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East Colfax plan

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Title:
East Colfax plan
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Community Planning and Development, City and County of Denver
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Denver, CO
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City and County of Denver
Publication Date:
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English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Colfax Avenue (Denver, Colo.)
Community planning

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Auraria Library
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Auraria Library
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Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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COLFAX


EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
EAST COLFAX
CORRIDOR PLAN
MAY 2004
EAST COLFAX


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
LkcKNOWLEDGEMENTS
City Council
ElbaWedgeworth, Council President, District 8
Rick Garcia, District 1
Jeanne Faatz, District 2
Rosemary E. Rodriguez, District 3
Peggy Lehmann, District 4
Marcia Johnson, District 5
Charlie Brown, District 6
Kathleen MacKenzie, District 7
Judy Montero, District 9
Jeanne Robb, District 10
Michael B. Eiancock, District 11
Carol Boigon, At-Large
Doug Linkhart, At-Large
Planning Board
William H. (Bill) Eiornby, Chairman
Jan Marie Belle
Joel Boyd
Frederick Corn, EE.
Monica Guardiola, Esq.
Daniel R. Guimond,AICP
Mark Johnson, FASLA
Barabara Kelley
Joyce Oberfeld
Bruce ODonnell
Jim Raughton
City and County of Denver
John H. Hickenlooper, Afayor
Peter Park, Director Community Planning &
Development
Tyler Gibbs, Deputy Director for Planning
Services
Katherine K. Cornwell, Senior City Planner
and Project Manager
Jason Longsdorf, Public Works City Planner
Specialist
Theresa Lucero, Senior City Planner
Matt Seubert, Senior City Planner
Rich Carstens, Urban Design Architect
Eric McClelland, GIS Specialist
Steve Gordon, Development Program
Manager
Steve Turner, Urban Design Architect
Jim Ottenstein, Graphic Design
Dan Michael, Graphic Design
Julie Connor, Graphic Design
Phil Plienis, Senior City Planner
Other Agencies
Cesar Ochoa, Regional Transportation
District
Bill Eloople, Regional Transportation
District
Kathleen Brookex, Historic Denver
Consultants
Leland Consulting Group, Economic
Analysis
Stakeholders
Anna Jones, Co-Chair
Dave Walstrom, Co-Chair
Andy Baldyga
Josh Brodbeck
Brad Buchanan
Brad Cameron
Margot Crowe
Shayne Brady
Melissa Fehrer-Peiker
Buzz Geller
Jim Elannifin
Michael Henry
Harriet Hogue
Greg Holle
Wayne Jakino
Bret Johnson
Carla Madison
Tom Morris
Jim Peiker
Vicky Portocarrero
Gail Stagner
Ron Vogel
Stacey Williams
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EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
Stable of contents
Executive Summary 5
Introduction 9
Project Partners & Plan Process..........................................................10
Purpose of the Plan......................................................................14
Relationship to Other Plans & Studies....................................................17
A Short History of a Long Street.........................................................30
Population, Housing and Economic Characteristics.........................................49
Assessment of Existing Conditions........................................................55
Plan Vision 69
Framework Plan 73
Land Use.............................................................................76
Urban Form and Design................................................................82
Transportation.......................................................................93
Parking..............................................................................97
Economic Development................................................................100
District Plans 119
Colfax Identity & Geography of the Plan Vision......................................120
Capitol Village District............................................................122
Midtown Colfax District.............................................................126
Colfax Promenade District...........................................................129
Transit Oriented Development Districts..............................................132


Implementation Strategy 139
Land Use........................................................................140
Urban Form......................................................................142
Transportation & Infrastructure.................................................146
Economic Development............................................................150
District Specific Implementation Strategies.....................................154
Appendix 157
Guiding Principles..............................................................158
SWOT.............................................................................160
Full-Length Vision Statement....................................................169
Glossary of Terms and Tools.....................................................171
Map Appendix 187
BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE


EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
"The trouble with land is that theyre not making
it anymore."
Will Rogers


60 acres of infill and redeueiopment
could add to East Colfax:
0 2,500,000 to 10,000,000 SF of mixed use
development
0 2,000 to 0,000 new residential units
0 3,000 to 1 2,500 new residents
0 $2,100,000 to $0,500,000 in annual
residential property taxes
Forecasts estimate that Denvers population will grow by 132,000 people, and that the metro-region will
grow by 800,000 people, over the next twenty years. In response to the anticipated growth, Blueprint
Denver, the citys award winning plan to integrate land use and transportation, identified Areas of Change
where the city should direct growth in order to connect people to jobs, housing and the transportation
system. Blueprint Denver defines an Area of Change as a place where growth and change are either
desirable or underway. The plan identified East Colfax as a priority Area of Change for several reasons
related to latent land development potential, access to and demand for enhanced transportation,
proximity to downtown, opportunity to accommodate more housing (including affordable and low-
income units) and ability to stimulate economic development, as well as reinvestment in significant
historic resources.
Existing zoning along the East Colfax corridor results in a development pattern inconsistent with its
future growth and investment potential. Existing zoning throughout Denver has the capacity to
accommodate 247,000 new jobs, more than twice the forecasted job growth. At the same time, existing
zoning has the capacity for 69,800 new households citywide, just enough to keep pace with forecasted
growth of 60,700 households, according to Blueprint Denver (pgs. 9-14). Without greater potential
through regulatory incentives for housing, demand will exceed the communitys ability to produce
affordable units. The majority of the commercial parcels along Colfax are zoned B-4, one of the citys
broadest business zone districts. Under the existing zoning, it is difficult, if not impossible, to achieve a
compact, mixed-use development pattern that includes residential units along the corridor. The
permitted building intensity of the B-4 district is nearly unattainable when coupled with parking
requirements and the limited size of the commercial parcels. The path of least resistance under this zone
district is low density commercial such as auto-oriented franchises. Such development does not
maximize the lands potential to repopulate the parcels adjacent to this significant transit corridor, and
consequently will not support the communitys vision for growth identified in Blueprint Denver. There
are few residential units in developments on the parcels contiguous to the corridor relative to the density
in the Census block groups adjacent to East Colfax (from Broadway to Colorado Blvd). In this area, density
ranges from 60 to 80 people per acre and between 40 and 55 dwelling units per acre. The low-density
scale of the corridor is out of proportion with its urban context. The Census block groups adjacent to
this section of Colfax represent a fraction of a percent of Denvers land area (0.25%), yet 3% of Denvers
population resides here.
East Colfax is one of the highest performing transportation corridors in the city, carrying in excess of
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EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
35,000 vehicles per day and 20,000 transit riders per day. Despite the high transit function, land uses are
geared toward low density, auto-oriented commercial development. The transportation and land use
systems along East Colfax do not balance each other. Estimates from 2001, suggest that approximately
62% of the trips in Denver either originated or ended outside of the city limits, according to DRCOG. As
the citys major cross-town arterial that connects Denver, Aurora and Lakewood, planning for
transportation on Colfax must consider innovative ways to move more people over time through this
corridor. Expanding the number of lanes is not a feasible solution. Increasing the supply of housing
along the corridor is transit-oriented development that brings residents into proximity of transit service.
It is not enough to bring more people to the corridor. Transit must be development oriented and capable
of tapping and supporting increased riders. The street carries a significantly high level of traffic
throughout the day not just in peak traffic demand hours. In the Census block groups adjacent to the
corridor over 40% of commuters use alternative modes of transportation. Consistent traffic and more
non-peak traffic in a corridor with a strong alternative mode split are favorable indicators for enhanced
transit technology.
Potential exists for transit supportive infill and redevelopment of vacant or underutilized parcels along the
corridor on approximately 60 acres of land. Model development at an achieved floor area ratio
(development intensity) of between 2:1 and 4:1 could generate an additional 1,000,000 SF to 2,500,000
SF of retail and 2,500,000 to 10,000,000 SF of residential and/or office space. Model development patterns
include Chamberlin Heights at Colfax and Steele (a 56-unit residential project mixed with 6,000-SF of first
floor commercial uses and 79 structured parking spaces) or Baker Commons on Broadway at 3rdAvenue.
Two and a half million to ten million SF of residential space could generate between 2,000 and 8,500 new
units and house upwards of 3,000 to 12,500 residents (based on an estimated household size of 1.5).
Mixed-use development could bring between 2,000 to 8,000 new market rate units to the corridor and
could generate approximately $2,100,000 to $8,500,000 annually in property taxes (assuming an average
value of $200,000 per for-sale residential unit). Facilitating high quality development on the corridor with
predictable regulatory tools will stoke Denvers economic engine, as well as provide more opportunity to
house people and connect them to the transit system. Today, the average sale price of houses within a
1/2 block of the corridor are roughly 70% of the average sale price in the stable, historic neighborhoods
outside of a 1/2 block north and south of the corridor. Reinforcing existing housing stock with new units
in mixed-use developments, especially on parcels where there is an inverse relationship between
improvement value and land value, could upgrade the area and introduce more housing to the corridor.
East Colfax at Steele Chamberlain Heights
Broadway at 3rd Aue Baker Commons
Chamberlain Heights & Baker Commons are
models of mixed-use deueiopment projects that
bring new residents and businesses to
transportation corridors.
EAST COLFAX


Adaptive reuse of historic resources adds
value and character to the corridor that can
spur economic development.
8
Historic preservation may also spur investment and economic development in the corridor. A strong
commitment to preservation means creating and tapping economic and regulatory incentives to maintain,
restore and adaptively reuse architectural resources that add value and character to a place. Preservation
need not be at odds with development. Flexible standards that focus on preservation of structures
without prohibiting development in the surrounding area actually reinforces a vibrant, eclectic and
diverse environment appropriate to the health of the urban corridor context. In ecological terms an
ecotone describes the zone within which two vastly different ecosystems merge, such as a shoreline.
These areas contain the richest mix of biologically diverse species and habitat due to adaptation over time
to the fluctuating conditions in the ecotone. Applying the same principle to Colfax, preservation and
development define the dynamics of an urban ecotone that blends the best of traditional development
with an invigorating mix of new forms.
Over three thousand five hundred hours of community involvement produced the vision for growth,
change and preservation outlined in this plan. Residents, business owners, political leaders,
preservationists, architects and developers contributed to the planning process. This plan refines the
vision for East Colfax developed by the community in Blueprint Denver and lays the foundation for key
implementation actions that will achieve this vision.
The top priorities of the plan are:
) Create a new zone district appropriate for East Colfax and similar corridors.
) Establish a Colfax historic district that provides preservation incentives without restricting
development on non-historic sites.
) Undertake a phase two transportation study that identifies street design standards and transit
alternatives.
) Develop key catalyst sites along the corridor.
Implementation of this plan ensures a more functional present and a sustainable future for Denver's
main street.
BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE


EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
INTRODUCTION
"You got to be careful if you dont know where
youre going, because you might not get there."
Yogi Berra
EAST COLFAX


Ai_________
Community Meeting
ia
10
Dk
ROJECT PARTNERS AND PLAN PROCESS
Project Partners volunteered over 3,500 hours to craft and refine a vision and strategy for revitalization of
Colfax. The East Colfax study area boundaries cross two Council Districts and intersect fifteen
neighborhood historic districts and business association boundaries including Uptown, Uptown on the
Hill, Colfax on the Hill, Colfax Business Improvement District, Capitol Hill, Pennsylvania Street Historic
District, Swallow Hill Historic District, City Park West, Wyman Historic District, City Park Esplanade/East
High School Historic District, South City Park, Congress Park, Cheesman Park, Snell Subdivision (Colfax A
and B) Historic District, and ParkAvenue Historic District. With so many interests needing representation
during the planning process, the Planning office assembled a stakeholder committee comprised of
representatives elected from each neighborhood association and business district. Both Council Districts
and eachAt-Large Council member elected one representative to the committee. The Councilmembers
for District 8 and District 10 actively participated on the committee. Many area organizations, including
the Unsinkables, the City Park Alliance, the Northeast Denver Housing Coalition and the Temple Events
Center, found representation by the various members of the committee. The representatives made
reports to their constituents, and kept the city apprised of business and resident concerns throughout the
process and ensured that the process kept moving forward despite the sensitive nature of the work.
While not official members of the Stakeholder group, numerous residents, business operators, developers
and property owners devoted time and energy to the process, and volunteered opinions, ideas, concerns
and solutions that made this a better and stronger plan. Together the stakeholders represented a wide
variety of perspectives and a broad range of the community participated in the planning process,
providing critical comment and direction.
Several City departments collaborated on the Plan including Community Planning and Development,
Public Works, the Mayors Office of Economic Development and International Trade and the Denver Urban
Renewal Authority. There was also participation from the Regional Transportation District (RTD) and the
Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT). The strong interest and participation by city and other
agencies bodes well for implementing the Plan expeditiously. The involvement of property owners,
L U E P
NT D E N V E
AREA OF CHANGE


EAST COLFAX
neighborhood residents, businesses and developers assures both realism and a bold vision of what the
area can become.
Stakeholders, City staff and the general public participated in the planning process in a variety of ways:
) Regular stakeholder committee meetings The stakeholder committee initially met monthly, but
met more regularly (averaging one meeting every two weeks) toward the end of the process. These
meetings were open to the public and public participation was encouraged at each meeting. All of
the stakeholders, neighborhood associations and the Plans mailing list (which included all persons
who signed in and provided contact information at the meetings) received notice of the meetings
held primarily in the Webb Municipal Building.
) Land Use Scenario Workshops A series of three land use scenario workshops were conducted to
determine the desirable future land use pattern of the corridor. Participants in the workshops
identified important activity centers and variations in character between different segments of the
corridor. These results were incorporated into the Plan maps and recommendations.
) Developers Forum In March of 2003, the committee invited local developers to provide feedback
regarding the feasibility of the future land use concepts and to identify challenges to the realization
of the vision. The developers addressed concerns such as the financial feasibility of development,
building height, mixture of uses, floor area ratio and transit. This information was incorporated into
the Plan goals, objectives and recommendations.
) Colfax Coalition Enhanced Transit Forum The City brought streetcar and bus rapid transit
experts from Boston, Los Angeles, Portland and Vancouver to Denver to address the opportunities
and challenges of enhanced transit technologies.
) Public Outreach In addition, City staff held one on one meetings with stakeholders and community
leaders and topical meetings regarding streetcars and economic development. Staff attended
business association and neighborhood meetings to discuss the plan, as well as facilitated four
public meetings at the end of the process to provide adequate community review and feedback
regarding the plan and its recommendations prior to review by Planning Board and City Council.
In addition to the public participation process, the Plan was also shaped through:
) Briefings held with City Council members
) Community Planning and Development staff review and discussions
EAST COLFAX
O R R I D O R PLAN
Community meeting
"A community is like a ship; eueryone ought
to be prepared to take the helm."
Henrik Ibsen


As a part of the City Councils adoption of the Plan as a supplement to Plan 2000, the Plan document was
further refined through:
) Denvers Interagency Plan Review Committee standards of completeness, presentation and
consistency with Plan 2000 and Blueprint Denver
) Denver Planning Board informational session and public hearing.
) City Council Committee and final action.
The interaction between multiple city agencies, other public agencies and the general public has been
extensive. Many of the Plan implementation strategies and priorities will require ongoing public
involvement and partnerships between property owners, businesses, neighborhoods, city agencies and
other public agencies and private individuals and organizations.
12
BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE


EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
EAST COLFAX
13


Balancing land uses on East Colfax with the
transportation system and surrounding
neighborhoods is the primary purpose of the
plan.
Purpose of the plan
Blueprint Colfax: East Corridor Plan (hereinafter referred to as the Plan) is the result of direction from two
citywide plans, Comprehensive Plan 2000 (Plan 2000) which creates a vision for Denvers future and
Blueprint Denver: An Integrated Land Use and Transportation Plan (Blueprint Denver) which creates a
more specific vision to strategically manage growth.
Adopted in March of 2002, Blueprint Denver creates a new direction for long range planning. Blueprint
Denver broadly organizes the City into Areas of Change (AOC) and Areas of Stability (AOS). Within this
framework its strategies channel growth to AOC where there is a strong connection between land use
and transportation. This direction funnels investment and growth to places where existing infrastructure
is underutilized, where increased density and intensity may be appropriate, and where growth and transit
may have a mutually supportive effect. Focusing growth to Areas of Change steers it away from areas
where growth may have a negative impact on existing character and stable development (see Blueprint
Denver Areas of Change map on page 19).
Several geographic terms in this plan describe East Colfax and its environs.
) The East Colfax study area describes all of the parcels between Grant Street and Colorado
Boulevard from 14th Avenue to 16th Avenue.
) The East Colfax Areas of Change include all or part of two Areas of Change
(see Blueprint Denver Areas of Change Map):
I Downtown
I East Colfax (West of Colorado)
) In this plan the East Colfax corridor is used interchangeably to mean commercial parcels adjacent
to the corridor, as well as the more fluid area of influence beyond these parcels between 14th and
!6thAvenues.
14
\ Other terms refer to a variety of geographic boundaries such as trade area, districts, node, station
BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE


EAST COLFAX
areas, activity center. Definitions for these concepts should be clear in the narrative text or
accompanying graphics.The glossary in the appendix also defines these terms.
There are several reasons why the Blueprint Colfax: East Corridor Plan should be developed at this time.
(1) Colfax is the premier cross-town arterial that joins three metropolitan jurisdictions (Denver, Lakewood
and Aurora) and connects downtown to many regional destinations. (2) Designated as an Enhanced
Transportation Corridor under Blueprint Denver and Bus Redeployment Corridor under the Regional
Transportation District (RTD) plan for the build out of the transportation system, Colfax requires land use
and zoning strategies to support the application of a more efficient and effective transit technology. (3)
Colfax is the model for land use and transportation strategies to apply on Enhanced Transportation
Corridors citywide. (4) Colfax contains many underutilized and vacant parcels that could benefit from
redevelopment as mixed use projects that capture a greater percent of the trade areas market share and
contribute more to the citys economy, provide more housing options for residents (including affordable
and low-income housing), activate the street environment and capitalize on the convenient access to
transit. The future development climate of the corridor should attract investment and uses that support
transit users and residents, and reinforce neighborhood character. (5) The corridor needs elevated
standards for design that respect historic character, reflect diversity and eclecticism, and improve the
areas overall image. (6) Several private redevelopment investments are in process or completed
including Chamberlin Heights (a 56-unit residential project mixed with 6000-SF of first floor commercial
uses and 79 structured parking spaces), City Park South (a planned 700-unit residential project with 1050
structured parking spaces on the site of the former Mercy Hospital), and potential reinvestment in the
area surrounding East High School including the Lowenstein Theater.
The Blueprint Colfax: East Corridor Plan establishes long-range goals and objectives for the redevelopment
of East Colfax with defined activity centers at major entertainment venues and future village center
locations at the intersection of major transportation routes. The Plan emphasizes design and
development standards to create a stronger pedestrian environment and a street that balances the needs
of multiple transportation modes. It identifies unique districts along the corridor that provide the
foundation for place making and a marketable brand image. It provides a framework and implementation
strategies that will direct future growth and redevelopment in a rational manner. The Plan is primarily a
vision for land use, transportation, economic development, historic preservation and urban design. The
Plan provides a community and city-approved guide to the acceptable future redevelopment in the
corridor. It is intended for use by Community Planning and Development, the Department of Public
EAST COLFAX
O R R I D O R PLAN
The East Colfax Plan is a guide for future
deueiopment
City Park South is the planned redeuelopment
of the former Mercy Hospital site.
Lowenstein Theater is a potential
redeuelopment site across from the
City Park Esplanade.
15


Works, other city agencies, the Denver Planning Board, the Mayor, the City Council, other public agencies
such as the Colorado Department of Transportation, the Regional Transportation District, the Denver
Regional Council of Governments, and quasi-public agencies, neighborhood associations, business people,
property owners, residents, and private organizations concerned with planning, development and
neighborhood improvement.
The Plan is intended to promote patterns of land use, urban form, circulation and services that contribute
to the economic, social and physical health, safety and welfare of the people who live and work in the
area. Corridor plans address issues and opportunities at a scale that is more refined and more responsive
to specific needs than the Citys Comprehensive Plan 2000 (Plan 2000) and Blueprint Denver. This East
Colfax Corridor Plan provides more specific guidance for the allocation of city resources, as well as for
the location and design of private development. This Plan serves as a supplement to Plan 2000.
Since this is a plan for Areas of Change and Stability, as designated in Blueprint Denver (and as shown in
the Blueprint Denver Plan Map excerpt on page 72), it provides adequate direction for potential
developers. It also provides detailed information on existing physical conditions, population and housing
characteristics and a market analysis of the demand for new development. The availability of this
information may foster interest in the area and may expedite redevelopment. Additionally, the Plan
provides guidance to encourage neighborhood stability, preservation and adaptive reuse of historic
structures and compatibility between new and existing architecture and uses.
The Plan is not an official zone map, nor does it create or deny any rights. Zone changes that may be
proposed as part of any development must be initiated under a separate procedure established under the
Revised Municipal Code.
16
BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE


EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER PLANS
AND STDDIES
This chapter reviews the applicable content of citywide and small area plans that have been adopted by
City Council, as well as other studies (not adopted by City Council) which contain information pertinent
to the future planning and development of East Colfax. This section highlights relevant policies in those
documents for consistency with this plan.Where inconsistencies exist, proceeding chapters describe the
inconsistency and recommend new policy directions.
Plans adopted by City Council
Comprehensive Plan 2000
Many elements of Plan 2000 apply to the planning process for East Colfax, but certain chapters have a
more significant impact. As a unique transit corridor, Colfax has the potential to meet and exceed the
citys goals and objectives for improved land use, mobility, legacies, housing, economic activity and
neighborhoods.
Land Use
A number of the objectives under this chapter apply to the corridor plan for East Colfax including:
Objective 3 (and related strategies), pgs. 59-60 Preserve and enhance the individuality, diversity and
livability of Denvers neighborhoods and expand the vitality of Denvers business centers and Objective 4
(and related strategies), pg. 60 Ensure that Denvers citywide land use and transportation plan and
regulatory system support the development of a clean, efficient and innovative transportation system that
meets Denvers future economic and mobility needs.
Mobility
As one of the most significant transportation corridors in the region, all of the mobility objectives apply to
the planning process for East Colfax, except for Objective 10 related to air travel strategies. The mobility
17


Blueprint
Denver
J.ri i ,, >'il
I ' ' i. '
I i i- i in
Blueprint Denver
objectives stress diverse mobility options, regional transportation, accommodation of new development,
changing travel behavior, public transit, roadways, neighborhood transportation, walking and bicycling and
parking management, pgs.75-81.
Denvers Legacies
Legacies objectives that apply to Colfax planning include preservation of histoic resources and
neighborhoods, design excellence, new development with traditional character, compact urban
development and strong connections (and where appropriate green connections between activity
centers, pgs. 98-101.
Housing
Planning for the unique Colfax setting supports a number of Denvers housing objectives including
expansion of existing housing options, preferred housing development (mixed-use and mixed-income
along transit lines) and preservation of existing housing stock, pgs. 113-118.
Economic Activity
Plan 2000 identifies Colfax as a top priority for commercial corridor revitalization. Under Objective 4-B
the plan states that Colfax should be strengthened to enhance existing business centers and establish
new business centers in a manner that offers a variety of high quality uses that support Denvers business
environment, complements neighboring residential areas, generates public revenue and creates jobs.
Neighborhoods
Neighborhood health and vitality is a critical element of Plan 2000. Plan 2000 includes objectives to
strengthen the unique identity of Denvers neighborhoods, encourage public participation and
collaboration in the planning process, promote clean and safe neighborhoods, reinforce the role of
schools as neighborhood activity centers, and manage and maintain community facilities, pgs. 149-156.
Blueprint Denver (2002)
The citys comprehensive land use and transportation plan organizes Denver around Areas of Change and
Areas of Stability. Directing growth to appropriate locations and preserving the existing character and
land uses in other locations is the foundation of this organization. Areas of Change include places where
land use development may be closely linked to the transportation system (light rail station areas, major
18
BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE


EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
Blueprint Denver Areas nf Change
EAST COLFAX


Blueprint Denver identified East Colfax as an
Area of Change appropriate for pedestrian
shopping corridor development.
corridors like East Colfax), neighborhoods in and around downtown, and new development areas (Lowry,
Stapleton and Gateway). Blueprint Denver creates the overarching vision for the city to encourage a
growth pattern where land use and transportation have a mutually supportive effect.
Areas of Change
The Blueprint Denver map designated three Areas of Change within two parts of the East Colfax study
area. The Areas of Change include:
) The commercial part of the East Colfax corridor (predominantly the B-4 zoned parcels) plus the
Mercy Hospital site (East Colfax West of Colorado Area of Change),
) Uptown as far east as ParkAvenue (which includes portions of the Downtown and Northeast
Downtown Areas of Change)
Pedestrian Shopping Corridor The land use designation for the commercial part of the corridor is
Pedestrian Shopping Corridor, which is defined by small-scale, street-fronting commercial uses with some
residential. Average EAR is 1:1, although this is higher near downtown (pp. 64-5). Blueprint Denver
further describes this Pedestrian Shopping Corridor, as a redevelopment area with high-density
residential, an entertainment area with additional parking and restaurants in the vicinity of the Ogden and
Fillmore theaters, and mixed-use development throughout (p. 139).
Mixed Use Blueprint Denver designates the R-4-X zoned part of Uptown as Mixed Use. Mixed use areas
are defined by a higher level of intensity than in other residential areas, and the mix may be defined as
vertical with individual buildings containing multiple uses or horizontal where different use types coexist
next to each other or within a definable area/district.
Urban Residential Under Blueprint Denver the vacant Mercy Hospital site and a portion of the Northeast
Downtown Area of Change in the study area were designated Urban Residential. Attributes of urban
residential areas include proximity to downtown, transit corridors or regional centers with FAR ranging
from .75 to over 4 depending on the neighborhood context. Housing densities range between 20 to over
100 dwelling units per acre in a range of housing types including historic single-family houses,
townhouses, small multi-family apartments and sometimes high-rise residential structures. The use mix is
geared primarily to residential with some accessory commercial. These districts generally comprise 200-
400 acres. These areas have good transit access and significant levels of bicycling and pedestrian activity
along with automobiles.
BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:


EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
Areas of Stability
The remainder of the surrounding neighborhoods were designated Areas of Stability with the land use
type urban residential or single-family residential. In general, urban residential areas are zoned R-3, R-4,
R-4/OD-1 or R-4/OD-9. The eastern end of the City Park South neighborhood, which is mostly zoned R-2,
was designated single family residential. As part of the implementation of Blueprint Denver, some issues
were raised regarding the compatibility of infill and redevelopment projects with existing development in
areas zoned R-3 and R-4. At the time this plan was drafted, a study was underway to identify design and
development standards to improve the compatibility of new construction projects in established areas
zoned for higher intensity residential use. Many of the neighborhoods adjacent to the East Colfax
corridor include areas zoned R-3 and R-4. These areas contain a significant stock of historic resources
(structures built prior to 1940) that contribute to the architectural legacy and neighborhood sense of
place. The Area of Stability designation connotes a desire to retain or reinforce the existing character
through preservation, infrastructure investment and context sensitive design of additions or new
construction on infill sites. Restoration and rehabilitation of existing structures, where feasible, or infill on
vacant or underutilized sites is preferable to demolition and new construction.
Multi-Modal Streets
Multi-Modal Streets characterize the transportation elements of Blueprint Denver. A series of street types
define the different design elements and amenities that should be included on streets adjacent to different
kinds of land uses. These elements and amenities complement and soften the impact of a streets
functional classification (characteristics such as traffic volume and speed). Additionally, Blueprint Denver
elevates the important role of alternative modes pedestrian, bicycle and transit access within the
transportation system. Under Blueprint Denver, East Colfax is a designated Enhanced Transit Corridor and
Main Street Arterial. Both designations call for an improved orientation of the street to the pedestrian and
transit user.
Guiding Principles
Blueprint Denver includes a set of Guiding Principles for Areas of Stability and Areas of Change that act as
barometers for determining whether certain actions achieve the overall Blueprint Denver vision. Each
principle contains qualifying criteria, pgs. 141-142.
21
Blueprint Denver identified a mixed-use, main
street typology with ample pedestrian space
as appropriate for East Colfax.


22
BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE


EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR
PLAN
Blueprint Denver Enhanced Transportatinn Cnrridnrs
U S 36/North Metro North Metro Corridor
HOV & BRT
U S 36 Corridor to Boulder & A
Gold line Corridor to Arvada
Southeast 1-25 Corridor
to Douglas County
Areas for Capacity
Improvement*
Roadway Corridors for
Capacity Improvement*
Enhanced Transit
Corridors
Regional Rapid Transit
(Light Rail, Commuter Rail, High-
Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes, Bus
Rapid Transit (BRT))
RTD Rail Route Under Study
Bike Missing Link
Improvements shown are recommendations
from previously adopted City plans
EAST COLFAX
23


The East Colfax study area includes both Areas
of Change and Areas of stability.
Abandoned building in Area of Change
Historic houses in Area of Stability
Guiding Principles Areas of Stability:
) Respect valued development patterns
) Respect valued attributes of the area
) Respect adjoining property
) Expand transportation choice
) Minimize traffic impacts on neighborhoods
) Respect environmental quality
Guiding Principles Areas of Change:
) Contribute to the urban design vision
) Respect valued attributes of the area
) Contribute to the economic vision
) Expand transportation choice
) Improve environmental quality
Uptown Neighborhood Plan (and East Colfax Charette) (1986)
Zoning (p. 26)
Recommends retention of the current business zone boundaries. Calls for consideration of the
establishment of a B-4 overlay district which will eliminate provisions incompatible with the character of
the neighborhood, and which will help achieve plan goals. Encourages design review.
Park Avenue and York Street village centers (pp. 75-76)
Recommends that land uses be neighborhood-serving, destination oriented and offering regional specialty
uses. Places importance on building location and orientation so that new structures reinforce the existing
pattern of locating buildings along the right-of-way. Recommends that retail uses should face only onto
Colfax, and should not extend around the corner onto the side streets. This plan encourages shared
parking. Buffers and links to residential areas are recommended to screen uses and parking from adjacent
residential areas with landscaping, berms, and fencing and protect residential uses from incompatible
lighting and odors. Auto-oriented commercial uses are recommended to serve as linkages between the
village centers. Appropriate land uses in these stretches include automobile-oriented, drive-through, and
larger scale retail, such as grocery stores, automobile service stations and repair shops, home improvement
centers, large liquor stores (p. 32)
BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE


EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
Capitol Hill/Cheesman Park Neighborhood Plan (1993)
Zoning
Limit non-neighborhood related office and commercial development to Colfax Avenue (p. 27). Prohibit
new convenience stores, drive-throughs, and drive-ins except where designated for automobile-oriented
uses in the Uptown Plan (p. 41).
Colfax), with the retail component not exceeding 1:1 FAR (p. 111).
Village Centers
Create village centers at ParkAvenue and Esplanade (pp. 156-164)
Land use
Locate major retail and office uses on the corners of the Esplanade (p. 163).
Building location
Locate buildings facing Colfax adjacent to the sidewalk (pgs. 157,160)
Building height
Height should be limited only by mountain view preservation ordinances. The only limit is approximately
80' for the area north of Colfax and west of Franklin Street at the ParkAvenue village center. This is the
City ParkView Plane, which extends to properties south of Colfax and west of Lafayette Street as well.
New buildings at Esplanade should be at least two stories (pgs. 158,163).
Parking
Place parking behind commercial structures and create landscaped buffers adjacent to residential structures.
EAST COLFAX
Density
EAR should not exceed that of adjacent residential zone districts (which is 3:1 on the south side of


Congress Park Neighborhood Plan (1995)
Zoning
Oppose new commercial and institutional zoning except by Planned Unit Development (PUD) (p. 43).
Preserve current zoning and development scale and require business development to remain within these
boundaries (p. 63). Create and reinforce buffers along the neighborhood borders and between residential
and commercial area, (pg 35);We must address the issue of commercial/residential buffers.We fully
endorse the concept of converting every other side street in to a cul-de-sac to the residential side, (pg 36).
Parking
Encourage shared parking with retail establishments (p. 61). Off-street parking continues to be a major
problem due to .. .inadequate off-street parking.. .at the Colfax businesses, (pg 47) Discourage non-
resident parking on locale streets (pg 48) Colfax Avenue Install street lamps, streetscape public right-of-
way. Design and implement cul-de-sac parking... Explore the concept of a designated area parking lot to
cut down side street parking and congestion, (pg 52).
Economic Development
Pages 59 through 63 contain a list of Action recommendation for economic development along Colfax.
Colfax Corridor Historical & Transportation Services Joint Study (1997)
This study was a collaborative effort by Denver, Lakewood and Aurora to make corridor wide
recommendations to improve the function and appearance of the corridor; identify significant
characteristics of the corridor and allow preservation; enhancement and interpretation of contributing
resources; make recommendations to strengthen the segments to make a stronger whole; guide future
development and improvement projects; and integrate various Neighborhood and Subdistrict Plans.
26
Parks and Recreation Game Plan (2002)
The Game Plan provides policy direction for the future growth and integration of Denvers parks and
recreation system in the community. Three key subject areas apply to the East Colfax study area facility
planning, green streets and breathing spaces. The Game Plan identifies significant deficiencies in
recreational facilities (particularly playing fields and recreation centers) along East Colfax.The plan
recommends that major capital expansions for recreation centers focus on high demand neighborhoods
that are underserved.The "green streets" concept refers to the creation of a significant landscaped street
BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE


EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
Recreation Facility Need
Commerce City Recreation Center
MONTBELLO
GREENVALLEY RANCH
Village Green Recreation Center
LEGEND
No existing Recreation Centers
Center falls below 75% of national average
for building square footage, lacks 1-3 core
amenities
Center exceeds 75% of national average
for building square footage, lacks 1-2 core
amenities
Recreation Center Service Areas
scaled by center size and population
density
Denver Recreation Centers
Adjacent Municipalities' Recreation Centers
<] Other nonprofit centers (YMCAs, Boys
and Girls Clubs, Jewish Community Centers)
EAST COLFAX
27


Within the East Colax study area, 16th
Avenue Promenade, Pearl street, Franklin
Street, Elizabeth street, Steele Street and
Colorado Boulevard are designated as
"green streets" in the Parks and Recreation
Game Plan.
network that connects the citys system of parks, parkways and neighborhoods. Within in the study area,
16th Avenue Promenade, Pearl Street, Franklin Street, Elizabeth Street, Steele Street and Colorado
Boulevard are designated as green streets. The "breathing spaces" concept refers to the integration of
functional open spaces that support gathering, recreation and relaxation within an urban context. Key
features of breathing spaces include: community gardens, public art, neighborhood history or cultural
heritage interpretive elements, seating, landscaping, drinking fountains, plazas, etc.
Bicycle Master Plan (2001)
The Bicycle Master Plan provides information and policy direction to facilitate the use of bicycles for
transportation, as well as recreation. While no policies directly target the study area, there is much helpful
information that can be used to improve the climate for bicycle access to East Colfax.
Pedestrian Master Plan Draft (adoption pending at the time this plan was
drafted)
The Pedestrian Master Plan identifies and creates a citywide pedestrian route network, determines
policies for the city to follow as it develops and redevelops, and identifies and prioritizes improvements to
the citys sidewalk infrastructure and associated pedestrian safety needs and amenities. Building off of key
pedestrian activity generators (schools, transit access, neighborhood destinations, commercial districts,
parks and libraries) the plan distinguishes Pedestrian Focus Areas. Analysis of direct connections between
the pedestrian focus areas identified over one hundred improvement projects.The plan establishes
policies to promote and enhance safety, accessibility, education, connectivity, streetscape, land use and
public health.
Other Plans, Studies, Proposals (not adopted by Planning Board
and City Council)
) Colfax Heritage Corridor Study: Denver, Lakewood, Aurora-Clofax Coalition (1998)
This study recommends strategies to improve the corridor image (streetscape master plan,
landscaped parking areas, street trees, pedestrian lighting, pocket parks, regulations to improve
franchise architecture, emphasis on connections to the hospital and parks), strengthen the street
28
BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE


wall (enforce a consistent build to line oriented to Colfax, facade restoration/improvements,
compatible new facades mass, scale, height), spur economic development (neighborhood and
regional retail infill), reinforce transit access (pedestrian safety, bulbouts, pedestrian signals,
continuous sidewalks, consolidation of curb cuts, bus stop improvements) and preserve historic
resources (identify architectural and cultural resources, install interpretive elements, provide
incentives for preservation, encourage adaptive reuse of historic resources). The study identifies the
following as historic resources: the Bluebird Theater, several taxpayer strips (GreekTown/CBID),
The Bank, Sushi Heights building,Abend gallery building, Petes Kitchen, Satire Lounge,Vernon
Hotel/Sid Kings Nightclub, Colonnade,Alta Court, 1228-1224 E. Colfax, Smileys Laundromat,
Immaculate Conception Basilica. The plan also recommends considering historic district
designation for a portion of East Colfax.
) B-4 Rezoning Proposal: Colfax on the Hill (1998)
) Report on Private Investment Actions and Problems Needing Government Action on East
Colfax Avenue: Colfax Business Improvement District (1999)
) Redeveloping Colfax Avenue: A Proposal to Analyze and Model Movement, Configuration and
Visual Character: Space Analytics, etc. (1999)
) Colfax Revitalization Action Plan (1999) and Colfax Avenue Segment Revitalization Plan
Pearl to Downing: CBID, Colfax on the Hill, Mayors Office of Economic Development and district
property owners and developers (2000)
) East Colfax Parking StudyParking Management Case Studies: Denver Community Planning an
Development (2000)
) East Colfax Avenue: An Opportunity and a Model for Development Action Denver Foundation
(2001)
) City Park Plan: Parks and Recreation (2002)
) Urban In-fill Design Guidelines Outline: Buchanan-Yonushewski (2002)


Denver was born during the "Pikes Peak or
Bust Gold Rush" Of 1858-59.
in 1864, a section and a half town patent,
Township III South, defined early Denver
boundaries. The southern border of this
original town patent later came to be known
as Grand Avenue and present day Colfax
Avenue.
30
Jt SHORT HISTORY OF A LOHG STREET
Denver City was bom in the first blush of the Pikes Peak or Bust Gold Rush of 1858-59. While traces of
gold were found along the Platte River and Cherry Creek, the real finds were in the foothills and
mountains to the west of the fledgling city. Though the gold found in Denver quickly played, the city
became the gateway to more successful mining communities in the foothills and prospered as the center
of trade and transshipment for Colorado.
An early survey (illustration 1) shows roads established to points east and to developing communities of
Colorado to the south, west and north. One of the roads to Golden generally followed what later became
West Colfax. Branches of three major roads from the east paralleled later East Colfax. These were the
South Platte River, the Smoky Hill and the Cherokee or Old New Mexico Roads.
Stage routes and long distance wagon freighting on these roads were eclipsed in importance in the latter
decades of the nineteenth century by completion of the western railroads. The Union Pacific connection
with the Central Pacific at Promontory Point, Denver to the Union Pacific at Cheyenne, along with Kansas
Pacific rail from Denver to Kansas City, followed quickly in 1870. The Denver and Rio Grande pushed
south toward New Mexico, and the Colorado Central worked into the mining towns of Black Hawk and
Georgetown through Golden.
Denver was originally platted on a diagonal grid following the banks of the Platte River and Cherry Creek.
This system was altered during the early 1860s, and when in 1864, the Federal Government formally
established the city with a 1 1/2 square mile grant. The Colorado Territorial Legislature defined Denver
boundaries in 1864 (illustration 2). Within these boundaries were the section and a half town patent
granted by the U.S. Congress in the same year to clarify land ownership in the earliest settled portion of
Denver. The southern border of this original town patent was the southern edge of Township Three
South. The city lines were drawn: Zuni Street on the west, Broadway on the east, 26th Avenue on the
north, and Grand Avenue (Colfax) on the south. The street along this east-west line on the southern edge
of Township Three South was later named Colfax Avenue.
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V/f/ ii PlffCt ***' tmitrni^d ^ Util, sJf/itf ^l"*1 I* .livJ
EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
Territorial Survey 18G1 (Illustration 1]

1
o,
I
'3
J
Vs* H
* I ?
EAST COLFAX
31


The Southern Edge of Township III South (1864) became Colfax Avenue (Illustration 2)
T III 5 R tiS W
Â¥! PPIH.UIP
BOOK 2
32
BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE


EAST COLFAX
The more commonly accepted north/south east/west grid was established for the rest of the city. Only
the original downtown area remains with its diagonal grid. The platted grids of Highland,Auraria and
Denver, the original towns comprising Denver, did not join or relate with another, and were oriented to
the South Platte River or Cherry Creek rather than cardinal directions. The towns came together as
Denver in 1861, but the street grids remained, and were actually extended, especially to the northeast into
the Curtis Park area. These original patterns were broken by developers led by Henry Brown and John
Evans, who preferred the surveyors ease of subdivision ordered by section lines. Both men owned land
along Colfax, and persuaded Denver planners to organize Denvers later growth along streets parallel to
Colfax and Broadway. This dramatic shift is shown in illustration 3. Later developers found the value of
the section line equally attractive in land purchase and subdivision, and few later Denver area streets
strayed from the north-south, east-west configuration.
Colfax Avenue is named for Schuyler Colfax, formidable representative from Indiana, who gave his support
to the unsuccessful attempt at statehood for Colorado in the Congress of 1865. Schuyler Colfax (1823-
1885) was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from Indiana in 1855. Serving for 14 years, he
joined the newly formed Republican Party becoming Speaker of the House in 1855. He was inaugurated
as Vice President of the United States in 1869, and served until 1873 during the first term of Ulysses S.
Grant.
As Vice-President, Colfax became embroiled in the Credit Mobilier of America scandal. Many high ranking
government officials were accused of accepting bribes. Credit Mobilier, a joint stock company chartered
in 1859, soon came under control of the owners of the Union Pacific Railroad. Contracts for the
transcontinental railroad were made to construction companies on such terms that the company profits
rose rapidly. Shares were distributed to government officials and members of Congress, often far below
market price. Colfax bowed out of politics, under a cloud of scandal.
Congressman Colfax visited Denver in 1865, to see his half-sister Clare Witter. She and her husband,
Daniel Witter, were early Denver pioneer settlers. The Congressman arrived in the middle of a statewide
effort for statehood. On his return to Washington, a group working toward Colorado statehood led by
former Territorial Governor John Evans, pressured Colfax for assistance. Despite his help, this attempt at
statehood failed like a similar effort in the year prior. However, the groups gratitude to the former Vice-
President was evident in the renaming of Grand Avenue.
EAST COLFAX
O R R I D O R PLAN
Schuyler Colfax (1 823-18851, elected Vice
President in 1868 under Ulysses S. Grant, and
left office in 1873 under a cloud of scandal.
The split from the original diagonal grid pattern
of Denuer streets is attributable to Colfax
property owners, John Euans and Henry Brown,
who persuaded city planners to organize
Denuers later growth along streets parallel to
Broadway and Colfax.
33


Denver growth was originally platted on a diagonal grid D later along streets parallel to Colfax
and Broadway [Illustration 3]


EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
The name Colfax first appears on Denver maps in 1868, but it is unclear when the name was first given.
In 1874 Colfax is indicated on a drawing of the city, as a street some six blocks long, with only a handful
of houses fronting the street. The development pressures of the city were quickly building, however, and
a primary direction of growth was to the southeast through the intersection of Broadway and Colfax.
The aforementioned railroad expansion efforts spurred Denvers greatest population boom. In twenty
years, Denvers population erupted from a meager 4,700 people in 1870 to 106,000 people by 1890. Air
and water pollution were ever-present concerns, always moving residential growth to higher ground.
Fourteenth Avenue, with its elevation on Capitol Hill became one of the finest residential avenues in the
city.
Denver became the Queen City of the Plains. The early development of Capitol Hill and Colfax Avenue in
the 1870s and 1880s is a roster of Denvers famous and influential citizens. John Evans, Henry C. Brown,
George Chilcott,A.C. Hunt, and Daniel Witter dedicated portions of their subdivisions to create the 100
foot wide Colfax Avenue that would become the finest, grandest residential avenue between St. Louis and
San Francisco. East Colfax came to be known as Denvers premier, treelined residential avenue, and
home to leading citizens and pioneer families.
Denver was designated as Colorados capital city and Browns Bluff was declared the location of the
capitol building. Throughout the Territory there was widespread prejudice against Denver, and strong
efforts were made to establish the seat of government almost anywhere but in Denver. Colorado City,
Golden, and even Leadville were strong contenders. By act of 1867, the territorial legislature voted to
move the capital from Golden to Denver if land was given for the new structure. In 1879, the Legislature
moved to establish the state capitol in Denver. Land donated by HC Brown, at East Colfax and Grant
became the present day grounds for the State Capitol of Colorado. Additional land was given by Mssrs.
Kassler and Cheesman in 1883 to complete the site. Real estate ownership was confirmed in 1885, and
funds were appropriated for construction in 1886. The appointed state building commission selected
architect, E. E. Myers, and ground was finally broken in 1886. The corner stone was laid in 1890, but
delays, lawsuits and controversy plagued construction, and the final completion of the edifice did not
occur until 1908.
Basilica of the immaculate Conception
Adequate water was necessary to the growth of Capitol Hill (Browns Bluff). In 1864, John Smith began to
dig a 25 mile ditch from the foothills through Denver, providing water to the residential developments
along East Colfax, assuring the success and expansion of the city to the east. Colfax continued to be the
35


Denver Art Museum expansion by Daniel
Liebeskind slated for compieteion in 2006
neighborhood of choice through the 1890s and into the next century, (with a lull following the Silver
Crash of 1893). However, upscale luxury apartments, terraces, as well as streetcar retail construction
began to appear along the street as the wealthy sought out newer neighborhoods, such as Park Hill,
Montclair, and Denver Country Club.
Early in the 20th century the city of Denver added to the importance of the Capitol precinct with
planning and construction of Civic Center Park, followed by the construction of the Denver City and
County Building, 1929-1932. The resulting complex incorporates the federal Mint and significant present
day uses including Denvers public library (today newly rehabilitated with a significant addition by
architect Michael Graves), the Denver Art Museum (completed in 1972 by Gio Ponti with an addition
slated for completion in 2006 designed by Daniel Liebeskind) and the Webb Municipal Building, Other
area landmark buildings include the Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, dedicated in 1912, and the
State Office Building, completed in 1922.
The Civic Center Park construction in the late 1910s included bulges into adjacent streets to house the
Greek Theater on the south and the Voorhies Memorial on the north. Colfax bends around the Voorhies
Memorial, the only break in the otherwise straight run of the Avenue from Lakewood to Aurora. DeBoers
plan of 1936 is one of many over the years that have sought to extend the City Beautiful ideas of the early
century that Civic Center Park so beautifully expresses.
In the latter decades of the nineteenth century, Denver grew steadily in population and city development,
with one major pause due to the Silver Crash of 1893. The commercial core of the city developed in the
section of the city nestled into the turn of the Platte, the original East Denver. Residential development
grew away from the core in all directions: across the Platte to the northwest into the original Highland
area, northeast into the Curtis Park area, southeast into the Capitol Hill area, and to the southwest across
Cherry Creek into the original Auraria and farther, across the South Platte. Each area grew with
independent characteristics, attracting various economic and ethnic groupings. Colfax was a major
avenue into the southwest and southeast sectors.
36
Developers bought or obtained control of land and platted additions or subdivisions for sale of home sites
or for speculative housing construction. Rollandets map of Denver in 1885, gives names of additions and
subdivisions that are still familiar, if not as an area, then for the schools and streets that retain the name.
Names along Colfax to the east include: Evans, Brown, Clement (and Clements), ParkAvenue, Capitol Hill
and Wyman. By 1885 City Park was in place as were subdivisions to the east for Park Hill and Montclair.
BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:


EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
Denver connections by rail to the rest of America were made in 1870. A rudimentary street rail system
circulations within the city was inaugurated in 1871. The line was laid from 7th Street in Auraria down
Larimer to 16th Street, then up to Champa, and down Champa to 27th Street. The cars were drawn by
horses. The rail company, Denver City Railway, had over fifteen miles of track by 1883. In 1885, a
competitor line, Denver Tramway, was formed, and this company was first to lay lines on Colfax. A line
was laid in 1886 down 15th to Colfax, then east to Grant. Denver Tramways electric cars were powered
from a below grade center rail. Though operational, the system was short-lived. In 1888, Denver
Tramway had switched to cable cars with extended track out Colfax to City Park, and down Broadway.
Denver City Railway, the primary competitor, had by this time converted most of its horse-drawn cars to
cable as well.
The first map of the streetcar lines (illustration 4), is from 1892. In 1893, the steady expansion of the
Denver rail systems was seriously interrupted by the Silver Crash of that year. The end result to this
period of economic difficulty was consolidation in 1899 under one corporation, Denver City Tramway
Company, with 156 miles of track. By the next year, the conversion to trolley with overhead wires, which
had been started earlier, was completed for all track. The system was substantially complete, though track
and routes continued to be added or extended.
in 1871, Denver City Railway operated the first
street rail transit system in Denver, in 1885,
Denver Tramway, a competitor line, laid the
first rail lines on Colfax. The two companies
merged as Denver City Tramway in 1 899.
A second map of the streetcar lines (illustration 5) is from 1930. The importance of the Broadway and
Colfax lines is clearly suggested by their length. The map indicates service on East Colfax all the way to
Geneva Street, coming out of Downtown Denver on Fifteenth Street. Service on West Colfax ran only to
Sheridan, coming out of Downtown and Intermountain Railroad. Denver City Tramway purchased this
company, built as the Denver, Lakewood and Golden Railroad in 1890, in 1909 as an element of its
emerging interurban system. The interurban line to Golden was located just south of Colfax, for the most
part along 13thAvenue. (Colfax would be 15th Street.)
Buses were introduced to the system in 1928 and grew in number over time, serving line extensions, new
lines and as replacement for streetcars. Trackless trolleys, or trolley coaches as they were called, were
introduced in 1940, allowing loading flexibility and the removal of street track. The end of the trolley era
was approaching, however, as patrons of the system opted for private automobiles for transportation to
and from work. The last trolley run was early on a Sunday morning, June 4 1950. All tramway routes
were shifted thereafter to buses. The last electric interurban run was in 1955.
EAST COLFAX
37


Streetcar Map 1892 (Illustration 4)
38
BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE


EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
Streetcar Map 1930 (Illustration 5)
OFFICIAL ROUTE MAf> OF THE dEMVtH TRAMWAY CORPORATION
EAST COLFAX
39


The last trolley run on East Colfax was early
on a Sunday morning, June 4 1 950.
Tramway Map Of
The streetcars were a major force in determining the face of a growing urban area. No longer limited by
by the distance from ones residence to work, people were quick to respond to developers offerings
along the trolley lines. Substantial houses were built near the lines, modest residences somewhat further
away. Businesses were quick to disperse along and adjacent to the lines, with greater building density
developing at rail interchanges. Two-story commercial structures were common, with apartments above
first floor business enterprises. Neighborhood identity frequently came to be associated with business
centers that were in turn related to the streetcar lines.
Speculation was the heart of development, and many properties along rail lines and later, arterial streets,
were bought with the expectation of future resale profit based on increasing land value. To hold the land
and pay the taxes many less-than-permanent structures were built and leased to businesses for the
interim. Many of these temporary structures still stand as block-long, one-story storefront buildings,
referred to as taxpayer strips. Property development as a direct function of streetcar accesss is clearly
apparent in construction periods in the late nineteenth century and in the early twentieth century before
the advent of the automobile. Many buildings remain along Colfax from the streetcar era.
By 1951 all transit routes were serued by
rubber-tired vehicles
Roads beyond the city limits at the turn of the twentieth century were almost wholly unpaved, and in
periods of poor weather were frequently impassable. New demands for road and paving improvements
came with the automobile. Automobile enthusiasts formed associations to press for better roads. First
amongst these was the Lincoln Highway Association, organized in 1912 in Detroit. The Association
brought together local clubs which pressured home states for improvements to roads joining major cities,
and in some cases paid for paving with their own club funds. The Lincoln Highway Association designed
and erected distinctive road sign markers to mark its routes. Other Highway Associations followed with
their own routes and signs, notably the National Old Trails Association and the Victory Highway
Association.
Federal support to the states and territories for public improvements had been a continuing debate in the
early years of the republic as the western territories sought help in their development. Some roads did
result with federal support. The National Road linking the Potomac to the Ohio, initiated in Jeffersons
administration, was the most noteworthy of such. But with the advent of canals, then railroads, national
attention to roads was dimmed, and road development and maintenance responsibilities were carried
almost solely by town and country.
In the same year as the formation of the Lincoln Highway Association, 1912, the muscle of the national
40
BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE


EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
government in a small way was brought to bear on highway development with supporting funds to
the states which resulted in 425 miles of improvements. It was the start of an increasing federal presence
in transportation that continues today. Woodrow Wilson signed the Shackeford Good Roads Bill into law
in 1916 providing an even match for state road building costs. In a linkage of efforts all states by 1917
had their own aid programs for road building and improvement, and by 1921 all states had state highway
departments.
In 1924 the American Association of State Highway Officials asked that the Bureau of Roads (then under
the Secretary of Agriculture) appoint a joint board on interstate highways. The Board was duly appointed
and recommended in 1925 the system we know today as the US numbered highways. East-west roads
were given even numbers; north-south roads were given odd numbers. Some roads were designated
using elements of the association routes, others were new linkages.
US 40 was marked from coast to coast with Denver in the middle. The road begins in Atlantic City and
follows much of the National Old Trails Association Route to Kansas City. US 40 then crosses the plains to
Denver, thence over Berthoud Pass to Kremmling where it picks up the Victory Highway route to San
Francisco. Near Salt Lake City, US 40 overlays some 100 miles of the Lincoln Highway. The names of
earlier segments are caught up in a rich weave:Washington Road, Braddocks Road, RederickTurnpike,
Bank Road,The National Road, Zanes Trace, Boonslick Trail, Smoky Hill Trail, Berthouds Road, Hastings
Cut-off, the California Trail. US 40 was open to the public and fully marked in 1927.
As the Denver region grew, Colfax Avenue, which had doubled as a designated county road as well as an
Aurora city street, was extended farther and farther east. When US 40 was established on paper in 1925
and became a system reality in 1927, it was natural that this east-west trans-American highway would find
Colfax to be the logical route at the foot of the Rocky Mountains. To keep pace with the growth of
traffic, Colfax was widened to four lanes in 1938 and was widened again in 1950.
In a pattern still common to American towns and cities, business services related to the auto and the
tourist sprang up at the town edges where land was plentiful and less expensive for development. Aurora
and Lakewood were the receptors of this growth in the Denver area. Aurora grew in importance as the
first stop for crossing the eastern plains of Colorado. Lakewood served those coming down from the
mountains. Business related to the automobile flourished (illustration 15). After World War II, with a
resurgence of prosperity after the long drought of the Depression, automobile tourism brought to Colfax
Avenue a rich broth of motels and restaurants and other services for autos and travelers. Many of these
41
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The allure of the car gave rise to
automobile associations like the Lincoln
Highway Association, the National Old
Trails Association and the Victory Highway
Association that lobbied for the construction
of better roads, (image from an early 1 920s
Colorado map]
US 40 was one of the first transcontinental
highways. An early map from 1913 (illustration
6] shows a proposed alignment as "Central"
highway. US 40 did not become an official part
of the US highway system until 1 925. Until the
construction of I-70, US 40 (Colfax in Denver]
was the gateway to the Rocky Mountains
(Illustration 7].


