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Alley enhancement project, 16th Street Mall

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Alley enhancement project, 16th Street Mall
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Department of Public Works, City and County of Denver
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Denver, CO
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City and County of Denver
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Urban planning

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Full Text
Alley Enhancement Project
16th Street Mall
October 2014


Acknowledgements
Project Manager
Jennifer Hillhouse, Denver Public Works
Denver City Council
Albus Brooks, District 8
Public Works
William Kennedy
Emily Snyder
Robert Southern
Community Planning and
Development
Sarah Showalter
Downtown Denver BID
Ryan Sotirakis
Consultant Team
AECOM, Prime Consultant
Alley Enhancement Project
2


Table of Contents
Executive Summary
Project Goals
Project Components
Case Studies
Study Area/Existing Conditions
Classification + Hierarchy
Pilot Projects
Next Steps
05
05
05
05
06
07
10
Cast)
Studies
Whats Included
Functional Enhancements
Urban Design Enhancements
Public Realm Enhancements
Selection Process and Additional Planning
Responsible Parties and Funding
Implementation
Lessons Learned
Case Summaries
Chicago
Los Angeles
Fort Collins
Longmont
Melbourne
Seattle
Existing Conditions Assessment
13 Context 31
13 Downtown Overview 31
14 Physical Conditions: Summary 32
15 Alleys 34
16 Alley A: Wynkoop-Wazee North 34
Alley B: Wazee-Blake North 36
16 Alley C: Market-Larimer North 38
16 Alley D: Champa-Stout North 40
Alley E: Stout-California North 42
17 Alley F: California-Welton North 44
Alley G: Welton-Glenarm North 46
18 Alley H: Glenarm-Tremont North 48
18 Alley I: Wynkoop-Wazee South 50
19 Alley J: Wazee-Blake South 52
20 Alley K: Blake-Market South 54
22 Alley L: Market-Larimer South 56
24 Alley M: Curtis-Champa South 58
26 Alley N: Champa-Stout South 60
Alley O: Stout-California South 62
Alley P: California-Welton South 64
l
Table of Contents


Table of Contents, Continued
Classification + Hierarchy
Hierarchy + Tools
Alley Types
Classification
Toolkit
69
69
70
70
Pilot Projects: Selection + Design
Pilot Project Selection
Pilot Goals
Pilots as Templates
Pilot Criteria
Pilot Selection
Pilot Project Designs
Type 1: Update Moore Alley
Type 2: Circulate Gunter Alley
Type 3: Enhance Cook Alley
A nriY
Appendices J yj yV
Appendix 1. Precedent Documents 105
Chicago Green Alley Handbook (2010)
Fort Collins Alley Beautification Master Plan (2008)
Transforming Alleys into Green Infrastructure
for Los Angeles (2008)
Seattle Integrated Alley Handbook (2011)
Appendix 2. Inventory and Evaluation 107
Matrices
Existing Condition Inventory
Alley Classification Matrix
Pilot Selection Matrix
Alley Enhancement Project
2
Next Steps
75
75
75
77
77
78
78
84
90
Build Support
Prepare the Policy Framework
Identify Funding
99
100
101


Alley Enhancement Project


Alley Enhancement Project
4


Executive Summary
Project Goals
Cities are taking a second look at alleys. Often thought of as a
necessary yet utilitarian part of the street network, alleys are being
reconsidered from both a functional and an aesthetic point of view.
Alley projects are taking place in cities both large and small, and
are exploring the potential for these corridors to contribute to cities'
stormwater management, multi-modal mobility, economic
development and urban placemaking.
The goal of this project was to document existing conditions in
Denver's downtown alleys and draw from the experience and
'lessons learned' in other cities to create recommendations for
enhancing Denver's urban alleys. The project specifically examined
physical improvements, necessary policy framework, enhancement
tools and techniques that can go into an alley'toolkit' and potential
economic tools. The study included cases studies, existing
conditions, alley classification, and ultimately, concept-level alley
design.
Project Components
Case Studies
The goals of alley enhancement projects are as varied as the cities
that undertake them, with some projects including programming
and urban design elements while others focus primarily or
exclusively on stormwater improvements. Cities included in this
report as case studies are those most relevant to the Denver context
in terms of alley dimensions, adjacent use and overall urban
density: Chicago, Los Angeles, Fort Collins, Longmont, Melbourne
and Seattle.
The case studies yielded three overall best practices common
among virtually all the projects: stakeholder support, cleanliness
and safety, and context-specific design. Regardless of the simplicity
or complexity of the undertaking, these three elements were critical
to the success of every project.
Study Area/Existing Conditions
Study Area
The project focused on the alleys leading one block north and south
of the 16th Street Mall, between Broadway and Wewatta Street.
This area encompasses a total of 32 blocks and 16 alleys. Blocks
without alleys have typically been developed as an aggregated
parcel without public alley access, often occupied by a single large
structure; examples of this type of development Denver Pavilions
or Tabor Center Complexes. It is notable that the majority of these
aggregated blocks occur in the center of the Mall, with a larger
number of intact alleys at the Mall's east and west ends.
Dimensions
Typical alley dimensions are approximately 400' long by 16' in width.
One alley, located between Wynkoop and Wazee on the south side
of the Mall does have wider dimensions. The majority of structures
are built on a zero lot line on their alley fagade, although there are
some exceptions for both full buildings and portions of buildings.
Drainage
There is very little change in grade between the 16th Street Mall
and its parallel roadways, with most alleys draining to inlets spaced
at intervals along the alley centerline. The lack of appreciable
longitudinal grade, however, combined with inconsistent and
potholed paving results in poor drainage in virtually all of the alleys
within the study area. Standing water is common during summer,
as are extensive sheets of compacted snow and ice-often extended
from building face to building face-in the winter.
Utilities and Trash
Overhead utilities are present in only a handful of the alleys, just
4 of the 16. In contrast and posing a much greater challenge to
aesthetics and circulation, trash is unconsolidated with each tenant
having its own dumpster and choice of service providers. This
condition means that the alleys have as many as 22 dumpsters (the
high counted in the existing conditions survey) and as many as
four different companies servicing those bins. Alleys may also have
grease barrels (used by restaurants) and recycling containers, in
addition to regular dumpsters.
The study area includes alleys one block on each side of the 16th Street Mall, encompassing a total 32 blocks and 16 alleys.
5
Executive Summary


Classification + Hierarchy
Classification
Alleys were sorted into three categories or 'level' of enhancement,
based on a 'start where you are' approach which looks for
opportunities and potential with the current tenants and buildings as
they exist at the time of this study. Although tenants may change,
owners may choose to update, modify or redevelop entirely, this
study focuses on near-term improvements that can be made with
conditions as they exist right now.
Toolkit
The three alley types are: Update (basic), Circulate (middle of
the road), and Enhance (highest level). Each type includes all the
enhancements of the type preceding it (ie, 'Circulate' includes all
enhancements identified in 'Update7) as well as additional aesthetic,
functional or economic enhancements. The study includes a 'toolkit'
of enhancements for each alley type, as well as responsible parties
for each item. The toolkit also identifies elements that can be con-
sidered 'early action' or framework items to be executed in advance
of physical improvements.
Alley Types
The most basic level of enhancements, Update, focuses on cleanli-
ness and safety. Typical upgrades include concrete paving or
permeable pavers for enhanced durability, a continuous longitudinal
drain for improved drainage and wall- and pole-mounted lighting for
increased safety.
The middle level of enhancements, Circulate, introduces additional
aesthetic elements meant to make pedestrians feel more welcome
and comfortable in the alley. Typical additions might include new/
enhanced alley entrances to existing businesses, new micro-retail
opportunities with sole/primary entrances on the alley, and urban
design features such as a combination of concrete and unit paving
(potentially permeable), ornamental fencing at undeveloped lots,
banners and other visual elements.
PHYSICAL ELEMENTS Early Action Capital Funding Needed Responsible 1 Party 1 TYPE 1 UPDATE TYPE 2 CIRCULATE TYPE 3 ENHANCE ADDITIONAL 1 PROGRAMMING 1 Daily Special 1 Events Events
Identity Name Alley X CCD X X X
Name Event X private X
Paving Grading + paving, concrete X CCD X
Grading + paving, concrete/pavers X CCD X
Grading + paving, decorative pavers X CCD X
Odor/traffic control Co-locate or consolidate dumpsters, in-corridor X BID/CCD X
Consolidate dumpsters, out-of-corridor X BID/private X X X
Safety/ Security Graffitti removal X BID/CCD X X X
Unblock windows/doors X private X
Lighting Wall lighting X BID/CCD X X X
Special Effect Lighting X private X
Decorative Lighting (ex: Tivoli) X BID/private X
Urban Design Planters (temp) X private X
Planters (permanent) X private X
Entry features X BID/CCD X
Curb/rail at surface parking (for ped scale) X private X X
Art, temporary/installation X BID/private X
Art, permanent X BID/private X
Arcade, awnings, coverings X BID/private X X
Land Use Micro-retail ('back room1) space X private X
Outdoor dining (temp) X private X
Outdoor dining (permanent) X private X
Programming X BID X
PR Outreach and advertising X BID/private X X X X
POLICY ELEMENTS
Enforcement Enforce one-way X CCD X X X
Enforce no parking X CCD X X X
Operations/ Permitting Limit service hours (time of day) X CCD X
Consolidate trash contract X BID/CCD X X X
Create licensure program for trash haulers CCD
Alley closure X CCD X
Streamlined permitting/reduced fees X CCD X X
Development Programs Future development standards X CCD X X X
Fapade upgrade assistance program X BID X X X
The highest level of upgrades, 'Enhance', includes all the
preceding elements, and also looks to find opportunities to add
occupiable space to the alley corridor. An excellent example of this
type of space would be outdoor dining for an adjacent restaurant;
in this case, the alley corridor would see improvements in paving,
lighting and urban design, while adjacent properties whose
structures are setback from the alley or which have alcoves of an
appropriate size might choose to create a new space for public or
private use.
Alley Enhancement Project
6


Pilot Projects
Goals
The final step of the study was to provide conceptual design, a
template, that can be used as a starting point for any alley along
the Mall, once implementation funding is identified. Rather than
generic alley prototypes, the study instead selected three real alleys
to be used as 'pilots' for design, with each pilot providing visual
representation of one of the three categories of improvement.
Criteria
In order to capitalize on existing opportunities and have designs that
are ready to move forward in the alleys most likely to be first on
the priority listeither due to supportive stakeholders or promising
existing conditions-all three pilots were selected from those
classified in the 'enhance' category. The study also considered
alley location along the Mallwest (LoDo), central, or east (Civic
Center)and selected a pilot project in each area, to emphasize the
potential benefits of alley enhancements for all tenants and owners.
Pilots
The three pilot alleys listed below; in order to facilitate easy
identification, each alley was given an informal name starting with
the same letter as its designation on the existing conditions map.
These names are for convenience only and are in no way intended
to be final names.
Type 1, Update (Moore Alley):
Type 2, Circulate (Gunter Alley):
Type 3, Enhance (Cook Alley):
Curtis-Champa, South
Welton-Glenarm, North
Market-Larimer, North
'Update': Moore Alley. This alley hosted 'Brewers' Alley,
a successful one-night beer tasting event held in the alley in
conjunction with the 2013 Great American Beer Festival. As such,
the alley's strongest potential as a pilot comes not from existing
physical conditions, but from supportive adjacent stakeholders. The
Pilot Project chapter of this reports illustrates basic improvements
to this alley, as well as how even basic improvements could set the
alley up to be used for daily, recurring programming such as 'pop-
up' outdoor dining, as well as special events such as a chalk festival.
Estimated construction costs for this level of improvements are in
the $400,000 range.
Brewers'Alley showcased local breweries and demonstrated alley's potential as
public space. The event was co-hosted by the BID and the adjacent Rialto Cafe.
7

Existing conditions.
Executive Summary


'Circulate': Gunter Alley. This alley is already well used by
downtown workers as a convenient conduit between 17th Street
and the Mall; it is also used as a secondary exit after events at the
adjacent Paramount Theatre. Feature improvements of this concept
scheme include an overhead arcade playing off the vocabulary of
the Paramount Cafe and Theatre Marquis, as well as a new bicycle
repair shop facing the alley. Estimated construction costs for this
level of improvement, including costs likely to be split by both public
and private funding, is in the $800,000 range.
Alley enhancements: paving, lighting, ornamental overhead trusses. Alley enhancements: paving, signage, micro-retail, banners, fencing.
Alley Enhancement Project
8


'Enhance': Cook Alley. This alley offers an opportunity to
explore 'found' space where existing buildings are set back from
the alley right-of-way. Enhancement include unit paving, entry
gateways, an outdoor dining patio and overhead Tivoli lighting. As
an additional 'early action' advantage, the bulk of the alley's eastern
side is occupied by a parking garage; as the City continues to seek
approaches to the alcoves common in most alleys (which can offer
concealment and are a safety concern), this large-scale absence of
alcoves suggests that this alley may be an excellent 'low hanging
fruit' that could be used as a demonstration alley while more
complex issue continue to be researched. Estimated construction
costs for this type of alley is in the $1.4 million range.
Alley enhancements: paving, outdoor dining, overhead lighting. Alley enhancements: planters, murals, ground-level lighting.
9
Executive Summary


Next Steps
The challenge with all projects is moving from planning and design
to actual implementation. No funding has yet been identified for
alley enhancements as described in this study, and although the
'levels' of enhancements range from $400,000 to $1.4 million, it is
important to understand that these groups of enhancements are
both phase-able and additive. The alleys themselves are phase-able
and additive; it is not necessary to do all alleys at one time, or even
to upgrade all alleys to a single standard before another alley with
excellent potential is upgraded above and beyond this 'standard.'
Enhancements are context-specific and funding-flexible.
The evaluation and concepts in this report can be a useful tool in
building stakeholder support and procuring funding, and next steps
can be clustered under three larger objectives: building support,
preparing the policy framework, and identifying funding.
Alley Enhancement Project
Build Support. Internal and external support are equally important
in seeing a plan through to implementation. The more people who
are familiar with and see value in alley enhancement projects, the
better the chance of implementation. The analysis and concepts in
this study should be shared with internal and external stakeholders,
as well as other cities who have undertaken or are in the process of
similar alley projects. The City and BID should also initiate one-on-
one and small group discussions with adjacent owners and tenants
to understand how they use the alleys, what they would like to
see, how the concepts identified in this study could positively or
negatively impact their interest.
Prepare the Policy Framework. Many of the physical enhancements
identified in this study require that appropriate policy and
agreements be in place in advance of the first shovel hitting the
ground. Examples of such actions are coordination regarding trash
consolidation and relocation, enforcement of no parking regulations,
modified development regulations, streamlined event permitting and
the creation of an alley 'how to' handbook.
Identify Funding. Enhancing all alleys off the 16th Street Mall
will be a long-term process and will require long-term attention
to funding opportunities. Both public and private sources should
be monitored, as well as opportunities to prioritize alley elements
within normal City maintenance budgets or programs. Development
incentives may also provide enhancement opportunities as part of
private development projects.
10


Alley Enhancement Project


Alley Enhancement Project


Case Studies
Cities are taking a second look at alleys. Often thought of as
a necessary yet utilitarian part of the street network, alleys are
being reconsidered from both a functional and an aesthetic point
of view. Alley projects span cities in a range of size and densities,
and consider a wide variety of issues beyond basic service functions
including stormwater management, multi-modal mobility, economic
development and urban placemaking.
What's Included
Alley projects vary in scope and objectives, but most goals fall
under one of three broad categories: functional performance, urban
design or activation of the public realm. Some projects focus solely
on the functional performance of alleys, while others are driven by
the desire for enhanced public space or to create more activity and
use in existing spaces. Many alley projects have goals in several
of these categories with varying degrees of emphasis on one set of
concerns or the other.
Functional Enhancements
In the first category of functional and sustainability-focused goals,
stormwater management is often the primary goal. Complementary
goals include rainwater harvesting, urban heat island mitigation,
reduced construction waste/resource demands and dark sky
compliance/glare reduction.
Permeable Paving
The most common element of stormwater-focused alley projects
is the installation of permeable paving; whether concrete pavers,
brick pavers, permeable asphalt or permeable concrete. Grading
for positive flow is a critical part of this process. Alleys may drain
excess water beyond the system's infiltration capacity to their own
subsurface drainage, to bioswales (in the case of more suburban
applications) or direct overflow to adjacent roadway systems.
High Albedo Paving
Light-colored, reflective paving keeps both pavement and
surrounding ambient air cool on a hot day, reducing what is
commonly termed the urban heat island effect. Urban heat island
effect can negatively impact both air quality, by increasing the
production of pollutants such as ozone, and water quality, as the
temperature of water entering local drainages rises and affects local
ecosystems.
Recycled and Local Materials
The use of recycled and locally sourced materials reduces resource
demand, in both the production of new materials and the fuels
needed to transport them. Using recycled materials also reduces
the amount of waste sent to landfills. Recycled asphalt or concrete
can often be used as an aggregate base for new asphalt or
concrete.
13
Chapter 1: Case Studies


Urban Design Enhancements
This category of enhancements includes both functional and
aesthetic enhancements, aimed at creating an attractive, pedestrian-
friendly, multi-modal, multi use space. Ideally, this could be used as
a mobility connection, a place to relax and a gathering place. Goals
in this category include enhanced safety, reduced odors, expanded
green or open space, beautification, increased non-motorized
connectivity and increased sense of community.
It is important to note that even with a more urban design-focused
project many of the elements listed under the preceding category
of functional enhancements may be necessary precursors to this
'softer' category of improvements. An obvious example of this need
is an alley with frequent flooding, which cannot provide pedestrian
connectivity or any open space functions until this most practical
and basic issue is corrected.
High Efficiency and Dark Skies Compliant Lighting
Replacing old, inefficient fixtures with new fixtures, or introducing
new or supplemental lighting, provides the opportunity to select
standardized, high-efficiency lighting with lower energy usage and
longer life span. This reduces direct energy costs as well as time
and materials spent replacing lower efficiency, shorter-lifespan
products. New lighting also offers the opportunity to mitigate light
pollution, and increase public safety through appropriate light levels
and reduced glare. Lighting may be strictly utilitarian, decorative
or a combination of the two depending upon the project's specific
goals.
Consolidated Trash & Recycling
Typically, each building or parcel will have its own trash receptacle,
and in cases of buildings with multiple tenants, each tenant may
have a dumpster. It is also common for tenants or owners to
contract collection services on an individual basis. This results in
a single alley being serviced by multiple collection services (and
trucks), each with their own schedule. Consolidating multiple
dumpsters into a single centralized location frees space, and use of
a single provider (whether through agreement or through formation
of a new entity to contract such service) significantly reduces service
traffic in the alley. Arranging for more frequent collection can
reduce odor.
Landscaping
By nature of their typically narrow width, alleys can be challenging
for landscaping. More suburban applications with a wider cross-
section, larger building setback or shorter structures may afford
sufficient light for plantings or even bioswales. For the more urban
alley, landscaping is usually limited to small clusters of planters,
trellises, green walls or pots in areas with good solar access. This
can be found in areas adjacent to surface parking or with lower
building height. In some contexts, residents or adjacent users
have installed window boxes or placed pots on windowsills. In
the absence of these opportunities, planter clusters at the alley
entrances can provide interest and serve as an alley gateway.
Furnishings
Furnishings depend heavily on the available cross-section of the
alley and its use (pedestrian only vs. mixed pedestrian/vehicular
activity), but can include any of the furnishings included in
traditional streetscape. Benches, trash receptacles, outdoor dining
and pedestrian lighting have all been included in various alley
projects.
Artwork
Alley art comes in all types: permanent, temporary or event-
based; officially sanctioned graffiti, informal chalk art or formally
commissioned artwork. It can be a stand-alone piece of art, such as
a mural, overhead installation, or sculpture or it can be integrated
into other alley elements, such as custom lights or seating.
Signage,Wayfinding and 'Portal' Enhancements
Naming and signing alleys reinforces the fact that they are open
to and designed to accommodate pedestrians. Signage may also
point to destinations within or which can be reached via alleyways,
aiding in wayfinding. Many programs also note the importance of
continuing alley improvements to the curb, as in the case of special
paving treatments, or marking the alley entrance with a physical
gateway or with gateway elements such as an overhead structure
or planters. Like naming and signing, these gateway elements draw
attention to and encourage use of the alley.
Policy & Programming
These non-physical elements can be just important to the success
of alley project as the tangible upgrades. Policy changes most
typically focus on who can use the alley (pedestrians, cyclists,
private vehicles, service and delivery vehicles) and when.
Restricting access to service and motor vehicles during peak
pedestrian hours is a common policy that promotes pedestrian uses
while still supporting critical commercial needs. For example, many
projects have limited motor vehicle access from 7 am to 7 pm with
great success.
Programming draws people in to alleys and creates a sense of
community and ownership, whether it is a regular activity or a
special event. Block parties, outdoor dining, walking tours, public
meetings, farmers' markets and art shows are all examples of
programming that has expanded active street life into the alleys.
Alley Enhancement Project
14


Public Realm Activation
This group of enhancements focuses on programming: single- or
multiple-day events that bring people into and encourage them to
occupy the alley as a part of the public realm. Such events will
typically include temporary physical elements of both a functional
or decorative nature. This type of program can also act as a
pilot or demonstration project to raise interest and awareness in
alleys, and may be used as a first step toward more permanent
physical enhancements. Events may be sponsored by or aligned
with adjacent uses, such as a tasting dinner hosted by an adjacent
restaurant, or may be organized and hosted by a completely
unrelated entity.
Pre-Event Planning and Organization
Pre-event activities typically include alley clean-up, some sort of city
permitting process, and public outreach or advertising. Clean-up
may include washing down the alley, arranging for additional trash
pick-up, and even graffiti removal. These activities may be carried
out by event organizers, or may be a request for service from an
existing public program, such as graffiti removal.
Alleys are public right-of-way, and as such any event or closure will
need to be approved and permitted by the local jurisdiction. Each
City will have a different application process and fee structure for
event permitting. Organizers will need to pay particular attention to
access control. For example, they will need to provide appropriate
boundaries for events serving alcohol, ensure appropriate fire code
and evacuation measures are followed, and ensure uninterrupted
access for parking structures.
Outreach and advertising lets local residents and visitors know
that an event is happening. Planning alley events to coincide
with other, more established happenings such as an art walk or
a farmers' market is often an effective way to test small-scale
events. Advertising can be as simple as sandwich signs placed
along a regular pedestrian route used for the established event.
More extensive advertising may include non-monetary sponsors or
partners who do not contribute money but who assist with publicity
through their established membership and communication channels.
Performance and Activities
Activation can be as varied as the organizers' imaginations.
Successful alley events have include music and dance performances,
participatory arts and crafts events, specialty or themed vending
such as a 'spice alley', public meetings, sports-watching events such
as a multi-day Tour de France party, tasting events, dinners, fashion
shows, art shows and pet adoption events.
Temporary Physical Enhancements
Each event will have different needs. Some events may be as
simple as pulling up a large projection screen and providing places
to sit. Other events may create more of an atmosphere by bringing
in temporary ground coverings (carpet, flooring, faux grass), potted
plants, draped fabric. Overhead light strings and art installations
are also common examples of temporary improvements.
15
Chapter 1: Case Studies


Precedents
The project team researched a variety of alley projects, including
programs in the cities listed below. Of these cities, six were
selected as case studies having the most relevance to the
present 16th Street Mall Alleys project.
Chicago CASE STUDY
Fort Collins CASE STUDY
Longmont, CO CASE STUDY
Los Angeles CASE STUDY
Melbourne, Australia CASE STUDY
Seattle CASE STUDY
Austin primarily residential
Boston experimental, at local college
Colorado Springs one project
Detroit one pilot project
Dubuque, IA exclusively stormwater
Montreal, Canada focuses on plantings/green spaces
Richmond, VA exclusively stormwater
San Francisco in planning process, 2013
Selection Process and Additional
Planning Considerations
The alley selection process is as varied as the cities themselves. In
a number of cases, initial or pilot alleys 'selected themselves' via
interested stakeholderstypically adjacent residents or businesses
who championed their alley. In other cases when a local jurisdiction
initiated a program launch, demonstration projects were selected
to test a spectrum of contexts or to tackle the toughest, typically
technical, issues that might be encountered. Conversely, a few
cities chose to tackle the 'low-hanging fruit' first, in order to
demonstrate feasibility and build support.
Also contributing to the selection process are considerations of a
more intangible nature: safety, zoning, allowable use, destinations
and origins. Having existing or 'available' (disused doors or boarded
over but potentially functional windows) alley access, whether visual
or physical, contributes to passive surveillance and safety of the
alley, as well as to the potential for alley activation through primary
or secondary retail or restaurant entrances. Selecting alleys with
the potential to provide connection between strong destinations
such as schools, bus stops, plazas or shops is also an asset to alley
enhancements. Also related to the potential for alley programming
are existing zoning designations and regulations: outdoor dining,
alcohol licensing, special events.
Responsible Parties and Funding
As with the selection process, overseeing and contributing agencies
vary widely. In many cases, the local jurisdiction itself will initiate
a project, sometimes exclusively or other times in partnership with
other public or private agencies or entities. Some other types of
organizations who have gotten involved include the Trust for Public
Land, local college or universities, adjacent residents/businesses/
property owners, the local BID or development agency.
Funding is similarly varied; sources have included federal recovery
funds, local taxes, regular city maintenance funds, public and private
grants and private investment.
Implementation
Many projects kick off with one or more pilot projects before rolling
out a full alley program. The reasons for these pilots are varied,
and include funding challenges, technological 'testing' of new
infrastructure or systems, assessment of community interest, and
evaluation of different alley contexts. Timelines vary as with any
infrastructure project, and are closely tied to having funding and
approval process in place prior to project initiation.


Lessons Learned: Applying Precedents
to Denver
The case studies that follow include more specific case-by-case
lessons learned, and discussion of specific elements and tools that
contributed to the success of each project. Throughout all these
precedents, several key themes emerge. These themes apply
regardless of the size and scope of the project, and are as important
to temporary programming-only activation efforts as they are to
long-term infrastructure enhancements.
Cultivate Stakeholder Buy-In
Project support is critical, and 'stakeholder' refers to a wide and
varied group of interested parties: city departments, fire and police,
property owners, tenants and the general public. Sometimes,
all it takes to create support is to ask for it: is this drainage plan
satisfactory? Would you allow a publicly-owned and maintained
light to be mounted to your building fagade?
If the issue is more complicated, the group or entity leading the
project may need to collaborate to find a solution; a particular
example of this sort of issue are changes to public policy, be it
zoning, fire code, or permitting processes. Some approaches
in this area may include minor revisions or tweaks to policy
language, overlays or waivers that apply when certain conditions
are met, or wholesale revision and updating of a policy to better
reflect conditions that may have changed substantially since the
requirement was written.
Finally, some stakeholders may need to see something to lend their
full support. Pilot projects were used in almost all the projects
studied, both for the project organizer to test physical and technical
details and/or to gauge economic impacts and overall success.
Get the Framework Right
At the most basic level, alleys must appear clean and safe. Without
this base condition, alleys remain the shady but necessary 'back
door' areas used only for service functions and undesirable
activities. Clean is largely self-explanatory and encompasses both
the public right of way as well as the adjacent facades. Trash/litter,
odors, graffiti all fall in this category.
'Safe' is a more complex topic. There is simple environmental
safety, exemplified by reasonably level walking surfaces that
are free of puddles, ice or other mobility hazards. Then there
is real and perceived safety; for the purposes of alley activation
and enhancement, these two categories are one and the same.
Whether an alley is truly dangerous, as evidenced by police reports,
or only looks 'scary', the result is the same; people will not use it.
Appropriate paving and drainage, adequate lighting, and elimination
or mitigation of potential areas of concealment all fall into this
category.
Design to Context
All design must be context-specific: technically, functionally and
culturally. What worked in one city may or may not work in another
city due to a whole host of factors: climate, alley orientation and
solar access, soils, existing infrastructure, city policy, urban fabric,
economic conditions, public habit and custom. The key to applying
precedents from other cities is to work backwards and identify
both the end result as well as the tool, policy or design element
used to achieve that end. By separating the 'what' and the 'how',
and the relevance of each to the project at hand, the project team
can create both a wish list and a toolkit tailored to their city's own
context and goals.
Swindle-Smith Alley, Pasadena (top) and EaCa Alley, Los Angeles (bottom).
17
Chapter 1: Case Studies


Case Study: Chicago
History
Chicago claims the largest and best-known alley renovation
program, and the city's Green Alley Handbook (2010) has been
used as a model for many such programs throughout the country.
The program began in 2006 with five pilot projects, which were
tested and evaluated for 3 years. Lessons Learned from these initial
pilots were then applied to all subsequent alley reconstructions.
To date, the City has converted over 100 alleys to green alley
infrastructure, and such renovation is a standard menu item among
the list of projects to which alderman can allocate his or her ward's
yearly funding.
Initial project costs were quite high, due to the city's extensive
research and testing of potential paving technologies as well as
overcharging by contractors. Project costs have reduced now that
the City has standardized their infrastructure approach and payment
levels.
Program:
Responsible:
Main Focus:
Funding:
Green Alleys Program
Chicago Department of Transportation
Stormwater Management
Municipal budget
Alleys Completed: 100+
More information:
http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/cdot/provdrs/street/
svcs/green_alleys.html
Features
The Chicago handbook identifies four specific goals for green
alleys: stormwater management, heat reduction, materials recycling
and energy conservation/glare reduction. The book outlines five
techniques that can be used singly or in combination to achieve
these goals: proper pitch and grading, permeable paving, high
albedo paving, recycled materials and dark sky-compliant light
fixtures.
Relevance to Denver
Chicago provides excellent guidance for exploring stormwater
management options in a cold-weather, 4-season climate, and in
matching those approaches to specific contexts. Their guidebook is
concise and easy-to-understand.
Alley Enhancement Project
18


EaCa Alley (East Cahuenga Alley)
Hollywood Entertainment District BID /
EaCa Alley Association
Public Space, Public Safety,
Community Development
$790,000/alley
property tax increment
1
Program:
Responsible:
Main Focus:
Cost:
Funding:
Alleys Completed:
More information:
http://articles.latimes.com/2012/mar/09/entertainment/la-et-green-
alleys-20120309
History
The City of Los Angeles opened a showcase alley revitalization
project in early 2012. East Cahuenga Alley, more commonly
referred to as EaCa Alley, is located in the heart of the Hollywood
Entertainment district and was funded by the city's (now-defunct)
Community Redevelopment Association. Change first came to
the alley when a new restaurant saw an opportunity for additional
outdoor seating, and cleaned up the portion of the passage
immediately adjacent to them; other owners soon followed and
a formal alley revitalization project was born. The alley's paving
improvements were designed by the city's Bureau of Engineers and
cost approximately $790,000. Planning is in progress for a second
revitalization project for West Cahuenga, a continuation of the first
alley.
Features
EaCa alley is approximately 170' in length and varies between
10 and 17' in width. Improvements include unit pavers, portable
(rolling) planters, a customized entry gateway, outdoor dining and
Tivoli lights strung overhead. Adjacent businesses have transparent
windows and doors on the alley, and have commissioned large-scale
murals. The alley is pedestrian-only, and although it is open only
during business hours of the adjacent restaurant and shops (11:30-
2 a.m.) the EaCa Alley Corridor Alley Association hope to extend
open hours.
The alley also offers programming beyond outdoor dining, and
the EaCa Alley Property Owners Association has partnered with
Sustainable Economic Enterprises of Los Angeles (SEE-LA) to host
'Spice Alley', an offshoot of the adjacent weekly farmer's market.
Relevance to Denver
There have been multiple efforts at green alley programs in
Los Angeles; some more focused on residential green space
or stormwater. Some of these parallel projects continue in the
planning stages, and the USC Center for Sustainable Cities'
Transforming Alleys into Green Infrastructure for Los Angeles
(2008) may provide useful background research relevant to Denver's
efforts. Neither this publication nor other planning efforts, however,
relate directly to the EaCa Alley project.
EaCa Alley provides an excellent demonstration of various urban
design elements that could be considered for Denver. EaCa Alley
also provides an example of cost sharing in alley renovation, as hard
infrastructure costs were borne by the city, while adjacent business
owners provided landscaping and lighting.
EaCa Alley before (left) and after (center, center and right).
Chapter 1: Case Studies


History
The concept of improved, pedestrian-friendly alleys was introduced
in the Fort Collins' 2004 Downtown Strategic Plan. In 2006, the
City initiated two pilot projects: Trimble Court and Tenney Court.
Two more alley projects, Old Firehouse Alley and Montezuma
Fuller Alley, were completed in 2010 and a fifth alley, West Myrtle,
was completed in 2011. Although 9 additional alleys, a total
of 14, were envisioned at the start of the program, state-level
reductions in the DDA's funding has put these projects on hold
indefinitely. Pilot projects and subsequent alley enhancements
were selected and prioritized by the scoring results of an assets/
opportunities/challenges analysis included in the Alley's Maser Plan.
Each alley took approximately 6 to 7 months to construct and cost
approximately $900,000.
Case Study: Fort Collins, CO
Program:
Responsible:
Main Focus:
Cost:
Funding:
Alleys Completed:
More information:
http ://www.downtownfortcol I i ns .org/a I leys. htm I
Downtown Alley Enhancement Project
Fort Collins Downtown Development
Authority (DDA)
Connectivity, Urban Design, Stormwater
Management
$900,000/alley
state-enabled tax increment revenue
5
Features
Fort Collins' project prioritized urban design enhancements, with
the goal of increasing pedestrian connectivity and access to local
businesses, but also included upgrades to drainage and trash
services. Enhancements included the installation of pavers,
pedestrian-scale lighting, planting (in-ground and planters), plaza,
signage, seating and art. The program also consolidated trash
dumpsters to a single location and single service provider, and
introduced recycling as well. Alley width was in the 18-20' range,
with each alley varying between approximately 100 and 175 feet in
length.
The DDA also expanded their existing fagade improvement
program, which offers funding assistance for painting, paving,
lighting and similar improvements. A significant number of
owners have undertaken these types of improvement, some with
DDA's assistance and some on their own. Prior to the program,
very few businesses had customer entrances on the alley, and
that number has increased since alley upgrades. There are
even instances of new ground-floor uses with alley-only access,
including a microbrewery and a religious temple. In both of these
cases, existing back-of-house storage space was renovated to
accommodate new commercial space.
Pre-enhancement program, Fort Collins' alleys had many of the
low-level and nuisance crimes typically associated with alleys
everywhere: public urination, drug dealing and drug use, drinking.
The alley program did not undertake any specific policy or physical
improvement measures to address these issues, but as public
visibility and use of the alleys increased, the incidence of these
types of undesirable activities decreased. Local police note that
they have far fewer incidents in enhanced alleys than they do in the
city's standard alleys.
Alley Enhancement Project
20


Relevance to Denver
Fort Collins offers an example of alley enhancement in a downtown
retail context of low- to mid-rise building heights. Alley widths
tend toward a wider 19-20', compared to Denver's 16' width, so
not all urban design enhancements may transfer to Denver's more
compressed space. Fort Collins also offers examples of mixed-mode
pedestrian/vehicular alleys.
Fort Collins' Alley Beautification Master Plan (2008) offers a
thorough alley evaluation process ranking assets, opportunities and
challenges that may provide a useful model for Denver's current
alley study.
Lessons Learned
The DDA notes that increased traffic and better lighting was a key
to reducing undesirable activities in the alley: get the design right
and the rest rolls up under it and takes care of itself.
The DDA also notes that the fagade improvement program is not
critical, but projects that take advantage of this funding source do
tend to be more successful than those undertaken by the owner
alone. In addition to funding, the DDA encouraged coordination
between any planned/considered upgrades and the current project,
so that adjacent owners could take advantage of economies of scale
and reduce construction disruption by having their improvements
performed simultaneously. In a similar vein, all construction was
planned to take place outside of the critical mid-October to early-
January shopping period, in order to minimize economic impacts to
local business.
Montezuma Fuller Alley (top) and Tenney Court (below).
Old Firehouse Alley.
r
21
Chapter 1: Case Studies


