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Federal Boulevard corridor plan

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Title:
Federal Boulevard corridor plan
Creator:
Department of Public Works, City and County of Denver
Felsburg Holt and Ullevig
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Denver, CO
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City and County of Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

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City planning
Federal Boulevard (Denver, Colo.)

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FEDERAL BOULEVARD
CORRIDOR PLAN


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
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FEDERAL BOULEVARD
CORRIDOR PLAN
Prepared for:
City and County of Denver
Department of Public Works
Transportation Division
200 West 14th Avenue
Denver, CO 80204
Prepared by:
Felsburg Holt & Ullevig
5299 DTC Boulevard, Suite 400
Englewood, CO 80111
303/721-1440
In association with:
EDAW/HRV, Inc,
Coley/Forrest
Frasier Halbe, Inc.
February, 1995
City and County of Denver


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
Mr. Dave Doering
Mr. Ted Hackworth
NORTH SEGMENT
Mr. Ronnie Bay
Mr. Kevin Cahill
Ms. Lucy Cook
Mr. David Dooley
Mr. Bill Duffy
Mr. Eloy Espinoza, Jr.
Ms. Margery Goldman
Ms. Kathy Grasmugg
Ms. Margie Grimsley
Mr. Joe Grindon
Ms. Bev Haggerty
Mr. Frank Keller
Mr. Larry Life
Mr. Antonio Lucero
Mr. Gil Martinez
Mr. Michael McCloskey
Ms. Pam McGiven
Mr. George Poplin
Mr. Ed Rovey
Mr. Randall Sampson
Mr. Brian Spindle
Mr. Marshall Vanderburg
Mr. Alan White
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER
Wellington Webb, Mayor
CITY COUNCIL
Ms. Ramona Martinez Mr. Timothy Sandos
Ms. Deborah Ortega Mr. William Scheitler
Ms. Cathy Reynolds
CITIZENS ADVISORY COMMITTEE
SOUTH SEGMENT
Ms. Vera Aragon
Mr. Dick Boehm
Mr. Stephen Burke
Mr. Bal Chaves
Mr. Dan Cronin
Ms. April Crumley
Mr. Ron Damiana
Ms. Judy Green
Ms. Mickey James
Mr. Ron Leraaen
Ms. Marcy Linder
Mr. Al Lucero
Mr. Roy Maddox
Ms. Marilane McCartney
Mr. Gary Moscow
Ms. Janice Nelson
Ms. Vickie Patterson
Ms. Jo Anne Phillips
Ms. Carolyn Quick
Mr. Harvey Radis
Mr. Gene Ramer
Mr. William H. Roberts
Ms. Patty Settles
Mr. Stephen Stallsworth
Dr. Lawrence Winogard
SOUTH SEGMENT
Ameridan Bridal Gown Co.
Barnum Publishing Co.
Business Equipment
Consultant
Chinese News
DuPriest Typewriter Co.
Federal Ace Hardware
Federal Heating
Federal Jewelry and Loan
First Nat'l Bank of Denver
Hale Electric
Morrison Road Business
Association of Denver
Don Quijote
Sherwin Williams
SW Improvement Council
Triangle Pool Supply
City and County of Denver


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
Elliot Sulsky
Tyler Gibbs
Terry Rosapep
Ed Ellerbrock
Nelson Ho
Cathy Chin
Elvira Thomas
Mark Upshaw
Steve Foute
Linda Hamlin
Carlos Ramos
Ray Amoruso
Jennifer Finch
Steve Rudy
TECHNICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE
Transportation Division
Planning and Community Development
Transportation Division
Transportation Division
Transportation Division
Planning and Community Development
Planning and Community Development
Parks and Recreation
Health & Hospitals, Environmental Protection
Denver Urban Renewal Authority
Mayor's Office of Economic Development
Regional Transportation District
Colorado Department of Transportation
Denver Regional Council of Governments
City and County of Denver


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................ i
I. INTRODUCTION ...........................................................1
Study Area.........................................................1
Study Purpose......................................................2
Historical Overview ...............................................2
Study Organization ............................................... 5
II. ANALYSIS OF EXISTING AND FUTURE CONDITIONS................................6
Urban Design.......................................................6
Market Characteristics.......................................... 10
Travel Demand ....................................................16
Operations ..................................................... 20
Transit Services................................................. 23
Safety ...........................................................25
Right-of-Way .....................................................27
III. SUMMARY OF CORRIDOR NEEDS............................................... 28
Enhanced Urban Design Character...................................28
Minimize Right-of-Way Acquisition.................................29
Correct Safety Deficiencies.......................................30
Enhance Transit Operations .......................................31
Upgrade Problem Intersections .................................. 31
IV. ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS ...................................................32
North Segment .................................................. 32
South Segment.....................................................34
V. PLAN RECOMMENDATIONS.....................................................39
Corridor-Wide Recommendations ....................................39
North Segment Recommendations.....................................57
South Segment Recommendations................................... 71
VI. IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS...................................................80
Project Phasing ..................................................80
Planning Level Cost Estimates.....................................84
Agency Responsibilities ..........................................85
City and County of Denver


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
LIST OF FIGURES
Page
1. Corridor Study Area............................................................1
2. Typical Future Cross-Section {Colfax to Jewell) Current Denver Practice........4
3. Existing Zoning ..............................................................12
4. Federal Boulevard Historic Traffic Volumes....................................16
5. 1992 Traffic Volumes .........................................................18
6. 2010 Traffic Volumes ........................................................19
7. Existing Level of Service.....................................................20
8. Year 2010 Level of Service ...................................................22
9. Bus Services ...............................:................................23
10. Transit Boardings.............................................................24
11. Average Annual Accident Occurrence ......................................... 25
12. Fatal Accidents 1983 1992 ................................................. 26
13. Existing Right-of-Way.........................................................27
14. Alternative Typical Sections North Segment..................................32
15. Typical Pull-Out Parking Application..........................................33
16. Alternative Typical Sections South Segment..................................34
17. Urban Design Matrix ......................................................... 39
18A. Urban Design Framework North Segment........................................41
18B. Urban Design Framework South Segment........................................42
19. Plan Elements Mid-Block Median North Segment................................65
20 Typical Sections 20th Avenue to 17th Avenue...................................67
21. Typical Sections 52nd Avenue to I-70...................................... 68
22. Typical Sections I-70 to 20th Avenue ....................................... 68
23. Recommended Intersection Improvements Federal Bouievard/38th Avenue ... 69
24. Recommended Intersection Improvements Federal Boulevard/Speer...............70
25. Plan Elements Mid-Block Median South Segment ...............................77
City and County of Denver


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
LIST OF TABLES
Page
1. Parcels Which Abut Federal Boulevard...................................11
2. Types of Businesses in the Federal Boulevard Corridor...................13
3. Retail Businesses in the Federal Boulevard Corridor.....................14
4. Services Businesses in the Federal Boulevard Corridor...................15
5. Selected Historic Traffic Volumes ......................................17
6. Summary of Possible Impacts Associated with an Additional Ten Feet of
Right-of-Way: Federal Boulevard: South of Colfax Avenue...............37
7. North Segment Major Cross Streets Full Turning Movements Retained ....66
8. South Segment Major Cross Streets Full Turning Movements Retained ....78
9. Federal Boulevard Planning Level Cost Estimates............... .......84
BBOB
City and County of Denver


Federal Boulevard Corridor Flan
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
GOALS OF THE FEDERAL BOULEVARD CORRIDOR PLAN
The Federal Boulevard Corridor Study was initiated in order to achieve three primary goals:
o Enhance the Image of Federal Boulevard for Both Residents and Visitors
o Improve the Safety and Operating Efficiency of the Corridor for Pedestrians and
Vehicles
o Limit Land Acquisition to the Minimum Needed to Improve the Image and Safety of the
Corridor
These goals were Identified as a direct result of the technical analysis which documented the
following issues and problems along Federal Boulevard.
SUMMARY OF PROBLEMS
IMAGE AND CHARACTER
Historically, Federal Boulevard was a pleasant, tree-lined street from the Barnum neighborhood
in the south to the Regis area in the north. Commercial uses in the south segment
transitioned to a lush residential district north of 20th. Street car lines serving northwest
Denver crossed Federal at five locations north of Colfax with local neighborhood serving shops
at several intersections. The street cars actually ran on Federal between Colfax and Alameda.
Over the years trees and tree lawns have been lost to road widenings. Sidewalks and
landscaping have been neglected or paved over in many locations. In some areas retail and
commercial uses have expanded from their original neighborhood oriented intersections and
without benefit of street trees, landscaping, and other amenities now threaten the quality and
character of the residential districts which share the corridor.
As a result much of the corridor presents an image that is ill-defined or worse. Indistinct
commercial edges pose potential threats to the integrity of the nineteen neighborhoods
adjacent to Federal, and the deteriorating public edge of the boulevard provides an
environment which is adverse to the pedestrians as well as unattractive to motorists.
SAFETY DEFICIENCIES
An analysis of more than 10 years of data indicates that Federal Boulevard is one of the most
hazardous corridors in Denver for both pedestrians and vehicles. Some significant statistics
include:
o The fatalities along Federal Boulevard have averaged more than 3 deaths per year for
the last 10 years with more than 3/4 of these involving pedestrians or bikers.
City and County of Denver
Page i


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
o Federal Boulevard ranks highest in terms of pedestrian and bicycle fatalities in the City
and, accounts for approximately 20% of the pedestrian fatalities in all of Denver.
o The intersections of Alameda and Evans with Federal Boulevard have ranked at or near
the top of the list of intersections in the City relative to annual accidents for several
years.
NARROW RIGHT-OF-WAY
The existing publicly owned right-of-way along Federal Boulevard is very narrow. While much
of the Federal Boulevard right-of-way is 100 feet wide, there are significant lengths of the
corridor having only 90 feet or 80 feet of width. Historically, the City has attempted to make
improvements to Federal Boulevard (south of Colfax Avenue) within a proposed right-of-way
width of 120 feet. This would require that ail of the approximately 575 parcels along the
corridor south of Colfax would lose a minimum of 10-feet of property and in some instances
as much as 20-feet. This situation has proved to be untenable for many property owners and,
as a result, few improvements of significance have been made to the image and safety of the
corridor.
SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS (Figure S1 and Figure S2)
IMAGE ENHANCEMENTS
The preliminary recommendations to en-
hance the image of Federal Boulevard
include several approaches which recognize
the unique characteristics of different
segments of the corridor. Major enhance-
ments include:
o Provide a planted median in the
middle of Federal Boulevard of ap-
proximately 9 to 10 feet in width.
In the north segment of the corridor
between I-70 and 20th Avenue
existing on-street parking would
have to be relocated in order to.
provide room for the median. Off
street parking solutions are pre-
ferred, however pullouts may be
necessary where other residential
parking options do not exist.
90' 100' HOW
' sK&y 20V 60 ao'V I
l I 1 s l 1
ii 2' 9* i i i t i 10'-6 S' 10'-6" t IpkgT 11* S'
EXISTING
Landscape and
Pedestrian
Landscape and
Pedestrian
20 60*
T) Planted Median i
ii l 1 + Ft' X 'n t t i I
2 if 11' r 10' r ir
MID-BLOCK MEDIAN
PREFERRED
(1-70 to 20th Ave.)
ir 2- 10'I
Pull-Out
Parking
Figure S-1
Typical Sections
North Segment
City and County of Denver
Page ii


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
o Development of consistent street-
scape improvements along the
edges of the corridor including land-
scaping, street trees, lighting, and
street furniture. These improve-
ments to be implemented through
new development, redevelopment
and the establishment of mainte-
nance districts.
o Provide continuous sidewalks and
pedestrian amenities associated
with major activity centers, bus
stops, and open spaces.
o Protect and enhance adjacent neigh-
borhoods by recognizing neighbor-
hood gateways and boundaries and
limiting the encroachment of non-
residential uses. Overlay districts
should be considered to implement
design standards for site develop-
ment and buffering between com-
mercial and residential use zones.
SAFETY/TRAFFIC FLOW IMPROVEMENTS
The preliminary recommendations to cor-
rect the safety problems along the corridor
include:
o Provide a median in the middle of
Federal Boulevard which restricts
turning movements at minor cross
streets and driveways to right-
in/right-out turns.
o Provide pedestrian crossing points
across the median which connect
major activity areas or where pedes-
trian volumes are significant.
City and County of Denver
Page iii


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
o Provide standard lane widths of 11 feet and relocate on-street parking to reduce side
conflicts between vehicles and pedestrians and to improve bus travel along the curb.
o Add one new Jane on Federal Boulevard between Colfax Avenue and Jewell Avenue.
This will result in a third lane in each direction to be used primarily by right turning
vehicles and buses.
o Safety improvements are required at the following intersections with Federal
Boulevard:
Alameda Avenue Major Reconstruction
38th Avenue Minor Traffic Control Changes
Speer Boulevard Additional Turn Lanes
Evans Avenue Bus Stop Improvements
LIMIT LAND ACQUISITION
The preliminary recommendation to enhance the image of the corridor and to correct the
safety problems is proposed to be done within a total right-of-way width of 100 feet rather
than the previous recommendation of 120 feet. Therefore, only those segments of Federal
Boulevard having 80-feet or 90-feet of right-of-way will require 10-feet of land acquisition.
Areas where land acquisition will be required are between Colfax and Alameda Avenue and
along a short segment just south of Tennessee.
City and County of Denver
Page iv


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
IMPLEMENTATION PHASING
A potential implementation phasing of the recommended improvements to the Federal
Boulevard corridor along with their planning level cost estimates are shown in the following
tabulation.
TABLE S-1
FEDERAL BOULEVARD PLANNING LEVEL COST ESTIMATES
(Values are in 1,000's of 1993 Dollars)
Time Frame Locatior Construction Element'"'
Landscaped Median StreetscaDe Street Reconstruction Right-of- Way Phase Total
1 to 5 Years Federal/Alameda Inter- section - - - - *
1 to 5 Years Federal Intersections at 38th, Speer & Evans - - 400 50 450
1 to 5 Years I-70 to 20th Avenue 1,140 830 520 > 2,490
1 to 5 Years 20th Avenue to Colfax - 100 - - 100
3 to 10 Years 6th Avenue to Alameda 420 1,250 2,520 2,200 6,390
3 to 10 Years Alameda to Mississippi 420 1,250 2,520 250 4,440
10 to 20 Years 52nd Avenue to I-70 170 500 1,010 - 1,680
10 to 20 Years 20th Avenue to Colfax 200 600 1,210 - 2,010
10 to 20 Years Colfax to 6th Avenue 420 1,250 5,720 3,500 10,890
10 to 20 Years Mississippi to Jewell 420 1,250 2,520 - 4,190
Corridor Totals 3,190 7,030 16,420 6,000 32,640
The Federal/Alameda intersection improvements are contained within a larger project
along Alameda Avenue extending from Knox Court to Decatur Street at a total cost of
approximately $7.5 million.
City and County of Denver
Page v


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
I. INTRODUCTION
STUDY AREA
The Federal Boulevard corridor study area, shown in Figure 1, encompasses that portion of
Federal Boulevard extending from the north limits of the City and County of Denver to Evans
Avenue. Approximately 8 miles in length, the study area includes the existing right-of-way
and adjacent properties and exhibits a wide diversity of land uses and transportation
characteristics.
Land uses in the corridor vary significantly.
While much of the south portion of the
corridor is predominantly commercial with
pockets of residential, institutional and park
uses, there are significant concentrations
of residential, educational, and park uses in
the north. In addition, some economic
redevelopment and urban design improve-
ments have occurred along various seg-
ments of Federal Boulevard. Efforts are on-
going to revitalize existing local commercial
areas and to enhance the overall image and
character of the corridor.
The sports complex, located between 20th
Avenue and Colfax represents an especially
unique land use. Current unsightly condi-
tions along Federal Boulevard adjacent to
the sports complex are not appropriate to
the stature of these facilities as a regional
destination and a focus of civic pride. Spe-
cial design treatments are required to ac-
commodate major events as well as to
provide for appropriate transition to nearby
residential neighborhoods. The sports
complex is considered to be a part of the
northwest Denver community and as such
the improvement and consistency of the
boulevard image through the sports com-
plex district is a critical issue. A subse-
quent and more detailed study of the
sports complex district is recommended to
allow for thorough consideration of its
functional and aesthetic needs.
City and County of Denver
Page 1


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
The roadway element of the Federal Boulevard corridor is typically 4 through lanes north of
20th Avenue and south of Jewell Avenue and 5 through lanes between 20th Avenue and
Jewell Avenue with major intersections controlled by traffic signals. Federal Boulevard is a
State Highway under the jurisdiction of the Colorado Department of Transportation and is cur-
rently designated as US 287 north of Colfax Avenue and SH 88 south of Colfax. Federal
Boulevard has grade separated interchanges at five major regional freeways including US 36,
1-76,1-70, US 6, and US 285 (Hampden Avenue) as well as at Colfax Avenue.
STUDY PURPOSE
The existing characteristics of the Federal Boulevard corridor as described in the foregoing
make the corridor particularly sensitive to continuing redevelopment efforts and growth in
regional travel demand. Preservation of the viable residential neighborhoods and commercial
areas along the corridor has been a continuing objective which has been hindered as land use
changes have slowly evolved over the last several decades. The purpose of the Federal
Boulevard Corridor Study, therefore, is to:
o Define recommended improvements within the public right-of-way for incorporation
into future construction projects including landscaping, pedestrian, and roadway
improvements.
o Establish development guidelines for properties adjacent to the public right-of-way to
insure that redevelopment projects are consistent with the desired image and character
of the corridor.
This report documents the technical analysis and citizen participation process which resulted
in the recommended Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan (Chapter V) and the Implementation
Process (Chapter VI).
HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
Federal Boulevard is an officially designated boulevard by Denver ordinance as part of the
city's park and parkway plan. Despite this designation it has never entirely met the city's
definition of a parkway as stated in the Comprehensive Plan, which would require the
inclusion of a planted median and a limitation of commercial development. Federal has always
been a major transportation corridor through the near west neighborhoods and has long
included areas zoned to accommodate both regional and locally oriented businesses,
particularly in the south. It was at one time, however, a more attractive tree lined
thoroughfare throughout its length, a condition which remains only in the northern residential
sections. Years of widenings and neglect have defeated any resemblance to a boulevard in
most of the commercial areas. Federal's travel demands and designation as a state highway
have combined to necessitate widening of the roadway.
City and County of Denver
Page 2


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION PLANS
The Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) Regional Transportation Plan is a
regional plan which identifies future transportation needs in terms of general laneage
requirements and accesses. The regional transportation plan for 2010 identified Federal
Boulevard as a principal arterial and indicated that the corridor should consist of 4 basic
through lanes from the north city limits to approximately 20th Avenue, 5 through lanes from
20th Avenue to Alameda Avenue, and 6 through lanes from Alameda Avenue south to Evans
Avenue and beyond.
These laneage requirements, which reflect City input, have generated both technical and social
concerns. The section of Federal Boulevard between Colfax and Alameda has historically
exhibited traffic volumes higher than the segment south of Alameda which would suggest
that, on a technical basis, a 5-lane segment is not sufficient to accommodate future traffic
volumes. South of Alameda, where 6-ianes are proposed, there is the concern that additional
right-of-way acquisition would result in adverse social and economic impacts.
The recently adopted 2015 Interim Regional Transportation Plan, which reflects only regional
improvements affordable under a fiscally constrained scenario, calls for the widening of
Federal Boulevard to six through lanes from 6th Avenue to Jewell Avenue. Despite travel
demands that justify six lanes, impacts on adjacent properties and fiscal constraints were
major factors in retaining a 5-Iane segment between Colfax and 6th Avenue in the 2015 plan.
CURRENT DENVER PRACTICES
Between Colfax Avenue and Jewell Avenue, the City and County of Denver has been requiring
5 new developments and redevelopment projects along Federal Boulevard to provide additional
right-of-way sufficient to expand the existing right-of-way to be a total width of 120-feet.
The purpose of this requirement is to provide sufficient room for an eventual upgrading of the
corridor as represented by the typical cross-section shown in Figure 2.
Much of Federal Boulevard between Colfax and Jewell has an existing right-of-way of
approximately 100-feet. However, a significant portion of the corridor (primarily between
Colfax and Alameda) has an existing right-of-way of 90-feet with some areas having as little
as 80-feet of existing right-of-way. Thus, depending upon specific location, 10-feet to 20-feet
of additional land would be required from adjacent properties to achieve a total right-of-way
width of 120-feet. The acquisition of an additional 10 to 20 feet of right-of-way has
generated concerns from adjacent property owners and businesses operators as to the
continuing and long-term viability of their operations. In addition, while the current Denver
practice is consistent with the 2010 Regional Transportation Plan south of Alameda Avenue,
it is not consistent between Colfax and Alameda. Additional information is presented in the
Appendix regarding current City practices relating to land dedication and related matters.
City and County of Denver
Page 3


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
2 11' 11' 11' 1' 1 11 11' 11 2
Figure 2
Typical Future Cross Section
(Colfax to Jewell)
Current Denver Practice
SOUTHWEST QUADRANT TRANSPORTATION STUDY
In response to the concerns expressed above as well as other transportation issues affecting
the greater southwest quadrant of the City, the City and County of Denver prepared a long-
range transportation study for the area lying west of Broadway and south of Colfax in 1991.
This study, while necessarily more general and comprehensive than a study of a specific
corridor, did identify Federal Boulevard as a key "issue corridor". Among the recommenda-
tions included in the Southwest Quadrant Transportation Study were several which related
to Federal Boulevard:
o More detailed studies should be done to determine realistic future travel demands in
the corridor and their associated roadway and laneage requirements.
o The consequences of right-of-way acquisition should be evaluated in greater detail to
determine the impacts on existing businesses and their long term viability.
o The corridor should also be evaluated in terms of urban design, neighborhood
compatibility, and pedestrian scale needs.
As a result of these findings and recommendations, the City and County of Denver initiated
this Federal Boulevard Corridor Study. The elements of this study include the travel demand,
land use, right-of-way needs, and urban design elements described above. In addition, upon
completion of the Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan, the City will have the basis to provide input
to the DRCOG 2020 Regional Transportation Plan and to amend the City's Comprehensive
Plan.
City and County of Denver
Page 4


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
STUDY ORGANIZA TION
CITIZENS ADVISORY COMMITTEE
Early in the study process, a Citizens Advisory Committee (CAC) was organized to discuss the
purpose of the study, overall work activities, and general schedule. Additionally, because the
corridor is several miles long and the characteristics of the corridor are very different between
the north half and the south half of the corridor, the Citizens Advisory Committee decided to
form two subcommittees.
The north segment was defined to extend from the north City limits to Colfax Avenue while
the south segment was defined to extend from Colfax Avenue to Evans Avenue. Each sub-
committee met approximately five times to discuss work status and evaluate alternatives
applicable to the specific needs of each segment.
TECHNICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE
A Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) was also organized and consisted of representatives
from various city departments and other governmental agencies. The purpose of the TAC,
which met on a periodic basis in parallel with the citizen subcommittees, was to review the
various alternatives from a technical perspective and relative to the plans of other agencies.
Comments of the TAC were submitted to the citizen committees for inclusion in their
discussions.
PUBLIC WORKSHOPS
Two public workshops were held at the conclusion of the citizen subcommittee meetings to
coordinate the preliminary recommendations for the north and south segments of the corridor
and to present the draft plan to the general public. One workshop was held in the north
segment of the corridor and one in the south segment.
The composite input of the CAC, TAC, and public workshops together with the technical
analysis resulted in the Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan as documented in the following
sections of this report.
City and County of Denver
Page 5


Federai Boulevard Corridor Plan
II. ANALYSIS OF EXISTING AND FUTURE CONDITIONS
In order to assess the overall improvement needs within the Federal Boulevard corridor, data
pertaining to land uses, urban design, safety and transportation were compiled. These items
were analyzed and evaluated to identify major problems and key issues. The results of these
analyses are summarized in the following.
URBAN DESIGN
CHARACTER
Historically, Federal Boulevard was a pleasant, tree-lined street. Southern segments of Federal
Boulevard have long included a mix of residential and business uses although the business
zoning along that part of the corridor dates to Denver's original zoning ordinance in 1925.
The segment of Federal north of 20th is largely residential in character with smaller scale
neighborhood oriented retail shops at several intersections where the street car lines that
served the northwest Denver neighborhoods crossed the boulevard. In fact, the Federal
Boulevard corridor forms an edge to nineteen different neighborhoods between Evans and the
north city limit.
The original tree lined character currently remains intact only in limited residential segments
of the north corridor, roughly between 23rd Avenue and 46th Avenue. Remnants of the old
character, however, may still be found throughout the corridor in the form of detached
sidewalks and a few landscaped tree lawns. Most tree lawn areas in commercial zones have
either been lost to street widening, paved over or do not have any maintained landscaping.
Several parks and landmark quality buildings along with two historic districts reflect the
historic past in the north segment of the corridor. Much of the north section is edged with
more traditional commercial buildings fronting directly at the edge of the street right-of-way
and residential areas with well maintained landscaping including street trees. This results in
a fairly narrow and consistent visual corridor typical of Denver's traditional urban streets.
The south segment of the corridor is dominated by retail and commercial uses in single story
buildings without benefit of street trees or other landscaping with few exceptions.
Contemporary retail development has preferred to pull buildings away from the street to allow
parking access in front. The lack of building frontage on the street and the multiplicity of curb
cuts has added to the destruction of landscaping caused by road widening. In a few older
commercial sections where the right-of-way is very narrow road widening has not left
adequate room for detached walks or landscaping. These conditions have resulted in an
inconsistent and ill-defined streetscape typical of strip commercial development.
City and County of Denver
Page 6


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
The continuity of the Boulevard is destroyed by the large freeway style interchanges at West
6th Avenue and West Colfax Avenue. The existing sports, recreational and park uses are
appropriate adjacent to these interchanges where small scale business or residential
developments might have difficulty coexisting with the scale of the roadways. Large
commercial and industrial developments that turn their backs to these interchanges are
unsightly and would benefit from landscape screening. These interchanges now also provide
points of visual relief and view opportunities albeit at significant cost to the quality and
continuity of the surrounding community.
Federal Boulevard's location on the western bluffs of the Platte Valley does in fact provide
several locations that offer good views of the valley and the downtown Denver skyline. This
occurs at Speer Boulevard as well as 6th Avenue and Colfax. On a clear day, southbound
motorists near Mississippi and Alameda Avenue can view Pikes Peak, 60 miles to the south.
Many designated bike routes cross the Boulevard offering access to the Platte River
Greenway, natural gulch areas and neighborhoods. These occur at 46th Avenue, 35th
Avenue, 23rd Avenue, 17th Avenue, Lakewood Gulch, 10th Avenue, 8th Avenue, 1st
Avenue, Louisiana Avenue and Sanderson Gulch. Off-street bike routes following natural
gulches provide a recreational feature unique to the west side neighborhoods.
LAND USE
Federal Boulevard currently functions as one of five major north/south travel corridors through
Denver with abutting land uses that change in both character and in scale. Within the 8 miles
of Federal Boulevard that is part of this plan's study area the following conditions are typical:
o Federal Boulevard from Evans to Mississippi contains lots with substantial depth. Land
uses are primarily commercial and were built in the 1950s and 1960s with substantia!
off-street parking in front. The road right-of-way along this segment is 100 feet.
Relatively deep commercial lots in this area allow for adequate streetscape and parking
lot landscaping as is witnessed by the attractive planting and maintenance of
developments such as the Brentwood Shopping Center.
o From Mississippi north to Alameda a mixture of dated primarily free-standing
commercial structures and single-family houses exist. Many residential structures
predate Denver's zoning ordinances and have been converted to commercial use. The
road right-of-way along this segment is 100 feet, with one exception. Much of the
streetscape in this segment has been neglected and in some cases the public right-of-
way is actually being used for parking and other private uses. However, the detached
sidewalks predominate indicating the previous existence of landscaped tree lawns.
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
o The portion between Alameda and Colfax also contains a mixture of dated commercial
structures and single-family houses, half of which have been converted to commercial
use. The road right-of-way in this segment is 80 to 90 feet and has a more urban and
dated character than segments further south and further north. This segment was
initially developed at an earlier date than areas to the south and therefore contains a
greater percentage of older commercial structures close to the street and residences
that predate zoning. These conditions along with the narrow street right-of-way have
been a deterrent to the type of redevelopment that has occurred further south, while
the mix of uses has not fostered the relative stability of primarily residential districts
to the north. The streetscape along the corridor segment between 5th Avenue and
Colfax consists almost entirely of attached sidewalks with no additional landscaping.
New as well as old structures crowd the street.
o The segment between Colfax Avenue and West 20th Avenue has a distinct regional
character, since it is dominated by Mile High Stadium and McNichols Arena. However,
the stadium and arena currently have very little positive presence on the Boulevard and
the general character of the streetscape and much of the private development in this
strip is unsightly and not in keeping with the prominence and civic nature of these
uses. Land uses in this area are subject to redevelopment pressures and opportunities.
Several new chain food franchise developments have made landscape improvements
to their properties.
o The segment between West 20th and West 29th Avenues has a mixed residen-
tial/commercial character with the most significant retail presence being the Safeway
Marketplace at West 26th Avenue. Incremental rezoning from residential to
commercial uses has occurred in the area of 20th to 23rd Streets over the past 35
years. Streetscape conditions vary but the dramatic transition to the tree lined
boulevard character of northwest Denver is evident.
o The importance of the Federal Boulevard/Speer Boulevard intersection as a landmark
location has been greatly enhanced by the creation of Viking Park in the triangle
formed with 29th Street. Views to North High School, St. Dominies and the
downtown skyline have been opened up dramatically. It has become the symbolic
gateway to the northwest Denver neighborhoods due to the lack of attractive
streetscape further south on Speer. This intersection will continue to present
opportunities to amplify this landmark quality and new development should carefully
consider its visual as well as functional impact on the civic character that has been
established. The Speer Corridor Design Guidelines (1991) and the North Speer
Boulevard Revitalization Master Plan (1987) provide more specific guidance to the
design issues at this intersection.
City and County of Denver
Page 8


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
o There are two dated but not blighted community scale business areas at West 38th
and West 44th Avenues. These commercial nodes date to the period when street cars
crossed Federal at these locations. The condition of commercial area streetscaping
varies but is typically deteriorated through loss of trees, tree lawns, pedestrian lighting
and other amenities. In some instances private uses such as parking are occurring on
the public right-of-way. The stable configuration of roadway width and numerous
existing traditional commercial buildings will aid in the restoration of an attractive
streetscape in these areas. However, many older structures that have been converted
or adapted to new office and retail uses are most problematic in that wide curb cuts
and paving to provide parking in the former front yards have destroyed all remnants
of streetscape and landscape. Newer retail site configurations have occasionally been
more successful at restoring landscaping to the street edge, however the traditional
relationship of buildings and landscaping to the Boulevard is lost do to numerous curb
cuts and front oriented parking.
o Properties between Speer and West 38th Avenue, between West 38th and 44th
Avenues, and between West 44th Avenue and 1-70 have a strong residential character
with some prominent churches and schools. Small commercial uses occur at many
intersections. Streetscape quality in residential, park and institutional areas has
generally been well preserved with both attached and detached sidewalks and
consistent landscaping. In some locations attached walks are wide enough to add
street trees in grates. Other areas, including residential sections north of 44th would
require relocating the attached sidewalk in order to create the standard tree lawn
configuration. Steep front lawn slopes would make this difficult and extremely
disruptive to what is otherwise an attractive streetscape.
o Land uses immediately south and north of 1-70 are primarily stable retail and service
oriented businesses oriented to the freeway traffic. The traditional streetscape
character of northwest Denver was disrupted in much of this vicinity by the intrusion
of the freeway through what was previously a residential area and parochial school.
However, many sections of detached sidewalks exist which would make restoration
of the tree lawn and street trees relatively easy.
o At 52nd Avenue, the northern Denver City limit, is Regis Square, a suburban style
community scale shopping center of 17 acres anchored by a K-Mart store. Again,
traditional streetscaping was lost when the freeway transformed the area from a
residential zone. Regis Square is ripe for redevelopment.
City and County of Denver
Page 9


