Citation
Downtown area plan : Denver's first pedestrian priority zone, 2011

Material Information

Title:
Downtown area plan : Denver's first pedestrian priority zone, 2011
Creator:
Glatting Jackson Kercher Anglin, Inc.
Calibre Engineering, Inc.
University of Colorado Denver
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
City and County of Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
City planning
Spatial Coverage:
Denver -- Downtown

Record Information

Source Institution:
Auraria Library
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text




EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Executive Summary
To achieve a vibrant, economically healthy, growing and vital
Downtown, Denver must be committed to a sustained effort in each of
the elements: Prosperous, Walkable, Diverse, Distinctive and Green.
Downtown Area Plan
Implementing A Walkable City's framework is intended to be a policy
document focused on prioritizing the needs of the pedestrian for
the physical, regulatory and economic decisions facing Downtown.
It is intended to be a long-term guide for the numerous partners
responsible for the caretaking of Downtown Denver. To accomplish
goals within the framework, community planners and municipal
decision-makers must collaborate working toward creating
environments that encourage safer environments for walking and
bicycling.
Under the direction of the Downtown 2027 Committee, the Downtown
Denver Partnership (DDP) initiated the Pedestrian Priority Zone
Work Group in December 2008. The Work Group was charged with
identifying and defining an implementation/action plan that could
include programs, policy initiatives and/or physical installments that
will encourage a pedestrian-friendly Downtown. The Work Group
comprised of 21 people represented a number of City agencies as well
as historic preservation groups, health professionals, urban designers,
transportation planners, DDP Transportation and Development Council
members and DDP staff.
The Work Group reviewed several current and adopted plans for the
Walkable City's Implementation framework document including:
the Downtown Area Plan (DAP), Downtown Multimodal Access Plan
(DMAP), the Strategic Transportation Plan (STP), Blueprint Denver and
Greenprint Denver. All current Bond Projects were also a part of the
approach including: Larimer Street improvements between 15th and
17th, 14th Street Initiative, 16th Street Mall Infrastructure Assessment,
16th Street Urban Design Plan and the upcoming 16th Street Pilot
projects.
Organization of the Document
Introduction, illustrates the DAP's second Vision Element for A
Walkable City. Through city building components and guiding
principles the pedestrian priority framework emerges as a truly
sustainable, livable and economically strong place. The focus of city
building requires a new emphasis on the pedestrian environment. If
we cannot begin to design for the health of ourselves, we will not be
promoting the health of our City. Implementing A Walkable City will
seek to align Denver's city building entities with a strategy enabling
a more cohesive and pedestrian-friendly Downtown, encouraging all
types of physical activity.
Systems, examines the current mobility systems that define the
foundation of Downtown's primary pedestrian network. The current
systems of vehicles, transit, bicycles and pedestrians within Downtown
impact the pedestrian network's connections and viability in various
ways. It is important that the implementation of A Walkable City be
in partnership with, and not at the expense of, any single mode of
transportation into Downtown.
Framework, defines the structure of Denver's future pedestrian
environment that will guide investment decisions. Implementing A
Walkable City's framework is organized by four street types serving
Downtown Denver: Transformative, Boulevard, Equity and Priority
Streets. This lexicon of streets govern the form, functioning and
implementation of future Downtown pedestrian improvements. This
framework supports putting the pedestrian first in each step of the
design and decision making process; yet recognizes that no decision
can be at the expense of other important physical, social and economic
needs facing Downtown Denver.
Supporting Research, presents several key documents which were used
for research and standards throughout Implementing A Walkable City's
framework. These include:
The University of Colorado Denver Planning Studio One's
discoveries, assessments and recommendations for the
Pedestrian Priority Zone.
Research and test cases supporting health impacts of pedestrian
environmental design.
The standards for basic streetscape design in the Downtown
Multimodal Access Plan.
Implementation, establishes the goals of this framework securing a
common nomenclature and set of priorities developing a common
vision shared by various departments within the City, the Downtown
Denver Partnership and the private development community. The
implementation framework is set up in four time-frames:
Immediate
Short Term
Mid-Term
Long Term
The roles and responsibilities of the all the partners needed to
implement Denver's first pedestrian priority zone are listed in a project
matrix in terms of actions, studies and projects ready to seek funding
for construction.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone


Prepared for the Downtown Denver Partnership with the direction of the Pedestrian Priority
mhH puff nr Zone Work Group Members:
Bill Oberman DDP Transportation and Development Council
Bill Wenk Golden Triangle/Landscape Architect
Brian Mitchell City Public Works
Carla Madison City Council
Cassie Milestone DDP Urban Planning Manager
Crissy Fanganello City Public Works
Dave Erickson City Environmental Health
Ellen Ittelson City Community Planning Department
Emily Kreisa City Bike & Pedestrian Coordinator
Grant Bennett Denver Urban Renewal Authority
Jennifer Cordes Downtown Denver Leadership Program 2008
Jeremy Klop Private Traffic Consultant
Jill Jennings Golich Auraria Campus Colorado University
John Desmond DDP & 2027 Committee
John Olson Historic Denver
Ken Schroeppel DDP Transportation and Development Council
Laureen Ferris City Human Rights & Civil Rights
Mark Bernstein City Parks & Recreation
Monica Buehlig Kaiser Permanente Live Well Colorado
Richard Rost Regional Transportation District (RTD)
Tim Martinez City Office of Economic Development
Prepared by
Glatting Jackson Kercher Anglin, Inc.
[C GLATTING JACKSON KEBCHER ANGLIN
1523 18th Street Suite 101
Denver, CO 80218
Calibre Engineering, Inc.
'Calib/e
8201 Southpark Lane
Littleton, CO 80120
University of
Colorado Denver
Special Thanks to the
University of Colorado, Denver -
Urban Planning Studio Spring 2009
Professor Gideon Berger
The photographs used in this report are used with
permission from the Downtown Denver Partnership,
students at the University of Colorado, Glatting Jackson,
Walkable Communities, the City and County of Denver
and Calibre Engineering.


Table of Contents
Introduction
Systems
Vision for A Walkable City
Pedestrian Priority Zone Proclamation
Project Approach
^ Principles of A Walkable City
Accessible
Comfortable
Connected
Convenient
Engaging
Vibrant
Components of A Walkable City
Streets
Intersections
Sidewalks
Public Spaces
Land Use
Architecture
Current Systems
Vehicle Circulation
Transit
Bicycle Network
Generators & Destinations
Walking Sheds
Framework
^ The Framework
Transformative Streets, Parks & Trails
Boulevards & Mobility Streets
Equity Streets
Priority Streets
Priority Street Assessment
Priority Street Sidewalk Completion
Priority Street Intersection Design
Structuring the Pieces
Immediate
Short
Mid-term
Long-term
Discovery
Planning One Studio Projects
^ Downtown Multimodal Area Plan
Streetscape Standards
^ Living Street Initiative




Vision for A Walkable City
Pedestrian Priority Zone Proclamation
Project Approach
Principles of A Walkable City
Accessible
Comfortable
Connected
Convenient
Engaging
Vibrant
Components of A Walkable City
Streets
Intersections
Sidewalks
Public Spaces
Land Use
Architecture


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION

Vision for
A Walkable City
Walkability is a key ingredient to a successful urban environment. It
enhances public safety, fosters personal interactions, and increases
economic vitality. The great cities of the West, including Vancouver,
Seattle, Portland and San Francisco, all feature street level experiences
that invite and stimulate the pedestrian. Denver's emergence as a truly
livable city requires a new emphasis on the pedestrian environment.
Downtown Area Plan Vision Element Statement
In 2007, Denver City Council adopted the Downtown Area Plan (DAP)
to serve as a twenty year vision plan for leaders, developers and
stakeholders in Downtown Denver. The plan identifies five overarching
vision elements, seven transformative projects and a strategy to
build Denver's downtown as most livable, healthy, sustainable and
vibrant City in the West. The second vision element identified the
need to create A Walkable City that "Puts the Pedestrian First." The
Plan identified walkability as a key ingredient to ensuring Downtown
Denver's success as an urban environment.
The Denver City Council's designation of Downtown as a "Pedestrian
Priority Zone" in October of 2007 catalyzed this study which is
intended to better organize the City's priorities and establish a
policy framework to implement the DAP's second vision element A
Walkable City. By encouraging pedestrian oriented development
patterns that support mixed uses, compact design and a variety of
transportation choices we don't just bring people downtown, we put
them there.
The Downtown Area Plan Strategy Framework Map
k-* -
A. A Prosperous City
Attracting JrttH. r.r and Jnwslment
A1. The Downtown of the Rocky
Mountain Region
B. A Walkable City
Putting
Pedestrians First
B1. An Outstanding Pedestrian
Environment
BE- Building On Transit
C. A Diverse City
Bc-ing a Vwmuv And
Economically Indus:;- Tue
D. A Distinctive City
Cultivaldi^ j
ol Ufben DiitncU
E. A Green City
Building o
Greener Denver
C1. Downtown Living
OL District Evolution
El. An Outdoor Downtown
C2. A Famlty'frlendly Place
A^. A Comprehensive Retail
Strategy
B3. Bicycle City
£3. Sustainable Use of
Resources
A4. Cleon end Safe
B4. Park The Car Once
C4. An International Downtown
B5. Grand Boulevard*
The Downtown Area Plan's 5 Vision Elements
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
8


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
________________
Pedestrian Priority Zone
Proclamation
The vision for Implementing A Walkable City occurred when the
Denver City Council passed Proclamation No. 59, which included
the permanent designation of Downtown Denver as a "Pedestrian
Priority Zone." In addition, other essential plans Blueprint Denver,
DMAP and Denver's Strategic Transportation Plan establish the
policy framework and emphasize the importance of creating a
balanced transportation system where walking, biking, transit and the
automobile are viable partners in mobility.
Pedestrians Get Priority
In 2008, the City began work on several projects that all contributed
significantly to the pedestrian realm. The Downtown Denver
Leadership Program adopted "Enhancing Downtown Denver's
Pedestrian Environment" as its work program for the year. The
10-month study on Downtown's pedestrian realm resulted in a report
entitled "Putting Our Best Foot Forward."
The City kicked-off the Living Streets Initiative to identify policy-based
ways to improve the pedestrian environment citywide. In addition,
the City completed its Strategic Transportation Plan, entitled "Moving
People" which, in a subtle but significant change from previous
policies, identifies person-trips rather than vehicle-trips as the prime
consideration in guiding City transportation, access programs and
projects. Person-trips are the basis of pedestrian priority and creating
an environment which encourages physical activity is imperative.
The importance of understanding health's relationship to the built
environment is extending it's reach in initiatives across the Metro
Denver area. There are noteworthy examples throughout the City
and state of Colorado such as Live Well's Safe Routes to School and
the Stapleton Foundation whose neighborhood motto is: Working
to create a community based healthy living model that insures that
residents and employees can achieve the health they desire.
Pedestrian Priority Zone Work Group
Building on the success of so many essential initiatives, the Downtown
2027 Committee, with the Downtown Denver Partnership (DDP)
initiated the Pedestrian Priority Zone Work Group in December
2008. The Work Group was charged with identifying and defining an
implementation/action plan to include programs, policy initiatives
and/or physical installments that will encourage a pedestrian-friendly
Downtown. The Work Group was comprised of 21 people representing
a number of City agencies as well as historic preservation groups,
health professionals, urban designers, transportation planners, DDP
Transportation and Development Council members and DDP staff.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
9


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION

Project Approach
*
"Achieving good health and wellness includes addressing the underlying
social determinants of health and all disease and illness, and may
include promoting the best achievable physical, psychological,
emotional, social, spiritual and cognitive levels of functioning."
Metro Denver Health and Wellness Commission, 2007
A Walkability Audit by Dan Burden of Glatting Jackson and Walkable
Communities included the participation of the Pedestrian Priority Zone
Work Group, major stakeholders and students from the University of
Colorado Denver Spring 2009 Planning Studio. The tour traversed the
Downtown area and was an opportunity for all involved to observe and
comment on many aspects of the pedestrian realm including: safety,
accessibility and comfort.
After the audit, the students were assigned areas of the Downtown
Area Plan as their Spring studio project. Downtown was divided into
four project areas: Auraria, LoDo and Ballpark, Commercial Core
and the Golden Triangle. Using a guiding set of principles based
on the Vision of A Walkable City, the students evaluated each
area's pedestrian quality with the City of Denver's policies. From
this evaluation, the students and their advisors at Glatting Jackson,
developed a pedestrian hierarchy framework for the streets:
Transformative Streets describe the premiere public places of
Downtown Denver and marquee features of A Walkable City, each
place is a unique and custom designed pedestrian experience.
Boulevards are embedded in the City fabric; designed to move
large numbers of vehicles from one part of the City to another.
Although designed to move traffic efficiently, they are also
landscaped and memorable streetscapes that are comfortable,
safe and attractive to all users.
Equity Streets represent the majority of the Downtown street
network, these streets balance the diverse mobility and access
responsibilities, land use context and transportation demand in the
City. The design expectations should follow the guidelines outlined
in DMAP ensuring the highest quality pedestrian experience.
Priority Street intersections and streetscapes must provide the
highest level of comfort, security and access for all pedestrian
activity. They create an interconnected system that elevates
the pedestrian experience throughout Downtown by managing
potential conflicts with motorists and vehicle circulation
expectations. Priority streets are considered the primary project
catalysts for studies, strategies and construction outlined in the
immediate actions section of the implementation table.
Implementing A Walkable City is an extension of important Denver
policies including the Downtown Area Plan (DAP), the Strategic
Transportation Plan (STP) and the Downtown Multimodal Access
Plan (DMAP).
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
10


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
_________________________________________
Principles of
A Walkable City
Walkability is "the extent to which the built environment is friendly to
the presence of people living, shopping, visiting, enjoying, or spending
time in an area." Dan Burden, Walkable Communities
The quality of the walking environment is influenced by many
variables. The range of physical activity that people are willing to exert
is well documented by marketing professionals. The 500 foot radius
or 10 minute walk is what the majority of people will travel. Designing
an environment that will encourage more physical activity must be
thorough. No one infrastructure action, like wider sidewalks, street
trees or traffic signal prioritization, will ensure a vibrant pedestrian
priority zone in Denver.
Even when communities put in place guidelines and land use policies
designed to encourage non-motorized travel, a more active citizenry
is not necessarily guaranteed. Integrating physical activity into daily
routines requires a more holistic approach promoting a long-term
vision of connecting healthy living into our daily patterns.
Successful application of the guiding principles will attempt
to integrate and unify projects and strategies throughout the
Downtown. Principles built on the vision for A Walkable City apply
a common language for the various departments of the City, the
Downtown Partnership and the development community to share in
implementing Denver's first Pedestrian Priority Zone.
By examining the most walkable urban environments throughout
North America, the work group found key principles contributing to
the quality of the walking environment. These principles describe the
characteristics that should guide Downtown Denver to create a truly
walkable environment. The six principles are:
Accessible
Comfortable
Connected
Convenient
Engaging
Vibrant
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
11


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
A___________________________________________
Accessible
An accessible place is capable of being used by people of all ages and
mobility levels.
The City of Denver is nationally recognized and continues to be a leader
in its compliance with the American with Disabilities Act (ADA). For
Downtown Denver's evolution, to a truly walkable environment to
occur, a shift beyond simple compliance to ADA to an environment that
serves the needs of all is necessary.
Universal Design* principles apply to every age group and all physical
abilities. Universal access should be addressed in the design of all our
transportation modes, public spaces and connections. Every place
within the City should strive to be universally accessible by it's streets,
sidewalks, intersections, architecture, wayfinding and orientation.
*Universal Design addresses limitations and use that we encounter
in everyday living environments, communications and products. The
guiding principles from the center for Universal Design are: equitable
use, flexibility in use, simple and intuitive, perceptible information,
tolerance for error, low physical effort, size and space for approach and
use.
Comfortable
A comfortable place is an environment where the form and the
capacity of streets and public spaces match the pattern of human
behaviors, providing a sense of ease and enabling a feeling of
personal safety with freedom from vexation.
Safety and security are important to the life of City and key to providing
a comfortable Downtown environment at all hours, every day of the
week. While each person's perception of safety, security and comfort
can vary, design can be a powerful tool employed to improve the
pedestrian realm.
Designing for pedestrian activity around streets can lead to increasing
the comfort of Downtown Denver. Empty streets create a hesitant
feeling, while busy streets feel secure. This security in the form of "eyes
on the street" is a significant deterrent to crime. Increasing our physical
presence on the streets Downtown improves the chances that we
might modify our behavior and increase our physical activity on a daily
basis.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
12


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
A__________
Connected
A connected place is a physical and physiological network that offers
multiple routing options to a diverse range of activities, resources,
services and places, encouraging physical activity.
A Walkable City seeks to eliminate gaps and barriers within Downtown
to improve overall connectivity to transit, adjacent neighborhoods,
sporting events, civic destinations, employment, parks, trails and open
spaces. The City has done an excellent job in increasing connectivity to
LoDo with the Central Platte Valley, building pedestrian bridges along
major routes to Downtown. The first Pedestrian Priority Zone seeks to
build on these connections and others to increase access for all users.
As a result, when city destinations are connected to neighborhoods,
a network is created that can encourage physical activity. Physical
inactivity plays a significant role in the most common chronic diseases
related to obesity in the United States, including coronary heart
disease, stroke and diabetes. Each of these is a leading cause of death.
Understanding health's relationship to the built environment through
the connections that roadways, trails, sidewalks and transportation
alternatives offer us is a significant step in developing an environment
which encourages physical activity.
Convenient
A convenient place is a location with clear image and legibility. The
area is easy to understand, providing a sense of being near-at-hand
with visual cues and physical directness to a pedestrian's most
essential needs.
Orientation, wayfinding and routing choices are just some of the
design intentions that make Downtown convenient to a variety of
users. Whether it is the daily pedestrian commuter with errands to
run orthe family is in town for the big game, each usershould have
choices accessing multiple destinations. The Pedestrian Priority Zone
Work Group has identified barriers and suggested improvements for
prioritizing routes that build on the existing wayfinding systems for
destinations in Downtown.
Wayfinding is the organized movement of pedestrians and vehicles
through a complex environment using maps, signs, landmarks or icons.
A good wayfinding system helps users experience an environment in
a positive way and reassures guests that they are on the correct route
as they find their destination. It is important that we are creating an
environment that is engaging and that will provide clear direction and
reinforce the aesthetics and goals of Implementing A Walkable City.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
13


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
A_______________________________________
Engaging
An engaging place is a visually rich aesthetic setting with interrelated
parts, providing a sense of contentment and enabling both formal
and informal forms of social exchange.
Denver has seen an amazing surge of life and activity in the past 15
years. On a day-to-day basis the activity of shops and gathering onl6th
Street is a wonderful example of a place that engages the pedestrian
in many ways. On the other hand, 15th and 19th Streets struggle to
attract and maintain pedestrians daily.
Several contributing factors lead to the positive experiences along a
street from the treatment of building facades, spacing of trees, lighting,
quality of benches, cafe space on wide sidewalks and even trash bins
all add to the experience along the street.
Aesthetics can be a major influence for the engagement of pedestrian
realm in Downtown Denver. And, while there can only be one 16th
Street, it is important to recognize that each street has an important
role in the overall framework of A Walkable City, and all streets should
be enhanced to meet the roles identified in the first Pedestrian Priority
Zone.
Vibrant
A vibrant place is an area pulsating with life, vigor and activity.
Vibrant destinations have grown throughout downtown. A
neighborhood has grown around the ballpark, the Pepsi Center bustles
with diverse events and the Theatre district have all added to the
vibrancy of City life. The variety and large concentration of restaurants
and entertainment venues that appeal to a broad spectrum of users
throughout the day and into the night make Denver a regional draw for
visitors and locals alike.
Many of these attractions are referenced in the implementation
framework along with recommendations on how to support and
enhance the holistic pedestrian experience along the routes to each
destination. Connectivity for the venues, the comfort along the
sidewalk and accessibility throughout Downtown will compliment the
events, parades, festivals and gatherings citywide.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
14


