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The Gateway : Denver's newest frontier

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The Gateway : Denver's newest frontier
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Community Planning and Development, City and County of Denver
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Denver, CO
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City and County of Denver
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English

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Stapleton (Denver, Colo.)
Community planning
Neighborhood plans
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Denver -- Stapleton

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Auraria Library
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Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
PLANNING OFFICE
FRONT DESK COPY
DO NOT REMOVE
DENVERS NEWEST FRONTIER
GATEWAY/STAPLETON DEVELOPMENT OFFICE
PLANNING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT OFFICE
CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER
THE GATEWAY CONCEPT PLAN
AUGUST 1990


WHATEVER TOD CAM DO, OR DREAM
TOO CAN DO, BEGIN IT. BOLDNESS
BAS GENIUS, POWER, AMD MAGIC IN IT*
GOETHE


GATEWAY CONCEPT PLAN
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
GATEWAY CONCEPT PLAN HIGHLIGHTS 1
SECTION 11 VISION AND BACKGROUND 5
A VISION OF DENVER'S AIRPORT GATEWAY IN THE YEAR 2020 5
THE GATEWAY TODAY 13
THE CHALLENGE OF GROWTH 13
MARKET STUDIES OF THE DENVER AIRPORT ENVIRONS 14
Lodging/Magting Facilities 14
Office IS
Industrial 16
Residential 17
HEFTING THE CHALLENGE OF GROWTH 19
SECTION III THE GATEWAY CONCEPT PLAN 21
GATEWAY GOALS 21
THE CONCEPT FLAN 24
Urban Design And Community Framework 24
Activity Centers 24
Streets As Distinctive Places 25
Moderate-Scale Densities And Heights 27
Development Standards 30
Gateway Land Uses 30
The Neighborhoods And Town Squares 31
The Town Center 36
Business Areas 37
The Public Framework 42
Parka, Trails, And Open Space 42
Transportation 50
Other Public Buildings And Facilities 55
Environmental Protection 57
Noise 59
Water Quality 60
water use and Conservation 61
Air Quality 62
Wildlife 63
Historic Resources 64
Cooperation with Our Neighbors 64


SECTION XII) IMPLEMENTING THE PLAN
67
WHERE DO KE GO FROM HERE? 67
BUILDING AND PAYING FOR INFRASTRUCTURE 68
Impact Fees and Land Dedications 72
Taxing Districts 72
Bootstrap Financing 72
PHASING THE INFRASTRUCTURE 73
The First Ten Years (1990-1999) 74
The Following Thirty Years (2000-2029) 75
ZONING TO ENCOURAGE HIGH-QUALITY DEVELOPMENT 76
The Comprehensive Rezoning Ordinance 76
The First (Development Review) Tier 79
The Second (Site Plan Review) Tier 81
APPENDICES 82
APPENDIX A THE GATEWAY TODAY 82
APPENDIX B BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AIRPORT MARKET STUDIES 87
APPENDIX C GROWTH PATTERNS AROUND OTHER AIRPORTS 88
APPENDIX D LAND AREA CALCULATION ASSUMPTIONS 92
APPENDIX E GATEWAY INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK 94
APPENDIX F SUMMARY OF KEY FACTS AT FULL BUILDOUT 99
APPENDIX G MARKET STUDIES OF THE DENVER AIRPORT
ENVIRONS 100
APPENDIX H ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 102
If you would like more information than is contained in this
report, you may contact the Gateway/stapleton Development Office,
1445 Cleveland Place, Room 400, Denver, Colorado B0202j
(303)640-2155.


aag-PF ILLUSTRATIONS
ILLUSTRATION PAGE
ILLUSTRATION 1 Gateway Vicinity Hap 4
ILLUSTRATION 2 Gateway Plan Perspective 6
ILLUSTRATION 3 Illustrative Town Square 9
ILLUSTRATION 4 Second Illustrative Town Square 10
ILLUSTRATION 5 Alternative Responses to Growth 20
ILLUSTRATION 6 Implementing The Comprehensive Plan 23
ILLUSTRATION 7 Illustrative Business Green 26
ILLUSTRATION G Maximum Heights And Densities 29
ILLUSTRATION 9 land Uae Hap 32
ILLUSTRATION 10 Anticipated Land Use Acreage 33
ILLUSTRATION 11 Residential And Residential ltlxed use Hap IS
ILLUSTRATION 12 Illustrative Town Center 38
ILLUSTRATION 13 Business And Business Mixed Use Hap 40
ILLUSTRATION 14 Illustrative Auto-Oriented Retail Approach 41
ILLUSTRATION 15 Park Standards And Acreage Requirements 45
ILLUSTRATION 16 Park And Off-Street Trail System Hap 46
ILLUSTRATION 17 Transportation System Map 52
ILLUSTRATION 18 Street Hierarchy And Cross-Sections 53
ILLUSTRATION 19 Environmental Asset Photographs 59
ILLUSTRATION 20 Proposed Water And Sewer System 71
ILLUSTRATION 21 Proposed Development Approval Process 90
ILLUSTRATION 22 Conceptual Flood Control Improvements Hap 96


ACKHCW^RPgMEyrS
The Gateway Office owea a tremendous debt to the members of the
Northeast Corridor Task Force for the many hours they spent with
us reviewing our ideas, offering new ones, cajoling, and
debating. They began as our sounding board and teachers and
ended up as our colleagues and friends. Lee Andrews deserves
special thanks for providing space fox the Task Force meetings at
the Embassy Suites Hotel.
As with every undertaking of this magnitude, many people made
significant contributions. Other city agencies, particularly the
Denver Planning Office, gave invaluable assistance. Former
Planning Director William Laraont, Jr. gave unstinting support by
supplying everything from paper clips to office space when we
were starting up. He also authorized key members of the Planning
Office and Zoning Administration staffIncluding Dick Farley,
Ellen Crain-Jordan, Ken Barkema, David Becker, Jackie Blake,
Frances Burg, Joy Gibson, Karl H&berman, Harriet Hogue, Merlin
Logan, Dorothy Nepa, Bonnie Turner, Wayland Walker, Bob Werner,
Doug Wheeler, and David Wicksto work on the Gateway project.
Most importantly, Bill lent his own keen insights and extensive
experience to the project. Frank Gray provided valuable
assistance to our effort both before and after his recent
appointment as Planning Director.
Dick Deane, Jerry Nagel, Jim Swanson, and Martin Salt of the
Planning Board were very involved and helpful* Tom Gougeon of
the Mayor's Office was always there when we needed him, as was
Dick Brasher of the city's Transportation Planning Division.
Don and Carolyn Etter, Paul Foster, and Neil Sperandeo of the
Department of Parks and Recreation shared their expertise and
cooperative spirit to help integrate our land use, park, and
trail planning efforts. Ed Sullivan, City Council's airport
liaison, shared his valuable development experience and insights
with us. George Doughty, Director of Aviation, also provided
timely support.
Nikki Gee, our Administrative Assistant, bore the brunt of our
heavy meeting schedule and the actual production work for this
document* Her patience and extreme good nature under pressure
was much appreciated.
Finally, we ore grateful to all the landowners and Denver
citizens who have worked with us throughout the process.
Our thanks to them all. We absolve them of any blame.
A full list of the names of those city staff and others who
assisted in the Gateway project can be found in Appendix H.
The Gateway/Stapleton Development Office
Chris Duerksen
Don Elliott
Margaret Emerich
Lisa Purdy


GATEWAY PLAN HIGHLIGHTS
In May, Denver annexed almost 2,000 acres of private land near the new import rile about 15 miles
northeast of downtown. The purpose of this annexation was to uvke advantage of the economic spinoffe
from ihDi facility. Later in the year, Denver unde nook an accelerated effort to create a comprehensive
plan for that area and an adjacent 2,500 undeveloped acres previously in the city to ready than for
development.
Securing economic benefits has not been, however, the only goal of this process. The city is intern on
producing developments that are both aesthetically pleasing and environmentally sensitive as well. The
Gateway area should and can be 1 model for managing growth along the From Range, to demonstrate how
to create livable, lively neighborhoods and places that are In harmony with (he environment, ti should
help provide a sinking entrywiy to the State of Colorado.
Many people played Important roles in producing this plan: citizens, landowners, staff from other dty
agenclei such as the planning office, city council, and officials from neighboring jurisdiction!, Tteir
continued participation and energy will be needed to ensure the plan becomes a reality over the next SO
yearn or so that it will take the area to fully build oul
Strong efforts have been made 10 integrate Gateway planning with the existing improvements in Montbello
and Green Valley Ranch and with future plana far those areas, li Is important to clarify, however, that this
plan docs not purport to be a plan for the Montbello area or for those areas of Green Valley Ranch south
of 48th Avenue. Similarly, the Gateway Concept Plan attempts to knit the area into and around the design
for Airport Boulevard, but it does not govern the final design or construction of that very important road.
Denver's Gateway area ~ six times ihe size of the Denver Tech Center offers a host of great
opportunities for the city and the region if it is dealt with thoughtfully and boldly. Here ire some
highlights of the Gateway Concept Plan, an important first step down that road:
f QUALITY, ECONOMICALLY SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPMENTS |
Market studies indicate that the best way for the Gateway to succeed in the long run is to emphasize
quality. The plan encourages high quality, economically profitable developments In a number of ways:
Highly flexible planning areas that apply to over half the Gateway allow a wide
range of uses. Including airport-related businesses, office/warchouse facilities,
research and light industrial, hotel, office, and residential thus permitting quick
response to changing market conditions,
A streamlined development approval process that establishes key development
standards at the outset and then relies on administrative reviews to finalize plan
details.
Strong urban design and development standards to ensure developers that their
investments wfll be protected and the area will be Attractive.
l


The Gateway will have neighborhoods and i sense of community. The typical suburban patient of
development where projects arc planned on parcel-by-parcel basis without a view of bow the area fits
together u 4 whole will be avoided by establishtng an overall vision for the area prior ip development.
* Trails and sidewalks as well as streets and transit win knit neighborhoods together.
* Employment centers will be Integrated with a balanced mrx of homing to
accommodate up 10 65.000 new residents.
* No homing will be located In or near airport noise rones.
ACTIVITY CENTERS
Each neighborhood and business area will have a focal point 10 create a sense of liveliness. These verity
centers will also help encourage mass transit and reduce dependence on the automobile.
A series of town squares will anchor residential neighborhoods. All neighborhood
retail businesses and community scale public facilities like post 0(Tices wlU locate
on these squares.
A (own center will be (he focus of all large freestanding retail amd mqfor public
institutions.
Larger-scale hotel and office developments (no more than 150 feet high) win be
clustered around interchanges and major intersections, not spread out along aneriala.
[ ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Protecting the environment will be a watchword in die Gateway, helping to demonstrate that people can
live harmoniously with nature.
Wildlife habitats such as wetlands and stream beds will generally be off limits to
development. A nature area will be established as pan of the Gateway park system.
Special steps will be taken in ensure that the quality of stormwater runoff does not
adversely affect wildlife or (he environment. Drainage areas will be maintained in
a natural state whenever possible. A water recycling system is proposed.
* Strong urban design measure! like the town squares and other development
standards will reduce the use of automobiles and accompanying air pollution.
Historic resources wDl be given special Attention
2


ample parks and trails
The area will have a comprehensive park and trail nelwork In the tradition of Denver's renowned park
system. A large 90-acre urban pork, a golf course, and neighborhood and community parks will all be
available in the area, linked together with an extensive pathway system.
BALANCED TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM I
The Gateway transportation system wQI be a balanced one, featuring streets set in a grid pattern,
sidewalks, on- and off-street bicycle paths, hiking and riding trails, and mass transit.
COST-EFFECTIVE, QUALITY INFRASTRUCTURE |
The Gateway area is already well-served by existing water and sanitary sewer lines But, along with the
Airport Boulevard being built to the new airport, will be important incentives to development. Other
infrastructure will have to be provided in a timely fashion that docs not create a burden on citizens in
other pons of the city or make development uneconomical. Steps such as phasing and email on of special
developer-financed infrastructure districts am already being explored.
RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER AREAS OF THE CITY
The plan helps strengthen the nearby Monibcllo and Green Valley Ranch neighborhoods by encouraging
a critical mass of people to attract needed ictali services, by creating new employment centers to provide
jobs, and by improving access to parks and trails. Additionally, the plan encourages a size and scale of
development and uses that wtD complement downtown and other business areas nf the city.
[COOPERATION WITH OUR NEIGHBORS
Interjurisdictionol cooperation has been and must continue to be an underpinning of the plan. Denver has
worked closely with neighboring Jurisdictions in planning Tor a joint park and trail system and In
coordinating transportation issues, among others. While competition may be inevitable as the area grows,
continued cooperation will be essential to make the area attractive and establish a basic quittiy of
development that will benefit all.
3


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A VISIOW OP DBWVBR'S AIRPORT GATEWAY IW THE TEAR 2020
What will Denver's Gateway area look like in the Tear 2020?
This 4500 acres of private land lying astride the wide access
corridor connecting the new airport to Interstate 70 presents a
great opportunity for the city. If the principles and goals set
out in this Gateway Concept Plan are pursued and the expected
market demand materializes, the Gateway will be an attractive,
economically vital, and exciting place to live and do business.
This blueprint is the result of research, meetings, and
conversations with many people, including citizens from the area
and landowners. It starts with a vision we can aspire to and work
towards.
By the Year 2020, Denver International Airport is the second
busiest airport In the world, handling 50 million passengers each
year, a three-fold increase over 1990. It has also become one of
the world's hubs for air cargo operations. Development around the
airport is accelerating beyond the hotels and other airport-related
uses that sprang up soon after the airport was opened. Much of the
development is focused in Denver's Gateway areabecause the city
had the necessary water lines, sewers, and roads readily available
from the start, and because the city spent a good deal of time
preparing and implementing a plan that fostered high-quality,
attractive development.
The Gateway is a scenic five-minute drive from the terminal.
Striking mountain and prairie views greet visitors as they drive
west towards the Gateway along Airport Boulevard* Turning south
onto Tower Road into the Gateway, they are struck immediately by
the fact that this airport environs is different from others around
the country. It Is not a jumbled collection of warehouses, motels,
garish billboards, and strip retail developments* Nor is it an
isolated collection of hotels and gas stations standing next to an
lnt change in the middle of nowhere, unrelated to the rest of the
camm^nlty. No jets scream over houses built too close to runways.
5



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Instead, the first impression is one of quality development,
of an area that is distinctively Denver* That impression is
underscored by the hotel and business center at 72nd Avenue and
Tower Road, one of several entrances to the Gateway, it
exemplifies the care and thinking that went into all aspects of
design. Here, thriving hotels, small meeting centers, and offices
axe clustered around a major intersection, not stripped out along
the length of this arterial. Business people can fly in, conduct
their work in a beautiful setting, enjoy neighborhood restaurants,
and end the day with a round on the golf course near-at-hand or
take a dusk wildlife tour on the nearby national wildlife refuge
that was once the Rocky Mountain Arsenal,
The feeling at this business node is urban*-buildings front
onto the street, for examplebut the scale is not overwhelming.
The tallest hotel and office buildingB rise to a maximum of 12
stories, although most are smaller. The developments are well-
landscaped and sited to take advantage of the mountain views.
Signs are discreetthey inform instead of overwhelm.
Just off this signature road to the east and west is a
different kind of business community. Through innovative coning
designed to accommodate a wide range of activitiesof flee/
warehouse facilities, research centers, prototype production, light
assembly, and other "clean" enterprisesthis thriving mixed use
area maintains a quality image through attractive plantings,
buffering, and muted signage. Because of a deliberate decision not
to extend heavy rail lines into the area, the Gateway does not
house "heavy" manufacturing operations more suited to other areas
of Denver, Small open spaces and squares provide lunch-time space
for workers, who also have easy access to the Gateway's parks,
ballfielda, tennis courts, trails, and other facilities after the
day is done.
Public improvements in the Gateway reflect the same core and
commitment to quality as the private developments. Tower Road and
56th Avenue set the tone for the area with vide medians and ample
landscaping. Other major streets also share in the tradition of
Denver's grand parkway system and incorporate plantings with water-
7


conserving trees and materials.
But perhaps as much as the physical design, the visitor
notices that people are walking and riding bikes as well as driving
cars. Trails and sidewalks connect the commercial centers to the
neighborhoods that are built around town squares, miles away from
airport noise impact tones. Several of these town squares
beautifully planted public spacesprovide an alluring setting for
neighborhood retail shops like dry cleaners, grocery stores,
bakeries, and hardware stores. And when people shop at the town
squares, they can also mail their letters, visit a government
office or a community center, see the doctor if need bo, and even
pick up their children from day care or school. The town squares,
with benches, fountains, and small playgrounds, provide a place to
relax and enjoy the Colorado sun or sit in the shade. On Saturdays
and Sundays, the squares are also active with church-goers.
Parking is on-street or sited unobtrusively behind or beside the
buildings. Each neighborhood has a focal pointa heart.
In addition, a larger Town Center is situated strategically in
the middle of the Gateway community to serve the major shopping
needs of residents. During the day, the Town Center is olive with
shoppers and workers from nearby offices. At night, the activity
continues as people arrive for their community college classes or
the latest movie, hove a leisurely drink at a sidewalk cafe, or
take in a concert at the community park next door, set among the
beautiful old cottonwoods along First Creek. The Town Center is
truly a lively place for people.
On weekends, the large urban park on the west side of the
Gateway rings with the delighted shouts of kids as they pull s bass
or sunfish from the community lake. Joggers from the close-by
hotelB enjoy the sight as they run on one of the many trails that
loop through the Gateway along small creeks and historic irrigation
canals. Horse riders fan out freon an equestrian center in the
community park near the Town Center along specially designated
trails that extend northwest into tha national urban wildlife
refuge and southeast into Aurora.
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Because of ell of these amenities the Gateway neighborhoods
and nearby Hontbello and Green Valley Ranchhave ccune to be
known as some of the best in the city. They have a broad mix of
housing, and people of all races and religions live together
harmoniously. The character of the neighborhoods is distinctively
Denver because of the parkway a, the pork and trail network, and the
convenient neighborhood centers They ore linked to each other and
the rest of the city by hike and bike trails via the Highlino Canal
and the Platte River Greenway- A light rail transit line speeds
people between the new airport, the redeveloped Stapleton site, and
downtown, complementing a systems of streets set out in Denver's
traditional grid pattern.
This grid system has helped the Gateway avoid that bane of
many suburban areasthe traffic jam. And people do not get lost
in a mare of curved streets and cul-de-sacs. The streets ore
punctuated in residential areas with town sguares to reduce
speeding traffic, Most importantly, the streets are places to be,
to use, and to enjoy, rather than simply means to get from one
place to another. Host buildings face the streets in the
traditional fashion, encouraging people to stroll along them and
meet and talk with their neighbors.
The Gateway is lively and livable for people, but it also
exemplifies the possibilities of man living in harmony with the
environment. The pork and trail system is both a great
recreational asset and an important way to preserve open space and
wildlife habitat* Floodwaya remain undeveloped, and the groves of
cottonwoods stand protected. Trails skirt a designated nature area
along First Creek, thua avoiding disruption to wildlife.
A golf course is laid out around wetlands, keeping them intact
and unimpaired. Bald eagles can be seen soaring through the aky
and feeding in the area. Deer graze in the tall grasses of the
floodplains at dusk, and at night Great Homed Owls patrol in the
woods. The creeks run clear and clean because of special steps
taken to contra" runoff from streets and parking lots.
When the v 3itors leave the Gateway to head downtown or back
to the airport, they leave with a strong, positive impression of
11


Denver, the Front Range, and Colorado. They have seen a vibrant,
economically strong coomunlty offering the best that both city and
country have to offer.
*****
This is only a vision of what can be. It will take much work
and cooperation by many peoplepublic officials, landowners,
developers, and residents, it will also take more than a little
luck and economic good fortune, hut It worth striving towards.
This concept plan is an important first step down that road.
12


THE GATEWAY TODAY
Denver's Airport Gateway area encompasses over 4500 acres of
land. It lies between the established Denver neighborhoods of
Kontbello and Green Valley Ranch along the transportation corridor
that connects Interstate 70 with the new airport, about 20 miles
from downtown. Most of the property is in private ownership and is
now devoted to dryland wheat farming. This is an enormous amount
of land for a city that has been virtually landlocked by enactment
of the Poundstone Amendment in 1974.
Por comparison, the Gateway is almost six times as large as
the Denver Tech Center and eight times the site of the Central
Platte Valley. However, the Gateway contains only a small portion
of the total land theoretically available for development around
the new airportthere is another 150,000 acres of land in Adams
County, Aurora, Brighton, and Commerce City. Appendix A contains
a more detailed description of the Gateway todayits natural
features, roads, existing developments, and other characteristics.
THE rHATJJHGB OP GROWTH
Although there is an enormous amount of land available for
development around the new Denver international Airport, the
Gateway is particularly well-situated. It has good access and
municipal services readily available, so that it should prove very
attractive to hotels and businesses wanting to locate In the
vicinity of the new airport. Indications are that it will begin to
develop much earlier than most of the other property in the airport
environs.
Given these attributes, Denver can expect a variety of
different kinds of growth in the Gateway over the next 10, 25, and
50 years. Several good market studies completed between 1965 and
1990 provide detailed analyses of the moat likely patterns of
economic activity. The market studies reviewed for this plan are
listed in Appendix B. We also visited the airport environs around
the DallaB/Pt- Worth (DFW), Atlanta, and Kansas City (KC) airports
as wall as others to get a feeling for what might happen in Denver.
The key points from those case studies are set out in Appendix C.
13


In a nutshell, the general sequence of nonresidential
development (of parcels less than 1000 acres) around DFW, Atlanta,
and KC airports can be summarized as follows:
1. Lodging;
2. Single user, owner-financed industrial, office/
warehouse or office/distribution buildings;
Small speculative industrial, office/distribution
buildings;
4. Larger speculative industrial, offlee/warehouse or
office/distribution buildings;
5. Multistory office buildingsj and
fi. Franchise and specialty restaurants.
Interestingly, no regional shopping malls have been built near any
airport opened in the last 20 years.
MARKET STUDIES OF THE DCTVKR AIRPORT EHVTROBS
Studies performed by landowners, the Hew Denver Airport
Office, the Denver Planning Office, end surrounding jurisdictions
are fairly consistent in their predictions about future growth
patterns around the Denver International Airport. Generally, they
foresee that there will be an initial flurry of airport-related
development like hotels prior to the airport opening, but that
substantial additional development will not occur in the next S to
10 years. Subsequently, the pace of development will depend
significantly on whether the area is marketed aggressively and has
established a 'quality* image. Bare is a summary of those studies:
bodglng/Moetina Facilities
Lodging will be among the earliest types of development to
proceed in the Gateway. Predictions range from SOD to 3000 new
rooms around the airport by opening day in 1993 (2-12 new hotels).
The numbers increase to up to 20 new hotels with 6,600 roams by the
Year 2010. The total number of lodging units will be affected by
several factors, including the volume of destination passengers at
the new airport, the pace of nonresident ial construction in the
Gateway, and whether existing hotels near the Stapleton site
14


continue to operate. One study emphasized that if a trade/meeting
center were built in the Gateway to cater to smaller regional trade
shows and short regional corporate meetings, hotel development
could be significantly accelerated,
PEUcg
No recently built or expanded major airport has witnessed any
substantial nearby office construction in the first 10 years after
opening. This has been true even in growing areas like Da11as/Ft.
Worth and Orlando.
Some early, limited office development may take place in the
Gateway to accommodate firms that are closely related to the air
transportation sector (e.g., airline offices and custom houses) or
service airport businesses (e.g., personnel service firms and
accountants). However, the square footage will be relatively minor
in a regional context. As one market study concluded, "The Airport
is a strong magnet to the Denver metropolitan area, but the Airport
Environs will not be an automatic choice for most businesses
seeking office space**
In addition to the experience of other airports, there are
many other compelling factors that support this forecast. First,
the Denver region already has a well-public! zed glut of office
space with full services in place at very low rates. In contrast,
significant infrastxucture remains to be put in place in the
Gateway, and the costs of that infrastructure will have to be
reflected in higher rental rates. Second, the northeast quadrant
of the metropolitan area is not an established office "address.*
To the contrary, the area is known more for industrial spaceit
contains only 3% of the metropolitan area's office square footage.
The area around Stapleton Airport has attracted very little Class
A space. It will take significant time and effort to change
northeast Denver's business image.
One forecast is that the airport environs will capture only 21
to 41 of the metropolitan office market by the Year 2010. That
study estimates that until the Year 2000 the airport environs
should not expect to see more than 167,000 square feet of office
15


construction annually* To put that runbar in contortr over the
past five years the metro area has averaged about 2 million square
feet of office construction annually.
The world economy has changed dramatically since the early
days of development around the DFW and Atlanta airports, however,
and it will continue to change. The giobalization of markets has
increased* and a strong preference ef major firms to locate in
regions that offer an educated population* natural beauty* and a
high quality of life has emerged. If expected international
flights to Europe and the Pacific Rim materialize* Denver may wall
experience rates of office and hotel development and international
business opportunities that outpace the past experiences at other
major new airports.
After the Tear 2000* the Gateway area will probably become
more attractive to national and international firms seeking to
build regional and national headquarters if there is a strong
marketing effort* If early cossnercial development sets a quality
image for the area* If high-end executive housing is available* and
If attractive public amenitiesparks* libraries* and schoolsare
in place. Also* as housing is built in the Gateway, the demand for
community scale offices for insurance agents* doctors, and the like
will increase. Under one predicted scenario* after the Tear 2000
the Gateway might see annual office construction in the 300* 000
square foot range.
industrial
Experience at other airports shows that the Gateway area may
prove to be quite attractive to firms requiring research and light
industrial space. These businesses can be broken down into several
broad categoriest
a Freight forwarders* custom houses* and other businesses
that must be in close proximity to the airport.
o Spin-off business activity from the airport* including
equipment repair and distribution.
o Firms such as national computer operations* check-
clearing facilities* and international exhibitors that
16


construction annually* To put that runbar in contortr over the
past five years the metro area has averaged about 2 million square
feet of office construction annually.
The world economy has changed dramatically since the early
days of development around the DFW and Atlanta airports, however,
and it will continue to change. The giobalization of markets has
increased* and a strong preference ef major firms to locate in
regions that offer an educated population* natural beauty* and a
high quality of life has emerged. If expected international
flights to Europe and the Pacific Rim materialize* Denver may wall
experience rates of office and hotel development and international
business opportunities that outpace the past experiences at other
major new airports.
After the Tear 2000* the Gateway area will probably become
more attractive to national and international firms seeking to
build regional and national headquarters if there is a strong
marketing effort* If early cossnercial development sets a quality
image for the area* If high-end executive housing is available* and
If attractive public amenitiesparks* libraries* and schoolsare
in place. Also* as housing is built in the Gateway, the demand for
community scale offices for insurance agents* doctors, and the like
will increase. Under one predicted scenario* after the Tear 2000
the Gateway might see annual office construction in the 300* 000
square foot range.
industrial
Experience at other airports shows that the Gateway area may
prove to be quite attractive to firms requiring research and light
industrial space. These businesses can be broken down into several
broad categoriest
a Freight forwarders* custom houses* and other businesses
that must be in close proximity to the airport.
o Spin-off business activity from the airport* including
equipment repair and distribution.
o Firms such as national computer operations* check-
clearing facilities* and international exhibitors that
16


prefer An airport: area location but are not locked into
one*
o Businesses that can locate anywhere within a given
metropolitan areasuch ae manufacturing, assembly,
research and development fiats.
One market study predicts that the new airport environs bight
attract almost 500,000 square feet of industrial space annually
until the Tear 2000 and perhaps twice that much each year after
that* If experience in Atlanta and Dallas/Tort worth holds true,
abaut 40% of the industrial firms around the airport will fall into
three categoriesi manufacturing, transportation/communications/
utilities, and wholesale trade. Importantly, DFW has attracted a
higher proportion of quality, high-image industrial usersresearch
and development and national headquarters facilitiesbecause of
greater emphasis on the overall quality of development in the area,
particularly Lac Colinas. If direct international air connections
are enhanced at the new airport, the prospects of attracting
foreign firms that assemble parts and distribute products, national
firms that import foreign parts, and other internationally-related
industrial users are substantial *
however, there are several factors that could reduce demand.
First, there is ample space on the new airport site itself for
firms that ore closely airport-re la ted* They will have services
readily available and will not need to look elsewhere because of
cramped quarters (as is true at other major airports). Moreover,
there is a significant amount of industrial apace already available
in northeast Denver, particularly in the nearby Kontbello
Industrial Park and along 1-70 east of Stapleton, Firms located
there now may decide to stay, and new firms may select those
locations because of reasonable lease rates and availability of
municipal services and rail lines.
Residential
There have been widely varying experiences with residential
construction around recently built airports Virtually no new
residential construction has occurred around Atlanta's airport, and
17


development near KC and Orlando ha* languished. In contrast, the
DFW airport environs have averaged 5,000 to 7,000 units annually
since 1979.
It Is difficult to predict how much residential demand there
will be in the Gateway area because all such predictions rely on
numerous assumptions about how many jobs will be created at the new
airport, how many indirect jobs will be created nearby, how many of
those new employees will decide to live in the area, and how many
people wJLLl move to the area even though they do not work nearby.
Market studies vary widely in their estimates. One predicts only
6,000 units {15,000 people) in the entire airport environs by the
year 2010. Another says there may be 24,000 units by 2005 (65,000
people). In any case, because of infrastructure availability and
a high level of amenities like parks, we believe the Gateway could
attract up to 401 of this residential growth.
Of course, there are many factors that might Increase or
decrease this number and affect the character of any residential
development. If there are substantial amenities like perks,
recreational facilities, libraries, and good schools in the area,
the Gateway will be more attractive for high-quality residential
growth. On the other hand, speculation resulting from
unrealistically high land values and development expectations could
retard residential development as it did in the early years around
DFW and still does at KC, This area of Denver now has a
preponderance of middle and low-end housing. If the city is
serious in its desire to attract high-image, signature businesses,
it will be critical to create a more balanced housing stock by
adding upper-end executive housing where middle and upper
management personnel will want to live.
18


HBBT1HQ TOP raATJ-rntna QP GROWTH
Giowth in the GfttaMy is likely to be steady* but not
spectacular* for the first 10 to 20 years after the new facility
opens in 1993. After all* it has taken the Denver Tech Center 20
years to get where it is todayand over 400 of its 800 acres are
still available fox growth. Given the sire of the Gateway* it may
bo 50 years or longer before the area is fully built out. This
means that the city will have the time to ensure that the early
growth is carefully managed and of a quality that encourages later
high-image developments and complements existing neighborhoods.
Indeed* market studies suggest that the only way the airport
environs will be able to establish a significant niche in the
region is if quality development is a hallmark. The competition
both regionally and nationally will be stiff. Experience at other
airports and conclusions of the various market studies indicate
that the real competition for office space* for example* will not
be downtown Denver. Father, the Gateway will have to compete with
other established suburban Interstate-oriented office parks such as
Inverness and Meridian In the southern reaches of the region* the
Thornton business center* and the business parks along the U.S. 36
corridor between Denver and Boulder. National competition will
come from the attractive environments at Las Col in as and the classy
Atlanta beltway developments* among others. Nov business parks in
Kansas City* Orlando* Washington, D.C.* and Lob Angeles are also
working to attract the same pool of national and international
firms that Denver would like to attractfirms that want to locate
with quick access to a world-class airport.
There will be other important challenges. Financing roads and
other critical pieces of infrastructure in s timely fashion without
overextending landowner resources will be crucial. Continuing a
closa working relationship with multiple landowners in the Gateway
and with the surrounding Jurisdictions will be essential if this
plan is to be loplamantad. Energetic* sophisticated marketing of
the entire airport environs will be another important step in
realising the Gateway's full potential.
19