Proposed National Highway System 1913 (Illustration 6]
hMumj. WHWin twtti* rm nq^uc |a ***** TTKp^ aNCi i>f- LMft
Afcv -v
___ _____ ihjN- >_ 1.
The highway illustrated as "2. Central" follows an alignment similar
to what later became US Route 40,one of the first transcontinental highways.
42
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EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
State Transportation Map 1951 (lllustratinn 7]
in 1951, all roads to Denuer conuerged on US Route 49 (Colfax in Denuerl.
EAST COLFAX
43


in the 1950s, Colfax began to deuelop an
edgier reputation as teens started "Cruisin
the Fax" with all of its neon and swank
nightclubs. Construction of I-70 in the 1960s
and 1970s, solidified this reputation with the
decline of tourism on Colfax as motorists
were diuerted to the new interstate, bypassing
the former gateway to the Rocky Mountains.
same enterprises served local needs as well.
The height of tourism came in the 1950s as a complement to national prosperity and the American dream
of an automobile vacation to the great western national parks. US 40 was the preferred route for many
from east and west, and Colfax enterprises were the great providers of food and shelter for the nation
passing through.
The advent of the automobile and the need to accommodate the demands from its use changed the face
of Colfax. Colfax was the east/west artery through the city, eventually designated US Highway 40.
Mansions were replaced with car dealerships, auto repair shops, filling stations, and a wide variety of retail
shops and stores to serve the increasing populace and the traveling public. Street widening projects were
deemed necessary, and the famous Colfax Avenue shade trees and wide, gracious sidewalks began to
disappear.
In 1929, Denvers first Master Plan described East Colfax as formerly a principal residential street, and
now, in larger part, zoned for business and the primary artery through the Capitol Hill apartment district.
Colfax served the surrounding neighborhoods through the 1920s and 1930s with grand movie houses,
retail stores and services. 1924 saw the opening of East High School with its 162-foot clock tower,
Sullivan Gate and the Esplanade.
The Second World War brought a new face to the street as military men from Lowry Air Force Base and
Fitzsimons Army Hospital used Colfax as their access to the excitement and entertainment of downtown
Denver. The entire city had prospered with World War II and the post war boom. Colfax reflected the
optimism and excitement of the late 1940s and early 1950s. The basic needs of the neighborhood were
well served by bakeries, creameries, variety stores, drug stores, barbershops, beauty parlors, grocery stores,
etc. Colfax merchants and the #15 streetcar served the needs of the many families who lived in the
comfortable old neighborhoods along Colfax. The sidewalks were safe, where people met and greeted
each while walking along the avenue. Older residents still talk about the strong sense of community and
friendliness that existed then.
The end of the 1950s saw the rapid decline of the street and the beginning of its unsavory reputation.
"Cruising the Fax was the popular teen activity. Drive-in restaurants flourished. Once the home to
upscale ready-to-wear shops, high end furniture stores and galleries, Colfax began to yield to a suburban
strip appearance as sidewalk frontage businesses gave way to set-back stores with parking lots and curb
BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE


EAST COLFAX
cuts. In 1955, Denvers zoning efforts greatly impacted Colfax and its immediate neighborhoods. The
commercial strip itself was zoned B-4 with few restrictions on development. The area north of the Colfax
strip was zoned R-4 for high density housing and multiple business usages, while the area south was
zoned R-3 spurring the construction of new apartment buildings and conversion of single-family homes to
apartments.
In the 1960s, with the development of US 6 to the south of Colfax and Interstate 70 to the north, the high
era of tourism on Colfax was over, and businesses had to make a painful adjustment to different markets
and different functions.
The 1960s and 70s brought hippies, beatniks, second hand stores, adult bookstores, and GoGo bars to
the street. Low rents, communes, and a laisse-faire attitude by the city made Colfax the hangout for all
kinds and sorts of life styles and radical attitudes. Playboy Magazine called Colfax the longest, wickedest
street in America. Jack Kerouac wrote much of his On the Road, while living just off Colfax in an
apartment at 1522 Lafayette, and seemed to set much of the tone for the street. Colfax was quickly
justifying its reputation as the heart of Denvers porno and sleaze business. From Sid Kings Crazy Horse
Bar to the San Francisco Topless ShoeShine Parlor, East Colfax was the spot. The urban renewal trends
during this time resulted in the razing of historic mansions to pave the way for franchised fast food outlets
and non-profit social service businesses.
The 1980s and 1990s saw a rise of citizen activism and historic preservation of the architectural and
historic treasures of the neighborhood. Capitol Hill United Neighborhoods (CHUN), Colfax on the Hill
(COTH), Colfax Business Improvement District (CBID), Wyman District Neighborhood Association,
Uptown on the Hill Association, along with other concerned citizens have been responsible for the
changes beginning to take hold along East Colfax. Residents and shop owners are justifiably proud that
the street reflects a very unique community of interest made up of the broadest mixture of social,
economic, racial, and sexual orientations to be found in the city.
Men and women of vision and dedication founded Colfax Avenue and its surrounding neighborhoods.
Colfax is called Denvers Main Street, its 26-mile length serve the entire metropolitan region. It is
prophetic, that the original name given Colfax was Grand Avenue. By building upon the firm foundation
of its pioneer heritage, and with the impetus of contemporary redevelopment efforts, Colfax will once
again be grand.
EAST COLFAX
O R R I D O R PLAN
in the 1960s & 70 s, East Colfax deueioped a
reputation as a bohemian mecca. Playboy
called it "the longest, wickedest street" in
America. Jack Kerouac wrote much of the
beatnik bibie, On the Road, in an apartment at
1522 Lafayette, near the historic Alta Court
(pictured below).


1949 Proposed Freeway System Denver Plaooiog Ottice [lllostratioo 8]
This early map from 1949 shows preliminary plans for the construction of a freeway system to serve Denver.
46
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EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
1970 Road Map Showing Completed 1-70 and Roote S [Illustration 9]
Completion of interstate 70 and highway 6, signaled a dramatic shift for Colfax Auenue. No longer seruing as the primary gateway to the Rocky
Mountains, many of the motor tourist businesses waned, and Colfax entered a period of decline and disinuestment.
EAST COLFAX
47


Bourbon Square, site of the former Sid Kings
Crazy Horse Bar, is a thriving mixed-use office
ouer retail space in the upper Colfax Historic
Business District.
For more information on the history of the
deueiopment and importance of Boute 40 in
American history, visit the following website:
www.route40.net
48
Bibliography
Capitol Hill Cheesman Park Neighborhood Plan, Planning and Community Development Office City and County of Denver
June 28,1993
Colorado the Centennial State, Percy Fritz Prentice-Hall 1941
Colfax Cathedral Historic District:An Application for Landmark Designation, Nancy L. Widmann 2001
Denver Streets, PM Goodstein Denver New Social Publications 1994
Denver The City Beautiful, Thomas Noel and Barbara Norgren Historic Denver 1987
The Ghosts of Denver: Capitol Hill, PM Goodstein Denver New Social Publications 1996
Colfax Corridor Historical and Transportation foint Study, Prepared by the cities of Denver, Lakewood, Aurora 1997
World Book Encyclopedia Field Enterprises 1967
Special thanks to Jim Peiker who contributed this narrative history.
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EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
yl1 0 P U L A T I D N HOUSING AND ECONOMIC
C H A N A C T E N I & T I C S
Family Households
Group Quarters
Non-Family Households
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
III!
Economic and demographic characteristics in the market are indicators of overall trends and economic
health which may affect private and public sector development. Since central city neighborhoods
represent a sub-market within the trade area and region, and as such will likely provide a heightened level
of support for future projects on the corridor, the analysis begins with an overview of the economic and
demographic characteristics of the study area. The Economic Development section of the Framework
Plan contains a discussion of supply and demand conditions (by land use) within the broader influence
area (trade area). A map of these individual geographic areas is presented within the context of each
discussion.
Broadway Downing York to Denver
to Downing to York Colorado
Houshold Composition
Non-family households: 2 or more indiuiduals
unrelated (by birth or marriage] living within
the same housing unit.
Data Source
This chapter reflects data collected from the 2000 Census block groups contiguous to the East Colfax
corridor between Broadway and Colorado Boulevard. A total of 13 Census block groups constitute this
area. The chapter organizes the information collected, where appropriate, around three segments of the
corridor Broadway to Downing, Downing to York and York to Colorado. These boundaries correspond
roughly to a variation in the general character of the corridor.
Household Composition
The majority of the population (61%) lives in non-family households as opposed to family households
(32%) or group quarters (7%). A significant number of group homes for the elderly and transitional
housing arrangements may be found in the area. Among these housing options along East Colfax are the
senior apartments at Grant Street, assisted living facilities at Park Avenue and Warren Village on Gilpin near
Cheesman Park. Warren Village offers housing to single parents and programs including day-care,
educational attainment and workforce development training to help single parents become self-sufficient.
EAST COLFAX
49


Census Block Group map
East Colfax Study Area
Population by Census Block
East Colfax Study Area Boundary
!rW
1 Dot
4 Persons
Data Sources:
2000 Census (Block Level)
map date: 04/26/04
Please see Map Appendix [pg. 187] for a more detailed view of this map
50
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EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
Sex and Age of the Population
The composition of the population in the census block groups contiguous to the East Colfax corridor
vary widely from the overall population of Denver. This variation suggests the potential for very different
market and lifestyle preferences of residents. Significantly, the population is predominantly male (56%).
Of particular note in the Broadway to Downing segment of the corridor, the males comprise over 60% of
the population. East Colfax is particularly weighted to young males in their twenties and thirties. The
population of males in their forties and fifties is also greater here relative to the city as a whole. The area
attracts young women in their twenties. The female population tapers off more dramatically with age
than for males. The mix of age groups and sexes does not reflect the composition of Denvers overall
population. There are 10% more males and 10% fewer females here on average relative to Denver.
Compared to the city as a whole, children and teens make up a significantly smaller portion of the
population. Females over age 40 and males over age 60 also fall beneath Denvers average population for
these age groups.
Males
Females
East Colfax Population by Sex & Age Relatiue to
Citywide Composition
2.5
2
Household Size
There are a total of 16,161 households in the Census block groups adjacent to the corridor. The average
household size is 1.52, or 33% smaller than the average household size for the city (2.27). With the
average household size 33% lower than the city as a whole and an abundance of apartments in the area,
the corridor and its environs are home to many single individuals.
Population and Housing Density
The Census block groups of the East Colfax corridor are marked by a high degree of population and
housing density. Population and housing densities are far greater here (72 people per acre) than in the
city as a whole (5.7 people per acre). Housing density for this area averages 47 dwelling units per acre,
while the city as a whole averages just 2.5 dwelling units per acre. The Census block groups adjacent to
East Colfax (Broadway to Colorado) represent 239 acres or the equivalent of 0.24% of the land area of
Denver. While constituting a fraction of a percent of Denvers land area, it contains 3.06% of the Citys
population and 4.5% of the Citys total housing units.
1.5
1
0.5
Broadway Downing York to Denver
to Downing to York Colorado
Household Size
90
80
Population/Acre
Dwelling Units/A<
Broadway Downing York to East Colfax Denver
to Downing to York Colorado Average
Population Housing Density
EAST COLFAX
51


Per Capita income
100%
75%
50%
25%
Broadway
to Downing
York to
Colorado
Denver
Owner vs. renter occupancy
Structure types
Income
The East Colfax area is attractive to young populations including urban professionals. While per capita
income is comparable in this area, median household income falls below the Denver average due to the
disparity in the average household size; where Denver is characterized by an average household size of
2.3, East Colfax households consist of 1.5 people on average. Per capita income ranges from a low of
$21,416 to a high of $27,476. High-density group quarters may affect the low per capita income figures
in the Broadway to Downing segment. Denver per capita income is $26,270. Adjusting for inflation,
median household income for the East Colfax area ranges between $25,061 and $33,421, while for
Denver it is $43,055. With distance from downtown, increasing median household income suggests
greater economic stability in the neighborhoods between Downing and Colorado Boulevard adjacent to
East Colfax. The density of dollars in this part of Denver is extremely high due to population (72 people
per acre) and housing density (47 dwelling units per acre). Collective buying power in a compact,
walkable setting sets the stage for the development of successful mixed-use places.
Owner vs. Renter Occupancy
The East Colfax area is characterized by rental occupied housing units. Despite this fact, stable,
predominantly single family residential areas characterize the neighborhoods just off of the corridor, such
as Congress Park and City Park South. Many formerly historic single-family homes have been converted to
apartments and condominiums. The single-family character remains despite the increase in density from
these conversions. Additionally, there are a number of high rise residences. Owner occupied units
account for only 10-25% of the East Colfax housing, while for the city as a whole owner occupancy
characterizes over 50% of all housing.
Structure Types
Residences in structures of fewer than 20 units are the dominant type, particularly in the Census block
groups further from downtown. The percent of residences in structure types characterized as low
density (ranging in size from 1-4 units) are not as prevalent in the East Colfax area as in the city as a
whole. There are significantly more medium density (ranging from 5-49 units per structure) housing
options in the Broadway to Downing and York to Colorado segments of the corridor compared to Denver
overall. Higher density housing (structures between 20 and 49 units and in excess of 50 units) is
significantly more pervasive in the Broadway to Downing Census block groups of East Colfax than in
Denver as a whole. Further from downtown, very high-density structure types (in excess of 50 units per
52
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EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
Density of Dollars Map
j-l1
Density of Aggregate Income
bv Census Tract
Density ofAeereeate Income Per Square Mile
Relative to Citywide Mean
Low Dens ity
n Average Dens ity
Above Average D ens ity
n High Dens ity
Extremely High Dens ity
Citywide Mean = $169,537,252
Standard Deviation = $120,941,163
(Density determined by degree of standard
deviation from City wide mean)
2000 U.S Cens us-P83
Aggregate Inc ome in 1999 Dollars
for the Population 15+
E A S T COLFAX
53


Broadway Downing York to Denver
to Downing to York Colorado
Housing value
$1,000
$800
Lower Quartile
Median
Upper Quartile
structure) reflect a composition that more closely resembles the general pattern for the city.
Housing Values
Median housing values (Broadway to Downing $150,000, Downing to York $207,000, York to
Colorado $203,000) along East Colfax are consistent with Denver ($175,000). It is significant that
housing values increase with distance from downtown along East Colfax. This finding suggests two
things. First, that there may be room to improve the available housing stock especially in the Census
block groups closest to downtown with infill that adds to the existing stock. Second, the higher values in
the neighborhoods farther from downtown indicate a more stable housing pattern, especially since these
values are higher than average values for the city. According to the Denver Assessors Office data, the
average sale price for housing within 1/2 block of Colfax ($126,704) is 70% of the average sale price for
housing outside of a 1/2 block distance from the corridor ($176,415). The presence of strong
neighborhoods north and south of the corridor may bolster infill development on the corridor.
$600
$400
$200

Broadway Downing York to Denver
to Downing to York Colorado
Contract Rent
Contract rent (Broadway to Downing $370-$642, Downing to York $407-$673 and York to Colorado
$463-$691, all adjusted for inflation) falls below Denver averages ($448-$762) in all parts of East Colfax,
except for the lower quartile rates in the York to Colorado portion where rents start slightly higher than
the city as a whole.
Contract rent
Race and Ethnicity
East Colfax population is primarily white/Caucasian. However, a quarter of the population represents a
mix of races that includes Black/African Americans, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians, or
other/multiple racial groups.
People with Hispanic ethnicity comprise between 10% and 15% of the population in the Census block
groups adjacent to Colfax. The Hispanic population of Denver approaches 30% of the whole.
54
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EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
Assessment of existing conditions
Infrastructure
Water
Water for residential and other private property uses is available from the mains in streets and alleys
throughout the neighborhood, according to the Denver Water Department.
The City Ditch runs thru the area and is 30 inches underground through this area. Within the East
Colfax Corridor (Broadway to Colorado), it is in 14th Ave from Corona Street to Humboldt Street, then
north in Humboldt Street to Colfax, then east in Colfax Ave from Humboldt Street to High Street and then
north in High Street from Colfax to 17th Avenue. Denver Water may abandon this part of the City Ditch
in 2004, subject to their finding and developing an alternative means to supply water to City Park. In
development of a Storm Drainage Master Plan, Public Works will analyze this portion to use as a storm
drain or underground detention to address drainage problems at Colfax and High (see Storm, below).
Storm Sewers (Basin numbers 4600-01,0062-01,4500-02,4500-01,4500-04) The East Colfax Corridor
area is included within the drainage watersheds currently being studied as part of the Storm Drainage
Master Plan Update. It is important to note the following.
) There is a documented flooding problem in Colfax from Williams Street to High Street, primarily
affecting businesses on the south side of Colfax.
) A major storm drain has been identified in the Storm Drainage Master Plan, which will alleviate
flooding in accordance with the Citys level of service; i.e., the minor storm.
City Ditch map
Sanitary Sewers (Districts: Delgany and Eastside District 1) There are currently three projects in the E.
Colfax Corridor Capital Improvement Program.
There are two recent projects associated with the North Denver Sanitary Sewer Replacement. One is a
sanitary sewer replacement in E, !6thAvenue from Fillmore Street to Garfield Street, and south in Garfield
55


E Colfax Avenue Potential Ponding-Parcels
Drainage problem area on East Colfax in the
vicinity of Williams and High streets
Alley improuements
Street, from E. 16th Avenue to Colfax Avenue The second is also a sanitary sewer replacement in Garfield
Street from Colfax Avenue to 12th Avenue, then east in 12th Avenue to Colorado Blvd. and continuing east
in Hale Parkway.
The third is a sanitary sewer lining project at 13th and Colorado Blvd. budgeted for 2007. Since this is a
lining project there is no open cut or trenching. The project starts in the alley between Jackson Street
and Harrison Street at 17th Avenue, goes south to Colfax, jogs 1/2 block to the west to Jackson St, then
south in Jackson Street from Colfax to 14th Avenue, then east in 14th Avenue (1 block) to Harrison, then
south in Harrison to 15th Avenue.
Street Maintenance
The streets in Denver are prioritized for maintenance using the Citys Pavement Management Program,
which allocates funding for resurfacing and seal coating based on a citywide assessment of street
condition. Due to limited funds, not all streets in need of repair can be programmed in a single year. A
significant backlog of work currently exists. Priority streets are ones that are used as bus routes, truck
routes or major arterials. Major arterials within the corridor include 14th and Colfax Avenues, Broadway,
Lincoln Street, Park Avenue West, York and Josephine Streets, and Colorado Boulevard. Minor
arterial/collector streets include Grant, Logan,Washington, Clarkson, Ogden, Corona, Downing, and
Lranklin Streets. Colfax Avenue is a state highway; repair and resurfacing is the responsibility of the
Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT). CDOT contracts with Denver for limited maintenance
work including snow removal and pothole patching.
Other streets within the corridor function as local streets; most are in need of resurfacing, but funding is
not in place to complete this work. Pothole repairs are completed on these streets on a cyclical basis to
help keep them passable to traffic.
An extensive alley resurfacing program is underway in the corridor to address the deteriorated condition
of asphalt overlaying concrete alleys. Alleys were completed in 2003 between Broadway, Downing, 14th,
and Colfax, and between Colfax and 16th, Downing and Colorado; remaining areas will be completed in
2004 and 2005.
56
Budgeted Projects The Transportation Collaboration Group (TCG) map indicates several projects either
starting or ending in 2003 including:
h Repaving Corona Street and Downing Street from Colfax Avenue to 10th Avenue.
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EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
) Curb ramp improvements from Colfax Avenue to 27th Street between Broadway and Downing
Street and at l4thAvenue and Corona Street.
) Alley improvements (see above).
) Bond project streetscape improvements along Colfax Avenue from Downing to Franklin and
Josephine to Esplanade.
Land Use and Zoning Inventory
Zoning Overview
Following are the significant zone districts along East Colfax:
R-2 Allows attached dwelling units, such as duplexes, rowhouses, or townhouses. Density is
limited to 14.5 units per acre, heights are limited, and generous open space is required. Parts
of South City Park east of Saint Paul Street are zoned R-2.
R-3 High density residential zone that permits high-rise residential buildings up to a 3:1 floor area
ratio (EAR). Most of the area south of Colfax, as well as parts of South City Park, are zoned R-3.
R-4 High density residential and office district that permits high-rise residential and/or office
buildings. A 4:1 EAR is permitted. This zoning is in use in City Park West east ofWilliams
Street.
R-4/0H-9 Overlay District 9 limits building height to 35', and otherwise modifies the development
standards of the R-4 zone, in effect creating a much lower density residential and office
district. This overlay district is in place in City Park west between ParkAvenue and Williams
Street.
R-4/0H-1 Overlay District 1 places limitations on parking lots, restricts office uses somewhat unless
accompanied by residential, and otherwise modifies the design and development standards of
the R-4 district. This overlay district applies in North Capitol Hill between ParkAvenue and
the Pearl/Washington alley, as well as in Capitol Hill west of the Pearl/Pennsylvania alley.
R-4-X High density residential zone that permits high-rise residential and/or office buildings as well
as limited retail and institutional uses. A 5:1 FAR is possible. This zone is in North Capitol Hill
west of the Pearl/Washington alley and has been used recently at Colfax and Steele.
Parking or Vacant
Industrial or Utility ^ ^ Residential Single-Family
School or Church
Auto-oriented Retail
Entertainment
Muti-Family
Mixed-Use Hotel or Motel
Land use
zoning
R-4 Business district that permits a wide variety of commercial uses, as well as some residential,
EAST COLFAX
57


Existing zoning map
East Colfax Study Area
Zoning
East Colfax Study Area Boundary
Zoning
1 |B 1 O 1
B 2 P 1
B PUD
| | B A 2 1 | R 2
1 |B A3 1 1 R 3
1 |H 1 A R
H 2 R X
/J Overlay District
Data Sources:
Zoning Maps
Community Planning and Development
map date: 04/26/04
Zoning is shown only within the study
area boundary and is for illustrative purposes only.
This is not a legal document
Existing Zoning within Study Area Boundary
Zone District Acres
B-l 2.47
B-2 2.61
B-4 85.33
B-A-2 1.95
B-A-3 0.86
H-l-A 25.47
H-2 9.49
0-1 10.51
P-1 5.02
PUD 1.63
R-2 23.65
R-3 150.51
R-4 18.62
R-4 OD1 33.76
R-4-OD9 10.60
R-4-X 18.36
Please see Map Appendix [pg. 187] for a more detailed view of this map
58
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EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
Existing land use map
III
lift
ilia
CdLFAX AVE
nimn
in
li
sy
7m
Si
aisiiis
l
I
...
nr
M
II
EB
B
II
I
East Colfax Study Area
Existing Land Use
Single Family Re sidentia 1
Multi Fa mily Residential
Comm ercial
Civic / Cultural / Schools
Vacant / Parkin g
Data Sources:
Denver Assessors Parcel Database: April 2004
Community Planning and Development
map date: 04/26/04
Existing Land Use
Use Acres
Residential
Single family 63.9
Multi family 33.3
Hotel or motel 5.6
Commercial
Retail or MU 16.9
Restaurant/entertainment 12.6
Auto-oriented 6.7
Office 13.3
Medical 9.4
School or church 21.7
Industrial or utility 2.6
Parking or vacant 17.4
Total 203.8
Please see Map Appendix [pg. 187] for a more detailed view of this map
EAST COLFAX
59


The Rosenstock Building (restored and
adaptively re-used as office, retail and
residential space] in the upper Colfax Historic
Business District reflects the traditional
deueiopment patterns of East Colfax.
low density and franchise architecture
diminishes a sense of place and consumes
valuable land area.
institutional and industrial uses. Density is limited by a 2:1 FAR. This is used the length of the
Colfax corridor.
H-1-A & H-2 Hospital districts. In addition to institutional uses, high-rise residential buildings are also
permitted. The H-l-A district permits 3:1 FAR. Density in the H-2 district is limited by a
maximum lot coverage and bulk plane, which is intended to produce an appropriate transition
to residential areas. These districts are in place at the National Jewish and former Mercy
hospital campuses.
Urban Form and Design
Assets
| Stable and established residential neighborhoods immediately adjacent to the commercial
development along Colfax with a stock of historically significant buildings
I Eclectic mix of architectural styles representing many construction eras
I Easy access to public transportation (less than two blocks away in most cases)
I Diverse mix of destination and neighborhood-serving land uses
I Proximity to the central business district
Challenges
I Visual clutter from uncontrolled signage (disorganized directional and regulatory signage, excessive
billboards, overuse and poor maintenance of temporary signage)
I General feel of neglect due to poor building/site maintenance
I Poorly designed and maintained pedestrian way (poor articulation of pedestrian area, varying
sidewalk width and design, cracked and uneven slabs, excessive curb cuts crossing pedestrian areas)
I Cluttered pedestrian area lacking consolidation of streetscape amenities and service components
(erratic placement of telephone/utility poles, directional and regulatory signage, parking meters,
street furniture, waste receptacles, newspaper racks and information kiosks)
I Inconsistent accessibility and ADA compliance not all streets have color enhanced curb ramps
| Disordered landscape amenities, poor maintenance and limited replacement of damaged trees
I Inconsistent transit amenities (lack of station area visibility, few bus turn outs, marginal and
BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:


EAST COLFAX
inconsistent bus stops quality and type of benches, illumination and covered waiting areas)
) Inconsistent streetscape amenities, right-of-way width, street lighting, and transit components
) Disordered public parking (excessive curb cuts limit on-street parking areas, limited shared parking
arrangements, inappropriately parked uses either too much or too little, lack of design to soften
visual impacts of parking areas)
) Poor alley conditions (cracked pavement, refuse, graffiti)
) Weak street connectivity (significant presence of divider streets where street continuity is offset at
Colfax) and alley configurations (alleys that lead to Colfax interrupt the pedestrian way and do not
visibly separate commercial areas from residential areas by forming a boundary)
) Congested traffic and lack of access management (excessive curb cuts, lack of shared driveways for
site access)
) Funding challenges for needed streetscape, transit, and structured parking improvements
) Real and perceived threats from criminal activity, particularly a reputation for prostitution, limited
use of crime prevention through environmental design
) Limited visibility and inconsistent street address displays on buildings
) Inconsistent street lighting fixtures and pole types
) Sporadic and inconsistent placement of pedestrian lighting fixtures not clearly associated with a
discernable pedestrian lighting district, not coordinated with ambient lighting from businesses, too
great a variety of fixture and pole types
) Excessive private lighting (gas station canopies, building exterior lighting, advertising displays,
outdoor display and sales areas) creates glare and light pollution
Building Design and Historic Preservation
All or portions of Seven Historic Districts are included in the study area.
) The Civic Center Historic District
) Pennsylvania Street Historic District
) Swallow Hill Historic District
) Park Avenue Historic District;
) Wyman Historic District
EAST COLFAX
O R R I D O R PLAN
Some new construction is out of character
with traditonal development patterns and
lacks strong architectural details.
Limited right of way, street furniture, and
poles constrain the pedestrian area.
61


The historic City Park Esplanade suffers
from a lack of maintenance.
) City Park Esplanade/East High School Historic District
) Snell Subdivision Historic District
The Wyman district has the most structures located in the study area while the majority of buildings
fronting Colfax in this district have been excluded from the district. In addition to these Historic
Districts, there are twenty individually designated Denver Landmark Structures within the study area.
Only five out of those twenty buildings address Colfax Avenue. Post WWII buildings have not been
designated but many excellent examples of the architectural styles since the forties have a presence on
Colfax.
Colfax Avenue has a mix of many locally historically significant buildings, and Denvers construction boom
periods are well represented in the fabric of the built environment. Some well-crafted buildings contain
dynamic and thriving retail, offices, or residential uses. Other historic resources are currently under-
utilized and/or poorly maintained. Great potential exists for many of these resources to enhance the
nature of the corridor through adaptive reuse of the structures. Over the years as older buildings have
been remodeled or replaced, the new structures often times have not maintained the level of detail in
construction materials, orientation and design that the previous structures possessed. Many turn of the
century structures have lost their original form to design additions that do not correlate with the original
building aesthetics.
Existing Structures by Year of Construction




1880 1890 190019101920 1930 1940 195019601970 1980 19902000
Periods of construction
Periods of Construction
Construction of buildings occurred primarily in three major periods. The initial period began in the mid
1880s and continued, with some ups and downs, until the early teens. This period was primarily
residential, with some mixed uses and churches. The second period lasted from the late teens until the
Great Depression. This interwar period was characterized by bungalow construction (in South City Park,
for example), the expansion of retail uses (including conversion of residential to retail) and the
construction of landmark buildings (such as East High School). The postwar period peaked during the
1960s, and the expansion of auto-oriented retail uses, parking, restaurants, medical uses, offices, motels,
and multi-family residential marked this era. There has been relatively little construction activity since
1980.
62
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EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
Legacies Map
17THAVE
16THAVE
14THAVE
5
D
13THAVE
8
0
1
n
-iGGbFAX A'
East Colfax Study Area
Age of Structures
Built Before 1945
Built After 1945
Unknown or N/A
Data Sources:
Assessors "Commercial" and
"Residential" databases, April 2004
map date: 04/26/04
Please see Map Appendix [pg. 187] for a more detailed view of this map
EAST COLFAX
63


64
Transportation and Circulation
Street Function and Type
East Colfax is the citys central core transportation route, providing access to neighborhoods east. From a
transportation perspective the corridor consists of:
\ Two one way couplets (13th/l4th and 17th/18th Avenues) which serve higher volumes of faster
moving vehicles;
\ 16th Avenue Promenade which serves a calmer pedestrian and bicycle system; and,
) East Colfax, which must do all those things and provide the transit spine.
East Colfax is a US Highway, state highway, main street, commercial street, residential street and political
boundary line.
Defining Streets
The City and County of Denver uses two methods to identify streets. First, the more traditional street
classification encompasses a streets design and the character of service it is intended to provide. This
classification forms a hierarchy of streets ranging from those that are primarily for travel mobility
(arterials) to those that are primarily for access to property (local streets). Second, Blueprint Denver
adopted typologies to further define streets by relating them to the adjacent land use and their function
for pedestrians, bicyclists, and transit. These typologies acknowledge that the design of a street, its
intersections, sidewalks, and transit stops should reflect the adjacent land uses since the type and intensity
of the adjacent land use directly influences the level of use by other modes. By combining these two
methods Denver has identified 13 different street types, four of which appear in the East Colfax Corridor
study area.
Local Streets Local streets provide direct access to adjacent properties and carry low volumes of traffic
(less than 5,000 vehicles per day) with an origin or destination within the neighborhood. Local streets
include all the north-south streets that cross Colfax in this corridor that are not listed as collectors or
arterials below.
Collector Streets Collector Streets collect and distribute traffic between arterial and local streets within
the community. Collectors typically carry up to 15,000 vehicles per day. Collectors in the corridor
include:
\ Washington St.
BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:


EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
) Clarkson St.
Arterials Arterials permit rapid and relatively unimpeded traffic movement through the city. Arterials
serve as a primary link between communities and major land use elements. Arterials typically carry up to
50,000 vehicles per day.
Traffic Patterns and Volume
Though many of the traffic counts along East Colfax are up to 15 years old and for the purposes of this
assessment have not been adjusted, two things are clear.
First, East Colfax is a major thoroughfare. Moving east from downtown, the East Colfax traffic volumes fall
from 40,000 vehicles per day at Grant St. to 30,000 vehicles per day at Colorado Blvd. Interestingly, when
the morning and evening peak hours are examined, these hours only account for a small portion of the
overall volume. This indicates that East Colfax Avenue carries a significant amount of non-peak traffic.
More consistent traffic and more non-peak traffic are favorable indicators for transit.
Second, East Colfax has several intersection nodes that serve extremely high transportation capacity.
Considering the high volume of both the traffic counts and the transit boardings and alightings, a few key
intersections along the corridor appear to have a critical mass of activity to spur and support significant
transportation improvements. These nodes are evident at Broadway/Lincoln, Downing, York/Josephine,
and Colorado.
Alternative Mode
Carpooled
Drove Alone
100%
75%
50%
25%
O'
I
Broadway Downing York to
to Downing to York Colorado
Commuting Patterns
Mass Transit
East Colfax has been a transit corridor through several generations of transit technology. Currently, the
RTD 15 and 15 Limited routes serve Colfax from Downtown to the eastern edges of Aurora. The daily
ridership for these two routes is approximately 20,000, of which over 40% are trips within the study area.
The corridor is RTDs most successful (besides the free 16th St. mall shuttle) and is ripe for a technology
upgrade. The project team brought in several experts from Portland, Vancouver, Los Angeles and Boston
to study both streetcar and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) as likely options for enhanced transit technology for
the corridor. Specific statistics about current transit use on East Colfax follow. All information was
recorded on weekdays.
Bus Routes Crossing East Colfax
Bus stops on Colfax Route Northbound Boardings Northbound Alightings Southbound Boardings Southbound Alightings
Broadway/Lincoln 61 1,136 1,271 37
Broadway/Lincoln 0L 25 150
Corona/Downing 12 32 73 105 9
York/Josephine 24 112 95 126 103
Colorado 32 30 39 52 49
Colorado 40 475 652 735 334
DD 16 16 4
Total boardings and alightings at stops adjacent to Colfax from Broadway to Colorado Blvd. 1,761 3,188 3,674 1,426
Pedestrian Access And Safety
East Colfax has plenty of medium and small activity generators for pedestrians but the limited right-of-way
65


Traffic Patterns & Volumes
Traffic volume Tame
Street Date Direction Cross Steet AM Peak Hour PM Peak Hour Daily Total
Colfax Jun 91 East Pennsylvania 1013 1204 15372
Colfax Jun 00 East Grant 932 1070 14646
Colfax Sep 94 East Lincoln 958 999 14099
Colfax Jan 92 East Colorado 903 1180 13404
Colfax Feb 95 East Garfield 755 1006 12413
Colfax Jun 90 East Franklin 411 929 11666
Colfax May 98 East Emerson 806 897 11551

Colfax Jun 00 West Grant 2131 1102 20057
Colfax Apr 91 West Broadway 1220 1062 18120
Colfax Jun 90 West Franklin 1178 1114 16903
Colfax Jun 91 West Pennsylvania 1075 1101 16702
Colfax May 98 West Emerson 1187 1135 16642
Colfax Sep 94 West Lincoln 1132 1300 16438
Colfax Jan 92 West Colorado 1189 1052 14952
Colfax Feb 95 West Garfield 1114 1032 14348

Colfax Oct 88 East & West Downing - - 26769

Colorado Jan 92 North Colfax 2426 2608 30969
Colorado Jan 92 South Colfax 2010 2197 26702
York Apr 99 South Colfax 982 1303 14344
Grant Sep 98 South Colfax 809 1865 12423
Washington Sep 96 South Colfax 413 1196 8108
Corona Sep 96 South Colfax 337 821 5864
Downing Jun 98 North Colfax 668 389 5546
Park Ave W Jun 90 South Colfax 380 659 5116
Franklin Jun 90 North Colfax 264 154 2201
Franklin Jun 90 South Colfax 107 209 1781
Garfield Feb 95 South Colfax 37 52 461
Garfield Feb 95 North Colfax 30 36 329
Source: Denvergov.org
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EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
Table of Hus Routes
East Colfax Bus Routes Table
Bus stops on Colfax Route Boardings Eastbound Boardings Westbound Alightings Eastbound Alightings Westbound
Broadway total 2219 81 45 2812
15 1269 73 32 1427
15L 950 8 13 1385
Sherman total 240 0 62 0
15 110 0 34 0
15L 130 0 28 0
Grant total 15 41 195 135
15 0 41 0 135
15L 15 0 195 0
Logan 15 125 0 123 0
Pennsylvania 15 0 148 0 142
Pearl 15 171 0 188 0
Washington 15 0 172 0 170
Clarkson 15 180 0 116 0
Ogden 15 108 82 107 67
Downing total 483 405 38 493
15 197 240 181 187
15L 286 165 207 30 6
Franklin (Park Ave) 15 140 266 319 95
High 15 145 313 307 165
Vine 15 84 122 87 100
Josephine total 427 557 508 348
15 161 258 266 99
15L 266 299 242 249
Elizabeth 15 30 0 78 0
Detroit 15 0 141 0 66
Fillmore 15 47 0 138 0
St. Paul 15 0 156 0 46
Cook 15 45 107 140 41
Garfield 15 33 91 81 31
Colorado total 730 823 860 683
15 290 525 511 247
15L 440 298 349 436
Total boardings and alightings on Colfax from Broadway to Colorado 5222 3505 3742 5394
EAST COLFAX
RTD data collected 08/08/01 and 08/14/01
67


has succumbed more to the needs of vehicles than pedestrians. Two critical locations are at Broadway
and Colorado which have been among the citys ten worst intersections for pedestrian accidents.
Bike Routes
The 16th Avenue Promenade bike lanes one block north of Colfax provide a more pleasant environment
to through cyclists. Bike routes D-ll (Franklin St.) and D13 (Steele St.) also cross Colfax.
Parking
Colfax has on-street parking from Grant to Colorado, which is metered from Grant to Franklin. Almost all
cross streets also have on-street parking.
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EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
PLAN VISION
"Whenever and wherever societies have
flourished and prospered rather than stagnated
and decayed, creative and workable cities have
been at the core of the phenomenon....
Decaying cities, declining economies and
mounting social troubles travel together. The
combination is not coincidental."
Jane Jacobs


East Colfax present
JXl *** J'.ir_________
East Colfax future
At the outset of the planning process, the stakeholders analyzed the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities
and threats to the Colfax corridor. Using this assessment the stakeholders prepared ideal visions for the
look, feel and function of East Colfax in twenty years. City staff melded these visions into a cohesive
statement that the stakeholders then approved. The group created two versions, a condensed statement
(below) that more succinctly summarized a longer, more prescriptive vision (see Appendix).
Vision Statement
Colfax Avenue in 2020 will be a multi-modal, commercial and residential Main Street that complements
and sustains the nearby neighborhoods and encourages walking, biking and transit use. The corridor
teems with activity on the street and captures the attention of commuters and visitors.
) Multi-storied, mixed-use buildings with active ground floor uses characterize development nodes at
the intersection of major transit routes along the corridor.
) Transportation components include a uniquely Colfax form of enhanced transit, structured parking
at development nodes, on-street parking throughout, enticing pedestrian amenities, and plentiful
bike racks.
) Housing density on the corridor supports transit and sustainable urban growth.
) Urban design integrates an eclectic mix of architectural forms and sustainable building materials
which respect the surrounding historic architecture.
) Signage is simple and clear.
) Lighting and landscaping reinforce the street building line, enhance building facades as architectural
features, and promote a pedestrian oriented environment.
) Significant structures have been preserved and adaptively reused.
Colfax welcomes and embraces neighborhood diversity that encompasses a wide variety of ages,
lifestyles, economic circumstances, ethnic groups and family types. Colfax exemplifies the best of what a
city can offer: a vibrant, hip, and progressive urban avenue.
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EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
East Colfax Transformation
Existing Conditions
i Inefficient use of land near downtown
) No defined street wall
i Unpleasant pedestrian environment
) Visual clutter
Add Mixed Use on One Corner
i Beginning to define street wall
i Reduction of visual clutter
i More efficient and economically sound use of land
i Sound barrier between corridor and interior
neighborhood
Multi-modal Street Improvements
I Street trees soften the urban environment
I Pedestrian areas are clearly delineated
I Consistent & functional traffic signals & lighting
| Improvements begin to attract more pedestrians
Additional infill & Building Remodel
) Preservation & infill promotes strong architecture
I Efficient land use pattern provides more housing
options
) More residents promote a viable business climate
) Improvements move more people through the
corridor, not just cars
EAST COLFAX
71


Blueprint Denver Plan Map Excerpt
East Colfax Study Area
Blueprint Denver Land Use
| East Colfax Study Area Boundary
Downtown
Mixed Us e
Urban Reside ntial
Single Fa mily Resident ial
Pede strian Shopp ing District
Ca mpus
Entertainment, Cultural, Exhibition
Park
Designated Area of Change
map date: 04/26/04
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EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
FRAMEWORK PLAN
LANO USE
URRAN FORM ANO HISTORIC PRESERVATION
TRANSPORTATION
PARKING
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
"Observe always that everything is the result
of change, and get used to thinking that there
is nothing Nature loves so well as to change
existing forms and make new ones of them."
Marcus Aurelius


Low density commercial uses are not the
highest and best use of land near downtown
and transit. Such sites are ideal for
redeuelopment consistent with this plans
vision.
This chapter prescribes a framework for understanding the organization of the corridor and the
overriding issues faced by all of the subareas. Several elements comprise the study area, a commercial
arterial corridor, as well as portions of six statistical neighborhoods and seven historic landmark districts.
Downtown Denver, Civic Center, Park Hill and Hale correspondingly form the east and west boundaries.
Two major parks lie just south and north of the study area, Cheesman Park and City Park.
The Colfax corridor provides an important circulation function in the city, and serves as a gateway to
Downtown Denver, the mountains and the plains. Colfax Avenue connects to 1-70 on its eastern and
western ends. Also known as US 40, it links the communities of Denver, Lakewood and Aurora with
numerous destinations including Fitzsimons, Aurora Town Center, Lowry and Stapleton, National Jewish
Medical Campus, the Bluebird Theatre, East High School, Lowenstein Theatre, Ogden Theatre, Filmore
Theatre, Downtown Denver, Civic Center, Auraria Campus, Mile High Stadium, St.Anthonys Hospital, the
Federal Center, Colorado Mills and ultimately connects to Red Rocks Amphitheatre. As one of the most
heavily trafficked transit corridors, Colfax has the potential to improve its Main Street function in select
segments with enhanced transit technology, dense residential development and expansion of commercial
amenities that serve residents and commuters.
City staff facilitated three land use workshops where the Plan stakeholders and the general public
identified development opportunities, edge conflict areas, important historic resources, station areas and
districts along the corridor with distinct identity. Each workshop produced an uncommon degree of
consensus between the stakeholders and public participants. A land use concept map resulted that
synthesized the ideas from the workshops. The land use concept map articulates a vision of mixed-use
stretches along the corridor punctuated by significant transit station areas and surrounded by high,
medium and low density residential areas.
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EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
Future Land Use Concept Map
East Colfax Study Area
Future Land Use Concept Map
TOD
Mixed Use
Entertainment, Civic, Cultural
High Dens ity Residentia 1
Medium Density Residentia 1
Low Dens ity Residentia 1
Data Sources:
Denver Assessors Parcel Database: April 2004
Community Planning and Development
map date: 04/26/04
Please see Map Appendix [pg. 187] for a more detailed view of this map
EAST COLFAX
75


RAND USE
Primary Issues and Opportunities
) East Colfax has historically been a high volume transportation corridor that offers opportunity for
increased density, diversity of uses and enhanced transit use.
TMU-30 '
R-4 1
R-3
CMU-10 .
TOD 1
Mixed-use
Pedestrian shopping corridor 1
Colfax existing 1
Commercial corridor
( 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r- ) 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3-5 4 4.5 5
far as permitted
Redevelopment has started to occur, but there is no corridor specific land use and transportation
plan in place to guide future corridor development.
Vacant land, underutilized properties, inconsistent building edge, low density commercial uses (with
excessive curb cuts) and alleys (which lead to Colfax) interrupt the cohesive business environment.
Business impacts may be incompatible with adjacent residences.
Businesses in or adjacent to residential areas may desire to expand.
The residential to commercial edge is abrupt, there is little room to create smooth transitions or
provide significant buffers between differing and/or incompatible uses.
Blueprint Denver designated Colfax between Grant and Colorado as a pedestrian shopping
corridor. Parts of Colfax may be more appropriately designated transit-oriented development
(TOD), mixed-use, commercial corridor or another land use type. There may be opportunity sites
that should be included in the East Colfax (West of Colorado) Area of Change.
B-4 is Denvers general business district. Traditionally, this has meant that any type of retail, service,
and consumer repair or office establishment is permitted. Many residential, public, and
amusement/recreation uses are also permitted. In addition, B-4 permits some industrial uses,
including wholesale sales, warehousing, and a limited range of fabrication and assembly uses. The
external effects of some high-impact retail uses on adjacent residential property could be addressed
through design guidelines and landscaping and buffering requirements. Limitations and buffering
requirements for industrial uses are generally less restrictive than in the 1-0 (light industrial) zone
district.
76
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EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
East Colfax Land Development Problems and Snlutinns
LAFAYETTE STREET
typical Problems
) Illegal land use created by a tax lot split without
proper rezoning (outlined in red)
\ Shallow commercial area limits potential density
(shaded in blue)
I Significant land area consumed by surface parking
(unshaded area within red outline)
) Historic properties threatened by commercial
expansion (shaded in green)
\ Alley dissects block and consumes land area
(shaded in yellow)
Potential Solutions
I Zoning boundary changes bring land uses into
compliance and encourage redevelopment
(shaded in purple)
\ Improved regulatory tools encourage infill
development (outlined in light blue) & structured
parking (outlined in purple)
\ Preserved & adaptively reused buildings form a
transition from corridor to neighborhood (shaded
in green)
\ Reconfigured alley eliminates curb cut on Colfax,
frees land for development and forms a boundary
between corridor and neighborhood (shaded in
yellow)
EAST COLFAX
77


B-4 allows auto-oriented uses with no
screening or buffering requirements to limit
external impacts.
Shortcomings in the B-4 Zone District
Residential uses
B-4 does not permit several residential uses that are permitted in the adjacent R-3, R-4 districts or in RMU
districts; for example: artist studio, live work, consular residence, nursing home/hospice, monastery,
fraternity/sorority house.
External effects of certain retail
B-4 allows without limitations some retail uses that have external effects which are limited by hours of
operation or require screening /buffering in the B-2, B-3, B-8-A/G or 1-0 districts; for example: eating place,
animal sales and service, communications service including transmitter, commercial service and repair,
other special retail uses such as LP gas and outdoor tombstone sales.
Institutional uses
B-4 allows without limitations some institutional uses that are limited in terms of hours of operation or
buffering requirements in other districts; for example: ambulance service, medical laboratory, mortuary,
conference center, outdoor recreation, vocational school. In addition, some uses are permitted in lower-
intensity districts but not in B-4; for example: park and fire station.
Auto-oriented uses
B-4 allows without limitations some auto-oriented retail and industrial uses that have external effects
which are limited in terms of hours of operation or screening/buffering in the B-2, B-3, B-8-A/G or 1-0
districts; for example: auto repair, gas station, car wash, parking, auto, large vehicle, and equipment sales
lots.
78
Industrial uses
B-4 allows without limitations industrial and utility uses that have external effects which have limits on
hours of operation or screening/buffering requirements in the B-8-A/G or 1-0 districts; for example: special
trade contractor, printing and publishing, manufacturing, fabrication and assembly, wholesale trade,
warehousing, and vehicle storage.
Parcel depth along East Colfax varies considerably out of 194 commercial parcels adjacent to the
corridor, 19 parcels (10%) are under 50' deep, 86 parcels (44%) are under 100' deep, 56 parcels (29%) are
between 100' 150' deep and 33 parcels (17%) are over 150' deep. Increasing parcel depth would
BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:


EAST COLFAX
generally require rezoning adjacent residential land to allow for commercial uses or parking. However, in
general, this is contrary to the Capitol Hill/Cheesman Park (1993) and Congress Park (1995) Plans, and to
Blueprint Denvers designation of adjacent residential areas as Areas of Stability. The exception to this is
the area north of Colfax and west of Franklin, which is designated an Area of Change. Blueprint Denver
allows that small area planning may refine Area of Change and Stability boundaries in order to account for
changing conditions or community support for development on opportunity sites that would facilitate
desired growth such as infill or redevelopment on vacant and underutilized parcels.
Development standards in the B-4 zone district fall short of furthering the Blueprint Denver vision of
pedestrian-friendly uses and of compatibility between Areas of Change and Stability. There is no build-to
line. Parking and drive-aisles are permitted between structures and the sidewalk. There are no front bulk
plane requirements to allow sunlight on public spaces. No open space requirements exist for residential
uses.
FAR (Floor Area Ratio) is the ratio of the sum of all the usable square footage of all floors in the building
to the total square footage of the lot. An FAR of 1:1 is typical of pedestrian-oriented shopping corridors,
though higher FAR may be appropriate near downtown or in significant transit station areas or activity
centers along a corridor. The existing average achieved FAR for the East Colfax corridor is low, 0.7:1.
Parking requirements limit the amount of FAR that can be achieved and constrained lot depths often
prevent enough development to justify the cost of structured or subterranean parking. The highest FARs
are for hospital, multi-family and mixed-uses, in the H, R4X, and the R40D9 and R40D1 zones. The lowest
FARs are for single-family residential, auto-oriented retail, franchise restaurants, and (appropriately) in the
R-2 zone.
Critical opportunity sites (especially at key intersections) have been lost to low density, auto-oriented uses.
The current zoning creates challenges to the development model that is desirable for Enhanced
Transportation Corridors under the Blueprint Denver vision. The existing B-4 zoning allows
inappropriate uses (for example, industrial land uses with little review adjacent to residential areas).
Though it is an intense business zone district, its design and development standards do not encourage the
mix of uses or degree of development appropriate for enhanced transit corridors. Shallow commercial
lot depth, split lot zoning, limited assemblage potential, and certain regulatory requirements (especially
floor area ratio limits and parking requirements) in concert with prevailing market conditions (land
prices, lease and sale rates, cost of development and land availability) constrain the development potential
EAST COLFAX
O R R I D O R PLAN
B-4 zoning allows parking and drive aisles
between structures and the sidewalk, falling
far short of the Blueprint Denver vision for
pedestrian oriented design.
Few parcels in the East Colfax study area
exceed 50,000 SF. High density development on
these sites can catalyze reinvestment along the
corridor.