Program:
Responsible:
Main Focus:
Alleyscape Development Project
Longmont Downtown Development
Authority (LDDA)
Stormwater Management, Urban Design,
Connectivity, Public Gathering Space
$600,000/alley
city infrastructure funding and local BID
3
Cost:
Funding:
Alleys Completed:
More information:
http://www.downtownlongmont.com/business/ldda-proj-
ects-and-programs/alleyscape-development-project
History
The City of Longmont's Alleyscape Development Project is the
product of a collaborative effort between the Longmont Downtown
Development Authority (LDDA) and the city's Public Works & Natural
Resources Department. The project was initially motivated by the
need for drainage improvements, and the DDA approached the City
about partnering to expand the planned repaving project.
The project includes the six shared pedestrian-vehicular alleys
paralleling Main Street, between 3rd and 6th Avenues, and includes
the 'breezeways'-the perpendicular connections between adjacent
roadway, surface parking, alley and Main Street. The three eastern
alleys were completed in 2012, with the three western alleys
planned for construction in 2015. Alleys were completed one at
a time, starting with the most technically challenging alley first.
Construction took four months per alley, at a cost of approximately
$600,000 each.
Features
As noted, the project's first priority was the improvement of alley
drainage. Prior to the project, alleys had no internal, above- or
below-ground drainage and water simply flowed to inlets on
adjacent streets. The project introduced a closed, permeable
paving system with underground piping to adjacent street systems.
Paving is centered within the alley, with sidewalk-width concrete on
each side.
The project also undergrounded overhead utilities, in a cooperative
effort between the City's own electric services and other cable/
fiber providers, and consolidated trash into two 20' x 20' enclosures
within each alley. Trash service was negotiated by the hauler rather
than city bid; 90% of dumpsters were already serviced by a single
provider prior to the project.
Aesthetic and urban design enhancements included new combined
light/banner/hanging planter poles. Existing public art, known
as the Arcos de Longmont, were relocated and constructed as
part of the project, while a new mural by a local artist was also
commissioned. Particularly successful was the City's fagade
improvement program, which provided financial assistance for
business owners to upgrade their customer entrances within the
alley, with the most common improvements being refreshed paint
or new entry area paving to match alley paving. Applicants could
request up to 25% of their improvement cost to a maximum of
$10,000. The entire fagade fund was $100,000.
Alley Enhancement Project
22


Relevance to Denver
At approximately 20' wide and 500' long, Longmont's alleys are
somewhat wider and longer than those off the 16th Street Mall.
Land use and circulation patterns, however, do mimic or provide
aspirational examples for what could work in Denver and illustrate
the utility of'convenience entries' rather than primary or sole
access from the alley. Many of the shops facing main street have
customer entries on the alley, and these entrances are a source
of alley activation and are heavily used by customers who park
in the adjacent surface parking lots. While most businesses in
Denver's study area do not have customer entrances in the alley,
this example illustrates potential for alley activation that does not
depend on excessive width that would accommodate, for example,
outdoor dining.
As an additional note, Longmont's Arcos artworks also highlight the
value of visual gateways that also aid in wayfinding.
Lessons Learned
The DDA notes that the alley fagade program was particularly
successful and helped create stakeholder participation and buy-in.
On the downside, however, there was some loss of sales at adjacent
businesses during construction, even though the roadway entrances
remained open. The program tried to avoid the busy holiday
shopping season in particular.
Public works is very satisfied with the performance of the permeable
paving, noting that up to 10 year events can be fully contained
within the alley. Some issues regarding maintenance did occur,
particularly related to displacement of the aggregate filling the
spaces of the pavers. Public works would recommend that the
pavers *not* be vacuumed for the first two years after installation,
to allow the aggregate to better settle. In addition, to increase
sustainability, the department plans to explore the potential for an
infiltration system-instead of the current closed system flowing to
underground stormwaterfor the western alleys.
From a programming point of view, designers encourage considering
future needs such as farmers' market type tentsthe 10' x 10' tents
do not fit well in the alley, but can be set up in adjacent parking
lots. Additional planters were eliminated from the design in order to
accommodate this specific consideration.
One of the Arcos de Longmont arches during reinstallation (top); 500 block alley;
breezeway improvements.
23


Case Study: Melbourne
History
Melbourne's laneways (alleys) were included in the City's original
street grid, circa the 1850's. Until the late 1990's the laneways
were used for largely service-related functions, accompanied by
the usual contingent of shady and unsavory activities. By the mid-
1990's, Melbourne was struggling with a large-scale emptying of
their downtown core, seeing many of its downtown businesses
relocating to the suburbs as well as much of its industrial base leave
for Asia. Local officials had serious discussions on where the city
and its economy were going, and where they wanted it to go. The
result was a multi-pronged approach to downtown revitalization that
encompasses land use, public realm and programming.
Program:
Responsible:
Main Focus:
Cost:
Funding:
Alleys Completed:
More information:
http://thesignalexpress
dpbs
no formal program
City of Melbourne (paving); individual
businesses
Public Space, Public Safety, Economic
development
Unknown
city funds
15+
com.au/archives/1634#sthash.5MKaTbYG.
Features
Contemporary with alley improvements, Melbourne began filling
its event and convention calendar, as well as building new public
facilities and refurbishing the old. This effort drew residents and
visitors back to downtown. The city also modified building code to
allow more mixed uses, particularly second-floor residential, and
softened liquor licensing in a way that made it easier and more
economically feasible for smaller establishment to open business.
As a result, merchants and restaurateurs began opening small shops
facing onto the laneways, in many cases seeking less expensive
rents or simply smaller spaces than those available on the main
thoroughfares.
At the same time, Melbourne began remaking its public realm.
The city commissioned a suite of outdoor furnishings (tree grates,
pavement, benches, lights, trash receptacles) to create a unified
look and feel throughout the downtown. These designs are
owned by the City itself, to ensure that future developers would
not encounter issues associated with discontinuance or single
manufacturer. The City also provided grants for the creation of
outdoor dining areas, to demonstrate the potential success of such
spaces. At this time, the City upgraded many city center alleys
('laneways') with new lighting and bluestone (basalt) pavers.
Alley Enhancement Project
24


Relevance to Denver
Today, Melbourne's central business district boasts a well-connected
network of laneways bisecting the City's 700-foot grid. This larger
scale grid does promote the use of the alleys as efficient cut-
through space, a need that is less pressing in Denver's much smaller
300 x 400 grid. Compared to Denver's typical 16'-alley width, most
of Melbourne laneways fall in the 16-20' range of width. Many of
the laneways are pedestrian-only walkways with outdoor dining
and window shopping, while others have restricted vehicular access
during off hours. Some laneways do retain full auto and pedestrian
access. A handful of laneways boast covered arcades, with at least
one example of an entry arch.
The Melbourne example offers a toolkit of urban design elements
that can be mixed-and-matched to create human-scale alleys, for
exclusive pedestrian use or multiple modes. Alleys range from
the elaborate, such as Block Place with a covered arcade, to the
simpler, such as Hosier Lane, known for its full-coverage graffiti art.
Melbourne also offers an example of restricted access policies that
can provide an important compromise for conflicting modes.
Melbourne's covered arcades highlight the potential of providing
real or perceived enclosure that could bolster the use of alleys by
making them a more attractive, sheltered circulation option than
wider, more climate-susceptible main roadways.
Lessons Learned
The success of Melbourne's downtown revitalization depended
heavily on public investment, even demonstration projects to
convince local decision makers, developers and stakeholders of the
City's potential. Significant changes to local policy across a variety
of disciplines, as well as extensive public money is often needed to
promote both public buy-in and private investment
Laneways with walkways, shopping, dining: Bligh Place, Degraves Laneway,
Hardware Lane. Photos: wikipedia.com
Laneways with Arcades and Gateways: Centre Place, Howey Place Place, Block
Place. Photos: GoogleEarth, GoogleEarth, wikipedia.com
Laneways Known for Graffiti Art: Hosier Lane.
25
Chapter 1: Case Studies


Activating Alleys for a Lively City
%/---------------------------------------------------
MARY FIALKO AND JENNIFER HAMPTON/IN COLLABORATION WITH:
UW GREEN FUTURES LAB
SCAN DESIGN FOUNDATION
_________________________________GEHLARCHITECTS______
Case Study: Seattle
Program:
Responsible:
Main Focus:
Cost:
Funding:
Alleys Completed:
More information:
Alley Network Project
International Sustainability Institute (ISI)
Public Space, Community Development
Unknown
adjacent owners / city
1
http://alleynetworkproject.com/
History
Seattle's first alley revitalization came about as the result of small-
scale, independent efforts by residents and business owners
abutting Nord Alley. Neighbors fed up with the eyesore passageway
took ownership of the alley, adding inexpensive furniture, flowers on
balconies, and requesting the City to increase the frequency of trash
pickup. As this increased interest and surveillance of the alley grew,
neighbors began using the alley more and frequency of undesirable
activities such as drug dealing and prostitution decreased. The alley
now has permanent art displays and hosts various events and tours
throughout the year, often on a weekly basis. To date, Nord Alley's
success is due almost exclusively to alley activation, rather than
large-scale physical improvements.
This citizens' effort has been taken up and formalized by the
International Sustainability Institute (ISI), which maintains office
space on Nord Alley and participated in original revitalization efforts.
Today ISI has obtained grant money from the City's Department
of Neighborhoods to fund a more formalized alley project, the
Alley Network Project. The project has hosted a series of open
houses throughout 2013 exploring different alley concepts and
hopes to arrive at a "shovel-ready" surface design and lighting
recommendation.
Features
Seattle's alley enhancements are noteworthy in that the bulk of
activities relate to alley clean-up and programming, rather than
physical upgrades. Initial efforts coincided with the City's initiation
of their Clear Alley Program, which changed trash service from
dumpsters to bags with daily pick-up. This change created more
physical space in the narrow 16' alleys (shared by service vehicles,
private automobiles, pedestrians and cyclists), while also addressing
hygiene, odor and crime issues associated with the dumpsters. A
group of property owners adjacent to the alley pay for a private
company to wash down the alley on a daily basis, as an additional
measure to address hygiene and cleanliness.
Some small scale, physical enhancements have taken place,
including art panels for the installation of rotating art exhibits, as
well as a permanent sculpture attached to an adjacent building
above the ground level. As activity and interest in the alleys grew,
owners of some adjacent buildings re-opened doors or windows that
had been bricked up or boarded over, and one owner was able to
convert an unused rear storage room into a small shopfront for a
bicycle repair shop looking for a new home. The City has no plans
at this time for repaving.
Programming has covered a wide variety of interests, from film
screenings and sporting-event watching parties, to dog shows, to
art exhibits and music, dance and poetry performances. Some
programming is organized by ISI, while in other cases ISI and Nord
Alley act only as a venue for events planned and publicized by other
groups, such as an 'alley cat' pet adoption event. Critical to the
success of alley programming was a change in the City's permitting
process, which created a 'festival street and alley' designation which
makes it much easier and less expensive ($300/year vs. $300/day)
to close the alley.
In order to take advantage of increased foot traffic and established
event recognition, alley events are typically planned to coincide
with the neighborhood's monthly First Thursday art walk. Events
will often take advantage of non-monetary sponsors, organizations
which 'sponsor' the event by publicizing it through their own mailing
lists and membership.
Alley Enhancement Project
26



Relevance to Denver
Seattle offers an outstanding example of creative programming and
alley activation in a historic downtown environment. Alley width,
building height and development density are similar to Denver, and
show examples of small-scale physical improvements. By doing
more with less, the Nord Alley rejuvenation shows that engaged
stakeholders and community ownership of the project can make
a critical difference to success. Seattle has also produced an
Integrated Alley Handbook (2011) that may provide design ideas for
Denver's own alleys.
Lessons Learned
ISI stresses the importance of starting with and embracing existing
conditions; it is far easier to unbrick an existing window or re-
purpose an existing space than to create new windows or make
large-scale interior architecture changes. They also recommend
starting with one alley, and building excitement and public buy-in to
promote future projects.
Piggybacking alley programming onto other established events,
or partnering with other new events, has proved very successful
and provides both critical mass and opportunities for wider event
publicity. ISI also notes that they have had the most success when
residents (as opposed to businesses, although business support
is also important) take ownership and interest in the alley. As the
stakeholders with a 24/7 interest in the alleys, residents will often
adopt the alley as the equivalent of their 'front yard' and will be the
ones to provide passive surveillance or to go paint over graffiti even
though it may not be on their own building.
27


Alley Enhancement Project




Alley Enhancement Project


Existing Conditions
The goal of the Alleys Enhancement Project is to evaluate near-term
opportunities for alley enhancements. These enhancements may
be of a simple, functional nature, such as making the alleys cleaner,
better lit, better drained, or may be part of a more elaborate urban
design effort that seeks to use the alleys as an extension of the
City's iconic 16th Street Mall. In both cases, the key goal of the
project is early action, and so existing conditions analysis and
assessment of future potential is predicated on a 'start where you
are' approach. This approach looks at the alleys as they are right
now, from both a tenant/land use and adjacent architecture point of
view.
Downtown Overview
Dimensions and Development
Blocks within the study area are approximately 415' long by 300'
wide, with alleys running the 'long' dimension perpendicular to
the City's iconic 16th Street Mall. Surveyed alley widths are not
available, but the majority of alleys are approximately 16' wide. The
downtown Denver street grid is skewed approximately 45 degrees
from true north, so that alleys align in a NE-SW direction, and
adjacent buildings range from two or three stories all the way to
20+ floor high rise structures.
Of the 30 blocks from Cleveland Place to Wynkoop Street, 16 of
them have alleys. The remaining blocks without alleys have been
developed as superblocks, as in the case of the Denver Pavilions
shopping complex, or have buildings spanning the entire 16th Street
Mall face, as in the case of the Federal Reserve building.
Connections
The 16th Street Mall is closed to regular vehicular traffic, and the
local transit provider, RTD, runs a free shuttle system with near-side
stops at every intersection along the entire length of the mall. A
parallel free shuttle, 'Free Metro Ride', runs stops approximately
every three blocks on the 18th/19th Street couplet.
Regular local, fare-paid buses run on 17th and 15th Streets; both
of these streets are one-way, with eastbound routes on 17th and
westbound routes on 15th. Stops are generally located every one to
two blocks. Regional commuter buses operate from Union Station
Depot at the western end of the 16th Street Mall. The new bus
terminal is at the western end of the Union Station redevelopment
node and is just outside the limits of this project's study area.
Parallel, striped on-street bicycle lanes cross the 16th Street Mall on
Wynkoop, Lawrence, Arapahoe, Champa, Welton, Glenarm, Tremont
and Cleveland Place. East-west bicycle facilities, including the newly
opened 15th Street protected bike lane, parallel the 16th Street
Mall on 14th, 15th and 18th Streets. B-cycle stations, Denver's
bike share system, are generally located on adjacent streets rather
than on the 16th Street Mall, although there is a station at 16th and
Market.
Destinations, Origins and Landmarks
In the context of this study, it is important to note that Denver
does not utilize or promote mid-block pedestrian crossings. With
this policy in mind, only attractions on the north side of 15th Street
or the south 17th Street are considered potential generators of
pedestrian traffic for alleys. Emphasis or access enhancements for
destinations or origins on the opposite sides of these two streets
could promote illegal mid-block crossings and pose pedestrian
safety issues. Due to the pedestrian nature of the 16th Street Mall,
uncontrolled mid-block pedestrian crossings of the mall are expected
and considered acceptable, allowing consideration of uses on both
sides of 16th.
Within these parameters, the Denver Pavilions shopping complex
and potentially the iconic Tattered Cover book store and the Oxford
Hotel are considered the only significant destinations or origins
within the study area, beyond normal downtown office movement.
Additional downtown landmarks such as the Colorado Convention
Center, the Denver Center for the Performing Arts (DCPA), Coors
Field and Union Station are marked on the accompanying map for
context but are not considered alley generators for the reasons
stated above.
31
Chapter 2: Existing Conditions


Physical Conditions: Summary
Paving and Drainage
All alleys are a combination of concrete and asphalt paving; visual
assessment determined that alley paving was not a differentiator
among alleys, and that any alley selected for a pilot project would
require re-paving to address ADA-compliance (tripping hazards) and
drainage issues. As such, paving material and condition is not noted
on the accompanying inventory as they are all mixed materials in
sub-standard condition. In addition, all alleys exhibit evidence of
moderate to severe drainage issues, with inadequate longitudinal
and lateral grade being a likely cause.
16th Street Mall paving granite or sandstone extends to face of
building. On 15th and 17th Street building, alley approaches are
typically concrete to face of building.
Lighting
Most alleys had some form of lighting, whether street-level cobra
heads on poles, or wall-packs. Like paving, lighting was determined
to be an insignificant differentiator among alleys, as all alleys
would need new or additional lighting to be brought to acceptable
pedestrian standards.
Overhead Utilities
Only a handful of alleys 4 of 16 have overhead utilities.
Overhead utilities are included in the survey due to their visual
impact and the high cost of undergrounding or relocating such
facilities.
Surface Parking, Solar Access and
Redevelopment Potential
Eleven of the 16 alleys have some amount of surface parking,
ranging from approximately 10 to 45% of the total block area;
one block has 75% surface parking. Surface parking can be an
important consideration in an alley activation/revitalization project
for a number of reasons. Among these reasons are increased solar
access/perception of passive surveillance and safety, which can be
particularly important when trying to change public image of an
alley, as well as the potential to promote alley-facing architecture
or site design for future development. Surface parking may also
provide opportunity for consolidated trash enclosures, as discussed
below.
Trash Consolidation
Trash dumpsters and alleys go hand in hand, particularly in a
downtown zone. Certainly, trash has to be collected somewhere,
and this 'somewhere' is usually the alley. While a necessary
service function, dumpsters pose a host of issues: unsightly, odor-
producing, a spot for potential concealment, and even just simple
reduction in functional alley width. Typically, each tenant rather
than each building will have its own dumpster, multiplying the
issue. Alley enhancement and upgrade projects often look to
consolidate dumpsters, both in number and location. For this
reason, it is important to identify whether or not an alley has any
space that could serve this function, frequently a surface parking lot,
a generous building setback or even a vacant parcel.
Existing Uses:
Transparency, Catalysts and Hosts
This preliminary survey of existing uses looks most particularly at
the uses at each of the alley's entrances. These tenants or owners
are the most likely to be able to benefit from increased alley traffic,
such as by extending outdoor dining into the alley or by hosting an
event in the alley (as demonstrated by 2013's Brewer's Alley event).
In addition, it is also advantageous if these four key spaces have
windows (currently in use or even blocked but re-openable) that
wrap around to the alley's interior, both to enliven the space and to
provide an increased sense of security.
Uses backing onto the interior of the alley are more of a 'long
shot' as far as alley activation goes: existing store or restaurant
entrance within the alley are an advantage and can contribute to a
critical mass that can bring people into the alley. Alternately, uses -
particularly restaurants that have a setback from the alley may be
able to make a go of offering a rear patio for outdoor dining. The
accompanying inventory looks at and notes these specific conditions
- existing entrances or potential at alley setbacks but generally
does not assume that adjacent buildings will make any significant
architectural changes, whether in interior layout or adding new
doors or windows (although un-blocking bricked up windows or
doors may be possible).
Brewers' Alley 2013 showcased local breweries.
Alley Enhancement Project
32


Legend
0
1500
3000
Alleys
16th St. Mall
Bike Facilities
Study Area
Metro Ride
*
Landmarks
1. DCPA
2. Convention Center
3. Union Station
4. Civic Center Station
5. UCD/Auraria
6. Civic Center Park
7. Larimer Square
Destinations
1. Pavillions
2. Tattered Cover
3. Oxford Hotel
Alley Letter
Q B-Cycle Stations
Q Bus Stops (# of routes)
MetroRide Stops
33
Chapter 2: Existing Conditions


Alley A
Wynkoop-Wazee North
Technical Details
Width: 16'
Overhead Utilities: yes
Trash: 13 dumpsters, 3 companies
Land Use
Entry: 16th Street Mall
warehouse (office): historic
surface parking
Entry: 17th Street
fine art gallery: historic, wrap
Oxford hotel: historic, wrap
Outdoor dining: no
Surface parking: 1 lot
Bus stop: no
Other
parking structure with alley access, west side
pedestrian pass-through, west side
4-story skyway connection over alley, 17th street entry
Assets
Character
Three of the alley's four 'framing' buildings are historic, with ground-
floor, wrap-around transparency at the 17th Street entry. The
fourth 'entry' parcel is surface parking, which could offer future
development opportunity that could be designed to address the
alley in addition to the adjacent streets. A pedestrian pass-through
mid-block, on the west side, may provide additional solar access and
foot traffic to the alley.
Destination/Origin
The fine art gallery and the Oxford Hotel on 17th Street could
anchor pedestrian circulation between 16th Street Mall and 17th
Street.
Challenges
Drainage
As with most of the alleys studied, drainage is a challenge; standing
water suggests that both inadequate longitudinal grade and pitted
paving/potholes contribute to this issue.
Trash
The number of dumpsters and service providers for those dumpsters
provide a visual challenge, as well as a potentially larger-than-
necessary level of service activities in the alley.
Vehicular Circulation
Similarly, the presence of public access to the 6-story parking
structure may also increase the amount of vehicular traffic in the
alley.
Overhead Utilities
The alley does have overhead utilities, an aesthetic detractor.
34
Future Use Potential
At present, this alley has significant interior visibility from the private
open space pass-through on the west side and from the surface
parking at the alley's southeast entrance. This visibility could be
an asset in changing the public perception of alleys from a safety
point of view. Future development of the surface parking should
be guided to maintain the perception of'eyes' on the street and
minimize places of concealment.
The alley also has higher-than-average circulation potential due to
the Oxford Hotel and the Tattered Cover bookstore, as well as an
adjacent potential 'host', in the fine art gallery.
This alley has potential to function as an enhanced circulation
corridor or even as an enhanced public realm/public event space.


Entries. Oxford Hotel and
Sloane Gallery of Art (17th St);
office warehouse and surface
parking (16th St); mid-block
pedestrian passage; 17th street
skyway connection.
Windows. There are a
variety of window conditions
within the alley, including fully
transparent, partially bricked/
stained glass and fully blocked
Interior Conditions. The
alley interior includes access
to a 6-floor parking structure,
transformers, dumpsters, fire
escapes and general service
functions.
Chapter 2: Existing Conditions


Alley B
Wazee-Blake North
Technical Details
Width:
Overhead Utilities:
Trash:
16'
yes
7 dumpsters, 2 companies
Land Use
16th Street Mall
surface parking
bank
17th Street
office: wrap
senior housing: historic, wrap
Outdoor dining: yes
Surface parking: 2 lots
Bus stop: no
Assets
Transparency
Adjacent buildings have a higher-than-average degree of
transparency, with functional windows facing the alley and the main
entrance for a ground-floor restaurant/retail space.
Redevelopment Potential
The two surface parking lots abutting the alley provide higher-than-
average solar access to the alley in its existing condition, and may
represent future redevelopment potential.
Trash
The alley has less dumpsters than most, possibly due to the
greater area of adjacent, unbuilt parcels. Less dumpsters and
future development potential may offer more opportunity for a
consolidated trash location.
Other
restaurant main entry in alley
many interior setbacks adjacent to restaurants
on Blake
Alley Enhancement Project
Challenges
Parking
The bank on 16th Street Mall has dedicated parking spaces tucked
under the building on the alley side. Similarly, another building
mid-block uses their alley setback for tenant parking. Both of these
conditions present aesthetic challenges as well as an increased
amount of vehicular traffic in the alley.
Drainage
As with most of the alleys studied, drainage is a challenge; standing
water suggests that both inadequate longitudinal grade and pitted
paving/potholes contribute to this issue.
Vagrancy
Police report that this alley does seem to have more incidents of
vagrancy than average among the alleys within the study area, but
could not identify a specific element responsible for this elevated
level.
36
Future Use Potential
Like the preceding alley, A, this corridor has a significant amount of
interior visibility due to the existing surface parking lots as well as
an alley entrance to an adjacent restaurant/retail space. There is
also a restaurant with its primary entrance on the alley, a condition
helpful to the generation of pedestrian traffic. As a combined
effect of the restaurant entrance and the potential for alley-friendly
future development on the site of existing parking, this alley offers
opportunity for an enhanced public space. Despite this fact,
however, vagrancy levels are high and adjacent residents report
feeling unsafe. Despite this fact, however, vagrancy levels are high
and adjacent residents report feeling unsafe.
This alley may have potential as an enhanced public space once
the results of a pilot project can be evaluated. As a first project,
however, this alley may benefit most from simple functional
enhancements to lighting and drainage until the social impacts
of another pilot project can be evaluated. The presence of
overhead utilities and the additional coordination and cost involved
in relocating or undergrounding them also reduce this alley's
desirability as a pilot project.


Entries. Senior housing and
office (17th St); bank and surface
parking with Swing Thai entry
beyond (16th St).
Windows. There are a number
of buildings with transparent
windows facing the alley, as well
as the Swing Thai entry. Also
see photo of 17th Street entry
building (above).
Interior Conditions. The
alley interior includes dedicated
tuck-under parking, trash and
service functions, and overhead
utilities.


Alley C
Market-Larimer North
Technical Details
Width:
Overhead Utilities:
Trash:
Land Use
16th Street Mall
17th Street
Outdoor dining:
Surface parking:
Bus stop:
17'
no
8 dumpsters, 3 companies
surface parking
residential
copy shop: wrap
office: historic
no
1 lot
no
Assets
Character
The entire west facade of the alley are historic red brick buildings.
These structures have a high degree of transparency facing the
alley, and although the large windows are not well-utilized at
present, most are not blocked or boarded over.
Use
A large number of the tenants of these west side buildings are
restaurants, which could potentially benefit from additional outdoor
seating: Sonoda's sushi, Crocs, Two-Fisted Mario's Pizza, Double
Daughters' (bar), and Delectable Egg.
Architecture
The architecture of both alley entries have some degree of
widening, which could contribute to an alley 'gateway'.
Other
5 restaurants backing onto alley
adjacent to transit hub (moving May 2014)
Alley Enhancement Project
Challenges
Character
Except for the small portion of the retail use that wraps the
17th street entry, the entire east side of the alley is occupied
by structured parking. A significant portion of the ground-level
facade of the structure appears to be EIFS (Exterior Insulation and
Finish System), an exterior material of low aesthetic value. EIFS
is typically not allowed on the ground floor of buildings due to its
susceptibility to pedestrian-level vandalism.
Tenant Parking
A little less than half of the west-side building facades are set back
from the alley; this space is currently occupied by a mix of tenant
parking and retro-fit utility or service functions.
Trash
Although the high number of restaurant uses may provide
programming advantages, the downside to this type of use is the
production of wet waste, which tends to pose more difficulties due
to odor than typical dry office or retail wastes.
38
Future Use Potential
Given the cluster of restaurants on the corridor's west side, this alley
may have high potential as an enhanced public space, whether with
special events such as tastings or more permanent changes such as
exterior patio seating. Receptivity of adjacent tenants would need
to be explored.
The parking structure occupying the majority of the alley's east
facade offers two additional advantages to the alley; although less
than desirable in terms of visual interest, it is constructed in a way
that offers few alcoves or places of concealment. Vehicular access
to this structure is limited to a loading dock at the southern end,
suggesting a lower-than-average amount of traffic in the alley.


Entries. A copy center and historic office
(17th St); residential and surface parking (16th
St). Both the copy center and residential
provide some 'opening' of the visual space by
setback and plantings.
West Side: historic and transparent.
The western side of the alley is composed of
historic brick structures with a high degree of
transparency. The buildings do, however, have
a significant amount of tenant parking and
building-related retrofitting.
East Side: parking and loading. The entire
east side of the alley is composed of parking
structure and loading dock.
Chapter 2: Existing Conditions


Alley D
Champa-Stout North
Technical Details
Width:
Overhead Utilities:
Trash:
Land Use
16th Street Mall
17th Street
Outdoor dining:
Surface parking:
Bus stop:
Other
2 stacked skyway connections mid-block over alley
16'
no
6 dumpsters, 2 companies
retail
retail
Magnolia Hotel: historic, wrap
retail: historic, wrap
no
yes
yes, 4 routes
Assets
Trash
In contrast to most alleys studied, very few dumpsters occupy the
main alley corridor; a number of dumpsters are visible in gated
areas under the buildings, and there are a large number of louvered
service doors, suggesting additional trash locations.
Destination/Origin
A bus stop serving 4 routes is located at mid-block at the 17th
Street alley entry.
Reflectivity
The standard 16-foot width of alleys within the study area creates a
significant challenge to solar access. The white facade of Alley D's
western building offers a significant advantage in reflecting light into
the alley and brightening the alley overall.
Challenges
Lack of Transparency
The majority of both east and west facades are blank walls, with
solid or louvered doors at ground floor. Other pedestrian-level
windows have been sealed off. Both historic buildings on 17th have
a small degree of window wrap into the alley entrance.
Parking
A 6 story parking structure can be accessed through the alley,
representing a potentially significant source of vehicular traffic. This
structure also has two stacked driveways connecting the two sides
of the alley at the second and third levels.
Deep Alcove
This alley has a particularly deep alcove mid-corridor. One of the
few violent person-to-person crimes reported in the study area
alleys in the last few years took place in this location.
40
Future Use Potential
This alley offers a mix of pro and con; long expanses of blank,
windowless wall at the ground level offer little pedestrian interest
(con), but also minimizes places of concealment and offer an
opportunity for enhancements such as murals (pro).
This alley does not, however, have existing adjacent land uses likely
to take part in permanent or special event us of the alley. There is
also no surface parking, so consolidation of existing trash, though
lower-than-average, would still be difficult.
This alleys most likely future use is as a service or circulation
corridor.


Entries. The Magnolia Hotel and half-level
below grade retail (17th St); retail both sides
(16th St). Both historic building bookending the
alley on 17th have some degree of transparency
wrapping into the alley.
Trash. The alley has surprisingly few
dumpsters in the central corridor. Most
trash bins appear to be in dedicated spaces
underneath the adjacent buildings.
Lack of Transparency. The alley has
significant expanses of blank wall, and many
ground-level windows are sealed over. Parking
structure access provides a small degree of
visibility into the alley.


Alley E
Stout-California North
Technical Details
Width:
Overhead Utilities:
Trash:
16'
no
17 dumpsters, 4 companies
Land Use
16th Street Mall
retail
retail: historic (contemp veneer at GF)
17th Street
office
office/retail: historic, wrap
Outdoor dining: no
Surface parking: yes
Bus stop: yes, 3 routes
Assets
Character
Entering from 17th Street, the dressed stone and high arched
windows of the historic building to the west extends nearly half the
length of the alley. While the windows nearest 17th Street remain
usable, those further into the alley are boarded over.
Destination/Origin
A bus stop serving 3 routes is located at mid-block at the 17th
Street alley entry.
Challenges
Trash
The alley has one of the highest number of dumpsters in the study,
with 17 receptacles and 4 different providers.
42
Future Use Potential
This alley has an exceptionally high number of dumpsters and no
clearly evident potential location for consolidation. As such, this
alley is unlikley to act as an enhanced public space due to the visual
and odor issues associated with the dumpsters and may be too
cluttered to act even as an enhanced circulation corridor. If trash
could be clustered to a non-nuisance level, however, the exceptional
architecture of the alley's northwest face would lend itself well to an
enhanced circulation route.


Entries. Contemporary office and historic
office/retail bookend the north alley entry
(17th St), with significant transparent wrap
on the historic building. Retail sandwiches
the entry on both sides of the 16th Street
entry; while the east building (far right
photo) is historic, it has a contemporary
veneer at ground level. The west building
(second from right) has transparent wrap
into the alley, although it is postered in its
current use.
Character and transparency. The
historic buildings dressed stone extends
half the length of the western face of the
alley, although some windows and doors
are boarded over. Office use has physical
and visual alley access.
Interior. In addition to a structured
parking facade (no alley access), there are
also number of dumpsters, fire escapes,
air conditioning units and other functional
items.


Alley F
California-Welton North
Technical Details
Width:
Overhead Utilities:
Trash:
Land Use
16th Street Mall
17th Street
Outdoor dining:
Surface parking:
Bus stop:
16'
no
4 dumpsters, 1 company
retail: wrap
retail: wrap
office/restaurant
surface parking
no
3 lots
yes, 3 routes
Assets
Solar Access & Development Potential
With approximately 60% of the western half of the block occupied
by surface parking (divided into two lots), this block has tremendous
long-term redevelopment potential. In the short-term, this condition
affords the alley greater afternoon solar access and more passive
surveillance than other, fully built-out alley facades. Conversely,
however, the 19-28 story heights of the adjacent office building
group can cause heavy morning shade.
A third, much smaller surface parking lot is located on the east side
of the alley.
Character
The high-rise office building on 17th Street has an angled facade at
the alley entrance, providing more opening and a visual line to the
alley.
Destination/Origin
A major bus stop serving 3 routes is located at mid-block at the 17th
Street alley entry. Along the western half of the block, the sidewalk
is extra wide approximately 35-40 feet with brick paving in
the amenity zone and between the sidewalk and adjacent surface
parking. Additionally, there are street trees in grates in this behind-
the-sidewalk zone.
Challenges
Vehicular Circulation
This alley has a significant amount of vehicular circulation beyond
standard service deliveries and collection. In addition to vehicles
entering and exiting the three parking lots described above,
the office building occupying the block's northeast corner has a
significant amount of tuck-under service and employee parking
located on it's alley face.
44
Future Use Potential
This alley does not have the adjacent 'host' uses at either entrance
that would suggest an enhanced public space; the deep loading
docks and service area at the northern entrance are an additional
difficulty.
The wide 17th street sidewalk, well-used bus stop and enhanced
solar access through current surface parking lots, however, suggest
that this alley could be an excellent candidate for a circulation
corridor demonstration project.


Entries. High-rise office with a ground-
floor restaurant and a large surface parking
lot occupy the alley's north entrance
corners. A widened sidewalk and bus stop
area with enhanced paving and urban
design details abut the parking's northern
face. A hair salon and variety retail occupy
the 16th Street entry.
Character and transparency. The high-
rise office has a deep loading dock at the
alley's north entrance, directly across from
the surface parking. The alley does have
only a small number of dumpsters within
the corridor. Few windows or doors pierce
the ground-floor facades.
Interior. Surface parking accounts for
approximately 45% of block area, providing
a higher degree of solar access than that
seen in other alleys within the study area.
Chapter 2: Existing Conditions


Alley G
Welton-Glenarm North
Technical Details
Width:
Overhead Utilities:
Trash:
Land Use
16th Street Mall
17th Street
Outdoor dining:
Surface parking:
Bus stop:
Other
main entry to Paramount Cafe in alley
access to Denver Pavilions across 16th St
16'
yes
22 dumpsters, 5 companies
retail: historic, wrap
restaurant: historic, wrap w/ entry
office
surface parking
yes
2 lots
yes, 3 routes
Alley Enhancement Project
Assets
Solar Access & Development Potential
This block also has a significant amount of surface parking
occupying just under 50% of the western alley face. Similarly to
Block F, this condition affords the alley greater afternoon solar
access and more passive surveillance than other, fully built-out alley
facades. The adjacent 16-story office building on 17th street does
cause significant morning shade.
Character & Outdoor Dining
The alley's 16th Street entrance is sandwiched by two historic
buildings of impressive masonry construction. Both ground floors
have transparent windows that wrap into the alley; the adjacent
Paramount Cafe, occupying the east corner, has it's main entry in
the alley, as well as outdoor dining on the Mall that extends right to
the alley.
Destination/Origin
The alley is also across the 16th Street Mall from the Denver
Pavilions, a potential daytime pedestrian generator; although the
Pavilions does have a large movie theater complex generating a
fair amount of evening activity, the center's on-site, underground
parking suggests that most evening users are unlikely to park within
or beyond the Welton-Glenarm block and use the alleys to connect
to the movie theater.
A bus stop serving 3 routes is located at mid-block at the 17th
Street alley entry.
Challenges
Trash
The alley has a large number of dumpsters, one of the highest in
the survey.
Vehicular Traffic
Both of the surface lots have access points in the alley which
contributes to an already high degree of traffic due to the large
amount of deliveries to the restaurants on 16th (Marlowe's,
Paramount, and Appaloosa).
46
Future Use Potential
This alley offers a number of advantages: an existing restaurant
entrance on the alley, outdoor dining on the Mall, direct relationship
to the Denver Pavilions, and adjacency to the Paramount Theater,
one of the Mall's major evening activity generators. In addition,
the significant amount of surface parking offers potential for trash
consolidation, as well as the opportunity to use City design review to
influence the alley face of future development.
All these factors illustrate strong potential for this alley to act as
enhanced public realm and event space, although the large size
of the surface parking lot, may point toward later phase alley
enhancements rather than a pilot project. The strong evening
activity potential may suggest an alley activation (programming/
event) project, with physical enhancements at a later date.