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION

Components of
A Walkable City
The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Every building,
streetscape, programmed event, park and trail can collectively help
create special experiences in Denver, transcending the value of each
contribution individually. Successful pedestrian places throughout
the City are influenced by their combination of physical, social and
economic conditions that contribute to the unique character and
culture of the urban fabric.
Downtown should provide a variety of opportunities for physical
activity and should accommodate a wide range of individual
preferences and abilities. By encouraging development patterns that
support mixed uses, compact design and a variety of transportation
choices we don't just bring people downtown, we put them there.
When development occurs, we should design buildings and places
that are oriented to promote opportunities for active living, especially
active transportation that engages the pedestrian in physical activities.
The complete development of multimodal transportation systems
should provide safe, convenient and affordable access to housing, work
sites, schools and community services the Downtown is more walkable.
The components of A Walkable City's Pedestrian Priority Zone
will help to encourage the design of each street to become a safe,
comfortable and attractive place for pedestrians. Encouraging healthy
physical activity and enabling more people to choose alternative
modes of transportation; helping to further the goals of Greenprint
Denver, Blueprint Denver and the Strategic Transportation Plan. As we
consider implementing these plans, the urban fabric of Downtown and
its walking environment have been broken down in terms of a kit of
parts containing six components:
Streets
Intersections
Sidewalks
Public Spaces
Land Use
Architecture
Applying each of the six principles of A Walkable City to each of the
six Walkable city building components unifies the vision element with
measures for achieving the Downtown Area Plan goal of "Putting the
Pedestrian First." As each component of Downtown is viewed through
the principles, we begin to see the pedestrian priority zone take shape.
A City that encourages physical activity is a strategy that can favorably
improve health and quality of life. Everyone, regardless of age, gender,
language, ethnicity, economic status or ability, should have safe,
convenient and affordable choices for physical activity.
Stapleton Foundation
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
15


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
A______________________________________________
Streets
While a variety of characteristics help shape a great street, the
character of a street can change dramatically with the type, texture and
color of pavement; even the feeling that trees, lane width and spacing
of buildings give. As the primary infrastructure of our transportation
network, streets have a direct impact on the overall character and feel
of the City.
A good network of streets gives the downtown its framework of
blocks defining the size, shape and orientation as well as development
contained within. Streets and alleys provide circulation through and
access to Downtown for motorists, transit and bicyclists. The safe and
efficient operation of streets and alleys is critical to improving the
pedestrian environment and to ensure a continued economic vibrancy
in the City.
Alleys are important to the street network and to the comfort and
vibrancy of the City. The placement of alleys allow the utilities,
maintenance for buildings, service and loading areas to be located
in a common location behind buildings. This hierarchy in the street
connectivity allows for a continuous facade along an uncluttered traffic
street and minimizes curb cuts for pedestrian safety, comfort and
architectural character.
Intersections
Intersections represent the critical junction of all modes of travel. The
safety and efficiency for transportation modes are defined the by the
design and operation of intersections, most importantly pedestrians
crossings at the intersections.
The Downtown Multimodal Area Plan (DMAP) begins to establish
design expectations for intersections or corner queuing zones as a
basic pedestrian design measure. A Walkable City must come with the
understanding that great care must be given to intersection design. The
pedestrian priority zone design guidelines are essential to minimizing
conflicts between different modes of travel.
The intersections within the pedestrian priority zone are defined along
major pedestrian routes. These priority intersections are recommended
for the first phase of implementation. They should be studied as
valuable trade-offs in traffic operations, to decrease walking distances
and improve pedestrian visibility where street geometries allow.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
16


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
A___________
Sidewalks
Sidewalks, in their simplest form, join intersections together and are
the 'pedestrian travel lane'. This closer examination reveals a stage
of activity determined by design considerations like sidewalk width,
pavement type and texture, building placement, awnings and street
furniture giving the City its walkable life.
Good pedestrian access and routing is defined by the sidewalk network
and its quality throughout the City. The role of the urban sidewalk
extends beyond that of a mere pathway for pedestrians. The urban
sidewalk is the connective tissue that unifies the pedestrian experience
within the fabric of the downtown public realm. It is a place for social
exchange, dining, entertainment, shopping and people watching. Such
great streetscapes engage us and enlivens physical activity. People are
willing to walk longer distances when they are in an environment that
stimulates and offers an experience to our destination.
The Downtown Multimodal Access Plan (DMAP) sidewalk minimum
width is sixteen feet in the basic streetscape guidelines. The Pedestrian
Priority Zone Study measured the existing conditions of Downtown
Denver against this guideline along the pedestrian network of the
Priority Streets to find deficiencies and exemplary.
Public Spaces
Plazas, parks and trails are landmarks citywide orienting land uses and
pedestrian activity. These amenities encourage healthy living through
walking, cycling, recreation and relaxation, all factors that contribute to
the physical, social and economic health of Downtown.
Public spaces in every shape and size and their linear companions,
sidewalks and trails represent the heart of the public realm. Their
quality, placement, design and utilization all contribute to the quality of
the City and of the pedestrian experience of Downtown Denver. These
places boost safe physical activities throughout the City. As we make
our way to destinations and areas of interest, a place to stop and watch
the world go by such as inviting greens, lively plazas and views of the
City promote opportunities for active and passive recreation.
There are several great existing Downtown public spaces which give the
City identity and invite a variety of pedestrian experiences 16th Street
Mall, Civic Center Park, Skyline Park, the Cherry Creek Trail, and Platte
River Trail. Additionally, the three pedestrian bridges which serve as
major landmarks bustle with walkers, boot camp exercise classes and
many other public celebrations.
The Walkable City implementation table of actions, studies and projects
along with the Transformative street designation identifies new
opportunities which will add to the vibrancy of Denver's public spaces.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
17


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
A_____________________________________
Land Use
Pedestrian activity and economic vitality in Downtown is generated
by the intensity and diversity of land uses. The different mixtures and
compact building arrangements should always seek to create different
levels of pedestrian activity.
Land uses such as retail, restaurants and entertainment serve as
pedestrian destinations. The ground floor presence of doorways,
displays and outdoor cafes all provide opportunities for socialization
and interaction. These uses contribute to the highest volume of
pedestrian activity and increases the vibrancy of the street.
Office and residential land uses are generators for pedestrian activity.
Their close proximity and mixture with destination land uses are
important to extend the duration of pedestrian activities that utilize
the street. While ground floor office and residential uses tend not
to contribute to the vibrancy of the street directly, they increase the
passive surveillance by providing eyes on the street.
When generators are mixed with destinations that remain open
beyond the six o'clock home time for most employees, the area has
an extended life and creates pedestrian activity into the late evening
hours. The street stays active and is no longer abandon after the sun
sets for the day.
Architecture
The average pedestrian walks at a pace of three miles per hour. For
pedestrians to be adequately engaged and interested the streetscape,
a building or buildings should vary in design or detail about every fifty
feet. This is a very different design requirement from that of a building
seen by a driver.
As most of the urban public realm in Downtown Denver is framed by
the built environment this understanding is extremely valuable. The
careful placement and design of buildings determines how activity can
be maximized along the sidewalk, a plaza or green pedestrian space.
The transparency and consistency of the architecture's relationship to
public spaces can attract or discourage pedestrian activities regardless
of the use contained within the building.
The style of the background building (non-civic) architecture Downtown
may vary from building to building, but the constant treatment of build
to line, delineation between public and private, transparency of ground
floor, first floor ceiling height and accessibility should be related to the
street, plaza or green space that it is a part of.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
18




Systems
Current Systems
Vehicle Circulation
Transit Operations
Bicycle Network
Pedestrian Network
Streets are the primary conduits for all modes of
travel; their design and operation substantially
influence the extent that people will walk, bike or
use transit."
Blueprint Denver


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
_________________A.
Current Systems
Supporting multimodal access to Downtown Denver is encompassed
in the Downtown Area Plan (DAP), Strategic Transportation Plan (STP),
Downtown Multimodal Access Plan (DMAP) and the Living Streets
Initiative (LSI). The current systems that serve Denver have, in the past,
not been treated as an integrated mobility system. Each component:
vehicular circulation, transit, bicycle network and pedestrians have had
a stand alone approach applied to them.
Implementing A Walkable City seeks to fully integrate the street with
the adjacent built environment. Incorporating initiatives like Living
Streets encourages the creation of great places with transportation
options that work for everyone. Simultaneously, A Walkable City
promotes healthier living, economic development and increased
mobility furthering the Visions of the Downtown Area Plan.
Finding the priority pedestrian network within the current systems that
exist is vital to the growth of Denver as an energy and health conscious
national model. The focus on designing streets for primarily vehicular
use, instead of people, has had a dramatic effect on the health of our
nation. As a result, seventy percent of Americans do not achieve the
U.S. Surgeon General's recommendation for daily physical activity.
Creating a safe multimodal City is within the goals of all the current
initiatives for Downtown Denver's transportation network.
Defining the priority pedestrian network among the current systems
of transportation within Downtown Denver took into account the six
principles accessible, comfortable, connected, convenient, engaging
and vibrant and applied them to examine the six walkable city
building components streets, sidewalks, intersections, public spaces,
land uses and architecture for A Walkable City.
The basic mapping of the priority pedestrian network began with the
Downtown Multimodal Area Plan's pedestrian shed identifications
(see Pedestrian Network Map on page 31). This initial analysis lead
to the key generator and destination locations. Where the two
overlap informed the existing priority pedestrian network. Next, the
sidewalks were examined within the priority pedestrian network for
DMAP sidewalk standard compliance. A further study of intersection
improvements gives Downtown Denver the first Priority Pedestrian
Zone. This priority zone creates a hierarchy of projects and outlines the
initial phase of projects and implementation.
The current systems of vehicles, transit and bicycles within Downtown
impact the pedestrian network's connections and viability in various
ways. It is important that the implementation of the Pedestrian
Priority Zone be in partnership with, not at the expense of any single
mode of transportation into Downtown. The following maps of the
current systems will show the importance of designing in an integrated
and holistic manner.
The current systems that we analyzed are:
Vehicle Circulation
Transit Operations
Bicycle Network
Pedestrian Network
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
22


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
Current Systems Vehicle Circulation, Transit Routes, Bicycle Network and Pedestrian Network
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
23


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION

Vehicle Circulation
The efficient flow of vehicular traffic to and from Downtown is critical
to its long-term success and viability as a regional destination. Single
occupant private vehicles account for over 70% of all trips accessing
Downtown Denver. This study examined regional traffic flow,
primary corridors providing metro access (boulevards) and important
Downtown internal streets serving the businesses and events within
the City.
The regional traffic flows, from the major access networks, to
Downtown Denver are unique because these streets physically define
the edges of Downtown. With the exception of Speer and Colfax, two
important corridors that do not penetrate the Downtown core.
Major regional access to and from the Interstate network include:
Auraria Parkway, Brighton Boulevard, Park Avenue, 20th Street,
Speer Boulevard, West Colfax Avenue, and 6th Avenue.
The primary corridors providing cross-town access are mobility based
arterials or Boulevards. The traffic on the majority of these Downtown
corridors have a low percentage of through trips because Downtown is
a destination. A vital component in the primary corridors is that they
are redesigned so that pedestrians can safely cross at regular intervals,
access businesses and comfortably wait for transit.
Primary corridors within Downtown Denver providing metro
(district to district) access across Downtown include: Auraria
Parkway, Colfax Avenue, Speer Boulevard, and 6th/8th Avenue
couplet.
The need for efficient internal traffic operations and the needs of
the pedestrian should be balanced along important internal streets.
Transit, land uses and economic vitality are all dependant on these
balanced streets and everyone can benefit from the pedestrian safety
and foot traffic.
Important balanced streets that distribute traffic within Downtown
include: the 17th/18th Avenue couplet, the 13th/14th Avenue
couplet, the Lincoln/Broadway couplet, and the Santa Fe/Kalamath
couplet.
Higher volumes of traffic distributed through and around
downtown include 20th Street, the Broadway/Lincoln couplet
(south of 20th), the 15th/17th couplet and the Market/Blake
Street couplet.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
24


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
vJ
Vehicle Circulation Diagram
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
25


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
Transit
The Denver Strategic Transportation Plan (STP) shifted the focus of
the City's transportation system from the movement of cars to the
movement of people via all modes of transportation. It states that
Denver can no longer afford the physical, environmental, economic
and financial costs of depending solely on the automobile to meet the
transportation needs of the City. Downtown's continued growth and
prosperity will be increasingly dependent on transit that will serve a
larger share of the future multimodal needs of Denver.
The implementation of the Pedestrian Priority Zone is a critical
element that will enable transit to become a reliable regional
transportation option. A balance is necessary to ensure that such
decisions support, not burden, the efficient delivery of people
to Downtown. With people in mind, the implementation of the
Pedestrian Priority Zone must also influence the improvement of the
walking environment and access around transit stations and stops.
Transit's ability to deliver more people Downtown is dependent on
Downtown being welcoming and favoring the needs of pedestrians.
Downtown Regional transit service is currently organized around the
heavily utilized 16th Street Mall. The 16th Street Mall shuttle links
RTD's Civic Center, Market Street Station and Union Station transit
exchanges. In addition, it also connects the RTD Central and Platte
Valley light rail corridors at the California St. and Stout St. intersections.
The FasTracks plans for 2017 return Union Station as the primary
transit hub of the Front Range coalescing the five regional transit
corridors delivering and exchanging people to Downtown.
To round-out the transit reach and demand in Denver a Downtown
Circulator transit shuttle is being proposed on 18th/ 19th and
Broadway/ Lincoln to help carry the anticipated increase in passenger
loads resulting from Denver Union Station opening. This shuttle is
proposed to reduce the demand on the 16th Street Mall shuttle and to
extend the reach of the pedestrian to the east side of Downtown.


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
Transit Routes
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
27


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION

Bicycle Network
The City Council and Mayor's office is committed to improving the
bicycling environment of Denver. In 2008, Mayor Hickenlooper charged
the City to increase its mode share of bicycling to 10% from the current
share of 6%. The Department of Public Works is already putting money
and resources toward this goal by using $250,000 in stimulus funds
to stripe new bike lanes in 11 city locations, including bike lanes on
Champa, Welton and Tremont Streets.
With additional bicycle lanes to aid in the safety of pedestrians and
cyclists, achieving a 10% mode share will put Denver in the upper
echelon of bicycling for the entire country. Additionally, during the
Democratic National Convention a bicycle share was tested throughout
the city. Hopes are that the B-cycle program will be available across
downtown in the summer of 2010. B-cycle is "an affordable, clean and
simple way to get around town. Good for your health, your pocket, your
environment."
Mayor Hickenlooper also instituted the bike loaner pilot program for
City employees providing an alternative transportation system that
enables City employees to lead by example, supporting the goals of
Greenprint Denver, the Living Streets Initiative and Denver's Strategic
Transportation Plan (STP). Denver B-cycle will hope to establish an
efficient, diverse and accessible transportation system that reduces
traffic congestion, saves energy, improves air quality and encourages
healthy routines.
A comprehensive bicycle network is an integral part of the multimodal
transportation system that delivers pedestrians into Downtown. The
current planned bicycle network lane additions create connections
throughout Downtown linking neighborhoods and providing access to
regional trails extending the reach of pedestrians. The implementation
of the pedestrian priority zone should accommodate the needs of the
cycling environment while balancing the needs of the pedestrian.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
28


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
29


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION

Pedestrian Network
Downtown Denver's primary pedestrian network is determined by
linking some of its key generators and destinations that bring and keep
people Downtown. The pedestrian priority generators include: transit
hubs, parks and trails, entertainment venues, civic and institutional
venues, retail concentrations and hotels. A key generator like the 16th
Street Mall also serves as a destination.
Development over the last fifty years has been generally outside
of the Downtown area. This form of building has lead to physical
activity being engineered out of most people's lives as the bigger box
development destinations reduce people's ability and willingness to
get around without a vehicle. However, as economic reinvestment
slowly comes back into neighborhood's downtown, we confirm the
reality of sprawling development is at the very high cost of not only
infrastructure and fuel, but of physical and mental health.
The identification of pedestrian sheds* is guided by research that
shows most pedestrians (about 70%) will walk 500 feet, which is a two
minute walk. The same research indicates that only one in ten persons
will walk up to a half mile, orten minute walk. Using these established
preferences, the pedestrian sheds shown on the following map are
determined from key generators and destinations in Downtown.
The 500-foot radius around the generators and destinations reveals the
current primary pedestrian network serving Downtown Denver. These
streets and trails serving downtown fall mostly within the two minute
walk, and most also been identified as key pedestrian corridors in the
Downtown Area Plan as well.
In addition to the street connections, the pedestrian bridges are a
beautiful part of the network linking the Highlands, Platte River Valley
and Cherry Creek Trail. The three bridge sequence: Millennium, Platte
River and Highland bridges are incredibly important to the connections
of neighborhoods and recreational amenities in Downtown. Daily these
bridges are bustling with activities like boot camp exercise classes,
walkers, tourists and locals to enjoy the views of Downtown and
Commons Park.
*A pedestrian shed is the area encompassed by the walking distance
from a town or neighborhood center. Pedestrian sheds are often
defined as the area covered by a 5-minute walk (about 0.25 miles,
1,320feet, or 400 meters). They may be drawn as perfect circles, but
in practice pedestrian sheds have irregular shapes because they cover
the actual distance walked, not the linear (as the crow flies) distance.
The Pedestrian Network Map uses the actual, on the ground,
traveling distance. The short network is a 2-minute 500 foot walk.
The longer distance is a 5-minute -1320foot walk.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
30


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
31




Framing
The Framework
Transformative Streets
Boulevards
Equity Streets
Priority Streets
Priority Street Assessment
Priority Street Sidewalk Completion
Priority Intersection Design Guidelines
Denver is a city that will be far more defined by its future
than its past."
John Hickenlooper


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
The Framework
This policy framework seeks to integrate the existing, proposed and
desired transportation systems that will serve Downtown Denver
for the next 20 years supported by the Downtown Area Plan. The
framework outlines a common street lexicon to ensure the successful
implementation of the pedestrian priority zone to which all parties
building, maintaining and advocating for Downtown Denver can agree.
The framework is organized by the four street types serving Downtown
Denver. The framework supports putting the pedestrian first in the
decision-making process yet recognizes that no decision can be at the
expense of other important physical, social and economic needs facing
Downtown Denver.
The four street types are:
Transformative Streets describe the premiere public places of
Downtown Denver and marquee features of the A Walkable City,
each place is a unique and custom designed pedestrian priority
zone experience.
Boulevards are embedded in the City fabric; designed to move
large numbers of vehicles from one part of the City to another.
Although designed to move traffic efficiently, they are also
landscaped and memorable streetscapes that are comfortable,
safe and attractive to all users.
Equity Streets represent the majority of the Downtown street
network, these streets balance the diverse mobility and access
responsibilities, land use context and transportation demand in the
City. The design expectations should follow the guidelines outlined
in DMAP ensuring the highest quality pedestrian experience.
Priority Street streetscapes and intersections must provide the
highest level of comfort, security and access for all pedestrian
activity. They create the first pedestrian priority zone with an
interconnected system that elevates the pedestrian experience
throughout Downtown by managing potential conflicts with
motorists and vehicle circulation expectations. Priority streets are
considered the primary project catalysts for studies, strategies
and construction outlined in the immediate actions section of the
implementation table.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
34


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
35


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
Transformative Streets
D
+j
U
| M
Transformative Streets Transformative Standards are customized and unique to each project
1 ..H
O
P
JL
5
T3
00
M
Transformative Streets along with parks and trails are the premiere
public places of Downtown Denver and marquee features of
Downtown Denver's walkable cityscape. Each place is a powerful
contributor to the character, comfort and identity of Downtown
Denver. These existing and proposed streets, parks and trails include:
16th Street Mall With extensions to the Highlands and Uptown
neighborhoods
Civic Center Park Bannock Street & 14th Avenue
Skyline Park Arapahoe Street
Denver Performing Arts Complex Curtis Street & 13th Street
Union Station Wynkoop Street & 17th Street (west of Union Station
per Master Plan)
Auraria Campus Lawrence Street, 9th Street, & 10th Street
Commons Park Little Raven Street
Cherry Creek Trail Along Speer Boulevard, to Confluence Park
The pedestrian environment is the paramount design feature for
these places and the streets that intersect them, radiating activity as a
destination programmed with events or uses to engage the passerby.
The design considerations should be sensitive contextually and site-
specific; each new Transformative design proposal should be a unique
and custom pedestrian experience.
OBJECTIVES
1) Pedestrian Design Priority
a. Contextual approach with necessary documentation for
design variance requests
b. Universal access standards
c. High quality finishes and materials
2) Integrated Public Space Design
a. Parks / Public Works joint design of streetscape and
infrastructure
b. Each place is supported with a program of events or
activities
3) Priority of Investments
a. High profile independent projects
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
36


