Citation
South Platte corridor study, 2013

Material Information

Title:
South Platte corridor study, 2013
Creator:
United States Environmental Protection Agency
The Greenway Foundation
City and County of Denver
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
City and County of Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
City planning
South Platte Valley (Colo. and Neb.)

Record Information

Source Institution:
Auraria Library
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
DENVER.
't:
EPA Brownfields Area-Wide
Planning Pilot Program
May 2013




US EPA
Stacey Eriksen, U.S. EPA Region 8
Debbie Morey, U.S. EPA Washington D.C.
Project Partners
Jolon Clark, The Greenway Foundation
Jeff Shoemaker, The Greenway Foundation
Jesse Silverstein, Colorado Brownfields Founda-
tion
City & County of Denver
Council Members
At-Large Robin Kniech
District 9Judy Montero
District 7 Chris Nevitt
District 1Susan Shepherd
Community Planning and Development
Andrea Burns, Public Relations
Steve Gordon, Planning Services Manager
Courtland Hyser, Project Manager
Carolyne Janssen, Graphics
Andrea Santoro, GIS Mapping
Tim Watkins, Project Manager
Todd Wenskoski, Principal Urban Designer
Julius Zsako, Public Relations
Environmental Health
David Wilmoth, City Grant Manager & Brown-
fields Co-Program Manager
Acknowledgements
Office of Economic Development
John Lucero, Deputy Director
Michael Miera, Community Development Repre-
sentative, Brownfields Co-Program Manager
Jeff Romine, Economic Analysis Support
Parks & Recreation
Gordon Robertson, Parks Planning & Design Di-
rector
David Marquardt, Parks Planning Manager
Devon Buckles, Parks Planning
Public Works
Mike Anderson, Waste Water Planning
Crissy Fanganello, Policy, Planning & Sustainabil-
ity Director
Brian Mitchell, Traffic Engineering Services Direc-
tor
Terry Ruiter, Policy, Planning & Sustainability
Brian Schat, Waste Water Planning
Justin Schmitz, Traffic Engineering Services
Emily Silverman, Policy, Planning & Sustainability
Other City Agencies
Diane Barrett, Mayor's Office
Jackie Berardini, Attorney's Office
Bar Chadwick, Department of Finance
Laura Kane, Budget Management Office
Valerie Kerns, District 7 Office
Jeff Steinberg, Real Estate
Advisory Committee
Tangier Barnes, Groundwork Denver
Debra Bustos, Urban Land Conservancy
Suzanne Culin, PCLConstruction Services, Inc.
Todd Fehr, Trout Unlimited
Tanner Johnson, Axio
Elizabeth Kemp, CDOT
Jaclyn Cheves, Denver Public Health
Brian Leavitt, Integral Real Estate
Kirk Monroe, Vectra Bank
David Thorpe, Shaw Construction
Sumer Sorensen-Bain, Colorado Association for
Manufacturing and Technology
John Ross, Gillis Thomas Company
Christine Shapard, Colorado Cleantech Indus-
trial Association
Ken Strom, Audubon Society
Mark Trenka, Trenka & Associates
Desiree Westlund, FRESC
Tim Wohlgenant, Trust for Public Land
Consultant Support
Wenk Associates Project Lead
Matrix Design
Richard Farley Urban Design, LLC
Urban Ventures, LLC
Perspective 3
Metropolitan Design Office
Development Research Partners
Colorado Brownfields Foundation




Contents
Executive Summary.................................................iii
1. Introduction...................................................1
2. Corridor Analysis and Catalytic Site Selection.................13
3. River North Catalytic Site....................................29
4. Water Street Catalytic Site...................................47
5. Zuni & Lower Colfax Avenue Catalytic Site.....................61
6. Alameda Avenue Catalytic Site.................................75
7. Evans Avenue Catalytic Site...................................83
8. Results and Lessons Learned...................................95
Appendix
103




Executive Summary
iii
SOUTH PLATTE CORRIDOR STUDY


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Background
An EPA Brownfields Area-wide Planning
grant was awarded to the City and County
of Denver (Denver), in Partnership with the
Greenway Foundation and the Colorado
Brownfields Foundation, in late 2010. As
one of 23 grant recipients nation-wide, this
funding has allowed for extensive study of
the potential cleanup and reuse of river-
oriented development and neighborhood
revitalization along the urbanized South
Platte River corridor in Denver. The project
study area is a 0.5-mile wide corridor along
the 11-mile stretch of the river (corridor)
from the southern to northern city bounda-
ries (totaling 3,500 acres), with a specific
focus on five opportunity areas along the
river. This corridor study area includes
about 7,500 residents just over 1% of
Denver's population of 620,000 and
roughly 21,000 employees about 4% of
Denver's workforce of 560,000. With an
extensive history of industrialization along
the river corridor, there is great potential
for environmental cleanup and subsequent
reuse or redevelopment of property.
This study demonstrates potential imple-
mentation of neighborhood and station
area plans that relate to the South Platte
River and how transformation of riverfront
sites could benefit property owners, inves-
tors, the surrounding neighborhood, and
the broader community. Denver's previ-
ously adopted plans provide high level pol-
icy guidance for future land uses, and touch
on specific river stretches or topics. By
contrast, this study explores the details of
urban design, site feasibility and potential
economic and fiscal benefits associated
with reuse, infill and redevelopment as
complementary areas of focus. For exam-
ple, the River North (RINO) and River South
(RISO) Greenway Master Plans and current
river vision implementation efforts focus
primarily on opportunities for improving
the greenway as a community recreational
and natural resource, including in-stream
improvements and natural riparian condi-
tions along the river edges. The term
greenway describes a system of parks,
natural areas, recreational spaces and the
continuous trail system that runs along ei-
ther side of the river channel. This study's
conceptual designs and financial analysis of
specific sites along the river demonstrates
how plans might be implemented, and how
this resulting new development could re-
late to Denver's evolving greenway.
This study aims to encourage economic
development and investment along the
corridor by studying five catalytic sites
within opportunity areas along the river. A
three step process was conducted with a
strong emphasis on stakeholder and
neighborhood engagement throughout the
project. These steps included 1) a corridor
riffiiMftLD ENVER
analysis to better understand the physical
nature of properties adjacent or near the
urbanized river and to identify opportunity
areas for reinvestment, 2) selection of five
catalytic sites within these opportunity ar-
eas, and 3) conceptual study of the oppor-
tunity areas and especially the specific
catalytic site. Over 25 property owners
were contacted and invited to participate,
followed by eight public meetings where
input was collected for developing con-
cepts that would benefit both the property
owners and the surrounding neighborhood.
Corridor Analysis
A corridor mapping analysis shows that
predominant land uses within the corridor
today are industrial land (25%), transporta-
tion (15% as freeways, roads and rail, in-
cluding rail transit) and large single uses
and parking areas (including entertainment
venues such as Mile High Stadium and
Elitch Gardens). Only 4% of the study area
is residential, with only three small
neighborhoods that touch the riverfront.
Some of the residential areas have limited
access to the river due to roads or railways
that provide transport throughout Denver,
but also physically separate residential
neighborhoods from the river. Existing
parks and natural areas comprise 8% of the
study area, the result of significant river-
front reclamation efforts and reuse of mul-
tiple former brownfield sites by the Green-


way Foundation and the City and County of
Denver over the past 35 years.
The five catalytic sites were selected using
specific criteria to identify some of the best
opportunities for reuse and neighborhood
revitalization along the corridor. Criteria
included underutilized sites that had a po-
tentially strong relationship to the river,
and that were potentially catalytic and
beneficial to the surrounding area and ad-
jacent greenway. The review of each cata-
lytic site explored ideal orientation of new
development to the river, site access and
neighborhood circulation for pedestrians
and vehicles, and innovative opportunities
for capturing and sustainably treating
stormwater generated from the impervious
surfaces. Innovative opportunities include
green infrastructure treatment areas for
stormwater within landscaped areas such
as treelawns along the adjacent streets or
planters within plazas and promenades.
Opportunity Areas & Catalytic Sites
1. River North
The River North neighborhood is an aging
industrial area near downtown Denver that
is gradually transitioning to a mixed use
redevelopment district along the South
Platte River. Current industrial uses include
an auto salvage yard and light manufactur-
ing, including the growth of artisan fabrica-
tion shops associated with the RiNo Arts
District. A planned commuter rail station
will soon be constructed and serve the area
in 2016. The neighborhood is bisected by
Brighton Boulevard, a four-lane arterial
that serves as a gateway from 1-70 and
Denver International Airport to downtown.
Recognizing the market trends for mixed
use redevelopment, Denver Parks and Rec-
reation purchased a 2-acre brownfields
parcel next to the river and developed con-
ceptual park designs in 2011.
A 5.5-acre catalytic site was selected be-
tween the park property and Brighton
Boulevard to explore the potential relation-
ship among the river, the park and new
development. Detailed redevelopment
concepts demonstrate how employment
flex space, retail and residential uses could
be accommodated on the site while maxi-
mizing the relationship to the park and the
river. The preferred alternative includes
333 new residential units, over 43,600
gross square feet (g.s.f.) of office / flex
space and 23,500 g.s.f. of ground level re-
tail. Potential fiscal and economic benefits
of this $73M investment include 217 con-
struction jobs, 188 permanent jobs with an
average salary of $63,400, and 633 onsite
residents that could spend $2.4M on tax-
able goods in Denver. The combined sales
tax, property tax and occupational privilege
tax generated from onsite business activity
SOUTH
and off-site spending are estimated at
$513,000 annually. The River North Green-
way Master Plan recommends realignment
of Arkins Court around the Park. This rec-
ommendation was incorporated into the
design concept, creating a shared boundary
with the selected catalytic site. The pre-
ferred redevelopment alternative shows
this street realignment with additional
east/west streets that would improve con-
nectivity from Brighton Boulevard to the
future park. The benefits of this alternative
include:
A more active and safe park environ-
ment with more eyes on the park from
adjacent development and visibility
from the street
Development that benefits from the
beautiful views of the river and Rocky
Mountains, as well as direct access to
the park
An expanded street grid for greater
neighborhood connectivity
2. Water Street
Water Street is in the Jefferson Park
neighborhood and serves as a gateway to
downtown and the Central Platte Valley. A
mixed industrial and residential district
built in the early 20th century, the area was
redeveloped in the 1990's into the Down-
town Aquarium. The adjacent Fishback
Park property was subject to a leaking un-
derground storage tank cleanup and the
PLATTE COFUT1DOR- STUDY


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
aquarium building property was remedi-
ated under the Colorado Voluntary Cleanup
Program. Much of this subarea along the
river is a large surface parking lot that
serves the aquarium, or special events such
as Denver Broncos games. The parking lot
and Water Street have the look of invest-
ment and care with mature landscaping,
street trees and well maintained pavement.
However, the 400-stall parking lot is rarely
more than two-thirds full, and the street
becomes empty and quiet after museum
visitation and restaurant dining dies down
during the evening hours.
Infill development of the Water Street
parking area could result in a more exciting
and dynamic place along the South Platte
River by introducing residential develop-
ment and ground level retail. The building
fronts would be oriented to Water Street
with the existing Fishback Park and green-
way trail on the other side of the street.
Structured parking would be located to the
rear of the development where it could
also serve as a buffer between 1-25 and the
pedestrian zone along the street. The con-
cept would yield 384 residential units and
12,450 g.s.f. of retail / restaurant to com-
plement the museum and the new residen-
tial development.
Potential fiscal and economic benefits of
this $75M investment include 225 con-
struction jobs, 30 permanent retail and res-
taurant jobs with an average annual salary
of $23,200, and 755 on-site residents that
could spend nearly $3M each year on tax-
able goods in Denver. The combined sales
tax, property tax and employee tax gener-
ated from onsite business activity and off-
site spending is estimated at $389,000 an-
nually.
3. Zuni & Lower Colfax Avenue
This site is located between Zuni Street and
the river, just south of Old Colfax. The site
has been the home for various industrial
activities including an industrial dry clean-
ers, auto service, insulation manufacturing
and rail sidings. Views from the site are
dominated to the north by the Colfax Ave-
nue viaduct, and by 1-25 interchange ramps
and freeway to the east. Industrial proper-
ties currently line the river, and the Xcel
power plant symbolizes decades of prior
industrial use along this stretch of the river.
However, the area is in transition, with a
number of recent or pending transforma-
tional changes. The West Rail line a 12.1
mile light rail extension between Down-
town Denver and the City of Golden will
open in the spring of 2013. The Decatur
Federal station platform will be the second
stop from Downtown, and is being con-
structed just Vz mile to the west from the
Zuni site. Lakewood Gulch was recently
improved into an expansive greenway trail
and floodway zone that connects to the
DENVER
vi
South Platte River corridor. Improvements
to the South Platte River and the gulch
have resulted in the removal of significant
acreage near the Decatur Federal station
from the floodplain. Xcel Energy is plan-
ning to decommission the power plant and
sell other properties in the area.
A Decatur Federal Station Area planning
process is nearing completion and adoption
by the City, which will provide guidance for
transforming this area near the river into a
dynamic transit oriented development. It is
envisioned that new development will be
oriented toward an enhanced greenway on
the west side of the river.
Through coordination with the Decatur -
Federal planning team, the South Platte
Corridor team engaged the public to dis-
cuss future riverfront conditions and how
new development should relate to the
river. This stretch of the river is unique in
Denver given the direct frontage of devel-
opable property along the river, whereas
the majority of the river in Denver is
fronted by existing streets, highways, or
railways. The preferred alternative for a
4.8-acre catalytic site between Zuni and the
river shows an adaptive and flexible con-
cept that combines adaptive reuse of a his-
toric building with office, residential and
commercial ground level uses fronting Zuni
and Old Colfax.
The project yields 12,000 g.s.f. of retail,


51,600 g.s.f. of office and 320 residential
units. The largest building is a residential
building with a shared parking structure
that is oriented toward a pedestrian
promenade along the river that also pro-
vides emergency fire lane access. A street
that currently dead ends at the river (14th
Avenue) is also proposed as a pedestrian
zone / fire lane, which provides an en-
hanced pedestrian connection between
Zuni Street and the river, and plaza-like
frontage for residential and office uses.
Potential fiscal and economic benefits of
this $84M investment includes 252 con-
struction jobs, 57 permanent office and
retail jobs with an average annual salary of
$48,300, and 600 onsite residents that
could spend nearly $2.3M each year on
taxable goods in Denver. The combined
sales tax, property tax and employee tax
generated from on-site business activity
and off-site spending are estimated at
$400,000 annually.
4. Alameda
Just south of Alameda Avenue on the west
side of the river is a large 8-acre commer-
cial block with industrial warehouses, of-
fices and a church. This site is impacted by
historic landfilling and trash dumping that
was typical to this area along the river. The
non-residential employment uses have ex-
perienced decline over the past few years,
with most of the aging buildings currently
vacant or underutilized. At the owners'
request, the focus of study for this site is on
adaptive reuse and exploration of creative
reinvestment and business clustering
strategies. Property owners could capital-
ize on the river-front location and explore
investment opportunities that could attract
new business with office and light assembly
or warehouse needs, education facilities,
human services, retail and other non-
residential uses.
The site has an appearance of an aging ur-
ban industrial complex within a large ex-
panse of parking pavement that blends into
the surrounding streets. Coordinated rein-
vestment could give new life to the com-
plex and make it more attractive and com-
petitive with newer facilities in other parts
of the metro region. Public input related to
this site encouraged beautification through
landscaping, and new businesses such as
bike shops or a cafe that might attract
more people using the river for recrea-
tional activities.
Landscaping improvements could beautify
and unify the site, and help it relate visually
to the greenway across South Platte River
Drive. New walkways would provide inter-
site connectivity and encourage uses that
might relate and link from one building to
another. Building facade upgrades could
highlight entrances and new windows while
reinforcing ideals of sustainability, creativ-
ity, emerging technology, adaptability and
trend-setting for the future. The results of
this study encourage property owner col-
laboration to further explore how this site
could reemerge as a significant employ-
ment district in the center of Denver, and
potentially inspire additional investment on
vacant and underutilized sites within the
neighborhood. A fiscal and economic im-
pact analysis was not conducted at this
time given the uncertainty of future uses
on the site, and the current non-taxable
religious use as the predominant active use
on the block.
5. Evans & Huron
The Overland neighborhood is a mixed resi-
dential and industrial area with a major
highway and railway that bisect the
neighborhood. The area is characterized by
multiple, long term industrial activity that
involves paint shops and potential long-
term solvent uses. The area is also im-
pacted by a known off-site chromium
groundwater plume being cleaned under
State regulatory supervision. A small
pocket of retail and light industrial uses
touches the east river bank within an oth-
erwise residential district between the
highway and the river.
The South Platte River Trail runs along the
Overland Golf Course on the east side of
the river, and along Pasquinel's Landing
vu
SOUTH PLATTE CdUUDOU STUDY


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Park that flanks the north side of Evans
Avenue. The trail continues south of Evans
to Grant Frontier Park, only one block
away. This riverside section of the
neighborhood will soon benefit from a cur-
rent Public Works project to upgrade the
street with 8-foot sidewalks along a quarter
mile stretch of Evans Avenue. These im-
provements will be added to both sides of
the street between the greenway and the
light rail station located on the opposite
side of the highway and railway corridor.
This improved connectivity will extend over
the existing viaduct to make walking and
biking safer and the station more accessi-
ble.
The catalytic site study explores the poten-
tial of converting the small 5.2-acre pocket
of light industrial/ commercial next to the
river into a mixed use residential develop-
ment that interfaces with an enhanced
greenway. The preferred alternative shows
the potential improvements gained from
realigning South Platte River Drive to the
current Huron Street alignment to expand
the greenway and simplify the street net-
work. The suggested development type
applies to the north and south sides of Ev-
ans, including three-story walkup town-
homes with tuck under parking that faces
the River (Huron Street) and the opposing
Galapago Street, and three story mixed use
buildings with ground level commercial
fronting Evans. The project yields 192 resi-
dential units and 26,000 g.s.f. of retail or
office on the ground level. Retail uses on
the corner of Evans and Huron could take
advantage of the greenway amenity with
walk-out patio spaces for a small riverside
restaurant or coffee shop. Potential fiscal
and economic benefits of this $27M invest-
ment include 78 construction jobs, 59 per-
manent office and retail jobs with an aver-
age annual salary of $46,000, and 365 on-
site residents that could spend over $1M
each year on taxable goods in Denver. The
combined sales tax, property tax and em-
ployee tax generated from onsite business
activity and off-site spending is estimated
at $244,000 annually.
Summary of Fiscal and Economic Bene-
fits
Four sites were included in a fiscal and eco-
nomic impact analysis, resulting in a total
potential investment of nearly $260M that
could generate 773 construction jobs and
provide space for 352 permanent employ-
ment positions with an average annual pro-
jected salary of $55,370 in Denver. This
represents an increase of 1.7% to the exist-
ing employment of 21,000 along the river
corridor. About 1,230 new residents would
live near the river in these developments, a
16% increase above the current residential
population of 7,500 in the corridor. These
new residents could spend $8.7M each
year on taxable goods purchased in Denver.
The combined sales tax revenues from con-
sumer spending, business spending, on-
site sales, and property and employee tax
revenues from the new commercial areas is
projected at over $1.5M annually.
Sustainability and Healthy Living
With more people living, working and visit-
ing destinations along the South Platte
River, several key goals related to healthier
living and sustainability could be achieved.
These benefits are likely to extend beyond
catalytic development sites into the sur-
rounding neighborhoods.
More Walking, Less Driving New hous-
ing, jobs and shopping near transit stations
within walking distance of the river will
generate more use for the South Platte
Greenway trail and rail transit.
More active use of the greenway
equates to more eyes and ears on the river
corridor, making it a safe and inviting place
to be during the day and evening hours.
New development near the river can
serve to enhance public access along the
river and create increased connectivity for
surrounding neighborhoods to safely walk
or bike to the greenway.
Greenway improvements and new de-
velopment will increase the desirability and
value of surrounding neighborhoods.
Redevelopment of aging urban areas
DENVER
viii


creates an opportunity to capture and im-
prove the quality of stormwater before it
flows from the site into streams and rivers.
Redevelopment creates an opportunity
to pursue inclusionary housing options for
all stages of life and income along the river
corridor. This will further increase the po-
tential of people living closer to the places
they regularly visit with convenient access
to rail transit and cycling routes.
Summary of Potential Environmental
Challenges to Revitalization and
Brownfield Opportunities:
The industrial and commercial land use his-
tory of properties adjacent to the South
Platte River, discussed throughout the re-
port, pose perceived and in some cases
documented environmental challenges to
revitalization of the corridor. To the extent
possible, this report collected existing envi-
ronmental information from multiple
sources including various types of site de-
velopment reports offered by a few willing
property owners, public domain environ-
mental database sources, and government
records. With the exception of the Zuni site
which was the subject of an EPA targeted
brownfields assessment, the information
gathered was far from complete.
For the purposes of this report, significant
data gaps dictated making multiple as-
sumptions about potential environmental
conditions without confirmational investi-
gations. All of the catalytic sites had multi-
ple significant potential sources for soil and
groundwater impacts onsite and adjacent
to properties that will likely require a ro-
bust field investigation phase to identify
and characterize recognized environmental
conditions. The research shows that in or-
der to redevelop the catalytic sites and
most other properties along the river, ex-
tensive environmental due diligence work
will need to be conducted to determine if
properties are in fact environmentally im-
pacted, and if so, to what extent. The next
step is to then determine the appropriate
environmental cleanup necessary fora
given proposed development.
The costs of these extensive studies will
likely inhibit redevelopment as it creates
significant uncertainty about the actual
development costs, potential investment
returns, and timeline for redevelopment
completion. To assist in overcoming this
hurdle to corridor revitalization, particu-
larly for for-profit entities, one of the re-
port recommendations is for the City and
County of Denver's Brownfields Program to
pursue an EPA brownfields assessment
grant to fund environmental site assess-
ments and cleanup planning on behalf of
prospective purchasers and consenting
property owners.
The redevelopment of the South Platte
River Corridor is a major focus for the City
and County of Denver from the City's ongo-
ing partnership with the Urban Water Ini-
tiative, the partnership between the City
and Greenway Foundation on the South
Platte River Vision Implementation Plan
and association river improvement pro-
jects, and the Mayor's Smart Jobs Develop-
ment program which has the river corridor
as one of three areas of focus. A brown-
fields assessment grant would fill a key
niche around all of these initiatives.
IX
SOUTH PLATTE CdUUDOU STUDY


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
DENVER
x




SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION
The South Platte River has been an integral
part of Denver's history and economy, be-
ginning with the discovery of Colorado gold
in 1858 and a flurry of log cabins built along
the river. The fledgling frontier settlement
struggled until a new railway was com-
pleted in 1870 that connected Denver to
the new transcontinental railway in Chey-
enne, Wyoming. That same year, a new
Kansas Pacific railway put Denver on the
map as the regional hub within the nation's
rapidly growing transcontinental railway
system. Railway connections brought rapid
investment, growth and new industries lin-
ing the river to process minerals, agricul-
tural goods and to manufacture new prod-
ucts. Freight supplies, curious tourists and
new residents poured into the city which
stimulated the economy and ignited
growth from a population of about 4,800 in
1870 to 35,000 by 1880 (Gehling, "The
Pike's Peak Gold Rush," 2009).
Railway networks branched into the moun-
tains to transport lead, gold, silver and
other ore to new smelter sites near the
South Platte in Denver. Coal was also
transported from mines to supply power to
factories and to be converted to gas for
lighting and heating.
Multiple railways and spurs, rail yards,
maintenance facilities, roads and highways
dominated portions of the river corridor to
serve the growing industries along the river
(see opposing regional map image).
In the late 19th and early 20th century, ma-
jor rivers were commonly used for drainage
and landfills for dumping chemical waste,
garbage and raw sewage. Early railroad
cars dumped their waste alongside the
river, and gravel quarries were dug along
its banks and later converted to landfills
that leached contaminants. A number of
abandoned gas stations, smelters, and coal-
fired plants have lined the banks of the
South Platte as well.
This treatment of the river occurred for
decades before public health risks were
better understood, and environmental laws
and regulations were passed to protect
water ways and property. Although such
practices are no longer allowed, contami-
nation from previous uses likely remains in
the soil and groundwater of many proper-
ties.
Over the last 36 years, the City and County
of Denver, in partnership with The Green-
way Foundation, has worked to reduce
these impacts to the South Platte River and
Public Service Gas Works in 1916 near the river
just west of Downtown Denver. Buildings from
the Zang Brewery are visible in the background.
The site has been converted into a surface park-
ing area serving the Pepsi Center arena and
Elitch Gardens theme park
Below: Pepper Meat and Provision Company
packing plant next to the River in the Elyria
Swansea neighborhood (circa 1935).
DENVER
2