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
MARKET CHARACTERISTICS
POTENTIAL MARKET PRESSURES
Most parcels north of Mississippi Avenue are shallow and narrow. Their size constrains their
redevelopment potential since private developers are rarely willing to assemble land. Possible
exceptions include Regis Square Shopping Center, the abandoned U.S. Post Office site,
several school sites, and segments between West Colfax Avenue and West 20th Avenue.
Office users and providers of business and personal services are moving into single-family
houses. This trend is already prevalent in the southern segment of Federal Boulevard. Most
single-family houses are zoned B-4, which allow nonresidential uses. The northern segment
of Federal Boulevard has a higher proportion of owner-occupied single-family houses and
houses in residential use. Proactive efforts have been identified by the citizens committees
to retain single family structures in residential use. These elements are documented in the
recommended corridor plan.
There is a trend towards unattractive retail uses around McNichols Arena and Mile High
Stadium. There would be substantial market pressure should the Broncos or Nuggets vacate
their venues.
NEIGHBORHOOD RETAIL NEEDS AND FEDERAL BOULEVARD USES
The primary market area is defined as households located east of Sheridan Boulevard, west
of the Platte River from Hampden north to the City limit. The market area includes these
neighborhoods: Harvey Park, College View, South Platte, MarLee, Ruby Hill, Westwood,
Athmar Park, Barnum West, Barnum, Valverde, Villa Park, West Colfax, Sun Valley, Sloan
Lake, Jefferson Park, West Highland, Highland, Berkeley, Sunnyside, Regis, and Chaffee Park.
This primary market area contains approximately 53,945 households, which is about one-
fourth of all Denver households. In 1989, households in the primary market area earned a
median household income of $21,768 which is 82 percent of the City of Denver median of
$26,477.
Households in the market area spend about $557 million annually on retail goods and services.
These purchases might occur in the neighborhood, elsewhere in Denver or the State, on
vacation, while traveling, or through mail order. This volume of purchases equates to about
2.2 million square feet of retail demand [assuming $250 retail sales per square foot] which
is equivalent in size to two regional shopping centers.
Some businesses, such as the grocery and liquor stores, bars, and beauty salons, serve the
neighborhood or primary market area; other businesses, such as the used car dealers and
automotive repair shops, serve the southwest quadrant of the metropolitan area; others, such
as the convenience/gas stations or "g-stores" and national chain fast food restaurants, serve
the travelers along Federal Boulevard.
City and County of Denver
Page 10


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
PARCELS WHICH ABUT FEDERAL BOULEVARD
There are approximately 989 parcels of land which abut Federal Boulevard between Evans and
the northern City limit at West 52nd Avenue; 42 percent of these are north of Colfax Avenue
and 58 are south of Colfax Avenue.
As shown in Table 1, approximately 229 [23%1 of the parcels which abut Federal Boulevard
are single-family houses. Within the segment south of Colfax Avenue, only 57 parcels [10%]
are single-family houses; among these, approximately 26 [45%] are owner-occupied. Within
the segment north of Colfax Avenue, 172 [41 %] of the parcels are single-family houses;
among these about 130 [76%] are owner-occupied.
TABLE 1
PARCELS WHICH ABUT FEDERAL BOULEVARD
Type of Parcel Number of Parcels on Federal Boulevard, South of Colfax Avenue Number of Parcels on Federal Boulevard, North of Colfax Avenue Total Number of Parcels
Residential 57 172 229
Vacant & Nonresidential 517 243 760
Total 574 415 989
Source: Denver Tax Assessor's Files
ZONING ALONG FEDERAL BOULEVARD
Property which abuts Federal Boulevard is zoned B-4, B-3, B-2,1-1, R-5, R-4, R-3, R-2A, R-2
and R-1. Figure 3 schematically depicts the major zoning categories along Federal Boulevard.
Zoning of properties where the Federal Boulevard right-of-way is only 80 to 90 feet includes
B-4,1-1,0-1, R-3 and R-2. These areas are of particular significance because additional right-
of-way may be required in these areas in the south segment of the corridor. The nature of
these zone districts are summarized in the following.
B-4, General Business Zone; allows building construction up to a floor area ratio of 2. For
retail uses, off-street parking is required at 1 space per 200 square feet; for office uses, off-
street parking is required at 1 space per 500 square feet; for residential units, 1 parking space
per unit. There are bulk limits for buildings if they abut property zoned R-0, R-1, or R-2.
(Most single-family homes along Federal Boulevard are zoned B-4).
1-1, General Industrial Zone; allows building construction up to a floor area ratio of 2. The off-
street parking requirements outlined in B-4 also apply here. The front setback must be 20
feet; the side setback must be 10 feet if the property abuts a parcel zoned for residential use.
City and County of Denver
Page 11


Federal Boulevard Corridor Pian
0-1 is used for open space and community
facilities. The front, rear and side setback
requirements are 20 feet. Only City of
Denver parcels are zoned 0-1.
R-2 requires a front setback of 20 feet, a
rear setback of 5 to 20 feet, and a side
setback of 3 to 10 feet. Home-based
occupations are allowed within this zone
category.
R-3 is one of the multi-family residential
zones which may include single-family or
multi-family housing, some community
services, nursing homes, small retail food
markets, and home occupation uses.
BUSINESSES WHICH ABUT FEDERAL
BOULEVARD
There are approximately 670 businesses
within the Federal Boulevard corridor from
Evans to West 52nd Avenue. Among
these, 70 percent are south of Colfax
Avenue where businesses comprise the
substantial portion of properties abutting
Federal Boulevard. Approximately 30
percent of the businesses are north of
Colfax Avenue where residential uses abut
a significant proportion of the Federal
Boulevard frontage.
City and County of Denver
Page 12


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
As described in Table 2, about 40 percent 1267] of the businesses are engaged in retail trade
and 36 percent [241 ] of the businesses are engaged in the provision of personal or business
services. There are 114 businesses engaged in automobile sales or service and 83
establishments functioning as restaurants and bars. Due to zoning and small lot sizes, there
are relatively few businesses engaged in any type of industrial activity.
The southern segment has a substantially lower proportion of businesses engaged in finance,
insurance and real estate; a substantially higher proportion of businesses engaged in
construction, manufacturing and wholesale trade; and a similar proportion of businesses
engaged in retail trade; and in the provision of services.
TABLE 2
TYPES OF BUSINESSES IN THE FEDERAL BOULEVARD CORRIDOR
SIC Division Type of Business South of Colfax North of Colfax , Total
A: 111-971 Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing 3 0 3
B: 1011*1499 Mining 1 0 1
C: 1521-1799 Construction 12 4 16
D: 2011-3999 Manufacturing 13 2 15
E: 4011-4971 Transportation & Utilities 5 1 6
F: 5011-5199 Wholesale Trade 14 3 17
G: 5211-5999 Retail Trade 183 84 267
H: 6011-6799 Finance, Insurance, Real Estate 51 46 97
I: 7011-8999 Services 182 59 241
J: 9111-9721 Public Administration 1 2 3
K: 9999 Non-Classifiable 3 1 4
Total 468 202 670
Source: Denver Tax Assessor files; Coley /Forrest, Inc.
City and County of Denver
Page 13


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
Table 3 presents a more detailed breakdown of businesses engaged in retail trade.
o It will be noted that 83 businesses [31 %) are either restaurants or bars and 48
businesses [18%] are engaged in the sale of automobiles, automobile parts or gasoline.
o Nearly all of the automobile sales and automobile part sales occur south of Colfax
Avenue.
TABLE 3
RETAIL BUSINESSES IN THE FEDERAL BOULEVARD CORRIDOR
(SIC 5211 5999)
SIC Code Type of Business South of Colfax North of Colfax Total
5511-21 Auto Sales 13 1 14
5531 Auto Parts 9 3 12
5541 Gasoline Stations 11 11 22
5411-99 Grocery, Deli, & Bakery 22 11 33
5921 Liquor Stores 10 4 14
5812 Restaurants 45 26 71
5813 Bars 8 4 12
Other 65 24 89
Total 183 84 267
Source: Denver Tax Assessor files; Coley/Forrest, Inc.
City and County of Denver
Page 14


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
Table 4 provides a more detailed description of the businesses engaged in the provision of
services.
o Forty-eight of the services providers provide some form of medical service; 75 percent
of these are in the southern segment of Federal Boulevard.
o Thirty-three businesses 114%] perform automotive repair.
o There are 19 churches or civic association offices or clubs.
o The "other" service providers [106] provide a wide range of personal services,
professional services, repair services, and governmental services. A significant portion
of the repair and professional service providers work from buildings which were
formerly single-family homes, which were built primarily in the 1940s.
TABLE 4
SERVICE BUSINESSES IN THE FEDERAL BOULEVARD CORRIDOR
(SIC Codes 7011 8999)
SIC Code N % Type of Business South of Colfax North of Colfax ' Total
7011 Lodging 1 1 2
7211-19 Laundry 3 5 8
7231-41 Beauty/Barber 21 4 25
7532-39 Auto Repair 32 1 33
8011-8111 Medical Services 36 12 48
8611-99 Churches/Civic 11 8 19
Other 78 28 106
Total 182 59 241
Source: Denver Tax Assessor files; Coley/Forrest, Inc.
City and County of Denver
Page 15


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
TRAVEL DEMAND
Travel demand, or the requirements for transportation by the users of the corridor, can be
evaluated from traffic volume counts. An understanding of travel demand, both existing and
potential, is essential to match the capacity of the roadway to this demand.
HISTORIC CHARACTERISTICS
Historic travel demand levels along Federal Boulevard have been relatively stable over the
years. This segment spans an area which has long been developed, and in recent years has
seen little variation in traffic flow.
Figure 4 is a plot of daily traffic volumes by location for four different years dating back to
1981. This figure illustrates the stability of traffic volumes in the corridor, with fluctuations
of 5,000 vehicles per day or less typical throughout the years at various locations. Also of
note are the historic volume characteristics along the length of the corridor. It can be seen
that traffic volumes have tended to be higher on the south segment of Federal Boulevard with
the highest volumes occurring between 6th Avenue and Alameda Avenue.
Figure 4
Federal Boulevard Historic Traffic Volumes
City and County of Denver
Page 16


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
Table 5 lists average daily traffic volumes at various locations along Federal Boulevard for the
years 1971, 1981, 1988, 1990, and 1992. Also shown are the percent change in traffic
volume over the 21-year history and the annualized growth rates. It can be seen that, in
general, traffic volumes in the corridor have exhibited significantly lower growth rates in the
last 10 years (after 1981) than in the previous 10 years (before 1981).
TABLE 5
SELECTED HISTORIC TRAFFIC VOLUMES
Location Annual Average De (1,000's ly Traffic Pei cent Increase lllltlltllf 1992 Annual Growth Rate (%)
1971 1981 1988 1990 1992
North of 52nd Avenue 21.9 25.6 25.8 28.2 28.0 27.9 1.2
South of 52nd Avenue 25.2 29.5 27.0 29.0 29.0 15.1 0.7
North of 1-70 28.5 33.4 34.6 30.9 29.6 3.9 0.2
South of 1-70 26.4 29.5 26.0 26.7 29.0 9.8 0.4
North of 38th Avenue 24.7 26.5 24.0 24.7 29.0 17.4 0.8
South of 38th Avenue 26.4 27.1 24.0 26.9 29.0 9.8 0.4
At Speer 27.2 26.6 25.0 27.3 29.0 6.6 0.3
North of Colfax 25.8 30.4 29.0 31.0 30.0 16.3 0.7
South of Colfax 30.5 31.4 29.6 30.2 30.9 1.3 0.1
North of 6th Avenue 29.0 32.6 35.1 35.8 33.4 15.2 0.7
South of 6th Avenue 32.6 36.0 35.0 36.6 34.0 4.3 0.2
North of Alameda 26.8 34.2 33.4 34.2 35.6 32.8 1.0
South of Alameda 25.8 34.2 33.4 34.0 35.0 35.7 1.6
North of Mississippi 26.5 32.8 33.0 32.0 32.0 20.8 1.0
South of Mississippi 26.5 32.8 32.0 31.0 32.0 20.8 1.0
North of Jewell 25.0 32.4 31.2 30.5 32.6 30.4 1.3
South of Evans 22.3 28.2 25.8 28.4 31.0 39.0 1.6
AVERAGE 18.1 0.8
City and County of Denver
Page 17


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
EXISTING TRAFFIC VOLUMES
Existing traffic volumes along Federal Boulevard were determined by means of an extensive
traffic counting program conducted in 1992. Both daily and peak hour volume data were
collected. Figure 5 shows the existing daily traffic volumes, as well as the PM peak hour
directional traffic volumes. In addition to the roadway link volumes shown, both AM and PM
peak hour intersection turning movement counts were conducted at each major intersection
within the Federal Boulevard corridor.
As shown, daily volumes north of Colfax
Avenue tend to be less than on the south
segment of Federal Boulevard, ranging
between 28,000 and 30,000 vehicles per
day (vpd). South of Colfax Avenue, the
daily volumes range from approximately
31,000 vpd to nearly 36,000 vpd, with the
highest traffic volumes experienced be-
tween 6th Avenue and Alameda.
It can also be seen that the PM peak hour
directional splits are different on the two
segments of Federal Boulevard. North of
Colfax Avenue, the predominant direction
of flow is northbound, while south of
Colfax Avenue the flow is predominantly
southbound.
Federal Blvd.

50th Ave,



3ftth AVo * 29,000
959/1567
Aw*
Ava

28,200
1257/1049
s,
>
10ih Avft.
1089/1424
8th Avf*
6th Ave. 33,400 y 1872/1240
35,600
1411/1222


1422/1143




LEGEND
DAILY
SB/NB PEAK HOUR
North
Figure 5
1992 Traffic Volumes
City and County of Denver
Page IS


Federal Boulevard Corridor Flan
FORECAST TRAFFIC VOLUMES
As previously mentioned, travel demand levels along Federal Boulevard have been historically
stable and, while this trend is expected to continue into the future, an examination was also
made of regional long range traffic forecasts for the corridor.
Year 2010 traffic forecasts developed for
the metropolitan area and in the Southwest
Quadrant were analyzed in terms of stan-
dard system level techniques. Computer
assigned traffic volumes were balanced
among competing parallel facilities and
smoothed over major cross streets and
zone loading points to obtain an adjusted
network assignment.
The results of this analysis indicated that
the regional 2010 traffic volume forecasts,
as shown in Figure 6, represent an overall
composite increase in corridor travel de-
mand of approximately 15% over 1992
levels. While these forecasts represent an
annualized growth rate of less than 1%,
they are significantly higher than the histor-
ic growth rates experienced since 1981.
Therefore, these 2010 forecasts represent
a reasonable estimate of the travel demand
potential in the corridor.
it can be seen that ADT volumes north of
Colfax Avenue are expected to range from
about 32,000 vpd to 34,000 vpd. South
of Colfax Avenue, the projected ADTs
range between 35,000 and 41,000 vpd.
Similar increases are shown for the PM
peak hour projections, and no major chang-
es from the existing directional patterns are
anticipated.
Federal Blvd.

50th Ave.

ii U 46!h Ava

Aftlh Ava * Attn

1100/1800
Av*



1450/1 £05
\
141h Aim r
t snn
1250/1640
ftth AVft
<48 Ann

j" 2150/1425
Aft tmn

Kentucky 1620/1405
nnn

1635/1315
*nn

Fvanc " 1 / /0/1 JoU

LEGEND______
DAILY
SB/NB PEAK HOUR
[7X| Figure 6
v\ -------------------------
Nort|1 2010 Traffic Volumes
City and County of Denver
Page 19


Federai Boulevard Corridor Plan
OPERATIONS
One qualitative measure of operations within a stream of traffic is Level of Service (LOS). The
1985 Highway Capacity Manual defines six levels of service in terms of driver comfort and
delay, ranging from A to F, with LOS A representing the best operating conditions and LOS
F representing the worst. In the Denver metropolitan area, LOS E is considered to be the
lowest acceptable level of service in peak travel periods while LOS D or better is desirable.
EXISTING LEVEL OF SERVICE
Based on the existing AM and PM peak
hour turning movement counts, intersection
level of service analyses were performed
using Highway Capacity Manual methods
for major intersections on Federal Boule-
vard, the results of which are summarized
in Figure 7. As shown, all locations cur-
rently operate at or above LOS D during the
AM peak hour. During the PM peak hour,
operations are generally in the acceptable
range, with three exceptions.
Existing operations at 38th Avenue and at
Alameda Avenue are at LOS E. This condi-
tion indicates that these intersections are
near capacity, and that increases in traffic
levels may necessitate improvement of
these intersections in the future.
Existing operations at the intersection of
Federal and Speer Boulevard were analyzed
as LOS F, indicating an over capacity situa-
tion. Here, immediate intersection
improvements should be considered to
minimize delay to motorists currently using
the facility.
PEAK HOUR
Federal Blvd. LEVEL Of service
AM PM B r
k. n p

4filh Av* r ft
ft ft
i r ft
B B
PQth Av i ^Speir Blvd. D F
9fith Ava B C
R R
9(lth Aua 1 A R
17th 4vo, ,
v
14th Ave! imh Ava t f"p p 1 p r*
f r r>
L .. Q/D n/D
j' u/li U/m i n n

Kentucky 1 B B
pr/y-irfii , o U .. r ft
ft c
Evans c D
s
North
Figure 7
Existing Level of Service
City and County of Denver
Page 20


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
While not an issue in terms of LOS, Evans Avenue was found to exhibit unique operating
characteristics which result in high accident rates, undesirable conflicts between turning
traffic, bus loading, and pedestrians. In particular, the following problems were identified:
o Southbound left turning traffic on Federal Boulevard occurs in two left turn lanes.
Upon reaching eastbound Evans Avenue, the southerly lane of traffic is sometimes
blocked by a bus stopped just east of Federal. This situation creates a safety concern
and inefficient operations.
o Westbound through traffic encounters a similar situation. After crossing Federal
Boulevard in two lanes, the northerly lane sometimes encounters a bus stopped just
west of Federal. In addition the two westbound through lanes are merged to form a
single westbound lane in this area. The same safety concerns and operational
inefficiencies also exist here.
o The west side of Federal Boulevard just south of Evans is the site of a major bus
transfer station. Thus, the proximity of the bus stops on Evans Avenue is important
in allowing passengers to make timely connections and transfers. Further, the volume
of pedestrians crossing both Federal and Evans as a result of these transfer activities
is one of the highest in the corridor.
Therefore, this intersection will require consideration of alternative upgrades to improve safety
and pedestrian crossings.
City and County of Denver
Page 21


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
FUTURE LEVEL OF SERVICE
Intersection LOS analyses were also performed based upon year 2010 traffic forecasts
representing both historical growth trends as documented in Table 1 and regional forecasts
representing an approximate 15% increase in travel demand. The existing intersection
geometries were assumed, with some minor signal timing enhancements on the south
segment.
The results of these analyses are summa-
rized in Figure 8 which reflect the 15%
volume increase. It can be seen that,
under these conditions, all intersections will
have sufficient reserve capacity to accom-
modate the increased traffic with the ex-
ception of the three problem intersections
previously identified:
o Federal/38th Avenue
o Federal/Speer Boulevard
o Federal/Alameda Avenue
At the Federal/38th Avenue intersection,
the existing situation is expected to decline
to a LOS F by the year 2010. The Feder-
al/Speer Boulevard intersection will contin-
ue to operate at LOS F if no intersection
improvements are made.
Improvements to the intersection of Feder-
al/Alameda Avenue are currently under
design as part of another project by the
City and County of Denver. With these
improvements, this intersection should
continue to operate at acceptable service
levels to the year 2010.
Federal Blvd.
PEAK HOUR
LEVEL OF SERVICE
AM PM
52nd Ave. 1 ' B D n r

Afith Avo , i r n

1 V r\ r
B C
PQIh Avo i^peerBtvd. D F
B D
o.^rdAv0, i
jjrub Ayo A ft
17th Av -
i..... Q, U j,
14th Ave.' .
fith Av* , , r n


u u
1 U L p p
, p n
k r n

Evans - c D
North
Figure 8
Year 2010 Level of Service
(Assuming no improvement)
City and County of Denver
Page 22


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
TRANSIT SERVICES
Currently, the Regional Transportation District (RTD) provides extensive bus service on Federal
Boulevard throughout the length of the corridor, in addition, many of the cross-streets carry
bus service, providing connections to the east and west.
COVERAGE/FREQUENCY
Figure 9 shows those roadways along the
corridor served by bus routes as well as the
number of buses per day serving various
segments of Federal Boulevard, it can be
seen that there is a high frequency of bus
traffic along the corridor, particularly on the
segment south of Colfax Avenue, where
over 200 buses per day travel along Feder-
al Boulevard. This number translates to
between 6 and 12 buses per hour per
direction of travel during primary operating
hours.
North of Colfax Avenue, where the land
use is more residential in character, the
frequency of transit service is somewhat
less at approximately 115 buses per day,
or roughly one bus per direction every 20
minutes during primary operating hours.
These significant levels of bus traffic on
Federal Boulevard indicate that any im-
provements to the corridor should include
design considerations for transit vehicle
operations.
Federal Blvd,
52nd Ave. -....r-----
501h Ave. -------3------
1-70 ----
46th Ave. _______;______
44th Ave. -------1------
I

38th Ave........1......
! t*
32nd Ave.------
29th Ave.........
26th Ave. 5----------- ^
23rd Ave. _______1..____
20th Ave. _------;______
17th Ave........J______
Colfax------.rftk--- !
14th Ave. ------ >
to
10th Ave.........|..........
8lh Ave. ------3_______
6th Ave. -------------
I
1st Ave. -----------
! K
Alameda ......1..... w
I
Exposition--------'r____
Kentucky --------;-----
Mississippi -------3......
I P
Florida.......3______
Jewell
Evans

LEGEND
100
Service Coverage
Buses per Day
s
North
Figure 9
Bus Services
City and County of Denver
Page 23


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
PATRONAGE
Corresponding to the significant transit service available within the corridor, a high volume of
bus riders board or transfer at bus stops along Federal Boulevard. Figure 10 shows the
number of daily transit boardings by location on Federal Boulevard. It can be seen that a
much higher number of boardings occur along the south segment of the corridor, which
parallels the frequency of service on this segment.
Approximately 1,100 to 1,400 bus
riders access the transit system at the
14th Avenue, Alameda Avenue, and
Evans Avenue bus stops. This repre-
sents an average of about 75 to 90
boardings per hour at each location.
Approximately 400 or more riders board
at another seven locations on Federal
Boulevard, which averages about 25
boardings per hour at each of these
locations.
One significant consequence of this
high level of transit use is the amount
of related pedestrian activity in the
vicinity of the bus stops along the
corridor. The number of pedestrian
movements per hour is related to bus
activity. The amount of pedestrians,
coupled with the high traffic volumes
on Federal Boulevard, increases the
potential for pedestrian/vehicle con-
flicts.
Federal Blvd.
52nd Ave.
SOth Ave.
dJ
47th Ave.
46th Ave.
44th Ave.
41st Ave.
39th Ave.
38th, Ave.
Clyde Pt.
... 35thAve.
Highland Pic PI.
32nd Ave.
Speer Blvd.
29th Ave.
27 th Ave.
25th Ave.
23rd Ave.
20 th Ave,
18th Ave.
17th Ave,
Colfax
12th Ave,
11th Ave.
10th Ave.
8th Ave.
7th Ave.
6th Ave.
fth Ave.
th Ave.
3rd Ave.
1 sf, Aye.
Irvington
Ellsworth
Bayaud
Alameda
Virginia
Exposition
Kentucky
Mississippi
Louisiana
Florida
Colorado Ave.
Jewell
Evans



500 1000
Number ol Riders per Day
1500
s
North
Figure 10
Transit Boardings
City and County of Denver
Page 24


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
SAFETY
Transportation safety on Federal Boulevard is a major concern. High traffic volumes, coupled
with significant transit traffic and pedestrian movements create an environment of high
accident potential. This potential is reflected in the accident history and fatality record of the
Federal Boulevard corridor.
ACCIDENT HISTORY
The historical accident experience on
Federal Boulevard is one of the highest
in the City of Denver for this type of
facility. Two intersections,
Federal/AJameda Avenue and Feder-
al/Evans Avenue had the highest inci-
dence of accidents in Denver for the
two year period between January 1st,
1990 and December 31st, 1991. The
intersection of Federa!/38th Avenue
was among the 20 highest accident
intersections in 1991.
Figure 11 shows the average annual
accident occurrence at each intersec-
tion on Federal Boulevard with five or
more accidents per year. As shown,
the intersections at Federai/Alameda
and Federal/Evans have the highest
occurrence of accidents with 45 and 30
each, respectively. Other high occur-
rence locations with approximately 20
accidents each are the intersections of
Federal/38th Avenue, Federal/14th
Avenue, and Federai/8th Avenue. An
additional 11 intersections have an
average occurrence greater than 10
accidents per year.
City and County of Denver
Page 25


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
FATALITY HISTORY
In addition to having a significant occurrence of accidents, Federal Boulevard has experienced
a high rate of fatalities caused by these accidents. Within the City of Denver, a total of 473
fatal accidents occurred during the ten year period beginning in 1983. Of these fatal
accidents, 32 (about 7 percent) occurred on Federal Boulevard.
Of additional concern is the amount of fatal
accidents involving pedestrians or bicy-
clists. Of the 32 fatalities, 22 involved
pedestrians and three involved bicyclists.
On Federal Boulevard, the percentage of
pedestrian/bicycle fatal accidents is approx-
imately 78 percent of all fatal accidents.
The citywide average is about 24 percent.
Nearly 20 percent of the pedestrian/bicycle
related fatal accidents within the City and
County of Denver occurred on Federal
Boulevard.
Figure 12 shows the breakdown of fatal
accidents within the Federal Boulevard
Corridor by location. It can be seen that
the fatal accidents are spread throughout
the corridor with no major concentration
occurring at a single point. This suggests
that safety improvements are needed along
the entire length of Federal Boulevard.
Also of note is the high incidence of pedes-
trian/bicycle accidents relative to motor
vehicle only accidents.
City snd County of Denver
Page 26


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
RIGHT-OF-WAY
The typical existing right-of-way (ROW) of Federal Boulevard within the study area is 100
feet. ROW on the segments of roadway between 13th Avenue and Alameda Avenue and the
half-block south of Tennessee Avenue vary, however, between 80 and 90 feet. On the north
segment, the section of roadway between 44th Avenue and 1-70 is also 90 feet, as are some
sections between 38th Avenue and 41st Avenue.
Existing lane widths within the right-of way
are typically sub-standard throughout the
length of the corridor. Figure 13 shows the
existing ROW on Federal Boulevard.
Federal Blvd.
100' ROW
90 ROW
100' ROW
907100' ROW
100' ROW
80' ROW
90' ROW
100' ROW
*
^ Except for 80' ROW on the half-block
south of Tennessee Avenue.
North
Figure 13
Existing Right-of-Way
City and County of Denver
Page 27


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
111. SUMMARY OF CORRIDOR NEEDS
The foregoing analysis of existing and future conditions, combined with public input, identified
several key findings and conclusions which have been translated into five primary corridor
needs. The following discussion summarizes these findings and needs.
ENHANCE URBAN DES/GN CHARACTER
As stated in the Denver Comprehensive Plan the image of Federal Boulevard should be
enhanced to reflect its status as one of the City's designated boulevards. Towards this end
several urban design goals have been established for the Federal Boulevard corridor:
o Identify and reinforce the unique character and positive image of the traditional tree
lined boulevard where it exists.
o Restore traditional boulevard conditions where possible in locations in which they have
deteriorated.
o Establish streetscape conditions compatible with boulevard status in those locations
where they have been lost or did not exist.
o Provide continuity of the boulevard image throughout the length of the corridor.
Design should be compatible with Denver's established boulevard and parkway image
while allowing the expression of the unique character of Federal Boulevard and the
neighborhoods and districts it serves.
o Enhance the comfort and safety of the pedestrian environment and facilitate pedestrian
connections across the boulevard.
o Recognize districts with unique physical, historic and cultural qualities.
o Identify, preserve and enhance significant landmark structures, districts and spaces.
o Maximize opportunities for neighborhood identification, connections and linkages.
o Reinforce the fixed boundaries and physical buffers between residential and
commercial districts both along the corridor and into adjacent neighborhoods.
To facilitate the realization of these goals specific standards and guidelines will be developed
which will apply to both public right-of-way improvements and those aspects of private
development that most impact the community.
Therefore the Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan will establish urban design standards and
guidelines as the basis for future public and private design and construction projects.
City and County of Denver
Page 28


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
MINIMIZE RIGHT-OF- WAY A CQU/S/TION
Throughout the history of Federal Boulevard, there has been a concern that future roadway
improvements would require additional right-of-way. General opposition to expanding the
Federal Boulevard right-of-way beyond the prevailing 100-feet of width has been based upon:
o Potential negative effects on businesses adjacent to Federal Boulevard, many of which
have relatively shallow lot depths of 125 feet or less.
o Concerns relating to the potential loss of existing parking and landscaping.
o Concerns that the acquisition of a portion of an existing parcel would be a deterrent
to redevelopment.
As indicated previously, the current practice of the City is to acquire additional right-of-way
from redeveloping parcels sufficient to provide a total right-of-way of 120 feet. This generally
results in a dedication of 10 feet of land where the existing right-of-way is 100 feet wide.
However, there are several segments of Federal Boulevard having a right-of-way width of 80
feet or 90 feet which means that some parcels would be required to dedicate a 20 foot strip
of frontage.
This practice also means that full development of the Federal Boulevard corridor will require
perhaps 30 to 50 years or more before the 120 foot right-of-way is fully acquired. Thus,
during this extensive interim period, the corridor will continue to function with its present
deficiencies.
Therefore, the focus of the Federal Boulevard Corridor Study will be to develop alternatives
which minimize the need to acquire additional right-of-way beyond the typical 100-foot width
and which allow more timely implementation of needed safety and operational improvements.
City and County of Denver
Page 29


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
CORRECT SAFETY DEFICIENCIES
Overall safety within the Federal Boulevard corridor is one of the most critical issues. While
safety concerns are usually the composite of numerous contributing factors, there are at least
five major elements of the safety problem as it relates to Federal Boulevard.
o Federal Boulevard is one of the highest ranking corridors in the City in terms of
pedestrian/bicycle accidents and fatalities. The causes of this situation are many and
varied. However, it is apparent that the lack of pedestrian refuge areas in a relative
high traffic volume corridor together with significant pedestrian activity is a key
deficiency. This deficiency is particularly acute in the segment of the corridor south
of Colfax where roadway widths of up to 80-feet exist. Bicycle safety issues also
encompass a variety of factors including lack of night visibility, enforcement of bike
laws, and general driver awareness. Enhancing bicycle and pedestrian safe areas along
with a series of traffic control measures and transit access improvements will be a key
element in improving corridor safety.
o Federal Boulevard also ranks high in terms of general traffic accidents. This is
generally a result of a combination of high traffic volumes, extensive bus traffic,
deficient lane widths, on-street parking conflicts in the north segment, and generally
unrestricted turning movements, especially in the south segment.
o The presence of on-street parking creates conflicts between vehicles as well as
pedestrians. The outside travel lane becomes obstructed with vehicles maneuvering
into and out of parking spaces and introduces pedestrians into the roadway.
Alternative provisions for on-street parking can improve both pedestrian and vehicular
safety and should be considered in the corridor.
o Turning movements are frequent along Federal Boulevard at both public cross streets,
and, especially in the south segment, at private driveways. As a result, the need for
exclusive turn lanes and acceieration/deceleration lanes is increased. Alternatively
turning movement restrictions can improve safety and reduce the need for additional
lanes. Both options have application in different portions of Federal Boulevard.
o The limited space along Federal Boulevard has resulted in an evolution of sub-standard
provisions for all users of the corridor. Pedestrian spaces are minimal in many
locations, travel lanes and parking spaces are narrow, and transit vehicles and
passenger areas must function in limited lanes and boarding areas. Improvement
options should incorporate improved design dimensions throughout the corridor.
Therefore, the Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan should incorporate a raised median throughout
its length to provide a safe pedestrian refuge area, restrict excessive turning movements and
conflicts, and separate opposing traffic flows. On-street parking should be relocated out of
travel lanes and standard design dimensions should be incorporated to enhance the overall
safety characteristics of the corridor for pedestrians, buses, and vehicles. A comprehensive
package of short-term safety improvements should also be applied to the entire corridor.
City and County of Denver
Page 30


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
ENHANCE TRANSIT OPERATIONS
The safety issues along Federal Boulevard encompass several aspects of transit operations.
In addition, however, special alternatives are required to enhance overall transit operations.
These include providing improved bus stops, especially in the south segment where bus and
passenger volumes are the highest. In addition, bus travel in substandard curb-side lanes is
a problem for transit operating efficiencies as well as pedestrians on the adjacent sidewalk.
Of particular concern are bus operations in the south segment of the corridor where traffic and
bus volumes are both relatively high and only two lanes are available in the northbound
direction. Buses frequently stop in one of the two lanes which causes significant traffic
delays and potential safety problems as motorists seek to merge into the left lane to pass
around stopped buses. Bus pullouts have been implemented in some locations to avoid these
lane blockages. However, the pullouts may create a negative impact on transit travel times,
as buses must wait to merge back into through traffic lanes.
Therefore, curbside lanes should be widened to standard dimensions to accommodate transit
needs and related pedestrian amenities should be incorporated into bus stops, access
sidewalks, and waiting areas within the public right-of-way. A continuous third lane should
be provided in each direction in most of the south segment where bus activity is the highest
and turning movements are the greatest.
UPGRADE PROBLEM INTERSECTIONS
As indicated in the operational analyses of existing and future conditions, traffic on Federal
Boulevard operates now and is expected to operate in the future at generally acceptable
levels. Traffic operational needs are therefore limited and generally minor in scope. At three
locations, however, some capacity related improvements will be necessary and a fourth
intersection will require safety improvements for pedestrians and bus operations.
Therefore, the intersections of Federal/38th Avenue, Federai/Speer Boulevard, and
Federal/Alameda Avenue should be upgraded to achieve minimum acceptable levels of service.
The intersection of Federal/Evans Avenue requires geometric improvements to accommodate
vehicle turning movements, bus stops, and pedestrians.
City and County of Denver
Page 31


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
IV. ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS
NORTH SEGMENT
Between 52nd Avenue and Colfax Avenue, the corridor is predominantly residential in nature
with commercial development occurring north of 1-70 and at major cross-streets. The sports
complex abuts the corridor between 20th Avenue and Colfax. The typical cross-sections
discussed in this section apply to the predominantly residential north segment, between 20th
Avenue and 1-70. Specific recommendations for the sports complex and the segment north
of 1-70 are presented later.
DESCRIPTION OF ALTERNATIVES
Three alternative concepts were evaluated
in the north segment. Because of the
unique residential character of the north
segment, a major planning constraint is
that the existing right-of-way not be ex-
panded and that the existing curb to curb
width be retained. Thus, all safety im-
provements related to implementing a
median and relocating on-street parking
must occur within these existing limits.
Figure 14 shows the existing typical cross-
section of the north segment of Federal
Boulevard, as well as the three alternative
cross-sections (A, B, and C). Each alterna-
tive retains the existing curb-to-curb dimen-
sion of 60 feet as well as the existing right-
of-way of 90 to 100 feet.
Each alternative includes a raised median
for pedestrian crossings. Raised medians
are typically full-length with cut outs for
left-turn bays. Where available width is
limited, a mid-block median may be consid-
ered. This type of median is terminated
prior to intersections to form left-turn bays,
and the left-turning vehicles are then sepa-
rated from oncoming traffic by painted
pavement markings. Two alternatives (B
and C) include a mid-block median and one
alternative includes a full length median
(A).
City and County of Denver
Page 32


Federal Boulevard Corridor Flan
EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES
The analysis of existing and future conditions presented previously documented several
deficiencies and needed improvements in the north segment which makes the existing cross-
section unacceptable. Among these deficiencies are significant safety problems arising out
of a combination of sub-standard lane widths, on-street parking, and a lack of pedestrian
controls and amenities. Therefore, some action is required to address these problems.
The full length median alternative (A), which does not include on-street parking, does not
allow for standard 11 foot lane widths and, in fact, the lanes are somewhat narrower than
existing. In order to provide standard lane dimensions and a full length median, the curb-to-
curb dimension would need to be increased beyond the existing 60 feet of width. This
alternative, therefore, does not meet basic safety and urban design needs defined previously.
The mid-block median alternative which
does retain on-street parking (B) does not
provide standard 11 foot lane widths. The
on-street parking must be relocated if the
pedestrian median and adequate lane di-
mensions are to be implemented while the
existing curb-to-curb dimension is retained.
For this reason, this alternative also does
not meet the safety and urban design
needs of the north segment.
The mid-block median alternative with pull-
out parking (C) does provide standard lane
width dimensions within the existing 60-
foot cross-section. It should be noted the
addition of parking bays cutting into the
tree lawn substantially diminishes the
quality of the boulevard streetscape and
therefore should be utilized only where
suitable off-street parking solutions cannot
be created. Because this alternative best
meets the safety needs of the corridor and
allows for significant landscape improve-
ments, it is identified as the preferred
alternative.
In addition, as shown in Figure 15, where
retention of on-street parking is needed,
pull-out parking bays could be provided
which are out of the travel lanes.
City and County of Denver
Page 33


Federal Boulevard Corridor Flan
SOUTH SEGMENT
South of Colfax Avenue, the land uses adjacent to Federal Boulevard are primarily commercial
in character and the amount of right-of-way less than 100 feet imposes a different set of
constraints than in the north segment.
DESCRIPTION OF ALTERNATIVES
Two alternative concepts were initially developed for evaluation in the south segment of
Federal Boulevard. One alternative (A) maintains the existing curb to curb width and existing
right-of-way. The second alternative and within a consistent 100-foot right-of-way.
Figure 16 shows the existing typical cross-
section of the south segment of Federal
Boulevard, as well as the two alternative
cross-sections.
The first alternative (A) maintains the exist-
ing curb lines and would not require addi-
tional right-of-way. Standard lane widths
are provided throughout. These conditions
are achieved by eliminating the third south-
bound through-lane which also results in
balancing the number of lanes per direc-
tion. It should be noted that a median
could also be incorporated into this option.
The second alternative block raised center median which is termi-
nated prior to intersections in order to form
left-turn lanes. In addition, the existing
curb to curb width of 60-feet is widened to
80-feet and a 100-foot right-of-way is
required throughout the entire south seg-
ment. This alternative also provides stan-
dard lane dimensions.
City and County of Denver
Page 34


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
EVALUATION ALTERNATIVES
The analysis of existing and future conditions presented previously documented the following
deficiencies and problems which make the existing cross-section unacceptable in the south
segment.
o Accident occurrence and pedestrian fatalities are among the highest in the city which
results from a combination of factors including substandard lane widths, excessive
turning movements at streets and private driveways, and a lack of pedestrian
protection in certain locations.
o Transit operations and passenger activity is highest in the south segment which nearly
utilizes the outside travel lane to capacity during peak travel periods and results in high
pedestrian crossing volumes at major stops. This is particularly significant in the
northbound direction which has only two through lanes.
o Access to private businesses is largely uncontrolled with minimal spacing resulting in
high turning volumes and frequent lane changing. This condition both decreases
capacity and increases vehicle and pedestrian conflicts.
Therefore, some action is required which incorporates a range of multi-modal improvements
over a significant length of the corridor in a compressed time frame.
Alternative A has several characteristics which make it unacceptable:
o Capacity analyses conducted at the major cross streets indicated that unacceptable
service levels would occur at nearly all intersections due to the reduction of the
southbound lanes from three to two. Thus, additional turn lanes and auxiliary lanes
would have to be added at all major intersections which would result in most of the
length of Federal Boulevard actually being wider than the intent of this alternative
which is to maintain the existing street width.
o In order to accommodate transit operations, which are the highest in the south
segment, bus pull-outs at nearly all bus stops would be needed to maintain safe traffic
flow. This also results in a wider- roadway than indicated by the typical cross-section,
and would create operational problems and delays for buses.
o The south segment is also characterized by numerous private driveways which are
required by the State Highway Access Code to have acceleration/deceleration lanes.
As a result of these additional lanes, the actual roadway width would be significantly
greater than indicated by the typical cross section throughout most of the south
segment.
City and County of Denver
Page 35


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
Alternative B provides significant pedestrian safety improvements by reducing turning
movements across sidewalks and providing a refuge area in the middle of the street as a result
of the proposed planted median. The need for an improved outside transit lane and
acceleration/deceleration lanes (in the northbound direction) for local access is provided with
the widened roadway. It should be noted that additional right-of-way is required only on those
sections of Federal Boulevard where the existing right-of-way is less than 100 feet. No right-
of-way would be required from the majority of parcels in the south segment. Because all of
the urban design, safety, transit, and right-of-way objectives are addressed in this alternative,
it is identified as the preferred concept.
RIGHT-OF-WAY ACQUISITION ELEMENTS
South of Colfax Avenue, approximately 136 of the 574 parcels are located on segments of
Federal Boulevard where the right-of-way is 80 or 90 feet and where achieving a 100 foot
right-of-way would require an additional 10 feet of right-of-way. While this only represents
approximately one-third of the frontage in the south segment of the corridor, a preliminary
field investigation was undertaken to develop an understanding of the land use impact that
acquiring an additional 10 feet of right-of-way might have on each parcel. The investigation
provides a general indication of the magnitude of the potential land use impact. The
preliminary results are summarized in Table 6.
City and County of Denver
Page 36


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
TABLE 6
SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH AN ADDITIONAL TEN FEET OF
RIGHT-OF-WAY: FEDERAL BOULEVARD: SOUTH OF COLFAX AVENUE
mmmmmjnmm Illllllll Current Use Impacted in Some Way
wmmmmmmmmm. Remove Remove Under-
itililltlllS Current Front Lawn Remove Portion ground
Number Use Can & Abut Substantial of the Storage
Type of Property of Lots Function Building Parking Building Tanks ' Unknown
Single Fam.: Residential 20 3 15 1 1
Single Fam.: Nonresid. 8 0 6 1 1 0
Retail: General 19 2 3 7 4 1 2
Retail: Eat/Drink 9 8 1 0
Auto: Retail 12 10 1 1 0
Auto: Service 18 5 5 1 6 1
Service: General 3 1 2 0
Office: Professional 10 1 3 3 2 1
Manufacturing 3 1 1 1
Private Vacant Lots 3 3 0
Public Ownership 14 . 12 2
Other 17 17
Total 136 44 36 12 18 1 25
Sources: Denver Tax Assessor Files; Coley/Forrest field investigation.
o Approximately 44 of the 136 parcels could possibly continue to function in their
current use if the parcel depth were reduced by 10 feet. Current uses on these parcels
generally include a few single-family homes which are sufficiently set back from
Federal Boulevard; restaurants or bars where parking is adjacent to the building and not
in front of the facility along Federal Boulevard; used car dealerships where an additional
10 feet would take some parking; and parcels in public ownership and used for parks.
o The preliminary investigation also suggests that if an additional 10 feet were acquired,
67 parcels of the 136 parcels would be impacted from a land use perspective in some
way.
For 36 of these parcels, acquiring 10 feet would probably remove the front
lawn and cause Federal Boulevard to abut the building with no opportunity for
parking in front. This includes 15 single-family homes that are currently in
residential use, 6 single-family houses that have been converted to retail or
office use, several motor vehicle service facilities, and several buildings in office
use.
City and County of Denver
Page 37


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
For 12 of these parcels, an additional 10 feet would remove substantial parking.
Often this means re-striping parking from angled parking to parallel parking.
For 18 parcels, an additional 10 feet of right of way would take a small portion
of the structure.
For one parcel, taking an additional 10 feet might impact the possible presence
of underground gasoline storage tanks. [There are a total of 18 old gasoline
stations which might have underground storage tanks; these other parcels
have been accounted for above because the impact of ten feet also impacted
other aspects of the parcel use.]
o For 25 parcels, it was not possible to determine the potential impact of an additional
ten feet of right-of-way. This was due primarily to the lack of definitive property
boundary indicators in the field. A survey of such parcels would be required to verify
this frontage and to assess any potential impacts.
City and County of Denver
Page 38


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
V. PLAN RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the alternatives analysis, a recommended plan was developed to best meet the
design objectives and safety needs of the Federal Boulevard corridor. The plan consists of
recommendations for the corridor as a whole as well as specific recommendations unique to
the north and south segments.
CORRIDOR- WIDE RECOMMENDA TIONS
IMPLEMENT URBAN DESIGN FRAMEWORK PLAN
The urban design goals for Federal Boulevard will be realized over time by implementing the
design principles and standards described and illustrated in the Corridor Plan. Although design
details responding to the specific needs and conditions at many scales will be determined in
the design phase of each project it is essential that a common vocabulary is understood and
incorporated in every project. In this way an attractive and unified identity will be created to
restore Federal Boulevard's proper role in the City's parkway system.
Basic urban design concepts and standards are presented in the Urban Design Matrix (Figure
17). The matrix illustrates the relationships between the conditions found in various corridor
districts and the applicable urban design standards. The Urban Design Framework Plans
(Figures 18a and 18b) present a very broad overview of the corridor's important features.
More detailed urban design framework plans should be completed as part of the design phases
for specific projects.
KEY T-Ty] Elements That Can d Occur in a Given Zone i Elements That Should Not Be 1 Used in a Given Zone ^ LU 3E ZONES 3 -cC Clt LU 5E wo DETACHED WALK TREE LAWN STREETTREES DETACHED WALK PAVED TRANSITION ZONE TREES IN GRATES PEDESTRIAN LIGHTS PARKING LOT LANDSCAPING PEDESTRIANAHENITIES (Beaches, Trash Receptacles, Special Plantings)
RESIDENTIAL iliilll
COMMERCIAL X $ v V W>* 1 / . \ iMi
OPEN SPACE/PARKS : > s ^ '
SPORTS COMPLEX* iiHlllf ; ^ V mrnmm
*A continuous urban design treatment is desired from Colfax
north to l-70 to unify the corridor and integrate the sports
complex into the northwest Denver neighborhoods. Further Figure 17
analysis of urban design, development, and transportation .......
issues is recommended to follow. Urban Design Matrix
City and County of Denver
Page 39


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
Specific urban design consideration should be given to other activity areas in the corridor
which are tailored to the unique characteristics of each. Typical of such activity areas are the
following:
o High imaoe intersections which are unique in terms of the historic boulevard, views or
related pedestrian activity.
o Corridor Gateways which distinguish the boulevard image of Federal Boulevard from
other corridors and which signify entry to a special place.
o Neighborhood Gateways which are unique to each neighborhood's history and image.
o Bicycle Path Crossings which require both definition and protection.
o Bus Stops which should be made compatible with adjacent land uses and the
magnitude and scale of the pedestrian activity which occurs.
City and County of Denver
Page 40


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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
The implementation of the urban design standards and guidelines involves improvements to
both the public right-of-way and private developments. Major elements of both types of
improvements are presented in detail in the following sections.
Public Right-of-Way improvements
General Design Intent: Federal Boulevard should be as conducive to pedestrian traffic as it is
to vehicular traffic. Improvements will include sidewalks and shade trees along both sides of
the street. The median will improve the scale of the street, diminishing the visual impact and
noise from multiple lanes of traffic.
The design theme should be consistent with the standards and image established for
parkways and boulevards throughout the City of Denver, while allowing for the expression of
Federal's many unique subdistricts. Continued design development will be conducted in the
first major design phase to complete the specific overall design image for the corridor and to
further define those elements of the design vocabulary which may vary.
The typical street edge condition will include a 5' wide clear walking surface and a 5' wide
amenity zone. The amenity zone may include, in various locations, the curb, special paving
or grass, street trees in grates or lawn; street lights; decorative pedestrian lights; safety walls
and/or raised berms; planter pots; trash receptacles; bus stops and parking meters.
Commercial gateway identification signs should be set outside of the Federal right-of-way.
/
o' Amenity Zone
5' Walk
10
Minimum Street Edge Condition
(See Text "Special Elements)
City and County of Denver
Page 43


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
Consistent Elements: Several design elements should be applied consistently throughout the
corridor in order to establish a strong visual image and pedestrian amenity.
o Sidewalks: A standard 5' wide detached concrete sidewalk should be provided along
both sides of Federal Boulevard. Trough type ramps and curb cuts should be provided
to comply with accessibility standards at each intersection. Ramps are required to
contrast with adjacent sidewalk and crosswalk paving per ADA standards.
o Amenity Zone: The typical street edge condition will include a 5' wide amenity zone
between the curb and sidewalk. This amenity 2one should contain a tree lawn and
regularly spaced street trees in most circumstances.
Variations: The amenity zone may also include, as appropriate, special paving
with trees in grates in some commercial contexts, street lights and decorative
pedestrian lights; safety walls and/or raised berms; signs; planter pots; trash
receptacles; bus stops and parking meters. The proper combination of these
elements will depend on the conditions and needs of the specific location, with
the most clear distinction being between residential and commercial districts.
o Existing Guideline Documents: Two important documents should be followed closely
in the development of the corridor: the 1993 City and Countv of Denver Streetscape
Design Manual and the Rules and Regulations for the Landscaping of Parking Areas.
These documents provide important information and standards for sidewalks, trees and
landscaping, parking lot screening, lighting and other amenities as well as maintenance
guidelines and review and approval procedures.
o Median: A raised center median should be implemented wherever possible to reduce
vehicular conflicts, improve the scale and appearance of the boulevard and to improve
pedestrian safety. This median should be planted with trees, shrubs and ground
covers where appropriate and paved with decorative pavement when too narrow to
plant. The center median should be raised 24" above the street pavement or 18"
above the curb. Median wails are preferably sloped inward above a standard height
curb. Additional detailing wall caps and decorative features should be considered as
part of the median wall treatment. Median noses and pedestrian crossing areas should
be paved with either well detailed concrete or unit pavers at high use intersections.
Variations: Special pilasters or other design elements may be used to create a
unique design theme for the boulevard and to help signify pedestrian crossings,
neighborhood identities or district gateways. Plantings should be focused at
median ends and pedestrian access points to provide visual interest, and
seasonal color. Denver Parks and Recreation Department must be involved in
all design decisions that will involve future maintenance of landscaping in the
public right-of-way.
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
Raised Median
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
Raised Median: Pedestrian Crossing
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
Intersections: Intersections offer an opportunity for special boulevard design elements to be
used to best advantage due to high visibility and pedestrian use. Consideration should be
given to upgrading pedestrian crosswalks in the highest use areas through variation in color,
texture, pattern or material. Heavy traffic will tend to obscure subtle design motifs or color
change so careful consideration should be given to long term wear in order to maintain
attractiveness. The median area closest to the intersection may be planted with flowers or
decorative foliage. Pedestrian lights, neighborhood monuments and special attention to the
appearance of private development may enliven these areas and contribute to the overall
corridor theme. As a part of an overall graphic image study conducted during the design
phase, further attention should be given to high pedestrian use intersections to determine the
appropriate boulevard design treatments.
Special Intersection Paving
(High Pedestrian Use Areas)
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
Street Trees: Recommendations for tree location and spacing contained in the Denver 1993
Streetscape Design Manual should be followed. Various plant material recommendations are
also referenced in the manual. Actual tree species should be selected from this list and
specified at the implementations phase. Metal tree grates are recommended for all trees in
paved areas.
Lighting: City-wide standards for both street and pedestrian lighting should be followed.
Spacing and location information for both high mast "hockey puck" and decorative globe-type
luminares are provided in the Streetscape Design Manual. Special effect lighting such as
seasonal string lighting in trees or uplighting of street trees should be considered for well
developed retail areas. Only street lights should be used in residential areas except at bus
stops where decorative pedestrian lights can be used.
Traffic Signals: City standard traffic signals will be used throughout the corridor. These
generally consist of a pole and single mast arm with a street light mounted on the pole.
Furniture: City standards should be followed for benches, trash receptacles, planter pots,
newspaper racks and bicycle racks. These items will generally be used where there is high
pedestrian activity such as retail or commercial areas. Guidelines for locations of these
elements are found in the Streetscape Design Manual.
Bus Stops: A variation to the standard RTD bus shelter could be considered for Federal
Boulevard. These shelters might reflect the boulevard design character discussed above and
could contain interpretive graphic panels illustrating historical aspects of Federal Boulevard.
Non-standard shelters must be approved by RTD. Special paving, trees in grates, and
pedestrian lighting should also be included to enhance bus stop areas.
Signs: City standard street name signs are currently (Spring '94) under review by the City
with the intent of improving the legibility and graphic quality as well as creating a unique
signature sign element for the City of Denver as a whole. These street signs should be used
throughout the city to distinguish Denver from the surrounding communities.
Colors: All metal elements such as light poles, signal poles, benches, trash receptacles, etc.
should be painted with the city standard "Federal Green" (federal color specification #14056).
Additional colors may be considered for accent areas of such elements as median pilasters,
gateway markers and neighborhood monuments. These accents might be accomplished in
colored concrete, masonry or other durable non-painted materials. A specific graphic
vocabulary should be developed as a part of an overall graphic image study during the design
phase.
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
Unique Elements: In addition to the consistent design eiements found throughout the corridor,
several unique elements ought to occur at key locations. These are areas that deserve special
attention in order to preserve a unique character or enhance a special place.
o Corridor Gateways: Gateways should be considered at each end of the Federal
Boulevard corridor. These should generally occur near the City and County of Denver
limit line. Other locations might include points of access from major arterials such as
Speer Boulevard, Colfax Avenue and West 6th Avenue. Motorists and pedestrians
should realize when they are in Denver and that Federal Boulevard is a special place.
Gateways could take the form of larger scale monuments on each side of the street
and possibly in the median. Monuments may be accompanied by multiple light
clusters, entry signs and unique planting. The specific locations of gateway markers
will be determined in the design phase.
o Neighborhood Gateways: Neighborhood entry monuments such as those at Potter
Highlands at 36th Avenue and Federal Boulevard are encouraged along the corridor.
Nineteen different neighborhoods abut Federal Boulevard and the identification of those
neighborhoods in a manner that creates awareness of Federal itself will add a sense
of scale and community to the boulevard. Guidelines for these monuments can be
found in the Streetscaoe Design Manual and other materials available from Denver
Parks and Recreation Department and the Denver Planning Office. Further conversa-
tion with neighborhood groups should be conducted during the design phase to
determine the exact locations for these markers.
o Subdistricts: Several distinctive subdistricts exist in the Federal Boulevard corridor such
as the Sports Complex, the Asian Center, several historic districts and the Speer
Boulevard intersection area. These areas should be recognized for their specific use
or function. In addition to the standard corridor design elements, unique design
elements could be used to enhance these areas and emphasize their unique physical
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
or cultural qualities. Care should be taken so that the treatment of these subdistricts
fits into the overall design theme for Federal Boulevard. Several of these subdistricts,
as described in the section on "Urban Design/Land Use Character", should be given
further study so that their full potential may be realized.
o Special Elements: In some areas of the corridor, the use of special design elements
may be appropriate. Pedestrians in the Sports Complex, for example, could benefit
from low walls and bollards placed on the sidewalk near the curb. Other high-use
pedestrian areas such as the retail districts at 38th Avenue or 52nd Avenue could
benefit from well designed safety walls. In other areas where not as much sidewalk
paving is required but pedestrian safety and comfort is a concern, the walls could
retain a planted berm. Low walls and berms may become a design theme much in the
same way they have been used in Cherry Creek North.
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
Neighborhood Protection Elements (North Segment):
Protective efforts suggested by the citizen committees representing neighborhoods north of
Colfax Avenue for consideration by the City to retain single family structures for residential
use include:
o Requests for rezonings to "B" zone districts are not consistent with the goals of this
plan and, therefore, commercial development should be limited to existing zoned nodes
of development.
o If rezonings are proposed, the Planned Unit Development (PUD) process is encouraged
along with the following criteria, 1) uses are neighborhood retail or service, 2)
structures are residential in scale, and residential character of existing structures is
retained, 3) transitions and buffers to residential uses are provided, 4) landscaping and
screening are provided for visual enhancement, 5) no additional right-of-way on Federal
Boulevard is required for acceleration/deceleration lanes.
o The B-4 zone district is not compatible with adjacent areas and the City should
consider changes to eliminate certain uses and reduce floor area ratios. In addition,
the B-4 zone district at the intersection of Federal and Speer is considered inappropri-
ate and redevelopment in this area should be encouraged to utilize the PUD district.
o An overlay zone district should be adopted for Federal Boulevard to include the design
guidelines contained in the Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan.
o The use of City programs to rejuvenate existing commercial nodes should be evaluated
for application to the Federal Boulevard corridor.
Private Development Improvements
General Design Intent: Recommendations for existing and redeveloped private property
adjoining Federal Boulevard are included here so that these land owners can participate in the
enhancement of the corridor.
Owners of commercial property on Federal Boulevard that are interested in redevelopment or
improving the function and appearance of their property should be aware of studies of the
design and layout of typical shallow commercial lots along the corridor that were conducted
by the City of Denver. These studies were published in 1991 in a document titled Federal
Boulevard Alternative Design Tests which is available from the Denver Planning Office.
Parking Lot Screening: All parking lots along Federal Boulevard should be screened from the
view of pedestrians on sidewalks or cars traveling on the street. Screening can be
accomplished with walls, fencing, hedges or berms. Guidelines for the screening of parking
lots can be found in the Denver Rules and Regulations for the Landscaping of Parking Areas.
These guidelines should be implemented as adjacent improvements occur on Federal Boulevard
if not before.
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
In order to enhance the boulevard image of Federal the TO' wide landscaped area required by
the Parking Lot Landscape Regulations should occur entirely on private property where lot
depths in excess of 125 feet allow. This area should include 3 trees per 1000 square feet
placed informally or in street tree fashion. The surface of this area should be covered with
lawn or ground covers and shrubs. This area should not be paved. A good example of this
type of setback treatment is currently in place at the Brentwood Shopping Center on the west
side of South Federal Boulevard, north of Evans Avenue.
New buildings should be placed adjacent to the required zoning setback area with entrances
and windows on Federal Boulevard or an immediately adjacent building face. Setback areas
should be landscaped with trees, shrubs and ground covers where pedestrian access is not
required. Parking areas should be behind or between buildings and screened as discussed
above. Parking in front of buildings diminishes retail visibility and the attractiveness of the
boulevard. New buildings greater than three stories in height could possibly be stepped back
from the street at the third level in order to establish a human scale for the corridor.
Side and Rear Lot Landscaping/Screening:
o Setbacks: When new retail or commercial developments occur adjacent to residential
areas and there is an intervening public street the building should setback 25' from the
public right-of-way if the setback area is to be landscaped or 15' if screen walls or
berms are added to the landscaping.
If there is only an intervening alley or direct abutment of commercial and residential
uses the non-residentiai use should be separated from residential uses by a 6' 8' high
screen wall on the property line with an additional 10' wide landscape buffer strip with
trees to screen commercial buildings and uses.
o Landscaping: The 25' wide setback areas along public streets should be landscaped
with at least one tree per 500 square feet with more than half the trees being
evergreen. The ground plane should be planted with turf or shrubs and groundcovers.
The 15' wide setback alternative must have a berm or low wail 3' 4' high and at least
one tree for every 500 square feet with half the trees being evergreen. The ground
plane should be planted with turf or shrubs and groundcovers.
The screen wall and 10' wide buffer strip areas should be planted with 3 trees per
1000 square feet capable of screening building areas visible above screen wall,
o Walls and Fencing: Walls and fencing should be built of high quality materials similar
to, or the same as, that used for the primary buildings on the site. In general, all walls
and fencing should be accompanied by landscaping, as discussed above.
o Access to Alleys: Direct access to alleys from new retail or commercial developments
will be discouraged in order to preserve residential character.
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
Service Area Screening:
o Wails and Fencing: Service areas should be screened on all sides with walls or fencing
of adequate height to screen all objects. Recommendations for wall or fencing type
are the same as described above.
o Landscaping: Landscaping adjacent to service area walls or fencing should be
contained in a strip at least 5' wide. Plant materials can be a continuous hedge with
plants 3' on center or trees and shrubs mixed together, if trees and shrubs are to be
used, they must obscure at least 50% of the wall or fence from view.
Signs:
o Ground Mounted: Ground mounted signs adjacent to Federal Boulevard should adhere
to the Denver sign code as a minimum. In addition, all ground mounted signs should
be "Monument-Style" with no visible support poles. These signs should be no taller
than 20' and be located in landscaped areas. Ground mounted signs should internally
illuminate lettering and logos only.
o Building Mounted: Building mounted signs are also governed by the Denver sign code.
Back-lit awnings used as signs are discouraged due to excessive glare. Lighted retail
signs should be located no higher than the first floor of multi-story buildings in order
to maintain human scale. Building identification signs may occur on upper floors.
Billboards: No new billboards should be allowed on Federal Boulevard and existing billboards
should be removed when permits expire or sites are redeveloped. Billboards are not conducive
to the "Boulevard" image being created or enhanced along Federal Boulevard.
IMPLEMENT SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS
Three distinct actions are recommended to improve the overall safety characteristics of
Federal Boulevard.
o Construct Center Median. To improve pedestrian safety along Federal Boulevard, it is
recommended that a continuous raised center median be constructed. At minor cross
streets and appropriate mid-block locations where warrants are met, pedestrian
walkways should be located through the raised median to allow a point of refuge
during crossing. The median should provide landscaped features consistent with the
Urban Design Framework Plan.
This raised center median should be constructed so that turning movements at
selected minor cross-streets and driveways are restricted to right-turns only. This
affords pedestrians additional safety by eliminating conflicts with left-turning vehicles.
City and County of Denver
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Fedora! Boulevard Corridor Plan
In addition to the pedestrian safety benefits of the mid-block median, the relocation of
turning conflicts from minor cross-streets to the major cross-streets will generally
improve traffic safety and operations.
o Upgrade to Minimum Design Standards. As previously discussed, the existing lane
widths along the corridor are substantially less than the minimum requirements for this
class of roadway. Narrow lanes have a detrimental effect on traffic safety and, in
particular, on transit operations.
It is recommended, therefore, that all travel lanes be a minimum of 11-feet in width
with a 1 -foot clearance to median curbs and a 2-foot clearance to outside curbs (see
Figure 17 and 18).
o Implement Safety Enhancement Package. To provide immediate safety benefits prior
to the implementation of major construction projects in the future, it is recommended
that the following short-term safety enhancement actions be implemented or
continued.
The City and County of Denver currently monitors travel speeds in relation to
posted speed limits. The posted speed limit on Federal Boulevard is currently
35 MPH north of Alameda and 40 MPH south of Alameda. It is recommended
that speed monitoring continue on Federal Boulevard and that speed limits be
reevaluated by the city and the state when major reconstruction projects are
designed and implemented.
Continue the City's current initiative of posting advisory signs for pedestrians
at signalized intersections to instruct people on the proper use and waiting
period for a pedestrian indication. The program should be focused on Federal
Boulevard, as well as other streets that exhibit similar safety problems, with
emphasis on high activity locations frequented by the elderly and school
children.
Install pedestrian indications on all approaches at signals and investigate
applicable timing modifications as appropriate.
Continue the City's current practice of providing stop bars at all signalized
intersections to minimize vehicle encroachment into crosswalks and investigate
special supplemental signing and pavement markings for application at major
pedestrian crossings.
Investigate the potential application of a temporary or simulated median as a
means of correcting immediate safety problems at locations where funding or
right-of-way constraints cause delays to the implementation of a permanent
solution. The effects of turn restrictions on local streets can also be monitored
during this period.
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
Emphasize Federal Boulevard improvements for federal transportation funding,
particularly relative to safety improvement programs, over the next three-year
budgeting period.
IMPLEMENT DENVER BICYCLE MASTER PLAN
The 1993 Denver Bicycle Master Plan proposes improvements toward the city-wide goal of
establishing a continuous one-mile grid system of on-street or off-street bicycle routes
throughout the city. Since Federal Boulevard is not recommended as a bicycle route, the
Bicycle Master Plan includes several proposed improvements to routes crossing or parallel to
the corridor in order to achieve a one-mile grid in the area:
Proposed new routes and signage improvements include:
o 35th Avenue Consolidate the former 33rd/35th Avenue one-way routes on 35th
Avenue from Perry Street to Navajo Street.
o 17th Avenue Enhance route between Sloans Lake and Platte River Greenway.
o 10th Avenue Designate and sign as a bicycle route from Sheridan Boulevard to
Decatur Street, and connect to Platte River Greenway via Decatur Street to both 13th
Street and Weir Gulch.
o Virginia Avenue Designate and sign as a bicycle route from Irving Street to the Platte
River Greenway.
o Kentucky Avenue Designate and sign as a bicycle route from Sheridan Boulevard to
Zuni Street.
o Zuni Street Designate and sign as a bicycle route from the north city limits to 46th
Avenue.
o Clay Street Designate and sign a bicycle route on Clay Street and Dunkeld Place,
connecting the existing route on Clay Street from 33rd Avenue to the 29th Avenue
route.
o 26th Avenue Designate and sign a bicycle route from Eliot Street to Zuni Street,
which connects with 15th Street.
o Eliot Street Designate and sign as a bicycle route from 23rd Avenue to 20th Avenue,
and continuing to 17th Avenue through the stadium parking area.
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
Proposed capital improvements include:
o Lakewood/Dry Gulch Reconstruct from Sheridan Boulevard to the Federal Boulevard
underpass as a non-circuitous, 10 foot concrete path, and connect to Platte River
Greenway via improved 13th Avenue route.
o Weir Gulch Reconstruct west of Barnum Park as a 10 foot concrete path. Continue
route designation toward the east only if a grade separated crossing of 6th Avenue is
constructed in the long range.
o 1 st Avenue Improve the connection of the Irvington Place bike route east of Federal
with the 1 st Avenue bike route west of Federal using a design to be developed during
the Bicycle Master Plan implementation process.
o Westwood Trail Complete current master plan and construct improvements from
Perry Street to Zuni Street. Future improvements should include on-street linkages to
Weir Gulch, Huston Lake Park, Sanderson Gulch, Platte River Greenway, Southwest
Community Center, and Kepner Middle School.
o Sanderson Gulch As a long term goal, replace the existing asphalt path with a 10 foot
concrete path.
o 17th Avenue Construct a separated bikeway from the southern end of Eliot Street
route, along the east side of the northbound Federal exit ramp, to connect with the
existing sidepath on the Colfax Viaduct.
City and County of Denver
page 56


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
NORTH SEGMENT RECOMMENDATIONS
In addition to the urban design improvements recommended for the entire Federal Boulevard
corridor, the following recommendations are also applicable to the north segment.
URBAN DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS
Several illustrations are presented to show the effect of the recommended Urban Design
Standards and Guidelines on portions of the north segment of the corridor. A photograph of
existing conditions is included to provide a visual comparison.
NOTE: No Changes are recommended
for the existing residential
areas except for the addition
of street trees where appopriate.
Existing Residential Area
North Segment
City and County of Denver
Page 57


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
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City and County of Denver
Page 58


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
Neighborhood Commercial
at 23rd Avenue (West Side)
City and County of Denver
Page 59


Federal Boulevard Corridor Pian
Neighborhood Commercial
South of 26th Avenue (Bast Side)
City and County of Denver
Page 60


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
City and County of Denver
Page 61


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
Corridor Gateway
at S-TO (Southbound)
City and County of Denver
Page 62


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
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City and County of Denver
Page 63


Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
TRAFFIC AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS
The following additional safety improvements are recommended for the north segment of
Federal Boulevard.
o Relocate On-Street Parking. On-street parking along the north segment of Federal
Boulevard creates several conflicts in terms of both safety and use of available right-of-
way. The outside travel lane becomes obstructed with vehicles maneuvering into and
out of parking spaces and introduces pedestrians into the roadway, thus creating
conflicts between both vehicles and pedestrians. The width of roadway required for
parking necessitates either widening the roadway or utilizing sub-standard lane widths.
For these reasons, the existing on-street parking on the north segment of Federal
Boulevard should be relocated to off-street replacement parking areas. These
replacement parking facilities could occur gradually over time, based on the actual
demand for parking and the availability of suitable locations.
At some specific locations along north Federal Boulevard, the potential exists to
provide some recessed parking. However it should be realized that recessing parking
into the tree lawn area seriously degrades the quality of the boulevard image. This
approach could be considered only where retention of on-street parking is needed and
suitable off street parking alternative are not available. Figure 15, previously
presented, illustrates how this concept could be incorporated into the recommended
cross-section.
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
o Median Development. The implementation of a raised median in the north segment of
the corridor is recommended to occur between 52nd Avenue and Colfax Avenue.
Figure 19 shows the plan elements of the preferred cross-section. As shown, the raised
median is extended along Federal Boulevard except at intersections with major cross-streets.
At these locations, painted left-turn bays are provided.
Pedestrian crosswalks are provided at
locations along the raised median to allow
a point of refuge during crossing. As turn-
ing movements at minor cross-streets and
driveways are restricted to right-turns only,
pedestrians are afforded additional safety
because they are not competing for gaps in
traffic with left-turning vehicles. The spe-
cific streets which would be restricted to
right turn movements only will be deter-
mined as a part of the preliminary design.
However, to achieve the maximum safety
benefits and to maintain a consistent medi-
an landscape, minor cross-streets should
provide full turning movements only when
a documented hardship exists.
Table 7 is a proposed list of the major
cross streets where full turning movements
would be maintained along with the antici-
pated type of traffic control. These loca-
tions may change during the detailed de-
sign process.
During detailed design it is suggested that
a special access control plan be developed
in the vicinity of the i-70 interchange.
Such a control plan might include elimina-
tion of closely spaced and unsafe access
points and possible signalization at 49th
Avenue and 47th Avenue.
Future development proposals in the north segment of Federal Boulevard should reflect the
urban design and traffic control intent of the Federal Boulevard corridor plan. Major
redevelopment projects or other special situations may require the preparation of special traffic
analysis, documenting the need for additional transit improvements, pedestrian facilities, and
traffic safety and capacity requirements.
North Segment
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
TABLE 7
NORTH SEGMENT POTENTIAL INTERSECTIONS WITH FULL TURNING MOVEMENTS
RETAINED *
Cross Street Traffic Control
52nd Avenue Signal
51 st Avenue Stop Signs WB
50th Avenue Signal
49th Avenue Stop Signs E/W (Potential Signal)
1-70 North Ramp Signal
1-70 South Ramp Signal
47th Avenue Stop Sign E/W (Potential Signal)
46th Avenue Signal
44th Avenue Signal
41 st Avenue Signat
39th Avenue Stop Signs E/W
38th Avenue Signal
35th Avenue Signal
33rd Avenue Signal
32nd Avenue Signal
Speer Boulevard Signal
29th Avenue Signat
26th Avenue Signal
23rd Avenue Signat
20th Avenue Signal
19th Avenue Stop Signs E/W
18th Avenue Stop Signs E/W
17th Avenue Signal
16th Avenue Stop Sign EB
Preliminary list for illustrative purposes; specific access control plan will be developed
jointly by the city and state in design process.
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
SPECIFIC CROSS SECTIONS
Sports Complex Area
The portion of Federal Boulevard serving the sports complex extends from 20th Avenue to
Colfax Avenue. A continuous urban design treatment is desired from Colfax north to 1-70 to
unify the corridor and better integrate the sports complex into the northwest Denver
neighborhoods. A center median for this portion of Federal Boulevard may be appropriate but
requires further analysis of the special traffic control requirements during major events. Police
and traffic control personnel may need to open or close traffic lanes in direct response to
short-term pedestrian or vehicle demands during peak arrival and departure periods associated
with event traffic.
However, the portion of the corridor between the north Colfax ramps and 20th Avenue is
recommended to be upgraded as shown in Figure 20(A). The auxiliary lane formed from the
westbound to northbound ramp which ends at 17th Avenue would also be retained. The
suggested improvements emphasize landscape and pedestrian enhancements and achieving
standard lane widths while retaining the existing number of roadway lanes.
As subsequent studies are done for the entire sports complex area, an overall urban design
plan will likely recommend additional improvements to this portion of Federal Boulevard. Also
shown in Figure 20(B) is a potential long-range option which could be incorporated into other
improvements for the sports complex to achieve the continuous urban design treatment
desired for the entire north segment.
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
52ndAvenue to 1-70
This portion of the corridor is distinctly different from the primary residential portion south of
1-70 being primarily commercial in nature. In addition, existing developments along a portion
of the east side of Federal Boulevard currently rely upon on-street parking for their business
operations. Consequently, the cross-section shown in Figure 21 represents a long-term
objective which is recommended to be phased over time as redevelopment occurs and
alternative parking provisions become available.
Landscape and - Landscape and
Pedestrian Pedestrian
ULTIMATE LONG-TERM OPTION
Figure 21
Typical Section
52nd Avenue to 1-70
1-70 to 20th Avenue
The preferred cross-section for this segment of the corridor (see Figure 22) responds to the
unique residential character of the area. Both existing curb lines and right-of-way are
recommended to be retained with extensive landscape enhancements provided throughout.
Landscape and Landscape and
Pedestrian Pedestrian
Pull-Out
Parking
MID-BLOCK MEDIAN ___________Figure 22
Typical Section
i-70 to 20th Avenue
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
INTERSECTION IMPROVEMENTS
Conceptual intersection improvements have been identified for two locations in the north
segment as described below. Precise intersection geometry will be developed during the
design process. The following locations are recommended for capacity and safety
improvements.
o Upgrade Federal/38th Avenue. As previously discussed, this intersection is currently
at or near capacity. Under future conditions, operations here are expected to be at
LOS F unless intersection improvements are undertaken.
An analysis of several improvement alternatives indicated that future operations at LOS
E could be maintained by placing peak hour parking restrictions on the eastbound
approach to the intersection as shown in Figure 23. This would effectively create a
separate right-turn lane to southbound Federal Boulevard, thus increasing the capacity
of the intersection at minimal expense. Parking restrictions could be lifted during off-
peak periods, when the additional capacity would not be needed. It is therefore
recommended that eastbound peak hour parking restrictions be implemented at this
location.
Operations at this intersection should continue to be monitored to determine if
additional level of service improvements are warranted in the long term.
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
o Upgrade Federal/Speer. The operational analyses also indicated that existing
operations at this intersection are at LOS F, a condition requiring immediate
improvement.
Further analysis has indicated that this intersection could be improved sufficiently to
operate at LOS E through the projected year 2010 by adding a second westbound
right-turn lane and a second southbound left-turn iane. In order to accomplish these
additions and maintain lane continuity with minimal roadway widening, a reallocation
of the existing widths of each roadway is required as shown in Figure 24.
Figure 24
[gj Recommended Intersection Improvements
North Federal Boulevard / Speer
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
SOUTH SEGMENT RECOMMENDATIONS
In addition to the urban design and safety improvements recommended for the entire Federal
Boulevard corridor, the following recommendations are also applicable to the south segment.
URBAN DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS
Several illustrations are presented to show the effect of the recommended Urban Design
Standards on portions of the south segment. A photograph of existing conditions is included
to provide a visual comparison.
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
North of Evans Avenue (West Side)
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
North of Mississippi Avenue (East Side)
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
South of Alameda Avenue (East Side)
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
North of Bayaucf Avenue (East Side)
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federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
TRAFFIC AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS
The following additional safety improvements are recommended for the south segment of
Federal Boulevard.
o Provide a Third Northbound Lane (Colfax to Jewell). The existing cross-section on the
south segment of Federal Boulevard is unbalanced; it provides three southbound lanes
but only two northbound lanes. The recommended cross-section would add an
additional continuous northbound lane. While the additional lane is not a capacity
requirement at most locations, this improvement has been recommended for two
reasons.
First, the additional lane is needed as a right-turn acceleration/deceleration lane for the
excessive number of accesses along this segment of Federal Boulevard. Turning
vehicles entering and exiting the businesses along the east side of Federal Boulevard
currently impede traffic flow and create a safety hazard. The addition of the third
northbound lane will effectively remove these conflicts from the primary travel lanes.
The second reason that an additional lane is needed on northbound Federal Boulevard
is the high frequency of transit traffic on this segment. As previously noted, over 300
buses per day serve some sections of south Federal Boulevard, which equates to as
many as 12 buses per hour on the northbound side. Many bus stops currently occur
in the right-hand through-lane, causing the traffic behind to stop. This situation
increases delay and contributes to safety problems. The recommended third lane will
allow transit operations, as well as right-turning movements, to occur efficiently
without impeding the through movements on Federal Boulevard.
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
o Median Development. The implementation of a raised median in the south segment
of the corridor is recommended to occur between Colfax Avenue and Jewell Avenue.
Figure 25 shows the plan elements of the
preferred cross-section for the south seg-
ment. The raised median is extended along
Federal Boulevard except at intersections
with major cross-streets. At these loca-
tions, painted left-turn bays are provided.
Pedestrian crosswalks are provided across
the median to allow a point of refuge dur-
ing crossing. Turning movements at minor
cross-streets and driveways are restricted
to right-turns only to afford pedestrians
additional safety.
To provide all of the pedestrian, transit,
and traffic improvements up to 10-feet of
additional right-of-way would have to be
acquired in those portions of the corridor
having less than 100-feet of right-of-way.
The specific streets which would be re-
stricted to right turn movements only will
be determined as a part of the preliminary
design. However, to achieve the maximum
safety benefits and to maintain a consis-
tent median landscape, minor cross streets
should provide full turning movements only
when a documented need exists. Table 8
is a proposed list of the major cross streets
where full turning movements would be
maintained along with the anticipated type
of traffic control. Other locations may be
added during the detailed design process.
The portion of the south segment between Jewell and Evans is recommended to continue to
function as a transition between the upgraded cross-section north of Jewell and the existing
cross-section south of Evans. The outside auxiliary lanes would end at Jewell with four
through lanes continuing to the south with no raised median. Any future median construction
or roadway improvements between Jewell and Evans should be coordinated with improve-
ments south of Evans. Enhancement of the urban design character of this portion of the
corridor should continue, however, and be coordinated with the landscape concept plan and
pedestrian improvements to the north. Pedestrian and transit improvements are also
recommended for Evans Avenue.
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
TABLE 8
SOUTH SEGMENT POTENTIAL INTERSECTIONS WITH FULL TURNING MOVEMENTS
RETAINED *
Cross. Street Traffic Control
14th Avenue Signal
Holden Place Stop Sign WB
12th Avenue Stop Sign EB
1 Oth Avenue Signal
9th Avenue Stop Sign E/W
8th Avenue Signal
7th Avenue Stop Sign WB
South of 7th Avenue Stop Sign WB
6th Avenue North Ramps Signal
6th Avenue South Ramps Signal
5th Avenue Stop Sign EB
5th Avenue Stop Sign WB
4th Avenue Stop Sign WB
2nd Avenue East Signal
2nd Avenue West Stop Sign EB
1st Avenue East Stop Sign WB
1 st Avenue West Signal
Bayaud Avenue Stop Signs E/W
Alameda Avenue Signal
Virginia Avenue Signal
Exposition Avenue Signal
Kentucky Avenue Signal
Mississippi Avenue Signal
Louisiana Avenue Signal
Rorida Avenue Signal
Mexico Avenue Stop Signs E/W
Jewel! Avenue Signal
Preliminary list for illustrative purposes; specific access control plan will be developec
jointly by the city and state in design process.
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
INTERSECTION IMPROVEMENTS
Conceptual intersection improvements have been identified for two locations in the south
segment as described below. Precise intersection geometry will be developed during the
design process. The following locations are recommended for capacity and safety
improvements.
o Upgrade Federai/Alameda. Improvements to the Federal Boulevard/Alameda Avenue
intersection are currently under final design as part of another project by the city and
County of Denver. With these upgrades, this intersection should continue to operate
below capacity to the year 2010, by which time the projected operations will be at an
acceptable LOS E. Preliminary design of intersection improvements at this location
include double left-turn lanes and three through-lanes on all approaches.
o Upgrade Federal/Evans. As previously discussed, the interactions between traffic,
pedestrian, and transit operations at this important transit transfer station create
undesirable conflicts which necessitate the following intersection improvements:
To alleviate the condition of eastbound through and southbound left turn vehicles
encountering delay due to buses stopping on eastbound Evans Avenue just east of
Federal Boulevard, a bus pullout should be constructed to remove such transit
operations from the travel lane.
To prevent a similar conflict on the westbound leg of Evans Avehue, it is recommend-
ed that the inside westbound through-lane be reallocated to left-turning traffic. The
existing configuration on westbound Evans Avenue forces two through-lanes to merge
into one lane immediately west of Federal Boulevard. Therefore, the capacity of the
intersection is not significantly affected by this action. The northerly lane on
westbound Evans Avenue may then be used as a bus pullout and as a right-turn lane.
o Jewell to Evans. The six lane cross-section described in this section is applicable
between Colfax and Jewell Avenue. The two-block segment between Jewell and
Evans currently has four through lanes within a wider (68') street cross-section than
the remainder of the south segment, therefore no changes to the cross-section of this
segment are recommended. Any improvements to this segment, other than those at
the Evans intersection, should be developed and incorporated with improvements that
extend south of the study corridor.
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
VI. IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS
The implementation of the Federal Boulevard corridor plan as defined in the previous section
of this document will likely be an extended process requiring a coordinated design process
between the City and adjacent property owners, designation and allocation of financial
resources, and acquisition of key rights-of-way.
To assist in developing an implementation framework, three elements of project implementa-
tion are presented in the following. These elements are:
o Project Phasing
o Planning Level Cost Estimates
o Agency Responsibilities {Funding, Construction, and Maintenance)
DESIGN PROCESS
This plan presents recommended improvement projects along Federal Boulevard at a
generalized, planning level. As projects are funded, there will be a design process, which
generally has three phases: preliminary design, final design and construction. The city
Department of Public Works will include a public involvement process during each of these
three phases, with a minimum of one open meeting during each phase, in addition, there will
be a citizen steering committee formed if major issues of concern arise for a particular
segment or project. Also, designers will work to address any particular property owners'
problems on a one-on-one basis.
There are a number of design issues that cannot be definitively addressed at the planning
level, but that will be addressed during the design process. Included are the locations of
median breaks for full movement intersections, location of pedestrian walkways, the location
of pull-out parking bays in the north segment, design and landscaping in the medians, side
landscape and streetscape design, and mitigation of construction and detour impacts.
PROJECT PHASING
Because the Federal Boulevard corridor encompasses nearly 8 miles with a variety of land
uses, differing construction constraints, and right-of-way acquisition needs, it is not possible
to define a specific phasing program. However, certain characteristics of the corridor are
indicative of a general phasing sequence consisting of short-term actions occurring over the
next 5 years; intermediate range actions to occur in approximately the next 3 to 10 years; and
long-term actions to occur in the next 10 to 20 years.
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
SHORT-TERM ACTIONS {1 TO 5 YEARS)
Federal/Alameda Intersection
The upgrading of the intersection of Federal Boulevard and Alameda Avenue is currently
underway. Engineering design will be completed in 1994 and construction is proposed to
occur as soon as funding is in place.
Federal and 38th Avenue, Speer Boulevard, Evans Avenue Intersections
The improvement recommendations for the intersections of Federal/38th Avenue, Feder-
al/Speer Boulevard and Federal/Evans Avenue have the following characteristics:
o Relatively minor right-of-way acquisition is required.
o Construction is limited to discrete locations.
o Total costs of these improvements are relatively small.
Therefore, these projects can proceed to design and implementation in a relatively short time-
frame and should be considered as early corridor improvements.
INTERMEDIATE TERM ACTIONS {3 TO 10 YEARS)
1-70 to 20th Avenue
This portion of the Federal Boulevard corridor involves relatively minor physical modifications
having the following key characteristics:
o No right-of-way acquisition is required.
o Construction is limited to the center median and adjacent streetscape enhancements,
o Total costs are relatively small.
As a consequence this portion of the corridor is a likely candidate for early implementation and
has, therefore, been identified as an intermediate improvement action.
20th Avenue to Colfax Avenue
This portion of the corridor is anticipated to be ultimately integrated with a larger effort to
improve the overall pedestrian, traffic, and urban design characteristics of the sports complex
area. Funding has been requested to proceed with landscape and streetscape enhancements
along the edges of Federal Boulevard in the immediate time period. Planning for the sports
complex area is anticipated to occur in the near future, with additional improvements
sufficiently defined for implementation in the long-term time frame time period.
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
6th A venue to Alameda
Unlike the north segment, the south segment involves major street reconstruction throughout
and significant right-of-way acquisition in some areas, especially between Colfax Avenue and
Alameda Avenue,
The segment of Federal Boulevard between 6th Avenue and Alameda Avenue exhibits several
key characteristics, however, which warrant the consideration of this segment as an
intermediate action project. These characteristics include;
o The intersection of Alameda and Federal is one of the highest accident locations in the
City.
o Traffic volumes are the highest in the corridor and congestion levels are generally high
especially at Alameda and Federal.
o Bus volumes through this segment are high as are passenger boardings.
o Overall pedestrian activity is significant as is the accident history.
o Right-of-way acquisition needs are generally 10-feet on one side of the street rather
than 10-feet on both sides of the street.
in addition, the intersection of Alameda and Federal is currently being redesigned to improve
safety and capacity with construction anticipated to be completed as soon as full funding is
identified. Therefore, upgrading the segment of Federal Boulevard from 6th Avenue to
Alameda Avenue would be a natural extension of these intersection improvements.
Alameda Avenue to Mississippi Avenue
This segment of Federal Boulevard is approximately 1 mile long and could be further
subdivided into smaller projects consistent with city-wide priorities and available funding.
However, since minimal right-of-way acquisition is required (except for the 1 /2 biock segment
immediately south of Tennessee Avenue, where the existing ROW is only 80 feet), it is likely
that significant portions of this segment could be implemented within a reasonable time frame
and budget. Therefore, this segment is identified as an intermediate-term project.
LONG-TERM ACTIONS (10 TO 20 YEARS)
52ndAvenue to 1-70
This segment of the corridor is identified as a long-term action because implementation of the
ultimate cross-section will require redevelopment activities to occur and because safety and
traffic operational problems are less significant than in other portions of the corridor.
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
20th Avenue to Colfax Avenue
As additional planning is conducted for the sports complex area it is anticipated that additional
improvements will be identified for this segment of Federal Boulevard for implementation in
the long-term time period.
Colfax Avenue to 6th Avenue
This segment of the corridor is characterized by some of the greatest safety, pedestrian, and
congestion problems as well as some of the most significant cost and right-of-way
constraints. As a consequence of these constraints, it is unlikely that all implementation
issues can be resolved early although it is important that early steps be taken to begin the
process of implementation.
The following characteristics of this segment of Federal Boulevard are significant:
o Bus volumes are the highest in the corridor and the largest passenger boarding area in
the corridor is located in this segment.
o Accident occurrence including fatalities is among the highest in the corridor.
o Overall travel demand in this segment ranks as the second highest in the corridor.
o Nearly all of this segment requires 10-feet of additional right-of-way along both sides
of the corridor and will involve resolution of issues associated with adjacent park lands.
o To connect this segment with the segment to the south would require reconstruction
of the bridge over 6th Avenue which is a major cost component.
o The 2015 Regional Transportation Plan does not currently include an additional lane
in this segment of Federal which means that a plan amendment must be initiated and
approved before federal funding would be available. .
Therefore, implementation of the improvements recommended for this segment of Federal
Boulevard will likely occur later in the overall corridor upgrading due to the right-of-way and
cost constraints. However, because the safety needs are significant, this segment may be
advanced if right-of-way and cost issues can be resolved.
Mississippi Avenue to Jewell Avenue
This mile long segment of Federal Boulevard has similar characteristics to the segment
between Alameda and Mississippi. Because the safety and operational characteristics of this
segment are not as critical as other portions of the corridor, it has been identified as a long-
term improvement action.
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
PLANNING LEVEL COST ESTIMATES
Precise cost estimates will not be known until the Federal Boulevard corridor plan proceeds
Into subsequent design stages. However, planning level cost estimates have been prepared
for three primary construction elements and right-of-way acquisition. These planning level
cost estimates are also allocated to each of the preliminary implementation phases and are
shown in Table 9.
TABLE 9
FEDERAL BOULEVARD PLANNING LEVEL COST ESTIMATES
{Values are in 1,000's of 1993 Dollars)
Time Frame Location Construction Element
Landscaped Median Streetscape Street Reconstruction Right-Of- Way Phase Total
1 to 5 Years Federal/Alameda Inter- section - - - - *
1 to 5 Years Federal Intersections at 38th, Speer & Evans - - 400 50 450
1 to 5 Years 1-70 to 20th Avenue 1,140 830 520 - 2,490
1 to 5 Years 20th Avenue to Colfax - 100 - - 100
3 to 10 Years 6th Avenue to Alameda 420 1,250 2,520 2,200 6,390
3 to 10 Years Alameda to Mississippi 420 1,250 2,520 250 4,440
10 to 20 Years 52nd Avenue to 1-70 170 500 1,010 - 1,680
10 to 20 Years 20th Avenue to Colfax 200 600 1,210 - 2,010
10 to 20 Years Colfax to 6th Avenue 420 1,250 5,720 3,500 10,890
10 to 20 Years Mississippi to Jewell 420 1,250 2,520 - 4,190
Corridor Totals 3,190 7,030 16,420 6,000 32,640
The Federal/Alameda intersection improvements are contained within a larger project
along Alameda Avenue extending from Knox Court to Decatur Street at a total cost of
approximately $7.5 million.
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
A GENCY RESPONSIBILITIES
The Federal Boulevard corridor improvements will involve several public agencies responsible
for various elements of project development, design and construction, and maintenance. Each
of these responsibilities is outlined below.
FUNDING SOURCES
Private Property Owners
o Developer Agreements. When a property owner elects to redevelop a site, the City
Department of Public Works evaluates the needed right-of-way, roadway, and
landscape requirements and determines on a case-by-case basis what will be required
of the developer. Where redevelopment occurs, it is reasonable to anticipate that
developers will finance some to all of the needed improvements. The Federal
Boulevard plan provides developers with specific requirements which pertain to their
site.
o Local Improvement Districts. Often, minor road improvements and alley improvements
are financed with local improvement districts. In these cases, a group of property
owners agree to form a district and share in the financing. LID bonds are issued and
repaid with an assessment on each property. This concept may also be applied to
segments of arterial roads where there is a common interest among private property
owners to finance needed improvements. The most likely portions of Federal
Boulevard where this might occur are near Mile-High Stadium and north of 1-70.
City and County of Denver
o Capital Improvements Fund. The City funds some capital improvements on a cash
basts through its Capital Improvements Fund with revenues from the head tax. In
recent years, funding through the Capital Improvements Fund has averaged between
$4.5 and $12.5 million of its capital needs. Public Works projects have ranged
between $50,000 and $1.5 million. Although the competition for these funds is
significant, portions of the Federal Boulevard projects might be funded each year
through this source or to provide local matches for federal funds.
o General Obligation (GO) Bond Projects. Every 7 to 10 years, the City typically
identifies a number of potential large-scale capital projects for voter approval; the last
election was in 1989. Voters are asked to approve or disapprove issuing general
obligation bonds for "bundles" of capital projects. These bonds are repaid over time
with property taxes. Road improvement projects, such as the 15th Street Viaduct,
Speer/6th/Lincoin underpass and others have been financed with GO bonds. This is
a viable source of funds for major components of the Federal Boulevard project. The
next GO bond election date has not been set.
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
o Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Streetseaoe Projects. CDBG funds are
from the federal government and are dispersed to local governments on a formula
basis. For a number of years, Denver has earmarked about $500,000 of CDBG funds
annually for streetscape projects within eligible neighborhoods. This level of funding
typically finances 4 to 7 projects. Historically, these funds have been available for
commercial or residential neighborhoods; in 1993, the City elected to earmark funds
for only residential neighborhoods. This constraint might or might not be lifted in
future years.
State and Federal Aid
A new piece of federal legislation, the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of
1991 (ISTEA), was signed into law in December, 1991. It describes how to access various
types of federal aid for roads and transit. Several pertinent components of this new legislation
are outlined below. Each year, it is the responsibility of the Metropolitan Planning
Organization (MPO) which is the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG), to
determine specifically how ISTEA funds are allocated among competing projects. The
emphasis for this allocation is on cost-effectiveness based upon a quantitative evaluation of
projects which are consistent with the Regional Transportation Plan. Typically, federal funds
require a 20% local match which could be provided by Denver or CDOT.
o The Surface Transportation Program (STP) is a new block grant type of program that
may be used by States and local governments for any roads but locals or minor
collectors. Once funds are distributed to States, each State must set aside 10 percent
for safety construction activities and 10 percent for environmentally-related
transportation enhancements. Since these funds are distributed on the basis of
population, the Denver metropolitan area receives a substantial portion of these funds.
Many portions of the Federal Boulevard project are designed to improve safety; these
improvements should rank high for the safety construction set-aside funds. Other
components of the Federal Boulevard project should be eligible for STP funding.
o The Congestion Mitigation & Air Quality Improvement Program directs funds towards
transportation projects in areas with high concentrations of ozone and carbon
monoxide; the Denver metropolitan area qualifies. To the extent that Federal
Boulevard improvements ease congestion and improve air quality, the project is eligible
to compete for these revenues. However, significant reductions in air pollutant
emissions would have to be demonstrated.
o National Highway System (NHS) funds are available to facilities designated as a part
of the National Highway System. Federal Boulevard is identified on the NHS submitted
by the Colorado Department of Transportation to the Federal Highway Administration..
As a consequence, improvements to Federal Boulevard would be eligible for NHS
funds.
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan
LAND DEDICATION AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
Developers (property owners) are required to dedicate any additional land that is needed to
obtain one-half of the desired or planned right-of-way for existing roads when a building permit
is pulled. The Denver Department of Public Works determines the desired or planned right-of-
way to be taken.
Developers (property owners) are not required to improve property in the City right-of-way
unless a building permit is pulled. However, when a building permit is pulled, developers
(property owners) may be required to construct project-specific traffic and safety improve-
ments, such as auxiliary acceleration, deceleration and turn lanes, detached or attached
sidewalks, landscape improvements, drainage improvements, and access improvements and
add street lights according to Denver's standards. Developers (property owners) are typically
not required to construct additional road pavement. On a case-by-case basis, Denver will
relax some improvements requirements, such as landscaping, if the scale of the building or
redevelopment improvements are modest. All of these conditions hold whether or not
additional right-of-way is required.
LANDSCAPE CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE
Parkways
The City has submitted an application for the designation of sixteen parkways on the National
Register of Historic Places. They include portions of : City Park Esplanade, Clermont Street,
Downing Street, Forest Street, South Marion Street, Montview Boulevard, Richthofen Place,
Speer Boulevard, University Boulevard, Williams Street, East 4th Avenue, East 6th Avenue,
East 7th Avenue Parkway, East 17th Avenue and West 46th Avenue.
By Ordinance, the City has designated a number of roadways in Denver as parkways and
boulevards. Federal Boulevard is among these. For designated parkways and boulevards. The
City will trim trees within City right-of-way on a 7-year cycle and will remove hazardous
conditions, such as dead trees.
The City Parks & Recreation Department generally assumes maintenance responsibility for
improvements in the medians. Annual maintenance costs can vary greatly from one location
to another but have averaged approximately $ 10,000 per mile. Abutting property owners are
required to assume the maintenance responsibilities for improvements from the curb to the
private property line. The City Forester assumes responsibility for street trees throughout the
parkways.
City and County of Denver
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Ran
Medians
The City Public Works Department generally installs landscaped medians. The City Parks &
Recreation Department generally maintains landscaped medians. On occasion, other entities
may be designated to maintain landscaped medians.
Edge Treatments, AH Roads But Parkways
The City imposes landscape construction requirements on developers {property owners) when
a building permit is pulled. On a case-specific basis, City staff will tailor the landscape require-
ments with the scale of the building permit pulled. These landscaped treatments must be
"adequately maintained" but not necessarily improved with underground irrigation. The City's
guide in determining these landscape requirements is its "Streetscape Design Manual" which
was adopted by the Planning Board earlier in 1993 and will be printed in a few months.
City code states that all property owners must maintain the City's right-of-way between its
private property line and the curb.
Community Development Block Grant Streetscape Projects
The Denver Commercial Streetscaping Program provides Community Development Block
Grants up to $200,000 to revitalize and upgrade Denver's older neighborhood shopping areas
through the construction of right-of-way improvements. Special focus for this program is on
neighborhood business revitalization areas or those areas with an established merchants or
business organization. Benches, trees, ornamental pedestrian lighting, trash receptacles,
sidewalks and curb ramps are all eligible improvements. Emphasis for project selection is
placed on contributions from private sources that will be committed to complement these
funds.
For a number of years, Denver has typically earmarked $500,000 annually for residential
streetscape projects and $500,000 for commercial streetscape projects. In 1994 these
funding levels will increase to $600,000. For example, Federal Boulevard at Tennessee and
38th Avenue between Federal & Jason are funded with CDBG funds.
Historically, the City funded projects-in commercial or residential neighborhoods where
residents are below a specified income level to qualify for funding.
Typically, residential neighborhood improvements include sidewalks, trees and sod.
Commercial neighborhood improvements have been more extensive and have included
pedestrian lighting, and irrigated landscaped treatments.
Before the City agrees to make streetscape improvements with its CDBG funds, it requires at
least 70 percent of the property owners to agree to the following terms and conditions:
o Purchase a revocable permit to install improvements other then trees and sod in the
right-of-way edge {$75 in year one plus $25 each subsequent year).
City and County of Denver
Page 88


Full Text

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FEDERAL BOULEVARD CORRIDOR PLAN / / / _,L ,/'

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan City and County of Denver FEDERAL BOULEVARD CORRIDOR PLAN Prepared for: City and County of Denver Department of Public Works Transportation Division 200 West 14th Avenue Denver, CO 80204 Prepared by: Felsburg Holt & Ullevig 5299 DTC Boulevard, Suite 400 Englewood, CO 80111 303/721-1440 In association with: EDAW/HRV, Inc. /Forrest Frasier Halbe, Inc. February, 1995 f.-c 'f]/fJ I

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Mr. Dave Doering Mr. Ted Hackworth NORTH SEGMENT Mr. Ronnie Bay Mr. Kevin Cahill Ms. Lucy Cook Mr. David Dooley Mr. Bill Duffy Mr. Eloy Espinoza, Jr. Ms. Margery Goldman Ms. Kathy Grasmugg Ms. Margie Grimsley Mr. Joe Grind on Ms. Bev Haggerty Mr. Frank Keller Mr. Larry Life Mr. Antonio Lucero Mr. Gil Martinez Mr. Michael McCloskey Ms. Pam McGiven Mr. George Poplin Mr. Ed Rovey Mr. Randall Sampson Mr. Brian Spindle Mr. Marshall Vanderburg Mr. Alan White City and County of Denver ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER Wellington Webb, Mayor CITY COUNCIL Ms. Ramona Martinez Ms. Deborah Ortega Ms. Cathy Reynolds Mr. Timothy Sandos Mr. William Scheitler CITIZENS ADVISORY COMMITTEE SOUTH SEGMENT Ms. Vera Aragon Mr. Dick Boehm Mr. Stephen Burke Mr. Sal Chaves Mr. Dan Cronin Ms. April Crumley Mr. Ron Damiana Ms. Judy Green Ms. Mickey James Mr. Ron Leraaen Ms. Marcy Linder Mr. AI Lucero Mr. Roy Maddox Ms. Marilane McCartney Mr. Gary Moscow Ms. Janice Nelson Ms. Vickie Patterson Ms. Jo Anne Phillips Ms. Carolyn Quick Mr. Harvey Radis Mr. Gene Ramer Mr. William H. Roberts Ms. Patty Settles Mr. Stephen Stallsworth Dr. Lawrence Winogard SOUTH SEGMENT Ameridan Bridal Gown Co. Barnum Publishing Co. Business Equipment Consultant Chinese News DuPriest Typewriter Co. Federal Ace Hardware Federal Heating Federal Jewelry and Loan First Nat'! Bank of Denver Hale Electric Morrison Road Business Association of Denver Don Ouijote Sherwin Williams SW Improvement Council Triangle Pool Supply

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Elliot Sulsky Tyler Gibbs Terry Rosapep Ed Ellerbrock Nelson Ho Cathy Chin Elvira Thomas Mark Upshaw Steve Foute Linda Hamlin Carlos Ramos Ray Amoruso Jennifer Finch Steve Rudy City and County of Denver TECHNICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE Transportation Division Planning and Community Development Transportation Division Transportation Division Transportation Division Planning and Community Development Planning and Community Development Parks and Recreation Health & Hospitals, Environmental Protection Denver Urban Renewal Authority Mayor's Office of Economic Development Regional Transportation District Colorado Department of Transportation Denver Regional Council of Governments

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . i I. INTRODUCTION ....................................... 1 Study Area . . . . . . . . 1 Study Purpose . . . . . 2 HistorJcal Overview . . . . . ....... 2 Study Organization .............................. 5 11. ANALYSIS OF EXISTING AND FUTURE CONDITIONS .................. 6 Urban Design ..................................... 6 Market Characteristics . . . . . . . . 1 0 Travel Demand . . . . . . . . 1 6 Operations ......................................... 20 Transit Services . . . . . . . . 23 Safety .................................... 25 Right-of-Way ................................ 27 Ill. SUMMARY OF CORRIDOR NEEDS .............................. 28 Enhanced Urban Design Character . . . . . . 28 Minimize Acquisition ......................... 29 Correct Safety Deficiencies ............................ 30 Enhance Transit Operations ............................ 31 Upgrade Problem Intersections ......................... 31 IV. ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS ............................ 32 North Segment ..................................... 32 South Segment ..................................... 34 V. PLAN RECOMMENDATIONS .............................. 39 Corridor-Wide Recommendations .......................... 39 North Segment Recommendations ....................... 57 South Segment Recommendations ...................... 71 VI. IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS ................................... 80 Project Phasing ..................................... 80 Planning Level Cost Estimates . . . . . . 84 Agency Responsibilities ................................. 85 City and County of Denver

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan LIST OF FIGURES 1 Corridor Study Area . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Typical Future (Colfax to Jewell) Current Denver Practice ....... 4 3. Existing Zoning .............................................. 12 4. Federal Boulevard Historic Traffic Volumes ........................... 16 5. 1992 Traffic Volumes ......................................... 18 6. 2010 Traffic Volumes ......................................... 19 7. Existing Level of Service ....................................... 20 8. Year 2010 Level of Service ................................... 22 9. Bus Services ..................... : . . . . . .. 23 1 0. Transit Boardings . . . . . . . . . . . 24 11. Average Annual Accident Occurrence ............................. 25 12. Fatal Accidents 1983-1992 ................................... 26 13. Existing Right-of-Way .......................................... 27 14. Alternative Typical Sections North Segment ........................ 32 15. Typical Pull-Out Parking Application ............................... 33 16. Alternative Typical Sections South Segment ........................ 34 1 7. Urban Design Matrix . . . . . . . . 39 1 8A. Urban Design Framework North Segment . . . . . .. 41 188. Urban Design FrameworkSouth Segment ........................ 42 19. Plan Elements Mid-Block Median-North Segment ..................... 65 20 Typical Sections 20th Avenue to 17th Avenue ........................ 67 21. Typical Sections 52nd Avenue to 1-70 ........................... 68 22. Typical Sections 1-70 to 20th Avenue ............................ 68 23. Recommended Intersection Improvements Federal Boulevard/38th Avenue ... 69 24. Recommended Intersection Improvements Federal Boulevard/Speer. ....... 70 25. Plan Elements Mid-Block Median South Segment ..................... 77 City and County of Denver

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan LIST OF TABLES 1 Parcels Which Abut Federal Boulevard . . . . . . . 11 2. Types of Businesses in the Federal Boulevard Corridor .................. 13 3. Retail Businesses in the Federal Boulevard Corridor ..................... 14 4. Services Businesses in the Federal Boulevard Corridor ................... 15 5. Selected Historic Traffic Volumes ................................ 17 6. Summary of Possible Impacts Associated with an Additional Ten Feet of Right-of-Way: Federal Boulevard: South of Colfax Avenue ................ 37 7. North Segment Major Cross Streets Full Turning Movements Retained ...... 66 8. South Segment Major Cross Streets-Full Turning Movements Retained ...... 78 9. Federal Boulevard Planning Level Cost Estimates ...................... 84 City and County of Denver

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan EXECUTIVE SUMMARY GOALS OF THE FEDERAL BOULEVARD CORRIDOR PLAN The Federal Boulevard Corridor Study was initiated in order to achieve three primary goals: o Enhance the Image of Federal Boulevard for Both Residents and Visitors o Improve the Safety and Operating Efficiency of the Corridor for Pedestrians and Vehicles o Limit Land Acquisition to the Minimum Needed to Improve the Image and Safety of the Corridor These goals were identified as a direct result of the technical analysis which documented the following issues and problems along Federal Boulevard. SUMMARY OF PROBLEMS IMAGE AND CHARACTER Historically, Federal Boulevard was a pleasant, tree-lined street from the Barnum neighborhood in the south to the Regis area in the north. Commercial uses in the south segment transitioned to a lush residential district north of 20th. Street car lines serving northwest Denver crossed Federal at five locations north of Colfax with local neighborhood serving shops at several intersections. The street cars actually ran on Federal between Colfax and Alameda. Over the years trees and tree lawns have been lost to road widenings. Sidewalks and landscaping have been neglected or paved over in many locations. In some areas retail and commercial uses have expanded from their original neighborhood oriented intersections and without benefit of street trees, landscaping, and other amenities now threaten the quality and character of the residential districts which share the corridor. As a result much of the corridor presents an image that is ill-defined or worse. Indistinct commercial edges pose potential threats to the integrity of the nineteen neighborhoods adjacent to Federal, and the deteriorating public edge of the boulevard provides an environment which is adverse to the pedestrians as well as unattractive to motorists. SAFETY DEFICIENCIES An analysis of more than 1 0 years of data indicates that Federal Boulevard is one of the most hazardous corridors in Denver for both pedestrians and vehicles. Some significant statistics include: o The fatalities along Federal Boulevard have averaged more than 3 deaths per year for the last 1 0 years with more than 3/4 of these involving pedestrians or bikers. City and County of Denver Page i

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan o Federal Boulevard ranks highest in terms of pedestrian and bicycle fatalities in the City and, accounts for approximately 20% of the pedestrian fatalities in all of Denver. o The intersections of Alameda and Evans with Federal Boulevard have ranked at or near the top of the list of intersections in the City relative to annual accidents for several years. NARROW RIGHT-OF-WAY The existing publicly owned right-of-way along Federal Boulevard is very narrow. While much of the Federal Boulevard right-of-way is 1 00 feet wide, there are significant lengths of the corridor having only 90 feet or 80 feet of width. Historically, the City has attempted to make improvements to Federal Boulevard (south of Colfax Avenue) within a proposed right-of-way width of 120 feet. This would require that all of the approximately 575 parcels along the corridor south of Colfax would Jose a minimum of 1 0-feet of property and in some instances as much as 20-feet. This situation has proved to be untenable for many property owners and, as a result, few improvements of significance have been made to the image and safety of the corridor. SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS (Figure 51 and Figure S2) IMAGE ENHANCEMENTS The preliminary recommendations to en hance the image of Federal Boulevard include several approaches which recognize the unique characteristics of different segments of the corridor. Major enhance ments include: 0 Provide a planted median in the middle of Federal Boulevard of ap proximately 9 to 1 0 feet in width. In the north segment of the corridor between 1-70 and 20th Avenue existing on-street parking would have to be relocated in order to provide room for the median. Off street parking solutions are pre ferred, however pullouts may be necessary where other residential parking options do not exist. City and County of Denver 90'-100' ROW 60' 1 .a. J t I t 2' 9' 1 0'-f;" 9' 10'-f;" 11' EXJSTING Landscapa and Pedestrian Improvements 90' 100' ROW Landscape and Pedestrian Improvements I 20' I I I 60' 20'M .I Planted 'F' I Median !fi& .. -.. J. -"""'"'"'___ ,... II ... I "' II 11 t l t II I 2' 11' 11' 1' 10' 1' 11' 11' 2' 10' Pull-Out Parking MID-BLOCK MEDJAN PREFERRED {1 to 20th Ave.) Figure S-1 Typical Sections North Segment I I Page ii

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan 0 0 0 Development of consistent street scape improvements along the edges of the corridor including land scaping, street trees, lighting, and street furniture. These improve ments to be implemented through new development, redevelopment and the establishment of mainte nance districts. Provide continuous sidewalks and pedestrian amenities associated with major activity centers, bus stops, and open spaces. Protect and enhance adjacent neigh borhoods by recognizing neighbor hood gateways and boundaries and limiting the encroachment of non residential uses. Overlay districts should be considered to implement design standards for site develop ment and buffering between com mercial and residential use zones. SAFETY/TRAFFIC FLOW IMPROVEMENTS The preliminary recommendations to correct the safety problems along the corridor include: o Provide a median in the middle of Federal Boulevard which restricts turning movements at minor cross streets and driveways to right in/right-out turns. o Provide pedestrian crossing points across the median which connect major activity areas or where pedes trian volumes are significant. City and County of Denver SO' -100' ROW 60' I "' I 2' 8'-Q 10' 10' 9' EXISTING 120' ROW 36' 12' 36' II ,&. I I 4-II II t I t I t 11 2' 11' 11' 11' 1' 1' 11' 11' 11' 2' CURRENT DENVER PRACTICE Landscape and Pedestrian Improvements II .J I .j. 2' 11' 11' 100' ROW 80' Planted Median Landscape and Pedestrian Improvements 11' 1' 8' 1' 11' 11' 11' 2' SIX-LANES. PREFERRED (Colfax Ave. to Jewell Ave.) Figure S-2 Typical Sections South Segment Page iii

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan o Provide standard lane widths of 11 feet and relocate parking to reduce side conflicts between vehicles and pedestrians and to improve bus travel along the curb. o Add one new lane on Federal Boulevard between Colfax Avenue and Jewell Avenue. This will result in a third lane in each direction to be used primarily by right turning vehicles and buses. o Safety improvements are required at the following intersections with Federal Boulevard: Alameda Avenue-Major Reconstruction 38th Avenue-Minor Traffic Control Changes Speer Boulevard Additional Turn Lanes Evans Avenue-Bus Stop Improvements LIMIT LAND ACQUISITION The preliminary recommendation to enhance the image of the corridor and to correct the safety problems is proposed to be done within a total right-of-way width of 1 00 feet rather than the previous recommendation of 120 feet. Therefore, only those segments of Federal Boulevard having 80-feet or 90-feet of right-of-way will require 1 0-feet of land acquisition. Areas where land acquisition will be required are between Colfax and Alameda Avenue and along a short segment just south of Tennessee. City and County of Denver Pageiv

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan IMPLEMENTATION PHASING A potential implementation phasing of the recommended improvements to the Federal Boulevard corridor along with their planning level cost estimates are shown in the following tabulation. TABLE S FEDERAL BOULEVARD PlANNING lEVEL COST ESTIMATES (Values are in 1 ,OOO's of 1993 Dollars) Years section 1 to 5 Federal Intersections at Years 38th, & Evans 1 to 5 1-70 to 20th Avenue 1,140 830 Years 1 to 5 20th A venue to Colfax 100 .Years 3 to 10 6th Avenue to Alameda 420 1,250 Years 3 to 10 Alameda to Mississippi 420 1,250 Years 10 to 20 52nd Avenue to 1-70 170 500 Years 10 to 20 20th A venue to Colfax 200 600 Years 10 to 20 Colfax to 6th Avenue 420 1,250 Years 10 to 20 Mississippi to Jewell 42.0 1,250 Years Corridor Totals 3,190 7,030 400 50 450 520 2,490 100 2,520 2,200 6,390 2,520 250 4,440 1,010 1,680 1,210 2,010 5,720 3,500 10,890 2,520 4,190 16,420 6,000 32,640 The Federal/Alameda intersection improvements are contained within a larger project along Alameda Avenue extending from Knox Court to Decatur Street at a total cost of approximately $7.5 million. City and County of Denver Page v

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan I. INTRODUCTION STUDY AREA The Federal Boulevard corridor study area, shown in Figure 1, encompasses that portion of Federal Boulevard extending from the north limits of the City and County of Denver to Evans A venue. Approximately 8 miles in length, the study area includes the existing right-of-way and adjacent properties and exhibits a wide diversity of land uses and transportation characteristics. Land uses in the corridor vary significantly. While much of the south portion of the corridor is predominantly commercial with pockets of residential, institutional and park uses, there are significant concentrations of educational, and park uses in the north. In addition, some economic redevelopment and urban design improve ments have occurred along various seg ments of Federal Boulevard. Efforts are on going to revitalize existing local commercial areas and to enhance the overall image and character of the corridor. The sports complex, located between 20th Avenue and Colfax represents an especially unique land use. Current unsightly condi tions along Federal Boulevard adjacent to the sports complex are not appropriate to the stature of these facilities as a regional destination and a focus of civic pride. Spe cial design treatments are required to ac commodate major events as well as to provide for appropriate transition to nearby residential neighborhoods. The sports complex is considered to be a part of the northwest Denver community and as such the improvement and consistency of the boulevard image through the sports com plex district is a critical issue. A subse quent and more detailed study of the sports complex district is recommended to allow for thorough consideration of its functional and aesthetic needs. City and County of Denver Colfax u.s. 6 Lakewood Jewell U.S.2 Nortlt 12othA'Ie. BBth Ave. 1 Alameda Ave. Figure 1 Corridor Study Area Page 1

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan The roadway element of the Federal Boulevard corridor is typically 4 through lanes north of 20th Avenue and south of Jewell Avenue and 5 through lanes between 20th Avenue and Jewell Avenue with major intersections controlled by traffic signals. Federal Boulevard is a State Highway under the jurisdiction of the Colorado Department of Transportation and is cur rently designated as US 287 north of Colfax Avenue and SH 88 south of Colfax. Federal Boulevard has grade separated interchanges at five major regional freeways including US 36, 1-76, 1-70, US 6, and US 285 (Hampden Avenue) as well as at Colfax Avenue. STUDY PURPOSE The existing characteristics of the Federal Boulevard corridor as described in the foregoing make the corridor particularly sensitive to continuing redevelopment efforts and growth in regional travel demand. Preservation of the viable residential neighborhoods and commercial areas along the corridor has been a continuing objective which has been hindered as land use changes have slowly evolved over the last several decades. The purpose of the Federal Boulevard Corridor Study, therefore, is to: o Define recommended improvements within the public right-of-way for incorporation into future construction projects including landscaping, pedestrian, and roadway 'improvements. o Establish development guidelines for properties adjacent to the public right-of-way to insure that redevelopment projects are consistent with the desired image and character of the corridor. This report documents the technical analysis and citizen participation process which resulted in the recommended Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan {Chapter V) and the Implementation Process (Chapter VI). HISTORICAL OVERVIEW Federal Boulevard is an officially designated boulevard by Denver ordinance as part of the city's park and parkway plan. Despite this designation it has never entirely met the city's definition of a parkway as stated in the Comprehensive Plan, which would require the inclusion of a planted median and a limitation of commercial development. Federal has always been a major transportation corridor through the near west neighborhoods and has long included areas zoned to accommodate both regional and locally oriented businesses, particularly in the south. It was at one time, however, a more attractive tree lined thoroughfare throughout its length, a condition which remains only in the northern residential sections. Years of widenings and neglect have defeated any resemblance to a boulevard in most of the commercial areas. Federal's travel demands and designation as a state highway have combined to necessitate widening of the roadway. City and County of Denver Page 2

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION PLANS The Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) Regional Transportation Plan is a regional plan which identifies future transportation needs in terms of general laneage requirements and accesses. The regional transportation plan for 2010 identified Federal Boulevard as a principal arterial and indicated that the corridor should consist of 4 basic through lanes from the north city limits to approximately 20th Avenue, 5 through lanes from 2.0th Avenue to Alameda Avenue, and 6 through fanes from Alameda Avenue south to Evans Avenue and beyond. These laneage requirements, which reflect City input, have generated both technical and social concerns. The section of Federal Boulevard between Colfax and Alameda has historically exhibited traffic volumes higher than the segment south of Alameda which would suggest that, on a technical basis, a 5ane segment is not sufficient to accommodate future traffic volumes. South of Alameda, where are proposed, there is the concern that additional right-of-way acquisition would result in adverse social and economic impacts. The recently adopted 2015 Interim Regional Transportation Plan, which reflects only regional ... improvements affordable under a fiscally constrained scenario, calls for the widening of Federal Boulevard to six through lanes from 6th Avenue to Jewell Avenue. Despite travel demands that justify six lanes, impacts on adjacent properties and fiscal constraints were major factors in retaining a 5-lane segment between Colfax and 6th Avenue in the 2015 plan. CURRENT DENVER PRACTICES Between Colfax Avenue and Jewell Avenue, the City and County of Denver has been requiring new developments and redevelopment projects along Federal Boulevard to provide additional right-of-way sufficient to expand the existing right-of-way to be a total width of 120-feet. The purpose of this re.quirement is to provide sufficient room for an eventual upgrading of the corridor as represented by the typical cross-section shown in Figure 2. Much of Federal Boulevard between Colfax and Jewell has an existing right-of-way of approximately 100-feet. However, a significant portion of the corridor (primarily between Colfax and Alameda) has an existing right-of-way of 90-feet with some areas having as little as 80-feet of existing right-of-way. Thus, depending upon specific location, 1 0-feet to 20-feet of additional land would be required from adjacent properties to achieve a total right-of-way width of 120-feet. The acquisition of an additional 1 0 to 20 feet of right-of-way has generated concerns from adjacent property owners and businesses operators as to the continuing and long-term viability of their operations. In addition, while the current Denver practice is consistent with the 2010 Regional Transportation Plan south of Alameda Avenue, it is not consistent between Colfax and Alameda. Additional information is presented in the Appendix regarding current City practices relating to land dedication and related matters. City and County of Denver Page 3

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan 120' ROW 36' 12' II .J. .J. II II 2' 11' 11' 11' 1 I 1' 11' SOUTHWEST QUADRANT TRANSPORTATION STUDY 36' t II 11' 11' 2' Figure 2 Typical Future Cross Section (Colfax to Jewell), Current Denver Practice In response to the concerns expressed above as well as other transportation issues affecting the greater southwest quadrant of the City, the City and County of Denver prepared a long range transportation study for the area lying west of Broadway and south of Colfax in 1991. This study, while necessarily more general and comprehensive than a study of a specific corridor, did identify Federal Boulevard as a key "issue corridor". Among the tions included in the Southwest Quadrant Transportation Study were several which related to Federal Boulevard: o More detailed studies should be done to determine realistic future travel demands in the corridor and their associated roadway and laneage requirements. o The consequences of right-of-way acquisition should be evaluated in greater detail to determine the impacts on existing businesses and their long term viability. o The corridor should also be evaluated in terms of urban design, neighborhood compatibility, and pedestrian scale needs. As a result of these findings and recommendations, the City and County of Denver initiated this Federal Boulevard Corridor Study. The elements of this study include the travel demand, land use, right-of-way needs, and urban design elements described above. In addition, upon completion of the Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan, the City will have the basis to provide input to the DRCOG 2020 Transportation Plan and to amend the City's Comprehensive Plan. City and County of Denver Page 4

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan STUDY ORGANIZATION. CITIZENS ADVISORY COMMITTEE Early in the study a Citizens Advisory Committee (CAC) was organized to discuss the purpose of the study, overall work activities, and general schedule. Additionally, because the corridor is several miles long and the characteristics of the corridor are very different between the north half and the south half of the corridor, the Citizens Advisory Committee decided to form two subcommittees. The north segment was defined to extend from the north City limits to Colfax Avenue while the south segment was defined to extend from Colfax Avenue to Evans Avenue. Each sub committee met approximately five times to discuss work status and evaluate alternatives applicable to the specific needs of each segment. TECHNICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE A Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) was also organized and consisted of representatives from various city departments and other governmental agencies. The purpose of the TAG, which met on a periodic basis in parallel with the citizen subcommittees, was to review the various alternatives from a technical perspective and relative to the plans of other agencies. Comments of the TAG were submitted to the citizen committees for inclusion in their discussions. PUBLIC WORKSHOPS Tyvo public workshops were held at the conclusion of the citizen subcommittee meetings to coordinate the preliminary recommendations for the north and south segments of the corridor and to present the draft plan to the general public. One workshop was held in the north segment of the corridor and one in the south segment. The composite input of the CAC, TAC, and public workshops together with the technical analysis resulted in the Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan as documented in the following sections of this report. City and County of Denver Page 5

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan II. ANALYSIS OF EXISTING AND FUTURE CONDITIONS In order to assess the overall improvement needs within the Federal Boulevard corridor, data pertaining to land uses, urban design, safety and transportation were compiled. These items were analyzed and evaluated to identify major problems and key issues. The results of these analyses are summarized in the following. URBAN DESIGN CHARACTER Historically, Federal Boulevard was a pleasant, tree-lined street. Southern segments of Federal Boulevard have long included a mix of residential and business uses although the business zoning along that part of the corridor dates to Denver's original zoning ordinance in 1925. The segment of Federal north of 20th is largely residential in character with smaller scale neighborhood oriented retail shops at several intersections where the street car lines that served the northwest Denver neighborhoods crossed the boulevard. In fact, the Federal Boulevard corridor forms an edge to nineteen different neighborhoods between Evans and the north city limit. The original tree lined character currently remains intact only in limited residential segments of the north corridor, roughly between 23rd Avenue and 46th Avenue. Remnants of the old character, however, may still be found throughout the corridor in the form of detached sidewalks and a few landscaped tree lawns. Most tree lawn areas in commercial zones have either been lost to street widening, paved over or do not have any maintained landscaping. Several parks and landmark quality buildings along with two historic districts reflect the historic past in the north segment of the corridor. Much of the north section is edged with more traditional commercial buildings fronting directly at the edge of the street right-of-way and residential areas with well maintained landscaping including street trees. This results in a fairly narrow and consistent visual corridor typical of Denver's traditional urban streets. The south segment of the corridor is dominated by retail and commercial uses in single story buildings without benefit of street trees or other landscaping with few exceptions. Contemporary retail development has preferred to pull buildings away from the street to allow parking access in front. The lack of building frontage on the street and the multiplicity of curb cuts has added to the destruction of landscaping caused by road widening. In a few older commercial sections where the right-of-way is very narrow road widening has not left adequate room for detached walks or landscaping. These conditions have resulted in an inconsistent and ill-defined streetscape typical of strip commercial development. City and County of Denver Page 6

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan The continuity of the Boulevard is destroyed by the large freeway style interchanges at West 6th Avenue and West Colfax Avenue. The existing sports, recreational and park uses are appropriate adjacent to these interchanges where small scale business or residential developments might have difficulty coexisting with the scale of the roadways. Large commercial and industrial developments that turn their backs to these interchanges are unsightly and would benefit from landscape screening. These interchanges now also provide points of visual relief and view opportunities albeit at significant cost to the quality and continuity of the surrounding community. Federal Boulevard's locati.on on the western bluffs of the Platte Valley does in fact provide several locations that offer good views of the valley and the downtown Denver skyline. This occurs at Speer Boulevard as well as 6th Avenue and Colfax. On a clear d_ay, southbound motorists near Mississippi and Alameda Avenue can view Pikes Peak, 60 miles to the south. Many designated bike routes cross the Boulevard offering access to the Platte River Greenway, natural gulch areas and neighborhoods. These occur at 46th Avenue, 35th Avenue, 23rd Avenue, 17th Avenue, Lakewood Gulch, 1Oth Avenue, 8th Avenue, 1st Avenue, Louisiana Avenue and Sanderson Gulch. Off-street bike routes following natural gulches provide a recreational feature unique to the west side neighborhoods. LAND USE Federal Boulevard currently functions as one of five major north/south travel corridors through Denver with abutting land uses that change in both character and in scale. Within the 8 miles of Federal Boulevard that is part of this plan's study area the following conditions are typical: o Federal Boulevard from Evans to Mississippi contains lots with substantial depth. Land uses are primarily commercial and were built in the 1950s and 1960s with substantial off-street parking in front. The road right-of-way along this segment is 1 00 feet. Relatively deep commercial lots in this area allow for adequate streetscape and parking lot landscaping as is witnessed by the attractive planting and maintenance of developments such as the Brentwood Shopping Center. o From Mississippi north to Alameda a mixture of dated primarily free-standing commercial structures and houses exist. Many residential structures predate Denver's zoning ordinances and have been converted to commercial use. The road right-of-way along this segment is 100 feet, with one exception. Much of the streetscape in this segment has been neglected and in some cases the public right-ofway is actually being used for parking and other private uses. However, the detached sidewalks predominate indicating the previous existence of landscaped tree lawns. City and County of Denver Page 7

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan o The portion between Alameda and Colfax also contains a mixture of dated commercial structures and houses, half of which have been converted to commercial use. The road right-of-way in this segment is 80 to 90 feet and has a more urban and dated character than segments further south and further north. This segment was initially developed at an earlier date than areas to the south and therefore contains a greater percentage of older commercial structures close to the street and residences that predate zoning. These conditions along with the narrow street right-of-way have been a deterrent to the type of redevelopment that has occurred further south, while the mix of uses has not fostered the relative stability of primarily residential districts to the north. The streetscape along the corridor segment between 5th Avenue and Colfax consists almost entirely of attached sidewalks with no additional landscaping. New as .well as old structures crowd the street. o The segment between Colfax Avenue and West 20th Avenue has a distinct regional character, since it is dominated by Mile High Stadium and McNichols Arena. However, the stadium and arena currently have very little positive presence on the Boulevard and the general character of the streetscape and much of the private development in this strip is unsightly and not in keeping with the prominence and civic nature of these uses. Land uses in this a.rea are subject to redevelopment pressures and opportunities. Several new chain food franchise developments have made landscape improvements to their properties. o The segment between West 20th and West 29th Avenues has a mixed residen tial/commercial character with the most significant retail presence being the Safeway MarketPlace at West 26th Avenue. Incremental rezoning from residential to commercial uses has occurred in the area of 20th to 23rd Streets over the past 35 years. Streetscape conditions vary but the dramatic transition to the tree lined boulevard character of northwest Denver is evident. o The importance of the Federal Boulevard/Speer Boulevard intersection as a landmark location has been greatly enhanced by the creation of Viking Park in the triangle formed with 29th Street. Views to North High School, St. Dominies and the downtown skyline have been opened up dramatically. It has become the symbolic gateway to the northwest Denver neighborhoods due to the lack of attractive streetscape further south on Speer. This intersection will continue to present opportunities to amplify this landmark quality and new development should carefully consider its visual as well as functional impact on the civic character that has been established. The Speer Corridor Design Guidelines (1991} and the North Speer Boulevard Revitalization Master Plan (1987} provide more specific guidance to the design issues at this intersection. City and County of Denver Page 8

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan o There are two dated but not blighted community scale business areas at West 38th and West 44th Avenues. These commercial nodes date to the period when street cars crossed Federal at these locations. The condition of commercial area streetscaping varies but is typically deteriorated through loss of trees, tree lawns, pedestrian lighting and other amenities. In some instances private uses such as parking are occurring on the public right-of-way. The stable configuration of roadway width and numerous existing traditional commercial buildings will aid in the restoration of an attractive streetscape in these areas. However, many older structures that have been converted or adapted to new office and retail uses are most problematic in that wide curb cuts and paving to provide parking in the former front yards have destroyed all remnants of streetscape and landscape. Newer retail site configurations have occasionally been more successful at restoring landscaping to the street edge, however the traditional relationship of buildings and landscaping to the Boulevard is lost do to numerous curb cuts and front oriented parking. o Properties between Speer and West 38th Avenue, between West 38th and 44th Avenues, and between West 44th Avenue and 1-70 have a strong residential character with some prominent churches and schools. Small commercial uses occur at many intersections. Streetscape quality in residential, park and institutional areas has generally been well preserved with both attached and detached sidewalks and consistent landscaping. In some locations attached walks are wide enough to add street trees in grates. Other areas, including residential sections north of 44th would require relocating the attached sidewalk in order to create the standard tree lawn configuration. Steep front lawn slopes would make this difficult and extremely disruptive to what is otherwise an attractive streetscape. o Land uses immediately south and north of 1-70 are primarily stable retail and service oriented businesses oriented to the freeway traffic. The traditional streetscape character of northwest Denver was disrupted in much of this vicinity by the intrusion of the freeway through what was previously a residential area and parochial school. However, many sections of detached sidewalks exist which would make restoration of the tree lawn and street trees relatively easy. o At 52nd Avenue, the northern Denver City limit, is Regis Square, a suburban style community scale shopping center of 17 acres anchored by a K-Mart store. Again, traditional streetscaping was lost when the freeway transformed the area from a residential zone. Regis Square is ripe for redevelopment. City and County of Denver Page 9

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan MARKET CHARACTERISTICS POTENTIAL MARKET PRESSURES Most parcels north of Mississippi Avenue are shallow and narrow. Their size constrains their redevelopment potential since private developers are rarely willing to assemble land. Possible exceptions include Regis Square Shopping Center, the abandoned U.S. Post Office site, several school sites, and segments between West Colfax Avenue and West .20th Avenue. Office users and providers of business and personal services are moving into single-family houses. This trend is already prevalent in the southern segment of Federal Boulevard. Most single-family houses are zoned B-4, which allow nonresidential uses. The northern segment of Federal Boulevard has a higher proportion of owner-occupied single-family houses and houses in residential use. Proactive efforts have been identified by the citizens committees to retain single family structures in residential use. These elements are documented in the recommended corridor plan. There is a trend towards unattractive retail uses around McNichols Arena and Mile High Stadium. There would be substantial market pressure should the Broncos or Nuggets vacate their venues. NEIGHBORHOOD RETAIL NEEDS AND FEDERAL BOULEVARD USES The primary market area is defined as households located east of Sheridan Boulevard, west of the Platte River from Hampden north to the City limit. The market area includes these neighborhoods: Harvey Park, College View, South Platte, Marlee, Ruby Hill, Westwood, Athmar Park, Barnum West, Barnum, Valverde, Villa Park, West Colfax, Sun Valley, Sloan Lake, Jefferson Park, West Highland, Highland, Berkeley, Sunnyside, Regis, and Chaffee Park. This primary market area contains approximately 53,945 households, which is about one fourth of all Denver households. In 1989, households in the primary market area earned a median household income of $21,768 which is 82 percent of the City of Denver median of $26,477. Households in the market area spend about $557 million annually on retail goods and services. These purchases might occur in the neighborhood, elsewhere in Denver or the State, on vacation, while traveling, or through mail order. This volume of purchases equates to about 2.2 million square feet of retail demand [assuming $250 retail sales per square foot] which is equivalent in size to two regional shopping centers. Some businesses, such as the grocery and liquor stores, bars, and beauty salons, serve the neighborhood or primary market area; other businesses, such as the used car dealers and automotive repair shops, serve the southwest quadrant of the metropolitan area; others, such. as the convenience/gas stations or "g-stores" and national chain fast food restaurants, serve the travelers along Federal Boulevard. City and County of Denver Page 10

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan PARCELS WHICH ABUT FEDERAL BOULEVARD There are approximately 989 parcels of land which abut Federal Boulevard between Evans and the northern City limit at West 52nd Avenue; 42 percent of these are north of Colfax Avenue and 58 are south of Colfax Avenue. As shown in Table 1, approximately 229 [23%1 of the parcels which abut Federal Boulevard are single-family houses. Within the segment south of Colfax Avenue, only 57 parcels [10%1 are single-family houses; among these, approximately 26 [45%1 are owner-occupied. Within the segment north of Colfax Avenue, 172 [41 %] of the parcels are single-family houses; among these about 130 [76%] are owner-occupied. TABLE 1 PARCELS WHICH ABUT FEDERAL BOULEVARD Residential 57 172 229 Vacant & 517 243 760 Nonresidential Total 574 415 989 Source: Denver Tax Assessor's Files ZONING ALONG FEDERAL BOULEVARD Property which abuts Federal Boulevard is zoned B-4, B-3, B-2, 1-1, R-5, R-4, R-3, R-2A, R-2 and R-1. Figure 3 schematically depicts the major zoning categories along Federal Boulevard. Zoning of properties where the Federal Boulevard right-of-way is only 80 to 90 feet includes B-4, 1-1, 0-1, R-3 and R-2. These areas are of particular significance because additional rightof-way may be required in these areas in the south segment of the corridor. The nature of these zone districts are summarized in the following. B-4, General Business Zone; allows building construction up to a floor area ratio of 2. For retail uses, off-street parking is required at 1 space per 200 square feet; for office uses, offstreet parking is required at 1 space per 500 square feet; for residential units, 1 parking space per unit. There are bulk limits for buildings if they abut property zoned R-0, R-1, or R-2. (Most single-family homes along Federal Boulevard are zoned B-4). 1-1, General Industrial Zone; allows building construction up to a floor area ratio of 2. The offstreet parking requirements outlined in B-4 also apply here. The front setback must be 20 feet; the side setback must be 1 0 feet'if the property abuts a parcel zoned for residential use. City and County of Denver Page 11

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan 0-1 is used for open space and community facilities. The front, rear and side setback requirements are 20 feet. Only City of Denver parcels are zoned 0-1 R-2 requires a front setback of 20 feet, a rear setback of 5 to 20 feet, and a side setback of 3 to 1 0 feet. Home-based occupations are allowed within this zone category. R-3 is one of the multi-family residential zones which may include single-family or multi-family housing, some community services, nursing homes, small retail food markets, and home occupation uses. BUSINESSES WHICH ABUT FEDERAL BOULEVARD There are approximately 670 businesses within the Federal Boulevard corridor from Evans to West 52nd Avenue. Among these, 70 percent are south of Colfax Avenue where businesses comprise the substantial portion of properties abutting Federal Boulevard. Approximately 30 percent of the businesses are north of Colfax Avenue where residential uses abut a significant proportion of the Federal Boulevard frontage. City and County of Denver Federal Blvd. 1-70 LEGEND !', .. .. ..-,./.} Residential .------. Platte River I... I Special Rev1ew [',".,_-",'I Open Space --"fl NOTE: These are general North zoning categories. See text for further detail. Evans Figure 3 Existing Zoning Page 12

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan As described in Table 2, about 40 percent (2671 of the businesses are engaged in retail trade and 36 percent [2411 of the businesses are engaged in the provision of personal or business services. There are 114 businesses engaged in automobile sales or service and 83 establishments functioning as restaurants and bars. Due to zoning and small lot sizes, there are relatively few businesses engaged in any type of industrial activity. The southern segment has a substantially lowerproportion of businesses engaged in finance, insurance and real estate; a substantially higher proportion of businesses engaged in construction, manufacturing and wholesale trade; and a similar proportion of businesses engaged in retail trade; and in the provision of services. TABLE 2 TYPES OF BUSINESSES IN THE FEDERAL BOULEVARD CORRIDOR A: 111-971 Agriculture, Forestry, Rshing 3 0 3 B: 1011-1499 Mining 1 0 1 C: 1521-1799 Construction 12 4 16 D: 2011-3999 Manufacturing 13 2 15 E: 4011-4971 Transportation & Utilities 5 1 6 F: 5011-5199 Wholesale Trade 14 3 17 G: 5211-5999 Retail Trade 183 84 267 H: 6011-6799 Finance, Insurance, Real Estate 51 46 97 1: 7011-8999 Services 182 59 241 J: 9111-9721 Public Administration 1 2 3 K:9999 Non-Classifiable 3 1 4 Total 468 202 670 Source: Denver Tax Assessor files; Coley/Forrest, Inc. City and County of Denver Page 13

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Table 3 presents a more detailed breakdown of businesses engaged in retail trade. o It will be noted that 83 businesses (31 %] are either restaurants or bars and 48 businesses [18%1 are engaged in the sale of automobiles, automobile parts or gasoline. o Nearly aU of the automobile sales and automobile part sales occur south of Colfax Avenue. TABLE 3 RETAIL BUSINESSES IN THE FEDERAL BOULEVARD CORRIDOR (SIC 5211 -5999) 5511-21 Auto Sales 13 5531 Auto Parts 9 5541 Gasoline Stations 11 Grocery, Deli, & Bakery 22 5921 liquor Stores 10 5812 Restaurants 45 5813 Bars 8 Other 65 Total 183 Source: Denver Tax Assessor files; Coley/Forrest, Inc. City and County of Denver 1 14 3 12 11 22 11 33 4 14 26 71 4 12 24 89 84 267 Page 14

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Table 4 provides a more detailed description of the businesses engaged in the provision of services. o Forty-eight of the services providers provide some form of medical service; 7 5 percent of these are in the southern segment of Federal Boulevard. o Thirty-three businesses [14%] perform automotive repair. o There are 19 churches or civic association offices or clubs. o The "other" service providers [1061 provide a wide range of personal services, professional services, repair services, and governmental services. A significant portion of the repair and professional service providers work from buildings which were formerly single-family homes, which were built primarily in the 1940s. TABLE4 SERVICE BUSINESSES IN THE FEDERAL BO.ULEVARD CORRIDOR (SIC Codes 7011 -8999) 7011. Lodging 1 7211-19 Laundry 3 7231-41 Beauty /Barber 21 7532-39 Auto Repair 32 8011-8111 Medical Services 36 8611-99 Churches/Civic 11 Other 78 Total 182 Source: Denver Tax Assessor files; Coley/Forrest, Inc. City and County of Denver 1 2 5 8 4 25 1 33 12 48 8 19 28 106 59 241 Page 15

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan TRAVEL DEMAND Travel demand, or the requirements for transportation by the users of the corridor, can be evaluated from traffic volume counts. An understanding of travel demand, both existing and potential, is essential to match the capacity of the roadway to this demand. HISTORIC CHARACTERISTICS Historic travel demand levels along Federal Boulevard have been relatively stable over the years. This segment spans an area which has long been developed, and in recent years has seen little variation in traffic flow. Figure 4 is a plot of daily traffic volumes by location for four different years dating back to 1981. This figure illustrates the stability of traffic volumes in the corridor, with fluctuations of 5,000 vehicles per day or less typical throughout the years at various locations. Also of note are the historic volume characteristics along the length of the corridor. It can be seen that traffic volumes have tended to be higher on the south segment of Federal Boulevard with the highest volumes occurring between 6th Avenue and Alameda Avenue ._. N (I) '"" t.n CO ZUJZUJ < < -o 'D '<: <: "' "' "' "' 1981------City and County of Denver I 1988 --z UJ )( )( .. .. 0 Q z UJ ,; .,; > > < < .., .<:: 0 q; N .q-1.0 co N C\1 oN t\1 z UJ ., .. -o -o .. .. E E .. .. <: < 1'-"' 0> 0 N t\1 t"'l z UJ iiO.. Q. 0. (ij (0 (/J "' 1D c; (/J "' ; ; .. c "' > IJJ 1990-----1992/1993 ----Figure 4 Federal Boulevard Historic Traffic Volumes Page 16

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Table 5 lists average daily traffic volumes at various locations along Federal Boulevard for the years 1971, 1981, 1988, 1990, and 1992. Also shown are the percent change in traffic volume over the 21-year history and the annualized growth rates. It can be seen that, in general, traffic volumes in the corridor have exhibited significantly lower growth rates in the last 10 years (after 1981) than in the previous 10 years (before 1981 ) TABLE 5 SELECTED HISTORIC TRAFFIC VOLUMES North of 52nd Avenue 21.9 25.6 25.8 28.2 28.0 27.9 1.2 South of 52nd Avenue 25.2 29.5 27.0 29.0 29.0 15.1 0.7 North of 1-70 28.5 33.4 34.6 30.9 29.6 3.9 0.2 South of 1-70 26.4 29.5 26.0 26.7 29.0 9.8 0.4 North of 38th Avenue 24.7 26.5 24.0 24.7 29.0 17.4 0.8 South of 38th A venue 26.4 27.1 24.0 26.9 29.0 9.8 0.4 At Speer 27.2 26.6 25.0 27.3 29.0 6.6 0.3 North of Colfax 25.8 30.4 29.0 31.0 30.0 16.3 0.7 South of Colfax 30.5 31.4 29.6 30.2 30.9 1.3 0.1 North of 6th A venue 29.0 32.6 35.1. 35.8 33.4 15.2 0.7 South of 6th Avenue 32.6 36.0 35.0 36.6 34.0 4.3 0.2 North of Alameda 26.8 34.2 33.4 34.2 35.6 32.8 1.0 South of Alameda 25.8 34.2 33.4 34.0 35.0 35.7 1.6 North of Mississippi 26.5 32.8 33.0 32.0 32.0 20.8 1.0 South of Mississippi 26.5 32.8 32.0 31.0 32.0 20.8 1.0 North of Jewell 25.0 32.4 31.2 30.5 32.6 30.4 1.3 South of Evans 22.3 28.2 25.8 28.4 31.0 39.0 1.6 AVERAGE 18.1 0.8 City and County of Denver Page 17

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan EXISTING TRAFFIC VOLUMES Existing traffic volumes along Federal Soulevard were determined by means of an extensive traffic counting program conducted in 1992. Both daily and peak hour volume data were collected. Figure 5 shows the existing daily traffic volumes, as well as the PM peak hour directional traffic volumes. In addition to the roadway link volumes shown, both AM and PM peak hour intersection turning movement counts were conducted at each major intersection within the Federal Boulevard corridor. As shown, daily volumes north of Colfax Avenue tend to be less than on the south segment of Federal Boulevard, ranging between 28,000 and 30,000 vehicles per day (vpd). South of Colfax Avenue, the daily volumes range from approximately 31,000 vpd to nearly 36,000 vpd, with the highest traffic volumes experienced between 6th Avenue and Alameda. It can also be seen that the PM peak hour directional splits are different on the two segments of Federal Boulevard. North of Colfax Avenue, the predominant direction of flow is northbound, while south of Colfax Avenue the flow is predominantly southbound. City and County of Denver 52ndAve. 50th Ave. 1 46th Ave. 44th Ave. 38th AVe. 32ndAve. 29th Ave. 26th Ave. 23rd Ave, 20th Ave. 17th Ave. Colfax 14th Ave. 10th Ave. SthAve. 6th Ave. 1st Ave. Alameda Kentucky Mississippi Florida Jewell Evans LEGEND DAILY SB/NB PEAK HOUR North Federal Blvd. .-<:::: 29,600 900/1299 -------29,000 959/1567 ..... .... -..::c firva, .., _______ 28,200 1257/1049 F-30,900 -------1089/1424 -------33,400 1-I 187211240 -------35,600 1411/1222 -------31,300 142211143 -------32,600 154211176 Figure 5 1992 Traffic Volumes Page 18

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan FORECAST TRAFFIC VOLUMES As previously mentioned, travel demand levels along Federal Boulevard have been historically stable and, while this trend is expected to continue into the future, an examination was also made of regional long range traffic forecasts for the corridor. Year 2010 traffic forecasts developed for the metropolitan area and in the Southwest Quadrant were analyzed in terms of stan dard system level techniques .. Computer assigned traffic volumes were balanced among competing parallel facilities and smoothed over major cross streets and zone loading points to obtain an adjusted network assignment. The results of this analysis indicated that the regional201 0 traffic volume forecasts, as shown in Figure 6, represent an overall composite increase in corridor travel de mand of approximately 15% over 1992 levels. While these forecasts represent an annualized growth rate of less than 1 %, they are significantly higher than the historic growth rates experienced since 1981. Therefore, these 2010 forecasts represent a reasonable estimate of the travel demand potential in the corridor. It can be seen that ADT volumes north of Colfax A venue are expected to range from about 32,000 vpd to 34,000 vpd. South of Colfax Avenue, the projected ADTs range between 35,000 and 41 ,000 vpd. Similar increases are shown for the PM peak hour projections, and no major chang es from the existing directional patterns are anticipated. City and County of Denver 52ndAve. 50th Ave. 1 46th Ave. 44th Ave. 38th Ave. 32nd Ave. 29th Ave. 26th Ave. 23rd Ave. 20th Ave. 17th Ave. Colfax 14th Ave. 10th Ave. 8th Ave. 6th Ave. 1st Ave. Alameda Kentucky Mississippi Florida Jewell Evans LEGEND DAILY SB/NB PEAK HOUR North Federal Blvd. 34,000 1035/1495 -------33,400 1100/1800 ..... --....;.O>rJ-'1. --------32,400 145011205 --------35,500 125011640 ____ .,. ___ 38,400 1-f 2150/1425 --------40,900 162()/1405 -------36,000 163511315 --------37,500 1775/1350 Figure 6 2010 Traffic Volumes Page 19

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan OPERATIONS One qualitative measure of operations within a stream of traffic is Level of Service (LOS). The 1985 Highway Capacity Manual defines six levels of service in terms of driver comfort and delay, ranging from A to F, with LOS A representing the best operating conditions and LOS F representing the worst. In the Denver metropolitan area, LOS E is considered to be the lowest acceptable level of service in peak travel periods while LOS 0 or better is desirable. EXISTING LEVEL OF SERVICE Based on the existing AM and PM peak hour turning movement counts, intersection level of service analyses were performed using Highway Capacity Manual methods for major intersections on Federal Boule vard, the results of which are summarized in Figure 7. As shown, all locations cur rently operate at or above LOS D during the AM peak hour. During the PM peak hour, operations are generally in the acceptable range, with three exceptions. Existing operations at 38th Avenue and at Alameda Avenue are at LOS E. This condi tion indicates that these intersections are near capacity, and that increases in traffic levels may necessitate improvement of these intersections in the future. Existing operations at the intersection of Federal and Speer Boulevard were analyzed as LOS F, indicating an over capacity situa Here, immediate intersection improvements should be considered to minimize delay to motorists currently using the facility. City and County of Denver 52nd Ave. 50th Ave. 1-70 46th Ave. 44th Ave. 38th Ave. 32ndAve. 29th Ave. 26th Ave. 23rdAve. 20th Ava. 17th Ava. Colfax 14th Ave. 10th Ave. 8th Ave. 6th Ave. 1st Ave, Alameda Kentucky Mississippi North Florida Jewell Evans PEAK HOUR Federal Blvd. LEVEL OF SERVICE ..<:::l ..., 4 t:::,. AM PM B C B B BIB BIB B C B B c B -..... r E!lvd. B E B F c B B B c F--tJ B B A c B B B BIB B c B B B B c B c D D/B B E B D c c D Figure 7 Existing Level of Service Page 20

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan While not an issue in terms of LOS, Evans Avenue was found to exhibit unique operating characteristics which result in high accident rates, undesirable conflicts between turning traffic, bus loading, and pedestrians. In particular, the following problems were identified: o Southbound left turning traffic on Federal Boulevard occurs in two left turn lanes. Upon reaching eastbound Evans Avenue, the southerly lane of traffic is sometimes blocked by a bus stopped just east of Federal. This situation creates a safety concern and inefficient operations. o Westbound through traffic encounters a similar situation. After crossing Federal Boulevard in two lanes, the northerly lane sometimes encounters a bus stopped just west of Federal. In addition the two westbound through lanes are merged to form a single westbound lane in this area. The same safety concerns and operational inefficiencies also exist here. o The west side of Federal Boulevard just south of Evans is the site of a major bus transfer station. Thus, the proximity of the bus stops on Evans Avenue is important in allowing passengers to make timely connections and transfers. Further, the volume of pedestrians crossing both Federal and Evans as a result of these transfer activities is one of the highest in the corridor. Therefore, this intersection will require consideration of alternative upgrades to improve safety and pedestrian crossings. City and County of Denver Page 21

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan FUTURE LEVEL OF SERVICE Intersection LOS analyses were also performed based upon year 2010 traffic forecasts representing both historical growth trends as documented in Table 1 and regional forecasts representing an approximate 15% increase in travel demand. The existing intersection geometries were assumed, with some minor signal timing enhancements on the south segment. The results of these analyses are summa rized in Figure 8 which reflect the 15% volume increase. It can be seen under these conditions, all intersections will have sufficient reserve capacity to accom modate the increased traffic with the ex ception of the three problem intersections previously identified: 0 0 0 Federal/38th Avenue Federal/Speer Boulevard Federal/Alameda Avenue At the Federal/38th Avenue intersection, the existing situation is expected to decline to a LOS F by the year 201 0. The Feder al/Speer Boulevard intersection will contin ue to operate at LOS F if no intersection improvements are made. Improvements to the intersection of Federal/ Alameda Avenue are currently under design as part of another project by the City and County of Denver. With these improvements, this intersection should continue to operate at acceptable service levels to the year 2010. City and County of Denver 52ndAve. 50th Ave. 1 46th Ave. 44th Ave. 38th Ave. 32ndAve. 29th Ave. 26th Ave. 23rdAve. 20th Ave. 17th Ave. Colfax 14th Ave. 10th Ave. SthAve. 6th Ave. 1st Ave. Alameda Kentucky Mississippi Florida Jewell Evans Federal Blvd. _...,t:,.. peer ......... r-PEAK HOUR LEVEL OF SERVICE AM PM B D D B C/B C/C c D B c D F B c Blvd. D F B D B B B c A B c D B B c c B D 8/B D/B B c c E B B B 0 B D c D c D Figure 8 North Year 2010 Level of Service (Assuming no Improvement) Page 22

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan TRANSIT SERVICES Currently, the Regional Transportation District (RTD) provides extensive bus service on Federal Boulevard throughout the length of the corridor. In addition, many of the cross-streets carry. bus service, providing connections to the east and west. COVERAGE/FREQUENCY Figure 9 shows those roadways along the corridor served by bus .routes as well as the number of buses per day serving various segments of Federal Boulevard. It can be seen that there is a high frequency of bus traffic along the corridor, particularly on the segment south of Colfax Avenue, where over 200 buses per day travel along Feder al Boulevard. This number translates to between 6 and 12 buses per hour per direction of travel during primary operating hours. North of Colfax Avenue, where the land use is more residential in character, the frequency of transit service is somewhat less at approximately 115 buses per day, or roughly one bus per direction every 20 minutes during primary operating hours. These significant levels of bus traffic on Federal Boulevard indicate that any im provements to the corridor should include design considerations for transit vehicle operations. City and County of Denver LEGEND 100 North Federal Blvd 52nd Ave j .. 50th Ave. 1 <$-46thAve. 44th Ave. t 38th Ave. 1,1) .... ,.. 32nd Ave 29th Ave. 26th Ave. "o: 23rdAve l ..... 20thAve. 17th Ave .!Colfax 14th Ave. co co 10th Ave i..... n 8th Ave. 6th Ave. 1st Ave. ---T-- ,... .... Alameda C'>l I I Exposition ...... Kentucky : Mississippi ---=. Florida :,.__ I Jewell Evans 1Service Covene Buses per Day Figure 9 Bus Services Page 23

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan PATRONAGE Corresponding to the significant transit service available within the corridor, a high volume of bus riders board or transfer at bus stops along Federal Boulevard. Figure 1 0 shows the number of daily transit hoardings by location on Federal Boulevard. It can be seen that a much higher number of hoardings occur along the south segment of the corridor, which parallels the frequency of service on this segment. Approximately 1,100 to 1 ,400 bus riders access the transit system at the 14th Avenue, Alameda Avenue, and Evans Avenue bus stops. This repre sents an average of about 75 to 90 hoardings per hour at each location. Approximately 400 or more riders board at another seven locations on Federal Boulevard, which averages about 25 hoardings per hour at each of these locations. One significant consequence of this high level of transit use is the amount of related pedestrian activity in the vicinity of the bus stops along the corridor. The number of pedestrian movements per hour is related to bus activity. The amount of pedestrians, coupled with the high traffic volumes on Federal Boulevard, increases the potential for pedestrian/vehicle con flicts. City and County of Denver Federal Blvd. 52nd Ave. SDthAve. 46\h Ave. 44th Ave. 41$\ Ave. 39th Ave. High 32nd Av$, Speer BlvcJ. 29th Ave. 27th Avo. 25th Ave. 23rdAve. 20\hAve. 18th Ave. 17th Ave. Colfax 14th Avt:11 Howard P. 12th Ave. 11th Ave. 10th Ave. 8th Ave. 7th Ave. 6th Ave. Ell$ WOrth Bayaud Alameda Virginia Exposition Kentucl
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan SAFETY Transportation safety on Federal Boulevard is a major concern. High traffic volumes, coupled with significant transit traffic and pedestrian movements create an environment of high accident potential. This potential is reflected in the accident history and fatality record of the Federal Boulevard corridor. ACCIDENT HISTORY The historical accident experience on Federal Boulevard is one of the highest in the City of Denver for this type of facility. Two intersections, Federal/Alameda Avenue and Feder al/Evans Avenue had the highest inci dence of accidents in Denver for the two year period between January 1st, 1990 and December 31st, 1991. The intersection of Federal/38th Avenue was among the 20 highest accident intersections in 1991. Figure 11 shows the average annual accident occurrence at each intersection on Federal Boulevard with five or more accidents per year. As shown, the intersections at Federal/Alameda and Federal/Evans have the highest occurrence of accidents with 45 and 30 each, respectively. Other high occur rence locations with approximately 20 accidents each are the intersections of Federal/38th Avenue, Federal/14th Avenue, and Federal/8th Avenue. An additional 11 intersections have an average occurrence greater than 1 0 accidents per year. City and County of Denver Federal Blvd. 52nd Ave. 50th Ave. 1-70 44th Ave. 3Sth Avo. 35th Avo. 32nd Ave. 26th Ave. 23rd Avo. 17th Ave. ..<:; :;::,., .......... d PI': Colfax 14th Avo./Howar Holden Pl. 12th Ava. 10th Ave 8th Ava 7th Avo 6th Avo ; _r Sth Ave./Short Ellsworth Alameda Dakota Virginia i Kentucky Mis,.issipp Louisiana Arkanns Flori
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan FATALITY HISTORY In addition to having a significant occurrence of accidents, Federal Boulevard has experienced a high rate of fatalities caused by these accidents. Within the City of Denver, a total of 473 fatal accidents occurred during the ten year period beginning in 1983. Of these fatal accidents, 32 (about 7 percent} occurred on Federal Boulevard. Of additional concern is the amount of fatal accidents involving pedestrians or bicy clists. Of the 32 fatalities, 22 involved pedestrians and three involved bicyclists. On Federal Boulevard, the percentage of pedestrian/bicycle fatal accidents is approx imately 78 percent of an fatal accidents. The citywide average is about 24 percent. Nearly 20 percent of the pedestrian/bicycle related fatal accidents within the City and County of Denver occurred on Federal Boulevard. Figure 12 shows the breakdown of fatal accidents within the Federal Boulevard Corridor by location. It can be seen that the fatal accidents are spread throughout the corridor with no major concentration occurring at a single point. This suggests that safety improvements are needed along the entire length of Federal Boulevard. Also of note is the high incidence of pedes trian/bicycle accidents relative to motor vehicle only accidents. City and County of Denver 52ndAve. 50th Ave. 1 38th Ave. 32ndAve. 29th Ave. 26th Ave. Federal Blvd. _.,;;. =49th Ave. '/" -...:::: 25lh Ave. $ ' I q, I $ }!> c 0 CD i) :c ' ' ' I cyJ I I 1 I IP .. Colfax Ram 14th Ave. .. !:---Colfax rn 10th Ave. 8th Ave. 6th Ave. 4th Ave. Archer Pl. Bayaud Dakota Kentucky Louisiana Florida Colorado Ave. Jewell Evans LEGEND Loeation of Fatal Accident 1 Number of Fatalities ,__ Barberry Pl. ..{ Ala met:! a Arkansas I $ I m q> I q:> $ I
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan RIGHT-OF-WAY The typical existing right-of-way
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Ill. SUMMARY OF CORRIDOR NEEDS The foregoing analysis of existing and future conditions, combined with public input, identified several key findings and conclusions which have been translated into five primary corridor needs. The following discussion summarizes these findings and needs. ENHANCE URBAN DESIGN CHARACTER As stated in the Denver Comprehensive Plan the image of Federal Boulevard should be enhanced to reflect its status as one of the City's designated boulevards. Towards this end several urban design goals have been established for the Federal Boulevard corridor: o Identify and reinforce the unique character and positive image of the traditional tree lined boulevard where it exists. o Restore traditional boulevard conditions where possible in locations in which they have deteriorated. o Establish streetscape conditions compatible with boulevard status in those locations where they have been lost or did not exist. o Provide continuity of the boulevard image throughout the length of the corridor. Design should be compatible with Denver's established boulevard and parkway image while allowing the expression of the unique character of Federal Boulevard and the neighborhoods and districts it serves. o Enhance the comfort and safety of the pedestrian environment and facilitate pedestrian connections across the boulevard. o Recognize districts with unique ,physical, historic and cultural qualities. o Identify, preserve and enhance significant landmark structures, districts and spaces. o Maximize opportunities for neighborhood identification, connections and linkages. o Reinforce the fixed boundaries and physical buffers between residential and commercial districts both along the corridor and into adjacent neighborhoods. To facilitate the realization of these goals specific standards and guidelines will be developed which will apply to both public right-of-way improvements and those aspects of private development that most impact the community. Therefore the Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan will establish urban design standards and guidelines as the basis for future public and private design and construction projects. City and County of Denver Page 28

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan MINIMIZE RIGHT-OF-WAY ACQUISITION Throughout the history of Federal Boulevard, there has been a concern that future roadway improvements would require additional right-of-way. General opposition to expanding the Federal Boulevard beyond the prevailing 1 00-feet of width has been based upon: o Potential negative effects on businesses adjacent to Federal Boulevard, many of which have relatively shallow lot depths of 1 25 feet or less. o Concerns relating to the potential loss of existing parking and landscaping. o Concerns that the acquisition of a portion of an existing parcel would be a deterrent to redevelopment. As indicated previously, the current practice of the City is to acquire additional right-of-way from redeveloping parcels sufficient to provide a total right-of-way of 120 feet. This generally results in a dedication of 10 feet of land where the existing right-of-way is 1 00 feet wide. However, there are several segments of Federal Boulevard having a right-of-way width of 80 feet or 90 feet which means that some parcels would be required to dedicate a 20 foot strip of frontage. This practice also means that full development of the Federal Boulevard corridor will require perhaps 30 to 50 years or more before the 120 foot right-of-way is fully acquired. Thus, during this extensive interim period, the corridor will continue to function with its present deficiencies. Therefore, the focus of the Federal Boulevard Corridor Study will be to develop alternatives which minimize the need to acquire additional right-of-way beyond the typical 1 00-foot width and which allow more timely implementation of needed safety and operational improvements. City and County of Denver Page 29

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan CORRECT SAFETY DEFICIENCIES Overall safety within the Federal Boulevard corridor is one of the most critical issues. While safety concerns are usually the composite of numerous contributing factors, there are at least five major elements of the safety problem as it relates to Federal Boulevard. o Federal Boulevard is one of the highest ranking corridors in the City in terms of pedestrian/bicycle accidents and fatalities. The causes of this situation are many and varied. However, it is apparent that the lack of pedestrian refuge areas in a relative high traffic volume corridor together with significant pedestrian activity is a key deficiency. This deficiency is particularly acute in the segment of the corridor south of Colfax where roadway widths of up to 80-feet exist. Bicycle safety issues also encompass a variety of factors including lack of night visibility, enforcement of bike laws, and general driver awareness. Enhancing bicycle and pedestrian safe areas along with a series of traffic control measures and transit access improvements will be a key element in improving corridor safety. o Federal Boulevard also ranks high in terms of general traffic accidents. This is generally a result of a combination of high traffic volumes, extensive bus traffic, deficient lane widths, on-street parking conflicts in the north segment, and generally unrestricted turning movements, especially in the south segment. o The presence of on-street parking creates conflicts between vehicles as well as pedestrians. The outside travel lane becomes obstructed with vehicles maneuvering into and out of parking spaces and introduces pedestrians into the roadway. Alternative provisions for on-street parking can improve both pedestrian and vehicular safety and should be considered in the corridor. o Turning movements are frequent along Federal Boulevard at both public cross streets, and, especially in the south segment, at private driveways. As a result, the need for exclusive turn lanes and acceleration/deceleration lanes is increased. Alternatively turning movement restrictions can improve safety and reduce the need for additional Both options have application in different portions of Federal Boulevard. o The limited space along Federal Boulevard has resulted in an evolution of sub-standard provisions for all users of the corridor. Pedestrian spaces are minimal in many locations, travel lanes and parking spaces are narrow, and transit vehicles and passenger areas must function in limited lanes and boarding areas. Improvement options should incorporate improved design dimensions throughout the corridor. Therefore, the Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan should incorporate a raised median throughout its length to provide a safe pedestrian refuge area, restrict excessive turning movements and conflicts. and separate opposing traffic flows. On-street parking should be relocated out of travel lanes and standard design dimensions should be incorporated to enhance the overall safety characteristics of the corridor for pedestrians, buses, and vehicles. A comprehensive package of short-term safety improvements should also be applied to the entire corridor. City and County of Denver Page 30

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan ENHANCE TRANSIT OPERATIONS The safety issues along Federal Boulevard encompass several aspects of transit operations. In addition, however, special alternatives are required to enhance overall transit operations. These include providing improved bus stops, especially in the south segment where bus and passenger volumes are the highest. In addition, bus travel in substandard curb-side lanes is a problem for transit operating efficiencies as well as pedestrians on the adjacent sidewalk. Of particular concern are bus operations in the south segment of the corridor where traffic and bus volumes are both relatively high and only two lanes are available in the northbound direction. Buses frequently stop in one of the two lanes which causes significant traffic delays and potential safety problems as motorists seek to merge into the left lane to pass around stopped buses. Bus pullouts have been implemented in some locations to avoid these Jane blockages. However, the pullouts may create a negative impact on transit travel times, as buses must wait to merge back into through traffic lanes. Therefore, curbside lanes should be widened to standard dimensions to accommodate transit needs and related pedestrian amenities should be incorporated into bus stops, access sidewalks. and waiting areas within the public right-of-way. A continuous third lane should be provided in each direction in most of the south segment where bus activity is the highest and turning movements are the greatest. UPGRADE PROBLEM INTERSECTIONS As indicated in the operational analyses of existing and future conditions, traffic on Federal Boulevard operates now and is expected to operate h1 the future at generally acceptable levels. Traffic operational needs are therefore limited and generally minor in scope. At three locations, however, some capacity related improvements will be necessary and a fourth intersection will require safety improvements for pedestrians bus operations. Therefore. the intersections of Federal/38th Avenue, Federal/Speer Boulevard, and Federal/Alameda should be upgraded to achieve minimum acceptable levels of service. The intersection of Federal/Evans Avenue requires geometric improvements to accommodate vehicle turning movements, bus stops, and pedestrians. Chy and County of Denver Page 31

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan IV. ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS NORTH SEGMENT Between 52nd Avenue and Colfax Avenue, the corridor is predominantly residential in nature with commercial development occurring north of 1-70 and at major cross-streets. The sports complex abuts the corridor between 20th Avenue and Colfax. The typical cross-sections discussed in this section apply to the predominantly residential north segment, between 20th Avenue and 1-70. Specific recommendations for the sports complex and the segment north of 1-70 are presented later. DESCRIPTION OF ALTERNATIVES Three alternative concepts were evaluated in the north segment. Because of the unique residential character of the north segment, a major planning constraint is that the existing right-of-way not be ex panded and that the existing curb to curb width be retained. Thus, all safety im provements related to implementing a median and relocating on-street parking must occur within these existing limits. Figure 14 shows the existing typical cross section of the north segment of Federal Boulevard, as well as the three alternative cross-sections (A, B, and C). Each alterna tive retains the existing curb-to-curb dimen sion of 60 feet as well as the existing of-way of 90 to 1 00 feet. Each alternative includes a raised median for pedestrian crossings. Raised medi
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES The analysis of existing and future conditions presented previously documented several deficiencies and needed improvements in the north segment which makes the existing cross section unacceptable. Among these deficiencies are significant safety problems arising out of a combination of sub-standard lane widths, on-street parking, and a lack of pedestrian controls and amenities. Therefore, some action is required to address these problems. The full length median alternative (A), which does not include on-street parking, does not allow for standard 11 foot lane widths and, in fact, the lanes are somewhat narrower than existing. In order to provide standard lane dimensions and a full length median, the curb-to curb dimension would need to be increased beyond the existing 60 feet of width. This alternative, therefore, does not meet basic safety and urban design needs defined previously. The mid-block median alternative which does retain on-street parking (B) does not provide standard 11 foot lane widths. The on-street parking must be relocated if the pedestrian median and adequate lane di mensions are to be implemented while the existing curb-to-curb dimension is retained. For this reason, this alternative also does not meet the safety and urban design needs of the north segment. The mid-block median alternative with pull out parking (C) does provide standard lane width dimensions within the existing 60foot cross-section. It should be noted the addition of parking bays cutting into the tree lawn substantially diminishes the quality of the boulevard streetscape and therefore should be utilized only where suitable off-street parking solutions cannot be created. Because this alternative best meets the safety needs of the corridor and allows for significant landscape improve ments, it is identified as the preferred alternative. In addition, as shown in Figure 1 5, where retention of on-street parking is needed, pull-out parking bays could be provided which are out of the travel lanes. City and County of Denver North Figure 15 Typical Pull-Out Parking Application Page 33

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan SOUTH SEGMENT South of Colfax Avenue, the land uses adjacent to Federal Boulevard are primarily commercial in character and the amount of right-of-way less than 100 feet imposes a different set of constraints than ii'J the north segment. DESCRIPTION OF ALTERNATIVES Two alternative concepts were initially developed for evaluation in the south segment of Federal Boulevard. One alternative (A) maintains the existing curb to curb width and existing right-of-way. The second alternative {8) provides a center median within a widened roadway and within a consistent 1 00-foot right-of-way. Figure 16 shows the existing typical cross section of the south segment of Federal Boulevard, as well as the two alternative cross-sections. The first alternative {A) maintains the exist ing curb lines and would not require addi tional right-of-way. Standard lane widths are provided throughout. These conditions are achieved by eliminating the third south bound through-lane which also results in balancing the number of lanes per direc tion. It should be noted that a median could also be incorporated into this option. The second alternative {8} includes a mid block raised center median which is termi nated prior to intersections in order to form left-turn lanes. In addition, the existing curb to curb width of 60-feet is widened to SO-feet and a 1 00-foot right-of-way is required throughout the entire south seg ment. This alternative also provides stan dard lane dimensions. City and County of Denver 80' 100' ROW 60' 2' 8'-6' 10' 10' 9' 10' 8'-6'2' EXISTING 80' -1 00' ROW 60' II l ... U 1i t I t II 2' 11'-6' 11' 1' 9' 1' 11' 11'-6' 2' A. FOUR THROUGH-LANES 100'ROW f
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan EVALUATION AlTERNATIVES The analysis of existing and future conditions presented previously documented the following deficiencies and problems which make the existing cross-section unacceptable in the south segment. o Accident occurrence and pedestrian fatalities are among the highest in the city which results from a combination of factors including substandard lane widths, excessive turning movements at streets and private driveways, and a lack of pedestrian protection in certain locations. o Transit operations and passenger activity is highest in the south segment which nearly utilizes the outside travel lane to capacity during peak travel periods and results in high pedestrian crossing volumes at major stops. This is particularly significant in the northbound direction which has only two through lanes. o Access to private businesses is largely uncontrolled with minimal spacing resulting in high turning volumes and frequent lane changing. This condition both decreases capacity and increases vehicle and pedestrian conflicts. Therefore, some action is required which incorporates a range of multi-modal improvements over a significant length of the corridor in a compressed time frame. Alternative A has several characteristics which make it unacceptable: o Capacity analyses conducted at the major cross streets indicated that unacceptable service levels would occur at nearly all intersections due to the reduction of the southbound lanes from three to two. Thus, additional turn lanes and auxiliary lanes would have to be added at all major intersections which would result in most of the length of Federal Boulevard actually being wider than the intent of this alternative which is to maintain the existing street width. o In order to accommodate transit operations, which are the highest in the south segment, bus pull-outs at nearly all bus stops would be needed to maintain safe traffic flow. This also results in a widerroadway than indicated by the typical cross-section, and would create operational problems and delays for buses. o The south segment is also characterized by numerous private driveways which are required by the State Highway Access Code to have acceleration/deceleration lanes. As a result of these additional lanes, the actual roadway width would be significantly greater than indicated by the typical cross section throughout most of the south segment. City and County of Denver Page 35

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Alternative B provides significant pedestrian safety improvements by reducing turning movements across sidewalks and providing a refuge area in the middle of the street as a result of the proposed planted median. The need for an improved outside transit lane and acceleration/deceleration lanes (in the northbound direction) for local access is provided with the widened roadway. It should be noted that additional right-of-way is required only on those sections of Federal Boulevard where the existing is less than 1 00 feet. No right would be required from the majority of parcels in the south segment. Because all of the urban design, safety, transit, and objectives are addressed in this alternative, it is identified as the preferred concept. RIGHT OF-WAY ACQUISITION ELEMENTS South of Colfax Avenue, approximately 136 of the 574 parcels are located on segments of Federal Boulevard where the right-of-way is 80 or 90 feet and where achieving a 1 00 foot right-of-way would require an additional 1 0 feet of right-of-way. While this only represents approximately one-third of the frontage in the south segment of the corridor, a preliminary field investigation was undertaken to develop an understanding of the land use impact that acquiring an additional 10 feet of right-of-way might have on each parcel. The investigation provides a general indication _of the magnitude <>f the potential land use impact. The preliminary results are summarized.in Table 6. City and County of Denver Page 36

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan TABLE 6 SUMMARY OF POSSIBLE IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH AN ADDITIONAL TEN FEET OF RIGHT-OF-WAY: FEDERAL BOULEVARD: SOUTH OF COLFAX AVENUE Single Fam.: Residential 20 3 15 1 Single Fam.: Nonresid. 8 0 6 1 0 Retail: General 19 2 3 7 4 2. Retail: Eat/Drink 9 8 1 0 Auto: Retail 12 10 1 1 0 Auto: Service 18 5 5 6 Service: General 3 2 0 Office: Professional 10 3 3 2 Manufacturing 3 1 1 Private Vacant Lots 3 3 0 Public 14 12 2. Other 17 17 Total 136 44 36 12 18 25 ources: Denver Tax Assessor Filesi Coley/Forrest field investigation. o Approximately 44 of the 136 parcels could possibly continue to function in their current use if the parcel depth were reduced by 1 0 feet. Current uses on these parcels generally include a few single-family homes which are sufficiently set back from Federal Boulevard; restaurants or bars where parking is adjacent to the building and not in front of the facility along Federal Boulevard; used car dealerships where an additional 10 feet would take some parking; and parcels in public ownership and used for parks. o The preliminary investigation also suggests that if an additional 10 feet were acquired, 67 parcels of the 136 parcels would be impacted from a land use perspective in some way. For 36 of these parcels, acquiring 1 0 feet would probably remove the front lawn and cause Federal Boulevard to abut the building with no opportunity for parking in front. This includes 1 5 single-family homes that are currently in residential use, .6 single-family houses that have been converted to retail or office use, several motor vehicle service facilities, and several buildings in office use. City and County of Denver Page 37

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan For 12 of these parcels, an additional1 0 feet would remove substantial parking. Often this means re-striping parking from angled parking to parallel parking. For 18 parcels,. an additional 10 feet of right of way would take a small portion of the structure. For one parcel, taking an additional 10 feet might impact the possible presence of underground gasoline storage tanks. [There are a total of 18 old gasoline stations which might have underground storage tanks; these other parcels have been accounted for above because the impact of ten feet also impacted other aspects of the parcel use.] o For 25 parcels, it was not possible to determine the potential impact of an additional ten feet of right-of-way. This was due primarily to the lack of definitive property boundary indicators in the field. A survey of such parcels would be required to verify this frontage and to assess any potential impacts. City and County of Denver Page 38

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan V. PLAN RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the alternatives analysis, a recommended plan was developed to best meet the design objectives and safety needs of the Federal Boulevard corridor. The plan consists of recommendations for the corridor as a whole as well as specific recommendations unique to the north and south segments. CORRIDORWIDE RECOMMENDATIONS IMPLEMENT URBAN DESIGN FRAMEWORK PLAN The urban design goals for Federal Boulevard will be realized over time by implementing the design principles and standards described and illustrated in the Corridor Plan. Although design details responding to the specific needs and conditions at many scales will be determined in the design phase of each project it is essential that a common vocabulary is understood and incorporated in every project. In this way an attractive and unified identity will be created to restore Federal Boulevard's proper role in the City's parkway system. Basic urban design concepts and standards are presented in the Urban Design Matrix (Figure 17). The matrix illustrates the relationships between the conditions found in various corridor districts and the applicable urban design standards. The Urban Design Framework Plans (Figures 18a and 18b) present a very broad overview of the corridor's important features. More detailed urban design framework plans should be completed as part of the design phases for specific projects. KEY 0 Elements That Can Occur in a Given Zone Elements That Should Not Be Used in a Given Zone ZONES RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL OPEN SPACE I PARKS SPORTS COMPLEX* en 1--z UJ == LLI __. UJ LU ..... cr.> _. -= en ===ttl fa:;:: I= = -= !;g..._2!;; i'5 c..:>= cr.> LU :::=;; Lll = 1--= t--cr.> "A continuous urban design treatment is desired from Colfax north to 1-70 to unify the corridor and integrate the sports complex into the northwest Denver neighborhoods. Further analysis of urban design, development, and transportation issues is recommended to follow. City and County of Denver en c;l :::::; = ::s = .... = LU = LU 0.. Figure 17 Urban Design Matrix Page 39

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Specific urban design consideration should be given to other activity areas in the corridor which are tailored to the unique characteristics of each. Typical of such activity areas are the following: o High Image Intersections which are unique in terms of the historic boulevard, views or related pedestrian activity. o Corridor Gateways which distinguish the boulevard image of Federal Boulevard from other corridors and which signify entry to a special place. o Neighborhood Gateways which are unique to each neighborhood's history and image. o Bicycle Path Crossings which require both definition and protection. o Bus Stops which should be made compatible with adjacent land uses and the magnitude and scale of the pedestrian activity which occurs. City and County of Denver Page 40

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Q) '"0 52n /-70 (/) >.. w Q) (jj Q) ::::> (/') lo.. Q) 0 ctS Cl c:o z ..... 0 <( c 0 Q) 38 __) -o :r: '"0 Cl en a: ..... c w o.; l 0 C\1 ---t .. '"0 (/) _...J I l .. c c :J (/) "'0 c C\1 ..c 0> :r: c 0 en ..:::. .............. l.... 1....
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan S,oort HIGH IMAGE ( o l"t"IP I c.< CORRIDOR GATEWAY 17t SIGNIFICANT VIEW ....... X Colfax oO PAFlKJOPlW SPACE {f) ctS SIGNIFICANT .....; -a: 0 --GULCH --: Gi ..t,h .----, DESIGNATED I SPECIAL USE 0 ro .::. c L __ .J DISTRICT 0 s._ ctS :::J j---, UNDESIGNATED (/) SPSCIAl USE .....; > n.. DISTRICT Cl) 0 6th (ij 0 VJ,cr;.-(/) 0 E c.,v\ ... IJ) _J ,..... -o w :::1 s._ (/) c IJ) s._ ......... > ::> (/) z m 0 ........ <( IJ) 0 a: ..J -::c Cii a: 0 "'0 s._ e 0 0 m w IJ) co 0 n.. N E I-I ....... m ..J E 0 Cl) E '<( 0 0 3: ...c:: ex: lU ....... c < w 0 z Mississippi z :p -c ro .... J_, ..0 0 :::1 '6> .... lc:h a: (I) ... a: ..... Jewell IJ) ;: > s._ IJ) r-ctS (I) :r: 0 cu '-::::.. Q) -Figure 188 \:) CQ L! Urban Design Framework North South $egment. City end County of Denver Page 42

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan The implementation of the urban design standards and guidelines involves improvements to both the public right-of-way and private developments. Major elements of both types of improvements are presented in detail in the following sections. Public Right-of-Way Improvements General Design Intent: Federal Boulevard should be as conducive to pedestrian traffic as it is to vehicular traffic. Improvements will include sidewalks and shade trees along both sides of the street. The median will improve the scale of the street, diminishing the visual impact and noise from multiple lanes of traffic. The design theme should be consistent with the standards and image established for parkways and boulevards throughout the City of Denver, while allowing for the expression of Federal's many unique subdistricts. Continued design development will be conducted in the first major design phase to complete the specific overall design image for the corridor and to further define those elements of the design vocabulary which may vary. The typical street edge condition will include a 5' wide clear walking surface and a 5' wide amenity zone. The amenity zone may include, in various locations, the curb, special paving or grass, street trees in grates or lawn; street lights; decorative pedestrian lights; safety walls and/or raised berms; planter pots; trash receptacles; bus stops and parking meters. Commercial gateway identification signs should be set outside of the Federal right-of-way. City and County of Denver 5' Walk Minimum Street Edge Condition (See Text "Special Elements) Page 43

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Consistent Elements: Several design elements should be applied consistently throughout the corridor in order to establish a strong visual image and pedestrian amenity. o Sidewalks: A standard 5' wide detached concrete sidewalk should be provided along both sides of Federal Boulevard. Trough type ramps and curb cuts should be provided to comply with accessibility standards at each intersection. Ramps are required to contrast with adjacent sidewalk and crosswalk paving per ADA standards. o Amenity Zone: The typical street edge condition will include a 5' wide amenity zone between the curb and sidewalk. This amenity zone should contain a tree lawn and regularly spaced street trees in most circumstances. Variations: The amenity zone may also include, as appropriate, special paving with trees in grates in some commercial contexts, street lights and decorative pedestrian lights; safety walls and/or raised berms; signs; planter pots; trash receptacles; bus stops and parking meters. The proper combination of these elements will depend on the conditions and needs of the specific location, with the most clear distinction being between residential and commercial districts. o Existing Guideline Documents: Two important documents should be followed closely in the development of the corridor: the 1993 City and County of Denver Streetscape Design Manual an.d the Rules and Regulations for the LandscaPing of Parking Areas. These documents provide important information and standards for sidewalks, trees and landscaping, parking lot screening, lighting and other amenities as well as maintenance guidelines and review and approval procedures. o Median: A raised center median should be implemented wherever possible to reduce vehicular conflicts, improve the scale and appearance of the boulevard and to improve pedestrian safety. This median should be planted with trees, shrubs and ground covers where appropriate and paved with decorative pavement when too narrow to plant. The center median should be raised 24" above the street pavement or 1 8" above the curb. Median walls are preferably sloped inward above a standard height curb. Additional detailing wall caps and decorative features should be considered as part of the median wall treatment. Median noses and pedestrian crossing areas should be paved with either well detailed concrete or unit pavers at high use intersections. Variations: Special pilasters or other design elements may be used to create a unique design theme for the boulevard and to help signify pedestrian crossings, neighborhood identities or district gateways. Plantings should be focused at median ends and pedestrian access points to provide visual interest, and seasonal color. Denver Parks and Recreation Department must be involved in all design decisions that will involve future maintenance of landscaping in the public right-of-way. City and County of Denver Page 44

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Pavement Striping PLAN VIEW SIDE ELEVATION END ELEVATION Raised Median City and County of Denver Page 45

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan City and County of Denver RampBoth Sides Raised Median: Pedestrian Crossing Page 46

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Intersections: Intersections offer an opportunity for special boulevard design elements to be used to best advantage due to high visibility and pedestrian use. Consideration should be given to upgrading pedestrian crosswalks in the highest use areas through variation in color, texture, pattern or material. Heavy traffic will tend to obscure subtle design motifs or color change so careful consideration should be given to long term wear in order to maintain attractiveness. The median area closest to the intersection may be planted with flowers or decorative foliage. Pedestrian lights, neighborhood monuments special attention to the appearance of private development may enliven these areas and contribute to the overall corridor theme. As a part of an overall graphic image study conducted during the design phase, further attention should be given to high pedestrian use intersections to determine the appropriate boulevard design treatments. ; .. "" .. -, : : .. F-= .. .... ..... 111!1: = 'J CROSS STREET ( ; lJ'j lluUll .. .... l I . .. ... :. ==== I"' .. :--. City and County of Denver c a: ...J <( ... -. a: llJ .... i--. w ...J c ::J w 0 ::::=:: u.. ttl ;;:::;::;... .. . \ I llL Ul11 m 1' '* : .. JJi Kll!i tllll I . ... .... \ : . E:::: : .. 1--- f---, Special Intersection Paving (High Pedestrian Use Areas) Page 47

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Street Trees: Recommendations for tree location and spacing contained in the Denver 1993 Streetscape Design Manual should be followed. Various plant material recommendations are also referenced in the manual. Actual tree species should be selected from this list and specified at the implementations phase. Metal tree grates are recommended for all trees in paved areas. Lighting: City-wide standards for both street and pedestrian lighting should be followed. Spacing and location information for both high mast "hockey puck" and decorative globe-type luminares are provided in the Streetscape Design Manual. Special effect lighting such as seasonal string lighting in trees or uplighting of street trees should be considered for well developed retail areas. Only street lights should be used in residential areas except at bus stops where decorative pedestrian lights can be used. Traffic Signals: City standard traffic signals will be used throughout the corridor. These generally consist of a pole and single mast arm with a street light mounted on the pole. Furniture: City standards should be followed for benches, trash receptacles, planter pots, newspaper racks and bicycle racks. These items will generally be used where there is high pedestrian activity such as retail or commercial areas. Guidelines for locations of these elements are found in the Streetscaoe Design Manual. Bus Stops: A variation to the standard RTD bus shelter could be considered for Federal Boulevard. These shelters might reflect the boulevard design character discussed above and could contain interpretive graphic panels illustrating historical aspects of Federal Boulevard. Non-standard shelters must be approved by RTD. Special paving, trees in grates, and pedestrian lighting should also be included to enhance bus stop areas. Signs: City standard street name signs are currently (Spring '94) under review by the City with the intent of improving the legibility and graphic quality as well as creating a unique signature sign element for the City of Denver as a whole. These street signs should be used throughout the city to distinguish Denver from the surrounding communities. Colors: All metal elements such as light poles, signal poles, benches, trash receptacles, etc. should be painted with the city standard hFederal Green" (federal color specification #14056). Additional colors may be considered for accent areas of such elements as median pilasters, gateway markers and neighborhood monuments. These accents might be accomplished in colored concrete, masonry or other durable non-painted materials .. A specific graphic vocabulary should be developed as a part of an overall graphic image study during the design phase. City and County of Denver Page 48

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Unique Elements: In addition to the consistent design elements found throughout the corridor, several unique elements ought to occur at key locations. These are areas that deserve special attention in order to preserve a unique character or enhance a special place. o Corridor Gateways: Gateways should be considered at each end of the Federal Boulevard corridor. These should generally occur near the City and County of Denver limit line. Other locations might include points of access from major arterials such as Speer Boulevard, Colfax Avenue and West 6th Avenue. Motorists and pedestrians should realize when they are in Denver and that Federal Boulevard is a special place. Gateways could take the form of larger scale monuments on each side of the street and possibly in the median. Monuments may be accompanied by multiple light clusters, entry signs and unique planting. The specific locations of gateway markers will be determined in the design phase. o Neighborhood Gateways: Neighborhood entry monuments such as those at Potter Highlands at 36th Avenue and Federal Boulevard are encouraged along the corridor. Nineteen different neighborhoods abut Federal Boulevard and the identification of those neighborhoods in a manner that creates awareness of Federal itself will add a sense of scale and community to the boulevard. Guidelines for these monuments can be found in the Streetscape Design Manual and other materials available from Denver Parks and Recreation Department and the Denver Planning Office. Further conversa tion with neighborhood groups should be conducted during the design phase to determine the exact locations for these markers. o Subdistricts: Several distinctive subdistricts exist in the Federal Boulevard corridor such as the Sports Complex, the Asian Center, several historic districts and the Speer Boulevard intersection area. These areas should be recognized for their specific use or function. In addition to the standard corridor design elements, unique design elements could be used to enhance these areas and emphasize their unique physical City and County of Denver Page 49

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan or cultural qualities. Care should be taken so that the treatment of these subdistricts fits into the overall design theme for Federal Boulevard. Several of these subdistricts, as described in the section on "Urban Design/Land Use Character", should be given further study so that their full potential may be realized. o Special Elements: In some areas of the corridor, the use of special design elements may be appropriate. Pedestrians in the Sports Complex, for example, could benefit from low walls and bollards placed on the sidewalk near the curb. Other high-use pedestrian areas such as the retail districts at 38th Avenue or 52nd Avenue could benefit from well designed safety walls. In other areas where not as much sidewalk paving is required but pedestrian safety and comfort is a concern, the walls could retain a planted berm. Low walls and berms may become a design theme much in the same way they have been used in Cherry Creek Noith. City and County of Denver Page 50

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Neighborhood Protection Elements (North Segment): Protective efforts suggested by the citizen committees representing neighborhoods north of Colfax Avenue for consideration by the City to retain single family structures for residential use include: o Requests for rezonings to "B" zone districts are not consistent with the goals of this plan and, therefore, commercial development should be limited to existing zoned nodes of development. o Jf rezonings are proposed, the Planned Unit Development {PUD) process is encouraged along with the following criteria, 1) uses are neighborhood retail or service, 2) structures are residential in scale, and residential character of existing structures is retained, 3) transitions and buffers to residential uses are provided, 4) landscaping and screening are provided for visual enhancement, 5) no additional right-of-way on Federal Boulevard is required for acceleration/deceleration lanes. o The B-4 zone district is not compatible with adjacent areas and the City should consider changes to eliminate certain uses and reduce floor area ratios. In addition, the B-4 zone district at the intersection of Federal and Speer is considered inappropri ate and redevelopment in this area should be encouraged to utilize the PUD district. o An overlay zone district should be adopted for Federal Boulevard to include the design guidelines contained in the Federal Boulevard Corridor Plari. o The use of City programs to rejuvenate existing commercial nodes should be evaluated for application to the Federal Boulevard corridor. Private Development Improvements General Design Intent: Recommendations for existing and redeveloped private property adjoining Federal Boulevard are included here so that these land owners can participate in the enhancement of the corridor. Owners of commercial property on Federal Boulevard that are interested in redevelopment or improving the function and appearance of their property should be aware of studies of the design and layout of typical shallow commercial lots along the corridor that were conducted by the City of Denver. These studies were published in 1991 in a document titled Federal Boulevard Alternative Design Tests which is available from the Denver Planning Office. Parking Lot Screening: All parking lots along Federal Boulevard should be screened from the view of pedestrians on sidewalks or cars traveling on the street. Screening can be accomplished with walls, fencing, hedges or berms. Guidelines for the screening of parking lots can be found in the Denver Rules and Regulations for the Landscaping of Parking Areas. These guidelines should be implemented as adjacent improvements occur on Federal Boulevard if not before. City and County of Denver Page 51

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan In order to enhance the boulevard image of Federal the 10' wide landscaped area required by the Parking Lot Landscape Regulations should occur entirely on private property where lot depths in excess of 1 25 feet allow. This area should include 3 trees per 1 000 square feet placed informally or in street tree fashion. The surface of this area should be covered with lawn or ground covers and shrubs. This area should not be paved. A good example of this type of setback treatment is currently in place at the Brentwood Shopping Center on the west side of South Federal Boulevard, north of Evans Avenue. New buildings should be placed adjacent to the required zoning setback area with entrances and windows on Federal Boulevard or an immediately adjacent building face. Setback areas should be landscaped with trees, shrubs and ground covers where pedestrian access is not required. Parking areas should be behind or between buildings and screened as discussed above. Parking in front of buildings diminishes retail visibility and the attractiveness of the boulevard. New buildings greater than three stories in height could possibly be stepped back from the street at the third level in order to establish a human scale for the corridor. Side and Rear Lot Landscaping/Screening: o Setbacks: When new retail or commercial developments occur adjacent to residential areas and there is an intervening public street the building should setback 25' from the public if the setback area is to be landscaped or 15' if screen walls or berms are added to the landscaping. If there is only an intervening alley or direct abutment of commercial and residential uses the use should be separated from residential uses by a 6' 8' high screen wall on the property line with an additional 1 o wide landscape buffer strip with trees to screen commercial buildings and uses. o Landscaping: The 25' wide setback areas along public streets should be landscaped with at least one tree per 500 square feet with more than half the trees being evergreen. The ground plane should be planted with turf or shrubs and groundcovers. The 15' wide setback alternative must have a berm or low wall 3'-4' high and at least one tree for every 500 square feet with half the trees being evergreen. The ground plane should be planted with turf or shrubs and groundcovers. The screen wall and 10' wide buffer strip areas should be planted with 3 trees per 1000 square feet capable of screening building areas visible above screen wall. o Walls and Fencing: Walls and fencing should be built of high quality materials similar to, or the same as, that used for the primary buildings on the site. In general, all walls and fencing should be accompanied by landscaping, as discussed above. o Access to Alleys: Direct access to alleys from new retail or commercial developments will be discouraged in order to preserve residential character. City and County of Denver Page 52

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Service Area Screening: o Walls and Fencing: Service areas should be screened on all sides with walls or fencing of adequate height to screen all objects. Recommendations for wall or fencing type are the same as described above. o Landscaping: Landscaping adjacent to service area walls or fencing should be contained in a strip at least 5' wide. Plant materials can be a continuous hedge with plants 3' on center or trees and shrubs mixed together. If trees and shrubs are to be used, they must obscure at least 50% of the wall or fence from view. Signs: o Ground Mounted: Ground mounted signs adjacent to Federal Boulevard should adhere to the Denver sign code as a minimum. In addition, all ground mounted signs should be "Monument-Style" with no visible support poles. These signs should be no taller than 20' and be located in landscaped areas. Ground mounted signs should internally illuminate lettering and logos only. o Building Mounted: Building mounted signs are also governed by the Denver sign code. Back-lit awnings used as signs are discouraged due to excessive glare. Lighted retail signs should be located no higher than the first floor of multi-story buildings in order to maintain human scale. Building identification signs may occur on upper floors. Billboards: No new billboards should be allowed on Federal Boulevard and existing billboards should be removed when permits expire or sites are redeveloped. Billboards are not conducive to the "Boulevard" image being created or enhanced along Federal Boulevard. IMPLEMENT SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS Three distinct actions are recommended to improve the overall safety characteristics of Federal Boulevard. o Construct Center To improve pedestrian safety along Federal Boulevard, it is recommended that a continuous raised center median be constructed. At minor cross streets and appropriate mid-block locations where warrants are met, pedestrian walkways should be located through the raised median to allow a point of refuge during crossing. The median should provide landscaped features consistent with the Urban Design Framework Plan. This raised center median should be constructed so that turning movements at selected minor cross-streets and driveways are restricted to right-turns only. This affords pedestrians additional safety by eliminating conflicts with left-turning vehicles. City and County of Denver Page 53

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan In addition to the pedestrian safety benefits of the mid-block median, the relocation of turning conflicts from minor cross-streets to the major cross-streets will generally improve traffic safety and operations. o Upgrade to Minimum Design Standards. As previously discussed, the existing lane widths along the corridor are substantially less than the minimum requirements for this class of roadway. Narrow lanes have a detrimental effect on traffic safety and, in particular, on transit operations. It is recommended, therefore, that all travel lanes be a minimum of 11-feet in width with a 1-foot clearance to median curbs and a 2-foot clearance to outside curbs (see Figure 17 and 18). o Implement Safety Enhancement Package. To provide immediate safety benefits prior to the implementation of major construction projects in the future, it is recommended that the following short-term safety enhancement actions be implemented or continued. The City and County of Denver currently monitors travel speeds in relation to posted speed limits. The posted speed limit on Federal Boulevard is currently 35 MPH north of Alameda and 40 MPH south of Alameda. It is recommended that speed monitoring continue on Federal Boulevard and that speed limits be reevaluated by the city and the state when major reconstruction projects are designed and implemented. Continue the City's current initiative of posting advisory signs for pedestrians at signalized intersections to instruct people on the proper use and waiting period for a pedestrian indication. The program should be focused on Federal Boulevard, as well as other streets that exhibit similar safety problems, with emphasis on high activity locations frequented by the elderly and school children. Install pedestrian indications on all approaches at signals and investigate applicable timing modifications as appropriate. Continue the City's current practice of providing stop bars at all signalized intersections to minimize vehicle encroachment into crosswalks and investigate special supplemental signing and pavement markings for application at major pedestrian crossings. Investigate the potential application of a temporary or simulated median as a means of correcting immediate safety problems at locations where funding or right-of-way constraints cause delays to the implementation of a permanent solution. The effects of turn restrictions on local streets can also be monitored during this period. City and County of Denver Page 54

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Emphasize Federal Boulevard improvements for federal transportation funding, particularly relative to safety improvement programs, over the next three-year budgeting period. IMPLEMENT DENVER BICYCLE MASTER PLAN The 1993 Denver Bicycle Master Plan proposes improvements toward the cityMwide goal of establishing a continuous one-mile grid system of on-street or off-street bicycle routes throughout the city. Since Federal Boulevard is not recommended as a bicycle route, the Bicycle Master Plan includes several proposed improvements to routes crossing or parallel to the corridor in order to achieve a one-mile grid in the area: Proposed new routes and signage improvements include: o 35th Avenue Consolidate the former 33rd/35th Avenue one-way routes on 35th Avenue from Perry Street to Navajo Street. o 17th Avenue-Enhance route between Sloans Lake and Platte River Greenway. o 1Oth Avenue Designate and sign as a bicycle route from Sheridan Boulevard to Decatur Street, and connect to Platte River Greenway via Decatur Street to both 13th Street and Weir Gulch. o Virginia Avenue-Designate and sign as a bicycle route from Irving Street to the Platte River Greenway. o Kentucky Avenue-Designate and sign as a bicycle route from Sheridan Boulevard to Zuni Street. o Zuni StreetDesignate and sign as a bicycle route from the north city limits to 46th Avenue. o Clay StreetDesignate and sign a bicycle route on Clay Street and Dunkeld Place, connecting the existing route on Clay Street from 33rd Avenue to the 29th Avenue route. o 26th Avenue Designate and sign a bicycle route from Eliot Street to Zuni Street, which connects with 15th Street. o Eliot StreetDesignate and sign as a bicycle route from 23rd Avenue to 20th Avenue, and continuing to 17th Avenue through the stadium parking area. City and County of Denver Page 55

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Proposed capital improvements include: o Lakewood/Dry Gulch Reconstruct from Sheridan Boulevard to the Federal Boulevard underpass as a non-circuitous, 1 0 foot concrete path, and connect to Platte River Greenway via improved 13th Avenue route. o Weir Gulch Reconstruct west of Barnum Park as a 1 0 foot concrete path. Continue route designation toward the east only if a grade separated crossing of 6th A venue is constructed in the long range. o 1st Avenue Improve the connection of the Irvington Place bike route east of Federal with the 1st Avenue bike route west of Federal using a design to be developed during the Bicycle Master Plan implementation process. o Westwood Trail Complete current master plan and construct improvements from Perry Street to Zuni Street. Future improvements should include on-street linkages to Weir Gulch, Huston Lake Park, Sanderson Gulch, Platte River Greenway, Southwest Community Center, and Kepner Middle School. o Sanderson Gulch-As a long term goal, replace the existing asphalt path with a 1 0 foot concrete path. o 17th Avenue Construct a separated bikeway from the southern end of Eliot Street route, along the east side of the northbound Federal exit ramp, to connect with the existing sidepath on the Colfax Viaduct. City and County of Denver Page 56

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan NORTH SEGMENT RECOMMENDATIONS tn addition to the urban design improvements recommended for the entire Federal Boulevard corridor, the following recommendations are a!so applicable to the north segment. URBAN DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS Several illustrations are presented to show the effect of the recommended Urban Design Standards and on .pqrtions of the north of the corridor. A photograph of existing conditions is inclua$d to provide a visual :compaiison. NOTE: No are recommended for the existing residential areas except for the addition of street trees where appopriate. City and County of Denver Existing Residential Area North Segment ?age 57

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Strip Commercial .... South of 17th Avenue West Side (Sports Complex) City and County of Denver ?age 5S

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan City and County of Denver Neighborhood Commercial at 28rd Avenue (West Side) Page 59

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan City and County of Denver :. ... Neighborhood Commercial South of 26th Avenue (East Side) Page SO

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan City and County of Denver Major Commercial Intersection South of 38th Avenue (West Side) Page 61

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan City and County of Denver Corridor Ga.teway at J-70 (Southbound) Page 62

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Ff XT"M t!l'lf11"Nc;eo r'JI3

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan TRAFFIC AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS The following additional safety improvements are recommended for the north segment of Federal Boulevard. o Relocate On-Street Parking. parking along the north segment of Federal Boulevard creates several conflicts in terms of both safety and use of available way. The outside travel lane becomes obstructed with vehicles maneuvering into and out of parking spaces and introduces pedestrians into the roadway, thus creating conflicts between both vehicles and pedestrians. The width of roadway required for parking necessitates either widening the roadway or utilizing sub-standard lane widths. For these reasons, the existing on-street parking on the north segment of Federal Boulevard should be relocated to off-street replacement parking areas. These replacement parking facilities could occur gradually over time, based on the actual demand for parking and the availability of suitable locations. At some specific locations along north Federal Boulevard, the potential exists to provide some recessed parking. However it should be realized that recessing parking into the tree lawn area seriously degrades the quality of the boulevard image. This approach could be considered only where retention of on-street parking is needed and suitable off street parking alternative are not available. Figure 15, previously presented, illustrates how this concept could be incorporated into the recommended cross-section. City and County of Denver Page 64

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan o Median Development. The implementation of a raised median in the north segment of the corridor is recommended to occur between 52nd Avenue and Colfax Avenue. Figure 19 shows the plan elements of the preferred cross-section. As shown, the raised median is extended along Federal Boulevard except at intersections with major cross-streets. At these locations, painted left-turn bays are provided. Pedestrian crosswalks are provided at locations along the raised median to allow a point of refuge during crossing. As turn ing movements at minor cross-streets and driveways are restricted to right-turns only, pedestrians are afforded additional safety because they are not competing for gaps in traffic with left-turning vehicles. The spe cific streets which would be restricted to right turn movements only will be deter mined as a part of the preliminary design. However, to achieve the maximum safety benefits and to maintain a consistent medi an landscape, minor cross-streets should provide full turning movements only when a documented hardship exists. Table 7 is a proposed list of the major cross streets where full turning movements would be maintained along with the antici pated type' of traffic control. These loca tions may change during the detailed de sign process. During detailed design it is suggested that a special access control plan be developed in the vicinity of the 1-70 interchange. Such a control plan might include elimina tion of closely spaced and unsafe access points and possible signalization at 49th Avenue and 47th Avenue. Landscaped Median DRIVEWAY 11 OR MINOR ;;;;:.,. ....::= MINOR CROSS-(1 STREET r--Pedestrian Walkway : ; +-MAJOR Figure 19 North ---------------Plan Elements Median North Segment Future development proposals in the north segment of Federal Boulevard should reflect the urban design and traffic control intent of the Federal Boulevard corridor plan. Major redevelopment projects or other special situations may require the preparation of special traffic analysis, documenting the need for additional transit improvements, pedestrian facilities, and traffic safety and capacity requirements. City and County of Denver Page 65