< .L Jl I ,.!
latfu k FtuUa
supportive growth.
for mixed-use projects on the corridor. Working in tandem, these factors often result in a low density,
single use commercial development pattern that lacks a residential component. This lowest common
denominator pattern of development erodes the critical residential base that creates round the clock
activity. The low-density, single-use, auto-oriented commercial product prevails as the most feasible under
existing regulatory standards and overtime contributes to the depopulation of the East Colfax corridor.
Goals
) Organize corridor growth to be dense, compact and transit supportive.
) Encourage the location of commercial, housing, employment, open space and civic uses within
walking distance of transit stops.
) Provide a mix of housing types (townhouse, rowhouse, duplex, multi-family, live work and artist
studio), occupancy status (rental and ownership units), densities and costs (low-income, affordable
and market rate).
) Encourage infill and redevelopment along East Colfax that complements historic resources along
and near the corridor.
) Encourage mixed-use development with the greatest intensity focused to the corridor, and especially
at transit station areas.
) Preserve and adaptively reuse historic resources in the study area.
) Create a contiguous street wall along the corridor comprised primarily of mixed-use buildings that
reinforce a Main Street character with housing and/or offices over active ground floor uses such as
civic operations, destination or neighborhood-serving retail and entertainment venues.
) Enhance and maintain the viability of high-density residential and commercial uses, especially where
assemblages are contiguous to the corridor or where opportunities exist to restore a cohesive
urban, mixed-use area on vacant or underutilized parcels.
) Manage business operations to avoid negative impacts from lighting, hours of operation, noise, drive-
in speakers, trash removal, deliveries, odors, etc.
) Promote a stable, safe, attractive, appropriately lighted (but not excessively lit) retail area with a mix
of offices, neighborhood businesses, and destination uses within identifiable districts.
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BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE


EAST COLFAX
h Preserve services and housing for people living on low to no incomes. Provide human services in
appropriate locations and protect the health, safety and welfare of all community members.
Recommendations
h Support infill development of retail, office and residential uses. Consider the complementary nature
of a project in the context of surrounding or nearby uses. Encourage both horizontal and vertical
mixed use. Mixed-use projects, with commercial or public uses on the ground floor and residential
(including low-income, affordable housing and market rate) and/or office on the upper levels, are
especially appropriate. Minimize construction projects with extremely low site coverage ratios.
Discourage low density, single use development with excessive parking.
h Develop new zoning tools that provide appropriate design and development standards consistent
with a pedestrian friendly, mixed-use transit corridor. Encourage creative building standards that
afford development flexibility, attract new commercial development, promote neighborhood serving
Mom & Pop businesses and support adaptive reuse of historic resources. Consider parking
reductions for uses with low parking demand (such as boutique retail under 5,000 SF). Provide
incentives (such as EAR credits and or parking reductions) for assemblages that incorporate and
reuse historic structures.
h Develop tools to adequately address the transition between the corridor and the neighborhood:
I To ensure neighborhood stability, stratify the commercial uses that may extend from the corridor
into the neighborhood so that only those uses with positive impacts on residential character
(such as small scale, neighborhood serving, walk-up traffic generators) seep into the
neighborhoods.
I To the greatest extent possible focus both structural and use intensity to the commercial corridor
and away from residential areas.
I Incorporate design and development standards to address solar access and privacy protection,
such as bulk plane, building orientation and roof forms.
EAST COLFAX
O R R I D O R PLAN

Develop urban models for franchise
architecture like this missed opportunity
for a Blockbuster video store.
Create seamless transitions between the
neighborhood and the corridor, like this
transit supportive, urban residential infill
project that respects traditional development
patterns next to the historic leetonia Building
(Colfax at Vine).


I
in a poorly defined pedestrian area
driveways, roadway and sidewalk are
virtually indistinguishable from each other.
Streetscape improvements including street
trees, trash receptacles, screening walls (for
parking areas and drive aisles], paving
techniques and transit stop upgrades define
and create an inviting pedestrian area.
PllRBAN FORM ANO
HISTORIC PRESERVATION
Primary Issues and Opportunities
Urban Design
) The historic development patterns of Colfax include buildings that come up to the street with
ample storefront windows and pedestrian entrances onto the street. This development pattern
creates a pedestrian friendly environment that complements a multi-modal transportation system.
Much of the recent development along Colfax is auto-oriented and does not respect this traditional
pattern.
t New auto oriented land uses conflict with the desire for an inviting and safe pedestrian realm.
t The east-west orientation of Colfax results in a pattern where the short end of the block fronts on to
the corridor. Narrow parcels create redevelopment challenges.
t Colfax lacks consistent and organized streetscape improvements with uniform standards for street
trees, street furniture (benches, kiosks, etc.), bus shelters, lighting (fixture types, lighting levels),
directional and wayfinding signage and sidewalk paving standards.
) Visual clutter, especially excessive commercial signage degrades the aesthetics of the corridor.
\ Alleys bisect many of the blocks facing Colfax creating challenges for redevelopment while also
eliminating the opportunity for a boundary between commercial and residential parcels.
82
Historic Preservation
) There are numerous historic sites along Colfax. There is an especially rich stock of buildings built
prior to 1945 in the study area that potentially could benefit from the economic incentives
associated with historic designation. Rehabilitation and reuse of these structures would contribute
to the neighborhood character and attract the business of commuters and visitors seeking
destination commercial venues._____________________________________________________
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EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
) Infill development along East Colfax, especially projects that may be adjacent to historic residential
resources needs to be context sensitive. Good design can reduce the apparent size of new
construction, and allow new buildings to fit in with smaller buildings.
Goals
Urban Design
\ Ensure that future development on Colfax encourages pedestrian activity by continuing the
traditional development patterns found on Colfax including: buildings at the street edge, ample
facade transparencies (windows) and street facing pedestrian entrances.
) Develop a uniform streetscape along Colfax that clearly defines the pedestrian space, and includes
consistent lighting, street furniture, sidewalk paving and landscaping standards. Unify basic
streetscape infrastructure, but allow additional elements that demarcate districts along the corridor.
) Encourage the use of signage appropriate to the context of Colfax. This may include both pedestrian
scale and auto oriented signage that recalls the historic character of Colfax which includes the use
of projecting signs and neon.
\ Promote a gradual transition between different types of uses to create visual continuity between
proposed and existing development, especially between commercial and residential land uses.
) Promote the functional and visual compatibility between adjacent neighborhoods and differing
types of land uses. Deliberately use building and site design features to form a transition between
the corridor and the neighborhood, as well as compatibly integrate or disguise uses that otherwise
would have significant external effects on the surrounding environment.
After
Minor facade improvements enhance the
appearance of commercial areas.
Historic Preservation
Link the development of the neighborhood and community with building designs that use references to
natural, historical, traditional and/or cultural context. Restore, reuse and maintain historic resources, and
capitalize on the economic development benefits of historic preservation (tax incentives, branding,
restoration grants).
EAST COLFAX
83


After
Trees in grates transitioning to tree lawns
help distinguish residential areas from
commercial areas. Additional improuements
(including appropriate lighting on commercial
buildings as well as parking lot landscaping
and screening walls] mitigate some of the
external effects of commercial deueiopment.
Recommendations
Urban Design
t Develop context sensitive zoning that incorporates design standards that encourage pedestrian
oriented development.
\ Encourage a variation in architectural forms and materials where appropriate, but ensure
compatibility of architectural features (massing, scale). Preserve solar access to adjacent properties
and protect residential privacy. Create an architectural diversity that fosters an eclectic urban
atmosphere, yet reflects and blends elements of the historic corridor with adjacent neighborhoods.
t Develop a streetscape plan for Colfax with uniform standards for appropriate street trees, tree grate
design, street furniture, lighting (fixtures and types) and signage (directional and way finding).
) Control signage (private commercial, regulatory and directional) and promote creative guidelines
that contribute to visual aesthetics of the corridor, reintroduce artful neon design, aid building and
use identification, promote safety and express the Colfax brand image. Signage should be
complementary to the architecture of the corridor and should aid in the way finding needs of
visitors to the corridor.
\ Consider alley vacations to create linear assemblage along the corridor and to form natural
boundaries between residential and commercial properties. Where an existing alley terminates in a
T or an L configuration between the commercial on the corridor and adjacent residential uses,
the alley configuration should be retained. Any future zoning changes should be constrained by
these existing physical boundaries, unless it may be clearly demonstrated that an alley vacation
would not have negative impacts on adjacent residential uses. For example, a new alley alignment
would be acceptable if it allows a vacant parcel to be incorporated into an assemblage that is
contiguous to the corridor and resultant development would fill a gap in the urban neighborhood
fabric, (see graphic on page 91 for clarification)
Historic Preservation
) Pursue landmark designation for Colfax similar to the Downtown Denver Historic District that
allows owners of historic resources to leverage economic incentives for preservation, without
restricting the development potential of adjacent properties.
) Interpret the history of Colfax/US 40 in the streetscape design elements. Refer to the Colfax
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EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
Historical and Transportation Joint Study and the US 40 Heritage Corridor Plan for interpretive
elements for the corridor. Interpretive elements will form the basis of a public art program for
the corridor. Work with the Mayors Office of Art, Culture a Film to establish a public art program
for the corridor.
Design Standards
The overall vision of Colfax as a mixed-use pedestrian and transit friendly avenue should be promoted
through the use of zoning language that incorporates easily administered formed based zoning concepts.
This would include the use of design standards that are based on the underlying patterns and proportions
of Colfax and should encourage new development to respect these characteristics. Design standards
should not prohibit architectural creativity but should be viewed as the foundation on which to design
architectural forms, which challenge the senses, spark debate, draw visitors and create future landmarks.
New zoning language for Colfax should be based on objectives identified in this plan including
maintaining a (1) main street character (2) providing a transit pedestrian orientation (promoting the
urban design character of the various sub-areas) and (4) ensuring a standard of design quality that is
consistent with the overall vision for Colfax. New zoning language should incorporate the following
Urban Design Principals:
Site and Building Design
1. Continue Colfaxs physical character, including mixed use development, and convenient access to
transit.
2. Arrange residential, employment, retail, service, and open space uses to be convenient to and
compatible with each other.
3. Create spatial definition of the street with buildings and landscaping to promote pedestrian activity.
) Orient buildings to the street so that they form a consistent street wall. Orient structures on
corner lots to hold the corner. Consider build-to lines defined by a line drawn parallel to the
block face, along which a building should be built.
4. Minimize the visual impacts of parking areas, parking structures, and residential garages on streets,
open spaces, and adjoining development.
Billboards dwarf buildings and create visual
clutter, wall art can be an interesting and more
effective a iter native to billboards.
EAST COLFAX
85


Subordinate volumes, balconies, orientation of
windows and doors, step backs and periodic
relief in the wall plane of a facade are design
treatments that can minimize the perceived
mass of a structure.
b Design parking and site access so that the impact on the pedestrian realm is minimized. Examples
of this include locating parking at the rear of the site away from the street, utilizing the alley for
site access and designing drive-through uses so that they do not conflict with the pedestrian
realm.
5. Create buildings that provide human scale and interest through use of varied forms, materials,
details, and colors while relating the size, dimension and symmetry of new construction to the
proportions of adjacent buildings.
b Mass Relate the perceived form, quantity or aggregate volumes of new construction to the
form of historic patterns of commercial buildings on Colfax and/or residential structures north
and south of the corridor. New construction should be compatible in scale, setback, and
orientation with existing buildings exhibiting traditional development patterns,
b Scale Relate the intervals, rhythm and order of new construction to adjacent structures that
reflect traditional commercial development patterns,
b Spacing Relate the location of windows, doorways and other features, horizontal or vertical
banding, caps, bases and central entries to adjacent structures that reflect traditional development
patterns.
b Taller buildings are expected to step back to preserve pedestrian scale or compatibility with
existing structures.
6. Provide architecturally finished and detailed elevations for all exposures of the building with the
primary street facing facade, having appropriate architectural expression.
b Include human-scaled building elements and architectural variation, including form, detail,
materials and colors to provide visual interest. Prominent and/or decorative parapets and
cornices are appropriate. Use repeating patterns of color, texture, material or change in plane as
integral parts of the building fabric, not superficially applied,
b Provide pedestrian active uses on the first floor of commercial and mixed-use buildings, directly
accessible from public space. Use transparent clear glazed area that permits view of interior
activities. Large expanses of blank wall are not appropriate for pedestrian oriented development.
7. Provide a primary building entrance facing or clearly visible from the public sidewalk.
b Clearly articulate the main entrance of buildings.The main entrance should be oriented to and
level with the primary street. Secondary entrances may be provided from parking areas or side
streets.
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EAST COLFAX
8. Use durable materials that complement Denvers tradition as a city of brick and masonry construction.
) Construct buildings of durable solid materials, such as brick, masonry, architectural metals,
concrete, tile and glass block systems when properly finished and detailed.
9. Ensure that signs are compatible with and are an enhancement of the character of the surrounding
district and adjacent buildings when considered in terms of scale, color, material, and lighting levels.
Signs should be creative in the use of two and three dimension forms, profiles, and monographic
representation while being constructed of high quality durable materials that are appropriate to an
urban setting.
Streetscape Design
A uniform streetscape along Colfax would aid in the identification of a consistent image for the corridor
while improving the physical appearance of the corridor. Streetscape standards should include the basic
streetscape infrastructure, while identifying additional elements that demarcate the individual districts
along the corridor.
1. Develop streetscape standards for the corridor that create a pedestrian friendly
environment, including
) Wide sidewalks where space permits
) Street trees in grates with automatic irrigation systems
) Safe pedestrian and bicycle crossing points
) Street furniture such as benches and trash receptacles at high volume pedestrian areas
) Street and pedestrian lighting
) On-street parking, bike racks and bus stops
2. Transit Station Area Streetscape: Use streetscape elements at transit station areas that reinforce the
area as a key transit transfer point or stop including:
) Distinct color and form, real time arrival/departure forecasting device, and visual media display
) Station area amenities clearly visible clock, newsstand, public pay phone, information
booth/police substation, schedule postings
) Plaza area with adequate space to sit and rest while waiting for transit
) Distinctive wayfinding signage system that includes directions to destinations within a 1/4 to 1/2
mile walking distance of the station area
EAST COLFAX
O R R I D O R PLAN
Simple streetscape elements can soften the
hard urban enuironment, provide visual relief
and a sense of design rhythm.
Los Angeles uses special design features and
brightly colored buses to better identify its rapid
transit system.
87


Existing Conditions: Low Density
88
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I M.ll
EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
Future Concept: Medium Density
EAST COLFAX
89


Future Concept: High Density
90
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Alley Configuration types
EXISTING ALLEY CONFIGURATION
^ Afe. A&J LAfc frfe
ttv 'err iwr

Ullllllllllll ':Sf L^ <;5
* ^
^ !. ^i ^
Figure 1 Existing
Commercial mixed-use
Residential
Alley
EAST COLFAX
EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
T ALLEY CONFIGURATION
A f ^ W 3
TrTTTTTTTTTTTTTTlTTTTTTTTTr ?

h ^ < V:
$ A .
Figure 2 Preferred
L ALLEY CONFIGURATION
Figure 3 Preferred
Alleys that lead to Colfax [Figure 11:
P Reduce pedestrian safety and comfort with curb cuts
that interrupt the sidewalk
P Increase potential for accidents and traffic
congestion due to mid-block vehicle turning
movements
P Limit the potential for linear property assemblage
and development along the commercial corridor
Alleys that terminate in T or "L"
configurations [Figures 2 & 31:
P Provide access to parking areas
P Encourage linear assemblage and property
development along the commercial corridor, rather
than deep into the residential areas off of the
corridor
P Create stronger boundaries between commercial
and residential areas; the alley width acts as a buffer
zone creating distance between residential and
commercial development
P Improve the pedestrian environment and reduce
mid-block vehicle turning movements on the
corridor
91


Transportation Map
Blueprint Denver Street Class ifications
Main Arterial
Mixed Use Arterial
' Residential Arterial
Residential Collector
All other streets are
Undesignated Local
Bike Routes
Bus Stops / Ridership Volume*
108
201
200
300
301
500
501
1590
*Ridership Volume = Combined Average
Boardings and Exits per day
Data Sources:
RTD and Blueprint Denver
map date: 04/26/04
Please see Map Appendix [pg. 187] for a more detailed view of this map
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EAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN
4^1
^TRANSPORTATION ANO INF0 AST0UCT0RE
Primary Issues and Opportunities
h East Colfax carries in excess of 35,000 vehicles and 20,000 transit riders per day. The mode split for
alternative transportation is among the highest in the region.
h According to research prepared for the Pedestrian Master Plan, East Colfax has a high frequency of
vehicle vs. pedestrian accident intersections (where four or more pedestrian-auto accidents were
reported to the Denver Police Department over the three-year period from 2000-2002).
Mobility options & accessibility are critical
transportation functions on enhanced transit
corridors, like Colfax.
h A number of elements interrupt the continuity of the pedestrian realm and create an inhospitable
pedestrian environment including:
I Vacant land, underutilized properties that create gaps in the urban fabric
I Inconsistent building edge
I Low density commercial uses (especially those with excessive curb cuts)
I A general lack of safe pedestrian crossings
I Alleys (which lead to Colfax)
I Narrow sidewalks
I An overabundace of obstructions in sidewalks (sign posts, parking meters, trash receptacles and
the like)
I Excessive curb cuts that reduce safety, create conflicts with pedestrians, break the continuity of
the streetscape and interrupt traffic flow
h Major transit station areas and transfer points are virtually indistinguishable from subordinate stops.
Future development patterns should include unique designs and markers that distinguish important
transit nodes within the context of the corridor.
h RTDs adopted corridor build out plan does not include rail or major transit investment on East
Colfax. Based on analysis of existing and anticipated demand and numbers of destinations along
and directly linked to the corridor, the transit vehicles and infrastructure warrant enhancement.
Most Dangerous intersections for Pedestrians
(ranked by highest frequency of vehicle
collisions with pedestrians]:
1. Clarkson St. &
Colfax
2.20th St. & Blake
3. Alameda &
Broadway
4. Broadway and
Colfax
5. Colfax & Josephine
6. Federal & lewell
7.1st Ave. & Federal
8.20th Ave. & Federal
9. Alameda & Federal
10. Alameda & Tejon
11. Broadway & Evans
12. Colfax & Colorado
13. Colfax & Kalamath
14. Colfax & Raleigh
15. Colfax & Sherman
16. Evans & Federal
17. Evans & Monaco
18. Federal & Florida
EAST COLFAX
93


"Traveler, there is no path,
paths are made by walking."
Antonio Machado
East Colfax carries in excess of 20,000
transit riders per day.
94
Residential densities adjacent to the corridor indicate considerable latent demand that could be
captured with an improved transit technology. Unlike other significant commuter streets in the
City, East Colfax supports a consistently high level of usage, not just spikes during the rush hours.
This type of round the clock usage also increases the efficiency of investments in enhanced transit
vehicles and infrastructure. From a market perspective, major transit investments function as assets
that increase the corridors customer base. Existing use, latent demand, round the clock demand
and market benefits are all reasons for transit improvements.
) The one-way couplets north and south of the corridor (17th-18th and 13th-14th Avenues) entice
some automobile commuter traffic away from East Colfax and alleviate some of the pressure to
serve the peak hour demand of automobiles. The capacity constraints position East Colfax to best
absorb the commuting demand of transit riders with an enhanced technology. It is better suited to
handle additional transit capacity than additional automobiles.
) The segment of Colfax between Williams and High Streets floods frequently during large storm
events. This has been confirmed in the Denver Storm Drainage Master Plan update. The Thirty
First St. Outfall project, which is included in the latest draft of the Master Plan, will upgrade
drainage facilities in this watershed area and should reduce ponding on East Colfax. (It is currently
an unprioritized $16.5 M need.) However, large storm events will continue to create flooding
problems for properties on the south side of East Colfax between Williams and High Streets.
) Constrained sidewalk width limits site distances and perceived safety for pedestrians.
) The street contains few pedestrian amenities such as bulb outs that reduce street crossing distances
or islands that provide pedestrian refuge areas.
) Drivers on Colfax experience frequent start and stop movements due to congestion.
) Overall traffic volume and movements create serious concerns for public health, safety and welfare.
) A number of schools lie in close proximity to the corridor. Consideration should be given to
improving access to and from the corridor to area schools.
Goals
) Upgrade the transit technology to a level suitable both to the existing, and latent, levels of demand
and oriented to the land use development potential of the corridor.
) Restore a multi-modal Main Street character along Colfax consistent with Blueprint Denver
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EAST COLFAX
standards.
) Create a pedestrian-friendly street network that directly links destinations along the corridor.
) Manage access and limit curb cuts along Colfax.
) Improve the safety of intersections and the public right-of-way along Colfax.
) Address infrastructure inadequacies.
Recommendations
) Consider alley vacations, alley easements and new alley configurations (T and/or L alignments -
see page 91) along East Colfax where they would facilitate the recommended land uses. An alley
vacation may be appropriate when:
I All property owners on both sides of the alley support the alley vacation
I The owners would L the alley out to one of the named streets (Public Works typically prefers an
L with one curb cut instead of a T which requires two curb cuts because of the extra
pedestrian and traffic interruption on usually lower volume side streets)
I New alley construction meets the standard dimensions depending on traffic conditions and
location (such as in an Historic District)
I Owners come to agreement on how to relocate and pay any costs associated with relocating
buried and/or poled utilities accessed through the existing alley
I Owners come to agreement on how to relocate and pay any costs associated
with relocating storm drainage
I The owners improve (pave in concrete) the reconfigured alley, if the existing alley currently is
unimproved
I The owners demonstrate that potential traffic numbers and impacts on adjacent land uses (in
particular, residential) will not have a net negative effect
) Conduct a Roadway Safety Audit and recommend improvements to enhance pedestrian safety.
) Identify street corners where color-enhanced handicapped ramps have not been installed and
upgrade these areas. Coordinate these upgrades within a reasonable timeframe with other planned
infrastructure improvements.
) Consider ways to improve access between East Colfax and area schools in the design of new
developments within 1,500 feet of schools.
EAST COLFAX
O R R I D O R PLAN
Major transit station areas are virtually
indistinguishable from subordinate stops like
this one near the City Park Esplanade.


"Any town that doesnt have sidewalks
doesnt love its children."
Margaret Mead
) Encourage existing and new developments along East Colfax to participate in a Transit Demand
Management (TDM) program.
) Coordinate with RTD, CDOT and Aurora to pursue additional study funding for the entire East Colfax
transit corridor (downtown to 1-225) to prepare new cross sections and implement significant
transit upgrades.
) Before significant resurfacing or new transit elements are built into the right of way, consideration
should be given to create better cross drainage from the south to the north side of East Colfax in
the vicinity ofWilliams and High Streets (e.g. siphons, squash boxes or underground detention with
use of the soon-to-be abandoned City Ditch).
) Corner and mid block bump-outs are encouraged to improve pedestrian comfort, help to clearly
delineate pedestrian areas and provide visual relief along the corridor.
) Promote the corridor as a walkable environment with Active Living by Design standards and
strategies for pedestrian infrastructure. Organize an Active Living by Design Committee to pursue
grant funding, develop strategies and implement projects along East Colfax.
Schools within walking distance of East Colfax
y Wyman Elementary
y Teller Elementary
> Gove Middle School
y Morey Middle School
y Emerson Street School
y Emily Griffith Opportunity School
y East High School
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^PARKING
Primary Issues and Opportunities
) Parking is discussed at length in the East Colfax Parking Study. Among the strategies identified are
shared parking between uses which have different periods of peak demand, payment by developers
of a fee in lieu of providing required parking (which is used by the city to build parking structures),
lowered parking requirements for uses adjacent to transit, reduced parking requirements for uses
that encourage other alternative transportation modes, maximum parking requirements, and
allowing uses to provide required parking off site. Denvers mixed use districts allow reductions in
parking requirements for proximity to transit and for shared parking. In addition, they have parking
requirements that are 50% lower for most retail uses than the requirements in the B-4 district.
) Parking is poorly distributed along the East Colfax corridor.
) The parking demands of the East Colfax corridor are greater than the available on and off-street
parking.
) Excessive curb cuts consume valuable space for on-street parking. Businesses consistently need on-
street parking to serve their patrons.
) Some commercial uses found along East Colfax have parking requirements that are incompatible
with the intensity of the use (providing either too much or too little parking). Many older
commercial buildings do not provide sufficient parking for the grandfathered uses allowed therein.
Conversely, many small to medium sized retail and commercial uses have parking requirements that
make adaptive re-use or new development of sites too costly.
) Residential neighborhoods bordering Colfax are inundated day and night with spillover parking
from commuter, retail, commercial and entertainment event parking demands.
) No direct correlation exists between the provision of parking and significant transit station areas
along East Colfax despite evidence of commuter park and ride behavior where commuters drive
97
"The automobile has not merely taken ouer
the street, it has dissolved the living tissue
of the city, its appetite for space is absolutely
insatiable; mouing and parked, it deuours
urban land, leaving the buildings as mere
islands of habitable space in a sea of
dangerous and ugly traffic."
James Marston Fitch,
New York Times, 1 May 1960


Peak hours of parking demand
close-in, parking for free on the neighborhood streets and ride the 15 transit line into downtown.
0*r
HFLIDDNAE RF.T.M.L
A 7 B IQ IIII 1 I J 4 % + 79 liplP
Wu* Cktf
fct >t AL'HANT
I Few if any shared parking arrangements supply parking efficiently to uses with differing periods of
peak demand.
I Parking is generally poorly located and designed, and undermines the pedestrian environment.
Goals
I Develop a Parking Masterplan along Colfax that improves both on- and off-street parking areas.
I Minimize adverse impacts of spillover parking in neighborhoods.
I Through appropriate design and development standards, as well as public-private partnerships,
strategically provide parking along the corridor to ensure adequate supply for residents, businesses,
event traffic and commuters (especially at major transit nodes). Promote park and ride behavior in
commuters and event-goers at key transit station areas.
Recommendations
I Develop a phased parking strategy for the corridor, responsive to changing market conditions and
development economics. Strategy elements will include: shared parking opportunities, ratio
reductions, parking districts, public parking facilities, etc.
I Participate in public-private partnerships to create shared parking facilities along E. Colfax where
they would facilitate the recommended land uses. Create a parking district that would allow
parking buyouts and/or have taxing authority to fund structured parking facilities.
I Consider allowing parking reductions for developments along East Colfax that:
I Use Transportation Demand Management (TDM) strategies
I Locate within 1/4 mile of an enhanced transit station area or super stop
I Meet a minimum FAR threshold
I Facilitate the recommended land uses (including low-income and affordable housing), contain a
mix of uses or demonstrate limited trip generation at any given time
I Engage in shared parking arrangements between uses with varying hours of peak parking
demand
I Adaptively reuse historic resources
I Locate future shared parking facilities in the vicinity of enhanced transit station nodes around the
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4^1
current 15 Limited stops at Colorado, York/Josephine and Downing, and consider an additional
location near the five point intersection of Park Avenue, East Colfax and Franklin. Work with
significant trip generators (National Jewish, Bluebird Theater, popular restaurants, Fillmore Theater,
Ogden Theater, Temple Events Center, St.Johns Cathedral, Basilica of the Immaculate Conception) in
these areas to promote transit access to the destinations.
) Remove as many existing curb cuts as possible along the corridor to increase the amount of on-
street parking
) Provide free 30 minute parking to encourage parking roll-over at specific retail oriented areas along
the corridor.
) Develop incentives for all existing parking lots and auto display lots bordering Colfax to improve the
safety, security and streetscape at these locations.
) Follow the Commercial Corridors Design Guidelines and the Denver Parking Lot Design and
Landscaping Standards by including landscaping, screen walls, safe lighting and complementary
contextual architectural features.
) Place parking regulatory signs on Parking meters in lieu of separate and adjacent poles.
) Consolidate signage for parking (lot entrance wayfinding, fare box, regulatory information) to the
greatest extent possible.
) Use lower brightness levels and provide full horizontal cut-off fixtures to minimize the off-site
impacts of parking areas and prevent light trespass on adjacent private property or public right of
ways.
) Provide ADA compliant access to all off-street parking areas.
EAST COLFAX
99


Full Text

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EAST COLFAX PLANEAST COLFAX PLAN

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1EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANMAY 2004

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2BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSACKNOWLEDGEMENTS City CouncilElbra Wedgeworth,Council President,District 8Rick Garcia,District 1J eanne Faatz,District 2Rosemary E.Rodriguez,District 3P eggy Lehmann,District 4Marcia Johnson,District 5Charlie Brown,District 6Kathleen MacKenzie,District 7Ju dy Montero,District 9J eanne Robb,District 10Michael B.Hancock,District 11Carol Boigon,At-LargeDoug Linkhart,At-LargePlanning BoardW illiam H.(Bill) Hornby,ChairmanJ an Marie Belle J oel Boyd Fr ederick Corn,P.E. Monica Guardiola,Esq. Daniel R.Guimond,AICP Mark Johnson,FASLA Barabara Kelley Jo yce Oberfeld Bruce O'Donnell Jim RaughtonCity and County of DenverJ ohn H.Hickenlooper,MayorP eter Park,Director Community Planning & DevelopmentT yler Gibbs,Deputy Director for Planning ServicesKatherine K.Cornwell,Senior City Planner and Project ManagerJ ason Longsdorf,Public Works City Planner SpecialistTheresa Lucero,Senior City PlannerMatt Seubert,Senior City PlannerRich Carstens,Urban Design ArchitectEric McClelland,GIS SpecialistSteve Gordon,Development Program ManagerSteve Turner,Urban Design ArchitectJim Ottenstein,Graphic DesignDan Michael,Graphic DesignJ ulie Connor,Graphic DesignPhil Plienis,Senior City PlannerOther AgenciesCesar Ochoa,Regional Transportation DistrictBill Hoople,Regional Transportation DistrictKathleen Brooker,Historic DenverConsultantsLeland Consulting Group,Economic AnalysisStakeholdersAnna Jones,Co-Chair Dave Walstrom,Co-Chair Andy Baldyga J osh Brodbeck Brad Buchanan Brad Cameron Margot Crowe Shayne Brady Melissa Fehrer-Peiker Buzz Geller Jim Hannifin Michael Henry Harriet Hogue Greg Holle Wa yne Jakino Bret Johnson Carla Madison T om Morris Jim Peiker Vi ck y Portocarrero Gail Stagner Ron Vogel Stacey Williams

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3EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANTA BLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary5 Introduction 9Project Partners & Plan Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Purpose of the Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Relationship to Other Plans & Studies. . . . . . . . . . . . 17 A Short History of a Long Street. . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 P opulation,Housing and Economic Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . 49 Assessment of Existing Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Plan Vision 69 Framework Plan73Land Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Urban Form and Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Tr ansportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Pa r king. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Economic Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 District Plans 119Colfax Identity & Geography of the Plan Vision. . . . . . . . . . 120 Capitol Village District. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Midtown Colfax District. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Colfax Promenade District. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Tr ansit Oriented Development Districts. . . . . . . . . . . 1 32

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4BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: Implementation Strategy139Land Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Urban Form. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Tr ansportation & Infrastructure. . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Economic Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 District Specific Implementation Strategies. . . . . . . . . . . 154 Appendix 157Guiding Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 SWOT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Full-Length Vision Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Glossary of Terms and Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Map Appendix187

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5EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANEXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe trouble with land is that theyre not making it anymore.Ž W ill Rogers

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6BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Fo r ecasts estimate that Denver's population will grow by 132,000 people,and that the metro-region will g row by 800,000 people,over the next twenty years.In response to the anticipated growth,Blueprint Denver,the city's award winning plan to integrate land use and transportation,identified Areas of Change where the city should direct growth in order to connect people to jobs,housing and the transportation system.Blueprint Denver defines an Area of Change as a place where growth and change are either desirable or underway.The plan identified East Colfax as a priority Area of Change for several reasons r elated to latent land development potential,access to and demand for enhanced transportation, proximity to downtown,opportunity to accommodate more housing (including affordable and lowincome units) and ability to stimulate economic development,as well as reinvestment in significant historic resources. Existing zoning along the East Colfax corridor results in a development pattern inconsistent with its future growth and investment potential.Existing zoning throughout Denver has the capacity to accommodate 247,000 new jobs,more than twice the forecasted job growth.At the same time,existing zoning has the capacity for 69,800 new households citywide,just enough to keep pace with forecasted g ro wth of 60,700 households,according to Blueprint Denver (pgs.9-14).Without greater potential through regulatory incentives for housing,demand will exceed the community's ability to produce affordable units.The majority of the commercial parcels along Colfax are zoned B-4,one of the city's broadest business zone districts.Under the existing zoning,it is difficult,if not impossible,to achieve a compact,mixed-use development pattern that includes residential units along the corridor.The permitted building intensity of the B-4 district is nearly unattainable when coupled with parking r equirements and the limited size of the commercial parcels.The path of least resistance under this zone district is low density commercial such as auto-oriented franchises.Such development does not maximize the land's potential to repopulate the parcels adjacent to this significant transit corridor,and consequently will not support the community's vision for growth identified in Blueprint Denver.There are few residential units in developments on the parcels contiguous to the corridor relative to the density in the Census block groups adjacent to East Colfax (from Broadway to Colorado Blvd).In this area,density r anges from 60 to 80 people per acre and between 40 and 55 dwelling units per acre.The low-density scale of the corridor is out of proportion with its urban context.The Census block groups adjacent to this section of Colfax represent a fraction of a percent of Denver's land area (0.25%),yet 3% of Denver's population resides here. East Colfax is one of the highest performing transportation corridors in the city,carrying in excess of60 acres of infill and redevelopment could add to East Colfax:2,500,000 to 10,000,000 SF of mixed use development2,000 to 8,000 new residential units3 ,000 to 12,500 new residents$2,100,000 to $8,500,000 in annual residential property taxes

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7EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN35,000 vehicles per day and 20,000 transit riders per day.Despite the high transit function,land uses are ge ared toward low density,auto-oriented commercial development.The transportation and land use systems along East Colfax do not balance each other.Estimates from 2001,suggest that approximately 62% of the trips in Denver either originated or ended outside of the city limits,according to DRCOG.As the city's major cross-town arterial that connects Denver,Aurora and Lakewood,planning for transportation on Colfax must consider innovative ways to move more people over time through this corridor.Expanding the number of lanes is not a feasible solution.Increasing the supply of housing along the corridor is transit-oriented development that brings residents into proximity of transit service. It is not enough to bring more people to the corridor.Transit must be development oriented and capable of tapping and supporting increased riders.The street carries a significantly high level of traffic throughout the day not just in peak traffic demand hours.In the Census block groups adjacent to the corridor over 40% of commuters use alternative modes of transportation.Consistent traffic and more non-peak traffic in a corridor with a strong alternative mode split are favorable indicators for enhanced transit technology. P otential exists for transit supportive infill and redevelopment of vacant or underutilized parcels along the corridor on approximately 60 acres of land.Model development at an achieved floor area ratio (development intensity) of between 2:1 and 4:1 could generate an additional 1,000,000 SF to 2,500,000SF of retail and 2,500,000 to 10,000,000 SF of residential and/or office space.Model development patternsinclude Chamberlin Heights at Colfax and Steele (a 56-unit residential project mixed with 6,000-SF of first f loor commercial uses and 79 structured parking spaces) or Baker Commons on Broadway at 3rd Avenue. Tw o and a half million to ten million SF of residential space could generate between 2,000 and 8,500 new units and house upwards of 3,000 to 12,500 residents (based on an estimated household size of 1.5). Mixed-use development could bring between 2,000 to 8,000 new market rate units to the corridor and could generate approximately $2,100,000 to $8,500,000 annually in property taxes (assuming an average v alue of $200,000 per for-sale residential unit).Facilitating high quality development on the corridor with predictable regulatory tools will stoke Denver's economic engine,as well as provide more opportunity to house people and connect them to the transit system.Today,the average sale price of houses within a 1/2 block of the corridor are roughly 70% of the average sale price in the stable,historic neighborhoods outside of a 1/2 block north and south of the corridor.Reinforcing existing housing stock with new units in mixed-use developments,especially on parcels where there is an inverse relationship between improvement value and land value,could upgrade the area and introduce more housing to the corridor.East Colfax at Steele Chamberlain Heights Broadway at 3rd Ave Baker Commons Chamberlain Heights & Baker Commons are models of mixed-use development projects that bring new residents and businesses to transportation corridors.

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8BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Historic preservation may also spur investment and economic development in the corridor.A strong commitment to preservation means creating and tapping economic and regulatory incentives to maintain, r estore and adaptively reuse architectural resources that add value and character to a place.Preservation need not be at odds with development.Flexible standards that focus on preservation of structures without prohibiting development in the surrounding area actually reinforces a vibrant,eclectic and diverse environment appropriate to the health of the urban corridor context.In ecological terms an "ecotone"describes the zone within which two vastly different ecosystems merge,such as a shoreline. These areas contain the richest mix of biologically diverse species and habitat due to adaptation over time to the fluctuating conditions in the ecotone.Applying the same principle to Colfax,preservation and development define the dynamics of an "urban ecotone"that blends the best of traditional development with an invigorating mix of new forms. Over three thousand five hundred hours of community involvement produced the vision for growth, c hange and preservation outlined in this plan.Residents,business owners,political leaders, preservationists,architects and developers contributed to the planning process.This plan refines the vision for East Colfax developed by the community in Blueprint Denver and lays the foundation for key implementation actions that will achieve this vision. The top priorities of the plan are: Create a new zone district appropriate for East Colfax and similar corridors. Establish a Colfaxhistoric district that provides preservation incentives without restricting development on non-historic sites. Undertake a phase two transportation study that identifies street design standards and transit alternatives. Develop key catalyst sites along the corridor. Implementation of this plan ensures a more functional present and a sustainable future for Denver's main street.Adaptive reuse of historic resources adds value and character to the corridor that can spur economic development.

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9EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANINTRODUCTIONYou got to be careful if you dont know where youre going, because you might not get there.Ž Y ogi Berra

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10BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:PROJECT PARTNERS AND PLAN PROCESSProject Partners volunteered over 3,500 hours to craft and refine a vision and strategy for revitalization of Colfax.The East Colfax study area boundaries cross two Council Districts and intersect fifteen neighborhood historic districts and business association boundaries including Uptown,Uptown on the Hill,Colfax on the Hill,Colfax Business Improvement District,Capitol Hill,Pennsylvania Street Historic District,Swallow Hill Historic District,City Park West,Wyman Historic District,City Park Esplanade/East High School Historic District,South City Park,Congress Park,Cheesman Park,Snell Subdivision (Colfax A and B) Historic District,and Park Avenue Historic District.With so many interests needing representation during the planning process,the Planning office assembled a stakeholder committee comprised of r epresentatives elected from each neighborhood association and business district.Both Council Districts and each At-Large Council member elected one representative to the committee.The Councilmembers f or District 8 and District 10 actively participated on the committee.Many area organizations,including the Unsinkables,the City Park Alliance,the Northeast Denver Housing Coalition and the Temple Events Center,found representation by the various members of the committee.The representatives made r eports to their constituents,and kept the city apprised of business and resident concerns throughout the process and ensured that the process kept moving forward despite the sensitive nature of the work. While not official members of the Stakeholder group,numerous residents,business operators,developers and property owners devoted time and energy to the process,and volunteered opinions,ideas,concerns and solutions that made this a better and stronger plan.Together the stakeholders represented a wide va r iety of perspectives and a broad range of the community participated in the planning process, providing critical comment and direction. Several City departments collaborated on the Plan including Community Planning and Development, Public Works,the Mayor's Office of Economic Development and International Trade and the Denver Urban Renewal Authority.There was also participation from the Regional Transportation District (RTD) and the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT).The strong interest and participation by city and other ag encies bodes well for implementing the Plan expeditiously.The involvement of property owners,Community Meeting

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11EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANneighborhood residents,businesses and developers assures both realism and a bold vision of what the area can become. Stakeholders,City staff and the general public participated in the planning process in a variety of ways: Regular stakeholder committee meetingsThe stakeholder committee initially met monthly,but met more regularly (averaging one meeting every two weeks) toward the end of the process.These meetings were open to the public and public participation was encouraged at each meeting.All of the stakeholders,neighborhood associations and the Plan's mailing list (which included all persons who signed in and provided contact information at the meetings) received notice of the meetings held primarily in the Webb Municipal Building. Land Use Scenario WorkshopsA series of three land use scenario workshops were conducted to determine the desirable future land use pattern of the corridor.Participants in the workshops identified important activity centers and variations in character between different segments of the corridor.These results were incorporated into the Plan maps and recommendations. Developers ForumIn March of 2003,the committee invited local developers to provide feedback re garding the feasibility of the future land use concepts and to identify challenges to the realization of the vision.The developers addressed concerns such as the financial feasibility of development, building height,mixture of uses,floor area ratio and transit.This information was incorporated into the Plan goals,objectives and recommendations. Colfax Coalition Enhanced Transit ForumThe City brought streetcar and bus rapid transit e xperts from Boston,Los Angeles,Portland and Vancouver to Denver to address the opportunities and challenges of enhanced transit technologies. Public OutreachIn addition,City staff held one on one meetings with stakeholders and community leaders and topical meetings regarding streetcars and economic development.Staff attended business association and neighborhood meetings to discuss the plan,as well as facilitated four public meetings at the end of the process to provide adequate community review and feedback re garding the plan and its recommendations prior to review by Planning Board and City Council. In addition to the public participation process,the Plan was also shaped through: Briefings held with City Council members Community Planning and Development staff review and discussionsCommunity meeting A community is like a ship; everyone ought to be prepared to take the helm.Ž Henrik Ibsen

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12BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:As a part of the City Council's adoption of the Plan as a supplement to Plan 2000,the Plan document was further refined through: Denver's Interagency Plan Review Committee standards of completeness,presentation and consistency with Plan 2000 and Blueprint Denver Denver Planning Board informational session and public hearing. City Council Committee and final action. The interaction between multiple city agencies,other public agencies and the general public has been e xtensive.Many of the Plan implementation strategies and priorities will require ongoing public involvement and partnerships between property owners,businesses,neighborhoods,city agencies and other public agencies and private individuals and organizations.

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13EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN Cherry CreekSouth Platte RiverE COLFAX AVECOLORADO BLVDYORK STFEDERAL BLV D38TH AVEPARK AVEBRIGHTON BLVDLEETSDALE DRALA MEDABROAD WAY MONACO STEVANS AVEU NIVERSITY BLVDW COLFAX AVE ALAMEDA AVEI-25 I-70 East Colfax Study Area Denotes Lightrail Sation Central Business District Lightrail Line Location Map

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14BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:PURPOSE OF THE PLANBlueprint Colfax:East Corridor Plan (hereinafter referred to as the Plan) is the result of direction from two citywide plans,Comprehensive Plan 2000 (Plan 2000) which creates a vision for Denver's future and Blueprint Denver:An Integrated Land Use and Transportation Plan (Blueprint Denver) which creates a more specific vision to strategically manage growth. Adopted in March of 2002,Blueprint Denver creates a new direction for long range planning.Blueprint Denver broadly organizes the City into Areas of Change (AOC) and Areas of Stability (AOS).Within this framework its strategies channel growth to AOC where there is a strong connection between land use and transportation.This direction funnels investment and growth to places where existing infrastructure is underutilized,where increased density and intensity may be appropriate,and where growth and transit may have a mutually supportive effect.Focusing growth to Areas of Change steers it away from areas where growth may have a negative impact on existing character and stable development (see Blueprint Denver Areas of Change map on page 19). Several geographic terms in this plan describe East Colfax and its environs. The East Colfax "study area"describes all of the parcels between Grant Street and Colorado Boulevard from 14th Avenue to 16th Avenue. The East Colfax "Areas of Change"include all or part of two Areas of Change (see Blueprint Denver Areas of Change Map):DowntownEast Colfax (West of Colorado) In this plan the East Colfax "corridor"is used interchangeably to mean commercial parcels adjacent to the corridor,as well as the more fluid area of influence beyond these parcels between 14th and 16th Avenues. Other terms refer to a variety of geographic boundaries such as trade area,districts,node,stationBalancing land uses on East Colfax with the transportation system and surrounding neighborhoods is the primary purpose of the plan.

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15EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANareas,activity center.Definitions for these concepts should be clear in the narrative text or accompanying graphics.The glossary in the appendix also defines these terms. There are several reasons why the Blueprint Colfax:East Corridor Plan should be developed at this time. (1) Colfax is the premier cross-town arterial that joins three metropolitan jurisdictions (Denver,Lakewood and Aurora) and connects downtown to many regional destinations.(2) Designated as an "Enhanced Tr ansportation Corridor"under Blueprint Denver and "Bus Redeployment Corridor"under the Regional Tr ansportation District (RTD) plan for the build out of the transportation system,Colfax requires land use and zoning strategies to support the application of a more efficient and effective transit technology.(3) Colfax is the model for land use and transportation strategies to apply on "Enhanced Transportation Corridors"citywide.(4) Colfax contains many underutilized and vacant parcels that could benefit from r edevelopment as mixed use projects that capture a greater percent of the trade area's market share and contribute more to the city's economy,provide more housing options for residents (including affordable and low-income housing),activate the street environment and capitalize on the convenient access to transit.The future development climate of the corridor should attract investment and uses that support transit users and residents,and reinforce neighborhood character.(5) The corridor needs elevated standards for design that respect historic character,reflect diversity and eclecticism,and improve the area's overall image.(6) Several private redevelopment investments are in process or completed including Chamberlin Heights (a 56-unit residential project mixed with 6000-SF of first floor commercial uses and 79 structured parking spaces),City Park South (a planned 700-unit residential project with 1050 structured parking spaces on the site of the former Mercy Hospital),and potential reinvestment in the area surrounding East High School including the Lowenstein Theater. The Blueprint Colfax:East Corridor Plan establishes long-range goals and objectives for the redevelopment of East Colfax with defined activity centers at major entertainment venues and future village center locations at the intersection of major transportation routes.The Plan emphasizes design and development standards to create a stronger pedestrian environment and a street that balances the needs of multiple transportation modes.It identifies unique districts along the corridor that provide the f oundation for place making and a marketable brand image.It provides a framework and implementation strategies that will direct future growth and redevelopment in a rational manner.The Plan is primarily a vision for land use,transportation,economic development,historic preservation and urban design.The Plan provides a community and cityapproved guide to the acceptable future redevelopment in the corridor.It is intended for use by Community Planning and Development,the Department of PublicThe East Colfax Plan is a guide for future development City Park South is the planned redevelopment of the former Mercy Hospital site. Lowenstein Theater is a potential redevelopment site across from the City Park Esplanade.