:r#
the surrounding area including the creation
of over a dozen parks, numerous natural
areas, white-water boat chutes and a multi-
use trail system. Denver's 11-mile stretch
of the South Platte River Trail is part of a
much larger regional trail system that ex-
tends further north and South into
neighboring communities. Major trails that
connect to the South Platte Corridor in-
clude the Cherry Creek Trail, Lakewood
Gulch Trail and Weir Gulch Trails. Improve-
ments to the water quality of the South
Platte have also occurred, in particular
since the enactment of the Federal Clean
Water Act which required all discharges to
surface water to be permitted. Additional
improvements to water quality have been
realized through the installation of water
quality improvement features in areas
draining to the river, development of best
management practices to control exposure
of pollutants to stormwater, and imple-
mentation of infrastructure maintenance
programs intended to prevent pollutants in
(Left:)The City and County of Denver (yellow) is
shown within the Metropolitan region (grey).
Railways and highways converge in Denver
along the South Platte Corridor.
(Below) Confluence of South Platte River and
Cherry Creek circa 1974, prior to improvements
and creation of Confluence Park.
(Below) View of Confluence Park with Central
Platte Valley redevelopment in the mid-ground,
and Downtown Denver in the background.
SOUTH PLATTE COP RJDOP STUDV


SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION
the sanitary sewers from reaching storm
sewers. These enhancements have been a
key factor in the economic resurgence of
several areas adjacent to the River, the
most notable being the Central Platte Val-
ley near downtown Denver.
Central Platte Valley A Local Model
for Riverfront Cleanup and Reuse
As passenger and freight rail use declined
in the 1980's, multiple rail companies were
motivated to consolidate underutilized par-
allel railways that had long comprised a
vast rail yard between downtown and the
river. While conducting a comprehensive
planning effort for the area, Denver worked
with the railroad companies to create what
is know as the Consolidated Main Line
(CML), which opened up extensive acreage
to be sold to a master developer. A master
planning and rezoning effort ensued, cou-
pled with public investment to remove
viaducts, build new bridges and restore the
river. Public investment has resulted in
extensive environmental remediation, park
and river improvements that spurred sur-
rounding real estate development in the
DENVER.
(Left) The Central Platte Valley continues to
evolve as a significant reinvestment area to the
north of downtown Denver. Redevelopment
areas include the Commons Master Plan (A),
The Commons l/l/est (B), Prospect (C), Coors
Field (D), The Pepsi Center (E), Elitch Gardens (F)
the Downtown Aquarium (G), The Children's
Museum (H) and Mile High Stadium (I). The his-
toric Union Station (J) is being converted into a
multimodal hub to connect existing light rail
(2002) and bus transit, and future commuter
rail that will open in 2016 to connect downtown
Denver to the Denver International Airport.
(Upper Right) Commons Park under construc-
tion in the 1990's following an extensive 10-year
comprehensive planning process in the Central
Platte Valley, consolidation of multiple railway
lines, and completion of the Commons Master
Plan.
(Lower Right) Planning under the administra-
tion of Mayor Wellington Webb led to a rebirth
of the Central Platte Valley. Commons Park and
the nearby Confluence Park have spurred sur-
rounding development in the Central Platte Val-
ley on vacated railways and industrial yards.


Aanis aioai^co anvid Hinos


SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION
1990's. To date, public reinvestment in the
Central Platte Valley is estimated at $300
Million and $500 Million into the Denver
Union Station hub. Although a figure for
total private investment is not available,
numerous residential and commercial
mixed use projects have been completed or
are currently under design or construction.
The South Platte River Corridor Today
Despite the continuing success of revitaliza-
tion efforts in the Central Platte Valley,
many environmental challenges remain
within and alongside the river corridor.
Although significant progress has been
made in recent decades, more can be done
to improve the river as an amenity and re-
source and use it to attract new develop-
ment and investment at other locations
along the corridor. Although most of the
original factories and industrial yards along
the river no longer exist, owners hoping to
redevelop river sites into attractive mixed
use areas near the river must face the pos-
sibility of dealing with remnant hazardous
materials and regulatory liability.
Denver's present day population is 620,000
with over 560,000 employees, including
110,000 that work in downtown Denver.
The City is expected to grow by 160,000
new residents and about the same number
of employees by the year 2035. Much of
this growth is expected to occur in the
City's designated areas of change where
more housing and jobs can be served by a
growing rail transit network (see Blueprint
Denver Map in appendix A). Railways once
brought coal and raw metal ore to an in-
dustrialized river, but new rail investment
is now helping to attract private investment
in housing and commercial development
near several transit stations that are within
walking distance of the river.
Transit oriented development (TOD) near
the existing river trail provides the opportu-
nity to locate development near existing
services and amenities where open space,
walking, biking, and transit are in abundant
supply.
With continuing public investment in rail
transit and greenway enhancements, sig-
nificant housing and job growth is likely to
occur along the South Platte River corridor,
which presents an opportunity to further
clean up brownfields and transform the
river environment. Renewed develop-
ment could create exciting urban environ-
ments where more people could enjoy the
river as an amenity.
DENVER
6
To encourage reinvestment in areas of
change along transit corridors, Denver
adopted several station area and neighbor-
hood plans that recommend higher inten-
sity mixed use development near the sta-
tions. The old zoning code has been re-
placed with a new form-based zoning code
and map that were adopted in 2010. The
five catalytic site concepts are consistent
with current zoning or plan recommenda-
tions as a demonstration of current land
use policy and zoning regulation.
Project Purpose
The purpose of this study is to encourage
community revitalization and appropriate
redevelopment along the South Platte
River within the City of Denver. This docu-
ment presents detailed study of redevelop-
ment and reuse concepts for properties at
five different areas along the river, and ex-
plores how this reinvestment could benefit
the surrounding neighborhood, relate to
the greenway and catalyze revitalization
around them. The findings are based upon
extensive input from property owners,
stakeholders, neighbors and the general
public. Urban design studies and market
analyses provide valuable pre-development
insights that, if implemented, could create


significant economic development and
community revitalization along the corri-
dor. This study demonstrates how private
investment could help to clean up and re-
use potentially contaminated sites along
the river corridor, and how these sites
could transform into healthy and vibrant
places to live, work, recreate and visit.
Study recommendations provide strategies
for transformation of underutilized or envi-
ronmentally impaired areas (potential
brownfields) into urban riverside environ-
ments offering residential, employment
and recreational uses. Anticipated public
benefits that could result from private in-
vestment include restoration of the South
Platte River's ecological integrity, imple-
mentation of the River Greenway Master
Plans, and sustainable growth of jobs and
housing.
Project Funding
The South Platte Corridor Study was
funded by a $175,000 grant from the EPA's
Brownfields Area-Wide Planning Pilot Pro-
gram. This grant was awarded in October,
2010. The project was originally scoped to
study three catalytic sites along the river,
but in early 2012 the project received an
additional $75,000 from the EPA's Home-
The project study area contains about 3,500 acres along Denver's 10.9-mile stretch of the South Platte
River corridor, encompassing one guarter-mile of land on either side of the river. The area touches 14 of
Denver's 77 neighborhoods, and presently has about 7,500 residents (1.2% of Denver's population), and
around 21,000 employees (3.8% of the City's employment base).
1
SOUTH PLATTE COR.RJDOH STUDY
Uvalda S:.


SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION
town Funding to enable the study of two
additional catalytic sites, bringing the total
budget to $250,000.
Project Goals
This study has six major goals for continued
reinvestment and revitalization of the river
corridor:
1. Demonstrate how potential brownfield
sites can redevelop and relate to the
river / greenway, and revitalize the sur-
rounding area
2. Demonstrate how to create more pub-
lic spaces along the river
3. Demonstrate how Denver's recently-
adopted land use plans and form-based
zoning code can be applied to specific
sites along the corridor
4. Encourage economic development as-
sociated with new development and
reuse that results in new jobs and
housing along the river
5. Encourage community revitalization by
exploring appropriate new develop-
ment and how it relates to existing
neighborhoods
6. Demonstrate how innovative on-site
stormwater management can be used
to improve water quality runoff into
the river
Project Structure
The South Platte Corridor Study was de-
signed to accomplish the project goals by
building upon previous planning studies
and public engagement efforts.
Project Partners
The process relied on regular coordination
between project partners including city
agencies, the Greenway Foundation and
the Colorado Brownfields Foundation.
Agency partners attended monthly meet-
ings, contributed edits and comments to
project scope working drafts, and sup-
ported the proposal review and consultant
selection process. This collaborative ap-
proach helped to align the various perspec-
tives and responsibilities covered by each
respective agency during the project incep-
tion and throughout the project execution
and public outreach stages. Community
Planning and Development assigned two
planners to co-manage the project with
approximately 2 full time employee (FTE)
time spent over a two-year period.
The Greenway Foundation
The Greenway Foundation has worked in a
successful partnership with the City on
n i~ rr
South Platte Corridor Study Area Map
(see Appendix B) for larger map and legend).


multiple greenway and river restoration
projects since its inception in 1976. This
partnership continued with the Foundation
receiving $15,000 as a sub-grant recipient
to support the project development, public
outreach and coordination with current
river implementation projects.
The Colorado Brownfields Foundation
The Colorado Brownfields Foundation (CBF)
was awarded $13,065 to support the pro-
ject with technical assistance related to real
estate, redevelopment and brownfields
issues. The organization also contributed
80 hours of services through their Technical
Assistance for Brownfields (TAB) funding.
CBF provided project messaging strategies,
stakeholder and public education support,
assistance in review of existing environ-
mental data, property observation screen-
ings, and assistance in the development of
potential environmental remediation cost
estimates that were critical to the success
of the project.
Consultant Team
The Wenk consultant team was se-
lected through a very competitive proposal
and interviewing process following a pro-
ject definition and scoping exercise by the
project partner team. The Wenk team was
selected based on their experience in plan-
ning and urban design for clean up and
reuse along industrialized river corridors.
They also demonstrated applied knowledge
of green infrastructure and how to inte-
grate water quality areas as amenities in a
higher density transit oriented develop-
ment setting. Also added to the team were
architectural services (including urban de-
sign and 3-D modeling) development and
real estate market specialization and public
engagement expertise.
The River Technical Advisory Committee
(RTAC) was organized to review develop-
ment concepts to assure that environ-
mental interpretations and infrastructure
assumptions were plausible and consistent
with latest information and knowledge.
Committee members were comprised pri-
marily of engineers from Public Works and
the consultant team to meet on an as
needed basis.
Advisory Committee
This group represented diverse interests
related to the river, and was thoughtfully
selected with input and approval from pro-
ject partners and four city council mem-
bers. Advisory committee members met
on four separate occasions over a five
month period to weigh in on the process
and review concepts prior to public meet-
ings.
Private for-profit interests included com-
mercial and residential real estate brokers,
developers, lenders, manufacturing asso-
ciations, industrial property owners and
commercial general contractors. Non
profit entities included Trust for Public
Lands, Audubon Society, Trout Unlimited,
Denver Public Health, FRESC, Urban Land
Conservancy, Denver Housing Authority
and CDOT. Denver City agency representa-
tives were also invited to participate in
these meetings.
Project Approach
The primary components of the project
approach are summarized in the following
four project steps, as well as a description
of the public engagement process.
Step 1. Corridor Analysis
An extensive corridor analysis was a critical
first step that was conducted to better un-
derstand how the South Platte River relates
to the adjacent urban environment. This
initial examination of the corridor estab-
lished a cohesive picture and understand-
9
SOUTH PLATTE CdUUDOU STUDY


SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION
ing of the river corridor as a whole, and
provided a basis for selecting specific cata-
lytic sites.
Step 2. Catalytic Site Selection
With the major emphasis of this project
focused on study of catalytic redevelop-
ment sites, selecting the right sites was of
key importance. The corridor-wide analysis
led to the identification of five opportunity
areas with a catalytic site identified within
each area.
Step 3. Detailed Study of Catalytic Sites
The purpose of this step was to demon-
strate how new development could trans-
form sites along the river to create a
healthier and more vibrant urban environ-
ment. These conceptual planning studies
explored opportunities for neighborhood
connection, revitalization, and stabilization,
and provided strategies and options for
redevelopment of the catalytic sites along
the river. A proforma analysis of each con-
cept was created to demonstrate project
feasibility based on reasonable assump-
tions for land value, clean up costs, site im-
provement costs and building construction
costs.
Strategies for innovative on-site stormwa-
ter management were recommended spe-
cific to each site with reference to potential
environmental conditions, existing area
drainage studies, and potential future
drainage projects identified in the City's
storm drainage master plan.
Area-wide Green Infrastructure Study
A separate water quality study was con-
ducted by Wenk for a 100-acre study area
surrounding a catalytic site in the River
North neighborhood (RiNo). This expanded
focus on stormwater management explores
innovative opportunities for consolidated
green infrastructure and other stormwater
management strategies at a sub-regional
scale. This project was funded separately
by the EPA and the Urban Drainage and
Flood Control District with significant in-
volvement by the City (See Section 3 -
Green Infrastructure Concepts).
Step 4. Economic Analysis
To augment the economic analysis compo-
nent of the South Platte Corridor Study, a
collaborative fiscal and economic impact
modeling effort was undertaken with the
Denver Office of Economic Development
to evaluate the potential benefits of the
catalytic site concepts along the corridor.
tiSM^LPENVER
This joint effort was made possible by pur-
chase of a proprietary software model li-
cense called SiteStats an Economic and
Fiscal Impact Analysis tool developed by
Development Research Partners with grant
funds. A SiteStats perspective looks at
multiple economic and fiscal benefits that
extend from construction activity, from the
economic buying power of those who live,
work or visit a project, hypothetical spend-
ing is analyzed to explore potential local
economic benefits and revenues generated
for the City and County of Denver. The
model also estimates the total of property
taxes and onsite retail sales as assumed in
the catalytic site studies. This analysis is
featured in Sections 3 through 7 as part of
the catalytic site summaries. The reporting
of fiscal and economic benefits provides
additional perspective for how catalytic site
cleanup and reuse might benefit adjacent
neighborhoods, including those with exist-
ing environmental justice challenges.
Stakeholder and Public Engagement
One of the most important aspects of this
study is the ongoing process of gaining
feedback about the project from property
owners, residents and other stakeholders
from the community. This process identi-


fied specific properties that may be under-
utilized in evolving market areas in Denver.
By involving the surrounding residents and
stakeholders in the process, these explora-
tory concepts were intended to benefit not
only individual property owners, but also
the surrounding community and the City of
Denver as a whole.
Reaching out to the property owners prior
to involving the broader community was a
key first step following the preliminary cor-
ridor analysis. After identifying potential
catalytic sites, in-person and telephone
interviews were conducted with 25 prop-
erty owners. These owners generally re-
sponded favorably to the invitation to par-
ticipate and explore opportunities for fu-
ture development. Some stated a prefer-
ence to keep their light industrial busi-
nesses and properties intact for the near
and mid-term future, while others ex-
pressed a potential interest to sell property
for redevelopment in the shortterm.
The consultant team members explained
during the interviews that historic industri-
alization and landfilling along the river
could present a barrier to reuse of prop-
erty. This planning process presented an
opportunity to gain new information and
ideas to anticipate potential contamina-
tion, and to understand how to position
their properties as the real estate market
evolves. It was made clear to all property
owners and neighborhood residents that
any concepts resulting from this study
would be non-binding to the property own-
ers and made available for voluntary imple-
mentation.
Community Priorities
The project engaged numerous residents,
area stakeholders, as well as diverse or-
ganizations and foundations with an inter-
est in the future well-being of Denver's
river corridor. From March to September
2012, several stakeholder interviews and
eight public events were organized to pro-
vide ample opportunity for public input and
to ensure that the surrounding neighbor-
hoods were engaged. Public meetings con-
sisted of a kick-off meeting, three
neighborhood workshops, two presenta-
tions at neighborhood meetings, a concept
review meeting, and a final presentation
meeting. Public feedback gathered from
these events served as a guide to the con-
sultant team and influenced the evolving
design concepts. Stakeholder and public
input is referenced in Sections 3 through 7
as part of the catalytic site concept over-
views, and Appendix C provides a summary
of the public meetings.
Neighborhood Engagement
Public participation was key to develop an
understanding of how catalytic site reuse
and redevelopment could benefit the sur-
rounding neighborhoods and complement
the South Platte greenway. To provide an
open and transparent process, three key
outreach methods were employed:
Bi-lingual flyers in Spanish and English
were mailed to property owners living
within 1,000 feet of each catalytic site
prior to the neighborhood workshops.
An email invitation list of over 1,000
contacts was assembled from previous
planning efforts along the river includ-
ing greenway master plans and station
area plans. Notice was also distributed
to Denver's registered neighborhood
organizations. Bi-lingual emails were
sent prior to each public meeting.
A project website was set up with pro-
ject background information, events
and City staff contact information.
Public meeting sign in sheets were pro-
vided to gather the contact information
11
SOUTH PLATTE COFUTIDOR. STUDY


SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION
of new participants and add them to
the growing email contact list.
This inclusive process provides a basis for
the findings, design concepts and feasibility
analysis contained in this study. It is antici-
pated that the report will serve as a valu-
able implementation reference to the City,
and provide insight that informs potential
private investment.
DENVER
12


2. Corridor Analysis and
Catalytic Site Selection


SECTION 2. CORRIDOR ANALYSIS AND CATALYTIC SITE SELECTION
The South Platte River corridor is a complex
network of built-up land uses, vacant sites,
redeveloped sites, extensive freight and
public transit railways, public streets, high-
ways and parks along the river banks. To
better understand the relationship be-
tween these uses and the river, an exten-
sive corridor analysis of existing conditions
was conducted by the project team. This
section provides an overview of this analy-
sis in three general steps, including plans
and policies review, economic investment
analysis and existing conditions analysis.
Plans and Policies Review
The first step in the analysis was to collect
information from existing plans and studies
that touch on areas along the river or other
specific river topics. A complete list of
these plans and the general relevance to
this project is provided in Appendix D. An
opportunity area map graphic is provided
in each of the catalytic site summaries. The
Catalytic site studies in Sections 3 through
7 refer to key plan recommendations or
existing neighborhood components that
relate to each study area and a specific
catalytic site. Additional references are
made to plan recommendations and zon-
ing. Some of the more significant plans
that are referenced include:
Blueprint Denver Denver's integral
land use and transportation plan was
adopted in 2002. Blueprint Denver desig-
nates areas of change where infill and rede-
velopment could be served by higher ca-
pacity transit service and existing infra-
structure (See Blueprint Denver Map in
Appendix A).
Greenway Master Plans Denver
Parks and Recreation and the Greenway
Foundation engaged stakeholders and the
public to explore greenway natural areas
and recreation opportunities along the
South Platte River in Denver. This impor-
tant planning effort initiated an on-going
collaborative effort between citizens, prop-
erty owners, Denver City agencies, the
Greenway Foundation and numerous other
public and private organizations committed
to a naturally healthy and prosperous
South Platte River. Following completion
of the master plans, several projects were
prioritized for funding, detailed planning,
design and construction by 2015. These
focus areas for greenway improvements
relate to each of the catalytic sites selected
in this study (See page 21).
Decatur Federal Station Area Plan -
This is a plan in progress that will recom-
mend new land uses and densities within a
half mile surrounding the Decatur-Federal
station along the West Rail line, set to open
in 2013. This planning process presents a
unique opportunity to present findings
from the South Platte Corridor Study and
ENVER
recommend land uses to be considered for
City adoption when the plan is completed
in 2013 (See Section 4 Zuni & Old Colfax).
JumpStart 2013 Denver's Office of
Economic Development (OED) has released
JumpStart 2013 the City's new economic
development strategic plan that identifies
measures to effectively recruit new em-
ployers to the city. Mayor Flancock's ad-
ministration has identified 'Key Strategic
Projects' in Denver, including the South
Platte River Corridor as an opportunity for
coordination with stakeholders to develop
and implement a strategies for brownfields
remediation to encourage redevelopment
and job creation. The plan includes meas-
ures to assure affordable and workforce
housing near transit and to reduce energy
consumption in commuting.
Economic Investment Analysis
The figure on the opposing page shows
building permits for residential and com-
mercial projects as a representation of pri-
vate investment from 2005 to 2011. With
the exception of the Central Platte Valley
(Area A) there has been little commercial
investment along the river compared to
other neighborhoods in the City, and al-
most no residential investment. The cata-
lytic site studies in Sections 3 through 7
demonstrate specific opportunities for pri-
vate development investment to take ad-


With the exception
of the Central Platte
Valley (Area A) there
has been little com-
mercial investment
along the river com-
pared to other
neighborhoods in
the City, and almost
no residential invest-
ment.
Commercial and Residential Permits (2005 to 2011)
South Platte River
Parks t Open Space / Golf Course
a Quarter Mile Suffer Study Area
Commercial Permits Completed Since January 2005
Valuation
Less lhan $500,000
500,001-1.000,000
1,000.001-5.000,000
5.000.001-10,000,000
10,000.001 -50.000.000
^ 50,000.001 or Greater
Residential Permits Completed Since January 2005
Valuation
Less than $50,000
- 50,001 100.000
" 100,001-150,000
' 150.001 -500,000
C: 500,001 5.000,000
. . 5,000,001 10,000.000
10,000.001 or Greater
0 D.6 I 2.
V% Map Date: October 4, 2011
bimTc* Community Planning and Development
15
SOUTH PLATTE CORRJDOR STUDY


SECTION 2. CORRIDOR ANALYSIS AND CATALYTIC SITE SELECTION
vantage of the public greenway and transit
investments along the river corridor. New
development could further transform the
river into a vibrant place with the energy
and activity generated by new housing,
jobs and retail areas that attract more peo-
ple to Denver's reemerging river amenity.
Environmental Justice and Equitable
Development Planning
This area-wide planning process continues
Denver's efforts to revitalize the corridor
with a focus on equitable development
planning for disadvantaged communities.
Disproportional environmental impacts
borne by disadvantaged neighborhoods are
referred to as environmental justice com-
munities. An equitable planning approach
explores how new investment could bene-
fit adjacent neighborhoods along the corri-
dor. Prior to environmental laws and regu-
lations communities along the South Plate
Corridor were at greater risk to cumulative
pollution problems from industrial activity.
With support from State and Federal pro-
grams, the City has reduced pollution point
sources from industrial uses, and worked to
clean up a number of brownfield sites
along the river. These efforts include ex-
tensive environmental remediation, and
park and river improvements in partnership
with the Greenway Foundation as de-
scribed in Section 1. This area-wide plan-
ning study demonstrates how new devel-
opment could further mitigate these im-
pacts by creating a vision for new invest-
ment along the river that could foster
neighborhood revitalization.
The South Platte River bisects the City of
Denver and flows though 14 of the City's 77
neighborhoods. Nearly all of these 14
neighborhoods trail Denver as a whole
with respect to a wide variety of socioeco-
nomic indicators. In 2000, nearly all of the
neighborhoods along the river corridor had
a higher concentration of minority popula-
tions than Denver as a whole, and are dis-
advantaged compared to city-wide figures
for educational attainment, births to teen
mothers, crime and household income.
As featured in the following mapping analy-
sis, residential areas next to the river are
rather limited within the study area given
the preponderance of industrial and trans-
portation infrastructure along the river-
front. Industrial uses were typically built
on large tracts of property with very little
street connectivity to provide convenient
access between residential areas and the
river. For these limited residential zones
and some industrial districts, disinvestment
along the river corridor contributes to
crime rates where fallow sites or inactive
zones between highways and railways can
attract illicit activity. Urban camping along
DENVER
16