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
37


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
Boulevards
Boulevards
to
C
o
Mobility Based with Compliance with
regularly spaced safe American Disability
pedestrian crossings Act and Crime
Prevention through
Environmental Design
DMAP standards
Public Spaces Landscaped, Separated Land uses, Proportional
Memorable and Parking Minimums, & Architecture, Screened
addresses pedestrian Regional Public Spaces Parking &CPTED
safety Compliance
Boulevards are embedded in the City fabric and are designed to move
large numbers of vehicles (as through traffic) from one part of the City
to another. Maintaining vehicularthrough movement is a high priority,
but pedestrians and cyclists should be provided for in the design.
The higher speeds and traffic volumes within the City increase the
need for safe pedestrian and bicycle treatments providing adequate
buffers from the traffic and ensuring regular spacing of safe pedestrian
crossings. Intersections should be particularly emphasized for at access
points at Priority Street connections and access to trail connectivity.
In other words, each of these places must be designed as singular
projects that have their own identity but relate appropriately to
adjacent sites and intersecting streets.
Boulevards currently within the Downtown pedestrian priority zone
include:
Broadway North of 20th
Park Avenue
Speer Boulevard
Auraria Parkway
The pedestrian priority zone study recommends that certain
Downtown portions of Broadway (south of 20th) and Colfax are not
designated as Boulevards because of their high volume of pedestrian
activity. Higher pedestrian expectations should be placed on both of
these corridors to raise them to Equity Street standards.
OBJECTIVES
1) Design for safe and inviting pedestrian crossings
a. Universal access standards
b. Comfortable with refuge islands where possible
2) Integrated Public Space Design or visual termination
a. Parks / Public Works joint design streetscapes and
infrastructure plans
3) Priority of Investments
a. High profile independent projects
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
38


INTRODUCTION SYSTEMS FRAMEWORK IMPLEMENTATION
Boulevard Framework
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
39


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
Equity Streets
to
+J


to
u
fU
Q.
CO
U
25
D
Q_
4
1
to
3
"D
C
fU
D
+j
L>
< MM
Equity Streets Slow Streets, On-street Landscape, Lighting DMAP standards Multiple Uses, Multiple Uses, Main Street
parking, Managed & Furnishing, Way Parking Maximums, Parking Maximums, Architecture, &
Driveways, & Minimum finding, Bi-directional & Distributed Public & Distributed Public Structured
Turn Lanes signage, Barne's Dance Evaluation Spaces Spaces Or Placed Parking
Equity Streets represent the majority of streets within the Downtown
area. These streets balance the diverse mobility and access
responsibilities, land use contexts and transportation demands within
Downtown. Equity Streets accommodate pedestrian traffic and vehicle
traffic in an equal setting. These streets have multimodal demand
requirements higher than Priority Streets. The design of Equity Streets
should follow the design guidelines outlined in DMAP, ensuring the
highest quality pedestrian experience.
Equity Streets serve an important function in providing transportation
choices. They are designed to provide a balance of service for all
modes of transport, including vibrant pedestrian environments, high
transit demand, bicycling comfort and significant traffic volumes.
The important balanced streets that distribute traffic within Downtown
include: the 17th/18th Avenue couplet, the 13th/14th Avenue
couplet, the Lincoln/Broadway couplet, and the Santa Fe/Kalamath
couplet. Mobility role, high traffic volume, Equity Streets distributed
through and around downtown include 20th Street, the Broadway/
Lincoln couplet (south of 20th), the 15th/17th couplet and the
Market/Blake Street couplet.
OBJECTIVES
1) Enhanced street environments
a. Improved orientation & wayfinding
b. Maximize on-street parking
c. Minimize off-street parking frontage
d. Limit driveways and curb cuts
2) Multimodal Streets
a. Supportive of exclusive bus lanes
b. Supportive of improved bicycling environment
3) Intersection Modifications
a. Seek to eliminate double turn lanes
b. Seek appropriate pedestrian cycle lengths and shorter
pedestrian wait times at signals
4) Priority of Investments
a. Regulate for long-term improvements
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
40


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
Equity Street Framework
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
41


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
Priority Streets
to
+J
gugin ii

to
u
fU
Q.
CO
U
to
3
"O
c
fU
D
+j
o

Priority Streets
Shared Streets, On-
street parking,
(No driveways) & No
Turn Lanes, Evaluate
Two-way operations
Quality Materials,
Landscaping, Lighting
& Furnishings, Way
finding, Bi-directional
signage, Bulb-outs,
Barne's Dance
Evaluation
DMAP standards
Mixed uses, No
Parking
Requirements,
Civic Buildings w/
Integrated
Public Spaces
Mixed uses, No Parking
Requirements, Civic
Buildings w/ Integrated
Public Spaces
Ground Floor
Retail /Commercial
Architecture &
Incorporated Parking
The goal of the Priority Street designation is to create an
interconnected pedestrian network that elevates the pedestrian
experience by raising expectations of sidewalks, streetscape, universal
access, connectivity and intersections. The intersections must provide
the highest level of comfort, security and access for pedestrians. The
architecture of buildings should enhance the pedestrian realm and
encourage pedestrian activity. Vehicle circulation expectations will
become a secondary consideration to pedestrian needs on the Priority
Streets.
Priority Streets are designated as such from the functional pedestrian
networks that serve the pedestrian sheds of the key generators and
destinations within Downtown. Priority Streets within Downtown,
include: Wewatta, 9th Street, 14th Street, 15th Street, 18th Street,
21st Street, Wazee, Larimer, Lawrence, Curtis, Stout, California,
Glenarm, Tremont, Court, 20th Avenue, 19th, Avenue, 14th Avenue,
13th Avenue, 11th Avenue, Delaware, and Bannock
An assessment of the sidewalk conditions and streetscape along
Priority Streets was conducted to find 'first concern' projects which
could be immediately prioritized as essential to the pedestrian
network. The design of these streetscape improvements, like Equity
streets, should follow the basic design guidelines outlined in DMAP.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
42


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
43


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
Priority Street
Intersection Assessment
The Priority Street intersection assessment studied intersection designs
up against the DMAP standards. The assessment lead to additional
intersection design guidelines to complement the DMAP streetscape
standards by further prioritizing the needs of an interconnecting
quality pedestrian experience from the sidewalk through the street.
The principles and components that defined the Vision for A
Walkable City were used to evaluate the current conditions of the
sidewalks and intersections along Priority Streets during a walking
audit for Downtown Denver. The participating University of Colorado
planning students documented several deficiencies with the current
intersections and sidewalks as they related to the needs of pedestrians.
The assessment deficiencies showed that many intersections negatively
impact the pedestrian experience with inconsistent treatment of
accessibility design, cross signal timing and general disrepair. In some
cases, one way streets allow dual vehicle turn lanes that allow two
traffic lanes to turn onto adjacent streets. Dual turn lanes significantly
impact the visibility of the pedestrian to turning vehicles and should be
eliminated throughout the Downtown Pedestrian Priority Zone.
The added intersection guidelines help to show how curb extensions
can improve the visibility and sight-lines of pedestrians with little, or
no, expense to traffic operation. The improved visibility better alerts
motorists to the pedestrian presence and better alerts pedestrians to
potential conflicts with motorists and bicyclists. Curb extensions reduce
pedestrian crossing distances and allow additional green time for
motorists because of the reduced crossing distances.
The "Barnes Dance" or "all pedestrian walk/ cross phase" at many
of Downtown's signalized intersections allows a single move at
intersection; however, there is only one all-pedestrian phase per
rotation. This increases the wait time for pedestrians, making it
inconvenient and possibly unsafe to cross on the typical green signal.
It also confuses pedestrians who are used to being able to cross when
adjacent traffic moves through the intersection. The preliminary
documentation conducted by the Colorado University students
shows that the quality of the pedestrian experience varies at each
intersection. (See Commercial Core study in Appendix)
OBJECTIVES
1) Enhanced Street Environments
a. Building orientation and design requirements oriented to
Priority Streets
b. Public space design requirements (plazas and sidewalks)
structured to Priority Streets
c. Retail ground floor incentives structured to Priority Streets
d. Street vendor location preference structured to Priority
Streets
e. Improved orientation & wayfinding (all streets)
f. Maximize on-street parking (all streets)
g. Minimize off-street parking frontage (all streets)
h. No curb cuts or driveways along priority frontage
2) Multimodal Streets
a. Supportive to exclusive bus lanes
b. Supportive of improved bicycling environment
c. Encouragement of two-way street operation consideration
3) Intersection Modifications
a. Reduce crossing distances through the creation of curb
extensions
b. Remove double turn lanes
c. Evaluate removal of dedicated single turn lanes
d. Seek to create no right turns on red
e. Seek longer pedestrian cycle lengths and shorter
pedestrian wait times at signals; evaluate the value of the
"Barnes Dance"
4) Priority of Implementation
a. Advance projects to complete intersections of the Priority
Street network
b. Advance projects to fill gaps along Priority Streets to meet
DMAP Standards
c. Advance and catalyze opportunities to complete/expand
Priority System
d. Regulate for long-term improvements (All Streets)
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
44


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
Priority Street Intersection Project Framework
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
45


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
Priority Street
Sidewalk Completion
The sidewalk design in the Priority Street network will follow the
guidelines established DMAP's Streetscape Design Standards (listed in
the appendix). However, under current policies, the implementation of
these standards will take time and may not be realized because of their
dependence on private development's responsibility to implement
improvements.
An assessment of the Priority Street sidewalk conditions was
conducted to illustrate that many of the pedestrian network Priority
Streets do not meet the expectations of DMAP. Of the areas that are
not up to DMAP standards, the inconsistent sidewalks can be classified
as 'first concern' large or small piecemeal projects. Regarding large-
scale projects, the City is already taking on some of these projects with
the 14th Street Initiative and the street restoration effort on Larimer
Street between 15th and 17th.
Other streets, such as Wazee and 21st Street, have only small areas to
repair. The assessment also identified sidewalks that are up to DMAP
standards in width but not in streetscape. Since no implementation
program exists to advance the completion of this system, it is
recommended that the City of Denver revise its sidewalk policies along
Priority Streets. This requires an advancement of the construction of
the sidewalks along the Priority Streets network. Rather than waiting
for the private sector to fill in the gaps concurrent with individual
development projects.
DMAP Multimodal Streetscape Standards
Traffic: Lighting:
One-way, three lanes or DSS street and pedestrian
Two way, two lanes plus lights
left turn lane Trees:
Right-of-Way: DSS with enhanced soil
Typically 80 feet volume tree wells; species
Block Length: to be approved by Parks
Long Block Face and Recreation
Sidewalks: Paving:
16 foot width typical DSS architectural scored
Driveways: concrete
Follow Fundamental Furnishings:
Guidelines DSS benches, news
Improvements: racks, trash receptacles,
DMAP Downtown Standard (DSS) wayfinding signage
Wazee at 18th is an incomplete sidewalk
Wazee at 16th is a complete sidewalk
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
46


INTRODUCTION SYSTEMS FRAMEWORK IMPLEMENTATION
Priority Street Sidewalk Completion Project Framework
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
47


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
Priority Intersection Design
Guidelines
Presented here are two Priority Street intersection designs for
consideration. Each intersection design represents possible conditions
within Downtown and illustrate various considerations for streets with
one-way operation, two-way operation and treatment for intersecting
conditions with Transformative Streets.
ACCESSIBILITY DESIGN
The design of an intersection affects how fast traffic moves, how
effectively drivers yield to pedestrians and how effectively pedestrians
can avoid those drivers who do not. While these intersection designs
meet minimum accessibility standards, there are a number of
improvements that could further improve intersections' accessibility.
These include:
Designing flush curbing (i.e. curbs that are at the same
grade as the street)
Changing paving materials to guide the visually the
impaired and align them with the crosswalks
Ensuring clear sight lines to all pedestrians
Improving visibility of pedestrians to motorists
Allowing for larger queuing spaces for pedestrians
Constructing bulb-outs at intersections to shorten the
distance from curb to curb
AESTHETIC IMPROVEMENTS
A wide variety of improvements can be made to enhance the visual
appeal ofthe bulb outs forthe benefit of the pedestrian orto increase
their functionality. Some of these are listed below:
Planters
Rock, brick, or masonry pavers in sidewalk area
A modular paver system throughout the intersection
Decorative elements such as public art, decorative planter
rails, stamped, stained or sculpted concrete.
Decorative or thematic lighting
Aesthetic Improvements to the design, operation and maintenance
considerations include the following:
Budgeting for the cost of long term maintenance of
landscaping, lighting and irrigation
Budgeting for the long term expense for electricity to
power lighting and/or irrigation systems
Considering truck turning wheel paths when placing
improvements
Providing for additional space if needed for planters
Consulting accessibility experts regarding surface
pavement, curbs, rails and other factors.
Planning for long term maintenance costs of paver
systems
Considering pedestrian storage for high volume
intersections
Considering the needs/impacts of special events such as
parades and festivals
PAVING IMPROVEMENTS
It may be desirable, advisable, or even necessary to repave some or all
ofthe intersections as the bulb outs are being installed. Some reasons
for repaving include:
To repair excessive cracking or sub-grade failure
To defer future closures by tagging-on repaving with curb
return construction
To lower intersection for drainage enhancement
To raise intersection for traffic calming, accessibility,
aesthetic, or drainage enhancement
To install modular pavers, concrete, or stamped, stained,
colored or sculpted concrete
Curb paving maintenance, operation, and design considerations
include:
Designing to minimize future maintenance
Enhancing operation and pedestrian safety by using
pavers or raised intersection to calm traffic
Considering snow plow impacts when creating textures,
lips, curbs or ramps
Designing to improve drainage rather than restricting it
Considering capital costs and long term costs of pavers
and/ or texturing
Considering traffic control and intersection closures during
repaving operations
UTILITIES MODIFICATIONS
A significant number of underground and surface utilities exist in the
various intersections. While every intersection will not require utility
relocations or adjustments, most will to one degree or another. Most
common will be elevation adjustment on valve and manhole lids
and storm inlet relocation. Table A (in the Appendix) projects costs
for utility relocations relative to two levels of complexity, a low cost
relocation scenario and a high cost relocation scenario.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
48


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
Priority Intersection Illustrative
RIGHT TURNS FROM LARGE WB-40
TRUCKS MAY TURN FROM THE LEFT
LANE ON LOW VOLUME STREETS
PLANTERS SHOULD BE RAISED
G* TO PROTECT THE LANDSCAPE
AND TO ORIENT THE VISUALLY
IMPAIRED
BULB OUTS MAY IMPACT SOME
INTERSECTIONS REQUIRING THE
STOP BAR TO BE MOVED BACK.
THI5 5PACE COULD BE USED TO
ACCOMODATE BIKE BOXES ON
STREETS WITH BIKE LANES
BUDGET UMITATION5 MAY CALL
FOR REDUCED LANDSCAPING IN
FAVOR OF COLORED OR TEXTURED
HARDSCAPE
LANDSCAPED PLANTERS ARE
PARTICULARLY IMPORTANT
IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS, BUT
CAN ENHANCE ANY INTER-
SECTION
BIKE RACKS AND OTHER STREET
FURNISHINGS CAN BE PLACED
ADJACENT TO PLANTER BEDS
"Calib e
Basic Intersection Design Recommendations: Two recommendations are illustrated. One design is a landscaped curb extension to be considered
on low volume streets. The second design is a low impact drainage design to mitigate additional stormwater impact.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
49


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
CURB REALIGNMENT
Realigning the curb return is the basic element of the bulb-out. It
provides the most important benefit to the pedestrian experience
by decreasing the walking distance to cross the street and improving
the vehicle driver's visibility of pedestrians. Curb realignment design,
traffic operation and maintenance considerations include the following:
items such as:
Accounting for bus stops and wheel paths
Place benches where additional space is available and
pedestrian gathering might be enhanced
Orient benches appropriately depending on the context
Street drainage is interrupted. This may require:
Additional inlets
Sidewalk grade adjustment
Street grade adjustment
Trench drain installation
of the location
Provide space for bike racks
Considertruck turning wheel paths when placing
furnishings
Evaluate the use of rain gardens considering both the
water quality benefits with the appropriateness of
context and climate design
Existing storm inlet and pipe relocation
Truck turning radius is reduced. This may require:
Various alternative curb layouts depending on traffic
direction, that is, at one-way/one-way, two-way/one-
way, and two-way/two-way intersections
Implementing restrictions to truck turning in specific
locations
Design for rear wheel rollover
Additional signing or striping
Snow removal is somewhat more complicated. This may
require:
Physical signing or marking of bulb out end points
Added maintenance cost for damaged curbs
Additional driver training
Minimum or greater accessibility standards must be met
Traffic Control and phasing during construction will be
needed
Bus stops and wheel paths may be impacted and must be
taken into account
LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DESIGN
Curb extensions provide the opportunity to enhance the pedestrian
experience with furnishings and the opportunity to put in place
sustainable, low impact development measures. Some of the
possibilities are:
Provide bike racks to encourage bicycling
Provide benches or other small gathering spaces
Provide "rain gardens" for improving downstream water
quality; use xeriscape/native planting and low maintenance
plant materials
Provide porous paving systems to decrease storm runoff
Maintenance, operation, and design considerations might be
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
50


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION
Transformative Intersection Illustrative
CURB EXTENSION RETURNS
HAVE REINFORCED, SLOPED
CONCRETE APRONS FOR
TRUCK, SNOWPLOW IMPACT,
I 5 RETURN RADII FOR
BUSES AND SWEEPERS-----
RAISED AND/OR TEXTURED
INTERSECTION CAN PROVIDE
DISTINCTION, FACILITATE
DRAINAGE-------------

L j i_ *
in*
r "i r
Z*.
'Jj
PEDESTRIAN CROSSINGS
SHOULD BE COLORED AND
HAVE CONTRASTING PAINTED
OR TEXTURED EDGE STRIPS-
IF LOSS OF PARKING IS
ACCEPTABLE, EXTEND BULB
20 PAST CURB RETURN FOR
ADDITIONAL LANDSCAPING
OR FURNISHINGS---------
I *4
-EDGE PLANTERS CAN BE
DRAINAGE RAIN GARDENS'
OR TRADITIONAL PLANTERS
WITH PLANTINGS, XERISCAPE,
OR FLOWERING PLANT5
-BARNES DANCE CORNERS
ARE FLUSH THROUGH THE
RETURN WITH TRUNCATED
DOMES PER DENVER STDS.

if i
-CORNERS TRIANGLES SHOULD
BE COLORED OR RAISED
PLANTERS TO DIRECT VISION
IMPARED USERS
I-
-THE AREA IMMEDIATELY
ADJACENT TO PLANTERS
CAN BE USED FOR BIKE
RACKS, BENCHES, SIGNS,
OR OTHER FURNISHINGS
"Calib e
Transformative Intersection Design Recommendations
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
51




Implementation
Structuring the Pieces
Immediate
Short Term
Mid-Term
Long Term
Git-r-done."
Larry the Cable Guy


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION

Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
54


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION

Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
55


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION

Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
56


INTRODUCTION
SYSTEMS
FRAMEWORK
IMPLEMENTATION

Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
57


Supporting Research
Discovery
Planning One Studio Work Findings
Commercial Core
Golden Triangle
LoDo/ Ballpark/ Central Platte Valley
Auraria Campus/ Larimer Square/ East Cherry Creek
Downtown Multimodal Area Plan Streetscape Standards
Living Streets Initiative
"That the protection of the great governmental complex known
as the civic center, which the state and the City share is required
in the interests of the prosperity, civic pride and the general
welfare of the people!'
- Wellington E. Webb Municipal Office Building


SUPPORTING RESEARCH

Discovery
Walking Audit route taken with Dan Burden. Start at Union Station.
End at Civic Centre Station
Dan Burden speaking with walking audit participants in Larimer Square
A Walkability Audit was held in February of 2009 by Dan Burden of
Glatting Jackson and Walkable Communities, which included the
participation of the Pedestrian Priority Zone Work Group, major
stakeholders and the students from the University of Colorado Denver
Spring 2009 Planning Studio. The walking tour, led participants
throughout the Downtown to inform, observe and comment on many
aspects of the pedestrian realm including: safety, accessibility and
comfort.
The group traversed the streets and public spaces as Dan laid out the
built City environment in many new ways. Laureen Ferris from the
Denver Office of Disability Rights lent the students three wheelchairs
and canes to make their experience as sensitive to context as possible.
Trying to navigate small sidewalks, curbs that aren't ramped and sloped
pavements gave the group a valuable experience they weren't likely to
forget.
During the walk the group was alerted to city building mistakes as well
as applauding precedent that should be carried throughout Downtown.
Many areas like LoDo and Larimer Square have embraced elements
and components that create exemplary places. Denver is full of great
examples where all the pieces come together and have shown that
when an integrated approach to planning, design and construction are
utilized, memorable places are possible.
After the audit, the students were assigned parts of the Downtown
Area Plan as their Spring studio project. Downtown was divided into
four project areas based very closely on the DAP: Auraria, LoDo and
Ballpark, Commercial Core and the Golden Triangle. Using the six
principles of walkability to evaluate their areas, the students gave
existing conditions and then evaluated each area's compliance to the
City of Denver's policies. From this evaluation, the students, Professor
Berger and their advisors at Glatting Jackson and Calibre, developed a
pedestrian hierarchy framework for the streets.
The following pages represent the summary of extensive and valuable
work that the students contributed to this study. Each summary
includes a description of the project boundary, the goals of the
group, recommendations and in some cases a special study which
the group felt necessary to conduct. We owe a great deal of thanks
and appreciation to Gideon Berger for dedicating his studio to this
assignment and to his students who gave us enthusiasm for the project
and fantastic products. Thanks to everyone who contributed.
Commercial Core: Kale Prewitt,
Chris Quinn, Colin Able, Matt
Cunningham and Emily Silverman
Golden Triangle: Megan Deffner,
Casey Jones, Sara Nadolny and
Yang Ran
Auraria Campus/ Pepsi Centre/
East Cherry Creek: Noah Beals,
Alexa Messer, Bill Sadler, Lisa
Shannon, Nate Winterringer
LoDo/ Ballpark/ Central Platte
Valley: Aisha Alasousi, Ben Remer,
Lela Schaumburg, Derrick Webb
and Scott Wisniewski
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
59