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16BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Wo r ks,other city agencies,the Denver Planning Board,the Mayor,the City Council,other public agencies such as the Colorado Department of Transportation,the Regional Transportation District,the Denver Regional Council of Governments,and quasi-public agencies,neighborhood associations,business people, property owners,residents,and private organizations concerned with planning,development and neighborhood improvement. The Plan is intended to promote patterns of land use,urban form,circulation and services that contribute to the economic,social and physical health,safety and welfare of the people who live and work in the area.Corridor plans address issues and opportunities at a scale that is more refined and more responsive to specific needs than the City's Comprehensive Plan 2000 (Plan 2000) and Blueprint Denver.This East Colfax Corridor Plan provides more specific guidance for the allocation of city resources,as well as for the location and design of private development.This Plan serves as a supplement to Plan 2000. Since this is a plan for Areas of Change and Stability,as designated in Blueprint Denver (and as shown in the Blueprint Denver Plan Map excerpt on page 72),it provides adequate direction for potential developers.It also provides detailed information on existing physical conditions,population and housing c haracteristics and a market analysis of the demand for new development.The availability of this information may foster interest in the area and may expedite redevelopment.Additionally,the Plan provides guidance to encourage neighborhood stability,preservation and adaptive reuse of historic structures and compatibility between new and existing architecture and uses. The Plan is not an official zone map,nor does it create or deny any rights.Zone changes that may be proposed as part of any development must be initiated under a separate procedure established under the Revised Municipal Code.

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17EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANRELATIONSHIP TO OTHER PLANS AND STUDIESThis chapter reviews the applicable content of citywide and small area plans that have been adopted by City Council,as well as other studies (not adopted by City Council) which contain information pertinent to the future planning and development of East Colfax.This section highlights relevant policies in those documents for consistency with this plan.Where inconsistencies exist,proceeding chapters describe the inconsistency and recommend new policy directions.Plans adopted by City CouncilComprehensive Plan 2000Many elements of Plan 2000 apply to the planning process for East Colfax,but certain chapters have a more significant impact.As a unique transit corridor,Colfax has the potential to meet and exceed the city's goals and objectives for improved land use,mobility,legacies,housing,economic activity and neighborhoods.Land UseA number of the objectives under this chapter apply to the corridor plan for East Colfax including: Objective 3 (and related strategies),pgs.59-60 Preserve and enhance the individuality,diversity and livability of Denver's neighborhoods and expand the vitality of Denver's business centers and Objective 4 (and related strategies),pg.60 Ensure that Denver's citywide land use and transportation plan and r egulatory system support the development of a clean,efficient and innovative transportation system that meets Denver's future economic and mobility needs.MobilityAs one of the most significant transportation corridors in the region,all of the mobility objectives apply to the planning process for East Colfax,except for Objective 10 related to air travel strategies.The mobilityPlan 2000

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18BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:objectives stress diverse mobility options,regional transportation,accommodation of new development, c hanging travel behavior,public transit,roadways,neighborhood transportation,walking and bicycling and parking management,pgs.75-81.Denver's LegaciesLegacies objectives that apply to Colfax planning include preservation of histoic resources and neighborhoods,design excellence,new development with traditional character,compact urban development and strong connections (and where appropriate "green"connections between activity centers,pgs.98-101.HousingPlanning for the unique Colfax setting supports a number of Denver's housing objectives including e xpansion of existing housing options,preferred housing development (mixed-use and mixed-income along transit lines) and preservation of existing housing stock,pgs.113-118.Economic ActivityPlan 2000 identifies Colfax as a top priority for commercial corridor revitalization.Under Objective 4-B the plan states that Colfax should be strengthened to "enhance existing business centers and establish new business centers in a manner that offers a variety of high quality uses that support Denver's business environment,complements neighboring residential areas,generates public revenue and creates jobs."NeighborhoodsNeighborhood health and vitality is a critical element of Plan 2000.Plan 2000 includes objectives to strengthen the unique identity of Denver's neighborhoods,encourage public participation and collaboration in the planning process,promote clean and safe neighborhoods,reinforce the role of schools as neighborhood activity centers,and manage and maintain community facilities,pgs.149-156.Blueprint Denver (2002)The city's comprehensive land use and transportation plan organizes Denver around Areas of Change and Areas of Stability.Directing growth to appropriate locations and preserving the existing character and land uses in other locations is the foundation of this organization.Areas of Change include places where land use development may be closely linked to the transportation system (light rail station areas,majorBlueprint Denver

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19EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN Brighton Boulevard North Industrial StapletonGateway East Colfax (West of Colorado) East Colfax (East of Colorado) Lowry Hampden Southeast Transit Oriented Developments Cherry Creek Gates Transit Oriented Development South Broadway South Federal Morrison Road Alameda Town Center Central Industrial West Colfax/ West Transit Oriented Development Downtown Northeast Downtown W. 38th Ave. Jefferson Park/ Highlands Blueprint Denver Areas of Change

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20BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:corridors like East Colfax),neighborhoods in and around downtown,and new development areas (Lowry, Stapleton and Gateway).Blueprint Denver creates the overarching vision for the city to encourage a g ro wth pattern where land use and transportation have a mutually supportive effect.Areas of ChangeThe Blueprint Denver map designated three Areas of Change within two parts of the East Colfax study area.The Areas of Change include: The commercial part of the East Colfax corridor (predominantly the B-4 zoned parcels) plus the Mercy Hospital site (East Colfax West of Colorado Area of Change), Uptown as far east as Park Avenue (which includes portions of the Downtown and Northeast Downtown Areas of Change)Pedestrian Shopping CorridorThe land use designation for the commercial part of the corridor is P edestrian Shopping Corridor,which is defined by small-scale,street-fronting commercial uses with some r esidential.Average FAR is 1:1,although this is higher near downtown (pp.64-5).Blueprint Denver further describes this Pedestrian Shopping Corridor,as a redevelopment area with "high-density r esidential,an entertainment area with additional parking and restaurants in the vicinity of the Ogden and F illmore theaters,and mixed-use development throughout"(p.139).Mixed UseBlueprint Denver designates the R-4-X zoned part of Uptown as Mixed Use.Mixed use areas are defined by a higher level of intensity than in other residential areas,and the mix may be defined as ve r tical with individual buildings containing multiple uses or horizontal where different use types coexist next to each other or within a definable area/district.Urban ResidentialUnder Blueprint Denver the vacant Mercy Hospital site and a portion of the Northeast Downtown Area of Change in the study area were designated Urban Residential.Attributes of urban r esidential areas include proximity to downtown,transit corridors or regional centers with FAR ranging from .75 to over 4 depending on the neighborhood context.Housing densities range between 20 to over 100 dwelling units per acre in a range of housing types including historic single-family houses, townhouses,small multi-family apartments and sometimes high-rise residential structures.The use mix is g eared primarily to residential with some accessory commercial.These districts generally comprise 200400 acres.These areas have good transit access and significant levels of bicycling and pedestrian activity along with automobiles.Blueprint Denver identified East Colfax as an Area of Change appropriate for pedestrian shopping corridor development.

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21EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANAreas of StabilityThe remainder of the surrounding neighborhoods were designated Areas of Stability,'with the land use type urban residential'or single-family residential.'In general,urban residential'areas are zoned R-3,R-4, R-4/OD-1 or R-4/OD-9.The eastern end of the City Park South neighborhood,which is mostly zoned R-2, w as designated single family residential.'As part of the implementation of Blueprint Denver,some issues we re r aised regarding the compatibility of infill and redevelopment projects with existing development in areas zoned R-3 and R-4.At the time this plan was drafted,a study was underway to identify design and development standards to improve the compatibility of new construction projects in established areas zoned for higher intensity residential use.Many of the neighborhoods adjacent to the East Colfax corridor include areas zoned R-3 and R-4.These areas contain a significant stock of historic resources (structures built prior to 1940) that contribute to the architectural legacy and neighborhood sense of place.The Area of Stability designation connotes a desire to retain or reinforce the existing character through preservation,infrastructure investment and context sensitive design of additions or new construction on infill sites.Restoration and rehabilitation of existing structures,where feasible,or infill on v acant or underutilized sites is preferable to demolition and new construction.Multi-Modal StreetsMulti-Modal Streets characterize the transportation elements of Blueprint Denver.A series of street types define the different design elements and amenities that should be included on streets adjacent to different kinds of land uses.These elements and amenities complement and soften the impact of a street's functional classification (characteristics such as traffic volume and speed).Additionally,Blueprint Denver elevates the important role of alternative modes pedestrian,bicycle and transit access within the transportation system.Under Blueprint Denver,East Colfax is a designated Enhanced Transit Corridor and Main Street Arterial.Both designations call for an improved orientation of the street to the pedestrian and transit user.Guiding PrinciplesBlueprint Denver includes a set of Guiding Principles for Areas of Stability and Areas of Change that act as barometers for determining whether certain actions achieve the overall Blueprint Denver vision.Each principle contains qualifying criteria,pgs.141-142.Main Street Mixed-use Street Blueprint Denver identified a mixed-use, main street typology with ample pedestrian space as appropriate for East Colfax. TRAVEL TREELAWN SIDEWALK PARKING TRAVEL CURB EXTENSIONS PARKING TREELAWN SIDEWALK TREE WELLS IN PARKING LANE TRAVEL TRAVEL TRAVEL TREELAWN SIDEWALK PARKING TRAVEL PARKING TREELAWN SIDEWALK

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22BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: Cherry CreekSouth Platte RiverE COLFAX AVE 1ST AVECOLORADO BLVDYORK STFEDERAL BLVD38TH AVEPARK AVEBRIGHTON BLVDLEETSDALE DRALAMEDABROAD WAY MONACO STEVANS AVEU NIVERSIT Y BLVDW COLFAX AVE ALAMEDA AVEI-25 I-70TENNYSON DOWNING STWELTONSTM ORRISON R DSANTAFEDRSANTA FE DRSPEER East Colfax Study Area B-4 Zoning B-4 Corridor map

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GATEWAY STAPLETONAreas for Capacity Improvement* Roadway Corridors for Ca pacity Improvement* LEGEND L E G E N D *Improvements shown are recommendations from previously adopted City plans Regional Rapid Transit(Light Rail, Commuter Rail, HighOccupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)) Southeast I-25 Corridor to Douglas County Southwest Corridor to Littleton W est Corridor to Lakewood U S 36 Corridor to Boulder & Gold line Corridor to Arvada North Metro Corridor to Thornton I-225 Corridor through Aurora East Corridor to DIA RTD Rail Route Under Study U S 36/North Metro HOV & BRT I-25 I-225I-70Sheridan6th AveP ena Blvd.I-270 SouthPlatt eRiver C herryCreek I -25Santa Fe W ashington St. Alameda Y orkSpeerBrighton Blvd.Broadway Fed eralKnox Ct.University C olorado Blvd.Alameda HampdenY ale56th Ave. EvansQuebecL eetsd al eHavanaI7023rd Ave.Smith Rd. 40th Ave.52nd Ave.Blake/WalnutUS 285 LOWRYQuincy I-225C olfax W. 38th Ave.Monaco Pkwy.Evans Enhanced Transit C orridors Bike Missing Link 23EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANBlueprint Denver Enhanced Transportation Corridors

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24BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Guiding Principles Areas of Stability: Respect valued development patterns Respect valued attributes of the area Respect adjoining property Expand transportation choice Minimize traffic impacts on neighborhoods Respect environmental quality Guiding Principles Areas of Change: Contribute to the urban design vision Respect valued attributes of the area Contribute to the economic vision Expand transportation choice Improve environmental qualityUptown Neighborhood Plan (and East Colfax Charette) (1986)Zoning (p. 26)Recommends retention of the current business zone boundaries.Calls for consideration of the establishment of a B-4 overlay district which will eliminate provisions incompatible with the character of the neighborhood,and which will help achieve plan goals.Encourages design review.Park Avenue and York Street village centers' (pp. 75-76)Recommends that land uses be neighborhood-serving,destination oriented and offering regional specialty uses.Places importance on building location and orientation so that new structures reinforce the existing pattern of locating buildings along the right-of-way.Recommends that retail uses should face only onto Colfax,and should not extend around the corner onto the side streets.This plan encourages shared parking.Buffers and links to residential areas are recommended to screen uses and parking from adjacent r esidential areas with landscaping,berms,and fencing and protect residential uses from incompatible lighting and odors.Auto-oriented commercial uses are recommended to serve as linkages between the village centers.Appropriate land uses in these stretches include automobile-oriented,drive-through,and larger scale retail,such as grocery stores,automobile service stations and repair shops,home improvement centers,large liquor stores (p.32)The East Colfax study area includes both Areas of Change and Areas of Stability. Abandoned building in Area of Change Historic houses in Area of Stability

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25EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANCapitol Hill/Cheesman Park Neighborhood Plan (1993)ZoningLimit non-neighborhood related office and commercial development to Colfax Avenue (p.27).Prohibit new convenience stores,drive-throughs,and drive-ins except where designated for automobile-oriented uses in the Uptown Plan (p.41).DensityF AR should not exceed that of adjacent residential zone districts (which is 3:1 on the south side of Colfax),with the retail component not exceeding 1:1 FAR (p.111).Vi llage CentersCreate village centers at Park Avenue and Esplanade (pp.156-164)Land useLocate major retail and office uses on the corners of the Esplanade (p.163).Building locationLocate buildings facing Colfax adjacent to the sidewalk (pgs.157,160)Building heightHeight should be limited only by mountain view preservation ordinances.The only limit is approximately 80' for the area north of Colfax and west of Franklin Street at the Park Avenue village center.This is the City Park View Plane,which extends to properties south of Colfax and west of Lafayette Street as well. New buildings at Esplanade should be at least two stories (pgs.158,163).ParkingPlace parking behind commercial structures and create landscaped buffers adjacent to residential structures.

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26BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Congress Park Neighborhood Plan (1995)ZoningOppose new commercial and institutional zoning except by Planned Unit Development (PUD) (p.43). Preserve current zoning and development scale and require business development to remain within these boundaries (p.63).Create and reinforce buffers along the neighborhood borders and between residential and commercial area.(pg 35);We must address the issue of commercial/residential buffers.We fully endorse the concept of converting every other side street in to a cul-de-sac to the residential side.(pg 36).ParkingEncourage shared parking with retail establishments (p.61).Off-street parking continues to be a major problem due to inadequate off-street parkingat the Colfax businesses.(pg 47) Discourage nonr esident parking on locale streets (pg 48) Colfax Avenue Install street lamps,streetscape public right-ofwa y. Design and implement cul-de-sac parking...Explore the concept of a designated area parking lot to cut down side street parking and congestion.(pg 52).Economic DevelopmentPa g es 59 through 63 contain a list of Action recommendation for economic development along Colfax.Colfax Corridor Historical & Transportation Services Joint Study (1997)This study was a collaborative effort by Denver,Lakewood and Aurora to make corridor wide r ecommendations to improve the function and appearance of the corridor;identify significant c haracteristics of the corridor and allow preservation;enhancement and interpretation of contributing r esources;make recommendations to strengthen the segments to make a stronger whole;guide future development and improvement projects;and integrate various Neighborhood and Subdistrict Plans.Parks and Recreation Game Plan (2002)The Game Plan provides policy direction for the future growth and integration of Denver's parks and r ecreation system in the community.Three key subject areas apply to the East Colfax study area facility planning,green streets and breathing spaces.The Game Plan identifies significant deficiencies in r ecreational facilities (particularly playing fields and recreation centers) along East Colfax.The plan r ecommends that major capital expansions for recreation centers focus on high demand neighborhoods that are underserved.The "green streets" concept refers to the creation of a significant landscaped street

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27EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN DIASTAPLETON GR EENVALLEYRANCH GATEWAY MONTBELLO GLOBEVILLE ELYRIASWANSEA CHAFFE EPARK REGIS NORTHEASTP ARKHILL BERK ELEY SUNNYSIDE FIVEPOINTS CLAYTON COLE HIGHLAND WESTHIGHLAND WHITTIER SKYLANDNORTHPARKHILL UNION STATION SLOANLAKE JEFFERSON PARK LINCOLN PARK CBD SOUTHPARKHILL EAST COLFAX CITYPARK CITYPARK WEST CAPITOL HILL SUN VALLEY WESTCOLFAX CIVIC CENTER MONTCLAIR CONGRESS PARK HALE CHEESMAN PARK CAPITOL HILL VILLAPARK LOWRYFIELD COUNTRY CLUB SPEER HILLTOP CHERRY CR EEK BAKER BARNUM WEST BARNUM VALVERDE WASHINGTON PARK BELCARO WINDSOR WASHINGTON VIRGINIAVALE WASHINGTON PARKWEST ATHMARPARK WESTWOOD VIRGINIAVILLAGE MARLEE OVERLAND PLATTE PARK RUBYHILL CORYME RRILL INDIAN CREEK UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY PARK UNIVERSITY HILLS SOUTH PLATTE COLLEGE VIEW HARVEYPARK GOLDSMITH HAMPDEN BEARVALLEY WELLSHIRE HARVEYPARKSOUTH KENNEDY FORTLOGAN HAMPDE NSOUTH SOUTHMOOR PARK MARSTONSouthwestYMCA EastDenver YMCA Central YMCA CopeBran chB&G SchlessmanYMCABoettcherBranchB&G AuroraYMCASt eelBran chB&G Jo hnson Branch B&G OwenBran chB&GJewish Community CenterVillageGreenRecreationCenter LinkRecrea tionCenter EnglewoodRecreationCenter CommerceCityRe creationCenterBerkeley Recreation Center Aztlan Rec.Center QuiggNewton Senior Center Highland SeniorCenter Ashland Rec.Center Stapleton Rec.Center Globeville Rec.Center StCharles Recreati onCenter Glenarm Rec.Center TwentiethSt Rec.Center ParkAvenue Rec.Office LaAlma Recreati onCenter Rude Recreati onCenter Barnum Recreati onCenter LaFamilia Recreati onCenter Athmar Rec.Center Harvey Park Rec.Center Co llegeView Rec.Center HarvardGulch Rec.Center PlattPark Senior Center WashingtonPark Rec.Center Southwest Rec.Center Eise nhower Rec.Center C ook Rec.Center LowryYouth GymnasiumCenter Montclair Rec.Center Johnson Rec.Center Swansea Rec.Center HiawathaDavisJr Rec.Center MartinLutherKingJr Rec.Center Montbello Rec.CenterNORTH Adjacent Municipalities' Recreation Centers Denver Recreation Centers Other nonprofit centers (YMCAs, Boys and Girls Clubs, Jewish Community Centers) Recreation Center Service Areas scaled by center size and population density Center falls below 75% of national average for building square footage, lacks 1-3 core amenities Center exceeds 75% of national average for building square footage, lacks 1-2 core amenities No existing Recreation CentersLEGEND Recreation Facility Need

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28BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:network that connects the city's system of parks,parkways and neighborhoods.Within in the study area, 16th Avenue Promenade,Pearl Street,Franklin Street,Elizabeth Street,Steele Street and Colorado Boulevard are designated as green streets.The "breathing spaces" concept refers to the integration of functional open spaces that support gathering,recreation and relaxation within an urban context.Key f eatures of breathing spaces include:community gardens,public art,neighborhood history or cultural heritage interpretive elements,seating,landscaping,drinking fountains,plazas,etc.Bicycle Master Plan (2001)The Bicycle Master Plan provides information and policy direction to facilitate the use of bicycles for transportation,as well as recreation.While no policies directly target the study area,there is much helpful information that can be used to improve the climate for bicycle access to East Colfax.Pedestrian Master Plan Draft (adoption pending at the time this plan was drafted)The Pedestrian Master Plan identifies and creates a citywide pedestrian route network,determines policies for the city to follow as it develops and redevelops,and identifies and prioritizes improvements to the city's sidewalk infrastructure and associated pedestrian safety needs and amenities.Building off of key pedestrian activity generators (schools,transit access,neighborhood destinations,commercial districts, parks and libraries) the plan distinguishes Pedestrian Focus Areas.Analysis of direct connections between the pedestrian focus areas identified over one hundred improvement projects.The plan establishes policies to promote and enhance safety,accessibility,education,connectivity,streetscape,land use and public health.Other Plans, Studies, Proposals (not adopted by Planning Board and City Council)Colfax Heritage Corridor Study:Denver,Lakewood,Aurora-Clofax Coalition (1998) This study recommends strategies to improve the corridor image (streetscape master plan, landscaped parking areas,street trees,pedestrian lighting,pocket parks,regulations to improve franchise architecture,emphasis on connections to the hospital and parks),strengthen the streetWi thin the East Colax study area, 16th A venue Promenade, Pearl Street, Franklin Street, Elizabeth Street, Steele Street and Colorado Boulevard are designated as green streetsŽ in the Parks and Recreation Game Plan.

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29EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANw all (enforce a consistent build to line oriented to Colfax,faade restoration/improvements, compatible new facades mass,scale,height),spur economic development (neighborhood and re gional retail infill),reinforce transit access (pedestrian safety,bulbouts,pedestrian signals, continuous sidewalks,consolidation of curb cuts,bus stop improvements) and preserve historic r esources (identify architectural and cultural resources,install interpretive elements,provide incentives for preservation,encourage adaptive reuse of historic resources).The study identifies the f ollowing as historic resources:the Bluebird Theater,several "taxpayer strips"(Greek Town/CBID), The Bank,Sushi Heights building,Abend gallery building,Pete's Kitchen,Satire Lounge,Vernon Hotel/Sid King's Nightclub,Colonnade,Alta Court,1228-1224 E.Colfax,Smiley's Laundromat, Immaculate Conception Basilica.The plan also recommends considering historic district designation for a portion of East Colfax. B-4 Rezoning Proposal: Colfax on the Hill (1998) Report on Private Investment Actions and Problems Needing Government Action on East Colfax Avenue: Colfax Business Improvement District (1999) Redeveloping Colfax Avenue: A Proposal to Analyze and Model Movement, Configuration and V isual Character:Space Analytics,etc.(1999) Colfax Revitalization Action Plan (1999) and Colfax Avenue Segment Revitalization Plan Pearl to Downing:CBID,Colfax on the Hill,Mayor's Office of Economic Development and district property owners and developers (2000) East Colfax Parking Study Parking Management Case Studies:Denver Community Planning an Development (2000) East Colfax Avenue: An Opportunity and a Model for Development Action Denver Foundation (2001) City Park Plan:Pa r ks and Recreation (2002) Urban In-fill Design Guidelines Outline: Buchanan-Yonushewski (2002)

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30BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:A SHORT HISTORY OF A LONG STREETDenver City was born in the first blush of the "Pikes Peak or Bust Gold Rush"of 1858-59.While traces of g old were found along the Platte River and Cherry Creek,the real finds were in the foothills and mountains to the west of the fledgling city.Though the gold found in Denver quickly played,the city became the gateway to more successful mining communities in the foothills and prospered as the center of trade and transshipment for Colorado. An early survey (illustration 1) shows roads established to points east and to developing communities of Colorado to the south,west and north.One of the roads to Golden generally followed what later became W est Colfax.Branches of three major roads from the east paralleled later East Colfax.These were the South Platte River,the Smoky Hill and the Cherokee or Old New Mexico Roads. Stage routes and long distance wagon freighting on these roads were eclipsed in importance in the latter decades of the nineteenth century by completion of the western railroads.The Union Pacific connection with the Central Pacific at Promontory Point,Denver to the Union Pacific at Cheyenne,along with Kansas P acific rail from Denver to Kansas City,followed quickly in 1870.The Denver and Rio Grande pushed south toward New Mexico,and the Colorado Central worked into the mining towns of Black Hawk and Georgetown through Golden. Denver was originally platted on a diagonal grid following the banks of the Platte River and Cherry Creek. This system was altered during the early 1860's,and when in 1864,the Federal Government formally established the city with a 1 1/2 square mile grant.The Colorado Territorial Legislature defined Denver boundaries in 1864 (illustration 2).Within these boundaries were the section and a half town patent gr anted by the U.S.Congress in the same year to clarify land ownership in the earliest settled portion of Denver.The southern border of this original town patent was the southern edge of Township Three South.The city lines were drawn:Zuni Street on the west,Broadway on the east,26th Avenue on the north,and Grand Avenue (Colfax) on the south.The street along this east-west line on the southern edge of Township Three South was later named Colfax Avenue.Denver was born during the Pikes Peak or Bust Gold RushŽ of 1858-59. In 1864, a section and a half town patent, T ownship III South, defined early Denver boundaries. The southern border of this original town patent later came to be known as Grand Avenue and present day Colfax A venue.

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31EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN T erritorial Survey 1861 (Illustration 1)

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32BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: The Southern Edge of "Township III South" (1864) became Colfax Avenue (Illustration 2)

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33EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANThe more commonly accepted north/south east/west grid was established for the rest of the city.Only the original downtown area remains with its'diagonal grid.The platted grids of Highland,Auraria and Denver,the original towns comprising Denver,did not join or relate with another,and were oriented to the South Platte River or Cherry Creek rather than cardinal directions.The towns came together as Denver in 1861,but the street grids remained,and were actually extended,especially to the northeast into the Curtis Park area.These original patterns were broken by developers led by Henry Brown and John Evans,who preferred the surveyor's ease of subdivision ordered by section lines.Both men owned land along Colfax,and persuaded Denver planners to organize Denver's later growth along streets parallel to Colfax and Broadway.This dramatic shift is shown in illustration 3.Later developers found the value of the section line equally attractive in land purchase and subdivision,and few later Denver area streets strayed from the north-south,east-west configuration. Colfax Avenue is named for Schuyler Colfax,formidable representative from Indiana,who gave his support to the unsuccessful attempt at statehood for Colorado in the Congress of 1865.Schuyler Colfax (18231885) was elected to the U.S.House of Representatives from Indiana in 1855.Serving for 14 years,he joined the newly formed Republican Party becoming Speaker of the House in 1855.He was inaugurated as Vice President of the United States in 1869,and served until 1873 during the first term of Ulysses S. Grant. As Vice-President,Colfax became embroiled in the Credit Mobilier of America scandal.Many high ranking go ve r nment officials were accused of accepting bribes.Credit Mobilier,a joint stock company chartered in 1859,soon came under control of the owners of the Union Pacific Railroad.Contracts for the transcontinental railroad were made to construction companies on such terms that the company profits r ose rapidly.Shares were distributed to government officials and members of Congress,often far below market price.Colfax bowed out of politics,under a cloud of scandal. Congressman Colfax visited Denver in 1865,to see his half-sister Clare Witter.She and her husband, Daniel Witter,were early Denver pioneer settlers.The Congressman arrived in the middle of a statewide effort for statehood.On his return to Washington,a group working toward Colorado statehood led by fo r mer Territorial Governor John Evans,pressured Colfax for assistance.Despite his help,this attempt at statehood failed like a similar effort in the year prior.However,the group's gratitude to the former VicePresident was evident in the renaming of Grand Avenue.Schuyler Colfax (1823-1885), elected Vice President in 1868 under Ulysses S. Grant, and left office in 1873 under a cloud of scandal. The split from the original diagonal grid pattern of Denver streets is attributable to Colfax property owners, John Evans and Henry Brown, who persuaded city planners to organize Denvers later growth along streets parallel to Broadway and Colfax.

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34BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Denver growth was originally platted on a diagonal grid & later along streets parallel to Colfax and Broadway (Illustration 3)

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35EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANThe name Colfax first appears on Denver maps in 1868,but it is unclear when the name was first given. In 1874 Colfax is indicated on a drawing of the city,as a street some six blocks long,with only a handful of houses fronting the street.The development pressures of the city were quickly building,however,and a primary direction of growth was to the southeast through the intersection of Broadway and Colfax. The aforementioned railroad expansion efforts spurred Denver's greatest population boom.In twenty y ears,Denver's population erupted from a meager 4,700 people in 1870 to 106,000 people by 1890.Air and water pollution were ever-present concerns,always moving residential growth to higher ground. F ourteenth Avenue,with its elevation on Capitol Hill became one of the finest residential avenues in the city. Denver became the Queen City of the Plains.The early development of Capitol Hill and Colfax Avenue in the 1870's and 1880's is a roster of Denver's famous and influential citizens.John Evans,Henry C.Brown, George Chilcott,A.C.Hunt,and Daniel Witter dedicated portions of their subdivisions to create the 100 f oot wide Colfax Avenue that would become the "finest,grandest residential avenue between St.Louis and San Francisco."East Colfax came to be known as Denver's premier,treelined residential avenue,and home to leading citizens and pioneer families. Denver was designated as Colorado's capital city and Brown's Bluff was declared the location of the capitol building.Throughout the Territory there was widespread prejudice against Denver,and strong efforts were made to establish the seat of government almost anywhere but in Denver.Colorado City, Golden,and even Leadville were strong contenders.By act of 1867,the territorial legislature voted to move the capital from Golden to Denver if land was given for the new structure.In 1879,the Legislature moved to establish the state capitol in Denver.Land donated by HC Brown,at East Colfax and Grant became the present day grounds for the State Capitol of Colorado.Additional land was given by Mssrs. Kassler and Cheesman in 1883 to complete the site.Real estate ownership was confirmed in 1885,and funds were appropriated for construction in 1886.The appointed state building commission selected architect,E.E.Myers,and ground was finally broken in 1886.The corner stone was laid in 1890,but delays,lawsuits and controversy plagued construction,and the final completion of the edifice did not occur until 1908. Adequate water was necessary to the growth of Capitol Hill (Browns Bluff).In 1864,John Smith began to dig a 25 mile ditch from the foothills through Denver,providing water to the residential developments along East Colfax,assuring the success and expansion of the city to the east.Colfax continued to be theBasilica of the Immaculate Conception

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36BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:neighborhood of choice through the 1890's and into the next century,(with a lull following the Silver Crash of 1893).However,upscale luxury apartments,terraces,as well as "streetcar retail"construction began to appear along the street as the wealthy sought out newer neighborhoods,such as Park Hill, Montclair,and Denver Country Club. Early in the 20th century the city of Denver added to the importance of the Capitol precinct with planning and construction of Civic Center Park,followed by the construction of the Denver City and County Building,1929-1932.The resulting complex incorporates the federal Mint and significant present day uses including Denver's public library (today newly rehabilitated with a significant addition by architect Michael Graves),the Denver Art Museum (completed in 1972 by Gio Ponti with an addition slated for completion in 2006 designed by Daniel Liebeskind) and the Webb Municipal Building,Other area landmark buildings include the Basilica of the Immaculate Conception,dedicated in 1912,and the State Office Building,completed in 1922. The Civic Center Park construction in the late 1910s included bulges into adjacent streets to house the Greek Theater on the south and the Voorhies Memorial on the north.Colfax bends around the Voorhies Memorial,the only break in the otherwise straight run of the Avenue from Lakewood to Aurora.DeBoer's plan of 1936 is one of many over the years that have sought to extend the City Beautiful ideas of the early century that Civic Center Park so beautifully expresses. In the latter decades of the nineteenth century,Denver grew steadily in population and city development, with one major pause due to the Silver Crash of 1893.The commercial core of the city developed in the section of the city nestled into the turn of the Platte,the original East Denver.Residential development gr ew aw ay from the core in all directions:across the Platte to the northwest into the original Highland area,northeast into the Curtis Park area,southeast into the Capitol Hill area,and to the southwest across Cherry Creek into the original Auraria and farther,across the South Platte.Each area grew with independent characteristics,attracting various economic and ethnic groupings.Colfax was a major avenue into the southwest and southeast sectors. Developers bought or obtained control of land and platted additions or subdivisions for sale of home sites or for speculative housing construction.Rollandet's map of Denver in 1885,gives names of additions and subdivisions that are still familiar,if not as an area,then for the schools and streets that retain the name. Names along Colfax to the east include:Evans,Brown,Clement (and Clements),Park Avenue,Capitol Hill and Wyman.By 1885 City Park was in place as were subdivisions to the east for Park Hill and Montclair.Civic Center Park Denver Art Museum expansion by Daniel Liebeskind slated for completeion in 2006

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37EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANDenver connections by rail to the rest of America were made in 1870.A rudimentary street rail system circulations within the city was inaugurated in 1871.The line was laid from 7th Street in Auraria down Larimer to 16th Street,then up to Champa,and down Champa to 27th Street.The cars were drawn by horses.The rail company,Denver City Railway,had over fifteen miles of track by 1883.In 1885,a competitor line,Denver Tramway,was formed,and this company was first to lay lines on Colfax.A line w as laid in 1886 down 15th to Colfax,then east to Grant.Denver Tramway's electric cars were powered from a below grade center rail.Though operational,the system was short-lived.In 1888,Denver Tr amway had switched to cable cars with extended track out Colfax to City Park,and down Broadway. Denver City Railway,the primary competitor,had by this time converted most of its horse-drawn cars to cable as well. The first map of the streetcar lines (illustration 4),is from 1892.In 1893,the steady expansion of the Denver rail systems was seriously interrupted by the Silver Crash of that year.The end result to this period of economic difficulty was consolidation in 1899 under one corporation,Denver City Tramway Company,with 156 miles of track.By the next year,the conversion to trolley with overhead wires,which had been started earlier,was completed for all track.The system was substantially complete,though track and routes continued to be added or extended. A second map of the streetcar lines (illustration 5) is from 1930.The importance of the Broadway and Colfax lines is clearly suggested by their length.The map indicates service on East Colfax all the way to Geneva Street,coming out of Downtown Denver on Fifteenth Street.Service on West Colfax ran only to Sheridan,coming out of Downtown and Intermountain Railroad.Denver City Tramway purchased this company,built as the Denver,Lakewood and Golden Railroad in 1890,in 1909 as an element of its emerging interurban system.The interurban line to Golden was located just south of Colfax,for the most part along 13th Avenue.(Colfax would be 15th Street.) Buses were introduced to the system in 1928 and grew in number over time,serving line extensions,new lines and as replacement for streetcars.Trackless trolleys,or trolley coaches as they were called,were introduced in 1940,allowing loading flexibility and the removal of street track.The end of the trolley era w as approaching,however,as patrons of the system opted for private automobiles for transportation to and from work.The last trolley run was early on a Sunday morning,June 4 1950.All tramway routes we re shifted thereafter to buses.The last electric interurban run was in 1955.In 1871, Denver City Railway operated the first street rail transit system in Denver. In 1885, Denver Tramway, a competitor line, laid the first rail lines on Colfax. The two companies merged as Denver City Tramway in 1899.

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38BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: Streetcar Map 1892 (Illustration 4)

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39EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN Streetcar Map 1930 (Illustration 5)

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40BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:The streetcars were a major force in determining the face of a growing urban area.No longer limited by by the distance from one's residence to work,people were quick to respond to developers'offerings along the trolley lines.Substantial houses were built near the lines,modest residences somewhat further aw ay Businesses were quick to disperse along and adjacent to the lines,with greater building density developing at rail interchanges.Two-story commercial structures were common,with apartments above first floor business enterprises.Neighborhood identity frequently came to be associated with business centers that were in turn related to the streetcar lines. Speculation was the heart of development,and many properties along rail lines and later,arterial streets, we re bought with the expectation of future resale profit based on increasing land value.To hold the land and pay the taxes many less-than-permanent structures were built and leased to businesses for the interim.Many of these temporary structures still stand as block-long,one-story storefront buildings, re fe rr ed to as taxpayer strips.Property development as a direct function of streetcar accesss is clearly apparent in construction periods in the late nineteenth century and in the early twentieth century before the advent of the automobile.Many buildings remain along Colfax from the streetcar era. Roads beyond the city limits at the turn of the twentieth century were almost wholly unpaved,and in periods of poor weather were frequently impassable.New demands for road and paving improvements came with the automobile.Automobile enthusiasts formed associations to press for better roads.First amongst these was the Lincoln Highway Association,organized in 1912 in Detroit.The Association brought together local clubs which pressured home states for improvements to roads joining major cities, and in some cases paid for paving with their own club funds.The Lincoln Highway Association designed and erected distinctive road sign markers to mark its routes.Other Highway Associations followed with their own routes and signs,notably the National Old Trails Association and the Victory Highway Association. F ederal support to the states and territories for public improvements had been a continuing debate in the early years of the republic as the western territories sought help in their development.Some roads did r esult with federal support.The National Road linking the Potomac to the Ohio,initiated in Jefferson's administration,was the most noteworthy of such.But with the advent of canals,then railroads,national attention to roads was dimmed,and road development and maintenance responsibilities were carried almost solely by town and country. In the same year as the formation of the Lincoln Highway Association,1912,the muscle of the nationalThe last trolley run on East Colfax was early on a Sunday morning, June 4 1950. By 1951 all transit routes were served by rubber-tired vehicles

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41EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANgo ve r nment in a small way was brought to bear on highway development with supporting funds to the states which resulted in 425 miles of improvements.It was the start of an increasing federal presence in transportation that continues today.Woodrow Wilson signed the Shackeford Good Roads Bill into law in 1916 providing an even match for state road building costs.In a linkage of efforts all states by 1917 had their own aid programs for road building and improvement,and by 1921 all states had state highway departments. In 1924 the American Association of State Highway Officials asked that the Bureau of Roads (then under the Secretary of Agriculture) appoint a joint board on interstate highways.The Board was duly appointed and recommended in 1925 the system we know today as the US numbered highways.East-west roads we re given even numbers;north-south roads were given odd numbers.Some roads were designated using elements of the association routes,others were new linkages. US 40 was marked from coast to coast with Denver in the middle.The road begins in Atlantic City and f ollows much of the National Old Trails Association Route to Kansas City.US 40 then crosses the plains to Denver,thence over Berthoud Pass to Kremmling where it picks up the Victory Highway route to San Fr ancisco.Near Salt Lake City,US 40 overlays some 100 miles of the Lincoln Highway.The names of earlier segments are caught up in a rich weave:Washington Road,Braddock's Road,Rederick Turnpike, Bank Road,The National Road,Zane's Trace,Boonslick Trail,Smoky Hill Trail,Berthoud's Road,Hastings Cut-off,the California Trail.US 40 was open to the public and fully marked in 1927. As the Denver region grew,Colfax Avenue,which had doubled as a designated county road as well as an Au ro ra city street,was extended farther and farther east.When US 40 was established on paper in 1925 and became a system reality in 1927,it was natural that this east-west trans-American highway would find Colfax to be the logical route at the foot of the Rocky Mountains.To keep pace with the growth of traffic,Colfax was widened to four lanes in 1938 and was widened again in 1950. In a pattern still common to American towns and cities,business services related to the auto and the tourist sprang up at the town edges where land was plentiful and less expensive for development.Aurora and Lakewood were the receptors of this growth in the Denver area.Aurora grew in importance as the first stop for crossing the eastern plains of Colorado.Lakewood served those coming down from the mountains.Business related to the automobile flourished (illustration 15).After World War II,with a r esurgence of prosperity after the long drought of the Depression,automobile tourism brought to Colfax Av enue a rich broth of motels and restaurants and other services for autos and travelers.Many of theseThe allure of the car gave rise to automobile associations like the Lincoln Highway Association, the National Old Trails Association and the Victory Highway Association that lobbied for the construction of better roads. (image from an early 1920s Colorado map) US 40 was one of the first transcontinental highways. An early map from 1913 (illustration 6) shows a proposed alignment as CentralŽ highway. US 40 did not become an official part of the US highway system until 1925. Until the construction of I-70, US 40 (Colfax in Denver) was the gateway to the Rocky Mountains (Illustration 7).

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42BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: Proposed National Highway System 1913 (Illustration 6)The highway illustrated as "2. Central" follows an alignment similar to what later became US Route 40,one of the first transcontinental highways.

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43EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANState Transportation Map 1951 (Illustration 7)In 1951, all roads to Denver converged on US Route 40 (Colfax in Denver).

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44BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:same enterprises served local needs as well. The height of tourism came in the 1950s as a complement to national prosperity and the American dream of an automobile vacation to the great western national parks.US 40 was the preferred route for many from east and west,and Colfax enterprises were the great providers of food and shelter for the nation passing through. The advent of the automobile and the need to accommodate the demands from its use changed the face of Colfax.Colfax was the east/west artery through the city,eventually designated US Highway 40. Mansions were replaced with car dealerships,auto repair shops,filling stations,and a wide variety of retail shops and stores to serve the increasing populace and the traveling public.Street widening projects were deemed necessary,and the famous Colfax Avenue shade trees and wide,gracious sidewalks began to disappear. In 1929,Denver's first Master Plan described East Colfax as "formerly a principal residential street,and now,in larger part,zoned for business and the primary artery through the Capitol Hill apartment district." Colfax served the surrounding neighborhoods through the 1920's and 1930's with grand movie houses, r etail stores and services.1924 saw the opening of East High School with its 162-foot clock tower, Sullivan Gate and the Esplanade. The Second World War brought a new face to the street as military men from Lowry Air Force Base and F itzsimons Army Hospital used Colfax as their access to the excitement and entertainment of downtown Denver.The entire city had prospered with World War II and the post war boom.Colfax reflected the optimism and excitement of the late 1940's and early 1950's.The basic needs of the neighborhood were w ell served by bakeries,creameries,variety stores,drug stores,barbershops,beauty parlors,grocery stores, etc.Colfax merchants and the #15 streetcar served the needs of the many families who lived in the comfortable old neighborhoods along Colfax.The sidewalks were safe,where people met and greeted each while walking along the avenue.Older residents still talk about the strong sense of community and friendliness that existed then. The end of the 1950's saw the rapid decline of the street and the beginning of its'unsavory reputation. "Cruising the Fax"was the popular teen activity.Drive-in restaurants flourished.Once the home to upscale ready-to-wear shops,high end furniture stores and galleries,Colfax began to yield to a suburban strip appearance as sidewalk frontage businesses gave way to set-back stores with parking lots and curbIn the 1950s, Colfax began to develop an edgier reputation as teens started "Cruisin the Fax" with all of its neon and swank nightclubs. Construction of I-70 in the 1960s and 1970s, solidified this reputation with the decline of tourism on Colfax as motorists were diverted to the new interstate, bypassing the former gateway to the Rocky Mountains.

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45EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANcuts.In 1955,Denver's zoning efforts greatly impacted Colfax and it's immediate neighborhoods.The commercial strip itself was zoned B-4 with few restrictions on development.The area north of the Colfax strip was zoned R-4 for high density housing and multiple business usages,while the area south was zoned R-3 spurring the construction of new apartment buildings and conversion of single-family homes to apartments. In the 1960s,with the development of US 6 to the south of Colfax and Interstate 70 to the north,the high era of tourism on Colfax was over,and businesses had to make a painful adjustment to different markets and different functions. The 1960's and 70's brought hippies,beatniks,second hand stores,"adult bookstores,"and "GoGo"bars to the street.Low rents,communes,and a laisse-faire attitude by the city made Colfax the hangout for all kinds and sorts of life styles and radical attitudes.Playboy Magazine called Colfax "the longest,wickedest street"in America.Jack Kerouac wrote much of his On the Road,while living just off Colfax in an apartment at 1522 Lafayette,and seemed to set much of the tone for the street.Colfax was quickly justifying its reputation as the heart of Denver's porno and sleaze business.From Sid King's Crazy Horse Bar to the San Francisco Topless ShoeShine Parlor,East Colfax was the spot.The "urban renewal"trends during this time resulted in the razing of historic mansions to pave the way for franchised fast food outlets and non-profit social service businesses. The 1980's and 1990's saw a rise of citizen activism and historic preservation of the architectural and historic treasures of the neighborhood.Capitol Hill United Neighborhoods (CHUN),Colfax on the Hill (COTH),Colfax Business Improvement District (CBID),Wyman District Neighborhood Association, Uptown on the Hill Association,along with other concerned citizens have been responsible for the c hanges beginning to take hold along East Colfax.Residents and shop owners are justifiably proud that the street reflects a very unique "community of interest"made up of the broadest mixture of social, economic,racial,and sexual orientations to be found in the city. Men and women of vision and dedication founded Colfax Avenue and its surrounding neighborhoods. Colfax is called Denver's Main Street,its 26-mile length serve the entire metropolitan region.It is prophetic,that the original name given Colfax was Grand Avenue.By building upon the firm foundation of its pioneer heritage,and with the impetus of contemporary redevelopment efforts,Colfax will once a gain be grand.In the 1960s & 70s, East Colfax developed a reputation as a bohemian mecca. Playboy called it the longest, wickedest streetŽ in America. Jack Kerouac wrote much of the beatnik bible, On the Road, in an apartment at 1522 Lafayette, near the historic Alta Court (pictured below).

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46BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: I-70 6th Ave. Colfax Ave. 1949 Proposed Freeway System Denver Planning Office (Illustration 8)This early map from 1949 shows preliminary plans for the construction of a freeway system to serve Denver.

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47EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN1970 Road Map Showing Completed I-70 and Route 6 (Illustration 9)Completion of interstate 70 and highway 6, signaled a dramatic shift for Colfax Avenue. No longer serving as the primary gatew ay to the Rocky Mountains, many of the motor tourist businesses waned, and Colfax entered a period of decline and disinvestment.