Entries. High-rise office with a ground-
floor restaurant and a large surface parking
lot occupy the alley's north entrance
corners. A widened sidewalk and bus stop
area with enhanced paving and urban
design details abut the parking's northern
face. A hair salon and variety retail occupy
the 16th Street entry.
Surface Parking. Surface parking
occupies approximately 20% of the block,
with a large unpaved lot dominating the
entire northwest corner.
Interior. A high number of dumpsters and
a number of problematic deep alcoves are
found in the block interior.


Alley H
Glenarm-Tremont North
Assets
Development Potential
One small surface lot may provide opportunity for infill development.
Technical Details
Width:
Overhead Utilities:
Trash:
17'
no
20 dumpsters, 3 companies
Land Use
16th Street Mall
17th Street
Outdoor dining:
Surface parking:
Bus stop:
restaurant historic
restaurant: historic, wrap
bank
restaurant: wrap
yes
no
yes, 1 route
Outdoor Dining
The 16th Street entry has restaurants on both edges, one a casual
sit-down establishment (Earl's) and the other more convenience-
oriented (Subway). Earl's offers outdoor seating, although not
immediately against the alley due to location of building entry.
Subway does not currently offer outdoor seating, but could be a
candidate.
Destination/Origin
A bus stop serving 1 route is located at mid-block at the 17th Street
alley entry.
The alley is also across the 16th Street Mall from the Denver
Pavilions, a potential daytime pedestrian generator as described
under 'Alley G'.
Challenges
Trash
This alley has one of the highest number of dumpsters in the study.
The number of dumpsters and service providers for those dumpsters
provide a visual challenge, as well as a potentially larger-than-
necessary level of service activities in the alley.
Service and Parking
This alley has a higher than average amount of tuck-under parking,
service and loading areas. Some are 'open air' while others are
gated or doored, but the large amount suggests a high level of
vehicular traffic in the alley.
Lack of Transparency
Except for one wrap-around window at each entry, the alley has
virtually no transparency at ground level.
Deep Alcoves
Police noted that the excessively deep loading docks in the northern
portion of this alley make it a concern for safety and security.
48
Future Use Potential
This alley has a high number of dumpsters and very little
opportunity for consolidation, making it an unlikely prospect for full
public realm enhancements. In addition, safety concerns and a
low-use bus stop also make this alley a low priority for circulation
enhancements.
Adjacent outdoor dining and proximity to the Pavilions may
offer potential, however, for special event-type activation and
programming.


Entries. Three restaurants and a bank
occupy the alley's entry corners, with one
transparent window wrapping into the alley
at each end.
Vehicular Traffic. Four tuck-under
loading and service areas suggest a
potentially high level of vehicular circulation
in the alley.
Interior. The alley has one small mid-
block surface parking lot, a large number of
dumpsters, and some utility boxes.


Alley I
Wynkoop-Wazee South
Technical Details
Width:
Overhead Utilities:
Trash:
35' (15th) 45' (16th)
no
4 dumpsters, 2 company
Assets
Destination + Existing Use
The iconic Tattered Cover bookstore occupies a significant portion
of the alley's western facade, with large windows that wrap into
the alley. Although it's primary entries are on Wynkoop and 16th,
Tattered Cover has the potential to act as a significant generator of
pedestrian traffic through the alley.
Land Use
16th Street Mall
15th Street
Outdoor dining:
Surface parking:
Bus stop:
restaurant:
retail:
office/retail:
office/retail:
yes
1 lot
no
historic, wrap
historic, wrap
historic, wrap
historic
Other
2nd floor skyway connection at 16th St entrance
Wines on Wynkoop has a sign on 16th with its primary entrance
within the alley. Great Western Bank also has a secondary entrance
in the alley, with associated pedestrian-level lighting, as well as a
remote drive-through deposit machine (not an ATM, deposits only).
There is also an entrance for residential condos in the alley.
Width
At 35 to 45 feet in width, this alley is considerably wider than others
in the study area. Functional width is estimated at approximately 5'
to 6' less on each side, due to transformers, trash enclosures, stairs
and other appurtenances.
Origin, Transparency and Passive Surveillance
Adjacent buildings offer a significant amount of transparency
from both windows, doors and aresidential entry for the adjacent
dwellings, mixed with a number of service entries and roll-up doors.
This alley has the largest number of ground floor windows in the
survey. The southern portion of the alley, approaching 15th street,
has three and four levels of residential balconies overhanging the
alley; these features provide both passive surveillance and a sense
of scale.
Character
Buildings at all four corners of the alley are historic and are built of
a handsome red brick.
Trash
The alley has a limited number of dumpsters, compared to other
alleys, with additional dumpsters screened behind one large and one
medium enclosure.
50
Challenges
Finished Floor
All adjacent buildings have a 1st floor elevation that is three to six
steps approximately 1.5 to 3.5 feet above alley level. As shown
at current alley entrance, this elevation change necessitates stairs
and/or ADA-compliant ramps projecting into the alley corridor.
Drainage
On the day visited, this alley had more standing water than others
in the study area; the reason is unclear and could be due to actual
drainage issues or could simply reflect a localized event (such as a
water dump from nearby construction).
Future Use Potential
In addition to being the widest in the study area, this alley offers
a number of additional advantages: existing commercial alley
entrances, active residential entrances, an iconic retail destination,
limited number of dumpsters and attractive architecture. It is a very
strong candidate for full public realm enhancement and activation.
As a pilot project, however, this alley offers one significant
disadvantage, in that it is unique there is no other alley in the
study area with similar width or existing uses, so that while an
alley enhancement project in this alley may build enthusiasm and
public support, it will not be able to function as effectively as a
'template' for future projects in the same way that a more 'typical'
alley would be able to do. This note does not mean that Alley I
should be eliminated from consideration for a pilot project, only
that the goals of such a project demonstration and creating
support vs. reproducible design should be weighed against future
reproducibility.


Entries. Residential buildings with ground
floor office/retail occupy the 15th street
entry, while Denver's iconic bookstore
Tattered Cove bookstore and a restaurant
with outdoor seating anchor the 16th St
entry. The 16th St uses have transparent
doors and windows that wrap into the alley,
while one of the buildings on 15th has a
door with clear glass and sidelights on it's
immediate alley face.
Interior. At 45 feet, the alley is
considerably wider than most others on
the 16th Street Mall. Some dumpsters
are already hidden behind enclosures, and
there is a second-level skyway connection
between the 16th St entry buildings.
Uses. The alley has a high degree of
internal transparency, with a handful of
businesses with entries in the alley. All
buildings have a floor level 3 to 6 steps
(approx 1.5' 3.5') above alley level, with
most on the lower end of the scale. There
are a significant number of residential
balconies looking down into the alley.


Alley J
Wazee-Blake South
Technical Details
Width:
Overhead Utilities:
Trash:
16'
yes
22 dumpsters, 4 companies
Land Use
16th Street Mall
15th Street
Outdoor dining:
Surface parking:
Bus stop:
restaurant: wrap
retail: historic, wrap
office/retail: wrap
surface parking
yes, entrance and mid-block
1 lot, 1 single-bay area
no
Other
outdoor dining patio with alley transparency/connection
potential
exterior/back-of-house keg storage
Assets
Character
Many of the buildings along both sides of the alley are exceptionally
narrow, creating a jumbled appearance of many buildings and
materials. This condition could be seen as either an asset or a
challenge, in that it provides a certain degree of visual interest but
also a high number of person and vehicular-doors.
Outdoor Dining
Both restaurants at the 16th St entry have existing outdoor seating,
providing activity near the alley and the potential to wrap into the
alley. Mid-block, the Rio Grande Restaurant has an outdoor dining
patio that occupies a full building width; this patio extends half-way
to the alley, with a cut-out wall provided a limited degree of visibility
into the alley. The alley side of this parcel is currently used for
parking. The Rio currently also uses a portion of this parcel for a
food truck like dining area.
Redevelopment Opportunity
This block has two surface parking areas and a building-width
outdoor dining area, as described above in existing use. The mid-
block parking area is a single bay wide and accommodates one
row of angle parking as well as a line of dumpsters. This area
could represent a redevelopment opportunity or a potential trash
consolidation opportunity.
The surface parking at the alley's 15th St entry presents an
opportunity for development that could orient to or enhance the
alley.
Destination/Origin
A bus stop serving 4 routes is located mid-block at the 15th Street
alley entry.
52
Challenges
Overhead Utilities
The alley has a significant number of overhead wires running both
longitudinally along the alley as well as laterally to the adjacent
buildings.
Drainage
Typical to many of the alleys in this study, drainage is a challenge;
standing water suggests that both inadequate longitudinal grade
with pitted paving/potholes contributing to the issue.
Trash
There are a large number of dumpsters within the alley, many of
them with 'wet' trash due to the number of adjacent restaurants.
Future Use Potential
Existing outdoor dining uses at the alley entrance and particularly
mid-corridor offer an unusual opportunity in this alley. Paired with a
busy bus stop, this alley has high potential as both a circulation and
a public realm/event corridor.
This alley has a strong disadvantage, however, in the presence of
overhead utilities, which would be very expensive to underground
or relocate. As such, this alley's attractiveness as a pilot project is
significantly reduced due to the additional cost, coordination and
complication posed by utility concerns, but is a strong possibility for
a future, more robust alley enhancement program.


Entries. Restaurants with outdoor seating
and wrap-around windows occupy both
corners of the 16th St entry. A surface
parking lot and an office/retail space with
a narrow window wrap occupy the 15th St
entry corners.
Interior. The alley has overhead utilities
spanning the ally both laterally and
longitudinally; puddling and wet areas
suggest inadequate drainage.
Potential Opportunities. Outdoor keg
storage adds character to the alley. A
narrow gap between adjacent buildings
is used for both dumpster storage
and parking. Adjacent to Rio Grande
restaurant, an outdoor patio occupies the
street-facing half of the parcel, with parking
on the alley side.


Alley K
Blake-Market South
Technical Details
Width:
Overhead Utilities:
Trash:
Land Use
16th Street Mall
15th Street
Outdoor dining:
Surface parking:
Bus stop:
17'
yes
22 dumpsters, 3 companies
office
restaurant
retail: historic
restaurant
yes, mid-block
1 bay
no
Other
5-story skyway at 16th St entry
Assets
Transparency
The 16th St side of the alley has excellent transparency with wrap
around windows on both anchor buildings. The interior and south
end of the alley, however, is significantly less tidy than the north
end.
Outdoor Dining/Walk-through
A narrow mid-block parcel on the alley's east side is currently used
as outdoor dining near Market St (Qdoba). The portion of this
parcel that connects to the alley is currently used as surface parking
by the tenant.
Destination/Origin
Future use (and destination/origin potential) of the former Market
Street Station, directly across from thge alley's north entry, is
unknown.
Challenges
Overhead Utilities
The alley has a significant number of overhead wires running both
longitudinally along the alley as well as laterally to the adjacent
buildings.
Drainage
Drainage appears to be worse than most other alleys in the study;
the reason for this condition is unclear.
Trash
There are a large number of dumpsters within the alley, some
tucked under into service spaces, but a great number remain within
the alley corridor.
54
Future Use Potential
With no bus stop on 15th Street and unknown future use of the
Market Street Station parcel, this alley's potential as a circulation
corridor is uncertain. Compounded by costly-to-relocate overhead
utilities, this alley is not an attractive candidate for a early-phase
pilot project. Future function is likely to be simple functional
upgrades or potentially circulation, depending upon the strength of
redevelopment on the other side of the Mall.


Entries. 16th St entry uses offer good
transparency with windows into the alley.
15th St corner uses do not offer any
transparency, although the wide sidewalk at
this terminus may be able to accommodate
outdoor dining at the adjacent restaurant.
Interior. The alley's northern segment is
fairly clean and well drained with a center-
aligned drain and bordered by two new
skyway-connected buildings. The southern
segment, however, has a collection of
smaller buildings and is significantly less
clean and well-drained.
Challenges and Opportunities. The
alley has a number of overhead utilities
running both longitudinally and laterally. A
narrow outdoor dining/parking area con-
nects to Market St at mid-block.


Alley L
Market-Larimer South
Technical Details
Width:
Overhead Utilities:
Trash:
16'
no
2 dumpsters, 1 companies
Land Use
16th Street Mall
15th Street
Outdoor dining:
Surface parking:
Bus stop:
office/retail: under construction
parking structure
retail: historic
parking structure
no
yes, not adjacent to alley
yes, 8 routes
Assets
Safety
Although also listed as a potential challenge, the parking structure
occupying the entire eastern face of the alley does offer a safety
advantage in that in has no alcoves or places of concealment. In
addition, the loading dock at the northern entrance to the alley,
although deep, is completely open to the 16th Street Mall and
provides clear sight lines.
Destination/Origin
The bus stop on 15th Street has the largest number of routes of
any in the study area, potentially generating a significant amount of
pedestrian traffic.
Challenges
Lack of Transparency and Permeability
The entire eastern face of the alley is bordered by the blank
brick wall of a parking structure. This structure serves a 27-story
residential tower built atop it, and occupies the entire block. This
existing use also limits the alley's solar access.
Alley Enhancement Project
Land Use / Further Evaluation Pending
This alley is largely inaccessible at this time due to construction
activities on the large parcel on the blocks northwest quadrant.
The uses on the alley's other three entrance corners are neither
significant pedestrian generators nor potential hosts for alley
activation activities or upgrades.
Future Use Potential
Due to the very active bus stop on 15th and the corridor's relatively
clean sight lines/minimal alcoves, this alley has strong potential as a
circulation corridor. Lack of restaurants or other potential 'host' uses
make this alley a less likely candidate for urban enhancement/event
space.


Entries. The 16th St entry is bordered
by the service dock of a residential tower,
and a construction site (see second image;
building with two-tone graphic wall in first
photo has been demolished). 15th Street
mall entry is anchored by a small historic
building, and the southern face of the same
parking structure noted at the 16th St
entry.
57
Chapter 2: Existing Conditions


Alley M
Curtis-Champa South
Technical Details
Width:
Overhead Utilities:
Trash:
17'
no
9 dumpsters, 4 companies
Land Use
16th Street Mall
15th Street
Outdoor dining:
Surface parking:
Bus stop:
restaurant: (under const.) wrap
restaurant: historic, wrap
restaurant
retail
yes
2 lots, one with wood fencing
yes, 4 routes
Other
prior programming: 'Brewers'Alley'
Assets
Programming
The alley has already served as a pilot for downtown alley
programming and was the site of Brewers' Alley, a ticketed beer
tasting event held on October 9, 2013. The event was hosted by
adjacent Rialto Cafe, located at the alley's 16th St entrance, and
sponsored by the Downtown Denver Partnership.
Transparency
Both buildings at the alley's 16th St entry have transparent,
wrap-around windows. One of the buildings at the 15th St entry,
although it does not have wrap-around transparency, does have a
pedestrian entry directly adjacent to the alley.
Character and Outdoor Dining
A mid-block building on the alley's eastern side boasts full-facade,
2-story artwork. This feature adds a sense of uniqueness to the
alley. In addition, the Rialto Cafe at the 16th St entry has existing
outdoor dining.
Challenges
Drainage
The alley appears to be in the more severe category of drainage
challenges, with large areas rather than small scattered puddles of
standing water.
Vehicular Traffic
Parking layout and pattern of the east-side parking lot suggests that
patrons/valets likely use the alley as well as main roadway entrances
to access this lot, potentially resulting in a higher than average of
vehicular traffic in the southern portion of this alley. This use would
require additional consideration of pedestrian-vehicular conflict
mitigation.
58
Future Use Potential
Largely due to the already demonstrated interest and receptivity
of adjacent tenants and property owners, this alley has potential
as enhanced public realm. Existing adjacent outdoor dining is also
an advantage, as are the wrap-around windows into the alley. The
significant amount of surface parking also offers the potential for
more pedestrian-friendly alley faces, when redevelopment occurs.


Entries. A secondary restaurant entrance
and a pawn shop occupy the corners of
the 15th Street entry; a restaurant with
outdoor dining occupies the northwest
entry, while the northeast entry is under
construction for a new restaurant as well.
Interior. The alley interior offers a variety
of facades, including a 2-story mural, an
opaque-fenced surface parking lot, and
areas of blank wall.
Service functions. The alley has a fairly
typical to low number of dumpsters and
grease barrels. There are also a number
of off-corridor trash enclosures, and some
grade issues.


Alley N
Champa-Stout South
Technical Details
Width:
Overhead Utilities:
Trash:
Land Use
16th Street Mall
15th Street
Outdoor dining:
Surface parking:
Bus stop:
16'
no
5 dumpsters, 2 companies
office: historic
retail: wrap
office
surface parking
no
1 lot
yes, 5 routes
Assets
Trash
The alley has a lower-than-average number of dumpsters within
its central circulation corridor, with additional dumpsters located in
tuck-under service areas.
Destination/Origin
A busy bus-stop serving 5 routes is located immediately adjacent to
the 15th St entry.
Challenges
Transparency
Except for one of the buildings anchoring the 16th St entry, the alley
has virtually no transparency at the ground floor level.
Drainage
As with all alleys in the study, this alley shows evidence of sub-
standard drainage.
Vehicular Circulation
The alley provides the only access to the western-most row of
parking spaces in the lot at the southern entry. This condition
suggests a higher level of vehicular circulation and more potential
for vehicular-pedestrian conflict in the southern segment of the
alley.
Safety
Police note that the bus stop at the alley entrance on 15th Street
has a lot of incidents, particularly loitering by non-transit riders.
They note that this is common at bus stops throughout the City,
but particularly notable this stop because of its size and the large
shelter.
60
Future Use Potential
With a building lobby, a large big-box retailer a windowless facade
and a surface parking lot occupying the alley's four key entrance
corners, this alley does not have the host land uses that would
promote alley activation. It does have a busy bus stop at the 15th
Street entry and good visibility across the surface parking to that
portion of the alley, so may be a candidate for a circulation corridor.


Entries. A discount retail store with
poster-blocked alley windows and a
building lobby occupy the corners of the
16th St entry. A large, well-used bus stop
with an extended shelter is located at
the 15th St entrance, adjacent to surface
parking lot which allows significant solar
access to this portion of the alley.
Interior. The alley interior has a large
number of service entrances, a significant
span of chain-link gated trash docks. A
large amount of the adjacent facades are
protected by projecting truck bumpers.
Drainage and paving. Like most other
alleys in the study area, the alley is a
patchwork of concrete and asphalt, with
insufficient drainage and standing water.


Alley 0
Stout-California South
Technical Details
Width:
Overhead Utilities:
Trash:
16'
no
20 dumpsters, 3 companies
Land Use
16th Street Mall
15th Street
Outdoor dining:
Surface parking:
Bus stop:
retail
retail
parking structure:
restaurant: (under const.): wrap
no
no
yes, 4 routes
Assets
Character
The northwestern wall is a high quality historic building that creates
the only permeability in this particular alley.
Outdoor Dining
There are several food truck vendors during the 9-5 hours on this
particular block of the 16th Street Mall.
Destination/Origin
A major bus stop serving 4 routes is located at mid-block at the
15th Street alley entry.
Challenges
Trash
This alley has a high number of dumpsters compared to others in
the survey, and no clear location for potential consolidation.
Other
4 story high causeway at front of alley
Alley Enhancement Project
Lack of Transparency
The southwestern border of this alley is made up of a large parking
structure with very little visual interest. There is, however, a narrow
(approximately 24") sidewalk bordering this parking structure. The
blank wall at ground level also reduces the number of alcoves or
places of concealment.
Traffic
There was an unusually high degree of traffic and delivery vehicles
parked within the alley on the day visited.
Future Use Potential
With a high number of dumpsters and no clear location for
consolidation, this alley is a poor candidate for urban realm
enhancement. This same shortcoming potentially makes the
corridor a similarly poor circulation corridor, due to the concealment
potential of the dumpsters. This alley is a likely candidate for basic
functional upgrades of drainage and lighting.
62


Entries. 15th Street entry uses include
a parking structure and vacant retail;
16th Street entries have some degree of
transparency wrapping into the alley, but
are not alley activation-type uses.
Interior. The corridor has a high number
of dumpsters as well as a parking structure
fronting the alley. In addition, there are a
number of grade differences from building
to alley, louvered service and HVAC areas,
as well as some evidence of graffiti.
Safety & Security. Like a number of
others in the study area, the alley displays
no trespassing signage as well as a number
of building-affixed security lights.


Alley P
California-Welton South
Assets
Character
Not historic, but has a high quality transparent facade.
Technical Details Width: 16'
Overhead Utilities: yes
Trash: 1 dumpster, 1 companies
Land Use 16th Street Mall coffee shop wrap restaurant (subs): wrap
15th Street surface parking/community garden surface parking
Outdoor dining: no
Surface parking: yes (approx 75% of block)
Bus stop: yes, 4 routes
Other
large number of bikes locked in alley
surface parking occupies 75% of block
Outdoor Dining
INK coffee has outdoor seating.
Destination/Origin
A major bus stop serving 4 routes is located at mid-block at the
15th Street alley entry. This alley has a high proximity to the light
rail as well.
Transparency and Permeability
This alley has one of the greatest degree of solar access of any alley
in this study. It also is heavily trafficked by pedestrians and cyclists.
On the day visited, there were many bikes chained to the railing in
the alley.
Trash
There is a very low amount of trash in this alley and logistically it is
only serviced by one company.
Redevelopment Potential
This alley has a very high redevelopment potential due to the two
adjacent surface lots that occupy 75% of the block.
Challenges
Length
This alley is very short as it only occupies the depth of one row of
buildings rather than the whole block.
Illicit activity
Police note that the east-west corridor between the adjacent
California LRT stop and this alley has a lot of activity in the form of
drug dealing and quick'duck-and-hide' surrounding such activities.
64
Future Use Potential
This block is unique within the study area due to the large amount
of surface parking, which covers approximately 75% of the
block. As such, it has few dumpsters and the potential for future
development to incorporate such service functions within their
footprint.
This alley also has heavy pedestrian use, with lots of comings and
going by bike delivery staff of the adjacent sub shop. The alley also
has outdoor dining at the north entrance, and high quality (though
not historic) building facades.
Due to the large amount of undeveloped land, this project is unlikely
to be an early-phase pilot project, but would seem to have high
potential as a public realm enhancement and event space, pending
form and use of future development.


Entries. The 16th Street entry is anchored
by two attractive storefonts with windows
that wrap into the alleys; beyond these two
buildings fronting 16th, the entire block is
vacant and covered with surface parking
and a temporary community garden. New
development has begun on the site of the
community garden.
Interior. The alley interior has minimal
dumpsters, in large part due to the quantity
of undeveloped land. Some dumpsters
are already consolidated in a screened
enclosure. The alley also has a large
number of bikes parked and locked in the
alley, although adjacent staff note that
theft is common. Some windows within the
alley are boarded over.
Advantages. The alley has a greater than
average amount of solar access due to the
large surface parking lots.


Alley Enhancement Project




Alley Enhancement Project


Hierarchy + Tools
Based on the existing conditions assessment, alleys within the study
area fall into three broad categories of potential improvements:
update (type 1), circulate (type 2), and enhance (type 3). The
alley types form a hierarchy, in which each type includes all the
enhancements of the preceding type, as applicable, plus the
additional upgrades recommended within the new category; for
example, a Type 2 alley would also include Type 1 improvements.
Some alleys may potentially fall into more than one category, while
other alleys may be clearly placed in a single category.
Sorting alleys into these categories is predicated on a 'start where
you are' approach to alley enhancement and pilot project selection,
looking for opportunities and potential with the current tenants and
buildings as they exist right now. Tenants may change in the future,
owners may choose to update, modify or redevelop entirely, but this
study focuses on near-term improvements that can be made with
conditions as they are right now.
Alley Types
Type 1: Update
This type of alley, while open to pedestrians, functions primarily as
a service corridor for adjacent buildings. It requires basic safety
and functional upgrades, such as grading, paving and lighting, but
does not have any strong land uses that would suggest its use as a
circulation corridor or as an activation prospect.
Some features which may suggest-but definitively determine- an
alley be placed in this category include:
higher than average number of alcove spaces that
cannot be mitigated
higher than average number of dumpsters with no
space for consolidation
high percentage of surface parking (suggesting that
the alley may change in the future and be redeveloped
at that time)
higher-than-average number of loading docks or
parking entrances, suggesting a high amount of
vehicular traffic within a very constrained space
Type 2: Circulate
This type of alley offers the potential to play a significant role in
pedestrian circulation, but lacks the existing land use adjacencies
that would promote use of the alley as an occupiable public space,
whether on a permanent or time-restricted basis (such as outdoor
dining) of for special events.
It is strongly recommended that this type of alley have a place to
consolidate or screen trash, recycling and restaurant grease. This
alley type will typically be located adjacent to a destination or origin
that generates medium to high levels of pedestrian traffic; a bus
stop with multiple routes is an example of such a generator.
69
Chapter 3: Classification + Hierarchy


Type 3: Enhance
This category of alleys offers significant potential for economic
development, public realm enhancement and event space. These
are the alleys that could expand the 16th Street Mall aesthetic and
become a unique and featured part of the downtown fabric.
As a prerequisite to creating a safe, clean, aesthetically pleasing
public corridor, alleys in this category must have space for the
consolidation and/or screening of trash, recycling and restaurant
grease barrels. They should also have one or more of the following
elements:
existing customer or residential entrances within the
alley (not service entries/employee doors)
existing outdoor dining at one of the alley entrances
or an existing restaurant of the type that could
conceivably offer outdoor dining at one of the alley
entrances
existing 'host' uses (at alley entrances or along the
corridor) that could conceivably host a one-time or
recurring event in the alley (art gallery, boutique retail,
restaurant); chain retail, banks, money lending are
examples of uses that are unlikely to host alley
activation events
additional width along the alley corridor, within
sections of the alley (that could host dining or other
functions) or at the alley entrances (to increase
visibility into the alley)
Classification
Based on the preceding criteria, alleys have been classified as listed
below. A full spreadsheet showing details of this evaluation can be
found in Appendix 2.
Type 1: Update
Alley D: Champa-Stout North* Update/Circulate
Alley E: Stout-California North* Update/Circulate
Alley H: Glenarm-Tremont North
Alley K: Blake-Market South
Alley O: Stout-California South
* These alleys were classified in both 'Update' and 'Circulate' categories.
Type 2: Circulate
Alley A: Wynkoop-Wazee North*
Alley B: Wazee-Blake North*
Alley F: California-Welton North
Alley J: Wazee-Blake South*
Alley L: Market-Larimer South
Alley N: Champa-Stout South
* These alleys were identified of having potential for 'Enhance' at a later
date, but initial efforts should focus on 'Circulate'.
Type 3: Enhance
Alley C: Market-Larimer North
Alley G: Welton-Glenarm North
Alley I: Wynkoop-Wazee South
Alley M: Curtis-Champa South
Alley P: California-Welton South*
* This alley has high potential for 'Enhance' due to the large amount of
undeveloped land on the block; enhancements should be coordinated with
redevelopment.
Toolkit
To further describe how alleys of different 'types' might look and
feel, the project created a 'toolkit' of elements that would be used
for conceptual design. This matrix includes both functional and
aesthetic elements, and was not meant to be all-inclusive, but
simply to illustrate categories and types of elements.
The matrix also identifies 'early action' items that could be
implemented with minimal or no cost. Some of these items may
be routine parts of City activities (such as policy updates) or
programs such as maintenance or enforcement, and may, for the
same reason, require less extensive stakeholder process. Elements
identified as 'capital funding' items, on the other hand, require
larger capital outlay and tend to be more complex in terms of both
design and co-ordination.
Alley Enhancement Project
70


Alley Enhancement Toolkit Early Action Capital Funding Needed Responsible Party
PHYSICAL ELEMENTS
Identity Name Alley X CCD
Name Event X private
Grading + paving, concrete X CCD
Paving Grading + paving, concrete/pavers X CCD
Grading + paving, decorative pavers X CCD
Odor/traffic Co-locate or consolidate dumpsters, in-corridor X BID/CCD
control Consolidate dumpsters, out-of-corridor X BID/private
Safety/ Security Graffitti removal X BID/CCD
Unblock windows/doors X private
Wall lighting X BID/CCD
Lighting Special Effect Lighting X private
Decorative Lighting (ex: Tivoli) X BID/private
Planters (temp) X private
Planters (permanent) X private
Entry features X BID/CCD
Urban Design Curb/rail at surface parking (for ped scale) X private
Art, temporary/installation X BID/private
Art, permanent X BID/private
Arcade, awnings, coverings X BID/private
Micro-retail ('back room') space X private
Land Use Outdoor dining (temp) X private
Outdoor dining (permanent) X private
Programming X BID
PR Outreach and advertising X BID/private
POLICY ELEMENTS
Enforcement Enforce one-way X CCD
Enforce no parking X CCD
Limit service hours (time of day) X CCD
Operations/ Permitting Consolidate trash contract X BID/CCD
Create licensure program for trash haulers CCD
Alley closure X CCD
Streamlined permitting/reduced fees X CCD
Development Future development standards X CCD
Programs Fagade upgrade assistance program X BID
CCD City and County of Denver
BID Downtown Business Improvement District (BID)
Private private property owner, tenant, event organizer or other non-governmental entity
71
TYPE 1: TYPE 2: UPDATE CIRCULATE Alley M Alley G TYPE 3: ENHANCE Alley C ADDITIONAL 1 PROGRAMMING 1 Daily Special 1 Events Events



































Chapter 3: Classification + Hierarchy


Alley Enhancement Project


Wtt Jtl'l


Alley Enhancement Project


Pilot Projects
Pilot Goals
The project selected three alleys to be used as 'pilots' for conceptual
alley design. The goal of these concept designs was to illustrate
conceptually how a variety of urban design tools and infrastructure
technologies could be combined to address the most common issues
found within the study area. These pilot designs are meant to serve
as 'templates' that can be transferred to any alley along the mall
and are meant to model what goes into an alley
enhancement project: what elements could be included, critical
path and phasing of those elements, policy and permitting
procedures and how to design enhancements to not preclude or
even set the stage for eventual conversion to a 'higher' type of alley
(as defined in the alley typology).
Once funding is found to advance concept design into actual
engineering and construction, initial projects should be carefully
selected to act as both demonstration and showcase; the goal is to
exhibit the potential alleys can offer and to build excitement and
support among stakeholders so that the enhancement program can
continue and grow. It is likely, but not required, that the pilot alleys
themselves will be advanced to actual design and for this reason,
alleys chosen as pilots for this initial concept phase should take
care to address the most common issues in the alleys but also have
the highest chance for success, leaving the most complex, difficult
or unique issues for later study and resolution so as not to unduly
burden initial efforts with excessive costs or schedules.
It was also determined advantageous for alleys with the strongest
potential, those identified as future 'Type 3: Activate + Enhance'
alleys to be used for pilot projects, regardless of which 'type' they
are used for in the pilot process. In this way, regardless of the
amount of funding identified for initial construction, alleys with the
strongest potential will be first in line for actual enhancement and
additional, long-term funding won't have to start over'from scratch'
but can instead build on initial improvement already made in this
first wave.
Pilots as Templates
Naming
This study recommends assigning names to all alleys, both for
orientation and to re-affirm their place as public rights-of-way
open to pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles alike. The names used
in this chapter are examples only and are not meant to suggest
any naming convention: each pilot alley was named for a previous
governor of Colorado who surname began with the same letter as
the letter assigned to the alley in the existing conditions survey.
Levels of Finish
The pilot projects show a selection of potential treatments of basic
alley components. None of these treatments are 'required' in or
restricted to the alley 'type' in which they are shown; rather, they
are meant to provide the City with illustrations of options. For
example, paving is shown in the three alleys as all-concrete, a
mix of concrete and unit paving, and all unit paving. Any of these
options might be appropriate in any alley, depending upon specific
grade and drainage conditions.
Mix and Match
Similarly, the urban design elements illustrated in the pilot examples
can be used in any alley. The pilot categories were created only
to provide general 'levels' of improvement in order to arrive at
order-of-magnitude, planning-level cost estimates. The pilots are
categorized as 'types' only to give an order of magnitude of each
level of enhancement.
'Level 3' enhancements like this gateway arch can be appropriate in any alley.
Improvements are categorized in this report only for broad budgeting purposes.
75
Chapter 4: Pilot Projects


Non-Physical Components
All levels of alley enhancement will require some level of stakeholder
coordination as well as policy support to promote their long-term
success. Some of these elements clearly fall under the City's
jurisdiction, while other may be undertaken by the DDP or BID, or
the City and the DDP/BID may choose to work together.
Enforcement: One-Way and No Parking
Although few serious incidents have been reported, existing
conditions have significant potential for pedestrian-vehicular conflict,
particularly given the extremely limited sight lines at the 16th Street
Mall entrance to the alleys. Although the alleys are restricted to
one-way traffic away from the mall (ie, south to 15th and north to
17th), this regulation is rarely enforced and pedestrians and drivers
alike must creep across entrances for fear of causing an accident.
Enforcement of this regulation would create a safer 16th Street Mall.
A related issue is the enforcement of No Parking regulations within
the alleys. Site observation indicates that violation is commonplace,
with parked cars obstructing both service vehicles and pedestrian
flow. No Parking enforcement will be particularly important to 'pop-
up' and special event programming, such as temporary outdoor
dining, which cannot take place if the intended space is blocked by
vehicles.
Service Hours / Trash Hauler Licensure
The alleys serve and will continue to serve as primary service
corridors for adjacent development. At the most basic level, limiting
service hours to the lightest pedestrian hoursearly morning, late
evening and overnight-will ensure that there is sufficient room
for pedestrians to move through the corridor. On the larger level,
decreased vehicular traffic during high pedestrian hours will reduce
potential pedestrian-vehicular conflict and increase safety.
Limits on service hours will likely need to be adopted into City
code, similar to a noise ordinance limiting construction activities to
certain hours; such limits need not apply to the whole City but could
be limited to the downtown area specifically. In the case of trash
pickup, the City could also consider a licensure program for haulers
(currently, the City permits physical dumpsters but does not regulate
the companies that service them); such licensure could be a means
to implement on hours of service.
Consolidation of Trash Containers and Haulers
Another tool to reduce the amount of heavy vehicular traffic in the
alley is to work with adjacent owners and tenants to select a single
service provider. Thus, instead of three or four companies accessing
the alleys, a single company can make a single trip.
A common service provider also opens the opportunity for reducing
the number of dumpsters, by consolidating several smaller
dumpsters into one larger one. Instead of each business having
their own dumpster, receptacles would be shared. Fewer dumpsters
reduces visual clutter and frees up space in the alley.
Permitting: Alley Closure and Event Permits
As of the writing of this document, the City is in the process of
reviewing its policies and procedures for permitting and processing
special events; these new streamlined policies are slated to be
finalized in late 2015 and will ideally create a programming-friendly
environment for the 16th Street Mall alleys. If the new process
does not meet the specific needs of downtown alley programming,
the City or DDP may wish to create a guide or reference document
detailing the necessary steps and departments that must be
contacted for special event or recurring alley use. Issues that have
created unnecessary barriers to other alley revitalization efforts
and that should be specifically studied in Denver's new procedure
include: lengthy or complicated review processes, lengthy advance
application schedules and high fees.
Existing and New Development: Facade Upgrade Assistance and
Development Standards
In order to capitalize on public investments in the alleys and
promote private participation, the City should institute development
standards regarding alley frontage. Standards should strike a
balance between service needs and mitigation of the 'back of house'
aesthetic that prevails in many alleys. Internal loading docks,
ground-floor transparency, and material selection are examples of
issues that should be considered.
The City and/or DDP should also explore how incentive or assistance
could be provided to private property owners interested in
upgrading alley-side facades.
Alley Enhancement Project
76