SUPPORTING RESEARCH

Division of project areas for the student evaluations
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
60


SUPPORTING RESEARCH
*
Commercial Core
The Commercial Core comprises the heart of Denver's Central Business
District (CBD). It is bounded by Arapahoe on the northwest, Park
Avenue on the northeast, Welton and Sherman on the east, Colfax
on the south, and Speer on the west. Within these boundaries are
Denver's tallest buildings and highest employment concentrations,
with large amounts of both government (several federal buildings
and the Webb building) and private sector employees. Also contained
in the area are the Denver Performing Arts Complex, the second
largest in the nation, the Colorado Convention Center, and the heart
of the 16th Street Mall. These three destinations are big draws that
pull a significant amount of people into the Commercial Core. Civic
Center Station, Denver's gateway to downtown, spills thousands of
pedestrians into the Commercial Core every day, adding to the reasons
that downtown must become a true Pedestrian Priority Zone.
We examined the current conditions, documenting such things as the
local history, transit and bike networks, current events and trends,
zoning and land use, and the Barnes Dance crossings. While we found
many positive elements, a number of shortcomings were documented
as well. Using the six principles of walkability, we evaluated the
six elements of the built environment to determine what the
shortcomings were.
Additionally, an assessment of the strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities, and threats (also known as a SWOT analysis) was carried
out for each of the identified pedestrian sheds in the study area.
The evaluation of the built environment and the SWOT analysis then
led to six specific goals designed to create a true Pedestrian Priority
Zone in the Commercial Core. The six goals are:
Bring all streets in the Commercial Core to an accommodation
level
Increase pedestrian use of existing open spaces and sidewalks
Improve multimodal activity throughout the Commercial Core
Improve connections to adjacent neighborhoods and districts
Create a true gateway to Downtown at Civic Center Station
Make Arapahoe Square a path, origin, and destination
These goals include both small steps and bold visions that, if carried
out, will dramatically change the look and feel of the Commercial
Core, creating an environment in which the pedestrian feels both
comfortable and engaged. Each goal contains several objectives and
policy recommendations that provide specific actions and programs
that can be implemented to achieve the plan's goals. Finally, potential
phasing and responsible parties were identified to help guide the
process and delineate who is responsible and where funding might
come from.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
61


SUPPORTING RESEARCH

The Barnes Dance Study
Denver is one of the few cities that allow the pedestrians to cross
the intersections diagonally. In Denver termed the "Barnes Dance"
after it's creator Henry Barnes. The process stops vehicle traffic in all
direction for a third of the timing cycle, allowing pedestrians to cross
in any direction including the diagonal. The first one was placed in
1952 at the corners of 17th and Stout Street.
Of the 47 Barnes Dances throughout the downtown, as seen in Figure
14, 37 of them are located within the Commercial Core. For this
reason, a public opinion survey was conducted to better understand
how much they were being used and how well liked are they by those
individuals walking downtown. In order to obtain a higher response
percentage, the survey was kept to 5 short questions. Some questions
were provided with a set of answers and others were left open ended.
The last two questions were added as a way to compile additional
information about the most and least favorite pedestrian areas within
downtown Denver.
80% of the 50 people surveyed came back "In Favor" or "Strongly In
Favor" of having the Barnes Dance, which is by far the most significant
answer. The second shows that the most common response for why
it is well liked is the shorter distance and convenience of it, which is
understandable considering the geometry of the crossing. The third
question does show that, at times, there are individuals that ignore it.
This survey most importantly proves that the Barnes Dance is a well-
liked amenity in the downtown, which should be considered when
deciding how to treat them.
There is also a matter of tradition which should be taken into account.
Denver has a giant public pillow fight every year between light changes
at these downtown intersections (at the pedestrian-only setting in the
cycle) during Halloween. Maybe it's not the fanciest of City traditions,
but if you have ever been witness to the event, I dare say it is a riotous
explosion of feathers and laughter!
Barnes Dance Intersections
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
62


SUPPORTING RESEARCH
" \ v \^' #
Vs ^ V y
%\ ^// v/ ^
Golden Triangle Study Area
*
Golden Triangle
The Golden Triangle is located south of the Central Business District.
Its boundaries are Colfax Ave. to the north, Lincoln St. to the east and
Speer Blvd. to the west and south.
The group began the task of exploring the study area using the Six
Principles of A Walkable City: comfort, convenience, engagement,
vibrancy, connectivity and accessibility. Using these principles as a
means of organization, the group performed an Environmental Scan
analysis. During this exercise the group first brainstormed about the
study area in terms of internal issues (Strengths and Weaknesses)
as well as external issues (Opportunities and Threats).
The Golden Triangle was found to have strengths in terms of the
prevalence of adaptive reuse of historic buildings and the multitude of
bus routes serving the area. Some of the area's weaknesses included
the poor or flawed design of some of the area's buildings (i.e.: Civic
Center Station's bus departure point is a long solid wall blocking the
wonderful view of the Capitol building), evidence of disrepair/ lack of
maintenance or potential "blight".
Some of the area's opportunities include infill and redevelopment and
strengthening the area's identity. Lastly, some of the area's threats
include the perception of the Golden Triangle as a high crime area, and
the large homeless population. The results of this exercise prepared
the group for their final task: the development of recommendations for
the study area.
Goals for the Golden Triangle were created with keeping the
overarching goal in mind: to raise Denver's streets to the level of
priority. To begin this process the group first had the task grading the
streets all throughout the Golden Triangle in terms of three distinct
levels: Accommodation Streets, Equity Streets, and Priority Streets.
The Accommodation level streets can be defined as those
where the pedestrian is provided some amenities (i.e.
sidewalk), however the automobiles take precedence in that
area.
The Equity level streets are those that provide for both the
pedestrian as well as the automobile fairly equally.
The Priority level streets, at the highest level, are those that
hold the pedestrian in the highest regard over the automobile,
with a built environment that encourages use by the
pedestrian.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
63


SUPPORTING RESEARCH

The group's goals for the Golden Triangle, in brief, are as follows:
Create pedestrian bridges that extend over Cherry Creek at
Bannock and 13th to create a safe and pleasant route for
pedestrians coming from the Acoma and Prado pedestrian
shed areas to access the King Soopers urban grocer and
Sunken Gardens Park located on the far west side of high
traffic Speer Blvd..
Create a lively, safe, and vibrant Civic Core area by activating
Civic Center Park. The park should host more events, such as
holiday markets and craft shows. To keep the park activated in
the winter months an ice rink is suggested in the area of the
Greek Amphitheater. An additional building is also suggested
which will house a Children's Art and Exploration Center a
hands-on fun and learning center that would draw families
to use the park. The pathway that currently runs alongside
Broadway should be moved into the park, and trees planted
along the street to provide a pleasant walking environment,
create a buffer to the high volume Broadway traffic, and
encourage pedestrians to walk in the park.
Broadway and Lincoln should be uncoupled as opposite one-
way streets, turning both back to two-way traffic. A Bus Rapid
Transit system is being recommended for the area's length of
Broadway and Lincoln, encouraging use of public transit.
A Woonerf-style street is recommended for Acoma St.. A
Woonerf is a street style that greatly reduces the volume
and speed of traffic, with boundaries that blur between the
pedestrian, bikes and automobiles, and where the pedestrian
clearly has priority over all other forms of transportation.
Creating this style of street on Acoma will bring it back to a
true neighborhood street.
Implement Transportation Demand Management (TDM) in the
form of encouraging area wide Eco Passes, unbundling parking
from housing units sold in the Golden Triangle, and welcoming
to the area a private car-share program.
It is the intent of this group that by implementing these
recommendations the Golden Triangle District will become an
example of a Denver neighborhood with high residency and low
car ownership, an activated place with a concrete identity, an
exciting place for Denver's residents and visitors to enjoy, and truly
a pedestrian priority zone.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
64


SUPPORTING RESEARCH
*
LoDo, Ballpark and the Central
Platte Valley
The LoDo/Ballpark/CPV title represents three places of focus within
the study area and is bounded by Broadway, Arapahoe, 15th, and the
Platte River, encompassing a unique blend of recreation and urban life.
The LoDo section is made up of The Historic District, Writers Square,
and Tabor Center. It is a high-density area with a boutique type culture
and is a rich and vibrant urban environment.
The Ballpark section is anchored by Coors Field and supported by both
the warehouse and upper Larimer neighborhoods. It is a nightlife-
based area that is fueled by the influx of people due to Rockies' games.
The warehouse district has developed in a self-sustaining location of
bars and clubs, while the upper Larimer section is more of mixed use
area with a heavy bar influence. These three sections create the high-
density places that radiate throughout the study area.
The Central Platte Valley is made up of Common's Park bordering
the Platte River and the River Front development. It is a mixture of
recreation, residential, and commerce. A highly successful area that is
well planned and utilized throughout.
The three neighborhoods of our study area, Lower Downtown (LoDo),
Ballpark and the Central Platte Valley (CPV) are locations of high
pedestrian concentration that provide a foundation for creating a
"pedestrian priority zone". The streamlining of these areas through
improved pedestrian connections, more defined bike accommodations,
and modification to bus/vehicle flow all collaborate to take the
pedestrian experience to a higher level that benefits the city as
a whole. In addition, we will be making suggestions for aesthetic
improvements such as community level for the creation of murals for
unused building-wall space.
The key goals for the study area include:
Make every street at least an Equity Street except in special
circumstances.
Establish Larimer as the premier cross-town pedestrian pathway.
17th becomes a multi-modal spine that transports transit users,
cyclists and pedestrians more efficiently.
Wynkoop becomes a world class pedestrian-oriented public space.
21st becomes a neighborhood main street with connections to
Coors.
Field and Arapahoe Square.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
65


SUPPORTING RESEARCH

The most influential plan of the study area is the Denver Union
Station Master Plan and its proposed future development. Denver
Union Station is expected to become a regional transportation
hub where all future light rail, commuter rail, and bus routes
will travel through. The plan includes a "train room" that serves
passenger rail users, as well as an underground bus station that
will replace Market Street Station. As a future major destination,
the entire district is planned for mixed-use commercial, residential
and retail development, some public (shown in blue) and some
private from East-West partners (shown in gray). This is arguably
the most significant real estate development in downtown Denver
and the surrounding pedestrian environment is, to a great extent,
dependent on its success.
The Denver Union Station Master Plan complements our pedestrian
priority initiative, envisioning streets, intersections, sidewalks and
routes around Denver Union Station as attractive, convenient and
safe for pedestrians.
There are at least 25 parcels in the study area planned for new
development. Most of these developments are residential mixed-
use projects, as well as commercial mixed use and Planned Unit
Development (PUD). The PUD projects are planned to transform
the Denver Union Station area from empty parcels to a collection of
high-rise mixed use commercial, residential, and retail development.
Some other key sites of development in the LoDo/Ballpark/CPV area
include:
"Office Depot Block" Redevelopment: W Hotel & Residences
Current: Office Depot
Proposed: 12-story mixed-use hotel and condominium building
with ground floor retail
1800 Market Street
Current: Surface parking lot
Proposed: 13 story apartment building
1800 Larimer
Current: Surface parking lot
Proposed: 22-story commercial high rise with structured
parking
2120 Blake project
Current: Empty lot
Proposed: 180 rental apartments in 8-story building with
ground floor retail
Balfour Cosmopolitan Club
Current: Surface parking lot
Proposed: 264 unit senior housing facility withl60 unit parking
garage
The first senior housing option in the Central Platte Valley
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
66


SUPPORTING RESEARCH
Auraria Campus/ Larimer Square/ East Cherry Creek Study Area
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
*
Auraria Campus, Larimer
Square and East Cherry Creek
This report focuses on the western portion of downtown and includes
the Auraria Campus, Pepsi Center, Elitch Gardens, Larimer Square, and
the East Cherry Creek areas.
It encompasses the portion of the central business district between
Speer and 15th Street, from the Platte River on the north to Colfax
Avenue to the south. It also includes the entire Auraria Campus and
Pepsi Center/Elitch Gardens areas.
Compared to the 16th Street Mall and other areas of downtown, the
roads here are much wider and the speed limits are much higher,
leading many pedestrians to feel unsafe and unlikely to walk as far as
they would if the streets were narrower or more engaging.
The study area has a wide variety of land uses and major attractions
that are vital to downtown Denver's economic engine, so improving
connectivity, vibrancy, and engagement in the study area is a major
goal of the "Pedestrian Priority Zone" plan. Pedestrian activity is
already high in the study area, but is concentrated in two areas: the
Auraria Campus and Larimer Square.
According to a pedestrian baseline study by Space Syntax in 2008,7
there are approximately 70,000 pedestrians on campus per day, and
the majority (70%) are students. Student movement peaks between
8:00 AM and 12:00 PM, while non-student movement peaks at
lunchtime. In 2013, a new light rail station will open up on the west
side of campus, replacing the existing Auraria West station. It will
be the main connection between the West Corridor and the Central
Corridor lines, and RTD estimates that there station will become the
second-busiest in the entire system, with only 26,000 daily transfers
once completed.
Hence, there will be an influx of new pedestrians in the study area
in the near future. On the other side of Speer Boulevard is Larimer
Square, a historic street with a variety of retail and dining options.
According to the Downtown Denver Partnership's pedestrian
movement counts, between 7,000 to 8,000 pedestrians cross through
Larimer Square every day, with over 2,000 pedestrians during the
lunchtime hours alone.
The creation of a pedestrian-oriented downtown zone is cutting-edge
and will transform Denver into one of the most livable, sustainable,
and connected cities in the world. Accessibility and connectivity are
beneficial not only for existing pedestrians in downtown Denver, but
also for tourists and residents of nearby towns who would not normally
venture downtown. Making the streets more walkable can also
encourage more people to choose alternative modes of transportation
otherthan driving.
67


SUPPORTING RESEARCH

However, at this point in time, Downtown Denver is a Pedestrian
Priority Zone in name only. It is merely a concept awaiting
implementation. The focus of this project was to identify the
existing conditions of the streets in downtown Denver and provide
recommendations on how to improve them so that the area can truly
become a Pedestrian Priority Zone. This report focuses on the western
portion of downtown and includes the Auraria Campus, Pepsi Center,
Elitch Gardens, Larimer Square, and the East Cherry Creek area.
The study area has a variety of land uses that complement each other.
There is a college campus, a major sports arena, an amusement park,
a major off-street trail system, and a thriving commercial district
centered on Larimer Square. However, there is a lack of connectivity
between the four centers of pedestrian activity in the study area
(hereinafter referred to as "ped sheds"): Auraria Campus, the Pepsi
Center site, Larimer Square, and the East Cherry Creek neighborhood.
Speer Boulevard, Colfax Avenue, and Auraria Parkway separate these
areas from each other and other downtown destinations and make
walking burdensome. In addition, there is a lack of vibrancy and
engagement on the Auraria Campus, and the abundance of surface
parking lots makes it more convenient to drive to campus than use
other modes of transportation.
As expected, the group found that the city already has a strong
pedestrian infrastructure in most areas of the central business
district and Lower Downtown, but that there is a lack of connectivity
between these two areas and the areas across Speer Boulevard: the
Auraria Campus and the Pepsi Center/Elitch Gardens area. Improving
connectivity between these areas should be a key component of the
city's plan to transform Denver into a "pedestrian priority zone" and
this analysis illustrates the need to prioritize improvements along
streets that intersect Speer Boulevard, Auraria Parkway, and Colfax
Avenue, as well as those streets on the Auraria Campus near future
developments.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
68


SUPPORTING RESEARCH
*
Downtown Multimodal Access
Plan Streetscape Standards
The following is an excerpt from the DMAP Downtown streetscape
plan: master plan, design guidelines, prototype plans, streetscape
standards. A manual prepared for the City and County of Denver,
the Regional Transportation District and Colorado Department of
Transportation in June of 2004.
Organization
The Downtown Streetscape Plan is organized around four primary
sections: the Master Streetscape Plan, Fundamental Streetscape
Guidelines, Prototype Block Plans and Streetscape Standards. These
acknowledge the functional differences between DAMP streets yet also
require a new threshold level of design treatment that improves the
pedestrian environment throughout the Downtown area.
The Master Streetscape Plan maps the required streetscape design
treatment for any right-of-way improvements on various different
streets and corridors in the DMAP area. It is directly related to DMAP -
The Plan in that it implements the overall vision on any given corridor
in the study area.
The Fundamental Streetscape Guidelines set out the basic principles
for design of the urban sidewalk in any block face. Like other
guidelines, these are a starting point for specific project design. Where
the starting point for specific project design. Where the guidelines
cannot be met, a review procedure will allow a proposer to make a
case for why a project cannot meet the guidelines and what mitigating
features can be offered.
The Prototype Block Plans directly correspond to the Master
Streetscape Plan categories and designations. The illustrate and
describe, in detailed plans and sections, prototypical design, layout and
furnishings required on any DMAP street.
The Streetscape Standards catalog the various furnishings, fixtures
and detailed design standards to be used on any DMAP street
improvement. They are referred to as Downtown Streetscape
Standards (DSS).
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
69


SUPPORTING RESEARCH

DMAP Multimodal Street
Section
, 16' 16' * t
4 4 SIDEWALK t ROADBED ^ SO' SIDEWALK # t
4
EXISTING RIGHT-OF-WAY
Traffic:
One-way, three lanes or Two way, two
lanes plus left turn lane
Right-of-Way:
Typically 80 feet
Block Length:
Long Block Face
Sidewalks:
16 foot width typical
Driveways:
Follow Fundamental Guidelines
Improvements:
DMAP Downtown Standard (DSS)
Lighting:
DSS street and pedestrian lights
Trees:
DSS with enhanced soil volume tree
wells; species to be approved by Parks
and Recreation
Paving:
DSS architectural scored concrete
Furnishings:
DSS benches, news racks, trash
receptacles, wayfinding signage
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
70


SUPPORTING RESEARCH
*
Living Streets Initiative
Sidewalk*: 5-8'
lree lawn: 8'
On-Street Parking; 8'
"Transportation is not an end it is a means to having a better life, a
more enjoyable life the real goal is not to improve transportation but to
improve quality of life". Enrique Penalosa
After adoption of the East Colfax Plan and West Colfax Plan, followed
by the creation of a new form-based zone district for Main Streets ,
the City identified the need for a more comprehensive, coordinated
approach to corridor planning .
The emerging Living Streets Initiative brings together eight city
departments/agencies ( Community Planning & Development, Public
Works Environmental Health Office of Economic Development, Parks
& Recreation Greenprint Denver, Budget & Management Office and
Human Rights & Community Relations ) to unify the City's efforts to
redevelop our corridors in support of the Blueprint Denver vision and
the sustainability goals of Greenprint Denver, including the Denver
Climate Action Plan .
The design and ideas of Living Streets are new to us only because we
have relied on the sole responsibility of engineers and some part of
planning or public works to define the roles of mobility. Today, we
know that mobility means so much more than a personal vehicle.
Transit, bicycling, walking and personal vehicles are all balancing
elements in the equation. Solving mobility issues must be an
integrative process that involves every agency which touches the City.
Our ultimate goal through Living Streets is to create a culture and
process which helps to define the roles and responsibilities of the place
makers that must be at the table when critical decisions regarding
infrastructure, land use and transportation are discussed. When we see
the street from building to building, instead of curb to curb, we begin
to understand what a truly Living Street is all about.
Denver's First Pedestrian Priority Zone
71






Full Text

PAGE 1

DOWNTOWN AREA PLANImplementing A Walkable City Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone

PAGE 3

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone EXECUTIVE SUMMARY To achieve a vibrant, economically healthy, growing and vital Downtown, Denver must be committed to a sustained effort in each of the elements: Prosperous, Walkable, Diverse, Distinctive and Green. -Downtown Area PlanExecutive SummaryImplemen ng A Walkable City s framework is intended to be a policy document focused on priori zing the needs of the pedestrian for the physical, regulatory and economic decisions facing Downtown. It is intended to be a long-term guide for the numerous partners responsible for the caretaking of Downtown Denver. To accomplish goals within the framework, community planners and municipal decision-makers must collaborate working toward crea ng environments that encourage safer environments for walking and bicycling. Under the direc on of the Downtown 2027 Commi ee, the Downtown Denver Partnership (DDP) ini ated the Pedestrian Priority Zone Work Group in December 2008. The Work Group was charged with iden fying and de ning an implementa on/ac on plan that could include programs, policy ini a ves and/or physical installments that will encourage a pedestrian-friendly Downtown. The Work Group comprised of 21 people represented a number of City agencies as well as historic preserva on groups, health professionals, urban designers, transporta on planners, DDP Transporta on and Development Council members and DDP sta The Work Group reviewed several current and adopted plans for the Walkable Citys Implementa on framework document including: the Downtown Area Plan (DAP), Downtown Mul modal Access Plan (DMAP), the Strategic Transporta on Plan (STP), Blueprint Denver and Greenprint Denver. All current Bond Projects were also a part of the approach including: Larimer Street improvements between 15th and 17th, 14th Street Ini a ve, 16th Street Mall Infrastructure Assessment, 16th Street Urban Design Plan and the upcoming 16th Street Pilot projects. Organiza on of the Document Introduc on illustrates the DAPs second Vision Element for A Walkable City Through city building components and guiding principles the pedestrian priority framework emerges as a truly sustainable, livable and economically strong place. The focus of city building requires a new emphasis on the pedestrian environment. If we cannot begin to design for the health of ourselves, we will not be promo ng the health of our City. Implemen ng A Walkable City will seek to align Denvers city building en es with a strategy enabling a more cohesive and pedestrian-friendly Downtown, encouraging all types of physical ac vity. Systems, examines the current mobility systems that de ne the founda on of Downtowns primary pedestrian network. The current systems of vehicles, transit, bicycles and pedestrians within Downtown impact the pedestrian networks connec ons and viability in various ways. It is important that the implementa on of A Walkable City be in partner ship with, and not at the expense of, any single mode of transporta on into Downtown. Framework, de nes the structure of Denvers future pedestrian environment that will guide investment decisions. Implemen ng A Walkable Citys framework is organized by four street types serving Downtown Denver: Transforma ve, Boulevard, Equity and Priority Streets This lexicon of streets govern the form, func oning and implementa on of future Downtown pedestrian improvements. This framework supports pu ng the pedestrian rst in each step of the design and decision making process; yet recognizes that no decision can be at the expense of other important physical, social and economic needs facing Downtown Denver. Suppor ng Research presents several key documents which were used for research and standards throughout Implemen ng A Walkable Citys framework. These include: The University of Colorado Denver Planning Studio Ones discoveries, assessments and recommenda ons for the Pedestrian Priority Zone. Research and test cases suppor ng health impacts of pedestrian environmental design. The standards for basic streetscape design in the Downtown Mul modal Access Plan. Implementa on establishes the goals of this framework securing a common nomenclature and set of priori es developing a common vision shared by various departments within the City, the Downtown Denver Partnership and the private development community. The implementa on framework is set up in four me-frames: Immediate Short Term Mid-Term Long Term The roles and responsibili es of the all the partners needed to implement Denvers rst pedestrian priority zone are listed in a project matrix in terms of ac ons, studies and projects ready to seek funding for construc on.

PAGE 4

Prepared for the Downtown Denver Partnership Prepared for the Downtown Denver Partnership with the direc on of the Pedestrian Priority with the direc on of the Pedestrian Priority Zone Work Group Members: Zone Work Group Members: Prepared by Prepared by Gla ng Jackson Kercher Anglin, Inc. Gla ng Jackson Kercher Anglin, Inc. 1523 18th Street Suite 101 1523 18th Street Suite 101 Denver, CO 80218 Denver, CO 80218 Calibre Engineering, Inc. Calibre Engineering, Inc. 8201 Southpark Lane 8201 Southpark Lane Li leton, CO 80120 Li leton, CO 80120 Special Thanks to the Special Thanks to the University of Colorado, Denver University of Colorado, Denver Urban Planning Studio Spring 2009 Urban Planning Studio Spring 2009 Professor Gideon Berger Professor Gideon Berger The photographs used in this report are used with permission from the Downtown Denver Partnership, students at the University of Colorado, Gla ng Jackson, Walkable Communi es, the City and County of Denver and Calibre Engineering. Bill Oberman Bill Oberman Bill Wenk Bill Wenk Brian Mitchell Brian Mitchell Carla Madison Carla Madison Cassie Milestone Cassie Milestone Crissy Fanganello Crissy Fanganello Dave Erickson Dave Erickson Ellen I elson Ellen I elson Emily Kreisa Emily Kreisa Grant Benne Grant Benne Jennifer Cordes Jennifer Cordes Jeremy Klop Jeremy Klop Jill Jennings Golich Jill Jennings Golich John Desmond John Desmond John Olson John Olson Ken Schroeppel Ken Schroeppel Laureen Ferris Laureen Ferris Mark Bernstein Mark Bernstein Monica Buehlig Monica Buehlig Richard Rost Richard Rost Tim Mar nez Tim Mar nez DDP Transporta on and Development Council DDP Transporta on and Development Council Golden Triangle/Landscape Architect Golden Triangle/Landscape Architect City Public Works City Public Works City Council City Council DDP Urban Planning Manager DDP Urban Planning Manager City Public Works City Public Works City Environmental Health City Environmental Health City Community Planning Department City Community Planning Department City Bike & Pedestrian Coordinator City Bike & Pedestrian Coordinator Denver Urban Renewal Authority Denver Urban Renewal Authority Downtown Denver Leadership Program 2008 Downtown Denver Leadership Program 2008 Private Tra c Consultant Private Tra c Consultant Auraria Campus Colorado University Auraria Campus Colorado University DDP & 2027 Commi ee DDP & 2027 Commi ee Historic Denver Historic Denver DDP Transporta on and Development Council DDP Transporta on and Development Council City Human Rights & Civil Rights City Human Rights & Civil Rights City Parks & Recrea on City Parks & Recrea on Kaiser Permanente Live Well Colorado Kaiser Permanente Live Well Colorado Regional Transporta on District (RTD) Regional Transporta on District (RTD) City O ce of Economic Development City O ce of Economic Development

PAGE 5

Vision for A Walkable City Pedestrian Priority Zone Proclama on Project Approach Principles of A Walkable City Accessible Comfortable Connected Convenient Engaging VibrantComponents of A Walkable CityStreets Intersec ons Sidewalks Public Spaces Land Use Architecture Table of Contents DiscoveryPlanning One Studio ProjectsDowntown Mul modal Area Plan Streetscape Standards Living Street Ini a ve Supporting Research The FrameworkTransforma ve Streets, Parks & Trails Boulevards & Mobility Streets Equity Streets Priority StreetsPriority Street AssessmentPriority Street Sidewalk Comple on Priority Street Intersec on Design Framework Current Systems Vehicle Circula on Transit Bicycle Network Generators & Des na ons Walking Sheds Systems Introduction Structuring the PiecesImmediate Short Mid-term Long-term Implementation

PAGE 7

IntroductionEvery increment of construction should be done in such a way as to heal the city -Christopher Alexander Vision for A Walkable City Pedestrian Priority Zone Proclama on Project Approach Principles of A Walkable City Accessible Comfortable Connected Convenient Engaging Vibrant Components of A Walkable City Streets Intersec ons Sidewalks Public Spaces Land Use Architecture

PAGE 8

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone INTRODUCTION I MPLEMENTATIO N SYS TEM S F RAMEW O RK8 Vision for A Walkable CityWalkability is a key ingredient to a successful urban environment. It enhances public safety, fosters personal interac ons, and increases economic vitality. The great ci es of the West, including Vancouver, Sea le, Portland and San Francisco, all feature street level experiences that invite and s mulate the pedestrian. Denvers emergence as a truly livable city requires a new emphasis on the pedestrian environment. -Downtown Area Plan Vision Element Statement In 2007, Denver City Council adopted the Downtown Area Plan (DAP) to serve as a twenty year vision plan for leaders, developers and stakeholders in Downtown Denver. The plan iden es ve overarching vision elements, seven transforma ve projects and a strategy to build Denvers downtown as most livable, healthy, sustainable and vibrant City in the West. The second vision element iden ed the need to create A Walkable City that Puts the Pedestrian First. The Plan iden ed walkability as a key ingredient to ensuring Downtown Denvers success as an urban environment. The Denver City Councils designa on of Downtown as a Pedestrian Priority Zone in October of 2007 catalyzed this study which is intended to be er organize the Citys priori es and establish a policy framework to implement the DAPs second vision element A Walkable City By encouraging pedestrian oriented development pa erns that support mixed uses, compact design and a variety of transporta on choices we dont just bring people downtown, we put them there. The Downtown Area Plans 5 Vision Elements The Downtown Area Plan Strategy Framework Map

PAGE 9

INTRODUCTION I MPLEMENTATIO N SYS TEM S F RAMEW O RK Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone9Pedestrian Priority Zone Proclamation The vision for Implemen ng A Walkable City occurred when the Denver City Council passed Proclama on No. 59, which included the permanent designa on of Downtown Denver as a Pedestrian Priority Zone. In addi on, other essen al plans Blueprint Denver, DMAP and Denvers Strategic Transporta on Plan establish the policy framework and emphasize the importance of crea ng a balanced transporta on system where walking, biking, transit and the automobile are viable partners in mobility. Pedestrians Get Priority In 2008, the City began work on several projects that all contributed signi cantly to the pedestrian realm. The Downtown Denver Leadership Program adopted Enhancing Downtown Denvers Pedestrian Environment as its work program for the year. The 10-month study on Downtowns pedestrian realm resulted in a report en tled Pu ng Our Best Foot Forward The City kicked-o the Living Streets Ini a ve to iden fy policy-based ways to improve the pedestrian environment citywide. In addi on, the City completed its Strategic Transporta on Plan, en tled Moving People which, in a subtle but signi cant change from previous policies, iden es person-trips rather than vehicle-trips as the prime considera on in guiding City transporta on, access programs and projects. Person-trips are the basis of pedestrian priority and crea ng an environment which encourages physical ac vity is impera ve. The importance of understanding healths rela onship to the built environment is extending its reach in ini a ves across the Metro Denver area. There are noteworthy examples throughout the City and state of Colorado such as Live Wells Safe Routes to School and the Stapleton Founda on whose neighborhood mo o is: Working to create a community based healthy living model that insures that residents and employees can achieve the health they desire. Pedestrian Priority Zone Work Group Building on the success of so many essen al ini a ves, the Downtown 2027 Commi ee, with the Downtown Denver Partnership (DDP) ini ated the Pedestrian Priority Zone Work Group in December 2008. The Work Group was charged with iden fying and de ning an implementa on/ac on plan to include programs, policy ini a ves and/or physical installments that will encourage a pedestrian-friendly Downtown. The Work Group was comprised of 21 people represen ng a number of City agencies as well as historic preserva on groups, health professionals, urban designers, transporta on planners, DDP Transporta on and Development Council members and DDP sta

PAGE 10

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone INTRODUCTION I MPLEMENTATIO N SYS TEM S F RAMEW O RK10 A Walkability Audit by Dan Burden of Gla ng Jackson and Walkable Communi es included the par cipa on of the Pedestrian Priority Zone Work Group, major stakeholders and students from the University of Colorado Denver Spring 2009 Planning Studio. The tour traversed the Downtown area and was an opportunity for all involved to observe and comment on many aspects of the pedestrian realm including: safety, accessibility and comfort. A er the audit, the students were assigned areas of the Downtown Area Plan as their Spring studio project. Downtown was divided into four project areas: Auraria, LoDo and Ballpark, Commercial Core and the Golden Triangle Using a guiding set of principles based on the Vision of A Walkable City the students evaluated each areas pedestrian quality with the City of Denvers policies. From this evalua on, the students and their advisors at Gla ng Jackson, developed a pedestrian hierarchy framework for the streets: Transforma ve Streets describe the premiere public places of Downtown Denver and marquee features of A Walkable City each place is a unique and custom designed pedestrian experience. Boulevards are embedded in the City fabric; designed to move large numbers of vehicles from one part of the City to another. Although designed to move tra c e ciently, they are also landscaped and memorable streetscapes that are comfortable, safe and a rac ve to all users. Equity Streets represent the majority of the Downtown street network, these streets balance the diverse mobility and access responsibili es, land use context and transporta on demand in the City. The design expecta ons should follow the guidelines outlined in DMAP ensuring the highest quality pedestrian experience. Priority Street intersec ons and streetscapes must provide the highest level of comfort, security and access for all pedestrian ac vity. They create an interconnected system that elevates the pedestrian experience throughout Downtown by managing poten al con icts with motorists and vehicle circula on expecta ons. Priority streets are considered the primary project catalysts for studies, strategies and construc on outlined in the immediate ac ons sec on of the implementa on table. Implemen ng A Walkable City is an extension of important Denver policies including the Downtown Area Plan (DAP), the Strategic Transporta on Plan (STP) and the Downtown Mul modal Access Plan (DMAP).Project Approach Achieving good health and wellness includes addressing the underlying social determinants of health and all disease and illness, and may include promo ng the best achievable physical, psychological, emo onal, social, spiritual and cogni ve levels of func oning. --Metro Denver Health and Wellness Commission, 2007

PAGE 11

INTRODUCTION I MPLEMENTATIO N SYS TEM S F RAMEW O RK Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone11Walkability is the extent to which the built environment is friendly to the presence of people living, shopping, visi ng, enjoying, or spending me in an area. -Dan Burden, Walkable Communities The quality of the walking environment is in uenced by many variables. The range of physical ac vity that people are willing to exert is well documented by marke ng professionals. The 500 foot radius or 10 minute walk is what the majority of people will travel. Designing an environment that will encourage more physical ac vity must be thorough. No one infrastructure ac on, like wider sidewalks, street trees or tra c signal priori za on, will ensure a vibrant pedestrian priority zone in Denver. Even when communi es put in place guidelines and land use policies designed to encourage non-motorized travel, a more ac ve ci zenry is not necessarily guaranteed. Integra ng physical ac vity into daily rou nes requires a more holis c approach promo ng a long-term vision of connec ng healthy living into our daily pa erns. Successful applica on of the guiding principles will a empt to integrate and unify projects and strategies throughout the Downtown. Principles built on the vision for A Walkable City apply a common language for the various departments of the City, the Downtown Partnership and the development community to share in implemen ng Denvers rst Pedestrian Priority Zone By examining the most walkable urban environments throughout North America, the work group found key principles contribu ng to the quality of the walking environment. These principles describe the characteris cs that should guide Downtown Denver to create a truly walkable environment. The six principles are: Accessible Comfortable Connected Convenient Engaging Vibrant Principles of A Walkable City

PAGE 12

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone INTRODUCTION I MPLEMENTATIO N SYS TEM S F RAMEW O RK12 An accessible place is capable of being used by people of all ages and mobility levels. The City of Denver is na onally recognized and con nues to be a leader in its compliance with the American with Disabili es Act (ADA). For Downtown Denvers evolu on, to a truly walkable environment to occur, a shi beyond simple compliance to ADA to an environment that serves the needs of all is necessary. Universal Design* principles apply to every age group and all physical abili es. Universal access should be addressed in the design of all our transporta on modes, public spaces and connec ons. Every place within the City should strive to be universally accessible by its streets, sidewalks, intersec ons, architecture, way nding and orienta on. *Universal Design addresses limita ons and use that we encounter in everyday living environments, communica ons and products. The guiding principles from the center for Universal Design are: equitable use, exibility in use, simple and intui ve, percep ble informa on, tolerance for error, low physical e ort, size and space for approach and use. A comfortable place is an environment where the form and the capacity of streets and public spaces match the pa ern of human behaviors, providing a sense of ease and enabling a feeling of personal safety with freedom from vexa on. Safety and security are important to the life of City and key to providing a comfortable Downtown environment at all hours, every day of the week. While each persons percep on of safety, security and comfort can vary, design can be a powerful tool employed to improve the pedestrian realm. Designing for pedestrian ac vity around streets can lead to increasing the comfort of Downtown Denver. Empty streets create a hesitant feeling, while busy streets feel secure. This security in the form of eyes on the street is a signi cant deterrent to crime. Increasing our physical presence on the streets Downtown improves the chances that we might modify our behavior and increase our physical ac vity on a daily basis. Comfortable Accessible

PAGE 13

INTRODUCTION I MPLEMENTATIO N SYS TEM S F RAMEW O RK Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone13A convenient place is a loca on with clear image and legibility. The area is easy to understand, providing a sense of being near-at-hand with visual cues and physical directness to a pedestrians most essen al needs. Orienta on, way nding and rou ng choices are just some of the design inten ons that make Downtown convenient to a variety of users. Whether it is the daily pedestrian commuter with errands to run or the family is in town for the big game, each user should have choices accessing mul ple des na ons. The Pedestrian Priority Zone Work Group has iden ed barriers and suggested improvements for priori zing routes that build on the exis ng way nding systems for des na ons in Downtown. Way nding is the organized movement of pedestrians and vehicles through a complex environment using maps, signs, landmarks or icons. A good way nding system helps users experience an environment in a posi ve way and reassures guests that they are on the correct route as they nd their des na on. It is important that we are crea ng an environment that is engaging and that will provide clear direc on and reinforce the aesthe cs and goals of Implemen ng A Walkable City A connected place is a physical and physiological network that o ers mul ple rou ng op ons to a diverse range of ac vi es, resources, services and places, encouraging physical ac vity. A Walkable City seeks to eliminate gaps and barriers within Downtown to improve overall connec vity to transit, adjacent neighborhoods, spor ng events, civic des na ons, employment, parks, trails and open spaces. The City has done an excellent job in increasing connec vity to LoDo with the Central Pla e Valley, building pedestrian bridges along major routes to Downtown. The rst Pedestrian Priority Zone seeks to build on these connec ons and others to increase access for all users. As a result, when city des na ons are connected to neighborhoods, a network is created that can encourage physical ac vity. Physical inac vity plays a signi cant role in the most common chronic diseases related to obesity in the United States, including coronary heart disease, stroke and diabetes. Each of these is a leading cause of death. Understanding healths rela onship to the built environment through the connec ons that roadways, trails, sidewalks and transporta on alterna ves o er us is a signi cant step in developing an environment which encourages physical ac vity. Convenient Connected

PAGE 14

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone INTRODUCTION I MPLEMENTATIO N SYS TEM S F RAMEW O RK14 An engaging place is a visually rich aesthe c se ng with interrelated parts, providing a sense of contentment and enabling both formal and informal forms of social exchange. Denver has seen an amazing surge of life and ac vity in the past 15 years. On a day-to-day basis the ac vity of shops and gathering on16th Street is a wonderful example of a place that engages the pedestrian in many ways. On the other hand, 15th and 19th Streets struggle to a ract and maintain pedestrians daily. Several contribu ng factors lead to the posi ve experiences along a street from the treatment of building facades, spacing of trees, ligh ng, quality of benches, cafe space on wide sidewalks and even trash bins all add to the experience along the street. Aesthe cs can be a major in uence for the engagement of pedestrian realm in Downtown Denver. And, while there can only be one 16th Street, it is important to recognize that each street has an important role in the overall framework of A Walkable City and all streets should be enhanced to meet the roles iden ed in the rst Pedestrian Priority Zone. A vibrant place is an area pulsa ng with life, vigor and ac vity. Vibrant des na ons have grown throughout downtown. A neighborhood has grown around the ballpark, the Pepsi Center bustles with diverse events and the Theatre district have all added to the vibrancy of City life. The variety and large concentra on of restaurants and entertainment venues that appeal to a broad spectrum of users throughout the day and into the night make Denver a regional draw for visitors and locals alike. Many of these a rac ons are referenced in the implementa on framework along with recommenda ons on how to support and enhance the holis c pedestrian experience along the routes to each des na on. Connec vity for the venues, the comfort along the sidewalk and accessibility throughout Downtown will compliment the events, parades, fes vals and gatherings citywide. Vibrant Engaging

PAGE 15

INTRODUCTION I MPLEMENTATIO N SYS TEM S F RAMEW O RK Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone15The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Every building, streetscape, programmed event, park and trail can collec vely help create special experiences in Denver, transcending the value of each contribu on individually. Successful pedestrian places throughout the City are in uenced by their combina on of physical, social and economic condi ons that contribute to the unique character and culture of the urban fabric. Downtown should provide a variety of opportuni es for physical ac vity and should accommodate a wide range of individual preferences and abili es. By encouraging development pa erns that support mixed uses, compact design and a variety of transporta on choices we dont just bring people downtown, we put them there. When development occurs, we should design buildings and places that are oriented to promote opportuni es for ac ve living, especially ac ve transporta on that engages the pedestrian in physical ac vi es. The complete development of mul modal transporta on systems should provide safe, convenient and a ordable access to housing, work sites, schools and community services the Downtown is more walkable. The components of A Walkable City s Pedestrian Priority Zone will help to encourage the design of each street to become a safe, comfortable and a rac ve place for pedestrians. Encouraging healthy physical ac vity and enabling more people to choose alterna ve modes of transporta on; helping to further the goals of Greenprint Denver, Blueprint Denver and the Strategic Transporta on Plan. As we consider implemen ng these plans, the urban fabric of Downtown and its walking environment have been broken down in terms of a kit of parts containing six components: Streets Intersec ons Sidewalks Public Spaces Land Use Architecture Applying each of the six principles of A Walkable City to each of the six Walkable city building components uni es the vision element with measures for achieving the Downtown Area Plan goal of Pu ng the Pedestrian First. As each component of Downtown is viewed through the principles, we begin to see the pedestrian priority zone take shape. Components of A Walkable CityA City that encourages physical ac vity is a strategy that can favorably improve health and quality of life. Everyone, regardless of age, gender, language, ethnicity, economic status or ability, should have safe, convenient and a ordable choices for physical ac vity. -Stapleton Foundation

PAGE 16

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone INTRODUCTION I MPLEMENTATIO N SYS TEM S F RAMEW O RK16 Intersections StreetsWhile a variety of characteris cs help shape a great street, the character of a street can change drama cally with the type, texture and color of pavement; even the feeling that trees, lane width and spacing of buildings give. As the primary infrastructure of our transporta on network, streets have a direct impact on the overall character and feel of the City. A good network of streets gives the downtown its framework of blocks de ning the size, shape and orienta on as well as development contained within. Streets and alleys provide circula on through and access to Downtown for motorists, transit and bicyclists. The safe and e cient opera on of streets and alleys is cri cal to improving the pedestrian environment and to ensure a con nued economic vibrancy in the City. Alleys are important to the street network and to the comfort and vibrancy of the City. The placement of alleys allow the u li es, maintenance for buildings, service and loading areas to be located in a common loca on behind buildings. This hierarchy in the street connec vity allows for a con nuous facade along an unclu ered tra c street and minimizes curb cuts for pedestrian safety, comfort and architectural character. Intersec ons represent the cri cal junc on of all modes of travel. The safety and e ciency for transporta on modes are de ned the by the design and opera on of intersec ons, most importantly pedestrians crossings at the intersec ons. The Downtown Mul modal Area Plan (DMAP) begins to establish design expecta ons for intersec ons or corner queuing zones as a basic pedestrian design measure. A Walkable City must come with the understanding that great care must be given to intersec on design. The pedestrian priority zone design guidelines are essen al to minimizing con icts between di erent modes of travel. The intersec ons within the pedestrian priority zone are de ned along major pedestrian routes. These priority intersec ons are recommended for the rst phase of implementa on. They should be studied as valuable trade-o s in tra c opera ons, to decrease walking distances and improve pedestrian visibility where street geometries allow.