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48BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:BibliographyCapitol Hill Cheesman Park Neighborhood Plan Planning and Community Development Office City and County of Denver J une 28,1993 Colorado the Centennial State ,P ercy Fritz Prentice-Hall 1941 Colfax Cathedral Historic District:An Application for Landmark Designation Nancy L.Widmann 2001 Denver Streets Phil Goodstein Denver New Social Publications 1994 Denver The City Beautiful Thomas Noel and Barbara Norgren Historic Denver 1987 T he Ghosts of Denver:Capitol Hill Phil Goodstein Denver New Social Publications 1996 Colfax Corridor Historical and Transportation Joint Study ,P r epared by the cities of Denver,Lakewood,Aurora 1997 Wo r ld Book Encyclopedia Field Enterprises 1967 Special thanks to Jim Peiker who contributed this narrative history.Bourbon Square, site of the former Sid Kings Crazy Horse Bar, is a thriving mixed-use office over retail space in the Upper Colfax Historic Business District. F or more information on the history of the development and importance of Route 40 in American history, visit the following website: www.route40.net

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49EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANPOPULATION, HOUSING AND ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICSEconomic and demographic characteristics in the market are indicators of overall trends and economic health which may affect private and public sector development.Since central city neighborhoods r epresent a sub-market within the trade area and region,and as such will likely provide a heightened level of support for future projects on the corridor,the analysis begins with an overview of the economic and demographic characteristics of the study area.The Economic Development section of the Framework Plan contains a discussion of supply and demand conditions (by land use) within the broader influence area (trade area).A map of these individual geographic areas is presented within the context of each discussion.Data SourceThis chapter reflects data collected from the 2000 Census block groups contiguous to the East Colfax corridor between Broadway and Colorado Boulevard.A total of 13 Census block groups constitute this area.The chapter organizes the information collected,where appropriate,around three segments of the corridor Broadway to Downing,Downing to York and York to Colorado.These boundaries correspond ro ughly to a variation in the general character of the corridor.Household CompositionThe majority of the population (61%) lives in non-family households as opposed to family households (32%) or group quarters (7%).A significant number of group homes for the elderly and transitional housing arrangements may be found in the area.Among these housing options along East Colfax are the senior apartments at Grant Street,assisted living facilities at Park Avenue and Warren Village on Gilpin near Cheesman Park.Warren Village offers housing to single parents and programs including day-care, educational attainment and workforce development training to help single parents become self-sufficient.Houshold Composition Non-family households: 2 or more individuals unrelated (by birth or marriage) living within the same housing unit. Denver Group Quarters Non-Family Households 0 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Broadway to Downing Downing to York York to Colorado F amily Households

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Please see Map Appendix (pg. 187) for a more detailed view of this map 50BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: 14 TH AVE 17 TH AVE 13 TH AVE16TH AVECOLFAX AVEYORK STVINE ST HIGH ST RACE STGILPIN STPEARL STGRANT STLOGAN STMONROE STCOLORADO BLVD JACKSON ST GARFIELD STJOSEPHINE STPARK AVEWILLIAMS ST GAYLORD STFRANKLIN STCLARKSON STHUMBOLDT STLAFAYETTE STCOOK STWASHINGTONADAMS STPENNSYLVANIASTEELE STOG DEN ST MADISON STELIZABETH STMARION STCLAYTON STCOLUMBINE STHARRISON STCORONA STSHERMAN STEMER SON STDOWNING STALBION STCITY PARK ESPLANADE 17TH AVE PKW YMILWAUKEE ST16TH AVESAINT PAUL ST16TH AVEOG DEN STDETR OIT STFI LLMORE STEMER SON STDOWNING STSTEELE STCOLFAX AVE Census Block Group map 1 Dot = 4 Persons East Colfax Study Area Boundar y Data Sources: 2000 Census (Block Level) map date: 04/26/04East Colfax Study Area Population by Census Block

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51EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANSex and Age of the PopulationThe composition of the population in the census block groups contiguous to the East Colfax corridor va ry widely from the overall population of Denver.This variation suggests the potential for very different market and lifestyle preferences of residents.Significantly,the population is predominantly male (56%). Of particular note in the Broadway to Downing segment of the corridor,the males comprise over 60% of the population.East Colfax is particularly weighted to young males in their twenties and thirties.The population of males in their forties and fifties is also greater here relative to the city as a whole.The area attracts young women in their twenties.The female population tapers off more dramatically with age than for males.The mix of age groups and sexes does not reflect the composition of Denver's overall population.There are 10% more males and 10% fewer females here on average relative to Denver. Compared to the city as a whole,children and teens make up a significantly smaller portion of the population.Females over age 40 and males over age 60 also fall beneath Denver's average population for these age groups.Household SizeThere are a total of 16,161 households in the Census block groups adjacent to the corridor.The average household size is 1.52,or 33% smaller than the average household size for the city (2.27).With the average household size 33% lower than the city as a whole and an abundance of apartments in the area, the corridor and its environs are home to many single individuals.Population and Housing DensityThe Census block groups of the East Colfax corridor are marked by a high degree of population and housing density.Population and housing densities are far greater here (72 people per acre) than in the city as a whole (5.7 people per acre).Housing density for this area averages 47 dwelling units per acre, while the city as a whole averages just 2.5 dwelling units per acre.The Census block groups adjacent to East Colfax (Broadway to Colorado) represent 239 acres or the equivalent of 0.24% of the land area of Denver.While constituting a fraction of a percent of Denver's land area,it contains 3.06% of the City's population and 4.5% of the City's total housing units.East Colfax Population by Sex & Age Relative to Citywide Composition Household Size P opulation Housing Density Denver Po pulation/Acre Dwelling Units/Ac 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Broadway to Downing Downing to York York to Colorado East Colfax Aver age 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Denver York to Colorado Broadway to Downing Downing to York Males F emales -100% DenverPe r cent Above Pe r cent Below+100%Sex<10Teens20s30s40s50s60s

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52BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:IncomeThe East Colfax area is attractive to young populations including urban professionals.While per capita income is comparable in this area,median household income falls below the Denver average due to the disparity in the average household size;where Denver is characterized by an average household size of 2.3,East Colfax households consist of 1.5 people on average.Per capita income ranges from a low of $21,416 to a high of $27,476.High-density group quarters may affect the low per capita income figures in the Broadway to Downing segment.Denver per capita income is $26,270.Adjusting for inflation, median household income for the East Colfax area ranges between $25,061 and $33,421,while for Denver it is $43,055.With distance from downtown,increasing median household income suggests gr eater economic stability in the neighborhoods between Downing and Colorado Boulevard adjacent to East Colfax.The density of dollars in this part of Denver is extremely high due to population (72 people per acre) and housing density (47 dwelling units per acre).Collective buying power in a compact, w alkable setting sets the stage for the development of successful mixed-use places.Owner vs.Renter OccupancyThe East Colfax area is characterized by rental occupied housing units.Despite this fact,stable, predominantly single family residential areas characterize the neighborhoods just off of the corridor,such as Congress Park and City Park South.Many formerly historic single-family homes have been converted to apartments and condominiums.The single-family character remains despite the increase in density from these conversions.Additionally,there are a number of high rise residences.Owner occupied units account for only 10-25% of the East Colfax housing,while for the city as a whole owner occupancy c haracterizes over 50% of all housing.Structure TypesResidences in structures of fewer than 20 units are the dominant type,particularly in the Census block gr oups further from downtown.The percent of residences in structure types characterized as low density (ranging in size from 1-4 units) are not as prevalent in the East Colfax area as in the city as a whole.There are significantly more medium density (ranging from 5-49 units per structure) housing options in the Broadway to Downing and York to Colorado segments of the corridor compared to Denver ov erall.Higher density housing (structures between 20 and 49 units and in excess of 50 units) is significantly more pervasive in the Broadway to Downing Census block groups of East Colfax than in Denver as a whole.Further from downtown,very high-density structure types (in excess of 50 units perP er Capita income Owner vs. renter occupancy Structure types 0 25% 50% 75% 100% 20 to 49 50 or More 10 to 19 5 to 9 1 to 4 Corridor T otal Broadway to Downing Downing to York York to Colorado Denver 0 25% 50% 75% 100% Broadway to Downing Downing to York York to Colorado Owner Renter Denver0 $5,000 $10,000 $15,000 $20,000 $25,000 $30,000Broadway to Downing Downing to York York to Colorado

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53EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN Citywide Mean = $169,537,252 2000 U.S(Density determined by degree of standard deviation from Citywide mean). Census--P83 A ggregate Income in 1999 Dollars for the Population 15+Density of Aggregate Inco me by Census Trac tSt andardDeviation = $120,941,163 Low Density Av erage Density Ab ove Average Density High Density Ex tr emely High Densit yDensity of Aggregate Income per Square Mile Relative to Citywide Mean Density of Dollars Map

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54BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:structure) reflect a composition that more closely resembles the general pattern for the city.Housing ValuesMedian housing values (Broadway to Downing $150,000,Downing to York $207,000,York to Colorado $203,000) along East Colfax are consistent with Denver ($175,000).It is significant that housing values increase with distance from downtown along East Colfax.This finding suggests two things.First,that there may be room to improve the available housing stock especially in the Census b lock groups closest to downtown with infill that adds to the existing stock.Second,the higher values in the neighborhoods farther from downtown indicate a more stable housing pattern,especially since these v alues are higher than average values for the city.According to the Denver Assessor's Office data,the average sale price for housing within 1/2 block of Colfax ($126,704) is 70% of the average sale price for housing outside of a 1/2 block distance from the corridor ($176,415).The presence of strong neighborhoods north and south of the corridor may bolster infill development on the corridor.Contract RentContract rent (Broadway to Downing $370-$642,Downing to York $407-$673 and York to Colorado $463-$691,all adjusted for inflation) falls below Denver averages ($448-$762) in all parts of East Colfax, e xcept for the lower quartile rates in the York to Colorado portion where rents start slightly higher than the city as a whole.Race and EthnicityEast Colfax population is primarily white/Caucasian.However,a quarter of the population represents a mix of races that includes Black/African Americans,American Indians/Alaska Natives,Asians,or other/multiple racial groups. P eople with Hispanic ethnicity comprise between 10% and 15% of the population in the Census block gr oups adjacent to Colfax.The Hispanic population of Denver approaches 30% of the whole.Housing value Contract rent Race Black/African American Other Race White American Indian/Alaska Native Multiple Races Asian Denver Lower Quartile Median Upper Quartile 0 $200 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 York to Colorado Broadway to Downing Downing to York Denver 0 $50,000 $100,000 $150,000 $200,000 $250,000 Broadway to Downing Downing to York York to Colorado

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55EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANASSESSMENT OF EXISTING CONDITIONSInfrastructureWa terW ater for residential and other private property uses is available from the mains in streets and alleys throughout the neighborhood,according to the Denver Water Department. The "City Ditch"runs thru the area and is 30 inches undergroundthrough this area.Within the East Colfax Corridor (Broadway to Colorado),it is in 14th Ave from Corona Street to Humboldt Street,then north in Humboldt Street to Colfax,then east in Colfax Ave from Humboldt Street to High Street and then north in High Street from Colfax to 17th Avenue.Denver Water may abandon this part of the City Ditch in 2004,subject to their finding and developing an alternative means to supply water to City Park.In development of a Storm Drainage Master Plan,Public Works will analyze this portion to use as a storm drain or underground detention to address drainage problems at Colfax and High (see Storm,below).Storm Sewers(Basin numbers 4600-01,0062-01,4500-02,4500-01,4500-04)The East Colfax Corridor area is included within the drainage watersheds currently being studied as part of the Storm Drainage Master Plan Update.It is important to note the following. There is a documented flooding problem in Colfax from Williams Street to High Street,primarily affecting businesses on the south side of Colfax. A major storm drain has been identified in the Storm Drainage Master Plan,which will alleviate f looding in accordance with the City's level of service;i.e.,the minor storm.Sanitary Sewers(Districts:Delgany and Eastside District 1)There are currently three projects in the E. Colfax Corridor Capital Improvement Program. There are two recent projects associated with the North Denver Sanitary Sewer Replacement.One is a sanitary sewer replacement in E.16th Avenue from Fillmore Street to Garfield Street,and south in GarfieldCity Ditch map

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56BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Street,from E.16th Avenue to Colfax AvenueThe second is also a sanitary sewer replacementin Garfield Street from Colfax Avenue to 12th Avenue,then east in 12th Avenue to Colorado Blvd.and continuing east in Hale Parkway. The third is a sanitary sewer lining project at 13th and Colorado Blvd.budgeted for 2007.Since this is a lining project there is no open cut or trenching.The project starts in the alley between Jackson Street and Harrison Street at 17th Avenue,goes south to Colfax,jogs 1/2 block to the west to Jackson St,then south in Jackson Street from Colfax to 14th Avenue,then east in 14th Avenue (1 block) to Harrison,then south in Harrison to 15th Avenue.Street MaintenanceThe streets in Denver are prioritized for maintenance using the City's Pavement Management Program, which allocates funding for resurfacing and seal coating based on a citywide assessment of street condition.Due to limited funds,not all streets in need of repair can be programmed in a single year.A significant backlog of work currently exists.Priority streets are ones that are used as bus routes,truck r outes or major arterials.Major arterials within the corridor include 14th and Colfax Avenues,Broadway, Lincoln Street,Park Avenue West,York and Josephine Streets,and Colorado Boulevard.Minor arterial/collector streets include Grant,Logan,Washington,Clarkson,Ogden,Corona,Downing,and Fr anklin Streets.Colfax Avenue is a state highway;repair and resurfacing is the responsibility of the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT).CDOT contracts with Denver for limited maintenance wo rk including snow removal and pothole patching. Other streets within the corridor function as local streets;most are in need of resurfacing,but funding is not in place to complete this work.Pothole repairs are completed on these streets on a cyclical basis to help keep them passable to traffic. An extensive alley resurfacing program is underway in the corridor to address the deteriorated condition of asphalt overlaying concrete alleys.Alleys were completed in 2003 between Broadway,Downing,14th, and Colfax,and between Colfax and 16th,Downing and Colorado;remaining areas will be completed in 2004 and 2005.Budgeted ProjectsThe Transportation Collaboration Group (TCG) map indicates several projects either starting or ending in 2003 including: Repaving Corona Street and Downing Street from Colfax Avenue to 10th Avenue.Drainage problem area on East Colfax in the vicinity of Williams and High streets Alley improvements MapgeneratedThursday,February19,2004-TheCityandCountyofDenvershallnotbeliablefordamagesofanykindarisingoutoftheuseofthisinforma tion.Theinformationisprovided"asis"withoutwarrantyofanykind,expressorimplied,including,butnot limitedto,thefitnessforaparticularuse.Thisisnotalegaldocument. EC olfaxAvenue:PotentialPonding-Parcels MapgeneratedThursday,April01,2004-TheCityandCountyofDenvershallnotbeliablefordamagesofanykindarisingoutoftheuseofthisinformatio n.Theinformationisprovided"asis"withoutwarrantyofanykind,expressorimplied,including,butnot limitedto,thefitnessforaparticularuse.Thisisnotalegaldocument.

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57EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN Curb ramp improvements from Colfax Avenue to 27th Street between Broadway and Downing Street and at 14th Avenue and Corona Street. Alley improvements (see above). Bond project streetscape improvements along Colfax Avenue from Downing to Franklin and J osephine to Esplanade.Land Use and Zoning InventoryZoning OverviewF ollowing are the significant zone districts along East Colfax:R-2Allows attached dwelling units,such as duplexes,rowhouses,or townhouses.Density is limited to 14.5 units per acre,heights are limited,and generous open space is required.Parts of South City Park east of Saint Paul Street are zoned R-2.R-3High density residential zone that permits high-rise residential buildings up to a 3:1 floor area r atio (FAR).Most of the area south of Colfax,as well as parts of South City Park,are zoned R-3.R-4High density residential and office district that permits high-rise residential and/or office buildings.A 4:1 FAR is permitted.This zoning is in use in City Park West east of Williams Street.R-4/OD-9Overlay District 9 limits building height to 35',and otherwise modifies the development standards of the R-4 zone,in effect creating a much lower density residential and office district.This overlay district is in place in City Park west between Park Avenue and Williams Street.R-4/OD-1Overlay District 1 places limitations on parking lots,restricts office uses somewhat unless accompanied by residential,and otherwise modifies the design and development standards of the R-4 district.This overlay district applies in North Capitol Hill between Park Avenue and the Pearl/Washington alley,as well as in Capitol Hill west of the Pearl/Pennsylvania alley.R-4-XHigh density residential zone that permits high-rise residential and/or office buildings as well as limited retail and institutional uses.A 5:1 FAR is possible.This zone is in North Capitol Hill w est of the Pearl/Washington alley and has been used recently at Colfax and Steele.B-4Business district that permits a wide variety of commercial uses,as well as some residential,Land Use Zoning Other H B-4 R-4-X R-4-OD1 R-4-OD9 R-4 R-3 R-2 Pa r king or Vacant Industrial or Utility School or Church Medical Office A uto-oriented Retail Restaurant or Entertainment Retail or Mixed-Use Hotel or Motel Residential Muti-Family Residential Single-Famil y

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Please see Map Appendix (pg. 187) for a more detailed view of this map 58BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: 14TH AVE 17TH AVE 13TH AVE16TH AVECOLFAX A V YORK STVINE ST HIGH ST RACE STGILPIN STPEARL STGRANT STLOGAN STMONROE STCOLORADO BLVD JACKSON ST GARFIELD STJOSEPHINE STPARK AVEWILLIAMS ST GAYLORD STFRANKLIN STCLARKSON STHUM BO LDT STLAFAYETTE STCOOK STW ASHINGTONADAMS STPENNSYLVANIASTEELE STOGDEN ST MADISON STELIZABETH STMA RION STCLAYTON STCOLUMBINE STHARRISON STCORONA STSHERMAN STEMERSON STDOWNING STALBION STCITY PARK ESPLANADE 17TH AVE PKW YM ILW AU K EE S T16TH AVESAIN T PAU L ST16TH AVEOG DEN STDETR O IT STFILLMORE STEM ER SO N S TDOWNING STSTEELE STCO LFAX AVE Existing zoning map Zone DistrictAcresB-1 B-2 B-4 B-A-2 B-A-3 H-1-A H-2 O-1 P-1 PUD R-2 R-3 R-4 R-4 OD1 R-4-OD9 R-4-X 2.47 2.61 85.33 1.95 0.86 25.47 9.49 10.51 5.02 1.63 23.65 150.51 18.62 33.76 10.60 18.36 Existing Zoning within Study Area Boundary Zoning O 1 P 1 PUD R 2 R 3 R 4 R 4 X B 1 B 2 B 4 B A 2 B A 3 H 1 A H 2Zoning is shown only within the study area boundary and is for illustrative purposes only. This is not a legal documentData Sources: Zoning Maps Community Planning and Development map date: 04/26/04East Colfax Study Area Boundary Overlay DistrictEast Colfax Study Area Zoning

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Please see Map Appendix (pg. 187) for a more detailed view of this map 59EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN 14TH AVE 17TH AVE 13TH AVE16TH AVECOLFAX A V YORK STVINE ST HIGH ST RACE STGILPIN STPEARL STGRANT STLOGAN STMONROE STCOLORADO BLVD JACKSON ST GARFIELD STJOSEPHINE STPARK AVEWILLIAMS ST GAYLORD STFRANKLIN STCLARKSON STHUM B OLDT STLAFAYETTE STCOOK STWASHINGTONADAMS STPENNSYLVANIASTEELE STOGDEN ST MADISON STELIZABETH STM ARION STCLAYTON STCOLUMBINE STHARRISON STCORONA STSHERMAN STEMERSON STDOWNING STALBION STCITY PARK ESPLANADE 17TH AVE PKW YM ILW AU K EE ST16TH AVESAIN T PAU L ST16TH AVEO G DEN STD ETR O IT STFILLMORE STEM ER SO N S TDOWNING STSTEELE STCOLFAX AVE Existing land use map UseAcresResidentialSingle family 63.9 Multi family 33.3 Hotel or motel 5.6CommercialRetail or MU 16.9 Restaurant/entertainment 12.6 Auto-oriented 6.7 Office 13.3 Medical 9.4 School or church 21.7 Industrial or utility 2.6 Parking or vacant 17.4Total 203.8Existing Land Use Single Family Residentia l Multi Family Residential Commercial Civic / Cultural / Schools Vacant / ParkingData Sources: Denver Assessors Parcel Database: April 2004 Community Planning and Development map date: 04/26/04East Colfax Study Area Existing Land Use

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60BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:institutional and industrial uses.Density is limited by a 2:1 FAR.This is used the length of the Colfax corridor.H-1-A & H-2Hospital districts.In addition to institutional uses,high-rise residential buildings are also permitted.The H-1-A district permits 3:1 FAR.Density in the H-2 district is limited by a maximum lot coverage and bulk plane,which is intended to produce an appropriate transition to residential areas.These districts are in place at the National Jewish and former Mercy hospital campuses.Urban Form and DesignAssets Stable and established residential neighborhoods immediately adjacent to the commercial development along Colfax with a stock of historically significant buildings Eclectic mix of architectural styles representing many construction eras Easy access to public transportation (less than two blocks away in most cases) Diverse mix of destination and neighborhood-serving land uses Proximity to the central business districtChallenges V isual clutter from uncontrolled signage (disorganized directional and regulatory signage,excessive billboards,overuse and poor maintenance of temporary signage) General feel of neglect due to poor building/site maintenance P oorly designed and maintained pedestrian way (poor articulation of pedestrian area,varying sidewalk width and design,cracked and uneven slabs,excessive curb cuts crossing pedestrian areas) Cluttered pedestrian area lacking consolidation of streetscape amenities and service components (erratic placement of telephone/utility poles,directional and regulatory signage,parking meters, street furniture,waste receptacles,newspaper racks and information kiosks) Inconsistent accessibility and ADA compliance not all streets have color enhanced curb ramps Disordered landscape amenities,poor maintenance and limited replacement of damaged trees Inconsistent transit amenities (lack of station area visibility,few bus turn outs,marginal andThe Rosenstock Building (restored and adaptively re-used as office, retail and residential space) in the Upper Colfax Historic Business District reflects the traditional development patterns of East Colfax. Low density and franchise architecture diminishes a sense of place and consumes valuable land area.

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61EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANinconsistent bus stops quality and type of benches,illumination and covered waiting areas) Inconsistent streetscape amenities,right-of-way width,street lighting,and transit components Disordered public parking (excessive curb cuts limit on-street parking areas,limited shared parking arrangements,inappropriately parked uses either too much or too little,lack of design to soften visual impacts of parking areas) P oor alley conditions (cracked pavement,refuse,graffiti) W eak street connectivity (significant presence of divider streets where street continuity is offset at Colfax) and alley configurations (alleys that lead to Colfax interrupt the pedestrian way and do not visibly separate commercial areas from residential areas by forming a boundary) Congested traffic and lack of access management (excessive curb cuts,lack of shared driveways for site access) Funding challenges for needed streetscape,transit,and structured parking improvements Real and perceived threats from criminal activity,particularly a reputation for prostitution,limited use of crime prevention through environmental design Limited visibility and inconsistent street address displays on buildings Inconsistent street lighting fixtures and pole types Sporadic and inconsistent placement of pedestrian lighting fixtures not clearly associated with a discernable pedestrian lighting district,not coordinated with ambient lighting from businesses,too gr eat a variety of fixture and pole types Excessive private lighting (gas station canopies,building exterior lighting,advertising displays, outdoor display and sales areas) creates glare and light pollutionBuilding Design and Historic PreservationAll or portions of Seven Historic Districts are included in the study area. The Civic Center Historic District P ennsylvania Street Historic District Swallow Hill Historic District Pa rk Av enue Historic District; W yman Historic DistrictSome new construction is out of character with traditonal development patterns and lacks strong architectural details. Limited right of way, street furniture, and poles constrain the pedestrian area.

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62BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: City Park Esplanade/East High School Historic District Snell Subdivision Historic District The Wyman district has the most structures located in the study area while the majority of buildings fronting Colfax in this district have been excluded from the district.In addition to these Historic Districts,there are twenty individually designated Denver Landmark Structures within the study area. Only five out of those twenty buildings address Colfax Avenue.Post WWII buildings have not been designated but many excellent examples of the architectural styles since the forties have a presence on Colfax. Colfax Avenue has a mix of many locally historically significant buildings,and Denver's construction boom periods are well represented in the fabric of the built environment.Some well-crafted buildings contain d ynamic and thriving retail,offices,or residential uses.Other historic resources are currently underutilized and/or poorly maintained.Great potential exists for many of these resources to enhance the nature of the corridor through adaptive reuse of the structures.Over the years as older buildings have been remodeled or replaced,the new structures often times have not maintained the level of detail in construction materials,orientation and design that the previous structures possessed.Many turn of the century structures have lost their original form to design additions that do not correlate with the original building aesthetics.Periods of ConstructionConstruction of buildings occurred primarily in three major periods.The initial period began in the mid 1880s and continued,with some ups and downs,until the early teens.This period was primarily r esidential,with some mixed uses and churches.The second period lasted from the late teens until the Great Depression.This interwar period was characterized by bungalow construction (in South City Park, f or example),the expansion of retail uses (including conversion of residential to retail) and the construction of landmark buildings (such as East High School).The postwar period peaked during the 1960s,and the expansion of auto-oriented retail uses,parking,restaurants,medical uses,offices,motels, and multi-family residential marked this era.There has been relatively little construction activity since 1980.The historic City Park Esplanade suffers from a lack of maintenance. P eriods of construction 0 25 50 75 100 188018901900191019201930194019501960197019801990 2000 Existing Structures by Year of Construction

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Please see Map Appendix (pg. 187) for a more detailed view of this map 63EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN 14TH AVE 17T H AVE 13TH AVE16TH AVECOLFAX A V YORK STVINE ST HIGH ST RACE STGILPIN STPEARL STGRANT STLOGAN STMONROE STCOLORA DO BLV D JACK SON S T GAR FIE LD STJOSEPHINE STPARK AVEWILLIAMS ST GAY LO RD STFRANK LIN STCLARK SON STHUMB OLDT STLAFAYE T TE STCOOK STWASH INGTONADAMS STPENNSYLV ANIASTEE LE STOGDE N ST MADI SON S TELIZ ABETH STMARION STCLAYTON STCOLUMBINE STHARRISON STCORO NA STSHERMAN STEMERSON STDOWNING STALBION STCITY PARK ESPLANAD E 17TH A VE PKWYMILWAUK EE ST16TH AVESAINT PAUL ST16TH AVEOGDE N STDETROIT STFILLMORE S TEMERSON STDOWNING STSTEE LE STCOLFAX AVE Legacies Map Built Before 1945 Built After 1945 Unknown or N/AData Sources: Assessors "Commercial" and "Residential" databases, April 2004 map date: 04/26/04East Colfax Study Are a Age of Structures

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64BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:T ransportation and CirculationStreet Function and TypeEast Colfax is the city's central core transportation route,providing access to neighborhoods east.From a transportation perspective the corridor consists of: Tw o one way couplets (13th/14th and 17th/18th Avenues) which serve higher volumes of faster moving vehicles; 16th Avenue Promenade which serves a calmer pedestrian and bicycle system;and, East Colfax,which must do all those things and provide the transit spine. East Colfax is a US Highway,state highway,main street,commercial street,residential street and political boundary line.Defining StreetsThe City and County of Denver uses two methods to identify streets.First,the more traditional street c lassification encompasses a street's design and the character of service it is intended to provide.This c lassification forms a hierarchy of streets ranging from those that are primarily for travel mobility (arterials) to those that are primarily for access to property (local streets).Second,Blueprint Denver adopted typologies to further define streets by relating them to the adjacent land use and their function f or pedestrians,bicyclists,and transit.These typologies acknowledge that the design of a street,its intersections,sidewalks,and transit stops should reflect the adjacent land uses since the type and intensity of the adjacent land use directly influences the level of use by other modes.By combining these two methods Denver has identified 13 different street types,four of which appear in the East Colfax Corridor study area.Local StreetsLocal streets provide direct access to adjacent properties and carry low volumes of traffic (less than 5,000 vehicles per day) with an origin or destination within the neighborhood.Local streets include all the north-south streets that cross Colfax in this corridor that are not listed as collectors or arterials below.Collector StreetsCollector Streets collect and distribute traffic between arterial and local streets within the community.Collectors typically carry up to 15,000 vehicles per day.Collectors in the corridor include: W ashington St.

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65EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN Clarkson St.ArterialsArterials permit rapid and relatively unimpeded traffic movement through the city.Arterials serve as a primary link between communities and major land use elements.Arterials typically carry up to 50,000 vehicles per day.T raffic Patterns and VolumeThough many of the traffic counts along East Colfax are up to 15 years old and for the purposes of this assessment have not been adjusted,two things are clear. Fi r st,East Colfax is a major thoroughfare.Moving east from downtown,the East Colfax traffic volumes fall from 40,000 vehicles per day at Grant St.to 30,000 vehicles per day at Colorado Blvd.Interestingly,when the morning and evening peak hours are examined,these hours only account for a small portion of the ov erall volume.This indicates that East Colfax Avenue carries a significant amount of non-peak traffic. More consistent traffic and more non-peak traffic are favorable indicators for transit. Second,East Colfax has several intersection nodes that serve extremely high transportation capacity. Considering the high volume of both the traffic counts and the transit boardings and alightings,a few key intersections along the corridor appear to have a critical mass of activity to spur and support significant transportation improvements.These nodes are evident at Broadway/Lincoln,Downing,York/Josephine, and Colorado.Mass TransitEast Colfax has been a transit corridor through several generations of transit technology.Currently,the R TD 15 and 15 Limited routes serve Colfax from Downtown to the eastern edges of Aurora.The daily r idership for these two routes is approximately 20,000,of which over 40% are trips within the study area. The corridor is RTD's most successful (besides the free 16th St.mall shuttle) and is ripe for a technology upgrade.The project team brought in several experts from Portland,Vancouver,Los Angeles and Boston to study both streetcar and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) as likely options for enhanced transit technology for the corridor.Specific statistics about current transit use on East Colfax follow.All information was r ecorded on weekdays.Pedestrian Access And SafetyEast Colfax has plenty of medium and small activity generators for pedestrians but the limited right-of-wayCommuting Patterns Bus stops on Colfax Total boardings and alightings at stops adjacent to Colfax from Broadway to Colorado Blvd. Route Northbound Boardings Northbound Alightings Southbound Boardings Southbound AlightingsBroadway/Lincoln Broadway/Lincoln Corona/Downing York/Josephine Colorado Colorado 0 0L 12 24 32 40 DD 61 32 112 30 475 3 1,761 1,136 25 73 95 39 652 16 3,188 1,271 150 105 126 52 735 16 3,674 37 9 103 49 334 4 1,426Bus Routes Crossing East Colfax Alternative Mode Carpooled Drove Alone 0 25% 50% 75% 100% Denver York to Colorado Broadway to Downing Downing to York

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66BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: StreetDateDirectionCross SteetAM Peak HourPM Peak HourSource: Denvergov.orgDaily TotalColfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colorado Colorado York Grant Washington Corona Downing Park Ave W Franklin Franklin Garfield Garfield Jun 91 Jun 00 Sep 94 Jan 92 Feb 95 Jun 90 May 98 Jun 00 Apr 91 Jun 90 Jun 91 May 98 Sep 94 Jan 92 Feb 95 Oct 88 Jan 92 Jan 92 Apr 99 Sep 98 Sep 96 Sep 96 Jun 98 Jun 90 Jun 90 Jun 90 Feb 95 Feb 95 East East East East East East East West West West West West West West West East & West North South South South South South North South North South South North Pennsylvania Grant Lincoln Colorado Garfield Franklin Emerson Grant Broadway Franklin Pennsylvania Emerson Lincoln Colorado Garfield Downing Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax Colfax 1013 932 958 903 755 411 806 2131 1220 1178 1075 1187 1132 1189 1114 2426 2010 982 809 413 337 668 380 264 107 37 30 1204 1070 999 1180 1006 929 897 1102 1062 1114 1101 1135 1300 1052 1032 2608 2197 1303 1865 1196 821 389 659 154 209 52 36 15372 14646 14099 13404 12413 11666 11551 20057 18120 16903 16702 16642 16438 14952 14348 26769 30969 26702 14344 12423 8108 5864 5546 5116 2201 1781 461 329Traffic Volume Table T raffic Patterns & Volumes

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Bus stops on ColfaxRoute Boardings Eastbound Boardings Westbound Alightings Eastbound Alightings WestboundRTD data collected 08/08/01 and 08/14/01Total boardings and alightings on Colfax from Broadway to Colorado Broadway Sherman Grant Logan Pennsylvania Pearl Washington Clarkson Ogden Downing Franklin (Park Ave) High Vine Josephine Elizabeth Detroit Fillmore St. Paul Cook Garfield Colorado total 15 15L total 15 15L total 15 15L 15 15 15 15 15 15 total 15 15L 15 15 15 total 15 15L 15 15 15 15 15 15 total 15 15L 2219 1269 950 240 110 130 15 0 15 125 0 171 0 180 108 483 197 286 140 145 84 427 161 266 30 0 47 0 45 33 730 290 440 5222 81 73 8 0 0 0 41 41 0 0 148 0 172 0 82 405 240 165 266 313 122 557 258 299 0 141 0 156 107 91 823 525 298 3505 45 32 13 62 34 28 195 0 195 123 0 188 0 116 107 38 181 207 319 307 87 508 266 242 78 0 138 0 140 81 860 511 349 3742 2812 1427 1385 0 0 0 135 135 0 0 142 0 170 0 67 493 187 306 95 165 100 348 99 249 0 66 0 46 41 31 683 247 436 5394East Colfax Bus Routes Table 67EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANT able of Bus Routes

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68BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:has succumbed more to the needs of vehicles than pedestrians.Two critical locations are at Broadway and Colorado which have been among the city's ten worst intersections for pedestrian accidents.Bike RoutesThe 16th Avenue Promenade bike lanes one block north of Colfax provide a more pleasant environment to through cyclists.Bike routes D-11 (Franklin St.) and D13 (Steele St.) also cross Colfax.ParkingColfax has on-street parking from Grant to Colorado,which is metered from Grant to Franklin.Almost all cross streets also have on-street parking.

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69EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANPLAN VISIONWhenever and wherever societies have flourished and prospered rather than stagnated and decayed, creative and workable cities have been at the core of the phenomenon . Decaying cities, declining economies and mounting social troubles travel together. The combination is not coincidental.Ž Jane Jacobs

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70BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:At the outset of the planning process,the stakeholders analyzed the strengths,weaknesses,opportunities and threats to the Colfax corridor.Using this assessment the stakeholders prepared ideal visions for the look,feel and function of East Colfax in twenty years.City staff melded these visions into a cohesive statement that the stakeholders then approved.The group created two versions,a condensed statement (below) that more succinctly summarized a longer,more prescriptive vision (see Appendix).V ision StatementColfax Avenue in 2020 will be a multi-modal,commercial and residential "Main Street"that complements and sustains the nearby neighborhoods and encourages walking,biking and transit use.The corridor teems with activity on the street and captures the attention of commuters and visitors. Multi-storied,mixed-use buildings with active ground floor uses characterize development nodes at the intersection of major transit routes along the corridor. Tr ansportation components include a uniquely Colfax form of enhanced transit,structured parking at development nodes,on-street parking throughout,enticing pedestrian amenities,and plentiful bike racks. Housing density on the corridor supports transit and sustainable urban growth. Urban design integrates an eclectic mix of architectural forms and sustainable building materials which respect the surrounding historic architecture. Signage is simple and clear. Lighting and landscaping reinforce the street building line,enhance building facades as architectural f eatures,and promote a pedestrian oriented environment. Significant structures have been preserved and adaptively reused. Colfax welcomes and embraces neighborhood diversity that encompasses a wide variety of ages, lifestyles,economic circumstances,ethnic groups and family types.Colfax exemplifies the best of what a city can offer:a vibrant,hip,and progressive urban avenue.East Colfax present East Colfax future

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71EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN East Colfax Transformation Existing Conditions Inefficient use of land near downtown No defined street wall Unpleasant pedestrian environment V isual clutterAdd Mixed Use on One Corner Beginning to define street wall Reduction of visual clutter More efficient and economically sound use of land Sound barrier between corridor and interior neighborhoodMulti-modal Street Improvements Street trees soften the urban environment P edestrian areas are clearly delineated Consistent & functional traffic signals & lighting Improvements begin to attract more pedestriansAdditional Infill & Building Remodel Preservation & infill promotes strong architecture Efficient land use pattern provides more housing options More residents promote a viable business climate Improvements move more people through the corridor,not just cars

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72BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: 13TH14TH13T H 16THCOLFAXVINEYORKHIGH RACEGILPINPEARLPARKGRANTLO GANCOLORADOMONROEJACKSON GARFIELDJOSEPHINEWILLIAMS GAYLORDFRANKLINCLARKSONHUM BO LDTLAFAYETTEW AS H ING TO NPENNSYLVANIAM ARIO NELIZABETHCORONACLAYTONCOLUMBINE SHERMANDOWNINGALBION17TH AVECOOKHARRISONMARION16THDOWNINGMADISON16THD ETR O ITCITY PARK ESPLANADEE M ER S ON SAIN T PAU L M ILW AU KEEOG DENADAMSFILLMORESTEELE Blueprint Denver Plan Map Excerpt Designated Area of Change Downtown Mixed Use Urban Residential Single Family Residential Pedestrian Shopping District Campus Entertainment, Cultural, Exhibition Parkmap date: 04/26/04 East Colfax Study Area BoundaryEast Colfax Study Area Blueprint Denver Land Use

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73EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANFRAMEWORK PLANLAND USE URBAN FORM AND HISTORIC PRESERVATION TRANSPORTATION P ARKING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTObserve always that everything is the result of change, and get used to thinking that there is nothing Nature loves so well as to change existing forms and make new ones of them.Ž Marcus Aurelius

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74BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:This chapter prescribes a framework for understanding the organization of the corridor and the ov erriding issues faced by all of the subareas.Several elements comprise the study area,a commercial arterial corridor,as well as portions of six statistical neighborhoods and seven historic landmark districts. Downtown Denver,Civic Center,Park Hill and Hale correspondingly form the east and west boundaries. Tw o major parks lie just south and north of the study area,Cheesman Park and City Park. The Colfax corridor provides an important circulation function in the city,and serves as a gateway to Downtown Denver,the mountains and the plains.Colfax Avenue connects to I-70 on its eastern and w estern ends.Also known asUS 40,it links the communities of Denver,Lakewood and Aurora with numerous destinations including Fitzsimons,Aurora Town Center,Lowry and Stapleton,National Jewish Medical Campus,the Bluebird Theatre,East High School,Lowenstein Theatre,Ogden Theatre,Filmore Theatre,Downtown Denver,Civic Center,Auraria Campus,Mile High Stadium,St.Anthony's Hospital,the F ederal Center,Colorado Mills and ultimately connects to Red Rocks Amphitheatre.As one of the most heavily trafficked transit corridors,Colfax has the potential to improve its Main Street function in select segments with enhanced transit technology,dense residential development and expansion of commercial amenities that serve residents and commuters. City staff facilitated three land use workshops where the Plan stakeholders and the general public identified development opportunities,edge conflict areas,important historic resources,station areas and districts along the corridor with distinct identity.Each workshop produced an uncommon degree of consensus between the stakeholders and public participants.A land use concept map resulted that synthesized the ideas from the workshops.The land use concept map articulates a vision of mixed-use stretches along the corridor punctuated by significant transit station areas and surrounded by high, medium and low density residential areas.Low density commercial uses are not the highest and best use of land near downtown and transit. Such sites are ideal for redevelopment consistent with this plans vision.

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Please see Map Appendix (pg. 187) for a more detailed view of this map 75EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN 14TH AVE 17TH AVE 13TH AVE16TH AVECOLFAX AV E YORK STVINE ST HIGH ST RACE STGILPIN STPEARL STGRANT STLO GAN STMONROE STCOLORADO BLVD JACKSON ST GARFIELD STJOSEPHINE STPARK AVEWILLIAMS ST GAYLORD STFRANKLIN STCLARKSON STHUM BO LDT STLAFAYETTE STCOOK STWASHINGTONADAMS STPENNSYLVANIASTEELE STOGDEN ST MADISON STELIZABETH STM ARIO N STCLAYTON STCOLUMBINE STHARRISON STCORONA STSHERMAN STEMERSON STDOWNING STALBION STCITY PARK ESPLANADE 17TH AVE PKW YM ILW AUKEE ST16TH AVESAIN T PAUL ST16TH AVEOG DEN STDETR O IT S TFILLMORE STEM ER SO N STDOWNING STSTEELE STC O L O R A D O C O L O R A D OCOLFAX COLFAX Future Land Use Concept Map TOD Mixed Use En tertainment, Civic, Cultural High Density Residential Medium Density Residential Low Dens ity ResidentialData Sources: Denver Assessors Parcel Database: April 2004 Community Planning and Development map date: 04/26/04East Colfax Study Area Future Land Use Concept Map

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76BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:LAND USEPrimary Issues and Opportunities East Colfax has historically been a high volume transportation corridor that offers opportunity for increased density,diversity of uses and enhanced transit use. Redevelopment has started to occur,but there is no corridor specific land use and transportation plan in place to guide future corridor development. V acant land,underutilized properties,inconsistent building edge,low density commercial uses (with e xcessive curb cuts) and alleys (which lead to Colfax) interrupt the cohesive business environment. Business impacts may be incompatible with adjacent residences. Businesses in or adjacent to residential areas may desire to expand. The residential to commercial edge is abrupt,there is little room to create smooth transitions or provide significant buffers between differing and/or incompatible uses. Blueprint Denver designated Colfax between Grant and Colorado as a pedestrian shopping corridor.'Parts of Colfax may be more appropriately designated transit-oriented development (TOD),mixed-use,commercial corridor or another land use type.There may be opportunity sites that should be included in the East Colfax (West of Colorado) Area of Change. B-4 is Denver's general business district.'Traditionally,this has meant that any type of retail,service, and consumer repair or office establishment is permitted.Many residential,public,and amusement/recreation uses are also permitted.In addition,B-4 permits some industrial uses, including wholesale sales,warehousing,and a limited range of fabrication and assembly uses.The e xternal effects of some high-impact retail uses on adjacent residential property could be addressed through design guidelines and landscaping and buffering requirements.Limitations and buffering r equirements for industrial uses are generally less restrictive than in the I-0 (light industrial) zone district.F AR as built by zone district F AR as built by land use F AR as permitted 0 0.511.522.533.544.55Commercial corridor Colfax existingP edestrian shopping corridorMixed-useTOD B-4CMU-10H-1-A R-3 R-4 R-4-XTMU-30 0 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00Residential Single-Family Residential Multi-Family Hotel or Motel Mixed-use Retail Restaurant or Entertainment Au to-oriented Retail Office Medical School or Church Industrial or Utility 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5R-2 R-3 R-4 R-4-OD9 R-4-OD1 R-4-X B-4 H

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77EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN East Colfax Land Development Problems and SolutionsT ypical Problems Illegal land use created by a tax lot split without proper rezoning (outlined in red) Shallow commercial area limits potential density (shaded in blue) Significant land area consumed by surface parking (unshaded area within red outline) Historic properties threatened by commercial e xpansion (shaded in green) Alley dissects block and consumes land area (shaded in yellow)P otential Solutions Zoning boundary changes bring land uses into compliance and encourage redevelopment (shaded in purple) Improved regulatory tools encourage infill development (outlined in light blue) & structured parking (outlined in purple) Preserved & adaptively reused buildings form a transition from corridor to neighborhood (shaded in green) Reconfigured alley eliminates curb cut on Colfax, frees land for development and forms a boundary between corridor and neighborhood (shaded in y ellow)

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78BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Shortcomings in the B-4 Zone DistrictResidential usesB-4 does not permit several residential uses that are permitted in the adjacent R-3,R-4 districts or in RMU districts;for example:artist studio,live work,consular residence,nursing home/hospice,monastery, fraternity/sorority house.External effects of certain retailB-4 allows without limitations some retail uses that have external effects which are limited by hours of operation or require screening /buffering in the B-2,B-3,B-8-A/G or I-O districts;for example:eating place, animal sales and service,communications service including transmitter,commercial service and repair, other special retail uses such as LP gas and outdoor tombstone sales.Institutional usesB-4 allows without limitations some institutional uses that are limited in terms of hours of operation or buffering requirements in other districts;for example:ambulance service,medical laboratory,mortuary, conference center,outdoor recreation,vocational school.In addition,some uses are permitted in lowerintensity districts but not in B-4;for example:park and fire station.Auto-oriented usesB-4 allows without limitations some auto-oriented retail and industrial uses that have external effects which are limited in terms of hours of operation or screening/buffering in the B-2,B-3,B-8-A/G or I-O districts;for example:auto repair,gas station,car wash,parking,auto,large vehicle,and equipment sales lots.Industrial usesB-4 allows without limitations industrial and utility uses that have external effects which have limits on hours of operation or screening/buffering requirements in the B-8-A/G or I-O districts;for example:special trade contractor,printing and publishing,manufacturing,fabrication and assembly,wholesale trade, wa r ehousing,and vehicle storage. Pa r cel depth along East Colfax varies considerably out of 194 commercial parcels adjacent to the corridor,19 parcels (10%) are under 50' deep,86 parcels (44%) are under 100' deep,56 parcels (29%) are between 100' 150' deep and 33 parcels (17%) are over 150' deep.Increasing parcel depth wouldB-4 allows auto-oriented uses with no screening or buffering requirements to limit external impacts.

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79EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANg enerally require rezoning adjacent residential land to allow for commercial uses or parking.However,in g eneral,this is contrary to the Capitol Hill/Cheesman Park (1993) and Congress Park (1995) Plans,and to Blueprint Denver's designation of adjacent residential areas as Areas of Stability.The exception to this is the area north of Colfax and west of Franklin,which is designated an Area of Change.Blueprint Denver allows that small area planning may refine Area of Change and Stability boundaries in order to account for c hanging conditions or community support for development on opportunity sites that would facilitate desired growth such as infill or redevelopment on vacant and underutilized parcels. Development standards in the B-4 zone district fall short of furthering the Blueprint Denver vision of pedestrian-friendly uses and of compatibility between Areas of Change and Stability.There is no "build-to" line.Parking and drive-aisles are permitted between structures and the sidewalk.There are no front bulk plane requirements to allow sunlight on public spaces.No open space requirements exist for residential uses. F AR (Floor Area Ratio) is the ratio of the sum of all the usable square footage of all floors in the building to the total square footage of the lot.An FAR of 1:1 is typical of pedestrian-oriented shopping corridors, though higher FAR may be appropriate near downtown or in significant transit station areas or activity centers along a corridor.The existing average achieved FAR for the East Colfax corridor is low,0.7:1. Pa r king requirements limit the amount of FAR that can be achieved and constrained lot depths often prevent enough development to justify the cost of structured or subterranean parking.The highest FARs are for hospital,multi-family and mixed-uses,in the H,R4X,and the R4OD9 and R4OD1 zones.The lowest F ARs are for single-family residential,auto-oriented retail,franchise restaurants,and (appropriately) in the R-2 zone.Critical opportunity sites (especially at key intersections) have been lost to low density,auto-oriented uses.The current zoning creates challenges to the development model that is desirable for "Enhanced Tr ansportation Corridors"under the Blueprint Denver vision.The existing B-4 zoning allows inappropriate uses (for example,industrial land uses with little review adjacent to residential areas). Though it is an intense business zone district,its design and development standards do not encourage the mix of uses or degree of development appropriate for enhanced transit corridors.Shallow commercial lot depth,split lot zoning,limited assemblage potential,and certain regulatory requirements (especially f loor area ratio limits and parking requirements) in concert with prevailing market conditions (land prices,lease and sale rates,cost of development and land availability) constrain the development potentialB-4 zoning allows parking and drive aisles between structures and the sidewalk, falling far short of the Blueprint Denver vision for pedestrian oriented design. F ew parcels in the East Colfax study area exceed 50,000 SF. High density development on these sites can catalyze reinvestment along the corridor.

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80BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:f or mixed-use projects on the corridor.Working in tandem,these factors often result in a low density, single use commercial development pattern that lacks a residential component.This lowest common denominator pattern of development erodes the critical residential base that creates round the clock activity.The low-density,single-use,auto-oriented commercial product prevails as the most feasible under e xisting regulatory standards and overtime contributes to the depopulation of the East Colfax corridor.Goals Organize corridor growth to be dense,compact and transit supportive. Encourage the location of commercial,housing,employment,open space and civic uses within w alking distance of transit stops. Provide a mix of housing types (townhouse,rowhouse,duplex,multi-family,live work and artist studio),occupancy status (rental and ownership units),densities and costs (low-income,affordable and market rate). Encourage infill and redevelopment along East Colfax that complements historic resources along and near the corridor. Encourage mixed-use development with the greatest intensity focused to the corridor,and especially at transit station areas. Preserve and adaptively reuse historic resources in the study area. Create a contiguous street wall along the corridor comprised primarily of mixed-use buildings that r einforce a Main Street character with housing and/or offices over active ground floor uses such as civic operations,destination or neighborhood-serving retail and entertainment venues. Enhance and maintain the viability of high-density residential and commercial uses,especially where assemblages are contiguous to the corridor or where opportunities exist to restore a cohesive urban,mixed-use area on vacant or underutilized parcels. Manage business operations to avoid negative impacts from lighting,hours of operation,noise,drivein speakers,trash removal,deliveries,odors,etc. Promote a stable,safe,attractive,appropriately lighted (but not excessively lit) retail area with a mix of offices,neighborhood businesses,and destination uses within identifiable districts.Goal: Promote dense, compact and transit supportive growth.

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81EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN Preserve services and housing for people living on low to no incomes.Provide human services in appropriate locations and protect the health,safety and welfare of all community members.Recommendations Support infill development of retail,office and residential uses.Consider the complementary nature of a project in the context of surrounding or nearby uses.Encourage both horizontal and vertical mixed use.Mixed-use projects,with commercial or public uses on the ground floor and residential (including low-income,affordable housing and market rate) and/or office on the upper levels,are especially appropriate.Minimize construction projects with extremely low site coverage ratios. Discourage low density,single use development with excessive parking. Develop new zoning tools that provide appropriate design and development standards consistent with a pedestrian friendly,mixed-use transit corridor.Encourage creative building standards that afford development flexibility,attract new commercial development,promote neighborhood serving "Mom & Pop"businesses and support adaptive reuse of historic resources.Consider parking r eductions for uses with low parking demand (such as boutique retail under 5,000 SF).Provide incentives (such as FAR credits and or parking reductions) for assemblages that incorporate and r euse historic structures. Develop tools to adequately address the transition between the corridor and the neighborhood:To ensure neighborhood stability,stratify the commercial uses that may extend from the corridor into the neighborhood so that only those uses with positive impacts on residential character (such as small scale,neighborhood serving,walk-up traffic generators) seep into the neighborhoods.To the greatest extent possible focus both structural and use intensity to the commercial corridor and away from residential areas.Incorporate design and development standards to address solar access and privacy protection, such as bulk plane,building orientation and roof forms.Develop urban models for franchise architecture like this missed opportunity for a Blockbuster video store. Create seamless transitions between the neighborhood and the corridor, like this transit supportive, urban residential infill project that respects traditional development patterns next to the historic Leetonia Building (Colfax at Vine).

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82BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:URBAN FORM AND HISTORIC PRESERVATIONPrimary Issues and OpportunitiesUrban Design The historic development patterns of Colfax include buildings that come up to the street with ample storefront windows and pedestrian entrances onto the street.This development pattern creates a pedestrian friendly environment that complements a multi-modal transportation system. Much of the recent development along Colfax is auto-oriented and does not respect this traditional pattern. New auto oriented land uses conflict with the desire for an inviting and safe pedestrian realm. The east-west orientation of Colfax results in a pattern where the short end of the block fronts on to the corridor.Narrow parcels create redevelopment challenges. Colfax lacks consistent and organized streetscape improvements with uniform standards for street trees,street furniture (benches,kiosks,etc.),bus shelters,lighting (fixture types,lighting levels), directional and wayfinding signage and sidewalk paving standards. V isual clutter,especially excessive commercial signage degrades the aesthetics of the corridor. Alleys bisect many of the blocks facing Colfax creating challenges for redevelopment while also eliminating the opportunity for a boundary between commercial and residential parcels.Historic Preservation There are numerous historic sites along Colfax.There is an especially rich stock of buildings built prior to 1945 in the study area that potentially could benefit from the economic incentives associated with historic designation.Rehabilitation and reuse of these structures would contribute to the neighborhood character and attract the business of commuters and visitors seeking destination commercial venues.In a poorly defined pedestrian area driveways, roadway and sidewalk are virtually indistinguishable from each other. Streetscape improvements including street trees, trash receptacles, screening walls (for parking areas and drive aisles), paving techniques and transit stop upgrades define and create an inviting pedestrian area.

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83EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN Infill development along East Colfax,especially projects that may be adjacent to historic residential r esources needs to be context sensitive.Good design can reduce the apparent size of new construction,and allow new buildings to fit in with smaller buildings.GoalsUrban Design Ensure that future development on Colfax encourages pedestrian activity by continuing the traditional development patterns found on Colfax including:buildings at the street edge,ample f aade transparencies (windows) and street facing pedestrian entrances. Develop a uniform streetscape along Colfax that clearly defines the pedestrian space,and includes consistent lighting,street furniture,sidewalk paving and landscaping standards.Unify basic streetscape infrastructure,but allow additional elements that demarcate districts along the corridor. Encourage the use of signage appropriate to the context of Colfax.This may include both pedestrian scale and auto oriented signage that recalls the historic character of Colfax which includes the use of projecting signs and neon. Promote a gradual transition between different types of uses to create visual continuity between proposed and existing development,especially between commercial and residential land uses. Promote the functional and visual compatibility between adjacent neighborhoods and differing types of land uses.Deliberately use building and site design features to form a transition between the corridor and the neighborhood,as well as compatibly integrate or disguise uses that otherwise w ould have significant external effects on the surrounding environment.Historic PreservationLink the development of the neighborhood and community with building designs that use references to natural,historical,traditional and/or cultural context.Restore,reuse and maintain historic resources,and capitalize on the economic development benefits of historic preservation (tax incentives,branding, r estoration grants).Before After Minor faade improvements enhance the appearance of commercial areas.