Pilot Criteria
The following criteria were used in evaluating which alleys present
the best chance of early success while also providing the ability to
serve as a template for additional alley design. Failure in any of
the items in the first category would automatically exclude an alley
from consideration as a pilot (though not for future enhancements),
while a 'yes' answers in the second category of criteria would
automatically bump an alley to the top of the priority list. Other
criteria are weighted evenly with a simple -1/0/+1 scoring system.
Elimination as Pilot
Duplicability
Does the alley have any unique features or issues that
would make it less applicable as a template?
Stakeholder Opposition
Are any adjacent land owners or tenants opposed to
use of the alley as a pilot project?
Trash
Does the alley have a large number of dumpsters
(10+) with little or no place for potential
consolidation?
Timing
Does the alley have potential to experience significant
delay in implementation due to a current project (such
as construction) or future change in conditions (such
as redevelopment of more than 50% of block)?
Priority as Pilot
Funding
Are any adjacent owners or tenants willing to provide
funding?
Does the alley enhancement align with an existing or
near-term, future project that can provide funding?
Other Criteria
Stakeholder Support
Flave the adjacent tenants or owners expressed
interest or support regarding alley enhancements?
Cost + Schedule
Does the alley have any unique issues that would add
to cost or schedule of project?
Does the alley have any not-unique, but
higher-than-average occurrence of issues requiring
coordination with other departments or governing
bodies? (example: need to resolve alcove/fire egress
issue before the alley would be considered safe)
Flow extensive an outreach and coordination process
will be required, based on number of adjacent parcels?
Transit
Adjacent transit stops (on 15th or on 17th) may act
as pedestrian generators and promote use of the alley;
how likely is this effect in this particular alley?
Flow close is the alley to the downtown destinations
identified in the Existing Conditions report?
Location
If multiple pilot projects are chosen, it is recommended to select a
project in LoDo, in the center of the Mall and in the east portion of
the mall, so as to distribute benefit in different areas of the 16th
Street Mall.
Pilot Selection
Based on the preceding criteria, Alleys M (Curtis-Champa South),
G (Welton-Glenarm North), and C (Larimer-Market North) were
recommended as pilot projects. Alley names given below are meant
only as placeholders demonstrating the recommendation that all
alleys be given names. A full spreadsheet showing details of this
evaluation can be found in Appendix 2.
Alley M: Moore Alley
Alley M offers particular advantages of supportive stakeholders
and a prior, successful programming event. Additional advantages
include a lighting project moving forward through the DDP and BID,
an existing two-story public art mural within the alley, consolidated
dumpsters near the Mall and retail and cafes at entry on the mall
side. Challenges include a lack of destinations and connections at
both ends, poor pavement conditions, a high number of parcels and
related coordination needs and a significant amount of homeless
loitering combined with low foot traffic.
Alley G: Gunter Alley
Alley G offers particular potential for nighttime activity, given its
proximity to both the Denver Pavilions and the Paramount Theater.
Additional advantages include destinations, transit access on 17th
St, visual endpoints and a sense of terminus, heavy foot traffic and
an adjacent parking lot offering potential for trash consolidation.
Challenges include quantity of dumpsters (although in good
condition and maintained well) and the number of adjacent parcels
(requiring more extensive outreach and coordination).
Alley C: Cook Alley
Alley C completes the triad of pilots with a LoDo location, a
strong cluster of restaurants backing onto the alley, and a single,
alcove-free use (structured parking) on its eastern side. Additional
advantages include existing adjacent land use and architecture,
an active edge on one side and clean, good-quality pavement.
Challenges include the lack of destinations at both ends of the alley.
77
Chapter 4: Pilot Projects


Moore Alley, existing conditions: 16th Street Mall entrance.
Moore Alley
Type 1: 'Update'
Overview
Moore Alley illustrates the most basic of upgrades, with a focus on
addressing the two most pressing issues in all alleys: lighting and
drainage.
Even such minimal enhancements, however, open opportunity for
temporary and recurring uses. The second and third illustrations of
this alley shown how temporary, mobile additions to the alley could
be used to create a space for recurring, daily outdoor dining or for a
one-time special event.
Infrastructure
concrete paving
center longitudinal drain, full length of alley
wall-mounted lighting
grouped dumpsters
Street Sign. Moore Alley shows the simplest version of alley name
signage, with a standard City street sign affixed parallel to the
alley corridor. Color can be standard City green and white, or can
coordinate with 16th Street Mall branding of grey and yellow.
Paving. Concrete is recommended for all alleys, due to its greater
durability and longevity; increased loading capacity and reduced
warping is also important in light of the alleys' use as primary
service corridors and heavy truck traffic.
Drainage. The alleys' poor drainage is due in large part to the
near-level grades along their length. With little opportunity for
longitudinal flow, lateral flow to a central drain provides the best
means to address the standing water and icing that plagues nearly
all the alleys.
Lighting. Given the narrow width of the alleys and their heavy
truck traffic, wall mounted lighting is strongly preferred over
pole-mounted lighting. The prevalence of wall-mounted vehicle
'bumpers', and the clear impact and scrape marks on these
bumpers, suggest the pole-mounted lighting would be subject
to a high incidence of damage. Wall-mounted lighting, however,
will require coordination with and legal agreements allowing the
installation of publicly owned and maintained light fixtures onto
the adjacent private buildings. A single lighting fixture should be
chosen for all of the alleys; in the case that a different or custom
fixture is desired, an organization such as a business improvement
district (BID), owners' association, metropolitan district or similar
organization must be in place and willing to take on the costs and
permanent maintenance of that fixture.
If special event use of the alley is anticipated, as described in a later
part of this report, electrical upgrades accommodating audio and
visual load may also be desired.
Trash. Local law enforcement identified the random, spaced-out
placement of dumpsters as a practice that provides opportunities
for concealment. They suggested 'ganging' the dumpsters
together to minimize this opportunity. Locating the dumpsters
in a single location further from the 16th St Mall would also offer
some aesthetic advantage to the Mall itself, placing offensive
odors and sights a bit further from main retail and visitor traffic.
Stakeholders also noted that locating the dumpsters ^further from*
the businesses would require a short walk for employees of those
establishments, having the secondary effect of promoting more
pedestrian traffic and passive surveillance within the alleys.
Urban Design
graffiti removal
downspout/fire escape painting
This most basic level of enhancement utilizes minimal permanent
urban design enhancement. Removal of graffiti should be a part
of any alley upgrade. A low-cost urban design enhancement
could include painting downspouts, fire escapes and other alley
appurtenances; color schemes could be developed to match
adjacent architectural detailing, the adjacent Mall branding, or
simply to provide additional color and interest in the alley corridor.
Alley Enhancement Project
78


Moore Alley
Type 1: 'Update'
16th St Mall, South Entrance
Base Enhancements
A asphalt removal
B underground drain connections
C concrete paving
D longitudinal drain
E lights
F alley name sign
G graffiti removal
H in-corridor dumpster consolidation
Everyday Use, Temporary Additions
i rolling planters
J outdoor dining, temporary
Policy
alley naming
future development standards
facade upgrade assistance program
consolidate trash contract
enforce one-way
enforce no parking
limit service hours
streamlined permitting/reduced fees
outreach and advertising
cleaning (by adjacent users)
Base enhancements to Moore Alley, with movable planters rolled against adjacent
storefront wall.
79
Chapter 4: Pilot Projects


Policy
one-way enforcement
no parking enforcement
service hour limits
development standards
facade upgrade assistance
Enforcement of existing one-way regulations would reduce the
amount of potential pedestrian-vehicular conflict at the busy 16th
Street Mall entrance to the alley. Limiting service hours so that
trucks would not be entering during peak pedestrian times (start
of business, lunchtime, close of business) would provide additional
enhancements to pedestrian safety.
Enforcement of no-parking rules, creation of development standards
for new construction and alley-side remodeling and facade upgrade
assistance programs would all help to reinforce the alley as a bona
fide public right-of-way, rather than a private, back-of-house service
area.
Programming
Everyday Use.
tables, chairs, umbrellas
rolling planters/bollard + chain
wall-mounted lighting
grouped dumpsters
A few simple elements would allow the alley to be used as
flexible outdoor dining space, on a sporadic or even regular
basis. Lightweight tables and chairs can be stored inside adjacent
businesses, and brought out for lunchtime crowds on sunny days.
Some means of defining the dining area further promotes pedestrian
scale, and could be provided by rolling planters, a simple bollard-
chain system, or even a painted or chalked 'area rug' on the ground.
This use would necessitate the enforcement of no-parking rules
and restrictions on service hours so that patrons are not disrupted
by vehicles attempting to enter or exit the alley. Moving dumpster
further into the alley is also necessary to provide this Mall-adjacent
space.
Special Event.
tents
pavement art / projected wall art
alley closure and event permits
temporary dumpster relocation to surface parking lot
banners/advertising
musicians/vendors/booths
A different set of temporary additions can transform the alley into
a special event space. This use will require temporary alley closure
and an event permit, both administrated by the City. Special events
also typically require private security and cleaning, both of which
can be contracted. Temporarily moving dumpsters out of the alley
corridor and into adjacent parking spaces leased on short term daily
rental tidies up the alley and provides more space to occupy and
circulate.
Depending on the event, tents, music and vendors can all share
space in the alley. Banners and other event advertising increases
awareness and draws patrons into the alley. Temporary art
installations, such as pavement chalk art or wall-projected light art,
can provide additional aesthetic enhancements. Temporary lighting
can be provided overhead, as can audio/visual capability.
Alley Enhancement Project
i-------------------1
80


Moore Alley (Alley M) is located between Curtis and Champa Streets.
Moore Alley
Type 1: 'Update'
15th St, North Entrance
Special Event, Temporary Additions
A event naming
B consolidate dumpsters in adjacent parking lot
C temporary art
D programming
E temporary pop-up dining
F projected light art
Policy
alley closure
streamlined permitting/reduced fees
outreach and advertising
security (by event)
cleaning (by event)
Chapter 4: Pilot Projects


Costs
Shown at right is an order-of-magnitude estimate of costs involved
in this level of alley enhancements. Refer to the alley 'toolkit' in
Chapter 3 of this document for further information on private and
public funding responsibilities. The spreadsheet also notes required
policy items.
Alley Enhancement Project
ENHANCEMENT UNIT PRICE QTY COST
1 Construction Overhead $ 26,420
Mobilization LS 5% of Total $ 18,871
Barricading/T.C./M.O.T. LS 2% of Total $ 7,548
2 Removals $ 24,324
Asphalt SF $ 2.33 0 $ -
Concrete SF $ 2.66 6400 $ 17,024
Utility Adjustments LS $ 5,000.00 1 $ 5,000
Fencing LF $ 20.00 115 $ 2,300
3 Base Plane $ 151,400
Grading/Excavation SF $ 10.00 6400 $ 64,000
Concrete CY $ 400.00 119 $ 47,600
Trench Drain LF $ 82.00 400 $ 32,800
Storm Adjustments/Connections LS $ 7,000.00 1 $ 7,000
4 Site Elements $ 201,700
Metal Picket Fence, 6' LF $ 180.00 115 $ 20,700
Wall Mounted Fixtures EA $ 5,000.00 17 $ 85,000
Post Mounted Fixtures EA $ 12,000.00 5 $ 60,000
Electrical Service LS $ 25,000.00 1 $ 25,000
General Painting (downspouts, fire escapes) ALLOWANCE $ 10,000.00 1 $ 10,000
Street Sign EA $ 500.00 2 $ 1,000
Total $ 403,844
5 Site Features: Daily Programming and Special Events
Patio Furnishings: Table & 4 Chairs EA $ 2,000.00 6 $ 12,000
Rolling Planters EA $ 800.00 8 $ 6,400
Umbrellas EA $ 2,500.00 3 $ 7,500
Special Events (lighting, chalk art, tent, security, etc) LS $ 25,000.00 1 $ 25,000
(no total: a la carte costs)
82


83
Chapter 4: Pilot Projects
go feet


Gunter Alley, existing conditions: 16th Street Mall entrance.
Gunter Alley
Type 2: 'Circulate'
Overview
Gunter Alley offers a 'middle' level of enhancement aimed at
creating a welcoming, pedestrian-scale environment that promotes
foot traffic. The alley retains full service functions including delivery
and trash collection, but focuses on adding urban design elements
that clearly indicate the corridor is a legitimate circulation corridor
for all modes including pedestrians and cyclists.
This second level of alley enhancements includes all basic safety and
cleanliness elements illustrated in Moore Alley, including new paving
and lighting, as well as additional elements meant to enhance
corridor aesthetics and promote pedestrian use.
Infrastructure
alley naming/street sign
concrete and permeable unit paving
center longitudinal drain, full length of alley
wall- and pole-mounted lighting
off-corridor dumpster relocation and consolidation
Street Sign. This concept illustrates how alley names could be
integrated into existing architecture by etching or carving into
building materials. Similarly, etching or carving could be done on a
smaller plaque that could be affixed to the building.
Paving. As noted previously, concrete is recommended for all
alleys due to its greater durability and longevity. The Gunter Alley
application uses a combination of concrete and permeable unit
paving for an enhanced, more decorative aesthetic, with concrete
down both sides of the alley and unit paving and a longitudinal
drain in the center. This design creates a visual suggestion of two
sidewalks, which reinforce the idea of a pedestrian environment,
although constrained alley width would require vehicles to span both
surfaces.
Permeable pavers are recommended in order to help address
drainage issues and improve water quality, and a geotechnical
evaluation of soils would be necessary to determine their suitability
on an alley-by-alley basis. Design and engineering should also
consider the potential impacts to underground utilities and adjacent
structures, and select paving systems accordingly. Different
alleys may call for different solutions, ranging from no infiltration
(traditional unit pavers or concrete), partial infiltration (a center strip
of permeable pavers and a slotted underdrain, for example) of full
infiltration from alley wall to alley wall. In cases where permeable
unit pavers are deemed unsuitable, design intent can be maintained
by the use of regular, non-permeable unit paving.
Drainage. This design also offers an opportunity for the City to
test the performance of permeable paving in a downtown context,
if desired. A full-corridor length drain is included, and will act as
primary or redundant drainage, dependent upon the City's decision
regarding permeable paving. If permeable paving is used in the
central section, water can percolate into subsurface material, or
into a below-ground drain system. If permeable paving is not used,
pavers will be set on a concrete base.
Lighting. Gunter Alley uses a combination of wall and pole-mounted
lighting, with pole-mounted lighting limited to areas without
adjacent buildings, such as vacant lots or surface parking.
As with Moore Alley, if special event use of the alley is anticipated,
as described in a later part of this report, electrical upgrades
accommodating audio and visual load may also be desired.
Trash. Gunter Alley illustrates off-corridor trash relocation
and consolidation, a strategy which requires coordination and
cooperation among adjacent tenants and owners, as well as lease or
purchase of small amount of adjacent property. Under this strategy,
adjacent users share dumpsters and select a single trash hauler;
this approach reduces both the number of dumpsters as well as
the amount of traffic in the alley. The fewer but larger dumpsters
are moved to a single location adjacent to but outside of the actual
alley, thereby increasing visibility and sight lines, reducing odors and
providing more clear space for circulation. This property may be
leased on a long term basis or purchased, and should be screened
with an appropriate opaque fence. This approach also promotes
pedestrian usage by lessening perception of the alley as a 'back-of-
house' service corridor.
Alley Enhancement Project
84


- r . -w AdK1
Gunter Alley (Alley G) is located between Welton and Glenarm Streets.
Gunter Alley
Type 2: 'Circulate'
16th St Mall, North Entrance
A asphalt removal
B underground drain connections
C concrete paving
D permeable paving OR paving/underground drainage
E lights
F signs for business entrances
G graffiti removal
H arcade trusses
Policy
alley naming
enforce one-way
enforce no parking
consolidate trash contract
future development standards
facade upgrade assistance program
Chapter 4: Pilot Projects


Gunter Alley enhancements, 17th Street entrance, night view.
Urban Design
graffiti removal
arcade trusses
business entry signage (Paramount Theatre, back door)
parking lot wall and railing
The 'circulate' level of enhancement seeks to identify urban design
opportunities that will draw the eye to the alley, encourage more
people to use it, and provide an enhanced aesthetic experience.
Gunter Alley plays off of the Paramount Cafe's existing corner-
wrapping marquee signage by adding theatre-lit trusses leading
from the cafe and alley entrance to the Paramount Theatre's rear
entrance. This feature will help create interest for daytime users,
and provide additional orientation assistance for patrons exiting the
theatre at night. In tandem with and in the same style as the truss
arcade, enhancements also add vertical signage at the theatre's rear
entry.
At the alley's north entrance on 17th, enhancements include a
short wall topped by decorative railing and post lights with banners.
Introduction of the wall and railing provides enclosure to the alley
and promotes a pedestrian scale, while banners on the light poles
provide a rhythmic, linear element to draw the eye in to the alley.
Wall height is negotiable but should not provide a potential place of
concealment; keeping the wall at an 18"-24" height could provide
informal seating without more traditional street furnishings that
could impede vehicular circulation.
Wall, railing and lights would all be constructed on private property
and would require appropriate coordination with adjacent property
owners; it is understood that these enhancements would be
removed if the adjacent property should redevelop, but also hoped
that new development would provide a similarly attractive and
pedestrian-scaled alley frontage.
Programming
Micro-Retail. Gunter Alley includes a micro-retail space, illustrated
in the graphic as a cycle repair shop. This type of small-scale retail
typically involves the conversion of an underutilized space such as
a storage room into a very small storefront, and would include the
creation of a new alley entrance if one does not already exist.
This type of off-the-beaten-path location often provides space
for businesses who could otherwise not afford the high rent or
don't need the typical footprint of a downtown location. Types of
businesses which have occupied this type of space in other cities
include cycle shops, small-scale eateries or tap rooms and book
nooks.
This programming is dependent upon both market conditions and
the private property owner, although public funding such as grants
or facade programs may provide assistance.
Everyday and Special Event Use.
Gunter Alley could host any of the every day 'pop up' uses or special
events as described in the Moore Alley section. Such uses would
also require service hour limits or alley closure, as indicated in that
section.
Policy
one-way enforcement
no parking enforcement
service hour limits
development standards
facade upgrade assistance
Policy needs for Gunter Alley's 'circulate' enhancements mirror those
of Moore Alley's 'update' enhancements, with the bulk of policies
focused on enhanced pedestrian safety and reduced potential for
pedestrian-vehicular conflict.
Alley Enhancement Project
86


Gunter Alley
Type 2: 'Circulate'
17th St, South Entrance
A asphalt removal
B underground drain connections
C concrete paving
D permeable paving OR paving/underground drainage
E lights
F alley name sign (alternate to wall sign)
G graffiti removal
H dumpster consolidation (adjacent to corridor)
I curb and railing at edge of surface parking
J micro-retail
K business entrance signs
Policy
alley naming
enforce one-way
enforce no parking
consolidate trash contract
future development standards
facade upgrade assistance program
87
Chapter 4: Pilot Projects


Costs
Shown at right is an order-of-magnitude estimate of costs involved
in this level of alley enhancements. Refer to the alley 'toolkit' in
Chapter 3 of this document for further information on private and
public funding responsibilities. The spreadsheet also notes required
policy items.
Alley Enhancement Project
ENHANCEMENT UNIT PRICE QTY COST
1 Construction Overhead $ 96,680
Mobilization LS 5% of Total $ 69,057
Barricading/T.C./M.O.T. LS 2% of Total $ 27,623
2 Removals z $ 25,076
Asphalt SF $ 2.33 448 $ 1,044
Concrete SF $ 2.66 5952 $ 15,832
Utility Adjustments LS $ 5,000.00 1 $ 5,000
Fencing LF $ 20.00 160 $ 3,200
3 Base Plane $ 187,400
Grading/Excavation SF $ 10.00 6400 $ 64,000
Concrete CY $ 400.00 74 $ 29,600
Pavers (On Concrete Base) SF $ 30.00 1800 $ 54,000
Trench Drain LF $ 82.00 400 $ 32,800
Storm Adjustments/Connections LS $ 7,000.00 1 $ 7,000
4 Site Elements $ 282,630
Concrete Wall CY $ 400.00 40 $ 16,000
Ornamental Metal Fence LF $ 200.00 160 $ 32,000
Trash Enclosure LF $ 225.00 70 $ 15,750
Trash Enclosure: Yearly lease LS $ 2,760.00 3 $ 8,280
Wall Mounted Fixtures EA $ 5,000.00 17 $ 85,000
Post Mounted Fixtures EA $ 12,000.00 5 $ 60,000
Ornamental banners (on light poles) EA $ 120.00 5 $ 600
Electrical Service LS $ 25,000.00 1 $ 25,000
General Painting (downspouts, fire escapes) ALLOWANCE $ 10,000.00 1 $ 10,000
Street Sign, enhanced EA $ 2,500.00 2 $ 5,000
Business Signage (paramount, bike shop) LS $ 25,000.00 1 $ 25,000
5 Site Features $ 208,000
Steel Trusses LS $ 16,000.00 9 $ 144,000
Storefront: Demo and Glazing SF $ 400.00 160 $ 64,000
Total $ 799,786
88


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89
Chapter 4: Pilot Projects
90 feet


Cook Alley, existing conditions: 16th Street Mall entrance.
Cook Alley
Type 3: 'Enhance'
Overview
Cook Alley illustrates the most extensive level of enhancement and
explores the potential to create small, occupiable spaces within a
constrained corridor. In the case of Cook Alley, a section of adjacent
building are set back from the public right-of-way, offering the
opportunity to carve out a small rear deck for outdoor dining.
As the top level within the three-part alley hierarchy, Cook Alley
includes the basic functional enhancements of a Type 1 'Update'
Alley as well as the urban design features of a Type 2 'Circulate'
Alley.
Infrastructure
alley naming/street sign
permeable/unit paving
center longitudinal drain, full length of alley
wall- and post-mounted lighting
off-corridor dumpster relocation and consolidation
Street Sign. All alley projects should include new signage at both
entrances displaying the name of the alley. Such signage is included
in this level of enhancement but not shown in the particular views
in this document. This concept also displays the alley name as an
integrated part of the entry gateway.
Paving. Cook Alley illustrates permeable unit paving from building
face to building face, a significant aesthetic upgrade intended to
emphasize the pedestrian nature of the alley. As noted previously,
concrete is recommended for all alleys due to its greater durability
and longevity. Cook Alley illustrates an all-unit pavers approach,
which would require evaluation of its long-term durability in addition
to the same geotechnical, utility and architectural evaluations
mentioned under Gunter Alley. If not installed as a permeable
drainage, the pavers can be laid on a concrete base and will provide
the desired increase in durability as compared to asphalt.
Drainage. The potential for permeable paving discussed under
Gunter Alley's mixed concrete/paver approach would also be
applicable to Cook Alley's all-paver approach. The center,
longitudinal drain should be installed regardless of paving selection,
and will act as either primary or secondary drainage.
Lighting. Cook Alley uses the same approach recommended in the
other alleys, with wall-mounted lighting as the preferred option and
pole-mounted lights along the edge of undeveloped lots or surface
parking. Wall lights differ from those shown in other alleys, and
were selected to align with the historic character of this alley's LoDo
location. If executed, this 'special' lighting would require a third-
party to take on installation and maintenance responsibility, since
it does not align with the single fixture approach recommended for
all alleys. Since Cook Alley is intended to provide occupiable space,
electrical upgrades for extra audio and visual effects should be
considered a standard part of this level of alley enhancement.
Trash. Cook Alley uses the same off-corridor trash relocation
and consolidation strategy discussed in Cook Alley. Given the
large number of adjacent restaurants, additional space within the
common enclosure may also need to be provided for grease barrels.
Urban Design
graffiti removal
entry gateways
large-scale, permanent art
planter wall and raised deck
basement egress
shade structure
decorative Tivoli-style lighting
parking lot wall and railing
Cook Alley uses ornamental overhead arches to mark alley
entrances and names. These arches could be attached to adjacent
buildings, as shown at the 17th Street entrance, or could be
freestanding, as shown at the 16th Street Mall entrance which has
no building on the western side of the entrance. Arches would
need to provide adequate vertical clearance for service vehicles,
and would require collaboration with adjacent building owners if an
attached installation is desired.
Alley Enhancement Project
90


Cook Alley (Alley C) is located between Market and Larimer Streets.
91
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Cook Alley
Type 3: 'Enhance'
16th St Mall, North Entrance
A asphalt removal
B decorative paving/pavers w underground drainage
C lights
D alley name sign/entry feature
E graffiti removal
F planter wall
G outdoor dining, permanent
H art, permanent
I decorative lighting
J shade structure
Policy
alley naming
enforce one-way
enforce no parking
consolidate trash contract
future development standards
facade upgrade assistance program
Chapter 4: Pilot Projects


Cook Alley, existing conditions: 17th Street entrance.
Cook Alley enhancements, 16th Street Mall entrance, night view.
The main feature of Cook Alley is the outdoor dining space created
behind the existing row of restaurants towards the alley's southern
entrance. This area is outside the public right-of-way, and would
require participation of the adjacent property owners and tenants.
As shown, the space is 10 -12 feet wide and extends behind a
number of restaurants, but as a concept or template, this idea can
be scaled down in accordance with available space.
Creation of this space would require relocation of existing
restaurant-related uses such as storage and HVAC, as well
as the construction of code-compliant egress from basement
windows in this area. Assuming all technical, operational and
code requirements can be satisfied, the graphic shows a raised
outdoor dining area defined by a planting wall and shade structure.
Supplemental tivoli lights strung across the alley width extend the
amenity area into the public right-of-way.
Cook Alley also illustrates the potential for large-scale, permanent
art in the form of murals. Some structures within this particular
corridor may be eligible for historic designation and would require
additional evaluation as to the appropriateness of art.
Like Gunter Alley, Cook Alley also uses a short wall/railing/lightpost
combination to create a sense of enclosure and pedestrian scale.
This treatment occurs along the edge of the surface parking lot at
the corridor's south entrance.
Programming
As with the preceding two alley types, the Type 3 'Enhance' alley
can also be utilized for daily, recurring programming and with
enhanced paving and overhead lighting, would be an especially
attractive location for special events or expansion of 16th Street Mall
happenings.
Policy
one-way enforcement
no parking enforcement
service hour limits
development standards
facade upgrade assistance
Policy needs for Gunter Alley's 'circulate' enhancements mirror those
of the preceding two alley types, with the bulk of policies focused
on enhanced pedestrian safety and reduced potential for pedestrian-
vehicular conflict.
Alley Enhancement Project
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Alley (Alley C) is located between Market and Larimer Streets.
Cook Alley
Type 3: 'Enhance'
17th St, South Entrance
A asphalt removal
B decorative paving/pavers w underground drainage
C lights
D alley name sign/entry feature
E graffiti removal
F planters
G art, permanent
Policy
enforce one-way
enforce no parking
consolidate trash contract
future development standards
facade upgrade assistance program
Chapter 4: Pilot Projects


Costs
Shown at right is an order-of-magnitude estimate of costs involved
in this level of alley enhancements. Refer to the alley 'toolkit' in
Chapter 3 of this document for further information on private and
public funding responsibilities. The spreadsheet also notes required
policy items.
Alley Enhancement Project
ENHANCEMENT UNIT PRICE QTY COST
1 Construction Overhead $ 165,560
Mobilization LS 5% of Total $ 118,257
Barricading/T.C./M.O.T. LS 2% of Total $ 47,303
2 Removals $ 29,381.25
Asphalt SF $ 2.33 275 $ 640.75
Concrete SF $ 2.66 8925 $ 23,740.50
Utility Adjustments LS $ 5,000.00 1 $ 5,000.00
Fencing LF $ 20.00 0 $ -
3 Base Plane $ 561,750.00
Grading/Excavation SF $ 10.00 9200 $ 92,000.00
Pavers (On Concrete Base) SF $ 30.00 7665 $ 229,950.00
Ground-mounted lights EA $ 5,000.00 40 $ 200,000.00
Trench Drain LF $ 82.00 400 $ 32,800
Storm Adjustments/Connections LS $ 7,000.00 1 $ 7,000.00
4 Site Elements $ 313,080.00
Concrete Wall CY $ 400.00 114 $ 45,600.00
Ornamental Metal Fence LF $ 200.00 123 $ 24,600.00
Planter Wall CY $ 400.00 27 $ 10,800
Plant Materials / Irrigation ALLOWANCE $ 5,000.00 1 $ 5,000
Egress Windows EA $ 5,000.00 6 $ 30,000
Trash Enclosure LF $ 225.00 56 $ 12,600.00
Trash Enclosure: Yearly lease EA $ 2,160.00 3 $ 6,480.00
Wall Mounted Fixtures EA $ 5,000.00 18 $ 90,000.00
Post Mounted Fixtures EA $ 12,000.00 4 $ 48,000.00
Electrical Service LS $ 25,000.00 1 $ 25,000.00
General Painting (downspouts, fire escapes) ALLOWANCE $ 10,000.00 1 $ 10,000.00
Street Sign, enhanced EA $ 2,500.00 2 $ 5,000
5 Site Features $ 293,050.00
Wall Mural, parking structure LS $ 20,000.00 1 $ 20,000.00
Wall Murals, north end LS $ 10,000.00 1 $ 10,000.00
Patio Furnishings:
Table & 4 Chairs EA $ 2,000.00 9 $ 18,000.00
Umbrellas EA $ 2,500.00 4 $ 10,000.00
Overhead (Tivoli) Lights LF $12.50 500 $ 6,250.00
Patio Deck SF $ 120.00 1240 $ 148,800.00
Entry Gateways EA $ 10,000.00 2 $ 20,000.00
Shade Structure LS $ 60,000.00 1 $ 60,000.00
Total $ 1,362,821
94


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Chapter 4: Pilot Projects


Alley Enhancement Project


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Full Text

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Alley Enhancement Project16th Street MallOctober 2014

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Alley Enhancement Project2 Project ManagerJennifer Hillhouse, Denver Public WorksDenver City CouncilAlbus Brooks, District 8Public WorksWilliam Kennedy Emily Snyder Robert SouthernCommunity Planning and DevelopmentSarah ShowalterDowntown Denver BIDRyan SotirakisConsultant Team AECOM, Prime ConsultantAcknowledgements

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Table of Contents 1 1ES 2Case Studies Whats Included 13Functional Enhancements 13 Urban Design Enhancements 14 Public Realm Enhancements 15Selection Process and Additional Planning 16 Responsible Parties and Funding 16 Implementation 16 Lessons Learned 17 Case Summaries 18 Chicago 18 Los Angeles 19 Fort Collins 20 Longmont 22 Melbourne 24 Seattle 26Executive Summary Project Goals 05 Project Components 05Case Studies 05 Study Area/Existing Conditions 05 Classi cation + Hierarchy 06 Pilot Projects 07 Next Steps 10Existing Conditions Assessment Context 31Downtown Overview 31 Physical Conditions: Summary 32Alleys 34Alley A: Wynkoop-Wazee North 34 Alley B: Wazee-Blake North 36 Alley C: Market-Larimer North 38 Alley D: Champa-Stout North 40 Alley E: Stout-California North 42 Alley F: California-Welton North 44 Alley G: Welton-Glenarm North 46 Alley H: Glenarm-Tremont North 48 Alley I: Wynkoop-Wazee South 50 Alley J: Wazee-Blake South 52 Alley K: Blake-Market South 54 Alley L: Market-Larimer South 56 Alley M: Curtis-Champa South 58 Alley N: Champa-Stout South 60 Alley O: Stout-California South 62 Alley P: California-Welton South 64Table of Contents

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Alley Enhancement Project 2 Table of Contents, Continued45AppxPilot Projects: Selection + Design Pilot Project Selection 75 Pilot Goals 75 Pilots as Templates 75 Pilot Criteria 77 Pilot Selection 77Pilot Project Designs 78Type 1: Update Moore Alley 78 Type 2: Circulate Gunter Alley 84 Type 3: Enhance Cook Alley 90Next Steps Build Support 99 Prepare the Policy Framework 100 Identify Funding 101 Appendices Appendix 1. Precedent Documents 105 Chicago Green Alley Handbook (2010) Fort Collins Alley Beauti cation Master Plan (2008) Transforming Alleys into Green Infrastructure for Los Angeles (2008) Seattle Integrated Alley Handbook (2011)Appendix 2. Inventory and Evaluation 107 Matrices Existing Condition Inventory Alley Classi cation Matrix Pilot Selection Matrix3Classi cation + Hierarchy Hierarchy + Tools 69Alley Types 69 Classi cation 70 Toolkit 70

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Alley Enhancement Project Executive Summary

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Alley Enhancement Project 4

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Executive Summary 5 Executive SummaryProject GoalsCities are taking a second look at alleys. Often thought of as a necessary yet utilitarian part of the street network, alleys are being reconsidered from both a functional and an aesthetic point of view. Alley projects are taking place in cities both large and small, and are exploring the potential for these corridors to contribute to cities stormwater management, multi-modal mobility, economic development and urban placemaking. The goal of this project was to document existing conditions in Denvers downtown alleys and draw from the experience and lessons learned in other cities to create recommendations for enhancing Denvers urban alleys. The project speci cally examined physical improvements, necessary policy framework, enhancement tools and techniques that can go into an alley toolkit, and potential economic tools. The study included cases studies, existing conditions, alley classi cation, and ultimately, concept-level alley design.Project ComponentsCase StudiesThe goals of alley enhancement projects are as varied as the cities that undertake them, with some projects including programming and urban design elements while others focus primarily or exclusively on stormwater improvements. Cities included in this report as case studies are those most relevant to the Denver context in terms of alley dimensions, adjacent use and overall urban density: Chicago, Los Angeles, Fort Collins, Longmont, Melbourne and Seattle. The case studies yielded three overall best practices common among virtually all the projects: stakeholder support, cleanliness and safety, and context-speci c design. Regardless of the simplicity or complexity of the undertaking, these three elements were critical to the success of every project.Study Area/Existing ConditionsStudy Area The project focused on the alleys leading one block north and south of the 16th Street Mall, between Broadway and Wewatta Street. This area encompasses a total of 32 blocks and 16 alleys. Blocks without alleys have typically been developed as an aggregated parcel without public alley access, often occupied by a single large structure; examples of this type of development Denver Pavilions or Tabor Center Complexes. It is notable that the majority of these aggregated blocks occur in the center of the Mall, with a larger number of intact alleys at the Malls east and west ends. Dimensions Typical alley dimensions are approximately 400 long by 16 in width. One alley, located between Wynkoop and Wazee on the south side of the Mall does have wider dimensions. The majority of structures are built on a zero lot line on their alley faade, although there are some exceptions for both full buildings and portions of buildings. The study area includes alleys one block on each side of the 16th Street Mall, encompassing a total 32 blocks and 16 alleys.Drainage There is very little change in grade between the 16th Street Mall and its parallel roadways, with most alleys draining to inlets spaced at intervals along the alley centerline. The lack of appreciable longitudinal grade, however, combined with inconsistent and potholed paving results in poor drainage in virtually all of the alleys within the study area. Standing water is common during summer, as are extensive sheets of compacted snow and ice-often extended from building face to building face-in the winter. Utilities and Trash Overhead utilities are present in only a handful of the alleys, just 4 of the 16. In contrast and posing a much greater challenge to aesthetics and circulation, trash is unconsolidated with each tenant having its own dumpster and choice of service providers. This condition means that the alleys have as many as 22 dumpsters (the high counted in the existing conditions survey) and as many as four different companies servicing those bins. Alleys may also have grease barrels (used by restaurants) and recycling containers, in addition to regular dumpsters. ABC DEFGH IJKLMNOP 17th St. 15th St.Broadway14th St. 18th St. B B B B B B B B B B B B B 4 3 3 4 1 4 8 4 5 4 4To Auraria CampusWynkoop Wazee Blake Market Larimer Lawrence Arapahoe CurtisChampaStout California Welton Glenarm Court Tremont Cleveland To Coors Field To Coors Field 4 5 7 1 2 3 11 2 3 6

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Alley Enhancement Project 6 Classi cation + HierarchyClassi cation Alleys were sorted into three categories or level of enhancement, based on a start where you are approach which looks for opportunities and potential with the current tenants and buildings as they exist at the time of this study. Although tenants may change, owners may choose to update, modify or redevelop entirely, this study focuses on near-term improvements that can be made with conditions as they exist right now. Toolkit The three alley types are: Update (basic), Circulate (middle of the road), and Enhance (highest level). Each type includes all the enhancements of the type preceding it (ie, Circulate includes all enhancements identi ed in Update) as well as additional aesthetic, functional or economic enhancements. The study includes a toolkit of enhancements for each alley type, as well as responsible parties for each item. The toolkit also identi es elements that can be considered early action or framework items to be executed in advance of physical improvements. Alley Types The most basic level of enhancements, Update, focuses on cleanliness and safety. Typical upgrades include concrete paving or permeable pavers for enhanced durability, a continuous longitudinal drain for improved drainage and walland pole-mounted lighting for increased safety. The middle level of enhancements, Circulate, introduces additional aesthetic elements meant to make pedestrians feel more welcome and comfortable in the alley. Typical additions might include new/ enhanced alley entrances to existing businesses, new micro-retail opportunities with sole/primary entrances on the alley, and urban design features such as a combination of concrete and unit paving (potentially permeable), ornamental fencing at undeveloped lots, banners and other visual elements. The highest level of upgrades, Enhance, includes all the preceding elements, and also looks to nd opportunities to add occupiable space to the alley corridor. An excellent example of this type of space would be outdoor dining for an adjacent restaurant; in this case, the alley corridor would see improvements in paving, lighting and urban design, while adjacent properties whose structures are setback from the alley or which have alcoves of an appropriate size might choose to create a new space for public or private use. TYPE1TYPE 2TYPE 3 UPDATECIRCULATEENHANCEDaily Events Special Events Name Alley x CCD x x x Name Event x private x Grading +paving, concrete xCCD x Grading +paving, concrete/pavers xCCD x Grading +paving, decorative pavers xCCD x Co locate or consolidate dumpsters,in corridorx BID/CCD x Consolidate dumpsters,out of corridor xBID/private x x x Graffitti removal x BID/CCD xxx Unblock windows/doors xprivate x Wall lighting xBID/CCD x x x Special EffectLighting xprivate x Decorative Lighting (ex:Tivoli) xBID/private x Planters (temp) xprivate x Planters (permanent) xprivate x Entryfeatures xBID/CCD x Curb/rail atsurfaceparking (for ped scale) xprivate x x Art, temporary/installation xBID/private x Art, permanent xBID/private x Arcade, awnings, coverings xBID/private x x Microretail ('backroom') space xprivate x Outdoor dining (temp) xprivate x Outdoor dining (permanent) xprivate x Programming x BID x PR Outreach and advertising x BID/private x x xx Enforce one way x CCD x x x Enforce no parking x CCD x x x Limit service hours (time of day) x CCD x Consolidate trash contract x BID/CCD x x x Create licensure program for trash haulers CCD Alleyclosure x CCD x Streamlined permitting/reducedfees x CCD xx Future developmentstandard s x CCD x x x Faade upgrade assistance program xBID x x x Urban Design Land UsePOLICYELEMENTSEnforcement Operations/ Permitting Development ProgramsPHYSICAL ELEMENTSIdentity Paving Odor/traffic control Safety/ Security Lighting Early Action Capital Funding Needed Responsible Party ADDITIONAL PROGRAMMING

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Executive Summary 7 Pilot ProjectsGoals The nal step of the study was to provide conceptual design, a template, that can be used as a starting point for any alley along the Mall, once implementation funding is identi ed. Rather than generic alley prototypes, the study instead selected three real alleys to be used as pilots for design, with each pilot providing visual representation of one of the three categories of improvement. Criteria In order to capitalize on existing opportunities and have designs that are ready to move forward in the alleys most likely to be rst on the priority listeither due to supportive stakeholders or promising existing conditions--all three pilots were selected from those classi ed in the enhance category. The study also considered alley location along the Mallwest (LoDo), central, or east (Civic Center)and selected a pilot project in each area, to emphasize the potential bene ts of alley enhancements for all tenants and owners. Pilots The three pilot alleys listed below; in order to facilitate easy identi cation, each alley was given an informal name starting with the same letter as its designation on the existing conditions map. These names are for convenience only and are in no way intended to be nal names. Type 1, Update (Moore Alley): Curtis-Champa, South Type 2, Circulate (Gunter Alley): Welton-Glenarm, North Type 3, Enhance (Cook Alley): Market-Larimer, North Update: Moore Alley. This alley hosted Brewers Alley, a successful one-night beer tasting event held in the alley in conjunction with the 2013 Great American Beer Festival. As such, the alleys strongest potential as a pilot comes not from existing physical conditions, but from supportive adjacent stakeholders. The Pilot Project chapter of this reports illustrates basic improvements to this alley, as well as how even basic improvements could set the alley up to be used for daily, recurring programming such as popup outdoor dining, as well as special events such as a chalk festival. Estimated construction costs for this level of improvements are in the $400,000 range.Existing conditions. Basic upgrades: paving, lighting, drainage. Basic upgrades with pop up outdoor dining. Brewers Alley showcased local breweries and demonstrated alleys potential as public space. The event was co-hosted by the BID and the adjacent Rialto Cafe. Photo: Downtown Denver Partnership (DDP)

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Alley Enhancement Project 8 Circulate: Gunter Alley. This alley is already well used by downtown workers as a convenient conduit between 17th Street and the Mall; it is also used as a secondary exit after events at the adjacent Paramount Theatre. Feature improvements of this concept scheme include an overhead arcade playing off the vocabulary of the Paramount Caf and Theatre Marquis, as well as a new bicycle repair shop facing the alley. Estimated construction costs for this level of improvement, including costs likely to be split by both public and private funding, is in the $800,000 range. Existing conditions, 16th St Mall entrance. Alley enhancements: paving, lighting, ornamental overhead trusses. Existing conditions, 17th St entrance. Alley enhancements: paving, signage, micro-retail, banners, fencing.

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Executive Summary 9 Enhance: Cook Alley. This alley offers an opportunity to explore found space where existing buildings are set back from the alley right-of-way. Enhancement include unit paving, entry gateways, an outdoor dining patio and overhead Tivoli lighting. As an additional early action advantage, the bulk of the alleys eastern side is occupied by a parking garage; as the City continues to seek approaches to the alcoves common in most alleys (which can offer concealment and are a safety concern), this large-scale absence of alcoves suggests that this alley may be an excellent low hanging fruit that could be used as a demonstration alley while more complex issue continue to be researched. Estimated construction costs for this type of alley is in the $1.4 million range.Existing conditions, 16th St Mall entrance. Alley enhancements: paving, outdoor dining, overhead lighting. Existing conditions, 17th St entrance. Alley enhancements: planters, murals, ground-level lighting.

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Alley Enhancement Project 10 Next StepsThe challenge with all projects is moving from planning and design to actual implementation. No funding has yet been identi ed for alley enhancements as described in this study, and although the levels of enhancements range from $400,000 to $1.4 million, it is important to understand that these groups of enhancements are both phase-able and additive. The alleys themselves are phase-able and additive; it is not necessary to do all alleys at one time, or even to upgrade all alleys to a single standard before another alley with excellent potential is upgraded above and beyond this standard. Enhancements are context-speci c and fundingexible. The evaluation and concepts in this report can be a useful tool in building stakeholder support and procuring funding, and next steps can be clustered under three larger objectives: building support, preparing the policy framework, and identifying funding. Build Support. Internal and external support are equally important in seeing a plan through to implementation. The more people who are familiar with and see value in alley enhancement projects, the better the chance of implementation. The analysis and concepts in this study should be shared with internal and external stakeholders, as well as other cities who have undertaken or are in the process of similar alley projects. The City and BID should also initiate one-onone and small group discussions with adjacent owners and tenants to understand how they use the alleys, what they would like to see, how the concepts identi ed in this study could positively or negatively impact their interest. Prepare the Policy Framework. Many of the physical enhancements identi ed in this study require that appropriate policy and agreements be in place in advance of the rst shovel hitting the ground. Examples of such actions ar e coordination regarding trash consolidation and relocation, enforcement of no parking regulations, modi ed development regulations, streamlined event permitting and the creation of an alley how to handbook. Identify Funding. Enhancing all alleys off the 16th Street Mall will be a long-term process and will require long-term attention to funding opportunities. Both public and private sources should be monitored, as well as opportunities to prioritize alley elements within normal City maintenance budgets or programs. Development incentives may also provide enhancement opportunities as part of private development projects.

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Alley Enhancement Project Case Studies

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Alley Enhancement Project12

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Chapter 1: Case Studies13 Case Studies Cities are taking a second look at alleys. Often thought of as a necessary yet utilitarian part of the street network, alleys are being reconsidered from both a functional and an aesthetic point of view. Alley projects span cities in a range of size and densities, and consider a wide variety of issues beyond basic service functions including stormwater management, multi-modal mobility, economic development and urban placemaking.Whats IncludedAlley projects vary in scope and objectives, but most goals fall under one of three broad categories: functional performance, urban design or activation of the public realm. Some projects focus solely on the functional performance of alleys, while others are driven by the desire for enhanced public space or to create more activity and use in existing spaces. Many alley projects have goals in several of these categories with varying degrees of emphasis on one set of concerns or the other. Functional EnhancementsIn the rst category of functional and sustainability-focused goals, stormwater management is often the primary goal. Complementary goals include rainwater harvesting, urban heat island mitigation, reduced construction waste/resource demands and dark sky compliance/glare reduction. Permeable Paving The most common element of stormwater-focused alley projects is the installation of permeable paving; whether concrete pavers, brick pavers, permeable asphalt or permeable concrete. Grading for positive ow is a critical part of this process. Alleys may drain excess water beyond the systems in ltration capacity to their own subsurface drainage, to bioswales (in the case of more suburban applications) or direct over ow to adjacent roadway systems. High Albedo Paving Light-colored, re ective paving keeps both pavement and surrounding ambient air cool on a hot day, reducing what is commonly termed the urban heat island effect. Urban heat island effect can negatively impact both air quality, by increasing the production of pollutants such as ozone, and water quality, as the temperature of water entering local drainages rises and affects local ecosystems. Recycled and Local Materials The use of recycled and locally sourced materials reduces resource demand, in both the production of new materials and the fuels needed to transport them. Using recycled materials also reduces the amount of waste sent to land lls. Recycled asphalt or concrete can often be used as an aggregate base for new asphalt or concrete.

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Alley Enhancement Project14 Consolidated Trash & Recycling Typically, each building or parcel will have its own trash receptacle, and in cases of buildings with multiple tenants, each tenant may have a dumpster. It is also common for tenants or owners to contract collection services on an individual basis. This results in a single alley being serviced by multiple collection services (and trucks), each with their own schedule. Consolidating multiple dumpsters into a single centralized location frees space, and use of a single provider (whether through agreement or through formation of a new entity to contract such service) signi cantly reduces service traf c in the alley. Arranging for more frequent collection can reduce odor. Landscaping By nature of their typically narrow width, alleys can be challenging for landscaping. More suburban applications with a wider crosssection, larger building setback or shorter structures may afford suf cient light for plantings or even bioswales. For the more urban alley, landscaping is usually limited to small clusters of planters, trellises, green walls or pots in areas with good solar access. This can be found in areas adjacent to surface parking or with lower building height. In some contexts, residents or adjacent users have installed window boxes or placed pots on windowsills. In the absence of these opportunities, planter clusters at the alley entrances can provide interest and serve as an alley gateway. Furnishings Furnishings depend heavily on the available cross-section of the alley and its use (pedestrian only vs. mixed pedestrian/vehicular activity), but can include any of the furnishings included in traditional streetscape. Benches, trash receptacles, outdoor dining and pedestrian lighting have all been included in various alley projects.Urban Design EnhancementsThis category of enhancements includes both functional and aesthetic enhancements, aimed at creating an attractive, pedestrianfriendly, multi-modal, multi use space. Ideally, this could be used as a mobility connection, a place to relax and a gathering place. Goals in this category include enhanced safety, reduced odors, expanded green or open space, beauti cation, increased non-motorized connectivity and increased sense of community. It is important to note that even with a more urban design-focused project many of the elements listed under the preceding category of functional enhancements may be necessary precursors to this softer category of improvements. An obvious example of this need is an alley with frequent ooding, which cannot provide pedestrian connectivity or any open space functions until this most practical and basic issue is corrected. High Ef ciency and Dark Skies Compliant Lighting Replacing old, inef cient xtures with new xtures, or introducing new or supplemental lighting, provides the opportunity to select standardized, high-ef ciency lighting with lower energy usage and longer life span. This reduces direct energy costs as well as time and materials spent replacing lower ef ciency, shorter-lifespan products. New lighting also offers the opportunity to mitigate light pollution, and increase public safety through appropriate light levels and reduced glare. Lighting may be strictly utilitarian, decorative or a combination of the two depending upon the projects speci c goals. Artwork Alley art comes in all types: permanent, temporary or eventbased; of cially sanctioned graf ti, informal chalk art or formally commissioned artwork. It can be a stand-alone piece of art, such as a mural, overhead installation, or sculpture or it can be integrated into other alley elements, such as custom lights or seating. Signage,Way nding and Portal Enhancements Naming and signing alleys reinforces the fact that they are open to and designed to accommodate pedestrians. Signage may also point to destinations within or which can be reached via alleyways, aiding in way nding. Many programs also note the importance of continuing alley improvements to the curb, as in the case of special paving treatments, or marking the alley entrance with a physical gateway or with gateway elements such as an overhead structure or planters. Like naming and signing, these gateway elements draw attention to and encourage use of the alley. Policy & Programming These nonphysical elements can be just important to the success of alley project as the tangible upgrades. Policy changes most typically focus on who can use the alley (pedestrians, cyclists, private vehicles, service and delivery vehicles) and when. Restricting access to service and motor vehicles during peak pedestrian hours is a common policy that promotes pedestrian uses while still supporting critical commercial needs. For example, many projects have limited motor vehicle access from 7 am to 7 pm with great success. Programming draws people in to alleys and creates a sense of community and ownership, whether it is a regular activity or a special event. Block parties, outdoor dining, walking tours, public meetings, farmers markets and art shows are all examples of programming that has expanded active street life into the alleys.

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Chapter 1: Case Studies15 Public Realm ActivationThis group of enhancements focuses on programming: singleor multiple-day events that bring people into and encourage them to occupy the alley as a part of the public realm. Such events will typically include temporary physical elements of both a functional or decorative nature. This type of program can also act as a pilot or demonstration project to raise interest and awareness in alleys, and may be used as a rst step toward more permanent physical enhancements. Events may be sponsored by or aligned with adjacent uses, such as a tasting dinner hosted by an adjacent restaurant, or may be organized and hosted by a completely unrelated entity. Pre-Event Planning and Organization Pre-event activities typically include alley clean-up, some sort of city permitting process, and public outreach or advertising. Clean-up may include washing down the alley, arranging for additional trash pick-up, and even graf ti removal. These activities may be carried out by event organizers, or may be a request for service from an existing public program, such as graf ti removal. Alleys are public right-of-way, and as such any event or closure will need to be approved and permitted by the local jurisdiction. Each City will have a different application process and fee structure for event permitting. Organizers will need to pay particular attention to access control. For example, they will need to provide appropriate boundaries for events serving alcohol, ensure appropriate re code and evacuation measures are followed, and ensure uninterrupted access for parking structures. Outreach and advertising lets local residents and visitors know that an event is happening. Planning alley events to coincide with other, more established happenings such as an art walk or a farmers market is often an effective way to test small-scale events. Advertising can be as simple as sandwich signs placed along a regular pedestrian route used for the established event. More extensive advertising may include non-monetary sponsors or partners who do not contribute money but who assist with publicity through their established membership and communication channels. Performance and Activities Activation can be as varied as the organizers imaginations. Successful alley events have include music and dance performances, participatory arts and crafts events, specialty or themed vending such as a spice alley, public meetings, sports-watching events such as a multi-day Tour de France party, tasting events, dinners, fashion shows, art shows and pet adoption events. Temporary Physical Enhancements Each event will have different needs. Some events may be as simple as pulling up a large projection screen and providing places to sit. Other events may create more of an atmosphere by bringing in temporary ground coverings (carpet, ooring, faux grass), potted plants, draped fabric. Overhead light strings and art installations are also common examples of temporary improvements.

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Alley Enhancement Project16 Selection Process and Additional Planning ConsiderationsThe alley selection process is as varied as the cities themselves. In a number of cases, initial or pilot alleys selected themselves via interested stakeholderstypically adjacent residents or businesses who championed their alley. In other cases when a local jurisdiction initiated a program launch, demonstration projects were selected to test a spectrum of contexts or to tackle the toughest, typically technical, issues that might be encountered. Conversely, a few cities chose to tackle the low-hanging fruit rst, in order to demonstrate feasibility and build support. Also contributing to the selection process are considerations of a more intangible nature: safety, zoning, allowable use, destinations and origins. Having existing or available (disused doors or boarded over but potentially functional windows) alley access, whether visual or physical, contributes to passive surveillance and safety of the alley, as well as to the potential for alley activation through primary or secondary retail or restaurant entrances. Selecting alleys with the potential to provide connection between strong destinations such as schools, bus stops, plazas or shops is also an asset to alley enhancements. Also related to the potential for alley programming are existing zoning designations and regulations: outdoor dining, alcohol licensing, special events.Responsible Parties and FundingAs with the selection process, overseeing and contributing agencies vary widely. In many cases, the local jurisdiction itself will initiate a project, sometimes exclusively or other times in partnership with other public or private agencies or entities. Some other types of organizations who have gotten involved include the Trust for Public Land, local college or universities, adjacent residents/businesses/ property owners, the local BID or development agency. Funding is similarly varied; sources have included federal recovery funds, local taxes, regular city maintenance funds, public and private grants and private investment.ImplementationMany projects kick off with one or more pilot projects before rolling out a full alley program. The reasons for these pilots are varied, and include funding challenges, technological testing of new infrastructure or systems, assessment of community interest, and evaluation of different alley contexts. Timelines vary as with any infrastructure project, and are closely tied to having funding and approval process in place prior to project initiation.PrecedentsThe project team researched a variety of alley projects, including programs in the cities listed below. Of these cities, six were selected as case studies having the most relevance to the present 16th Street Mall Alleys project. Chicago CASE STUDY Fort Collins CASE STUDY Longmont, CO CASE STUDY Los Angeles CASE STUDY Melbourne, Australia CASE STUDY Seattle CASE STUDY Austin primarily residential Boston experimental, at local college Colorado Springs one project Detroit one pilot project Dubuque, IA exclusively stormwater Montreal, Canada focuses on plantings/green spaces Richmond, VA exclusively stormwater San Francisco in planning process, 2013 photo: mighty ne art.org photo: alleysofseattle.comphoto: alleysofseattle.com

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Chapter 1: Case Studies17 Lessons Learned: Applying Precedents to DenverThe case studies that follow include more speci c case-by-case lessons learned, and discussion of speci c elements and tools that contributed to the success of each project. Throughout all these precedents, several key themes emerge. These themes apply regardless of the size and scope of the project, and are as important to temporary programming-only activation efforts as they are to long-term infrastructure enhancements.Cultivate Stakeholder Buy-InProject support is critical, and stakeholder refers to a wide and varied group of interested parties: city departments, re and police, property owners, tenants and the general public. Sometimes, all it takes to create support is to ask for it: is this drainage plan satisfactory? Would you allow a publicly-owned and maintained light to be mounted to your building faade? If the issue is more complicated, the group or entity leading the project may need to collaborate to nd a solution; a particular example of this sort of issue are changes to public policy, be it zoning, re code, or permitting processes. Some approaches in this area may include minor revisions or tweaks to policy language, overlays or waivers that apply when certain conditions are met, or wholesale revision and updating of a policy to better re ect conditions that may have changed substantially since the requirement was written. Finally, some stakeholders may need to see something to lend their full support. Pilot projects were used in almost all the projects studied, both for the project organizer to test physical and technical details and/or to gauge economic impacts and overall success.Get the Framework RightAt the most basic level, alleys must appear clean and safe. Without this base condition, alleys remain the shady but necessary back door areas used only for service functions and undesirable activities. Clean is largely self-explanatory and encompasses both the public right of way as well as the adjacent facades. Trash/litter, odors, graf ti all fall in this category. Safe is a more complex topic. There is simple environmental safety, exempli ed by reasonably level walking surfaces that are free of puddles, ice or other mobility hazards. Then there is real and perceived safety; for the purposes of alley activation and enhancement, these two categories are one and the same. Whether an alley is truly dangerous, as evidenced by police reports, or only looks scary, the result is the same; people will not use it. Appropriate paving and drainage, adequate lighting, and elimination or mitigation of potential areas of concealment all fall into this category.Design to ContextAll design must be context-speci c: technically, functionally and culturally. What worked in one city may or may not work in another city due to a whole host of factors: climate, alley orientation and solar access, soils, existing infrastructure, city policy, urban fabric, economic conditions, public habit and custom. The key to applying precedents from other cities is to work backwards and identify both the end result as well as the tool, policy or design element used to achieve that end. By separating the what and the how, and the relevance of each to the project at hand, the project team can create both a wish list and a toolkit tailored to their citys own context and goals.Swindle-Smith Alley, Pasadena (top) and EaCa Alley, Los Angeles (bottom). photo: movie-tourist.blogspot.com photo: elizabethdaniels.com

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Alley Enhancement Project18 Case Study: Chicago Program: Green Alleys Program Responsible: Chicago Department of Transportation Main Focus: Stormwater Management Funding: Municipal budget Alleys Completed: 100+ More information: http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/cdot/provdrs/street/ svcs/green_alleys.htmlBefore and After. HistoryChicago claims the largest and best-known alley renovation program, and the citys Green Alley Handbook (2010) has been used as a model for many such programs throughout the country. The program began in 2006 with ve pilot projects, which were tested and evaluated for 3 years. Lessons Learned from these initial pilots were then applied to all subsequent alley reconstructions. To date, the City has converted over 100 alleys to green alley infrastructure, and such renovation is a standard menu item among the list of projects to which alderman can allocate his or her wards yearly funding. Initial project costs were quite high, due to the citys extensive research and testing of potential paving technologies as well as overcharging by contractors. Project costs have reduced now that the City has standardized their infrastructure approach and payment levels.FeaturesThe Chicago handbook identi es four speci c goals for green alleys: stormwater management, heat reduction, materials recycling and energy conservation/glare reduction. The book outlines ve techniques that can be used singly or in combination to achieve these goals: proper pitch and grading, permeable paving, high albedo paving, recycled materials and dark sky-compliant light xtures.Relevance to DenverChicago provides excellent guidance for exploring stormwater management options in a cold-weather, 4-season climate, and in matching those approaches to speci c contexts. Their guidebook is concise and easy-to-understand. Green AlleyAn Action Guide to Create a Greener, Environmentally Sustainable ChicagoThe ChicagoHandbook Richard M. Daley, Mayor City of ChicagoThomas G. Byrne, Commissioner Department of Transportation Printed on recycled paper, 30% post-consumer waste photo: Green Alley Handbook photo: Green Alley Handbook

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Chapter 1: Case Studies19 Case Study: Los Angeles Program: EaCa Alley (East Cahuenga Alley) Responsible: Hollywood Entertainment District BID / EaCa Alley Association Main Focus: Public Space, Public Safety, Community Development Cost: $790,000/alley Funding: property tax increment Alleys Completed: 1 More information: http://articles.latimes.com/2012/mar/09/entertainment/la-et-greenalleys-20120309HistoryThe City of Los Angeles opened a showcase alley revitalization project in early 2012. East Cahuenga Alley, more commonly referred to as EaCa Alley, is located in the heart of the Hollywood Entertainment district and was funded by the citys (now-defunct) Community Redevelopment Association. Change rst came to the alley when a new restaurant saw an opportunity for additional outdoor seating, and cleaned up the portion of the passage immediately adjacent to them; other owners soon followed and a formal alley revitalization project was born. The alleys paving improvements were designed by the citys Bureau of Engineers and cost approximately $790,000. Planning is in progress for a second revitalization project for West Cahuenga, a continuation of the rst alley.FeaturesEaCa alley is approximately 170 in length and varies between 10 and 17 in width. Improvements include unit pavers, portable (rolling) planters, a customized entry gateway, outdoor dining and Tivoli lights strung overhead. Adjacent businesses have transparent windows and doors on the alley, and have commissioned large-scale murals. The alley is pedestrian-only, and although it is open only during business hours of the adjacent restaurant and shops (11:302 a.m.) the EaCa Alley Corridor Alley Association hope to extend open hours. The alley also offers programming beyond outdoor dining, and the EaCa Alley Property Owners Association has partnered with Sustainable Economic Enterprises of Los Angeles (SEE-LA) to host Spice Alley, an offshoot of the adjacent weekly farmers market.Relevance to DenverThere have been multiple efforts at green alley programs in Los Angeles; some more focused on residential green space or stormwater. Some of these parallel projects continue in the planning stages, and the USC Center for Sustainable Cities Transforming Alleys into Green Infrastructure for Los Angeles (2008) may provide useful background r esearch relevant to Denvers efforts. Neither this publication nor other planning efforts, however, relate directly to the EaCa Alley project. EaCa Alley provides an excellent demonstration of various urban design elements that could be considered for Denver. EaCa Alley also provides an example of cost sharing in alley renovation, as hard infrastructure costs were borne by the city, while adjacent business owners provided landscaping and lighting.EaCa Alley before (left) and after (center, center and right). photo: blogs.laweekly.com photo: designeasto abrea.blogspot.com photo: Elizabeth Daniels photo: la.curbed.com photo: Elizabeth Daniels

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Alley Enhancement Project20 Case Study: Fort Collins, CO Program: Downtown Alley Enhancement Project Responsible: Fort Collins Downtown Development Authority (DDA) Main Focus: Connectivity, Urban Design, Stormwater Management Cost: $900,000/alley Funding: state-enabled tax increment revenue Alleys Completed: 5 More information: http://www.downtownfortcollins.org/alleys.htmlHistoryThe concept of improved, pedestrian-friendly alleys was introduced in the Fort Collins 2004 Downtown Strategic Plan. In 2006, the City initiated two pilot projects: Trimble Court and Tenney Court. Two more alley projects, Old Firehouse Alley and Montezuma Fuller Alley, were completed in 2010 and a fth alley, West Myrtle, was completed in 2011. Although 9 additional alleys, a total of 14, were envisioned at the start of the program, state-level reductions in the DDAs funding has put these projects on hold inde nitely. Pilot projects and subsequent alley enhancements were selected and prioritized by the scoring results of an assets/ opportunities/challenges analysis included in the Alleys Maser Plan. Each alley took approximately 6 to 7 months to construct and cost approximately $900,000.FeaturesFort Collins project prioritized urban design enhancements, with the goal of increasing pedestrian connectivity and access to local businesses, but also included upgrades to drainage and trash services. Enhancements included the installation of pavers, pedestrian-scale lighting, planting (in-ground and planters), plaza, signage, seating and art. The program also consolidated trash dumpsters to a single location and single service provider, and introduced recycling as well. Alley width was in the 18-20 range, with each alley varying between approximately 100 and 175 feet in length. The DDA also expanded their existing faade improvement program, which offers funding assistance for painting, paving, lighting and similar improvements. A signi cant number of owners have undertaken these types of improvement, some with DDAs assistance and some on their own. Prior to the program, very few businesses had customer entrances on the alley, and that number has increased since alley upgrades. There are even instances of new groundoor uses with alley-only access, including a microbrewery and a religious temple. In both of these cases, existing back-of-house storage space was renovated to accommodate new commercial space. Pre-enhancement program, Fort Collins alleys had many of the low-level and nuisance crimes typically associated with alleys everywhere: public urination, drug dealing and drug use, drinking. The alley program did not undertake any speci c policy or physical improvement measures to address these issues, but as public visibility and use of the alleys increased, the incidence of these types of undesirable activities decreased. Local police note that they have far fewer incidents in enhanced alleys than they do in the citys standard alleys.

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Chapter 1: Case Studies21 Old Firehouse Alley. Montezuma Fuller Alley (top) and Tenney Court (below).Relevance to DenverFort Collins offers an example of alley enhancement in a downtown retail context of lowto mid-rise building heights. Alley widths tend toward a wider 19-20, compared to Denvers 16 width, so not all urban design enhancements may transfer to Denvers more compressed space. Fort Collins also offers examples of mixed-mode pedestrian/vehicular alleys. Fort Collins Alley Beauti cation Master Plan (2008) offers a thorough alley evaluation process ranking assets, opportunities and challenges that may provide a useful model for Denvers current alley study.Lessons LearnedThe DDA notes that increased traf c and better lighting was a key to reducing undesirable activities in the alley: get the design right and the rest rolls up under it and takes care of itself. The DDA also notes that the faade improvement program is not critical, but projects that take advantage of this funding source do tend to be more successful than those undertaken by the owner alone. In addition to funding, the DDA encouraged coordination between any planned/considered upgrades and the current project, so that adjacent owners could take advantage of economies of scale and reduce construction disruption by having their improvements performed simultaneously. In a similar vein, all construction was planned to take place outside of the critical mid-October to earlyJanuary shopping period, in order to minimize economic impacts to local business. photo: GoogleEarth photo: City of Fort Collins photo: csdesigncorp.com

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Alley Enhancement Project22 Case Study: Longmont, CO Program: Alleyscape Development Project Responsible: Longmont Downtown Development Authorit y (LDDA) Main Focus: Stormwater Management, Urban Design, Connectivit y, Public Gathering Space Cost: $600,000/alley Funding: city infrastructure funding and local BID Alleys Completed: 3 More information: http://www.downtownlongmont.com/business/ldda-projectsand-programs/alleyscape-development-projectHistoryThe City of Longmonts Alleyscape Development Project is the product of a collaborative effort between the Longmont Downtown Development Authority (LDDA) and the citys Public Works & Natural Resources Department. The project was initially motivated by the need for drainage improvements, and the DDA approached the City about partnering to expand the planned repaving project. The project includes the six shared pedestrian-vehicular alleys paralleling Main Street, between 3rd and 6th Avenues, and includes the breezeways-the perpendicular connections between adjacent roadway, surface parking, alley and Main Street. The three eastern alleys were completed in 2012, with the three western alleys planned for construction in 2015. Alleys were completed one at a time, starting with the most technically challenging alley rst. Construction took four months per alley, at a cost of approximately $600,000 each.FeaturesAs noted, the projects rst priority was the improvement of alley drainage. Prior to the project, alleys had no internal, aboveor below-ground drainage and water simply owed to inlets on adjacent streets. The project introduced a closed, permeable paving system with underground piping to adjacent street systems. Paving is centered within the alley, with sidewalk-width concrete on each side. The project also undergrounded overhead utilities, in a cooperative effort between the Citys own electric services and other cable/ ber providers, and consolidated trash into two 20 x 20 enclosures within each alley. Trash service was negotiated by the hauler rather than city bid; 90% of dumpsters were already serviced by a single provider prior to the project. Aesthetic and urban design enhancements included new combined light/banner/hanging planter poles. Existing public art, known as the Arcos de Longmont, were relocated and constructed as part of the project, while a new mural by a local artist was also commissioned. Particularly successful was the Citys faade improvement program, which provided nancial assistance for business owners to upgrade their customer entrances within the alley, with the most common improvements being refreshed paint or new entry area paving to match alley paving. Applicants could request up to 25% of their improvement cost to a maximum of $10,000. The entire faade fund was $100,000. photo: Arcos

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Chapter 1: Case Studies23 Relevance to DenverAt approximately 20 wide and 500 long, Longmonts alleys are somewhat wider and longer than those off the 16th Street Mall. Land use and circulation patterns, however, do mimic or provide aspirational examples for what could work in Denver and illustrate the utility of convenience entries rather than primary or sole access from the alley. Many of the shops facing main street have customer entries on the alley, and these entrances are a source of alley activation and are heavily used by customers who park in the adjacent surface parking lots. While most businesses in Denvers study area do not have customer entrances in the alley, this example illustrates potential for alley activation that does not depend on excessive width that would accommodate, for example, outdoor dining. As an additional note, Longmonts Arcos artworks also highlight the value of visual gateways that also aid in way nding. Lessons LearnedThe DDA notes that the alley faade program was particularly successful and helped create stakeholder participation and buy-in. On the downside, however, there was some loss of sales at adjacent businesses during construction, even though the roadway entrances remained open. The program tried to avoid the busy holiday shopping season in particular. Public works is very satis ed with the performance of the permeable paving, noting that up to 10 year events can be fully contained within the alley. Some issues regarding maintenance did occur, particularly related to displacement of the aggregate lling the spaces of the pavers. Public works would recommend that the pavers *not* be vacuumed for the rst two years after installation, to allow the aggregate to better settle. In addition, to increase sustainability, the department plans to explore the potential for an in ltration system-instead of the current closed system owing to underground stormwaterfor the western alleys. From a programming point of view, designers encourage considering future needs such as farmers market type tents---the 10 x 10 tents do not t well in the alley, but can be set up in adjacent parking lots. Additional planters were eliminated from the design in order to accommodate this speci c consideration. One of the Arcos de Longmont arches during reinstallation (top); 500 block alley; breezeway improvements. photo: Longmont DDA photo: Google Earth photo: Google Earth

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Alley Enhancement Project24 HistoryMelbournes laneways (alleys) were included in the Citys original street grid, circa the 1850s. Until the late 1990s the laneways were used for largely service-related functions, accompanied by the usual contingent of shady and unsavory activities. By the mid1990s, Melbourne was struggling with a large-scale emptying of their downtown core, seeing many of its downtown businesses relocating to the suburbs as well as much of its industrial base leave for Asia. Local of cials had serious discussions on where the city and its economy were going, and where they wanted it to go. The result was a multi-pronged approach to downtown revitalization that encompasses land use, public realm and programming. Case Study: Melbourne Program: no formal program Responsible: City of Melbourne (paving); individual businesses Main Focus: Public Space, Public Safety, Economic dev elopment Cost: Unknown Funding: city funds Alleys Completed: 15+ More information: http://thesignalexpress.com.au/archives/1634#sthash.5MKaTbYG. dpbsFeaturesContemporary with alley improvements, Melbourne began lling its event and convention calendar, as well as building new public facilities and refurbishing the old. This effort drew residents and visitors back to downtown. The city also modi ed building code to allow more mixed uses, particularly secondoor residential, and softened liquor licensing in a way that made it easier and more economically feasible for smaller establishment to open business. As a result, merchants and restaurateurs began opening small shops facing onto the laneways, in many cases seeking less expensive rents or simply smaller spaces than those available on the main thoroughfares. At the same time, Melbourne began remaking its public realm. The city commissioned a suite of outdoor furnishings (tree grates, pavement, benches, lights, trash receptacles) to create a uni ed look and feel throughout the downtown. These designs are owned by the City itself, to ensure that future developers would not encounter issues associated with discontinuance or single manufacturer. The City also provided grants for the creation of outdoor dining areas, to demonstrate the potential success of such spaces. At this time, the City upgraded many city center alleys (laneways) with new lighting and bluestone (basalt) pavers. photo: google earth

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Chapter 1: Case Studies25 Relevance to DenverToday, Melbournes central business district boasts a well-connected network of laneways bisecting the Citys 700-foot grid. This larger scale grid does promote the use of the alleys as ef cient cutthrough space, a need that is less pressing in Denvers much smaller 300 x 400 grid. Compared to Denvers typical 16-alley width, most of Melbourne laneways fall in the 16-20 range of width. Many of the laneways are pedestrian-only walkways with outdoor dining and window shopping, while others have restricted vehicular access during off hours. Some laneways do retain full auto and pedestrian access. A handful of laneways boast covered arcades, with at least one example of an entry arch. The Melbourne example offers a toolkit of urban design elements that can be mixed-and-matched to create human-scale alleys, for exclusive pedestrian use or multiple modes. Alleys range from the elaborate, such as Block Place with a covered arcade, to the simpler, such as Hosier Lane, known for its full-coverage graf ti art. Melbourne also offers an example of restricted access policies that can provide an important compromise for con icting modes. Melbournes covered arcades highlight the potential of providing real or perceived enclosure that could bolster the use of alleys by making them a more attractive, sheltered circulation option than wider, more climate-susceptible main roadways. Laneways with Arcades and Gateways: Centre Place, Howey Place Place, Block Place. Photos: GoogleEarth, GoogleEarth, wikipedia.comLaneways Known for Graf ti Art: Hosier Lane. Laneways with walkways, shopping, dining: Bligh Place, Degraves Laneway, Hardware Lane. Photos: wikipedia.comLessons LearnedThe success of Melbournes downtown revitalization depended heavily on public investment, even demonstration projects to convince local decision makers, developers and stakeholders of the Citys potential. Signi cant changes to local policy across a variety of disciplines, as well as extensive public money is often needed to promote both public buy-in and private investment photos: Wikipedia.com photos: GoogleEarth photos: GoogleEarth