PAGE 17

INTRODUCTION I MPLEMENTATIO N SYS TEM S F RAMEW O RK Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone17Public Spaces Sidewalks Sidewalks, in their simplest form, join intersec ons together and are the pedestrian travel lane. This closer examina on reveals a stage of ac vity determined by design considera ons like sidewalk width, pavement type and texture, building placement, awnings and street furniture giving the City its walkable life. Good pedestrian access and rou ng is de ned by the sidewalk network and its quality throughout the City. The role of the urban sidewalk extends beyond that of a mere pathway for pedestrians. The urban sidewalk is the connec ve ssue that uni es the pedestrian experience within the fabric of the downtown public realm. It is a place for social exchange, dining, entertainment, shopping and people watching. Such great streetscapes engage us and enlivens physical ac vity. People are willing to walk longer distances when they are in an environment that s mulates and o ers an experience to our des na on. The Downtown Mul modal Access Plan (DMAP) sidewalk minimum width is sixteen feet in the basic streetscape guidelines. The Pedestrian Priority Zone Study measured the exis ng condi ons of Downtown Denver against this guideline along the pedestrian network of the Priority Streets to nd de ciencies and exemplary. Plazas, parks and trails are landmarks citywide orien ng land uses and pedestrian ac vity. These ameni es encourage healthy living through walking, cycling, recrea on and relaxa on, all factors that contribute to the physical, social and economic health of Downtown. Public spaces in every shape and size and their linear companions, sidewalks and trails represent the heart of the public realm. Their quality, placement, design and u liza on all contribute to the quality of the City and of the pedestrian experience of Downtown Denver. These places boost safe physical ac vi es throughout the City. As we make our way to des na ons and areas of interest, a place to stop and watch the world go by such as invi ng greens, lively plazas and views of the City promote opportuni es for ac ve and passive recrea on. There are several great exis ng Downtown public spaces which give the City iden ty and invite a variety of pedestrian experiences 16th Street Mall, Civic Center Park, Skyline Park, the Cherry Creek Trail, and Pla e River Trail. Addi onally, the three pedestrian bridges which serve as major landmarks bustle with walkers, boot camp exercise classes and many other public celebra ons. The Walkable City implementa on table of ac ons, studies and projects along with the Transforma ve street designa on iden es new opportuni es which will add to the vibrancy of Denvers public spaces.

PAGE 18

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone INTRODUCTION I MPLEMENTATIO N SYS TEM S F RAMEW O RK18 Pedestrian ac vity and economic vitality in Downtown is generated by the intensity and diversity of land uses. The di erent mixtures and compact building arrangements should always seek to create di erent levels of pedestrian ac vity. Land uses such as retail, restaurants and entertainment serve as pedestrian des na ons The ground oor presence of doorways, displays and outdoor cafes all provide opportuni es for socializa on and interac on. These uses contribute to the highest volume of pedestrian ac vity and increases the vibrancy of the street. O ce and residen al land uses are generators for pedestrian ac vity. Their close proximity and mixture with des na on land uses are important to extend the dura on of pedestrian ac vi es that u lize the street. While ground oor o ce and residen al uses tend not to contribute to the vibrancy of the street directly, they increase the passive surveillance by providing eyes on the street. When generators are mixed with des na ons that remain open beyond the six oclock home me for most employees, the area has an extended life and creates pedestrian ac vity into the late evening hours. The street stays ac ve and is no longer abandon a er the sun sets for the day. The average pedestrian walks at a pace of three miles per hour. For pedestrians to be adequately engaged and interested the streetscape, a building or buildings should vary in design or detail about every y feet. This is a very di erent design requirement from that of a building seen by a driver. As most of the urban public realm in Downtown Denver is framed by the built environment this understanding is extremely valuable. The careful placement and design of buildings determines how ac vity can be maximized along the sidewalk, a plaza or green pedestrian space. The transparency and consistency of the architectures rela onship to public spaces can a ract or discourage pedestrian ac vi es regardless of the use contained within the building. The style of the background building (non-civic) architecture Downtown may vary from building to building, but the constant treatment of build to line, delinea on between public and private, transparency of ground oor, rst oor ceiling height and accessibility should be related to the street, plaza or green space that it is a part of. Land Use Architecture

PAGE 20

21DRAFT SystemsCurrent SystemsVehicle Circula on Transit Opera ons Bicycle Network Pedestrian NetworkStreets are the primary conduits for all modes of travel; their design and operation substantially in uence the extent that people will walk, bike or use transit. Blueprint Denver

PAGE 21

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTR O DU C TI ON I MPLEMENTATIO N F RAMEW O RK SYSTEMS22 The current systems of vehicles, transit and bicycles within Downtown impact the pedestrian networks connec ons and viability in various ways. It is important that the implementa on of the Pedestrian Priority Zone be in partnership with, not at the expense of any single mode of transporta on into Downtown. The following maps of the current systems will show the importance of designing in an integrated and holis c manner. The current systems that we analyzed are: Vehicle Circula on Transit Opera ons Bicycle Network Pedestrian Network Suppor ng mul modal access to Downtown Denver is encompassed in the Downtown Area Plan (DAP), Strategic Transporta on Plan (STP), Downtown Mul modal Access Plan (DMAP) and the Living Streets Ini a ve (LSI). The current systems that serve Denver have, in the past, not been treated as an integrated mobility system. Each component: vehicular circula on, transit, bicycle network and pedestrians have had a stand alone approach applied to them. Implemen ng A Walkable City seeks to fully integrate the street with the adjacent built environment. Incorpora ng ini a ves like Living Streets encourages the crea on of great places with transporta on op ons that work for everyone. Simultaneously, A Walkable City promotes healthier living, economic development and increased mobility furthering the Visions of the Downtown Area Plan. Finding the priority pedestrian network within the current systems that exist is vital to the growth of Denver as an energy and health conscious na onal model. The focus on designing streets for primarily vehicular use, instead of people, has had a drama c e ect on the health of our na on. As a result, seventy percent of Americans do not achieve the U.S. Surgeon Generals recommenda on for daily physical ac vity. Crea ng a safe mul modal City is within the goals of all the current ini a ves for Downtown Denvers transporta on network. De ning the priority pedestrian network among the current systems of transporta on within Downtown Denver took into account the six principles accessible, comfortable, connected, convenient, engaging and vibrant and applied them to examine the six walkable city building components streets, sidewalks, intersec ons, public spaces, land uses and architecture for A Walkable City The basic mapping of the priority pedestrian network began with the Downtown Mul modal Area Plans pedestrian shed iden ca ons (see Pedestrian Network Map on page 31). This ini al analysis lead to the key generator and des na on loca ons. Where the two overlap informed the exis ng priority pedestrian network. Next, the sidewalks were examined within the priority pedestrian network for DMAP sidewalk standard compliance. A further study of intersec on improvements gives Downtown Denver the rst Priority Pedestrian Zone. This priority zone creates a hierarchy of projects and outlines the ini al phase of projects and implementa on.Current Systems

PAGE 22

I MPLEME N TATI ON F RAMEW O RK SYSTEMS Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N 23Current Systems Vehicle Circula on, Transit Routes, Bicycle Network and Pedestrian Network

PAGE 23

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTR O DU C TI ON I MPLEMENTATIO N F RAMEW O RK SYSTEMS24 The e cient ow of vehicular tra c to and from Downtown is cri cal to its long-term success and viability as a regional des na on. Single occupant private vehicles account for over 70% of all trips accessing Downtown Denver. This study examined regional tra c ow, primary corridors providing metro access (boulevards) and important Downtown internal streets serving the businesses and events within the City. The regional tra c ows, from the major access networks, to Downtown Denver are unique because these streets physically de ne the edges of Downtown. With the excep on of Speer and Colfax, two important corridors that do not penetrate the Downtown core. Major regional access to and from the Interstate network include: Auraria Parkway, Brighton Boulevard, Park Avenue, 20th Street, Speer Boulevard, West Colfax Avenue, and 6th Avenue. The primary corridors providing cross-town access are mobility based arterials or Boulevards. The tra c on the majority of these Downtown corridors have a low percentage of through trips because Downtown is a des na on. A vital component in the primary corridors is that they are redesigned so that pedestrians can safely cross at regular intervals, access businesses and comfortably wait for transit. Primary corridors within Downtown Denver providing metro (district to district) access across Downtown include: Auraria Parkway, Colfax Avenue, Speer Boulevard, and 6th/8th Avenue couplet. The need for e cient internal tra c opera ons and the needs of the pedestrian should be balanced along important internal streets. Transit, land uses and economic vitality are all dependant on these balanced streets and everyone can bene t from the pedestrian safety and foot tra c. Important balanced streets that distribute tra c within Downtown include: the 17th/18th Avenue couplet, the 13th/14th Avenue couplet, the Lincoln/Broadway couplet, and the Santa Fe/Kalamath couplet. Higher volumes of tra c distributed through and around downtown include 20th Street, the Broadway/Lincoln couplet (south of 20th), the 15th/17th couplet and the Market/Blake Street couplet. Vehicle Circulation

PAGE 24

I MPLEME N TATI ON F RAMEW O RK SYSTEMS Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N 25Vehicle Circula on Diagram

PAGE 25

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTR O DU C TI ON I MPLEMENTATIO N F RAMEW O RK SYSTEMS26 The Denver Strategic Transporta on Plan (STP) shi ed the focus of the Citys transporta on system from the movement of cars to the movement of people via all modes of transporta on. It states that Denver can no longer a ord the physical, environmental, economic and nancial costs of depending solely on the automobile to meet the transporta on needs of the City. Downtowns con nued growth and prosperity will be increasingly dependent on transit that will serve a larger share of the future mul modal needs of Denver. The implementa on of the Pedestrian Priority Zone is a cri cal element that will enable transit to become a reliable regional transporta on op on. A balance is necessary to ensure that such decisions support, not burden, the e cient delivery of people to Downtown. With people in mind, the implementa on of the Pedestrian Priority Zone must also in uence the improvement of the walking environment and access around transit sta ons and stops. Transits ability to deliver more people Downtown is dependent on Downtown being welcoming and favoring the needs of pedestrians. Downtown Regional transit service is currently organized around the heavily u lized 16th Street Mall. The 16th Street Mall shu le links RTDs Civic Center, Market Street Sta on and Union Sta on transit exchanges. In addi on, it also connects the RTD Central and Pla e Valley light rail corridors at the California St. and Stout St. intersec ons. The FasTracks plans for 2017 return Union Sta on as the primary transit hub of the Front Range coalescing the ve regional transit corridors delivering and exchanging people to Downtown. To round-out the transit reach and demand in Denver a Downtown Circulator transit shu le is being proposed on 18th/ 19th and Broadway/ Lincoln to help carry the an cipated increase in passenger loads resul ng from Denver Union Sta on opening. This shu le is proposed to reduce the demand on the 16th Street Mall shu le and to extend the reach of the pedestrian to the east side of Downtown.Transit

PAGE 26

I MPLEME N TATI ON F RAMEW O RK SYSTEMS Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N 27 Transit Routes

PAGE 27

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTR O DU C TI ON I MPLEMENTATIO N F RAMEW O RK SYSTEMS28 The City Council and Mayors o ce is commi ed to improving the bicycling environment of Denver. In 2008, Mayor Hickenlooper charged the City to increase its mode share of bicycling to 10% from the current share of 6%. The Department of Public Works is already pu ng money and resources toward this goal by using $250,000 in s mulus funds to stripe new bike lanes in 11 city loca ons, including bike lanes on Champa, Welton and Tremont Streets. With addi onal bicycle lanes to aid in the safety of pedestrians and cyclists, achieving a 10% mode share will put Denver in the upper echelon of bicycling for the en re country. Addi onally, during the Democra c Na onal Conven on a bicycle share was tested throughout the city. Hopes are that the B-cycle program will be avaliable across downtown in the summer of 2010. B-cycle is an a ordable, clean and simple way to get around town. Good for your health, your pocket, your environment. Mayor Hickenlooper also ins tuted the bike loaner pilot program for City employees providing an alterna ve transporta on system that enables City employees to lead by example, suppor ng the goals of Greenprint Denver, the Living Streets Ini a ve and Denvers Strategic Transporta on Plan (STP). Denver B-cycle will hope to establish an e cient, diverse and accessible transporta on system that reduces tra c conges on, saves energy, improves air quality and encourages healthy rou nes. A comprehensive bicycle network is an integral part of the mul modal transporta on system that delivers pedestrians into Downtown. The current planned bicycle network lane addi ons create connec ons throughout Downtown linking neighborhoods and providing access to regional trails extending the reach of pedestrians. The implementa on of the pedestrian priority zone should accommodate the needs of the cycling environment while balancing the needs of the pedestrian.Bicycle Network

PAGE 28

I MPLEME N TATI ON F RAMEW O RK SYSTEMS Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N 29 Bicycle Routes

PAGE 29

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTR O DU C TI ON I MPLEMENTATIO N F RAMEW O RK SYSTEMS30 Pedestrian NetworkDowntown Denvers primary pedestrian network is determined by linking some of its key generators and des na ons that bring and keep people Downtown. The pedestrian priority generators include: transit hubs, parks and trails, entertainment venues, civic and ins tu onal venues, retail concentra ons and hotels. A key generator like the 16th Street Mall also serves as a des na on. Development over the last y years has been generally outside of the Downtown area. This form of building has lead to physical ac vity being engineered out of most peoples lives as the bigger box development des na ons reduce peoples ability and willingness to get around without a vehicle. However, as economic reinvestment slowly comes back into neighborhoods downtown, we con rm the reality of sprawling development is at the very high cost of not only infrastructure and fuel, but of physical and mental health. The iden ca on of pedestrian sheds* is guided by research that shows most pedestrians (about 70%) will walk 500 feet, which is a two minute walk. The same research indicates that only one in ten persons will walk up to a half mile, or ten minute walk. Using these established preferences, the pedestrian sheds shown on the following map are determined from key generators and des na ons in Downtown. The 500-foot radius around the generators and des na ons reveals the current primary pedestrian network serving Downtown Denver. These streets and trails serving downtown fall mostly within the two minute walk, and most also been iden ed as key pedestrian corridors in the Downtown Area Plan as well. In addi on to the street connec ons, the pedestrian bridges are a beau ful part of the network linking the Highlands, Pla e River Valley and Cherry Creek Trail. The three bridge sequence: Millennium, Pla e River and Highland bridges are incredibly important to the connec ons of neighborhoods and recrea onal ameni es in Downtown. Daily these bridges are bustling with ac vi es like boot camp exercise classes, walkers, tourists and locals to enjoy the views of Downtown and Commons Park. *A pedestrian shed is the area encompassed by the walking distance from a town or neighborhood center. Pedestrian sheds are o en de ned as the area covered by a 5-minute walk (about 0.25 miles, 1,320 feet, or 400 meters). They may be drawn as perfect circles, but in prac ce pedestrian sheds have irregular shapes because they cover the actual distance walked, not the linear (as the crow ies) distance. The Pedestrian Network Map uses the actual, on the ground, traveling distance. The short network is a 2-minute 500 foot walk. The longer distance is a 5-minute 1320 foot walk.