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan TABLE 7 NORTH SEGMENT POTENTIAL INTERSECTIONS WITH FULL TURNING MOVEMENTS RETAINED* 51st Avenue 50th Avenue 49th Avenue 1-70 North Ramp 1-70 South Ramp Signal 47th Avenue Stop Sign E/W {Potential Signal) 46th Avenue Signal 44th Avenue Signal 41st Avenue nat 39th Avenue Stop Signs E/W 38th Avenue Signal 35th Avenue Signal 33rd Avenue 32nd Avenue Boulevard Signal 29th Avenue Signal 26th Avenue Signal 23rd Avenue Signal 20th Avenue Signal 19th Avenue Stop E/W 18th Avenue Stop Signs E/W 17th Avenue Signal 16th Avenue Stop Sign EB Preliminary list for illustrative purposes; specific access control plan will be developed jointly by the city and state in design process. City and County of Denver Page 66

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan SPECIFIC CROSS SECTIONS Sports Complex Area The portion of Federal Boulevard serving the sports complex extends from 20th Avenue to Colfax Avenue. A continuous urban design treatment is desired from Colfax north to 1-70 to unify the corridor and better integrate the sports complex into the northwest Denver neighborhoods. A center median for this portion of Federal Boulevard may be appropriate but requires further analysis of the special traffic control requirements during major events. Police and traffic control personnel may need to open or close traffic lanes in direct response to short-term pedestrian or vehicle demands during peak arrival and departure periods associated with event traffic. However, the portion of the corridor between the north Colfax ramps and 20th Avenue is recommended to be upgraded as shown in Figure 20(A}. The auxiliary lane formed from the westbound to northbound ramp which ends at 17th Avenue would also be retained. The suggested improvements emphasize landscape and pedestrian enhancements and achieving standard lane widths while retaining the existing number of roadway lanes. As subsequent studies are done for the entire sports complex area, an overall urban design plan will likely recommend additional improvements to this portion of Federal Boulevard. Also shown in Figure 20(B) is a potential long-range option which could be incorporated into other improvements for the sports complex to achieve the continuous urban design treatment desired for the entire north segment. 100' ROW I I 70' I sw swl I I .J. t II 5' I 6' 14'1 5' 2' 11' i 1' 11' 11' 111 11' 2' A. PROPOSED 100'+ ROW 80' I l sw s I II .J. "' .J. II 2' 11' 11' 11' 1' 8' 1' 11' 11' 11' 2' B. LONG-RANGE OPTION Figure 20 *ROW may be widened, if consistent with Sports Complex planning, to provide additional pedestrian facilities. City and County of Denver Typical Sections 20th Avenue to 17th Avenue (Viewed toward the North) Page 67

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan 52nd A venue to /-70 This portion of the corridor is distinctly different from the primary residential portion south of 1-70 being primarily commercial in nature. In addition, existing developments along a portion of the east side of Federal Boulevard currently rely upon on-street parking for their business operations. Consequently, the cross-section shown in Figure 21 represents a long-term objective which is recommended to be phased over time as redevelopment occurs and alternative parking provisions become available. Landscape and Pedestrian Improvements II -l2' 11' AUX. LANE 1-70 to 20th Avenue 1' -l-II II t 11' 8' 11' 1' 1' ULTIMATE LONG-TERM OPTION t 11' I -SW I t II 5' I 5' 11' 2' AUX. LANE Figure 21 Typical Section 52nd Avenue to 1-70 The preferred cross-section for this segment of the corridor (see Figure 22) responds to the unique residential character of the area. Both existing curb lines and right-of-way are recommended to be retained with extensive landscape enhancements provided throughout. Landscape and Pedestrian Improvements .. I I l I I .J. 2' 11' City and County of Denver 90' 1 00' ROW 60' Planted Median .. .::. :.'L .J. II II t 11' 1' 10' 1' 11' MID-BLOCK MEDIAN t Landscape and Pedestrian Improvements 20' 11' I I -------i 2' 10' Pull-Out Parking Figure 22 Typical Section 1-70 to 20th Avenue Page 68

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan INTERSECTION IMPROVEMENTS Conceptual intersection improvements have been identified for two locations in the north segment as described below. Precise intersection geometry will be developed during the design process. The following locations are recommended for capacity and safety improvements. o Upgrade Federal/38th Avenue. As previously discussed, this intersection is currently at or near capacity. Under future conditions, operations here are expected to be at LOS F unless intersection improvements are undertaken. An analysis of several improvement alternatives indicated that future operations at LOS E could be maintained by placing peak hour parking restrictions on the eastbound approach to the intersection as shown in Figure 23. This would effectively create a separate right-turn lane to southbound Federal Boulevard, thus increasing the capacity of the intersection at minimal expense. Parking restrictions could be lifted during offpeak periods, when the additional capacity would not be needed. It is therefore recommended that eastbound peak hour parking restrictions be implemented at this location. Operations at this intersection should continue to be monitored to determine if additional level of service improvements are warranted in the long term. City and County of Denver Figure 23 Recommended Intersection Improvements Federal Boulevard I 38th Avenue Page 69

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan o Upgrade Federal/Speer. The operational analyses also indicated that existing operations at this intersection are at LOS F, a condition requiring immediate improvement. Further analysis has indicated that this intersection could be improved sufficiently to operate at LOS E through the projected year 2010 by adding a second westbound right-turn lane and a second southbound left-turn lane. In order to accomplish these additions and maintain lane continuity with minimal roadway widening, a reallocation of the existing widths of each roadway is required as shown in Figure 24. Transition to Typical Section Prior to Head -"'""4--""Start Building North City and County of Denver Figure 24 Recommended Intersection Improvements Federal Boulevard I Speer Page 70

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan SOUTH SEGMENT RECOMMENDATIONS In addition to the urban design and safety improvements recommended for the entire Federal Boulevard corridor, the following recommendations are also applicable.to the south segment. URBAN DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS Several illustrations are presented to show the effect of the recommended Urban Design Standards on portions of the south segment. A photograph of existing conditions is included to provide a visual comparison. City and County of Denver Page 71

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan North of Evans Avenue (West Side) City and County of Denver Page72

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan North of Mississippi Avenue (East Side.) City and County of Denver ?age 7$

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan ,..,. Trters e. 50'().(;,.-cr Wrrt"'t South of Alameda Avenue (East Side) City and County of Denver Page 74

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan / / / / / City and County of Denver North of Bayaud Avenue (East Side) Page 75

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan TRAFFIC AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS The following additional safety improvements are recommended for the south segment of Federal Boulevard. o Provide a Third Nort.hbound Lane (Colfax to Jewell). The existing on the south segment of Federal Boulevard is unbalanced; it provides three southbound lanes but only two northbound lanes. The recommended cross-section would add an additional continuous northbound lane. While the additional lane is not a capacity requirement at most locations, this improvement has been recommended for two reasons. First, the additional lane is needed as a right-turn acceleration/deceleration lane for the excessive number of accesses along this segment of Federal Boulevard. Turning vehicles entering and exiting the businesses along the east side of Federal Boulevard currently impede traffic flow and create a safety hazard. The addition of the third northbound lane will effectively remove these conflicts from the primary travel lanes. The second reason that an additional lane is needed on northbound Federal Boulevard is the high frequency of transit traffic on this segment. As previously noted, over 300 buses per day serve some sections of south Federal Boulevard, which equates to as many as 12 buses per hour on the northbound side. Many bus stops currently occur in the right-hand through-lane, causing the traffic behind to stop. This situation increases delay and contributes to safety problems. The recommended third lane will allow transit operations, as well as right-turning movements, to occur efficiently without impeding the through movements on Federal Boulevard. City and County of Denver Page 76

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan o Median Development. The implementation of a raised median in the south segment of the corridor is recommended to occur between Colfax Avenue and Jewell Avenue. Figure 25 shows the plan elements of the preferred cross-section for the south seg ment. The raised median is extended along Federal Boulevard except at intersections with major cross-streets. At these loca tions, painted left-turn bays are provided. Pedestrian crosswalks are provided across the median to allow a point of refuge dur ing crossing. Turning movements at minor cross-streets and driveways are restricted to right-turns only to afford pedestrians additional safety. To provide all of the pedestrian, transit, and traffic improvements up to 1 0-feet of additional right-of-way would have to be acquired in those portions of the corridor having less than 1 00-feet of right-of-way. The specific streets which would be re stricted to right turn movements only will be determined as a part of the preliminary design. However, to achieve the maximum safety benefits and to maintain a consistent median landscape, minor cross streets should provide full turning movements only when a documented need exists. Table 8 is a proposed list of the major cross streets where full turning movements would be maintained along with the anticipated type of traffic control. Other locations may be added during the detailed design process. mr A--::=:::?' ==--I .c== 'Ill/. Painted Lefl Turn Bay DRIVEWAY Raised Median OR ij II STREET MINOR CROSS STREET ... f-Pedestrian Walkway DRIVEWAY .R I I I I _] 1.'\ MAJOR I CROSSSTREET ____ __ !7:"'] :6: Figure25 North ---------------Plan Elements Mid-Block Median South Segment The portion of the south segment between Jewell and Evans is recommended to continue to function as a transition between the upgraded crosssection north of Jewell and the existing cross-section south of Evans. The outside auxiliary lanes would end at Jewell with four through lanes continuing to the south with no raised median. Any future median construction or roadway improvements between Jewell and Evans should be coordinated with improve ments south of Evans. Enhancement of the urban design character of this portion of the corridor should continue, however, and be coordinated with the landscape concept plan and pedestrian improvements to the north. Pedestrian and transit improvements are also recommended for Evans Avenue. City and County of Denver Page 77

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan TABLE 8 SOUTH SEGMENT POTENTIAL INTERSECTIONS WITH FULL TURNING MOVEMENTS RETAINED* Holden Place Stop Sign WB 12th Avenue Stop Sign EB 1Oth Avenue Signal 9th Avenue Stop EfW Sth Avenue Signal 7th Avenue Stop Sign WB South of 7th Avenue Stop Sign WB 6th Avenue North Signal 6th Avenue South Ramps Signal 5th Avenue Stop Sign EB 5th Avenue 4th Avenue 2nd Avenue-East 2nd Avenue -West 1st East 1st Avenue West Bayaud Avenue EfW Alameda Avenue Signal Virginia Avenue Signal Exposition Avenue Signal Kentucky Avenue Signal Avenue Signal Louisiana Avenue Signal Rorida Avenue Signal Mexico Avenue Stop Signs EfW Jewell Avenue Signal purposes; access contro jointly by the city and state in design process. City and County of Denver Page 78

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan INTERSECTION IMPROVEMENTS Conceptual intersection improvements have been identified for two locations in the south segment as described below. Precise intersection geometry will be developed during the design process. The following locations are recommended for capacity and safety improvements. o Upgrade Federal/Alameda. Improvements to the Federal Boulevard/Alameda Avenue intersection are currently under final design as part of another project by the city and County of Denver. With these upgrades, this intersection should continue to operate below capacity to the year 2010, by which time the projected operations will be at an acceptable LOS E. Preliminary design of intersection improvements at this location include double left-turn lanes and three through-lanes on all o Upgrade Federal/Evans. As previously discussed, the interactions between traffic, pedestrian, and transit operations at this important transit transfer station create undesirable conflicts which necessitate the following intersection improvements: To alleviate the condition of eastbound through and southbound left turn vehicles encountering delay due to buses stopping on eastbound Evans Avenue just east of Federal Boulevard, a bus pullout should be constructed to remove such transit operations from the travel lane. To prevent a similar conflict on the westbound leg of Evans Avenue, it is recommended that the inside westbound through-lane be reallocated to left-turning traffic. The existing configuration on westbound Evans Avenue forces two through-lanes to merge into one lane immediately west of Federal Boulevard. Therefore, the capacity of the intersection is not significantly affected by this action. The northerly lane on westbound Evans Avenue may then be used as a bus pullout and as a right-turn lane. o Jewell to Evans. The six lane cross-section described in this section is applicable between Colfax and Jewell Avenue. The two-block segment between Jewell and Evans currently has four through lanes within a wider (68') street cross-section than the remainder of the south segment, therefore no changes to the cross-section of this segment are recommended. Any improvements to this segment, other than those at the Evans intersection, should be developed and incorporated with improvements that extend south of the study corridor. City and County of Denver Page 79

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan VI. IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS The, implementation of the Federal Boulevard corridor plan as defined in the previous section of this document will likely be an extended process requiring a coordinated design process betwE;Jen the City and adjacent property owners, designation and allocation of financial resources, and acquisition of key To assist in developing an implementation framework, three elements of project implementa tion are presented in the following. These elements are: o Project Phasing o Planning Level Cost Estimates o Agency Responsibilities (Funding, Construction, and Maintenance) DESIGN PROCESS This plan presents recommended improvement projects along Federal Boulevard at a generalized, planning level. As projects are funded, there will be a design process, which generally has three preliminary design, final design and construction. The city Department of Public Works will include a public involvement process during each of these three phases, with a minimum of one open meeting during each phase. In addition, there will be a citizen steering committee formed if major issues of concern arise for a particular segment or project. Also, designers will work to address any particular property owners' problems on a one-on-one basis. There are a number of design issues that cannot be definitively addressed at the planning level, but that will be addressed during the design process. Included are the locations of median breaks for full movement intersections, location of pedestrian walkways, the location of pull-out parking bays in the north segment, design and landscaping in the medians, side landscape and streetscape design, and mitigation of construction and detour impacts. PROJECT PHASING Because the Federal Boulevard corridor encompasses nearly 8 miles with a variety of land uses, differing construction constraints, and right-of-way acquisition needs, it is not possible to define a specific phasing program. However, certain characteristics of the corridor are indicative of a general phasing sequence consisting of short-term actions occurring over the next 5 years; intermediate range actions to occur in approximately the next 3 to 1 0 years; and long-term actions to occur in the next 10 to 20 years. City and County of Denver Page 80

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan SHORT-TERM ACTIONS {1 TO 5 YEARS} Federal/Alameda Intersection The upgrading of the intersection of Federal Boulevard and Alameda Avenue is currently underway. Engineering design will be completed in 1994 and construction is proposed to occur as soon as funding is in place. Federal and 38th Avenue, Speer Boulevard, Evans A venue Intersections The improvement recommendations for the intersections of Federal/38th Avenue, Feder al/Speer Boulevard and Federal/Evans Avenue have the following characteristics: o Relatively minor right-of-way acquisition is required. o Construction is limited to discrete locations. o Total costs of these improvements are relatively small. Therefore, these projects can proceed to design and implementation in a relatively short time frame and should be considered as early corridor improvements. INTERMEDlATE -TERM ACTIONS {3 TO 10 YEARS) 1-70 to 20th Avenue This portion of the Federal Boulevard corridor involves relatively minor physical modifications having the following key characteristics: o No right-of-way acquisition is required. o Construction is limited to the center median and adjacent streetscape enhancements. o Total costs are relatively small. As a consequence this portion of the corridor is a likely candidate for early implementation and has, therefore, been identified as an intermediate improvement action. 20th Avenue to Colfax A venue This portion of the corridor is anticipated to be ultimately integrated with a larger effort to improve the overall pedestrian, traffic, and urban design characteristics of the sports complex area. Funding has been requested to proceed with landscape and streetscape enhancements along the edges of Federal Boulevard in the immediate time perioq. Planning for the sports complex area is anticipated to occur in the near future, with additional improvements sufficiently defined for implementation in the long-term time frame time period. City and County of Denver Page 81

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan 6th Avenue to Alameda Unlike the north segment, the south segment involves major street reconstruction throughout and significant right-of-way acquisition in some areas, especially between Colfax Avenue and Alameda Avenue. The segment of Federal Boulevard between 6th Avenue and Alameda Avenue exhibits severed key characteristics, however, which warrant the consideration of this segment as an intermediate action project. These characteristics include: o The intersection of Alameda and Federal is one of the highest accident locations in the City. o Traffic volumes are the highest in the corridor and congestion levels are generally high especially at Alameda and Federal. o Bus volumes through this segment are high as are passenger hoardings. o Overall pedestrian activity is significant as is the accident history. o Right-of-way acquisition needs are generally 1 0-feet on one side of the street rather than 1 0-feet on both sides of the street. In addition, the intersection of Alameda and Federal is currently being redesigned to improve safety and capacity with construction anticipated to be completed as soon as full funding is identified. Therefore, upgrading the segment of Federal Boulevard from 6th Avenue to Alameda Avenue would be a natural extension of these intersection improvements. Alameda A venue to Mississippi A venue This segment of Federal Boulevard is approximately 1 mile long and could be further subdivided into smaller projects consistent with city-wide priorities and available funding. However, since minimal right-of-way acquisition is required (except for the 1/2 block segment immediately south of Tennessee Avenue, where the existing ROW is only 80 feet), it is likely that significant portions of this segment could be implemented within a reasonable time frame and budget. Therefore, this segment is identified as an intermediate-term project. LONG-TERM ACTIONS (10 TO 20 YEARS) 52nd Avenue to 70 This segment of the corridor is identified as a long-term action because implementation of the ultimate cross-section will require redevelopment activities to occur and because safety and traffic operational problems are less significant than in other portions of the corridor. City and County of Denver Page 82

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan 20th Avenue to Colfax Avenue As additional planning is conducted for the sports complex area it is anticipated that additional improvements will be identified for this segment of Federal Boulevard for implementation in the longtt;!rm time period. Colfax A venue to 6th A venue This segment of the corridor is by some of the greatest safety, pedestrian, and congestion problems as well as some of the most significant cost and right-of-way constraints. As a consequence of these constraints, it is unlikely that all implementation issues can be resolved early although it is important that early steps be taken to begin the process of implementation. The following characteristics of this segment of Federal Boulevard are significant: o Bus volumes are the highest in the corridor and the largest passenger boarding area in the corridor is located in this segment. o Accident occurrence including fatalities is among the highest in the corridor. o Overall travel demand in this segment ranks as the second highest in the corridor. o Nearly all of this segment requires 1 0-feet of additional right-of-way along both sides of the corridor and will involve resolution of issues associated with adjacent park lands. o TO'connect this segment with the segment to the south would require reconstruction of the bridge over 6th Avenue which is a major cost component. o The 2015 Regional Transportation Plan does not currently include an additional lane in this segment of Federal which means that a plan amendment must be initiated and approved before federal funding would be available. Therefore, implementation of the improvements recommended for this segment of Federal Boulevard will likely occur later in the overall corridor upgrading due to the right-of-way and cost constraints. However, because the safety needs are significant, this segment may be advanced if right-of-way and cost issues can be resolved. Mississippi Avenue to Jewell Avenue This mile long segment of Federal Boulevard has similar characteristics to the segment between Alameda and Mississippi. Because the safety and operational characteristics of this segment are not as critical as other portions of the corridor, it has been identified as a long term improvement action. City and County of Denver Page 83

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan PLANNING LEVEL COST ESTIMATES Precise cost estimates will not be known until the Federal Boulevard corridor plan proceeds into subsequent design stages. However, planning level cost estimates have been prepared for three primary construction elements and right-of-way acquisition. These planning level cost estimates are also allocated to each of the preliminary implementation phases and are shown in Table 9. TABLE 9 FEDERAL BOULEVARD PLANNING LEVEL COST ESTIMATES (Values are in 1 ,OOO's of 1993 Dollars) 1 to 5 Federal/Alameda InterYears section 1 to 5 Federal Intersections at Years 38th, & Evans 1 to 5 1-70 to 20th Avenue > 1,140 830 Years 1 to 5 20th Avenue to Colfax 100 Years 3 to 10 6th Avenue to Alameda 420 1,250 Years 3 to 10 Alameda to Mississippi 420 1,250 Years 10 to 20 52nd Avenue to 1-70 170 500 Years 10 to 20 20th Avenue to Colfax 200 600 Years 10 to 20 Colfax to 6th Avenue 420 1,250 Years 10 to 20 Mississippi to Jewell 420 1,250 Years Corridor Totals 3,190 7,030 400 so 450 520 2,490 100 2,520 2,200 6,390 2,520 250 4.440 1,010 1,680 1,210 2,010 5,720 3,500 10,890 2,520 4,190 16.420 6,000 32,640 The Federal/Alameda intersection improvements are contained within a larger project along Alameda Avenue extending from Knox Court to Decatur Street at a total cost of approximately $7.5 million. City and County of Denver Page 84

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES The Federal Boulevard corridor improvements will involve several public agencies responsible for various elements of project development, design and construction, and maintenance. Each of these responsibilities is outlined below. FUNDING SOURCES Private Property Owners o Developer Agreements. When a property owner elects to redevelop a site, the City Department of Public Works evaluates the needed right-of-way, roadway, and landscape requirements and determines on a case-by-case basis what will be required of the developer. Where redevelopment occurs, it is reasonable to anticipate that developers will finance some to all of the needed improvements. The Federal Boulevard plan provides developers with specific requirements which pertain to their site. o Local Improvement Districts. Often, minor road improvements and alley improvements are financed with local improvement districts. In these cases, a group of property owners agree to form a district and share in the financing. LID bonds are issued and repaid with an assessment on each property. This concept may also be applied to segments of arterial roads where there is a common interest among private property owners to finance needed improvements. The most likely portions of Federal -Boulevard where this might occur are near Mile-High Stadium and north of 1-70. City aqd _t;ounty of Denver o Capital Improvements Fund. The City funds some capital improvements on a cash basis through its Capital Improvements Fund with revenues from the head tax. In recent years, funding through the Capital Improvements Fund has averaged between $4.5 and $12.5 million of its capital needs. Public Works projects have ranged between $50,000 and $1.5 million. Although the competition for these funds is significant, portions of the Federal Boulevard projects might be funded each year through this source or to provide local matches for federal funds. o General Obligation (GO) Bond Projects. Every 7 to 10 years, the City typically identifies a number of potential large-scale capital projects for voter approval; the last election was in 1989. Voters are asked to approve or disapprove issuing general obligation bonds for "bundles" of capital projects. These bonds are repaid over time with property taxes. Road improvement projects, such as the 15th Street Viaduct, Speer/6th/lincqln underpass and others have been financed with GO bonds. This is a viable source of funds for major components of the Federal Boulevard project. The next GO bond election date has not been set. City and County of Denver Page 85

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan o Community Development Block Grant
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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan LAND DEDICATION AND ROAD CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS Developers (property owners) are required to dedicate any additional land that is needed to obtain one-half of the desired or planned right-of-way for existing roads when a building permit is pulled. The Denver Department of Public Works determines the desired or planned right-of way to be taken. Developers (property owners) are not required to improve property in the City right-of-way unless a building permit is pulled. However, when a building permit is pulled, developers (property owners) may be required to construct project-specific traffic and safety improve ments, such as auxiliary acceleration, deceleration and turn lanes, detached or attached sidewalks, lan9scape improvements, drainage improvements, and access improvements and add street lights according to Denver's standards. Developers (property owners) are typically not required to construct additional road pavement. On a case-by-case basis, Denver will relax some improvements requirements, such as landscaping, if the scale of the building or redevelopment improvements are modest. All of these conditions hold whether or not additional right-of-way is required. LANDSCAPE CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Parkways The City has submitted an application for the designation of sixteen parkways on the National Register of Historic Places. They include portions of: City Park Esplanade, Clermont Street, Downing Street, Forest Street, South Marion Street, Montview Boulevard, Richthofen Place, Speer Boulevard, University Boulevard, Williams Street, East 4th Avenue, East 6th Avenue, East 7th Avenue Parkway, East 17th Avenue and West 46th Avenue. By Ordinance, the City has designated a number of roadways in Denver as parkways and boulevards. Federal Boulevard is among these. For designated parkways and boulevards, The City will trim trees within City right-of-way on a 7-year cycle and will remove hazardous conditions, such as dead trees. The City Parks & Recreation Department generally assumes maintenance responsibility for improvements in the medians. Annual maintenance costs can vary greatly from one location to another but have averaged approximately $10,000 per mile. Abutting property owners are required to assume the maintenance responsibilities for improvements from the curb to the private property line. The City Forester assumes responsibility for street trees throughout the parkways. City and County of Denver Page 87

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan Medians The City Public Works Department generally installs landscaped medians. The City Parks & Recreation Department generaiJy maintains landscaped medians. On occasion, other entities may be designated to maintain landscaped medians. Edge Treatments, All Roads But Parkways The City imposes landscape construction requirements on developers (property owners} when a building permit is pulled. On a case-specific basis, City staff will tailor the landscape require ments with the scale of the building permit pulled. These landscaped treatments must be "adequately maintained" but not necessarily improved with underground irrigation. The City's guide in determining these landscape requirements is its "Streetscape Design Manual" which was adopted by the Planning Board earlier in 1993 and will be printed in a few months. City code states that all property owners must maintain the City's right-of-:way between its private property line and the curb. Community Development Block Grant Streetscape Projects The Denver Commercial Streetscaping Program provides Community Development Block Grants up to $200,000 to revitalize and upgrade Denver's older neighborhood shopping areas through the construction of right-of-way improvements. Special focus for this program is on neighborhood business revitalization areas or those areas with an established merchants or business organization. Benches, trees, ornamental pedestrian lighting, trash receptacles, sidewalks and curb ramps are all eligible improvements. Emphasis for project selection is placed on contributions from private sources that will be committed to complement these funds. For a number of years, Denver has typically earmarked $500,000 annually for residential streetscape projects and $500,000 for commercial streetscape projects. In 1994 these funding levels will increase to $600,000. For example, Federal Boulevard at Tennessee and 38th Avenue between Federal & Jason are funded with CDBG funds. Historically, the City funded projects_in commercial or residential neighborhoods where residents are below a specified income level to qualify for funding. Typically, residential neighborhood improvements include sidewalks, trees and sod. Commercial neighborhood improvements have been more extensive and have included pedestrian lighting, and irrigated landscaped treatments. Before the City agrees to make streetscape improvements with its CDBG funds, it requires at least 70 percent of the property owners to agree to the following terms and conditions: o Purchase a revocable permit to install improvements other then trees and sod in the right-of-way edge {$75 in year one plus $25 each subsequent year). City and County of Denver Page 88

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Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan o Purchase liability insurance, if improvements are other than trees and sod. o Commit to maintain the irrigation system, including repair, annual drain and recharge. o Pay annual water and electric utility bills. o Commit to the general upkeep of the improvements, including maintenance and placement of pedestrian lighting, trash removal, and tree trimming, as needed. There are three ways that the CDBG landscaping is maintained: o A maintenance district, created for this purpose; examples include Morrison Road, and Santa Fe Drive between 6th and 14th. o A business improvement district, created for this and other purposes; examples include East Colfax Avenue between Broadway and York. the 16th Street Mall, and Cherry Creek North. BIDs are typically operated by an executive director, not City staff. Property owners finance the budget with assessments, fees, property taxes or a com bination of these. o Individual property owners; examples include East 12th at Elizabeth in Congress Park, Federal at Kentucky, 3rd & Elati in the Baker neighborhood. This is an acceptable alternative only when the area of the improvements is so small that a maintenance district is not cost effective. Parking Lots "'"-" The City imposes landscaping requirements on all parking lots, including free-standing revenue-producing lots as well as accessory parking lots. Often the private landscaping added to a commercial development are triggered by the City's parking lot landscape requirements, not by street-related landscape requirements. STREETSCAPE PROJECT EXAMPLES South Broadway at First Avenue This was among the first streetscape projects done with CDBG funds. A maintenance district finances the on-going maintenance and replacement costs. East Colfax Avenue Between Broadway & York The .capital costs as well as the on-going operations and maintenance costs are financed by a business improvement district. A substantial portion of the capital costs were also funded by CDBG funds. City and County of Denver Page 89

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Federal Btlulevard Corridor Plan Santa Fe Drive Between 6th & 14th The capital costs were financed with CDBG revenues. On-going operations and maintenance are financed via a maintenance district. 16th Street Mall The original capital improvements were financed with federal funds associated with the transit improvements. For the first ten years ( 1982-1992) the on-going maintenance was financed by a maintenance district. In 1992, a business improvement district was formed to finance the on-going maintenance and operations in future years. East Evans Avenue These streetscape improvements were financed with general obligation bonds. South 1600 Block of Pearl Street These streetscape improvements were installed 1 0 years ago with CDBG funds and are maintained by a very active business association. 6th & Knox Court; 1Oth at Knox Court; East 12th at Elizabeth; Federal at Kentucky, Pearl & Kentucky, Etc. These small streetscape improvement projects abut one or two properties. The on-going operations and maintenance are financed by the private property owners. Morrison Road Streetscape improvements have been completed in one area and two other areas are currently in design and will be installed with CDBG funds. A maintenance district will finance on-going operations, maintenance and replacement needs. East Mississippi A venue, East of Parker Road to Havana Street Streetscape improvements in Denver are financed with the City's CIP fund; improvements in Aurora are financed with a special improvement district. For landscaped maintenance, Denver provides the water tap and pays the monthly bill; the City of Aurora maintains the landscaped treatment. City and County of Denver

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CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER STATE OF COLORADO Certification c/f.CJ:J. 1995 Arie P. Tavlor Gerk and Recorder, 'Ex-officio Clerk of the City and Clounty of Denver

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BY AUTHORITY ORDINANCE NO. COUNCIL BILL NO. SERIES OF 1995 COMMITTEE OF REFERENCE: -rtllftJS (Jo /t.T"A-II0/'1 A BILL FOR AN ORDINANCE APPROVING A MASTER PLAN FOR THE FEDERAL BOULEVARD CORRIDOR, WHICH PLAN SHALL BECOME A PART OF THE COMPREHENSIVE PLAN FOR THE CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER PURSUANT TO THE PROVISIONS OF SECTION 41-lB(c) OF THE REVISED MUNICIPAL CODE AND OF ORDINANCE NO. 617, SERIES OF 1989. WHEREAS, pursuant to the provisions of Section 41.-18 (c) of th Revised Municipal Code, and by Ordinance No. 617, s.eries of 1989, ther has been approved a comprehensive Plan for the City and county of Denver and WHEREAS, said section of the Revised Municipal Code provides for thl amendment of said Plan; and WHEREAS 1 Ordinance No. 6171 Series of 1989, provides for thE incorporation of other documents into the comprehensive Plan; and WHEREAS, as a proposed part of the Comprehensive Plan, the Manage! of Public Works has transmitted to the Mayor and Council for acceptance a proposed master plan for Federal Boulevard Corridor; and WHEREAS, the Mayor has approved the same; and WHEREAS,. the Planning Board has approved the same; and WHEREAS, the Federal Boulevard corridor Plan was prepared with significant involvement of representatives of the various interests and has been approved by the same; NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT ENACTED BY THE COUNCIL OF THE CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER: Sectiorr 1. That the proposed master plan for the harmonious development of Federal Boulevard corridor, consisting of a document 1

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. entitled "Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan", filed.with the City Clerk, Ex-Officio Clerk of the City and County of Denver, on the 19th day of January, 1995, as City ClerkTs Filing No. 95-0023, is hereby approved as part of the Comprehensive Plan, pursuant to Section 41-18 (c) of the Revised Municipal Code, and Ordinance No. 617, Series of 1989. Section 2. That the approval of the Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan, and of any subsequent amendment thereto, -is intended to establish the same, in conjunction with the Comprehensive Plan, as the official guide for officials of the City and County of Denver and private citizens when making decisions affecting the future character of Federal Boulevard Corridor; provided, however, that such approval shall not preempt the decision making powers vested by law or the administrative directive in the Mayor, the Council or any other.official of the and County of Denver with respect to, but not limited to, a zoning map amendment, a zoning language amendment, a dedication or vacation of a street, alley or other public way, a designation of a park, the issuance of-a revocable per.mit, a conveyance or the acquisition of real property by the City and county of Denver, of an appropriation for or construction of a capital improvement; and provided, further, that it is expressly understood that judgment must be exercised in the application of the Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan recommendations in the decision making processes of the Mayor, Council and other officials of the City and County of Denver. _BY THE 3o 1995 PRESIDENT --MAYOR 1995 -CLERK AND RECORDER, EX-OFFICIO CLERK OF THE CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER PUBLISHED IN THE DAILY JOURNAL o/7. 1995 1995 2

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CITY AND COUN'I'Y OF DENVER WEWNGTON E. WEBB Mayor October 20, 1994 Deborah L. Ortega, President Denver City Council 2525 16th Street, #214 Denver, Colorado 80211 Dear Councilwoman Ortega: PLANNING BOARD 200 W. 14TH A VENUE DENVER. COLORADO 80204 (303) 640-2736 TDD: f303) 640-2549 FAX: 572-4636 The purpose of this letter is to provide a Planning Board recommendation for adoption of the Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan. The Planning Board held an information session on the Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan in June 1994, followed by a public hearing on the plan on August 17th. After consideration of the content of the plan, a description of the public involvement process throughout the study, and public comments received at the public hearing, the Planning Board voted on October 19th to recommend to City Council the adoption of the Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan as an amendment to the Denver Comprehensive Plan. The Board further voted to urge City Council and the Public Works Department to aggressively pursue obtaining funding for various phases of the recommended improvement projects. The Board noted the significance of the deficiencies documented in the plan and the lack of major investments on Federal Boulevard in the past. We would like to see Federal Boulevard emphasized in capital improvements funding, in any future bond program that may be developed, and in applications for federal or state funding, so that the implementation schedule proposed in the plan can be met or accelerated. Sincerely, e'VI)'C,1v Ruth Falkenberg, Chairperson / Denver Planning Board : RF/