Right: Nearly all of the neighbor-
hoods along the river corridor had
a higher concentration of minor-
ity populations than Denver as a
whole, and are disadvantaged
compared to city-wide figures for
educational attainment, births to
teen mothers, crime and house-
hold income (indicated as bolded
figures or percentage values).
Sources: 2006-2010 data is from
the 2006-2010 American Commu-
nity Survey; 2007 data is from the
Pi ton Foundation (piton.org);
2010 data is from the 2010 De-
cennial Census.
Lower Left: The Sun Valley public
housing projectshown amid
heavy industrial usesis one of
only a few residential districts
that actually touches the river.
Socioeconomic Inc icators Race and Ethnicity
% Persons age Crime Average % Persons in
25+ with % Births Rate per Hshld In- Poverty w/in % Racial
<12th grade to Teen 1,000 come Last 12 or Ethnic % Foreign
education Mothers Persons (2006- Months Minority Born (2006-
Neighborhood (2006-2010) (2007) (2007) 2010) (2006-2010) (2010) 2010)
Athmar Park 35.6% 19.7% 74.0 $54,287 26.3% 79.4% 28.9%
Lincoln Park 28.4% 12.9% 196.7 $38,391 43.9% 58.8% 9.6%
Baker 25.0% 5.4% 112.2 $59,881 30.9% 41.5% 15.6%
College View 41.6% 12.8% 82.1 $39,654 33.9% 81.1% 33.0%
Elyria Swansea 52.9% 23.1% 91.6 $39,420 38.8% 91.2% 31.7%
Five Points 14.1% 14.1% 146.4 $60,334 28.0% 43.0% 10.2%
Globeville 45.3% 12.2% 288.3 $42,001 35.6% 74.2% 27.0%
Highland 15.7% 16.7% 66.9 $64,408 18.8% 42.6% 10.4%
Jefferson Park 24.8% 23.4% 76.3 $40,548 43.9% 61.1% 21.8%
Overland 17.3% 20.5% 95.7 $48,235 24.3% 39.7% 10.8%
Ruby Hill 39.7% 14.5% 57.2 $40,707 26.2% 79.1% 29.1%
Sun Valley 36.5% 18.3% 254.8 $12,164 80.3% 92.3% 13.2%
Union Station 5.0% 0.0% 261.3 $106,972 12.3% 18.7% 9.4%
Valverde 41.9% 17.9% 97.0 $38,300 34.8% 85.0% 22.5%
Denver 16.0% 11.2% 68.6 $68,203 19.2% 31.1% 16.6%
the river is widespreadespecially in areas
with limited new investment with reports
of theft, burglary and vandalism. While
conditions have greatly improved along the
river with major greenway investments,
some neighborhoods lack convenient ac-
cess to the river, and other amenities that
may be within the statistical neighborhood,
but are not accessible due to a discon-
nected local street network. In general,
activating the greenway with new develop-
ment would benefit adjacent disadvan-
taged neighborhoods by:
1. Improving the vitality of the greenway
amenity along the river edge.
2. Increasing the number of people living
and working along the river to increase
demand for services such as healthy
food, and possibly provide for such
uses in a mixed use setting.
3. Improving access to the river through
improved street circulation and bike /
pedestrian connectivity.
Sections 3 though 7 highlight the area op-
portunities associated with each catalytic
site that was selected and studied as part
of this project. This approach considers
how the surrounding neighborhoods might
benefit from investment and revitalization
along the riverfront.
17
SOUTH PLATTE CORRJDOR STUDY


SECTION 2. CORRIDOR ANALYSIS AND CATALYTIC SITE SELECTION
Existing Conditions Analysis
With the exception of a few well-known
parks along the greenway, many
stretches of the river are obscured by
raised viaducts, bridges and major high-
ways or roads. An existing conditions
analysis helped to answer the question of
'What is along the River Today?' and pro-
vided the basis for identifying the cata-
lytic sites. The analysis required an in-
depth corridor-wide mapping analysis as
well as tours of the corridor by team
members. This collective understanding
of the corridor provides new perspective
useful for exploring revitalization and
investment opportunities.
The following maps were created using
GIS mapping layers and hand drawn over-
lays to compare the relationship between
existing land uses, utilities, infrastructure
and the river.
Above: Railway and highway infrastructure at Park Avenue and 1-25. Site A. was one of sev-
eral potential areas considered for more detailed study to explore how new development
could relate to the river. Below: Site A shown within the broader area with the Central Platte
Valley to the west and River North Neighborhood to the east. A full list of sites that were con-
sidered for detailed study is provided in Appendix E.
Image Source: Bing Maps
DENVER
18


(Left) Existing Parks and recreational areas
comprise 8% of the study area. Well-
known areas include Commons Park & Con-
fluence Park (A), Johnson Habitat Park (B)
and Overland Golf course (C).
(Right) Established residential areas cover
just 4% of the study area, and account for
1.2% of Denver's population of 620,000.
Only four residential areas actually touch
the greenway including A. River Northa
mixed residential / industrial neighbor-
hood, B. The Central Platte Valley Redevel-
opment, C. Sun Valley and D. The Overland
Neighborhood.

1-70
i-25

-- ; :i
1-70 J
| f
r :

,V -
. i.

Residential
Areas
; -...j.- ^
* 1 i
Colfax Ave
0hAvB
Alameda Ave
MlsasslppiAve
1-25
EvansAve
19
SOUTH PLATTE CORRIDOR STUDY


B/f3 lejspaj
SECTION 2. CORRIDOR ANALYSIS AND CATALYTIC SITE SELECTION
(Left) Industrial and commercial areas are
the largest land use category covering 26%
of the study area. Industrial businesses
provide services, jobs and products, and
generate property and sales tax revenues
that are critical to the City and County of
Denver.
(Right) 10% of the study area is comprised
of large single uses and parking areas.
These include A. The RTD bus maintenance
facility, B. Entertainment uses Elitch Gar-
dens and the Pepsi Center, C. Sports Au-
thority Field at Mile High Stadium (Denver
Broncos),D. Auraria Campus, E. Central
Platte Industrial campus, and F) the Xcel
Energy power plant.
DENVER
20


Federal Blvd
(Left) 10% of the corridor is devoted to
transportation Infrastructure including
freeways, major arterials, freight rail and
light rail.
(Right) A composite of transportation infra-
structure, large single uses and parking,
and industrial zoning comprising nearly half
of the study area (45%). These areas are
likely to remain in their current uses into
the foreseeable future.
Industrial + Large
Single Uses +
Parking Areas +
TflHsportation
Infrastructure

SOUTH PLATTE COR HI POP. STUDV
21


Federal BMd
SECTION 2. CORRIDOR ANALYSIS AND CATALYTIC SITE SELECTION
^SsJBLdenver
With so much of the corridor area devoted
to stable industrial uses, transportation
infrastructure and large single uses, there
are relatively few opportunities for river-
front reuse and redevelopment.
Selection Criteria for 5 Catalytic Sites
The highlighted red areas were identified
as sites that could be explored for reuse
and revitalization between the established
uses along the corridor. Selection criteria
were created by the project partners to
identify areas that represent some of the
best opportunities for reuse and invest-
ment along the river corridor. These crite-
ria include:
Strong relationship to river
Underutilized property
Site connectivity to adjacent neighbor-
hoods
Potential to draw people to the river
Potentially transformative and catalytic
to the surrounding area
Adequate size and shape for meaning-
ful reuse and redevelopment
Potential for rail transit access
A strong relationship to the existing
greenway and regional trail system
Over a dozen candidate sites along the
river were evaluated using these criteria. At
the end of this analysis and following public
input, the highest-ranking opportunity ar-
eas were identified:
22
A. River North a mixed industrial and resi-
dential area within minutes from down-
town that will be served by commuter rail
in 2016.
B. Water Street an underutilized large park-
ing lot at the edge of the Central Platte
Valley redevelopment area
C. Zuni & Lower Colfax an aging industrial
site that directly fronts the river, and lies
within walking distance of one existing light
rail station, and the soon-to-open Decatur
Federal Station.
D. Alameda & Platte River Drive a large
block filled with 40 to 50 year old light in-
dustrial, office warehouse and religious
buildings.
E. Evans Avenue A pocket of small 60 year
old commercial / light industrial commer-
cial buildings on the north and south sides
of Evans Avenue, positioned between the
greenway and surrounding residences in
the Overland neighborhood.
These opportunity areas were presented at
the April 2012 public kick-off meeting (see
an outline of all public meetings in Appen-
dix C). Meeting participants agreed that
the areas deserved further study and ex-
ploration, and provided a list of issues and
opportunities that should be considered
when conducting detailed site analysis and
design (See summary of public comments
in Sections 3 through 7).


Federal Fl^d
Rail Transit Station Areas
Existing and future rail transit station areas
within walking distance of the river are high-
lighted over the five opportunity areas. Each
circle is one mile in diameter, or 1/2 mile sur-
rounding each station area.
Existing Rail Transit Station Areas
Future Rail Transit Station Areas
A. 38th & Blake Station Area
B. Denver Union Station
C. Auraria West Campus Station*
D. Decatur Federal Station
E. Alameda Station
F. Broadway Station
G. Evans Station
* Two additional stations are located between
B. Denver Union Station and C. Auraria l/l/est
Campus to serve the Mile High Stadium and the
Pepsi Center / El itch Gardens.
Pedestrian Crossings (Right) Although the
stations listed above are within a 1/2 mile walk-
ing distance of the river, some station platforms
would not be accessible without a pedestrian
crossing over the river or railway. The map to
the right shows existing bridges (white), existing
underpasses (fuchsia) and proposed bridges
(green). In most cases, funding for proposed
bridges has not been identified.
23
SOUTH PLATTE CORRJDOR STUDY


SECTION 2. CORRIDOR ANALYSIS AND CATALYTIC SITE SELECTION
Greenway investments
A number of South Platte greenway plan-
ning and design efforts are underway that
are leading to phased work for the devel-
opment of exciting recreational places
along the river. The five catalytic sites
were selected with the following areas in
mind to encourage a strong connection
between new development and the green-
way:
A. River North Park (Arkins Park)
Creating a community with a focus on the
South Platte River is an opportunity in
northern Denver, and one that Denver
Parks and Recreation put in place with the
acquisition of 2 acres of land near the river
in 2010. The park space will include passive
and active recreational spaces, informal
gathering areas, bike and pedestrian trails
that connect to the Platte River greenway,
and re-use of an existing building into a
park pavilion for events like "Movies in the
Park" and concerts.
Project improvements will include strides
to naturalize the river bank by reducing the
side slopes along the river to the extent
possible. This will create an area for new
wetlands and riparian habitats that lead to
water quality improvements with self-
sustaining native vegetation. Significant to
this park development will also be a pedes-
trian bridge crossing the river near
35th Avenue. The bridge will connect cur-
rent and future development to the park
and help to activate the spaces it connects.
B. Confluence Park
The confluence of the South Platte River
and Cherry Creek is the historic birthplace
of Denver. The revitalization of the river
began in the 1970's with the construction
of Shoemaker Plaza, the regional trail and
the cantilevered ramps. The existing ramps
do not meet current accessibility or trail
standards and capital improvements to
these assets will be made starting in
2013. The City and County of Denver has
also undertaken a master plan of the entire
Confluence Park area to more fully under-
stand pedestrian circulation patterns, areas
for special events, new mixed-use develop-
ment potential, locations for waterway
crossings and areas for interacting with the
water. Landscape and water quality im-
provements will also be identified. The
goal is to ultimately develop a cohesive
plan for the entire Confluence Park area.
C. Sun Valley
Sun Valley is one of the areas along the
South Platte River where families reside,
making park space in this area a critical en-
try point to the South Platte River green-
way. This community has the lowest an-
nual household income in Denver at
$12,400, and one of the highest percent-
ages of ethnic or racial minority residents
at 89%. These citizens have experienced a
DENVER
24
disproportional share of impacts related to
heavy industrial uses and isolation from a
disconnected street network near the river.
The intent is to create a place where chil-
dren and their parents can be active in play
while learning valuable lessons about the
environment around them. Weir Gulch and
Lakewood Gulch both feed into the River in
this neighborhood and provide trail con-
nections to neighborhoods west of Sun Val-
ley. These regional connections will be en-
hanced by a series of wetland water quality
basins. Small backwater areas will be cre-
ated near the gulch confluences with the
river to help improve fish and macroinver-
tebrate habitats, and to improve water
quality. Recreational highlights of the park
areas include an interactive spray ground
with shade sculptures, natural play spaces
with boulders and sand, an improved sec-
tion of regional trail for bikes and pedestri-
ans, an overlook bridge crossing Weir
Gulch, and community gathering spaces for
socialization and informal play.
D. Johnson-Habitat
The redevelopment of Johnson-Habitat
Park will educate children and adults of the
important role that the South Platte River
plays in nature and their daily lives. The
valuable natural amenity that the river of-
fers will be celebrated with a new environ-
mental educational facility and a diverse
recreational area as a national model of
community cooperation and success. Rec-


reational and educational highlights of the
planned park improvements include an
outdoor classroom, riverbank and upland
area enhancements, boating and fishing
access improvements, river overlooks, an
urban tent camping area, interpretive trails
and new section of regional bike trail, wa-
ter access, public gathering space, active
recreational areas, and play area improve-
ments. The park areas are intended to be
interactive and hands-on, while providing a
sense of adventure for visitors. Activities
that are inviting, exciting, and fun enhance
learning and fitness, including the award
winning South Platte River Environmental
Education (SPREE) program.
E. Grant Frontier / Pasquinel's Landing
Boating, tubing, fishing and wildlife watch-
ing in an urban environment are the focus
of Grant Frontier Park and Pasquinel's
Landing. Providing multi-use river access
facilities will provide a new recreational
destination for residents of southern Den-
ver. Existing drop structures will be recon-
structed into multiple drop structures that
will provide state-of-the-art boating and
fishing experiences through the length of
these park spaces. Multiple boat launches
and river access points will provide options
for experiencing the river. The project ar-
eas will also improve wildlife habitat and
water quality by laying back the side slopes
and creating new wetland and riparian
habitats with native vegetation.
SOUTH PLATTE CORRJDOR STUDY


SECTION 2. CORRIDOR ANALYSIS AND CATALYTIC SITE SELECTION
Sustainability and Healthy Living
With more people living, working and visit-
ing destinations along the South Platte
River, several public benefits related to
healthier living and sustainability could be
achieved. These benefits relate to the po-
tential for reduced automobile use in walk-
able developments near transit, trails and
existing services in Denver. New walkable
development next to the river could serve
to revitalize adjacent neighborhoods by
creating more neighborhood activities and
destinations that would be accessible by
foot, cycling or transit.
(CalorieLab, Inc., 2011).
While there may be many reasons for this
large increase, one major reason is a lack of
physical activity, and the built environment
is believed to play a major role in the sed-
entary behavior of Americans. Over 55% of
American adults do not meet the recom-
mended levels of physical activity (150 min-
utes of moderate to vigorous physical activ-
ity per week) and 25% reported no physical
activity at all (Department of Health and
Human Services, Healthy People 2010,
2000).
Denver's Living Streets Initiative documents
several key trends and growing national
awareness related to healthy living and the
built environment. Over two-thirds of
American adults and one-fifth of American
children are obese or overweight. The
prevalence of obesity has doubled and the
number of overweight children nation-wide
has tripled over a 25-year period, from
1980 to 2004 (Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention, 2009).
Colorado was recently ranked as the fittest
of 50 states in 2010 with an obesity rate of
19.1 percent compared to the national fig-
ure of 34 percent. However, childhood
obesity in Colorado increased 23% between
2003 and 2007 the second-fastest rate of
increase in the nation behind Nevada
The presence and condition of sidewalks,
safe crossings, traffic-calming features, and
design of roads can encourage or impede
physical activity. Wide roads and fast-
moving cars are major barriers to walkabil-
ity, while land use and zoning patterns tend
to isolate many Americans from grocery
stores, retail centers, and employment cen-
ters, leaving most people with little option
but to drive.
Having shops and services near one's resi-
dence was the best predictor of not being
obese in a study of the health benefits as-
sociated with mixed use development. The
study found that the relative risk of being
obese increased by 35% between the most
and least mixed areas (Frank et al., 2004).
Other related findings:
Mixed land use, street connectivity,
and residential density are the built envi-
ronment attributes most consistently re-
lated to total physical activity. Street con-
nectivity creates shorter routes to destina-
DENVER
26


tions and higher density supports local re-
tail and may provide social support, and
perceived safety that encourages physical
activity.
People walk and exercise more if they
live near mixed use communities that are
well connected with a street network that
is safe for walking and biking (Saelens et al.,
2003).
People who use public transit are three
times more likely to be physically active
than motorists (Lachappelle and Frank,
2009).
Residents of walkable neighborhoods
with sidewalks and connected streets did
about 35 to 45 minutes more moderate
physical activity per week and were sub-
stantially less likely to be overweight (Sallis
et al., 2009).
In regards to social capital, residents of
pedestrian-oriented environments re-
ported a much stronger sense of commu-
nity (Lund, 2002). Even pedestrian activities
like dog walking can serve as an opportu-
nity for informal social interactions, but
only when walkable, connected streets are
available.
After San Franscisco reduced traffic
lanes to slow down cars and accommodate
other users on Valencia Street, nearly 40%
of Mission District merchants reported in-
creased sales, and 60% reported more area
residents shopping locally (San Francisco
State University).
Living close to parks, trails, retail areas
and recreation facilities is also related to
greater use of facilities and more recrea-
tional physical activity (Dannenberg et al.,
2011)
Greenhouse gas emissions are 43% less
for households living in compact, mixed-
use neighborhoods and 78% less in central
business districts (FTA and Center for Tran-
sit-Oriented Development, 2008). The City
of Portland estimates that its transit and
bicycle infrastructure investments since
1993 have resulted in a 12.5% reduction in
per capita C02 emissions from 1993 to
2005, which translates to carbon savings of
$28M to $78M annually (City of Portland,
Office of Sustainable Development, 2005).
The average American household
spends 19% of its income on transportation
costs. This rises to 25% in auto-dependent
exurbs, compared to only 9% in neighbor-
hoods with transportation options (Center
for Transit Oriented Development, 2009).
Transportation sources account for
70% of the nation's oil consumption and
30% of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions
(Energy Information Administration, 2009).
Improvements to Water Quality
When older parts of the city developed,
little consideration was given for stomwa-
ter quality. Today's regulatory standards
require capturing the first flush of rainfall
to remove pollutants from stormwater run-
off before they enter rivers and
streams. Typical pollutants include solids
(such as soil particles), petroleum hydrocar-
bons from automobiles, nitrogen and phos-
phorus, pathogens, metals and synthetic
organics. Redevelopment and reuse of ag-
ing urban areas creates an opportunity to
improve stormwater quality by removing
pollutants before the runoff enters water-
ways.
27
SOUTH PLATTE CORRJDOR STUDY


SECTION 2. CORRIDOR ANALYSIS AND CATALYTIC SITE SELECTION
Each catalytic site presented in this study
recommends innovative solutions for cap-
turing and enhancing the quality of storm-
water on or near the site. Instead of using
pipes (gray infrastructure) to dispose of
stormwater, green infrastructure uses the
natural retention and adsorption capabili-
ties of vegetation and porous soils to col-
lect and treat stormwater runoff. Green
infrastructure integrates on-site natural
features, landscaped areas, and small-scale
engineered hydrologic controls to promote
pollutant removal and reduce stormwater
runoff volumes and peak flows in receiving
waterways. Rain gardens, stormwater
planters, bioswales, permeable pavers, and
tree box filters are green infrastructure
techniques that can provide for enhanced
water quality, reduced flooding, improved
air quality, increased aesthetics, and lower
long-term maintenance costs.
The evolution of the South Platte Corridor
in Denver presents an opportunity for con-
tinued revitalization in Denver to create
more sustainable development patterns
and healthier neighborhoods. The corridor
provides access to an expanding greenway
and rail transit network as well as conven-
ient access to amenities and services avail-
able in Denver. The goals of Denver's Liv-
ing Streets Initiative and Blueprint Denver-
will be significantly advanced through revi-
talizing efforts along the South Platte Corri-
dor.
DENVER
28


3- River North Catalytic Site


SECTION 3. RIVER NORTH CATALYTIC SITE
River North Opportunity Area
The River North (RiNo) opportunity area
runs north to south from 38th Street to De-
nargo Street along the river (to the west)
and the Union Pacific railway (to the east).
The center spine of the area is Brighton
Boulevard which provides connection be-
tween downtown and 1-70. This aging in-
dustrial neighborhood is known for the
emerging RiNo Art District, and the nearby
pioneer development TAXI a creative
office and residential community on the
west side of the river on Ringsby Court.
Recently adopted land use plans recom-
mend higher density mixed used develop-
ment that could replace significant portions
of existing commercial and industrial prop-
erties. These plans include Blueprint Den-
ver, the River North Neighborhood Plan
and the 38th & Blake Station Area Plan.
These adopted plans define the general
location, character and intensity of mixed
residential, commercial and industrial dis-
tricts. In 2010, many of the recommended
land uses from these plans were applied to
properties as part of Denver's city-wide
zoning code update and rezoning process.
Two new projects are currently under con-
struction that will add over 500 new resi-
dential units in the southern half of the
RiNo opportunity area. These include the
first phase of Denargo Market a residen-
tial mixed-use development with ground
level retail to be constructed near 29th
Street and Brighton, and a 200-unit apart-
ment complex at 32nd Street and Brighton.
Multiple property assemblages by investors
throughout the area further indicate that
the area is poised to transform from an
aging industrial district to a mixed use com-
munity near the river. Residents in River
North are located just minutes away from
downtown Denver by vehicle, bicycle (via
the South Platte River Trail) or bus.
Existing Area Conditions
The blocks north of 35th Street contain
smaller parcels with a mix of older single
family homes from the early 1900's, and
commercial / industrial buildings built from
the 1940's to the 1970's. South of 35th
Street, the parcels are much larger, with
fewer structures and virtually no residential
development. The area north of 35th
Street is a more complex ownership pat-
tern that is less likely to redevelop with
larger projects and taller building heights.
The larger parcels to the south are due in
part to the lack of cross streets between
35th and 31st Streets west of Brighton.
These larger parcels more conducive to
larger development projects where struc-
tured parking with surrounding higher den-
sity buildings could be situated.
Many of the existing streets in River North
lack curb, gutter, sidewalk and stormwater
DENVER
30


'%'v

ifi
at? % imiSy jfjiiBna
ZkffafVte&iO Steal*
PooqpiaiimMD Stfrad} UnfjxnKfsnj^iiia
ttttedlsgSiE&Jj&i}
3 *- &i&&huA$aamH*&^
p----- iX&u?* Pud SHJtifefi
] 3aaoi> ] tAtaoCsa 3 (Sftisuj §jjsws
jf^tlwa&injiaiix&in)
Stos&z/tifjHfciDsKW
(SeonMIa?
Li
t L
R
DOIl S i u m
River North Opportunity Area is located along Brighton Boulevard be-
tween the River and the Union Pacific Railway. Image Source: Bing Maps
31