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84BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:RecommendationsUrban Design Develop context sensitive zoning that incorporates design standards that encourage pedestrian oriented development. Encourage a variation in architectural forms and materials where appropriate,but ensure compatibility of architectural features (massing,scale).Preserve solar access to adjacent properties and protect residential privacy.Create an architectural diversity that fosters an eclectic urban atmosphere,yet reflects and blends elements of the historic corridor with adjacent neighborhoods. Develop a streetscape plan for Colfax with uniform standards for appropriate street trees,tree grate design,street furniture,lighting (fixtures and types) and signage (directional and way finding). Control signage (private commercial,regulatory and directional) and promote creative guidelines that contribute to visual aesthetics of the corridor,reintroduce artful neon design,aid building and use identification,promote safety and express the Colfax brand image.Signage should be complementary to the architecture of the corridor and should aid in the way finding needs of visitors to the corridor. Consider alley vacations to create linear assemblage along the corridor and to form natural boundaries between residential and commercial properties.Where an existing alley terminates in a "T"or an "L"configuration between the commercial on the corridor and adjacent residential uses, the alley configuration should be retained.Any future zoning changes should be constrained by these existing physical boundaries,unless it may be clearly demonstrated that an alley vacation w ould not have negative impacts on adjacent residential uses.For example,a new alley alignment w ould be acceptable if it allows a vacant parcel to be incorporated into an assemblage that is contiguous to the corridor and resultant development would fill a gap in the urban neighborhood fabr ic. (see graphic on page 91 for clarification)Historic Preservation Pursue landmark designation for Colfax similar to the Downtown Denver Historic District that allows owners of historic resources to leverage economic incentives for preservation,without r estricting the development potential of adjacent properties. Interpret the history of Colfax/US 40 in the streetscape design elements.Refer to the ColfaxBefore After Trees in grates transitioning to tree lawns help distinguish residential areas from commercial areas. Additional improvements (including appropriate lighting on commercial buildings as well as parking lot landscaping and screening walls) mitigate some of the external effects of commercial development.

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85EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANHistorical and Transportation Joint Study and the US 40 Heritage Corridor Plan for interpretive elements for the corridor.Interpretive elements will form the basis of a public art program for the corridor.Work with the Mayor's Office of Art,Culture a Film to establish a public art program f or the corridor.Design StandardsThe overall vision of Colfax as a mixed-use pedestrian and transit friendly avenue should be promoted through the use of zoning language that incorporates easily administered formed based zoning concepts. This would include the use of design standards that are based on the underlying patterns and proportions of Colfax and should encourage new development to respect these characteristics.Design standards should not prohibit architectural creativity but should be viewed as the foundation on which to design architectural forms,which challenge the senses,spark debate,draw visitors and create future landmarks. New zoning language for Colfax should be based on objectives identified in this plan including maintaining a (1) main street character (2) providing a transit pedestrian orientation (promoting the urban design character of the various sub-areas) and (4) ensuring a standard of design quality that is consistent with the overall vision for Colfax.New zoning language should incorporate the following Urban Design Principals:Site and Building Design 1.Continue Colfax's physical character,including mixed use development,and convenient access to transit. 2.Arrange residential,employment,retail,service,and open space uses to be convenient to and compatible with each other. 3.Create spatial definition of the street with buildings and landscaping to promote pedestrian activity. Orient buildings to the street so that they form a consistent street wall.Orient structures on corner lots to "hold the corner."Consider "build-to lines"defined by a line drawn parallel to the b lock face,along which a building should be built. 4.Minimize the visual impacts of parking areas,parking structures,and residential garages on streets, open spaces,and adjoining development.Billboards dwarf buildings and create visual clutter. Wall art can be an interesting and more effective alternative to billboards.

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86BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: Design parking and site access so that the impact on the pedestrian realm is minimized.Examples of this include locating parking at the rear of the site away from the street,utilizing the alley for site access and designing drive-through uses so that they do not conflict with the pedestrian r ealm. 5.Create buildings that provide human scale and interest through use of varied forms,materials, details,and colors while relating the size,dimension and symmetry of new construction to the proportions of adjacent buildings. Mass Relate the perceived form,quantity or aggregate volumes of new construction to the fo rm of historic patterns of commercial buildings on Colfax and/or residential structures north and south of the corridor.New construction should be compatible in scale,setback,and orientation with existing buildings exhibiting traditional development patterns. Scale Relate the intervals,rhythm and order of new construction to adjacent structures that re f lect traditional commercial development patterns. Spacing Relate the location of windows,doorways and other features,horizontal or vertical banding,caps,bases and central entries to adjacent structures that reflect traditional development patterns. T aller buildings are expected to step back to preserve pedestrian scale or compatibility with e xisting structures. 6.Provide architecturally finished and detailed elevations for all exposures of the building with the primary street facing facade,having appropriate architectural expression. Include human-scaled building elements and architectural variation,including form,detail, materials and colors to provide visual interest.Prominent and/or decorative parapets and cornices are appropriate.Use repeating patterns of color,texture,material or change in plane as integral parts of the building fabric,not superficially applied. Provide pedestrian active uses on the first floor of commercial and mixed-use buildings,directly accessible from public space.Use transparent clear glazed area that permits view of interior activities.Large expanses of blank wall are not appropriate for pedestrian oriented development. 7.Provide a primary building entrance facing or clearly visible from the public sidewalk. Clearly articulate the main entrance of buildings.The main entrance should be oriented to and level with the primary street.Secondary entrances may be provided from parking areas or side streets.Subordinate volumes, balconies, orientation of windows and doors, step backs and periodic relief in the wall plane of a faade are design treatments that can minimize the perceived mass of a structure.

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87EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN8.Use durable materials that complement Denver's tradition as a city of brick and masonry construction. Construct buildings of durable solid materials,such as brick,masonry,architectural metals, concrete,tile and glass block systems when properly finished and detailed. 9.Ensure that signs are compatible with and are an enhancement of the character of the surrounding district and adjacent buildings when considered in terms of scale,color,material,and lighting levels. Signs should be creative in the use of two and three dimension forms,profiles,and iconographic r epresentation while being constructed of high quality durable materials that are appropriate to an urban setting.Streetscape Design A uniform streetscape along Colfax would aid in the identification of a consistent image for the corridor while improving the physical appearance of the corridor.Streetscape standards should include the basic streetscape infrastructure,while identifying additional elements that demarcate the individual districts along the corridor. 1.Develop streetscape standards for the corridor that create a pedestrian friendly environment,including W ide sidewalks where space permits Street trees in grates with automatic irrigation systems Safe pedestrian and bicycle crossing points Street furniture such as benches and trash receptacles at high volume pedestrian areas Street and pedestrian lighting On-street parking,bike racks and bus stops 2.Transit Station Area Streetscape:Use streetscape elements at transit station areas that reinforce the area as a key transit transfer point or stop including: Distinct color and form,real time arrival/departure forecasting device,and visual media display Station area amenities clearly visible clock,newsstand,public pay phone,information booth/police substation,schedule postings Plaza area with adequate space to sit and rest while waiting for transit Distinctive wayfinding signage system that includes directions to destinations within a 1/4 to 1/2 mile walking distance of the station areaSimple streetscape elements can soften the hard urban environment, provide visual relief and a sense of design rhythm.Los Angeles uses special design features and brightly colored buses to better identify its rapid transit system.

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88BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: Existing Conditions: Low Density

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89EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANFuture Concept: Medium Density

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90BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: Future Concept: High Density

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EXISTING ALLEY CONFIGURATION Commercial mixed-use Residential Alley "T" ALLEY CONFIGURATION "L" ALLEY CONFIGURATION 91EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANAlley Configuration TypesAlleys that lead to Colfax (Figure 1): Reduce pedestrian safety and comfort with curb cuts that interrupt the sidewalk Increase potential for accidents and traffic congestion due to mid-block vehicle turning movements Limit the potential for linear property assemblage and development along the commercial corridorAlleys that terminate in "T" or "L" configurations (Figures 2 & 3): Provide access to parking areas Encourage linear assemblage and property development along the commercial corridor,rather than deep into the residential areas off of the corridor Create stronger boundaries between commercial and residential areas;the alley width acts as a buffer zone creating distance between residential and commercial development Improve the pedestrian environment and reduce mid-block vehicle turning movements on the corridor F igure 1 Existing F igure 2 Preferred F igure 3 Preferred

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92BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: 14TH AVE 17TH AVE 13TH AVE16TH AVECOLF AX AVEYORK STVINE ST HIGH ST RACE STGRANT STLOGAN STCOLORADO BLVD GARFIELD STJOSEPHINE STPARK AVEFRANKLIN STCLAR KSON ST COOK STW ASHINGTO NSTEELE STDETROIT STFILLMORE STCO R ONA STSHERMAN STEMERSON STDOWNING STCI TY PARK ESPLANADE 17TH AVE PKW YDOWNING STSAINT PAUL STO GDEN ST16TH AVE 16TH AVE T ransportation MapPlease see Map Appendix (pg. 187) for a more detailed view of this map All other streets are “Undesignated Local”Blueprint Denver Street Classifications Residential Collecto r Residential Arterial Mixed Use Arterial MainArterial Bus Stops / Ridership Volume* 108 200 201 300 301 500 501 1590*Ridership Volume = Combined Average Boardings and Exits per dayBike RoutesData Sources: RTD and Blueprint Denver map date: 04/26/04East Colfax Study Area Transportation Map

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93EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANTRANSPORTATION AND INFRASTRUCTUREPrimary Issues and Opportunities East Colfax carries in excess of 35,000 vehicles and 20,000 transit riders per day.The mode split for alternative transportation is among the highest in the region. According to research prepared for the Pedestrian Master Plan,East Colfax has a high frequency of v ehicle vs.pedestrian accident intersections (where four or more pedestrian-auto accidents were r eported to the Denver Police Department over the three-year period from 2000-2002). A number of elements interrupt the continuity of the pedestrian realm and create an inhospitable pedestrian environment including:V acant land,underutilized properties that create gaps in the urban fabricInconsistent building edgeLow density commercial uses (especially those with excessive curb cuts)A general lack of safe pedestrian crossingsAlleys (which lead to Colfax)Narrow sidewalksAn overabundace of obstructions in sidewalks (sign posts,parking meters,trash receptacles and the like)Excessive curb cuts that reduce safety,create conflicts with pedestrians,break the continuity of the streetscape and interrupt traffic flow Major transit station areas and transfer points are virtually indistinguishable from subordinate stops. Future development patterns should include unique designs and markers that distinguish important transit nodes within the context of the corridor. R TD's adopted corridor build out plan does not include rail or major transit investment on East Colfax.Based on analysis of existing and anticipated demand and numbers of destinations along and directly linked to the corridor,the transit vehicles and infrastructure warrant enhancement.Mobility options & accessibility are critical transportation functions on enhanced transit corridors, like Colfax. Most Dangerous Intersections for Pedestrians (ranked by highest frequency of vehicle collisions with pedestrians):1. Clarkson St. & Colfax 2. 20th St. & Blake 3. Alameda & Broadway 4. Broadway and Colfax 5. Colfax & Josephine 6. F ederal & Jewell 7. 1st Ave. & Federal 8. 20th Ave. & Federal 9. Alameda & Federal 10. Alameda & Tejon 11. Broadway & Evans 12. Colfax & Colorado 13. Colfax & Kalamath 14. Colfax & Raleigh 15. Colfax & Sherman 16. Evans & Federal 17. Evans & Monaco 18. Federal & Florida

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94BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Residential densities adjacent to the corridor indicate considerable latent demand that could be captured with an improved transit technology.Unlike other significant commuter streets in the City,East Colfax supports a consistently high level of usage,not just spikes during the rush hours. This type of "round the clock"usage also increases the efficiency of investments in enhanced transit v ehicles and infrastructure.From a market perspective,major transit investments function as assets that increase the corridor's customer base.Existing use,latent demand,"round the clock"demand and market benefits are all reasons for transit improvements. The one-way couplets north and south of the corridor (17th-18th and 13th-14th Avenues) entice some automobile commuter traffic away from East Colfax and alleviate some of the pressure to serve the peak hour demand of automobiles.The capacity constraints position East Colfax to best a bsorb the commuting demand of transit riders with an enhanced technology.It is better suited to handle additional transit capacity than additional automobiles. The segment of Colfax between Williams and High Streets floods frequently during large storm events.This has been confirmed in the Denver Storm Drainage Master Plan update.The "Thirty Fi rs t St.Outfall"project,which is included in the latest draft of the Master Plan,will upgrade drainage facilities in this watershed area and should reduce ponding on East Colfax.(It is currently an unprioritized $16.5 M need.) However,large storm events will continue to create flooding problems for properties on the south side of East Colfax between Williams and High Streets. Constrained sidewalk width limits site distances and perceived safety for pedestrians. The street contains few pedestrian amenities such as bulb outs that reduce street crossing distances or islands that provide pedestrian refuge areas. Drivers on Colfax experience frequent start and stop movements due to congestion. Overall traffic volume and movements create serious concerns for public health,safety and welfare. A number of schools lie in close proximity to the corridor.Consideration should be given to improving access to and from the corridor to area schools.Goals Upgrade the transit technology to a level suitable both to the existing,and latent,levels of demand and oriented to the land use development potential of the corridor. Restore a multi-modal "Main Street"character along Colfax consistent with Blueprint DenverTraveler, there is no path, paths are made by walking.Ž Antonio Machado East Colfax carries in excess of 20,000 transit riders per day.

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95EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANstandards. Create a pedestrian-friendly street network that directly links destinations along the corridor. Manage access and limit curb cuts along Colfax. Improve the safety of intersections and the public right-of-way along Colfax. Address infrastructure inadequacies.Recommendations Consider alley vacations,alley easements and new alley configurations ("T"and/or "L"alignments see page 91) along East Colfax where they would facilitate the recommended land uses.An alley v acation may be appropriate when:All property owners on both sides of the alley support the alley vacationThe owners would "L"the alley out to one of the named streets (Public Workstypically prefers an "L"with one curb cut instead of a "T"whichrequires two curb cuts because of the extra pedestrian and traffic interruption onusually lower volume side streets)New alley construction meets the standard dimensions depending on traffic conditions and location (such as in an Historic District)Ownerscome to agreement on how to relocateand pay any costs associated withrelocating buried and/or "poled"utilities accessed through the existing alleyOwners come to agreement on how to relocateand pay any costs associated withrelocatingstorm drainageThe owners "improve"(pave in concrete) the reconfigured alley,if the existing alley currently is unimprovedThe owners demonstrate that potential traffic numbers and impacts on adjacent land uses (in particular,residential) will not have a net negative effect Conduct a Roadway Safety Audit and recommend improvements to enhance pedestrian safety. Identify street corners where color-enhanced handicapped ramps have not been installed and upgrade these areas.Coordinate these upgrades within a reasonable timeframe with other planned infrastructure improvements. Consider ways to improve access between East Colfax and area schools in the design of new developments within 1,500 feet of schools.Major transit station areas are virtually indistinguishable from subordinate stops like this one near the City Park Esplanade.

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96BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: Encourage existing and new developments along East Colfax to participate in a Transit Demand Management (TDM) program. Coordinate with RTD,CDOT and Aurora to pursue additional study funding for the entire East Colfax transit corridor (downtown to I-225) to prepare new cross sections and implement significant transit upgrades. Before significant resurfacing or new transit elements are built into the right of way,consideration should be given to create better cross drainage from the south to the north side of East Colfax in the vicinity of Williams and High Streets (e.g.siphons,squash boxes or underground detention with use of the soon-to-be abandoned "City Ditch"). Corner and mid block bump-outs are encouraged to improve pedestrian comfort,help to clearly delineate pedestrian areas and provide visual relief along the corridor. Promote the corridor as a walkable environment with Active Living by Design standards and strategies for pedestrian infrastructure.Organize an Active Living by Design Committee to pursue gr ant funding,develop strategies and implement projects along East Colfax.Any town that doesnt have sidewalks doesnt love its children.Ž Margaret Mead Schools within walking distance of East Colfax:Wyman ElementaryT eller ElementaryGove Middle SchoolMorey Middle SchoolEmerson Street SchoolEmily Griffith Opportunity SchoolEast High School

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97EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANP ARKINGPrimary Issues and Opportunities Pa r king is discussed at length in the East Colfax Parking Study.Among the strategies identified are shared parking between uses which have different periods of peak demand,payment by developers of a fee in lieu of providing required parking (which is used by the city to build parking structures), lowered parking requirements for uses adjacent to transit,reduced parking requirements for uses that encourage other alternative transportation modes,maximum parking requirements,and allowing uses to provide required parking off site.Denver's mixed use districts allow reductions in parking requirements for proximity to transit and for shared parking.In addition,they have parking r equirements that are 50% lower for most retail uses than the requirements in the B-4 district. Pa r king is poorly distributed along the East Colfax corridor. The parking demands of the East Colfax corridor are greater than the available on and off-street parking. Excessive curb cuts consume valuable space for on-street parking.Businesses consistently need onstreet parking to serve their patrons. Some commercial uses found along East Colfax have parking requirements that are incompatible with the intensity of the use (providing either too much or too little parking).Many older commercial buildings do not provide sufficient parking for the grandfathered uses allowed therein. Conversely,many small to medium sized retail and commercial uses have parking requirements that make adaptive re-use or new development of sites too costly. Residential neighborhoods bordering Colfax are inundated day and night with spillover parking from commuter,retail,commercial and entertainment event parking demands. No direct correlation exists between the provision of parking and significant transit station areas along East Colfax despite evidence of commuter park and ride behavior where commuters driveT ypical block on East Colfax The automobile has not merely taken over the street, it has dissolved the living tissue of the city. Its appetite for space is absolutely insatiable; moving and parked, it devours urban land, leaving the buildings as mere islands of habitable space in a sea of dangerous and ugly traffic.Ž James Marston Fitch, New York Times, 1 May 1960

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98BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:c lose-in,parking for free on the neighborhood streets and ride the 15 transit line into downtown. Fe w if any shared parking arrangements supply parking efficiently to uses with differing periods of peak demand. Pa r king is generally poorly located and designed,and undermines the pedestrian environment.Goals Develop a Parking Masterplan along Colfax that improves both onand off-street parking areas. Minimize adverse impacts of spillover parking in neighborhoods. Through appropriate design and development standards,as well as public-private partnerships, strategically provide parking along the corridor to ensure adequate supply for residents,businesses, event traffic and commuters (especially at major transit nodes).Promote park and ride behavior in commuters and event-goers at key transit station areas.Recommendations Develop a phased parking strategy for the corridor,responsive to changing market conditions and development economics.Strategy elements will include:shared parking opportunities,ratio r eductions,parking districts,public parking facilities,etc. Pa r ticipate in public-private partnerships to create shared parking facilities along E.Colfax where they would facilitate the recommended land uses.Create a parking district that would allow parking buyouts and/or have taxing authority to fund structured parking facilities. Consider allowing parking reductions for developments along East Colfax that:Use Transportation Demand Management (TDM) strategiesLocate within 1/4 mile of an enhanced transit station area or "super stop"Meet a minimum FAR thresholdF acilitate the recommended land uses (including low-income and affordable housing),contain a mix of uses or demonstrate limited trip generation at any given timeEngage in shared parking arrangements between uses with varying hours of peak parking demandAdaptively reuse historic resources Locate future shared parking facilities in the vicinity of enhanced transit station nodes around theP eak hours of parking demand

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99EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANcurrent 15 Limited stops at Colorado,York/Josephine and Downing,and consider an additional location near the five point intersection of Park Avenue,East Colfax and Franklin.Work with significant trip generators (National Jewish,Bluebird Theater,popular restaurants,Fillmore Theater, Ogden Theater,Temple Events Center,St.John's Cathedral,Basilica of the Immaculate Conception) in these areas to promote transit access to the destinations. Remove as many existing curb cuts as possible along the corridor to increase the amount of onstreet parking Provide free 30 minute parking to encourage parking roll-over at specific retail oriented areas along the corridor. Develop incentives for all existing parking lots and auto display lots bordering Colfax to improve the safety,security and streetscape at these locations. F ollow the Commercial Corridors Design Guidelines and the Denver Parking Lot Design and Landscaping Standards by including landscaping,screen walls,safe lighting and complementary contextual architectural features. Place parking regulatory signs on Parking meters in lieu of separate and adjacent poles. Consolidate signage for parking (lot entrance wayfinding,fare box,regulatory information) to the gr eatest extent possible. Use lower brightness levels and provide full horizontal cut-off fixtures to minimize the off-site impacts of parking areas and prevent light trespass on adjacent private property or public right of wa ys. Provide ADA compliant access to all off-street parking areas.Unacceptable location of parking Acceptable location of parking Preferred location of parking

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100BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:ECONOMIC ACTIVITYIn the last decade downtown rebirth dominated the planning and development agendas of numerous U.S. cities.With successful renewal of the core city,corridors (particularly former streetcar lines that provide access to inner ring suburbs) are the new pioneer for investment and redevelopment.To be successful a strong economic development program must accompany a vision for land use and transportation. An analysis of the East Colfax retail,housing,office and lodging trade areas and demand summaries follow. This information provides a framework for the future economic development of the corridor.To position the corridor for revitalization this economic development framework is a guide for public policy, r egulatory and investment decisions.Additionally,this analysis should be used to leverage private investment and partnership interests in the redevelopment of the corridor. The East Colfax corridor is located in the central portion of the Denver metropolitan area and crosses multiple municipalities.That segment of the corridor,which is located in the City of Denver,and which is the subject of this report,extends approximately 2.5 miles,from the 300 block of East Colfax to the 4000 block at Colorado Boulevard.There are approximately 263 business interests either contiguous to, or impacted by access issues or other influences in this segment.All were considered part of the study area.These properties represent a combined total area of nearly 90 acres.The map in the introduction section of of this plan illustrates the length of the study area and area of influence,land uses in the corridor,and location of district boundaries. Given its central location within the Denver metropolitan area,the East Colfax corridor is strategically located to capture a substantial share of the region's traffic and business growth.Forecasts indicate that more than 650,000 square feet of office space,540,000 square feet of retail space,nearly 1,300 residential units and 165 lodging rooms could be absorbed in the trade area over the next five years,from which the corridor could draw.The level of investment which actually occurs within the corridor will be directly proportionate to the City and property owners'commitment to wait for "right"investment (consistent with the plan),introduce stronger physical connections,implement supportive infill policies,identify

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101EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANcreative financial solutions,and remove "barriers."Barriers to corridor redevelopment fall within four principal categories physical,market,regulatory and financial.The discussion,which follows generally describes these barriers in the context of existing conditions within the corridor and its districts. The East Colfax Corridor can best be described as a mature urban corridor,with limited new investment, fragmented ownership and a fairly inconsistent base of commercial and service uses.Uses in the corridor f all within the following categories retail sales,auto-oriented,service office,lodging,and government. The biggest concentrations fall within the retail sales and personal service segments (84) which includes traditional office tenants.The largest component of the corridor's retail inventory falls within the food / drink away from home (69) category. Ownership information revealed that 17 properties (5.9 acres),are held by out-of-state interests.The average parcel size on the corridor is 0.6 acres (26,136 SF),with the largest single assemblage 12.9 acres (561,924).There are only 11 parcels larger than one acre. As described earlier,the segment of the East Colfax Corridor considered for this analysis extends approximately 2.5 miles.Bordering the neighborhoods of Park Hill and Hale on its east end and Downtown Denver on its west,the character and quality of development in the corridor is generally different within select segments or districts.The western segment is heavily influenced by its proximity to Downtown Denver,the State Capitol and several cultural venues located adjacent to Civic Center Park. The central segments are impacted by the medical district,East High School,and residential neighborhoods immediately adjacent to the corridor's commercial parcels.The eastern segment, anchored by the National Jewish Medical campus,serves as a gateway to the corridor and Downtown Denver.A description of conditions within each of six districts,along with a discussion of barriers to investment within them,is presented as follows.Market AnalysisCritical to interpreting the Corridor's competitive position within the trade area and Metro Denver,is an understanding of the supply characteristics of competitive developments.In order to identify potential market opportunities given the area's competitive position and prevailing market conditions,demand estimates were also prepared.The following discussion presents an overview of:the methodology used to select land uses and determine their trade areas;the role each land use plays in the Corridor;existing supply conditions;and,estimates of future demand by land use type.F orecasts indicate that in the next five years a trade area (that includes East Colfax) could absorb:650,000 SF of office space540,000 SF of retail space1, 300 multi-family residential units165 hotel roomsThe percent of this demand captured on the corridor will be a factor of the City and community commitment to facilitate desired investment.

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102BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:MethodologyLooking to the experience of similar markets which have revitalized over the past decade,as well as the vision for East Colfax expressed in Blueprint Denver,principal land uses / products were identified for analysis including attached ownership and rental housing units,commercial retail space (in-line and freestanding),office and incubator space,and lodging units.In order to quantify estimates of demand by land use,land use-specific trade areas were defined with consideration of the following factors. Physical Barriers the presence of certain physical barriers including highways,arterials, significant structures influencing driving and shopping patterns; Location of Possible Competition a significant inventory of potentially competitive projects diminishing the market share available to new projects; Proximity to Population and/or Employment Concentrations population and/or employment concentrations in an area resulting in more population and households to support new projects (density and "rooftops"); Zoning a restrictive or favorable regulatory environment influencing a developer's interest in delivering projects in one location vs.another; Market Factors conditions which will set sale and lease prices or impact a project's revenue potential (value) and influence a developer's interest; Drive Times, Spending and Commuting Patterns established habits / patterns impacting a project's ability to capture market share (or require re-education). W ithin each trade area,baseline estimates were prepared and later adjusted based on consideration of future events which could potentially increase or decrease absorption activity and/or project values.(See discussion which follows.)Events MatrixCritical to interpreting the study area's future competitive position for development growth is an understanding of potential "events"which could impact the character and quantity of select land uses as re f lected in absorption activity and project values.Events,which were considered,include:competition or introduction of major improvement projects (infrastructure);new development and redevelopment projects (development);and,completion of land use and capital planning documents (planning).Proximity to population and employment concentrations is a positive economic indicator for East Colfax.

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103EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN Colfax Corridor events matrix

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104BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:F or the purpose of this analysis,infrastructure events were considered to have an impact when money had been committed or construction had begun.Development events were considered to have a significant impact as they essentially served to "prove up"the market.A planning event was not considered to have any immediate impact in and of itself.Finally,it was assumed that regulatory barriers w ould be eliminated to accommodate the vision of the plan. The events identified are presented on the preceding page.The numbers presented in the matrix reflect the net effect (increase or decrease),as a percent of the baseline capture rate.Events with a neutral impact are left blank.Impacts from the events matrix were then combined to establish an overall estimated percentage increase (or decrease) in forecasted capture rates by land use over time.The table below presents a summary of these assumptions. The discussion that follows presents supply conditions and demand analyses for each land use,which are then adjusted to reflect the defined impacts of the identified events at select intervals over a twenty-year period.HousingHistorically,the East Colfax Corridor served as one of Denver's centers for commercial retail,service and financial activity.Today,while similar corridors across the country continue to play a role in these arenas, their function and purpose has changed markedly.From Portland,Maine to Portland,Oregon,in communities ranging from 2,500 to 2.5 million,historic commercial corridors are making a comeback, not only as a center for services,products and employment,but as urban neighborhoods with residences, entertainment venues and community gathering places. Residential supply characteristics for the trade area housing markets are summarized as follows: According to the Meyer's Group,149 townhome and condominium units were sold through July 2003 in the trade area,for a year-to-date absorption average of 21 units per month (a steep decline from the previous 24 months). Among active developments,unit prices ranged from $59,000 to $2.0 million. The total inventory of apartment units in Denver stands at 99,987 as of mid-year 2003,up from 98,752 in the previous year.Approximately 5.5 percent,or 5,500 of these,are located within the trade area.New for sale units at Chamberlin Heights sparked reinvestment in the area around Colfax and Steele by creating a critical mass of population and activity to support retail and dining establishments.

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105EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN East Colfax Residential Trade Area (note: same as retail trade area)

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106BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: V acancies in the submarkets which comprise the trade area increased from 8.5 percent in third quarter 2002 to 12.3 percent in 2003 for the same period. The majority of vacant units in these submarkets are priced above $900 per month. Demand for new residential units is primarily a factor of the growth in income-qualified households within a trade area.Projected trade area household growth was analyzed along with historical patterns of singleand multi-family development to arrive at an estimated average annual demand for housing in the trade area of approximately 1,300 units per year over the period 2003 to 2007 and 975 units per year ov er the period 2008 to 2012.Demand for ownership units,of which a portion would be attached vs. detached,is expected to account for approximately 50 percent of overall trade area demand or approximately 640 and 480 units per year,correspondingly.Assuming a 10 percent capture rate of trade area housing demand,annual demand for new units within the East Colfax Corridor could be expected to total between 50 and 60 over the next ten years.RetailThe existing retail base in the Corridor is relatively dispersed and does not provide an adequate mix of shopping and service opportunities to meet the needs of an evolving resident profile.One of the primary g oals of this plan is to concentrate retail/service activity at key centers,or "nodes",along the corridor.By doing so,this activity is not diluted along a lengthy service area,but rather is allowed to build a critical mass at key locations.The resulting activity centers will encourage both an expansion and diversification of the Corridor's overall retail/service tenant base. Retail supply characteristics for the trade area are summarized as follows: The Midtown Retail Submarket,that submarket most reflective of the primary trade area,at mid-year 2003 totaled approximately 3.2 million square feet,or 4%. V acancies in this submarket declined,slightly,from 7.9% to 7.4% during the period 2002 to 2003. Retail products which dominate the Midtown Submarket include the small strip center and single tenant store,representing 1.1 million and 737,000 SF,respectively. The biggest vacancies among products in this submarket occurred within large strips,which r eported a mid-year 2003 rate of 14.4 percent. Demand for retail space is determined by the potential level of retail expenditures in a given trade area.New residences and restaurants near the Bluebird Theater reinvent a sense of place along a small stretch of East Colfax.

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107EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN East Colfax Retail Trade Area (note: same as residential trade area)

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108BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Existing and projected total household retail expenditures in the trade area were determined by multiplying growth in households with that portion of household income typically spent on general retail purchases.A final adjustment was made to account for sales imported from daytime non-resident employees working in the trade area.The results of this analysis indicated demand for between 500,000 and 550,000 square feet of additional retail space in the trade area over the next five years.Demand from non-resident daytime employees adds additional demand for between 80,000 and 85,000 square feet primarily for dining and personal services. The degree to which the Corridor is able to capture new demand within the trade area (and beyond) is a function of the redevelopment process itself.Given the highly competitive nature of retail development, successful redevelopment of the Corridor will depend on defining the Corridor as a "place"in the minds of area residents.Redeveloping it as retail and community destinations will necessarily increase its ability to capture not only a greater share of its trade area demand,but also to reach beyond those boundaries. As Corridor redevelopment begins to take hold and land prices begin to rise,physical limitations which currently restrict the scale of redevelopment opportunities will lessen as low FAR (Floor Area Ratio) uses such as automotive sales succumb to market forces and land owners begin to seek the highest and best use for an increasingly valuable asset.This evolution will be expedited if assisted by favorable zoning which encourages a denser product model.OfficeAnother foundation of this plan is the provision of live/work opportunities within the Corridor.In concert with densifying housing,office development can be introduced to further strengthen the connection between employment uses and residential uses.The Corridor will also work as a business address if there are ample opportunities for business support space,retail services,eating and drinking establishments,and government and other institutional tenants. Office supply characteristics for the trade area are summarized as follows: At mid-year 2003,the Midtown Office Submarket,had an inventory of approximately 5.9 million square feet,representing the second smallest office sector in the metro area or 7 percent. V acancies in the Midtown Submarket during this period were 15.3 percent,the lowest in the metro area that currently averages 23.3 percent. The second office sector which comprises the trade area is the Northeast Submarket.At mid-yearProximity to downtown and Uptown make East Colfax an attractive location for Midtown Office uses like the Upper Colfax Business Center.

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109EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN East Colfax Office Trade Area

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110BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:2003,the Northeast Office Submarket had an inventory of approximately 1.4 million square feet,or 2 percent of the metro area total. V acancies in the Northeast Submarket during this period were 18.5 percent,slightly behind the Southwest Submarket at 17.1 percent. A comparison of office products by class suggested that Class C office products dominate the Midtown Submarket (1.8 million square feet) and Class B and C the Northeast Submarket (603,000 and 463,000 SF,respectively). Demand for new office space is derived from two primary sources:expansion of existing industry and the r elocation of new companies into the market.Employment projections by industry classification for the trade area were used to estimate an average annual demand. The analysis revealed annual demand for approximately 694,000 square feet of new office space within the trade area between 2003 and 2007 and 885,000 square feet between 2008 and 2012.A capture rate of approximately 5 percent would generate annual demand on the corridor for approximately 35,000 square feet and 44,000,respectively,for these two time periods. As with demand for retail space,the ability to capture additional demand both within and outside of the trade area depends on the overall success of the redevelopment process itself.Office demand will likely be limited to smaller Class B multi-tenant space,with the exception of the nodes where Class A space may be possible in the mid-term.As the Corridor redevelops and land prices begin to increase,demand for higher density mixed-use projects (e.g."office-over-retail") will begin to emerge.The more successful the City is in establishing the Corridor as a destination,the greater will be the ability to capture demand from tenants seeking these kinds of urban locations.LodgingThe development of quality hotel rooms and meeting facilities is a critical determinant of the economic health of a central city area.Hotel rooms support existing businesses and provide accommodations for tourists and visitors.Meeting facilities,such as conference and convention centers,help to maintain and enhance existing business and tourism,and can also act as a catalyst for urban revitalization.The economic importance of visitors to a community cannot be overstated.Not only do they generate spending which creates positive spin-off activities, but they become potential "ambassadors" for the community, marketing its attributes to other cities.Boutique Hotels and Bed & Breakfast Inns promote tourism and provide lodging for individuals seeking unique local experiences

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111EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN East Colfax Lodging Trade Area

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112BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:The Midtown Submarket has a current lodging supply of approximately 46,700 room nights of supply. Properties included in this supply range from full-service hotel properties offering restaurant,lounge and meeting facilities and representing the upper end of the lodging market,to limited service hotels,which do not offer these services and represent the middle of the lodging market.This hotel inventory is currently operating at an average annual occupancy rate of approximately 60 percent and an average daily r ate of approximately $70.00 both indicators of a depressed lodging market. Demand for hotel rooms is derived from corporate and government travelers,groups and/or tours,and leisure travelers.These demand generators comprise the corporate,group and tourist segments of the lodging market.Support for additional hotel rooms within a market results from increases in the employment base (corporate segment) and increases in travel by the other demand generators (group and tourist segments). As noted,there are currently 46,700 room nights of supply within the Midtown Submarket with overall average annual market occupancy of approximately 60 percent.This equates to approximately 334,000 r oom nights of demand annually.A stable market experiences an average annual occupancy rate of at least 70 percent,which,in the Midtown market,equates to approximately 234,000 room nights of demand annually.By these industry standards,there is an oversupply in the market of approximately 160 r ooms.Growth in the Corporate,Tourist and Group hotel market segments over the next five years is e xpected to generate 42,000 new room nights of demand or an additional 165 rooms in the Midtown Submarket (after addressing the current oversupply of rooms). This level of demand in the overall Midtown market area would likely support the addition of at least two new hotel properties within the next 5 to 10 years.The Corridor is likely to compete most effectively for a smaller,limited-service hotel appropriate for both the business and leisure traveler.Primary Issues and Opportunities Analysis of data supplied by the Denver Assessor's Office indicates a parcel's economic potential for r edevelopment (see Underutilized Properties map).The analysis compares the assessed value of the land to the assessed value of the improvements on that land.A ratio of less than 1.0 indicates that the land has potential for redevelopment,and a value of less than .5 indicates that the land has a high potential for redevelopment.Parcels with the highest potential for redevelopment are parking lots or vacant,as well as auto-oriented retail uses:car dealerships,gas stations,garages,and carThe table compares the value of improvements (buildings) to the value of land, illustrating the degree of property utilization. Not surprisingly, vacant land and low density development such as auto-oriented retail and fast-food restaurants result in underutilized property. Land Use Value of Improvements to Value of Land (Unweighted ratios) Single-family3.9 Multi-family7.8 Hotel or motel2 Mixed-use Retail1.6 6.6 Restaurant/entertainment1.5 Auto-oriented retail0.7 Office3.2 Medical11.5 School or church1.7 Industrial2.3 Parking or vacant0Redevelopment Analysis by Land Use

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Please see Map Appendix (pg. 187) for a more detailed view of this map 113EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN Underutilized Properties Map Adequate Underutilized Missing Datamap date: 04/26/04East Colfax Study Area Land-Structure Value Ratio

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114BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:w ashes.However,auto-oriented uses often return a high revenue stream to the owner,and the costs of environmental cleanup often reduce their appeal as redevelopment sites.Conversely,medical uses have a high ratio,and yet Denver is experiencing an exodus of hospital uses,with high-density r esidential the most prevalent replacement use. Prevailing market conditions in concert with the current regulatory environment,promote a low-density commercial development pattern within the corridor.Future development and r edevelopment projects will require a range of regulatory,financial and marketing strategies designed to address the challenges presented by a variety of lot sizes and use programs. As a high volume transportation corridor,Colfax offers significant opportunities for economic development and private investment activity.Traffic is the lifeblood of retailers.However,in the c hanging environment of the commercial corridor,like the downtowns before them,the definition of traffic and how it is accommodated needs to be flexible.Traffic includes pedestrians,bicycles, trains and buses in addition to automobiles.All of these modes need to be encouraged and protected in a manner appropriate for the defined "role of the street"in a designated location within the corridor. A review of median household incomes,in the context of rental households,suggested an opportunity for ownership attached (condominium and townhome) housing products with a broad price range. Concentrating housing density near or on the corridor will provide additional demand for convenience and/or service retail space.Potential retail niches for the corridor include:food and drink away from home,household equipment,hobby,entertainment and recreation. The highest growth employment sector in the trade area is projected to be non-manufacturing industries,consisting primarily of small businesses.This represents an opportunity for the corridor to develop smaller,multi-tenant office space,incubator space and live/work units. Corridor commercial vacancy and rental rates are not currently at levels required to support new development and/or redevelopment.Therefore,"seed"money will likely be necessary to leverage private investment in projects that will "jump-start"re-investment activity throughout the corridor, especially faade money and other small business programs. East Colfax lacks a coherent identity with little synergy among uses.The retail environment c hanges constantly.Competition from both shopping destinations and non-store shopping

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115EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANalternatives require that retailers and property owners perpetually reposition themselves.Changes in retail are the result of changes in consumer behavior brought about by demographic shifts, advances in technology,and expanded shopping choice. Linear expanses of low-density,auto-oriented,national franchise commercial uses diminish the corridor's ability to be a unique place either a commercial destination or urban neighborhood. Issues associated with real and perceived problems with crime,prostitution,drugs and the e xperience of riding transit tarnish the image of Colfax. Tw o significant challenges to corridor revitalization are over-zoning and a lack of diversity among commercial land uses.Few markets have enough depth to support the amount of commercial space zoned within their commercial corridors.With too much single use one-dimensional form of development an area loses the opportunity for place-making and the character,diversity and vitality which come with it. Properties within commercial corridors,and other inner ring and central city locations,rarely r espond quickly to changes in the market,instantly putting them at a competitive disadvantage with their greenfield (suburban) competitors.Due to regulatory and financial obstacles,these properties lag behind the curve and therefore tend to attract few credit tenants,and more often than not, second-generation space users. East Colfax contains an abundance of underutilized land including surface parking lots,vacant parcels,abandoned buildings,and low-density and single-tenant commercial uses. There are few penalties/disincentives for speculation,blight,under-utilization and derelict property/building maintenance and management. Small average lot sizes and fragmented ownership patterns are two of the most significant barriers to sizable development projects in commercial corridors.Fragmented ownership can limit continuity in design character and quality across multiple uses in the same location.The complexity and timing of redevelopment projects is directly proportionate to the number of affected property owners. Although the responsibility of assembling property can be that of a non-profit community development corporation or private property interests,experience has proven that those cities which take on a more proactive role in the assemblage of properties for redevelopment are at a distinct competitive advantage for investment.Shallow infill sites challenge developers. Here development must be context sensitive and supported with adequate regulatory tools.

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116BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: Residential parcels adjacent to the corridor are threatened by expansion pressure from commercial projects requiring a larger assemblage to make their development work under the existing zoning. V aluable historic resources that define the place-making characteristics of East Colfax are located on and adjacent to the corridor.Assemblages and rezonings should demonstrate compatibility with adjacent residential areas and preservation of historically-significant structures.Creative development solutions should be employed to achieve both preservation and development.Goals Ready the corridor for reinvestment and position East Colfax to capture a greater share of the re gion's housing,commercial,business and lodging growth. Improve the image of the corridor and recreate the corridor as "a place"for residents,employees and visitors. Increase public and private investment in the corridor. Eliminate regulatory and financial barriers to investment. Identify a brand image for the corridor,as well as districts within the corridor. Revitalize deteriorating and declining business and shopping areas through rehabilitation or r eplacement with appropriate uses.Recommendations Design a regulatory and economic development framework that is responsive to challenges presented by a range of lot sizes and ownership structures and which encourages project concepts consistent with the vision of this plan.The investment potential of all parcels immediately adjacent to the corridor must be increased where there is a demonstrated gap or need with tools including gap financing,Tax Increment Financing (TIF),special districts,land write-downs,fee waivers,tax a batement,etc. Wo rk with the Mayor's Office of Economic Development to:Leverage existing city resources to aid private investment (such as low interest neighborhood re vitalization and faade loans);F acilitate creation of empowerment / enterprise zones of investment;Coordinate improvement district strategies;Concentrating housing density on East Colfax will provide additional demand for: Entertainment, services and dining

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117EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANIncubate small businesses;Promote access to other lending sources or financing mechanisms;andMarket the development potential of the corridor and supportive city resources to developers interested in building projects consistent with the plan vision. Wo rk with the Denver Urban Renewal Authority (DURA) to create urban renewal districts within targeted investment areas of the corridor. Select a brand and market a new image for East Colfax as a destination for authentic,local flavor. Promote the unique attributes of the individual districts that distinguish different segments of the corridor.Illustrate the brand through physical improvements,as well as promotion materials. Promote the corridor as an alternative to downtown,particularly for small to mid-size businesses, incubator,and entrepreneurial ventures.Carve a niche for East Colfax as a destination for local entertainment,shopping and restaurant venues. Wo rk with the Denver Police Department,Denver Human Services (and other social service providers) and adjacent municipalities to promote property owner and neighborhood monitoring programs in order to reduce violent crime,loitering and aggressive panhandling,drug activity,graffiti and prostitution.Potentially encourage a public presence on the street (sub-station).Increase enforcement of existing regulations regarding neglected and derelict buildings and properties, temporary signage,and other conditions that degrade the physical environment of the corridor or impact the health,safety and welfare of the community. Give priority status to node locations along East Colfax for public offices outside the core municipal campus at Colfax and 14th Avenue when the City needs to provide satellite office locations. Pa r tner and consult with the Colfax Business Improvement District,elevating their role as the area's c learinghouse for corridor information,marketing,promotion,and business development resources. P otentially encourage a partnership with the Downtown Denver Partnership in order to leverage staff and financial resources. Maintain a database of information about the demographics of the corridor and adjacent neighborhoods,as well as market conditions,in order to communicate opportunities for investment. Either expand the umbrella of the Colfax Business Improvement District,or create a supplemental organization (community development corporation CDC),to facilitate acquisition of catalyst properties for private investment consistent with the vision for the corridor.P etes Kitchen draws visitors and promotes Colfax as a destination for local flavor.

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118BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: Expand existing improvement district organization to serve property and business interests on the corridor.Principle functions will include clean and safe programs,events coordination and corridor promotion. Wo rk with the Colfax Business Improvement District,Denver Police Department,Metro Convention and Visitors Bureau,Downtown Denver Partnership,local roadrunners'clubs and adjacent municipalities to establish an annual Colfax Marathon. Consider the creation of a "speculator tax"for vacant and underutilized properties,effectively taxing the land portion of a property at a higher rate and the improvement at a lower rate. Encourage RTD to supplement City incentives with transit incentives that encourage dense development concepts within the identified nodes along the corridor.Incentives could include enhanced transit improvements,shared parking expenses,participation in infrastructure costs, district and neighborhood signs,street furniture,and transit-oriented development dollars.Local establishments create a market niche for East Colfax.

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119EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANDISTRICT PLANSThe homogenous and undifferentiated character of modern cities kills all variety of lifestyles and arrests the growth of individual character. Do everything possible to enrich the cultures and subcultures of the city into a vast mosaic of spatial territory, each with the power to create its own distinct lifestyle.Ž Christopher Alexander

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120BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:COLFAX IDENTITY AND THE GEOGRAPHY OF THE PLAN VISIONThe framework plan identifies the overarching issues facing the study area as a whole.The following district plans refine the geography of the plan vision and provide information specific to distinct sections of the corridor.A district map supplements the land use concept map to define character areas that distinguish each segment of the East Colfax study area.These individual districts describe the r elationship between the corridor and the immediately adjacent residential neighborhoods. The land use concept map and district plans provide information about the types of mutually supportive uses,development programs and design elements that will establish a sense of place along distinct stretches of the corridor.The land use concept map and district plans should guide future zoning boundary changes and inform the contents of a zone district appropriate for an enhanced transit corridor. However,the land use map and district plans do not convey or deny any zoning privileges.Any changes to the existing zoning conditions will be pursued under a separate process as prescribed by the Revised Municipal Code. Development of the corridor should create a brand image to reverse the negative associations with Colfax.Management of the physical environment then becomes a marketing tool,allowing Colfax to attract a variety of uses and doing so in a coherent fashion.Diversity should exist in the different areas, but a common theme and agglomeration of uses will foster a sense of place and more clearly articulated image.The descriptions that follow are ideal characteristics,and reflect the type of development to which new projects should aspire.DistrictsMixed-Use Districts:Transit Oriented Development Districts:Capitol VillageDowning Station Midtown ColfaxEsplanade Station Colfax PromenadeColorado Boulevard Station

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Please see Map Appendix (pg. 187) for a more detailed view of this map 121EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN District Map

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122BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:CAPITOL VILLAGE DISTRICTGeographyThe Capitol Village district forms the far western end of the study area.Sixteenth Avenue Promenade and 14th Avenue bound it on the north and south,and Grant and Downing on the west and east.Downtown, the State Capitol,Civic Center,regional entertainment venues (Ogden,Fillmore,Temple Events Center, Denver Turnverein),Denver Art Museum,Denver Public Library,Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, Molly Brown House,St.John's Cathedral and the 16th Street Transit Mall are either in the district or within easy walking distance.V isionCapitol Village is a 24-hour marketplace.This is the most intensely developed portion of the corridor b lending new mixed-use development with historic urban residences.While the uses lining 14th Avenue and 16th Avenue are primarily residential in nature,there is a greater bleed of mixed use from the corridor resulting in infill projects on vacant and underutilized parcels that create a more integrated, active district feel.The area is tolerant of greater architectural diversity with modern architecture coexistent with historic resources in a blend that fuels the eclecticism of the environment.Entertainment ve nues,ethnic and specialty restaurants,as well as unique shopping experiences draw residents and tourists interested in local flavor and offerings.Public plazas and gathering places are integrated within building sites.There is a deliberate mix of activity generators (ambient,impulse and destination entertainment),activity extenders (primarily dining establishments) and activity inducers (primarily retail) that fuel the 24-hour marketplace.The area draws many single residents and accessory retail caters to this market's distinctive needs and lifestyle preferences.The active lifestyles in this area keep a significant pedestrian presence on the street that improves the perceived comfort and safety of the environment.Capitol Village extends roughly from the State Capitol to the Ogden Theater along East Colfax.

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123EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANPrimary Issues and Opportunities The price of land in the area,particularly due to its location adjacent to downtown,combined with zoning limitations on density,challenge the economic feasibility of new development and r edevelopment projects. Compared to Downtown's offerings,retail in this portion of the corridor does not adequately capitalize on area "draws"including the State Capitol,and select dining and entertainment establishments. The corridor's current "brand"is plagued by perceptions of crime,dirt,aggressive panhandling, public feedings and instances of neglectful property management. Surface parking lots consume prime land development space in this area,but provide significant opportunities for infill development. Ve r tical intensity may be more acceptable here due to the proximity and scale of Downtown.The City Park and State Capitol view planes affect some portions of Capitol Village and height limits on new development should be consistent with these restrictions. A high degree of density and an intense mix of uses are appropriate for Capitol Village. Entertainment venues,tourism oriented uses (boutique hotel,event centers,etc.),destination retail and restaurants,and urban residential are highly appropriate uses in this area. State government workers and visitors,commuters,nearby residents and Downtown workers provide opportunities to build a distinct customer base for the uses that are appropriate to Capitol V illage. A number of historic resources can be found in this area.Few incentives have been employed for the adaptive reuse and preservation of these resources. Property values in this area can be cost prohibitive for redevelopment. The Right-of-Way west of Pearl is constrained to 80 feet from building face to building face. P edestrian walkways and on-street parking are limited as a result.The extremely narrow and obstructed sidewalk at Grant Street to the east is an impediment to people wishing to venture from downtown into the corridor.This severely constrained pedestrian area chokes off the corridor from downtown in arguably the most significant pedestrian area in the corridor.Existing conditions F uture development concept Entertainment venues, tourism oriented uses (boutique hotel, event centers, etc.), destination retail and restaurants, and urban residential uses are highly appropriate in Capitol Village.

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124BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Goals Maximize development in this area through infill on vacant parcels,redevelopment of underutilized parcels and adaptive reuse of historic resources. Preserve and adaptively reuse historic resources. Establish and reinforce an Entertainment District anchored by the Ogden and the Fillmore between Clarkson and Corona. Reconnect Capitol Village with the State Capitol,Civic Center and downtown through enhanced pedestrian connections especially between Grant and Washington Streets. Promote the area as a destination for local shopping,restaurants and entertainment. Develop a boutique hotel in the vicinity of the State Capitol or the Temple Events Center.Recommendations Where the ROW is constrained to 80 feet,enhance the limited pedestrian space through building designs that include recessed first floors and pedestrian arcades.Increase the sidewalk width between Grant and Washington,this could be accomplished through the removal of on street parking or center turn lanes. Create a shared parking structure wrapped in mixed use in the vicinity of Pearl and Colfax and/or the Ogden and Fillmore Theaters to accommodate residents,visitors and event traffic. Consider the closure of Emerson for conversion to parking and enhanced bike route/pedestrian connections to the corridor from the neighborhood. Identify rezoning opportunities along East Colfax.Appropriate areas may include:The two Blueprint Denver designated Areas of Change within the boundaries of the study area (these include portions of the East Colfax West of Colorado Area of Change and the Downtown Area of Change),W ithin 200 feet of Colfax,and/orOther potential opportunity sites (vacant or underutilized parcels) Build the Capitol Village population base with high-density multi-family residential development with limited (accessory commercial) active ground floor uses off of the corridor,and focus commercial intensity (especially mixed-use projects with a residential component) to assemblagesSurface parking lots consume prime land development space in Capitol Village, but provide significant opportunities for infill development.