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Alley Enhancement Project26 Case Study: Seattle Program: Alley Network Project Responsible: International Sustainability Institute (ISI) Main Focus: Public Space, Community Development Cost: Unknown Funding: adjacent owners / city Alleys Completed: 1 More information: http://alleynetworkproject.com/HistorySeattles rst alley revitalization came about as the result of smallscale, independent efforts by residents and business owners abutting Nord Alley. Neighbors fed up with the eyesore passageway took ownership of the alley, adding inexpensive furniture, owers on balconies, and requesting the City to increase the frequency of trash pickup. As this increased interest and surveillance of the alley grew, neighbors began using the alley more and frequency of undesirable activities such as drug dealing and prostitution decreased. The alley now has permanent art displays and hosts various events and tours throughout the year, often on a weekly basis. To date, Nord Alleys success is due almost exclusively to alley activation, rather than large-scale physical improvements. This citizens effort has been taken up and formalized by the International Sustainability Institute (ISI), which maintains of ce space on Nord Alley and participated in original revitalization efforts. Today ISI has obtained grant money from the Citys Department of Neighborhoods to fund a more formalized alley project, the Alley Network Project. The project has hosted a series of open houses throughout 2013 exploring different alley concepts and hopes to arrive at a shovel-ready surface design and lighting recommendation.FeaturesSeattles alley enhancements are noteworthy in that the bulk of activities relate to alley clean-up and programming, rather than physical upgrades. Initial efforts coincided with the Citys initiation of their Clear Alley Program, which changed trash service from dumpsters to bags with daily pick-up. This change created more physical space in the narrow 16 alleys (shared by service vehicles, private automobiles, pedestrians and cyclists), while also addressing hygiene, odor and crime issues associated with the dumpsters. A group of property owners adjacent to the alley pay for a private company to wash down the alley on a daily basis, as an additional measure to address hygiene and cleanliness. Some small scale, physical enhancements have taken place, including art panels for the installation of rotating art exhibits, as well as a permanent sculpture attached to an adjacent building above the ground level. As activity and interest in the alleys grew, owners of some adjacent buildings re-opened doors or windows that had been bricked up or boarded over, and one owner was able to convert an unused rear storage room into a small shopfront for a bicycle repair shop looking for a new home. The City has no plans at this time for repaving. Programming has covered a wide variety of interests, from lm screenings and sporting-event watching parties, to dog shows, to art exhibits and music, dance and poetry performances. Some programming is organized by ISI, while in other cases ISI and Nord Alley act only as a venue for events planned and publicized by other groups, such as an alley cat pet adoption event. Critical to the success of alley programming was a change in the Citys permitting process, which created a festival street and alley designation which makes it much easier and less expensive ($300/year vs. $300/day) to close the alley. In order to take advantage of increased foot traf c and established event recognition, alley events are typically planned to coincide with the neighborhoods monthly First Thursday art walk. Events will often take advantage of non-monetary sponsors, organizations which sponsor the event by publicizing it through their own mailing lists and membership. MARY FIALKO AND JENNIFER HAMPTON / IN COLLABORATION WITH: UW GREEN FUTURES LAB SCAN DESIGN FOUNDATION GEHL ARCHITECTS Seattle Integrated Alley HandbookActivating Alleys for a Lively City

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Chapter 1: Case Studies27 Nord Alley entrance and artwork (above); art display, event lighting and Tour de France (right).Relevance to DenverSeattle offers an outstanding example of creative programming and alley activation in a historic downtown environment. Alley width, building height and development density are similar to Denver, and show examples of small-scale physical improvements. By doing more with less, the Nord Alley rejuvenation shows that engaged stakeholders and community ownership of the project can make a critical difference to success. Seattle has also produced an Integrated Alley Handbook (2011) that may provide design ideas for Denvers own alleys. Lessons LearnedISI stresses the importance of starting with and embracing existing conditions; it is far easier to unbrick an existing window or repurpose an existing space than to create new windows or make large-scale interior architecture changes. They also recommend starting with one alley, and building excitement and public buy-in to promote future projects. Piggybacking alley programming onto other established events, or partnering with other new events, has proved very successful and provides both critical mass and opportunities for wider event publicity. ISI also notes that they have had the most success when residents (as opposed to businesses, although business support is also important) take ownership and interest in the alley. As the stakeholders with a 24/7 interest in the alleys, residents will often adopt the alley as the equivalent of their front yard and will be the ones to provide passive surveillance or to go paint over graf ti even though it may not be on their own building. photo: rosemarywashington.wordpress.com photo: mydowntownseattleneighbors.blogspot.com photo: wabikes.orgphoto: thisfrenchfarmhouse.com photo: archinect.com photo: Nord Alley

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Alley Enhancement Project28

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Alley Enhancement Project AlleyEnhancementProject Existing Conditions Assessment

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Alley Enhancement Project 30

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Chapter 2: Existing Conditions 31 Existing ConditionsThe goal of the Alleys Enhancement Project is to evaluate near-term opportunities for alley enhancements. These enhancements may be of a simple, functional nature, such as making the alleys cleaner, better lit, better drained, or may be part of a more elaborate urban design effort that seeks to use the alleys as an extension of the Citys iconic 16th Street Mall. In both cases, the key goal of the project is early action, and so existing conditions analysis and assessment of future potential is predicated on a start where you are approach. This approach looks at the alleys as they are right now, from both a tenant/land use and adjacent architecture point of view.Downtown OverviewDimensions and DevelopmentBlocks within the study area are approximately 415 long by 300 wide, with alleys running the long dimension perpendicular to the Citys iconic 16th Street Mall. Surveyed alley widths are not available, but the majority of alleys are approximately 16 wide. The downtown Denver street grid is skewed approximately 45 degrees from true north, so that alleys align in a NE-SW direction, and adjacent buildings range from two or three stories all the way to 20+ oor high rise structures. Of the 30 blocks from Cleveland Place to Wynkoop Street, 16 of them have alleys. The remaining blocks without alleys have been developed as superblocks, as in the case of the Denver Pavilions shopping complex, or have buildings spanning the entire 16th Street Mall face, as in the case of the Federal Reserve building.ConnectionsThe 16th Street Mall is closed to regular vehicular traf c, and the local transit provider, RTD, runs a free shuttle system with near-side stops at every intersection along the entire length of the mall. A parallel free shuttle, Free Metro Ride, runs stops approximately every three blocks on the 18th/19th Street couplet. Regular local, fare-paid buses run on 17th and 15th Streets; both of these streets are one-way, with eastbound routes on 17th and westbound routes on 15th. Stops are generally located every one to two blocks. Regional commuter buses operate from Union Station Depot at the western end of the 16th Street Mall. The new bus terminal is at the western end of the Union Station redevelopment node and is just outside the limits of this projects study area. Parallel, striped on-street bicycle lanes cross the 16th Street Mall on Wynkoop, Lawrence, Arapahoe, Champa, Welton, Glenarm, Tremont and Cleveland Place. East-west bicycle facilities, including the newly opened 15th Street protected bike lane, parallel the 16th Street Mall on 14th, 15th and 18th Streets. B-cycle stations, Denvers bike share system, are generally located on adjacent streets rather than on the 16th Street Mall, although there is a station at 16th and Market.Destinations, Origins and LandmarksIn the context of this study, it is important to note that Denver does not utilize or promote mid-block pedestrian crossings. With this policy in mind, only attractions on the north side of 15th Street or the south 17th Street are considered potential generators of pedestrian traf c for alleys. Emphasis or access enhancements for destinations or origins on the opposite sides of these two streets could promote illegal mid-block crossings and pose pedestrian safety issues. Due to the pedestrian nature of the 16th Street Mall, uncontrolled mid-block pedestrian crossings of the mall are expected and considered acceptable, allowing consideration of uses on both sides of 16th. Within these parameters, the Denver Pavilions shopping complex and potentially the iconic Tattered Cover book store and the Oxford Hotel are considered the only signi cant destinations or origins within the study area, beyond normal downtown of ce movement. Additional downtown landmarks such as the Colorado Convention Center, the Denver Center for the Performing Arts (DCPA), Coors Field and Union Station are marked on the accompanying map for context but are not considered alley generators for the reasons stated above.

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Alley Enhancement Project 32 Physical Conditions: SummaryPaving and DrainageAll alleys are a combination of concrete and asphalt paving; visual assessment determined that alley paving was not a differentiator among alleys, and that any alley selected for a pilot project would require re-paving to addr ess ADA-compliance (tripping hazards) and drainage issues. As such, paving material and condition is not noted on the accompanying inventory as they are all mixed materials in sub-standard condition. In addition, all alleys exhibit evidence of moderate to severe drainage issues, with inadequate longitudinal and lateral grade being a likely cause. 16th Street Mall paving granite or sandstone extends to face of building. On 15th and 17th Street building, alley approaches are typically concrete to face of building.LightingMost alleys had some form of lighting, whether street-level cobra heads on poles, or wall-packs. Like paving, lighting was determined to be an insigni cant differentiator among alleys, as all alleys would need new or additional lighting to be brought to acceptable pedestrian standards.Overhead UtilitiesOnly a handful of alleys 4 of 16 have overhead utilities. Overhead utilities are included in the survey due to their visual impact and the high cost of undergrounding or relocating such facilities.Surface Parking, Solar Access and Redevelopment PotentialEleven of the 16 alleys have some amount of surface parking, ranging from approximately 10 to 45% of the total block area; one block has 75% surface parking. Surface parking can be an important consideration in an alley activation/revitalization project for a number of reasons. Among these reasons are increased solar access/perception of passive surveillance and safety, which can be particularly important when trying to change public image of an alley, as well as the potential to promote alley-facing architecture or site design for future development. Surface parking may also provide opportunity for consolidated trash enclosures, as discussed below.Trash ConsolidationTrash dumpsters and alleys go hand in hand, particularly in a downtown zone. Certainly, trash has to be collected somewhere, and this somewhere is usually the alley. While a necessary service function, dumpsters pose a host of issues: unsightly, odorproducing, a spot for potential concealment, and even just simple reduction in functional alley width. Typically, each tenant rather than each building will have its own dumpster, multiplying the issue. Alley enhancement and upgrade projects often look to consolidate dumpsters, both in number and location. For this reason, it is important to identify whether or not an alley has any space that could serve this function, frequently a surface parking lot, a generous building setback or even a vacant parcel.Existing Uses: Transparency, Catalysts and HostsThis preliminary survey of existing uses looks most particularly at the uses at each of the alleys entrances. These tenants or owners are the most likely to be able to bene t from increased alley traf c, such as by extending outdoor dining into the alley or by hosting an event in the alley (as demonstrated by 2013s Brewers Alley event). In addition, it is also advantageous if these four key spaces have windows (currently in use or even blocked but re-openable) that wrap around to the alleys interior, both to enliven the space and to provide an increased sense of security. Uses backing onto the interior of the alley are more of a long shot as far as alley activation goes: existing store or restaurant entrance within the alley are an advantage and can contribute to a critical mass that can bring people into the alley. Alternately, uses particularly restaurants that have a setback from the alley may be able to make a go of offering a rear patio for outdoor dining. The accompanying inventory looks at and notes these speci c conditions existing entrances or potential at alley setbacks but generally does not assume that adjacent buildings will make any signi cant architectural changes, whether in interior layout or adding new doors or windows (although un-blocking bricked up windows or doors may be possible).Brewers Alley 2013 showcased local breweries. Photo: Downtown Denver Partnership (DDP)

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Chapter 2: Existing Conditions 33 Study Area Metro RideABC DEFGH IJKLMNOP Alleys17th St. 15th St.Broadway 16th St. Mall Destinations 1. Pavillions 2. Tattered Cover 3. Oxford HotelMetroRide Stops Landmarks 1. DCPA 2. Convention Center 3. Union Station 4. Civic Center Station 5. UCD/ Auraria 6. Civic Center Park 7. Larimer Square 14th St. 18th St. Bike FacilitiesBB-Cycle Stations B B B B B B B B B B B B B #Bus Stops (# of routes) 4 3 3 4 1 4 8 4 5 4 4To Auraria Campus 01500 3000Wynkoop Wazee Blake Market Larimer Lawrence Arapahoe CurtisChampaStout California Welton Glenarm Court Tremont ClevelandLegend Alley LetterA To Coors Field To Coors Field 4 5 5N 7 1 2 3 11 2 3 6

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Alley Enhancement Project 34 Alley A Wynkoop-Wazee North Technical DetailsWidth: 16 Overhead Utilities: yes Trash: 13 dumpsters, 3 companiesLand UseEntry: 16th Street Mall warehouse (of ce): historic surface parking Entry: 17th Street ne art gallery: historic, wrap Oxford hotel: historic, wrap Outdoor dining: no Surface parking: 1 lot Bus stop: noOther parking structure with alley access, west side pedestrian pass-through, west side 4-story skyway connection over alley, 17th street entryAssetsCharacter Three of the alleys four framing buildings are historic, with groundoor, wrap-around transparency at the 17th Street entry. The fourth entry parcel is surface parking, which could offer future development opportunity that could be designed to address the alley in addition to the adjacent streets. A pedestrian pass-through mid-block, on the west side, may provide additional solar access and foot traf c to the alley. Destination/Origin The ne art gallery and the Oxford Hotel on 17th Street could anchor pedestrian circulation between 16th Street Mall and 17th Street.ChallengesDrainage As with most of the alleys studied, drainage is a challenge; standing water suggests that both inadequate longitudinal grade and pitted paving/potholes contribute to this issue. Trash The number of dumpsters and service providers for those dumpsters provide a visual challenge, as well as a potentially larger-thannecessary level of service activities in the alley. Vehicular Circulation Similarly, the presence of public access to the 6-story parking structure may also increase the amount of vehicular traf c in the alley. Overhead Utilities The alley does have overhead utilities, an aesthetic detractor.Future Use PotentialAt present, this alley has signi cant interior visibility from the private open space pass-through on the west side and from the surface parking at the alleys southeast entrance. This visibility could be an asset in changing the public perception of alleys from a safety point of view. Future development of the surface parking should be guided to maintain the perception of eyes on the street and minimize places of concealment. The alley also has higher-than-average circulation potential due to the Oxford Hotel and the Tattered Cover bookstore, as well as an adjacent potential host, in the ne art gallery. This alley has potential to function as an enhanced circulation corridor or even as an enhanced public realm/public event space. photo:Google Earth photo:Google Earth

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Chapter 2: Existing Conditions 35 Entries. Oxford Hotel and Sloane Gallery of Art (17th St); of ce warehouse and surface parking (16th St); mid-block pedestrian passage; 17th street skyway connection. Windows. There are a variety of window conditions within the alley, including fully transparent, partially bricked/ stained glass and fully blocked. Interior Conditions. The alley interior includes access to a 6oor parking structure, transformers, dumpsters, re escapes and general service functions.

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Alley Enhancement Project 36 Alley B Wazee-Blake North Technical DetailsWidth: 16 Overhead Utilities: yes Trash: 7 dumpsters, 2 companiesLand Use16th Street Mall surface parking bank 17th Street of ce: wrap senior housing: historic, wrap Outdoor dining: yes Surface parking: 2 lots Bus stop: noOther restaurant main entry in alley many interior setbacks adjacent to restaurants on BlakeAssetsTransparency Adjacent buildings have a higher-than-average degree of transparency, with functional windows facing the alley and the main entrance for a groundoor restaurant/retail space. Redevelopment Potential The two surface parking lots abutting the alley provide higher-thanaverage solar access to the alley in its existing condition, and may represent future redevelopment potential. Trash The alley has less dumpsters than most, possibly due to the greater area of adjacent, unbuilt parcels. Less dumpsters and future development potential may offer more opportunity for a consolidated trash location.ChallengesParking The bank on 16th Street Mall has dedicated parking spaces tucked under the building on the alley side. Similarly, another building mid-block uses their alley setback for tenant parking. Both of these conditions present aesthetic challenges as well as an increased amount of vehicular traf c in the alley. Drainage As with most of the alleys studied, drainage is a challenge; standing water suggests that both inadequate longitudinal grade and pitted paving/potholes contribute to this issue. Vagrancy Police report that this alley does seem to have more incidents of vagrancy than average among the alleys within the study area, but could not identify a speci c element responsible for this elevated level. Future Use PotentialLike the preceding alley, A, this corridor has a signi cant amount of interior visibility due to the existing surface parking lots as well as an alley entrance to an adjacent restaurant/retail space. There is also a restaurant with its primary entrance on the alley, a condition helpful to the generation of pedestrian traf c. As a combined effect of the restaurant entrance and the potential for alley-friendly future development on the site of existing parking, this alley offers opportunity for an enhanced public space. Despite this fact, however, vagrancy levels are high and adjacent residents report feeling unsafe. Despite this fact, however, vagrancy levels are high and adjacent residents report feeling unsafe. This alley may have potential as an enhanced public space once the results of a pilot project can be evaluated. As a rst project, however, this alley may bene t most from simple functional enhancements to lighting and drainage until the social impacts of another pilot project can be evaluated. The presence of overhead utilities and the additional coordination and cost involved in relocating or undergrounding them also reduce this alleys desirability as a pilot project. photo:Google Earth

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Chapter 2: Existing Conditions 37 Entries. Senior housing and of ce (17th St); bank and surface parking with Swing Thai entry beyond (16th St). Windows. There are a number of buildings with transparent windows facing the alley, as well as the Swing Thai entry. Also see photo of 17th Street entry building (above). Interior Conditions. The alley interior includes dedicated tuck-under parking, trash and service functions, and overhead utilities.

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Alley Enhancement Project 38 Alley C Market-Larimer North Technical DetailsWidth: 17 Overhead Utilities: no Trash: 8 dumpsters, 3 companiesLand Use16th Street Mall surface parking residential 17th Street copy shop: wrap of ce: historic Outdoor dining: no Surface parking: 1 lot Bus stop: noOther 5 restaurants backing onto alley adjacent to transit hub (moving May 2014)AssetsCharacter The entire west facade of the alley are historic red brick buildings. These structures have a high degree of transparency facing the alley, and although the large windows are not well-utilized at present, most are not blocked or boarded over. Use A large number of the tenants of these west side buildings are restaurants, which could potentially bene t from additional outdoor seating: Sonodas sushi, Crocs, Two-Fisted Marios Pizza, Double Daughters (bar), and Delectable Egg. Architecture The architecture of both alley entries have some degree of widening, which could contribute to an alley gateway. ChallengesCharacter Except for the small portion of the retail use that wraps the 17th street entry, the entire east side of the alley is occupied by structured parking. A signi cant portion of the ground-level facade of the structure appears to be EIFS (Exterior Insulation and Finish System), an exterior material of low aesthetic value. EIFS is typically not allowed on the ground oor of buildings due to its susceptibility to pedestrian-level vandalism. Tenant Parking A little less than half of the west-side building facades are set back from the alley; this space is currently occupied by a mix of tenant parking and retrot utility or service functions. Trash Although the high number of restaurant uses may provide programming advantages, the downside to this type of use is the production of wet waste, which tends to pose more dif culties due to odor than typical dry of ce or retail wastes.Future Use PotentialGiven the cluster of restaurants on the corridors west side, this alley may have high potential as an enhanced public space, whether with special events such as tastings or more permanent changes such as exterior patio seating. Receptivity of adjacent tenants would need to be explored. The parking structure occupying the majority of the alleys east facade offers two additional advantages to the alley; although less than desirable in terms of visual interest, it is constructed in a way that offers few alcoves or places of concealment. Vehicular access to this structure is limited to a loading dock at the southern end, suggesting a lower-than-average amount of traf c in the alley. photo:Google Earth

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Chapter 2: Existing Conditions 39 Entries. A copy center and historic of ce (17th St); residential and surface parking (16th St). Both the copy center and residential provide some opening of the visual space by setback and plantings. West Side: historic and transparent. The western side of the alley is composed of historic brick structures with a high degree of transparency. The buildings do, however, have a signi cant amount of tenant parking and building-related retro tting. East Side: parking and loading. The entire east side of the alley is composed of parking structure and loading dock. photo: google earth photo: google earth

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Alley Enhancement Project 40 Alley D Champa-Stout North Technical DetailsWidth: 16 Overhead Utilities: no Trash: 6 dumpsters, 2 companiesLand Use16th Street Mall retail retail 17th Street Magnolia Hotel: historic, wrap retail: historic, wrap Outdoor dining: no Surface parking: yes Bus stop: yes, 4 routesOther 2 stacked skyway connections mid-block over alleyAssetsTrash In contrast to most alleys studied, very few dumpsters occupy the main alley corridor; a number of dumpsters are visible in gated areas under the buildings, and there ar e a large number of louvered service doors, suggesting additional trash locations. Destination/Origin A bus stop serving 4 routes is located at mid-block at the 17th Street alley entry. Re ectivity The standard 16-foot width of alleys within the study area creates a signi cant challenge to solar access. The white facade of Alley Ds western building offers a signi cant advantage in re ecting light into the alley and brightening the alley overall.ChallengesLack of Transparency The majority of both east and west facades are blank walls, with solid or louvered doors at ground oor. Other pedestrian-level windows have been sealed off. Both historic buildings on 17th have a small degree of window wrap into the alley entrance. Parking A 6 story parking structure can be accessed through the alley, representing a potentially signi cant source of vehicular traf c. This structure also has two stacked driveways connecting the two sides of the alley at the second and third levels. Deep Alcove This alley has a particularly deep alcove mid-corridor. One of the few violent person-to-person crimes reported in the study area alleys in the last few years took place in this location.Future Use PotentialThis alley offers a mix of pro and con; long expanses of blank, windowless wall at the ground level offer little pedestrian interest (con), but also minimizes places of concealment and offer an opportunity for enhancements such as murals (pro). This alley does not, however, have existing adjacent land uses likely to take part in permanent or special event us of the alley. There is also no surface parking, so consolidation of existing trash, though lower-than-average, would still be dif cult. This alleys most likely future use is as a service or circulation corridor. photo:Google Earth

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Chapter 2: Existing Conditions 41 Entries. The Magnolia Hotel and half-level below grade retail (17th St); retail both sides (16th St). Both historic building bookending the alley on 17th have some degree of transparency wrapping into the alley. Trash. The alley has surprisingly few dumpsters in the central corridor. Most trash bins appear to be in dedicated spaces underneath the adjacent buildings. Lack of Transparency. The alley has signi cant expanses of blank wall, and many ground-level windows are sealed over. Parking structure access provides a small degree of visibility into the alley. photo: google earth photo: google earth

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Alley Enhancement Project 42 Alley E Stout-California North Technical DetailsWidth: 16 Overhead Utilities: no Trash: 17 dumpsters, 4 companiesLand Use16th Street Mall retail retail: historic (contemp veneer at GF) 17th Street of ce of ce/retail: historic, wrap Outdoor dining: no Surface parking: yes Bus stop: yes, 3 routesAssetsCharacter Entering from 17th Street, the dressed stone and high arched windows of the historic building to the west extends nearly half the length of the alley. While the windows nearest 17th Street remain usable, those further into the alley are boarded over. Destination/Origin A bus stop serving 3 routes is located at mid-block at the 17th Street alley entry.ChallengesTrash The alley has one of the highest number of dumpsters in the study, with 17 receptacles and 4 different providers.Future Use PotentialThis alley has an exceptionally high number of dumpsters and no clearly evident potential location for consolidation. As such, this alley is unlikley to act as an enhanced public space due to the visual and odor issues associated with the dumpsters and may be too cluttered to act even as an enhanced circulation corridor. If trash could be clustered to a non-nuisance level, however, the exceptional architecture of the alleys northwest face would lend itself well to an enhanced circulation route. photo:Google Earth

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Chapter 2: Existing Conditions 43 Entries. Contemporary of ce and historic of ce/retail bookend the north alley entry (17th St), with signi cant transparent wrap on the historic building. Retail sandwiches the entry on both sides of the 16th Street entry; while the east building (far right photo) is historic, it has a contemporary veneer at ground level. The west building (second from right) has transparent wrap into the alley, although it is postered in its current use. Character and transparency. The historic buildings dressed stone extends half the length of the western face of the alley, although some windows and doors are boarded over. Of ce use has physical and visual alley access. Interior. In addition to a structured parking facade (no alley access), there are also number of dumpsters, re escapes, air conditioning units and other functional items. photo: google earth

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Alley Enhancement Project 44 Alley F California-Welton North Technical DetailsWidth: 16 Overhead Utilities: no Trash: 4 dumpsters, 1 companyLand Use16th Street Mall retail: wrap retail: wrap 17th Street of ce/restaurant surface parking Outdoor dining: no Surface parking: 3 lots Bus stop: yes, 3 routesAssetsSolar Access & Development Potential With approximately 60% of the western half of the block occupied by surface parking (divided into two lots), this block has tremendous long-term redevelopment potential. In the short-term, this condition affords the alley greater afternoon solar access and more passive surveillance than other, fully built-out alley facades. Conversely, however, the 19-28 story heights of the adjacent of ce building group can cause heavy morning shade. A third, much smaller surface parking lot is located on the east side of the alley. Character The high-rise of ce building on 17th Street has an angled facade at the alley entrance, providing more opening and a visual line to the alley. Destination/Origin A major bus stop serving 3 routes is located at mid-block at the 17th Street alley entry. Along the western half of the block, the sidewalk is extra wide approximately 35-40 feet with brick paving in the amenity zone and between the sidewalk and adjacent surface parking. Additionally, there are street trees in grates in this behindthe-sidewalk zone.ChallengesVehicular Circulation This alley has a signi cant amount of vehicular circulation beyond standard service deliveries and collection. In addition to vehicles entering and exiting the three parking lots described above, the of ce building occupying the blocks northeast corner has a signi cant amount of tuck-under service and employee parking located on its alley face. Future Use PotentialThis alley does not have the adjacent host uses at either entrance that would suggest an enhanced public space; the deep loading docks and service area at the northern entrance are an additional dif culty. The wide 17th street sidewalk, well-used bus stop and enhanced solar access through current surface parking lots, however, suggest that this alley could be an excellent candidate for a circulation corridor demonstration project. photo:Google Earth

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Chapter 2: Existing Conditions 45 Entries. High-rise of ce with a groundoor restaurant and a large surface parking lot occupy the alleys north entrance corners. A widened sidewalk and bus stop area with enhanced paving and urban design details abut the parkings northern face. A hair salon and variety retail occupy the 16th Street entry. Character and transparency. The highrise of ce has a deep loading dock at the alleys north entrance, directly across from the surface parking. The alley does have only a small number of dumpsters within the corridor. Few windows or doors pierce the groundoor facades. Interior. Surface parking accounts for approximately 45% of block area, providing a higher degree of solar access than that seen in other alleys within the study area.

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Alley Enhancement Project 46 Alley G Welton-Glenarm North Technical DetailsWidth: 16 Overhead Utilities: yes Trash: 22 dumpsters, 5 companiesLand Use16th Street Mall retail: historic, wrap restaurant: historic, wrap w/ entry 17th Street of ce surface parking Outdoor dining: yes Surface parking: 2 lots Bus stop: yes, 3 routesOther main entry to Paramount Cafe in alley access to Denver Pavilions across 16th St AssetsSolar Access & Development Potential This block also has a signi cant amount of surface parking occupying just under 50% of the western alley face. Similarly to Block F, this condition affords the alley greater afternoon solar access and more passive surveillance than other, fully built-out alley facades. The adjacent 16-story of ce building on 17th street does cause signi cant morning shade. Character & Outdoor Dining The alleys 16th Street entrance is sandwiched by two historic buildings of impressive masonry construction. Both ground oors have transparent windows that wrap into the alley; the adjacent Paramount Cafe, occupying the east corner, has its main entry in the alley, as well as outdoor dining on the Mall that extends right to the alley. Destination/Origin The alley is also across the 16th Street Mall from the Denver Pavilions, a potential daytime pedestrian generator; although the Pavilions does have a large movie theater complex generating a fair amount of evening activity, the centers on-site, underground parking suggests that most evening users are unlikely to park within or beyond the Welton-Glenarm block and use the alleys to connect to the movie theater. A bus stop serving 3 routes is located at mid-block at the 17th Street alley entry. ChallengesTrash The alley has a large number of dumpsters, one of the highest in the survey. Vehicular Traf c Both of the surface lots have access points in the alley which contributes to an already high degree of traf c due to the large amount of deliveries to the restaurants on 16th (Marlowes, Paramount, and Appaloosa).Future Use PotentialThis alley offers a number of advantages: an existing restaurant entrance on the alley, outdoor dining on the Mall, direct relationship to the Denver Pavilions, and adjacency to the Paramount Theater, one of the Malls major evening activity generators. In addition, the signi cant amount of surface parking offers potential for trash consolidation, as well as the opportunity to use City design review to in uence the alley face of future development. All these factors illustrate strong potential for this alley to act as enhanced public realm and event space, although the large size of the surface parking lot, may point toward later phase alley enhancements rather than a pilot project. The strong evening activity potential may suggest an alley activation (programming/ event) project, with physical enhancements at a later date. photo:Google Earth

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Chapter 2: Existing Conditions 47 Entries. High-rise of ce with a groundoor restaurant and a large surface parking lot occupy the alleys north entrance corners. A widened sidewalk and bus stop area with enhanced paving and urban design details abut the parkings northern face. A hair salon and variety retail occupy the 16th Street entry. Surface Parking. Surface parking occupies approximately 20% of the block, with a large unpaved lot dominating the entire northwest corner. Interior. A high number of dumpsters and a number of problematic deep alcoves are found in the block interior. photo: google earth photo: google earth

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Alley Enhancement Project 48 Alley H Glenarm-Tremont North Technical DetailsWidth: 17 Overhead Utilities: no Trash: 20 dumpsters, 3 companiesLand Use16th Street Mall restaurant historic restaurant: historic, wrap 17th Street bank restaurant: wrap Outdoor dining: yes Surface parking: no Bus stop: yes, 1 routeAssetsDevelopment Potential One small surface lot may provide opportunity for in ll development. Outdoor Dining The 16th Street entry has restaurants on both edges, one a casual sit-down establishment (Earls) and the other more convenienceoriented (Subway). Earls offers outdoor seating, although not immediately against the alley due to location of building entry. Subway does not currently offer outdoor seating, but could be a candidate. Destination/Origin A bus stop serving 1 route is located at mid-block at the 17th Street alley entry. The alley is also across the 16th Street Mall from the Denver Pavilions, a potential daytime pedestrian generator as described under Alley G. ChallengesTrash This alley has one of the highest number of dumpsters in the study. The number of dumpsters and service providers for those dumpsters provide a visual challenge, as well as a potentially larger-thannecessary level of service activities in the alley. Service and Parking This alley has a higher than average amount of tuck-under parking, service and loading areas. Some are open air while others are gated or doored, but the large amount suggests a high level of vehicular traf c in the alley. Lack of Transparency Except for one wrap-around window at each entry, the alley has virtually no transparency at ground level. Deep Alcoves Police noted that the excessively deep loading docks in the northern portion of this alley make it a concern for safety and security.Future Use PotentialThis alley has a high number of dumpsters and very little opportunity for consolidation, making it an unlikely prospect for full public realm enhancements. In addition, safety concerns and a low-use bus stop also make this alley a low priority for circulation enhancements. Adjacent outdoor dining and proximity to the Pavilions may offer potential, however, for special event-type activation and programming. photo:Google Earth

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Chapter 2: Existing Conditions 49 Entries. Three restaurants and a bank occupy the alleys entry corners, with one transparent window wrapping into the alley at each end. Vehicular Traf c. Four tuck-under loading and service areas suggest a potentially high level of vehicular circulation in the alley. Interior. The alley has one small midblock surface parking lot, a large number of dumpsters, and some utility boxes.

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Alley Enhancement Project 50 Alley I Wynkoop-Wazee South Technical DetailsWidth: 35 (15th) 45 (16th) Overhead Utilities: no Trash: 4 dumpsters, 2 companyLand Use16th Street Mall restaurant: historic, wrap retail: historic, wrap 15th Street of ce/retail: historic, wrap of ce/retail: historic Outdoor dining: yes Surface parking: 1 lot Bus stop: noOther 2nd oor skyway connection at 16th St entranceAssetsDestination + Existing Use The iconic Tattered Cover bookstore occupies a signi cant portion of the alleys western facade, with large windows that wrap into the alley. Although its primary entries are on Wynkoop and 16th, Tattered Cover has the potential to act as a signi cant generator of pedestrian traf c through the alley. Wines on Wynkoop has a sign on 16th with its primary entrance within the alley. Great Western Bank also has a secondary entrance in the alley, with associated pedestrian-level lighting, as well as a remote drive-through deposit machine (not an ATM, deposits only). There is also an entrance for residential condos in the alley. Width At 35 to 45 feet in width, this alley is considerably wider than others in the study area. Functional width is estimated at approximately 5 to 6 less on each side, due to transformers, trash enclosures, stairs and other appurtenances. Origin, Transparency and Passive Surveillance Adjacent buildings offer a signi cant amount of transparency from both windows, doors and aresidential entry for the adjacent dwellings, mixed with a number of service entries and roll-up doors. This alley has the largest number of ground oor windows in the survey. The southern portion of the alley, approaching 15th street, has three and four levels of residential balconies overhanging the alley; these features provide both passive surveillance and a sense of scale. Character Buildings at all four corners of the alley are historic and are built of a handsome red brick. Trash The alley has a limited number of dumpsters, compared to other alleys, with additional dumpsters screened behind one large and one medium enclosure.ChallengesFinished Floor All adjacent buildings have a 1st oor elevation that is three to six steps approximately 1.5 to 3.5 feet above alley level. As shown at current alley entrance, this elevation change necessitates stairs and/or ADA-compliant ramps projecting into the alley corridor. Drainage On the day visited, this alley had more standing water than others in the study area; the reason is unclear and could be due to actual drainage issues or could simply re ect a localized event (such as a water dump from nearby construction).Future Use PotentialIn addition to being the widest in the study area, this alley offers a number of additional advantages: existing commercial alley entrances, active residential entrances, an iconic retail destination, limited number of dumpsters and attractive architecture. It is a very strong candidate for full public realm enhancement and activation. As a pilot project, however, this alley offers one signi cant disadvantage, in that it is unique there is no other alley in the study area with similar width or existing uses, so that while an alley enhancement project in this alley may build enthusiasm and public support, it will not be able to function as effectively as a template for future projects in the same way that a more typical alley would be able to do. This note does not mean that Alley I should be eliminated from consideration for a pilot project, only that the goals of such a project demonstration and creating support vs. reproducible design should be weighed against future reproducibility. photo:Google Earth

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Chapter 2: Existing Conditions 51 Entries. Residential buildings with ground oor of ce/retail occupy the 15th street entry, while Denvers iconic bookstore Tattered Cove bookstore and a restaurant with outdoor seating anchor the 16th St entry. The 16th St uses have transparent doors and windows that wrap into the alley, while one of the buildings on 15th has a door with clear glass and sidelights on its immediate alley face. Interior. At 45 feet, the alley is considerably wider than most others on the 16th Street Mall. Some dumpsters are already hidden behind enclosures, and there is a second-level skyway connection between the 16th St entry buildings. Uses. The alley has a high degree of internal transparency, with a handful of businesses with entries in the alley. All buildings have a oor level 3 to 6 steps (approx 1.5 3.5) above alley level, with most on the lower end of the scale. There are a signi cant number of residential balconies looking down into the alley. photo: google earth photo: google earth

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Alley Enhancement Project 52 Alley J Wazee-Blake South Technical DetailsWidth: 16 Overhead Utilities: yes Trash: 22 dumpsters, 4 companiesLand Use16th Street Mall restaurant: wrap retail: historic, wrap 15th Street of ce/retail: wrap surface parking Outdoor dining: yes, entrance and mid-block Surface parking: 1 lot, 1 single-bay area Bus stop: no Other outdoor dining patio with alley transparency/connection potential exterior/back-of-house keg storageAssetsCharacter Many of the buildings along both sides of the alley are exceptionally narrow, creating a jumbled appearance of many buildings and materials. This condition could be seen as either an asset or a challenge, in that it provides a certain degree of visual interest but also a high number of person and vehicular-doors. Outdoor Dining Both restaurants at the 16th St entry have existing outdoor seating, providing activity near the alley and the potential to wrap into the alley. Mid-block, the Rio Grande Restaurant has an outdoor dining patio that occupies a full building width; this patio extends half-way to the alley, with a cut-out wall provided a limited degree of visibility into the alley. The alley side of this parcel is currently used for parking. The Rio currently also uses a portion of this parcel for a food truck like dining area. Redevelopment Opportunity This block has two surface parking areas and a building-width outdoor dining area, as described above in existing use. The midblock parking area is a single bay wide and accommodates one row of angle parking as well as a line of dumpsters. This area could represent a redevelopment opportunity or a potential trash consolidation opportunity. The surface parking at the alleys 15th St entry presents an opportunity for development that could orient to or enhance the alley. Destination/Origin A bus stop serving 4 routes is located mid-block at the 15th Street alley entry. ChallengesOverhead Utilities The alley has a signi cant number of overhead wires running both longitudinally along the alley as well as laterally to the adjacent buildings. Drainage Typical to many of the alleys in this study, drainage is a challenge; standing water suggests that both inadequate longitudinal grade with pitted paving/potholes contributing to the issue. Trash There are a large number of dumpsters within the alley, many of them with wet trash due to the number of adjacent restaurants.Future Use PotentialExisting outdoor dining uses at the alley entrance and particularly mid-corridor offer an unusual opportunity in this alley. Paired with a busy bus stop, this alley has high potential as both a circulation and a public realm/event corridor. This alley has a strong disadvantage, however, in the presence of overhead utilities, which would be very expensive to underground or relocate. As such, this alleys attractiveness as a pilot project is signi cantly reduced due to the additional cost, coordination and complication posed by utility concerns, but is a strong possibility for a future, more robust alley enhancement program. photo:Google Earth

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Chapter 2: Existing Conditions 53 Entries. Restaurants with outdoor seating and wrap-around windows occupy both corners of the 16th St entry. A surface parking lot and an of ce/retail space with a narrow window wrap occupy the 15th St entry corners. Interior. The alley has overhead utilities spanning the ally both laterally and longitudinally; puddling and wet areas suggest inadequate drainage. Potential Opportunities. Outdoor keg storage adds character to the alley. A narrow gap between adjacent buildings is used for both dumpster storage and parking. Adjacent to Rio Grande restaurant, an outdoor patio occupies the street-facing half of the parcel, with parking on the alley side.

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Alley Enhancement Project 54 Alley K Blake-Market South Technical DetailsWidth: 17 Overhead Utilities: yes Trash: 22 dumpsters, 3 companiesLand Use16th Street Mall of ce restaurant 15th Street retail: historic restaurant Outdoor dining: yes, mid-block Surface parking: 1 bay Bus stop: no Other 5-story skyway at 16th St entryAssetsTransparency The 16th St side of the alley has excellent transparency with wrap around windows on both anchor buildings. The interior and south end of the alley, however, is signi cantly less tidy than the north end. Outdoor Dining/Walk-through A narrow mid-block parcel on the alleys east side is currently used as outdoor dining near Market St (Qdoba). The portion of this parcel that connects to the alley is currently used as surface parking by the tenant. Destination/Origin Future use (and destination/origin potential) of the former Market Street Station, directly across from thge alleys north entry, is unknown.ChallengesOverhead Utilities The alley has a signi cant number of overhead wires running both longitudinally along the alley as well as laterally to the adjacent buildings. Drainage Drainage appears to be worse than most other alleys in the study; the reason for this condition is unclear. Trash There are a large number of dumpsters within the alley, some tucked under into service spaces, but a great number remain within the alley corridor.Future Use PotentialWith no bus stop on 15th Street and unknown future use of the Market Street Station parcel, this alleys potential as a circulation corridor is uncertain. Compounded by costly-to-relocate overhead utilities, this alley is not an attractive candidate for a early-phase pilot project. Future function is likely to be simple functional upgrades or potentially circulation, depending upon the strength of redevelopment on the other side of the Mall. photo:Google Earth

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Chapter 2: Existing Conditions 55 Entries. 16th St entry uses offer good transparency with windows into the alley. 15th St corner uses do not offer any transparency, although the wide sidewalk at this terminus may be able to accommodate outdoor dining at the adjacent restaurant. Interior. The alleys northern segment is fairly clean and well drained with a centeraligned drain and bordered by two new skyway-connected buildings. The southern segment, however, has a collection of smaller buildings and is signi cantly less clean and well-drained. Challenges and Opportunities. The alley has a number of overhead utilities running both longitudinally and laterally. A narrow outdoor dining/parking area connects to Market St at mid-block. photo: google earth photo: google earth photo: google earth

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Alley Enhancement Project 56 Alley L Market-Larimer South Technical DetailsWidth: 16 Overhead Utilities: no Trash: 2 dumpsters, 1 companiesLand Use16th Street Mall of ce/retail: under construction parking structure 15th Street retail: historic parking structure Outdoor dining: no Surface parking: yes, not adjacent to alley Bus stop: yes, 8 routesAssetsSafety Although also listed as a potential challenge, the parking structure occupying the entire eastern face of the alley does offer a safety advantage in that in has no alcoves or places of concealment. In addition, the loading dock at the northern entrance to the alley, although deep, is completely open to the 16th Street Mall and provides clear sight lines. Destination/Origin The bus stop on 15th Street has the largest number of routes of any in the study area, potentially generating a signi cant amount of pedestrian traf c.ChallengesLack of Transparency and Permeability The entire eastern face of the alley is bordered by the blank brick wall of a parking structure. This structure serves a 27-story residential tower built atop it, and occupies the entire block. This existing use also limits the alleys solar access. Land Use / Further Evaluation Pending This alley is largely inaccessible at this time due to construction activities on the large parcel on the blocks northwest quadrant. The uses on the alleys other three entrance corners are neither signi cant pedestrian generators nor potential hosts for alley activation activities or upgrades.Future Use PotentialDue to the very active bus stop on 15th and the corridors relatively clean sight lines/minimal alcoves, this alley has strong potential as a circulation corridor. Lack of restaurants or other potential host uses make this alley a less likely candidate for urban enhancement/event space. photo:Google Earth

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Chapter 2: Existing Conditions 57 Entries. The 16th St entry is bordered by the service dock of a residential tower, and a construction site (see second image; building with two-tone graphic wall in rst photo has been demolished). 15th Street mall entry is anchored by a small historic building, and the southern face of the same parking structure noted at the 16th St entry. photo: google earth photo: google earth

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Alley Enhancement Project 58 Alley M Curtis-Champa South Technical DetailsWidth: 17 Overhead Utilities: no Trash: 9 dumpsters, 4 companiesLand Use16th Street Mall restaurant: (under const.) wrap restaurant: historic, wrap 15th Street restaurant retail Outdoor dining: yes Surface parking: 2 lots, one with wood fencing Bus stop: yes, 4 routesOther prior programming: Brewers AlleyAssetsProgramming The alley has already served as a pilot for downtown alley programming and was the site of Brewers Alley, a ticketed beer tasting event held on October 9, 2013. The event was hosted by adjacent Rialto Cafe, located at the alleys 16th St entrance, and sponsored by the Downtown Denver Partnership. Transparency Both buildings at the alleys 16th St entry have transparent, wrap-around windows. One of the buildings at the 15th St entry, although it does not have wrap-around transparency, does have a pedestrian entry directly adjacent to the alley. Character and Outdoor Dining A mid-block building on the alleys eastern side boasts full-facade, 2-story artwork. This feature adds a sense of uniqueness to the alley. In addition, the Rialto Cafe at the 16th St entry has existing outdoor dining.ChallengesDrainage The alley appears to be in the more severe category of drainage challenges, with large areas rather than small scattered puddles of standing water. Vehicular Traf c Parking layout and pattern of the east-side parking lot suggests that patrons/valets likely use the alley as well as main roadway entrances to access this lot, potentially resulting in a higher than average of vehicular traf c in the southern portion of this alley. This use would require additional consideration of pedestrian-vehicular con ict mitigation.Future Use PotentialLargely due to the already demonstrated interest and receptivity of adjacent tenants and property owners, this alley has potential as enhanced public realm. Existing adjacent outdoor dining is also an advantage, as are the wrap-around windows into the alley. The signi cant amount of surface parking also offers the potential for more pedestrian-friendly alley faces, when redevelopment occurs. photo:Google Earth

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Chapter 2: Existing Conditions 59 Entries. A secondary restaurant entrance and a pawn shop occupy the corners of the 15th Street entry; a restaurant with outdoor dining occupies the northwest entry, while the northeast entry is under construction for a new restaurant as well. Interior. The alley interior offers a variety of facades, including a 2-story mural, an opaque-fenced surface parking lot, and areas of blank wall. Service functions. The alley has a fairly typical to low number of dumpsters and grease barrels. There are also a number of off-corridor trash enclosures, and some grade issues. photo: google earth

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Alley Enhancement Project 60 Alley N Champa-Stout South Technical DetailsWidth: 16 Overhead Utilities: no Trash: 5 dumpsters, 2 companiesLand Use16th Street Mall of ce: historic retail: wrap 15th Street of ce surface parking Outdoor dining: no Surface parking: 1 lot Bus stop: yes, 5 routesAssetsTrash The alley has a lower-than-average number of dumpsters within its central circulation corridor, with additional dumpsters located in tuck-under service areas. Destination/Origin A busy bus-stop serving 5 routes is located immediately adjacent to the 15th St entry.ChallengesTransparency Except for one of the buildings anchoring the 16th St entry, the alley has virtually no transparency at the ground oor level. Drainage As with all alleys in the study, this alley shows evidence of substandard drainage. Vehicular Circulation The alley provides the only access to the western-most row of parking spaces in the lot at the southern entry. This condition suggests a higher level of vehicular circulation and more potential for vehicular-pedestrian con ict in the southern segment of the alley. Safety Police note that the bus stop at the alley entrance on 15th Street has a lot of incidents, particularly loitering by non-transit riders. They note that this is common at bus stops throughout the City, but particularly notable this stop because of its size and the large shelter. Future Use PotentialWith a building lobby, a large big-box retailer a windowless facade and a surface parking lot occupying the alleys four key entrance corners, this alley does not have the host land uses that would promote alley activation. It does have a busy bus stop at the 15th Street entry and good visibility across the surface parking to that portion of the alley, so may be a candidate for a circulation corridor. photo:Google Earth

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Chapter 2: Existing Conditions 61 Entries. A discount retail store with poster-blocked alley windows and a building lobby occupy the corners of the 16th St entry. A large, well-used bus stop with an extended shelter is located at the 15th St entrance, adjacent to surface parking lot which allows signi cant solar access to this portion of the alley. Drainage and paving. Like most other alleys in the study area, the alley is a patchwork of concrete and asphalt, with insuf cient drainage and standing water. Interior. The alley interior has a large number of service entrances, a signi cant span of chain-link gated trash docks. A large amount of the adjacent facades are protected by projecting truck bumpers.

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Alley Enhancement Project 62 Alley O Stout-California South Technical DetailsWidth: 16 Overhead Utilities: no Trash: 20 dumpsters, 3 companiesLand Use16th Street Mall retail retail 15th Street parking structure: restaurant: (under const.): wrap Outdoor dining: no Surface parking: no Bus stop: yes, 4 routesOther 4 story high causeway at front of alleyAssetsCharacter The northwestern wall is a high quality historic building that creates the only permeability in this particular alley. Outdoor Dining There are several food truck vendors during the 9-5 hours on this particular block of the 16th Street Mall. Destination/Origin A major bus stop serving 4 routes is located at mid-block at the 15th Street alley entry. ChallengesTrash This alley has a high number of dumpsters compared to others in the survey, and no clear location for potential consolidation. Lack of Transparency The southwestern border of this alley is made up of a large parking structure with very little visual interest. There is, however, a narrow (approximately 24) sidewalk bordering this parking structure. The blank wall at ground level also reduces the number of alcoves or places of concealment. Traf c There was an unusually high degree of traf c and delivery vehicles parked within the alley on the day visited. photo:Google EarthFuture Use PotentialWith a high number of dumpsters and no clear location for consolidation, this alley is a poor candidate for urban realm enhancement. This same shortcoming potentially makes the corridor a similarly poor circulation corridor, due to the concealment potential of the dumpsters. This alley is a likely candidate for basic functional upgrades of drainage and lighting.

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Chapter 2: Existing Conditions 63 Entries. 15th Street entry uses include a parking structure and vacant retail; 16th Street entries have some degree of transparency wrapping into the alley, but are not alley activation-type uses. Interior. The corridor has a high number of dumpsters as well as a parking structure fronting the alley. In addition, there are a number of grade differences from building to alley, louvered service and HVAC areas, as well as some evidence of graf ti. Safety & Security. Like a number of others in the study area, the alley displays no trespassing signage as well as a number of building-af xed security lights. photo: google earth photo: google earth

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Alley Enhancement Project 64 Alley P California-Welton South Technical DetailsWidth: 16 Overhead Utilities: yes Trash: 1 dumpster, 1 companiesLand Use16th Street Mall coffee shop wrap restaurant (subs): wrap 15th Street surface parking/community garden surface parking Outdoor dining: no Surface parking: yes (approx 75% of block) Bus stop: yes, 4 routesOther large number of bikes locked in alley surface parking occupies 75% of block AssetsCharacter Not historic, but has a high quality transparent facade. Outdoor Dining INK coffee has outdoor seating. Destination/Origin A major bus stop serving 4 routes is located at mid-block at the 15th Street alley entry. This alley has a high proximity to the light rail as well. Transparency and Permeability This alley has one of the greatest degree of solar access of any alley in this study. It also is heavily traf cked by pedestrians and cyclists. On the day visited, there were many bikes chained to the railing in the alley. Trash There is a very low amount of trash in this alley and logistically it is only serviced by one company. Redevelopment Potential This alley has a very high redevelopment potential due to the two adjacent surface lots that occupy 75% of the block. ChallengesLength This alley is very short as it only occupies the depth of one row of buildings rather than the whole block. Illicit activity Police note that the east-west corridor between the adjacent California LRT stop and this alley has a lot of activity in the form of drug dealing and quick duck-and-hide surrounding such activities.Future Use PotentialThis block is unique within the study area due to the large amount of surface parking, which covers approximately 75% of the block. As such, it has few dumpsters and the potential for future development to incorporate such service functions within their footprint. This alley also has heavy pedestrian use, with lots of comings and going by bike delivery staff of the adjacent sub shop. The alley also has outdoor dining at the north entrance, and high quality (though not historic) building facades. Due to the large amount of undeveloped land, this project is unlikely to be an early-phase pilot project, but would seem to have high potential as a public realm enhancement and event space, pending form and use of future development. photo:Google Earth

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Chapter 2: Existing Conditions 65 Entries. The 16th Street entry is anchored by two attractive storefonts with windows that wrap into the alleys; beyond these two buildings fronting 16th, the entire block is vacant and covered with surface parking and a temporary community garden. New development has begun on the site of the community garden. Interior. The alley interior has minimal dumpsters, in large part due to the quantity of undeveloped land. Some dumpsters are already consolidated in a screened enclosure. The alley also has a large number of bikes parked and locked in the alley, although adjacent staff note that theft is common. Some windows within the alley are boarded over. Advantages. The alley has a greater than average amount of solar access due to the large surface parking lots.

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Alley Enhancement Project AlleyEnhancementProject Classi cation + Hierarchy

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Chapter 3: Classi cation + Hierarchy 69 Hierarchy + Tools Based on the existing conditions assessment, alleys within the study area fall into three broad categories of potential improvements: update (type 1), circulate (type 2), and enhance (type 3). The alley types form a hierarchy, in which each type includes all the enhancements of the preceding type, as applicable, plus the additional upgrades recommended within the new category; for example, a Type 2 alley would also include Type 1 improvements. Some alleys may potentially fall into more than one category, while other alleys may be clearly placed in a single category. Sorting alleys into these categories is predicated on a start where you are approach to alley enhancement and pilot project selection, looking for opportunities and potential with the current tenants and buildings as they exist right now. Tenants may change in the future, owners may choose to update, modify or redevelop entirely, but this study focuses on near-term improvements that can be made with conditions as they are right now.Alley TypesType 1: UpdateThis type of alley, while open to pedestrians, functions primarily as a service corridor for adjacent buildings. It requires basic safety and functional upgrades, such as grading, paving and lighting, but does not have any strong land uses that would suggest its use as a circulation corridor or as an activation prospect. Some features which may suggest-but de nitively determinean alley be placed in this category include: higher than average number of alcove spaces that cannot be mitigated higher than average number of dumpsters with no space for consolidation high percentage of surface parking (suggesting that the alley may change in the future and be redeveloped at that time) higher-than-average number of loading docks or parking entrances, suggesting a high amount of vehicular traf c within a very constrained spaceType 2: CirculateThis type of alley offers the potential to play a signi cant role in pedestrian circulation, but lacks the existing land use adjacencies that would promote use of the alley as an occupiable public space, whether on a permanent or time-restricted basis (such as outdoor dining) of for special events. It is strongly recommended that this type of alley have a place to consolidate or screen trash, recycling and restaurant grease. This alley type will typically be located adjacent to a destination or origin that generates medium to high levels of pedestrian traf c; a bus stop with multiple routes is an example of such a generator.

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Alley Enhancement Project 70 Type 3: EnhanceThis category of alleys offers signi cant potential for economic development, public realm enhancement and event space. These are the alleys that could expand the 16th Street Mall aesthetic and become a unique and featured part of the downtown fabric. As a prerequisite to creating a safe, clean, aesthetically pleasing public corridor, alleys in this category must have space for the consolidation and/or screening of trash, recycling and restaurant grease barrels. They should also have one or more of the following elements: existing customer or residential entrances within the alley (not service entries/employee doors) existing outdoor dining at one of the alley entrances or an existing restaurant of the type that could conceivably offer outdoor dining at one of the alley entrances existing host uses (at alley entrances or along the corridor) that could conceivably host a one-time or recurring event in the alley (art gallery, boutique retail, restaurant); chain retail, banks, money lending are examples of uses that are unlikely to host alley activation events additional width along the alley corridor, within sections of the alley (that could host dining or other functions) or at the alley entrances (to increase visibility into the alley)Classi cationBased on the preceding criteria, alleys have been classi ed as listed below. A full spreadsheet showing details of this evaluation can be found in Appendix 2. Type 1: UpdateAlley D: Champa-Stout North* Update/Circulate Alley E: Stout-California North* Update/Circulate Alley H: Glenarm-Tremont North Alley K: Blake-Market South Alley O: Stout-California South These alleys were classi ed in both Update and Circulate categories. Type 2: CirculateAlley A: Wynkoop-Wazee North* Alley B: Wazee-Blake North* Alley F: California-Welton North Alley J: Wazee-Blake South* Alley L: Market-Larimer South Alley N: Champa-Stout South These alleys were identi ed of having potential for Enhance at a later date, but initial efforts should focus on Circulate. Type 3: EnhanceAlley C: Market-Larimer North Alley G: Welton-Glenarm North Alley I: Wynkoop-Wazee South Alley M: Curtis-Champa South Alley P: California-Welton South* This alley has high potential for Enhance due to the large amount of undeveloped land on the block; enhancements should be coordinated with redevelopment.ToolkitTo further describe how alleys of different types might look and feel, the project created a toolkit of elements that would be used for conceptual design. This matrix includes both functional and aesthetic elements, and was not meant to be all-inclusive, but simply to illustrate categories and types of elements. The matrix also identi es early action items that could be implemented with minimal or no cost. Some of these items may be routine parts of City activities (such as policy updates) or programs such as maintenance or enforcement, and may, for the same reason, require less extensive stakeholder process. Elements identi ed as capital funding items, on the other hand, require larger capital outlay and tend to be more complex in terms of both design and co-ordination.

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Chapter 3: Classi cation + Hierarchy 71 Early ActionTYPE1: UPDATE TYPE2: CIRCULATE TYPE3: ENHANCEAlley MAlley GAlley C MooreAlle y Gunter AlleyCook Alley Name Alley x CCD x x x Name Event x private x Grading +paving, concret e xCCD x Grading +paving, concrete/paver s xCCD x Grading +paving, decorative paver s xCCD x Co locate or consolidate dumpsters,in corrido r x BID/CCD x Consolidate dumpsters,out of corrido r xBID/private x x x Graffitti removal x BID/CCD xxx Unblock windows/doors xprivate x Wall lightin g xBID/CCD x x x Special EffectLighting xprivate x Decorative Lighting (ex: Tivoli) xBID/private x Planters (temp) xprivate x Planters (permanent) xprivate x Entryfeatures xBID/CCD x Curb/rail atsurfaceparking (for pedscale) xprivate x x Art, temporary/installation xBID/private x Art, permanent xBID/private x Arcade, awnings, coverings xBID/private x x Microretail('backroom') space xprivate x Outdoor dining (temp) xprivate x Outdoor dining (permanent) xprivate x Programming x BID x PR Outreach and advertisin g x BID/private x x xx Enforce one way x CCD x x x Enforce no parkin g x CCD x x x Limit service hours (timeof day) x CCD x Consolidate trashcontract x BID/CCD x x x Create licensure program for trashhaulers CCD Alleyclosure x CCD x Streamlined permitting/reducedfee s x CCD xx Future developmentstandards x CCD x x x Faade upgrade assistance program xBID x x x CCD City and County of Denve r BID Downtown Business Improvement District (BID) Privateprivate property owner, tenant, event organizeror othernon governmental entit y Special EventsPHYSICAL ELEMENTS ADDITIONAL PROGRAMMINGEarly Action Capital Funding Needed Responsible Party Operations/ Permitting Development ProgramsPOLICYELEMENTSEnforcement Land Use Identity Paving Odor/traffic control Safety/ Security Lighting Urban Design Daily Events Alley Enhancement Toolkit

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Alley Enhancement Project AlleyEnhancementProject Pilot Projects: Selection + Design

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Chapter 4: Pilot Projects 75 Pilot Projects Pilot GoalsThe project selected three alleys to be used as pilots for conceptual alley design. The goal of these concept designs was to illustrate conceptually how a variety of urban design tools and infrastructure technologies could be combined to address the most common issues found within the study area. These pilot designs are meant to serve as templates that can be transferred to any alley along the mall and are meant to model what goes into an alley enhancement project: what elements could be included, critical path and phasing of those elements, policy and permitting procedures and how to design enhancements to not preclude or even set the stage for eventual conversion to a higher type of alley (as de ned in the alley typology). Once funding is found to advance concept design into actual engineering and construction, initial projects should be carefully selected to act as both demonstration and showcase; the goal is to exhibit the potential alleys can offer and to build excitement and support among stakeholders so that the enhancement program can continue and grow. It is likely, but not required, that the pilot alleys themselves will be advanced to actual design and for this reason, alleys chosen as pilots for this initial concept phase should take care to address the most common issues in the alleys but also have the highest chance for success, leaving the most complex, dif cult or unique issues for later study and resolution so as not to unduly burden initial efforts with excessive costs or schedules. It was also determined advantageous for alleys with the strongest potential, those identi ed as future Type 3: Activate + Enhance alleys to be used for pilot projects, regardless of which type they are used for in the pilot process. In this way, regardless of the amount of funding identi ed for initial construction, alleys with the strongest potential will be rst in line for actual enhancement and additional, long-term funding wont have to start over from scratch but can instead build on initial improvement already made in this rst wave.Pilots as TemplatesNamingThis study recommends assigning names to all alleys, both for orientation and to re-af rm their place as public rights-of-way open to pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles alike. The names used in this chapter are examples only and are not meant to suggest any naming convention: each pilot alley was named for a previous governor of Colorado who surname began with the same letter as the letter assigned to the alley in the existing conditions survey.Levels of FinishThe pilot projects show a selection of potential treatments of basic alley components. None of these treatments are required in or restricted to the alley type in which they are shown; rather, they are meant to provide the City with illustrations of options. For example, paving is shown in the three alleys as all-concrete, a mix of concrete and unit paving, and all unit paving. Any of these options might be appropriate in any alley, depending upon speci c grade and drainage conditions. Mix and MatchSimilarly, the urban design elements illustrated in the pilot examples can be used in any alley. The pilot categories were created only to provide general levels of improvement in order to arrive at order-of-magnitude, planning-level cost estimates. The pilots are categorized as types only to give an order of magnitude of each level of enhancement. Level 3 enhancements like this gateway arch can be appropriate in any alley. Improvements are categorized in this report only for broad budgeting purposes.

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Alley Enhancement Project 76 Non-Physical ComponentsAll levels of alley enhancement will require some level of stakeholder coordination as well as policy support to promote their long-term success. Some of these elements clearly fall under the Citys jurisdiction, while other may be undertaken by the DDP or BID, or the City and the DDP/BID may choose to work together. Enforcement: One-Way and No Parking Although few serious incidents have been reported, existing conditions have signi cant potential for pedestrian-vehicular con ict, particularly given the extremely limited sight lines at the 16th Street Mall entrance to the alleys. Although the alleys are restricted to one-way traf c away from the mall (ie, south to 15th and north to 17th), this regulation is rarely enforced and pedestrians and drivers alike must creep across entrances for fear of causing an accident. Enforcement of this regulation would create a safer 16th Street Mall. A related issue is the enforcement of No Parking regulations within the alleys. Site observation indicates that violation is commonplace, with parked cars obstructing both service vehicles and pedestrian ow. No Parking enforcement will be particularly important to popup and special event programming, such as temporary outdoor dining, which cannot take place if the intended space is blocked by vehicles. Service Hours / Trash Hauler Licensure The alleys serve and will continue to serve as primary service corridors for adjacent development. At the most basic level, limiting service hours to the lightest pedestrian hours---early morning, late evening and overnight--will ensure that there is suf cient room for pedestrians to move through the corridor. On the larger level, decreased vehicular traf c during high pedestrian hours will reduce potential pedestrian-vehicular con ict and increase safety. Limits on service hours will likely need to be adopted into City code, similar to a noise ordinance limiting construction activities to certain hours; such limits need not apply to the whole City but could be limited to the downtown area speci cally. In the case of trash pickup, the City could also consider a licensure program for haulers (currently, the City permits physical dumpsters but does not regulate the companies that service them); such licensure could be a means to implement on hours of service. Consolidation of Trash Containers and Haulers Another tool to reduce the amount of heavy vehicular traf c in the alley is to work with adjacent owners and tenants to select a single service provider. Thus, instead of three or four companies accessing the alleys, a single company can make a single trip. A common service provider also opens the opportunity for reducing the number of dumpsters, by consolidating several smaller dumpsters into one larger one. Instead of each business having their own dumpster, receptacles would be shared. Fewer dumpsters reduces visual clutter and frees up space in the alley. Permitting: Alley Closure and Event Permits As of the writing of this document, the City is in the process of reviewing its policies and procedures for permitting and processing special events; these new streamlined policies are slated to be nalized in late 2015 and will ideally create a programming-friendly environment for the 16th Street Mall alleys. If the new process does not meet the speci c needs of downtown alley programming, the City or DDP may wish to create a guide or reference document detailing the necessary steps and departments that must be contacted for special event or recurring alley use. Issues that have created unnecessary barriers to other alley revitalization efforts and that should be speci cally studied in Denvers new procedure include: lengthy or complicated review processes, lengthy advance application schedules and high fees. Existing and New Development: Facade Upgrade Assistance and Development Standards In order to capitalize on public investments in the alleys and promote private participation, the City should institute development standards regarding alley fr ontage. Standards should strike a balance between service needs and mitigation of the back of house aesthetic that prevails in many alleys. Internal loading docks, groundoor transparency, and material selection are examples of issues that should be considered. The City and/or DDP should also explore how incentive or assistance could be provided to private property owners interested in upgrading alley-side facades.

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Chapter 4: Pilot Projects 77 Pilot CriteriaThe following criteria were used in evaluating which alleys present the best chance of early success while also providing the ability to serve as a template for additional alley design. Failure in any of the items in the rst category would automatically exclude an alley from consideration as a pilot (though not for future enhancements), while a yes answers in the second category of criteria would automatically bump an alley to the top of the priority list. Other criteria are weighted evenly with a simple -1/0/+1 scoring system. Elimination as PilotDuplicability Does the alley have any unique features or issues that would make it less applicable as a template? Stakeholder Opposition Are any adjacent land owners or tenants opposed to use of the alley as a pilot project? Trash Does the alley have a large number of dumpsters (10+) with little or no place for potential consolidation? Timing Does the alley have potential to experience signi cant delay in implementation due to a current project (such as construction) or future change in conditions (such as redevelopment of more than 50% of block)?Priority as PilotFunding Are any adjacent owners or tenants willing to provide funding? Does the alley enhancement align with an existing or near-term, future project that can provide funding?Other CriteriaStakeholder Support Have the adjacent tenants or owners expressed interest or support regarding alley enhancements? Cost + Schedule Does the alley have any unique issues that would add to cost or schedule of project? Does the alley have any not-unique, but higher-than-average occurrence of issues requiring coordination with other departments or governing bodies? (example: need to resolve alcove/ re egress issue before the alley would be considered safe) How extensive an outreach and coordination process will be required, based on number of adjacent parcels? Transit Adjacent transit stops (on 15th or on 17th) may act as pedestrian generators and promote use of the alley; how likely is this effect in this particular alley? How close is the alley to the downtown destinations identi ed in the Existing Conditions report? Location If multiple pilot projects are chosen, it is recommended to select a project in LoDo, in the center of the Mall and in the east portion of the mall, so as to distribute bene t in different areas of the 16th Street Mall.Pilot SelectionBased on the preceding criteria, Alleys M (Curtis-Champa South), G (Welton-Glenarm North), and C (Larimer-Market North) were recommended as pilot projects. Alley names given below are meant only as placeholders demonstrating the recommendation that all alleys be given names. A full spreadsheet showing details of this evaluation can be found in Appendix 2. Alley M: Moore AlleyAlley M offers particular advantages of supportive stakeholders and a prior, successful programming event. Additional advantages include a lighting project moving forward through the DDP and BID, an existing two-story public art mural within the alley, consolidated dumpsters near the Mall and retail and cafes at entry on the mall side. Challenges include a lack of destinations and connections at both ends, poor pavement conditions, a high number of parcels and related coordination needs and a signi cant amount of homeless loitering combined with low foot traf c.Alley G: Gunter AlleyAlley G offers particular potential for nighttime activity, given its proximity to both the Denver Pavilions and the Paramount Theater. Additional advantages include destinations, transit access on 17th St, visual endpoints and a sense of terminus, heavy foot traf c and an adjacent parking lot offering potential for trash consolidation. Challenges include quantity of dumpsters (although in good condition and maintained well) and the number of adjacent parcels (requiring more extensive outreach and coordination).Alley C: Cook AlleyAlley C completes the triad of pilots with a LoDo location, a strong cluster of restaurants backing onto the alley, and a single, alcove-free use (structured parking) on its eastern side. Additional advantages include existing adjacent land use and architecture, an active edge on one side and clean, good-quality pavement. Challenges include the lack of destinations at both ends of the alley.

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Alley Enhancement Project 78 Moore Alley Type 1: UpdateOverviewMoore Alley illustrates the most basic of upgrades, with a focus on addressing the two most pressing issues in all alleys: lighting and drainage. Even such minimal enhancements, however, open opportunity for temporary and recurring uses. The second and third illustrations of this alley shown how temporary, mobile additions to the alley could be used to create a space for recurring, daily outdoor dining or for a one-time special event. Infrastructure concrete paving center longitudinal drain, full length of alley wall-mounted lighting grouped dumpsters Street Sign. Moore Alley shows the simplest version of alley name signage, with a standard City street sign af xed parallel to the alley corridor. Color can be standard City green and white, or can coordinate with 16th Street Mall branding of grey and yellow. Paving. Concrete is recommended for all alleys, due to its greater durability and longevity; increased loading capacity and reduced warping is also important in light of the alleys use as primary service corridors and heavy truck traf c. Drainage. The alleys poor drainage is due in large part to the near-level grades along their length. With little opportunity for longitudinal ow, lateral ow to a central drain provides the best means to address the standing water and icing that plagues nearly all the alleys. Lighting. Given the narrow width of the alleys and their heavy truck traf c, wall mounted lighting is strongly preferred over pole-mounted lighting. The prevalence of wall-mounted vehicle bumpers, and the clear impact and scrape marks on these bumpers, suggest the pole-mounted lighting would be subject to a high incidence of damage. Wall-mounted lighting, however, will require coordination with and legal agreements allowing the installation of publicly owned and maintained light xtures onto the adjacent private buildings. A single lighting xture should be chosen for all of the alleys; in the case that a different or custom xture is desired, an organization such as a business improvement district (BID), owners association, metropolitan district or similar organization must be in place and willing to take on the costs and permanent maintenance of that xture.Moore Alley, existing conditions: 16th Street Mall entrance.If special event use of the alley is anticipated, as described in a later part of this report, electrical upgrades accommodating audio and visual load may also be desired. Trash. Local law enforcement identi ed the random, spaced-out placement of dumpsters as a practice that provides opportunities for concealment. They suggested ganging the dumpsters together to minimize this opportunity. Locating the dumpsters in a single location further from the 16th St Mall would also offer some aesthetic advantage to the Mall itself, placing offensive odors and sights a bit further from main retail and visitor traf c. Stakeholders also noted that locating the dumpsters *further from* the businesses would require a short walk for employees of those establishments, having the secondary effect of promoting more pedestrian traf c and passive surveillance within the alleys. Urban Design graf ti removal downspout/ re escape painting This most basic level of enhancement utilizes minimal permanent urban design enhancement. Removal of graf ti should be a part of any alley upgrade. A low-cost urban design enhancement could include painting downspouts, re escapes and other alley appurtenances; color schemes could be developed to match adjacent architectural detailing, the adjacent Mall branding, or simply to provide additional color and interest in the alley corridor.

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Chapter 4: Pilot Projects 79 Moore Alley (Alley M) is located between Curtis and Champa Streets. Base enhancements to Moore Alley, with movable planters rolled against adjacent storefront wall. Moore Alley Type 1: Update 16th St Mall, South EntranceBase EnhancementsA asphalt removal B underground drain connections C concrete paving D longitudinal drain E lights F alley name sign G graf ti removal H in-corridor dumpster consolidationEveryday Use, Temporary AdditionsI rolling planters J outdoor dining, temporary Policy alley naming future development standards facade upgrade assistance program consolidate trash contract enforce one-way enforce no parking limit service hours streamlined permitting/reduced fees outreach and advertising cleaning (by adjacent users) D C F E G H BA J F I

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Alley Enhancement Project 80 Policy one-way enforcement no parking enforcement service hour limits development standards facade upgrade assistance Enforcement of existing one-way regulations would reduce the amount of potential pedestrian-vehicular con ict at the busy 16th Street Mall entrance to the alley. Limiting service hours so that trucks would not be entering during peak pedestrian times (start of business, lunchtime, close of business) would provide additional enhancements to pedestrian safety. Enforcement of no-parking rules, creation of development standards for new construction and alley-side remodeling and facade upgrade assistance programs would all help to reinforce the alley as a bona de public right-of-way, rather than a private, back-of-house service area.Programming Everyday Use. tables, chairs, umbrellas rolling planters/bollard + chain wall-mounted lighting grouped dumpsters A few simple elements would allow the alley to be used as exible outdoor dining space, on a sporadic or even regular basis. Lightweight tables and chairs can be stored inside adjacent businesses, and brought out for lunchtime crowds on sunny days. Some means of de ning the dining area further promotes pedestrian scale, and could be provided by rolling planters, a simple bollardchain system, or even a painted or chalked area rug on the ground. This use would necessitate the enforcement of no-parking rules and restrictions on service hours so that patrons are not disrupted by vehicles attempting to enter or exit the alley. Moving dumpster further into the alley is also necessary to provide this Mall-adjacent space. Special Event. tents pavement art / projected wall art alley closure and event permits temporary dumpster relocation to surface parking lot banners/advertising musicians/vendors/booths A different set of temporary additions can transform the alley into a special event space. This use will require temporary alley closure and an event permit, both administrated by the City. Special events also typically require private security and cleaning, both of which can be contracted. Temporarily moving dumpsters out of the alley corridor and into adjacent parking spaces leased on short term daily rental tidies up the alley and provides more space to occupy and circulate. Depending on the event, tents, music and vendors can all share space in the alley. Banners and other event advertising increases awareness and draws patrons into the alley. Temporary art installations, such as pavement chalk art or wall-projected light art, can provide additional aesthetic enhancements. Temporary lighting can be provided overhead, as can audio/visual capability.Moore Alley, existing conditions: 15th Street entrance. Moore Alley enhancements, 16th St Mall entrance, night view.

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Chapter 4: Pilot Projects 81 Moore Alley Type 1: Update 15th St, North EntranceSpecial Event, Temporary AdditionsA event naming B consolidate dumpsters in adjacent parking lot C temporary art D programming E temporary pop-up dining F projected light artPolicy alley closure streamlined permitting/reduced fees outreach and advertising security (by event) cleaning (by event)Moore Alley (Alley M) is located between Curtis and Champa Streets. D F C B A E

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Alley Enhancement Project 82 Costs Shown at right is an order-of-magnitude estimate of costs involved in this level of alley enhancements. Refer to the alley toolkit in Chapter 3 of this document for further information on private and public funding responsibilities. The spreadsheet also notes required policy items. UNITPRICEQTYCOST 1Construction Overhead 26,420 $ Mobilization LS5% of Total 18,871 $ Barricading/T.C./M.O.T. LS2% of Total 7,548 $ 2Removals 24,324 $ Asphalt SF 2.33 $ 0 $ Concrete SF 2.66$ 6400 17,024 $ Utility Adjustments LS5,000.00$ 1 5,000 $ Fencing LF 20.00 $ 115 2,300 $ 3Base Plane 151,400 $ Grading/Excavation SF 10.00 $ 6400 64,000 $ Concrete CY 400.00$ 119 47,600 $ Trench Drain LF 82.00$ 400 32,800 $ Storm Adjustments/Connections LS7,000.00 $ 1 7,000 $ 4Site Elements 201,700 $ Metal Picket Fence, 6' LF 180.00$ 115 20,700 $ Wall Mounted Fixtures EA5,000.00$ 17 85,000 $ PostMounted Fixtures EA12,000.00$ 5 60,000 $ ElectricalService LS25,000.00 $ 1 25,000 $ General Painting (downspouts, fireescapes)ALLOWANCE10,000.00 $ 1 10,000 $ Street Sign EA 500.00$ 2 1,000 $ Total 403,844 $ 5Site Features:Daily Programming and Special Events PatioFurnishings: Table &4Chairs EA2,000.00$ 6 12,000 $ Rolling Planters EA 800.00$ 8 6,400 $ Umbrellas EA2,500.00 $ 3 7,500 $ Special Events(lighting, chalk art, tent, security, etc)LS25,000.00 $ 125,000 $ (no total: ala carte costs) ENHANCEMENT

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Alley Enhancement Project 84 Gunter Alley Type 2: CirculateOverviewGunter Alley offers a middle level of enhancement aimed at creating a welcoming, pedestrian-scale environment that promotes foot traf c. The alley retains full service functions including delivery and trash collection, but focuses on adding urban design elements that clearly indicate the corridor is a legitimate circulation corridor for all modes including pedestrians and cyclists. This second level of alley enhancements includes all basic safety and cleanliness elements illustrated in Moore Alley, including new paving and lighting, as well as additional elements meant to enhance corridor aesthetics and promote pedestrian use. Infrastructure alley naming/street sign concrete and permeable unit paving center longitudinal drain, full length of alley walland pole-mounted lighting off-corridor dumpster relocation and consolidation Street Sign. This concept illustrates how alley names could be integrated into existing architecture by etching or carving into building materials. Similarly, etching or carving could be done on a smaller plaque that could be af xed to the building. Paving. As noted previously, concrete is recommended for all alleys due to its greater durability and longevity. The Gunter Alley application uses a combination of concrete and permeable unit paving for an enhanced, more decorative aesthetic, with concrete down both sides of the alley and unit paving and a longitudinal drain in the center. This design creates a visual suggestion of two sidewalks, which reinforce the idea of a pedestrian environment, although constrained alley width would require vehicles to span both surfaces. Permeable pavers are recommended in order to help address drainage issues and improve water quality, and a geotechnical evaluation of soils would be necessary to determine their suitability on an alley-by-alley basis. Design and engineering should also consider the potential impacts to underground utilities and adjacent structures, and select paving systems accordingly. Different alleys may call for different solutions, ranging from no in ltration (traditional unit pavers or concrete), partial in ltration (a center strip of permeable pavers and a slotted underdrain, for example) of full in ltration from alley wall to alley wall. In cases where permeable unit pavers are deemed unsuitable, design intent can be maintained by the use of regular, non-permeable unit paving. Drainage. This design also offers an opportunity for the City to test the performance of permeable paving in a downtown context, if desired. A full-corridor length drain is included, and will act as primary or redundant drainage, dependent upon the Citys decision regarding permeable paving. If permeable paving is used in the central section, water can percolate into subsurface material, or into a below-ground drain system. If permeable paving is not used, pavers will be set on a concrete base. Lighting. Gunter Alley uses a combination of wall and pole-mounted lighting, with pole-mounted lighting limited to areas without adjacent buildings, such as vacant lots or surface parking. As with Moore Alley, if special event use of the alley is anticipated, as described in a later part of this report, electrical upgrades accommodating audio and visual load may also be desired. Trash. Gunter Alley illustrates off-corridor trash relocation and consolidation, a strategy which requires coordination and cooperation among adjacent tenants and owners, as well as lease or purchase of small amount of adjacent property. Under this strategy, adjacent users share dumpsters and select a single trash hauler; this approach reduces both the number of dumpsters as well as the amount of traf c in the alley. The fewer but larger dumpsters are moved to a single location adjacent to but outside of the actual alley, thereby increasing visibility and sight lines, reducing odors and providing more clear space for circulation. This property may be leased on a long term basis or purchased, and should be screened with an appropriate opaque fence. This approach also promotes pedestrian usage by lessening perception of the alley as a back-ofhouse service corridor.Gunter Alley, existing conditions: 16th Street Mall entrance.

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Chapter 4: Pilot Projects 85 Gunter Alley Type 2: Circulate 16th St Mall, North EntranceA asphalt removal B underground drain connections C concrete paving D permeable paving OR paving/underground drainage E lights F signs for business entrances G graf ti removal H arcade trussesPolicy alley naming enforce one-way enforce no parking consolidate trash contract future development standards facade upgrade assistance programGunter Alley (Alley G) is located between Welton and Glenarm Streets. A H G F E D C B

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Alley Enhancement Project 86 Gunter Alley enhancements, 17th Street entrance, night view.Urban Design graf ti removal arcade trusses business entry signage (Paramount Theatre, back door) parking lot wall and railing The circulate level of enhancement seeks to identify urban design opportunities that will draw the eye to the alley, encourage more people to use it, and provide an enhanced aesthetic experience. Gunter Alley plays off of the Paramount Cafes existing cornerwrapping marquee signage by adding theatre-lit trusses leading from the cafe and alley entrance to the Paramount Theatres rear entrance. This feature will help create interest for daytime users, and provide additional orientation assistance for patrons exiting the theatre at night. In tandem with and in the same style as the truss arcade, enhancements also add vertical signage at the theatres rear entry. At the alleys north entrance on 17th, enhancements include a short wall topped by decorative railing and post lights with banners. Introduction of the wall and railing provides enclosure to the alley and promotes a pedestrian scale, while banners on the light poles provide a rhythmic, linear element to draw the eye in to the alley. Wall height is negotiable but should not provide a potential place of concealment; keeping the wall at an 18-24 height could provide informal seating without more traditional street furnishings that could impede vehicular circulation. Wall, railing and lights would all be constructed on private property and would require appropriate coor dination with adjacent property owners; it is understood that these enhancements would be removed if the adjacent property should redevelop, but also hoped that new development would provide a similarly attractive and pedestrian-scaled alley frontage.Gunter Alley, existing conditions: 17th Street entrance.Programming Micro-Retail. Gunter Alley includes a micro-retail space, illustrated in the graphic as a cycle repair shop. This type of small-scale retail typically involves the conversion of an underutilized space such as a storage room into a very small storefront, and would include the creation of a new alley entrance if one does not already exist. This type of off-the-beaten-path location often provides space for businesses who could otherwise not afford the high rent or dont need the typical footprint of a downtown location. Types of businesses which have occupied this type of space in other cities include cycle shops, small-scale eateries or tap rooms and book nooks. This programming is dependent upon both market conditions and the private property owner, although public funding such as grants or facade programs may provide assistance. Everyday and Special Event Use. Gunter Alley could host any of the every day pop up uses or special events as described in the Moore Alley section. Such uses would also require service hour limits or alley closure, as indicated in that section.Policy one-way enforcement no parking enforcement service hour limits development standards facade upgrade assistance Policy needs for Gunter Alleys circulate enhancements mirror those of Moore Alleys update enhancements, with the bulk of policies focused on enhanced pedestrian safety and reduced potential for pedestrian-vehicular con ict.

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Chapter 4: Pilot Projects 87 Gunter Alley Type 2: Circulate 17th St, South EntranceA asphalt removal B underground drain connections C concrete paving D permeable paving OR paving/underground drainage E lights F alley name sign (alternate to wall sign) G graf ti removal H dumpster consolidation (adjacent to corridor) I curb and railing at edge of surface parking J micro-retail K business entrance signsPolicy alley naming enforce one-way enforce no parking consolidate trash contract future development standards facade upgrade assistance programGunter Alley (Alley G) is located between Welton and Glenarm Streets. H G F E D C A B I J E K K

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Alley Enhancement Project 88 Costs Shown at right is an order-of-magnitude estimate of costs involved in this level of alley enhancements. Refer to the alley toolkit in Chapter 3 of this document for further information on private and public funding responsibilities. The spreadsheet also notes required policy items. UNITPRICEQTYCOST 1Construction Overhead 96,680 $ MobilizationLS5% of Total 69,057 $ Barricading/T.C./M.O.T. LS2% of Total 27,623 $ 2Removals z 25,076 $ Asphalt SF 2.33 $ 4481,044 $ Concrete SF 2.66$ 595215,832 $ Utility Adjustments LS5,000.00$ 15,000 $ Fencing LF 20.00 $ 1603,200 $ 3Base Plane 187,400 $ Grading/Excavation SF 10.00 $ 640064,000 $ Concrete CY 400.00$ 7429,600 $ Pavers (On Concrete Base) SF 30.00 $ 180054,000 $ Trench Drain LF 82.00$ 40032,800 $ Storm Adjustments/Connections LS7,000.00 $ 17,000 $ 4Site Elements 282,630 $ Concrete Wall CY 400.00 $ 4016,000 $ OrnamentalMetal Fence LF 200.00$ 16032,000 $ TrashEnclosure LF 225.00 $ 7015,750 $ TrashEnclosure: Yearlylease LS2,760.00 $ 38,280 $ Wall Mounted Fixtures EA5,000.00$ 1785,000 $ PostMounted Fixtures EA12,000.00$ 560,000 $ Ornamentalbanners(on light poles) EA 120.00$ 5600 $ Electrical Service LS25,000.00 $ 125,000 $ General Painting (downspouts, fireescapes)ALLOWANCE10,000.00 $ 110,000 $ Street Sign, enhanced EA2,500.00 $ 25,000 $ Business Signage (paramount, bikeshop) LS25,000.00 $ 125,000 $ 5Site Features 208,000 $ Steel Trusses LS16,000.00 $ 9144,000 $ Storefront: Demo and Glazing SF 400.00 $ 16064,000 $ Total 799,786 $ ENHANCEMENT

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Alley Enhancement Project 90 Cook Alley Type 3: EnhanceOverviewCook Alley illustrates the most extensive level of enhancement and explores the potential to create small, occupiable spaces within a constrained corridor. In the case of Cook Alley, a section of adjacent building are set back from the public right-of-way, offering the opportunity to carve out a small rear deck for outdoor dining. As the top level within the three-part alley hierarchy, Cook Alley includes the basic functional enhancements of a Type 1 Update Alley as well as the urban design features of a Type 2 Circulate Alley. Infrastructure alley naming/street sign permeable/unit paving center longitudinal drain, full length of alley walland post-mounted lighting off-corridor dumpster relocation and consolidation Street Sign. All alley projects should include new signage at both entrances displaying the name of the alley. Such signage is included in this level of enhancement but not shown in the particular views in this document. This concept also displays the alley name as an integrated part of the entry gateway. Paving. Cook Alley illustrates permeable unit paving from building face to building face, a signi cant aesthetic upgrade intended to emphasize the pedestrian nature of the alley. As noted previously, concrete is recommended for all alleys due to its greater durability and longevity. Cook Alley illustrates an all-unit pavers approach, which would require evaluation of its long-term durability in addition to the same geotechnical, utility and architectural evaluations mentioned under Gunter Alley. If not installed as a permeable drainage, the pavers can be laid on a concrete base and will provide the desired increase in durability as compared to asphalt. Drainage. The potential for permeable paving discussed under Gunter Alleys mixed concrete/paver approach would also be applicable to Cook Alleys all-paver approach. The center, longitudinal drain should be installed regardless of paving selection, and will act as either primary or secondary drainage. Lighting. Cook Alley uses the same approach recommended in the other alleys, with wall-mounted lighting as the preferred option and pole-mounted lights along the edge of undeveloped lots or surface parking. Wall lights differ from those shown in other alleys, and were selected to align with the historic character of this alleys LoDo location. If executed, this special lighting would require a thirdparty to take on installation and maintenance responsibility, since it does not align with the single xture approach recommended for all alleys. Since Cook Alley is intended to provide occupiable space, electrical upgrades for extra audio and visual effects should be considered a standard part of this level of alley enhancement. Trash. Cook Alley uses the same off-corridor trash relocation and consolidation strategy discussed in Cook Alley. Given the large number of adjacent restaurants, additional space within the common enclosure may also need to be provided for grease barrels. Urban Design graf ti removal entry gateways large-scale, permanent art planter wall and raised deck basement egress shade structure decorative Tivoli-style lighting parking lot wall and railing Cook Alley uses ornamental overhead arches to mark alley entrances and names. These arches could be attached to adjacent buildings, as shown at the 17th Street entrance, or could be freestanding, as shown at the 16th Street Mall entrance which has no building on the western side of the entrance. Arches would need to provide adequate vertical clearance for service vehicles, and would require collaboration with adjacent building owners if an attached installation is desired.Cook Alley, existing conditions: 16th Street Mall entrance.

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Chapter 4: Pilot Projects 91 Cook Alley Type 3: Enhance 16th St Mall, North EntranceA asphalt removal B decorative paving/pavers w underground drainage C lights D alley name sign/entry feature E graf ti removal F planter wall G outdoor dining, permanent H art, permanent I decorative lighting J shade structurePolicy alley naming enforce one-way enforce no parking consolidate trash contract future development standards facade upgrade assistance programCook Alley (Alley C) is located between Market and Larimer Streets. H G F E D C A B I J

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Alley Enhancement Project 92 The main feature of Cook Alley is the outdoor dining space created behind the existing row of restaurants towards the alleys southern entrance. This area is outside the public right-of-way, and would require participation of the adjacent property owners and tenants. As shown, the space is 10 12 feet wide and extends behind a number of restaurants, but as a concept or template, this idea can be scaled down in accordance with available space. Creation of this space would require relocation of existing restaurant-related uses such as storage and HVAC, as well as the construction of code-compliant egress from basement windows in this area. Assuming all technical, operational and code requirements can be satis ed, the graphic shows a raised outdoor dining area de ned by a planting wall and shade structure. Supplemental tivoli lights strung across the alley width extend the amenity area into the public right-of-way. Cook Alley also illustrates the potential for large-scale, permanent art in the form of murals. Some structures within this particular corridor may be eligible for historic designation and would require additional evaluation as to the appropriateness of art. Like Gunter Alley, Cook Alley also uses a short wall/railing/lightpost combination to create a sense of enclosure and pedestrian scale. This treatment occurs along the edge of the surface parking lot at the corridors south entrance.Programming As with the preceding two alley types, the Type 3 Enhance alley can also be utilized for daily, recurring programming and with enhanced paving and overhead lighting, would be an especially attractive location for special events or expansion of 16th Street Mall happenings. Policy one-way enforcement no parking enforcement service hour limits development standards facade upgrade assistance Policy needs for Gunter Alleys circulate enhancements mirror those of the preceding two alley types, with the bulk of policies focused on enhanced pedestrian safety and reduced potential for pedestrianvehicular con ict. Cook Alley, existing conditions: 17th Street entrance. Cook Alley enhancements, 16th Street Mall entrance, night view.

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Chapter 4: Pilot Projects 93 Cook Alley Type 3: Enhance 17th St, South EntranceA asphalt removal B decorative paving/pavers w underground drainage C lights D alley name sign/entry feature E graf ti removal F planters G art, permanentPolicy enforce one-way enforce no parking consolidate trash contract future development standards facade upgrade assistance programCook Alley (Alley C) is located between Market and Larimer Streets. A G G F F E D C B

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Alley Enhancement Project 94 Costs Shown at right is an order-of-magnitude estimate of costs involved in this level of alley enhancements. Refer to the alley toolkit in Chapter 3 of this document for further information on private and public funding responsibilities. The spreadsheet also notes required policy items. UNITPRICEQTYCOST 1Construction Overhead 165,560 $ Mobilization LS5% of Total 118,257 $ Barricading/T.C./M.O.T. LS2% of Total 47,303 $ 2Removals 29,381.25 $ Asphalt SF 2.33 $ 275640.75 $ Concrete SF 2.66$ 892523,740.50 $ Utility Adjustments LS5,000.00$ 15,000.00 $ Fencing LF 20.00 $ 0 $ 3Base Plane 561,750.00 $ Grading/Excavation SF 10.00 $ 920092,000.00 $ Pavers (On Concrete Base) SF 30.00 $ 7665229,950.00 $ Ground mounted lights EA5,000.00$ 40200,000.00 $ Trench Drain LF 82.00$ 40032,800 $ Storm Adjustments/Connections LS7,000.00 $ 17,000.00 $ 4Site Elements 313,080.00 $ Concrete Wall CY 400.00$ 11445,600.00 $ OrnamentalMetal Fence LF 200.00$ 12324,600.00 $ PlanterWall CY 400.00$ 2710,800 $ Plant Materials/Irrigation ALLOWANCE5,000.00$ 15,000 $ Egress Windows EA5,000.00$ 630,000 $ TrashEnclosure LF 225.00 $ 5612,600.00 $ TrashEnclosure: Yearlylease EA2,160.00 $ 36,480.00 $ Wall Mounted Fixtures EA5,000.00$ 1890,000.00 $ PostMounted Fixtures EA12,000.00$ 448,000.00 $ Electrical Service LS25,000.00 $ 125,000.00 $ General Painting (downspouts, fireescapes)ALLOWANCE10,000.00 $ 110,000.00 $ Street Sign, enhanced EA2,500.00$ 25,000 $ 5Site Features 293,050.00 $ Wall Mural, parking structure LS20,000.00 $ 120,000.00 $ Wall Murals, north end LS10,000.00 $ 110,000.00 $ PatioFurnishings: Table &4Chairs EA2,000.00$ 918,000.00 $ Umbrellas EA2,500.00 $ 410,000.00 $ Overhead (Tivoli) Lights LF $12.505006,250.00 $ PatioDeck SF 120.00$ 1240148,800.00 $ Entry Gateways EA10,000.00 $ 220,000.00 $ Shade Structure LS60,000.00 $ 160,000.00 $ Total 1,362,821 $ ENHANCEMENT

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Chapter 5: Next Steps 99 Next Steps The challenge with all projects is moving from planning and design to actual implementation. As noted previously, no funding has yet been identi ed for alley enhancements as described in this study. The evaluation and concepts in this report, however, can be a useful tool in building stakeholder support and procuring funding. Building from this report, next steps can be clustered under three larger objectives: building support, preparing the policy framework, and identifying funding.Build SupportInternal and external support are equally important in seeing a plan through to implementation. The more people who are familiar with and see value in alley enhancement projects, the better the chance of implementation. o Designate a champion With other cities Cities who have already undertaken or who are considering similar alley enhancement programs can be valuable resources for innovative funding ideas and lessons learned. With stakeholders Adjacent property owner and tenant support can make or break a project. They provide valuable support for grants and other funding applications, and can help spread the word and build excitement. With professional organizations Organizations such as American Institute of Architects (AIA), Urban Land Institute (ULI) and similar organizations are valuable forums to build support and knowledge expansion. Heavy competition for time and dollars means that a successful project must have someone within the City who keeps it top of mind, who coordinates next steps and keeps the project moving forward. o Circulate this report Within the City Cross-discipline knowledge can identify potential pitfalls as well as potential opportunities. Familiarization with alley plans increases the chance that elements of the plan may be incorporated into or prioritized as part of other projects, such as yearly re-paving budget, or development proposal review. With numerous projects in the queue, the project champion must promote the advantages of alley enhancements: economic development new starter business opportunity events venue safety and health Even if some members of a department have reviewed or participated in the study process, the more people who are familiar with the concepts, the more the opportunities for implementation. o Meet with individual owners and tenants.Sit down with owners and tenants one-on-one or in small groups to understand how they use the alleys now, what they would like to see, how the concepts identi ed in this study could positively or negatively impact their interest. Ask if they have additional or alternate suggestions. These meetings should lay the groundwork for an ongoing dialogue that continues to construction and beyond. These meetings will be especially critical in beginning the conversation regarding dumpster and trash hauler consolidation.

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Alley Enhancement Project 100 Prepare the Policy FrameworkMany of the physical enhancements identi ed in this study require that appropriate policy and agreements be in place in advance of the rst shovel hitting the ground. o Begin investigation and coordination necessary for trash consolidation. Dumpster consolidation Open conversations with tenants and owners regarding shared dumpsters and related monetary bene ts. Discuss service models with trash haulers. Dumpster relocation. Investigate costs and legalities of leasing or purchasing land in vacant lots or surface parking lots adjacent to alleys for screened dumpster enclosures. Trash service Hours. Begin conversations with owners, tenants and service companies regarding service hours. Could service be limited to non-peak pedestrian hours? Permitting/licensing. Currently, physical dumpsters are permitted by the City, but trash service is not regulated. Investigate permitting or licensing, by the City, as a potential means of controlling service hours. Overlay district. Investigate use of district-speci c regulations, similar to noise ordinances, that would limit service hours in the alleys. o Enforce One-Way regulations.This step will reduce pedestrian-vehicular con ict along the heavily-pedestrian 16th Street Mall. This regulation is already in place but requires enforcement. o Keep tabs on the special event/permitting processAs noted in this document, the special events and permitting process is currently under review and revision within the City. Monitor and participate in this process to the extent possible, in order to streamline requirements for future alley events. o Begin investigation and coordination necessary for wall-mounted lighting. Coordinate with DDP/BID pilot lighting project. The DDP/BID is currently executing a pilot alley lighting project. Document goals and objectives of this project, as well as nal recommendations and selections, including lamp type, photometrics, housing type, legal/stakeholder/utility coordination issues and lessons learned. Determine necessary easements/agreements for publicly owned/maintained xtures to be attached to private structures. Identify parties responsible for design/installation/ maintenance. Liability should also be determined. Coordinate with stakeholders to determine if any organizations exist which would be interested in xtures different than standard Xcel selection. Also need to determine if that organization can take on funding, installation, long-term maintenance. There is a strong preference for a consistent xture throughout the alleys. If there is interest in a different xture for a speci c alley, evaluate the justi cation for a non-standard xture (ie, historic character) o Identify other opportunities to get the word out Five Minute Chats. Give a ve-minute project overview at local meetings (service and professional organizations, social and cultural boards, community meetings for other projects) Open Houses. Hold open houses (or, open alleys) to showcase drawings and concepts. Consider creating a one-page take home information sheet. Web Page. Ensure information is easily accessible on the City website. Alley Naming: Competition/Sponsorship Hold a public competition to name the alleys and get folks creative juices owing while raising interest in the alleys at the same time. Alternately, the alleys could be sponsored by local businesses or interests, who could then also assist in casting a wide net and broadcasting the news of exciting changes. Special Events / Programming. Even before physical improvements are implemented, special events like the DDPs Brewers Alley can help stakeholder, decision-makers and the general public see the potential of alleys.

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Chapter 5: Next Steps 101 o Enforce No Parking regulations.This step will improve circulation for all modes, and will set the stage for later pop-up alley uses, if such programming is desired. This regulation is already in place and even posted in many of the alleys. As a goodwill gesture, adjacent tenants/owners may be provided notice prior to the start of enforcement. o Evaluate development requirements. Identify current and monitor future development proposals. Request to be included in the development review process for projects adjacent to the alley. Identify elements that do not align with or would preclude alley enhancements described in this study. Proposals already in the development process may be dif cult to change, but additional language in current standards (see next item) may improve future proposals. Consider modi cations to existing or creation of new district standards and overlay zones. Modify existing zoning, guidelines, standards and overlay districts to promote the concepts identi ed in this study. o Create an Alley HandbookPrepare a document outlining the steps and approvals required for alley programming, including permits, security, cleaning, noise, alcohol, hours and similar issues. The document should speci cally identify time frame and departments or organizations with jurisdiction over various elements of the alley infrastructure and use. Also include information on the approvals process (and potential funding assistance) for private enhancements outside the right-ofway, such as patios or faade upgrades.Identify FundingThis study illustrates three levels of alley enhancements, ranging from approximately $400,000 to $1.4 million. It is important to understand that these groups of enhancements are both phaseable and additive. Looking at the most basic enhancements--those illustrated in updateit would be acceptable and provide signi cant bene t to do just repaving and drainage or just lighting. Additional upgrades can then be implemented as funding becomes available. Similarly, if funding is identi ed for an upgrade level of enhancements, additional enhancements at the next circulate level are in addition to, not instead of/demolish and replace the elements already installed. Although a single, large source of funding would be preferable, it is likely that funding will need to be procured from a variety of sources and may be earmarked for speci c types of improvements. Outdoor dining tables and chairs or faade improvements are examples of elements which may be paid for by adjacent tenants or owners, or which may be folded into an assistance program, such Fort Collins Faade Improvement Fund administrated by that citys Downtown Development Authority. o Coordinate with Public Works regarding anticipated schedule for repaving of alleys. Determine what costs can and cannot be borne under normal City maintenance/resurfacing budget. Discuss prioritization of alleys. Depending upon anticipated schedule it may be possible/ desirable to move 16th Street Mall alleys higher on the list. Conversely, if concrete and drainage improvements must be funded separately, it may be advantageous to move some or all of the alleys *down* the priority list, until additional funding can be identi ed. In this way, the project can bene t by paying only the amount over and above standard repaving, instead of having to pay *all* costs to demolish and replace fairly new asphalt with new concrete and drains. o Coordinate with other City departments to determine if other alley-related projects, upgrades or standard maintenance are planned. o Evaluate applicability of Citys franchise agreement relative to undergrounding of overhead utilities.

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Alley Enhancement Project 102 Examples of potential funding sources may include but are not limited to: City budget Better Denver Bond Program. The bulk of projects executed as part of this program have been or are nearing completion. If a second bond program is undertaken, alley improvements could be included on the list of projects. TIGER discretionary grant (Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery). The US Department of Transportation just recently accepted applications for the sixth round of grants. Although future rounds are not guaranteed, the long-term nature of the alley enhancement project studied in this report means that future grant cycles should be considered. o Investigate and track potential private funding opportunities Examples of potential funding sources may include but are not limited to: Business Improvement District (BID) Philanthropic grants Adjacent owners/tenants: matching funds, small-scale individual Development Incentives. Design standards and o Investigate and track potential federal, state and city funding opportunities.guidelines may provide a tool for alley enhancements to be folded into private development. Developer incentives may also be another means for private funding of public improvements.

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Alley Enhancement Project Appendices

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Alley Enhancement Project 104

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Appendices 105 Appendix 1: Precedent DocumentsDocuments IncludedThe following precedent documents are included on the USB ash drive provided with this document: Chicago Green Alley Handbook (2010) Fort Collins Alley Beauti cation Master Plan (2008) Transforming Alleys into Green Infrastructure for Los Angeles (2008) Seattle Integrated Alley Handbook (2011) Alley Event Handbook (2012)

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Alley Enhancement Project 106

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Appendices 107 Letterwesteast16th15/1716th15/17asphconcother< 1010+YNYNYN WwraphistoricEwraphistoricYNYNcentersidegratesroof surfroof u/grncobrawallcamssigns<5<1010+# co. AWynkoopWazeen/a21.71615xxxxxofficeparking (vac)xxxxxxxx3Oxford Hotel BWazeeBlaken/a23.216xxxxparking Wells Fargoxxxxxx22 interior setbacks close to 16th St., Swing Thai has entrance in Alley CMarketLarimern/a20.917 x x x x xparking residential x x x xx x 3Large setback behind restaurant row DC h a m p aS t o u t1 6 71 0 21 6xxxxxs h o e s c l o t h i n g xxxxxx x x2 EStoutCalifornia17.313.41315 x xx xx Qwest retail x xx x xxx xSurface parking is in middle of block FCaliforniaWelton18.6n/a1417 x x xx xGreat Clipsx Vacant x x xx x x x xx Z bus stop (17th), Setback widens at plaza outside of Salvaggios GWeltonGlenarm13.4n/a1315 x x xxWhere the Buf. Roamx Paramount C a f xxxxxxxxx5P a r a m o u n t Theater; X bus stop (17th) HGlenarmTremont25.020.417xxxxxEarl's (rest)Subwayxxxxxxxxx3Parking in middle of block IWynkoopWazee37.635.84633xxxxxbooksxxDixons (rest)xxxxxxxxx2 Tattered Cover, Wine in the Alley, Alley is very wide, Surface Pkg is under construction JWazeeBlaken/a19.81612xxxxxIllegal Pete's (rest)xWorld of Beer (const)xxxxxxxx4 3 separate surface pkg (behind Rio's patio, 15th, and wazee), Rio, Illegal Pete's and WOB all have outdoor seating KBlakeMarketn/a19.818xxxxxNoodlesofficexxxxxxxxx3 Qdoba has both inter ior setback, outdoor patio and adjacent surface pkg that attach on to alley LMarketLarimern/a21.8 16 x x x x x(construction) pkg struct x xx x x x Most of block is under construction due to large residential MCurtisChampa16.516.817 xx xx x xRialto Cafx ModMarket (const)xx xxxxx xxx x4Modmarket is currently under constr., space currently vacant NChampaStoutn/a16.613 xx x x xx bldg. entr. clothing (Ross)x x xxx x xx x 2bus stop OStoutCalifornia8.213.91614xx x x xx shoes hair salon x xx xx xx x3bus stop, Ruth's Chris under const on 15th PCaliforniaWelton12.6n/a16 xx x x x xJ Johns (rest)x Ink Coffee x x x x xx x 1Lots of bik es racked in Alley Notes Alley ID GIS/CAD data supplied by the City was not sufficiently exact to determine alley width. Metadata with the files indicated that parcel data was approximate, and building footprints were traced. Google Earth measurement are similarly inexact due to differences in the hieght of adjacent building s, from which measurements were taken. For preliminary study purposes, all alleys except Alley I are assumed to be approximately 16 feet; more exact field measurements will be taken for alleys selected for pilot project design. DoorsWindows Trash Drainage LightingSecurity Entry Parcels: 16th Land Use Redevelopm ent Alley Location Paving Material Overhead Utilities Pkg Strct Access vac_pkg* Fire Esc GIS/CADGoogleEarth Width* Appendix 2: Inventory and Evaluation MatricesExisting Conditions Matrix

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Alley Enhancement Project 108 Alley Enhancement Program AlleySorting &Classification Feb 4, 2014 DRAFT access 123 Alley existing entriesin alley outdoor dining surf pkgblock %highavglow# window wrap (16) window wrap (15 or 17) pass through (private) bus stop #of routes UpdateCirculate Activate + Enhance A x15%x 13 2 Oxford Hotel, Old Seed Building x TCover, Ox Hotel xx x B xxx30%x72 Swing Thai has entrance in Alley xx xlater C x15% x 8 1 restaurantrow, large setback behind restaurants x D x5% x6 1 Magnolia x4 rapexx E x5%x171arch. character x3 okayxx F x45% x421 Great Clips x3 x G xxx20%x 222 Paramount Thtr x4Pavillions good x H x x 2011 x1Pavillions xx I xxx10% x422historic character, wide alley T Cover good x J x(mid)x x 2221 Rio has large patio in center of block that has asurfacelot behind it xx4 x xlater K x(mid)x10%x 222 Qdoba has large outdoor dining xx x L x2 Under Construction x8 x M xx40% x 92 x4 x x N x25% x51 x5 x O x2 0x Ruth's Chris under const on 15th x4 x P x75% x12 Bikes racked in alley x4 x later difficult issues weak potential for high level enhancement bonus' strong potential for enhancement Preliminary Sorting safety/ security issues surface parkingdumpster bus stop other features Other overhead utilities use orig/dest ECON DEV/AMENITY/OPEN SPACE CATEGORY 1 entrycharacter CATEGORY 2 CIRCULATION Existing Conditions Matrix

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Appendices 109 Alley Enhancement Program Task 3: Alley Types Pilot Project Criteria March 6, 2014 DRAFT Pilot Project Goals The 16th Street Mall Alley Enhancement Project will select three alleys to be used as pilots for conceptual alley design. The goal of these concept designs is to illustrate conceptually how a variety of urban design tools and hard infrastructure technologies could be combined to address the most common issues found within the 16th Street Mall Alleys. These pilot designs are meant to serve as templates that can be transferred to any alley along the mall, and are not designed with any expectation of immediate construction. The pilots, instead, are meant to model what goes into an alley enhancement project: what elements could be included, critical path and phasing of those elements, policy and p ermitting procedures (and any changes thereto), and how to design enhancements to not preclude or even set the stage for eventual conversion to a higher type of alley (as defined in the alley typology). Once funding is found to advance concept design into actual engineering an d construction, initial projects should be carefully selected to act as both demonstration and showcase; the goal is to exhibit the potential alleys can offer, and to build excitement and support among stakeholders so that the enhancement program can continue and grow. It is likely, but not required, tha t the pilot alleys themselves will be advanced to actual design and for this reason, alleys chosen as pilots for this initial concept phase should take care to address the most common issues in the alleys but also have the highest chance for success, leaving the most complex, difficult or unique issues for later study and resolution so as not to unduly burden initial efforts with excessive costs or schedules. It would also be advantageous for alleys with the strongest potential, those identified as future Type 3: Activate and Enhance alleys to be used for pilot projects, regardless of which type th ey are used for in the pilot process. In this way, regardless of the amount of funding identified for initial construction, alleys with the strongest potential will be first in line for actual enhancement and additional, long term funding wont have to start over from scratch but can instead build on i nitial improvement already made in this first wave. The following criteria were used in evaluating which alleys present the best chance of early success while also providing the ability to serve as a template for additional alley design. Failure in the first category duplicability would automatically exclude an alley from consideration as a pilot, while the second categorythird pa rty funding would automatically bump a category to the top of the priority list. Other criteria are weighted evenly with a simple 1/0/+1 scoring system. Duplicability Does the alley have any unique features or issues that would make it less applicable as a template? (yes: automatic elimination) Alley Enhancement Program Task 3: Alley Types Pilot Project Criteria March 6, 2014 DRAFT Funding Are any adjacent owners or tenants willing to provide funding? (yes: automatic priority) Does the alley enhancement align with an existing or near term, future project that can provide funding? (yes: automatic priority) Stakeholder Support Have the adjacent tenants or owners expressed inter est, support or opposition regarding alley enhancements? (neutral: 0 support: +1) Cost + Schedule Does the alley have any unique issues that would add to cost or schedule of project? (yes: 1 neutral/average: 0) Does the alley have any not unique, but higher than average occurrence of issues requiring coordination with other de partments or governing bodies? (example: need to resolve alcove/fire egress issue before the alley would be considered safe) (yes: 1 neutral/average: 0) How extensive an outreach and coordination process will be required, based on number of adjacent parcels? (<10 parcels: 0 10+ parcels: 1) Opportunities How many pros does the alley have, relative to other alleys? (exa mples: outdoor dining, primary entries in alley) (score varies: see notes column) How many cons does the alley have, relative to other alleys? (examples: little space to consolidate dumpsters) (score varies: see notes column) Visibility How does the alley compare to other a lleys in terms of existing pedestrian use through it? (low: 1 medium: 0 high: +1) How does the alley compare to other alleys in terms of existing pedestrian use adjacent to it? (low: 1 medium: 0 high: +1) Mall Location: If multiple pilot projects are chosen, we recommend selecting a project in LoDo, in the center of the Mall and in the east portion of the mall, so as to distribute benefit in different areas of the 16th Street Mall? Pilot Project Criteria

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Alley Enhancement Project 110 DuplicabilityStakeholdersTrashTiming Stakeholders TransitDest. TransitOwnersrest/bar office strct pkg surf pkg hotel residen tial e.tainm nt retail#of routes northsouth #of dmpster place to consol. # adj parcels same block, 15 / 16 / 1 7 same block, 14 / 18 same block, furthe r A 00 1 101.25 0.754LoDoxxxxxx0 noneT'dCover131011 B 00 1 100.25 1.755LoDoxxxxxxx0 nonenone7 12 1 C 000000.75 0.753 LoDoxxxxxx0nonenone8 6 11 G 000011 21 E xxx xx4nonePavillions22 71 Ix LoDoxxxxx0T'd Covernone4 61 Jx LoDoxxxx x4none none22no14 1 M 100 110.25 1.252 W x xx x4nonepkg strct9 12 1 Px E x x 4noneHyatt1 10 Recommended Pilot Projects*See designateddestinations on Existing Conditions map.ELIMINATION ASPILOT PRIORITYASPILOT Alley Funding Cost +Schedule #of adj parcels less viable as template stakeholder opposition delay due to changing conditions or current project Adjacent stakeholders willing to provide funding aligns with current or near term project that can provide funding stakeholder support unique issue OTHERCRITERIA large number of dumpsters, little/no location to consolidate Rank Trash Supporting Data Destinations* Score Mall location* Land Use:Ground Floor signif. coord. req'd pedtraffic generator View Terminusor Destination Proximity to destinations Pilot Project Matrix