SECTION 3. RIVER NORTH CATALYTIC SITE
drainage systems. Redevelopment in the
neighborhood would improve these streets
to meet current service levels, and could
present an opportunity to explore water
quality treatment in the right-of-way, or
green streets. Brighton Boulevard is an
arterial street with over 16,000 vehicle
trips per day, and a forecast of over 25,000
trips by the year 2025 (Denver Regional
Council of Governments). This high level of
visibility provides an opportunity to create
ground level retail and other commercial
services along the corridor. However, di-
rect access to new development should be
provided on side streets rather than on
Brighton to minimize interference with
traffic flows and to reduce the number of
conflicting turns.
Public Investments
The Regional Transportation District's (RTD)
FastTracks program will bring commuter
rail service through the River North
neighborhood in 2016 to connect down-
town Denver and the Denver International
Airport along the East Rail Line. The River
North station at 38th and Blake will be the
first stop from the downtown Union Sta-
tion transit hub. RTD will construct a pe-
destrian crossing at 38th Street to connect
the station to a park-n-ride lot on the west
side of the tracks. The City of Denver is
also studying the potential of a second pe-
destrian bridge between 35th and 36th
Streets to improve connection between the
station and the river south of 38th Street.
The City is investing over $40 Million in
planning, design and installation of infra-
structure improvements surrounding the
transit station (See Appendix F). These
include street and sidewalk improvements
to provide safer pedestrian access to the
station, and major storm drainage improve-
ments to convey regional stormwater flows
to the river. As described in the Corridor
Analysis, Denver Parks recently purchased
a 2-acre brownfield property for a future
park near the river in response to recent
redevelopment trends. Studies of this fu-
ture park included exploring the possibility
of relocating Arkins Court away from the
river along the Delgany Right-of-Way align-
ment to expand the greenway (see above
image) .
The Catalytic Site
The catalytic site selected for conceptual
study is located on the east side of the
river, adjacent to the City's future park
parcel (see above graphic). The site is
DENVER
32


fronted by Brighton Boulevard to the east,
and 35th Street to the north. This location
is within walking distance of the proposed
pedestrian bridge between 35th and 36th
Streets as a direct walking route to the fu-
ture rail station. Study of this site has pro-
vided the opportunity to explore how de-
velopment could relate to a new public
park next the river, and how this integral
relationship could benefit the develop-
ment, the park and the surrounding
neighborhood.
Existing Site Conditions
The majority of this 5.6-acre site is an out-
door auto salvage yard, with five small to
moderate sized buildings fronting Brighton
Boulevard. The main building is a nicely
detailed 1941 Streamline Moderne brick
office/warehouse with decorative stepped
brick pilasters, a horizontal band of steel
windows and projecting steel awnings.
There are no residential housing units on
the property. Views of downtown and
mountains to the southwest would add to
the scenic value of development located
next to a new riverside park.
At over 800 feet long, the site is equivalent
in size to two city blocks, but is only fronted
on two sides by Brighton Boulevard and
35th Street. New east / west streets would
be essential to serve new development,
reduce conflict with north / south bound
traffic along Brighton Boulevard and pro-
vide additional connections to the future
park. Currently, vehicle parking is located
in front of the buildings along the street
with no designated parking lot entrance.
Vehicles pull in and out of head-in parking
and back out directly into the closest
southbound travel lane.
The existing utility infrastructure is ade-
quate for site development, although sev-
eral utility upgrades would be required to
support mixed use redevelopment, as sum-
marized below:
A 12" water line runs along Brighton
Boulevard. Additional looping of the
water line through the site will likely be
required to meet the current Uniform
Fire Code to place an adequate number
of hydrants around new buildings.
Sewer lines would need to be extended
into the site to direct sewage flows
33 SOUTH
from new buildings to the 42" sanitary
collector line in 35th Avenue.
Stormwater Sewers: There are minimal
storm sewers serving the site. A new
100-year capacity storm drain would be
required to convey water from the site
to the river. This would reduce the on-
site detention requirement from 100-
year service to 10-year rainfall event
service level.
Neighborhood Input:
Public feedback collected at the neighbor-
hood workshops served as a valuable refer-
ence to the consultant team as concepts
were developed for the site. Alternatives
were created that could make redevelop-
ment both catalytic and beneficial to the
neighborhood. Key takeaways from the
public meetings include the following sug-
gestions:
Existing buildings should be preserved
and reused to the extent possible to
keep key elements of the RiNo
PLATTE COFUT1DOR- STUDY


SECTION 3. RIVER NORTH CATALYTIC SITE
neighborhood identity intact.
New development should support the
growth and prominence of the RiNo Art
District by creating studio and gallery
opportunities for artists, and outdoor
spaces for civic art features.
The proposed scale, density and mix of
uses of the concepts appear to be in-
compatible with the light industrial na-
ture of art studios. Eight story build-
ings that are predominantly residential
could be cost prohibitive for new artists
and small businesses seeking to locate
in the district. If area rents rise too
high, established artists and business
owners may move to a different
neighborhood.
Questions were raised relating to the
feasibility and benefits of water quality
enhancement in the right-of-way. This
treatment would require professional
design, as well as on-going mainte-
nance and irrigation by a managing au-
thority.
Preferred Alternatives
The consultant team developed two alter-
native concepts that responded to
neighborhood input, and tested the feasi-
bility of the preferred alternative through a
financial proforma analysis. The concepts
demonstrate how new mixed use develop-
ment could relate to a new park, and how
the neighborhood could better access the
river by re-establishing the street grid and
creating stronger pedestrian connections.
Both alternatives would include the follow-
ing urban design elements:
New east / west streets would be intro-
duced at 33rd and 34th streets to re-
establish the street grid. These streets
would disperse local traffic, reduce
congestion on Brighton Boulevard, and
establish more pedestrian connections
to the river from Brighton Boulevard.
Provide access to interior block parking
to prevent turning conflicts with
north / south traffic flows along Brigh-
ton Boulevard.
A portion of Arkins Court is shown be-
ing vacated from 32nd to 35th Streets -
a street that currently runs at the top
of the river bank. The street would be
converted to open park land next to
the river that would provide an amen-
ity for future residents. For the pur-
pose of keeping a redundant parallel
route along Brighton, Arkins Court
could only be vacated once the Delgany
street realignment has been completed
from 31st Street to 35th Streets.
The development costs listed on page
40 include a realigned Arkins Court
along the Delgany right-of-way align-
ment. This new street would serve the
west side of the new development and
the east edge of the park, and allow for
the vacation of Arkins Court along the
river and conversion into greenway /
park expansion.
Commercial uses such as retail, flex
office, studios and gallery space-
fronting Brighton Boulevard would be
provided in each alternative to serve
the new residents and to capture busi-
ness from the high traffic volumes
along Brighton Boulevard.
The fall in grade across the site toward
the river (from east to west) could pro-
vide an extra floor of parking accessible
from the realigned Arkins Court.
A pedestrian bridge over the river is
shown at 35th Street to connect the
existing TAXI development to the park
and pedestrian route toward the future
commuter rail station (this concept is
not currently funded).
A proposed pedestrian bridge (at 35th
or 36th Street) would further expand
the walkability of the RiNo district and
improve neighborhood connectivity on
both sides of the River.
Reuse of the existing Streamline Mod-
erne building would allow for the
area's history to "remain," helping to
preserve RiNo's unique mixed indus-
trial character.
DENVER
34


lie) or under the future park. Grant
funding of the park parcel does not
allow for water quality or detention
to be treated or stored on the park
property.
Stormwater management in the
right-of-way would allow for more
efficient use of the property for de-
velopment, and create consolidated
green infrastructure facilities that
could be more efficient to maintain.
Green Infrastructure Concepts
Concepts for green stormwater infra-
structure were further explored in a
separately funded study to demonstrate
how private and public investment could
result in more efficient and sustainable
solutions for stormwater management.
The River North Consolidated Green In-
frastructure Study provides a sub-
regional analysis of the neighborhood
and demonstrates the following opportu-
nities for the catalytic site:
The potential to enhance water qual-
ity in the right-of-way tree lawn area
(between the sidewalk and the street
curb).
Storing water detention in vaults un-
der new local streets (private or pub-
35
SOUTH PLATTE CORRJDOR STUDY


SECTION 3. RIVER NORTH CATALYTIC SITE
Alternative 1: C-MX-8 Less Than Full
Build-out
This concept explores a Phase I building
program on the north block (between 34th
and 35th Streets) that represents present-
day market opportunities for moderate
density residential and commercial devel-
opment. With a large supply of new resi-
dential units currently under construction
south of 32nd Avenue, a full build-out of C-
MX-8 zoning (Commercial Mixed Use, eight
- story building height) on another compet-
ing residential project does not seem likely
in the next five years.
A Phase I project with employment and a
smaller mix of residential development
could make more sense as a near-term de-
velopment opportunity. This project could
be introduced at a competitive price point
by scaling back the height (and resulting
cost per square foot of the buildings), and
by limiting the structured parking to a two-
level deck. These cost factors would signifi-
cantly influence the lease or purchase price
of new development. This approach would
logically phase the lower density as the first
phase on the north block in response to the
current market. Later, a possibly higher
density phase could respond to a poten-
tially stronger residential market.
This strategy is consistent with the
neighborhood preference for a less inten-
sive development scheme on the north end
of the site near 35th Street. Both alterna-
tives share the same development program
for the Phase II south block development.
This second phase is assumed to be a
longer term opportunity after some of the
current projects under construction in the
area are built out and fully occupied.
About 40 percent of the new development
in Phase I (53,000 s.f.) would be flex space
and retail commercial building space that
could attract small businesses, light manu-
facturing and artisans. A 73,000 s.f., 80-
unit residential building fills the remaining
60 percent of the development program.
This building could house around 150 resi-
dents that would increase the local popula-
tion and bring more eyes on the future
park during evening hours and weekends.
Parking would be provided by a 2-level
parking garage that could take advantage
of the change in grade across the site.
Demand for this program represents cur-
rent or near term market demand in the
next 5 years. The new commercial build-
ings include reuse of the one story art deco
building fronting Brighton, and two other
buildings shown at two stories each. A five-
story residential building would be placed
on the south end of the site to create a
transition in building height from two-story
at the north end toward the future eight-
story development on the Phase II south
block. The building on the corner of Del-
gany and 35th Street would be pulled back
from the corner to open up the pedestrian
approach to the park. This plaza space, as
well as the park itself could feature artwork
produced by local artists.
h^rnrrr


Alternative 1 Development Yields
First Phase (north block):
80 Residential Units (73,000 GSF)
43,600 GSF Office / Flex Space / Stu-
dios / Galleries
9,500 GSF Retail / Restaurant / Gallery
renovation of existing building
185 parking spaces in a two level park-
ing garage.
Second Phase (south block):
250 Residential Units
14,000 GSF Retail / Restaurant / Gallery
270 parking spaces in a 3-level garage
Residential
Commercial
Parking
Park / Courtyard
Water Quality Enhancement
A3 Renovated Existing Building
Left: Art integrated into a building and land-
scape draws attention to a low impact design
(LID) for on-site stormwater management.
Near Right: Public art combined with stormwa-
ter guaiity / detention in Portland. Far Right: A
low impact design art feature collects water
from a roof downspout to reduce flows into the
storm drainage system.
37 SOUTH PLATTE COR HI DOR STUDY


SECTION 3. RIVER NORTH CATALYTIC SITE
(Below) Existing Condition: Arkins Court fronts the river corridor
and Delgany Street stops at a T intersection at 35th Street. The
800foot-long site fronts Brighton Boulevard, an important gate-
way corridor to Downtown Denver from 1-70.
ENVER
38


(Right) Alternative 1 is shown with a fully developed park with east-side street frontage along a new Delgany alignment, and the
addition of new 34th and 33rd Streets that connect the neighborhood from Brighton Boulevard to the future park. Alternative 1
shows a phase 1 block on the north (foreground, between 34th and 35th Streets) that includes mixed employment and residential at
a moderate density ranging from two to five stories. This scale and use mix are consistent with the neighborhood preference for less
intensive development along 35th Street that could provide affordable spaces for art studios and other light industrial business uses.
The second phase (north block between 33rd and 34th Streets) is assumed to be a longer-term opportunity after residential develop-
ment currently under construction in the area has been completed and occupied.
39
SOUTH PLATTE CORRJDOR STUDY


SECTION 3. RIVER NORTH CATALYTIC SITE
Alternative 2 Fully Utilized C-MX-8
Zoning
This alternative illustrates full utilization of the
C-MX-8 zoning entitlement for an eight story
building applied in two phases. Phase II is the
same in Alternative 1 and Alternative 2. The
greater densities and higher price of this alter-
native could be in direct competition with pro-
jects in the area such as Denargo Market. This
potential for over-saturation of the market sug-
gests that this alternative is more of a mid to
long-term development opportunity in the next
10 to 15 years.
First Phase (north block)
275 Residential Units (251,000 GSF)
10,000 GSF Retail / Restaurant / Gallery
renovation of existing building
265 parking spaces in a two level park-
ing garage.
Second phase (south block):
250 Residential Units
14,000 GSF Retail / Restaurant / Gallery
270 parking spaces in a multi-level ga-
rage
Residential
Commercial
Parking
Park / Courtyard
Water Quality Enhancement
A3 Renovated Existing Building
BRIGHTON BLVD
agsaisHtoLD ENVER
40


This rendering of Alternative 2 depicts full utilization of the C-MX-8 (commercial
mixed use, eight-story) zoning for an eight-story building in Phases I and II. Market
demand for this higher density residential mixed use application may be 10 to 15
years out as a longer-term development opportunity, compared to the flex space
commercial Phase I of Alternative 1 that represents a near to mid-term opportu-
nity.
41
SOUTH PLATTE COP RJDOP STUD^


SECTION 3. RIVER NORTH CATALYTIC SITE
Relationship to the River
The section drawing above further illus-
trates how new development and a new
park could relate to the river. The river-
side park is shown with Arkins Court re-
aligned to the Delgany alignment in order
to directly connect the park to the River,
and to provide access and observation to
the 'rear' portion of the park. The new
park would provide the benefits of excep-
tional southwestern views of the moun-
tains, a direct view of the River as well as
a recreational amenity at its front door.
The development would increase safety
by putting 'eyes on the park', and gener-
ating activity. Great Outdoors Colorado
grant funding used to purchase the park
land allows for some of the typical right-
of-way uses such as the new street's park
-side sidewalk, landscaping and on-street
parking The grant restricts non-park
right-of-way uses such as a vehicle travel
10 year detention below
lane in the street on the park land.
Stormwater Management Opportunity
Although the grant funding also restricts
use of the park for surface water quality
and/or detention, the new park could
incorporate subsurface stormwater de-
tention from the catalyst site and sur-
rounding area, allowing for more devel-
opment density on private property. This
increase of value for private development
could provide some of the funding neces-
sary to develop the park through a pay-
ment-in-lieu fee, or direct negotiation
with the city.
Consolidated detention within a pub-
lic space would replace the need for
on-site detention on nearby develop-
ment.
Consolidated green infrastructure
located off-site could strengthen ur-
ban design goals by increasing den-
DENVER
42
sity and walkability by creating more
attractive recreational facilities.
Consolidated green infrastructure
can be less expensive to construct
and maintain, and more effective at
removing pollutants and managing
flooding compared to multiple storm-
water facilities located on individual
parcels.
Stormwater fees captured from de-
velopers could be used to construct
and maintain district stormwater fa-
cilities while also funding park and
public space .


Total Investment $73,170,000 Includes construction costs, tenant im- provements, and personal property such as computer systems and equipment.
Construction Jobs 217 Total temporary employment related to site work and building construction
Employment 188 Potential number of jobs located in new office, flex-space or retail buildings
Average Annual Wage $63,400 Based on average employment wages by industry in Denver
New Housing Units 333 Includes a mix of studio, 1 bedroom and 2 bedroom units
New On-site Residents 633 Based on Denver's multi-family household size average of 1.9 persons per household
Annual Household Consumer Income $11,172,000 Estimated household income is based on the assumption that housing payments are 30% of total income
Annual Taxable Goods Purchased in Denver $2,396,000 Projection based upon Denver residents spending 28% of their household consumer income on taxable goods, and purchasing 77% of taxable goods from retail stores in the City
Sales Tax Revenues1 Property Tax Revenues2 Occupational Privilege Tax3 Total $238,400 $252,800 $22,000 $513,000 1. Includes a) sales tax from annual taxable goods purchased in Denver by on-site resi- dents, b) sales tax revenues generated from onsite retail sales (at $360 per s.f. with 60% of taxable retail sales, and c) business spending on taxable materials. 2. Total property taxes of residential and commer- cial development. 3. Denver's monthly Occupational Privilege Tax in Denver is $9.75 per employee, with $5.75 paid by the employer and $4.00 paid by the employee
Left: Installation of underground stormwater
detention pipes.
Table 3.1
Fiscal and Economic Benefits
Fiscal and economic impact projections
were generated in the SiteStats model for
Alternative 1: C-MX-8 Less Than Full Build-
out Phases I and II. An investment of over
$73M could result in 217 temporary con-
struction jobs, and 188 permanent jobs
related to the flex space and retail com-
mercial areas. The projected average an-
nual wage of $63,400 is based on Denver's
average wages for these industry sectors.
With an estimated household income of
$35,500, the 655 new on-site residents are
projected to spend about 20% of their
household consumer income on goods sold
in Denver, resulting in the purchase of
about $2.4M of taxable goods within Den-
ver City Limits. The annual sales tax reve-
nue generated from this consumer spend-
ing coupled with on-site sales and business
spending is estimated at $238,400. Prop-
erty tax revenues for on-site residential and
commercial uses are estimated at
$252,800. This figure is based on Denver's
28.419 mill levy for general fund and gov-
ernmental funds, and does not include ad-
ditional revenues within the city-wide aver-
age mill levy of 74.954 that includes all tax
districts.
43
SOUTH PLATTE COR.RJDOH STUDY


SECTION 3. RIVER NORTH CATALYTIC SITE
Item Cost Notes
Land $4,646,400 Current county valuation of land and improvements. Actual property value to be determined by willing sellers through vol- untary land transaction.
Site Improvements $2,983,785 Includes demolition, environmental remediation assumptions, utility upgrades, roadway improvements, stormwater, and off- site landscaping costs
Parcel A: Buildings & Structured Parking $12,402,700 Residential 5 story $90 / s.f. Office / Studio / Commercial / Retail $65 / s.f. Structured parking -$45 / s.f.
Parcel B: Buildings & Structured Parking $39,510,000 Residential 8 story $105 to $160 / s.f.
Office / Studio / Commercial / Retail $65 / s.f.
Structured parking -$45 / s.f.
Commercial Tennant Improvements $2,393,100 $45 per s.f. applied to 53,180 net s.f.
Total Hard Costs $57,289,585
Soft Costs $15,127,612 Includes 20% soft costs (engineering, architectural, surveying, marketing, financing costs, consultants, etc.) and 5% developer fee
Contingency $3,437,375 5% hard cost & 5% soft cost contingencies
Total Project Costs $80,500,972
Total Residential Units 333 Units ranging from 550-1,100 s.f. Studios, 1 Bedroom, 2 Bed- room units
Total Commercial Space 47,862 net s.f.
Net Operating Income $5,685,566 Residential rents $2.00-$2.10 per s.f., covered parking $80/ month
Commercial rents $1.80 per s.f.
Residential vacancy 5%, Commercial vacancy 5%, Parking va- cancy 10%
Expenses $5.88 per s.f.
5 year Internal Rate of Return 46.4%
Stabilized Cash on Cash Return 11.1%
Above: A residential mid-rise building with
ground level retail or office uses. Below: A two-
story flex industrial building providing for office
and light manufacturing uses. A mix of these
building types up to 8 stories high is allowed on
the same site in Denver's C-MX-8 zoning district,
although property insurance typically precludes
residential uses above light industrial.
\
Table 3.2 Redevelopment Feasibility A summary of the cost proforma analysis for Alternative 1, showing a potential total investment and return
on investment for both phases. The complete analysis is provided in 2012 dollars, and shows that mixed use building in both phases is economically feasible,
with the assumption that acguisition of multiple parcels is feasible. Land acguisition costs (Row 1) are based on present day assessed values. Site improve-
ments (Row 2) includes environmental remediation of assumed conditions.
DENVER
44


Table 3.3 River North Action Plan This implementation guide assumes voluntary participation by property owners to sell property or combine into a
single ownership entity for future development. The timing of the implementation steps below are therefore dependent upon the interests of property
owners and their collective will to pursue redevelopment.
Task Type Timing Lead Potential Funding
Property assemblage Site Improvement Short Developer, Land owners Private Investment
Conduct environmental assessment of all lands Environmental Short Developer, Land owner or City Private Investment, EPA As- sessment Grants, State and Federal Targeted Brownfields Assessments *
Conduct risk-based environmental remediation through the state's voluntary cleanup program appropriate for the intended redeveloped land use. Environmental Short-Mid Developer Private investment, State & Federal Cleanup Grants **
Design surface and sub-surface detention in the park for adjoining develop- ment in return for park land dedication and funding Public Improve- ment Short-Mid City CIP, City Staff resources ***
Establish design standards for stormwater quality treatment in the right-of- way Regulatory Short-Mid City CIP, City Staff resources (in- kind)
Establish stormwater district and funding mechanism to allow for private stormwater detention on public or district-owned lands Regulatory Short-Mid City CIP, City staff resources, spe- cial improvement district bonds, Federal or State grants
Consider art installations by local RiNo artists as part of site planning, program- ming and feasibility analysis Coordination Short-Mid Developer n/a
Design the Arkins Court realignment and negotiate the dedication of right-of- way from adjoining property owners Public Improve- ment Short-Mid City
Construct the park and incorporate subsurface detention in the park for ad- joining development in return for park land dedication and funding. Public Improve- ment, Coordina- tion Short-Long City, Developer In-lieu stormwater fees
Construct phase 1 of the development Site Improvement Short-Long Developer Private Investment ***
Construct phase 2 of the development Site Improvement Long Developer Private Investment ***
* State and EPA Targeted Brownfields Assessments can be conducted for
eligible non-profit and government entities at eligible sites. As indicated in the
report, one of the report recommendations is for the City to obtain an EPA
brownfields assessment grant focused on the river corridor from which envi-
ronmental site assessment activities could be conducted on behalf of eligible
for-profit entities such as bonafide prospective purchasers and eligible prop-
erty owners at eligible sites.
** EPA cleanup grants, Colorado 1306 cleanup
fund grant, Colorado Brownfields Revolving Loan
Fund (CBRLF) grant are available for eligible non-
profit or local government entities. CBRLF pro-
vides low interest rate loans for cleanup activi-
ties to all eligible entities including for-profit
entities.
*** Community Development Block Grant Program
(CDBG), New Markets Tax Credit Program (NMTC), Tax
Increment Financing (TIF) as possible funding sources for
infrastructure development, project construction and
may include environmental cleanup funding. For-profit
entities are only eligible for NMTC and TIF.
45
SOUTH PLATTE COKRJDOK STUDY


SECTION 3. RIVER NORTH CATALYTIC SITE
DENVER
46


4. Water Street Catalytic Site


SECTION 4- WATER STREET CATALYTIC SITE
Water Street Opportunity Area
Water Street is the location of some of
Denver's most sought after public and pri-
vate destinations that were established as
part of the Denver Central Platte Valley
redevelopment in the 1990's. These in-
clude the Downtown Aquarium, the Chil-
dren's Museum, the REI Flagship Store and
Confluence Park where the Cherry Creek
Bike Path meets the South Platte River
Trail. Highly visible on the opposite side of
the river is Elitch Gardens, a downtown
amusement park and the Pepsi Center,
home of the Denver Nuggets and Colorado
Avalanche. The Water Street area lies be-
tween Downtown and 1-25 at the base of
the Jefferson Park neighborhood, making it
an attractive infill opportunity.
The area was historically a mix of industrial
and residential development. TheZang
Brewery complex operated next to the
river until the early 20th century with a
residential neighborhood to the north that
included employee housing for the Brew-
ery (see aerial image below). Planning and
construction of 1-25 (also known as the Val-
ley Highway) in the late 1950's resulted in
the replacement of a number of existing
homes, and isolated some of the remaining


i&fi)
I
Sri
t?&iz8)a5GQRm
iJfegiftcaDjjad aiiojcytototitiuto
lajftaffiujj aato
-> J J J 'hipY.jTOii/? [*.Trnirtf^n.H
-A.,
S^Jas^a^JiifcX^
] aatiottitoaik
] a SfcXsG; &&&**£
J aaEtoac?
aasofltasi?
Water Street Opportunity Area, an underutilized site amid Denver's
successful riverfront redevelopment efforts in the Central Platte Valley.
Image Source: Bing Maps
49
south plat; cokridor study


SECTION 4- WATER STREET CATALYTIC SITE
homes between the freeway and Water
Street. For the next few decades, the river-
side industry continued to deteriorate and
houses in the residential area became rent-
als in a holding pattern for redevelopment.
In the 1980's the majority of the remaining
buildings and homes were demolished and
the site was converted in the 1990's into a
surface parking area for the aquarium.
Public Investments
Planning and redesign of the nearby Con-
fluence Park are underway, including an
update of the bike ramps, bridges and park
program to meet increasing demand for
this site (See Appendix F). The River North
Greenway Master Plan recommends a fu-
ture pedestrian bridge over the South
Platte River that would connect Fishback
Park and Elitch Gardens (Point A in the site
image). Although funding has not been
identified for this bridge, this new connec-
tion would make the Pepsi Center / Elitch
Gardens light rail station more accessible to
new residents and visitors on the north /
west side of the river.
The Catalytic Site
While busy and active during the daytime
hours especially during peak tourism in
the summer Water Street activity dies
down during the evening after the aquar-
ium closes, and very few people are seen in
the area. The aquarium's 8-acre, 800-stall
parking lot is on the north side of Water
Street, and is rarely more than two thirds
full on a busy day. A portion of the lot is
leased to the REI flagship store for overflow
parking. Although this area has been sig-
nificantly improved since its mid-century
decline, the full vision depicted in the 1991
Central Platte Valley Plan has not been
achieved. Additional investment and infill
development could add more energy, vi-
brancy and over-all success to the area.
Blueprint Denver identifies the site as an
area of change, and the Central Platte Val-
ley Plan recommends mid-rise residential
mixed use. This somewhat forgotten op-
portunity is compelling given the park and
trail amenities that are already in place,
and given the site's close proximity to Den-
ver's prominent Lower Downtown district
(LoDo) and Commons Park further down-
stream to the northeast.
Introducing residential infill development
could transform the quiet evening hours
iDENVER.
50
'xi,.


into a more vibrant place with more people
and a greater variety of daytime and eve-
ning activity. Without the presence of
people into the evening hours, the green-
way feels dark, empty and less safe for
public use. New residents could greatly
benefit from a location next to some of
Denver's most sought after public and pri-
vate destinations, including the existing
parks and greenway. Located between the
edge of Downtown and the Lower Highland
and Jefferson Park neighborhoods, the po-
tential to complete a mixed use urban
neighborhood near downtown is un-
matched in the South Platte Corridor Study.
New Water Street improvements and var-
ied building configurations could create an
active street with opportunities for ground
floor retail, as well as courtyards and festi-
vals in the park that can further activate
the site.
Public Input
Participants at the neighborhood workshop
responded enthusiastically to the prelimi-
nary infill development concepts that were
introduced. The design team was encour-
aged to consider the future function and
safety of an existing cycling route along
Water Street from Jefferson Park / High-
lands to Downtown, as local traffic and
pedestrian activity would increase consid-
erably with new development. Green
spaces along the right-of-ways for water
quality enhancement were supported for
the sustainability value as well as the aes-
thetic value. These areas could relate visu-
ally and thematically to the greenway and
park across the street.
Preferred Alternative
The preferred alternative demonstrates
how Water Street could be activated with
mixed use development near existing
amenities and downtown Denver. Several
mixed use buildings are oriented along the
street with many units enjoying an open
view of the river, with downtown or the
mountains in the background. Parking ar-
eas are oriented to the rear of these build-
ings, and serve as a sound barrier and vis-
ual buffer between 1-25 and Water Street.
A new parking garage with retail fronting
the street is proposed on the southwest
end of the site to serve the aquarium,
which would make the infill development
on the remaining 7 acres of the site possi-
ble.
An improved streetscape and new resi-
dential population could help to extend
the activity from REI to Water Street
and into the Jefferson Park Neighbor-
hood, providing increased economic
activity and a greater use of Fishback
Park.
An infill development along Water
Street is potentially a near-term oppor-
tunity given its single ownership struc-
ture, its location adjacent to existing
neighborhoods and close proximity to
previous infill projects.
Stormwater could be detained under
private streets and beneath surface
parking lots tucked behind buildings.
Water quality could be enhanced
within the development landscaping
areas and within the right-of-way in
tree lawns.
Water Street could become a more ac-
tive commercial and pedestrian ori-
ented street with the addition of resi-
dential and ground-level retail develop-
ment. Streetscape improvements
would have the opportunity to make
meaningful connection from the devel-
opment to popular destinations.
5 J
SOUTH PLATT-i CORRIDOR STUDY


SECTION 4- WATER STREET CATALYTIC SITE
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
N.
Development Yields
Restaurant: 4,500 s.f.
Surface parking
Area not studied
Retail/restaurant: 7,000 s.f.
Parking garage: 412 spaces
Residential mid rise: 157 Units
Townhomes (wrapped): 51 Units
Corner retail/restaurant: 945 s.f.
Parking garage: 253 spaces
Residential mid rise: 112 units
Townhomes (wrapped): 26 units
Podium garage: 140 spaces
Apartments: 38 units
Surface & tuck-under parking:
48 spaces
DENVER.
52


Lower Left: Existing site condition shows an
expansive 8-acre parking area between 1-25 and
Water Street. The small parcel to the west (A) is
a vacant lot owned by the City of Denver. REI
and Confluence Park are visible in the back-
ground beyond Speer Boulevard.
Below: The proposed architectural massing
would help to define the street, suggesting an
activated river corridor with ground level retail
and residential units facing the street (Buildings
A and B). Commercial uses are proposed di-
rectly facing the Aguarium, including a retail
building with a parking garage to the rear that
replaces the former surface parking areas
(Structure C). Residential buildings with a small
amount of retail are proposed on the eastern
edge of the site (Buildings D, E & F).
New side streets would create an interior fire
lane and access to parking areas and side-facing
walk-up residential units. Landscaped areas
along the streets would provide areas for 'linear
rain gardens' that could filter out stormwater
pollutants while providing a visual amenity.
These water guality features could be designed
with plant materials and trees to visually relate
to the park across the street, and to reinforce
the theme of clean water flowing into the river.
53
SOUTH PLATTE COKR1DOR STUDY


SECTION 4- WATER STREET CATALYTIC SITE
Reference Images
Images representing possible building types
and placemaking opportunities applicable to
the river corridor were provided at public
workshops to serve as a reference to partici-
pants. A worksheet was provided with spe-
cific guestions about development forms,
styles, intensities, and riverside activities.
Worksheet guestions invited reference to the
image numbers, resulting in a blend of writ-
ten comments and images in support of a
particular theme or idea. These comments
guided the consultant team toward comple-
tion of preferred alternative, such as the final
Water Street concept depicted on the oppos-
ing page.
Relationship to the River
(Right) A detail of the residential mixed use
buildings between Speer Boulevard
(background) and the aguarium parking ga-
rage (not visible). A double row of street
trees would create a unigue street identity
wile adding shade and comfort to this key
pedestrian zone. Portions of this wide pedes-
trian sidewalk zone and the courtyard space
(within the building in the foreground) could
be converted to rain garden planters that
filter stormwater pollutants from the drives
and street, while adding to the beauty of an
enhanced Water Street corridor.
Street trees on both sides of Water Street
provide shade and visual appeal for a unigue
identity and inviting pedestrian experience
near the river. Changes in pavement patterns
designate pedestrian crossing areas, reduce
traffic speeds to make the street more ideal
as a shared cycling route. A designated cy-
cling pathway connects the bike route on Wa-
ter Street to the green way trail.

DENVER.
Image Sources: 7. Carolina Realty Guide, 23. Project for
Public Spaces, 26. Mission Bay Development Group, LLC


55
SOUTH PLATTE COKR1DOR STUDY


SECTION 4- WATER STREET CATALYTIC SITE
Existing Relationship to the River
The Aquarium parking lot spans a distance of
over 1,000ft along the north side of Water
Street. Street improvements from the 1990's
development of the Aquarium include a de-
tached 5-foot sidewalk, a tree lawn with street
trees, and landscaping between the sidewalk
and the parking lot that provides a partial visual
screen. While the street is in good condition
and still feels relatively new, the area appears
to be underutilized with an over-supply of park-
ing. This is especially apparent during the eve-
ning hours after the Aquarium is closed for busi-
ness.
i
i
I
DENVER.
56


Potential Relationship to the River
A key element for successful relationship be-
tween infill development along Water Street
and the river is the enhanced parkway street-
scape, with a pedestrian realm that creates
an attractive environment for walking, sitting,
shopping and dining. Ground level retail
would add vitality to the street while the up-
per residential stories take advantage of the
views and convenient access to the existing
park and trail along the river. Stormwater
could be captured and enhanced within or
next to the right-of way in rain gardens that
provide an attractive visual amenity as part of
the streetscape.
I
4
, STORMWATER
^ TREATMENT'
REDEVELOPMENT____________
1
I
WATER STREET
I
l
r '
c nT'
9f
T
mmm*
t

57
SOUTH PLATTE COKR1DOR STUDY


SECTION 4- WATER STREET CATALYTIC SITE
Total Investment $75,430,000 Includes construction costs, tenant im- provements, and personal property such as computer systems and equipment.
Construction Jobs 225 Total temporary employment related to site work and building construction
Employment 30 Potential number of jobs located in new office, flex-space or retail buildings
Average Annual Wage $23,200 Based on average employment wages by industry in Denver
New Housing Units 384 Includes a mix of studio, 1 bedroom and 2 bedroom units
New On-site Residents 755 Based on Denver's multi-family house- hold size average of 1.9 persons per household
Annual Household Consumer Income $13,970,000 Estimated household income is based on the assumption that housing payments are 30% of total income
Annual Taxable Goods Purchased in Denver $2,996,000 Projection based upon Denver residents spending 28% of their household con- sumer income on taxable goods, and purchasing 77% of taxable goods from retail stores in the City
Sales Tax Revenues1 Property Tax Revenues2 Occupational Privilege Tax3 Total $203,000 $182,300 $3,500 $389,000 1. Includes a) sales tax from annual tax- able goods purchased in Denver by on- site residents, b) sales tax revenues gen- erated from onsite retail sales (at $360 per s.f. with 60% of taxable retail sales, and c) business spending on taxable ma- terials. 2. Total property taxes of residen- tial and commercial development. 3. Denver's monthly Occupational Privi- lege Tax in Denver is $9.75 per employee, with $5.75 paid by the employer and 4.00 paid by the employee
Table 4.1-
Fiscal and Economic Benefits
Fiscal and economic impact projections
generated in the SiteStats model show a
total private investment of over $75M that
could result in 225 temporary construction
jobs, and 30 permanent jobs related to the
retail/restaurant commercial uses. The
projected average annual wage of $23,200
is based on Denver's average wages for this
industry sector.
With an estimated household income of
$38,500, 755 new on-site residents are pro-
jected to spend about 20% of their house-
hold consumer income on goods sold in
Denver, resulting in the purchase of nearly
$3M of taxable goods within Denver City
Limits. The annual sales tax revenues gen-
erated from this consumer spending cou-
pled with on-site sales and business spend-
ing is estimated at $203,000. Property tax
revenues for on-site residential and com-
mercial uses estimated at $182,300. This
figure is based on Denver's 28.419 mill levy
for general fund and governmental funds,
and does not include additional revenues
within the city-wide average mill levy of
74.954 that includes all tax districts.
DENVER.
58


Item Cost Notes
Land $0 No land purchase land lease assumed for property
Site Improvements $3,131,165 Includes demolition, environmental remediation assumptions, utility upgrades, roadway improvements, stormwater, and off-site land- scaping costs
Building 1 $292,500 Restaurant Pad and Surface Parking $56 / s.f.
Building 2 $6,215,000 Retail/restaurant $65 / s.f.
Aquarium Parking $45 / s.f.
Building 3 $31,152,125 Residential units (townhomes and double loaded corridor) $ 85 160/s.f.
Structured parking $45 / s.f.
Retail/restaurant $65 / s.f.
Building 4 $20,054,700 Residential units (townhomes and double loaded corridor) $ 85 160 / s.f.
Structured parking $45 / s.f.
Building 5 $3,705,000 Residential units (double loaded corridor) $ 95/ s.f.
Commercial Tennant Improvements $504,023 $45 per s.f. applied to 53,180 net s.f.
Total Hard Costs $65,054,513
Soft Costs $16,914,173 Includes 20% soft costs (engineering, architectural, surveying, mar- keting, financing costs, consultants, etc.) and 5% developer fee
Contingency $3,903,271 5% hard cost & 5% soft cost contingencies
Total Project Costs $85,871,957
Total Residential Units 384 Units ranging from 495-1,300 s.f. Studios, 1 Bedroom, 2 Bedroom units
Total Commercial Space 11,201 net s.f.
Net Operating Income $6,027,567 Residential rents $2.20-$2.30 per s.f., covered parking $125/month
Commercial rents $1.90 per s.f.
Aquarium Parking $200 / month
Residential vacancy 5%, Commercial vacancy 5%, Residential Parking vacancy 10%, Aquarium Parking vacancy 12%
Expenses $10.46 per s.f.
Land Lease 10% of property's annual value (2012)- $734,500/yr
5 year Internal Rate of Return 47.3%
Stabilized Cash on Cash Return 10.7%
Table 4.2 Redevelopment Feasibility A summary of the cost proforma analysis for Water Street infill development, showing a plausible total invest-
ment and return on investment for both phases. The complete analysis is provided in 2012 dollars, and shows that mixed use buildings are economically feasi-
ble. Land acguisition costs (Row 1) are based on present day assessed values. Site improvements (Row 2) includes environmental remediation of assumed
conditions.
59
SO ?TH PLATTE COKP 1DOR STUDY


SECTION 4- WATER STREET CATALYTIC SITE
Table 4.3 Water Street Action Plan This implementation guide assumes voluntary participation by the property owner to initiate any future develop-
ment. Any development and the timing of suggested implementation steps below is therefore entirely dependent upon the interests of the owner.
Task Type Timing Lead Potential Funding
Shared parking analysis consider long term parking needs and potential efficiencies Site Planning N/A Developer, Land owners Private Investment
Review existing environmental data and conduct assessment for residential standard Environmental Short Developer, Land owner Private Investment, EPA Assessment Grants, State and Federal Targeted Brown- fields Assessments *
Study increased traffic impacts on Water Street based on new activity. Assure that cycling route needs are accommodated. Site Planning Short Developer, City Private, City Staff Resources
Study capacity of existing utilities including water, sewer, power natural gas, etc. Site Planning Short Developer, City Private, City Staff Resources (in-kind)
Study increased demand for existing bus route and explore potential of increase of service level during peak demand hours Public Improve- ment Short Developer, City, RTD RTD Service covered by In- creased User fees
Study feasibility of a future pedestrian bridge over the South Platte to connect Water Street to the Existing Pepsi Center Light Rail Station City Short-Mid City Developer, Business Im- provement District, City
Explore potential of a metropolitan district that could provide funding mechanisms to allow for private stormwater detention on public or district-owned lands, and to provide funding for construction and operation of shared parking structures. Regulatory Short-Mid City CIP, City staff resources, special improvement district bonds, Federal or State grants
Conduct risk-based environmental remediation through the state's voluntary cleanup program appropriate for the intended redeveloped land use. Environmental Short-Mid Developer Private investment, State & Federal Cleanup Grants **
Construct development Site Improvement Short-Long Developer Private Investment ***
* State and EPA Targeted Brownfields Assessments can be conducted for
eligible non-profit and government entities at eligible sites. As indicated in the
report, one of the report recommendations is for the City to obtain an EPA
brownfields assessment grant focused on the river corridor from which envi-
ronmental site assessment activities could be conducted on behalf of eligible
for-profit entities such as bonafide prospective purchasers and eligible prop-
erty owners at eligible sites.
** EPA cleanup grants, Colorado 1306 cleanup
fund grant, Colorado Brownfields Revolving Loan
Fund (CBRLF) grant are available for eligible non-
profit or local government entities. CBRLF pro-
vides low interest rate loans for cleanup activi-
ties to all eligible entities including for-profit
entities.
*** Community Development Block Grant Program
(CDBG), New Markets Tax Credit Program (NMTC), Tax
Increment Financing (TIF) as possible funding sources for
infrastructure development, project construction and
may include environmental cleanup funding. For-profit
entities are only eligible for NMTC and TIF.
DENVER.
60


5- Zuni & Lower Colfax Avenue
Catalytic Site


SECTION 5- ZUNI & LOWER COLFAX CATALYTIC SITE
Zuni & Lower Colfax Opportunity Area
The Zuni Street east riverfront area lies
within a transitioning industrial location in
a rare setting along the river where proper-
ties directly front the river, as opposed to
fronting a street that fronts the river. The
introduction of a new light rail line and sta-
tion provides an opportunity to create a
mixed use residential environment that
would be within walking distance of two
light rail stations. Stations include the ex-
isting Auraria West campus stop, and the
future Decatur Federal light rail station
which opens in April, 2013.
Current Planning Context
A separate public engagement and plan-
ning process occurred simultaneously with
the South Platte Corridor Study for the Sun
Valley neighborhood and the Decatur Fed-
eral station by the Denver Livability Part-
nership, made possible through a concur-
rent Federal Partnership grant funded by
HUD's Sustainable Communities Initiative
and DOT's TIGER II grant program. Detailed
study of a catalytic site on the east side of
the river complements the more general
land use and transportation study of the
station area plan. The primary focus of the
station area plan is to provide policy rec-
ommendations for land use, development
intensity, as well as a framework for multi-
modal circulation. This plan was adopted
by the City on April 22, 2013 to guide fu-
ture land use, infrastructure investments,
and rezoning decisions. The Sun Valley
community has the lowest annual house-
hold income in Denver at $12,164, and the
highest percentage of ethnic or racial mi-
nority residents at 92.3%. These citizens
have experienced a disproportional share
of impacts related to heavy industrial uses
and isolation from a disconnected street
network near the river.
The existing Sun Valley neighborhood will
eventually be relocated into this new
neighborhood as a mixed-income commu-
nity developed by the Denver Housing Au-
thority. The new housing area will replace
former heavy industrial uses and be situ-
ated closer to the rail station with con-
nected streets, safe walking routes and
convenient access to the greenway.
The adopted station area plan and this
catalytic site study provide valuable cross
reference between higher level policy rec-
ommendations, and detailed feasibility
study of an important site on the east bank
of the river. This dual focus has provided
an opportunity to test the ideal building
DENVER
62


The Zuni catalytic site (A) is highlighted below to show its walking
distance between two light rail stations. The site is shown within an
early concept graphic of the Decatur / Federal Station Area Plan. See
www.denvergov.org/decaturfederal for the most current station area
planning documents.

W. <'orax Ave.


SOUTH PLATTE COKRJDOR. STUDY
******* v *


SECTION 5- ZUNI & LOWER COLFAX CATALYTIC SITE
height and form to encourage private in-
vestment and reuse of the site. It has also
helped to determine the recommended
land use and greenway recommendations
in the plan for the site and surrounding
area on the east bank of the river. In re-
sponse to the favorable public reaction to
the findings of this study, the Decatur-
Federal plan was adopted with a land use
recommendation of transit oriented devel-
opment for the catalytic site area on the
east bank, with a maximum building height
of up to 12 stories.
Existing Conditions
The east side of the river is an industrial
and warehouse commercial district void of
any residential development. Some of the
buildings are empty and in need of rein-
vestment, repair or demolition. Former
uses include industrial cleaners, auto ser-
vice, insulation manufacturing and rail sid-
ings. A recent U.S. EPA Targeted Brown-
fields Assessment (TBA) was conducted on
a portion of this site. The results of this
assessment informed the study and finan-
cial analysis of the catalytic site.
Xcel Energy owns surrounding properties
on both sides of the river, including a five
story power plant with 200ft smoke stacks,
and a system of cooling towers on the east
side of the river near 13th Avenue. On the
west bank is a dormant tank site with 50 ft
tall by 100 ft diameter fuel tanks, and an
active transformer lot that lies just to the
north of Sun Valley Flomes. These features
are highly visible and iconic of the area's
industrial character. In December 2012,
Xcel announced plans to pursue the de-
commissioning of the Zuni power plant by
2015, which may open up some property
along the river for redevelopment, pending
regulatory approval. While the details and
timing of these significant changes are not
finalized, the transformative nature of
these changes is already influencing the
local planning efforts and stakeholder in-
terest to introduce mixed use development
near the light rail service lines. This ap-
proach is likely to result in an adopted plan
that could support and encourage future
rezoning of some riverfront properties, and
provide investor confidence to move for-
ENVER


ward with development planning.
Public Investments
Recent public investment in light rail and
floodway improvements also make the
area more attractive for residential and
employment mixed use development. The
Urban Drainage and Flood Control District
recently worked in partnership with the
City of Denver to remove 365 acres from
the floodplain along the river corridor and
Lakewood Gulch confluence (See Appendix
F). This improvement allows the West Rail
Line to open in 2013 and allows for new
development near the river.
The partnership also has significantly trans-
formed Lakewood Gulch from an urban
ditch into an important green space with
an improved trail and water feature at the
confluence with the South Platte River.
The natural vegetation in e green space
area will also serve to infiltrate runoff wa-
ter from surrounding impervious areas to
improve water quality that enters he water
courses.
Public Input
A joint public river-front Focus Group meet-
ing was held for the Decatur Federal station
plan and the South Platte Corridor study to
invite input on how development should
relate to a unique stretch of river where
property directly touches the river bank
(see image on opposing page). Virtually all
other properties along the entire river cor-
ridor in Denver are separated from the
river by an existing street, highway or rail-
way. Invitees included Decatur-Federal
plan participants on the west side of the
river, and the La Alma/Lincoln Park
neighborhood association on the east side.
Flyers were circulated to businesses within
1,000 ft of the river on the east bank sur-
rounding the catalytic site. The workshop
was attended by about 60 participants, in-
cluding a mix of residents, property owners
and public officials. The workshop activi-
ties encouraged discussion of a variety of
potential riverfront conditions that could
be considered in the area, including:
Preferred land use: residential, office,
commercial / entertainment, indus-
trial / manufacturing / flex space
Riverfront utilization: private, activity
node, private or public or a mix, trail
and green space
Building orientation: front door facing
river, back door facing river, double
frontage where buildings face the river
and the opposing street
Relationship of buildings to the green-
way: large setback, moderate setback,
minimal setback
Open space: passive recreation, active
recreation, and greenway enhance-
ments
Open space programming or landscap-
65
SOUTH PLATTE CORRJDOU STUDY


SECTION 5- ZUNI & LOWER COLFAX CATALYTIC SITE
ing applied to residual spaces: exam-
ples include volleyball or basketball
under freeway viaducts, performance
venues, versatile spaces for festivals
and gatherings
River bank treatment: promenade,
natural edge and park edge
Following a small group exercise where
reference images were discussed and notes
recorded, participants supported a variety
of riverside conditions and experiences that
would create an active and well visited riv-
erfront. These include passive and active
recreation experiences, natural and devel-
oped edges, public gathering spaces, desti-
nations to attract regional visitors, varying
building setbacks, residential and commer-
cial employment land uses, including shop-
ping and dining experiences.
Less support was expressed for light indus-
trial land uses, and no support expressed
for privatizing the river front area exclu-
sively for the adjacent development. This
critical input served as the basis for design
of the catalytic site concept for the South
Platte Corridor Study, and greenway and
urban design concepts for the Decatur-
Federal Station Area planning process.
DENVER
An early concept graphic from the DecaturFederal planning process depicting the potential for a variety of river
front building types, setbacks, open space activities and recreational experiences. The Zuni site is highlighted to
show the relationship of this site to the riverfront context. See www.denvergov.org/decaturfederal for the
most current station area planning documents.
66


Preferred Alternative
The Zuni catalytic concept would transform
the site into an exciting redevelopment pro-
ject that is oriented to the river. A pedestrian
promenade would provide public access to
the river front (A), and also serve as a fire
lane. The new building fronting the river (B)
would provide walk-up residential or com-
mercial units on the ground level with a small
entry courtyard (C) that would open to the
promenade. Upper story residential units
would look out over the promenade, the
river, and the recently improved Lakewood
Gulch to the west (D). The existing three-
story brick and timber frame warehouse
building fronting Zuni (E) would be repur-
posed into a residential building with ground
level retail or restaurant. Another mixed use
building would front Lower Colfax and the
river to the north (F) providing opportunities
for a ground floor restaurant overlooking the
river with residential above. A two-story of-
fice building with a double parking deck
would fill the lower portion of the site next to
the light rail line (H). The existing building on
the corner (G) is a multi-story self storage
facility that is likely to stay in place. 14th
Avenue is shown as a pedestrian-only corri-
dor and fire lane (I) that would include seat-
ing, street trees, lighting and rain gardens to
collect and enhance stormwater quality. This
would create an inviting approach to the river
where a plaza and stair seating would create
the opportunity to launch a kayak or eat
lunch by the river.
Development Yields
340 parking spaces
12,000 GSF Retail/Restaurant
51,600 GSF Office
320 Residential Units D.
i
I
i
/
Residential
Commercial Retail
Office
Parking
Park / Courtyard
Water Quality Treatment
.
67
(Ground Level Retail)
SOUTH PLATTE CORRJDOR STUDY
ISjUiTZ


SECTION 5- ZUNI & LOWER COLFAX CATALYTIC SITE
(Above) Existing Condition: Aging buildings show signs of extensive
industrial use from the late 19th Century to present. The riverbank
is owned by the City of Denver, and was recently restored with na-
tive vegetation for bank stabilization and wildlife habitat. The
newly constructed light rail bridge is shown in the foreground next
to the recently improved Lakewood Gulch /Platte River confluence.
(Right) The Zuni site transformation is shown next to an operating light rail line
and across from the improved Lakewood Gulch floodplain with mature landscap-
ing. Important urban design considerations include a) a pedestrian zone/fire
lane that connects Zuni to the river with a stepped plaza that provides for inter-
action with the river, b) a pedestrian promenade between the private building
entrance spaces and the river, c). fully enclosed parking, and d) varied building
heights along the river that would provided views of downtown from the Lake-
wood Gulch trail, e) renovation and reuse of an existing brick and heavy timber
structured warehouse.
DENVER
68


69
SOUTH PLATTE CORRIDOR. STUDY


SECTION 5- ZUNI & LOWER COLFAX CATALYTIC SITE
Existing Relationship to the River
The property fronting the east (right) side of the river does not pro-
vide public access to the riverfront. An existing private service
drive provides access to the interior of the site for parking, shipping
if*.
and delivery. A public greenway trail currently exists on the west
side of the river.
/ \ / s. < 2:1 > Private Drive
^ LAKEWOOD GULTCH IMPROVEMENTS GREENWAY TRAIL " SOUTH PLATTE RIVER ^ >.mbankmenT ' NO PUBIC ACCESS
Potential Relationship to the River
Three new zones could be created between new residential mixed use buildings fronting the river. These in-
clude 1. a possible new greenway trail closer to the river bank on City-owned property, 2. a semi-public river
promenade (public access easement on private land), and 3. a private zone where ground level residential
could create enclosed entry courtyards, or a corner business could invite customers into the building through a
more open courtyard area. The river promenade zone is shown at 45 ft wide, and the private zone at 30 ft for
a total building setback distance of 75 feet from the river bank.
-I
-4
*4
y \ y \ y \ y s ^ SEMI-PUBLIC ^ ^ PRIVATE ^
" LAKEWOOD GULCH IMPROVEMENTS ^ GREENWAYTRAIL ^ SOUTH PLATTE RIVER " " greenway'' TRAIL ^ RIVER PROMENADE ? ^ 7
DENVER
70


Total Cost Item All-In: HC&SC Notes
Land & Closing $3,000,000 Listing Price
Site Improvements $2,500,000 Includes demo, remediation, utility upgrades, roadway and stormwater improvements.
Building 1/Phase 1 $13,500,000 Hard & Soft Costs. 120 affordable (55% AMI) units. Stick construction.
Building 2/Phase II $24,000,000 Hard & Soft Costs 220 market rate/mixed income units. Stick construction.
Office: Core & Shell $4,644,000 Location: Historic Warehouse & South of 14th Avenue
Office: Tl $1,032,000 Incubator space; very little tenant improvement
Retail: Core & Shell $390,000
Retail: Tl $150,000
Restaurant: Core & Shell $540,000
Restaurant: Tl $330,000
Parking $5,780,000 Structured for full build-out. Surface for Phase 1.
Total $55,866,000

Contingency/Placemaking $2,793,300 7%
TOTAL DEVELOPMENT COSTS $58,659,300
5-year Internal Rate of Return 15%-25% Depends upon market conditions for debt & equity
Debt Assumption 1: 1. Tax Exempt Bonds (4% Low Income Housing Tax Credits)
Debt Assumption 2: 2. Section 108 Loan, 3. Traditional Debt
Equity Assumptions: A. 4% LIHTC, B. TIF
Debt Assumption 3: 3. Historic Tax Credits (older warehouse buildings)
Debt Assumption 4: 4. Grants (environmental cleanup & NSP)
Stabilized Cash-on Cash 12% Varies
Table 5.1 Redevelopment Feasibility Summary of the cost proforma analysis for Zuni & Old Colfax Avenue infill development, showing a plausible
total investment and return on investment.. The complete analysis is provided in 2012 dollars, and shows that mixed use building in both phases is economi-
cally feasible, with the assumption that acguisition of multiple parcels is feasible. Site improvements (Row 2) include environmental remediation of assumed
conditions.
71
SOUTH PLATTE CORRJDOR STUDY


SECTION 5- ZUNI & LOWER COLFAX CATALYTIC SITE
Total Investment $84,280,000 Includes construction costs, tenant im- provements, and personal property such as computer systems and equipment.
Construction Jobs 252 Total temporary employment related to site work and building construction
Employment 57 Potential number of jobs located in new office, flex-space or retail buildings
Average Annual Wage $48,400 Based on average employment wages by industry in Denver
New Housing Units 320 Includes a mix of studio, 1 bedroom and 2 bedroom units
New On-site Residents 629 Based on Denver's multi-family house- hold size average of 1.9 persons per household
Annual Household Consumer Income $10,700,000 Estimated household income is based on the assumption that housing payments are 30% of total income
Annual Taxable Goods Purchased in Denver $2,300,000 Projection based upon Denver residents spending 28% of their household con- sumer income on taxable goods, and purchasing 77% of taxable goods from retail stores in the City
Sales Tax Revenues1 Property Tax Revenues2 Occupational Privilege Tax3 Total $179,400 $212,840 $6,700 $400,000 1. Includes a) sales tax from annual tax- able goods purchased in Denver by on- site residents, b) sales tax revenues gen- erated from onsite retail sales (at $360 per s.f. with 60% of taxable retail sales, and c) business spending on taxable ma- terials. 2. Total property taxes of residen- tial and commercial development. 3. Denver's monthly Occupational Privi- lege Tax in Denver is $9.75 per employee, with $5.75 paid by the employer and $4.00 paid by the employee
* State and EPA Targeted Brownfields Assessments can be conducted for eligible non-profit
and government entities at eligible sites. As indicated in the report, one of the report rec-
ommendations is for property owners at eligible sites.
Table 5.2
Fiscal and Economic Benefits
Fiscal and economic impact projections
generated in the SiteStats model show a
total private investment of over $84M that
could result in 252 temporary construction
jobs, and 57 permanent jobs related to the
proposed retail and office commercial uses.
The projected average annual wage of
$48,400 is based on Denver's average
wages for this industry sector.
With an estimated household income of
$35,500,* 629 new on-site residents are
projected to spend about 20% of their
household consumer income on goods sold
in Denver, resulting in the purchase of
nearly $2.3M of taxable goods within Den-
ver City Limits. The annual sales tax reve-
nues generated from this consumer spend-
ing coupled with on-site sales and business
spending is estimated at $179,400. Prop-
erty tax revenues for on-site residential and
commercial uses estimated at $212,840.
This figure is based on Denver's 28.419 mill
levy for general fund and governmental
funds, and does not include additional
revenues within the city-wide average mill
levy of 74.954 that includes all tax districts.
DENVER
72


Table 5.3 Zuni & Lower Colfax Action Plan This implementation guide assumes voluntary participation by multiple property owners to sell property
or combine ownership into a single shared entity to position an assemblage for future development. The timing below is therefore entirely dependent upon
the interests of property owners and their collective will to pursue redevelopment.
Task Type Timing Lead Potential Funding
Finalize phasing and funding strategies Site Improve- ment Short Developer, Land owners Private Investment, Private non-profit
Develop an environmental remediation strategy based on existing Phase 1 and Phase II environmental assessments Environmental Short Developer, Land owner Private Investment, EPA Assessment Grants, State and Fed- eral Targeted Brown- fields Assessments *
Study increased traffic impacts on Zuni Street based on potential new growth. Assure that pedestrian and cycling connectivity to rail stations is addressed and assess needs for sidewalk and traffic signal upgrades. Study / Site Planning Short Developer, City Private, City Staff Re- sources (in-kind)
Coordinate with RTD to integrate adjacent property into a coordinated site plan. Site improve- ment Short Developer, RTD, City Private, RTD, City Staff
Conduct risk-based environmental remediation through the state's voluntary cleanup program appropriate for the intended redeveloped land use. Environmental Short-Mid Developer Private investment, State & Federal Cleanup Grants**
Construction (in one or two phases) Site Improve- ment Mid -Long Developer Private Investment***
* State and EPA Targeted Brownfields Assessments can be conducted for
eligible non-profit and government entities at eligible sites. As indicated in the
report, one of the report recommendations is for the City to obtain an EPA
brownfields assessment grant focused on the river corridor from which envi-
ronmental site assessment activities could be conducted on behalf of eligible
for-profit entities such as bonafide prospective purchasers and eligible prop-
erty owners at eligible sites.
** EPA cleanup grants, Colorado 1306 cleanup
fund grant, Colorado Brownfields Revolving Loan
Fund (CBRLF) grant are available for eligible non-
profit or local government entities. CBRLF pro-
vides low interest rate loans for cleanup activi-
ties to all eligible entities including for-profit
entities.
*** Community Development Block Grant Program
(CDBG), New Markets Tax Credit Program (NMTC), Tax
Increment Financing (TIF) as possible funding sources for
infrastructure development, project construction and
may include environmental cleanup funding. For-profit
entities are only eligible for NMTC and TIF.
73
SOUTH PLATTE CORRJDOK STUDY


SECTION 5- ZUNI & LOWER COLFAX CATALYTIC SITE
A joint public river-front Focus Group meeting was held in May 2012 for the Decatur Federal
station plan and the South Platte Corridor study planning processes. The meeting activities
invite input on how development should relate to a unigue stretch of river where property
directly touches the river bank.
^SSJULdenver
74


6. Alameda Avenue Catalytic Site


SECTION 7- ALAMEDA AVENUE CATALYTIC SITE
Alameda Avenue Study Area
The Alameda study area is part of an exist-
ing light industrial district at the center of
the river corridor. Services and industry
sectors include contracting, printing, hard-
ware and lumber supplies, stone distribu-
tion, carpet and tile, and many others. The
City's tax base is supported by the property
and sales tax revenues generated from
these properties. Much of this area along
the west bank of the river was historically
operated as a landfill, which is estimated to
range in depth from 20 to 40 feet.
In contrast to the other opportunity areas,
the west side of the river at Alameda is not
likely to transition from industrial to mixed
residential and commercial uses. This is
due to the predominant industrial uses in
the area and the great distance and diffi-
culty of the walking route to the existing
light rail station. Mixed use projects are
being planned adjacent to the Alameda
light rail station where walking and cycling
to the station are more convenient and
desirable. As shown in the area diagram
(on the opposing page), light rail service is
within a 'A mile as the crow flies, but not as
the pedestrian walks or cyclist bikes. This
route is dominated by intensive automobile
and truck travel, with a significant impedi-
ment to walking in major freeway inter-
change intersections at 1-25 / Sante Fe and
Alameda. The stretch where Alameda
passes under a railway bridge near the light
rail station is perhaps the most challenging
with only one attached sidewalk on the
north side of the street.
Public Investments
To the south of the area is Johnson Habitat
Park, one of the current focus areas for
river implementation by the Greenway
Foundation and Denver Parks and Recrea-
tion (see page 24). This park will be redes-
igned and reworked to become a natural
area with outdoor educational and camp-
ground activities for youth programs, in-
cluding scouting and other organizations
(See Appendix F). The native areas will
help to absorb rainfall and reduce storm-
water runoff and associated pollutants into
the river.
Another possible greenway enhancement is
a future phase for the reconstruction asso-
ciated with 1-25 and the Alameda overpass,
located just north of Alameda on the west
side of the river. This former commercial
property is the current staging area for con-
DENVER
76


Although the Alameda light industrial site is within a half mile of
the Alameda light rail station, the walking route along the 1-25 in-
terchange and under the existing railways is not accessible or de-
sirable for freguent pedestrian activity. Image Source: Bing Maps
cOUT11 PLATTE COP-R1DOP STlim


SECTION 7- ALAMEDA AVENUE CATALYTIC SITE
struction equipment during CDOT's phase I
reconstruction of 1-25 and the Alameda
Bridge (see Area A on page 77 graphic).
Following CDOT's construction activity, this
triangular 1.3-acre site and a portion of
South Platte River Drive from Alameda to
Cedar Avenue will be converted to a green
space water quality / detention area next
to the river.
The Catalytic Site
This 11-acre site is roughly the equivalent
of 2 1/2 city blocks that lines about one
quarter of a mile along South Platte River
Drive. The site includes a mix of larger
commercial buildings that date from the
late 1950's to the mid -1980's, which are
surrounded by asphalt parking and loading
areas that extend to the adjacent streets.
The building uses include light industrial,
office, and a church that is located on the
southeast corner of the site.
The church operates a small charter school
during the day, and draws about 150 pa-
trons for Sunday services and select week-
night activities. Most of the commercial
properties are vacant, and seem to be slow
in attracting new tenants. Property own-
ers expressed an interest to explore reuse
strategies for the site but were not suppor-
tive of any redevelopment alternatives.
Public Input
Opinions about the potential of this site
were collected at a public workshop and at
a presentation made to the Athmar Park
Neighborhood meeting. Common themes
of feedback include 1. a desire to see some
investment in the site to increase the
beauty and vibrancy of the area, 2. to add
green vegetation and landscaping areas
along the streets and within the site, and 3.
to introduce commercial uses that might
relate to potential growth of greenway ac-
tivity, such as a cafe or bike shop.
Preferred Alternative
A reuse and reinvestment strategy was de-
veloped that is consistent with the owners'
DENVER
78


preference to explore new uses for the ex-
isting buildings, and to explore more effi-
cient use of parking areas for mixed com-
mercial and light industrial use. The over-
all goal is to position the area to be more
competitive in today's commercial / light
industrial market, and to prevent further
decline on the site. Reinvestment could
attract specialized uses and encourage sur-
rounding infill development of more com-
mercial, industrial, even mixed residential
uses as allowed by current zoning.
The following strategies could be pursued
by the collective ownership on the block to
develop a cohesive site theme, and posi-
tion the properties to be more competitive
in today's expanding light industrial mar-
ket.
Landscaped areas and walkways could
be introduced between parking areas
and along streets. Some of the green
areas could be established as porous
landscape rain gardens that absorb
stormwater and remove pollutants be-
fore releasing runoff to the South
Platte River (see page 78).
Although the site is separated from the
river by South Platte River Drive, the
addition of green areas with street
trees and site vegetation would create
a strong visual relationship between
the site and the river.
Architectural facades could be added
to enhance the appearance and mar-
ketability of the buildings. Enhanced
entrances, pronounced building cor-
ners, new entrances, windows (real or
implied), integrated signage areas
could improve the building relation-
ships to the street, and to each other.
Property owners could work together
to attract a new tenant mix that could
benefit from shared parking agree-
ments. For example, the church's peak
uses are on Sunday and select week-
night evenings. The underutilized park-
ing area during weekday business
hours could be leased by commercial
uses on the site, and vice versa.
Property owners could explore busi-
ness clusters that could benefit from
other shared facilities, including food
preparation industries, shipping and
handling companies, printing and light
assembly.
A unified campus approach could allow
for the church to lease or purchase
properties as its membership and pro-
grams expand. The site could also be
converted to a private school campus.
Johnson Habitat Park program areas
could be reserved for use by the
church's educational and religious pro-
grams.
SOUTH PLATTE CORRJDOR STUDY
79


SECTION 7- ALAMEDA AVENUE CATALYTIC SITE
^fejfJh^DENVER
The existing condition of the Alameda block shows indus-
trial and institutional buildings surrounded by parking ar-
eas that blend into the surrounding streets.


The Alameda site shown with building facade, landscape and
streetscape improvements. The addition of green landscaping
could help the site portray a new image and better relate to the
river greenway and nearby Johnson Habitat Park.
SOUTH PLATTE CORRJDOR STUDY


SECTION 7- ALAMEDA AVENUE CATALYTIC SITE
Existing Relationship to the River
The site is paved with parking and loading areas that blend into the adjacent
paved surface of South Platte River Drive.
Potential Relationship to the River
Landscaped areas and walkways introduced between parking areas and the street could
include porous landscape rain gardens that absorb stormwater and remove pollutants before
releasing runoff to the South Platte River. The addition of green areas with street trees and
site vegetation creates a stronger visual relationship between the site and the river.
CHURCH PARKING LOT WATER QUALITY & S. PLATTE U S GREENWAY
DETENTION RiVER dfl A ^ TRAIL **p SOUTH PLATTE RIVER
v
>.
DENVER
82


7. Evans Avenue Catalytic Site


SECTION 7- EVANS AVENUE CATALYTIC SITE
Evans & Grant Frontier Park
The Evans catalytic site lies within the Over-
land neighborhood in south-central Den-
ver, the City's first recorded settlement in
1858. The residential area is divided by a
major highway (Santa Fe Drive) and railway
corridor that replaced some of the early
residential with transportation with indus-
trial uses on the east side. The industrial
areas are characterized by multiple, long-
term industrial activity that involves paint
shops with potential long-term solvent
uses, fabrication, construction yards and
light manufacturing. The area is also im-
pacted by a known off-site chromium
groundwater plume that is currently being
mitigated under State regulatory supervi-
sion.
In 2000, the T-REX light rail and freeway
project added a light rail station to this cor-
ridor with a small park-n-ride on the east
side of the railway. The Overland
neighborhood now has rail transit service
that connects north to downtown Denver
and south to the neighboring cities of
Englewood, Centennial and Littleton.
An Evans Station Area Plan was adopted in
2009 with recommendations for new mixed
used infill and redevelopment for areas
within a half mile of the station. Properties
recommended for transit oriented develop-
ment include aging industrial areas near
the rail station, properties fronting Evans
Avenue and other arterial streets, and ex-
isting commercial properties fronting the
river. The mixed use areas range from
three to five stories, and are reflected in
Blueprint Denver as areas of change.
To further encourage investment in the
neighborhood and generate more transit
ridership, the plan also recommends an
option to convert single-unit homes into
two-unit homes in the traditional residen-
tial neighborhoods.
As with other station area plans, many
properties surrounding the station were
rezoned in June 2010 to encourage private
investment in transit-oriented develop-
ment. A new five-story mixed use develop-
ment is being built across from the station
that will provide affordable and market
rate housing.
Contained within the west side of Santa Fe
Drive and the river to the west is a small
residential pocket that lies within a quarter
to half mile walking distance from the Ev-
DENVER
84


Evans Avenue crosses
the river near the cross
alignment of Huron /
South Platte River
Drive. A small pocket
of retail and light in-
dustrial development
was built in the 1960's
directly fronting the
river on the east bank
in what is otherwise a
small residential
neighborhood. The
west side of the river is
stable industrial with
little to no residential
development. Two
parks book-end this mix
of commercial indus-
trial and vacant lots,
with Pasguinel's Land-
ing to the north, and
Grant Frontier Park to
the south. Image
Source: Bing Maps
SOUTH PLATTE C.ORR1DOP STUDY
85


SECTION 7- EVANS AVENUE CATALYTIC SITE
View A. An elongated view along Evans looking South at
South Platte River Drive, the green way trail and the river.
. fe./
ans rail station. However, walking or biking
to the station has been described by resi-
dents as an uncomfortable experience due
to the limited sidewalk width that is pro-
vided on only one side of the viaduct. The
sidewalks along Evans Avenue that connect
the river greenway to the viaduct have
been substandard for years, with utility
poles lining the center of the walk, sections
that are too narrow for walking and biking
or segments in disrepair.
Public Investments
In response to this need, the City of Denver
recently began a $4 Million improvement
project to Evans Avenue and the viaduct to
improve conditions for pedestrians be-
tween the river and the light rail station,
including passage over the Santa Fe via-
duct. By the end of summer 2013, there
will be an 8-foot wide walking and cycling
path on both sides of the street and the
viaduct, and utilities will be buried under-
ground to eliminate safety hazards. The
project will also upgrade the traffic signal at
South Platte River Drive and Evans, and
make surface and structural improvements
to the viaduct at Santa Fe (See Appendix
F).
As described in Section 2Greenway In-
vestment, Denver Parks and Recreation in
partnership with the Greenway Foundation
is working with the Overland neighborhood
to design improvements to the existing
Grant Frontier and Pasquinel's Landing
ENVER
86


Full Text

PAGE 3

AcknowledgementsUS EPA Stacey Eriksen, U.S. EPA Region 8 Debbie Morey, U.S. EPA Washington D.C. Project Partners Jolon Clark, The Greenway Foundation Jeff Shoemaker, The Greenway Foundation Jesse Silverstein, Colorado Brownfields Founda tion City & County of Denver Council Members At Large Robin Kniech District 9Judy Montero District 7 Chris Nevitt District 1Susan ShepherdCommunity Planning and Development Andrea Burns, Public Relations Steve Gordon, Planning Services Manager Courtland Hyser, Project Manager Carolyne Janssen, Graphics Andrea Santoro, GIS Mapping Tim Watkins, Project Manager Todd Wenskoski, Principal Urban Designer Julius Zsako, Public Relations Environmental Health David Wilmoth, City Grant Manager & Brown fields CoProgram Manager Office of Economic Development John Lucero, Deputy Director Michael Miera, Community Development Repre sentative, Brownfields CoProgram Manager Jeff Romine, Economic Analysis Support Parks & Recreation Gordon Robertson, Parks Planning & Design Di rector David Marquardt, Parks Planning Manager Devon Buckles, Parks Planning Public Works Mike Anderson, Waste Water Planning Crissy Fanganello, Policy, Planning & Sustainabil ity Director Brian Mitchell, Traffic Engineering Services Direc tor Terry Ruiter, Policy, Planning & Sustainability Brian Schat, Waste Water Planning Justin Schmitz, Traffic Engineering Services Emily Silverman, Policy, Planning & Sustainability Other City Agencies Diane Barrett, Mayors Office Jackie Berardini, Attorneys Office Bar Chadwick, Department of Finance Laura Kane, Budget Management Office Valerie Kerns, District 7 Office Jeff Steinberg, Real Estate Advisory Committee Tangier Barnes, Groundwork Denver Debra Bustos, Urban Land Conservancy Suzanne Culin, PCL Construction Services, Inc. Todd Fehr, Trout Unlimited Tanner Johnson, Axio Elizabeth Kemp, CDOT Jaclyn Cheves, Denver Public Health Brian Leavitt, Integral Real Estate Kirk Monroe, Vectra Bank David Thorpe, Shaw Construction Sumer Sorensen Bain, Colorado Association for Manufacturing and Technology John Ross, Gillis Thomas Company Christine Shapard, Colorado Cleantech Indus trial Association Ken Strom, Au dubon Society Mark Trenka, Tre n ka & Associates Desiree Westlund, FRESC Tim Wohlgenant, Trust for Public Land Consultant Support Wenk Associates Project Lead Matrix Design Richard Farley Urban Design, LLC Urban Ventures, LLC Perspective 3 Metropolitan Design Office Development Research Partners Colorado Brownfields Foundation

PAGE 5

Contents Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . iii 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Corridor Analysis and Ca t alytic Site Selection . . . 13 3. River North Cata lytic Sit e . . . . . . . 29 4. Water Street Catalytic Site . . . . . . . .47 5. Zuni & Lowe r Colfax Avenue Catalytic Site . . . . 61 6. Alameda Avenue Ca t alytic Site . . . . . . 75 7. Evans Avenue Catalytic Site . . . . . . . 83 8. Resu l ts and Lessons Learned . . . . . . . 95 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . 103

PAGE 7

iii Executive SummaryA young participant at the public kick off meeting held on April 19th, 2012 at the Denver Childrens Museum

PAGE 8

EXECUTIVE SUMMARYiv Background An EPA Brownfields Area wide Planning grant was awarded to the City and County of Denver (Denver), in Partnership with the Greenway Foundation and the Colorado Brownfields Foundation, in late 20 As one of 23 grant recipients nation wide, this funding has allowed for extensive study of the potential cleanup and reuse of river oriented development and neighborho o d revitalization along the urbanized South Platte River corridor in Denver. The project study area is a 0.5 mile wide corridor along the 11 mile stretch of the river (corridor) from the southern to northern city bounda ries (totaling 3,500 acres), with a specific focus on five opportunity ar eas along the river. Th is corridor study area includes about 7,500 residents just over 1% of Denvers population of 620,000 and roughly 21,000 employees about 4% of Denvers workforce of 560,000. With an extensive history of industrialization along the river corridor, there is great potential for environmental clean up and subsequent reuse or rede velopment of property. This study demonstrates potential imple mentation of neighborhood and station area plans that relate to the South Platte River and how transformation of riverfront sites could benefit property owners, inves tors, the surrounding neighborhood, and the broader community. Denvers previ ously adopted plans provide high level pol icy guidance for future land uses, and touch on specific river stretches or topics. By contrast, this study ex p lores the details of urban design, site feasibility and potential economic and fiscal benefits associated with reuse, infill and redevelopment as complementary areas of focus. For exam ple, the River North (RINO) and River South (RISO) Greenway Master Plans and curr ent river vision implementati on efforts focus primarily on opportuniti es for improving the greenway as a community recreational and natural resource, including instream improvements and natural riparian condi tions along the river edges. The term greenway describes a system of parks, natural areas, recreational spaces and the continuous trail system that runs along ei ther side of the river chan nel. Th is studys conceptual designs and financial analysis of specific sites along the river demonstrates how plans might be implemented, and how this resulting new development could re late to Denvers evolving greenway. This study aims to encourage economic development and investment along the corridor by studying five catalytic sites within opportunity areas along the river. A three step process was conducted with a strong emphasis on stakeholder and neighborhood engagement throughout the project. These steps included 1) a corridor analysis to better understand the physical nature of properties adjacent or near the urbanized river and to ide n tify opportunity areas for reinvestment, 2) selection of five catalytic sites within these opportunity ar eas, and 3) conceptual study of the oppor tunity areas and especially the specific catalytic site. Over 25 property owners were contacted and invi ted to participat e, followed by eight public meetings where input was collected for developing con cepts that would benefit both the property owners and the surrounding neighborhood. Corridor AnalysisA corridor mapping analysis shows that predominant land uses within the corridor today are industrial land (25%), transporta tion (15% as freeways, roads and rail, in cluding rail transit) and large single uses and parking areas (including entertainment venues such as Mile High Stadium and Elitch Gardens). Only 4% of the study area is residential, with only three small neighborhoods that tou c h the riverfront. Some of the residential areas have limited access to the river due to roads or railways that provide transport throughout Denver, but also physically separate residential neighborhoods from the river. Existing parks and natural areas comprise 8% of the study area, the result of si gnificant river front rec l amation efforts and reuse of mul tiple former brownfield sites by the Green

PAGE 9

v way Foundation and the City and County of Denver over the past 35 years. The five catalytic sites were selected using specific criteria to identify some of the best opportunities for reuse and neighborhood revitalization along the corridor. Criteria included underutilized sites that had a po tentially strong relationship to the river, and that were potentially catalytic and beneficial to the surrounding area and ad jacent greenway. Th e review of each cata lytic site explored ideal orientation of new development to the river, site access and neighborhood circulation for pedestrians and vehicles, and innovative opportunities for capturing and sustainably treating stormwater generated from the impervious surfaces. Innovative opportunities include green infrastructure treatment areas for stormwater within landscaped areas such as treelawns along th e adjacent streets or planters within plazas and promenades. Opportunity Areas & Catalytic Sites 1. River North The River North neighborhood is an aging industrial area near downtown Denver that is gradually transitioning to a mixed use redevelopment district along the South Platte River. Current industrial uses include an auto salvage yard and light manufactur ing, including the growth of artisan fabrica tion shops associated with the RiNo Arts District. A planned commuter rail station will soon be constructe d and serve the area in 2016. The neighborhood is bisected by Brighton Boulevard, a four lane arterial that serves as a gateway from I 70 and Denver International Airport to downtown. Recognizing the market trends for mixed use redevelopment, Denver Parks and Rec reation pur chased a 2 acre brownfields parcel next to the river and developed con ceptual park designs in 2011. A 5.5 acre catalytic site was selected be tween the park property and Brighton Boulevard to explore the potential relation ship among the river, the park and new development. Detailed redevelopment concepts demonstrate how employment flex space, retail and residential uses could be accommodated on the site while maxi mizing the relationship to the park and the river. The pr eferred alternative inc ludes 333 new residential units, over 43,600 gross square feet (g.s.f.) of office / flex space and 23,500 g.s.f. of ground level re tail. Potential fiscal and economic benefits of this $73M investment include 217 con struction jobs, 188 permanent jobs wi th an average salary of $63,400, and 633 onsite residents tha t could spend $2.4M on tax able goods in Denver. The combined sales tax, property tax and occupational privilege tax generated from onsite business activity and offsite spending are estimated at $513,000 annually. The River North Green way Master Plan recommends realignment of Arkins Court around the Park. This rec ommendation was incorporated into the design concept, creating a shared boundary with the selected catalytic site. The pre ferred redevelopment alternative shows this street realignment with additional east/west streets that would improve con nectivity from Brighton Boulevard to the future park. The benefi ts of this alternative include: A more active and safe park environ ment with more eyes on the park from adjacent development and visibility from the street Development that benefits from the beautiful views of the river and Rocky Mountains, as well as direct access to the park An expanded street grid for greater neighborhood connectivity 2. Water Street Water Street is in the Jefferson Park neighborhood and serves as a gateway to downtown and the Central Platte Valley. A mixed industrial and residential district built in the early 20th century, the area was redeveloped in the 1990s into the Down town Aquarium. The adjacent Fishback Park property was subject to a leaking un derground storage tank cleanup and th e

PAGE 10

EXECUTIVE SUMMARYvi aquarium building property was remedi ated under the Colorado Voluntary Cleanup Program. Much of this subarea along the river is a large surface parking lot that serves the aquarium, or special events such as Denver Broncos games. The parking lot and Water Street have the look of invest ment and care with mature landscaping, street trees an d well mai ntained pavement. However, the 400stall parking lot is rarely more than two thirds full, and the street becomes empty and quiet after museum visitation and restaurant dining dies down during the evening hours. Infill development of the Water Street parking area could result in a more exciting and dynamic place along the South Platte River by introducing residential develop ment and ground level retail.The building fronts would be oriented to Water Street with the existing Fishback Park and green way trail on the other side of the s treet. Structured pa rking would be located to the rear of the development where it could also serve as a buffer between I 25 and the pedestrian zone along the street. The con cept would yield 384 residential units and 12,450 g.s.f. of retail / restaurant to com plement the museum and the new reside n tial develop ment. Potential fiscal and economic benefits of this $75M investment include 225 con struction jobs, 30 permanent retail and res taurant jobs with an average annual salary of $23,200, and 755 on site residents that could spend nearly $3M each year on tax able goods in Denver. The combined sales tax, property tax and employee tax gener ated from onsite busin ess activity and of f site spending is estimated at $389,000 an nually. 3. Zuni & Lower Colfax Avenue This site is located between Zuni Street and the river, just south of Old Colfax. The site has been the home for various industrial activities including an industrial dry clean ers, auto service, insulation manufacturing and rail sidings. Views from the site are dominated to the north by the Colfax Ave nue viaduct, and by I 25 interchange ra mps and freeway to the east. Industrial proper ties currently line the river, and the Xcel power plant symbolizes decades of prior industrial use along this stretch of the river. However, the area is in transition, with a number of recent or pending transforma tional changes.The Wes t Rail line a 12.1 mile light rail extension between Down town Denver and the City of Golden will open in the spring of 2013. The Decatur Federal station platform will be the second stop from Downtown, and is being con structed just mile to the west from th e Zuni site. Lakewood Gulch was recently improved into an expansive greenway trail and floodway zone that connects to the South Platte River corridor Improvements to the South Platte River and the gulch have resulted in the removal of significant acreage near the Decatur Federal station from the floodplain. Xcel Energy is plan ning to d e commission the power plant and sell other properties in the area. A Decatur Federal Station Area planning process is nearing completion and adoption by the City, which will provide guidance for transforming this area near the river into a dynamic transit oriented development. It is envisioned that new development will be oriented toward an enhanced greenway on the west side of the river. Through coordination with the Decatur Federal planning team, the South Platte Corridor team engaged the public to dis cuss future riverfront conditions and how new development should relate to the river. This stretch of the river is unique in Denver given the direct frontage of devel opable property along the river, whereas the majority of the river in Denver is fronted by exi s ting streets, highways, or railways. The preferred alternative for a 4.8 acre catalytic site between Zuni and the river shows an adaptive and flexible con cept that combines adaptive reuse of a his toric building with office, residential and commercial g r ound level uses fronting Zuni and Old Colfax. The project yields 12,000 g.s.f. of retail,

PAGE 11

vii 51,600 g.s.f. of office and 320 residential units. The largest building is a residential building with a shared parking structure that is oriented toward a pedestrian promenade along the river that also pro vides emergency fire lane access. A street that currently dead ends at the river (14th Avenue) is also proposed as a pedestrian zone / fire la ne, which provides an en hance d pedestrian connection between Zuni Street and the river, and plaza like frontage for residential and office uses. Potential fiscal and economic benefits of this $84M investment includes 252 con struction jobs, 57 permanent office and retail jobs with an average annual salary of $48,300, and 600 onsite re sidents that could spend nearly $2.3M each year on taxable goods in Denver. The combi ned sales tax, property tax and employee tax generated from on site business activity and offsite spending are estimated at $400,000 annually. 4. Alameda Just south of Alameda Avenue on the west side of the river is a large 8 acre commer cial block with industrial warehouses, of fices and a church. This site is impacted by historic landfilling and trash dumping that was typical to this area along the river. The non residential employment uses have ex perienced decline over the past few yea rs, with most of the aging buil dings currently vacant or underutilized. At the owners request, the focus of study for this site is on adaptive reuse and exploration of creative reinvestment and business clustering strategies. Property owners could capital ize on the riverfront location and explor e investment opportunities that could attract new business with office and light assembly or warehouse needs, education facilities, human services, retail and other non residential uses.The site has an appearance of an aging ur ban industrial complex within a large ex panse of parking pavement that blends into the surrounding streets. Coordinated rein vestment could give new life to the com plex and make it more attractive and com petitive with newer facilities in other parts of the metro region. Public in put relate d to this site encouraged beautification through landscaping, and new businesses such as bike shops or a caf that might attract more people using the river for recrea tional activities. Landscaping improvements could beautify and unify the site, and help it relate visually to the greenway across South Platte River Drive. New walkways would provide inter site connectivity and encourage uses that might relate and link from one building to another. Building faade upgrades could highlight entrances and new windows while reinforcing ideals of sustainability, creat iv ity, emerging technology, adaptability and trend se tting for the future. The results of this study encourage property owner col laboration to further explore how this site could reemerge as a significant employ ment district in the center of Denver, and potentially inspire additional investment on vacant and underutilized sites within th e neighborhood. A fiscal and economic im pact analysis was not conducted at this time given the uncertainty of future uses on the site, and the current non taxable religious use as the predominant active use on the block. 5. Evans & Huron The Overland neighborhood is a mixed resi dential and industrial area with a major highway and railway that bisect the neighborhood. The area is characterized by multiple, long term industrial activity that involves paint shops and potential long term solvent uses. The area is also im pacted by a known off site chromium groundwater plume being cleaned u nde r State regulatory supervision. A small pocket of retail and light industrial uses touches the east river bank within an oth erwise residential district between the highway and the river. The South Platte River Trail runs along the Overland Golf Course on the east side of the river, and along Pasquinels Landing

PAGE 12

EXECUTIVE SUMMARYviii Park that flanks the north side of Evans Avenue. The trail continues south of Evans to Grant Frontier Park, only one block away. This riverside section of the neighborhood will soon benefit from a cur rent Public Works project to upgrade the street with 8 foot sidewalks along a quarter mile stretch of Evans Avenue. These im provements will be added to both sides of the street be tween the greenway and the light rail station located on the opposite side of the highway and railway corridor. This improved connectivity will extend over the existing viaduct to make walking and biking safer and the s tation more accessi ble.The catalytic site study explores the poten tial of converting the small 5.2 acre pocket of light industrial/ commercial next to the river into a mixed use residential develop ment that interfaces with an enhanced greenway. The preferred alternative shows the potential improvements gained from realigning South Platte River Drive to the current Huron Street alignment to expa nd the greenway and si mplify the street net work. The suggested development type applies to the north and south sides of Ev ans, including three story walkup town homes with tuck under parking that faces the River (Huron Street) and the opposing Galapago Street, and three story mi xed use buildings with ground level com m ercial fronting Evans. The project yields 192 resi dential units and 26,000 g.s.f. of retail or office on the ground level. Retail uses on the corner of Evans and Huron could take advantage of the greenway amenity with walk out patio spaces for a small riverside restaurant or coffee shop. Potential fisc al and economic be nefits of this $27M invest ment include 78 construction jobs, 59 per manent office and retail jobs with an aver age annual salary of $46,000, and 365 on site residents that could spend over $1M each year on taxable goods in Denver. The combined sales tax, prop e rty tax and em ployee tax generated from onsite business activity and off site spending is estimated at $244,000 annually. Summary of Fiscal and Economic Bene fits Four sites were included in a fiscal and eco nomic impact analysis, resulting in a total potential investment of nearly $260M that could generate 773 construction jobs and provide space for 352 permanent employ ment positions with an average annual pro jected salary of $55,370 in Denver. This represents an increase of 1.7% to the e xist ing e m ployment of 21,000 along the river corridor. About 1,230 new residents would live near the river in these developments,a 16% increase above the current residential population of 7,500 in the corridor. These new residents could spend $8.7M each year on taxable goods purchased in Denver. The combined sales tax re venues from con sumerspending, business spending, on site sales, and property and employee tax revenues from the new commercial areas is projected at over $1.5M annually. Sustainability and Healthy Living With more people living, working and visit ing destinations along the South Platte River, several key goals related to healthier living and sustainability could be achieved. These benefits are likely to extend beyond catalytic development sites into the sur rounding neighborhoods. More Walking, Less Driving New hous ing, jobs and shopping near transit stations within walking distance of the river will generate more use for the South Platte Greenway trail and rail transit. More active use of the greenway equates to more eyes and ears on the river corridor, making it a safe and inviting place to be during the day and evening hours. New development near the river can serve to enhance public access along the river and create increased connectivity for surrounding neighborhoods to safely walk or bike to the greenway. Greenway improvements and new de velopment will increase the desirability and value of surrounding neighborhoods.Redevelopment of aging urban areas

PAGE 13

ix creates an opportunity to capture and im prove the quality of stormwater before it flows from the site into streams and rivers. Redevelopment creates an opportunity to pursue inclusionary housing options for all stages of life and income along the river corridor. This will further increase the po tential of peopleliving closer to the places they regularly visit with convenient access to rail transit and cycling routes. Summary of Potential Environmental Challenges to Revitalization and Brownfield Opportunities: The industrial and commercial land use his tory of properties adjacent to the South Platte River, discussed throughout the re port, pose perceived and in some cases documented environmental challenges to revitalization of the corridor. To the extent possible, this report collected existing envi ronmental information from multiple sources including various types of site de velopment reports offered by a few willing property owners, publi c domain environ mental database sources, and government records. With the exception of the Zuni site which was the subject of an EPA targeted brownfields assessment, the information gathered was far from complete. For the purposes of this report, significant data gaps dictated making multiple as sumptions about potential environmental River Corridor is a major focus for the City and County of Denver from the Citys ongo ing partnership with the Urban Water Ini tiative, the partnership between the City and Greenway Foundation on the South Platte River Vi sion Implementation Plan and association river impr ovement pro jects, and the Mayo rs Smart Jobs Develop ment program which has the river corridor as one of three areas of focus. A brown fields assessment grant would fill a key niche around all of these initiatives. conditions without confirmational investi gations. All of the catalytic sites had mult i ple significant potential sources for soil and groundwater impacts onsite and adjacent to properties that will likely require a ro bust field investigation phase to identify and characterize recognized environmental conditions. The research shows that in or der to redevelop the catalytic sites and most other properties along the river, ex tensive environmental due diligence work will need to be conducted to determine if properties are in fact environmentally im pacted, and if so, to what extent. The next step is to then de termine the appropriate environmental cleanup necessary for a given proposed development. The costs of these extensive studies will likely inhibit redevelopment as it creates significant uncertainty about the actual development costs, potential investment returns, and timeline for redevelopment completion. To assist in overcoming this hurdle to corridor revitalization, particu larly for forprofit entities, one of the re port recommendations is for the City and County of Denvers Brownfields Program to pursue an EPA brownfields assessment grant to fund environmental site assess ments and cleanup planni ng on behalf of prospective purchasers and conse nting property owners. The redevelopment of the South Platte

PAGE 14

EXECUTIVE SUMMARYx

PAGE 15

1. Introduction Photo courtesy of John Ruberry

PAGE 16

SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION2 The South Platte River has been an integral part of Denvers history and economy, be ginning with the discovery of Colorado gold in 1858 and a flurry of log cabins built along the river. The fledgling frontier settlement struggled until a new railway was com pleted in 1870 that connected Denver to the new tran scontinental railway in Chey enne, Wyoming. That same year, a new Kansas Pacific railway put Denver on the map as the regional hub within the nations rapidly growing transcontinental railway system. Railway connections brought rapid investment, growth and new industries lin ing the river to process minerals, agricul tural goods an d to manu facture new pr od ucts. Freight supplies, curious tourists and new residents poured into the city which stimulated the economy and ignited growth from a population of about 4,800 in 1870 to 35,000 by 1880 (Gehling, The Pikes Peak Gold Rush, 2009). Railway networks branched into the moun tains to transport lead, gold, silver and other ore to new smelter sites near the South Platte in Denver. Coal was also transported from mines to supply power to factories and to be converted to gas for lighting and heating. Multiple railways and spurs, rail yards, mainte nance facilities, roads and highways dominate d port ions of the river corridor to serve the growing industries along the river (see opposing regional map image). In the late 19th and early 20th century, ma jor rivers were commonly used for drainage and landfills for dumping chemical waste, garbage and raw sewage. Early railroad cars dumped their waste alongside the river, and gravel quarries were dug along its banks and later converted to landfills that leached contaminants. A nu mber of abandoned gas stations, smelters, and coal fired plan ts have lined th e banks of the South Platte as well.This treatment of the river occurred for decades before public health risks were better understood, and environmental laws and regulations were passed to protect water ways and property. Although such practices are no longer allowed, contami nation from previous uses likely remains in the soil and groundwater of many proper ties. Over th e last 36 years, the City and County of Denver, in partnership with The Gre en way Foundation, has worked to reduce these impacts to the South Platte River and Public Service Gas Works in 1916 near the river just west of Downtown Denver. Buildings from the Zang Brewery are visible in the background. The site has been converted into a surface park ing area serving the Pepsi Center arena and Elitch Gardens theme park Below: Pepper Meat and Provision Company packing plant next to th e River in the Elyria Swansea neighborhood (circa 1935). Image Source: Denver Library Image Source: Denver Library Image Source: Colorado Aerial Photography

PAGE 17

3 the surrounding area including the creation of over a dozen parks, numerous natural areas, white water boat chutes and a multi use trail system. Denvers 11mile stretch of the South Platte River Trail is part of a much larger regional trail system that ex tends further north and South into neighboring communi ties. Majo r trails that connect to the South Platte Corridor in clude the Cherry Creek Trail, Lakewood Gulch Trail and Weir Gulch Trails.Improve ments to the water quality of the South Platte have also occurred, in particular since the enactment of the Federal Clean Water Act which required all discharg es to surface water to be permitted. Additional improvements to water quality have been realized through the installation of water quality improvement features in areas draining to the river, development of best management practices to control exposure of pollutants to stormwater, and imple mentation of infrastructure maintenance programs intended to pre vent pollutants in(Left:) The City and County of Denver (yellow) is shown within the Metropolitan region (grey). Railways and highways converge in Denver along the South Platte Corridor. (Below) Confluence of South Platte River and Cherry Creek circa 1974, prior to improvements and creation of Confluence Park (Below) View of Confluence Park with Central Platte Valley redevelopme nt in the mid ground, and Downtown Denver in the background. Image Source: The Greenway Foundation

PAGE 18

SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION4 the sanitary sewers from reaching storm sewers. These enhancements have been a key factor in the economic resurgence of several areas adjacent to the River, the most notable being the Central Platte Val ley near downtown Denver. Central Platte Valley A Local Model for Riverfront Cleanup and Reuse As passenger and freight rail use declined in the 1980s, multiple rail companies were motivated to consolidate underutilized par allel railways that had long comprised a vast rail yard between downtown and the (Left) The Central Platte Valley continues to evolve as a significant reinvestment area to the north of downtown Denver. Redevelopment areas include the Commons Master Plan (A), The Commons West (B), Prospect (C), Coors Field (D), The Pepsi Center (E), Elitch Gardens (F) the Downtown Aquarium (G), The Childrens Museum (H) an d Mile High Stadium (I). The his toric Union Sta t ion (J) is being converted into a multimodal hub to connect existing light rail (2002) and bus transit, and future commuter rail that will open in 2016 to connect downtown Denver to the Denver International Airport. (Upper Right ) Commons Park under construc tion in the 19 90s following an exte nsive 10 year comprehensive planning process in the Central Platte Valley, consolidation of multiple railway lines, and completion of the Commons Master Plan. (Lower Right) Planning under the administra tion of Mayor Wellington Webb led to a rebirth of the Central Platte Valley. Commons Park and the nearb y Confl u ence Park have spurred sur rounding development in the Central Platte Val ley on vacated railways and industrial yards. river. While conducting a comprehensive planning effort for the area, Denver worked with the railroad companies to create what is know as the Consolidated Main Line (CML), which opened up extensive acreage to be sold to a master developer. A master planning and rezoning effort ensued, cou pled with public investment to remove viaducts, buil d new bridges and restore the river. Publ ic investment has resulted in extensive environmental remediation, park and river improvements that spurred sur rounding real estate development in the A C D B E F G H I J Downtown Jefferson Park Neighborhood Highland Neighborhood Auraria Campus Central Platte Valley N Image Source: Bing Maps

PAGE 19

5 Image Source: Project for Public Spaces Image Source: Project for Public Spaces

PAGE 20

SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION6 1990s. To date, public reinvestment in the Central Platte Valley is estimated at $300 Million and $500 Million into the Denver Union Station hub. Although a figure for total private investment is not available, numerous residential and commercial mixed use projects have been completed or are currently under design or construction. The South Platte River Corridor Today Despite the continuing success of revitaliza tion efforts in the Central Platte Valley, many environmental challenges remain within and alongside the river corridor. Although significant progress has been made in recent decades, more can be done to improve the river as an amenity and re source and use it to attract new deve lop ment and inve stment at other locations along th e corridor. Although most of the original factories and industrial yards along the river no longer exist, owners hoping to redevelop river sites into attractive mixed use areas near the river must face the pos sibility of dealing with remnant hazardous materials and regulatory li ability. sf Denvers present day population is 620,000 with over 560,000 employees, including 110,000 that work in downtown Denver. The City is expected to grow by 160,000 new residents and about the same number of employees by the year 2035. Much of this growth is expected to occur in the Citys designated areas of change wh er e more housin g and jobs can be served by a growing rail transit network (see Blueprint Denver Map in appendix A). Railways once brought coal and raw metal ore to an in dustrialized river, but new rail investment is now helping to attract private investment in housing and com mercial development near several transit stations that are within walking distance of the riv er. Transit oriented development (TOD) near the existing river trail provides the opportu nity to locate development near existing services and amenities where open space, walking, biking, and transit are in abundant supply.With continuing public investment in rail transit and greenway enhancements, sig nificant housing and job growth is likely to occur along the South Platte River corridor, which presents an opportunity to further clean up brownfields and transform the river environment. Renewed develop ment could create exciting urban environ ments where more peop le could enjoy the river as an am enity. To encourage reinvestment in areas of change along transit corridors, Denver adopted several station area and neighbor hood plans that recommend higher inten sity mixed use development near the sta tions. The old zoning code has been re placed with a new form based zoning code and map that were adopted in 2010. Th e five catalytic site concep ts are consistent with current zoning or plan recommenda tions as a demonstration of current land use policy and zoning regulation. Project Purpose The purpose of this study is to encourage community revitalization and appropriate redevelopment along the South Platte River within the City of Denver. This docu ment presents detailed study of redevelop ment and reuse concepts for properties at five different areas along the river, and ex plores how this reinvestment could be nefit the surrounding neighborhood, relate to the greenway and catalyz e revitalization around them. The findings are based upon extensive input from property owners, stakeholders, neighbors and the general public. Urban design studies and market analyses provide valuable pre development insights that, if implemented, could create

PAGE 21

7 significant economic development and community revitalization along the corri dor. This study demonstrates how private investment could help to clean up and re use potentially contaminated sites along the river corridor, and how these sites could transform into healthy and vibrant places to live, work, recreate and visit. Study recommendations provide strategies for transformation of underutilized or envi ronmentally impaired areas (potential brownfields) into urban riverside environ ments offering residential, employment and recreational uses. Anticipated public benefits that could result from private in vestment include restoration of the South Platte Rivers ecological integrity, imple mentation of the River Greenway Maste r Plans, and sustainable gro w th of jobs and housing. Project Funding The South Platte Corridor Study was funded by a $175,000 grant from the EPAs Brownfields Area Wide Planning Pilot Pro gram. This grant was awarded in October, 2010. The project was originally scoped to study three catalytic sites along the river, but in early 2012 the project received an additional $75,000 from th e EPAs Home Commons Park The project study area contains about 3,500 acres along Denvers 10.9 mile stretch of the South Platte River corridor, encompassing one quarter mile of land on either side of the river. The area touches 14 of Denvers 77 neighborhoods, and presently has about 7,500 residents (1.2% of Denvers population), and around 21 ,000 employ e es (3.8% of the Citys employment base). Central Platte Valley

PAGE 22

SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION8 to improve water quality runoff into the river Project Structure The South Platte Corridor Study was de signed to accomplish the project goals by building upon previous planning studies and public engagement efforts. Project Partners The process relied on regular coordination between project partners including city agencies, the Greenway Foundation and the Colorado Brownfields Foundation. Agency partners attended monthly meet ings, contributed edits and comments to project scope working drafts, and sup ported the proposal review and consultant selection process. This collaborative ap proach helped to align the various perspec tives and responsibilities covered by each respective agency durin g the project in ce p tion and throughout the project execution and public outreach stages. Community Planning and Development assigned two planners to co manage the project with approximately 2 full time employee (FTE) time spent over a two year period. The Greenway Foundation The Greenway Foundation has worked in a successful partnership with the City on town Funding to enable the study of two additional catalytic sites, bringing the total budget to $250,000. Project GoalsThis study has six major goals for continued reinvestment and revitalization of the river corridor: 1. Demonstrate how potential brownfield sites can redevelop and relate to the river / greenway, and revitalize the sur rounding area 2. Demonstrate how to create more pub lic spaces along the river 3. Demonstrate how Denvers recently adopted land use plans and form based zoning code can be applied to spe cific sites along the corridor 4. Encourag e economic develop ment as sociated with new development and reuse that results in new jobs and housing along the river 5. Encourage community revitalization by exploring appropriate new develop ment and how it relates to existing neighborhoods 6. Demonstrate how innovative on site stormwater management can be used South Platte Corridor Study Area Map (see Appendix B) for larger map and legend).