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125EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANcontiguous to the East Colfax corridor.Allow a more diverse mix of uses in the Capitol Village Areas of Change.Limit intense commercial expansion to opportunity sites and/or 200 feet (where appropriate) on the south side of Colfax.Retain residential character and use on parcels fronting 14th Avenue and 16th Avenue Promenade. Establish a view corridor from Colfax to St.John's Cathedral and incorporate significant public space in the design of new development in this area. Wo rk with the Fillmore and Ogden Theaters and RTD to promote transit access to concerts and other events held at the theaters.East Colfax theater venues that showcase national and local talent form the basis of an entertainment district in Capitol Village.

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126BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:MIDTOWN COLFAX DISTRICTGeographyMidtown Colfax lies between Downing to Vine,and 14th to 16th Avenues.This area includes the Upper Colfax Historic Business District (between Downing & Gilpin),as well as portions of the Wyman and Park Av enue Historic Districts.Cheesman Park,three bed and breakfast hotels (Castle Marne Historic Bed & Breakfast,Holiday Chalet and Adagio B&B),Wyman Elementary School,Warren Village and the Uptown Hospital district lie just a few blocks north and south of the corridor.The union of three fundamental axes occurs at the five point intersection of Park Avenue,Franklin and Colfax.The Franklin Street axis connects Colfax with Cheesman Park and the Uptown Hospital District.The Park Avenue axis connects Colfax to Coors Field/Northeast Downtown,and the Colfax corridor itself is the axis of Aurora,Lakewood and Denver.The area includes an abundance of adaptively reused historic structures such as the Colonnade, Alta Court and the Rosenstock,as well as Colfax icons:Pete's Kitchen and the Satire Lounge.V isionInfill development (Ramada Inn,the Upper Colfax Business Center) and adaptive reuse of historic r esources (Colonnade,Alta Court,Rosenstock,Bourbon Square) in the Upper Colfax Historic Business District form the basis of the identity and future redevelopment model for Midtown Colfax.Office,or r esidential,over retail characterizes the mix of uses.This district encourages mid-town office development that supports the hospital community and businesses that benefit from proximity to downtown,without the downtown rents.The area is the mid-point between the active and more entertainment/tourist-oriented,24-hour marketplace to the west and the lower density residential area to the east.The Upper Colfax Historic Business District is the fulcrum of Midtown Colfax and the larger corridor.The five-point intersection of Park Avenue,Franklin and Colfax is a natural space for a civic focal point.As the employment center on the corridor,the Upper Colfax Historic Business District and similar r edevelopment projects in Midtown Colfax draw workers from the neighborhoods east and connect small businesses to downtown.An agglomeration of business support uses here includes postal services,Midtown Colfax extends from Downing to V ine along East Colfax, south of the Uptown Hospital District and north of Cheesman Park. Midtown Colfax contains iconographic businesses like the Satire Lounge.

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127EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANprinting and copying,labor services,as well as a workforce development or business incubation center. Wi thin 200'of the corridor,historic structures are creatively re-used as office space and integrated with new development contiguous to the corridor.This is a medium density area with limited activity after business hours.Uses that remain open past 5:00 p.m.include art galleries,restaurants and other primarily neighborhood serving retail.Primary Issues and Opportunities The 5-point intersection of Park Avenue,Franklin and Colfax presents the opportunity to create a significant civic focal point along the corridor. The potential connections between Civic Center,LoDo,Coors Field,Cheesman Park and the Uptown Hospital District from the 5-point intersection at Park Avenue,Franklin and East Colfax r einforce the need to consider pedestrian infrastructure,multi-modal circulation and access. The existing uses and development potential around Park Avenue,especially north of the corridor, w ould support denser,mixed-use projects. The Wyman Historic District overlaps the majority of Midtown Colfax. The recently approved City Park West Overly District 9 application originally included a portion of the East Colfax study area.This portion was exempted from the application so that it could be addressed in this plan and subsequent zoning changes that occur as part of implementation. Should the opportunity arise,the high-rise brick storage building at Vine should be adaptively reused f or residential or office space. Concentrations of bars and dilapidated buildings cause noise,poor property maintenance and a negative market perception. Regulatory and market conditions favor a low-density single tenant retail land use pattern inconsistent with an urban redevelopment framework. The availability of parking is limited and insufficient to address a denser pattern of development. A higher than average (for the corridor) percent of properties are held by out-of-town property o wners;parcels are generally small with fragmented ownership. Wa r ehouse and parking uses disrupt urban form and limit densities needed to attract credit tenant investment.The five-point intersection at Park Avenue, F ranklin St. & Colfax is a critical redevelopment area.

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128BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: Market conditions (lease rates) in the area will limit investment in office employment uses,other than subsidized incubator space,for the near-term.Goals Promote the 5-point intersection at Park Avenue as a village node appropriate for high density mixed-use,particularly projects which incorporate residential uses over active ground floor retail,as w ell as structured parking. Enhance the design of the 5-point intersection at Park Avenue,Franklin and Colfax. Promote an identity brand for Midtown Colfax geared toward midtown office and support uses. New development should respect and build on the Wyman and Park Avenue Historic Districts context as part of the area's brand image. Ensure and respect the integrity of the Wyman Historic District.Incorporate context sensitive design to reinforce a brand image that reflects the historic architecture. Reinforce business development and support uses in Midtown Colfax and establish incubator space in the area to help grow local micro-enterprises.Recommendations Consider long-term strategies to redesign the Park Avenue,Franklin and Colfax intersection and create a focal point that emphasizes the importance of this intersection as a gateway to Civic Center,Northeast Downtown,Cheesman Park and the Uptown hospital complex.Explore the possibility of a roundabout design that incorporates a statue of Schuyler Colfax at Park Avenue. Consider future designation of the Park Avenue node as a transit station area,and preserve development opportunity sites for high density,transit supportive land uses and site designs. The portion of City Park West/Wyman Historic District from Gilpin to the alley between Gaylord and York and outside of a distance 200 feet from Colfax (this distance may vary depending on the presence of development opportunity sites) should be considered for OD-9 designation. Develop building and site design standards,as well as wayfinding programs to reinforce the Franklin Street axis that connects Cheesman Park,Colfax and the Uptown hospital complex,especially as a significant pedestrian route,as well as the Park Avenue axis that connects,Colfax,the Uptown hospital complex,East Village,Northeast Downtown and Coors Field.The Upper Colfax Business Center contains mixed use office over active ground floor uses, which is especially appropriate in Midtown Colfax. Historic buildings, adaptively reused as offices, like Alta Court in the Upper Colfax Historic Business District are the model for redevelopment in the rest of Midtown Colfax.

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129EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANCOLFAX PROMENADE DISTRICTGeographySaint Paul to Garfield,Colfax to 16th Avenue forms the northern portion of the district,while Columbine to Garfield,Colfax to 14th Avenue forms the southern portion.The area includes parts of the South City Pa rk and Congress Park neighborhoods,the Snell Subdivision Historic District (Colfax A and B Avenues), the Bluebird Theater,and the new Chamberlin Heights infill development project at Colfax and Steele,as w ell as many "Mom & Pop"shops and "local favorite"venues such as Collins Bicycle Shop,the newly r enovated Tommy's Thai,Goosetown Tavern,Mezcal,Bastien's Steak House and the P.S.Lounge.V ision"Mom and Pop"shops line this portion of Colfax from the edges of the Esplanade Station to Garfield Street.Business traffic is primarily walk-up or served by on-street parking.With the parking constraints here,destination retail,entertainment and restaurant uses are limited,but boutique shops,delis,small markets,barbers,bike shops,hardware stores,art galleries and similar low intensity uses are the norm. The lot depths are more constrained in this area,and the Area of Change follows the existing B-4 boundaries for the most part.Small studios,apartments and live work units are encouraged on the small commercial parcels.In the few areas where minor assemblages exist,residential infill projects with accessory commercial develop over time.Primary Issues and Opportunities Commercial lot depths are particularly shallow in Colfax Promenade (more so than along other parts of the corridor),and deep assemblages are limited by the presence of highly stable turn of the century residential neighborhoods to the north and south.Expansion of the commercial area beyond its existing boundaries would severely impact the adjacent residential neighborhoods, particularly South City Park which is just two city blocks deep.Colfax Promenade lies between East High School and Colorado Boulevard. Stable, historic, single-family residential areas flank East Colfax on the north and south in this area.

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130BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: Colfax Promenade includes a number of historic "taxpayer strips"that provide a boutique retail context. In this section of East Colfax,travel speeds and right of way width create a significant barrier to comfortable pedestrian crossings.With City Park lying 2 blocks north of Colfax,the area needs stronger north-south pedestrian connections. The redevelopment of Mercy Hospital as the planned City Park South residential project will introduce a significant population base to the area that could support neighborhood serving walkup businesses along the corridor. Development economics support the presence of low-density commercial uses,but there is an a bsence of sufficient off-site parking to accommodate a significant redevelopment scenario. Despite healthy traffic counts,this segment's location is removed from Colorado Boulevard and its fo r ecasted traffic and use counts. Given use mix there is an inability to leverage other operators for attraction of customers.This effort will require marketing.Goals Promote an identity of characteristically "Mom & Pop"style commercial uses in this section. Improve pedestrian crossings particularly at intersections that correspond to entrances at City Park. Draw visitors from City Park to Colfax Promenade. Ensure strong pedestrian orientation of development in this area to encourage neighborhood access by f oot and bike. Reinforce the residential nature of this section of East Colfax. Preserve the existing character of predominantly historic single-family residential outside of the e xisting B-4 commercial boundaries.Colfax Promenade contains many historic tax payer stripsŽ … block long commercial storefronts built during the streetcar era to pay the taxes and hold the land for future development. South City Park neighborhood in Colfax Promenade is just 2 blocks wide, commercial expansion into this residential area would threaten the stability of the neighborhood.

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131EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANRecommendations Develop flexible zoning with design and development standards that promote "Mom & Pop" businesses that are low impact and serve a primarily walk-up,neighborhood customer base. Limit uses by right that have excessive parking demand. Support residential development along this stretch of Colfax. Encourage shared and structured parking for the area to accommodate uses with intense parking needs. Wo rk with the City Park Alliance,Denver Zoo,Museum of Nature and Science and the City Park Golf Course to co-promote businesses along Colfax Promenade and events at City Park attractions,such as "buy one get one free"meals at restaurants with the presentation of a ticket stub from a City Park event or venue. Wo rk with Bluebird Theater and RTD to promote transit access to concerts and other events at the theater. Wo rk with the Colfax Business Improvement District,Office of Economic Development and Small Business Administration to develop unique programs to attract,preserve,protect and promote small independent business along Colfax Promenade.F ind innovative ways to introduce residential uses to Colfax Promenade, as in this pop-topŽ of a taxpayer strip in Boulder, Colorado.

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132BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT (TOD) DISTRICTSTOD ContextA key strategy for revitalization of East Colfax is based on redevelopment and targeted investment in key transit oriented development districts,or "catalyst areas",which hold investment potential despite select economic and physical redevelopment challenges.These areas are defined as:highly urbanized places at the intersection of significant transportation routes that have a concentration of jobs,housing units, commercial uses,public spaces,pedestrian activity and a sense of place.Predominant land uses within transit station areas can be residential,commercial and public.Within this relatively compact geographic area,different land uses are found side by side or within the same structures.Station areas contain a mix of uses in developments with minimal setbacks,reduced parking requirements,and taller structures,all in an effort to achieve higher densities necessary to support transit,pedestrian activity,private investment and a sense of place.This plan identifies the primary station areas at the intersection of significant northsouth transit routes with Colfax.Station areas do not preclude the emergence of other significant nodes along the corridor (for example,an entertainment node in the vicinity of the Ogden and the Fillmore Theaters or a village center at Park and Colfax).Station areas differ from other nodes due to the proximity to key transit intersections.However,criteria to evaluate and select transit oriented development sites may be applied to other types of nodes or activity centers that may emerge.TOD CriteriaStation areas were generally identified and evaluated based on screening criteria,with guidance from stakeholders and community leaders in the East Colfax area.While an expressed interest in an immediate development or redevelopment project influenced the selection of certain areas,most were selected because they presented a compelling location or market advantage for future investment.Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Districts are highly urbanized places at the intersection of significant transit routes that have a concentration of jobs, housing units, commercial uses, public spaces, pedestrian activity and a sense of place. National Jewish Hospital provides an institutional anchor at the intersection of Colorado Blvd. and East Colfax Avenue transit routes.

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Mixed-use District Mixed-use District Downtown Denver Transit Oriented Development District 133EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANEnhanced Transit CorridorsDowntown Denver Highest density and intensity Greatest concentration of population and employment Core of metropolitan areaTransit Oriented Development District J unction of two major transit routes or hub of destination activities Density and intensity focused to station area core High concentration of housing Uses serve daily needs of commuters,workers and residentsMixed-Use District Medium to high density,medium intensity Developmentfocused to corridor Tr ansit and pedestrian friendly street design Main street provides downtown or cross-town access Tr ansitionsbetween corridoradjacent neighborhoods

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134BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Criteria used to select catalyst areas include the following: Presence of a market opportunity in the nearor long-term Opportunities to strengthen and link existing districts or activity centers Ability to leverage existing or planned public or private investment Physical environment including parks and open space,public improvements P otential for creating key entryways or "gateways"into development areas Ownership patterns including public and private and multiple vs.assembled Presence of unified,energetic stakeholders Upward trend in local investment Compatibility with Plan 2000 and Blueprint Denver Av ailability of public programs,incentives and tools for revitalization Ability to create activity centers,emphasizing opportunities with multi-modal access Presence of support organizations service groups,churches,schools Demonstrated community need,both perceived and quantified Consistent in character and building on prevailing strengths Presence of opportunity to promote higher densities and a broad spectrum of housing choices Opportunity to share existing parking or build new shared parking Opportunity to build on existing economic,cultural or other community elements P otential transit station areas were selected using the above criteria.However,experience has proven that implementable plans must maintain a high degree of flexibility.As markets change,the physical r ealm must change with them.Therefore,while transit station areas have been identified today as offering potential for leveraged investment,the criteria provides the City with the tools to evaluate future projects which might occur outside of these areas,and which are consistent with the vision for the study area.Transit routes cross East Colfax at :Grant StreetLogan StreetOgden StreetDowning StreetY ork StreetJosephine StreetColorado Boulevard Downing Station

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135EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANStation Area DescriptionsDowning Station VisionAt the intersection of Downing and Colfax,Downing Station serves transit riders with a variety of trip itineraries ranging from concertgoers attending a show at the Fillmore or Ogden Theaters to employees of Midtown Colfax.Connections north deliver transit riders to the Light Rail Station at Welton and Downing Street that will provide access to Denver International Airport via the east corridor rapid transit line. Connections south funnel riders to central city neighborhoods and shopping areas.The station area core branches out at roughly a 500' radius from the transit stop at the intersection of Downing and Colfax,and as with conventional transit oriented development the area of influence extends for a quarter mile w alking distance.Density/intensity of development decreases with distance from the station core. F amiliar station area design elements characterize the core of the station area.A civic plaza or other type of urban open space allows the public to gather informally while waiting for transit.Such a space creates a distinguishable focal point along the corridor.Architectural elements and public art reinforce the civic importance of this intersection.Significant way-finding elements emphasize connections between this location and Downtown,DIA,Coors Field/LoDo,Cheesman Park and the Uptown hospitals.Housing options (especially affordable,mixed income and mixed-use housing) abound here and cater to a transit r eliant population.Transit supportive retail considers the service and shopping itineraries of commuters a dry cleaner,day care,food market,newsstand,etc. the transit stop is an ideal location for small businesses that cater to the daily needs of commuters.This location attracts public investment in transit infrastructure,including a parking structure that provides convenient parking for business uses within the core,as well as commuters who park here and ride the 15 transit line into downtown.Esplanade Station VisionEsplanade Station is very similar in appearance to Downing Station.As commuters arrive here,it is clear that this is a transportation transfer point.Way-finding elements clearly articulate directions to commuters.The significance of East High School,the Lowenstein Theater and the City Park Esplanade r einforce the station's civic context.Uses in the station area emphasize education and community activity with particular attention given to art gallery space,performing arts or community centers.The area of influence is greater than Downing Station and incorporates the far western edge of the South City Park neighborhood in order to make a stronger connection between the station,East High School and the r edevelopment of the Mercy hospital site as well as the commercial spaces along Colfax fronting Mercy. As with the other station areas,high-density residential uses provide abundant housing options to transitT ypical station area features:Civic plazaPublic artW ayfinding elementsReal time transit arrival/departure forecasting technologyTransit supportive retail and servicesHousingStructured parking Esplanade Station

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136BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:r eliant populations and retail shops and services meet the daily needs of commuters.At this location connections may be made to Cherry Creek,Denver Botanic Gardens,City Park,Downtown,and the York Street Business Incubation Center at 40th Avenue and York.Colorado Boulevard Station VisionThe intersection of Colfax and Colorado Blvd.,is the most heavily developed of the three station areas. National Jewish Hospital is the institutional anchor in this location.Structured parking wrapped with a mix of offices over retail provides employees and commuters with parking and shopping opportunities. The intersection is the eastern gateway to Downtown and connects Colfax commuters with the Museum of Nature and Science,the Health Sciences Center redevelopment site,regional retail in Glendale and light r ail at Colorado Center at I-25 and Colorado Boulevard.Like the other station areas,this area is attractive f or high-density residential developments that connect housing with transit.Unlike other sections of the corridor,Colorado Boulevard Station has significant assemblages with no indication that that existing uses will change in the near-term.National Jewish Hospital (and its supportive uses) draws patients,visitors and employees from throughout the metro area,as well as the state and nation.Redevelopment opportunities are currently over-shadowed by the traffic created.Primary Issues and Opportunities Fr equent curb cuts disrupt the pedestrian environment,a critical component to a transit-oriented development. A quality building stock,recent faade investment and a healthy inventory of restaurants surrounded by a denser form of housing will strengthen the argument for commercial investment. The station areas lack identity with no distinguishing features to suggest that these sites are significant,high volume transit stops. Below market leases,speculative pricing and licensing restrictions preclude redevelopment and r euse of key parcels within these areas. Higher insurance rates for commercial properties in the central city,and particularly those in areas proximate to inner city schools,can be a significant deterrent to revitalization. Shallow lot depths make the attraction of a significant institutional commercial developer nearly impossible without property assemblages.Colorado Boulevard Station

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137EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN Recent investment in residential properties adjacent to the corridor will make assemblages in select locations difficult. Current parking is insufficient to support a major redevelopment program in the area. Recent investment in the auto-related uses at Esplanade Station and Colorado Boulevard Station will create additional expense and delays with regard to property assemblage and redevelopment. Uses and land use patterns are low density and insufficient to meet the threshold needs of many r etail tenants. The intersection of critical cross-town transit routes with Colfax defines the three station areas. Downing Station and Colorado Boulevard Station connect commuters to the light rail station areas at W elton Street and I-25 respectively.The York/Josephine Couplet (at Esplanade Station) and Colorado Boulevard are designated,like Colfax,as "Enhanced Transportation Corridors"under Blueprint Denver.These stops demonstrate the highest degree of transit ridership. Commercial corridor revitalization is largely based on the concept that investment should be concentrated at select pulse points or "nodes"in an effort to most effectively leverage private investment.These nodes of development serve as catalysts when compatible and like-uses located in close proximity result in the creation of "place"and a destination for vehicles and pedestrians. When uses such as retail are dispersed,their impact is diluted and the frequency of single purchase trips increases. Residential development along corridors,and particularly within transit station areas,provides numerous benefits for an otherwise linear environment.Residences effectively increase the number of households that support retail and transit.In addition,they diversify the land use base;introduce a new and unique housing product to the market and promote a 24-hour environment on the street. Large assemblages exist at all three station areas.The United States Postal Service holds a significant assemblage at Downing Station (approximately half of a city block).Denver Public Schools and a fe w other property owners hold larger than average parcels at Esplanade Station.The Colorado Boulevard Station includes assemblages at the John Elway car dealership site and the National Jewish campus which constitutes the largest assemblage on the corridor.V ancouver enhanced its bus transit service: Before After

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138BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Goals Create development focal points along the corridor that catalyze a ripple effect of investment over the long term. Clearly articulate key transit station areas along the corridor with select design elements and site f eatures. Leverage public investment in transit station areas,especially to offset costs associated with the construction of structured parking facilities wrapped in mixed-uses. Encourage concentrations of diverse,yet compatible uses which when co-located have a positive, multiplicative impact.Recommendations Pa r tner with RTD to enhance the East Colfax transit technology and develop identifiable station areas along the corridor at Downing Street,York/Josephine St.and Colorado Boulevard. Build partnerships with key property owners at transit station areas to leverage private investment in these locations.Work with existing property owners to identify future development potential of large assemblages or opportunities for co-development. Limit the number of access points or curb cuts especially in transit station areas to increase v ehicular and pedestrian safety,improve the pedestrian area,reinforce an uninterrupted street wall and improve circulation. Design "super stop"transit infrastructure at transit station areas along Colfax. Encourage transit supportive retail and service uses at station areas.Such uses include:food markets,dry cleaners,day care,postal services,and other uses that meet the daily shopping itineraries of commuters.Limit auto-oriented uses at these locations.Structured parking wrapped with mixed-uses encourages park and ride behavior, activates the street and incorporates neighborhood and pedestrian friendly design in a transit station area.

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139EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANIMPLEMENTATION STRATEGYPlans are only good intentions unless they immediately degenerate into hard work.Ž P eter Drucker

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140BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:LAND USEZoning for a"Transit Mixed Use-Corridor"Establish appropriate zoning for a "Transit Mixed Use Corridor"for Blueprint Denver designated "Enhanced Transportation Corridors."Establish appropriate use,design and development standards to encourage compact,high-density and transit-oriented development along the corridor.Analyze and balance standards for density and intensity with parking reductions and lot depth to facilitate development appropriate to a transit corridor,but complementary to adjacent residential.Include standards that promote context sensitive design.ResponsibilityCommunity Planning and DevelopmentT imingShort-term (2004-2005)Priority1Rezoning application for East ColfaxInitiate a rezoning process for East Colfax consistent with the process identified by the Revised Municipal Code.Study and identify areas appropriate for rezoning.Parameters for rezoning boundaries may include Areas of Change,parcels within 200' of East Colfax (west of Elizabeth),within the existing B-4 boundaries and/or opportunity sites.ResponsibilityCommunity Planning and Development,property owners,businesses and residents, City Council representativesT imingShort-term (2004-2005)Priority2Improved regulatory tools stimulate new investment, like infill on underutilized sites.

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141EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANO-D9 application for portion of City Park West in study areaIdentify residentially zoned parcels in the neighborhood outside of revised East Colfax corridor zoning boundaries between Park Avenue and York Street,from Colfax to 16th Avenue that should be incorporated in the City Park West Overlay District-9.This residential portion of the City Park neighborhood was left out of the original overlay district rezoning application until such time as new zoning boundaries may be established for the corridor in this stretch of East Colfax.A rezoning process will establish new zoning for the corridor,and concurrently,parcels outside of those boundaries will be considered for inclusion within the OD-9.ResponsibilityCommunity Planning and Development,property owners,businesses and residents, City Council representativesT imingShort-term (2004-2005) concurrent with the rezoning process for East ColfaxPriority2R-3 and R-4 zoning issuesCoordinate with the R-3 and R-4 zone district study.Identify and resolve problematic design and development standards with R-3 and R-4 zone districts in the residential areas beyond the commercial corridor.ResponsibilityCommunity Planning and Development,residents,property ownersT imingShort-term (2004-2005)PriorityUnderway

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142BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:URBAN FORMColfax Historic DistrictCreate an historic district application modeled after the Downtown Historic District to establish a noncontiguous preservation area for significant historic resources between 14th and 16th Avenues,from Broadway to Colorado.Identify significant buildings for preservation.Identify historic preservation incentives and tools.ResponsibilityCommunity Planning and Development,property owners,businesses and residents, City Council representatives,Denver Landmark Preservation Commission,Historic Denver,Colorado Historic Society,Colorado Preservation,Inc.,City of Lakewood,City of Aurora,Colorado Community Revitalization AssociationT imingShort-term (2004-2005);prior to or concurrent with rezoning applicationPriority1Design and Development Standards for New ConstructionPrepare design guidelines for new construction and incorporate in zoning language applicable to the commercial corridor.Incorporate a toolkit of standards to reinforce smooth transitions between the r esidential to commercial edge.ResponsibilityCommunity Planning and Development,private architects,Historic Denver, Registered Neighborhood OrganizationsT imingShort-term (2004-2005);concurrent with language amendments to the B-4 zone district and creation of "Transit Mixed Use Corridor"zone districtPriority1East Colfax contains many historic resources worth preserving. Many structures could benefit from economic incentives that offset a portion of the costs of rehabilitation and adaptive reuse.

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143EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANStreetscape Master Plan and Streetscape Improvements1P r epare a master plan with uniform standards for streetscaping.Identify a consistent and coherent streetscape package that includes uniform lighting fixtures,street furniture,transit amenities,paving standards,street trees and other elements that comprise the streetscape.2 Coordinate the streetscape master plan with the development of an ultimate cross-section for East Colfax.3D evelop standards for street dimension and design speeds,street vistas,street tree type and spacing, sidewalk dimensions,on-street parking and intersection design.Consider reduced lane width to slow traffic and increase space available within the public right-of-way for pedestrian activity. 4 Incorporate standards that promote a brand image for the corridor including gateway features and interpretive elements. 5 Estimate improvement costs and identify a funding mechanism for streetscape improvements. Leverage private resources to counterbalance public contribution.Establish a local improvement and maintenance district to install,protect,repair,maintain and replace improvements as needed. Establish a maintenance and replacement mechanism including an enforcement process that r equires replacement of lost trees within a limited period. 6 Install new street trees,street furniture,uniform lighting and other features.ResponsibilityCommunity Planning and Development,Public Works,Office of Economic Development,Colfax Business Improvement District,City of Denver Director of Marketing,Greektown Maintenance District,property owners,businesses and r esidents,Historic Denver,Colfax Coalition,Mayor's Office of Art,Culture and Film Public ArtT imingShort-term(2004-2005) to mid term (2006-2008);concurrent with pertinent transportation infrastructure planning and programPriority2 TYPICAL COMMERCIAL STREETSCAPE TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL STREETSCAPE ROADWAY FRONT Y ARD SETBACK DETACHED SIDEWALK TREE LAWN(STREET TREES, TURFGRASS OR GROUND COVERS)SIDEWALK AMENITY ZONE(ENHANCED PAVING, STREET TREES, PEDESTRIAN LIGHTS, BENCHES, TRASH RECEPTACLE, ETC.) PUBLIC RIGHT-OF-WAY (THE COMMON SPACEŽ) BUILDING FRONTS, SIGNAGE. (PEDESTRIAN ORIENTED

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144BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Sign regulationsRevise the sign regulations for East Colfax to promote better way-finding,directional,private advertising and business identification signage.Integrate standards to reintroduce artful neon signage in a form consistent with its historic use on the corridor.Explore and incorporate alternatives to billboard advertising (such as wall art displays) to allow free speech,but maximize space for development and improve the visual aesthetics of the corridor.Improve way-finding signage to reinforce connections to significant destinations and attractions along and near the corridor.Incorporate "Active Living by Design" strategies in way-finding signage to promote and articulate the corridor as a series of walkable stretches connecting a variety of key destinations.ResponsibilityCommunity Planning and Development,Public Works,Colfax Business Improvement District,property owners,businesses and residents,billboard advertisersT imingShort-term (2004-2005) Mid-term install streetscape improvements and establish a streetscape maintenance district (2005-2008)Priority2Colfax Open Space Plan and Enhanced Civic Areas1 Identify opportunity sites along Colfax for traditional and non-traditional open spaces such as public plazas and pocket parks to ensure that adequate "breathing room"is provided for existing and new populations. 2 Study low volume cross streets and Green Streets (especially designated bicycle routes Sherman, Emerson/Ogden,Franklin,Race,Steele,and Harrison) for closure to through traffic and conversion to enhanced civic areas which could include parking,enhanced bike and pedestrian connections and/or park space between East Colfax,adjacent neighborhoods and the 16th Avenue Promenade. Coordinate with any future changes to alley configurations. 3 Study potential view corridors to create focal points along the corridor and preserve/frame views of significant structures,cityscapes or landscapes. 4 Estimate acquisition and installation costs and identify funding sources such as GOCO to help acquire and build open spaces. 5 Incorporate non-traditional open space standards in new zoning language that may be created asExcessive and cluttered signage reduces business legibility and works against business promotion.

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145EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANpart of this plan's implementation.ResponsibilityCommunity Planning and Development,Parks and Recreation Department,Denver Botanic Gardens,residents,property owners,businesses,Public Works,RTD,Denver Public Schools,City Park Alliance,The Parks People,Colfax Business Improvement DistrictT imingShort-term (2004-2005) planning Mid-term (2005-2008) and long-term (2009-2015) implementationPriority3W ithout strong streetscaping and wayfinding elements, few defining features tell pedestrians that Cheesman Park, a major city park, lies just two blocks from this point.

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146BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:TRANSPORTATION AND INFRASTRUCTURET ransportation Phase II Study: Roadway Safety Audit, Ultimate Cross Section and Transit AlternativesPursue transportation funds to study transit enhancements to upgrade local transit service to streetcar and limited service to Bus Rapid Transit.Identify an ultimate cross-section for East Colfax and transit service alignment alternatives and opportunities for public/private shared parking facilities.Link transit alternatives on Colfax to a downtown circulator so residents,employees and visitors can easily travel along East Colfax without switching modes.Identify ridership and revenue estimates,conduct preliminary engineering,estimate capital and operating costs,recommend vehicle specifications and procurement and design station areas.Develop an ultimate cross-section for Colfax to enhance pedestrian,transit and private vehicle movement (coordinate with a streetscape masterplan).Perform a Roadway Safety Audit and recommend intersection safety enhancements.Address the limited pedestrian space in the segment west of Pearl Street where right of way is constrained to 80 feet.Incorporate a toolkit of pedestrian enhancements such as bulb outs,refuge islands,countdown signals and the like.ResponsibilityPublic Works,CDOT,RTD,Community Planning and Development,property owners, r esidents,businesses,DRCOG,consultantsT imingShort-term (2004-2005) to mid-term (2006-2008)Priority1East Colfax Transportation Management Association and Transportation Demand Management ProgramEstablish an East Colfax TMA with a program to manage transportation demand.Work with major employers and event traffic generators (especially entertainment venues) to create innovative TDM strategies (shared parking arrangements,event tickets as transit passes,shuttles).Enhanced transit contributes to multi-modal street development

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147EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANResponsibilityCommunity Planning and Development,Public Works,RTD,DRCOG,Colfax Business Improvement District,CDOT,businesses (especially major employers like Uptown Hospital District,National Jewish,etc.and event traffic generators),Colfax CoalitionT imingShort-term (2004-2005) and on-goingPriority2Curb Cut Consolidation and Access Management Standards1 Enforce standards for access management to improve traffic flow and improve pedestrian safety along the corridor. 2 Identify areas where curb cuts could be abandoned and driveways consolidated for shared site access.Consider site access implications with any future alley vacations and alterations to existing configuration of alleys. 3 Initiate a program to work with CDOT and property owners to close unnecessary curb cuts. 4W ork with the Colfax Business Improvement District to educate property and business owners a bout the benefits of access management. 5 Estimate costs and create a mechanism to help pay for curb cut closures.ResponsibilityCommunity Planning and Development,Public Works,Colfax Business Improvement District,CDOTT imingShort-term (2004-2005) planning,midand long term (2006-2015) implementationPriority2Denver Streetcar, Inc.Depending on the results of the Streetcar/BRT Feasibility Study,pursue the creation of a not-for-profit entity to promote the return of streetcars to Denver.Form an Advisory Board (comprised of no more than 15 individuals) to establish a streetcar strategy for East Colfax and Denver's other enhanced transit corridors.ResponsibilityCommunity Planning and Development,Regional Transportation District,Office of Economic Development,Public Works,CDOT,business and community leaders, DRCOGExcessive curb cuts Consolidated curb cuts

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148BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:T imingShort-term (2004-2005) initial organization Mid-term (2006-2008) oversee Streetcar Feasibility Study if Transportation Improvement Program funds secured Long-term (2008-2015) oversee streetcar implementation with successful f easibility studyPriority3City Ditch Storm Drain/Underground Detention AnalysisDenver Water may abandon this part of the City Ditch in 2004,subject to their finding and developing an alternative means to supply water to City Park.In development of a Storm Drainage Master Plan,Public Wo r ks will analyze this portion to use as a storm drain or underground detention to address drainage problems at Colfax and High.ResponsibilityPublic Works,Denver WaterT imingShort-term (2004-2005)Priority3Multi-family Recycling Drop-Off Site Pilot ProjectWo rk with Denver Recycles to establish a recycling drop-off site pilot project to provide recycling for multi-family tenants.ResponsibilityPublic Works,Denver Recycles,landlords,renters,tenant associations,Apartment Association of Metro DenverT imingShort-term (2004-2005)Priority3

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149EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANW astewater Improvements1 Sanitary sewer lining project at 13th and Colorado Blvd budgeted for 2007.Since this is a lining project there is no open cut or trenching.The project starts in the alley between Jackson and Harrison at 17th Avenue,goes south to Colfax,jogs 1/2 block to the west to Jackson St,then south in Ja c kson St from Colfax to 14th Ave,then east in 14th Ave 1 block to Harrison,then south in Harrison to 13th. 2 Address the drainage improvements needed in the Thirty First Street Outfall,to alleviate ponding in portions of East Colfax.Prioritize the need in future capital improvements budgeting.ResponsibilityPublic WorksT imingMid-term (2006-2008) to Long-term (2008-2015)PriorityUnderwayAlley ImprovementsAlleys needing work between Broadway,Downing,14th,and Colfax,and between Colfax and 16th, Downing and Colorado will be completed in 2003;remaining areas will be completed in 2004 and 2005.ResponsibilityPublic Works,Community Planning and Development,Colfax Business Improvement District,businesses,property owners,residentsT imingShort-term (2004-2005)PriorityUnderway

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150BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTImprovement DistrictExplore the expansion of the Colfax Business Improvement District boundaries.Partner with the CBID to collect and disseminate information about the area's development climate,create branding and marketing strategies,establish business development programs and fully activate all development tools of the district. Ensure repair,maintenance and replacement of streetscape and infrastructure improvements along the corridor.Consider a citywide district for enhanced transportation corridors.ResponsibilityColfax Business Improvement District,Office of Economic Development, Community Planning and Development,Public Works,City of Denver Marketing Director,City Council,property owners,businesses,Small Business AdministrationT imingOngoing and continuousPriority1Colfax CoalitionWo rk with the existing Colfax Coalition representatives to reposition the group's mission.Reorganize the Coalition as an advisory committee able to engage top-level decision makers with respect to tri-city coordination of Colfax oriented policy and development actions.ResponsibilityCity and County of Denver,City of Aurora,City of Lakewood,Regional Transportation District,DRCOG,business and community leaders,CDOT,Transit Alliance,APA Colorado,AIA ColoradoT imingShort-term (2004-2005) reorganization;ongoing and continuous role in development of ColfaxPriority1

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151EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANColfax Crime Prevention and Regulatory Enforcement Task ForceEstablish a task force to monitor,recommend and implement solutions to crime,human service needs and property maintenance issues that create negative perceptions of Colfax.Educate business and property o wners about city standards for the appropriate care of property.Develop a prostitution intervention program.Explore community policing strategies to improve the safety of the corridor.ResponsibilityCommunity Planning and Development,Denver Police Department,Neighborhood Inspection Services,Colfax Coalition,Colfax Business Improvement District,Denver Human Services,political and community leaders,City of Lakewood,City of AuroraT imingShort-term (2004-2005) and on-goingPriority1Parking DistrictExplore the formation of a parking district to implement and manage shared parking arrangements on the corridor as well as to provide a gap financing mechanism for structured parking at identified transit station areas.Consider a citywide district for enhanced transportation corridors.ResponsibilityCommunity Planning and Development,Public Works,Parking Management,Office of Economic Development,Colfax Business Improvement District,property owners, businessesT imingShort term (2004-2005) planning Mid-term (2006-2008) formation and implementationPriority2East Colfax needs better enforcement of property maintenance standards. Establish a parking district to build public parking facilities at strategic locations and to help offset costs associated with their construction.

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152BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Corridor Investment ToolkitCreate a strategic economic development program for the corridor that leverages both public and private r esources.Identify business development tools and gap financing mechanisms such as faade loan programs,tax increment financing (TIF),land write downs,land swaps,business incubator programs and low interest loan pools.Create a set of tools to protect the area from inappropriate development such as a speculator tax.ResponsibilityOffice of Economic Development,Colfax Business Improvement District,DURA, Small Business Adminitration,Colorado Housing and Finance Authority,Metro Mayor's CaucusT imingShort term (2004-2005)Priority2Colfax Marketing and EventsTa ke advantage of opportunities to showcase the local businesses,entertainment venues,regional destinations and unique position of Colfax as the longest (26 miles) contiguous commercial main street in the United States. 1 Establish a Colfax Independent Business Association as an arm of the Colfax Business Improvement District to promote the development and marketing of authentic local businesses. 2C r eate a Colfax business and resource directory;highlight locally owned businesses with a Colfax Independent Business Association label (look to Boulder Independent Business Association for model),list dates and location of important festivals/markets/events,include coupons,provide list of multifamily rental property offices/hotels/Colfax realtors,etc. update annually. 3C r eate a map of the corridor that lists businesses and points of interest incorporate "Active Living by Design Strategies"by showing distances between destinations in miles and "feet"(number of f ootsteps).Update annually. 4 Establish an annual Colfax Marathon that runs from Fitzsimons to Red Rocks amphitheater. Coordinate with a music festival that showcases local talent along the marathon route to entertain r unners and onlookers.Conclude the marathon and festival with an awards ceremony for the r unners and musicians at Red Rocks amphitheater (investigate collaboration with Westword Music F estival).Independent businesses are the life blood of East Colfax. Reinvestment in and retention of this homegrown economy ensures a vibrant future for the street.

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153EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANResponsibilityColfax Business Improvement District,businesses,property owners,residents,Colfax Coalition,Colfax area lodging establishments,Office of Economic Development, Downtown Denver Partnership,City of Denver Director of Marketing,City of Aurora, City of Lakewood,Metro Convention and Visitor's Bureau,Metro Denver Network, Colorado Musicians Association,Community Planning and Development,Capitol Hill United NeighborsT imingShortto long-term (2004-2015);ongoingPriority3Establish a Colfax Independent Business Association to promote the development and marketing of micro-entrepreneurial ventures.

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154BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:DISTRICT SPECIFIC IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIESStreetscape Improvements Bond ProjectIdentify additional funding mechanisms for streetscape improvements.Use existing bond project funds as matching contribution to leverage additional resources.Install the planned streetscape improvements along Colfax from Downing to Franklin and Josephine to Esplanade as identified in bond project application.Create a maintenance district to ensure the availability of funds for the upkeep and repair of the capital improvements.RepsonsibilityPublic Works,Community Planning and Development,Colfax Business Improvement District,businesses and property ownersT imingShort-term (2004-2005)Priority2Park Avenue, East Colfax Avenue, and Franklin Street Five Point Intersection DesignStudy the intersection design at Park Avenue,East Colfax and Franklin Street and make recommendations to improve the circulation and urban design of this location.Consider the possibity of a roundabout in this location to improve traffic flow and serve as an urban design focal point.ResponsibilityPublic Works,Community Planning and Development,CDOT,RTD,Landmarks, Historic Denver,property owners,businesses and residentsT imingLong-term (2009-2015)Priority3

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155EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANCorona and Downing RepavingComplete Transportation Collaboration Group project to repave Corona and Downing Streets from Colfax to 10th Ave.ResponsibilityPublic WorksT imingShort-term (2004-2005)PriorityUnderwayCurb Ramp ImprovementsImprove curb ramps from Colfax to 27th Street between Broadway and Downing and at 14th and Corona.ResponsibilityPublic WorksT imingShort-term (2004-2005)PriorityUnderway

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156BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:

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157EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANAPPENDIXGUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR AREAS OF CHANGE AND STABILITY SWOT FULL LENGTH VISION STATEMENT GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND TOOLS

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158BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Blueprint Denver includes a set of Guiding Principles for Areas of Stability and Areas of Change that act as barometers for determining whether certain actions achieve the overall Blueprint Denver vision.The Guiding Principles set basic standards for context sensitive design. Whether in an Area of Stability or Change,new construction projects should consider and demonstrate these context sensitive principles in building design,site orientation and activity g eneration.By deliberately following these principles,new construction may be more harmonious with established areas or catalyze development in evolving areas.Guiding Principles Areas of StabilityRespect valued development patterns Relationship of the building to the street Location of garage driveway and parking Fr ont yard landscaping Building scale Roof shape Durability of materialsRespect valued attributes of the area Diversity of housing types and prices Neighborhood serving retail and services Existing buildings,especially those adding distinctive character and identity Mature landscaping Existing circulation (streets,alleys,sidewalks) Significant views from public places Pa r ks and parkwaysRespect adjoining property Light,air and privacy F encing Orientation to the street Alignment of buildings along the street Night lightingExpand transportation choice P edestrian safety and comfort Access to transit Street system continuityMinimize traffic impacts on neighborhoods Lower traffic speed Less cut-through traffic Not solving one problem only to create GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR AREAS OF CHANGE AND STABILITY

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159EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANanotherRespect environmental quality Tr ee canopy Pe r meable open space Pa r ks and parkwaysGuiding Principles Areas of ChangeContribute to the urban design vision Orientation to the street Alignment of buildings along the street Location of garage,driveway and parking Fr ont yard landscaping Building scale Roof shape Durability of materials Tr ansition to adjacent areas,especially Areas of StabilityRespect valued attributes of the area Existing buildings,especially those adding distinctive character and identity Economic generators Diversity of housing types and prices Mature landscaping Significant views from public places Pa r ks and parkwaysContribute to the economic vision Balance of uses Tr ansportation access Economic opportunityExpand transportation choice P edestrian and bicycle safety and comfort Links between modes (pedestrian,bicycle and transit) Access to transit Street system continuity (streets,alleys, sidewalks,bikeways) Tr ansit ridership Shared parking solutionsImprove environmental quality Tr ee canopy Pe r meable open space Pa r ks and parkways Site lighting Noise,vibration and odor mitigation

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160BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:At the beginning of the East Colfax planning process,the community provided information a bout the strengths,weaknesses,opportunities and threats in the corridor.Residents,business owners and property owners answered questions about how the corridor might change over 10 years. What follows is a catalogue of responses from the community in their own words.Strengths What elements define the positive attributes of the East Colfax area?Historic facades,marginal enterprises (a diversity of businesses,including the smaller or more marginal businesses that foster a neighborhood scaled local business economy),entertainment ve nues,proximity to civic center,downtown, Cherry Creek,residential neighborhoods,parks, East High School,continuity,backbone of Denver, r esurgent adjacent residential neighborhoods, eclectic mix of stores and restaurants, neighborhood scale business development,vitality diversity both in architecture and population, eclectic businesses,pent up demand for goods and services purchasing power of people moving in,proximity to downtown Denver and employment,identity,15 years of planning work from landowners and merchants on the street, state capitol building is the number one tourist attraction,main street leading east Denver into Denver city government,main street through one of Denver's historical neighborhoods,new housing opening on both sides of Colfax,renewal of several older properties,many historic buildings on Colfax and adjoining blocks,diversity of uses and users,large inventory of historic buildings (some landmarked,most not),central location, convenient to cultural amenities:Downtown, Cherry Creek area,City Park,Civic Center,Botanic Gardens,Zoo,Museum of Nature and Science, Cheeseman Park,etc.,transportation access to:I25,I-70,6th Avenue Freeway,Light Rail,bus station, and Union Station,access to city public transportation,substantial inventory of property STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS (S.W.O.T.) AND VISION STATEMENT RESPONSESStrength: Diversity of people and businesses, seediness … not gentrified, its high points (Victorian mansions, cathedrals) and its low points (ugly motels with weekly rates). .Ž

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161EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN(both residential and commercial) available for development,strong neighborhood commitment through Registered Neighborhood Organizations (RNO's) as well as monthly newspaper which has been a powerful voice for change and r esponsible growth,representing 53,000 residents living in the most densely populated neighborhood in the city,an active and involved tax supported Business Improvement District, gr eat diversity:economically,racially,sexually,and by ag e,Denver Public Schools (K through high school) in close proximity,neighborhood amenities:restaurants,cleaners,overnight lodging, entertainment,churches,north side of Colfax between Marion and Lafayette street trees,wide sidewalks,lane of parked cars provide protection from traffic,green bike locks,mixed use buildings directly on street (3 stories,north side of Colfax at V ine historic building with residential over retail), plaza at the Fillmore,proximity to downtown business district,diversity of people in area,access to public transportation,eateries,diversity of people and businesses,"seediness" not g entrified,East High,near lots of great neighborhoods,it is a living street reflects Denver's history:its high points (Victorian mansions,cathedrals) and its low points (ugly motels with weekly rates),Pete's Kitchen,it is not Cherry Creek North,adjacency to highest per capita in the city,adjacency to downtown,historic architectural heritage,mixed use,transit,active and involved tax supported BID;diversity mixture of people,uses,philosophies,and sexual orientation;historic buildings on Colfax and in adjacent neighborhoods;state capitol;central location and neighborhood access;demographics provide wealth of diverse and could support numerous retail strategies;marginal enterprises; r esidential uses;transportation;good connections to parks;24/7 activity;restaurants;identity;historic heritage designation;lots of neighborhood scaled businesses;schools to attract families;multiple interests working together businesses and r esident groups;Lowenstein TheaterW eaknesses What elements define the negative attributes of the East Colfax area?Streetscape:narrow sidewalks,conflicting street furniture,misplacement of street fixtures,too many curb cuts,dirty noisy buses,historic facades that are covered with "fake stuff,"narrow lots, billboards/ugly signage,underdeveloped properties,vacant/abandoned properties,real and perceived issues of crime,narrow strip of commercial zoning inhibits development within the existing zoning and encourages encroachment into adjacent neighborhoods,high concentration of wrong businesses which attract drug dealers and users,panhandlers,trespassing,loitering and prostitution,reputation "bad,"parking issues,not pedestrian friendly or aesthetically pleasing,pay phones at bus stops encourage illegal activity, impact on adjacent neighborhoods,public perception vagrancy,Colfax currently attractsStrength: Local businesses W eakness: parkingLand intensive uses (like fast food restaurants) provide too much parkingHigh demand uses (like entertainment venues) cannot supply enough parkingNo strategic supply of parking through shared parking arrangements or structured public facilities.

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162BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:individuals that seem to portray Colfax as a seedy neighborhood,the implied dangers created by drug dealers/prostitutes,large areas of undeveloped ground used as parking and yet still unable to find parking,allowing feeding programs to exist on parking lots,perception of crime, loitering and prostitution,etc.,many low-quality poorly maintained buildings on Colfax,lack of social and civic responsibility of many property o wners and business operators,prevailing attitude that Colfax is the place to get:sex,drugs, handouts,free food,and generally be able to "hang out"and not be bothered by the police,business operators or neighbors able to sleep in your car on the street,in alleys,and nearby parks,a hodgepodge of street lighting styles,commercial signage and storefront design,billboards highlight the commercial aspects and detract from the feeling of neighborhood and emphasis on a people centered,friendly environment,example of south side of Colfax across from the Ogden Theatre no cars so feels very exposed to traffic just not ve ry pedestrian friendly also south side by Argonaut parking lot between building and street,no parked cars so very exposed,the poor physical condition of the pedestrian facilities, distance between signals for persons on f oot/wheelchair/walker/etc.,setbacks of some buildings too short,convenient movement design f or motorized movement,too many driveways from businesses onto Colfax Ave.,lack of pedestrian lighting vs.street lighting,not pedestrian friendly state highway,difficult to cross,design consistency,perception,crime, prostitution,limitations of existing zoning,lowest common denominator development;too much auto traffic;narrow strip of commercial zoning inhibits development and creates encroachment into neighborhoods;not enough parking;lack of social and civic responsibility of many property o wners;transportation corridor could be w eakness if not planned correctly;need to capture commuter tax/retail dollars;lighting/traffic c hallenges to pedestrian activity;sidewalk width and conditions;not enough street trees;alleys crimes committed in alleys;transit level of service 15 bus nicknamed the "Vomit Comet;" Esplanade underutilized;distinguish the different parts of Colfax from one other character differentiation by segmentOpportunities Where are there opportunities for new development in the area?National Jewish Hospital:shared parking,employee housing,services (just west of NJH there are a number of boarded up shops),Office Depot, Argonaut,St.John's area,garage by East High School,connections to Cheesman Park along Fr anklin Street,great opportunity for an identifiable Colfax form of public transit, Lowenstein Theatre property,zoning laws weed out businesses that attract criminal element,pent up demand of the area people need a place to shop!,better use of space large parking lotsW eakness: Vagrancy and graffiti hurt the image and perceived safety of East Colfax.