PAGE 30

I MPLEME N TATI ON F RAMEW O RK SYSTEMS Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N 31Generators and Des na ons Loca on Map

PAGE 32

FramingThe Framework Transforma ve Streets Boulevards Equity Streets Priority Streets Priority Street Assessment Priority Street Sidewalk Comple on Priority Intersec on Design GuidelinesDenver is a city that will be far more de ned by its future than its past. -John Hickenlooper

PAGE 33

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N I MPLEMENTATIO N FRAMEWORK SYS TEM S 34 This policy framework seeks to integrate the exis ng, proposed and desired transporta on systems that will serve Downtown Denver for the next 20 years supported by the Downtown Area Plan. The framework outlines a common street lexicon to ensure the successful implementa on of the pedestrian priority zone to which all par es building, maintaining and advoca ng for Downtown Denver can agree. The framework is organized by the four street types serving Downtown Denver. The framework supports pu ng the pedestrian rst in the decision-making process yet recognizes that no decision can be at the expense of other important physical, social and economic needs facing Downtown Denver. The four street types are: Transforma ve Streets describe the premiere public places of Downtown Denver and marquee features of the A Walkable City each place is a unique and custom designed pedestrian priority zone experience. Boulevards are embedded in the City fabric; designed to move large numbers of vehicles from one part of the City to another. Although designed to move tra c e ciently, they are also landscaped and memorable streetscapes that are comfortable, safe and a rac ve to all users. Equity Streets represent the majority of the Downtown street network, these streets balance the diverse mobility and access responsibili es, land use context and transporta on demand in the City. The design expecta ons should follow the guidelines outlined in DMAP ensuring the highest quality pedestrian experience. Priority Street streetscapes and intersec ons must provide the highest level of comfort, security and access for all pedestrian ac vity. They create the rst pedestrian priority zone with an interconnected system that elevates the pedestrian experience throughout Downtown by managing poten al con icts with motorists and vehicle circula on expecta ons. Priority streets are considered the primary project catalysts for studies, strategies and construc on outlined in the immediate ac ons sec on of the implementa on table. The Framework

PAGE 34

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N I MPLEMENTATIO N 35 FRAMEWORK SYS TEM S Street Framework

PAGE 35

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N I MPLEMENTATIO N FRAMEWORK SYS TEM S 36 Transforma ve Streets along with parks and trails are the premiere public places of Downtown Denver and marquee features of Downtown Denvers walkable cityscape. Each place is a powerful contributor to the character, comfort and iden ty of Downtown Denver. These exis ng and proposed streets, parks and trails include: 16th Street Mall With extensions to the Highlands and Uptown neighborhoods Civic Center Park Bannock Street & 14th Avenue Skyline Park Arapahoe Street Denver Performing Arts Complex Cur s Street & 13th Street Union Sta on Wynkoop Street & 17th Street (west of Union Sta on per Master Plan) Auraria Campus Lawrence Street, 9th Street, & 10th Street Commons Park Li le Raven Street Cherry Creek Trail Along Speer Boulevard, to Con uence Park The pedestrian environment is the paramount design feature for these places and the streets that intersect them, radia ng ac vity as a des na on programmed with events or uses to engage the passerby. The design considera ons should be sensi ve contextually and sitespeci c; each new Transforma ve design proposal should be a unique and custom pedestrian experience. Transformative StreetsOBJECTIVES 1) Pedestrian Design Priority Contextual approach with necessary documenta on for a. design variance requests Universal access standards b. High quality nishes and materials c. 2) Integrated Public Space Design Parks / Public Works joint design of streetscape and a. infrastructure Each place is supported with a program of events or b. ac vi es 3) Priority of Investments a. High pro le independent projects Transforma ve StreetsStreets Intersec ons Sidewalks Public Spaces Land Use ArchitectureAXY m m hpGT W Transforma ve Standards are customized and unique to each project

PAGE 36

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N I MPLEMENTATIO N 37 FRAMEWORK SYS TEM S Transforma ve Street Framework

PAGE 37

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N I MPLEMENTATIO N FRAMEWORK SYS TEM S 38 BoulevardsBoulevards are embedded in the City fabric and are designed to move large numbers of vehicles (as through tra c) from one part of the City to another. Maintaining vehicular through movement is a high priority, but pedestrians and cyclists should be provided for in the design. The higher speeds and tra c volumes within the City increase the need for safe pedestrian and bicycle treatments providing adequate bu ers from the tra c and ensuring regular spacing of safe pedestrian crossings. Intersec ons should be par cularly emphasized for at access points at Priority Street connec ons and access to trail connec vity. In other words, each of these places must be designed as singular projects that have their own iden ty but relate appropriately to adjacent sites and intersec ng streets. Boulevards currently within the Downtown pedestrian priority zone include: Broadway North of 20th Park Avenue Speer Boulevard Auraria Parkway The pedestrian priority zone study recommends that certain Downtown por ons of Broadway (south of 20th) and Colfax are not designated as Boulevards because of their high volume of pedestrian ac vity. Higher pedestrian expecta ons should be placed on both of these corridors to raise them to Equity Street standards. OBJECTIVES 1) Design for safe and invi ng pedestrian crossings Universal access standards a. Comfortable with refuge islands where possible b. 2) Integrated Public Space Design or visual termina on Parks / Public Works joint design streetscapes and a. infrastructure plans 3) Priority of Investments High pro le independent projects a. BoulevardsStreets Intersec ons Sidewalks Public Spaces Land Use ArchitectureAXY m m hpGT WCompliance with American Disability Act and Crime Preven on through Environmental Design DMAP standards Propor onal Architecture, Screened Parking & CPTED Compliance Separated Land uses, Parking Minimums, & Regional Public Spaces Landscaped, Memorable and addresses pedestrian safety Mobility Based with regularly spaced safe pedestrian crossings

PAGE 38

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N I MPLEMENTATIO N 39 FRAMEWORK SYS TEM S Boulevard Framework

PAGE 39

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N I MPLEMENTATIO N FRAMEWORK SYS TEM S 40 Equity StreetsEquity Streets represent the majority of streets within the Downtown area. These streets balance the diverse mobility and access responsibili es, land use contexts and transporta on demands within Downtown. Equity Streets accommodate pedestrian tra c and vehicle tra c in an equal se ng. These streets have mul modal demand requirements higher than Priority Streets. The design of Equity Streets should follow the design guidelines outlined in DMAP, ensuring the highest quality pedestrian experience. Equity Streets serve an important func on in providing transporta on choices. They are designed to provide a balance of service for all modes of transport, including vibrant pedestrian environments, high transit demand, bicycling comfort and signi cant tra c volumes. The important balanced streets that distribute tra c within Downtown include: the 17th/18th Avenue couplet, the 13th/14th Avenue couplet, the Lincoln/Broadway couplet, and the Santa Fe/Kalamath couplet. Mobility role, high tra c volume, Equity Streets distributed through and around downtown include 20th Street, the Broadway/ Lincoln couplet (south of 20th), the 15th/17th couplet and the Market/Blake Street couplet. OBJECTIVES 1) Enhanced street environments Improved orienta on & way nding a. Maximize on-street parking b. Minimize o -street parking frontage c. Limit driveways and curb cuts d. 2) Mul modal Streets Suppor ve of exclusive bus lanes a. Suppor ve of improved bicycling environment b. 3) Intersec on Modi ca ons Seek to eliminate double turn lanes a. Seek appropriate pedestrian cycle lengths and shorter b. pedestrian wait mes at signals 4) Priority of Investments a. Regulate for long-term improvements Equity StreetsStreets Intersec ons Sidewalks Public Spaces Land Use ArchitectureAXY m m hpGT WLandscape, Ligh ng & Furnishing, Way nding, Bi-direc onal signage, Barnes Dance Evalua on DMAP standards Main Street Architecture, & Structured Or Placed Parking Mul ple Uses, Parking Maximums, & Distributed Public Spaces Mul ple Uses, Parking Maximums, & Distributed Public Spaces Slow Streets, On-street parking, Managed Driveways, & Minimum Turn Lanes

PAGE 40

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N I MPLEMENTATIO N 41 FRAMEWORK SYS TEM S Equity Street Framework

PAGE 41

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N I MPLEMENTATIO N FRAMEWORK SYS TEM S 42 Priority StreetsThe goal of the Priority Street designa on is to create an interconnected pedestrian network that elevates the pedestrian experience by raising expecta ons of sidewalks, streetscape, universal access, connec vity and intersec ons. The intersec ons must provide the highest level of comfort, security and access for pedestrians. The architecture of buildings should enhance the pedestrian realm and encourage pedestrian ac vity. Vehicle circula on expecta ons will become a secondary considera on to pedestrian needs on the Priority Streets. Priority Streets are designated as such from the func onal pedestrian networks that serve the pedestrian sheds of the key generators and des na ons within Downtown. Priority Streets within Downtown, include: Wewa a, 9th Street, 14th Street, 15th Street, 18th Street, 21st Street, Wazee, Larimer, Lawrence, Cur s, Stout, California, Glenarm, Tremont, Court, 20th Avenue, 19th, Avenue, 14th Avenue, 13th Avenue, 11th Avenue, Delaware, and Bannock An assessment of the sidewalk condi ons and streetscape along Priority Streets was conducted to nd rst concern projects which could be immediately priori zed as essen al to the pedestrian network. The design of these streetscape improvements, like Equity streets, should follow the basic design guidelines outlined in DMAP. Priority StreetsStreets Intersec ons Sidewalks Public Spaces Land Use ArchitectureAXY m m hpGT WQuality Materials, Landscaping, Ligh ng & Furnishings, Way nding, Bi-direc onal signage, Bulb-outs, Barnes Dance Evalua on DMAP standards Ground Floor Retail /Commercial Architecture & Incorporated Parking Mixed uses, No Parking Requirements, Civic Buildings w/ Integrated Public Spaces Mixed uses, No Parking Requirements, Civic Buildings w/ Integrated Public Spaces Shared Streets, Onstreet parking, (No driveways) & No Turn Lanes, Evaluate Two-way opera ons

PAGE 42

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N I MPLEMENTATIO N 43 FRAMEWORK SYS TEM S Priority Street Framework

PAGE 43

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N I MPLEMENTATIO N FRAMEWORK SYS TEM S 44 The Priority Street intersec on assessment studied intersec on designs up against the DMAP standards. The assessment lead to addi onal intersec on design guidelines to complement the DMAP streetscape standards by further priori zing the needs of an interconnec ng quality pedestrian experience from the sidewalk through the street. The principles and components that de ned the Vision for A Walkable City were used to evaluate the current condi ons of the sidewalks and intersec ons along Priority Streets during a walking audit for Downtown Denver. The par cipa ng University of Colorado planning students documented several de ciencies with the current intersec ons and sidewalks as they related to the needs of pedestrians. The assessment de ciencies showed that many intersec ons nega vely impact the pedestrian experience with inconsistent treatment of accessibility design, cross signal ming and general disrepair. In some cases, one way streets allow dual vehicle turn lanes that allow two tra c lanes to turn onto adjacent streets. Dual turn lanes signi cantly impact the visibility of the pedestrian to turning vehicles and should be eliminated throughout the Downtown Pedestrian Priority Zone. The added intersec on guidelines help to show how curb extensions can improve the visibility and sight-lines of pedestrians with li le, or no, expense to tra c opera on. The improved visibility be er alerts motorists to the pedestrian presence and be er alerts pedestrians to poten al con icts with motorists and bicyclists. Curb extensions reduce pedestrian crossing distances and allow addi onal green me for motorists because of the reduced crossing distances. The Barnes Dance or all pedestrian walk/ cross phase at many of Downtowns signalized intersec ons allows a single move at intersec on; however, there is only one all-pedestrian phase per rota on. This increases the wait me for pedestrians, making it inconvenient and possibly unsafe to cross on the typical green signal. It also confuses pedestrians who are used to being able to cross when adjacent tra c moves through the intersec on. The preliminary documenta on conducted by the Colorado University students shows that the quality of the pedestrian experience varies at each intersec on. (See Commercial Core study in Appendix)Priority Street Intersection AssessmentOBJECTIVES 1) Enhanced Street Environments Building orienta on and design requirements oriented to a. Priority Streets Public space design requirements (plazas and sidewalks) b. structured to Priority Streets Retail ground oor incen ves structured to Priority Streets c. Street vendor loca on preference structured to Priority d. Streets Improved orienta on & way nding (all streets) e. Maximize on-street parking (all streets) f. Minimize o -street parking frontage (all streets) g. No curb cuts or driveways along priority frontage h. 2) Mul modal Streets Suppor ve to exclusive bus lanes a. Suppor ve of improved bicycling environment b. Encouragement of two-way street opera on considera on c. 3) Intersec on Modi ca ons Reduce crossing distances through the crea on of curb a. extensions Remove double turn lanes b. Evaluate removal of dedicated single turn lanes c. Seek to create no right turns on red d. Seek longer pedestrian cycle lengths and shorter e. pedestrian wait mes at signals; evaluate the value of the Barnes Dance 4) Priority of Implementa on Advance projects to complete intersec ons of the Priority a. Street network Advance projects to ll gaps along Priority Streets to meet b. DMAP Standards Advance and catalyze opportuni es to complete/expand c. Priority System Regulate for long-term improvements (All Streets) d.

PAGE 44

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N I MPLEMENTATIO N 45 FRAMEWORK SYS TEM S Priority Street Intersec on Project Framework

PAGE 45

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N I MPLEMENTATIO N FRAMEWORK SYS TEM S 46 Priority Street Sidewalk CompletionThe sidewalk design in the Priority Street network will follow the guidelines established DMAPs Streetscape Design Standards (listed in the appendix). However, under current policies, the implementa on of these standards will take me and may not be realized because of their dependence on private developments responsibility to implement improvements. An assessment of the Priority Street sidewalk condi ons was conducted to illustrate that many of the pedestrian network Priority Streets do not meet the expecta ons of DMAP. Of the areas that are not up to DMAP standards, the inconsistent sidewalks can be classi ed as rst concern large or small piecemeal projects. Regarding largescale projects, the City is already taking on some of these projects with the 14th Street Ini a ve and the street restora on e ort on Larimer Street between 15th and 17th. Other streets, such as Wazee and 21st Street, have only small areas to repair. The assessment also iden ed sidewalks that are up to DMAP standards in width but not in streetscape. Since no implementa on program exists to advance the comple on of this system, it is recommended that the City of Denver revise its sidewalk policies along Priority Streets. This requires an advancement of the construc on of the sidewalks along the Priority Streets network. Rather than wai ng for the private sector to ll in the gaps concurrent with individual development projects. SIDEWALK 16 SIDEWALK 16 ROADBED 48 EXISTING RIGHT-OF-WAY 80 Tra c: One-way, three lanes or Two way, two lanes plus le turn lane Right-of-Way: Typically 80 feet Block Length: Long Block Face Sidewalks: 16 foot width typical Driveways: Follow Fundamental Guidelines Improvements: DMAP Downtown Standard (DSS) Ligh ng: DSS street and pedestrian lights Trees: DSS with enhanced soil volume tree wells; species to be approved by Parks and Recrea on Paving: DSS architectural scored concrete Furnishings: DSS benches, news racks, trash receptacles, way nding signageWazee at 18th is an incomplete sidewalk Wazee at 16th is a complete sidewalkDMAP Mul modal Streetscape Standards

PAGE 46

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N I MPLEMENTATIO N 47 FRAMEWORK SYS TEM S Priority Street Sidewalk Comple on Project Framework

PAGE 47

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N I MPLEMENTATIO N FRAMEWORK SYS TEM S 48 Priority Intersection Design GuidelinesPresented here are two Priority Street intersec on designs for considera on. Each intersec on design represents possible condi ons within Downtown and illustrate various considera ons for streets with one-way opera on, two-way opera on and treatment for intersec ng condi ons with Transforma ve Streets. ACCESSIBILITY DESIGN The design of an intersec on a ects how fast tra c moves, how e ec vely drivers yield to pedestrians and how e ec vely pedestrians can avoid those drivers who do not. While these intersec on designs meet minimum accessibility standards, there are a number of improvements that could further improve intersec ons accessibility. These include: Designing ush curbing (i.e. curbs that are at the same grade as the street) Changing paving materials to guide the visually the impaired and align them with the crosswalks Ensuring clear sight lines to all pedestrians Improving visibility of pedestrians to motorists Allowing for larger queuing spaces for pedestrians Construc ng bulb-outs at intersec ons to shorten the distance from curb to curb AESTHETIC IMPROVEMENTS A wide variety of improvements can be made to enhance the visual appeal of the bulb outs for the bene t of the pedestrian or to increase their func onality. Some of these are listed below: Planters Rock, brick, or masonry pavers in sidewalk area A modular paver system throughout the intersec on Decora ve elements such as public art, decora ve planter rails, stamped, stained or sculpted concrete. Decora ve or thema c ligh ng Aesthe c Improvements to the design, opera on and maintenance c onsidera ons include the following: Budge ng for the cost of long term maintenance of landscaping, ligh ng and irriga on Budge ng for the long term expense for electricity to power ligh ng and/or irriga on systems Considering truck turning wheel paths when placing improvements Providing for addi onal space if needed for planters Consul ng accessibility experts regarding surface pavement, curbs, rails and other factors. Planning for long term maintenance costs of paver systems Considering pedestrian storage for high volume intersec ons Considering the needs/impacts of special events such as parades and fes vals PAVING IMPROVEMENTS It may be desirable, advisable, or even necessary to repave some or all of the intersec ons as the bulb outs are being installed. Some reasons for repaving include: To repair excessive cracking or sub-grade failure To defer future closures by tagging-on repaving with curb return construc on To lower intersec on for drainage enhancement To raise intersec on for tra c calming, accessibility, aesthe c, or drainage enhancement To install modular pavers, concrete, or stamped, stained, colored or sculpted concrete Curb paving maintenance, opera on, and design considera ons include: Designing to minimize future maintenance Enhancing opera on and pedestrian safety by using pavers or raised intersec on to calm tra c Considering snow plow impacts when crea ng textures, lips, curbs or ramps Designing to improve drainage rather than restric ng it Considering capital costs and long term costs of pavers and/ or texturing Considering tra c control and intersec on closures during repaving opera ons UTILITIES MODIFICATIONS A signi cant number of underground and surface u li es exist in the various intersec ons. While every intersec on will not require u lity reloca ons or adjustments, most will to one degree or another. Most common will be eleva on adjustment on valve and manhole lids and storm inlet reloca on. Table A (in the Appendix) projects costs for u lity reloca ons rela ve to two levels of complexity, a low cost reloca on scenario and a high cost reloca on scenario.

PAGE 48

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N I MPLEMENTATIO N 49 FRAMEWORK SYS TEM S Basic Intersec on Design Recommenda ons: Two recommenda ons are illustrated. One design is a landscaped curb extension to be considered on low volume streets. The second design is a low impact drainage design to mi gate addi onal stormwater impact.Priority Intersection Illustrative

PAGE 49

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N I MPLEMENTATIO N FRAMEWORK SYS TEM S 50 CURB REALIGNMENT Realigning the curb return is the basic element of the bulb-out. It provides the most important bene t to the pedestrian experience by decreasing the walking distance to cross the street and improving the vehicle drivers visibility of pedestrians. Curb realignment design, tra c opera on and maintenance considera ons include the following: Street drainage is interrupted. This may require: Addi onal inlets Sidewalk grade adjustment Street grade adjustment Trench drain installa on Exis ng storm inlet and pipe reloca on Truck turning radius is reduced. This may require: Various alterna ve curb layouts depending on tra c direc on, that is, at one-way/one-way, two-way/oneway, and two-way/two-way intersec ons Implemen ng restric ons to truck turning in speci c loca ons Design for rear wheel rollover Addi onal signing or striping Snow removal is somewhat more complicated. This may require: Physical signing or marking of bulb out end points Added maintenance cost for damaged curbs Addi onal driver training Minimum or greater accessibility standards must be met Tra c Control and phasing during construc on will be needed Bus stops and wheel paths may be impacted and must be taken into account LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DESIGN Curb extensions provide the opportunity to enhance the pedestrian experience with furnishings and the opportunity to put in place sustainable, low impact development measures. Some of the possibili es are: Provide bike racks to encourage bicycling Provide benches or other small gathering spac es Provide rain gardens for improving downstream water quality; use xeriscape/ na ve plan ng and low maintenance plant materials Provide porous paving systems to decrease storm runo Maintenance, opera on, and design considera ons might be items such as: Accoun ng for bus stops and wheel paths Place benches where addi onal space is available and pedestrian gathering might be enhanced Orient benches appropriately depending on the context of the loca on Provide space for bike racks Consider truck turning wheel paths when placing furnishings Evaluate the use of rain gardens considering both the water quality bene ts with the appropriateness of context and climate design

PAGE 50

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTRODUCTIO N I MPLEMENTATIO N 51 FRAMEWORK SYS TEM S Transforma ve Intersec on Design Recommenda onsTransformative Intersection Illustrative

PAGE 52

ImplementationStructuring the Pieces Immediate Short Term Mid-Term Long TermGit-r-done. -Larry the Cable Guy

PAGE 53

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTR O DU C TI ON IMPLEMENTATION F RAMEW O RK SYS TEM S 54

PAGE 54

I NTR O DU C TI ON IMPLEMENTATION F RAMEW O RK SYS TEM S Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone55

PAGE 55

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone I NTR O DU C TI ON IMPLEMENTATION F RAMEW O RK SYS TEM S 56

PAGE 56

I NTR O DU C TI ON IMPLEMENTATION F RAMEW O RK SYS TEM S Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone57

PAGE 57

Supporting ResearchDiscovery Planning One Studio Work Findings Commercial Core Golden Triangle LoDo/ Ballpark/ Central Pla e Valley Auraria Campus/ Larimer Square/ East Cherry Creek Downtown Mul modal Area Plan Streetscape Standards Living Streets Ini a veThat the protec on of the great governmental complex known as the civic center, which the state and the City share is required in the interests of the prosperity, civic pride and the general welfare of the people. -Wellington E. Webb Municipal Of ce Building

PAGE 58

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone59SUPPORTING RESEARCH DiscoveryA Walkability Audit was held in February of 2009 by Dan Burden of Gla ng Jackson and Walkable Communi es, which included the par cipa on of the Pedestrian Priority Zone Work Group, major stakeholders and the students from the University of Colorado Denver Spring 2009 Planning Studio. The walking tour, led par cipants throughout the Downtown to inform, observe and comment on many aspects of the pedestrian realm including: safety, accessibility and comfort. The group traversed the streets and public spaces as Dan laid out the built City environment in many new ways. Laureen Ferris from the Denver O ce of Disability Rights lent the students three wheelchairs and canes to make their experience as sensi ve to context as possible. Trying to navigate small sidewalks, curbs that arent ramped and sloped pavements gave the group a valuable experience they werent likely to forget. During the walk the group was alerted to city building mistakes as well as applauding precedent that should be carried throughout Downtown. Many areas like LoDo and Larimer Square have embraced elements and components that create exemplary places. Denver is full of great examples where all the pieces come together and have shown that when an integrated approach to planning, design and construc on are u lized, memorable places are possible. A er the audit, the students were assigned parts of the Downtown Area Plan as their Spring studio project. Downtown was divided into four project areas based very closely on the DAP: Auraria, LoDo and Ballpark, Commercial Core and the Golden Triangle Using the six principles of walkability to evaluate their areas, the students gave exis ng condi ons and then evaluated each areas compliance to the City of Denvers policies. From this evalua on, the students, Professor Berger and their advisors at Gla ng Jackson and Calibre, developed a pedestrian hierarchy framework for the streets. The following pages represent the summary of extensive and valuable work that the students contributed to this study. Each summary includes a descrip on of the project boundary, the goals of the group, recommenda ons and in some cases a special study which the group felt necessary to conduct. We owe a great deal of thanks and apprecia on to Gideon Berger for dedica ng his studio to this assignment and to his students who gave us enthusiasm for the project and fantas c products. Thanks to everyone who contributed. Walking Audit route taken with Dan Burden. Start at Union Sta on. End at Civic Centre Sta on Dan Burden speaking with walking audit par cipants in Larimer Square Commercial Core : Kale Prewi Chris Quinn, Colin Able, Ma Cunningham and Emily Silverman Golden Triangle : Megan De ner, Casey Jones, Sara Nadolny and Yang Ran Auraria Campus/ Pepsi Centre/ East Cherry Creek : Noah Beals, Alexa Messer, Bill Sadler, Lisa Shannon, Nate Winterringer LoDo/ Ballpark/ Central Pla e Valley : Aisha Alasousi, Ben Remer, Lela Schaumburg, Derrick Webb and Sco Wisniewski

PAGE 59

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone SUPPORTING RESEARCH60 LoDo/ Ballpark/ LoDo/ Ballpark/ Central Pla e Valley Central Pla e Valley Auraria Campus/ Pepsi Auraria Campus/ Pepsi Centre/ East Cherry Creek Centre/ East Cherry Creek Commercial Core Commercial Core Golden Golden Triangle TriangleDivision of project areas for the student evalua ons

PAGE 60

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone61SUPPORTING RESEARCH The Commercial Core comprises the heart of Denvers Central Business District (CBD). It is bounded by Arapahoe on the northwest, Park Avenue on the northeast, Welton and Sherman on the east, Colfax on the south, and Speer on the west. Within these boundaries are Denvers tallest buildings and highest employment concentra ons, with large amounts of both government (several federal buildings and the Webb building) and private sector employees. Also contained in the area are the Denver Performing Arts Complex, the second largest in the na on, the Colorado Conven on Center, and the heart of the 16th Street Mall. These three des na ons are big draws that pull a signi cant amount of people into the Commercial Core. Civic Center Sta on, Denvers gateway to downtown, spills thousands of pedestrians into the Commercial Core every day, adding to the reasons that downtown must become a true Pedestrian Priority Zone. We examined the current condi ons, documen ng such things as the local history, transit and bike networks, current events and trends, zoning and land use, and the Barnes Dance crossings. While we found many posi ve elements, a number of shortcomings were documented as well. Using the six principles of walkability, we evaluated the six elements of the built environment to determine what the shortcomings were. Addi onally, an assessment of the strengths, weaknesses, opportuni es, and threats (also known as a SWOT analysis) was carried out for each of the iden ed pedestrian sheds in the study area. The evalua on of the built environment and the SWOT analysis then led to six speci c goals designed to create a true Pedestrian Priority Zone in the Commercial Core. The six goals are: Bring all streets in the Commercial Core to an accommoda on level Increase pedestrian use of exis ng open spaces and sidewalks Improve mul modal ac vity throughout the Commercial Core Improve connec ons to adjacent neighborhoods and districts Create a true gateway to Downtown at Civic Center Sta on Make Arapahoe Square a path, origin, and des na on These goals include both small steps and bold visions that, if carried out, will drama cally change the look and feel of the Commercial Core, crea ng an environment in which the pedestrian feels both comfortable and engaged. Each goal contains several objec ves and policy recommenda ons that provide speci c ac ons and programs that can be implemented to achieve the plans goals. Finally, poten al phasing and responsible par es were iden ed to help guide the process and delineate who is responsible and where funding might come from.Commercial Core Commercial Core Study Area

PAGE 61

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone SUPPORTING RESEARCH62 Barnes Dance Intersec ons The Barnes Dance Study Denver is one of the few ci es that allow the pedestrians to cross the intersec ons diagonally. In Denver termed the Barnes Dance a er its creator Henry Barnes. The process stops vehicle tra c in all direc on for a third of the ming cycle, allowing pedestrians to cross in any direc on including the diagonal. The rst one was placed in 1952 at the corners of 17th and Stout Street. Of the 47 Barnes Dances throughout the downtown, as seen in Figure 14, 37 of them are located within the Commercial Core. For this reason, a public opinion survey was conducted to be er understand how much they were being used and how well liked are they by those individuals walking downtown. In order to obtain a higher response percentage, the survey was kept to 5 short ques ons. Some ques ons were provided with a set of answers and others were le open ended. The last two ques ons were added as a way to compile addi onal informa on about the most and least favorite pedestrian areas within downtown Denver. 80% of the 50 people surveyed came back In Favor or Strongly In Favor of having the Barnes Dance, which is by far the most signi cant answer. The second shows that the most common response for why it is well liked is the shorter distance and convenience of it, which is understandable considering the geometry of the crossing. The third ques on does show that, at mes, there are individuals that ignore it. This survey most importantly proves that the Barnes Dance is a wellliked amenity in the downtown, which should be considered when deciding how to treat them. There is also a ma er of tradi on which should be taken into account. Denver has a giant public pillow ght every year between light changes at these downtown intersec ons (at the pedestrian-only se ng in the cycle) during Halloween. Maybe its not the fanciest of City tradi ons, but if you have ever been witness to the event, I dare say it is a riotous explosion of feathers and laughter!

PAGE 62

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone63SUPPORTING RESEARCH The Golden Triangle is located south of the Central Business District. Its boundaries are Colfax Ave. to the north, Lincoln St. to the east and Speer Blvd. to the west and south. The group began the task of exploring the study area using the Six Principles of A Walkable City : comfort, convenience, engagement, vibrancy, connec vity and accessibility Using these principles as a means of organiza on, the group performed an Environmental Scan analysis. During this exercise the group rst brainstormed about the study area in terms of internal issues (Strengths and Weaknesses) as well as external issues (Opportuni es and Threats). The Golden Triangle was found to have strengths in terms of the prevalence of adap ve reuse of historic buildings and the mul tude of bus routes serving the area. Some of the areas weaknesses included the poor or awed design of some of the areas buildings (i.e.: Civic Center Sta ons bus departure point is a long solid wall blocking the wonderful view of the Capitol building), evidence of disrepair/ lack of maintenance or poten al blight. Some of the areas opportuni es include in ll and redevelopment and strengthening the areas iden ty. Lastly, some of the areas threats include the percep on of the Golden Triangle as a high crime area, and the large homeless popula on. The results of this exercise prepared the group for their nal task: the development of recommenda ons for the study area. Goals for the Golden Triangle were created with keeping the overarching goal in mind: to raise Denvers streets to the level of priority. To begin this process the group rst had the task grading the streets all throughout the Golden Triangle in terms of three dis nct levels: Accommoda on Streets, Equity Streets, and Priority Streets. The Accommoda on level streets can be de ned as those where the pedestrian is provided some ameni es (i.e. sidewalk), however the automobiles take precedence in that area. The Equity level streets are those that provide for both the pedestrian as well as the automobile fairly equally. The Priority level streets, at the highest level, are those that hold the pedestrian in the highest regard over the automobile, with a built environment that encourages use by the pedestrian. Golden Triangle Golden Triangle Study Area

PAGE 63

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone SUPPORTING RESEARCH64 The groups goals for the Golden Triangle, in brief, are as follows: Create pedestrian bridges that extend over Cherry Creek at Bannock and 13th to create a safe and pleasant route for pedestrians coming from the Acoma and Prado pedestrian shed areas to access the King Soopers urban grocer and Sunken Gardens Park located on the far west side of high tra c Speer Blvd.. Create a lively, safe, and vibrant Civic Core area by ac va ng Civic Center Park. The park should host more events, such as holiday markets and cra shows. To keep the park ac vated in the winter months an ice rink is suggested in the area of the Greek Amphitheater. An addi onal building is also suggested which will house a Childrens Art and Explora on Center a hands-on fun and learning center that would draw families to use the park. The pathway that currently runs alongside Broadway should be moved into the park, and trees planted along the street to provide a pleasant walking environment, create a bu er to the high volume Broadway tra c, and encourage pedestrians to walk in the park. Broadway and Lincoln should be uncoupled as opposite one- way streets, turning both back to two-way tra c. A Bus Rapid Transit system is being recommended for the areas length of Broadway and Lincoln, encouraging use of public transit. A Woonerf-style street is recommended for Acoma St.. A Woonerf is a street style that greatly reduces the volume and speed of tra c, with boundaries that blur between the pedestrian, bikes and automobiles, and where the pedestrian clearly has priority over all other forms of transporta on. Crea ng this style of street on Acoma will bring it back to a true neighborhood street. Implement Transporta on Demand Management (TDM) in the form of encouraging area wide Eco Passes, unbundling parking from housing units sold in the Golden Triangle, and welcoming to the area a private car-share program. It is the intent of this group that by implemen ng these recommenda ons the Golden Triangle District will become an example of a Denver neighborhood with high residency and low car ownership, an ac vated place with a concrete iden ty, an exci ng place for Denvers residents and visitors to enjoy, and truly a pedestrian priority zone.

PAGE 64

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone65SUPPORTING RESEARCH The LoDo/Ballpark/CPV tle represents three places of focus within the study area and is bounded by Broadway, Arapahoe, 15th, and the Pla e River, encompassing a unique blend of recrea on and urban life. The LoDo sec on is made up of The Historic District, Writers Square, and Tabor Center. It is a high-density area with a bou que type culture and is a rich and vibrant urban environment. The Ballpark sec on is anchored by Coors Field and supported by both the warehouse and upper Larimer neighborhoods. It is a nightlifebased area that is fueled by the in ux of people due to Rockies games. The warehouse district has developed in a self-sustaining loca on of bars and clubs, while the upper Larimer sec on is more of mixed use area with a heavy bar in uence. These three sec ons create the highdensity places that radiate throughout the study area. The Central Pla e Valley is made up of Commons Park bordering the Pla e River and the River Front development. It is a mixture of recrea on, residen al, and commerce. A highly successful area that is well planned and u lized throughout. The three neighborhoods of our study area, Lower Downtown (LoDo), Ballpark and the Central Pla e Valley (CPV) are loca ons of high pedestrian concentra on that provide a founda on for crea ng a pedestrian priority zone The streamlining of these areas through improved pedestrian connec ons, more de ned bike accommoda ons, and modi ca on to bus/vehicle ow all collaborate to take the pedestrian experience to a higher level that bene ts the city as a whole. In addi on, we will be making sugges ons for aesthe c improvements such as community level for the crea on of murals for unused building-wall space. The key goals for the study area include: Make every street at least an Equity Street except in special circumstances. Establish Larimer as the premier cross-town pedestrian pathway. 17th becomes a mul -modal spine that transports transit users, cyclists and pedestrians more e ciently. Wynkoop becomes a world class pedestrian-oriented public space. 21st becomes a neighborhood main street with connec ons to Coors. Field and Arapahoe Square. LoDo, Ballpark and the Central Platte Valley LoDo/ Ballpark/ Central Pla e Valley Study Area

PAGE 65

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone SUPPORTING RESEARCH66 The most in uen al plan of the study area is the Denver Union Sta on Master Plan and its proposed future development. Denver Union Sta on is expected to become a regional transporta on hub where all future light rail, commuter rail, and bus routes will travel through. The plan includes a train room that serves passenger rail users, as well as an underground bus sta on that will replace Market Street Sta on. As a future major des na on, the en re district is planned for mixed-use commercial, residen al and retail development, some public (shown in blue) and some private from East-West partners (shown in gray). This is arguably the most signi cant real estate development in downtown Denver and the surrounding pedestrian environment is, to a great extent, dependent on its success. The Denver Union Sta on Master Plan complements our pedestrian priority ini a ve, envisioning streets, intersec ons, sidewalks and routes around Denver Union Sta on as a rac ve, convenient and safe for pedestrians. There are at least 25 parcels in the study area planned for new development. Most of these developments are residen al mixeduse projects, as well as commercial mixed use and Planned Unit Development (PUD). The PUD projects are planned to transform the Denver Union Sta on area from empty parcels to a collec on of high-rise mixed use commercial, residen al, and retail development. Some other key sites of development in the LoDo/Ballpark/CPV area include: O ce Depot Block Redevelopment: W Hotel & Residences Current: O ce Depot Proposed: 12-story mixed-use hotel and condominium building with ground oor retail 1800 Market Street Current: Surface parking lot Proposed: 13 story apartment building 1800 Larimer Current: Surface parking lot Proposed: 22-story commercial high rise with structured parking 2120 Blake project Current: Empty lot Proposed: 180 rental apartments in 8-story building with ground oor retail Balfour Cosmopolitan Club Current: Surface parking lot Proposed: 264 unit senior housing facility with160 unit parking garage The rst senior housing op on in the Central Pla e Valley

PAGE 66

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone67SUPPORTING RESEARCH This report focuses on the western por on of downtown and includes the Auraria Campus, Pepsi Center, Elitch Gardens, Larimer Square, and the East Cherry Creek areas. It encompasses the por on of the central business district between Speer and 15th Street, from the Pla e River on the north to Colfax Avenue to the south. It also includes the en re Auraria Campus and Pepsi Center/Elitch Gardens areas. Compared to the 16th Street Mall and other areas of downtown, the roads here are much wider and the speed limits are much higher, leading many pedestrians to feel unsafe and unlikely to walk as far as they would if the streets were narrower or more engaging. The study area has a wide variety of land uses and major a rac ons that are vital to downtown Denvers economic engine, so improving connec vity, vibrancy, and engagement in the study area is a major goal of the Pedestrian Priority Zone plan. Pedestrian ac vity is already high in the study area, but is concentrated in two areas: the Auraria Campus and Larimer Square. According to a pedestrian baseline study by Space Syntax in 2008,7 there are approximately 70,000 pedestrians on campus per day, and the majority (70%) are students. Student movement peaks between 8:00 AM and 12:00 PM, while non-student movement peaks at lunch me. In 2013, a new light rail sta on will open up on the west side of campus, replacing the exis ng Auraria West sta on. It will be the main connec on between the West Corridor and the Central Corridor lines, and RTD es mates that there sta on will become the second-busiest in the en re system, with only 26,000 daily transfers once completed. Hence, there will be an in ux of new pedestrians in the study area in the near future. On the other side of Speer Boulevard is Larimer Square, a historic street with a variety of retail and dining op ons. According to the Downtown Denver Partnerships pedestrian movement counts, between 7,000 to 8,000 pedestrians cross through Larimer Square every day, with over 2,000 pedestrians during the lunch me hours alone. The crea on of a pedestrian-oriented downtown zone is cu ng-edge and will transform Denver into one of the most livable, sustainable, and connected ci es in the world. Accessibility and connec vity are bene cial not only for exis ng pedestrians in downtown Denver, but also for tourists and residents of nearby towns who would not normally venture downtown. Making the streets more walkable can also encourage more people to choose alterna ve modes of transporta on other than driving.Auraria Campus, Larimer Square and East Cherry Creek Auraria Campus/ Larimer Square/ East Cherry Creek Study Area

PAGE 67

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone SUPPORTING RESEARCH68 However, at this point in me, Downtown Denver is a Pedestrian Priority Zone in name only. It is merely a concept awai ng implementa on. The focus of this project was to iden fy the exis ng condi ons of the streets in downtown Denver and provide recommenda ons on how to improve them so that the area can truly become a Pedestrian Priority Zone This report focuses on the western por on of downtown and includes the Auraria Campus, Pepsi Center, Elitch Gardens, Larimer Square, and the East Cherry Creek area. The study area has a variety of land uses that complement each other. There is a college campus, a major sports arena, an amusement park, a major o -street trail system, and a thriving commercial district centered on Larimer Square. However, there is a lack of connec vity between the four centers of pedestrian ac vity in the study area (hereina er referred to as ped sheds): Auraria Campus, the Pepsi Center site, Larimer Square, and the East Cherry Creek neighborhood. Speer Boulevard, Colfax Avenue, and Auraria Parkway separate these areas from each other and other downtown des na ons and make walking burdensome. In addi on, there is a lack of vibrancy and engagement on the Auraria Campus, and the abundance of surface parking lots makes it more convenient to drive to campus than use other modes of transporta on. As expected, the group found that the city already has a strong pedestrian infrastructure in most areas of the central business district and Lower Downtown, but that there is a lack of connec vity between these two areas and the areas across Speer Boulevard: the Auraria Campus and the Pepsi Center/Elitch Gardens area. Improving connec vity between these areas should be a key component of the citys plan to transform Denver into a pedestrian priority zone and this analysis illustrates the need to priori ze improvements along streets that intersect Speer Boulevard, Auraria Parkway, and Colfax Avenue, as well as those streets on the Auraria Campus near future developments.

PAGE 68

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone69SUPPORTING RESEARCH The following is an excerpt from the DMAP Downtown streetscape plan: master plan, design guidelines, prototype plans, streetscape standards. A manual prepared for the City and County of Denver, the Regional Transporta on District and Colorado Department of Transporta on in June of 2004. Organiza on The Downtown Streetscape Plan is organized around four primary sec ons: the Master Streetscape Plan, Fundamental Streetscape Guidelines, Prototype Block Plans and Streetscape Standards. These acknowledge the func onal di erences between DAMP streets yet also require a new threshold level of design treatment that improves the pedestrian environment throughout the Downtown area. The Master Streetscape Plan maps the required streetscape design treatment for any right-of-way improvements on various di erent streets and corridors in the DMAP area. It is directly related to DMAP The Plan in that it implements the overall vision on any given corridor in the study area. The Fundamental Streetscape Guidelines set out the basic principles for design of the urban sidewalk in any block face. Like other guidelines, these are a star ng point for speci c project design. Where the star ng point for speci c project design. Where the guidelines cannot be met, a review procedure will allow a proposer to make a case for why a project cannot meet the guidelines and what mi ga ng features can be o ered. The Prototype Block Plans directly correspond to the Master Streetscape Plan categories and designa ons. The illustrate and describe, in detailed plans and sec ons, prototypical design, layout and furnishings required on any DMAP street. The Streetscape Standards catalog the various furnishings, xtures and detailed design standards to be used on any DMAP street improvement. They are referred to as Downtown Streetscape Standards (DSS). Downtown Multimodal Access Plan Streetscape Standards

PAGE 69

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone SUPPORTING RESEARCH70 DMAP Multimodal Street SectionTra c: One-way, three lanes or Two way, two lanes plus le turn lane Right-of-Way: Typically 80 feet Block Length: Long Block Face Sidewalks: 16 foot width typical Driveways: Follow Fundamental Guidelines Improvements: DMAP Downtown Standard (DSS) Ligh ng: DSS street and pedestrian lights Trees: DSS with enhanced soil volume tree wells; species to be approved by Parks and Recrea on Paving: DSS architectural scored concrete Furnishings: DSS benches, news racks, trash receptacles, way nding signage SIDEWALK 16 SIDEWALK 16 ROADBED 48 EXISTING RIGHT-OF-WAY 80 Merchant Zone Through Pedestrian ZoneFurniture Zone Curb Zone

PAGE 70

Denvers First Pedestrian Priority Zone71SUPPORTING RESEARCH Transportation is not an end it is a means to having a better life, a more enjoyable life the real goal is not to improve transportation but to improve quality of life -Enrique Penalosa A er adop on of the East Colfax Plan and West Colfax Plan, followed by the crea on of a new form-based zone district for Main Streets the City iden ed the need for a more comprehensive, coordinated approach to corridor planning The emerging Living Streets Ini a ve brings together eight city departments/agencies ( Community Planning & Development Public Works Environmental Health O ce of Economic Development Parks & Recrea on Greenprint Denver Budget & Management O ce and Human Rights & Community Rela ons ) to unify the Citys e orts to redevelop our corridors in support of the Blueprint Denver vision and the sustainability goals of Greenprint Denver, including the Denver Climate Ac on Plan The design and ideas of Living Streets are new to us only because we have relied on the sole responsibility of engineers and some part of planning or public works to de ne the roles of mobility. Today, we know that mobility means so much more than a personal vehicle. Transit, bicycling, walking and personal vehicles are all balancing elements in the equa on. Solving mobility issues must be an integra ve process that involves every agency which touches the City. Our ul mate goal through Living Streets is to create a culture and process which helps to de ne the roles and responsibili es of the place makers that must be at the table when cri cal decisions regarding infrastructure, land use and transporta on are discussed. When we see the street from building to building, instead of curb to curb, we begin to understand what a truly Living Street is all about.Living Streets Initiative