ILLUSTRATION 5
SOM£ AIRPORT ENVIRONS LOOK LIKE THIS.
IS THIS W1AT HE WANT?
OR THIS?
LAS COLIHAS NEAR OAUAS/FT. NORTH
20


SBCTIOH Hi TUB GATEWAY CONCEPT PLAN
GATEWAY COALS
The goals and vision of this plan are based on the ideas and
work of many people* The we11-thought-oat citywide goals set out
in Denver's recently adopted comprehensive plan were an important
influence in establishing the initial directions for this effort*
The key comprehensive plan goals incorporated into this Gateway
Concept Plan are shown in Illustration 6* The previous work of the
Northeast Corridor Task Force was also influential* This thinking
was augmented by comments and advice from citizens, landowners,
city agencies, and many others* Visits to exemplary developments
like Columbia, Maryland, showed us the possibilities of superior
planning and strengthened our resolve to make the Gateway Concept
Flan a model for managing growth in the Front Range. Once adopted,
these goals should guide review of all development proposals that
come forward, urging and encouraging them towards excellence*
o The Gateway area should provide A STRIKING BNTRYWAT for
Denver and for Colorado. It should celebrate the best of
the Rocky Mountain Nest in terms of panoramas and urban
design.
o The Gateway should be an ECONOmC ASSET TO THE CITY* It
should help strengthen the city's revenue base without
creating new net tax burdens on the citizens of Denver.
It should encourage a wide range of business uses that
are broadly defined to enable developers to accommodate
changing market demands without time-consuming zoning
amendments.
o The Gateway should exmcmm_______EXISTING____DENVER
NEIGHBORHOODS. It should enhance and invigorate the
living environments and coosercial areas of Green Valley
Ranch and Montbello.
o
The Gateway Should mMFTJOmrr OTHER COMMERCIAL AREAS OF
DENVER. Its scale and size should create densities and
images that complement Downtown. Because of the nearby
residential areas, the availability of industrial land
elsewhere, the absence of rail access in the Gateway, and
the likelihood that new businesses in the Gateway will
rely on air cargo to handle shipments, heavier industrial
manufacturing uses should not be permitted.
21


o
Gateway area development should be of VEH.T HIGH QUALITT.
Both public and private development should live up to the
challenge of a world-class airport, the statefs capital
city, and the grandeur of the Rocky Mountain backdrop.
The area should have a high level of amenities such as
parks and trails that will provide future residents with
recreational opportunities.
o The Gateway should exemplify HAHMOIfT BKTWEgM muhqbd ahd
thv vwriKUntfRwr. Public and private development should
respect and enhance natural resources such as creeks,
trees, and wildlife, protect historic structures, help
minimite auto traffic and air pollution, conserve water,
and protect water quality.
O The Gateway should be a COHESIVE. LIVELY CQMHPHITT. It
should include a retail center, cultural and
entertainment areas, recreational facilities, and a range
of housing and employment opportunities. It must include
a balance of residential typesincluding executive
housing. Public streets and trails should permeate all
residential developments, and tall fences that wall off
developments from public view should be discouraged.
Strong design standards should protect residential uses
from potential adverse impacts associated with conmercial
and light industrial developments.
o The Gateway should encourage OF COMMERCIAL
tTSBS. It should ensure that commercial and public uses
and activities are concentrated within neighborhoods or
at major intersections rather than spread out along
arterial roads os is ho often the case today in suburban
development.
o The Gateway neighborhoods should combine the BEST OP CITY
AHD StJBnRRXM uyimg. People will live in the Gateway to
enjoy the open space, wildlife, mountain views and Other
attractions of suburban areas without giving up the
convenient shopping, cultural facilities, walkabla
neighborhoods, and access to jobs that a large city has
to offer.
o The Gateway area should bo a QUIET place to live.
Residential development should only be allowed outside
and away from airport noise impact areas.
o The Gateway should be VALUABLEA^ Its
activity centers should concentrate commercial and public
uses to reduce automobile dependence and encourage mass
transit.
22


ILLUSTRATION 6
Implementing The Comprehensive Plan
The following core goals from Denver's 1988 Comprehensive Plan
are embodied in the vis ion, goals, and details of the Gateway
Concept Plant
o Stimulate the Economy
o Beautify the City and Preserve its History
o Protect, Enhance, and Integrate a City of Neighborhoods
o Educate all of Denver's Residents with Excellence
o Clear the Air, Now
o Meet Expanding Transportation Needs Efficiently, Cleanly,
Economically, and Innovatively
o Revise Land Use Controls and Streamline Procedures
o Celebrate the City's Arts, culture, and Ethnic Diversity
o Share Resources and Responsibilities Regionally
23


THE COHCBPT PhAW
Urban Design And ComnUy
Perhaps as important as the various functional systems in the
Gatewaylike transportation, parks, and utilitiesare the basic
community framework and urban design elements* Distinctive
communities are typically organised and built in distinctive
patterns. Denver and cities as diverse as Washington, D.C.,
Riverside, Illinois, and Paris are all veil-known for the unique
way they were laid out*
Good urban design is often the key to whether a community is
attractive and livable, but the term can be an elusive one. In the
context of this Gateway Concept Plan, urban design means more than
how well buildings are designed or parking lots landscaped. It is
far broader, going to the very heart of how the various parts of
the community are structured and their interplayhow streets are
designed and how and where activity centers are created, for
example.
As a starting point in working on a distinctive community
framework, we asked citixens what features they like most about
Denver neighborhoods. Among other things, residents cited the
convenient neighborhood shopping within a few blocks of their homes
as preferable to strip shopping centers. They applauded the good
access they had to parks and trails and a stellar parkway system.
We then worked closely with the Denver Planning Office to
prepare a series of community framework/urban design proposals for
the Gateway. We also worked closely with the Transportation
Planning Division to ensure the street network being proposed was
not only sound from an engineering and capacity perspective, but
attractive for drivers and appealing to pedestrians. The key
concepts are summarised below
Activity Centers
A linchpin Getaway urban design concept is the creation of
community activity centers where retail activity and public
functions will be focused rather than strung out along arterials*
24


The town squares and the Town Center ore the vehicles being
proposed to create places in the Gateway where people can cone
together to shop, conduct public business, attend public functions,
and see their neighbors* The goal Is to create those lively places
sometines absent in suburban developments and to avoid the
unattractive retail and commercial strips that often plague
outlying areas.
The town squares should not only be attractive places to shop
and stroll in, they should also be safe and attractive to walk to
and from. They should not be located on arterials or isolated from
surrounding housing by large parking lots. In residential areas,
a neighborhood park can provide the open space for a town square
with retail and public buildings along one or two sides. Or, a
smaller 1- or 2-acre town square open space might be created linked
by pathways to a larger neighborhood park nearby. Two passible
configurations for town squares ere shown in illustrations 3 and 4.
Other nonresidential uses, particularly larger hotels and
offices, should orient around major intersections and interchanges
in the Gateway. Along Airport Boulevard hotels and office
buildings could orient either to the Boulevard itself or to one of
several *business greens* that serve both as mountain view
protection areas and focal points. An illustrative business green
is shown in Illustration 7. By providing an alternative to direct
freeway orientation, the business greens can help break up what
might otherwise become a monotonous wall of development along
Airport Boulevard. By aggregating the activity created by each
hotel or offica, the businosa greens can become lively places that
contrast favorably to the isolation and sterility of some suburban
office parks* Concentrating such uses will also support early
development of mass transit in the area*
Streets As Distinctive Places
Streets should help establish a positive image for the Gateway
and serve as distinctive places upon which building* front and
25


ILLPSTHATIQH 7

CPZN SPA^B
fjPT&L*
tLU&TFATNt


people walk. To accomplish these goals, the Gateway Concept Plan
proposes several measuresi
O The basic street layout will be Denver's distinctive grid
system, which moves traffic efficiently and sets the
street system apart from the usual curvilinear systems of
most suburban communities. The basic grid north of 56th
Avenue will be based on a quarter-mile alignments, so as
to be more defined than many current suburban areas, tout
not so fine grained as the city block pattern found in
older parts of Denver.
o To tbe imrintuiB extent possible, all public and commercial
buildings will orient themselves towards the street, with
front setbacks reduced as much as possible except on
selected streets where necessary to preserve mountain
views. Parking areas between building fronts and streets
will normally be discouraged, since they separate
pedestrians from the businesses they want to visit and
Isolate buildings from the activity corridors they serve,
o The Gateway streets will be designed with detached
sidewalks, except in neighborhood commercial areas, where
paving of the entire area between building fronts and the
curb for pedestrians may be allowed. Streets will
incorporate water-conserving landscaping so that they are
as attractive to walkers and bicyclers as they are to
drivers. On-street parking on many collector streets
will provide another buffer for walkers.
Moderate-Scale,Penalties And Beinhts
The Gateway should be a community whose heights and densities
do not compete with the high-rise image of Downtown. Not only
would this scale be inappropriate in view of the existing
residential development in Hontbello and Green Valley Ranch, but
market studies and developments around other airports show that it
is highly unlikely that market forces would generate demand for
dense, high-rise projects.
The basic measure of development density in residential areas
n


will be the number of housing units per gross sere of land.1 in
non-residentis1 areas, the basic measure of development intensity
will be the Floor Area Ratio (FAR),1 in addition to FAR
measurements, other measures (such as traffic generation levels and
site coverage parameters) may be used to govern densities,
particularly for larger parcels and developments. The use of such
additional measures will be addressed during the drafting of coning
regulations for the Gateway district.
Based on an examination of suburban business park developments
in Colorado and around the United States, the Plan proposes a base
Gateway density In nonresident!al areas at .5 FAR and a maximum
building height of ISO feet in a few selected areas. Most
commercial buildings will be only SO to 75 feet high, and housing
will generally not exceed 35 feet (or 50 feet in some mixed use
areas).
By providing certain community-oriented amenities such as a
community center or a day care facility, a developer could achieve
a maximum FAR of .75 in a limited number of areas. In odditicn,
by providing structured parking, a developer could push the maximum
density from .75 to 1.0 in a more limited number of places.
Proposed maxi mum heights and densities are summarized for each area
of the Gateway on Illustration 0. The maximum height and density
figures discussed in this section and shown on Illustration 6
Include all bonuses. They represent inun figures that may be
achieved if conditions for bonuses are met and other traffic, site
planning, and open space conditions permit.
1 In this plan, 'gross* acre is defined as land area
including those areas dedicated for local, collector, and
arterial streets and parkways, but excluding areas in floodplains
and areas designated for parks, trails, and school sites.
* Xn its simplest terms, FAR compares the total of all
building floor areas (except parking structures) to the total
land area of the site. In theory, a one-story building covering
50% of a site has a FAR of .5; a two-story building covering 501
of the site has a FAR of 1,0, In practice, these measures may be
store complex due to other site and zoning constraints.
38


ILlLUSTRATI OH 8
MAP OF PROPOSED HEIGHTS AND DENSITIES
(Ac Full Buildout)
29


The full list of community amenities to be provided by
developers in order to exceed the ,5 FAR bene density is not
pacified in this plan, but will instead be discussed with citizens
and landowners and presented as part of the proposed comprehensive
Gateway rezoning ordinance. issues like transfers of densities
within parcels and surface parking criteria will also be part of
those discussions.
TTHTlI nilFnt fltandartle
In drafting new zone district regulations chat will apply in
the Gateway, city staff will work with citizens and landowners to
write development standards to ensure that individual projects meet
a alninuuz level of design quality and environmental protection.
Thus standards will be developed for important aspects of site
design such as landscaping, signage, buffering, pedestrian access,
and the like. Some uses like billboards will be prohibited, water
conservation measures like mandatory use of low-flush toilets may
also be included after consultation with the Denver water Board.
We will also be discussing possible review mechanisms to ensure
that developments comply with such standards and to encourage them
to attain higher levels of design where possible. Two
possibilities that have been suggested would be to create a design
review advisory committee made up of area landowners, citizens, and
city officials, or a self-administering design review committee
made up primarily of developers (such as that used in the Denver
Tech Center).
Gateway frond Uses
The Gateway will be comprised of five large residential /mixed
use "neighborhoods* organized around town squares, with a larger
Town Center serving as the focal point for the entire comaunity.
Each neighborhood will be distinctive, with differing blends of
housing, porks, public facilities, shops, and businesses. A major
nonresidential business center is proposed in the northern port of
the Gateway. Illustration $ is a map of the proposed land uses.
Illustration ID summarizes the land usee proposed, the amount of
30


land davoted to each, and their locations. The assumptions upon
which Illustration 10 is baaed are eet forth in Appendix D.
The neighborhoods And Town Squares
Each of the five Gateway residential neighborhoods will
eventually be hone to from 7,000 to 12,000 people*a total of
35,000 to 65,000 new Denver residents at full build out. Those
five neighborhood areas are outlined on Illustration 11. The focal
point of each will be a small town square located on collector
streets in the middle of the area or a public pork. The town
squares will be the public activity hubs, providing convenient
shopping and other services. Neighborhood retail businessesdry
cleaners, shoe repair shops, and the likewill be permitted only
around town squares, not stripped out along major roads.
These park-like squares, ranging from a square city block up
to 10 acres depending on location, will also be flanked by
community centers, government offices, and other public buildings.
Elementary schools will be important fixtures on some of the
squares that will be within walking distance for many school
children. A 35- to 50-foot height limit will help ensure that all
these buildings will be in scale with the surrounding residential
areas, where planned town squares would not be within convenient
walking distance of substantial housing areas, a retail store may
be allowed within the heart of those areas to provide for day-to-
day convenience needs of residents, but such convenience stores
will generally not be allowed on arteriale.
While the Gateway neighborhoods will all share these common
features, they will net be cookie-cutter copies. South of 5Gth
Avenue, the non-mixed use areas will feature low- and moderate-
density single family homes complementing the existing residential
areas in Hontbello and Green Valley Ranch. To the north of 56th
Avenue, where there are no existing developments, there will be
more opportunities to create larger mixed use development* and
commercial nodes without adversely affecting existing residents.
31







Anticipated Gateway Land Uses
At pull Buildout
(All Figures Are Approximate)
LAND USE DENSITY ACREAGE INCLUDES
Single-Family 610 acres at up to 3,660
Detached Residential 6 units per grass sere houses
Moderate Density 560 acres at up to 8,7 DO
Detached/Attached 15 units per gross acre houses or
Residential townhouses
Multi-Family 550 acres at up to 16,500
Residential 30 units per gross acre apartments or Condos
TOTAL RESIDENTIAL 1.740 acres ZS^IM
(39% of land) Dwelling Units
TOTAL COMMERCIAL }f*JQQ acres of hotels* 54,000.000
offices, retail, and Square Feet of
flex-space uses at *5# *25, and 1.0 FAR (42% of land) Commercial
TOTAL PARKS AND 57Q ACRES Large Urban Park,
IMERflVE£..QggW {12*5% of land) Community Park,
SPACES Second Creek Pork Neighborhood Porks, Nature Area, Golf Course, Town Squares, Business Greens, and Trails
TOTAL 180 ACRES Drainage Detention
FLOODPLAINS. AMD (41 of land) Areas, Wetlands,
PRAIHA5EWS Floodplains
TOTAL 115 ACRES 6 Elementary
SCHOOL SITES (2.5% of land) l Kiddle School 1 High School
TOTAL PUBLIC 12 ACRES 1 Police Station Site
BUILDING SITES 2 Fire Station Sites 1 Library Site 1 Existing Fire/Police Site
TOTAL LAND AREA 4505 ACRES (100% of lend)
33


Vest of Airport Boulevard, the residentially-orlented
neighborhood will share an existing retail canter at 4Bth Avenue
and Chambers Road with Montbello. At the existing residents *
request this square may be expanded to include some land west of
Chaubere Road and reconfigured to enhance retail and pedestrian
activities* Another major attraction in this area will be a large
90-acre urban park with a beautiful lake. The lake will also bo a
strong selling point for the hotels and commercial enterprises
along Airport Boulevard that will offer jobs for the area as well
as providing entertainment opportunities and restaurants. It
should also help attract urban, high-quality residential complexes
catering to pilots, flight attendants, and other airport personnel
The largest buildings in this arealimited to 150 feet in
heightwill be concentrated at the 56th and 46th Avenue
interchanges with Airport Boulevard* This neighborhood will be
joined with others to the east by a major trail along the Uighline
Canal Lateral as well as a system of new streets crossing Airport
Boulevard, particularly 56th Avenue, 40th Avenue, 46th Avenues
(which has been assigned a high priority for construction of at
least two lanes}, and 52nd Avenue If traffic warrants it.
Across Airport Boulevard, another neighborhood will be
organised around two town squares. The square to the north of 48th
Avenue will be designated for neighborhood retail activity and
could serve as a neighborhood park. Again, low and moderate-
density single family homos will predominate, complementing Green
Valley Ranch across Tower Road* Hotels, offices, and other
commercial buildings will create an attractive business community
facing Airport Boulevard, and low-rise community scale offices no
more than 50 feet in height will provide a buffer for the
neighborhood along Tower Road north of 48th Avenue*
North of Green Valley Ranch, around the community golf course
and First Creek park complex, a secluded residential neighborhood
will be created. Nestled into the reaches of the golf course and
along First Creek, it will be marked by large-lot single family
homes. This executive housing will help balance the array of
34


ILLBSTRATIPW U
Residential Neighborhoods and Residential
Mixed Use Areas
35


housing in the area and will be an important factor in attracting
regional and national headquarters to the Gateway in the future.
It would share a town square at 48th avenue and Himalaya Road with
existing residences south of 48th Avenue, an area currently toned
for neighborhood businesses.
In the northern portions of this neighborhood near 56th
Avenue, this area will transition into a mixed commercial-
residential district with higher density residential developments
interspersed sensitively among ''clean* businesses such as office
and research facilities or combination hotel/meeting centers.
The two neighborhoods north of 56th Avenue will be more urban
in character and will integrate a greater variety of uses centered
on two smaller town squares. Higher-density residential
communities featuring a balance of townhouses, garden apartments,
and small elevator buildings with up to 30 dwelling units per acre
will be encouraged in addition to single family homes and a variety
of commercial uses.
Special review procedures will be put in place for these last
three mixed use neighborhoods to ensure that the allowable
residential, commercial, and industrial developments are compatible
with one another and that a sense of comunlty is created through
pedestrian and bicycle links between developments and to the town
squares. The special review procedures are not intended to
preclude residential or commercial uses, only to ensure
compatibility and camnunity. importantly, no residential
development will be permitted north of 65th Avenue, except in a
narrow band along the eastern edge of Airport Boulevard. This area
is generally not appropriate for residential development because it
will be open to a broader array of businesses (including many with
high truck usage), and because It may be subject to noise from the
new airport*
The Town Center
At the heart of the Gateway, located at the northeast comer
of 48th Avenue and Tower Road, will be the Town Center. This will
be the main shopping area, central to the entire area. All
36


cosmmnity scale retail (as opposed to neighborhood retail) will be
concentrated herelarger nhopij large supermarkets and drug
stores, major retailers, auto care facilities, and the like* Adult
education facilities as well as cultural attractions and major
public buildings will also be encouraged to locate here* On the
periphery will be community-oriented offices and medical care
facilities; townhouses and apartments will add an urban flavor to
the Town Canter.
Just to the northeast, linking the Town Center to the
beautiful reaches of First Creek, will be the conmunlty park. This
striking site will complement the Town Center and serve many
different purposes. Concerts in tho park will be a great
attraction during the summer as residents listen to music and watch
the sun set behind mount Evans. The park's soccer and ballfislds
will help meet the athletic needs of the Gateway. And for those
seeking a quieter respite, pathways will lead down to a 40-acre
nature preserve among the groves of cottonwoods and will link into
the Gateway's extensive trail system so that people can walk and
bike as well as drive to and from the Center*
Business Areas
The Gateway will also be a good place to work and do business.
One of the primary reasons why Denver annexed land along the
airport access corridor was to capitalise on the predicted economic
spinoffs from the new airport* The Gateway Concept Plan provides
ample space and advantageous locations for a wide variety of
businesses that will develop over time after the new airport opens
(See Illustration 13).
Lodging and meeting facilities will be some of the earliest
developments in the Gateway. They will probably concentrate around
several Airport Boulevard interchanges (at 4flth and 56th Avenues
and at Tower Rood and 72nd Avenue), with the possibility of a
hot el/meeting complex adjacent to the golf course south of 56 th
Avenue and some significant development near 64 th Avenue and Tower
Road. Signature office complexes and headquarter facilities will
37


ILLUSTRATION 13
38


came later; they will be directed to major Intersection# in the
Gateway along Tower Hoad and Airport Boulevard,
More general purpose business activity will be concentrated in
a flexible mixed use ares north of 56th Avenue and north of the
community golf course in the southeastern reaches of the Gateway*
In the early years, we can expect a wide variety of airport-
oriented uses to locate here, particularly north of 64th Avenue
where access to the airport will be excellent. Freight forwarders,
custom houses, airlines, and businesses servicing the airport can
build combination offlee/warehouse/distribution facilities hare.
However, cor rental operations, will only be permitted north of
65th Avenue and will be subject to specific standards addressing
landscaping and similar urban design considerations that will
mitigate potential adverse impacts* Heavy industry and pure
warehousing activities will also not be allowed, since ample land
is available for such facilities on the airport site and in other
locations closer to downtown Denver*
In subsequent years, Denver can expect a wide variety of uses
that ore not directly tied to the airportincluding office/
research firms, employee training centers, assembly and
distribution facilities, research and development firms, prototype
production, and light assembly.
Retail uses will be concentrated in the town squares and Town
Center* Convenience retail stores will be limited to existing
commercial centers or to the town squares unless that would make
them beyond walking distance from significant residential
neighborhoods *
Pree-standing convenience restaurants and gas stations will be
encouraged at existing commercial centers at 48th Avenue/ Chambers
Road and At 48th Avenue and Himalaya Road, at the town squares, and
on a limited basis In the MU-1 areas along 56th Avenue (subject to
restrictions on curb cuts to maintain traffic flow# and a quality
appearance)* Possible design alternatives for such auto-oriented
uses along 56th Avenue are shown in Illustration 14* Focusing such
uses along 5£th Avenue ensures that they will be centrally located
for both Gateway residents and through traffic
39


ILLOSTRATIOH 13
Business and Mixed Use Districts
(With Town Squares and Business Greens)
40


ILLOSTRATJOX 14
41


on or near the two largest streets, but will prevent them from
dispersing throughout the ares.
In ell cases, firms will be assured that the quality
environment they have bought into will be maintained by strong
standards for design elements such as landscaping and screening.
These development standards will be particularly exacting where
firms locate near residential developments, to ensure that they are
good neighbors, and along the Tower {toad and 56 th Avenue
*signature* parkways*
The Pufri fc Framework
One of the most effective ways the public can shape and
encourage development is through the framework of public
improvements that must be made in any newly developing area
streets, parks, libraries, schools, and police, fire, and other
public safety and health facilities. Indeed, the most detailed
airport-area market study to date stressed in strong terms the
value of public amenities to the success of overall development in
the airport environs by stating that it is critical to upgrade the
perceived quality of public amenities* *in the northeast quadrant,
including schools, parka, recreation, open space, and roads** The
quality of Airport Boulevard design and landscaping will also be an
important factor in helping the area to achieve an image of quality
public facilities, and a number of city agencies ore cooperating to
help ensure that final design quality*
Parka. Trails* And Open Space
Denver has a strong tradition of spacious parks*like City,
Washington, Chessman, and Overland Parks. It Is graced with
attractive and extensive trails systemsthe Platte River Greenway
and the Righliae Canal Trail are standouts* These parks and trails
have done much to make Denver the livable city it is today*
These same features will be tremendously important in making
the Gateway a successful, Attractive part of the city* We have
worked closely with the Deportment of Parks snd Recreation to
incorporate those key principles and practices most appropriate to
43


this area For example, citliens in Montbello and Green Valley
Ranch point to the lock of a comprehensive park and trail eye tea JLn
their neighborhoods ae a shortcoming that must be avoided in the
Gateway, and the Parks Department agrees.
Parka and trails also play an important economic development
role. For example, the proposed golf course can help attract
executive housing that can in turn help the Gateway lure new
upscale commercial and office development. Finally, careful design
of these parks and trails will be a critical element in Denver's
plans to use water more wisely in the future, and the Parks and
Mater Departments will be involved in drafting the Gateway toning
regulations to make sure important conservation measures are
included up front.
The proposed Gateway park and trail system resulted from an
extensive study of local and national park development standards.J
The resulting Gateway park and trail standards are shown on
Illustration 15. Based on those standards and a study of the
natural and physical resources of the area, 570 acres of park and
trail sites were identified to meet the park and trail needs of the
Gateway, including sites with attractive natural features like
lakes and high points for viewing the mountains.
Drainagaways and other areas subject to flooding or wet soils
were avoided as not being suitable for more active recreation
(although in some cases drainagevays will be appropriate for
improved trails). Both Parks Department staff and neighborhood
1 In brief, those standards calculate how much open space
should be provided in an area based on the number of future
residents and workers. Working from the standards described in
Illustration 15 and the estimated amount of residential and
commercial development that could be built under the Gateway
Concept Flan, the Getaway Office computed a range of needs for
neighborhood, community, and urban parks. The land use
assumptions on which Illustration 15 is based are set forth in
Appendix D. This approach represents a significant and
deliberate departure from the past Denver practice of requiring a
flat 121 of all residential lands for parks, trails, school sites
and public building sites. This 12% figure has proved to be
inadequate, as shown by the increases reflected in the recent
Denver Parks Master Plan standards.
43


residents are resolute in their position that Denver's past
practice of accepting flood prone or detention areas as usable park
land should not be continued .
Finally, both eiticens and Parks Department staff agree that
adequate parking should be provided adjacent to park facilities, so
that families who drive to the parks do not have to cross streets
in order to use them.
Illustration 15 shows the resulting park and open space plan,
which has several major elements;
Large Urban Parkt A 90~acr park, on the scale of Cheesman
Park, will be centered on an existing pond west of Airport
Boulevard adjacent to Montbello. The exact boundaries of this park
are still under study with the landowner and the Department of
Parks and Recreation. With the pond, extensive trails, and picnic
grounds, it will be oriented towards passive uses. While informal
ball and play fielda might be appropriate in a portion of the pork,
they will not be lighted for night play, nor would a recreation
center be sited here. Montbello residents currently favor siting
a recreational center at the existing Montbello Central Park.
Golf Course* An 10-hola, 160-acre golf course along First
Creek has been part of the Green Valley Ranch development plan for
many years, but has not yet been realised. The owner of this
property has recently reconfirmed a commitment to donate the land
for this golf course, and plana are now being studied for a 700-
acre golf course that will include s clubhouse facility. The final
acreage and layout of the golf course are currently under
discussion with the landowner and the Department of Parks and
Recreation and are subject to change. The citizens of Denver
approved a 1989 bond Issue that includes $7-5 million to begin
development of a golf course in the Gateway ares.
Community Park/Haturn Area Complexi Just west of the golf
course, a SO-acre community park would be located adjacent to the
First Creek floodplain and the Town Center. This park will cater
to more active programs and will Include an array of facilities
44


ILLPSTBATI0W_15
SMTCBftT FAKE STAFPAMB5 AMP
Denver Park Waster Plan Standards for Residential Areas
Neighborhood Parke 1*4 acres per 1,000 residents
Sizei less than 10 acres each
Community Parkst 1*62.4 acres per 1,000 residents
Size* 10-60 acres each
Large Urban Parksi 510 acres per 1,000 residents
Size* nare than B0 acres each
proposed Additional Park Standard for Nonresidentlal Areas
2*0% of the land area in office, hotel, commercial, and flax-
space uses, to be satisfied in town squares, business greens,
and nearby parks*
BIHEWAT. PACT MP twatt*b RKnnTtuniftrffi at mj. nm^nr
(Assuming a Gateway Area Population of 65,000 at Full Buildout)
Type of pacing Lov End of LEads High End of Park
Stflutiaidfi- Rfthflg Standards Range
Neighborhood Parks 90 90
Community Parks 105 160
Large Urban Park 4 Golf Course 330 660
Commercial Areas 35 35
Improved Trails 8*4 miles in between parks
along major drainage corridors
TOTAL REQUIRED 560 acres 945 acres
TOTAL shown on
GATEWAY CONCEPT PLAN HAP 57Q acres*
Assumes credit for 4*9 Biles of 50-foot-wide developer-
improved trails outside of designated park areas along trail
corridors shown on Illustration 9, and no credit for remaining
3*5 miles of trail in the city owned Airport Boulevard right-
of-way.
45


ILLUSTRATION 16
PROPOSED PARK AND OFF-STREET
RECREATIONAL TRAIL SYSTEM
(At Full Buildout)
4fi


such as ball fields and tennis court!. It could also be the site of
any future recreational center for the eastern portion of the
Gateway. Nc active part of the park will be located in the
floodplain, although it will be linked by trails to a 4 0-acre
nature area that will interpret and protect extensive wetland and
wildlife habitat at the confluence of two branches of First Creek
on land that is probably undevelopable under federal wetland
regulations -
Second Creek Park* Isroedlately south of 72nd Avenue, a
community-scaled park will be located adjacent to the floodplain
for Second Creek. Because residential uses generate store demand
for park acreage than commercial uses, and it is impossible to tell
how the mixed use areas north of 56th Avenue will build out, the
site of this park facility may not be finalised for some time. It
is depicted on Illustration 16 at approximately 50 acres, which
would be an appropriate size if about 20% of all mixed use areas
build out in residential uses. This location also opens up the
possibility of recreational use of a portion of the adjacent city
owned Airport Boulevard lands.
Heighborhood Parksi Scattered strategically throughout the
area south of 56th will be a series of small 5- to 10-acre
neighborhood parks* They will cater mainly to nearby residential
developments, providing playgrounds, benches, tennis courts and
similar facilities*
High Points i While not all high points can be included in
park areas or public building sites, efforts have been made to
identify and protect those sites where passible. As development
occurs, public access and viewing opportunities should be protected
on all significant high points throughout the Gateway (as shown on
Illustration 16).
Trails/Bike Pathst An extensive system of on-street and off-
street paths for walkers, bicyclists, and equestrians will connect
parks, neighborhoods, and the Town Center. The nejor network of
off-street paths will fellow the three primary drainagevays in the
GatewayFirst Creek, Irondale Gulch/ttighline Lateral, and Second
Creek. First and Second Creeks will feature not only a vide
47


pathway for pedestrians and bicyclists, but also equestrian trails*
The Irondale Gulch/Highline Lateral trail will be designed for
pedestrians and bicyclists only* A major off-street trail will be
built within the Airport Boulevard right-of-way running from
Interstate 70 north and east around the E-470 interchange and into
the new airport terminal* Along the way, it will cross and connect
to all three of the main east/west trails. An important facet of
the system is that its trails will connect to planned trails In the
surrounding jurisdictions, including a proposed trail along E-470.
The off-street trail system will be complemented by on-street
bicycle paths marked on a number of quieter, 2-lane streets
throughout the Gateway. The on-street system will be designed to
serve bicycle commuters and will be separated from trails for
pedestrians and recreational cyclists* All Gateway streets will be
flanked by detached sidewalks {except perhaps in neighborhood
retail areas or the Town Center), thus providing additional
pedestrian links in and between the neighborhoods* In neighborhood
retail areas and the Town Center, pedestrian pavement of the entire
area between the storefronts and the curb will be allowed to
accomodate possible high volumes of foot traffic between those
points*
Implementing Mechanismi The mechanism that will be put in
place to achieve this system is Important* If each individual
developer is allowed to provide only those small parks that serve
its project, the Gateway will build out without those larger parks
that can handle a wide variety of community activitiesthe vary
kind of parks that will be crucial to the future of the Gateway.
In order to avoid this result, Denver must require that each
developer participate in a city administered system to aggregate
and allocate parks needs and park contributions.
The system that will be Incorporated in the future zoning
regulations for the Gateway will work like this.
1. As developments are proposed, the park demands they
generate will be calculated using the standards shown on
Illustration 15, based on the number of bousing units and
the commercial square footage.
48


2*
Each developer will be required to dedicate, and will be
given credit for, those parka, town squares, business
greens, and improved off-street trail corridors (up to
50-feet wide) that are located on its lands and shown on
Illustration 16, up to the total calculated demand for
park land their development generates* Developers will
not be able to credit unimproved open space, wetlands,
and parts of drainagaways and floodplains (except for the
50-foot designated trail corridors shown on Illustration
16) towards satisfaction of the park needs generated by
their developments*
1* If e developer's dedication of the park areas Identified
in this plan and located on its property does not fulfill
all of the demand generated by the proposed development,
than the developer will have to contribute cash-in-lieu
of land for the remaining demand, and those fees will be
accounted for in a Gateway park acquisition fund.
4* If the proposed development generates a need for less
park land than the plan identifies on that developer's
property, the developer will not be required to dedicate
the excees acreage, instead, the excese acreage will be
reserved and purchased from that developer using fees
that other developers have contributed into the Gateway
park acquisition fund.
5. Developers will not be allowed to satisfy their park
obligations by donating other land for major parks if
their proposed dedication parcels are not designated in
this plan as major park sites.
45


TrmpprWigp
A smoothly functioning transportation network is another
critical aspect of the Gateway Concept Plan. While roads are
obviously a crucial piece of this network. Base transit,
pedestrian, and bicycle links are of equal concern. An important
premise of this plan is that roads are more than Just a utilitarian
way to get from one spot to another; they can be attractive public
places themselves, adding greatly to the community's success.
The continuity of east-west street systems in the Gateway is
very important in light of the 2,000-foot wide Airport Boulevard
corridor that bisects the area. While the ultimate configuration
and design of that highway has not been finalised {and is not
controlled by this plan), the 2,000-foot right-of-way for that
corridor is embodied in an intergovernmental agreement botween
Denver and Adams County and is unlikely to change. Continuous
street and trail systems across the Boulevard corridor will
therefore be important to overcome the psychological separation it
might otherwise create. Careful construction and design of Airport
Boulevard is important both to help minimise that apparent
separation and to support the high quality of other Gateway
streets.
Thoughtful integration of the Gateway street pattern with
those of Hontbello, Green Valley Ranch, and Aurora will also be
important. For example, preliminary traffic projections for the
Gateway indicate that additional traffic capacity will eventually
be needed from Chambers Road westward to and through the Stapleton
site at about the 56th Avenue alignment* Whether that capacity is
added through improvements to a relocated 56th Avenue or through
construction of a separate Rocky Mountain Parkway on Arsenal lands
will be the subject of future discussions with Montbello citixens
and the Rocky Mountain Arsenal.
S treat p i The basic street framework in the Gateway will be a
modified fora of the grid system, because it has several distinct
advantages over more typical curvilinear suburban street patterns.
First, the grid system has an inherent capacity to distribute
traffic efficiently. Instead of concentrating it on a few
50


arterlals that then become Jammed and have to be widened, the grid
system has the ability to spread traffic volumes among a number of
important distribution roads. The grid system is also easier to
navigate because streets do not dead end or turn back on
themselves, confusing and delaying not only visiters but residents.
Moreover, with proper setbacks along key east/west roads, the grid
will help preserve spectacular mountain views.
A grid street pattern is particularly appropriate in the
Gateway, where the land is generally flat or only gently rolling
with relatively few sensitive natural or environmental areas to be
avoided by curving or ending a road. Where there axe sensitive
features such as the First Creek nature area or floodplain, the
grid has been altered to accommodate the*. in addition, where
developers have already platted and constructed streets, the plan
does not require that those streets be changed.
The Gateway street system Is organised into the simple
hierarchy shown on Illustrations IT and IS. At the top are
signature* streets like 56th Avenue and Tower Road that will
ultimately be 6-lane parkways. The upper level of streets also
includes main arterials such as 40th, 64th, Piccadilly, and
Chambers Roads that will be 4- to 6-lane streets with landscaped
medians. With their ample landscaping and broad medians, these are
the streets that will help establish a quality image for the
Gateway as they handle sisable volumes of traffic. A series of 2-
and 4-lane collector streets will link to the parkways and
arterials. Some will have on-street parking; some will be marked
with on-street blkepaths.
The minimum building setbacks shown for each type of street on
Illustration IB are Intended to protect view corridors and to allow
a short space in which to transition from final street grades to
final building site grades. Those minimum setbacks may be
increased during the drafting of the Gateway toning regulations if
necessary.
51


rLLUSTRATIOH 17
PROPOSED TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
(At Full Buildout)
\
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-ft Will* it buy te jrtnibfc to talld m cxtouloa of Buckley Kud In ibe fuatti fubyec u cntironmcnul, nifc ttfinomat ud other amdaiiM*
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S3


Within the 40-acre modules that the basic street grid defines,
a tertiary system of streets will be built by each developer to
serve their internal traffic* Because their design and location
will be finalieed during the development review process, these
streets are not shown on Illustration 17* There will be some
flexibility in layout of these tertiary streets, and they will not
need to follow the strict grid system. They will, however, have to
meet the planned grid roads at fairly predictable access points in
order to provide continuous north/south and east/west connections.
These tertiary streets will also be landscaped to Gateway standards
and flanked by detached sidewalks.
To the extent compatible with attractive design and function,
streets and medians in the Gateway will be engineered to help
"clean up" street runoff water of roadway pollutants before that
water reaches the drainage system or the groundwater.
Mass Transits Both bus and rapid transit will ultimately be
important elements of the Gateway transportation system.
Currently, Montbello and Green Valley Ranch receive only limited
bus service by the Regional Transportation District (RTD),
partially as a result of their detached location from the rest of
Denver and the relatively small number of people to be served. As
the Gateway grows, this situation must improve so that this area of
Denver enjoys better transit links to Downtown and other major
centers. RTD has committed to providing excellent bus service to
the new airport. The city should work to ensure that the Gateway,
Montbello, and Green Valley Ranch are port of this plan.
In addition to bus service, efforts to bring rapid transit to
the area are underway. The Gateway Office has reached a tentative
agreement with Aurora for the transit alignment shown on
Illustration 17. In addition, the transit right-of-way in the
median of Airport Boulevard will be preserved from 40th Avenue to
the new airport in the event that it might be needed for future
airport-to-down town express service.
Pedestrian/Bicvcle Access* Wherever possible, the Gateway
Concept Plan seeks to encourage pedestrian and bicycle
accessibility. There is no doubt that the automobile will be the
54


primary means of transportation in the short-term, but the
automobile need not usurp and dominate a transportation system to
the extent it often does, With forethought and careful planning,
walking and bicycling can be attractive alternatives that
supplement driving, and in some cases replace it.
To encourage pedestrians and bicyclists* the Gateway Concept
Flan takes three approaches First, urban design aspects such as
the town squares and the Town Centers, with their central locations
and concentration of uses, will make it easier for people to choose
walking or biking. Development will not be sprawled out along
arterlals that are often unfriendly environments.
Second, streets will be designed with wide tree lawns and
detached sidewalks to enhance their attractiveness for pedestrians.
Selected 2-lane streets will contain marked bicycle lanes* In
addition, standards will be written to encourage businesses to
provide bicycle parking and address other items that can make
bicycling more attractive.
Finally, the Gateway Concept Flan embraces an extensive off-
street trail system that will accommodate walkers, bicyclists, and
equestrians. This system will weave a network that connects all of
the Gateway together.
Other PnKljc Bolldlnaa far-ill
The locational importance of public facilities such as
schools, post offices, government offices, and medical facilities
in shaping a community should not be overlooked. Just as careful
siting and concentration of retail uses can create community
activity centers, sc the judicious location of public facilities
can contribute to making a ccamsunity a lively, livable place.
Isgxjrtant public buildings should be found in important public
places, not dispersed without relation to one another or relegated
to sitting among commercial usss on arterlals.
During the planning process, the Gateway Office undertook
extensive discussions with a variety of agencies and Institutions
such as the Denver Public Schools, Denver General Hospital, the
Police and Fire Departments, Institutions of higher education, and
55


the penver Public Library* Sane of these agencies have very
specific locational criteria that must be satisfied* Others have
more flexibility in siting their facilities.
Public schools ore of particular importance in establishing
livable communities, and elementary schools are one of the most
critical facilities in shaping a neighborhood. If the Gateway
builds out as assumed In this plan, it will need at least six new
elementary schools (possibly up to eight) plus one additional
middle school and one high school.
The Gateway Office has worked closely with representatives of
the Denver Public Schools (DPS) to establish a list of siting
principles for these new schools that will satisfy DPS needs while
helping to attain the goals of the Gateway concept Plan* For
example, we agreed that elementary schools, where at all possible,
should bo sited an town squares to help augment the other activity
there. Similarly, we agreed that siting schools near parks or
linking them with trails should be encouraged, so that school
children can take advantage of large open spaces and potential
educational resources such as the proposed 40-acre nature area*
The school sites shown on Illustration 9 are by way of example
only. They show how the above criteria could be satisfied, but
there may be alternate locations that work just as well. Even the
number of schools required may vary {particularly north of 56th
Avenue) depending on the final buildout of mixed use areas. Final
siting of individual school facilities will require negotiations
between the developer, the city, and CPS to apply these principles
at the time specific development proposals are brought forward*
Floodplains and wetland areas will not be acceptable school sites*
Other public facilities such as canmunity centers, post
offices, adult educational facilities, and other institutions
without very specific locational needs should also be located on
the town squares or within the Town Center. This may not always be
possible due to special requirements applicable to a particular
kind of facility (e.g., fire stations need to be located on or near
orterials], but in many cases it will be*
The Police Department now anticipates needing one new 2-acre
56


police station site near 48 th Avenue and Chambers Road in order to
serve the Gateway area* The Fire Department confine that it will
need at least one 2~*ere site for a new fire station near 48th
Avenue and Memphis Road (and probably a second 2-acre site near
64th Avenue and Tower Hoad) in order to maintain the desired 3-
jninute fire response time. The Denver Public Library will
eventually need one 2~acre site for a permanent facility to serve
the Gateway and would prefer that site to be within the Town Center
instead of in a park or a non-commercial area.
Environmental Protection
Coloradans pride themeelves on the state's wonderful
environment. Many of us are here in no small part because of the
state's great natural resourcesmountains, wildlife, and quiet
wilderness. Denverites are no different, and they take particular
pride in the way they have shaped their urban environment with
attractive parks and parkways, well-designed buildings, and other
features that make the city so livable.
These are some of the forces that have influenced the strong
environmental element of the Gateway Concept Plan. Many outlying
developments along the Front Range and throughout the nation have
been criticised for being environmentally insensitive and poorly
designed. But there axe plenty of examples of good suburban
development, and the Gateway Concept Plan attempts to echo the best
of these as it strives to demonstrate that man and nature can
coexist and that communities can be healthy as well as economically
vibrant.
The significant natural features of the Gateway are not always
obvious. Mo spectacular Whitewater rivers course through this
land. There are no large wilderness areas. But it does have some
unique and attractive natural areas like the green ribbon of First
Creek and its associated wetlands that provide shelter and
57


1UJZSTKATI0W 19


habitat far doer, coyotes, birds, and other wild creatures. In
Colorado, these riparian habitats make up only 2\ of the total land
area, but 901 of our wildlife species can be found there. The
Gateway la also neighbor to one of the greatest urban wildlife
concentrations in the nationcommonly known os the Rocky Mountain
Arsenal. What the Gateway has should be conservedthe creeks,
wildlife, trees, and wetlandsand Gateway development ouat be a
good neighbor to the wildlife and habitats just across our border.
In addition to protecting these resources, the Gateway also offers
an important opportunity to demonstrate that growth can occur in
the Front Range while minimizing environmental pollution and
avoiding profligate use of resources, particularly water.
Molse
The Gateway Office is very cognizant of the serious problems
caused in the post by noise at Stapleton International Airport,
where complaints have been heard from people living in Montbello
and other areas some distance away. To avoid such problems around
the new airport, residential development will not be allowed near
the GO LDH noise contour line that passes just north of the Gateway
area.*
It is Important not to crowd the 60 LDH line with residential
development for several reasonst
4 LON is a sound measuring system developed by the
Federal Aviation Administration to estimate an average sound
level over a one year period of time. To account for the fact
that people are more bothered by a given level of noise when
there is little background noise (such as nighttime), the LDH
system "penalizes1* noises between 10 pm and 7 am by assuming that
they are ten times as disturbing as the same noises during the
daytime hours. Thua, under the LDH measuring system, the sound
of one airplane during the night will "count" for as much noise
as ten planes during the day. Average sound levels vary widely
from place to place. 55 decibels is typical of single-family
residential areas with large yards* A GO decibel level produces
almost four times as much noise as that.
55


o
This area is but suited, because of location and access,
for airport-related business uses, internally-generated
truck and auto traffic will add to other noiaa in the
area*
o Airport flight patterns and airplane technology nay
change unexpectedly in the future.
o The 60 LDN line does not take into account additional
noise from major non-airport sources like freeways (such
as Airport Boulevard) and major streets (such as 6-lane
Tower Road) that will affect the area.
o Sleep and speech interference are more dependent on
maximum noise levels than average levels reflected in the
LON measure*
Measuring the possible impacts of noise is a complicated task
that depends on noise levels, frequency, duration, time of day and
year, and the person being affected. For the reasons noted above,
the plan does not allow residential development north of 65th
Avenue, except on the western-most edge of the Gateway along
Airport Boulevard. The history of older airports often includes
creeping encroachment by incompatible residential uses. That oust
be actively discouraged around the new airport, which has been
carefully sited to avoid such problems.
Water Quality
Most of the streams in the Gateway area are now intermittent.
Soil erosion and other farm runoff may cause same minor pollution,
but those pollutants are not currently evident. As the Gateway
develops, however, stormwater drainage will increase and urban
pollutants from roads, parking lots, and suburban lawns will tend
to run into the waterwayB. Steps therefore need to be taken to
ensure that Denver's developments do not have an adverse effect on
wildlife, either in the Gateway or on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal
downstream.
During the new airport EI5 process, the New Denver Airport
Office agrood with the D.S, Army and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service to take important steps to ensure that runoff onto the
60


Arsenal does not threaten wildlife along First Creek, particularly
the population of endangered bold eagles that winters in the area*
The Gateway Office, working with the New Denver Airport Office, the
Urban Drainage and Flood Control District, and the city's
Wastewater Management Division, is also cooperating in a plan to
create a series of regional detention ponds that will help
temporarily capture runoff and let pollutants settle out. These
actions anticipate nation-wide regulations being proposed by the
U*S, Environmental Protection Agency to control non-point sources
of pollution by requiring beet management practices' to deal with
stormwater flows* Since the details of the forthcoming regulations
are still unknown, such planning will need to remain flexible*
Work will continue with these agencies and landowners to put
in place a system of enhanced drainagevays that will help clean the
water through natural forces as it flows down to the detention
ponds below. ft will be critical that the cities of Aurora and
Denver cooperate in this activity since much of Aurora's proposed
intense development areas lie upstream from the Gateway and may
affect our water quality and the volume of flows*
Water Dee and Conservation
The Gateway Concept Plan anticipates that at full buildout in
50 years or so, the area might hav* up to 65,000 new residents* A
typical family of four uses one acre-foot of water per year. The
Denver Water Board has confirmed that it is able to serve all
anticipated development in the Gateway area on n par with other
areas of Denver with existing supplies* However, the Gateway
should be viewed an an opportunity to demonstrate that more can be
done* The Gateway Office has been cooperating with the Denver
Water Board, the Metro wastewater Reclamation District, and the New
Denver Airport Office to explore water recycling system for the
Gateway and new airport, in brief, the system would capture all
sewage flows rom the area and treat those flows so that they Could
be used for irrigation water and other non-drinking purposes on
parks, medians, and other public lands {but not for private use)*
Such a large-scale system would be a first for the Front Range and
61


would reduce demands on the existing Metro sewage treatment plant
on the South Platte River,
The feasibility study undertaken by the Hater Board raises a
number of iasues that must be addressed and resolved before such a
system could become reality. One Important question La whether
there will be enough treated effluent generated by the Gateway in
the early years to provide for all public irrigation needs, or
whether a dual pipe system might be necessary to supplement reused
water with treated water. Another critical issue is whether the
system can be made cost-competitive given the extra expense of
building a small sewage treatment facility on the airport lands or
running the necessary additional pipes for collecting and
distributing flows If the existing reglonsl treatment plant is
utilized. These are tough issues, but the Gateway Office is
committed to pursuing a resolution of each, because such s
demonstration project could have profound and positive implications
for water conservation in Colorado,
Air Quality
Because of its location on the edge of the Denver airshed
the flow of prevailing winds, the Gateway is fortunate in having
relatively Clean air* The best available data reveal no
significant air pollution problems at present. However, as the
area grows there is always the potential that air quality may be
degraded. By smart land-use planning now, future pollution
problems can be minimized. He hope that the Gateway can serve as
a model for the coordinating future Front Range air pollution
prevention efforts with land-use planning.
One of the most important aspects of the Gateway Concept Plan
is the significant steps being proposed to encourage walking and
bicycling and to cut down on driving. Making mess transit a more
realistic option by proposing an alignment to serve more people is
another.
In addition, the Gateway Office has been working with the
Denver Planning Office and the Air pollution Division of the Denver
Department of Health and Hospitals to identify a comprehensive set
62


of development standards that will help reduce air pollution
problems in the Gateway. These standards, which will be discussed
with citliens and landowners during the drafting of the Gateway
coning ordinance, include such proposals asi
o Prohibiting wood-burning fireplaces;
o Limiting the number and location of drive-through
facilities (which add to idling activity);
o Encouraging landscaping and discouraging removal
of mature, existing trees;
o Discouraging overbuilding of parking spaces;
o Avoiding creation of air pollution "hot spots* by careful
design of parking structures; and
o Requiring adoption of alternative transportation
management strategies (such as carpooling and
staggered work houra) if traffic levels-of-service
fall below a certain point.
While it cannot match the extensive wildlife habitats of the
Rocky Mountain Arsenal, the Gateway does have soma significant
wildlife areas and wetlands, particularly along First Creek. The
Gateway Concept Plan proposes that most of tbia habitat be put off-
limits to development. Because of its location in the floodplain
and the presence of federally protected wetlands, this land is
largely undevelopable in any case.
The First Creak nature area and the wide First Creek
floodplain will be the backbone of the effort to conserve wildlife
habitat. The floodplain is very broad in many parts of the
Gatewayover 500 feet in some places. A study by The Urban
Drainage and Flood Control District recommends that the creek area
be maintained in a relatively natural state with some channel
enhancements to slow and accommodate stormwater flows without the
need to build an expensive series of on*site detention facilities.
Near potential wildlife habitats, existing trees should be
protected, and trails should be sited to skirt the most sensitive
areas.
61


Historic Resougecag
There are a few historic structures in the Gateway. The most
notable is a farmstead located in the planned right-of-way for
Airport Boulevard north of G4th Avenue. The Mew Denver Airport
Office has committed to preserving this structure. However, no
comprehensive archeological or historic surveys have been conducted
outside the Airport Boulevard corridor, and the Gateway office will
be proposing that as specific project plans are developed,
applicants conduct necessary research and surveys to ensure that
no important historic structures or archeological sites will be
destroyed or damaged*
Cooperation with Our Neighbors
Denvers Gateway area covers only a small part of the land
available for development near the entrance to the new airport.
Adams County, Aurora, Brighton, and Commerce City are conducting
land use planning for an 'airport environs* area that is 36 times
as large as the Gateway* To make the Gateway a quality area and a
vibrant entrance to the region, Denver must not only work closely
with its own citizens in Montbello and Green Valley Ranch and with
Gateway landowners, but also with Adams County and its cities and
with the Rocky Hountain Arsenal* Otherwise, the vision for the
Gateway will be confused and clouded by conflicting patterns of
land uses, roads, and open spaces, and by jarring differences in
the quality of development across local government boundaries*
The Gateway Concept Plan reflects much good cooperative
groundwork by planning staffs of the different governments. A
staff-level Airport Technical Advisory Committee (ATAC) has been
meeting at least monthly for over a year to address issues of
camion concern, but more work and a strong commitment to
cooperation will be required in the future*
Through ATAC, Denver, Adams County, Aurora, Brighton, and
Commerce City have already worked together to reach preliminary
agreements about coordinating land uses, roads, and open spaces
throughout the airport environs. Because adjacent areas
immediately east and south of the Gateway will eventually be a part
64


of Aurora, we have been working particularly cloaely vith that city
on issues related to those boundaries,
For example, both cities have agreed that the areas north of
56th Avenue will be designated for mixed uses and that efforts will
be made to include significant amounts of residential development
in parts of that area This plan recommends that the Gateway
resoning ordinance include special review provisions to ensure that
developments near the Denver/Aurora boundary north of First Creek
are compatible with adjacent developments in Aurora, provided that
Aurora's regulations offar similar protection For Denver lands to
the west and south of the boundary line, Aurora's staff has
committed to proposing controls to buffer residential areas in
southern portions of Green Valley Ranch from Aurora's proposed
office and industrial developments along 1*70 to the south,
Denver has also agreed with Adams County, Aurora, and Commerce
City about the locations, sites, and appearances of major roadways
that cross city and county lines. While Aurora has chosen not to
continue all elements of the street grid to the east, those east-
west streets on the mile and half-mile alignments will be
continued. The tiler arc hy of street widths contained in this plan
conforms to the other jurisdictions' plans for those some streets.
The Gateway's two signature* parkways (Tower Road and 56th Avenue)
will continue as attractive, landscaped parkways in Adams County,
Aurora, and Commerce City.
In addition, through ATAC, the airport area communities have
developed a regional parks, open apace, and trails plancalled the
Emerald Strands Flanthat, if carried out, will knit the area
together and create those handsome amenities so critical to
capturing quality development, ATAC has also produced proposals
for uniform construction standards for those trails and bikepaths.
As a result, hikers, bicyclists, and horse riders will be able to
move from one city or county to the next without interruption and
without noticing significant differences in the quality of the
trails. The recreational connections shown in this Gateway Concept
Flan match up with counterparts in each of the other jurisdictions,
and Denver's proposed parka ere complemented by open spaces such as
65


Barr Lake State Park and future parka In other jurisdictions.
In the future, Denver will have to work with its neighbors to
agree on compatible standards for development qualityat least
along major arterial and parkways, The staff of the five
Jurisdictions have already agreed to propose prohibiting the
erection of billboards in their respective areas. Similar
agreements on other development issueslandscaping, building
heights, and the like~-wi.ll ensure that visitors, residents, and
prospective investors in the Gateway do not see the area as a
patchwork of governments with conflicting goals.
Denver has also been working closely with its other neighbors
involved with the Rocky fountain Arsenalthe u*S. Army, the u.S.
Pish and Wildlife Service, and the Colorado Division of Wildlife -
-on a variety of issues. Issues of mutual concern include the
protection of wildlife habitat, providing for detention of Gateway
storm drainage on the Arsenal, ensuring water quality, and working
toward future public access and trails onto safe portions of the
Arsenal, With careful work, Denver can enhance and protect the
vistas and the wildlife opportunities of the Arsenal, and the
Arsenal can become an important open space amenity on the doorstep
of the Gateway.
G6


SECTIQH Hit TWIJammi: rmf PiJM
WHERE DO WE GO FRO
The Gateway Plan has been adopted unanimously by both the
Denver Planning Board and the city Council. It la now officially
a part of the city's comprehensive plan specifically applicable to
the Gateway area.
The primary Initial function of the Gateway Concept Plan la to
guide the drafting of future toning and infrastructure financing
regulations and their implementation by tha city. A great deal of
time and energy will have been wasted if the Gateway Concept Plan
is not the guiding light for future re toning and capital investment
decisions by the city. We will therefore continue to work with
area cititens and landowners to propose a comprehensive retoning
and an area-wide infrastructure financing policy based on the plan.
That la not to say that tha plan is a strait jacket for the
area. The lines on Illustration 9 depicting various land uses have
not been drawn with mathematical precision. They are subject to
adjustment in future phases of the Gateway development process.
For example, as the city takea a closer look at the gulf course
shown on the plan and consults with citizens and landowners, its
location and boundaries may change. Similarly, soma time in the
future a zoning district amendment or approval of a planned unit
development may be necessary to permit an attractive project to
proceed. However, those changes should be made prudently and then
only if they are in accord with the overall vision and goals of the
plan. If significant disparities exist, than the plan should first
be amended before changes are made, with full consultation with
area cititens and landowners.
In addition, as part of the comprehensive rezoning of the
Gateway area, development standards need to be drafted and
consideration given to a special design review process Involving
landowners and citizens, A significant amount of progross has
already been made in several of these areas. The city's goal is to
complete work on new zoning regulations, development standards, and
an infrastructure financing plan by mid-1991 so that prospective
67


dev1opera end users can begin working on plans and development
applications.
In the longer tern, once net* zoning regulations and
infrastructure financing plans are adoptedr steps will need to be
taken to ensure that city agencies incorporate Gateway policies and
recommendations in their internal plansr programs, and budgets and
submit capital funding requests that are in accord with the plan.
The Administration and City Council will also have to ensure that
the appropriate agencies have sufficient resources and staff to
thoroughly and expeditiously review the major development plane
that are certain to come forward.

BPILPIftS AM1-EATH!G rQB.JHCBftS
Denver is fortunate in having adequate supplies of key
utilities available to serve the Gateway* Perhaps most
importantly, the Denver Hater Board has made assurances that with
existing supplies it will be able to serve development within the
Gateway on a par with development in the rest of Denver, as
required by the Denver City Charter. The Metropolitan Denver
Sewage Disposal District (Metro) also confirms that it has more
than enough capacity to serve the Gateway at its plant located on
the South Platte River to the vest.
In addition, Denver already has some of the key pieces of
Gateway infrastructure close at hand or already in place.1 But
much more infrastructure will be needed if the Gateway is to
achieve its full potential.
Providing infrastructure for the Gateway involves new
opportunities and challenges. The opportunities arise because
thoughtful location of infrastructure will guide private
investment, and because the quality of infrastructure can set the
tone for an entire area of the city* For example, Baron Ferdinand
As used in this plan, the term 'infrastructure* means
the roads, porks, trails, water lines, sewer lines, drainage
structureo, police and fire stations, schools, and other
improvements needed to make private development safe, liveable,
and environmentally sound.
68


von Richthofen's decision to invest in the construction of a brood,
green Monaco Boulevard parkway in the 1990s stimulated development
of the Montclair neighborhood by making it both accessible and
beautiful. More recently, the high quality of public roads, porks,
landscaping, and trails in Highlands Ranch has enabled that area to
capture a very large share of metro Denver's residential growth.
Similar improvements in the Denver Tech Center have enabled it to
attract more than its share of high-quality commercial businesses.
The challenge arises because infrastructure can be very
expensive, even if the land itself is donated. During the 1960s
and 1970s, the federal government provided large amounts of money
to help Denver pay for the costs of infrastructure. But those days
are gone. For example, the General Revenue Sharing program through
which the federal government sent Denver a yearly check for up to
$14 million has been eliminated. The Environmental Protection
Agencys grant programs to help cities implement the federal Clean
Water Act have also been stopped. The result is what iona have
called a new "fend-for-yourself federalism*. Because of its own
financial constraints, Colorado's state government has not been
able to fill the infrastructure gap. It infrastructure is to be
built, then Denver and the Gateway landowners will have to find a
way to do it.
One way is for the city to invest in itselfand Denver has
done that. The airport currently plans to construct Airport
Boulevard as a 4-lane limited access freeway from 1-70 to the new
airport with several major interchanges. That investment could
coat as much as $75 million. Direct access from 1-70 will help
make the Gateway area convenient and available for development.
The city is also currently planning to extend 56th Avenue across
the 5tapleton site once the current airport is closed, dramatically
improving access to the Gateway from the west.
The airport has already extended a large water main through
the Gateway area to serve the airport, and landowners will benefit
from economies of bcu.b by being partners in that line. That $10
million investment has been sited to serve all projected private
development in the Gateway. As part of its water Bye tern, the
69


airport: also plana to help construct a pump station and various
loop water lines to conplement the large existing main (See
Illustration 20).
In addition, Denver has in place a large sanitary sewer
interceptor line built to serve Montbello and Green Valley Ranch,
with capacity to servo the airport and all private development in
the Gateway area through at least the Year 2000 (and beyond that
year with relatively minor improvements) Finally, the city plans
to spend $2.5 million towards the construction of a long-awaited
golf course In northeast Denver that will dramatically enhance the
attractiveness of the Gateway area to new residents and businesses.
Finally, the Gateway has a full array of other necessary
public services like gas, electricity, and telephone lines in place
or readily available, all of which are detailed in Appendix E.
But this investment must be augmented if the Gateway 1b to
realise its full economic potential. Private developers who will
reap profits from Gateway developments must shoulder the costs of
the additional infrastructure needed to serve their properties.
This philosophy is often summarised in the requirement that
"development pays its own way, The Mayor and City Council have
strongly endorsed this concept, because it is fair to Denver's
taxpayers and because it is necessary to avoid a public backlash
against new development. Throughout the country, cities that have
tried to finance expensive new infrastructure for major growth
areas out of general taxes have found that their taxpayers respond
with moratoriums, initiatives, and referendum^ against developments
that need new infrastructure. Other cities hove been left in
severe financial difficulty by investments in infrastructure that
were not promptly followed by development. Those negative
responses drive off new businesses, residents, and developers.
In order to help private developers bear the costs of the
infrastructure they need, at quality levels that will make the
70


ILLUSTRATION 2p
WATER AND SANITARY SEWER SYSTEM
(Approximate Locations Final Location to be Determined as Development Proceeds)
?1