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163EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANattract crime and are not usable to the public, r esidential development,replacing old seedy looking buildings with new mixed use buildings, parking complex to support 2 entertainment ve nues,bringing needed stores to the area, hardware,cleaners,etc.,Pearl to Downing large gr ocery store with underground parking/2nd/3rd story parking big elevators,all areas with large underutilized parking areas,establish more mixed use residential/commercial/retail complexes along the street,develop more neighborhood amenities along the street,i.e.retail f ood/hardware/household stores/cafes with street presence (less drive-in,more walk-in establishments),establish standards/recommendations concerning street lighting/retail commercial signage/storefront design,establish firm enforceable rules and r egulations regarding prostitution/panhandling/loitering/public drunkenness/drinking in public,address parking issues (both along Colfax,as well as in surrounding neighborhoods),adopt proactive neighborhood approach to liquor licensing (both new and transferal of existing licenses), implementation of a "fixed rail"historically configured trolley to transport persons and establish a recognizable and positive persona for our street,by overcoming the problems of r edevelopment of the boarded up service station site on Colfax at Madison/Monroe this corner w ould have many valuable uses as well as getting r id of an eyesore,develop/cause the development of the Lowenstein Theatre into a DPS performing arts venue and neighborhood community center, r eturn the Esplanade and especially the southern portion at Colfax to its original splendor and prominence ("It is in rare and scattered instants that beauty even on her adorers"Santayana), P earl to Washington (north and south sides), W ashington to Clarkson (south side primarily), infill of certain large/excessively large parking lots, widen and improve pedestrian facilities,proximity of Colfax to neighborhoods on either side,infill opportunities Office Depot,East High, adjacency to neighborhood/shoppers,history, bohemian/eclectic nature,low existing floor area r atio opportunity to build,inexpensive land;24 hour activity bustling "good"activity vs. "seedy" can eat out late night on Colfax;create pedestrian oriented intersections;build upon historic recognition;bring back an authentic trolley with a bell;regulations (enforceable) to prevent prostitution;BID used creatively can be opportunity;neighborhood business economy of scale,but do attract some bigger national names; lots of available infill sites;adjacency to highest per capita (neighborhood density);National Jewish is an anchor;East High School/York/Josephine/Esplanade park connections and bus access/ transit node;pent up demand for shops and services;walk-in businesses vs.drive-up;different segments serve different purposes good range;create larger population to add to mix and support neighborhood business add more dense residential uses on corridor;Opportunity: A total of 60 acres of infill and redevelopment potential are scattered throughout the East Colfax study area, like this parking lot across from the State Capitol. Opportunity: Faade and streetscape improvements enhance the environment for mom & popŽ retailers.

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164BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:design should ensure Pete's and Pizza Hut can coe xist diversity of design vs.national chain cookie cutter image;promote human services/ activities that promote the development of the neighborhood human capital homeownership programs,affordable housing,ESL,food banks,job training;St.John's reinvestment plan;alley safety; access management promote better streetscape,fewer curb cuts;park access development/reinforcement;scale (threat and opportunity);Lowenstein Theater has lots of potential and is a large land assemblage arts in the neighborhood,partnership with DPS,don't let it slip away;shared parking,inexpensive ground costsThreats What elements threaten the positive attributes of the East Colfax area?Replacement of historic buildings losing the historic nature,impacting the surrounding neighborhoods,family trusts that are not interested in their real estate (lack of input from them),lack of reinvestment,crime,inappropriate development that damages the adjacent residential neighborhoods,parking for commercial development spilling into residential areas,over scaled/overly dense development,the press only get negative press,crime people need to f eel safe,courts need to have stronger commitment on repeat offenders/area r estrictions/basically illegal activity,development, lack of coherent public relations,transportation, parking,poor planning on positive ways to save an old structure if it cannot be blended into new g ro wth,apathy,lack of respect and communication between different types of stakeholders,a continuation of the attitude of o wners/businesses/neighborhood residents that nothing can be done to change Colfax so why bother,a continuation of the attitude of o wners/businesses/neighborhood residents that there is nothing wrong with Colfax just leave it the way it is,commercial/residential/retail developers who will not accept the changes destined for Colfax,development without design guidelines,zoning changes,and acceptance of historic preservation needs,the corner of Colfax and Josephine is a disaster from the vacant Phillips 66 station to the 7-11 with its outside phones/bus stop/beggars/et al,the old gas station at Colfax and Race (now Soon's Car Repair) r epresents one of the finest corners for r edevelopment in the upper Colfax area,too much traffic,not enough buffer to separate pedestrians from cars,not enough trees (or any trees) in many places,hierarchy of vehicle movement above other travel modes,deterioration of public transit service,lack of travel choices,lack of businesses catering to neighborhoods,property decline disrepair and vacant buildings,lowest common denominator development,slowing economy, perception issues;crime;press/reputation/image; need rezoning time is critical (BK drive-thru) concentration and location of businesses thatThreat: Neglect, abandonment and underutilization of historic resources threatens the vitality of East Colfax through degradation of its irreplaceable architecture.

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165EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANpromote crime and prostitution;lighting and traffic challenges to walking;intersection designs fa v or autos over pedestrians;sidewalk disrepair; e xisting zoning promotes lowest common denominator development;homogenous r edevelopment that disintegrates the originality, eclecticism and character that defines Colfax; possible loss of neighborhood serving and neighborhood scaled businesses;proximity of certain undesirable uses to schools,community f acilities;economics RTD,tax base,businesses, transportation;micromanagement of the economics of the street let marketplace determine market dynamics;alleys;deterioration of public transportation;lack of access management, e xcessive curb cuts interrupt the streetscape; trend toward bigger more dense projects coming into neighborhood scale is a major concern for r esidents;gentrification drives out diversity, affordable housing and services;"traditional" r edevelopment on Colfax threatens neighborhoodWhat is Your Ideal Vision For East Colfax?The vision is what you want the area to look like, f eel like,and function like 10 years from now. What changes have occurred? How would you describe the way it looks? How do people use the space? What is the relationship of the buildings to the street and to each other? How would you describe the atmosphere,or the environment? Who spends time here and why? Doing what and how? Y our statement may be written in the present tense,as if ten years have passed and you are describing the area to someone.Please use the re ve r se side of this sheet for your response. "A pedestrian friendly,mixed-use,urban village that is the venue,the canvas,the place for the e xperience,diversity,evolution and possibility that is Colfax Avenue,Denver's Main Street.Streets, sidewalks and public spaces are inter-related, interdependent,creating a whole greater than the sum of its parts.Buildings are expressions of the spaces they surround,and the architectural heritage from which they are inspired.Vehicles,of all sorts and sizes,and pedestrians move seamlessly from transportation mode to shop,live, wo rk and play." "Improve the area to match Denver's other superior amenities,drawing from the strength of surrounding neighborhoods." "Colfax is a street of countless opportunities. Maintaining cultural,historical,transportation and human diversity is our primary goal.Rich neighborhood housing opportunities as well as w alkable businesses is a must.And we must r emember the value of the car for both the future and the past as historic US40." "The Colfax of the future is still an eclectic avenue.Places like the Gathering Place and thriftV ision: Underutilized properties have been renovated or replaced with new development.Ž

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166BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:stores have not been eliminated,but new uses have opened.In addition to places to eat and socialize from diners to upscale restaurants and bars,now small shops,perhaps even a few national c hains (like a Gap,featuring affordable clothing for y oung people) or a store like Pier 1 have opened. Residences above these shops are served by c leaners,nail salons,groceries.New buildings/mixed-use developments stand side by side with historic restorations.Building heights are in scale with each other.Some one-story building remain,but other buildings go as high as 4,5,or 6 stories.Sidewalks are pleasant places to w alk with visual protections from the street trees,street furniture or planters.Parking is often behind buildings and serves businesses,residences and transit.The avenue is served by a "uniquely Colfax"form of transportation trolley,bus rapid transit (BRT) or special bus service that people take pride in.Bus stops,too,are uniquely Colfax. A nighttime entertainment district around the F illmore,TECU,and the Ogden is popular for the y oung and old.St.John's Cathedral complements the district with a plaza in the daytime.Colfax is a happening place where all sorts of people mingle, visit and live nearby." "Underutilized properties have been renovated or r eplaced with new development.The new development is at a neighborhood scale.It r espects the adjacent residential neighborhood in size,scale and materials.As properties are improved,marginal businesses have left the area. Pa r king for the commercial uses does not ov erwhelm the adjacent neighborhoods.Colfax is pedestrian friendly,with broad sidewalks.People f eel safe walking at anytime.Buildings are close to the street,not setback with a sea of asphalt in front of them.The street attracts people from the surrounding neighborhoods to neighborhood shops and restaurants." "I imagine pedestrian friendly sidewalks with a "clean feeling."The mix of people and businesses is still eclectic and caters to young and old.The buildings are mixed use and "parking lots,"buses stopping at every corner,pay phones have been eliminated.There is no need for a car if you live in the area.All your basic shopping needs are within walking distance food,bank,haircuts, c leaners,entertainment.Most importantly people f eel safe at any hour of the day or night." "Colfax will be a lively mixture of long term and viable start-up businesses.Pedestrians will be w elcome.Parking will be available outside of adjacent neighborhoods.Owners will take an active interest in the condition of business and r esidential uses." "I live on Emerson,eight doors south of Colfax. Even though I have a car,I seldom use it as I am ab le to shop for the majority of my needs right on Colfax.We have a great trolley that runs right on Colfax so we can get to stores that are more than a couple of blocks to walk.Our entertainment area has two theaters that have big bands,a movieA pedestrian friendly, mixed-use, urban village, that is the venue, the canvas, the place for the experience, diversity, evolution and possibility that is Colfax Avenue, Denvers Main Street. Streets, sidewalks and public spaces are inter-related, interdependent, creating a whole greater than the sum of its parts. Buildings are expressions of the spaces they surround, and the architectural heritage from which they are inspired. Vehicles, of all sorts and sizes, and pedestrians move seamlessly from transportation mode to shop, live, work and play.Ž Colfax community member

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167EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANcomplex,several nice restaurants to choose from and nice neighborhood spots to drop into after the theatre.Our street is tree lined with strollers f eeling comfortable and safe and Denver comes here for their leisure time.We are visited daily by visitors to the area as part of their visit to the Colorado State Capitol Building." "Colfax is a 24-hour vibrant,diverse,mixed-use, attractive street,where people of all kinds enjoy living,shopping,working,walking,being entertained and people watching.It combines oldand new buildings and people of all ages and types.""Colorful,yet warm and welcoming.Locally o wned shops visited by local residents.No need f or a car here,but cars and the trolley easily work around each other.Diversity remains.People come in to Colfax as a destination shopping area because of the interesting shops." "I see our Colfax neighborhood 10 years hence,as a multifaceted entity.The western gateway into our Capitol Hill neighborhood,which begins at Grant Street where I see: A "Greenwich Village"like neighborhood around the Capitol and Cathedral,serving younger set living in that more densely populated area. Restaurants to serve the government population during the day,and offer a warm and exciting atmosphere in the evening.Preservation of the area's historic buildings has been a paramount consideration,and has contributed to the wa r mth and welcoming atmosphere.This neighborhood then dovetails into Denver's entertainment and nightlife community.The many entertainment venues are an exciting draw to the entire metro area,and it has become the "in"place to see and be seen.Off-street parking structures have relieved the pressure on surrounding residential neighborhoods.Late night bars and restaurants serve the clientele.The area anchored around Downing Street and east,has continued its growth and development as a prime condo/upscale apartment area built around solid office and commercial development.Live/work/shop defines this neighborhood and the Wyman Historic District to the east.Fr om Franklin to Josephine,the Wyman Historic District has evolved into a mixed-use area of f amilies reclaiming the homes and establishing a r esidential character back into this once historic neighborhood.There continues to be office uses,but an obvious mix of young families with c hildren,retirees and empty nesters abound. While anchored by the easy access to Downtown,and Cherry Creek,it is prized for its c lassic architecture and historic ambience.Continuing to the east,the renovated Lowenstein Theatre and Arts complex,along with the r ejuvenated Esplanade form the eastern gateway into our Capitol Hill neighborhood.Fr om here eastward,residential/commercial/ r etail has continued to develop,as exemplified by the Chamberlin Heights project.Fueled byColorful, yet warm and welcoming; locally owned shops visited by local residents. No need for a car here, but cars and the trolley easily work around each other. Diversity remains. People come to Colfax as a destination shopping area because of the interesting shops.Ž Colfax community member

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168BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:development of the "Mercy Hospital"community, Colfax to Colorado Boulevard continues to offer r esidential diversity and accompanying retail service.The presence of a fixed rail historically accurate trolley has given the street an identifiable c haracter unique to our neighborhood,and envied by all.While diversity has remained paramount in continuing development, consistency of design and development unique to each area is essential to the overall perception and quality of life represented along East Colfax Aven ue.""Colfax Avenue can best be described as a neighborhood and regional retail and entertainment center (including many restaurants). Physically,it consists of a tree-lined boulevard f aced by two-0,threeand four-story buildings directly on the street,with first floor retail and office and or residential above.Because its designation as a federal highway was removed in mid 2005,traffic-calming mechanisms (such as bulbouts) have slowed speeds considerably.That has also enabled on-street parking to be installed along virtually all segments,making it much safer to walk along. "Colfax's importance as an entertainment and r estaurant center has continued to grow.The F illmore,Ogden and Bluebird are still there,but they have been joined by more restaurants that attract a "moderately expensive"dining clientele. Colfax's redevelopment successfully preserved old structures for example the area around the cathedral Grant to Pearl and the area around Marion/Lafayette.Areas of new development,for e xample from Pearl to Clarkson,have design details that compliment the historic buildings. F inally,Colfax exists in harmony with the r esidential neighborhoods on wither side of it.For e xample,parking associated with Colfax businesses and residents does not spill out on the adjacent streets which are still heavily used for parking by residents." "Colfax is pedestrian dominant,but not car free." "East Colfax represents all of Denver.It appeals to and accommodates the old and the young,the ri ch the poor and people from all ethnic backgrounds.It is an authentic commercial area, shopped by the myriad people who live and work there.It is a great place to get lunch,a cup of coffee,or a new outfit.There is a great shuttle and lots of outdoor dining experiences and a great independent supermarket.Colfax offers everything I need.It is eclectic,dynamic,practical and appealing." "Colfax is like the Fiddler on the Roof balancing the elements of his culture while still fiddling. Edgy,gritty and bohemian elements balanced with [the] mainstream...Amped up like Jeff Beck on the Roof."Colfax is like the Fiddler on the Roof balancing the elements of his culture while still fiddling. Edgy, gritty and bohemian elements balanced with [the] mainstream ...Amped up like Jeff Beck on the Roof.Ž Colfax community member

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169EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANColfax Avenue is a multi-modal,commercial and r esidential "main street"serving the adjacent neighborhoods,commuters and tourists.The street is as diverse as its inhabitants.There is a rhythm and pulse to the activity generated by an integrated land-use and transportation system that sustains the nearby neighborhoods,encourages w alking,biking and transit use,enlivens the activity on the street and captures the attention of commuters and visitors. Po r tions of the corridor support concentrated nodes of development with multiple storied r esidential mixed-use buildings.These dense nodes of activity contain many pedestrian amenities and intersect along the Colfax transit line with north-south routes or at other activity centers.A lower intensity,but compact, development pattern characterizes the walking distance between these activity nodes.A shallow commercial lot depth constrains these stretches of the corridor,where local merchants find opportunities to market their goods and services to nearby residents and commuters who walk to the stores.A variety of amenities street furniture,street trees,awnings,well maintained sidewalks enhance the pedestrian experience in these areas.Each node or walkable stretch of the corridor expresses a unique identity defined by diverse businesses,scale and character of adjacent residential neighborhoods and high quality urban design attributes.Great variety in land uses,density and intensity accentuate the different environments to be found along Colfax, but no matter the location,a visitor experiences a unique sense of place with a definable character and charm. During the day Colfax is abuzz with commuters, either residents who live (and work) on or near the corridor,as well as people who commute from eastern neighborhoods.Many commuters drive, but enhanced transit increases the street's capacity to move people,not just cars.At transit nodes commuters find access to an attractive,quick and uniquely Colfax form of transit.The nodes incorporate goods and services like a dry cleaner, post office,coffee shop,newsstand,day care or f ood market that make commuting by alternative transit more convenient.Many commuters park at the transit nodes for these shops and services and use the Colfax line to access downtown. FULL LENGTH VISION STATEMENT

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170BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:At night and on the weekends,visitors are attracted to the area and enjoy the ease of multimodal access,the plentiful parking at activity centers and the walkable stretches that encourage them to shop,dine and partake of a variety of entertainment venues.While parking is plentiful in structures or underground at certain activity centers,on street parking and shared parking provide ample,affordable spaces all along Colfax. Strong pedestrian facilities connect parking areas with shops,services and destinations,and often visitors choose to walk,take transit or ride their bikes rather than drive to their favorite places along Denver's Main Street.Plenty of bike racks and lockers may be found at convenient locations near bike routes that intersect Colfax.The various nodes along the corridor showcase different ve nues a cluster of shops (both local and even some national brand stores) at one node or theater and restaurants at another.Between these nodes, visitors are drawn to the restaurant rows,art galleries and local boutique shopping that offer enough variety to please any palette.With visitors at night,local residents,workers and commuters during the day,Colfax is a 24-hour marketplace. A focus on urban design has resulted over the y ears in the use of sustainable,durable building materials that reflect the quality of historic architecture treasured and preserved along the corridor.This respect for historic architecture does not constrain creativity in design,and an eclectic mix of architectural forms and styles complements the past,but keeps an eye on the future.Strategically utilized signage,faade treatment,lighting and landscaping enhance the businesses and buildings,creating a corridor uncontaminated by visual clutter.Signage is creative yet simple,clear,attractive,and appropriate to the building or use.Lighting and landscaping are deliberate,used to define building entrances,reinforce the street wall,enhance architectural features of buildings and promote a pedestrian friendly environment.The use of urban design standards hallmarks significant places along the corridor like the City Park Esplanade and Park Aven ue. In addition to enhancing the physical capital provided by the historic and eclectic modern architecture,Colfax nourishes the human capital of its residents.The area welcomes and embraces neighborhood diversity that encompasses a wide va r iety of ages,lifestyles,economic circumstances, ethnic groups and family types.In this place, neighbors help neighbors the community r esponds to the needs of its people through acceptance and tolerance,job training and development,business incubation,crime prevention strategies,and other innovative community programs.Strong and cooperative business and resident organizations bolster these efforts. Colfax exemplifies the best of what a city can offer:a vibrant,hip,progressive urban avenue.

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171EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANGLOSSARY OF TERMS AND TOOLSActivity Center A single large use (like a stadium) or dense cluster of uses that generate high degree of visitation and activity.Advocacy EntityPlanning and management entities separate from governmental agencies responsible for designated areas. Entity assumes promotion of area,manages and coordinates its implementation,initiates actions to move area closer to its vision.Specific functions may include:acquire,assemble,hold and convey land to permit new forms of infill development;facilitate targeted home rehabilitation loans;coordinate and participate in real estate development and infrastructure financing;facilitate actions of public agencies responsible for go ve r nment services;monitor traffic issues and manage parking efficiently;monitor security matters; coordinate the dissemination of market information;establish fees,rates and charges for use of property; and direct marketing and promotion.Affordable Housing Demonstration ProjectPublic-private effort whereby public sector contributes land,financing,or the like,and private sector (developer) contributes expertise and money to joint development of an affordable housing project; program is designed to educate delivery system (property owners,developers,lenders,public officials, community at-large,etc.) on "value"of developing product in the market.BrownfieldsContaminated former industrial and commercial lands comprising a portion of sites that could be r edeveloped.

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172BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Business Recruitment /RetentionProgram,frequently administered by an economic development entity,which assists with the r ecruitment (attraction) or retention of business either into or within a designated area;program elements might include financial assistance, r egulatory assistance,and/or marketing.Capital Improvement Plan (CIP)Dollars earmarked for improvement and extension of infrastructure in municipalities.Community Development Assistance (CDA) (State)A uthorizes up to certain percent state tax credits to eligible contributors investing in approved community projects;in certain instances applicants must meet economic distress criteria; non-profit developers subject to limitations on per project tax credits.Community Development Block Grants (CDBG) (Federal)F ederal grants,administered through local or re gional offices,designed to lower the overall cost of a project;projects must demonstrate the ability to improve the economic conditions of an area.Community Development Corporation (CDC)Nonprofit organizations based in specific neighborhoods and subject to local governance. CDCs may rehabilitate and build affordable housing for neighborhood residents,foster local economic development,and provide an array of r elated social services.CDFIs Community Development Financial InstitutionsNetworks of federal banks,credit unions,and CDCs that target loans to redlined areas.Community Reinvestment Act (CRA)Program under which federally-insured lending institutions are provided incentives to offer assistance with development financing for local projects (particularly those in economicallydistressed areas);assistance usually offered at a fa vo ra b le rate;institutions earmark a percent of their lending dollars for this program.Concentrated Public FacilitiesCity investment in identified areas by locating both facilities and publicly sponsored developments and amenities in places where infill development is desired;result is a greater leverage of public dollars through strategic investment,and a bility to assist developer with financial pre-leasing r equirements.

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173EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANCorridorDescribes generally the public right of way and/or the parcels of land contiguous to the public right of way.This term also references the area of influence which may lie beyond these more fluid, shifting boundaries.Cultural Arts ActivitiesActivities and programs which encourage use of the arts in a designated area by a variety of participants.Cultural TourismMarketing and promotion of cultural and historic community elements of interest to visitors to an area;a thriving industry for many areas of the east and south.Cultural tourism efforts generally originate at a grass-roots level,but quickly require the assistance and coordinate of municipal and state entities.Density Density is a measure of the degree of population or housing units per acre of land.Density BonusesIncentive offered to developers of projects that meet specified goals (i.e.,affordable housing, public spaces,transit,etc).Design GuidelinesFo r mal set of guidelines (with over-sight by a board comprised of area stakeholders, neighborhood representatives,and design professionals) for use by investors doing projects within priority areas.Guidelines address character and quality levels and frame discussions with staff.Design StandardsFo r mal set of standards (either administered through an appointed design-review committee and/or municipal staff) for development which r equire certain development character and quality levels for the built and natural environment.Developer RFPsRequest-for-Proposals from potential developers of projects in designated areas.Selection of developer based on dollar amount of bid;quality of design;developer's track record;and preferences of neighborhood residents.Development Fee WaiversDevelopment fees are monetary charges on development to recoup a portion of the capital and operating costs required to accommodate a project.Note:Fees for sewer/water hook-ups, building permits,processing fee,etc.can be w aived or delayed until the developer sees a positive cash flow as a means to encourage infill projects.

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174BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Development Standard WaiversDuring approvals process,City can grant waivers or variances for items including height limits, setbacks,density,lot coverage,rear access,etc.DistrictDescribes an area with distinguishing c haracteristics such as the type,mix and intensity of uses contained therein.Economic Development Administration (EDA) (Federal)Public entity which provides assistance in form of planning grants and construction financing for the development of projects in rural and urban locations which will result in the creation of jobs f or the community.Educational SeminarsPrograms hosted by a variety of entities (i.e., lender,developer,municipal,etc.) which promote an open dialogue among those individuals and organizations which represent delivery system;can occur in a variety of forums;purpose is to provide participants with various perspectives and an understanding of initiatives designed to facilitate development process.Engage Elected OfficialsVa r iety of methods by which elected officials are engaged in planning and implementation efforts; improved communication between staff and elected officials.Note:This should be a common practice,not project-specific.Enterprise ZoneState-designated area where businesses located within them that make capital investments,hire new employees,contribute to economic development plans,rehabilitate old buildings and/or do research and development are provided a tax credit.An approach to revitalizing distressed areas by offering tax incentives,regulatory relief and improved government services.Environmental Impact Reports (EIR)sUsed to assess environmental impacts and determine mitigation measures needed for building a redevelopment plan,specific plan,or community plan.As projects are identified,the City may be asked to conduct additional environmental reviews or focus on few identified areas.Floor Area Ratio (F.A.R.)F AR is a measure of development intensity e xpressed as the ratio of building area relative to the land on which it rests.

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175EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANFaade Maintenance ProgramAny program local,state or federal including low interest loans and/or grants which encourages investment in,and improvement to, building facades within a planning area.May also be designed as a matching funds program,within a district,for building faade maintenance.Government LiaisonIndividual or committee charged with establishing and maintaining a dialogue between various branches of government (local,county,regional) re garding issues such as intergovernmental ag r eements,regulatory reform,facilities planning, etc.Historic PreservationBenefits of local Denver historic district designation Obtain official recognition that your building has special historical,architectural,or geographical significance and is an important part of Denver's history.Obtain architectural advice and ideas through the design review process of the Denver Landmark Preservation Commission.P ossibly increase the value of your home and neighborhood.Contribute to protecting your building's c haracter in the future.Qualify for a Colorado Historic Preservation Income Tax Credit of 20%,which can be carried f orward five years,of qualified costs up to a maximum credit of $50,000 per qualified property if the preservation or rehabilitation costs $5,000 or more.Be eligible to compete for funding from the State Historical Fund.Obtain relief from building codes.Be eligible for the Downtown Revolving Loan Fund if Landmark is in the downtown B-5 zone district.Be eligible for transfer development rights (TDRs) allowing transfer of the unused portion of the allowable floor area ratio to another site within the same zone district if the property is located in the downtown B-5 zone,Lower Downtown B-7,and B-8G zone districts.Be eligible for expanded uses,such as for an office,art gallery and bed and breakfast,if the property is located in an R-3 residential zone district.Be eligible to donate a facade easement.Historic Preservation EasementA "preservation easement"is an interest in real property that the owner of the property transfers to a qualified organization such as Historic Denver, Inc.or to a governmental body in return for benefits to the property owner.The easement

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176BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:holder does not acquire an ownership interest in the property;rather,the easement holder has a r ight of access to the property for the purposes of inspecting the property.An easement "runs with the land";in other words,when you sell your property,the easement is not extinguished,and the easement will apply to future owners of the property.The easement will prohibit the demolition of the property and modifications that harm its historic character.Preservation easements guards against trends toward "scrape-offs" (removing historic homes from large lots,followed by splitting the lot in half to build two new homes) or "pop-tops"(adding one or more stories to an historic home.A donation of a preservation easement has tax benefits under Federal,state and local tax laws.Under the Internal Revenue Code, the donor of an easement to an organization such as HDI may qualify for a charitable tax deduction on the taxpayer's Federal tax return,and this may also serve to reduce an individual's Colorado tax burden.Generally,an easement donor may deduct the value of the easement.The easement's value is the difference between the appraised fair market v alue of the property prior to the conveyance of an easement and the property's value with the easement restrictions in place.The Federal c haritable deduction from Federal taxes can be up to thirty percent of the taxpayer's adjusted gross income.Any excess value may be carried forward up to five years.Colorado also allows the donor of a qualified preservation easement to take a tax credit for a preservation easement donation.The total amount of credit cannot exceed $260,000. The credit is computed using the fair market value of the donation,calculated as one-hundred percent (100%) of the first $100,000 plus forty percent (40%) of the excess of $100,000 up to $500,000. Any excess of the tax credit over the Colorado income tax due may be carried forward up to twenty years.Historic Preservation Funds and T ax CreditsState Historic Fund GrantsGrants are made only to public and non-profit entities.Individuals and businesses must find a public entity or appropriate non-profit organization to apply for and administer the funds on their behalf.1.General Grants Are made for certain project types with no defined dollar limit. 2.Archaeological Assessment Grants Are made for the collection and evaluation of archaeological information for the purpose of creating a plan for preservation or additional work. 3.Historic Structure Assessment Grants Are made f or the preparation of a Structure Assessment by an architect licensed in the state of Colorado; where the request is $10,000 or less. 4.Emergency Grants Are made exclusively for interim stabilization of a historic property which has been damaged due to some unforeseeable event and typically do not exceed $10,000.No cash match is required.

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177EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANState Historic Fund Revolving Loan FundThe Colorado Historical Foundation created the CHF Revolving Loan Fund.The Loan Fund partners with the State Historical Fund by providing grant r ecipients an additional source of funding for historic preservation in the form of low-interest r ate loans.The Loan Fund is intended to become a permanent and self-sufficient source of capital funds for historic preservation projects in Colorado.The Loan Fund is managed in partnership with the State Historical Fund and the Colorado Housing and Finance Authority (CHFA), which acts as the fiscal agent responsible for evaluating risk as well as closing and servicing all loans.The Loan Fund provides below-market fixed r ates to supplement Historical Fund grants.The loans typically require minimal down payments and are structured with flexible repayment terms. Loans may be made only for costs eligible for funding by the State Historical Fund as demonstrated by such costs being included in the scope of work of a currently active or immediately pending State Historical Fund grant award contract.Eligible loan structures include: Construction loans to rehabilitate a designated historic property.Bridge loans to cover cash shortfalls due to the timing of the receipt of specified funds related to an active State Historical Fund grant contract.The loans will typically be secured by a lien on the property that is receiving the benefit of the improvements.Additionally,majority owners will be expected to provide a personal guaranty on the loan.Although there are no minimum or maximum loan amounts,loans of less than $100,000 or over $750,000 will be considered only under unusual circumstances.All State Historical Fund grant r ecipients are eligible to apply for loans (including both non-profit and public entities).In addition, loans may also be made directly to private individuals and for-profit owners of historic properties receiving State Historical Fund Grants. The Loan Fund offers fixed-rate,secured loans up to five years,for projects having an active or immediately pending State Historical Fund grant aw ard contract.Loan terms are flexible and dependent upon project and borrower needs. Interest rates are negotiable but attractive (at or below prime).Repayment schedules are flexible and the loans may be prepaid at any time without penalty.Federal Tax CreditFederal and state tax laws provide tax incentives for historic preservation projects which follow the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation.The federal go ve r nment offers a 20% investment tax credit for the approved rehabilitation of certified historic buildings used for income-producing purposes as w ell as a 10% credit for certain other older buildings.*State Tax CreditThe state offers a similar 20% state income tax credit based on $5,000 or morePreservation tax credits have been a key tool in my projects. They are especially useful for pioneers who are redeveloping a disinvested area. Under those circumstances it can be difficult to obtain funding but tax credits can make your project much more attractive to investors. While tax credits often mean some compromises, they are still a significant incentive for development in historic areas.Ž John Hickenlooper, President Wynkoop Brewing Company (from "The Economic Development Benefits of Historic Preservation," Colorado Historical F oundation, January 2002)

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178BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:of approved preservation work on designated properties.** There is a $50,000 maximum credit per qualified property. A pplicants are urged to contact the Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation (OAHP) staff as early as possible when considering an application for either federal or state tax credits.OAHP provides advice to property owners,developers, and architects concerning appropriate preservation and r ehabilitation measures.OAHP staff review applications for tax incentives and make recommendations for approval.Historic Preservation WebsitesState Historic Fund:http://www.coloradohistory-oahp.org/ programareas/shf/gengrantsless.htmHistoric Denver:http://historicdenver.org/HOMEHOME Investment Partnership Program,whereby HUD allocates funds by formula among eligible state and local governments to strengthen publicprivate partnerships and to expand the supply of decent,safe,sanitary and affordable housing for ve ry low-income families.Improvement DistrictBoth an organizing and financing technique for area revitalization.District provides stable stream of income for activities and projects considered special to area or in addition to general municipal services.Districts are vehicle for providing additional services for a fee and not to substitute f or services funded through traditional tax re ve nues.Infill DevelopmentDevelopment of new homes,commercial and/or r etail buildings,and public facilities on unused or underused lands in existing communities.Infrastructure Cost ParticipationCost of infrastructure (either onsite or off-site) shared by developer and/or property owner with an entity (public (city/county),private (developer co-op),or semi-private organization which will benefit from its availability can be offered through a formal program or on a case-by-case basis.IntensityIntensity is a measure of the degree of built environment generally expressed in terms of floor area ratio (see definition above for Floor Area Ratio),or amount of building square footage r elative to land area.Land AssemblyLand assembled by public,private or non-profit entity in effort to position for development of larger projects.Assembly can happen through purchases of properties,vacating and/or rerouting streets,alleys,etc.

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179EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANLand Donation/Write-DownProperty owner public (city/county),private (developer),or semi-private organization contributes land to a project either as a donation without an expected return,or at a reduced price. City-acquired property through fee simple transactions and foreclosures are an obvious source for land contributions.Land SwapTo develop specific infill site in specified way, potentially contrary to existing property owner or developer,cities can offer an exchange of cityo wned land of similar value in alternate location.Level-of-ServiceRoads within community are designed to meet specified goals regarding mobility,connectivity, and regional planning and land use development. Level-of-service is measure used to describe street standards necessary to address role of the street. By adjusting level-of-service you address the tension between through-trips and access to activities and services along the road (corridor).Leverage Infrastructure Funding to Support Private MoneyW ithin a predefined area,public investment for infrastructure located strategically to leverage private investment.Limitations on Infrastructure ExtensionsMethod used in regional growth management whereby efficient development patterns are re wa r ded.Linked DepositsLocal development agencies and downtown development organizations use their bank deposits to leverage bank lending for activities supported in the area.City or development agency deposits its funds in one or several banks with provision that bank make loans in support of identified community objective.Note:In select instances, cities have foregone interest on these deposits so that the bank can make loans at below market r ates.Liquor License RestrictionsLimit on the number of liquor licenses issued in a designated area.Restrictions generally tied to businesses which generate over a certain percent of their revenue from liquor sales.The purpose of this action is not to eliminate restaurants,but concentrations of bars.Loan Pool (Lending Pools)Several lending organizations contributing financing to a project or projects,thus sharing r isk.An amount of capital pledged by several entities for lending to businesses based on some ag r eed upon goals or other criteria.Pledges can

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180BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:be in the form of loans,letters of commitment and stock purchases.Pool can be either organized fo rm ally or on a case-by-case basis.Low-Income Housing Tax Credits (State)Dollar for dollar reduction or credit against an investor's federal income tax liability on salary, wa g es,business,etc.;credit is treated like a cash payment or as a reduction against the amount of tax owed;sale of tax credits by the developer contributes to project equity,thereby reducing developer's out-of-pocket investment.Low Interest Loans/SubordinationLoans for construction,acquisition,operation,etc. are offered to qualifying individuals or organizations at a preferred interest rate; subordination by a public (city/county),private (lender),or semi-private organization of a loan provides a guarantee to the lending organization that in the event of default debt service will be paid.Micro Loan ProgramOffers small amounts of capital usually less than $2,500 to very small businesses for wide range of capital needs including faade improvements, wo r king capital and personal needs;provide loan guarantees.Downside:Excessive credit analysis and underwriting costs.NodeA point of relatively intense development intensity or activity along a strip at which point subsidiary parts originate or center such as a transit station at the intersection of two major routes or the immediate vicinity of an activity center such as a major entertainment venue.Non-Profit Developer SupportVa r iety of financial and regulatory tools and programs which streamline and reduce costs for "eligible projects"by "eligible developers."Overlay Zone (i.e., historic, parking)Designated area superimposed on one or more e xisting zoning districts;designed to protect or enhance an area's special qualities;governmental re view of all developments,with the power to approve design according to standards contained in the ordinance or in a district plan or design guidelines;program elements include "bonuses" and "requirement adjustments."OverzoningZoning that permits an intensity and density of development that is significantly greater than the current land use.The term is generally applied when the permitted density and intensity of zoning allows a level of development that is out of c haracter with an existing land use pattern.

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181EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANPark-in-a-ParkCreative method by which parking is secondary to design and landscaping,giving visual appearance of cars in park rather than trees in a parking lot.Parking DistrictDesignated area wherein parking design, development and management issues among multiple facilities are controlled by select entity beyond that provided for by standard municipal levels of service and control.Pedestrian Enhancements and LinkagesVa r ious public,private and non-profit initiatives to improve the pedestrian environment in a designated area,i.e.,permanent and temporary streetscape elements,sidewalk widening,reduced speeds,etc.Resulting environment designed to accommodate needs of pedestrians,as well as through and destination traffic,by incorporating select infrastructure improvements,design elements,and traffic management mechanisms. Methods to achieve include:separating traffic through use of parallel streets;limiting access points;linking parking lots;coordinating traffic signals;adding alternative transportation lanes; widening sidewalks;providing crosswalks; providing street lights and furniture;preventing "deadening"uses without building front;and incorporating transit stops.Predevelopment Funding GrantsF inancing for project expenses incurred prior to construction,i.e.,soft costs including consulting, design,engineering,and planning,and marketing, etc.Note:The Economic Development Administration (EDA) has funds for predevelopment and construction costs.Project ThresholdsProject size thresholds,predetermined and designed to allow smaller projects to be rapidly permitted,saving extensive reviews for larger developments and environmentally sensitive sites.Public SubordinationCity/county provides a guarantee to the lending organization that,in the event of default,debt service will be paid.RedevelopmentRestoration of existing buildings and properties b lighted and/or which diminish the character and function of a neighborhood including adaptive use and historic preservation properties.Regulatory ReformInitiative by government entity to amend existing r egulatory documents to be responsive to prevailing market and economic conditions; e xamples might include:new or amended zoning designations,planning approval process reform,

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182BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:updated comprehensive plan,etc.Reverse MortgageLow interest loan based on equity in home; particularly relevant for seniors.Revolving Loan FundsFlexible funding in the form of loans,guarantees and interest subsidies to firms which further local development goals;designed to alleviate high costs and short supply of capital for businesses, particularly small ones,or those located in distressed areas.Components include:lower rates, longer terms;many capitalized by/with federal funds combined with private funds.Re-Zone ParcelsEither city-owned and initiated,or petition-based, through an organized effort initiated by the "advocacy entity"to enlist the support of property o wners within a designated area request for a c hange in property zoning designation;the objective is to provide landowners the incentive and economic strength to maintain and redevelop a high-quality environment and react more swiftly to market trends.Sales Tax SharingFuture sales from a development can be rebated to developer to pay for infrastructure city/county ag r ees to split sales tax revenue with developer, then developer uses to pay for infrastructure.School ProgramsPrograms (i.e.,essays,art,civic participation) which encourage the involvement of students in a designated area.Self-Certification ProgramContractors assume responsibility for inspecting and certifying the correct completion of their own wo rk Quality is assured by random spot checks; contractors who cheat lose their licenses.Self-Supporting Municipal Improvement District (SSMID)District providing stable stream of income for activities and projects considered special to area or in addition to general municipal services. Districts are vehicle for providing additional services for a fee and not to substitute for services funded through traditional tax revenues.Signature ProjectPublic-private effort whereby public sector contributes land,financing,or the like,and private sector (developer) contributes their expertise and money to joint development of a significant project within a designated planning area;program is designed to encourage development of project which will serve as a catalyst for additional investment.

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183EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANSmart GrowthGrowth management program which combines incentives,disincentives,and traditional planning techniques to promote a pattern of growth that achieves economic,environmental,and quality-oflife objectives.Station AreaA significant transfer point or stop along a transit r oute where the land uses are highly oriented to the transit function of the area.Streamlined Development ApprovalInitiative by government entity to facilitate a timely approvals process for (re)development projects meeting certain criteria.Also referred to as a "green-tape"permitting program.Critical elements of program:1) streamlined permit and entitlement process;2) greater predictability;and, 3) fairness in fees and exactions.Components:1) appointed case manager;2) consolidated permit process;3) waived or reduced fees;4) reduced number of changes to previously approved plans; 5) stoppage to the issuance of conflicting r equirements by different departments;6) a single public hearing;7) streamlined environmental re view process.Study areaDescribes the physical boundaries of the area analyzed in the plan.Grant Street,16th Avenue, Colorado Boulevard and 14th Avenue form the w est,north,east and south boundaries r espectively.However,this area does take into account influences which may lie outside of these boundaries.SubareasDescribes different segments of the study area that va ry by e xisting character and vision for future development.Physical boundaries define these areas and general characteristics within these boundaries differentiate the individual subareas.T ax AbatementT axing entity (usually the city) abates or reduces a portion of tax burden;this can happen in the form of an adjustment on an individual property basis, or in an abatement zone.T ax Exempt Bond FinancingMethod of financing long-term debt issued by go ve r nment whereby bondholders need not include interest payments on taxable income.T ax Increment Financing (TIF)A district obtains funds from increases in regular tax revenues that arise from new development in the district;incremental increase in tax revenues ov er designated base year revenues is diverted to a special fund;diversion of regular tax revenues r ather than additional fees to generate revenue for

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184BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:district investments.Can be used in conjunction with municipal bond issues whereby increment is pledged to repayment of the bond issue,or actual increase allocated to an administering agency directly to finance redevelopment activities.T rade areaDescribes an area beyond the boundaries of a "study area."The trade area boundaries vary by product.For example,lodging,office and r esidential uses have different trade areas.The trade area relates to the larger context within which similar products compete.The capture rate f or a study area will shrink or grow depending on the size of the trade area.A larger trade area provides more complete understanding of the macro environment within which the study area must compete.It describes the primary area from which the study area draws its customer base. The boundaries of this area are somewhat fluid in that as the corridor develops and adds new attractions,the draw to the area will pull consumers from a wider area.T ransfer of Development Rights (TDR)Ability to transfer property entitlements from one property to another when one of the parcels is located in a designated development area.T ransit Oriented Development (T.O.D.)T OD is a form of development that maximizes the benefits from the investment in transit infrastructure by concentrating the most intense types of development around transit stations to promote increased transit use.T ransit-Supportive Land UseLand uses and land use forms supportive of alternative forms of transportation.Typical elements include:high-density residential, employment uses,commercial developments and public spaces.Tu r nkey FacilitiesBuildings,frequently institutional,developed (and some times managed) by a private entity for another entity.Benefits to developer include a developer fee,management fee,position in the project,etc..Urban RenewalT ool used for purpose of eliminating slum or b lighted areas within municipality,and positioning areas for development or redevelopment.Actions under urban renewal include demolition of structures;construction of infrastructure and public spaces;sale of property;and,relocation of businesses and residents.

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185EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANUnderground UtilitiesCity works with local utility and cable companies to place all utility lines underground;maintenance, w eather-related repairs,and service disruption costs are reduced.City also encourages low-rate programs to assist developers with burying utility infrastructure.

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186BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:

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187EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLANMAP APPENDIX

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14 TH AVE 17 TH AVE16TH AVEVINE ST HIGH ST RACE STGILPIN STPEARL STGRANT STLOGAN STPARK AVEWILLIAMS STFRANKLIN STCLARKSON STHUMBOLDT STLAFAYETTE STWASHINGTONPENNSYLVANIAOGDE N STMARION STCORONA STSHERMAN STEMER SON STDOWNIN G STOG DEN STEMER SON STDOWNING STCOLFAX AVE 188BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Census Block Group map 1 Dot = 4 Persons East Colfax Study Area Boundar y Data Sources: 2000 Census (Block Level) map date: 04/26/04East Colfax Study Area Population by Census Block

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13 TH AVECOLFAX AVEYORK STVINE STMONROE STCOLORADO BLVD JACKSON ST GARFIELD STJOSEPHINE STGAYLORD ST COOK ST ADAMS ST STEELE STMADISON STELIZABETH STCLAYTON STCOLUMBINE STHARRISON STALBION STCITY PARK ESPLANADE 17TH AVE PKWYMILWAUKEE ST16TH AVESAINT PAUL ST16TH AVEDETR OIT STFI LLMORE STSTEELE ST 189EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN

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14TH AVE 17TH AVE16TH AVEVINE ST HIGH ST RACE STGILPIN STPEARL STGRANT STLOGAN STPARK AVEWILLIAMS STFRANKLIN STCLARKSON STHUMBOLDT STLAFAYETTE STWASHINGTONPENNSYLVANIAOGDEN STMARION STCORONA STSHERMAN STEMERSON STDOWNING STOGDEN STEMERSON STDOWNING ST C O LFAX AVE 190BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Existing zoning map Zoning O 1 P 1 PUD R 2 R 3 R 4 R 4 X B 1 B 2 B 4 B A 2 B A 3 H 1 A H 2Zoning is shown only within the study area boundary and is for illustrative purposes only. This is not a legal documentData Sources: Zoning Maps Community Planning and Development map date: 04/26/04East Colfax Study Area Boundary Overlay DistrictEast Colfax Study Area Zoning

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13TH AVECOLFAX A YORK STVINE STMONROE STCOLORADO BLVD JACKSON ST GARFIELD STJOSEPHINE STGAYLORD ST COOK ST ADAMS ST STEELE STMADISON STELIZABETH STCLAYTON STCOLUMBINE STHARRISON STALBION STCITY PARK ESPLANADE 17TH AVE PKWYMILWAUKEE ST16TH AVESAINT PAUL ST16TH AVEDETROIT STFILLMORE STSTEELE ST 191EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN

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14TH AVE 17TH AVE16TH AVEVINE ST HIGH ST RACE STGILPIN STPEARL STGRANT STLOGAN STPARK AVEWILLIAMS STFRANKLIN STCLARKSON STHUMBOLDT STLAFAYETTE STWASHINGTONPENNSYLVANIAOGDEN STMARION STCORONA STSHERMAN STEMERSON STDOWNING STOGDEN STEMERSON STDOWNING STCOLFAX AVE 192BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Existing land use map Single Family Residentia l Multi Family Residential Commercial Civic / Cultural / Schools Vacant / ParkingData Sources: Denver Assessors Parcel Database: April 2004 Community Planning and Development map date: 04/26/04East Colfax Study Area Existing Land Use

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13TH AVECOLFAX A YORK STVINE STMONROE STCOLORADO BLVD JACKSON ST GARFIELD STJOSEPHINE STGAYLORD ST COOK ST ADAMS ST STEELE STMADISON STELIZABETH STCLAYTON STCOLUMBINE STHARRISON STALBION STCITY PARK ESPLANADE 17TH AVE PKWYMILWAUKEE ST16TH AVESAINT PAUL ST16TH AVEDETROIT STFILLMORE STSTEELE ST 193EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN

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14TH AVE 17T H AVE16TH AVEVINE ST HIGH ST RACE STGILPIN STPEARL STGRANT STLOGAN STPAR K AVEWILLIAMS STFRANK LIN STCLARK SON STHUMB OLDT STLAFAYETTE STWASHINGTONPENNSYLV ANIAOGDE N STMARION STCORO NA STSHERMAN STEMERSON STDOWNING STOGDE N STEMERSON STDOWNING ST C OLFAX AVE 194BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Legacies Map Built Before 1945 Built After 1945 Unknown or N/AData Sources: Assessors "Commercial" and "Residential" databases, April 2004 map date: 04/26/04East Colfax Study Are a Age of Structures

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13T H AVECOLFAX A YORK STVINE STMONROE STCOLORA DO BLV D JACK SON S T GAR FIE LD STJOSEPHINE STGAY LO RD ST COOK ST ADAMS ST STEE LE STMADI SON S TELIZ ABETH STCLAYTON STCOLUMBINE STHARRISON STALBION STCITY PARK ESP LA NAD E 17TH AVE PKWYMILWAUK EE ST16TH AVESAINT PAUL ST16TH AVEDETROIT STFILLMORE STSTEE LE ST 195EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN

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13TH14THVINE HIGH RACEGILPINPEARLPARKGRANTLOGANWILLIAMSFRANKLINCLARKSONHUMBOLDTLAFAYETTEWASHINGTONPENNSYLVANIAMARIONCORONASHERMANDOWNINGMARIONDOWNINGEMERSONOGDEN 196BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Blueprint Denver Plan Map Excerpt Designated Area of Change Downtown Mixed Use Urban Residential Single Family Residential Pedestrian Shopping District Campus Entertainment, Cultural, Exhibition Parkmap date: 04/26/04 East Colfax Study Area BoundaryEast Colfax Study Area Blueprint Denver Land Use

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13T H 16THCO LFAXVINEYORKCOLORADOMONROEJACKSON GARFIELDJOSEPHINEGAYLORD ELIZABETHCLAYTONCOLUMBINE ALBION17TH AVECOOKHARRISON16THMADISON16THDETROITCITY PARK ESPLANADESAINT PAUL MILWAUKEEADAMSFILLMORESTEELE 197EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN

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14TH AVE 17TH AVE16TH AVEVINE ST HIGH ST RACE STGILPIN STPEARL STGRANT STLOGAN STPARK AVEWILLIAMS ST GAYL ORD ST FRANKLIN STCLARKSON STHUMBOLDT STLAFAYETTE STWASHINGTONPENNSYLVANIAOGDEN STMARION STCORONA STSHERMAN STEMERSON STDOWNING STOGDEN STEMERSON STDOWNING STCOLFAX COLFAX 198BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Future Land Use Concept Map TOD Mixed Use En tertainment, Civic, Cultural High Density Residential Medium Density Residential Low Density ResidentialData Sources: Denver Assessors Parcel Database: April 2004 Community Planning and Development map date: 04/26/04East Colfax Study Area Future Land Use Concept Map

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13TH AVECOLFAX AV E YORK STVINE STMONROE STCOLORADO BLVD JACKSON ST GARFIELD STJOSEPHINE STGAYLORD ST COOK ST ADAMS ST STEELE STMADISON STELIZABETH STCLAYTON STCOLUMBINE STHARRISON STALBION STCITY PARK ESPLANADE 17TH AVE PKWYMILWAUKEE ST16TH AVESAINT PAUL ST16TH AVEDETROIT STFILLMORE STSTEELE STCOLORADO COLORADO 199EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN

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17TH AVE16TH AVEVINE ST HIGH ST RACE STGRANT STLOGAN STPARK AVEFRANKLIN STCLAR KSON STW ASHINGTON CORONA STSHERMAN STEMERSON STDOWNING STDOWNING STOGDE N ST 200BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:T ransportation Map All other streets are “Undesignated Local”Blueprint Denver Street Classifications Residential Collecto r Residential Arterial Mixed Use Arterial MainArterial Bus Stops / Ridership Volume* 108 200 201 300 301 500 501 1590*Ridership Volume = Combined Average Boardings and Exits per dayBike RoutesData Sources: RTD and Blueprint Denver map date: 04/26/04East Colfax Study Area Transportation Map

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14TH AVE 13TH AVECO LFAX AVEYORK STVINE ST COLORADO BLVD GARFIELD STJOSEPHINE STCOOK ST STEELE STDETROIT STFILLMORE STCI TY PARK ESPLANADE 17TH AVE PKWYSAINT PAUL ST16TH AVE 16TH AVE 201EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN

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202BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE:Underutilized Properties Map Adequate Underutilized Missing Datamap date: 04/26/04East Colfax Study Area Land-Structure Value Ratio

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203EAST COLFAXEAST COLFAX CORRIDOR PLAN

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204BLUEPRINT DENVER AREA OF CHANGE: