire us to achieve excellence in public space design, building design, infrastructure and implementation. This new urban place should: 1. Rise to a level of urban design and building design excellence commensurate with the ambitions of the transit program. 2. Be understood to be of Denver, not merely in Denver. 3. Be inspired by the unique urban history, location and natural environment of the place. 4. Embody the optimism of the West, be forward-looking and innovative. 5. Become a destination and place in its own right.1.2S SCOPE OPE ANAND PPURPOSERPOSE OFOF T THEE URBANRBAN DESIGNESIGN STANSTANDAR ARDSS ANAND GGUIIDEE LINES LINESThe Denver Union Station Design Standards & Guidelines (DS&G) will pertain to the DUS site only (see Figure 1.1). The purpose of this document is to promote a coherent set of design standards and guidelines for the DUS site that will allow new projects to play a role in realizing the urban design potential of the site. The design standards and guidelines are intended to promote design excellence in urban design and architecture.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER2 THE COMMONS DUSSFig 1.2: Relation of DUS to The Commons and Lower Downtown districts LOWER DOWNtT OWN1.2.1A AREA OF AAPPLIc C ABILITY DUSS SSITE ANd D Th H E LLARGER TTRANSIT DISTRIc C TThe Design Standards and Guidelines will be used to review all new construction on the DUS site, as well as exterior alterations to the historic Station building. The DUS site is dened as the 19.5 acres that were purchased by the partner agencies in 2001 and zoned T-MU-30 with waivers and conditions in 2004. The larger Transit District refers to the DUS site plus the four block area encompassed by the extensions of 16th and 18th Streets from the DUS site westward to the Consolidated Main Line (CML). The DUS site is bounded by Wynkoop Street on the east and Wewatta Street on the west. The eastern boundary runs from 16th Street to 18th Street The western boundary runs along Wewatta Street to include the triangular site between the old Wewatta Street ROW and the curving alignment of new Wewatta Street and extends north to 20th Street to encompass the rail tracks north of the station. For purposes of these Standards and Guidelines, the DUS site has been divided into two Sub-Areas. Sub-Area 1 includes the historic station building and the area between 16th and 18th Streets and from Wynkoop Street to 25 feet beyond the west side (track side) of the station. Sub-Area 2 includes the balance of the DUS site between the boundary 25 feet west of the station building and Wewatta Street, and from the old Wewatta ROW to 20th Street. These Design Standards and Guidelines do not extend beyond the 19.5-acre DUS site to the rest of the Transit District. They may inuence an amendment of The Commons Urban Design Standards and Guidelines (December 1997) to take into account the presence of the new transit facilities and other aspects of the DUS site. Coors Field Pepsi Center South Platte River Delgany Street 15th Street 16th Street 17th Street 18th Street 19th Street 20th Street Cherry Creek Chestnut Place CONSOLIDATED MAIN LLINE (CMLL) Old Wewatta ROW Wewatta Street Commons Park Wynkoop Street Wazee Street Blake Street Market Street

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES3 CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREET DECK OVER CRT PROPERTY LINE DEVELOPMENT FOOTPRINT PRIMARY GDP BOUNDARY A-BLOCK B-BLOCK TRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING Downtown NorthN S E W SUB AREA 1 SUB AREA 2BALANCE OF TRANSIT DISTRICT CITY andCOUNTY ofDENVERPLANNING andDEVELOPMENT OFFICE December 1997TRILLIUM CORPORATION DESIGN WORKSHOP Fig 1.3: Primary GDP Sub-Area Key Plan1.2.2R RELATIONSh H IP TO EEXISTING GGuU Id D ELINESThese design standards and guidelines supplement the existing Design Standards for Landmark Structures and Districts (March, 1995) and Contemporary Design in Historic Districts: New Construction and Additions and Alterations to Existing Structures (September 2006), both of which remain fully in eect for Sub-Area 1 of the DUS site. The DUS Design Standards and Guidelines will be used to review all new construction on the DUS site, as well as exterior alterations to the historic Station. Sub-Area 1 is the Union Station Denver Landmark area, which is subject to design review and approval through the Landmark Preservation Commission. Sub-Area 2 has design review established through the DUS Zoning Ordinance (T-MU-30 with waivers and conditions, Ordinance #707, Series of 2004), which establishes an urban design review and approval process.1.2.3 HOW TO USE TThH IS DOcu CU MENTIt is a fundamental intent of these design standards and guidelines that the entire DUS site be understood as a distinctive and internally coherent urban entity, despite being subject to two dierent review and approvals processes. Therefore, users need to consult the general sections (1, 2, and 5), as well as the section pertaining to the Sub-Area in which a particular project falls. Section 2 is explicitly intended to dene the urban design objectives, standards and guidelines common to the entire DUS site the means by which the site can be shaped as a coherent whole. Each of the two sub-areas has its own section because each presents unique conditions, as well as being subject to dierent approval processes.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER4 DESIGNGUIDELINESforLOWERDOWTOWNSTREETSCAPEDENVERLANDMARKPRESERVATIONCOMMISSION& PLANNINGANDDEVELOPMENTOFFICECITY andCOUNTY ofDENVER1991 DESIGNGUIDELINESforLANDMARKSTRUCTURES andDISTRICTSDENVERLANDMARKPRESERVATIONCOMMISSION& PLANNINGANDDEVELOPMENTOFFICECITY andCOUNTY ofDENVERMARCH1995 IINTENTIntent statements are provided to dene the goals which the standards and guidelines have been created to achieve. In circumstances where the appropriateness or applicability of a standard or guideline is in question or under negotiation, the intent statement will serve to provide additional direction.SSTANd D ARd D SDesign standards provide specic direction based on the stated intent. Standards are objective and quantiable, using the terms shall or will to indicate that compliance is required. GGuU Id D ELINESDesign guidelines provide exibility to the review process by allowing the applicant additional design considerations that promote the goals dened by the intent statements. Guidelines use the term should to denote that they are considered important considerations in achieving the stated intent. They can also provide acceptable alternatives to the standards when it can be demonstrated that they meet one or more of the following conditions: alternatives are proposed.1.2.4 DEFINITIONSBicycle Circulation The route by which bicycle riders travel to, from, and through the site, including shared rights-of-way and dedicated bicycle paths. Building accessories any tments and xtures attached to the exterior of a building that are not essential components of the building structure or envelope, such as signage, lighting, canopies, or marquees. CML Consolidated Main Line, rail freight lines running north-south through the Central Platte Valley CPV Central Platte Valley CPD Denvers Department of Community Planning & Development CRT Commuter Rail Terminal DPW Denvers Department of Public Works DUS/Historic Station building Denver Union Station, the historic station building DUS site the 19.5-acre project area Elevated Deck the connection from the east side of the site over the CRT to the west side of the site GDP Denver Union Station General Development Plan, 2009 HOV High-Occupancy Vehicle, such as a public or regional bus Human scale a visual concept relating to the manner in which the built environment is perceived in relation to the human gure Lay-by a lane adjacent to through-trac lanes which vehicles enter temporarily to pick up or drop o passengers

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES5 LoDo Lower Downtown Historic District LOV Low-Occupancy Vehicle, such as a taxi or private auto LPC Landmark Preservation Commission LRT Light Rail Transit MP/MPS Denver Union Station Master Plan (2004) and Master Plan Supplement, 2008 OCS Overhead Catenary System Pedestrian-active Design Public walking surface and adjacent facades that promote an active pedestrian environment through the provision of high pedestrian trac-generating uses such as retail, service-oriented, commercial, and residential and residential-oriented uses. Entrances and lobbies are also considered to generate high levels of pedestrian trac. Pedestrian-friendly Design Design of the public walking surface and adjacent facades that uses high-quality materials, human-scale modules, and other devices to promote a pleasant pedestrian experience where there might not be active uses. These facades engage the passer-by without necessarily being interactive. Pedestrian Circulation The manner by which pedestrians travel to, from, and through the site, including public rights-of-way, public and private sidewalks, private walkways, stairways, and escalators and elevators. Pedestrian Walk The area of the streetscape that is reserved for pedestrian trac. The pedestrian walk must remain clear and unobstructed at all times for ease of pedestrian travel and regular maintenance. Private Development Buildings and associated accessories and features constructed by private entities. Private vehicles Includes, but is not limited to, personal vehicles and taxis. Public space Collectively refers to any publicly-accessible park or plaza and certain streets and streetscapes. ROW Dedicated City Right of Way. Street wall The cumulative eect of adjacent buildings facing onto and providing a consistent edge to a public or private street. Train Hall The CRT platform area west of the historic DUS building. Train Room The main waiting room of the historic DUS building. Transit District Geographically dened as the area from Wynkoop Street to the Consolidated Main Line (CML) between 16th and 18th Streets, and also including the southern and northern extensions to 15th and 20th Streets between the track side of the Historic Station and Wewatta Street. Vehicular Circulation The manner by which public and private vehicles travel to, from, and through the site. View corridor The 160-footwide 17th Street corridor above the sill (elevation 5209) of the second story windows of the DUS building to provide an unobstructed view to and from the Train Room.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER6 Union Station in 1895 1914 Station Original Station in 1881 1.3 DENVERENVER UNIONNION STATIONSTATION HISTORYISTORY CONTEXT ONTEXT ANAND VISION VISION 1.3.1B BuU ILd D ING ANd D SSITE HISTORYBuilt in four stages, two of which remain today, Denver Union Station has changed dramatically over its 12 decades, and remains the most prominent railroad building in Denver. Union Station, also known as Union Depot or Union Terminal, was designed by architect W.E. Taylor of Kansas City and constructed by a team including contractors A.H. Gareld, W.R. Barton, and J.H. McGonigle in 1881. From the beginning, the building provided a magnicent landmark for early Denver an elaborate example of the Italianate style or Victorian Eclectic style, featuring a 128-foot tall central tower on the axis of 17th Street. Generally considered to be a masterpiece of railroad Gothic, Union Station was set back from and looked out over Wynkoop Street. The original facade measured 503 feet in length and was essentially comprised of ve sections: a tower-topped center pavilion, two end pavilions, and two slightly lower, recessed connecting sections. The building was constructed of locally sourced materials, with a primary structural stone of pinkish rhyolite quarried in Castle Rock and sandstone trim quarried in Morrison. All sections were topped by mansard roofs with bracketed eaves, elaborate coping, and end-clerestory windows. Each faade section and the ends were further marked by a central, double-height entryway topped by a gabled parapet. Double hung windows topped by stilted at arches lined the rst oor level, while the second oor featured stilted segmented arches. The building wings were detailed in an identical manner to give the appearance of symmetry, but in reality the spaces between the doors and windows of the north wing were narrower, reducing the length of this section by some 30 feet. Where the Wynkoop Street facade was well detailed and modulated, the track-side facade was simpler, with long uninterrupted rows of double hung windows. In 1892, single-story, stone wings were added to each end of the structure, providing additional space for mail, baggage, and freight handling and extending the length of the building to 880 feet. The following year, a sheet metal and iron truss canopy was added along the full length of the train side faade of the station. While the wings were demolished in about 1990, a small portion of the canopy survives along the north wing. The remainder of the canopy has been replaced over the years with a series of newer canopies and smaller enclosures. The next major change to the building came in 1894 when a spectacular re destroyed the center pavilion and damaged the wing roofs. Plans were immediately drawn up by the architects Van Brunt and Howe of Kansas City to replace the center pavilion. The new design for this section, done in the Richardsonian Romanesque style, featured a 168-foot tall square central tower with corner turrets and 14-foot diameter clocks. Much of the stonework, window types and openings were retained from the original building, however the roof was entirely replaced with a simple hip that eliminated all detail except simple hip-roofed dormers. By 1914, trac at Union Station had reached a point where the central passenger services room had become inadequate in size and therefore was demolished to make way for a new center pavilion. Also at this time, the Wynkoop side of the station had become much more active with local street car lines looping onto the site, serving the bustling warehouse district (now known as Lower Downtown), which had become heavily populated with railroad related businesses. The new pavilion, popularly referred to as the Train Room, was designed by Gove and Walsh of Denver in a Renaissance Revival style. Finished in 1914, this premier example of the BeauxArts style is the central Train Room that remains standing today. The building is constructed of terra cotta with a granite base and topped by a mansard roof. The most prominent features are the parapet with its large clock in a round arch pediment over rows of tall round-arched windows on the street and track sides of the building. There are ve such windows on the track side and three windows anked by matching niches on the street side. Windows on the end bays and sides are double hung with at arches above the canopy and segmented arches below. The track and street sides of the Train Room are nearly identical providing a prominent

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES7 The Mizpah Arch The Travel by Train sign DUS as seen from 17th St today The tree-lined front court of the original DUStermination of the view along 17th Street from both the east and the west. Both sides have canopies of varying sizes located below the sills of the monumental windows. Much of this original canopy remains along the Wynkoop side, extending continuously along the front and sides to the rst door on the wings. Also in 1914, the tracks were raised about ve feet to make room for three subways or underground tunnels that connected the station to the various tracks and related platforms. Platform uses alternated between passenger and freight or trucking platforms. In order to provide protection from the weather, umbrella-type concrete canopy structures were later added to the passenger platforms. In 1906, the Mizpah Arch was erected in front of the building at 17th Street to greet travelers, only to be demolished in 1931 due to concerns over trac safety. Twenty years later, in 1952, the iconic UNION STATION Travel by Train signs were added to the parapets. Further alterations and additions over the years have included the addition of new canopies and passenger structures to the track side of the building and the closure of two of the three subways. Just as the building has changed over time, so too has the site. The original structure featured a grand park-like lawn along the Wynkoop Street side, lined with mature perimeter street trees and enclosed with a low wrought-iron fence. In 1880, Wynkoop Street was a dirt track with virtually no adjacent development, however in the following decades, the Lower Downtown Historic District a collection of masonry warehouses and commercial buildings grew up around the station. Following the 1914 center pavilion addition, much of the landscaping was removed, except at the corners, and was replaced with a driveway and parking area for cars. Since that time, the parking area has continued to grow, replacing any landscaping remaining on the site, culminating in 2003 with the addition of a central entry plaza and clearer vehicular drop o and parking access. 1.3.2O OVERVIEW OF Th H E DUSS T TRANSIT EELEMENTSThe 19.5-acre DUS site purchased in 2001 by the partner agencies was intended by the subsequent DUS Master Plan [2004] to contain the termini of the transportation modes. In other words, the DUS site was synonymous with the Transit District. However, as the DUS Master Plan evolved into the DUS Master Plan Supplement [2008], the termini and stations of the various transportation modes were relocated both within the 19.5-acre DUS site and the surrounding area. Most notably, the Light Rail Transit Station was relocated to a position along the CML between 16th Street and 18th Street. The Regional Bus Station, which had been located under the plaza areas between the historic station building and Wynkoop Street, is now located under the 17th Street ROW between the historic station and the CML, extending under both Wewatta Street and Chestnut Place. The routes of the 16th Street Mall Shuttle and Downtown Circulator were extended to the vicinity of the Light Rail Station at the CML. In this and other ways the reconguration of the transit modes expanded the boundaries of the Transit District to encompass the entire area between Wynkoop Street and the CML, from 16th Street to 18th Street, along with the rest of the original 19.5-acre DUS site. The following paragraphs describe the conguration of each transit mode and its relationship to the DUS site. While the arrangement of the modes has been established through the Master Plan Supplement and subsequent design work, these Standards and Guidelines are intended to provide direction to the architectural, landscape, and other features that dene and connect the modes and to the new buildings that will dene it. These elements, along with the transportation facitlities, will contribute to establishing DUS as a regional destination and place for people.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER8 Fig 1.2a: Commuter Rail Terminal (CRT) tracks and platforms Downtown NorthN S E W 16TH STREET 17TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREET 18TH STREETWEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET CHESTNUT PLACEConsolidated Main Line (CML) LEGEND BE LO W G RADE BUS ACCES S RTD BUS ROUTE DENVER UNION STATION M aster Plan September 2004 COMMu U TER RRAIL TTERMINAL (CRTRT )The CRT will be located at grade directly to the west of the historic Denver Union Station building. The eight new tracks terminate at this location and accommodate RTD commuter trains, Amtrak trains and the Ski Train. The entire CRT is located within the DUS site, Sub-Area 2. It will be partially protected by a canopy structure referred to as the Train Hall. The historic Train Room will continue to serve as a waiting area for passengers, as well as providing other services. The CRT will be surrounded by new development buildings along Wewatta Street between 16th and 18th Streets. At the north end, development will be built over the rail tracks, while the building along 16th will dene the end of the Train Hall and the head-end platform. The new mixed-use buildings will play an important role in creating the setting of the CRT. RREGIONAL BBuU S SSTATIONThe Regional Bus Station is an underground facility located within the 17th Street ROW extending from the historic station to the LRT Station. The eastern half lies within the SubArea 2 of the DUS site. Bus access to the station is provided in two locations, one location on the DUS site and the other in the CPV. A ramp extended from the HOV lane at 18th Street will provide bus access to the underground station.

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES9 Fig 1.2b: Regional Bus Station Access Downtown NorthN S E W 16TH STREET 17TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREET 18TH STREETWEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET CHESTNUT PLACEConsolidated Main Line (CML) LEGEND BE LO W G RADE BUS ACCES S RTD BUS ROUTE Fig 1.2c: Light Rail Transit (LRT) routes Downtown NorthN S E W 16TH STREET 17TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREET 18TH STREETWEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET CHESTNUT PLACEConsolidated Main Line (CML) LRT LINE LRT PLATFORMS LEGEND LLIGh H T RRAIL TTRANSIT SSTATIONThe Light Rail Transit Station lies along the CML between 16th Street and 18th Street. It sits outside the DUS site, but is an important part of the larger Transit District.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER10 Fig 1.2d: 16th Street Mall Shuttle route Fig 1.2e: The Downtown Circulator route Downtown NorthN S E W 16TH STREET 17TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREET 18TH STREETWEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET CHESTNUT PLACEConsolidated Main Line (CML) SHUTTLE STOP SHUTTLE STOP SHUTTLE STOP SHUTTLE STOP LEGEND SHUTTLE ROUTE Downtown NorthN S E W 16TH STREET 17TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREET 18TH STREETWEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET CHESTNUT PLACEConsolidated Main Line (CML) CIRCULATOR STOP (BELOW GRADE) CIRCULATOR STOP (BELOW GRADE) CIRCULATOR STOP (BELOW GRADE) LEGEND CIRCULATOR ROUTE 16Th H SSTREET MMALL SShuHU TTLEThe 16th Street Mall Shuttle will continue to operate on 16th Street adjacent to the DUS site. However, the Shuttle will continue past Wewatta Street to Chestnut Place and then 17th Street to serve the LRT Station area, which will be the Shuttles new western terminus. Between Wynkoop Street and Chestnut Place, the Shuttle will operate in mixed trac.DOWNTOWN CIRcu CU LATORThe Downtown Circulator will enter the DUS site at 18th and Wynkoop Street. It will then descend to the Regional Bus Station using the ramp from 18th Street. There are no at grade Circulator stops anticipated in the DUS site.

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES11 Fig 1.2f: Existing and Proposed Bicycle Routes BIKE PATH IN A PEDESTRIAN DISMOUNT AREA PROPOSED CPV BIKE WAY CONNECTIONS BIKE PATH AT ROAD LEVEL BIKE PATH AT CREEK LEVEL DISMOUNT AREA CHERRY CREEK ACCESS POINT POSSIBLE BIKE FACILITIES Downtown NorthN S E W CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCKEXISTING DUS BUILDINGB-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML) BBIc C Yc C LE AAccCC ESSBicycle access to and through the Transit District and DUS site is an important component of the multimodal transportation system at DUS. One existing route, the Wynkoop Street bike lanes, passes along the east side of the DUS site and connects to the regional and local bike system. Access through the DUS site is expected to be on 16th Street. Bycicle access is allowed on all streets Bike facilities such as bike racks, and possibly a bike station, will be provided at convenient locations throughout the transit district. 1.3.3 DEVELOPMENT CONTEXTThe DUS site can be thought of as a hinge or link district between one of Denvers oldest neighborhoods, the Lower Downtown Historic District, and one of its newest mixed-use neighborhood, the Commons. In a broader context, the DUS site and the Transit District are a cap stone, anchoring Downtown at its western end.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER12 CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREET DECK OVER CRT PROPERTY LINE DEVELOPMENT FOOTPRINT PRIMARY GD P BOUNDA RY A-BLOCK B-BLOCK TRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING Downtown NorthN S E W Fig 1.3a: Private development parcels within the DUS site and adjacent to itAcross Wynkoop Street from Sub-Area 1 lies the Lower Downtown Historic District, which is largely made up of structures dating to the late 19th century or early 20th century. Historic buildings tend to be 55 to 85 feet tall and constructed of brick. While numerous structures have been built within the district in recent years, most of the newer buildings have conformed to the scale of the historic structures, as well as to their predominantly masonry construction. To the west of Sub-Area 2 lie the new neighborhoods of the Commons, Riverfront, and Prospect. In these districts more contemporary styles prevail and more metal and glass curtain walls are employed for building enclosures. While these two neighborhoods provide the context, it does not necessarily follow that the DUS site should promote a blend of historic and contemporary architectural styles. The height allowances in the DUS site zoning transition from the lower scale of Lower Downtown to the midand high-rise buildings of Riverfront Park and the Commons.

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES13 The EPA Building to the south of DUS The Icehouse Lofts to the north of DUS The Millennium Bridge over the CML MMillennium Bridge EE PA Bldg The Icehouse THE COMMONS LOWER DOWNtT OWN MM useum of Cont. ArtFig 1.3b: DUS as a hinge neighborhood between LoDo and The Commons RRiverfront Tower SSugar Cube Bldg Commons Park The Sugar Cube Building1.3.4 DENVER UNION SSTATION GGENERAL DEVELOPMENT PPLAN The GDP includes two areas: the DUS site is the primary area and the remainder of the Transit District (the Commons Neighborhood) to the west is the secondary area. The purpose of including the Commons area is to acknowledge the various existing regulatory documents and processes that may apply to DUS-constructed improvements. These regulatory documents include (but are not limited to) the Commons PUD zoning, the Major Encumbrance Permit issued to the CPV Metropolitan District, and the Commons Design Standards and Guidelines. The GDP was adopted by the planning Board on April 7, 2009.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER14

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES15 2. SSITE-WWId D E URBAN DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S ANd D GGuU Id D ELINESThe DUS site, with its concentration of transit functions, dynamic mixed-use development, and vibrant public spaces will anchor the west end of Downtown Denver, and be comparable in civic urban presence (yet very dierent in character) to the Capitol and Civic Center area at the east end. It will create new development opportunities and activities focused on transit, along with signicant public amenities. The DUS site will become the focal point of the area, an urban hinge connecting the Commons and the Central Platte Valley with Lower Downtown. The DUS site is part of a greater Transit District that stretches from the historic Station building to the CML. The DUS Transit District has a unique function in the city as the nexus of the transportation modes being built out as part of the FasTracks program. The historic Denver Union Station building, a landmark structure, will be given new life and activity as the symbolic gateway, anchor and destination of the district. The function and urban form of the area as the center of the regions wider transportation network will generate a special character for this area. The intense concentration of transit functions, and the number of commuters and other passengers and visitors that will pass through the area each day, present unique opportunities for the public realm and the private development. With the transportation architecture of the Commuter Rail Terminal, the Regional Bus Facility and the Light Rail Station, the DUS site will have a progressive architectural character that will set it apart from Lower Downtown and the Commons, its contiguous districts. This unique character of the transit infrastructure, architecture and the design of the public realm will extend from the historic Station to the Light Rail Station at the CML along the axis of 17th Street. While the Transit District will be woven into the fabric of the surrounding area by way of continuous streetscapes, there should be a sense that one has entered a distinctive district. The enhanced sense of arrival from the various transit modes is part of the larger gateway function of the urban design and transit experience as a whole. While the historic Station is the centerpiece, it is supported by the transportation architecture, the private development, and the public spaces. 2.1GENERAL GENERAL INTENTINTENT STATEMENTSSTATEMENTS The following intent statements pertain to the entire DUS site: Transit creates special opportunities and obligations for new structures in the DUS site: 1. Transit infrastructure, public space, and buildings must be of human scale and enhance the experience of transit users, residents, and visitors. Transit architecture, public spaces, private development, and transportation functions will be integrated into a cohesive, distinctive urban place. 2. The public realm must be clearly legible and form a network of continuous spaces, providing continuity between the surrounding public streets, and public spaces, and transit access. 3. The public realm, transit infrastructure, and private development must be designed and constructed to the highest standards of quality, permanence and civic character. 4. Multimodal transportation is the dening aspect of DUS. Attractive, convenient, and clear pedestrian circulation will be fundamental to success. All functions accommodated on the DUS site and in the Transit District must be usable to all people, to the greatest extent possible, without need for adaptation or specialized design. 5. The DUS site must be recognized as a great public place. Building, public space and transit structure design should avoid the faddish and ephemeral, hewing to the dignied and timeless.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER16 Fig 2.1c: The DUS Transit District will anchor the northwest end of Downtown Denver6. While the historic station building sets the tone for this area, new structures must be forward-looking and innovative, not replicative. The best way to honor the historic Station building is to design comparably excellent and enduring new structures that are of out time. 7. The private development buildings have a special obligation to frame and support the civic nature of the public transportation and to dene and activate the public spaces. The private development buildings will have four public faces, so each elevation is important. These buildings also provide the greatest opportunity for retail to serve transit riders, residents, workers and visitors. In addition, there is an obligation to provide optimal pedestrian environments at all entries to the transit area. 8. All elements of the DUS sitethe private development, the public spaces, and the transitmust together create a unique sense of arrival. Likewise, the transit functions must be apparent and fully accessible by pedestrians from all directions. 9. Ease of orientation to the city and the transit must be achieved. Waynding should be intuitive to the greatest extent possible, but should include a comprehensive signage program.

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES17 Fig 2.2: DUS Existing Zoning10. The urban design must support the convenience and comfort of all users, workers, residents and visitors at all times of day and evening, weekdays and weekends. 11. The public spaces of the Transit District must be exible to accommodate the needs of transit riders, businesses, residents and the immediate neighborhood, while allowing the opportunity for a variety of other community activities. 2.2A A UTTHORITYORITY PROVISIONSPROVISIONS OFOF T THEE ZONING ONINGUrban Design Intention of the Zoning The Zoning for the DUS site is intended to promote a number of urban design characteristics, such as pedestrian-oriented activities at ground level, human-scale faade design, and spatially dening streets and public spaces. Requirements specic to Sub-Areas 1 and 2 are detailed below, in Sections 3 and 4 respectively. The height and bulk provisions of the Zoning (summarized in Figure 2.2) are intended to shape the general urban form of the DUS site. The Zoning calls for a zero-height limit on the two Plazas adjacent to the historic Station building in Sub-Area 1. The Zoning allows for new buildings 65 feet high to be built at the corners of 16th and 18th and Wynkoop Street, with signicant setbacks from the ROW parallel to Wynkoop Street. This height limit is meant to the setback is intended to preserve oblique views of the central block of the historic Station from the area of 16th Street and Wynkoop to the south, and 18th and Wynkoop to the north. The Zoning permits these anking structures to have an L-shaped plan that returns toward and abuts the north and south facades of the historic wing buildings. To the west of the Station, in Sub-Area 2 the Zoning regulates a stepped increase in building height limits from 70 feet (directly west of the historic Station), 90 feet along portions of 16th and 18th Streets, and 140 feet with limited areas of 200 and 220 feet along Wewatta Street. This stepping keeps buildings taller than the historic Station from being built directly adjacent to it. Furthermore, the Zoning also enshrines the 160-feet wide view corridor of 17th Street west of the historic Station, above the datum of 5,209 feet above sea level, equivalent to the base of the high arched windows of the historic Station central block.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER18 2.3SITE SITE CIRIR CULATIONLATIONThe DUS site specically, and the Transit District generally, is intended to be an urban area where the pedestrian and public transit modes take precedence over vehicular trac. However, a substantial number of transit riders will be connecting to and from private vehicles (taxi, limousine, private auto). Sub-Area 2 includes a major public parking garage facility, and the mixed use developments will include parking for residents and employees. Historic and new buildings will require service access and local businesses will expect some on-street parking to be available. In summary, light-occupancy vehicles cannot be ignored, but their access needs to be subordinated to the pedestrian ows and transit modes. Circulation routes for the various modes have been established by the DUS Master Plan Supplement and the DUS General Development Plan. The Design Standards and Guidelines proposed for the public ROW are for illustrative purposes only. The detailed design of the public ROW improvements will be incorporated in site plan submittals. GGENERAL IINTENT SSTATEMENT1. To establish a hierarchy for and to coordinate multiple circulation systems rail and bus transit, vehicle, pedestrian and bicycle within a relatively small area, while retain ing and reinforcing the overall urban, pedestrian character of adjacent neighborhoods. 2. To facilitate pedestrian linkages between transit modes and between these modes and the public space network of the DUS site and connections to contiguous areas. 3. To provide consistent connectivity for all users accessing priority destinations including transit platforms, building entries, and public space amenities.2.3.1T TRANSIT CIRcu CU LATIONIINTENT1. To locate public transit circulation in a way that minimizes conict with private and commercial vehicle circulation and with general pedestrian and bicycle movements, while providing safe and convenient access by users of public transit modes. 2. To promote visibility of vehicle areas and transit facilities by pedestrians and vice versa as a means of enhancing safety. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Transit access points shall be clearly visible from the public realm. If barriers are required for safety reasons, these shall promote visibility of the transit access points, rails, or drive ways. However, no chain-link fences shall be permitted as permanent barriers. 2. The design of all code-mandated safety and security elements (such as fences, protective barriers, bollards, tactile warning strips, etc.) shall be coordinated with the landscape and hardscape design direction with respect to placement, materials, color, and form. 3. Rubber-tire transit vehicles shall be conned to clearly dened streets or driveways.

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES19 Fig 2.3a: Public Transit vehicle routes through the DUS site Downtown NorthN S E W 16TH ST SHUTTLE 18TH ST CIRCUL AT OR BUS/CIRCULATOR ENTRANCE TO BELOW LOCA L BUS ROUTE COMMUTER RAIL CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING B-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML) DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Whereas all required safety and security provisions must be made to minimize conicts between pedestrians and transit vehicles, the planning should consider the counter-balancing objective of convenient access to transit from the public realm. 2. Every eort should be made not to preclude future revised circulation routes for rubber-tire transit modes to and through the DUS site. 2.3.2P PEd D ESTRIAN CIRcu CU LATIONIINTENT1. To promote pedestrian accessibility to all areas of the DUS site, except vehicle driveways, service areas, and dedicated transit ways (such as the track area) as a means of enhancing walkability of the district and therefore livability of the neighborhood. The quality of the pedestrian experience has a signicant inuence on the success of mixed-use districts.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Sidewalks shall be provided along all public streets. 2. Pedestrian access to all public open spaces and transit areas within the DUS site shall be required. 3. The few areas where pedestrian access will be denied (Bus Station HOV drive, service areas of commercial buildings) shall be so dened by appropriate signage, changes of paving materials, bollards, or other barriers. 4. Pedestrian crossings of streets shall be clearly marked with special paving, texturing, or color selected in coordination with the landscape and hardscape design of the public spaces. The authors, a working group of architects, product designers, engineers and environmental design researchers, collaborated to establish the following Principles of Universal Design to guide a wide range of design disciplines including environments, products, and communications. [1] 1. Equitable use 2. Flexibility in use 3. Simple and intuitive 4. Perceptible information 5. Tolerance for error 6. Low physical eort 7. Size and space for approach and use(from the Center for Universal Design) Wikipedia

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER20 DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Level changes steps, sloped surfaces, ramps should be minimized in the public areas in order to facilitate pedestrian circulation for people of all abilities. 2. Minimum circulation areas should be maintained for all circulation routes, sidewalks, transit access areas. 3. Building entrances should be maintained when dening temporary demarcation for special uses (events) or outdoor commercial spaces. 2.3.3B BIc C Yc C LE CIRcu CU LATION; BBIc C Yc C LE ANd D SScC OOTER FFAc C ILITIESIINTENT1. To provide safe and convenient access to the DUS site and the transit areas for bicycle riders. 2. To provide appropriate parking facilities for bicycles and scooters. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Dened bicycle lanes or sharrows shall be planned in coordination with DPW wherever feasible within the public ROWs. 2. Bicycle facilities shall be located on the DUS site in relation to the bicycle circulation and access routes. Design shall provide access to these facilities for bicycles. Downtown NorthN S E W PRIMARY TRANSPORTATION PEDESTRIAN FLOW TRANS IT MO DE SECONDARY ACCESS / EGRESS PRIMARY ACCESS / EGRESS LEGEND CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING B-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML)

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES21 Downtown NorthN S E W LEGEND flow < 50 50 < flow < 200 200 < flow < 800 800 < flow < 2000 flow > 2000 Transit Mode CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING B-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML) DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Major exterior staircases serving public pedestrian routes over the CRT tracks should be provided with tracks for dismounted riders to guide bicycles up and down these staircases. 2. The bicycle circulation network within the DUS site should be coordinated with and tie into any pre-existing or planned bicycle circulation networks in the surrounding area. 3. Parking for scooters should be provided.2.3.4V VEh H Ic C LE CIRcu CU LATIONIINTENT1. To provide adequate private and commercial vehicle access to the DUS site, subordinate to the transit and pedestrian circulation. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Curbside pick-up and drop-o areas for taxis, limousines, and other non-public LOV services shall be located in proximity to the transit areas along Wynkoop Street, Wewatta Street, and Chestnut Place, but not within the 17th Street ROW. 2. Curb cuts and driveways shall be perpendicular to the public streets. 3. Curb cuts and driveways shall be appropriately marked with horizontal and vertical elements coordinated with the public space design. These elements shall consider the needs and abilities of all users.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER22 DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Where possible, curb cuts should be shared by buildings and uses. 2. Curb cuts should be no wider than the minimum City requirements. 2.4SITE SITE PLANNINGPLANNINGG GENERAL IINTENT 1. To establish a hierarchy of site planning elements public spaces, streetscapes, buildings, parking, and service areas that supports transit access and pedestrian circulation within the DUS site, while establishing a framework for the public space design (Section 2.6). The general location of transit facilities, public spaces, and infrastructure has been established by the Master Plan Supplement, DUS Zoning, and the General Development Plan, and has been further dened during the design process for those elements. These facilities the Regional Bus Station and the Commuter Rail Terminal and associated track alignments are considered xed for the purposes of these Site Planning Design Standards and Guidelines. 2.4.1S STREETSc C APE DESIGNStreetscape design provides for the essential continuity of the public realm between the public open spaces, transportation facilities, and the development sites. These elements serve to dene the character of the Transit District, and to weave the fabric of the DUS site and Transit District into the fabric of the existing and future adjacent neighborhoods. IINTENT1. To develop a distinctive hierarchy of streetscapes that respond to the unique conditions of the site the presence of multiple modes of transportation, the centrality of the historic Station building, and the civic importance of the new district. Downtown NorthN S E W 16TH STREET 17TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREET 18TH STREETWEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET CHESTNUT PLACEConsolidated Main Line (CML) LEGEND BICYCLE PATH Fig 2.3e: Bicycle routes through the DUS site

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES23 2. To recognize the primacy of pedestrians in the planning of streets, sidewalks, intersections, and streetscapes. 3. To ensure that the DUS site and the greater Transit District constitute a pedestrian- friendly urban environment that is safe, inviting, and active. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. The approved Major Encumbrance Permit (2006) issued to the Central Platte Valley Metropolitan District shall be the basis for the streetscape design of Wewatta Street and for the design of 16th Street along the south side of the DUS site between Wynkoop and Wewatta streets. 2. Every sidewalk shall include as a minimum, an eight-foot wide pedestrian walk or clear zone and a ve-foot wide Amenity Zone for trees or other landscape treatment. 3. Street trees and other plantings shall be of high quality, appropriate to an urban setting and Denvers climate, and be installed using the best planting practices. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Where possible, sidewalk design should exceed the minimum requirements listed above, while not exceeding the maximum overall width of 20 feet. 2. Durable, high-quality unit pavers, colored and textured pre-cast concrete units, durable in-place concrete should be considered for sidewalks. 3. Required irrigation should be water-conserving.2.4.2B BuU ILd D ING LLOc C ATION, OORIENTATION ANd D USEThe standards and guidelines dealing with building location, orientation and use vary 3 and 4. 2.4.2.1 BBuU ILd D-TTO RREQu U IREMENTSIINTENT1. To promote the role of the buildings in dening, activating, and creating a strong sense of place for the transit areas, streetscapes, and public spaces DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Any gaps (recesses, returns, or actual breaks) between buildings or parts of buildings that are not part of a vehicle access shall be treated in a manner consistent with, but not necessarily identical to, the adjacent streetscape or public space design. 2. Building facades located along 16th, 17th, 18th or Wewatta streets or streets rights- of-way extended, shall be located on or near the property line to spatially dene the street space, create a clear urban character and concentrate pedestrian activity. Such buildings shall provide at least 80 percent of the faade length at or near the property line for at least the minimum building height.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER24 DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. The use, size, shape, and design of the adjacent public space and ground oor building use should inuence the build-to approach. 2.4.2.2 PPEd D ESTRIAN AAcC TIVE USE RREQu U IREMENTSIINTENT1. To maximize the extent of pedestrian active uses bordering the transit areas, streets, and public spaces 2. To provide continuity of pedestrian-oriented uses that supports an active public environment that is pedestrian in scale, and that engages people passing by, and that provides eyes on the street.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Specic areas for active uses, and standards for percentages, are listed in sections 3.4.2.2 and 4.4.2.2. 2. Where pedestrian active uses are not feasible, building facades shall have a pedestrian- friendly design. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. All building facades that are not service areas, regardless of orientation, should accommodate pedestrian active uses.2.4.3P PARKING LLOc C ATION ANd D AAccCC ESSThis sub-section addresses issues of location and access to parking facilities within the DUS site. Issues of design are addressed below and in sub-sections 2.5.6, 3.4.3, and 4.4.3. Preliminary locations of these access points are shown in gure 2.4.GGENERAL IINTENT 1. While it is recognized that parking is necessary for the viability of commercial and residential components of the mixed-use development, the DUS site specically, and the Transit District generally, will be exceptionally well-served by public transit. Therefore, parking facilities will be kept to a minimum and will have as little visual and environmental impact on the site as possible. PPARKING FFAc C ILITIES GGENERAL RREQu U IREMENTSIINTENT1. To minimize the visual and environmental impact of parking garages, mainly through location and design. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Entrances to parking facilities shall be located in coordination with the City through the site planning process. 2. Curb cuts and parking access points shall be set perpendicular to the building face.

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES25 3. Parking garage access portals shall have jambs and a sot measuring at least ve feet in depth perpendicular to the street or alley. These jambs shall be clad in the same building enclosure system as the adjacent building faade. The sot shall consist of a similarly formal and nished assembly. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Parking access points should have sightlines sucient for drivers to identify pedestrians on adjacent sidewalks. 2.4.4S SERVIc C E AAREAS I INTENT1. To physically separate and visually screen service areas from pedestrian areas and public spaces.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Where feasible, service areas shall be located inside the development blocks, hidden from view from public areas and minimizing impact on pedestrian circulation. 2. Where fully internal service areas are not feasible, the service areas shall be bounded on three sides by the building being served, with only one side open to the service drive. The open side shall be screened to the greatest extent possible. 3. Service areas shall not directly face the pedestrian areas or public spaces.DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. If possible, service areas should not be located within 25 feet of public entrances to buildings or transportation facilities. Downtown NorthN S E W L/S P S P P L/S P L/S S P L/S P P S S L/S PPARKING ENTRANCEPOSSIBLE PARKING ENTRANCE SERVICE ENTRY ONLY SERVICE EXIT ONLYLEGEND LOADING/SERVICE ENTRANCE CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING B-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML) Fig 2.4: Site-wide Parking and Loading/Service access points

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER26 2.5B BUILILDINGING DESIGNESIGNThe mixed-use buildings are called upon to play an urban design role unique in the city. While being contemporary in design and of our time, they must be complementary to and designed in relation to the historic Denver Union Station building and the new transportation architecture. They must frame the historic Station and dene the space around the Train Hall and the access paths to the platforms. They must also play a role in reinforcing the civic nature of the site and activating the street and adjacent public spaces. See Sections 3 and 4 for standards and guidelines specic to Sub-Areas 1 and 2.2.5.1B BuU ILd D ING MMASSING ANd D FFORMIINTENT1. To frame the historic Denver Union Station building and adjacent public and transportation spaces. 2. To reinforce the civic role of the transportation architecture and provide a sense of permanence. 3. To promote sun and sky exposure to public streets, plazas and open space. 4. To provide active edges to streets and public spaces.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Several strategies shall be employed to achieve the urban design intent. These might include the use of proportional systems, breaks in the mass, or changes in material between uses or parts of the building. Specic standards are listed in Sections 3 and 4 dealing with Sub-Areas 1 and 2 respectively. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. The massing and form of new buildings should take into account the transportation architecture (Train Hall and related structures) and strongly consider playing the role of background buildings to the primary structures of the site the historic Station and transit facilities. 2. New buildings, especially those closest to the historic Station, should take into account the horizontal datum and overall articulation of the various facades of the historic Station building (Fig. 2.5), while not being required to carry these into the massing and form of the new buildings. 2. Building forms should respond to their specic locations, whether they occupy a gate way location or a corner, terminate a view, or perform some other urban design func tion in the site.2.5.2B BuU ILd D ING ChH ARAc C TERMixed-use buildings need to form a dignied setting for the historic and new transportation structures, and generally reinforce the civic character of the site.

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES27 Fig 2.5: The horizontal datums and overall articulation of the facades of the historic Station building should be considered.2.5.2.1 MMATERIALSIINTENT1. To ensure that new buildings near the historic Station are constructed of high-quality materials and workmanship, so that they may be as enduring as the historic Station itself. 2. To dierentiate the palette of materials used for buildings within the DUS site from the vernacular architecture of LoDo. 3. To indicate through the selection and detailing of materials for new buildings that the DUS site is a distinctive and elevated place with respect to the surrounding urban fabric of LoDo and the CPV. 4. To promote the use of materials that express the civic function of the DUS site. 5. To ensure the consistent use of high-quality materials appropriate to an urban environment. 6. To promote the use of materials that are durable and low maintenance.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER28 DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Primary building materials shall be used for all four facades of the buildings on the DUS site, since all sides will be visible from one or another point in the public realm. These buildings will be four-sided buildings. 2. Materials shall be high-quality, durable and express a sense of permanence appropriate to the civic character of the site. The selected materials shall have a timeless quality and avoid passing trends. 3. Exterior insulation and nishing systems (EIFS), stucco, tilt-up concrete panels, and concrete masonry units shall not be permitted in any quantities on the facades of new buildings in the DUS site. 4. Synthetic materials that imitate natural materials are not permitted. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Preferred exterior building materials are: 2. If brick is used, its type, color, quality and detailing should be such to elevate it to the quality of the materials cited in the previous item. 3. Innovative and energy-ecient enclosure systems should be encouraged, as long as their appearance fullls the urban design intent and the materials are comparable in quality to those listed above. 4. Choice of materials should take into account the nature of the transportation architecture, the historic Station, and other structures in the vicinity. 5. The most durable materials should be used at the ground oor, except for storefronts. If more delicate materials are used, they must be detailed in such a way as to retain their initial appearance under normal ground-level use conditions. 6. The number of primary materials used in a given faade should be limited to two or three (excluding glazing, trim, mullions and building accessories). 2.5.2.2 FFENESTRATIONIINTENT1. To provide a high degree of transparency at the ground level. 2. To ensure appropriate degrees of transparency at upper oors, depending on uses. 3. To limit the glare from reective glass. Existing materials used in the DUS building and surrounding public spaces

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES29 DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Commercial ground oor facades facing streets or public open spaces shall provide no less than 60 percent glazed area. The area to be measured is the entire story, from ground to the bottom of the structural slab of the rst oor above the ground oor. 2. Commercial facades above the ground oor shall provide no less than 40 percent 3. Residential facades shall provide no less than 20 percent glazed area above the ground oor and the ground oor shall provide no less than 40 percent transparency. 4. Glazing shall have a maximum reectance of 20%. 5. No rst-surface reective coatings are permitted.DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Sun shading devices are permitted, as long as they are part of a comprehensive faade design. 2. Glazing with a pronounced tint (such as blue, green, brown or gold) beyond the naturally occurring tint of dierent varieties of nominally clear glass should not be used. 2.5.2.3 FFAAd D E AARTIcu CU LATIONIINTENT1. To promote the role of building facades in framing the public spaces. 2. To promote visual interest, especially at the ground oor.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Buildings with facades measuring 200 feet or less in width shall employ the same system of faade articulation for the entire length of the faade. Within a single system of articulation it is possible to introduce variations that account for dierence of exposure, orientation, or use. The four facades shall be consistent and responsive to adjacent buildings, public spaces, transportation facilities, and internal uses. 2. Buildings shall incorporate a system of scaling elements for the articulation of the faade. These can take the form of reveals, mullions, or a more pronounced system of relief (projections and recessions). 3. Parapets and other forms of terminating the building shall be detailed with a coping or cap piece appropriate to the building enclosure system. 4. As the fth faade of the building, the roof shall be detailed with care for organization, appearance, and quality. Mechanical equipment shall be screened from view. Stair bulkheads, penthouses, and other enclosed building elements shall be clad by an enclosure system of comparable quality to that of the principal facades. Solar, wind and other energy collection systems shall be allowed and incorporated into the rooftop design.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER30 DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Buildings with facades longer than 200 feet should employ multiple masses, variety of faade articulation, changes of plane, variations in materials, and other means of articulation to create visual interest and engagement for pedestrians and to signal changes of use. 2.5.3B BuU ILd D ING EENTRIES2.5.3.1 PPEd D ESTRIAN AAccCC ESS ANd D EENTRYIINTENT1. To promote interaction between building entrances and streets and public spaces. 2. To create street-level interest. 3. To promote pedestrian safety by separating pedestrian and vehicle access to buildings. 4. To provide ease of entry for all regardless of ability.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Every building or combined structure fronting on a street or public space shall have a pedestrian entry directly from the street or public space. The only exception to this Standard regards the parking garage built over the CRT tracks on the north side of the DUS site. 2. Pedestrian building entries shall be separated from vehicle entries by a minimum of 25 feet. 3 Building entries shall be readily identiable by pedestrians. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Canopies or inset entries should be used to protect the entry. 2. The major entry or entries to a building or ground oor uses should be visually emphasized through scale and architectural variety, enhanced lighting, color, material, art, or greater level of detail. 2.5.3.2 V VEh H Ic C LE AAccCC ESS ANd D EENTRYGiven the conguration of the site in the Master Plan Supplement and General Development Plan, several vehicle access points for parking and service will need to be incorporated into the faades of the mixed-use buildings. IINTENT1. To provide safe ingress and egress for vehicles accessing internal parking and service areas.

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES31 DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Parking access control gates shall be recessed not less than 20 feet from the property line. 2. Vehicle entrances and pedestrian entrances shall not be combined (except when combined at an internal hotel drop-o and entrance), and shall be separated by 25 at least feet. 3. Vehicular access points shall not occur at corners.DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. In order to minimize the number of curb cuts, parking and service entries should be combined, where feasible. anticipated in the DUS site area. 2.5.4B BuU ILd D ING AAccCC ESSORIES Examples of building accessories: IINTENT1. To ensure that building accessories are complementary to and integrated with the building and public space design. Building accessories extending into the public ROW require special permits from DPW.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. All building accessory materials shall be custom-detailed, constructed of high-quality materials, and produced according to high standards of craftsmanship. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Building accessories on facades directly fronting on public spaces should take into account both the specic design of the building faade to which they are attached, as well as the public space design. 2. If accessories are seasonal, they should be able to be removed without detriment to the building nishes, appearance and faade design. 3. For Lighting, see Section 2.7 4. For Signage, see Section 2.8.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER32 2.5.5B BuU ILd D ING SSERVIc C E AAREAS See above, Section 2.4.42.5.6S STRuc UC Tu U REd D PPARKING GGARAGESIINTENT1. To minimize the visual impact of parking structures on the pedestrian experience, the street environment and adjacent properties. 2. To screen from public view the parked vehicles, internal light sources, car headlights and angled ramps within parking structures.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. The design standards and guidelines for underground parking facilities shall also apply to above-grade structured parking. 2. No ground level parking areas shall be permitted. 3. Any parking oors in mixed use building shall be detailed in a manner similar to the building and shall be ush with oors above and below. 4. Above-grade parking levels shall be developed with opaque spandrel panels, or other screening devices that shield the headlights of vehicles parked at the perimeter of these decks. The interior lighting of garages shall be screened from view. 5. The faade shall screen both the structural elements and the parked vehicles from view. The percentage of opening shall be the minimum required for natural ventilation. 6. Above-grade parking structure facades shall be similar to the primary building faade design and adjacent buildings in character and quality. 7. Interior lighting of parking structures shall not be directly visible from the public ROW or adjacent buildings. 8. Concrete structural elements (in situ or pre-cast) shall not be exposed to the street or public view. 9. No sloped decks or ramps shall be exposed to the street or public space.DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Schemes that locate above-grade structured parking to the interior of building blocks i.e., wrapping the parking with other uses are preferred. 2. No more than 50% of a block frontage should be above-grade parking (except north of 18th along Wewatta Street). 3. Other schemes and devices that minimize above-grade parking, such as mechanized parking systems, should be considered. 4. Lighting should evenly illuminate parking areas and be fully shielded from neighboring buildings. Screening of above-grade parking structures should be maximized to meet the relevant legally required ventilation limits.

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES33 2.6P PUBLIBLIC SPASPA CEE DESIGNESIGN G GENERAL IINTENT SSTATEMENT To plan and design a network of public spaces and pedestrian connections using a combination of hardscape and landscape elements. Public spaces serve as areas for relaxation and community interaction, as well as pedestrian circulation. Their design should create variety and interest in the public realm. The spaces should be designed according to a hierarchy of importance and elaboration. The spaces should be integrated by specic elements of continuity, but provide a variety of characters The public space network should facilitate access to and from both the transportation facilities and the active ground oors of the historic Station building and the new development sites. Successful public space design should also contribute to making the open spaces destinations in themselves. The design should convey the signicance of DUS as the hub of regional transportation and the historic place of arrival and commerce for Denver, the region, and the Rocky Mountain West. Several key urban design principles apply: permanence. while maintaining integrity as public buildings. west.2.6.1G GENERAL PPuU BLIc C SSPAc C E DESIGN RREQu U IREMENTS1. Develop a comprehensive design that links all parts of the public space network (see Fig. 2.d) on the DUS site to the Transit District and adjacent neighborhoods. 2. Design elements of underlying continuity while promoting dierent uses and characters of the dierent spaces. Variations on a theme are encouraged. 3. Public space design must be continuous with and include all outdoor and covered transportation spaces CRT Train Hall, elevated deck over CRT, and connections to below-grade facilities. 4. Incorporate universal access principles into the public spaces to accommodate the needs of people with a variety of abilities. 5. Promote a strong urban design relationship with the enclosed transportation spaces the historic DUS Train Room and the Regional Bus Station. dierent times of the year shall inuence the arrangement of functions, selection of plants, and organization of amenities. 7. Ensure that public spaces can be activated at all times of the day, evenings and week ends, not just during peak commuter periods and special events. 8. Accommodate a variety of uses, including temporary and special events. 9. Draw on the unique geography and history of the site, the city and the region as inspiration for materials, landscape, orientation and views incorporated into the public spaces. 10. Aspire to design excellence, using high quality materials and craftsmanship.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER34 AAddDD ITIONAL GGENERAL RREQu U IREMENTS FROM MMASTER PPLAN SSuU PPLEMENT1. Proportion and articulate public spaces to encourage pedestrian activities within them and along their edges. 2. Place active uses along the edges of the public spaces to provide visual interest, amenities, and eyes on the street.2.6.2L LANd D Sc C APEIINTENT1. To implement a comprehensive landscape design that supports the dierent character and uses of the diverse public open spaces within the DUS site. 2. To use quality plant materials that are of sucient size and quantities to emphasize important streets and open space and connections 3. To implement a landscape design that respects the principles of durability, sustainability, appropriateness to regional climate.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. The landscape design and plant selection and arrangement shall take into account the particular characteristics of the local climate. 2. All plants shall be A-Grade or No. 1 Grade, free of any defects, of normal health, height, leaf density and spread appropriate to the species as dened by the American Association of Nurserymen or as approved by the City Forester. Downtown NorthN S E W LRT PLAZA AND PLATFORMS 18th ST AND WEWATTA BRIDGE & PLAZA DECK OVER CRT OUTDOOR TRAIN HALL OLD WEWATTA ROW CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING B-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML) WYNKOOP PLAZA AND 17th ST WEWATTA17th ST PROMENADE Fig 2.6: DUS and Transit District Open Space Network

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES35 3. Coniferous trees shall not be located within the public amenity zones of the public streets, but may be considered for other public spaces. 4. Grates, fencing, and other containment of trees or other plantings along sidewalks and within the public ROW must meet City standards.. 5. No articial trees, shrubs, or plants shall be used.DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Utility and landscape plans should be coordinated to provide ease of maintenance and to minimize conicts between plantings and utilities. 2. The plantings should not require excessive amounts of irrigation to remain healthy. 3. The landscape should be successful and visually interesting in all four seasons. 2.6.3 HARd D Sc C APE I INTENT1. To provide a network of special, decorative pedestrian surfaces for public spaces, public sidewalks, and certain areas of streets coordinated with the landscape design to form a comprehensive public realm design. 2. To establish a formal language and set of materials that denotes and denes the public realm and that connects the DUS public spaces with the surrounding streetscapes. 5. To extend the comprehensive scheme to all surface areas within the public realm or visible from the public realm and within the DUS site. 6. To implement a quality of paving materials and patterns consistent with the quality of surrounding architecture and open spaces. 7. To provide safe paving conditions for all persons. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Hardscape materials, assemblies and detailing shall not require extraordinary maintenance. 2. Public vertical circulation elements (monumental staircases, elevators and escalators) shall be integrated into the comprehensive hardscape design scheme. 3. Tactile paths shall be incorporated to assist the visually impaired navigate the public space.DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Water features may be incorporated in one or more of the public spaces. 2. Hardscape material selections should take into account the varying subsurface conditions throughout the DUS site. Some areas are fully on soil, others on a minimum overbuild covering of the Regional Bus Station or underground parking, and a portion is on structure. 3. Materials should be attractive and functional in all seasons and all types of weather. 4. Provide electrical service as appropriate to support temporary installations and special events.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER36 2.6.4S ScC REENING, FFENc C ING, WWALLS ANd D RRAILINGSIINTENT1. To screen service areas and utility xtures from public view. 2. To ensure that such screening elements are designed in coordination with the rest of the public space design and the adjacent buildings. 3. To provide security for private and common spaces not open to the general publicDESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Screening enclosures visible from public spaces shall be incorporated into building architecture and utilize building materials and architectural detailing compatible with the building. 2. Screening, fencing, or walls used to shield service areas shall not obstruct the visibility of transportation vehicles. 3. Such elements shall be purpose-designed and constructed with high-quality materials. O-the-shelf assemblies such as typical chain-link fencing shall not be permitted. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. These elements should be decorative, the product of thoughtful design and quality construction, rather than simply utilitarian. 2.6.5S SITE FFuU RNISh H INGSIINTENT1. To provide outdoor furnishings that encourage and enhance the use, and visual quality and function of public areas, while maintaining clear pathways to transit and building entries, cross walks and other destinations. 2. To reinforce the distinctive identity of the district. 3. To provide opportunities for both permanent and temporary arrangements of furnish ings to meet a variety of seasonal needs and the ability to meet future needs. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Site furnishings shall be designed according to a consistent language or form, materials and color. This design shall be coordinated and consistent with district lighting, and signage. 2. Public spaces shall have a mix of built-in seating (benches, planter edges, seat walls, or portions of monumental stairs) and areas for loose seating (seats, benches, tables), and space for trash receptacles. 3. Location of seating shall take into account the needs of transit users, visitors, and neighborhood residents and workers. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Benches should be provided in the sidewalk amenity zone where appropriate to serve bus stops and other specic needs.

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES37 2.6.6P PROVISIONS FOR PPuU BLIc C AART ANd D IINTERPRETIVE DISPLAYSIINTENT1. To create the conditions for and locations of integral public art, both permanent and temporary, within the DUS site. 2. To develop interpretative programs, exhibits and displays that communicate the history and signicance of the site and historic Station building and transportation functions. 3. To encourage those works to engage the specic conditions and characteristics of the site.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. The public open space design shall identify locations for works of public art (such as sculptures). 2. Integrate public art and interpretive displays into embedded and permanent elements of the public space and transit elements.DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Art should be integrated into buildings and transit infrastructure. 2. Consider inviting artists to work with the public space designers on the design of functional aspects of the public space. 3. Special landscape designs should be considered for the public art program. 2.7LIG LIGHTINGTINGThe lighting of the buildings, the site and the public open spaces can contribute signicantly to the quality of the DUS site and Transit District as a nighttime destination for commuters, residents and visitors. 2.7.1O OPEN SSPAc C E LLIGh H TINGIINTENT1. To promote a sense of safety in the public open spaces, streets, and other pedestrian areas of the site. 2. To ensure clear waynding throughout the site. 3. To provide even lighting and avoid extremes of bright, dark, and glare. 4. To promote a district-wide identity, in coordination with the other elements of the public space design and the transportation architecture. 5. To draw attention to the transportation facilities entrances and other important destinations within and routes through the site. 6. To support the goals of Dark Skies.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER38 DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. An overall lighting plan shall be developed in order to coordinate with public street lighting and to establish hierarchy of illuminated areas. 2. Lighting shall be coordinated with the design of the landscape, hardscape, furniture, signage, and other xed and movable elements of the public open space design. 3. Lighting elements shall be selected from a palette of contemporary lighting that provides compatibility throughout the site.. 4. Lighting elements shall be constructed of durable materials suitable to an urban environment and the climate of Denver. 5. Site lighting shall be even across public spaces, avoiding dark or overly bright areas. 6. Lighting shall be located, oriented, and shielded if need be so as to reduce glare for surrounding buildings, especially residential buildings. 7. The lighting scheme shall provide for seasonal and holiday lighting of public spaces. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Public space lighting should take into account the historic illuminated signage of the DUS building, including holiday lighting. 2. Landscape area, water features, public art, and other focal points should be illuminated. 2.7.2B BuU ILd D ING LLIGh H TINGIINTENT1. To provide building lighting that is compatible with the public space lighting and the lighting of the historic Station building. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Building lighting shall be general or focus on specic building elements. 2. Building lighting xtures shall be of architectural quality, consistent with the design of the building, or hidden from view. 3. The lighting of service areas shall be tightly controlled so that it does not illuminate or cast glare onto adjacent buildings or private areas. 4. Junction boxes, conduits, and other functional elements shall be concealed from public view and access. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Building lighting should not compete with the historic lighting of the DUS building. 2. Building lighting should draw attention to public entrances and other key functional elements. 3. Building lighting should complement and defer to the public space lighting scheme. 4. Building lighting should promote a sense of safety.

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES39 2.8SIGNAGE SIGNAGEThe DUS site will have several types of signage transportation signage within the transportation facilities, district signage in the public open spaces and streets, and building signage identifying individual businesses and structures. Within this last category there may be private and public groups of signage. 2.8.1 DISTRIc C T SSIGNAGEUntil a district signage master plan is approved, the following principles should apply to any district signage:PPRINc C IPLES1. To aid in the creation of a unique identity for the DUS site and the wider Transit District based on the presence of the many transportation facilities. 2. To identify the key destinations including streets, cross walks, building entries and transportation facilities. 3. To provide waynding to and between transportation facilities to improve intermodal connections for all users. Signage shall be useful to people of varying heights, mobility, and sensory impairments. 4. To identify pedestrian routes through the DUS site, such as the elevated deck connection and the CRT headhouse area. 5. To provide directional signage to nearby destinations such as the Lower Downtown, Millennium Bridge, the Museum of Contemporary Art, Larimer Square, Conuence Park, Commons Park, Pepsi Center, and Coors Field. 6. Large format outdoor advertizing (i.e. billboards) shall not be allowed.2.8.2B BuU ILd D ING SSIGNAGEIINTENT1. To integrate private business signage in a manner that facilitates commerce, enlivens the public realm, and respects the character of the historic Station, Transit District, and surrounding area. 2. To ensure that the signs of individual buildings and businesses can express a unique identity, while not detracting from the more important waynding and identication signage. 3. To encourage creative sign design.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. All building signs shall conform to the Denver Zoning Code and the district signage master plan. 2. Buildings with ground oor uses shall provide a uniform zone for signage over the ground oor. 3. All signs shall be measured in conformance with Section 59-536-538 of the Denver Zoning Code. 4. The signage zone shall be provided with electrical power to enable the installation of illuminated signs.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER40 5. All building signs shall be constructed of durable materials suited to the urban environment and climate of Denver. 6. All conduits, junction boxes, and other functional elements shall be completely hidden from view and safely concealed once the sign is installed. 7. No ashing signs shall be permitted for private buildings or businesses. 8. Advertising signage, if included, shall be presented in xed installations whose design is coordinated with the design of the district signage, use high-quality materials and craftsmanship. 9. Mixed-use buildings shall provide locations on the commercial areas of building fronts that are designed to accommodate changeable tenant signage.DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. The uniform signage zone may extend the full width of the ground oor, but individual signs for adjacent tenants should be separated by a minimum of 10 feet of horizontal distance. 2. Building signs should not be mounted in locations that may adversely impact the residential portions of the mixed-use buildings. 3. Special static and dynamic signage may be considered in association with the transportation facilities. 4. Signs should t within architectural features of the faade and complement the buildings architecture. 5. Projecting signs may be used so long as they conform to Section 59-554 of the Denver Zoning Code or the Comprehensive Sign Plan facilitates the intentions of Vital Signs.2.9 SSuU STAINABILITYWhile most aspects of sustainable design of buildings and public spaces are subject to building codes and specic sustainablility design standards, please refer to the Sustainability Vision for the DUS site in the Appendix to this document

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES41 3.S SuU B-AAREA 1 SSPEc C IAL URBAN DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S ANd D GGuU Id D ELINES CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREET DECK OVER CRT PROPERTY LINE DEVELOPMENT FOOTPRINT PRIMARY GD P BOUNDA RY A-BLOCK B-BLOCK TRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING Downtown NorthN S E W SUB AREA 1 3.1INTRO INTRODUCTION TIONThe historic Denver Union Station building ranks among the most signicant Historic Landmarks of the city of Denver and the region. The building fabric has been altered by re, changing needs, deliberate alterations, neglect, and the weathering of the elements. Likewise, the immediate grounds of the Station have changed over time (see Section 2). While the historic building and its setting were relatively unchanged during the last years of the 20th century, they will undergo a transformation as the centerpiece of the new Transit District. The historic Denver Union Station building is the centerpiece of the entire DUS site and greater Transit District, and is the dening structure of Sub-Area 1. Sub-Area 1 extends from the centerline of the Wynkoop Street ROW to 25 feet beyond the west facade of the historic Station, and from the centerline of the 16th Street ROW to the north property line (approximately the centerline of 18th Street extended (see illustration). As a designated Denver Landmark Structure, any exterior alterations to the historic Station, as well as the design of the new buildings and public spaces, will be reviewed by the Landmark Preservation Commission. Therefore, the following design standards and guidelines also apply: Design Guidelines for Landmark Structures and Historic Districts (March 1995), Contemporary Design in Historic Districts: New Construction and Additions and Alterations to Existing Structures (September 2006), and Design Standards for Landmark Lighting (August 1997). Important Note: the following intent statements, design standards and guidelines are supplemental to the Site-Wide Urban Design Standards and Guidelines set forth in Section 2, above. Designers must consult both Section 2 and the relevant Sub-Area section. Site-Wide standards and guidelines are not repeated in the Sub-Area section, but shall be considered applicable. 3.2GENERAL GENERAL INTENTINTENT STATEMENTSSTATEMENTS1. Incorporate the Historic Station into the regional multi-modal transportation hub both physically and functionally so that it once again serves as the iconic gateway to Denver and the region. 2. Establish the restored and activated historic Station building as a must-see destination, beyond its symbolic function as the center of the multi-modal transportation network and district. 3. Activate the DUS building with complementary uses, while preserving its physical integrity and historical place in the community. 4. Ensure that the historic Station building remains the urban focal point of the DUS site with the build-out of the transportation facilities, private development, and public spaces. 5. Ensure that new structures, the public space and the historic Station building work together to form a powerful destination and urban ensemble. 6. Ensure that the historic Train Room is an integral part of the transit functions, pedestrian circulation and the public space.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER42 Downtown NorthN S E W At least 30 in width SUB AREA 1 BOUNDARY 160 15 15 15 CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING B-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML) Fig 3.3: Pedestrian Route Clearances3.3SITE SITE CIRIR CULATIONLATION Sub-area 1 will be a predominately pedestrian environment with transit and private vehicles conned to adjacent streets.3.3.1P PEd D ESTRIAN CIRcu CU LATIONIINTENT1. To ensure that the DUS building will support pedestrian access from the east (LoDo) side and passage through to the CRT on the west, and vice versa, serving as a vital link to pedestrian movement. 2. To provide clear pedestrian access routes to and from the historic Station and Lower Downtown, as well as to and from the transportation facilities and private development to the west (see g. 3.3). DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. The entire 160 width of the central Train Room section of the historic Station shall be kept clear between the front of the station and Wynkoop Street for pedestrian access, as well as visibility. 2. A pedestrian route approximately 30 feet in width shall be maintained clear and free of obstructions from Wynkoop Street to the gap between the historic Station and the South Wing Building. 3. A similarly sized route shall be maintained between Wynkoop Street and the base of the vertical circulation to the elevated deck at the north of the historic Station. 4. Sidewalk or continuous walkways shall be provided adjacent to all streets. 5. A pedestrian zone of at least 15 feet in width shall be maintained parallel to Wynkoop Street. This zone shall provide pedestrian continuity with the more typical sidewalk conditions north and south of the DUS site along Wynkoop Street, but shall be designed in coordination with the adjacent DUS plazas.

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES43 DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Pedestrian access to the existing doorways of the historic wing buildings should be 2. If the vertical circulation to the deck is attached to or inside the North Wing building, the pedestrian circulation zones can be locally modied. 3.3.2B BIc C Yc C LE CIRcu CU LATIONSee Section 2.3.23.3.3V VEh H Ic C LE CIRcu CU LATIONIINTENT1. To ensure that the areas where vehicles are present do not interfere with views of the Train Room. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S obstruct the cross walks. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Trac calming devices should be considered for Wynkoop Street. 3.4SITE SITE PLANNINGPLANNING 3.4.1S STREETSc C APE DESIGNIINTENT1. To develop a hierarchy of streetscape designs that recognizes the dierent functions of streets and public spaces within the Sub-Area. 2. To integrate the sidewalks, streetscape features, and pedestrian routes into the general public plaza design. 3. To recognize the change in scale, function and civic stature of the Wynkoop Street frontage between 16th and 18th.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. The intersections of Wynkoop Street at 16th Street, 17th Street and 18th Street shall be treated as integral to the public space design of the DUS plazas. 2. The sidewalk along the western edge of Wynkoop Street within the DUS site shall be treated as part of the public space design of the DUS plazas.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER44 16th Street Mall DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. The 16th Street sidewalk pavement design should be integral to the design of the street. 2. 18th Street should receive a surface treatment that distinguishes it from the typical asphalt or concrete street surface to acknowledge its restricted use for buses, parking, and service access 3. The re-paving of the Wynkoop ROW as an extension of plaza is encouraged. The paving should serve as a uniform carpet linking DUS and Lower Downtown and dening the entire building face-to-building face area as an urban room.3.4.2B BuU ILd D ING LLOc C ATION, OORIENTATION ANd D USE3.4.2.1 BBuU ILd D-TTO RREQu U IREMENTSSee Figure 2.2. IINTENT1. To ensure that buildings frame the historic Station as the center of the urban composition as similar bookends.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. The wing buildings shall be located the same distance from and parallel to Wynkoop Street in order to reinforce the symmetry of the historic Station and its placement on the site. 2. Building facades facing Wynkoop Street or Wynkoop Plaza shall be constructed at or near the setback line for at least 75 percent of the building frontage.DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Buildings have four sides with public orientation. 2. The new buildings should have a major orientation to the new DUS plaza spaces, as well as to 16th and 18th Streets and to Wynkoop Street. 3.4.2.2 PPEd D ESTRIAN AAcC TIVE USE RREQu U IREMENTSSee Figure 3.4a. IINTENT1. To promote street-level pedestrian active uses to enliven the public realm. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Pedestrian active uses shall be provided for all ground oor facades facing 16th Street. Wynkoop Street, Wynkoop Plaza, and wrapping around the corner of the north side of the North Wing Building. 2. Pedestrian friendly frontage shall be provided along the west-facing ground oor facades of the buildings.

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES45 Downtown NorthN S E W Active Use FrontagePedestrian Friendly Frontage CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING B-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML) Fig 3.4a: Sub-Area 1 ground level active use facadesDESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. 15-feet wide zones along the plaza-side and Wynkoop Street side edges of the two new buildings should be kept free for outdoor uses such as caf seating served from the buildings. 2. The 18th Street side of the north building should have pedestrian friendly frontage, except at the northeast corner where active uses are appropriate. 3. The historic Station should have pedestrian active uses at the ground oor to activate the plazas. 3.4.3P PARKINGIINTENT1. To minimize the presence and visibility of parking and parking entrances from public areas within Sub-Area 1. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. No above-grade or on-grade parking shall be constructed in Sub-Area 1. 2. Only underground parking shall be permitted in Sub-Area 1. 3. Parking entrances shall be from 16th and 18th Streets not from Wynkoop Street (see Fig. 3.4b). DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Signage for parking entrances within Sub-Area 1 should be consistent with the district signage plan.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER46 Fig 3.4b: Location of Parking and Loading/Service Access points in Sub-Area 13.4.4S SERVIc C E AAREAS I INTENTSee Section 2.4.4.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. The service areas of Sub-Area 1 shall be located on the west side of this Sub-area, see Fig. 3.4b). DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINESSee Section 2.4.4. Downtown NorthN S E W L/S P S L/S P S L/S PPARKING ENTRANCE LEGEND LOADING/SERVICE ENTRANCE CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING B-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML)

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES47 New buildings should respect the massing, scale, and articulation of the DUS building The 3 main windows along the eastern facade of the Station3.5 B BUILILDINGING DESIGNESIGN 3.5.1 AAuU Th H ORITY OF Th H E LLANd D MARKS PPRESERVATION COMMISSIONConsult the latest edition of the Design Guidelines for Landmark Structures and Historic Districts and Contemporary Design in Historic Districts: New Construction and Additions and Alterations to Existing Structures.3.5.2 HISTORIc C SSTATIONIINTENT1. To preserve, rehabilitate and restore the historic Station, in a manner betting one of the citys most important Historic Landmarks and according to the standards, guidelines, and regulations of the Landmark Preservation Commission. 2. To ensure that the historic Train Room remains in active use and accessible by all transit users, as well as employees, residents and visitors. 3. To ensure that the historic Station remains the physical and visual terminus of 17th Street.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S windows of the historic Station shall be discouraged. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. There is a non-contributing addition at the west side of the historic Station that should be considered for removal. 2. While Landmark regulations govern the exterior of historic buildings only, it is strongly encouraged that the interior public areas of the Station be renovated, using a combination of preservation, selective restoration and adaptive reuse in order to support both the enhanced transportation role of the building and the objective of making the Station a destination and gateway. 3.5.3A AddDD ITIONS TO Th H E HISTORIc C SSTATIONIINTENTTo ensure that any new canopies or enclosed construction added to the historic Station conform to the design standards and guidelines of the Landmarks Preservation Commission.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Any new canopies or protective structures associated with passenger movements to and from the Station shall be ground-mounted and have a minimal and reversible physical attachment to the historic Station. 2. Such protective structures shall be designed as part of the family of transportation structures in Sub-Area 2. 3. Additions, if required, shall be light and largely transparent, employing glazed curtain wall or storefront systems for 90% of facades within 25 feet of where the new structure joins the historic building fabric.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER48 The non-contributing addition on the western facade of the historic Station The interior of the existing stationDESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Replicative design for additions and new structures built in proximity to the historic Station is strongly discouraged, because such would convey a false sense of history. 2. The canopy covering the path between the CRT platforms and historic Station should have as few vertical structural elements as possible, should be as light as possible while providing continuous cover for transit users to connect to the CRT or the below grade mechanical connection or attachment to the historic station building fabric.3.5.4N NEW BBuU ILd D INGSGGENERAL IINTENT SSTATEMENTSThe Wing buildings play an important role in framing the historic Station building and activating the adjacent streets, and Wynkoop Plaza. Several key principles apply: 1. Be respectful and compatible, without being falsely replicative. 2. Be of our time, while conveying a sense of permanence and civic gravitas appropriate to their urban role. 3. Be contemporary and compatible, innovative and forward looking, making use of current technology, while respecting the generally quiet massing of the historic Station. 4. Incorporate scaling elements, ground oor active uses and pedestrian-friendly design. 5. Be loosely symmetrical in massing and faade articulation. They need not be identical structures rather than identical twins, they should be close relatives. GGENERAL DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D1. The Wing buildings shall respect the historic nature of the DUS building by not replicating its general historic styles or specic motifs. Replicative design is not permitted for new structures. 3.5.4.1 BBuU ILd D ING MMASSING ANd D FFORMIINTENT1. To ensure that new buildings are shaped as secondary, framing buildings, acknowledging the primacy of the historic Station. 2. To ensure that new buildings whatever their use are shaped by their role as key components of a civic composition bordering important public spaces and adjacent to the LoDo Historic District. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. New buildings shall have generally cubic massing, with vertical walls, right angle corners, and horizontal roof lines. 2. New buildings anking the historic Station shall have a quiet, well-proportioned massing.

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES49 Downtown NorthN S E W EPA ICEHOUSE CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING B-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML) Fig 3.5: Street Wall ContinuityDESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. The upper stories may overhang the ground oor, as long as the edge of the overhang remains horizontal and continuous across the entire length of the faade. 2. The South Wing building should reinforce the continuity of the 16th Street Mall environment along its south face (see Fig. 3.5a). 3. The North Wing building at 18th Street should acknowledge and facilitate pedestrian circulation to and from the staircase connecting the plaza with the elevated waiting deck of the CRT Station. 3.5.4.2 MMATERIALS See Section 2.5.2.13.5.4.3 FFENESTRATION See above, Section 2.5.2.2.3.5.4.4 FFAAd D E AARTIcu CU LATIONIINTENT1. To promote calm, dignied faade articulation that expresses the role of the new buildings as frames for the historic Station in a civic context. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Facades of new buildings shall be articulated by a system of reveals, joints or mullions following a proportional system that largely balances the relative visual weight of horizontal and vertical elements. 2. Vertical breaks or recesses in facades of new buildings shall not be greater than one foot in depth. 3. Horizontal breaks and recesses other than between the ground oor and the rst story above grade shall also be no more than one foot in depth. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. The dierent faade articulation and proportion systems of the historic Station, as well as the neighboring historic and contemporary structures, should be used to relate to and complement the context. 3.5.4.5 BBuU ILd D ING EENTRIESIINTENT1. To promote orientation of building entrances to public spaces and streets. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Building entries shall face or be visible from Wynkoop Street, 16th Street, or the Wynkoop Plaza.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER50 DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Unless there is an overriding design concept for the building that requires a more opaque treatment, building entrances and ground oor lobbies should be highly transparent, being articulated with clear glass doors and a minimum 80% glazed area. 2. Operable wall systems should be provided to facilitate interaction with the plaza. 3. The South Wing building should incorporate public access from three sides, 16th Street, Wynkoop Street, and the plaza. 4. The North Wing building need not have a public entrance from 18th Street, given that the continuation of 18th Street mainly serves access to parking, the buildings service area, and the Regional Bus Station. 3.5.4.6 BBuU ILd D ING AAccCC ESSORIESSee above, Section 2.5.4.3.5.4.7 BBuU ILd D ING SSERVIc C ESSee above, Section 2.4.4.3.6P PUBLIBLIC SPASPA CEE DESIGNESIGNG GENERAL IINTENT1. To create a worthy setting for the historic Station and Wing buildings 2. To facilitate pedestrian access to the entire site. 3. To accommodate permanent and temporary uses. 4. To enhance the sense of safety at all times. 5. To achieve a public space that is unique, active and meaningful in its own right. 3.6.1 DUSS W WYNKOOP PPLAz Z AIINTENT1. To form a new urban frame and enhanced setting for the historic Station 2. To relate Wynkoop Plaza to the historic Station and Lower Downtown Historic District. 3. To provide clear visual and physical access to the Historic Station, transportation facilities to the west, to the Wing buildings 4. To accommodate programmed activities and to reinforce pedestrian continuity along Wynkoop Street.

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES51 STAIR T O ELE VATED DECK Downtown NorthN S E W LRT PLAZA AND PLATFORMS 18th ST AND WEWATTA BRIDGE & PLAZA DECK OVER CRT OUTDOOR TRAIN HALL OLD WEWATTA ROW CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH A-CAP B-CAP WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING B-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML) Fig 3.6: Primary Open Spaces in Sub Area 15. To remain successful over time: streets. buildings across. 6. To promote visibility of the central block of the Historic station, as well as to the pedestrian routes around the north (leading to the deck over the CRT tracks) and south ends of the historic station. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. The public space shall contain a mix of hardscape and landscape areas. The proportions may vary in dierent parts of the plaza spaces. 2. The public space shall be able to support more active uses in one part of the plaza and more passive uses in the other. 3. The public space shall be exible, allowing portions of the public space to be temporarily converted to use for special or seasonal events. 4. The public space shall be equally complete and eective during all four seasons of the year.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER52 5. Free areas 20-feet wide shall be maintained at the face of the historic Station and along however, these outdoor uses shall not interfere with the pedestrian circulation zones dened in Section 3.3.1 and Fig. 3.3. 6. Provide a visual connection to the Train Room from the adjacent public space. 7. Views of the large arched windows of the Station from along the 17th Street corridor, both east and west of the Station, shall be preserved. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. The design should consider the use of water features in forms that are not visually or physically intrusive when not in use or that impede pedestrian access. 2. The public space elements and amenities should consider the possibility that adjacent streets might be closed for special events. 3.6.2S STAIR TO EELEVATEd D DEc C KIINTENT1. To establish a clear and direct pedestrian route through the plaza from Wynkoop Street to the elevated deck over the CRT tracks. 2. To ensure that this route is safe at all times of the day and evening.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. The staircase shall be monumental, capable of allowing seating, while providing a minimum of 15 feet free width for the passage of pedestrians. 2. The landing of the stair shall be kept clear of signicant permanent obstructions for a distance of 20 feet in order to facilitate access to and from the stair. 3. The stair and associated elements shall be at least 15 feet from the north side of the historic Station.DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. The design of the stair and associated elements should appear as an extension of both the transportation architecture of Sub-Area 2 and the public space design of Sub-Area 1. 2. The stair and associated elements should be constructed of durable materials appropriate for an urban setting and heavy use. 3. Lighting should be provided as part of the overall public space lighting scheme. 4. Signage directing pedestrians to the stair should be provided at strategic points in the site as part of the district signage plan. 5. The stair and other vertical circulation elements should be coordinated with and even integrated into the adjoining North Wing building to the greatest extent possible.3.6.2O OTh H ER PPuU BLIc C SSPAc C ES I INTENT1. To ensure that all areas adjacent to the historic Station are treated as part of the pedestrian public realm, with respect to hardscape, landscape, lighting, signage and all other enhancements.

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES53 2. To ensure that passage between the transportation facilities and the public spaces is free and unimpeded for the anticipated pedestrian ows. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Paving and hardscape materials consistent with those of the Wynkoop Plaza shall be extended to the north, south and west sides of the historic Station (Fig. 3.3). 2. Ensure that a 25 feet wide zone west of the historic Station remains clear for emergency vehicle access. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. The location of benches, waste receptacles and other site furnishings should be coordinated with the transit-related pedestrian ow patterns on the west side of the historic Station. 2. The pavement on the west side of the Station should be smooth enough for rail passengers to pull wheeled luggage across it without diculty.3.7LIG LIGHTINGTING 3.7.1S SITE LLIGh H TINGSite Lighting is a site-wide element, as set forth in Section 2.7.1. IINTENTSee Section 2.7.1, Intent statements. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D SSee Section 2.7.1, Design Standards. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. The site lighting scheme within Sub-Area 1 should take into account the historic lighting of the historic Station. 2. Site lighting should take into account the presence of existing residents and restaurants to the north and east of the plaza. 3. The site lighting within Sub-Area 1 should be coordinated with the lighting of the new CRT train hall. 3.7.2B BuU ILd D ING LLIGh H TINGIINTENT1. To draw attention to the historic Station building at night as an iconic structure. 2. To provide a hierarchy of building lighting in coordination with the site lighting of the public ROW and public spaces within Sub-Area 1, as well as with buildings and spaces in Sub-Area 2. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Exterior and interior night lighting of the historic Station building shall be provided in accordance with the design guidelines set forth in the Design Guidelines for Landmark Lighting (August 1997).

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER54 2. All sides of the Station shall be lighted, taking into account the historic lighting features, such as the famous Travel by Train signs. 3. The lighting program for the historic Station shall be coordinated with the DUS plaza design, as well as the CRT design in Sub-Area 2. 4. The lighting of the Wing buildings shall be even and uniform on all four sides and shall be secondary to the historic Station 5. Lighting shall be dimmable after hours.DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Building lighting should take into account the presence of existing residences on the east side of Wynkoop Street, north of 18th Street, and in the new mixed-use structures of the DUS site. 3.8SIGNAGE SIGNAGE 3.8.1 SSIGNAGESignage is a site-wide element, as set forth in Section 2.8.1. IINTENTSee Section 2.8.1, Intent statements. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D SSee Section 2.8.1, Design Standards. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. While being strategically located and clearly visible, district signage should not compete with or interfere with views of the historic Station building. 3.8.2B BuU ILd D ING SSIGNAGEIINTENT1. To provide appropriate new identifying signage to support new uses in the historic Station and adjacent new buildings. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. New signage on the historic Station building shall be strictly controlled as to size, type, location, mounting, and overall design. All signage shall conform to the relevant regulations set forth the Design Guidelines for Lower Downtown Streetscape (1991). 2. Building signage shall be coordinated with district signage design. 3. Building signage shall not be dynamic within Sub-Area 1, with the exception of transportation-related signage.

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES55 4.S SuU B-AAREA 2 SSPEc C IAL URBAN DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S ANd D GGuU Id D ELINES CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREET DECK OVER CRT PROPERTY LINE DEVELOPMENT FOOTPRINT PRIMARY GD P BOUNDA RY A-BLOCK B-BLOCK TRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING Downtown NorthN S E W SUB AREA 2 4.1 INTRO INTRODUCTION TION ANAND OVERVIEWOVERVIEWSub-Area 2 contains the eastern core of the transportation facilities the Commuter Rail Terminal, the eastern entrances to the Regional Bus Station, as well as the connections between these facilities and the 16th Street Mall Shuttle. Sub-Area 2 also contains key pedestrian connectors in the form of elevated walkways between the Wynkoop Plaza on the east and the 17th and 18th Street on the west, as well as an elevated connection to the G Block. The historic Station building, located in Sub-Area 1 and immediately bordering Sub-Area 2, is the dominant structure in the area. However, the highest concentration of new mixed-use structures is located in Sub-Area 2 at Blocks A and B, which are permitted by Zoning to rise to 220 and 200 feet respectively. In short, Sub-Area 2 contains the most intensive concentration of the areas distinctive characteristics the CRT Train Hall, highand mid-rise mixed-use development, critical pedestrian routes and transportation access points all facing the western faade of the historic Landmark Station. 4.2GENERAL GENERAL INTENTINTENT STATEMENTSSTATEMENTS1. To ensure that the transportation architecture and mixed-use development join the historic Denver Union Station building in forming a worthy gateway and arrivals experience for transit riders and visitors. 2. To ensure that the historic Station continues to be understood as the centerpiece of the Sub-Area, the site and the Transit District as a whole. 3. To ensure that the CRT Train Hall acquires its own identity, while being compatible with the historic station. The CRT Train Hall should be visible from adjacent public spaces and streets. 4. To extend the civic presence of the historic Station to the rest of the site through transportation architecture that is progressive and of our time, while also being compatible with and deferential to the historic building. 5. To encourage mixed-use development that reinforces the civic nature of the area and provides a worthy frame to the historic Station, the CRT train hall, and the public realm. 4.3 SITESITE CIRIR CULATIONLATION 4.3.1P PEd D ESTRIAN CIRcu CU LATION I INTENT1. To facilitate smooth pedestrian circulation through and within the Sub-Area and to surrounding streets, and to public spaces in Sub-Area 1 and adjacent areas, for commuters, residents and visitors. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Passages and pedestrian zones shall be sized to accommodate the maximum projected commuter pedestrian ows, as represented in Fig. 4.3. 2. The passage through the A Block building from the CRT to 16th Street shall be a minimum of 30 feet in width (or slightly less if the structural bay dimension is 30 feet) and have adequate height to maximize the view and provide a sense of public rather than private space.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER56 3. The elevated deck shall provide a minimum 20-foot wide pedestrian zone. 4. Pedestrian zones approximately 20 feet by 20 feet should be kept clear at the head of any vertical circulation elements, such as stair-escalator sets serving the underground Regional Bus Station. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Pedestrian zones should be kept clear and separate from amenity zones to aid in circulation to building entries and transit access. 4.3.2V VEh H Ic C LE CIRcu CU LATION I INTENT1. To protect the pedestrian character of the DUS site, while facilitating vehicular and service access to the buildings in Sub-Area 2. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S or view of the historic station from 17th Street. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINESService and parking entrances should be combined, if feasible, in order to limit the number of curb cuts and driveways. Downtown NorthN S E W LEGEND flow < 50 50 < flow < 200 200 < flow < 800 800 < flow < 2000 flow > 2000 Transit Mode CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING B-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML)

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES57 4.4SITE SITE PLANNINGPLANNING 4.4.1S STREETSc C APE DESIGNIINTENTSee Section 2.4.1, Intent statementsDESIGN SSTANd D ARd D SSee Section 2.4.1, Design StandardsDESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. There should be pedestrian continuity along the east side of Wewatta Street across the 17th Street ROW. 2. The passageway connecting the head of the commuter rail platforms with 16th Street and the 16th Street Mall Shuttle stops shall be clearly marked. amenity zones consistent with streetscape treatments elsewhere on the site should be provided. 4. Consider paving the entire 160 ROW of 17th Street as a crosswalk of Wewatta Street.4.4.2B BuU ILd D ING LLOc C ATION, OORIENTATION ANd D USE4.4.2.1 BBuU ILd D-TTO RREQu U IREMENTSIINTENTSee Section 2.4.2, Intent statements. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D SSee Section 2.4.2, Design Standards. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINESSee Section 2.4.2, Design Guidelines.4.4.2.2 PPEd D ESTRIAN AAcC TIVE USE RREQu U IREMENTS I INTENT1. To provide ground oor pedestrian active uses whereever possible, recognizing that pedestrian-friendly frontage may be necessary in some locations due to interior functions or transportation facilities. 2. To provide pedestrian active uses to the fullest extent possible at the deck level of the CRT.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER58 Fig 4.4a: Ground Level active use facades Downtown NorthN S E W 70% Active Use FrontagePedestrian Friendly Frontage 100% Active Use Frontage CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING B-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML) DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D SSee Figures 4.4a and 4.4b. 1. Active uses are required to occupy the full extent of the East-West faades of the Block A cap building facing 16th Street and the head end platform of the Commuter Rail Terminal, as well as the passageway through the building to 16th Street. 2. Active uses are required to occupy 100% of the two facades bounding the 17th Street ROW as extended into Sub-Area 2. 3. Active uses are required to occupy 75% of the facades of Blocks A and B facing Wewatta Street. 4. Where pedestrian active uses are not feasible, ground oor facades shall receive pedestrian-friendly treatment and architectural cladding fully consistent in quality, materials, and articulation to the balance of the faade. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Active uses are strongly recommended to occupy the full extent of the inner faade of the Block B cap building facing the elevated deck area over the rail tracks. Downtown NorthN S E W 70% Active Use FrontagePedestrian Friendly Frontage 100% Active Use Frontage CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING B-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML)

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES59 Downtown NorthN S E W Active Use Frontage Deck Over CRT Pedestrian Friendly Frontage CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING B-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML) Downtown NorthN S E W Active Use Frontage Deck Over CRT Pedestrian Friendly Frontage CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING B-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML) Fig 4.4b: Deck Level active use facades4.4.3P PARKING4.4.3.1 UNd D ERGROu U Nd D PPARKING GGARAGESSee Section 2.4.3 for Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines. 4.4.3.2 SSTRuc UC Tu U REd D PPARKING GGARAGES (IINTEGRATEd D)See Section 2.5.6 for Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines.4.4.3.3 SSTRuc UC Tu U REd D PPARKING GGARAGES (FFREE-SSTANd D ING)A stand-alone parking structure may be constructed over a portion of the CRT tracks between 18th and 20th Streets. This structure will have a very prominent west faade along Wewatta Street, as well as south and east facades visible from transit and mixed-use areas, as well as from the surrounding areas. The design of this structure requires special consideration.IINTENT1. To ensure that a free-standing parking garage engages and enhances the public ROW and public spaces which it abuts and is compatible in character and quality with adjacent buildings.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER60 Fig 4.4c: Possible Locations for Parking and Loading/Service Access points in Sub-Area 2DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. All four sides of the G Block parking structure shall have architecturally-nished faade composition consistent with other design attributes of buildings and appropriate for the particular orientation of the faade, 2. The public lobby access and elevator core shall be located on a prominent faade and be glass, to promote sense of safety, and be illuminated at night. 3. Light xtures on the garage roof shall be full cuto hoods to prevent direct light from shining on adjacent buildings. 4. Lighting shall illuminate the parking areas, but be shielded from the neighboring buildings or the street. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Consider a wrapper or liner building for the long Wewatta Street faade, one with planar variations to break up the principal faade. 2. The urban design role of the parking entry and vertical circulation elements should the CRT station deck. 3. Pedestrian access to the G Block parking structure should be combined with or located adjacent to the stairs accessing the transit deck over the CRT in order to concentrate uses and maximize the sense of safety. The access may also be incorporated into the liner or wrapper building to increase security. 4. The stair tower can also enliven the faade and should be a vertical marker on 18th St. for pedestrians coming from the pedestrian bridge over the CML. 5. The roof of the G Block parking structure is the fth faade and will be seen from the surrounding developments. It should include planters or trellises and be part of the landscape design program. Downtown NorthN S E W P P L/S P S P L/S P S L/S PPARKING ENTRANCEPOSSIBLE PARKING ENTRANCE SERVICE ENTRY ONLY SERVICE EXIT ONLYLEGEND LOADING/SERVICE ENTRANCE CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING B-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML)

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES61 6. The roof of the parking structure should be considered as a location for photovoltaic panels. 7. Plantings are encouraged, either in beds or in planters, on the roof of the garage or the sides. 4.4.4S SERVIc C E AAREASSee Section 2.4.4 for Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines.4.5B BUILILDINGING DESIGNESIGNG GENERAL IINTENT SSTATEMENTS1. To maintain the historic Station building as the focal point of the new development, with the new mixed-use buildings of Sub-Area 2 playing the role of complementary background buildings to the historic Station building and transportation architecture, which provide the centerpiece of this new urban composition. 2. To ensure that new buildings interact with and activate the ground level and deck level public spaces through the provision of active uses and pedestrian-friendly design. 3. To realize the opportunity for complementary and mutually benecial functions be tween the transportation and development buildings. 4.5.1B BuU ILd D ING MMASSING ANd D FFORMSee Section 2.5.1 for general Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines regarding building massing and form.AAddDD ITIONAL DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. The building on the triangular site south of 16th Street need not relate to the major transportation facilities, and should present a pedestrian-friendly faade along the Old Wewatta ROW and the other perimeter streets. This building should have a more distinctive massing and form, because its urban position allows it to function in a completely dierent way than the framing buildings of Blocks A and B.4.5.2B BuU ILd D ING ChH ARAc C TER4.5.2.1 MMATERIALSIINTENT See Section 2.5.2.1DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S See Section 2.5.2.1.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER62 DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. New buildings should employ the highest quality materials for facades, curtain walls, entrances, and open areas around the building. 2. The Triangle site south of 16th Street could participate more in the material palette of LoDo and the rest of the CPV. 4.5.2.2 FFENESTRATIONSee Section 2.5.2.2 for general Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines regarding fenestration.4.5.2.3 FFAAd D E AARTIcu CU LATIONSee Section 2.5.2.3 for general Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines regarding faade articulation.IINTENT1. To promote interaction between the mixed-use buildings and transportation facilities. 2. To create pedestrian interest at street level through changes in plane, color, materials, or rhythm.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. All faade articulation and primary cladding systems shall be carried to grade, even if be permitted except within service areas. Fig 4.5a: Illustrative diagram of the possible massing for the DUS Transit District 220 MAX HEIGHT 140 MAX HEIGHT 200 MAX HEIGHT 90 MAX HEIGHT 65 MAX HEIGHT

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES63 Fig 4.5b: Facade Articulation Downtown NorthN S E W CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING B-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML) DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. The faades of the B-Block building at the track and elevated deck levels should be articulated with the heavy presence of pedestrians in mind. These facades require either pedestrian-active uses or pedestrian-friendly design articulation, as shown on Figs. 4.4a & b. 2. The faade of Block A facing 16th Street takes on special importance as one of the major transportation portals of the district, required to accommodate heavy pedestrian trac. The faade on 16th Street should be developed in coordination with the transportation architecture, that is, the Commuter Rail Terminal outdoor Train Hall to be both legible as a transportation portal from 16th Street and to promote visibility of the CRT platform from 16th Street. 4.5.3B BuU ILd D ING EENTRIESSee Sections 2.5.3 for general Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines regarding pedestrian and vehicle entries.IINTENT1. To promote interaction between mixed-use buildings and transportation facilities and public spaces.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S recesses or changes of materials, scale, detail or heightened design. 2. Secondary entrances to mixed-use buildings shall be coordinated with the transportation facilities, which shall take precedence in such matters as the location of signage and lighting of entries. 3. All pedestrian active uses shall include direct access from the street or public space without an intermediate building lobby.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER64 Fig 4.6: Primary Open Spaces in Sub-Area 24.5.4B BuU ILd D ING AAccCC ESSORIESSee Sections 2.5.4 for general Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines regarding building accessories.AAddDD ITIONAL DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. Any building accessories facing, or built in close proximity to, transportation facilities, must be coordinated and compatible with those facilities and any structures (such as OCS, lighting, signage, etc.) that support or are part of the transportation facility. 4.5.5B BuU ILd D ING SSERVIc C ESSee Sections 2.4.4 for Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines regarding building services. AAddDD ITIONAL DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. No service or utility areas should be accessed directly from, or face into, public spaces or pedestrian areas of the transportation facilities. 4.5.6P PARKING GGARAGESSee Sections 2.4.3 and 4.4.3 for general and specic Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines regarding parking garages. Downtown NorthN S E W LRT PLAZA AND PLATFORMS 18th ST AND WEWATTA BRIDGE & PLAZA 17th ST AND WEWATTA DE CK OVE R CR T OUTDOOR TRAIN HALL OLD WEWATTA ROW CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING B-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML)

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES65 4.6P PUBLIBLIC SPASPA CEE DESIGNESIGNG GENERAL IINTENT SSTATEMENTS1. To promote pedestrian movement through the site and to and from the transportation and mixed-use development, by way of a capacious, clearly dened, intuitive and safe pedestrian network that is activated by uses. 2. To identify the urban design and architecture of Sub-Area 2 as being part of a larger Transit District extending from Wynkoop Street (Sub-Area 1) to the Light Rail Transit station at the CML, with extensions to 20th Street and Speer Boulevard. 3. To maintain views to and from the historic Station within the parameters of the Zoning, the Master Plan Supplement, and the General Development Plan, while creating new views from transit facilities to public spaces. Views must be considered at pedestrian level as well as more distant views of the historic Station and Train Hall canopy. 4. To ensure the continuity of the public realm and pedestrian passage through Sub-Area 2 from Sub-Area 1, both at the ground surface and the elevated deck passages. 5. To extend landscape and planting design concepts from the Wynkoop Plazas in Sub- Area 1, modifying them as required where soil is not present over underground facilities. 6. To identify appropriate locations for stand-alone works of public art, as well as integrated public art. 4.6.1 CRTRT SSTATION AAREA ANd D PPLATFORMSThe CRT platform area should be designed as a single space, an outdoor room dened by adjacent building facades. It should be designed with a sense of place and cohesive design. Platforms, waiting areas, and circulation areas should be coordinated to support the waynding and convenience of all users. IINTENT1. To ensure that the CRT pedestrian areas are perceived as continuous with the public space or outdoor urban room of Sub-Area 2, and by extension, with Sub-Area 1, which directly borders the CRT. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. The transportation program and its various elements shall be coordinated with the urban design of the outdoor urban room. 2. The CRT canopy shall provide the required coverage of platforms, while allowing exhaust from diesel train engines to escape. 3. The CRT canopy structure should be light enough to permit good visibility throughout the CRT station area, as well as of the ground level of the west elevation of the historic Station repeated vertical elements (i.e., columns) shall have clear space between them measuring no less than 12 feet. 4. The CRT canopy structure shall form a continuous whole, supporting the understanding of the CRT as an outdoor urban room. 5. All structures within a 160 foot corridor extended west from the historic station centered on 17th Street shall be lower than the sill of the upper windows of the west faade of the historic station.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER66 DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Within the CRT, furnishings, signage and lighting are provided by the transportation program, but district signage should be present to guide pedestrians to points outside the CRT area. 4.6.2E ELEVATEd D CRTRT DEc C KThe elevated CRT deck is an important public space and pedestrian connection that provides access to the center tracks of the CRT from the north. It also facilitates pedestrian movement through the site from the Wynkoop Plaza to both 17th and 18th Streets on the west side of the DUS site, as well as to the B Block building and the parking garage. This route connects Lower Downtown to the Central Platte Valley not only for transit passengers, but for residents, employees, and visitors. The elevated deck should be designed as an attractive gathering place for rail passengers and others at all times of the day and night, with its own sense of place, amenities, and seating. This area, which will be in sunlight at most times of the day throughout the year, presents a special opportunity for an exciting observation point of the train tracks below. See Section 4.3.1 for Design Standards pertaining to this element. IINTENT1. To integrate this area into the overall public space scheme and adjacent buildings. 2. To promote pedestrian active uses at deck level. 3. To establish the deck as a unique destination place. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. The paving of the elevated deck shall be a version of the overall hardscape scheme. 2. The required barriers separating users from the catenary system over the tracks shall be as transparent as possible, with glass being the preferred material. 3. District signage shall be prominently located to direct pedestrians to transit, 17th Street, 18th Street, the parking garage, or Wynkoop Street, and other destinations. 4. In addition to the CRT lighting, this area shall receive its own special lighting program to enhance a sense of safety, as well as to draw pedestrians up from the ground level. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. The elevated nature of the deck eliminates opportunities for planting in earth. Plantings in containers in a form and arrangement related to the overall landscape scheme for the site should be provided. 2. Pedestrian active uses and building entrances should be promoted at the 4.6.3 17Th H SSTREET PPLAz Z AThe 17th Street Promenade has one short segment within Sub-Area 2. This is a very important space, serving as a forecourt to the CRT and the access to the Regional Bus Station from Wewatta Street. This area establishes a transit presence on Wewatta Street. At

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES67 Downtown NorthN S E W CHESTNUT PLACE WEWATTA STREET WYNKOOP STREET16TH STREET 17TH STREET 18TH STREET 19TH STREET 15TH STREETTRIANGLE SOUTH WING NORTH WING G-BLOCK EXISTING DUS BUILDING B-BLOCK A-BLOCKConsolidated Main Line (CML) 17th Street View Corridor 160 wide View of the west-facing facade of DUS which is to be maintainedthe same time it forms the eastern terminus 17th Street Promenade. The adjacent A and B Block buildings form a gateway to Sub-Area 2 though this space. The public space requires special treatment, both for the aforementioned reasons and because it will be a heavily used pedestrian route. IINTENT1. To develop a special urban place that links the 17th Street Promenade, CRT train hall and historic Station. 2. To establish the 17th Street Promenade as the dening pedestrian connection for the Transit District. 3. To provide a safe, attractive, and active connection along the 17th Street Promenade between Wewatta Street and the Light Rail Station. 4. To provide a major access point to the below-ground Regional Bus Station. 5. To accommodate the numerous pedestrian movements through this area, coordinated with a crosswalk of Wewatta Street.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. The salient components of the 17th Street Promenade shall characterize this space, modied as required to meet its unique conditions. 2. Clear and unobstructed pedestrian paths a minimum of 25 feet wide shall be maintained adjacent to the A and B Block buildings. 3. The enclosure of the access point to the Regional Bus Station shall be highly transparent on all four sides. 4. The vertical circulation enclosure shall use forms similar to the CRT train hall canopy. 5. Coordinate the hardscape, lighting, signage and site accessories with both the 17th Street Promenade and the CRT. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. Consider providing water features for the 17th Street Plaza in forms that do not impede pedestrian circulation. 2. Consider this area for stand-alone works of public art, or integrated works of public art. 4.6.4 18Th H SSTREET ANd D WWEWATTA SSTREET BBuU ILd D ING SSITE ANd D VVERTIc C AL CIRcu CU LATION CORE Refer to Section 4.4.3.3 for Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines for the G-Block Parking Garage. IINTENT1. To create a gateway place at the northwest corner of the DUS site as a terminus to 18th Street that gives access to the elevated deck over the CRT, parking garage and adjacent development.DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. The components of the public space and vertical access at 18th and Wewatta shall be part of and coordinated with landscaped edges of Wewatta adjacent to the parking structure.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER68 2. All elements of the vertical circulation core shall be clearly visible from the public spaces to the west. 3. The elevator core and cab shall have glass sides. 4. This area shall receive appropriate quantities of site furnishings, as well as district signage and site lighting. DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. This area should take into account the visual and pedestrian connection along 18th Street to the Pedestrian Bridge crossing the CML. 2. The building should add activity and security to the 18th Street extension and stair by providing transparency to active uses adjoining the connections. 3. If appropriate, incorporate the vertical circulation into the building.4.6.5 16Th H SSTREET MMALL SShuHU TTLE SSTOPThe 16th Street Shuttle pick-up and drop-o areas of 16th Street with access to the CRT will see some of the heaviest passenger loads of the entire Transit District. IINTENT1. To create and shape the public space on both sides of 16th Street, public passage through the A Building, and building faade to denote a signicant place in the Transit District. DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. The pick-up zone (see Fig. 1.2d for stop locations) in particular shall have adequate coverings. 2. Canopy design shall be similar to the forms of the CRT Train Hall structure. 3. The building faade shall express a gateway function, either through accessories (canopy), recess, or some other architectural form. 4.6.6O OLd D WWEWATTA ROWROWIn proximity to the 16th Street Mall Shuttle stop and passage from the CRT, the Old Wewatta ROW provides views and a pedestrian passage south toward the Pepsi Center, Cherry Creek, and other nearby destinations. IINTENT1. To maintain views through the ROW to the south. 2. To enhance pedestrian circulation and experience through the ROW to Cherry Creek and adjacent development. 3. To create a small public plaza. 4. To provide space for services such as bike parking. Existing 16th St Mall Shuttle route

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES69 DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S1. A network of landscape and hardscape shall be integrated into the site-wide public space, with the forms and motifs carried into the ROW. 2. A minimum 20 feet wide clear pedestrian path through the ROW shall be created and maintained free of plantings and other obstructions. 3. Site furnishings, as well as district signage and site lighting, consistent with those in the rest of the DUS site shall be provided. 4. Landscape elements shall not impede views to the south or the alignment of the pedestrian path. 5. The existing rails and tracks shall be reinstated as reminders of the sites history.DESIGN GGuU Id D ELINES1. The Old Wewatta ROW should be considered as a location for a segment of the bicycle network and as a location for bicycle parking and associated facilities. 2. If a bicycle path is provided, it should be in addition to the pedestrian path and safely separated from it. 4.7LIG LIGHTINGTING 4.7.1S SITE LLIGh H TINGDistrict Lighting is a site-wide element, and therefore relies on the Intent statements and Design Standards and Guidelines set forth in Section 2.7.1. However, some specic suggestions are made in sub-sections dealing with individual elements of the public space design and buildings. See Section 2.7.1, Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines. 4.7.2B BuU ILd D ING LLIGh H TINGSee Section 2.7.2, Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines. 4.8SIGNAGE SIGNAGE 4.8.1 DISTRIc C T SSIGNAGEDistrict Signage is a site-wide element, and therefore relies on the Intent statements, and Design Standards and Guidelines set forth in Section 2.8.1. See Section 2.8.1, Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines. 4.8.2B BuU ILd D ING SSIGNAGE See Section 2.8.2, Intent, Design Standards, and Design Guidelines.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER70

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES71 5. DESIGN RREVIEW ANd D AAPPROVAL PPROc C ESSIn Denver, most development projects are subject to site plan review and approval processes. In addition, improvements on the DUS site will be subject to design review and approval through process established in the Landmark Preservation Ordinance or the DUS T-MU-30 zoning. The table provided on the following page (Fig. 5.1) shows the components and coordination of these review processes. Process and application details are available through the Citys website, Denvergov.org, as noted in the chart.

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CITY ANd D COu U NTY OF DENVER72 DESIGN REVIEW PROCESS RECOMMENDATION Denver Union Station 1Phases Recommended Submittals Design Review Process Development/ Site Plan Review Landmark Urban Design Any single structure will be subject to one of the two design review processes, not both. Should a structure be located in both areas, CPD will be responsible for coordinating between Landmark and Urban Design. All projects subject to development/site plan review. All development plan review to be coordinated with design review. Intent Statement Submittal Pre Submittal Conference with Review Team Applicant submits Intent Statement: 1.Location 2.Conformance to GDP 3.Design intent 4.Project scope & program 5.Project uses & adjacent uses 6.Site description 7.Context photos 8.Site Plan 9.Special considerations 10.Project phasing CPD case manager forms multidisciplinary team to discuss process and identify all requirements, presumptions, and considerations, and assign appropriate design review process and site plan review process Applicant meets with team 10-15 days after Intent Statement been submitted Schematic Design/ Concept Phase/ Preliminary Staff Review Design Review Application (in addition to development review application) Detailed statement of how Design Guidelines have been met (electronic and hard copy) Site plan Ground floor plans Elevations All items under Pre Design Meeting to review application following receipt of agency comments If needed, meeting to reconcile any conflicts between team and design review Concept Review by Preservation Architect usually within 3 weeks: Grant administrative approval OR Schedule for Formal Review at LPC Notify all RNOs within 200, City Council members whose district contains the proposed project or is within 200, and At Large City Council members Written comments from above within 20 days after notice is sent Review: 30 days See denvergov reference for application requirements Development Review Committee (DRC) agencies have 15 working days to review Fig. 5.1 Design Review and Approval Process

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES73 DESIGN REVIEW PROCESS RECOMMENDATION Denver Union Station 2Phases Recommended Submittals Design Review Process Development/ Site Plan Review Landmark Urban Design Design Development/ Formal Phase Review Final application Updated detailed statement of how Design Guidelines have been met and reply to CPD comments (electronic and hard copy) Landscape/Streetscape Plan Building Sections if requested Faade details & treatments Materials Schedule & Sample Board All items under Schematic Design Renderings optional Comment Review Meeting Staff report with recommendation forwarded to LPC Review: 30 days CPD to recommend approval, approval with conditions or denial and forward to Planning Board CPD to notify RNOs within 200 of the property and the city councilperson in whose district the property is located of their recommendation Urban Design staff recommendation Final Application (see Denvergov) for submittal requirements 15 working days to review Resubmittal as necessary Design Review Public meetings Planning Board Landmark Preservation Commission (LPC) Landmark Preservation Commission Meeting Formal design review takes place at regularly scheduled meeting of the LPC Applicant presentation Public comment LPC may approve, approve with conditions, ask for restudies, continue the proposal, or deny the application. FOR LPC Submittal 15 sets Project model if requested Staff signs permit on basis of LPC decision Planning Board Public Meeting Hold within 60 days of CPD receiving the application CPD to notify RNOs within 200 of the property and the city councilperson in whose district the property is located at least 15 days prior to the meeting Planning Board to approve, approve with conditions or deny the application and forward the recommendation to the Zoning Administrator not later than 15 days after the meeting Zoning Administrator to approve, approve with conditions or deny the permit application Final Recordation Phase Final Design Development Documents Signing of approvals and recordation of plans Amendments Minor (Red-line) Amendments Administrative approval by DRC agencies LPC/Urban Design staff Major Amendment Resubmit to be treated as new application. Construction/Permitting Final Construction Documents Building Permit submittal Fig. 5.1 Design Review and Approval Process

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DENVER UNION SSTATION DESIGN SSTANd D ARd D S & GGuU Id D ELINES75 APPENAPPENDIXIXSSUSTAINABILITYSTAINABILITY VISION VISIONAs the Master Developer of the Primary GDP Area, the Union Station Neighborhood Company has adopted the following vision regarding that development: The Union Station Neighborhood development will be a leading example of sustainable urban redevelopment in North America. The redevelopment of the 19.5 acre Union Station Neighborhood District area provides an opportunity to integrate and model sustainable design, construction and operation, creating a model development for the region and extending the relevance and signicance of this historic site for many decades to come. To fulll this vision, Union Station Neighborhood Company has adopted, and the City acknowledges, the following guiding principles for sustainable development in the Primary GDP Area: 1. PROMOTE TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATIVES: Build on Denver Union Stations role as an unprecedented regional transit crossroads to support and encourage multi-modal site access. Support safe bicycle connections, and energize the pedestrian environment and links to surrounding areas. 2. ADVANCE SUSTAINABLE URBAN DESIGN: Seamlessly integrate public and private spaces and functions to create vibrant, inspiring and sustainable places where people can live, work, play and easily access other parts of the region. Ensure a scale and density of development necessary to support desired qualities. 3. BUILD GREEN: Demonstrate leadership in high performance green building tech niques at both the individual building and district levels, in design, construction and operation. Integrate historic renovations and green development goals in a way that respects and advances both, with the adaptive reuse of the historic station building as a centerpiece. 4. MINIMIZE WASTE: Seek to minimize waste site-wide through design, construction and generated onsite). 5. REDUCE ENERGY COST AND DEMONSTRATE NEW TECHNOLOGIES: Incorporate energy eciency and renewable energy resources to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and related costs on site. 6. BE CLIMATE WISE: Reduce or eliminate greenhouse gas emissions wherever possible in measures. 7. CLEAR THE AIR: Promote excellent indoor and outdoor air quality, with related public health and productivity benets, throughout the development area. 8. CONSERVE WATER: Demonstrate aggressive water conservation practices in all development, working in partnership with the Denver Water Department. 9. USE STORMWATER AS A RESOURCE: Utilize innovative on-site storm water management techniques to reduce ood risk and improve water quality and site aesthetics. 10. ENGAGE VISITORS AND RESIDENTS IN SUSTAINABILITY GOALS: Build on the unprecedented regional crossroads and marketplace functions of the development to engage metro area residents and local inhabitants in sustainability goals, lessons and opportunities. 11. EVOLVE: Adapt to new best practices over time tomorrows technology, marketplace and standards may make new practices and achievements possible.