Gateway a desirable area# the Gateway Office la considering several
techniques as part of a package to be considered by the Mayor# City
Council, landowners, and citizens* Three of those methods are
outlined below*
limrT ffffT "nd I-and oodicatiQM
In some cases, the city Blight require each developer to pay
its fair share Df a specific infrastructure cost into a city
revenue account earmarked for that specific new facility (a
library, for example). As the impact fee funds accumulate, the
city would spend the pooled funds to construct the needed public
Improvement so that it banefits the area front which the funds came.
In other cases, the city would require that developers dedicate
park land and other land for facilities necessary to serve their
development. in still other situations (parks, for example),
developers would be required to make both a fair-share impact fee
payment and a fair-share land dedication.
Tnxintt mstrict*
The city may allow developers to create special taxing
districts that would assess extra taxes on the developer's own
lands to pay for the on-site infrastructure those lands require.
The city would control which types of districts the developers
could create, what types of extra taxes and fees they can impose,
what the districts can finance, and how long the districts can
exist. As a condition to approving individual taxing districts,
developers will be strongly encouraged or required to join some
form of Gateway-wide entity to finance and construct those
facilities that benefit the entire area, such as major roads,
interchanges, and parka.
Several landowners have suggested that to finance regional
infrastructure (e.g., portions of major roadways that will serve
traffic not generated in the Gateway) to the proposed standards of
quality, the city should consider allocating a percentage of the
72


net new sales, use, head, or lodging taxes generated by private
development In the Gateway area to help pay for these improvements**
in effect, letting new development bootstrap itself* For
example, one of the city's past policies has been to pay for the
final 2 lanes and median improvements of major roads (such as Tower
Road) that benefit the city as a whole, while requiring the
developer to pay for the remainder* It has been suggested that the
city might allocate up to 50% of the new sales and use taxes from
the area to help pay for approximately the same share of such
improvements as it has bom in the past.
These suggestions will need to be carefully analyzed in the
next phase of the planning process, and a more detailed analysis of
the potential return to the city would have to be made before any
such policy is adopted. Any city policy on the use of targeted
taxes in the Gateway will have to recognize the area's unique
infrastructure needs and will probably need to differ from policies
applicable to single site development projects elsewhere in the
city-
PHASIMG THE IlfFKJtSTHUCTPRB
Because the Gateway covers over 4,500 acres, development will
not take place all at once or evenly over the site. Some areas
will see significant activity before the airport opens, and others
will probably not even begin development for 10 or 20 years. If
development Is left completely uncontrolled, it will produce a
fragmented leapfrog' pattern that unnecessarily increases vehicle
travel and air pollution and destroys the perception of the Gateway
as a cohesive community. Scattered densities will also moke it
less likely that a viable rapid transit line can be built through
the Gateway and out to the new airport. However, both the
substantial cost of building and extending Gateway Infrastructure
and clustering of the most dense developments around interchanges
and major intersections will help ph >se growth and will help ensure
that uneconomic parcels are not developed too early.
The city can also exert a great influence on where the
development actually occurs by controlling the construction of
73


essential new Infrastructure. While some parcels already have
water and sewer lines adjacent to their parcels, others will need
to build off-site connector lines to gain access to those services.
In addition, even though Airport Boulevard and the 18th Avenue and
56th Avenue interchanges will be in place, those two streets and
many others will have to he completed through the area and then
expanded as development proceeds, and the city will have a major
say in the timing of those improvements *
In addition, phasing of infrastructure can halp make
development in the Gateway more affordable. The city currently
plans to require that most infrastructure only be built as fast as
it is needed by Gateway businesses and residents. Careful phasing
reduces the up-front costs of private development and can avoid the
need for facilities to be maintained for many years before they are
actually used and before revenue from developments can help cover
their costs.
The First Ten Tears <1990-19991
During the first ten years, development patterns will probably
focus on land that is already fully serviced by utilities and land
that is closest to Airport Boulevard. Early hotel construction
around the 48th and 56th Avenue interchanges with Airport Boulevard
and completion of 56th Avenue across the Stapleton site will create
an immediate need to widen 56th Avenue and to complete 48th Avenue
to the east and west. Completion of 48th Avenue will also help to
begin knitting the Gateway area with its neighbors in Hontbello and
Green Valley Ranch.
In addition, Denver will only capture its share of airport-
related office and industrial development if an interchange Is
built at Airport Boulevard and Tower Road and if Tower Road is
improved some distance to the south. Since construction of
executive housing is critical to the future attraction of major
office users, It will also be important to complete the golf course
and at least some of the major parks and trails to attract such
housing.
During the first ten years, priority infrastructure will
74


probably Include (In no set order of priority) the following items*
Discussions with landowners, citizens, and city agencies in the
next phase of the Gateway process will be necessary to refine this
list and set priorities.
o Tower Hoad/Airport Boulevard Interchange
o 4 Lanes and Median on Portions of Tower Road
o 4 Lanes and Median on Portions of 56th Avenue
o Two Lanas of 48th Avenue
o Completion of the Golf Course
o Completion of Chambers Road
o 2 Lanes of 64th Avenue
o Development of the Urban Park and Trails
o completion of the Buckley Frontage Roads
The following Thirty Tears *2000-2029)
Development patterns during the first ten years will give us
important clues to determine what the infrastructure priorities for
later years should be. Without the benefit of the first ten year's
experience, we can only predict that development will probably
continue to spread out east and west along 48th and 56th Avenues
and north and south along Tower Road, and that additional new
development is likely around the First Creek golf course and park,
along the prime mountain view locations overlooking the Buckley
Frontage Road along Airport Boulevard, and near the 64 th
Avenue/Tower Road intersection.
Even without a precise schedule of how the parcels will
develop, though, Denver can identify those pieces of infrastructure
that will continue to have area-wide Importance and will probably
be effective tools in helping phase later development in the
Gateway. That list includes (in no set order of priority)*
o Completion of Tower Road
o Completion of 56th Avenue
o Completion of 48th Avenue
o Completion of the Cosmtunity Park, Second Creek Park,
the Nature Area, and the Trail System
o 64th Avenue/Aixport Boulevard Interchange
75


o
Completion of 64th Avenue
aOKIHG TO gyCOPRAGB SICT-OUALITT DEVELOPMENT
In order to fulfill its potential and to compete with other
suburban developments in the Denver airport environs and
nationwide, the Gateway area must be a very alluring area to live
and work* Those businesses that will help augment the Denver
economy through the 2 let century want to settle in areas where they
can be sure that their neighboring businesses will be held to
superior design standards and there will be good housing, schools,
parks, and trails available for their employees* One recent
airport market study stated that *.. a key ingredient in
attracting corporate headquarter facilities and research and
development facilities is ths provision of high-snd housing, and
high-end housing will only be successful where the public
facilities and services are of equal quality.*." Ensuring the
quality of private development in the Gateway over the next 40 to
SO years will require that the city try new and innovative
approaches to regulating development.
The challenge of development regulation arises because of the
distinctive nature of the Gateway area. But any development and
zoning regulations must also recognize the long projected buildout
period--40 to SO years or more* The regulations must be flexible
nd responsive to market forces. Mo one can tali what new and
desirable land uses will be common fifty years from now. The
Gateway's location next to one of the world's premier international
airports naans that it will compete with other prime development
areas throughout the world. In order to survive in that
competitive environment, the development approval process must also
be efficient. The fact that prime international businesses demand
that their later neighbors not undermine the quality of the area or
their investment in the area means that the regulatory process must
be fairly predictable.
In addition, the zoning approach needs to include workable
subdivision controls, so that the sale of land into smaller parcels
does not undermins the city's ability to achieve the goals of the
76


Gateway Concept. Plan. Strong subdivision controls will enable the
city to confirm the location of major street, park, and open space
dedications early in the process, and before a large number of
landowners have bought lend and developed inconsistent plans and
expectations *
Finding the right balance between flexibility, efficiency,
quality, and predictability requires a thoughtful and original
approach. It will require the creation of a new stone district and
promulgation of standards to cover diverse aspects of development
design including landscaping, signage, and the like. Denver's
current "Residential', 'Business*, "Industrial*, and "Open Space*
cone districts are geared primarily towards smaller-lot Infill
development where the uses and sites of adjacent buildings are
known in advance. Some of their specific development regulations
are not readily applicable to the development of large tracts of
open land like those in the Gateway* In addition, eons of them are
subject to overlay districts that could be better addressed through
a single integrated district.
Because of limitations in these existing district rules and
regulations, many new developments use the city's "Planned Unit
Development (PUD) district* The PUD district ordinance is
extremely flexible, since it allows a developer to propose and
negotiate almost all development parameters with the city and
adjacent landowners, and potentially allows any use in any context*
However, many do not view it as particularly predictable,
efficient, or conducive to producing a well-designed project, ft
is also very time-consuming for the city to administer and for
developers to navigate through the approval process. Other cities
that have allowed large new areas to be rezoned on a piecemeal
basis through PUDa have found that the result is a patchwork of
individual projects that does not create a unified character or a
real sense of community for the area*
Denver's Platte River Valley (FRV) zone district offers a
third alternative. It is an attempt to create a set of
coordinated, flexible development rules for a large undeveloped
area with many landowners* By establishing a unified set of ground
77


rules for an entire area and then requiring more detailed standards
for distinctive sub-areas before approval of individual projects,
the PHV district attempts to balance the competing goals of
flexibility and predictability. In its current form, however, the
PRV district has posed some administrative difficulties, and
improvements to the system are now being considered.
In order to fulfill Denver's vision of the Gateway, the city
will work with both area landowners and citizens to draft a
comprehensive new toning ordinance for the area and then rexone the
land In accord with this plan. The new district will contain
specifically tailored development regulations that draw on past
experience in Denver and in other cities that have applied high
quality standards to their economic benefit.
The first step in implementing the new system will be a
comprehensive re zoning of the Gateway area incorporating a two-
tiered development plan review system* The proposed approach is
outlined in Illustration 31. When this approach is finalized, it
will need approval from the Planning Board and the City council.
Tft? jteireaJLftq Ordiwffiee
The first step will involve the adoption of a Gateway-wide
zoning map {based on illustration 9) and development standards by
City council as an ordinance. The adoption of this zoning
ordinance will be a one-time event and will avoid the need for
Individual development proposals to be approved by City Council,
The ordinance will apply to all private lands in the Gateway area,
and will coveri
o Allowable land uses;
o Allowable intensities of development;
o Mandatory land dedications and impact fees; and
o Detailed physical development standards
(including heights, setbacks, bulk planes,
open spaces, landscaping, signs, and the like}.
The adoption of an area-wide zoning map and standards should give
most landowners the predictability they need to arrange development
financing or market their land for sale.


The First Tier
The First Tier of development review will require the
submittal of General Development Plans (GDPS) covering distinct
areas of the Gateway for approval by the Planning Board on a case-
by-case basis. GDPs will not need to be approved by City Council.
The landowners will be responsible for preparing and
submitting a GDP for their areas before proceeding with
development, but they need not do so until they ore ready to move
toward. GDPs will have a minimum site requirement [40 acres has
been suggested) to ensure that the parcel is large enough to plan
comprehensively and thus avoid small-parcel, piecemeal projects*
In same cases, an owner of a single large parcel may have land in
two distinct areas and would be required to submit a separate GDP
for each area. In other cases, an owner of a small tract of land
may have to cooperate with its adjoining landowners to bring
forward a single GDP plan for their collection of parcels.
Each GDP will need to demonstrate compliance with the
district-wide zoning map and standards and compatibility with any
adjacent GDPs already approved. In addition, each GDP will need to
provide an additional level of detail about proposed developments,
includingi
o Allocation of different land uses on the parcel;
o Allocation of heights and densities on the parcel;
o Auto/pedestrlan/blcycle circulation patterns;
o Stormwater drainage plans and dedications; and
o Location of land dedications for streets, parks, trails,
and other public facilities.
79


ILLDSTRATIOH 21
PROPOSED GATEWAY DEVELOPMENT APPROVAL PROCESS
ORDINANCE
lOHXXC ORDDWICt
Fraparat P>
City Sufi
Approved p>-
PUnning turd i City Count::
(In plot* by ir4 c! ItK;
rdlnanca inrludaa ragulaticna tor flbfldiilil. C-ttic: fm.
U!ri PadioatipnA (all clad to tfta Catavay Concept Hon), as 2
flavaioanaht ltanAin:i vhara apprapriata, for:
1, Ntiftiti i talk Plinoi
;, maintain Viow CortiOsn
Parka I Dpan 5paea
< batbacka and build-to Linao
9. PirkJng and hiding ipitti
t. EnviroAbantal fraticiion
?. iute/ftfttcri/>1cycl* circulation
l. Ugiugo
f, utility toeariena
10. lilUding Duifn
T
TIER ONE
CBfEBAL QffVXLCH'KEWT PLAN vrxru
Approval ty
Hanning board
ttoponC by
Lardgwnara
at tiM ef aovalofMiant
(ainiiui parcal ant 4.g. <0 aeras]
Plan >pt'*(iaai
l. Location cf diffacant uaaa or the pare*!
i. Allocation oC boigkt* and danaltiaa on Uit paroal
3- Auto/Fadaatrian/bieycla circulation pattern*
4. Enintg* plana and dedication*
1. Location a! land dedication* for mK, parka,
traila. and otbar public ficlLitiu
Raviav Cavan:
Cosplianea vitb Tur 1 rosing rigulitiam, and
-- Acceptability o* Tir 15 plan, on ica own, and in
relation to adsarant Central Davelopoenc Plana
I
TIER TWO
rrt FLAP REVIEW
Fripir0 ay
Uiidownir
[Co; individual bclldmg lit*]
Plan Specifies;
Approved by
City St*!!
1. building dloantlona and design
3. building area** er-d relations to other buildings
9* Parking location and saount*
t. ilgnage location and aannti
9. Land a taping location and loounti
ftaview Covara:
Compliance with tiir t toning ragulitiani,
cooplianea with Tiar :: canaral Oavalopoant Flan, and
Acceptability cl cita plan
80


General Development Plan approval will give the landowner much
information about generally acceptable land use configuration*
before he needs to decide on a final building and site layout. to
a continuation of the interjurisdictional planning that began with
the ATAC group, The City of Denver will consider implementing a
special use approval process for universal space and light
industrial uses In the area north of 56th Avenue and west of
Dunkirk Road that is adjacent to Aurora, subject to the creation of
a reciprocal process being adopted by the City of Aurora,
The Second (Site Pi*m Bwview) Tier
Building permits will not be issued until building and sits
plans have been finalised, submitted to the planning Office for
administrative review, and approved by planning and soiling staff
and other development review agencies. This review will include
approval of the following types of itemst
o Building dimensions and design;
o Building access and relation to other buildings;
O Parking locations and amounts;
o Signage location and amounts;
o Utility locations and capacities; and
o Landscaping location and amounts.
Each site plan will need to demonstrate compliance with the
district-wide soning map and standards and the GDP for the area,
plus compatibility with any adjoining approved GDPs or site plane.
Approval of the site plan is the last step In the soning process
and will not require approvals from either the Planning Board or
City Council. If a developer knows its plans for a parcel In
enough detail, it will be free to process both a GDP and a site
plan at the some time. In that case, development review staff's
approval of the site plan would be conditioned on the Planning
Board's approval o' the GDP,
01


APPENDICES
APPENDIX A THE GATEWAY TODAY
The Gateway area today is very rural. Meet of the property is
used for dryland faming. It changes in appearance from season to
season front gentle flowing waves of wheat to freshly cropped fields
to fallow. The views of the mountains ore spectacular. Proa
several high points you con see ell the way from Pikes Peak in
Colorado Springs to Longs Peak In Rocky Mountain National Park,
The land is gently rolling with very few trees except along
the snail creeks, Here, mature stands of cottonwoods and wetlands
provide habitat for the abundant wildlife, A few historic
farmsteads remainsome with outbuildings and split rail fencing
providing visitors a glimpse of how the settlers originally lived
and worked the land in these rural areas.
This sparsely populated land feels Isolated from the rest of
Denver except for the nearby neighborhoods of Montbello to the west
and Green Valley Ranch to the east. About 25,0Q0 people live in
these two Denver communities. There is a scattering of residential
subdivisions in adjacent Aurora and Adams County and a light
industrial park is under development near the interchange of Tower
Road and 1-70 just south of the Denver boundary.
The Rocky Mountain Arsenal to the northwest provides a 27-
square mile vista of undeveloped land with many native grasses and
natural land featuresmaking it on ideal wildlife preserve both
now and in the future* The Arsenal is home to large hards of deer,
several dozen wintering bald eagles, and an abundance of other
wildlife, all of which is being managed by the U*S* Army and U-S.
Pish and Wildlife Service,
ROADS TRANSPORTATION
The area is currently served by only a few paved roads, 56th
Avenue is a 2-lane paved road that begins at Havana Street at the
eastern boundary of Stapleton Airport and runs east to Tower Road*
Tower Road is also a 2-lane paved road that is continuous from
Aurora north to Adorns County. Chambers Road is a paved 2-lane road


that narrows as it cones out of Aurora and heads north until it
ends at the southern border of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal at 56th
Avenue, Buckley Road is a gravel road that runs from 56th Avanue
north into Adams County along the eastern edge of the Arsenal.
64th and 72nd Avenues are the only other roads serving the area,
and they are also unpaved, 48th Avenue was paved from Tower Road
east to near Piccadilly Road as part of the Green Valley Ranch
development. 1*70 parallels the southern boundary of the Gateway
Area and has interchanges at Chambers and Tower Road.
ZONING
The Gateway is currently zoned primarily fox residential and
agricultural uses. Some comnercial areas have been designated as
part of previously approved Pud's. The area north of 56th Avenue,
plus some 800 acres to the south, were brought into Denver in 1988
as part of the annexation for the new Denver international Airport.
Prior to this, the land was in Adams County and the majority was
zoned primarily for agricultural uses.
Most of the land In the Gateway south of 56th Avenue was
annexed into Denver in 1973. it is currently zoned primarily for
residential development with a limited amount of commercial. There
is a email shopping center with a grocery store at 48th Avenue and
Chambers Road, and a previous owner installed some streets, water
and sewer lines, and drainage facilities on land just to the north.
North of 48th Avenue between Tower and Piccadilly Roads,
along Pirst Creek, the land is zoned for high~density residential,
except for one node of high intensity cosuercial uses at the
northeast comer of 48th Avenue and Tower Road.
NATURAL AND CULTURAL RESOURCES
Most of the property is cropland for winter wheat. The major
stands of cottonwoods are clumped along First Creek, especially in
the wetland area north of the intersection of 48th Avenue and
Himalaya Road. Another significant stand lies north of 56th Avenue
along First Creek east of Buckley Road within the Airport Boulevard
right*of*way. There are other scatterings of trees throughout the


area.
The Colorado Diviaion of Wildlifa has mapped the overall
distribution of 16 spec lea of wildlife in the airport environs. Of
those specie*, 7 are known to be prevalent in the Gateway area
specifically.
There are many pheasant* In the areas north of S6th Avenue.
Ducks can be found on any small body of water or marsh, although
there are no Large concentrations in the Gateway. Whltetail and
mule Dear axe found throughout the ares, but especially in the
riparian habitat tone along First Creek where for squirrels can be
found as well* Coyote, rabbits, and prairie dogs are also native
along with an occasional antelope along the northeastern edge of
the area.
Golden eagles are also present throughout the area, although
there are no known nesting sites. Bald eagles feed along First
Creek and roost in the winter on the nearby Rocky Mountain Arsenal.
The Environmental Impact Statement {EIS) for the new airport
identified a number of archeological and historic resources in the
Airport Boulevard right-of-way. one of note is a historic
farmstead on Buckley Road north of 64th Avenue. These structures
have been determined Eligible for Listing* in The National
Register of Historic Places, The Gateway area outside of Airport
Boulevard right-of-way has not been surveyed, but there are a few
older buildings that may be eligible for designation as wall.
DRAINAGE
The area is divided into three drainage basins that all flow
in a northwesterly direction. The southernmost basin Is Irondale
Gulch. In the middle is the First Creek drainage basin and to the
north la the west branch of tie Second Creek basin. First Creek is
the major drainageway in the Gateway.
84


MINERAL RESOURCES
The airport environs contains many operating oil and gas
mill, but none are JLn the Gateway area. The Gateway has no mining
operations f but a dirt mine is being proponed just outside the
Denver border near 72nd Avenue and Dunkirk Road to provide fill for
area construction projects.
SOILS
According to information supplied by the U.S. Soil
Conservation Service, the soils in the Gateway are generally sandy
and loamy with low shrink-swell ratios. Soils along First Creek
indicate the existence of significant wetland areas where
development will be discouraged. Before construction begins,
detailed site-specific soil studies will be required.
ROOT HCXJUTAIR AHSKHAL
The Areenal is owned by the U.S. Amy. Its 27-square miles
has been polluted for over a 30-year period by the Amy and several
chemical companies. Because the prevailing groundwater flow off
the Areenal is to the west and northwest (away from the Gateway},
it is expected that any of the alleged contaminants that may be
migrating off of the Arsenal are moving in that direction ss well.
Thera is no evidence that any contaminants have moved southeast
towards the Gateway. The Gateway Office is currently represented
on an advisory committee monitoring clean-up of the Areenal.
The eastern quarter of the Arsenal adjacent to the Gateway is,
according to information provided by the U.S. Army, the least
polluted portion. Under the management of the D.5. Fish and
Wildlife Service, animals and birds are being monitored for Cigna
of contamination.
This eastern part of the Arsenal also has the greatest
concentration of wildlife and potential for use as a wildlife
preserve with passive recreational and open space opportunities for
the public. The Army recently completed construction of an eagle
observation site open to the public on Buckley Road near G4th
Avenue (across the road from the historic farmstead mentioned
85


earlier).
The Any is currently working to clean-up contamination of the
Arsenal To achieve this objective, the Army ie presently pursuing
13 interim response actions. Those interim actions will not affect
the final clean up plans. A decision on a final clean-up program
is scheduled to be made in late 1593 The clean-up effort is
expected to last until the Year 2000.
WATER RESOURCES
There are four different bedrock aquifers that lie under the
Gateway areathe taramie-Foxhilla, the Lower Arapahoe, the Upper
Arapahoe, and the Denver Aquifer. Of those four, the Laramie-
Poxhills is the deepest, requiring wells approximately 1750 feet
deep and capable of supplying about 1334 acre-feet of water per
year. The Denver Aquifer is the shallowest, requiring wells
averaging 650 feet deep, and capable of supplying approximately 999
acre-feet of water per year. Whan combined, the four aquifers
could supply an estimated 3814 acre feet of water annually. Of
that total, 59% is non-tributary water, 201 is tributary water more
than one mile from a stream, and 21% is tributary water less than
one mile from a stream* Denver does not anticipate tapping these
aquifers to supply the Gateway with potable water.
86


APPENDIX B
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AIRPORT K*P**rr STT1DIBS
The following la a list of some of the market studies the
Gateway office reviewed and utilized in developing its iand-uee
recommendations,
1- Development Activity Hear The New Airport, Kenneth d. Bleakly,
haventhol and Horvath {undated)
2. The Regional economic Iragactof Stapleton International
Airport, and Future Airport Development. Book-Allen t Hamilton,
Inc* (August, 1986)
1. A Land Uag Analysis of the Environs of Stapleton International
Airport. Browne, Bortz L Coddington, Inc# (July, 1986)
4. Ready For Takeoff# Coley/Forrest and Spensely and Associates
(1989) for Colorado National Banks
5* Airport Market Study# Coley/Forrest, Inc. and WeatFlan
Partnership [Hay, 1989)
6. The Regional Economic Impact of Stapleton Airport and Future
Ajipport Pevelr.pnt Colorado Forum Regional Task Force on the
Economic Impact of Stapleton Airport (1987)
7. Exploring The Future* A White Paper on the-Importance Of Air
Carco to Development of the Denver International Airport. Hugh
Gardner, Prudential-Bache Capital Funding (April, 1989)
8* lapllcitiffm_____of__zha__Cqn&ttiitUgTi_al___ttaltii_Hast_MiPdct
Facilities for Economic Development# Frank Gray and Gennlfer
Sussman (September, 1986)
87


ftFPBMDU C
GROWTH PATTEMS AROUTCD OTHER AIRPORTS
Development pattern* around major airport:* differ markedly.
Many older airports in built-up area* offer few laaeons for Denver,
except to the extent they a hen# the problems that can be created by
lack of careful planning* Many of these older airports Inflict
serious noise problems on nearby residential communities built too
close to their boundaries. Others ars a confusing jumble of small
hotels, fast-food restaurants, billboards, and other unattractive
commercial uses. They lack any sense of community or place and
provide very poor entryvays for their cities and states.
The environs of three of the most recently constructed major
airfieldsDal las/Ft. Worth, Atlanta, and Kansas Citydo, however,
present more relevant and interesting examples for Denver to
scrutinise. Interestingly, all three airports were built and their
environs first developed during olow-growth economic periods much
like Denver is now experiencing.
Dallas/ft. Worth (DFW)i DTK airport, located about 17 miles
from downtown Dallas, opened in 1974. Although a number of
comminities shared in the growth from the new airport, most of the
nonresidentini development was captured by Las Colinas. Las
Colinas is a 11,000-acre planned community developed by a single
property owner within the city of Irving, Texas. It Is located off
of the second exit from the airport freeway, about five miles from
the airport terminalapproximately the same distance the Gateway
lies from the Denver International Airport terminal. A confluence
of several factors has allowed Las Colinas to gamer almost 1004 of
the office development, most of the upper-end residential uses, and
almost 50% of the Industrial growth associated with DFW since 1974.
It now has about 25,000 residents and 25,000 jobs. First, and
probably foremost, Los Colinas lies within the boundaries of the
City of Irving, which was practically the only local government
near DFW with water and sewer service available in the early years.
Second, the developer put in place a very attractive package of
amenitiesfor example, over 30% of the land is dedicated to open
space. Including four major golf courses and an extensive
83


riverfront park* Finally, an aggressive regional Barkerlug effort
helped attract firms from other states and abroad*
Initially, development at Las Colinas was quite alow. Five
years after Da11as/Ft* Worth opened, only 500,000 square feet of
induatrial space had been built in the entire DFW environs. Office
construction also laggedthe first building was not completed
until three years after the airport opened* Residential
construction was very low, and retail development nonexistent*
Today, however, the picture for office, industrial, and
residential development is far different* Las ColinasJ urban
center is home to over a dozen high-rise office buildings, some
over 25 stories tall* Approximately 97% of the 11*3 million square
feet of office space around DFW is in Laa Colinas* Major
headquarter firms include Exxon and GTE. Almost 5*5 million square
feet of industrial space has been built, much of it for
international firms such as Honda, Fiat-Allis, and Panasonic.
Las Colinas has also completely changed the residential market
in the area* In the early days, only low- and moderate-income
housing was available in Irving. Las Colinas bucked this trend by
providing high-end executive housing* Today, a wide mix of quality
housing is available, interestingly, the largest number of
airport-related workers reside in Dallas, not in airport
communities like Las colinas*
The DFW airport and environs have almost 5,000 hotel roams,
including a 1,390 room airport hotel* Las Colinas hosts a number
of hotels and several growing meeting centers* It has also been
successful in attracting training 'villages" where employees are
flown into the airport area by large corporations for intensive
training on computers and other equipment*
Atlantai Atlanta's airport environs have developed much
differently than DFW'a* Although the Atlanta airport is widely
credited with attracting jobs and new firmsparticularly
international businessesto the region, relatively little of this
growth has taken place around the airport. The primary reason for
this is that, like Stapleton, the Atlanta airport is located in the
middle of a built-up area approximately eight miles from downtown.
89


la fact, the largest tract of land available for development275
acresresulted from the purchase and clearance of bousing for
airport noise abatement purposes.
Before the airport expanded in 1980, industrial uses
predominated in the immediate area* In the first five years after
expansion, there was little new industrial or office space built.
However, since then industrial space has boomed* In 1986 and 1987
a total of over 2 million square feet was constructed.
Relatively little office space has been constructed in the
Atlanta airport environsonly an average of 187,000 square feet
per year. The only major headquarters firm is Delta Airlines*
However, hotel construction has been much more intensive. Since
1980 over 4,000 rooms have been added, spurred in part by the
presence of a medium-si zed 136,000 square foot convention and trade
center built just north of the airport by the City of College Fork*
There has been little residential development around the
Atlanta airport because a good deal of low- and moderate-income
housing already existed, and because the predominance of industrial
space has not created a demand for new, more expensive housing
developments.
Kansas Cltvi Kansas City's new airport was opened in 1972, 17
miles from downtown. Development in surrounding areas has been
quite slow when compared to Atlanta and Dallas, although it has
been intensifying in the last five years* Several factors have
contributed to this slower buildoutt Lower air traffic levels at
the Kansas City (KC) airport and the lack of international air
connections; land speculation in the airport environs; the
psychological barrier of the Kissouri River; and steep terrain that
adds to development costs*
Like dfn, the KC airport was located in a rural farming area*
Similarly, one large projectthe 3700-acre Executive Hills Horth
developmenthas dominated the environs market. A smaller project
named Airworld has attracted a significant amount of industrial
space. The total amounts of office and industrial space in the
environs are 1.3 and 1*4 million square feet respectively* Huch of
the industrial space is occupied by airport-related firms, while
90


only a portion of office apace ia related to the airport.
There are nine hotels in the airport area, four of which were
built soon after the airport was completed. They provide a total
of 1,619 rooms. Only Executive Hills has any substantial, quality
residential development, a fact that has hindered efforts to
attract firms to the area.



TAm riTiTH.iWM ASBtMPTI QMS
In order to allow substantial flexibility to adjust to future
market conditions, many parts of the Gateway are defined as mixed
use districts. Planning for adequate amounts of parka and adequate
street capacity, however, requires that some assumptions be made as
to how the mixed use areas ore likely to build out* For purposes
of estimating Infrastructure needs, we assumed that the mixed use
areas will build out with a mix of uses roughly parallel to the mix
of demands set forth In some of the more detailed market studies*
In some cases, such os hotels and retail usea, we assumed that
future growth in the Gateway could substantially exceed those
market projections*
Our assumptions are set forth belowi
1. Low-density residential areas will build out at 6 du/ocre*
2. Mid-densitv residential areas will build out at 15 du/ acre*
3* Residential parts of mixed use areas will build out at 30 du/acre.
4. nixed use 1 areas south of 65th Avenue will build out with
401 hotel uses,
54 support retail uses,
351 office uses, and
204 residential uses*
5* Mixed Ose 1 Areas north of 65th Avenue will build Out with
454 hotel uses
104 support retail uses, and
454 office uses*
t. Mixed pbs 2 areas will build out with
54 hotel uses,
104 office uses,
704 flex-space uses, and
154 residential uses*
7. Mixed use 3 areas will build out with
304 office uses, and
704 flex-space uses*
92


8
Mixed use 4 areas eouth of 65th Avtnoe will build out with
351 office uses,
51 support retail uses, and
601 residential uses.
9. Mixed Dee 4 areas north of 65th Avenue will build out with
901 office uses, and
10% support retail uses.
10- Mixed use 5 areas will build out with
10% hotel uses,
60% flex-space uses,
5% support retail uses, and
25% office uses.
11. The Town Center area will build out With
50% major retail uses,
25% office usee,
10% hotel uses, and
15% residential uses at 30 du/acre
93


Full Text

PAGE 1

PLANNING OFFICE FRONT DESK COPY DO NOT REMOVE DENVER'S NEWEST FRONTIER GATEWAY/STAPLETON DEVELOPMENT OFFICE PLANNJNO AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT OFFICE CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER THE GATEWAY CONCEPT PLAN AUGUST 1990

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IIBM:I!VJDt YOU CAll DO, OR DII.BAII YOO CAll DO, BICD l'l'. IIOI.Om!SS BAS GIUIIDS, Am) IGGlC D rr.

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GM'EiiAY COIICI!PT PLAN lUGIILIGil'l'S SBaiOII Is VISIOII AIID llliCltGROUliD u.Gt 1 s A VISION OP DENVER'S AIRPORT GATEWAY IN THE YEAR 2020 S TilE GATEWAY TODAY 13 TilE CHALLENGE OF GROW'l'll 13 IIARXE'l' STUIU.BS OF TilE DENVER AIRPORT BNVIRONS l4 Lodgi.ng/Meeting Office Industrial Residential IIEE'UNG TilE cmLLENGE OP GROWTH SIIC'l'IOII II t 'I'HE GAnllllT OQNCI!PT Pl.Aif GA'l'EIIliY GOALS TilE CONCEP'r PLM Url>an Deoign And C..-unlty .Prllllllt...,r k Activity Centers Streets Aa Dist1nctive Places Densities And Reigbt. s Developaant Gateway Land Oaea The Neighborhoods And Town Squares 1!.he Town Center Buaineea Area. s The Public Framework Parka, Trail a, And Open Space Transportation Other Public Buildings And l'acilltiea Enviro,..,tal Protection Noise Watm: Qual1ty water use and A1r Quality Wildlife Historic Resources Cooperation Wlt.h OUr lle1ghbors 14 ,15 16 17 19 21 21 24 24 24 25 27 30 30 31 36 37 42 42 so 55 57 59 60 61 62 63 64 6 4

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SBC'l'IOII m lliPLBIIBII'rlliG 'I'IIE PLAII llllERl! DO WE GO PROM IIERJ!? BtnLDING AND PAYDIG FOR lNPRAS'I'RUC'roRl! Impact Fees and Land OQcticatioJUI Taxing-Districts Bootstrap Financing TRE The F irat Ten Years (1990-1999) The Following-Thirty Years (2000-2029) ZONING TO BNCO,URAGE IOGH-()UALI'l'f Dt:VELOPHEIIT The Compreh&JUiive Reoning Ordinance The Pirst COQve1opment Review) Tier The Second (Site Plan Review) Tier APl!!!JIDICES APPENDIX A APPEr.JD.IX B APPENDU C APPENOU D APPE!oiDU E AI'PBIIDIX I' APPENDIX G APPENDIX H THE GATEWAY TODAY BIBLIOGRAPHY 01' AIRPORT KARKET STDD.IES GRDiiTII PATTEIUIS A:AOUliD OTHER AIRPORTS LAIID AREA CALCULA'l'IOII ASS!IHPTIONS GATEWAY INPRAS1'RUCTI!Rl! NE'l'!IOJU( OP KEY FACTS AT FULL BtnLDODT lllYU(ET STUDIES OF THE DEliVER AIRPORT fUIVIJWHS ACIUIOlit.EDGElll!N'I'S 67 67 68 72 72 72 73 74 75 76 78 79 81 82 82 87 88 92 94 99 100 102 If you would l!ke more infoc=ation than i a contained in this report, you may contact t.ha Gateway/Stapleton Development Office, 1445 Cleveland Place, Room 400, Denver, Coloracto 80202; (303)640-2155.

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ILLUSTRAtiON PAGJ: ILLUSTRATION 1 Ga teway Vicinity Map 4 ILLUSTRATION 2 Gateway Plan Perspective 6 ILLUS'l'RA'l'ION 3 Illustrative Town Square 9 ILLUSTRATION 4 Second Illustrative Town Square 10 ILLUSTRA'l'IOII S Alternative Reaporuoea to Growth 20 ILLUSTRATION 6 The Comprehensive Plan 23 ILLUSTRATION 7 Illustrative Buaineaa Green 26 ILLUS'tRA'l'ION 8 Maximum Heights And Densities 29 ILLUSTRATION 9 Land Use Map 32 ILLUSTRATION u Anticipated Land Use Acreage 33 ILLUSTRATION 11 Residential lind Residential M.hed Use Map 35 ILLUSTRA'l'rON 12 Illustrative Town Center 38 ILLUSTRATION 13 Business And Business Hi.xed Use Map 4 0 ILLUS'l'RA'l'ION 14 Illustrative Auto-Oriented Recall Approach 41 ILLUSTRATION 15 Park Standard& And l\.C:reage Requirements 4 5 ILLUSTRATION 16 Park And Off-Street Trail System Map 46 ILLUSTRNriON 17 Transportation system Map 52 :ILLUSTRATION 18 Street lfieratchy And Cross-Sections 53 ILLUSTRATION 19 Bnvironzent.al Asset Photographs 58 ILLUSTRATION 20 Proposed Water And Sewer System 71 ILLUSTRATION 21 Proposed Development Approval Process 80 ILLUSTRATION 22 Conceptual Plood COntrol Illlprovementa Map 96

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!Cil!lWT..!IQ!iiiRlm! The Get.eway O!fice owea a trllliMlndous debt to the lllelllbere of the Northeast co=idor Taak Force for the many boura they spent vith u s reviewing ow: ideu, of:fer.i.ng new ones, eajolJ.ng, and debating. They began aa our sounding board and teachers and ended up as our colleagues and frienda. Lee Andrews deserves special thanka for providing space !or the Tllllk Porce meetings at the Embassy Suites Hotel. A8 with every undertaking ot thia liiAgnitude, many people 111.11.c:le significant contributioJUI. Other city agencies, part.icuJ.arly the Denver Planning Office, gave invaluable aslistance. Parmer Planning Director William Lamont, Jr. gave unatinting support by aupplyinll everything fro11 paper clips to office apace when we were etarting up. He also authorized key llembers of the Planning Oil.i.ce and. zoning ,o.dminiotration otaff--J.nc:Lud!ng Diclc Parley, EJ.len Crain-Jordan, !len Bar kama, David Backer, Jackie Slake, Prancea Burg, Joy Gibeon, llarl BaberliiAn, Harriet Hogue, Merlin Logan, Dorothy Napa, Bonnie Turner, wayland. Walker, Bob werner, Doug Wheeler, and David Wiclteful to all the landownera and Denver citizens who have worke
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; GATEWAY PLAN !fiGHL1GHTS In May, I !ISS. Dm rho! ldlilly ..,.hive u ...u, 'Ibe Oalwd help pMlna omcc. dl)' ccuneil. and official from nelchborin& juriJdict!cns. Their ccmtlnucd p:micip>JiGn and """IIY wiU be needed 110 msun: lht plan bcc001<1 Mtiry over lht nat SO )'Uri or *I lllat II w ill !alee !he 111:110 l\llly INild OUL SrtonJ; etrorts hove been made ro lnreartro Oareway pl..,.;ng wllll lilt exlsrlnllmpmvemcnrsln M ontbello and On:cn Valley Ranch and willl fuiU'" plw for !hOse mas.. It It lmponan110 tlarl r y, howcvcr,lll arlllla plan ClOts not porport 10 be a pion rorlhc MOI'IIbello an:o or for lhosei,.IJ ofO...n IOUI!I of dill Avenue. Slmllarly,lhcOateway Concept Plan =prs 10 tnh lhc tiOiiniO and around lilt dcalJ:ll (Ot AilJ)Ort BollllMrd, but h dots not &IM'm lhc llml cksicn or conswalco ol lbaJ very lmpoll>lll road. Denvcr"S ma six dmcs lht oiJr or !he OmYtr Ted! Ctnlu -otrm 1 hoa or Jl'tll oppommllies fl>< the city and lht rq!OII It It Is dcoh willl lhoulbd\llly and bo141y. Rtft: are o:>one biJhlichrs or lht Ollr lht Oarcwoy 10 sucoecd In the long run Is 10 emphlslr.e quallly The plan cncot1111ts bi&h quality, economically profitable dve reviews 10 fin.alizo plan dcttDs. SlfOng urban dcsifltl M4 dcvclopmcnt. sllndllrd s t o ensure dcvclopus !lui rhdr lnvcsanerus wm be pootccu:d lllCI lhc an:a will be onr..:ti vt. I

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I DTS11NCTrV, LfVABLE NEJ:GRBORJrOODS I Tho Cascwy wiU have IIlii a ...,.., of COIIImunity. Tho typical suburt>an poncm or developmentwhere projc<:U arc plonned on 1 pon:clbyparccl b&sls wllhoon 1 view o(buw the area ftts together es a whcle will be IM)Ided by e!lllbilshlng Ill overall vision ror the area prior to development. Trails and sldcwoll:$ as weu as Un:c1ll and ITtnJit wllllmll neishborlloods together. Employmetll eentm wiD be lnlegratcd whh 1 baUnccd mia or howlng to accommodole up to 65.000 now ruidetllS. No hoiUing wiU be loc:ascd In or near alrpon noise zones. I AC''IWITY CENTERS E.lch neighborhood and biUiness arca will have I focal point tO C...tc a sense of llvdlncu. These activity ccntcn wJU also bclp cncounge mus tnnsltllld reduce dependence on the momobUc. A series or town $qua...:S wW ancl1or rcsldcnllal nelghborhocxb, AU nelghborllood rmll btsl!lt!W$ and oommunity scale public Iaellkles llkc pou offices wiU IOCI!t on these squares. A town center wBI be tho focus of aU lltll< m:.sunding retail and major public jnstirutions. Ltlllctseal holel IIlii omee developments (no """" than 150 feet blah) will be c!USICI'Cd around intezchln&es and majo< not SJII'Cad out along llleria!S. I ENVIRONMENTAL PROTEcnoN I Pmtcdlng the t:twlronment w!U be a Wllehwonlln tho Csleway, bclplng to dcmonsttatc lhJ1 pt:apl< cao live lwmoniOUJIY with Ntrurc. Wildlife )Qhj!Ats such as wctbnd$ and ruambedi will genaaUy be ofT Umlu to developmenL A Mturc area wiD be esubllshed as pan or the Gstc.way pat< ryuem. SpecW steps wtll be taken to CllSI!I'C th:u the quality or rtonnWJICJ' runoff does not odvent:ly llfl'ect wildllJc or tho environment. D111lnage orcas will be mainWncd In a norutul stale whenever possible.. A w;lter rceyeUng system Is prof'Oil'n design lllCISUitS like the town and other development SWldanls wW reduce the use of automobDes and air pollui!on. Rbtotle resources wW be given sped II ttendoo. 2

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I Allfi'LB PAR KS AND TIVJLS I The ""'" will have D pad< :u1d llllll ntlworl< lltlbc IBI!ition or Donvet'l ronowncd P>l'< S}'!lem. A llltllt 90-acre Ulb;m pJtl<. golf course. lind ncighbolbood and communicy p:u!nl being bolfll 10 lbc new airport. wW be lmponanl inceruivt.< 10 development Oilie r l nft:llaucnm: will h.Dvc 10 be provided in dmely fashion 11121 docs n01 crcau: 1 bolrdcn on cilium in olbcr pnltf or lbc cicy or make developmenl u...:onomlctl such as plming IIJid crwlon of spccW developc:r-finonecd lnft:lSUlleturo d i stricts are already being explored. I RELA TIONSHII' TO OTIIE R AREA S OF TilE C1TY The plan helps nearby Monlbello IIJid Orte11 Vi!lley Ranch nelghborboods by encoumging a trille4l mASS or people 10 onmc1 needed re111lliiCIVices, by anoa1ing now omploymtnl cellltl! 10 provide jobs, and by improving to polt.s IIJid tnils Additionally, lhe plan encourage s a IIJid scale of devclopmeru end userlhal wW comptemtnl downtown and oilier business ereu or the cll}' I COOPERATION WitH OUR NErGHDORS I lrueljurisdlctlonnl cooperation h.Ds been ond mus1 comlnue 10 be an undcrpirming o f the plan. O.tn'cr has wori
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... ;.lrpot' \ ., ..... Rocky D c:J D----------
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SJCTIOI! I I VlSJOK MD DIIC!GI!O!!I!! .!\ VXSIQJ! OF DBJni)!R' S AIRPORt !jM'I!fAI IJ! 'D1!! DM. 2020 What vill Denver' C..t...,a y area look llJte in the Tear 2020? 1'hb 4500 acres of private land lying aauida tlul wide access corridor connecting the new airport to Interstate 70 presents a great opportunity for the city. If the principles and goale eet out in this C..t...,ay concept Plan are puraued and the ezpecteJOII$ built too c:loee to runways. 5

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IS:W 2 UJ.J!STIWr i I / -I /r..J I t < [.;) i I c. tl I' < i l d I 6 I I I -!: I I 6

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I .nstead, the firat impreeeion ia one of quality davelo-nt, of an area tbat is distinctively Denver. That impression is underscored by the hotel and busl.naso center at 72nd Avenue and TOwer Road, one of aevere.1 entrances to tha Gateway. It exe=pllfieo the care and thinking that went into all aapecta of design. Here, thriving hotels, small Jl18etlng center.s, and officee are clustered around a 11ajo r .lnter.saction, not stripped out alo119 the length of thia arterial. Busineaa people can fly in, conduct their work in a beautiful setting, enjoy neighborhood reatauranu, and end the day vith A round on the qolf course near-at-hand or take a duak lldl.i.fe tour on the nearby national wildlife refuge that wae once the Rocky Kpuntaln Arsenal. The feeling at thia business uode ia urban--buildings front onto the street, for example--but the scale ia not overwhelming. The talles t hotol. and office buildings rise to a maxiiiiUIII of 12 ato>:iea, although aost are amaller. The developments are weJ.l.landseaped and a1 ted to take advantago of the mountain viewa. Signa are discreet--they infora instead of overwhelm. JWit off this signAture road to the east and weat ia a different kind of bua.lneaa coaDUnity. Through innovative zoning designed to acCOIIIaloclate a wide range of actlvit.ieo-of.tice/ warehouse f..a.oil1tiea, research centers, prototype p-roduction, Ught aaaambly, and otber clean enterpriaea--tbia thriving mixed use area aaintaino a quality i11aga through llttractive plantings, buffering, and muted algnaga. Becauae of a deliberate dec.1aion not to extend 1\aavy rail linea into the area, the Gateway does not .house beavy aanufacturi:nq ope.ratlona more auited to other are.a.s of Denver. Small open apecea and equareo provide lunch-time apace for: wo.rkers, who al_ao bave aa.ay acceaa to the Gateway a ballfield&, temda courta, tra.lle, and other tacilltiaa after the day ia done. Public improvame.nta in the Gateway reflect the ......, care oncl cOIIIIIJ.t.ant to quality aa tba private dsvelo-nta. TOwer Road and 56th Avenue set the tone for the area w1.th wide lllediana and 11111ple landscaping. Other major atroots alao share in the tradition of Denver a grand parkway ayat-. and incorporate plantings with water 7

PAGE 14

conaerving trees and Bue perhaps as auch aa ebe physical cloaign, elua vilitor noeic.,. tha e people ......, va.lldnq and ric!.i.ng bilautifully plant.ad public opac .. -provide an alluring aetting for neighborhood rat&ll ahopo Uke dry cloanara, grocery atorea, l>alteriu, and bardOtare atorea. And 'h.J.nd or beaid. e the buUd.J.ngo. och rwl.ghborhood hal a focal po.J.nt--a heart. In add.J.tion, a larger Town Center La aitOlat..d atrategically in t:.he aiddlo of the G.ateway com.!t:y to ae.rvo the aajor ahoppi.ng needa of reaidenta. During tlw day, the Town Can"er la allve vith ahoppera and vorkera f.,_ nearby ollicu. At night, the actl.v1ty contlnuoa aa peopl arrive for their con-r1nlty colle9e c1aeaea or latoat .ovle, have a leieurely drink at a eidewalk cafe, or in a conc-ert at the C:OIIIIIu oJ.ty pa.rk next door, eaon; the JwautUOll old cottonwood a olong Firat Creek. Tho 'l'ovn Center il tru.ly a lively place fo.r people. On veekenda, the large urban park on the veat aide of the Gat.e,.ay ringa with the delighted ehouta of ldda aa they pull a basa or aunfiah fnm t1w c._,nity lake. Joggera tro. the cloa.,_by hctela enjoy the sight aa they run on one of tbe .. ny tra.J.ia that loop through the Gat-ay along a .. u creeka and h.Lator.Lc irrigation canal a. Horae .r.idere fan out fraa an equeat.rian center 1n --s;he c.,...unity paxk near the 'l'ovn Center alonq apecielly deeignaud trail a that extend. northweot into the natio.nol urban wild.J.J..fo refu.;e a nd aout.heaat 1 .nto Aurora. 8

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IU.USTRATIQN 3 9

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lO tt.L11577
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Because of a.ll of these amenJ.ties, the Gat-ay neighborhooda - intact and unimpaired. Bald aaglaa can be seen soaring through the sky and feeding in the. area. Deer graze in the tdl grasses of the floodplains at dusk, and at night Great Ho%ned Ovla patrol in the woods. The creelus run clear and clean because of special atapa taken to control runoff from atreets and parking lou. When the v zlto.ra leave the Gateway to head downtown or back to the llirport, they leave with a nrong, poaiUve impression o1 ll

PAGE 18

Denver, 'C.he Front Range, and Colorado. They have aeen a vibran' _t., econocically otrong c0111111llDJ.ty offari.nq the beot that both city and coWl try have to offer. This is only a vision of wha t can be. ""It. will t.alte much vorlt and cooper
PAGE 19

'J'!II Go\tl!!fA! !OOAX Denve:r'a A.i.rport Gateway &rea e.ncompaaeu over 4500 ac:rea o f land. It lies the established Denver neigbbol:hooda of Montbello one! Green Valley Ronch alonq the transportation corridor that Interstate ?0 with the new airport, about 20 mLlea fro10 dO>mtOim. ,-.on of tho property i s in private ownership and ia now devoted to drylo ncl when fat:Dllng. This 11 an enoxmoua amount of land for a city that h a s been virtually landlocked by o nac:1:ment of the Poundstone Alllenclllloont in 1974. Por tho Gateway La aix o s large ao the Denver Te<;h Ce11ter and eight t!Aeo tbe o be of the Platte Valley.. Hovover, the Gatevay cont..Una ol\ly a ... 1 J portion of tho total land theoretically available for develo-nt around tho new airport-there 11 another 150,000 acreo of land in Ada COuney, Aurora, Bri9hton, and COJIIID&rce City. AppencUx A containa a 1110ro cletailocl closcription of the Gateway toda y-ita natural features, road.a, ox.lat1n9 developaent:s, and othe.r cha.ra.e t.e.riatic. mz rnxJ.B!!jB or GROH'1'B Although there 1a on enoDOOUJI aJDOunt of land availabl e for clovelopoent around tha n-Denver rnternat1onel A.irport, the Gateway 11 particularly well-oituatecl. It beo good accQSs and aunicipol servicu readily available, so that it ohoulcl prove very ottroctive to hotela anCI budneeees wonting to locate .in the vicinity of the new airport. Ind1cationa are tha t it wiU begin to develop lllllch earlier then 110at ot the other property in the airpOrt environa. Given theae at.tribut-ee, Denve;r: can expect a variety of d11ferent lr!ncla of growth in the Gateway over tho next 10, 25, and 50 yeuoo. Several good aarket otudlea cooopleted between 1985 and 1990 p%0vicle cletoilecl onelyaee of the 100at likely patte.rno ot oct1dty. The aarket etud1ea reviewed for thio plan are liot.ecl in Appendix B. We aloo vioited the airport environ around tho Dallas/Ft. Worth (DI!'ll). Atlanta, and City (ltC) airports aa well ae others to get a feeling for what 11.ight. happen in OQnve.r The key point.c from thooo caae atudieo are oat out i n Appendix c.

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In e nut.ahe.ll, the qenera.l sequence of nonrea.idential development (of parce.ls lo.aa Uan 1000 acre-a) around DPW, Atlonta, ond KC airports can be surrn.ar ized as follows: 1. Lodging; 2. Singlo user, owna.r-finan.eed industrial, office/ varahouae office/distribution J. Small speculative in.dustrial, office/distribution buildings; Larqer speculative .industria-l, Of fico/warehouse or office/distribution buildings; s. MUltistory office buildings; ancl 6. F.r4.0chi.se a : nd epeeia.l.ty .reeta.u..ra..nu. no regional ahopping malls have been built near any airport openod in tho .laet 20 years. JWU!IT S'1!JDI!lS Ql' 'l'BB DBJIV1!R Ail!PQ!\T !S!!VU!QJ!S Studies perforiiAid by landowners, the New Denver Airport Office, the Planning Office, and eurrounding juriadiet!on a.re fa.irly consistent in_ their predict-ions about future growt. h pat tome around the Denver lnternat.lona.l Ai..rport.. Gene.rAl.ly, they foresee tbat there will be an initial flurry of airpo:rt-relat.ed davelopment like hoteb prior to the airport opening, but that au.b&tant.ial additional development will not occur in the next .5 to 10 yaa:ra. Subsequently, the paca of development will depend si.gnificantly on w-hethe r the area mo.rketed aggressively and has estahlahed a quality imago. Hera a a summary of tboee studies L9da1nq/Haetina racil!tiea will be among earliest typee of development to proc.eed in the Gateway. Predictions range from 500 to 3000 nrooau around the airport by opening day in 1.993 (2-12 new hotels). Th e nwol>ere increaae to up to 20 new hotels vith 5, 500 roama by tbe Year 2010. 'l'he total number of lodging un1..:e will be affected by several factors, .1nclu(f:J.ng the volume of destination pa_aaengera a_t tbe nmor a.i.rport, 1:.he pace of nonre-sidential conat:ruct.ion J.n tho Gateway, and whe :t.her exi.atlng hotels near the Stapleton site

PAGE 21

contJ..nue to opexaca. One atudy a.pbaeJ.zecl that U a trade/-ting center vera built in the Gateway to cater to eaaller regional trade ANI abort r"9iOIIAl corporat:a -t!nga, hotel developoent could be significantly accelerated. Q[fiQO No recently bu1l t or expanded IIIAjor eJ.rport has witnessed any au.bttantial nearby office conatruction in tho firat 10 years after opening. Tbia baa been true evan in growing areu li.ke Dallu/l't. Worth and Orlando. Same early, office aay take place in tba Gat-ay to accrweoUicont t.u. &Del effort to chanqe northe-t Denver' buin J.aaga. One forecoat i.e that the airport envlrone will capture only 2\ to 4\ of the metropolitan office by the Year 2010. That atudy eotl.mates that until the Year 2000 the airport onviroM ahouid not expect to see .ore than 167,000 aquare feet of office 15

PAGE 22

cona-tiuet.iol1 nnnuolly. TO put that number in contoxt, over the post five years tile metro usa lloo averogod about 2 million II<)Ue.re feet of office conatruction annU-Ally. The world econoJOY hos chsn9ed dr"""'tically since the early dAys of development around. the DP'W and Atlanta a.irport.e, howeve.r, ADd it "ill continue to change. Tile globa.lizotion of mo.rlteto lloo increased, and a at.rong: preference of zajor fiDUJ to locato in regions that offer an educated population, natural beauty, and a Mgb quality of life lloo """"'ged. I1 oxpected international. .flights to 2u=po and tho Pacific Rim materiallu, Donvor 1114Y wall exporie:nce ra-c.ea of office and hotel devol.opment and international business opportunities that outpace the paat experiences at othe_ r JIIOjor nO>< Aizporta. After the Year 2000, the Gatevoy oreo will probably become more o.tcractive to national and international fixma seeking to build regional And na.tiona.l head.quorterlo i.f there i.a a strong lOArltet.Lng effort, if early commercial developooent eeuo o quality imoge for the area., if high-end executive houainq itt available, and if attracti-ve public Ule.nitie.s--parka, libraries, and achoola--are in place. Also, ae 1\o\ISing ia built in the Gatevay, the demand for cQI!Ilunity scale offices for in.sw:ance aqente, doctors, and 't-he 11)te will increAse Under one predicted scenario, a .ft,er the Year 2000 the Gateway a iqht aee annual office construction in the 300,000 aqua.ra foot range. J:!!!lutriel txperience a t other airports ahowa that the Gateway a.raa may prove_ to be qu_I.te attractive t.o f1 rms requi.rin9 re.aea.rch and light: induatrlal pace. Theae bua.lne.aau can b& broken down into several categories: o Freight f _o"Na.rden, cu.atom howsea,. and other that uat be in cloaa proximity to the a-i.rport. o Spin-off buaineu actb:ity from the airport, including equipment repair IU\d distribution. o Fi.J:ms auch aa national computer operations, cbeckfaeilit.iea, end inte.rnational exhihitor:a that

PAGE 23

cona-tiuet.iol1 nnnuolly. TO put that number in contoxt, over the post five years tile metro usa lloo averogod about 2 million II<)Ue.re feet of office conatruction annU-Ally. The world econoJOY hos chsn9ed dr"""'tically since the early dAys of development around. the DP'W and Atlanta a.irport.e, howeve.r, ADd it "ill continue to change. Tile globa.lizotion of mo.rlteto lloo increased, and a at.rong: preference of zajor fiDUJ to locato in regions that offer an educated population, natural beauty, and a Mgb quality of life lloo """"'ged. I1 oxpected international. .flights to 2u=po and tho Pacific Rim materiallu, Donvor 1114Y wall exporie:nce ra-c.ea of office and hotel devol.opment and international business opportunities that outpace the paat experiences at othe_ r JIIOjor nO>< Aizporta. After the Year 2000, the Gatevoy oreo will probably become more o.tcractive to national and international fixma seeking to build regional And na.tiona.l head.quorterlo i.f there i.a a strong lOArltet.Lng effort, if early commercial developooent eeuo o quality imoge for the area., if high-end executive houainq itt available, and if attracti-ve public Ule.nitie.s--parka, libraries, and achoola--are in place. Also, ae 1\o\ISing ia built in the Gatevay, the demand for cQI!Ilunity scale offices for in.sw:ance aqente, doctors, and 't-he 11)te will increAse Under one predicted scenario, a .ft,er the Year 2000 the Gateway a iqht aee annual office construction in the 300,000 aqua.ra foot range. J:!!!lutriel txperience a t other airports ahowa that the Gateway a.raa may prove_ to be qu_I.te attractive t.o f1 rms requi.rin9 re.aea.rch and light: induatrlal pace. Theae bua.lne.aau can b& broken down into several categories: o Freight f _o"Na.rden, cu.atom howsea,. and other that uat be in cloaa proximity to the a-i.rport. o Spin-off buaineu actb:ity from the airport, including equipment repair IU\d distribution. o Fi.J:ms auch aa national computer operations, cbeckfaeilit.iea, end inte.rnational exhihitor:a that

PAGE 24

pretor an location but are not locked into one .. o 8\lSlneeeee that: can locate anywhere within a given ;zaetropo .litan area-such aa "&Gnufactur1nq, assembly, researc.h. o nd development. fix:m.a. One IUlrl
PAGE 25

developaent nea.r JI:C and Orlando haa longuiabad. In contraet, the DPW oirport environs have averaged 5,000 to 7,000 units onnuolly aince 1979. It is difficult to predict bawmucb residential demand ebere will be in the Gateway area because all aucb pred.1ct1ono rely on numeroua aaaumpt.iono about bov 1114DY jobs will be created at the new airport, how l1141lY indirect joba vill be created nearby, bow many of those new eeployeea will decide to live in the area, and how many people will move to the area even though they do not work nearby. Market atudJ.ee vary videly in their eatJ.matu. One predicts only 6,000 unita (15,000 people) in the entire oirport environs by the year 2010. Another says there may be 24,000 units by 2005 ( 65,000 people). ln any case, because of infrastructure availability and a high 1"""1 of amenities UJca parka, we believe the Gateway could attract up to 4 0\ of thia residential grovth. O.f cou.r:ee. there are uny fa_oto_ra that aight f.ncreaee or decrease this nUIIber and affect the character of any resi.clantlal davelo-nt. recreational faciliti.ee, libraries, and good echools in the area, the Gateway will be aore attractive for high-quality ruJ.dantJ.al qrowth. On the othar band, apaoulatJ.on resulting froa unrealistically high land values and devalopaent expectations could retard residential davelopaent a.o it did in the early yea.ra a=und DPW and still does at JtC. 'rhia area of Denver now baa a preponclarance of middle-and low-and housing. If the city ia in. desire to 4ttract hiqh-iaage, aiqnature it will be critical to create a aore balanced houaU>g atock by adding upper-end executive houiJinq where aiddle and upper ma.na.geaane personnel will to live.

PAGE 26

IIBJ!TIIIC T!!B CRAIJ.!!!!GI! OP GI!O!i'DI GJ:Owth in the Gatew a y ie lik<>l.y to be otea.dy, P!lt not for the first 10 to 20 years after the new facility opena ln 1993. Aft
PAGE 27

lLLDSTAATION S SOfiE IIDU'Olft' EJIVJ:RONS LOOX LXIU! 'I'1US. XS 'lUIS WUAT WE WANT ? OR THIS? LAS COLINAS IIEl\R DI\LLIISfPT. WORT!I 20

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(jATEWAY GOAMi 'l'he goal.a and vi.a.ion of thi.a plan are baaad on the ldea.o and work of !llllny pe<>ple. The well-thought-out citywide qoala set out in Denver's recently adopted comprehena:ive plan were an important J.nlluenc:e .in eatabUalling tba initial direc:tions for tllio effort. The key COIIIPJ:eheneive plan qoala inc:orporatad into tlli. o Gateway concept Plan are shown in Illustration 6. The previous work of the Northeut corridor Taslc !'orca was alao influential. 'l'b.iB tllinlcing wu augmented by cOJaenU and advice f..rom citi.tene, landowners, ci.ty agencies, and 114DY others. V.ieite t o exfDlplary developoent. s like columbia, Maryland, showed us the poasibllities of superior planni ng and strengthened our resolve to make tba Gatew-y Concept Plan a IIIOW.d 8"11t1NV"m'" IIISUJIG DQfiK QJ!iRI!O!!!!tlOQ. It should enhance and invigorate the living and ccwnercial areas of Green Valley Ranch and .li.Olltbello. 0 The Gateway ahould QlKPI.K111112' OJ'BBR COfOOSRCIAL ARMS or DIJIYIB. Ita acale and al.ze ahould create dan.sitiea and images that compl-ent Downtown. Because of the nearbY raoidential areaa, the availability of industrial land elsewhere, the abaenee of rail acceaa .in the Gateway, and the likelihood that n-businesses in the Gateway viU rely on air cargo to handlo ah.ipoenta, heavier industrial IIAnufacturlng uses ahould not be perm1t:ted. 21

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o Gat"""Y a.rea developo>ent should be of YI!BI HIGB !lJ!I\Lln. Both public and private should Uve up to the challenge of a wor-ld-claee the acata'e capital city, and the qr11ndeur ot the Rocky backdcop. The area should have a high level of 4JIInn.l.tiea auch u park s and trails that will provide future residents with reerea.tlona.l opponunities. o The Gareway should exemplify lll!IUUJI!I Dlfil!BJP! !!NIIalm ARD m 1tavay should encou:raqa CL1'ti&IJ!G or COIOIBRCI:AL It should enaw:e that c0111108rcial And public uaea and are concentrated within neighborhoods or at major intereect.ione rAther than spread out along arterial roa.da as i.e so often the caee today in suburban developaent:.. o The Gateway neighborhooda should eOIIbine the 8BST OP em Ill!!) St!BVJ!BN! LIDI!G People will live in the Gateway to enjoy the o pen ape c e vlld.l.l.fe, _mountain views cmd other attractions of auburban a.reae vit.hout giving up the convenient shopping, cultura. l facilitiee, val kablA and acceas to joba that a large city hea to offer. o 'l'ba Gateway a.rea should be a pvu!T place to live. Residential development should only be allowed outside and away froal airport noise impact a.rea.s. o The Gatevay should be l!l\LIINILI Ill!!) BDII!N!LJ! Its activity centers should concentrate commercial and public uaea to reduce dependence and encourage maaa tranau. 22

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!TifUSTJIAIIOI 6 Il!pl ... nting 'l'be CoaprehtD4lu Plan Tlla following co..., goals tn. Danvara 1988 c:o.prebena!ve Plan are eahoUltl.eo Ragiona.Uy 23

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tlrbAo [)Hiqn ADcl 0 gniey n:e r ort: Pe.rhapa u iaportant the varlou..s func-c.ional ayeteas l.n the Gatewy--lile basic coaDunity framework and deeiqn oleento. Diotlnctive communities are typically organized and built in distinctive pattoJ:na. Cenve.r a.nd cit.iea u dlve:r:ae u waah1nqton, D.C., Rivera ide, Ulinoia, and Paria are all well-known for the IUUqua way they ""re laid out. Goocl urban deaiqn b oft.., the key to whether a c.-unity b attractive and Uvab.le, but the t.e.r8 c&D be an elualve one. In the context of thia Gateway Concept Plan, urban daaiqn .. ana ..,.,., than how ""11 buildings ere dedqnod or parld.ng lou landac:ap9<1. It ia !ar broadez, qoing to the very he.art. of how t.he va.r1ou parte of the coaDunity ere structu.red and tbnir interplay-how at.raate are deaiqnad and how and where activity centerS are created, for ex.uple. Aa starting point in working on a diatin<:tba ,..._,nl ty frovork, we aa.ked cit:ls.ena v bat: f .eat:u.r:e:e like 110a't. about Denver neigbborhooda. Aolc>ng othex thing a, reaidanu cl.ted the convenient neigbborhood ahnpping vithin a fblock o! tbeJ.r holoea preferabl e to atri p ahopping centers. '!'bey applauded the good access they bad to parka and traile and a stellar parkway ayatam. We the. n worked clo .. ly with the Denver Pla.nning Office to prepare a aerieo of ca.munity frAllawork/urban dooign propoealB for tho Gateway. We a.loo worked closely vith the 'l'ranaportation Pla.ruting Di.vi.aion to enaure the at.reet net.vork bein9 proposed va.a not oniy aowwf frao an engineering and capacity peropectiva, but attractive fox cb:J.vera and -ling to padaatrlana. Tile key concept are B"-"rized below ac>U'City Centart A linchpin Gateway urban deoiqn concept ia the creation of co1111un1ty activity center where retail actl.vity and pul>lic !unction& vtll be focused rather than strung out along arterials. 24

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The town oquano and the Town cantor are the vehicles being proposed to create _places 1:n tho Ga-teway who:re people can coae togethex: to ehop, conduct public business, public functions, and. eee their neighbors. The goal i.e to e.rea..t e tho.se placa.a aametimee Absent in suburban davalopaanto and to avoid the uru>ttractive retail and cOllllller c i A l atdps that often plaque ouUyinq areas. The town squares should not only be attractive places to shop and auoll in, they should a1oo be oafa and attractive to walk to and from. They should not be locaud on arterials or isolated from surrounding ho118inq by lllr9" parJdnq lota. In a>:eaa, a neighborhood park can provide the open apace !or a town square with retail and public buildings alon9 one or two aides. Or, a UIAller 1-or 2-acre tovn aqua.re open apace miqbt be c reated linked by pathways to a lart,l:ogatiJ\g tho activity created by each hotel or office, the buainese greene c a n bacODD .lively places that contrast f avorAbly to the i .solation and aterllity of eOJDe suburban office parke. Concentrating such uoea will a1so support early developmen. t of u.a a -eran.ai t 1n the area. Street! All piatJ.act;iD Plocu Streets should help eotoblleh a pooitiv e illl age for the Gat...,ay and s erve a s distinctive places upon which buildings front and 25

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Il.L!JSTBA'l:ION 2

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people valk. To accomplish these qoAle, the Gateway Concept Plan proposes severAl cea..aures : o tt'he basic street l ayout w-ill ba Denver' a diet:inctive grid system, which moves traffic efficiently and seta t.he street system o.pa:rt from the usue.l curvilinear ayatem.s o f 110ae suburban communlt.ies. 'i'he basic gT.id north of 56th Avenue will beon a quarter-..m.tle alignments, ao u to _be more defined than many current suburban a.reaa, but not ao fine gTa.ined u the city block pattern found J.n old2r parto of Danvor. o '1'0 the :maxi.arum extent possible, a.iJ. public and c""""'rcial buildin;a vill orient. tbemaelvoa t owards t.he street, with ae.t.backs .reduced aa liiUch as possible except on selected treeta where neceaea.ry to preserve mountaJ.n vi""". Parking areas between building fronts and atreete vlll n .ormally be cU.acouraged, sinee they eepa.r:a ,te pedestriAns fro.. the bwsinesoea they vant to visit and iaolate buildings from the activity corridors they aerva. o '1'1\e G
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wlll be tbe mmber of bo.,.ing UAite per vJ.ding atructured parking, a -lopar could puab tha ..,,..,. danoity f.,.. 7 5 to 1.0 in a acre liaited nuaber of placea. Propooed au!-haJ.ghta and danaiUoe are -erl.sed for each uea of the Got.,...y on IUuotrotion 8. 'fhe nf.aua hei9bt and deo.eity f igureo d iacuned in thia oection and ohowo on IUuatration 8 include all bon...... They roproaont aaxillua figuraa that -Y be Achieved if for are met nd other traffic, site plann.ing, and open apace cood.J.tiono pe:mJ.t. 1:n. th.ia pl-an, FO acre ia detined ae land a.ree including tbooo areu dedicated for local, collector, and arterial atHeta and parkvayo, but exc:luding areao in floodplalna and areao deoignated for porta, tralla, oDd achool aitea. "In 1 u af.apl .. t tema, PAR ccooporea the total of all building floor ( eltcept parlt.ing atrucrureo ) t o the land area of the eito. In theory, a one-atory building covering 50\ o f a aite hao a PAR of .51 a two-atory bllilding covering 50\ of t;be lite haa a l'J\R of 1. 0. In practice, tboae measure a moy be aore eo.plex clue to other e i t.e o.nd so.nJ.ng con.at.rainta. 28

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p W S t;RAT ION 9 MAP OF PROPOSED HEIGHTS AND DENSITIE S ( A t Full B u ildout) --------j 29 ( IIEIOHT MAXIMUM DD.'Sfl'V tM) .1> FAA !0 .$0FAR []] ll

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The full lin of cOI!!IIIn 11:y -tie a t<> be provi.ded by developers in order t<> exceed the s PAR bue density !a not pecified in this plan, but will instead be diecuaaed with citizens and landowner& and presented aa part of the propoaed coaopre.henaive Gauway rezoning ordinance. Issues like t ra.nafe.ra of de:nei tiea within parcels and surface parking critaria will also be part of those diac.u.aaiona. Deyelgppant S:tJm"'r:dt In drafting new one district regulations that will apply in. the Gatevay 1 cit:y at.a.U wi.ll work with. citizens and to write development atandarda t<> ensure that individual projecto meet a a1n1mwa level of deaign qu.ali.ty and environmental protection. Tbua atandardo will be developed for .!Joportant aopecta of eitia design euch aa a1qnage, buffering, pedestrian acceaa, and the lil:iaed of five large reaidential/lllixed woe neighborhooda organised around town square,., with a larger Town Center oerving aa the focal point for the entire ccmaunity. Each neigbborhood. will be diatingtive, with diUering blendo of housing, parlc:B, public f acU.itiea, ohopa, and buaine .. eo. A major nonresidential buaineae centx ia proposed 1.n the nort.;bern part of the Gateway. Illuatratlon 9 ia a 1114p of the propoaad land uoea. 10 8"'twnoriz.ea the land. u.aea proposed, the aaount of 30

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land devoted to eaoh, and .locations. The aasWiption.s whloh Illun.ration 10 is baaed aro set forth in Appendix D. '&l!e Reigbhorhooda Jln4 1'R!m SC!llAr!!B Each of the five Gateway rasideneial neighborhood& will bo home to fro11 7, 000 to l2, 000 people-a total of 35,000 to 65,000 new Denver residents u full build out. Those fivo neighborhood areas are outlined on IJ.luat.ration 11. The focal point of each will be a sliiAll town square located on collector J.n the .middle of the area or a public park. '1'he town equaras vill l>e the public activity hubs, providing co.nv&nient shopping and otbar s..rvic&a. Neighborhood retail businesses-dry cleaners, shoe repai r shopa, and the like--will. be perl!Utted only a.round town squares, not stripped out along major roada. These park-Like squares, ranging from a square city up eo 10 acres depending on .location, vlll a lao be flanked by community canters, governlllent offices, and other public building a llamenta.ry scbool.a vi11 be important fixturaa on BOlle of the aguarea that will be within waJ.I
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I i I

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LN!D QSB Single-Family Detacblld Reaidentl.al lloderate Density Dotacbed/Attached Reoidentl.al MultJ.-Paally Raoidential TOTAL COMMERCIAL SCHQQL SITE$ 1QTAL PIIBLIC BUILPIH G SITES Apt.icJ.-.pat.ed Gttftl;y t4M 0101 a t ruu Jballclogt (All Pi;=eo Are Approxlaate) DIJISU'X i Kftplj!l 610 acreo a t up to 6 unite per grose acre 580 acr.o a t up to 15 unJ.ta per grou acre SSO cree at up to lO unite pa.r qroa.a acre 1,240 ICttl c 39\ of land) 1.900 ogres of hotels, officea, retail, and flex-tpace uaea a t .5, .75, and 1.0 PAR ( 42' of land) 570 ACQS (12.5' of land) lBQ ACW:S ( H of land) 115 ACW:S (2.5\ o f land) 1:1 AC!I.ES 33 IJICL!li>.BS J,660 houoee 8,700 bouaea or tovnhouaea 16,500 apartaanta or condo a aa.ug Dwelling DnJ.ts S 110QO.OOO Squarg feet o:f COJPtrcial La%9e Orban Park, C.-unl.ty Parle, Second Creek Park Hai9bbod>ood Parka, Nature Area, Golf Cou.re, Town Squ&rea, 8uaineea Greens, and Trella Drainage Detention Area a, Wetl.a:lld.s, Ploodplaina 6 Bl-ntary 1 !Iiddle SChool 1 Hi9h S<:bool 1 Police Station Site 2 Pira Station Siteo 1 Libra.a:y Site J BxJ.otl.nq Fire/Police Site

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west of Airport nilighborbood will share and Chambers R04d with Boulevard,. the residentially-oriented an exi.oting xetaJ.l canter at 48th Avenue l!ontbello. At the existing reeidents request thia squaro may be expanded to include 00111e land wen of Chambera Road and reconfigured. to enhance reta.U and pedestrian act.ivitl.oa. Anothar major attraction 'in this area will bo a 90-acre urban park with a beautiful lalte. 'rhe lake will also be a trong aelllng point for tha hotels and COliiii!.G.rclal en-t:e .rpriaea along Airport Boulevard that will offer joba for the area aa well as providl.ng 11ntertaimoont opportUltitlea and restaurants. It ahould also help attract urban, high-quality residential complexes catering to pilots, flight attond.snta, and other airport personnel. 'rhe largeat buildings in this area-limited to 150 feet in height-will be concentrated at the 56th and 48th Avenue interchanges with Airport Boulevard. Thl.s neighborhood will be joined with othua to the eaat by a major trail along the Highllna canal Lateral u well aa a ayatGID of new atreeta croning Airport Boulevard,. po.rt.J.c ululy 56th Avenue, 40th Avenue, ech Avenuee (which baa been o.ea igned. high priorLty for conatruct.ion of at least two la.nae), and S2..nd Avenue Across Airport Boulevard, if traffic warrants it. neighborhood will be organized around two town squares. The square to the north of 48th Avenue vlll be
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Residential Neighborhoods and Residential Mixed Use Areas I l 35

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housing in the &rea and v.tll be an blpoxtnt facuor in attra.ct.ing regionAl and ft4tiot141 haaclquArtera to the Gatevay in the future. It vould ahu.J.naaaea (lru:lud.tnq aany VS.th high t=c:k WJ&Il"), and bec:auaa it ..,y be IJUb'ect to nobe trc.. tbe nairport. Z1M town Center At the heart of the Gat-ay, located at tho nortbeeat corner ot 48th Avenue and Tower Road, wlll be the Town Center. Th!a vUl be tha aain shopping area, cent.ral to the entire area. All 36

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c;oa>un.Lty acue retail (as oppoaed to naJ.ghborhood retail) be concentrated here--larger ahopa., la.rge eupe:rmarket.a and drug ato.rea, major retai.lers, o..uto care facil.iUe.e, and 'Che li.ke.. Adult education facll1t.iea aa well a a cultural ettractione ond major public: bu.ildinqa will aloo be encouraged to locate here. On the periphery will be cOIIIIIIUnJ.ty-oriented offices and medical care facilitie townhoueea and add an urban flavor to the '1'own Center. Jna1: to the nartbeast1 linkinq the 'Town Center to the beautifnl reaches of Pint Creek, will be the coiiiiiiUDJ.ty park. Th.1o striking Bite will complement the '!'oWn Center and sarva many different purposes. Concerto in the park will be a great attraction dul:ing the a-u:..er aa residents ll.acen. to :aruaic and vateh tbe sun set behind Kount I!Van.. The park soccer and ballfieldo will help aeet the athletic naedo of the Gateway. And tor those seeking quieter respite, pathways will to a 4 .0-acre n.atJlre preserve amonq the 91:ovea of cot.tomrooda and will link J.nto the Gateway a extenaive trail ayatem eo that peo.ple c:an walk and bike ao well u dLive to &nd trcm the Center. Buinea o Amo The Gateway will also be a good place to wnrk and do bueineao. One of the prtory .teuona why Denver annexed lAnd a.long the airport ac:ceoo corridor waa to capitalize on the predicted econoaic opinoffa frooo the new airport. '-!he Gateway Concept Plan provides ample space and fox a vide variety of bu,.inauas thAt w1ll develop over tilDe after the new llirport open.o (See Illustration 13). Lodg.tnq end meeting facilJ.tiee will be some of the e..rlJ.est clevelo-nto in the Gateway. '!'hey will probably concentrate &round oeveral. Airport BouJ.evud interch&n!lee (at 48th and 56th Avenues and at Tower Road and 72nd Avenue), with the pouibllity of a hotel/aeetinw complex adjacent to tbe qolf course south of 56th Avenue and ao.e deyolopment near 64th Avenue and '!'ower JIO
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n.T.QSTRATXOH U 38

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c:OWt they wi.ll be d.i.rected to major 1nteraeetiona in the Gateway along TOwer Road and Airport Boulevard. More general purpose buaineae activity will be concentrated in e flex.lblo m.lx.ed uaa a.rea nort. h of 56tb Avenu e e.nct nortb of tb.e cOlllllluni ty goU cou.rae .in tha aoutbeaatern r:eachea of the Gateway. In, 'the early years, W'D can cucpact; a wid.e variety of aizportorionted u.aea to locate here, particularly north of 64th Avenue where acceee to tha airpon: will be e xcellent .Preiqht fonra.rdera, cuaeoa howsee, airl.inu, and b)J.atne..su ae.rv:ie.ing the airport can bui.ld combination office/warehouse/distribution faeilitioa here. aO"Wever, cor rental operations, will only be permitted north of 65th Avenue and wHl be subject to apeeliie standards addressing landaeaping and dmHa.r urban deaign eonaiderationa that will mitigate potential adveroe .l.Oipacts. H-vy industry and pure warehousing activitiee will als o not be allowedf since ample land ie a v ailable for auc:h facU.itie on the airport .ito and i.n other closer to downtown Denver. In aubeequent yeare:, Denver can e xpect a wide var.iety of ueos that ore not directly tied to the airport-including oUiea/ research fiaul, employee training canters, aaaombly orul distribution facilities, research and development flaul, prototype production, and light oaaembly. Retail uses will be concentrated in the town squares and TOwn Center. Convenience notail atonoa will be limited to eltiating coDDercial canters or to the town them beyond walking diatanee neighborhooda aquaree unleaa that would make from ilignificant residentilll free-standing convenience reata:ura.nt.a a.nd g a s at:at.ions will be encouraged at existing C011118reial CilJ\ter. a u 48th Avenue/ Challbera R oad and At 48th Avenue a.nd Ufma l .ayo. Road, ot the town squares, and on a l.l.Oiited baaia in the MU-l areu along 56th Avenue ( ubject restrictions on curb cuts to 1114intain traffic U.,.,. a .nd a quality appearance). Possible dasiqn altarnat. ives for such Auto-oriented usee al.ong 56th Avenue ue shown i n Illu.et:ration -14 Focusing auch uaoa &lonq 56th Avanua a:n.eU%e8 that they will be centrally located for both Gateway residents and through traffic 39

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XLL!JS:ma;riON U Bu siness and Mixed U se Distri c ts (With Town Squares and Business Greens) I J 4 0 ......

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XJJ:PSTBAtiotf 1:1 41 AUTO-ORIENTEO

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on or near the two largest atreeta, but will prevent them from dispersing throughout tile area. In all <:!"""" firms will be auured that the qvallcy enviromDtlnt they have bought int.o will be maint.ained by strong standa.rds lo. r design elements such as landscaping and acreenlnq. 'I'heae developuent standards vil.l be particulArly exact_ing where fil:ma nea.r xesident.J..a.l developmenta, to ensure that they are good neighbora, and along the TOwer Road and 56th Avenue signature parkvaya. TIM> Pllbl1c PrQM!!Ort one of the 1110st effective ways the J2Ubl1c can shape and encourage developo>ent b through the framework of public iaprovftllent.a that must be IIUide in any .,.....ly developing araa-streeu, parlts, libraries, schools, and pol.ice tire, and other public aaf:ety and haalth facilities. Indeed, the 110st detailed Airport-area study to date ouuoed in strong t...,.., tha value. of public amenities to the eucceae of overall developman. t 1.n the Airport enviroiUI by otatinq that it is critica. l to upgrade the pez:ceived qualiey of publ.ie aJUnitioa ... in the no:<:theut quAdrant, inclucling schools, parka, recreation, open apace, and road.a .. The quality of AUport Bouleva:<:d design and landacaping will also be an iaportant factor in helping the area to achiev e an image of guality public facilitlea, and a n!DDber of city agencies ant cooperating to help ensure that finAl claoign qualiey. Parka. TAJ,lp. And Ope n Spoep Denver baa a auon. q uadiUon of spacious perka-l.i.ke City, Washington, Chee8111An, and Overland Parka. lt is gz:aced with att:ractive and e.xtenaive tra.ile ayet.ema --t.he Platte Rlver Greenway a .nd the B.i;hline canal '!'rail az:e atandouu. Theae parkl and uailo hav e done JllUCh to ..,ke Denver the livable city it ia today. 'l.'heae aame featurea will be t.;emendoualy .aportant in .making the Gateway o euccesatul, attractive part of the city. w e h ave worked closely with tile Depart1118nt of Parkl and Rs<:reation to incoz:porete tboae key principle and praeticeo 11l0St. appropriate to 4 2

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thb area. Por exmople, citb..,. i.n J
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:r:e.aidents are reaoluto in tho.iz: poslei.on thae Denver' a pae t praoe.tce of a.ecoptin.q prone or docon-cion areas u usable park land ohould not be contlnued. Finally, both cithena and Parka DapartmOnt oto.ff aqree tha_ t adequate parHng should be provided adjacent to pa.z:Jc fo.cilltiea, eo thet families who drive to eho pa%ka do not have to cross &treets in ord.er to use them. 15 ahowa the resulting park and open apaco plan, wiU.ch haa oeveral aajor el""""'ts: Large Urban Pork: A 90-acre park, on the scale of Ch&eBIRAI\ Pul<, will be centered on on existing pond wen of AJ.zport Boulev4rd adjacent to l'.ontbello. 1'he exact boundaries o this p4rl< are still under nudy with the .landowner and tha DepartJI!eJit of Po.rk and Recreation. With ttle: pond, e.xte.na tve tJ:Ail.s, and picnio qrounds, it will be oriented towama pusive uae... While i..n. fo.r:mal ball and play fields Jiight be appropriate in a portion of the park, they will not be for nJ.ght ploy, nor would a recreation center be sited here. Hontbello reeiclente currenUy favor siting a recreational center at the exiatinq Montbello Central Park. Golf Course An 18-hole, 180-ocre qoU course along Firat Creek has been part of tho Green Valley Ranch developooent pl4ll tor 1114PY yee:ro, but h48 not ye1: been realited. The owner of tbie p.roperty hall zvcen1:.ly .recollfil:Joed o. cOJIIIIli.tment to donate the land for thJ.a golf cOIU'Ile, and plana are .no., be.ing nudied for a 200-acre golf course that "111lnelude a clubhouse faciUty. '!'he !inal acroaqe and layout of the golf course are car.rentl.y under diacuaaion with the landowner and the Depart:men1: of Perks and Rl!creation and are oubjeet to change. 1'ha citiren.o of Denver opproved a 1989 bond isaua that i..nc:ludes $2.5 llilUon to begln development of a golf courae in the Gatevey are COI!!!!!llni.ty ParkNuvre Area c 0wlex 1 Just ...,.t of the cow:ae, a 60-acre park would be located adjacent to the Pirs1: Creek floodplain and 1:ha TOwn Center. This park will cater to 110.re active proqr"'"" and wHl include an array of tacilitiao 44

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Tii!:J!Tf!ATTO 15 !jP4'I!Ilii PA1!!t 5'WI!!!IIJ!DS A1!D AC!!!WiB BIOl!II!!!IW!'lS oenyer Park M.a.eter Pl&n StandordJ for Reltidential Areoo Neighboxhood Puka: Cmaunity Pub: Large Urban Paxka 1 1-4 acrea per 1,000 reaidente S .izea lees than 10 acres each 1.6--2.4 acres pax 1,000 residents Size: 10-80 acres each 5--10 acres per 1,000 residents Sizes ore t.han 80 acres each Proposed &daitional Park standard for NonresidentiAl AreAJ 2.0\ of the land area in office, hotel, c011111erc1al, and flaxapace uaea, to be satisfied in town squa.rea, business and nearby parks. GU'!WAI PARk. MD D!,JJ: RIOUIIWit"rs At P0I.W ann:pmrr (A.sawaing a Gateway Area Population of 65,000
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.. $ pJ.QSTRAfiAlf 16 PROPOSED PARK AND OFF-STREET RECREATIONAL TRAIL SYSTEM (A t Full Buildout ) T To,.,.Squm()penSpaor N Neibbotboo4 hrl< + Hl&h Po!:ll Tnll 46

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such u bollfleld.a and tenni.a e.ou.rca. It coulda..Lo be-the a.ite oC a.ny future recreational center for the eastern porti.on of the Gat....,ay. lie active p4rt of the park will be located in the floodplain, althouqll it will be linked by trails to a 40-acre nature area e.hat vill interpret and p.rO:tOC!t e.xtenaiv& we Uand and vildlife habitat at the confluence of ewe branches of Firat Creak on land that ia probably undevelopable under foderai wetland requlaUono. Second Creel< pa;Js: -1ate1y south of 12nd Avenue, a community-scaled park vill be located adjacent to the floodplain for second Creek. Becauae residential aaea qener-at:a aore demand for park acn>age than comaercial uaea, and it 1a impossible to tell how the mixed woe areas north of 56th Avenue vill build out, the aue of this park faciHty 114Y not be finalised for 10ome time. It i a depicted on Illustration 16 at approxl.ma:tely 50 aoreo, which ""\lid be an appropriate dze if about 20\ of all lll1xod u .oe areu build out in .noddential uaeo. Thio location aiao opena up the possibility of recreational use of a portion of the adjacent city owned Airport Boulevard lande. lll!igbborboo
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pathway fo.r pedaatrl.AJUt and bJ.cycllrta, but alao equestrian tral.la. The Irondal.e Gulch/Highline Lateral tral.l will be dasl.gnad for pedestriiiJlll and bicycHats only. A m.ojor off-atraat trail be bulit within the Airport Boulevard right-of-way runnl ng from 70 north and east around the B-4 70 J.ntercha.nge and into the new a.irpon tenainal. Along the way 1 t will croee end co.rmect to all three of the main eaat/weat traila. All important facet of the eyet811 i.e that l.t. a tral.la vill connect to plAnned tralla in tho ourroundinq jurl.adiceiona, includl.n!j o proposed trail along B-4 70. The offatreet trail system wl.ll be c01apl""'ented bY on-street bicycle paths lllllrlted on a number of quieter, 2-llllle atr-ta throughout tile Tha on-street ayat ..... be designed to serve bicycle cOllllllutera and will be separated frail trails for pedestrians and recreational cycliau. All Gateway streets will be flllnited bY der.ached sidewalks (except pethaps in neighborhood retell areas or the Town Center) tbua providing additional pedeatrJ.an llnke in and between the neighborhoods. In neJ.c;rhborbood retail areu and tb. e TOVn Center, pedea-c.rian pavement of the entire area be-the storefronts and the curb will be allowed to accOIIIIIOdate possible high volumes of :foot traffic between those pointe. I'JPPlementi .ng Mechoniun 'l'he mechania chat will be in place to achiava thJ.o ayat""' 11 important. If each individual davaloper is allowed provide only those em&ll parka that serve ita project, the Gateway will build out ithcut tboee larger parlc:a tba, t eao hAndle a wide variety of cODIIIlunity act.ivJ.tiea-the vary ltind of parke tllat vill be crucial >:o the future of the Gateway. ln order to avoid this reaul.t, Denver IIIUBt require Ul.at eacb developer participate in a city aclainiate:red system to aggregate and allocate parke needs and park contributions. 'l'ha syat1111 that will be incorporated in tile future &oning raqulatJ.ona for the Gateway woxk lilce thie. 1. lUI development& ora propooed, the park d-nda they generate will be calculated uain9 the ot.and.arda obown on Illuatration 15, baaed o n the nwobar of housing unita and the COIIIIIIGrCial square f00ta9e. 48

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2. Bach developer will be requ.l.re
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ttpapgrt..at..icm -hly functionJ.ng tr....-porution network ia another c:dtic.U aspect of the Concept Plan. obvloualy a crucil piece of thia network, pedeatr!an, and bic:yc:le are o! equal concern. .... tranait, AI\ illlportant pr..ile of thi.s plan io tha t roadl ore 1110re than juot a uUlitari.sn way to ge-e. f:J:oaa one apot to another, t.hey can be attract.ive public place thamaalvaa, adding greatly to the com.unity'a aucceaa. 'l'he continuity of ean-veat. at.reet "l"'t-in tbe Gatevoy ia vuy .l.aportaot in light of the 2,00G-foot vide Airport llo\Jlevard corridor the< biaec:U the area. While the uitt.Ate c:ontiqurotlon and deaign of that bighvay baa DOt -n HniOlhed (and ia DOt eont.relled bY thia pl&n), the 2,000-foot right-of-ay for that corridor ia in an int.ergnv..-nmantu gra-nt be-n Denver and Ad.aae covnty an d la unl tkely to cha.nge. Contl.n:uoua atreet and trail eyat acroaa the Boulvud corridor will the.refore be illlportant to overcome the psyc:holoqieal separation it aight otharwi.ae .,.ate. Careful c:onat=ct.ion and deaign of Airport I!Oulevard is illlportal\t both to ainJ.abe that: appuent aeparat!OD and to aupport the Mgh quality of other GateWay at..raet.a. 'l'houqhdul inteqration of the Gateway otreet pattern vith thoae of IIOnthello, Green Valley RaDA::.b, and Aurora wlll .U.o be iloportant. Por euaple, preliminary traUic for the Getaway indicate that additional traffic capacity will eventually be n...s.d fraa Chlllllbera Road wootvard to and through the a1te a t about the 56th Avenue Whether that capacity b added throu11h illpr<>1-nta to a .,.located 56th Avenue or through col\at.ruction of aeparate Rocky IIOun:t.IUn Parkway on Araenal landa will be the aubject o f future discuaalona vJ.th IIOntbello citi.%ena and the Rocky IIOun t.IUn u .. nal. Stnt.IJ \'he IHulic atreat frWIIDrk in the Gateway be a aodif1ed fox. of the qrid ayat.,., because it haa aeveral edvanu9 over .ore typical curvllinear suburban treat patterns. J'irat, the qrid oyatem ha. a on inherent capacity to diatribute traffic efficiently. Inatead of concentrating J.t on a taw 50

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arterUle cha.o than become j,_,d and have to be wi.c!Ained, the grid ays.oea hae the ability to apraad traffic volumes among a number of J.mportant disu:ibution roads. The grid aysc8ll is also E!Uie.z; to navigate because &treats do not dead end or turn baCk on theaaalves, confusi.ng a.nd d9laying nor. only vJ.aitcn:s but rea.identa. Moreover, with proper eatbackc a1ong key ea.st/west. roads; tho qrld will help preserve Bpectacula.r mountain views. A grid atreet pattern ia particularly appropriate in the Gateway, vhero the land ia generally flat or only gently rolling with few aanaiUve natural or environmental a:reaa to be avoided by curving or e nd.ing a road. Where there a.re aenai.tiva features eucb a the Firat Croek nature area or floodplain, the grid has bean a ltered to accOOIIIIOdate th.,... I.n addition, vhere developer hAve a.lready platt.ed and c:onatructed at.reeta, the plan does not requl.re that". those atreet:.a be changed. The Gat...,ay street eyatea ie organi:oed into the eillple llieruehy ahown on :rll:uat..rations 17 and 18. At the top are signature at:reeta like 56th ultimately be 6-lane parkvays. includes mAin arteriAls euch Chaml>er1o Roads that will be 4-Avenue and "rove.r Road that will. The upper level of atreeta alae u 48th, 64th, Piccadilly, end to 6-lana atreote with landscaped medians. With their ample landscaping and broad llledians, these are tba streets t:hat will help establish a qu.ality J.aege for tho Gat-ay aa they handle aiaable voluaaJ& of traffic. A aeriea of 2-and 4:-lane collector treats vlll link to the parkwayw and arterialo. SOlll8 will have on-otreet parking 1 ao11e will be marked witb on-street bikepaths. The lllinillwa building aethacka ahovn for each. type of sueet on Illustration 18 are intended to protect view corridors and to allow o. ebort apace in which ttanaition froa finAl nreet qx:ades to final building site grades. 'rhoae JIJ.niawll oethoka JDaY be increa.aed during the dr4fting of tha Gat.,.,ay zoning regulations if necessary. 51

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lLLtJSTRA'UON 17 PROPOSED TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM I I MILE I (At Full Buildout ) i 6 a lnne f>a.rk,_WJy (176' r+w 34' mcd llll) 6. Lano Aneri>l< (136' R.O.W. 24' M l s ( Ill' R.O.W, 24' Mcd; ...,) --4 .Lane Collector's {!6" R-O.W No mti11111) --:Z. Lane ColleCior(l1 .. ) Corridot Wh1lt: il m&)' be poai'!ie 10 bcDd u:twion of BDCtlt)' ko..r 1ft tbo tu:uu. 10 ctl'irom:IC!Ual tratnc a:spo.da.c. Cld od'lu oollllilioot Ciryof Pa .. cr. the eoat/ot lhb b 111M lht:up:tzWbWC)' olDalvu S2

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lleLVSTJ!A:riON 18 GATEHAY ROAO UUBARCHY A tl.ana Pu)lwaya (174" r-ow, 34' eedJs.n. 12 a1rn_ \l oe load C'.ROS.S!!ttTJOll l-lljStfl--t -,---I-l'I--S-Il)l n't- l .l l t. r e ejUd. tllaC.I j t a n lnea lavnlvalXIack l 8. f llftl 036 X o 14' aall.an J)OS Ilbly Pftd.ln t to 1'5' :ro"" a t. Jof' i ln. a n ecUona S1'11 u eetback o n i 4t.b. l&Lft. t1cca4lllr tii0!5-S' tC:'t10Jf .. .,.,._,. .. ..... .. ... ..... .. ,.,._,.,., lt.-liiclltrl l I I I tru ISdt. utback l w alkllawnJ l a nea I tan jla n laWft tval)tbackj C. Clana Ar"t.edah llU' r-ov, 14' -.ecU.-a, l alll1alla aet.baeka) on 7lnd, cnaabera. MlaalayatDuntlrk, and tllOBSS,Ctl011 1 ><" 1 n 1--1> --, nt t -IC. u l lad j : biCtJvalk LaYftjlAI'lll ISan )anti a avn a val-f b t c k f). t h .1u Colhcton 1 ac r-o-.. : atniaua at\badl.at on fltb, Uti!!, IIU' S1r\IIS 1-2--11 12' -'ifi >-f tltdcJt,. 2 1 Lr tldt b.-ell : f wU: I bwnf hau fl. a .nuf hvq !wal k bactf t lla n e Collaotora C i t r-ov vltb on-etttt t parktnt l on t l l r.aainint thova' o a the ctrau. hitrarotly aa-p, buc cseh&d1nt ot_ht:' ontU. t cnre:ula:.1on attcct.a. lu t h idtiUUI pule 1 a 1 pa.dtuu alhlln backJwtltlla vnf 1nq l a n a f i nc tlavnrva1tfcael 53

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llil:hin the 40-acre OIO !:he extant compatible wltb attract!,. cleliqn and function, atreeta and -<1161\11 in the Gatavay will be engineered to belp clean up runoff water roadway pollutant before that watr reaches the drainag e ayatem or tha groundwater. I!Au Transit: Both bua and rapid uanalt will ultiaately be JJoporta.nt el-nta of tho Gat81tay uanaportation ayst..,.. CUrrently, llonti>eUo and Green Va:lley RAnch receive only liaLted bua aervice by tlut Regional 'l'ranaportation Diat.ric:t (RTD), partially u a reoult of !:heir deuched location f>:aa the r&at of Denver and the relatively au!! of people to be aerved. Aa the C.tevay qxows, thla aituation .at iaprove ao Ul.at area o! Denver enjoys better t.ranlit linka to Downtown and other ca3o. r center. RTD haa cosait.ted to providing e xcellent bua aervice to 1:he new airport. The city ebo\lld work to enou.re that the G ateway, ""ntbello, and Crean V alley Ranch are part of thia plan. In addition to bua aervice, efforts to bring rapid transit to the area are underltay. The Gateway Office haa reacbed a tenta1:ive aqtant with Anrora Cor tbe transit alignaent shown on Uluat.ration U. In addition, the uanait in the ....U.O of Airport Boulevard will be preserved !roe 401:h Avenue to the nav airport in tlut event that it eight be needed for future a irporttodowntown expreeo aervice. Ped,eatrion/Bicyclt Acetal& Wherever poaalb).o, the Gatewa y Concept Plan aeeka to encourage pedestria n on
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pr.laa.ry -an of ttanoporut.ion l.D oho.rt-tua, wt tbe autc.ob1le .....S not u.urp aNI -lnate a ttllllllpOrt&tion to the it often c:l.oea. With .fo.retbou;ht and cuetul phmntnq, valking and bicyc:lin; can be attractive a.l"t.ernetive t.hat ouppl_,.t cl.d.vin;, &lid in aCIH cuea replace it. To encourage pedetthna and bicyclieu, U.e Qatevay Concept Plan tal.-nto. SecoNI, ..u.eto will be deaignad vUb wide tree lawna and detached oldewallllc Wlldinga ahould be fOUDd .ln IJoportant public placea, not cLUperaed vithout ...Ution to o,.. another or relegated to dtti.ng """"''' c.-rci&l. u .. o on anerlalo. Dw:ing tha planning procaoa, the Gat-ay Office undertoolc extensive d.i.Bcu. e.iona with a variety of agenclee and 1nst.1tu.ti.ona ouch .. U.a Denver Public Schoole, Denver Gannal Hospital, U.e Police &lid Pire inetitutiono of higher ed ... cotion, &lid 55

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the Denver Public Library, SOJDe of 't.heee agencies l\ave very apecitic: locational criteria thAt must be satisfied. Others haY& .1110ra f laxibilJ.ty l:n ait.!ng their faciUr.ias. Public oc:hools a.re of parr.icul.ar J.mport:anco> .In astah.lishinq l ivabl e counit iea, and elamen"C.a_ry e:ohool s are one of the moa-t. critical facilJ.tias i n llbaping a naigllborhood. If the Gateway builda out: as aeaume4 in this plan, it will need at least. six nev elementary achoola (ponibly up to eight) plus one adc!J.t:ional middle ac.hool and one high achool. The Gateway Ollice has ...,rked cloeely vitb representative of the Denver Public Schools (DPS ) to eatllblish a liat of siting pr.lnciplea for these new achoola that will aar.illty DPS needs while helping to atta.ln the goals of the Gateway concept Plan. For eXAmple, we agreed that el""""'tary schools, where at all poaaible, should bo alted on town squares to help augmant tho other activity Similarly, we agreed Ul.at eitJ.ng achool..e near parka or lln..k.ing theil with trail should be encouraged, ao tbat school children ca:n take advantage of large open paces and potent.i.al educational resource such aa the proposed 40-aere area. 'J,'ha school sit:ea shown on. Illustration 9 a.re by way of exuple only. 1'h8f sbow bow the above criteriiL could be eatillfied, l>llt thare aay be alternate lccationa that work just u -11. Even the number of ac.hoola required aay vary (part:ic:ul
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police station site near 48th Avenue and Ch.a:ll.bere Roa d in order to ae.rve the Gateway area. Tha Fire Department confl:nu 1:ha.t it will noed a1: least ono 2-acra a i t.a or a new fire atetio: n near 48th Avenue and M&JI\Phl& Road (and probabl y a second 2-acre aite near 64th Avonue and. TOwer Road) in orcier to 1114intain t.he desired 3Jllinute fire raaponee time. The Denver Public Library will eventually need one 2 .. ocre si-te for a pe.m.anent f .aci l ity to serve the Gateway and would prefer that Bite to be within the Town Center instead of in a park or a non-comaerc:1Al cu:ea. BnYiroJplentol "Protection COloradans pride t.hemsel vea on euvirolllllllnt. !!Any of 'Ill! ere here in no tbe state a wonderful 11111&11 part because of the state' great natural reeourcas--1110untaine, wildlife, end qui e t vUdar:neaa. Denver! tea are no different, and they take particular pride i n the vay t.hey have shaped their urban environment with a ttractive parka and parltwaya, -11-dea:lgned .buildings, and other features that make t.he city ao livable. 'these are aome. o t the forc-es that have J.ntluen.ca.d the strong eDViroiUIIIUltal of tbe Gat-ay Concept Plan. Many outlying deve1opmenta along the Front Range and throughout the nation have been eritlclted for being environmentally insensitive and poorly designed. But there are plenty of elWiples of good auburl>an development, and Gatevay Concept Plan att4110pte to echo the best of these as it st..rivea t: O demonstrate that. man and naeure can coexist and that coammit:leo can be heAl thy aa ... u ao econDIDically vibrant. The elqnHicant natural features of the Gateway are not always obvio.WI. !lo spectacular whitewater r:lv&ra coura. e through thla land. There are .no large vilderneaa a:reaa. But it doe a have a0111e unique a.nd attrACtive na.tura.l areas l..i.ke tbe green ribbon of First Creek and ita uaoci.ated wetlands provide abelter and 57

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58

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habit.at for deer, eoyot.EUS,. bt.rd.s, and other wlld e r .ea.ture.. ln co1orac!9, ehue riparian habi tat.& make up only n of ehe eotJll land area, but 90\ of our wildlife species can be found tha:re. 'l'he Gaeeway is 4180 neighbor to one of the greatest urban wildlife concentrations .in the nat.ion-c:cmmonly known as the Rocky Mountain Areen.a1. What Ute Gateway has should be conee:rved-the c:raeka, wil4life, trees, and wetlands--and Gateway development muat be a good neighbor to the wildlife and habitats just acrooa our border. In addit.ion to protecting these re:aourc aa, the Ga.t.eway a.l.Bo o..ffera an important opportun. i ty to demonstrate that growth can occur in the Front Range while miniaizing enviro!Uiental pollution and avoiding profl.iqate u.ee of re.eourc.e_.a:, pa.rt.icu.laJ:::ly loiu 'l'be Gateway Office ia very cognizant of the serious probl81U caWied in the paat by noise at Stapleeon International Airport, where camplainte have been beard frc>ll people living in Hontbello and other areu some dlatance away. To avoid euo.h probleae around the new airport, residential vill not be allowed near the 60 LDN noiae contour line that passea juat no.rtb of the Gateway area. It is illlportant not to crowd the 60 LON Una with Tesidential developcae:nt for several LON is o sound meuuring &ysteJD deveioped by tl)e Pedaral Avlati.on Adminfat.ration to eat:i.Jaate an avaraqe sound level over a one year period of time. TO account for the fact that people are 1110re bothered by a given level of noise vben there is little background noiae (such as nighttillle), the LDH toyst"" penali:r.eo noiaes between 10 pal and 1 .,. by aaallllling that they are ten t.imea ea disturbing u the same noiaes during the daytiae hours. 'l'hue, under the LON ..,asuring oyatem, tha toound of one airplane durinQ the niqht will for as much noise as tan planes during the cloy. Average sound levalo vary widely from place to place. 55 decibels ia typical of single-family residential areas with largo yards. A 60 decibel level produces almost fow:: t.i.Jitea u IWCh n _olae a e that. 59

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o 'fhi.a area t a beat au .ite4, becauae of location and tor ai.rpo.rt..re.latad bual.Ae.ss uses. Intarn.alll'""98neraead track and auto traLfic add to in_ area. o Airport fiJ.qht patterns o.nd alrplane technology IIAY aba.oge unai.-t edge of the Gateway Along Airport Boulevard. 'lha hlatory of older &Uporta often 1nclud
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ArSenal does not threaten wildlife along First Creek, po.xti<:Ularly the population of endangered bald eagles that vintara l.n the area. The Gateway Olfl.ce, working "ith the Halt Denver Ai.rpol:t Olilce, the Url>qulat.iona being proposed by 1:he u.s. Protection Aqency to control non-point sources ot pollut1.on by requiring beet -.ul-nt practice a to deal with ato_,_acer llova. Since the cieta.iltl of the !octhcoming regulations """ ati.ll 1111kna..n, IJLlch planning will need to rtiiDAin flexible. work will continue tbeae agencies and landowners to put in place a ayat811 o! enhanced drainagewaya that will help clean the water t .hroug. h natur.al forces aa it flOW'S down to the d&t.ent.lon ponda below. It will bo crJ.t1-ca1 thAt. the cities of .Aurora and Denver coopera-te in c-h.1s aotiviq aince much of AU.roraa: proposed interus e development areas lie upstream from the Gauway and may alfect our wa"er quality and the volume of llowa. Wtter nu and conaeryation The Gateway Concept Plan anticipates that at full buildout in SO yaar:a or o, the area JII..Lqht have up to 65,000 new re:aidenta.. A typical flllll.ily of four uaea one acre-foot of veter per year. The Denver Water Boord baa confiraed that it i e a.ble to ae.r,te all anticipaUd. davelopment in the Gateway area o n a per ,.ith o1:her a.reaa of Denver vl-th e>tiaUng supplies. Howeve-r r the should be vift'lfttd aa an opportunity to deaorustr.ate that aore c an be d .one. The Gateway Office has been cooperat1nq with the Denver Board, the -Mst:.ro wut:ewate. r Reolamati.on District, and tb8 New Denver Airport Office to e .xplore a water recycling system for the Gateway and new airport. In briel, the ayot811 would capt=e all aewaqe flowa ; :rom the area and treat those flows ao that tbey could be uaed for irxigation water and other non-drinking purposes on peru, .. diana, and other pLlbllc lancia (but not for private use). Such a ay.t.o1111 would be a firtrt for the l'ront Range and 61

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would reduce de:aanda on e:xiat: i _n!iJ Metro aewaljJe treatment plant. on the South Platee The feasibility study undertaken by r.he Water Board raiaaa a nwabo:r ot i.aeuaa t.bat IIUDt be ocldree eed and resolved be1o.re euch e aystem could becoae reality. One .l.mport
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of developoent atandarcta that will help reduce air pollution probl-in the Cat-ay. These atancta>::ion 'ho>: spots' by careful daai.gn of parking atruCtW:UOI and o Requiring adoption of alternative transportation aa.nagemant strategies ( IJ\Ich as carpooling and otaggered work hours) U traffic levels-ot-oervice fall below a certain point. W1l4life While it ca.Mot ... tch the extensive wildlife habitats of the Rocky MoWitaln Az:eenal, the cat-ay doeo have ao.a signilicant wildlJ.fe areas and -tl11nd.o, part.icularly along riftt creel<. The Gateway COncept Plan proposes that mon of this habitat be put off limits to development. Because of ita location in the floodplain and the presence of federal.ly protected wetlands, this lAnd La l&r981Y undevelopable in any case. '!'be riz:et creeJc nature area and the wide Pi.rst creeJc flOodplain wJ.ll be th. e baclenaive eer.taa of on-aite detention facilities. Near potential wildlife habitats, exiating trees should be protected, and t:ralla ehou1d be a1-ted to akirt the JDOBt aenaitive areaa. 63

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Sitqric Renoyrcee "rhare ere a f ew hiatorio e-truc-tur in the Gateway, The aoat notable La a fAJ:IIIatead located in the planned right-of-way for Airport Bou.levord north of 64T:h Avenue. The New Denver .Airport Office ha. s to preaarY"ing this structure. However, no comprehensive archeolog-ical or hi.atoric surveys have bee:n conducted outside the Airport Boulevard co=idor, anc:l the Gateway Office will be proposing that u specific project plana are developed, applicants conduct necessary research and eurveye to enaura that no importan-t: historic etruaeuxea or Ar<:heo.logical eitee will be destroyed or damaged. Cooperation With OW; J!e.\gl!l!on Denv6r a Gateway area covera only a 8JI611 part o f the land avai.lable for development near the entrAnce t.o the new airport. Ada.ots COunty, Aurora, Brighton, and C.....,rce City are conducting land uee plAIUlinll for an airport enviroiUI area that ia 36 AS AS the GatewAY To ....:ke the GatewAy A quAlity AreA And A vibrant entrance to the reqion, Denver mu.et not only work cloeely with ita own citizens in I!Ontbello and Green VAlley RAnch and with landownara, but Also with lldmu County ..nci ita cities and with tho Rocky Mountain ArsenAl. Otberviae, the vision for the Gateway will be confueed and clouded by conflicting patterns of land u.aee, ..roada, and open epac:ea1 and by jorring d.ifferoncu in t.)uo quAlity o f devalopoant acroae local boundarl ... Tbe Ga<:eway Concept Plan reflecu aucll qood cooperat.ive groun
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of Aurora, "".bavo bcHtn 010rki.nq particulArly closely with that city on .i.BIJUIIB related to tho a a boundar lee. For example, both cit1ea havo aqreac1 t .hat the areas north of 56th Avenue will be deeiqnated for Jllixod uaae and that wUl be -de to incluCie siqnificant amounts of reoidantial developocmt in parts of that area .. Tbia pl.an recommends that the Gateway resoning inc:lude special review prov.i.aiona to ensure tha t developments near the Denver/Aurora boundary ncrtb of FiJ:ot Creek are c011patible with adjacent develo-nto in lWrora, provided that Aurora. # regulation of far ai:milar protoct..ion for De:nver la..nde to tb. e """t and south of the boundary line. Aurora a staff boo committed to proposing controli to buffor reaidential areas in soutbtlrn portioruo of Green VAlley Ranch from Aurora s proposed offico and ind),s-tria.l developma.nta along I -70 to the south. Denver hae &l.ao agreed with .Ad4mil County, Aurora., and Commerce City about eh.u J.ooationa, ud appearancoe of DSAjor roadways that cJ:Oss city and county l.f.nea. While Au.roro bu clloaan not to continue all e.leaenta of the tree-t qrid to -the eut, those west streets on tlle mJ.le and half-mJ.le aliqnments will. .be conti.nued. Tho bierorolly oL atreet vidtha co.ntal ned in tbia plan conforaa to tlle other jurisdictions plana for those ....., streets. '!'he Gateway a two aiqnature parlcwaya (Tower Rood and 56th Avenue) will continue aa att:ractive, land.sco.ped parbays in Adams County, Aurora end eo-erce City. In oddltion, tbrouqh MAC, the Airport area communities have developed a reqional parka, open apace, and trails plan--called the Bllerald Stronda Plan-tllat, if carried out, will lcnlt tlle orea together and create -thoae handa -oae AIIIBnitiea eo c:rl'tica.l to capturing quality develo-nt. MAC bu Alao produced p.roposala for unifoxm construction eta.ncla.rda for those tra.ila and bi_kepat.ba. Aa a. .result, hike.ra, bicycU.wte, and ho.rae w.ill be able t:o move from one city or c ounty to the nen wLthout 1:1\ter.rupt.ion and without noticintJ siquj.ficont dlfferences in the qual.ity ot r.be tra.il.e. The recreational connection shown 1n this Gateway concept Plan lilA tell up "ith counterparta in eacb of the other juri.sd1ctions, and Denver's propoaed parka are complelllellted by open apocea 81lch oe 65

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sarr Lake State Park Alld future parka U1 other juriadictiona. I-n the Denver vill .have to work with ita nllghbor to agr'"' on co-.til>le at=dardJo for clave.lopoent lealt along a>ajor aruoriala and parkway.s. The ataH of the five juriadictions haVe already ll
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J1!11!1!1 DO WE GO FRQJ( 11111!17 The Gateway Plan 1\as been adopted una.W.Oual y by bOth the oenver Plannl.ng Board and the City couneU. It is now o:ftieJ.ally a part. of the city' s coarpreheneiva plan specifically applicable to .the Ga1:.away area. '!'he prill.ary 11'Ll.tial function of tho GatGVay Concept Plan 1.a to guide the dratt.ing of future zoning and i nfrastructure financing regulations and their illpl....,ntation by the c ity. A great deal of time and energy will have been wasted if the Gateway Concept Plan ia not the gu I dl ng light for f11tura ruoning and capital investJIIent decioione by the city. We will therefore continue co wcrlc with area c itinne and land.owne.ra to p -ropoae a COIIprehe.nsive rezoning and an area-vide infrutructure financing po1ioy baaed on the plan. That 1.a not to aay that the plan 1e o atraitjaclcot for the area. The linea on Uluattation 9 depicting various u.aee have not been drown with moth....,tical precision. They are subjact to adjustmant in futw:e phaseJJ of the Gateway development pxoceaa. l'or_ example, u the city ta.kea a closer look at the gol_ f couree shown on 'Che -pl an and coneu1ta with c -itiaen: e and landowners, ita location and boundaries aa:y change. Slmllorly, SOliiO t.iloe in the future a zOning diet:dct IIIDBndlllent or approval of a planned uni t _aay be necessary to an attractive project to proceed. ao...,ver, those changeo abould be aa:de prudently and then only i.f tl\ey ore in accord with the over;all vision and qoalo of tl\e plan. If significant disparities exillt, then the plan ehould first be illll8nded baton change ore lllllde, vith full consultation vitb area ciUzene and landowner. In od
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developers aJld uaora can beqin working on plana aJld development applications. In the longer t.erm, once now zoni.ng regulations and i.nf.x.aatructw:e finAncing p ;la.ne a.re adopted, etep vill noed to betaken to ensure tlult city aqencoiea incorporate Gateway po1icl.es and recommendation in thel:r int. ern.a.l plane, prog.r411le, ond budget and eubait capital funding requests that axe in accord with the plan. The Admi nfatret.ion and City Counc -il will_ al.ao ha _vo to etUJu..re that the aqenciea have euffic:.ien_t resources CLnd staff to thoroughly and expeditiouoly review the major development plana that are certain to come forward. mnLI!D!G Mil PAXDli nm IBr!!AS'l'Rl!Cl Denver io fortunate in havinq adequate euppl.iee o f key ut.i.U.tiea avail.a.ble to serve the Gat...,ay. perhaps 110st bsportantly, the Denver Water Board .hae 114d.e aesurAne.es thAt w i_t h existing suppliee it will be a.bla to oerve development within the Gateway on a par with developiiDent. 1n t.he rest of Denver, oa required by tb. e Denver City Charter. 'l'he Met.ropol.i tan Denver S""age Disposal. Dletrict (lletro) also conflree that it has aioxe than enough capacity to serve the Gatewa y -.,t its plant located on the South Rive. r eo the west. In addition, Denver already has oaiD8 of tha key piece of Gateway infxaatrue,ture cl.oee at hand or al.ready in place. :auch 110re J.nfraatrueture will be needed 1! the is to achieve ita full potential. Provid.i.ng infrastructure .tor che Gateway involves now opportwl.l.tJ.ea aJld cball.anqea. The opportunidee ariae becauae tboughUuJ. location of infraatxucture vl.ll guide private inveea.ane, and because the quality of l.nfx:utructure can set the tone for an e.nti.re area of l:he City. For exam:plo, Baron ftt.rdina:nd As used in this plan, the t:o:nn '"intrastru.cture means the roact.e, pa.rka, t .raUa, water lines, sower lines, drainage at.ru.eturea, poliCe and stations, e .ehool.e, and other i.mprovement e need.ed to make pr.ivate davelopmen"t: safe, liveable, and environmentally ound. 68

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von Rich tho fen's deciaion invest in the con.a"trnct.ion of a broad, green .Monaco Boulava.rd parkway in the l8901J etJmulated development of t.ha Mont.ela.ir nughborhooci by ...UU.ng it both accessible and beaut.iful. More recently, the high quality of public roads, parka, landaeapinq, and traila in Riqhlanda !14n.ch has enabled tha:t ar"" co capture a very large ehare of metro Dertvera reaid.ential growt:b. S!Joilar illlprov.....,nta in the Denver Tach Center h.ave enab1ed it "" attrACt more t..han 1 ta share of higb-qua.ll ey coaa:aercial buaineaeea. The chAllenge a.ri.aee beca\llle i.n.trast.ructure can be very experuslve, even it the land itself ie donated. During the 1960s and 1970a, the federal gova"""""t provided large 11410Unts of JDOnay to help Denver pay for -t:he costa of 1nfraal:rbct.ure.. Bu.t those_ days are gone. Por e xUI-ple the General Revenue Sharing program -c.hrough vbich the fadarai govecomant aant Denver a yearly check for up to $14 lllillion 1\u been eUmJ.nated. The Enlrironmantal P.rotection Agency a gran. t progrAJIUI to help citi"" impl.....,nt the federal Clean Water Aet ,have also b&an stopped. 'the result ie w-hat eama have callod a new fend-for-youraal1 federaliam. &eeause of its own fi.nancl4.1 conatrainte, Colorado a stat.a qovornmtl'nt has not bean able to fill the l.nfranructure gop. .It infrastructure ia to be built, then i>a.nver and tbe Gotewoy landowners vlll havo to fi.nd a way to do it. Ona way J.a fo>: tho city to invest in J.taell-and Denver h.ae dono that. The airport currently plana to cona.truct Airport Boulevard as a. 4.-1ane llm..l_ted a.eeoa a f..z:eevay frOID T-70 to tho now airport with several oaajor interchanges. That. investlllent: cou1d coat aa m11oh as $75 million. Direct aoceae !r0111 l-70 will help aa)ce the Gateway area convonlent and avo.ilo.ble for devolopmen't. The city 1a aleo currently planning to extend 56th Avenue across the Stapleton oit:e once the current airport J.a c1oaed, dr"""'tically impxoving access to Gateway from the west. '1'be airport baa already enend.ed a larqe water 1D4in through the Gateway area to ae.rve the airport, and l.andownor:a will benefit from economies of by being partners in that lina. That $10 million inveoi:IIIQnt baa been sl&ed to serve all projected private deve.lopment in the Gateway. As part of iu watex system, the 69

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Ai.J:pon lllao p,l.an 'CO help con.at-ruct a pump atation a.nd va:rioua loop va-ter linea to cornpl..ement the large exie"ting llllll.n ( soe Ulwn:rat.ion 20 .). lJl addition, oenvcr ha.a in plac e 4 lu9e aanita..cy aewer interceptor line built to serve Hontbello and Green Valley RAnch, witb capacity to serve tbe airport and al1 development in the Gateway area through at leaat the Year 2000 (aod beyond that year wit. h relatively lltinor improvements) o Finlllly, the ciry plana to spend $2 o 5 JlillJ.on towards tbe con&truction of a }ong-aw a .itecl course in northeast Denver that will dro.mat1ea.lly enhance the attractive:neea ot che Gateway &J;l!O. to new .residents and bua.inassas. Finally, the Gateway baa a full array of otber necesoary public services lik e gao, electricity, and telephnne li:ne$ in place or readily available, a.ll of which are detailed in Appendix Eo But thl.a 1nve.ablent. lllUSt be augmented if the Gateway ia t o rea.llee its tul1 economic potel1Ual. Priv-ate developers vho vill. reap profits from Gateway developaent:. a ahould.ar the costa of the additional infrastructure need.ed to ae.rve their properties o This philosophy ia often a\IIIIIIIAri.zed in the requirellant that develo"""'nt paya iU own way o The Mayor aod Council have strongly endor.sed 'this concept, because it is fair to oe.nvar .. a u .. xpayer11 and becauso 1t 1a neceasil..ry to &void a .Public backlash against new developaent o Throughout tho country, ci.tie. s that have tried to finenc" !O"P"n&J.ve new infraatruct:ure tor ...,jor growth a.rou out of qeneral taxes have found th.at th.eir taxp.ayer a respond with _moratoriwu, init.iativea, 11n d ref.erendWD.S against: devolopmant.B tha t need new lnf.ratructure. Other cities have bean l.a.ft in severe financial dif_ficul_ty by inveatment.e in in_fraatrUcture tllat. _,., not promptly f ollowed bY developlll8nto Those negative responaes drive off nav bualnaaaas, and developers. rn o:
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nwnSTBAtiON _20 WATER AND SANITARY SEWER SYSTEM (Approximate Locations Final Location to be Detennined as Dev elopmen t P roc:uds) N $ I I I t IMII..E I 71 Exl1ting Wator Unes 8 8 8 Required Major Water Uncs for fuU buildout: ----Sewer Une : Mjor Sa.nilary Sewer Unc for run buildout

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Getaway a desirable area, the Getonray Office 1 a co.naider1ng several. techniques ea part of a package to be condde...S by tbe ll.ayor, CLty Council, landovnare, and c.it.lzerw. Three of tboda are outlined below tPMct ran and '"nd DecUcationa I.n eoee cease, the city llight require eacb dovel.oper to pay 1-te fa1.r aha.re o f a a-peci.llc intr:a.at.ruct.ure coat into a city reve:nue account. eormz.-rked for t.hat specific new (a library, for elt.,..ple). MJ tbe iq)act fee funde accUlllulate, the city would a pend the pooled tunda to construct the ne<>ded public J.aprovlllOent a o tbat it bene! ita tbe area froa wbicb t h e funda came. I.n other c aaea, the city would require that developers dedicate park land and other land for facJ.lltiea naceaaary to serve their develo-nt. In atill othu dtuatJ.ona (parka, tor eJCalll)le), developero would be required to aalte both a feir-abare l.apect tee peyo>ent &nd a tair-eha:re land dedication. Ttz'" Di*!rtcy The city .ay allow developero to create opecial tadnq dlet.rict. e that would &aana extra taxu on tbe developer own landa to pay for the on-site intraatrueture those lands require. 'l'be city wou l d control vl>ich. types of diatricta tile devel.opero could create, vha t types of extxa taxee &nd feel they can impoee, wha t the dJ.atricu can finance, and bow long the diatricta cM exist. All a condition to a p provin9 individ.ual taxing dJ.atrlota, dcvelopera vill be atrongly encouraged or r.quind to join some fom ot Gateway-vide entity to finance and those f acilJ.tiea tbal: benefic the e ntire area, aucb major roacla, .lDtoorchangee, and parlce regional lnfratructure (e .. g .. port1.o1w o.f _..jor roadvaya t:hat. vlll aerve traffic not ganerat.ecl in the Get-ay) to tho propooed ata. Ddarcla of quel.lty, the cicy ahould consider allocating a percentage of the 72

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net new aales, uae, bead, or lodqinq te..xaa generaeed by prlvat develos-omt in the G6t-ay area to h&lp pay for theee --in effect, lotting nbootstrap ita&lf. Fox e..-ple, one of the a paot polic:iea baa been to pay fox the tinel 2 lanaa and -dian improv-nts of major roada (auch aa Tower Road) that benefit tho city u a "hole, while requiring the developer to pay !ox the rema.l.nder. It has bean ouggutad that tba city Might Allocate up to 50\ of the new eaJ.ee ond uoe taxes fr011 the &reo tc help pay for approxillat&ly the .,... ahara of auch .!.8prov-nte "" it haa bOrn in the P4J1t. Th .. e euq!J .. tione need to be carefuUy analYlent projects elaowhere in tho city. PBASIIG m1 I!V!!tBQCXUU Becauae tbe Gat4Way eovera ove.r 4,500 ac.re., deveiorsnt vi.ll not telte place all at once ox ""enly over the lite. Sase areas will "" aiqnfficant activity before the airport openo, and othere v1ll probably not evan begin for 10 or 20 years. If davelopowtnt b left co11pletaly 'lltlcontrolled, vill produce a fragowtnteullt. throu!Jh coat of and enending G6tevey infrutructure and clustering of the 010et danee developoente around interchange and .. joJ: intenecti.ona will help ph oaa growth end will help anaure tha t uneconomic percale are not toe early. The city can aleo OKOrt o great in!luence on where the dovelOIDt'nt actually occu:ce by controlling tha conetruction of 73

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eaaontial new Wllli. e aoae parcels lll.ready .have water and aewer lines adjacent to their parce1e, others will need to bulld off-aito connector linea to gain acceas to chose eervices. In add.ition, even though .Ai.rpOrt Boulevard and t .he 48th Avenue and 56tb Avenue interchAnges will be in place, thooe two streets and many others wlll have to be completed through the area and then expanded as davelopaent proceeds, and the city vill have a major say in the timing of those improvements. tn addition, phasing of infraat:ruct;ure can help make development in the Gateway more The curren't.-ly pla.na to requ..i..t:e that most in.fraatru_cture only be built as fa_st a_s it io needed by Gateway bwolnesaeo and residents. Ca .reful pbaaing reduces the coste of private development and con avoid tho need for facili tie& to be ...,1ntalnad for 11eny yean before they are actually uaed and be.fore revenue from cleve.lopments ccm help cover their c:oota. The lirlt TeD leArf 11990-19291 During the first ten years, development patterna will probably focus on land that is already fully aerviced by utiliciea and land that is closest to Aixport Boulevard. Early hotel conetructton around the 48th and 56th AV1li1Ue interchanges with Airport Boulevard and completion ot 56th Avenue ac.roaa the Stapleton_ aita vill create an i.mmed.l.a
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probably include (1.n no aet ordar of priority) tha following it:.....,. Di.ecuaaiona with la.ndownars, citit:ena, and city agencJ.ea in the no:xt phase of tho c.auway procaaa: w -111 be necessary to reflne thia list and 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 eet priori.t.-ie. TOwer Road/Airport: Boulevard Intarcllanqe 4 Lanes and Med.ia.n on Po _rtiona of Tower Road 4 Lanoo and Kedian on Port:iona of 56th Avenue TwO Lanea 48th Avenue Completion of the Gol1 Couroe Coarp1et.ion o.f Chbe_r:lii .Reed 2 LanRB 64th Avenue DeVelopment: of the Urban Park and Trails Coapletion of the Buckley Prontage Roads De rollwinq 1'blrty Iearo 120011-20221 Development patterna dux:lnq the firot ten yean will give us .ialpOrtant clues t.o dete:r:m.ine what Ule priorities tor later years shollld be. WLthOllt the benaUt o1 tha Urac ten year a o:xpru:ianca, we can only predict that will probably continue to spread out ea.st and wen along 48th and 56th and north anct south along Tower Rood, and 'that addi-cional new develop!ll8flt is likely around tho l'irot Creak qoU coune and park, along the pr.l""' 1110untaln vi-locat:lono overlooking tha Buckley Frontage Road along l\J.rpo<:t aoulavard, and near the 64tb Avenue/TOwer Road tn.tersectlon. Even a precise schedule ol how the parcels wlll develop, though, Denver can ident:Uy thosa piacu of inf:raatroctura that will continue to have area-wide iaport:ance and will probably be effactJ.va toola in helping phaee later develo-nt in the Gateway. That list includeo (in no aet order of prio.rity)' o COmpletion of TOwer Road o Coapletion of 56th Avenue o COSpletion of 48th Avenue o Coapletion of "the COODWI.ity Parle, SQCond C:IOeek Park, the Nature Area, and tha Trall Syotd o 64th Avenue/Airport aoulevard Interchange 75

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o Ca.pletion ot 64th Avenue IOHD!G '1'!1 B!!CO!!AAGI! JllQI-Ql!ALm DBmDPXB!!:r In order to fulfill ita potentiAl arut to compete vJ.th other suburban developoenta in the Denver airport environs and nationwide, the Gae.vay area auat be a vexy elluring area to live and work. Tboea businaaaea that vill help au-nt the Denver econOIII)' through tha 2lat century want to aettl.e in areas where they can be aura that tbei.r ne.igbboring bue.l.nesaee vill be held 1:0 superior deeign atanderde and therwil.l be good bouo.l.nq, ecboolo, parka, and trail a available .for their eaaployeea. One recent ail:port market atudy atate
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Ga-teway Conce_pt Plan. Strong aubcUvi.ei.on e o_ntrola will enable the cicy to confiz:m U>e location o f aajox at.reat, paxk, and open apace eorly in the process, and before a large number of J..andownera have land and developed p1a.ns and expectat:.i.ona. Finding the .right balance between tleJd.bLlity, efficiency, qual.iey, and predictability requires a thoughtful and originli appJ:Oacn. It vill require tne creation of a new zone district and promulgation of standaxda to cover divarae aa!"'Cta of. devalo(IIIIIUit daaign including landacoping, aignaqe, and the like. Danver'e current Residential, rnduatrial, and apen Space &one diat.ricta axe geared prilaal:Lly towarda amaller-lot intu, l development whaxe the uaea and abea of adjacent building a.re knO'Wil in advance. 50018 of their opecifio developooent requlaUona are noe readily oppl1cable to the development of large tracto of open land like tnooe in the Goteway. ln addition, BQIQ of thea a.re aubject to overlay diotricta that could be better addrened tbJ:Ough a single integrateCI district. Because of liaitationa l.n these exb'tl.ng district rule. and OIAny nev developooenta uae the cicy'a "Planned Unit Developooent {1'11D) district. The POD diatrice ordinance ia exu ... aly flexible, dnce it allova a developer to propose and negotiate alDoat all developooent with t .ha city and adjacent landowners, and potential-ly eny uae in. any context.. However, aany do not vi. ew 'it as particularly predictable, efficient, or aonCiucive to proeluc .ing a well-duignad project. It ia also tiJD&-coDJJUllling tot: tha city to aciiiU.niater and for devalopera to navigate through the approval process. Oehe r cities that have allowe
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rules for an entire area and 't.hen requi.r1nq mora detailed etanctarda for distinctive oul>-araa.o before approval of indivLdual projects, the PRV d!Jitrict attempt& to balance tha campeting goals of Ue.xibllity and predictability. In ita cu=ent foa>, however, the PRV district has posed some difficulties, and boprov-nt:e to the a yo tam are now being considered. In orde:r to fulfill D
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Z'Jw firlt tpemlozgnt RayitJvl tier The Pirot Tier of development review will require the submittal of General Devaloj>IMOnt Pl...,. ( GOPs) covering diBUnet areas of the Gateway for approval by the PlannJ.ng Board on o c:aaeby-caae baai.a. GDP8 will not need to be approved by City Council. Tb<> landowner. will be ruponsible for preparing and oullolitting a GDP for tbeir areu b&Lore proceeding .,i th develo_,.t, but they need not do eo UDdl they arG ready to a>Ve forward. GOP will have a IDinimwD sue requ.u:e-nt ( 4 0 acree haa been auqqoated) to eneure tha t the parcel ia large enough to plan ca.prahanivaly and thus amall-porcel, piecemeal projects. 1n aoae cae, e.n owner ot a .ngl.e luge parcel aay have la.nd in two distinct anu and wo11l d be required to aubai t a separate GDP tor each area. I n other caaea, an owner of a aull t.ract of land .ay have to cooperate with ita adjol.nl.ng landowners to bring forward a single GDP plan for their collection ot parcela. Each GOP will need to delllonatrate compliance wi.th the diBtrict-vide map and standards and compatibility with any adjacent. GDPa already approved. ln addition, each GDP will need to provide an additional level of detail about proposed development.e, including 1 o Allocation of different land 118es on the parcel: o Allocat.ion of heights and dllDOitieo on tho parcel; o Auto/pedestrian/bicycle circulation patterns; o StoJ:mWater drainage plano and dedications; and o Loca.t.ion of ded1oa ,tion for treeu par.Jce, trail: a, and other public f'aclli ties.

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p.t.USTRAfl.QN 2' PfiOPOSED GAll:WAY DEVELOPMENT APPAOVA1. PROCESS ORDINANCE 1-0KtlfO Chf IUft """"''c r PhMU.. ... ro cuy P"' phu r .,. c: !ue: S ft: l.t#U :re;'Ula '=-1<:!UI toe-ta&a, Gl: all : w:1c Z:na. taoa tall Pn'ttC'"''i nr.-epuu., tort Merpu & lol.lt Plar.u. \fle.v ,. Jta.rn l Cp.t1 Jpac.ea s et.badtJ, and kild .. t,o Una Puklf'l9 .l.oldil'lf Jpaeu Cl Nll.ll a tlon I "1"' lu.Ud.int OUit"' L TlEJI ONE c:cn:a.u. DIYJ:LOND11 PWC ......,. h puM ay A.ppnwlli! .., I h.ttaltl lou'# U.. ct a ... (&1ftl-pa.teel u a.g. co aer .. J Pla.n Loc:a'!!M :! dlt tat"ctl't vaaa lfD t.ba : .UlOC.'tSOC O t !lt ll)!:. '::.t a M Otnait.Jtl Ofl C t p..n.a l elro..l&.:Jttl Cnint9t and 4a4i.c.:Jon.l' LoOel'!lon ltliO d a4lU!.lOtll :r. l"\l t d a0 p;artt t.rt.i h e M pWtl.Jc: taU1hJ c RtY.UV Co...-ert.l .. CcJ9li.fotiC:t .,.U!' l! 101\lnq t'ef\lhUOM. .. .. A-cc:aput111'!)' c 'ria:-t: phn. on u.a own. ... .. ratauon to a4,ar.u.t Guua.l O.vaJopent Plll --r T IER TWO SIT% nM UVJD' Pnpar-4 1 1 Apt:t'CWN If' t.rwlov11- r s:t.e!! C lo: it141...-Sfial ar;UdUq n- l Ph.n t..tll
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Gene>:lll Development Plan approval will give the landowner much about ge.I\OrAlly acceptable land u.oe configurations before he needs to decide on a final building and layout. .As a continuation of the interjuriadictional planning that began with the ATAJ:. g=up, The City of Denver will conoider implementing a special uae approval for univera&l apace and ind.uatrial usee in the area north of 56th Avenue and ...,t o f D\lnkirlc Road that io adjacent to Aurora, subject to the creation ot a .reciprocal process being adopted by the City of Aurora. %be seeond !Site Plan llniewl Tier 81Lll
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APPII!I)IC!IS AUBJ!I)IX A DillDiUes. There is a ecattering of residen.l:ilil Jlu.bdiviaions in adjac.ent Aurora and Adamo County and a light industrial park is under development near the interchange of TOvar Road and I-70 juat aouth of the Denver boundary. The Rocky Mountain Arsenal to the north-.-t providu a 27-square mile viata of undeveloped land vitb "'""Y native qrAJOaea and naturAl land featuras--...,king it an ideal wildlife praaarve both now and in the future. Tbe Arsenal ia bema to large borda of deer, aeve.ral dozen wintering bald eagles, and an abundance of other vildlife, all of vbiob 1e being ....nagecl by the U.S. Army and u.s. 7iah and Wildlife Sarvice. IIOADS !'RliiiSI'CIRnnCM The area l.a currently aervecl by only a few paved roads. 56th Avenue is a 2-lane paved road that beqin.a at RAvena Street a t the eastern boundary of Stapleton Airport and runs eil8t to Tovar Road. Tovar Road is also a 2-lane paved road t .hat i s continuous from Aurora north to Adn County. Cbambera Road iB a paved 2-lane road 82

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n.atx:owa u it. ca.ea out. of AW:o:E:a and h.aada nort.b rmt.1.l it enda a t the aouthern border of the Rocky !IDWlt&J.n Araan&l at 56th Avenue. Buck1ey Rood 1e 4 road c.ha t run. f.roa 56th A:9enU,e north into Acfaas County olong the eastern 11<19 of the Anenol. 64th and 72nd Ave .nuee ore t:he o .nly other roo.cls erving area, and they a .re also unpaved. 48th Avenue vu paved from :rower Rood aaat to near Piccadilly Road eo part of the Green Volley Ranch developoent. I -70 paralll the southern boundary of the Gat-ay Area and hu intez:ehangea at Chuben and TOwer Road. IC*DIC '!he GateWay 1a cua.ntly aoned prl-rily fox reaidentJ.ol and agriculta.ra.l u .sea. SO.. coawrc:ia.l cu:eaa hove deel.qna-ted a.a port of previously a.pproved PUDa. The area north of 56th Avenu .e, plus 80118 800 acraa to the south, vera brought into Denver J.n 1988 aa part of the annexation for tbe new Denver lnt;ernational AJ.rport. Prior t<> thia, the l a .nd wae in Acla County and t-be aajority vu a.onod pr1aaroy for agricu.ltu.r&.l uaes. lloat of the land in the Gateway aoutb of 56th Avenue waa &nnexed into Denver in 1973. lt 1a currently oned prJ.aerlly !OJ: lt'8a J.clential clevel<4 ant with a UaJ.ted aaount of C'-rcial. 'rbe.re i a a aaJ J &bopping center with a g-rocery store a t 48tb Avenue and Ch.aabera Road, and a pnvioua owner in.atalled vatex' and 1-.r; lJ.nea, and drainage facllit.iea on land juat. to the nortb. North of Ut.h A\lenue bet....,n Tower and Piccadilly Roads, Along Firat Creel<, t.be land 1a aoned for hJ.gh-denaity reddentiAl, except for one n<>de of hJ.gh J.numaJ.ty .,.,.......,.l.al uaea a t the northeaoot corner of ath and Tower Road. ..., Cl:lt4'IJUL ltiiSOIIIICI!S lloat of the property 1a cropland for w inter wheat 'rile aajOJ: etande of cottonwoods are ciuaped a1o.ng Piret Creel<, .. pecially in the wtttland area north. of the intaraectJ.on of 48th Avenue and lt.l.lulaya Road. Another aiqnJ.fJ.cant IJtand lJ.ea north of 56th Avenue along l'irat Creel< eaat o! llucltlay Road within the AJ.rport Bou.lavard right-of-vay. 'l'bere are other ocat.teringo of treaa throughout. the 83

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area. The Colorado Division of llildl.ifa ha.8 mapped the overall d.IJtr.Lbutl.on ot 16 apecieo of vi.ldli.fa in t hll airport env J.rono. Of those epec.1ea1 7 are )mown to be prevale-nt in the Gateway area opecJ.fically. There a.re many pbea.a.nt.e i n t,be .rea north of 56th Avenue Ducko can be found on any small body of water or marel\, although there are no large concentra tiona in the Gateway. Wbi tet:a.ll and IIUle Deer are found throughout the area, but especially in the ripa.rlan habitat. 2.one along Plrst Craalc where fox oquirrelJI can be found a a well. Coyota, ra.bbita, and prairie doqa are a .lao MtJ.ve along with a n occadonal antalope along the northeaatarn edge o f the areo. Golden e&9lea are a1eo pree.e.nt throughout the u:e.a., al thoufJh tharo era no !mown naotJ.ng aitoo. Ba1d feocl along Firat creek and roost .in the winter on the nearby Rocky llountain Artrenal. The Environmental Impact Statement (IS) for the new airport identified a DUIIber of archeological and lllatoric reaourceo in the Airport Boulevard right-of-way. One of note la a historic on Buckley Road north of 64th Avenue. Theoe structures bave been determined Eligible for Lioting in '!'he National Reqioter of llilltorlc Places. The Gateway area outBide of AirpOrt Boulevard rlg-bt-of-vay ha been urveyed, but there are a few older build.inga that may be eligible tor deaiqnation aa -11. llRADlAGII Tho area io divided into three drainage baoina that all flow in e northwesterly direction. Tb.a baai.n is Guloh. In the DU.ddle ia the Pirat Creel< drainaqe basin an. d to th. e north is the -st branch of t.. e second CrtMtlt basin. Pirat Creek ia the major dr&inagevay in the Gat...,..y. 84

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IIDIBRAL RBSOORCZS 'l'he airport envU:on.a conta t na many opera_ting oll and vu val..La, but nona ara l.n tho Gateway area. Tba Gateway has no ad.JU.ng ope.ratiana, but a din mine ia being proposed just au._ide the Denver border near 72nd Avenue and Dunl
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ea:rJ.ier) 'l'he Axmy i a currently working t<> olean-up conumination of the Arsenal. 'l'o achieve thia objective, the lUmy ia presently purau.ing 13 inter.iJD reaponaa actio11.11. 'l'hoaa i.nter.!JD actio11.11 wJ.U not atfect the final clean u p plans. A on a final clean-up progrAIII is acheduJ.ed to be .... de in late 1993. 'l'he c .lean-up effort ia expected to last until the Year 2000. v.nR RSOOliCliS There are four different bedrock aquifere that lie under the Gdteway area-the LarAIIIie-l'oxhllls, the Lower Arapahoe, the Upper Ar4pahoe, and the Denver Aquilar. Of thoae four, the Ulraaiet>o>Clti.lls is the deepest, requiring wells approximately 1750 feet deep and c4P"ble of supplying about 123 acre-feet of water per year. TbG Denver AquJ:fer 1a the shalloweat, Tequirinq vella averaging 650 teet deep, and ceP4ble of aupplyi.nq approximately 999 acre-feet of vater per year. l!hen combined, the four aquifers couJ.d supply an estimated 38U ..cre feet of ""tar 4Anuelly. Of that total, 59\ io voter, 20' ia tributary water more than one ...Ue froDI a atream, an d 2:1' ia tr"ibutaey w ater leas than OM .mile frOlll atreAIII. Denver does not anticipete tappi.og theae agu.ifers to supply the G4tew4y with potable "ater. 86

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WJIPQ B BIBLIQGRAPH"f Ol' .AIRPORT 1!!U!!QlT ST!J!)I!lS The follO
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APPDPII c Davdopooant patterns around major airport: a dUfer ma:cltedly. Many older airports in built-up areas offerfew leeaona for Denver, except to the extent they show the probl:"""' thAt ca.o be created by lack of ca.re.ful planning. Many of theao older airports fnf1 tct. serious noise problemil on nallrby re.aJ,denclal cODDDunitlea built too cloJie to theix bou.odades. Others ars s confusing jumble of SIIIAL l hotels, fast-food reotauranta, bil.lboards, and other unattraccive c0111118rcial u .eee. They lack any ae:nae of or place and provide very poor entryways for their cities and states. 1'he env irona of three of the moat recently con..tructed IIIAjor alrfielda-O..llaa/:rt. Worth, Atlanta, and Luulaa City-do, however, present; 110re relevant and. inte.r:eatin(J 8XA.IIP-lea for Denver to acrut.i.nUe. Interestingly, all thr-airporta were built and thellenvlrona first developed during econOilic ped.oda INch like Denver .1a now experiencing. pallaa/lt. Wortb I PPW) : DPW airport, located about 17 milea fro. downtown Dall.as, opened in 1374. Alchough a ntD>ber ot c:oiiiiiiWlitiea shAred in the growth from the new airport, aost of the nonreaident.ial develop1118nt. was captured by Las Colinas. Las Colinae 1e a 12,000-acre planned conmnlty developed by a single property owner within the city of. lrving, Texas. rt ia located off of tbe second exit from the airport fr.....,ay, about five miles froa the airport tenlinal--approxiliately the same dJ.atance tba Gatevay .li.ea frail the Denver lnternati.onal Airport tetal nal. A a:nfll.>eDce of aevvral tactora baa allowed LAa CoLinaa to garner al.JIIoat 1.00\ of the office developaMtnt, -.oa t o.f the upper-end .reai.dent.ial ueea, and al.Jooet 50\ of the induatr!al grovth associated With Dl'lf dnce 1374. It now .haa about 25,000 reaidente and 25,000 joba. l'irat, and probably foremost, Laa Colina lies within the boundaries of the CJ.ty of Irving, whicb vaa practically the cinly local government near D!'W vith VAter and. aewe.r ee.rv-ice o.vail.able in tho early yea.re. second, the developer put in place a vuy attractive paclt.age of eaenitiea--tor exlllllple, over 30\ of the land is dedJ.cated to open apace, including four aajor: goH couraea and an extensive 88

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rivertront park. Finally, an aqgr,.aoive regional warketing effort helped attract firma from other states and abroad. Initially, development at Las Colina. & was quite -Plve yeua after OalJ.u/Ft. Worth opened, only 500,000 square foot of inJOpletely chanqed the residential ouu::ket in the area. In the early days, Ol
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tn fact, the la.r9eat tract of land available for development-275 acres--resulted .from the purchase and cl-earance o f bouain9 for airport noise ab4ttmant purpose Before the airport expanded predominated .i.n the illmoediAte area. in 1980, induatri.al usee In the first five years after expansion, thare was little new industrial or office space built. l!owever, since then induatrial space has bcomed. Xn 1986 and 1987 a tota.l of over 2 mi.ll_ion square feet was constructed. Relatively little offic' e space .has been constructed i:n the A .tla.nt.a a..irport. env-irons-only an average of 187,000 square feet per year. The only JDAjor headquarters fi.rlll is Delta Airlines. Sovever, hotel conat..ruction hae bee. n much more intensiv o.. Since 1980 over 4, 000 roOIU have been added, opurted in part by the presence of a medium-aized 136,000 square foot. convention and t:rade center built juat north of the airport by the City of Collt>ge Park. There has b&en little residential around the airport because a good deAl of lowand moderate-1nc0108 houa.ing already existed, and because the pridam.inance of industrial .-pace. bas not created a dQII&nd for naw, aora GXpen&iva housing developoente. Eonaoa Cityt Jtanaa City' now airport va ope-ned in 1972, 17 ai.les .tram downtown. Davalopmant i.n aurround.lnq areas baa been qu.ite alotot when coaapared to and Dallu, although it baa been intensifying in the last Hve yeara. Several factors have contributed to thie slower buildouts Lower air traffic lavela at the Raluaa City (ICC) airport and the lack of international air eonnectiona: land speculation in t.he airport environs; ebe psyohological barrier of the lliasouri River; and at:eep terrain that adds to development coste. Like DPW, the JtC airport waa located in a rural fano.in9 area. Similarly, one large project--the 3700-acre Ex&cutive Billa North devulopoent--haa dCIIlinated the anvirona aarket. &JDAller project named Airwo.rld haa attracted a significant AJDOunt of industrial apace. The total emounts ot office and industrial apace in the environs are 1.3 and 1.4 million square feet re0pecdvely. K\lch of the inlluatrial epace is occupied by a.trport-rebted firma, whila 90

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on1y a portion of office apace 1a related to the airport. There are .nine hotels in the aix;port area, tour of which were bulle aoon a.fcer the airport waa caarpleted. They provide a total of 1,619 roollll> Only exeouUve ltUla baa any aubatantial, quality realdendal devalopmant, a fac' t that baa hindered eLLorto to a_ttract fi..J::m$: to the o.rea 91

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APPADI1 D In order to allow eubatantio.l flexibility to o.djuat to future m.A%'ket cond.iUona, -.any parts o.t the Gateway are da.tined u -m.i.xed uae dJ.atrlcu. Planning for adequate aaounta of parX. and adequate atteet capacity, bO\iftJVer 1 that eOIDe uswaptiona be made a.a to how the mixed uaa are likely to build out. For purpoaea of eatiJiatiog needa, -aoSlllll8d that the llliluld uoa ueao will build out with a mJ.x of usee roughly p..ro.llol to the aix of d....,.nda eat forth in aoae of t.be IDOre detailed aarlcat at:ud.l.eo. In same casee, euch aa hotU. and ,retai.l uaea, we assumed that future qrowt:b 1o the Gateway could aubeto.ntially exceed thoae market projections. Our uauaptlona are aet forth below ;t. Lmf-denaity reidentiol oreoo wlll out a t 6 du/acre. 2. 'IIJ.d-denaity reaidentiol araoa will build out at 15 du/ ac:re. 3. Reoidendal !)Art o of llilled 1111 oreaa will build out at 30 du/o.cxe. 4 Mixed Qte 1 areaa eo\lt.h of 65th Avenue will build. out w ith 40' hotel uaee, 5\ auppo.rt retail uae1, 35\ uees, and 20' reaidential uaea. 5. MJ.xgd Oao 1 Are ngrth of Avenue "ill bu"ild out w ith 45' botel uaea 10\ support retail u.aea, and 45' office uo&B. 6. JU_xfl
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8. ltl&ed uae 4 '''' 1mat.h of 65th Ayanue wUl bu.Ud out w ith 35\ o ff.lce uaea, s retail uea, and 60\ ueee. 9. Mixe d Ose 1 oreaa norcb of 65th Aye oye will buJ.ld out with 90\ office u eoa, and 10\ aupport retail uaea. 10. Mixed gae S area w 111 build out 10\ bot.el uaaa, GO\ flex-apace ua .. 5\ aupport reu.U uaea, and 25\ office uaea. 11. 1't)e Town Centu a q a will build out with SO\ major ret. all uoa, 25\ office uaet, 10' hoto l uao1, and 15\ uaea a t 30 du/acre

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AfPll!IJ)XI I! GAtJ!!!AI I!!l'RIIS'1'Rl!Cl'l!BI! 1! liU'Bll SERVXCB Ample wat.ar service is vallable tor projected Gateway projects tb.rougb a 42 wate.r ma.J..n that extenda east on 56th Avenue to Tower road, than north on tower to 72nd Avenue, and than east tha n"" airport. Gauway landownar11 will be requi.:ed to pay for their fair shares of capacity in this line and tha related loop linea "" thay proceed with thair developlllllnta. In addLtion, landowners will be :resporutihle for extendin9 tnaallor water diatrJ.bution linea from "tbe Tower Road main to serve their developments. SBWBR Denver ow:rently haa adequat. e o.nita.ry sewer capacity to ee.rve 4ll projected development in tho Gat.,.Ay e.rea and tha new airport through at lellB"t the Year 2000. !lith relatively llinor iDprCVementa, tha city will have aewer capacity for all developlllllnt far beycnd that date. A """'"9" treatment facUlty owned by Metropolitan Denve.r Sevage D lspoaal District No. 1 1 "Metro ) ia located on tha South Platte River and ia connected to the Gateway area through a 33" to 49 interceptor aever line that extands aut unda:r. 56th Avenue to TOwer Road. The new airport will also tie into this line through a pump station at 64th and Piccadilly. Landowner will be required to constrUct oewer collection Unea t:.e coi'Ul.QC:t their parc.e1a to the 56th Avenue interceptor aa their developments proceed. If the water reuse. program currently undar study by the Water Department and the Nav Denver Airport Office is no sanitary sewage from the Gateway vould be sent into the 56th Avenue interceptor line for treauoant by Metro. llmi<""'M'BR DRADUIGB Aa development takes place over the next 40 to 50 yea:ra, the flowa in the Irondale Gulch, Firat Creek, and Second Creek Baaina cou.ld increue u m.u.cb ll8 800\ by full buildout. The Urban 94

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Dra.iDAIJ') and Flood Control Diatri.ot (ODP:ucted, the eot.lmated 100-yeaz floodplains will reaain to accommodate flowe. Develo-t v.l.thin floodplains vlll be p.z:ohi.bited. The regional d.z:ain age ayat..., 1a favo.z:ed because if each J.ncUvtdua.l were to 1 ta own a tormwae&r 1 e:ev-ero.l hundred acres of prime Gateway land would becoooe undevelopable due to n-roU.8 on-site detention pOnda that would tragmant Gateway development. With this in lllirul, the city has negotiated an vr-nt in principle with 1:he Arsenal to allow a la.z:ga coUectiva detention faciHty for the Firet er-k drainage baain to be built on the Araanal. Tbia coUactive detention pond will aarve all Denver landowners within the Firat Creek Baain and will be paid for bY the banefitt.l.nq landownen. It vill. also benefit the Arslll\al i n aany ways by creatinq n"" wetland habitat for Vildl.l.fe and by elilllinating tbe need for soma Araenal channel illprov-nts dovruotreu. Saallar portinna of the Gateway drain into I:rondale Gulch to tbe south or the l"'lt branch of Second Creek too the north. In both caeea, efforts are being made to cre.at:e collective etocawater detention facilities either in the A.l.rport Boulevard right-of-way or in ..U.t.ing datenUon facilities. Aa in the Piret Creal< Ba41n, coats of the ahared panda will be paid for by th!!! benefitti.nq 1andowne.re.. As part of the new airport &nvirotiiMJltal Illlp&ct Stat-nt process, the Denver Dapartlll8nt of Aviation made a cooait.ent to control the volume and quality of water flowinq into the Arsenal for tbe blll\efit of nea.z:by vildHfe. 95

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FLOOD CONTROL IMPROVEMENTS 96 bn..ct 100 Jf Ai:oS f'Wa it Ck"ftJ _....,.tilt &1t '* INde (Ibid Dft flltutt de'tdopme:ni::a.,l ..,.. Dmntl .,.,y.mprot-cmrnu Q;l""'"' ... laOittlt lrOoiM.fr .... ........ lC.ioo- c..,...,.. o.. a.. ..... S.ody "'0Ttt:1be omtacc ,..,_on. dlb map tJCSC>b)cciiO tdj\l&tmti'IU UliJ r dli'IIMCCill

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C(lWI!D!IlCM'IOIIS SERVICES Prompt availabi.lity of telephone cCIIIIIIIUnicationa is a .11111.at for new busineaeee and homebui.ldere considering the Gateway area. u.s. West currently haa adequate telephone switching capacity to service all projected developmmt in the Gateway area from its Montbello Of!ice u 47th. Avenue and Peoria Street. 'l'hel.r e .xistinq telephone l.ines a.xt:and east on Avenue to '!'oWer Road, and th.en north and aoutb. on Tower Road. l.n tb& future, tbey intend to extend fibor optic linas furthar eaat. on 56tb Avenue to serve the new airport. and to inatall a parallel ayat8JII of lines along 48th Avenue from Chambexa Road to 2owbatan Road The city is already cooperating with O.S. lleat to identify road gradea and utility easements ao that l.nat
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GAS SBRVICB PSCO oleo hAA adequate natural gae utilities in place to serve .moat Gat -eway developents on abort notice. T'hey currently operate o 24 gao line running eoat under 56th Avenue paat 'l'ower Road and anticipate that they could reach all l"'rtiono of '!:be Gateway area through connections to that line. 98

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APPI!!!!!IX P Sl!!IIW!I or m PACTS .u f!li.L BlJlL!lO!!% (50 yeara--.Ul numbera ue approxilllace) Total Aareage o Gateway ArGa: Annexed in 1988: Previoualy in oe.nve.rs Roaldant1al Acrea;e: Gateway Raaidanca: POcantiOl Housing 2,000 ocree 2,500 .., ... Single Family Detached/Attached Homes 12,360 Multi-Family Apartmenta or Condos: 16,500 Cowwrci,e.l Ac -reage: PotentiAl C"""'ero141 squa.re Footage: (Includes Hotel, Office, Recail, saa.e Comauu"Cial Intensity: Maximum Commercial I .ntensity (in t:;J.a.J.ted Areas) r Maximum CODJIDOtcial Height (in Limited Axeaa)' Total Park and Trail Acreage: (Appro.xilaately 12.5\ Of Tot41 Acreage) TwO CQIMI;UOJ ty Pa.rlta f Two Urban Pa..rkat Gol_f Cou.reea Matur e Areas Neighborhood Parka: Town Squ are:a and Businee11 Greene s Trail&: Scboolo Needed 1 1'-le:oentary Schools nddle $choolo High Schools: US ae:reo 90 aoraa 200 ae.rea 40 acre. a 4.6 ac::rea 46 acres 8.4 aUes 6 to 8 l I 4, 500 acre. s 1,740 ACRR 65,000 28,860 uni:ta 1,900 o .cree 54,000,000 .5 FAR 1.0 .PAR 150 Feet 570 acres 8 to 10 All public .l.lllprovemenc o needed co oerve development$ in the "ill be paid fo throu;h dedication., feee, and taxes from landowners and developen and not through ta..x.ea paid by citisen and ,buaJ.nasaea 1n other part& ot Denver. 99

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!W!lii'J' S'l'lll)lJIS Of 7:!11 D!!J!YBR lURl'OI\T IRllli!OJ!S St.udl- performed by -la.ndown.ere, the New Denver Alrport Offi.ce, c.he oenver Planning Office, and surrounding jurisdictiona ora fairly in their pred.ict.iona d};)out future growth patterns around tbe De.nve.t: 1nt.ernetiona.l Ai..r:port. Genara11y, Uey foresee that tl>era wJ.ll be an initial flurry of Airport-related development like hotels prior to the airport opening, but that substantial additional develOPD>ant will not occur in the next 5 to 10 years. SUbsequently, the pace of will depend aiqnJ.ficantly on vhetber the. orea is aarketed aggraaeiveJ.y and has eatablJ.shed a quAlity J.aoge. Increased J.nternationaJ. air connections vouJ.d elao boost growth rates in the area. Here is a summary of vhat these studies precliet for t:he Denver airport environ& (which .i.ncludea Aurora, AdaJu: Coun
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o Dliect: air connecc!ona -Y inc:>:eue proapecta of atuacting fore19'1' tu-dealing with produCt and peru dl.at.rll>ut.lon. o Deoland could be reduced by current avaJ.labillty of indaat>:ial apace on the new aJ.rport eite, 1n induatrJ.al section of NOntbello, and a redeveloped Stapleton. Reoidant.ial o !!e:rlc:et. n;udiea vary videly for the aJ.>:port environa-predJ.ctJ.ono ranv f%0111 15,000-65,000 people by tile year 2005. o Due to infraoeructure availabilit y and a high level of ... ntr.iea, the Gatevay could a d;nil.icant abare -up to 40' ot th1a o Ga"-Y ahe>:e u baaed on an'UIIpt.iona o! h11Jh qua.U.ty and availabllJ.ty of a balanced a1x of bouain9 typeo-i.nclwS.lnfJ upper-41Dd execudve bouaJ.ng. 101

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J!QI!'J1J"ffM'! COR!U!lOR :rJ\Sll PORC!! !!BJ!BBRS FO%Der Councilman Bill Roborta Councilwoman Happy Haineo John Andrews Mae Cotton 1!4rl< Da"idoon Sid Davidson HArry Gollob Greq Gonaleo AidA soak.l.rul Cyril Jones rhayne Jerry Naqel John Pzoaeer Al Roettgar Anthony Sabatini Bill Slit.( tb J41D4B swanaon Michael 'l"homaa Ruse Watteraon Scott White QI PJBSPNIIIJ !ROll !ttHf& !'i""CXIS City Attsw!eyo Office Steve ltaplllft, Vicki Brau.nagel Patti Welle Cathy Gale pepa;taent of Parka And Recreation Don' carolyn Guenther Voqt Na ll Bo&81114ll Etter Neil Sperandao Jill ltotawicz Transportation Plann!ng Division Richard Bruber Gatech8W Zewde Public !!or!ca John StaDDD Terry J!osapep lfas-tewate.r ttonoaement Diy.teion Nick Skifalldea Tam Nelaon O&nver Woter Board l!illiUI Miller DonMOtt Denver Police Depart:ment Joe Bareoon John Gaines John Wilder Neil Price 102 Lee Alpert Lee Andrews Ron -Eller s .... Ballibw:ton Chris Ma.rtine" Jim 0' Neal Emil Rothleaberger Gennifer Suaalll6n Teay War.e Neil Wieqert Bob ltelly ltaren Av ilea Paul Footer Jenni.fer Jones Dennie Royer Larry FUllerton Bruce t.e_i_se.r Alien Crldlebllugh Rockey W1ley

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DeMy lleller pegytr rlrt QepartPont Cll.lef Rleha.rd Goru:alea penytr Public L1broriea Bill H&reer Rocky KQyntaJ.p Arfenal Col. Daniel Vooa Brian Ande.raon Max Anth.ia Ginger BVana Clarence Jackaon Edreatta Newton Seik Saidluft Don Saith LOy Varnon Pat llianer Don .._,.u John .Poaoua Orban Drainage and Flood Control Diatrlct Ben O'rbona a Wr!qht WAter Engineer Bill Runo Oennia Arl>ogoa t CglortdQ Diyl1lon of Wildlife David IIeber David Lovell u.s, Pith and Hlld1Jfe Seryice PaUl Gober 103 'lbolou Montoya 'l'erry Baua Brian Fonnel Carol l!llliotea Reqqie lloraan Lola Slulver Geftnifer Sua..., JJ.a Green Bill Tboaoa

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Airoort Tgchnical Adylaory Cgmmittea AdM County Robert Coney NJ.cltole Stona.r t.uroro Peter Groaahueach Suaan Richst:one Brigbto n Jl.JII Sayre Commez:c: e City Steve Houe Brad Sehol we &lao wioh to acknowledge the valuable and urban deaign expertiaa offered by the tollowinq arohitecto and designers: John Carney, Georqe Hoover, Bri.o.n ltlipp, Jennifer Moulton, Jerry Mogel, Candy Robez:u, Rich Von L1>hz:te, Bill Wonk, Neil Wiegert, ond Dov.l.d Wi .oe.