PAGE 23

9 on four separate occasions over a five month period to weigh in on the process and review concepts prior to public meet ings.Private forprofit interests included com mercial and residential real estate brokers, developers, lenders, manufacturing asso ciations, industrial property owners and commercial general contractors. Non profit entities included Trust for Public Lands, Audubon Society, Trout Unlimited, Denver Public Health, FRESC, Urban Land Conservancy, Denver Housing Authority and CDOT. Denver City agency re presenta tives were also invited to participate in these mee t ings. Project Approach The primary components of the project approach are summarized in the following four project steps, as well as a description of the public engagement process. Step 1. Corridor AnalysisAn extensive corridor analysis was a critical first step that was conducted to better un derstand how the South Platte River relates to the adjacent urban environment. This initial examination of the corridor estab lished a cohesive picture and understand multiple greenway and river restoration projects since its inception in 1976. This partnership continue d with the Fou nda tion receiving $15,000 as a sub grant recipient to support the project development, public outreach and coordination with current river implementation projects. The Colorado Brownfields Foundation The Colorado Brownfields Foundation (CBF) was awarded $13,065 to support the pro ject with technical assistance related to real estate, redevelopment and brownfields issues. The organization also contributed 80 hours of services through their Technical Assistance for Brownfields (TAB) funding. CBF provided project messaging strategies, stakeholder and public education support, assistance in review of exis ting environ mental data, property obse rvation screen ings, and assistance in the developme nt of potential environmental remediation cost estimates that were critical to the success of the project. Consultant Team The Wenk consultant team was se lected through a very competitive proposal and interviewing process following a pro ject definition and scoping exercise by the project partnerteam. The Wenk team was selected based on their experience in plan ning and urban design for clean up and reuse along industrialized river corridors. They also demonstrated applied knowledge of green infra structure and how to inte grate water quality areas as ameniti es in a higher density transit oriented develop ment setting.Also added to the team were architectural services (including urban de sign and 3 D modeling) development and real estate market specialization and public engagement expertise. The River Technical Advisory Committee (RTAC) was organized to review develop ment concepts to assure that environ mental interpretations and infrastructure assumptions were plausible and consistent with latest information and knowledge. Committee members were comprised pri marily of engineers from Public Works and the consultant team to meet on an as neede d basis. Advisory Committee This group represented diverse interests related to the river, and was thoughtfully selected with input and approval from pro ject partners and four city council mem bers. Advisory committee members met

PAGE 24

SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION10 ing of the river corridor as a whole, and provided a basis for selecting specific cata lytic sites. Step 2. Catalytic Site Selection With the major emphasis of this project focused on study of catalytic redevelop ment sites, selecting the right sites was of key importance. The corridorwide analysis led to the identification of five opportunity areas with a catalytic site identified within each area. Step 3. Detailed Study of Catalytic SitesThe purpose of this step was to demon strate how new development could trans form sites along the river to create a healthier and more vibrant urban environ ment. These conceptual planning studies explored opportunities for neighborhood connection, revitalization, and stabilization, and provided strategies and options for redevelopment of the catalytic sites alo ng the river. A proforma analysis of each con cept was created to demonstrate project feasibility based on reasonable assump tions for land value, clean up costs, site im provement costs and building construction costs. Strategies forinnovative on site stormwa ter management were recommended spe cific to each site with reference to potential environmental conditions, existing area drainage studies, and potential future drainage projects identified in the Citys storm drainage master plan.Area wide Green Infrastructure Study A separate water quality study was con ducted by Wenk for a 100acre study area surrounding a catalytic site in the River North neighborhood (RiNo). This expanded focus on stormwater management explores innovative opportunities for consolidated green infrastructure and other stormwater management strategies at a subregional scale. This project was fund ed separately by the EPA an d the Urban Drainage and Flood Control District with significant in volvement by the City (See Section 3 Green Infrastructure Concepts). Step 4. Economic AnalysisTo augment the economic analysis compo nent of the South Platte Corridor Study, a collaborative fiscal and economic impact modeling effort was undertaken with the Denver Office of Economic Development to evaluate the potential benefits of the catalytic site concepts along the corridor. This joint effort was made possible by pur chase of a proprietary software model li cense called SiteSt ats an Economic and Fiscal Im pact Analysis tool developed by Development Research Partners with grant funds. A SiteStats perspective looks at multiple economic and fiscal benefits that extend from construction activity, from the economic buying power of those who live, work or visit a project. Hy pothetic al spend ing is analyzed to explore potential local economic benefits and revenues generated for the City and County of Denver. The model also estimates the total of property taxes and onsite retail sales as assumed in the catalytic site studies. This analysis is featured in Se ctions 3 through 7 as part of the catalytic site summaries. The reporting of fiscal and economic benefits provides additional perspective for how catalytic site cleanup and reuse might benefit adjacent neighborhoods, including those with exist ing environmental justice challenges.Stakeholder and Public EngagementOne of the most important aspects of this study is the ongoing process of gaining feedback about the project from property owners, residents and other stakeholders from the community. This process identi

PAGE 25

11 fied specific properties that may be under utilized in evolving market areas in Denver. By involving the surrounding residents and stakeholders in the process, these explora tory concepts were intended to benefit not only individual property owners, but also the surrounding community and the City of Denver as a whole.Reaching out to the property owners prior to involving the broader community was a key first step following the preliminary cor ridor analysis. After identifying potential catalytic sites, inperson and telephone interviews were conducted with 25 prop erty owners. These owners generally re sponded favorably to the invitation to par ticipa te and exp l ore opportunities for fu ture development. Some stated a prefer ence to keep their light industrial busi nesses and properties intact for the near and mid term future, while others ex pressed a potential interest to sell property for redevelopment in the short term. The consultant team members explained during th e interviews that historic indus tri alization and landfilling along the river could present a barrier to reuse of prop erty. This planning process presented an opportunity to gain new information and ideas to anticipate potential contamina tion, and to understand how to position their properties as the real estate marke t evolves. It was made clea r to all property owners and neighborhood residents that any concepts resulting from this study would be non binding to the property own ers and made available for voluntary imple mentation.Community Priorities The project engaged numerous residents, area stakeholders, as well as diverse or ganizations and foundations with an inter est in the future well being of Denvers river corridor. From March to September 2012, several stakeholder interviews and eight public events were organized to pro vide ample opportunity for public input and to ensure tha t the surrounding neig hbor hoods were engaged.Public meetings con sisted of a kick off meeting, three neighborhood workshops, two presenta tions at neighborhood meetings, a concept review meeting, and a final presentation meeting. Public feedback gathered from these events served as a guide to the con sultant team and infl uenced th e evolving design concepts. Stakeholder and public input is referenced in Sections 3 through 7 as part of the catalytic site concept over views, and Appendix C provides a summary of the public meetings. Neighborhood EngagementPublic participation was key to develop an understanding of how catalytic site reuse and redevelopment could benefit the sur rounding neighborhoods and complement the South Platte greenway. To provide an open and transparent process, three key outreach methods were employed:Bi lingual flyers in Spanish and English were mailed to property owners living within 1,000 feet of each catalytic site prior to the neighborhood workshops. An email invitation list of over 1,000 contacts was assembled from previous planning efforts along the river includ ing greenway master plans and station area plans. Notice was also distributed to Denvers registered neighborhood organizations. Bi lingual emails were sent prior to each public meeting.A project website was set up with pro ject background information, events and City staff contact information. Public meeting sign in sheets were pro vided to gather the contact information

PAGE 26

SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION12 of new participants and add them to the growing email contact list. This inclusive process provides a basis for the findings, design concepts and feasibility analysis contained in this study. It is antici pated that the report will serve as a valu able implementation reference to the City, and provide insight that informs potential private investment.

PAGE 27

2.Corridor Analysis and Catalytic SiteSelection

PAGE 28

SECTION 2. CORRIDOR ANALYSIS AND CATALYTIC SITE SELECTION14 The South Platte River corridor is a complex network of builtup land uses, vacant sites, redeveloped sites, extensive freight and public transit railways, public streets, high ways and parks along the river banks. To better understand the relationship be tween these uses and the river, an exten sive corridor analysis of existing conditions was condu cted by the project team. This section provides an overview of this analy sis in three general steps, including plans and policies review, economic investment analysis and existing conditions analysis. Plans and Policies Review The first step in the analysis was to collect information from existing plans and studies that touch on areas along the river or other specific river topics. A complete list of these plans and the general relevance to this project is provided in Appendix D. An opportunity area map graphic is provided in each of the catalytic site summaries. Th e Catalytic site studies in Se ctions 3 through 7 refer to key plan recommendations or existing neighborhood components that relate to each study area and a specific catalytic site. Additional references are made to plan recommendations and zon ing. Some of the more significant plans that are refer enced inc l ude: Blueprint Denver Denvers integral land use and transportation plan was adopted in 2002. Blueprint Denver desig nates areas of change where infill and rede velopment could be served by higher ca pacity transit service and existing infra structure (See Blueprint Denver Map in Appendix A). Greenway Master Plans Denver Parks and Recreation and the Greenway Foundation engaged stakeholders and the public to explore greenway natural areas and recreation opportunities along the South Platte River in Denver. This impor tant planning effort initiated an on going collaborative effort between citizens, prop erty owners, Denver City agencies, the Greenway Foundation and numerous other publi c and private organizations committed to a naturally healthy and prosperous South Platte River. Following completion of the master plans, several projects were prioritized for funding, detailed planning, design and construction by 2015. These focus areas for greenway improvements relate to each of the catalytic sites selected in this study (See page 21). Decatur Federal Station Area Plan This is a plan in progress that will recom mend new land uses and densities within a half mile surrounding the Decatur Federal station along the West Rail line, set to open in 2013. This planning process presents a unique opportunity to present findings from the South Platte Corridor Stu dy and recomme nd land uses to be considered for City adoption when the plan is completed in 2013 (See Section 4 Zuni & Old Colfax). JumpStart 2013 Denvers Office of Economic Development (OED) has released JumpStart 2013 the Citys new economic development strategic plan that identifies measures to effectively recruit new em ployers to the city. Mayor Hancocks ad ministration has identified Key Strategic Projects in Denver, including the South Platte River Corridor as an opportunity for coordination with stakeholders to develop and impleme nt a st r ategies for brownfields remediation to encourage redevelopment and job creation. The plan includes meas ures to assure affordable and workforce housing near transit and to reduce energy consumption in commuting. Economic Investment AnalysisThe figure on the opposing page shows building permits for residential and com mercial projects as a representation of pri vate investment from 2005 to 2011. With the exception of the Central Platte Valley (Area A) there has been little commercial investment along the river compared to other neighborhoods in the City, and al most no residential in vestm e nt. The cata lytic site studies in Sections 3 through 7 demonstrate specific opportunities for pri vate development investment to take ad

PAGE 29

15 With the exception of the Central Platte Valley (Area A) there has been little com mercial investment along the river com pared to other neighborhoods in the City, and almost no residential invest ment Commercial and Residential Permits(2005 to 2011) A.

PAGE 30

SECTION 2. CORRIDOR ANALYSIS AND CATALYTIC SITE SELECTION16 vantage of the public greenway and transit investments along the river corridor. New development could further transform the river into a vibrant place with the energy and activity generated by new housing, jobs and retail areas that attract more peo ple to Denvers reemerging river amenity. Environmental Justice and Equitable Development Planning This area wide planning process continues Denvers efforts to revitalize the corridor with a focus on equitable development planning for disadvantaged communities. Disproportional environmental impacts borne by disadvantaged neighborhoods are referred to as environmental justice com munities. An equitable planning approach explores how new investment could bene fit adjacent neighborhoods along th e corri dor. Prior to environmental laws and regu lations com m unities along the South Plate Corridor were at greater risk to cumulative pollution problems from industrial activity. With support from State and Federal pro grams, the City has reduced pollution point sources from industrial uses, and worked to clean up a nu mber of brownfield sites along the river. Th ese efforts incl ude ex tensive environmental remediation, and park and river improvements in partnership with the Greenway Foundation as de scribed in Section 1. This area wide plan ning study demonstrates how new devel opment could further mitigate these im pacts by creating a vision for new invest ment along the river that could foster neighborhood revitalization. The South Platte River bisects the City of Denver and flows though 14 of the Citys 77 neighborhoods. Nearly all of these 14 neighborhoods trail Denver as a whole with respect to a wide variety of socioe co nomic indicators. In 2000, nearly all of the neighborhoods along the river corridor had a higher concentration of minority popula tions than Denver as a whole, and are dis advantaged compared to city wide figur es for education a l attainment, births to teen mothers, crime and household income. As featured in the following mapping analy sis, residential areas next to the river are rather limited within the study area given the preponderance of industrial and trans portation infrastructure along the river front. Ind u strial uses were typically built on large tracts of property with very little street connectivity to provide convenient access between residential areas and the river. For these limited residential zones and some industrial districts, disinvestment along the river corridor contributes to crime rates wh ere fallow sites or inactiv e zones be tween highways and railways can attract illicit activity. Urban camping along Image Source: Bing Maps Sun Valley Homes

PAGE 31

17 the river is widespreadespecially in areas with limited new investment with reports of theft, burglary and vandalism. While conditions have greatly improved along the river with major greenway investments, some neighborhoods lack convenient ac cess to the river, and other amenities that may be within the statistical neighborhood, but are not a ccessible due to a discon nected local s t reet network. In general, activating the greenway with new develop ment would benefit adjacent disadvan taged neighborhoods by:1. Improving the vitality of the greenway amenity along the river edge. 2. Increasing the number of people living and working along the river to increase demand for services such as healthy food, and possibly provide for such uses in a mixed use setting. 3. Improving access to the river through improved str eet circulation and bik e / pedestrian connectivity. Sections 3 though 7 highlight the area op portunities associated with each catalytic site that was selected and studied as part of this project. This approach considers how the surrounding neighborhoods might benefit from investment and revitalization along the riverfront. Right: Nearly all of the neighbor hoods along the river corridor had a higher concentration of minor ity populations than Denver as a whole, and are disadvantaged compared to city wide figures for educational attainment, births to teen mothers, crime and house hold income (indicated as bolded figures or percentage values). Sourc es: 20 06 2010 data is from the 2006 2010 American Commu nity Survey; 2007 data is from the Piton Foundation (piton.org); 2010 data is from the 2010 De cennial Census. Lower Left: The Sun Valley public housing projectshown amid heavy industrial usesis one of only a few residential districts that actually t ouches the river. Socioeconomic Indicators Race and Ethnicity Neighborhood % Persons age 25+ with <12th grade education (2006 2010) % Births to Teen Mothers (2007) Crime Rate per 1,000 Persons (2007) Average Hshld In come (2006 2010) % Persons in Poverty w/in Last 12 Months (2006 2010) % Racial or Ethnic Minority (2010) % Foreign Born (2006 2010) Athmar Park 35.6% 19.7% 74.0 $54,287 26.3% 79.4% 28.9% Lincoln Park 28.4% 12.9% 196.7 $38,391 43.9% 58.8% 9.6% Baker 25.0% 5.4% 112.2 $59,881 30.9% 41.5% 15.6% College View 41.6% 12.8% 82.1 $39,654 33.9% 81.1% 33.0% Elyria Swansea 52.9% 23.1% 91.6 $39,420 38.8% 91.2% 31.7% Five Points 14.1% 14.1% 146.4 $60,334 28.0% 43.0% 10.2% Globeville 45.3% 12.2% 288.3 $42,001 35.6% 74.2% 27.0% Highland 15.7% 16.7% 66.9 $64,408 18.8% 42.6% 10.4% Jefferson Park 24.8% 23.4% 76.3 $40,548 43.9% 61.1% 21.8% Overland 17.3% 20.5% 95.7 $48,235 24.3% 39.7% 10.8% Ruby Hill 39.7% 14.5% 57.2 $40,707 26.2% 79.1% 29.1% Sun Valley 36.5% 18.3% 254.8 $12,164 80.3% 92.3% 13.2% Union Station 5.0% 0.0% 261.3 $106,972 12.3% 18.7% 9.4% Valverde 41.9% 17.9% 97.0 $38,300 34.8% 85.0% 22.5% Denver 16.0% 11.2% 68.6 $68,203 19.2% 31.1% 16.6%

PAGE 32

SECTION 2. CORRIDOR ANALYSIS AND CATALYTIC SITE SELECTION18 Existing Conditions Analysis With the exception of a few wellknown parks along the greenway, many stretches of the river are obscured by raised viaducts, bridges and major high ways or roads. An existing conditions analysis helped to answer the question of What is along the River Today? and pro vided the basis for ide ntifying the cata lytic sites. The analysis required an in depth corridor wide mapping analysis as well as tours of the corridor by team members. This collective understanding of the corridor provides new perspective useful for exploring revitalization and investment opportunities. The following maps were created using GIS mapping layers and ha nd drawn over lays to compare the relati onship be tween existing land uses, utilities, infrastructure and the river. Above: Railway and highway infrastructure at Park Avenue and I 25. Site A. was one of sev eral potential areas considered for more detailed study to explore how new development could relate to the river. Bel o w: Site A shown within the broader area with the Central Platte Valley to the west and River North Neighborhood to the east. A full list of sites that were con sidered for detailed study is provided in Appendix E. ParkAvenueViaduct I 25 A. N N C e n t r a l P l a t t e V a l l e y ParkAvenueViaduct I 25 B r i g h t o n B l v d A. Image Source: Bing Maps

PAGE 33

19 (Left) Existing Parks and recreational areas comprise 8% of the study area. Well known areas include Commons Park & Con fluence Park (A), Johnson Habitat Park (B) and Overland Golf course (C). (Right) Established residential areas cover just 4% of the study area, and account for 1.2% of Denvers population of 620,000. Only four residential areas actually touch the greenway including A. River Northa mixed residential / industrial neighbor hood, B. The Central Platte Valley Redevel opment, C. Sun Valley and D. The Overland Neighborhood. A. B. C. A. B. C. D. Residential Areas Parks & Green way Areas

PAGE 34

SECTION 2. CORRIDOR ANALYSIS AND CATALYTIC SITE SELECTION20 (Left) Industrial and commercial areas are the largest land use category covering 26% of the study area. Industrial businesses provide services, jobs and products, and generate property and sales tax revenues that are critical to the City and County of Denver. (Right) 10% of the study area is comprised of large singl e uses and parking areas. These i nclude A. The RTD bus maintenance facility, B. Entertainment uses Elitch Gar dens and the Pepsi Center, C. Sports Au thority Field at Mile High Stadium (Denver Broncos),D. Auraria Campus, E. Central Platte Industrial campus, and F) the Xcel Energy power plant. 0 Industrial and Commercial Uses Large Single Uses and Parking Areas A. B. C. D. E. F. Image Source: Colorado Aerial Photography

PAGE 35

21 (Left) 10% of the corridor is devoted to transportation Infrastructure including freeways, major arterials, freight rail and light rail. (Right) A composite of transportation infra structure, large single uses and parking, and industrial zoning comprising nearly half of the study area (45%). These areas are likely to remain in th eir current uses into the foreseea ble future. Transportation Infrastructure Industrial + Large Single Uses + Parking Areas + Transportation Infrastructure Image Source: Bing Maps

PAGE 36

SECTION 2. CORRIDOR ANALYSIS AND CATALYTIC SITE SELECTION22 With so much of the corridor area devoted to stable industrial uses, transportation infrastructure and large single uses, there are relatively few opportunities for river front reuse and redevelopment. Selection Criteria for 5 Catalytic SitesThe highlighted red areas were identified as sites that could be explored for reuse and revitalization between the established uses along the corridor. Selection criteria were created by the project partners to identify areas that represent some of the best opportunities for reuse and invest ment along the river corridor. These crite ria include: Strong relationship to river Underutilized property Site connectivity to adjacent neighbor hoods Potential to draw people to the river Potentially transformative and catalytic to the surrounding area Adequate size and shape for meaning ful reuse and redevelopment Potential for rail transit accessA strong relationship to the existing greenway and regional trail system Over a dozen candidate sites along the river were evaluated using these criteria. At the end of this analysis and following public input, the highestranking opportunity ar eas were identified: A. River North a mixed industrial and resi dential area within minutes from down town that will be served by commuter rail in 2016. B. Water Street an underutilized large park ing lot at the edge of the Central Platte Valley redevelopment area C. Zuni & Lower Colfax an aging i ndustrial site that direct ly fronts the river, and lies within walking distance of one existing light rail station, and the soon to open Decatur Federal Station. D. Alameda & Platte River Drive a large block filled with 40 to 50 year old light in dustrial, office warehouse and religious buildings. E. Evan s Avenue A poc ket of small 60 year old commercial / light industrial commer cial buildings on the north and south sides of Evans Avenue, positioned between the greenway and surrounding residences in the Overland neighborhood. These opportunity areas were presented at the April 2012 public kick off meeting (see an outline of all public meetings in Appen dix C). Meeting participants agreed that the areas deserved further study and ex ploration, and provided a list of issues and opportunities that should be considered when conducting detailed site analysis an d design (See s u mmary of public comments in Sections 3 through 7). A. B. C. D. E.

PAGE 37

23 A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Existing Rail Transit Station Areas Future Rail Transit Station AreasRail Transit Station Areas Existing and future rail transit station areas within walking distance of the river are high lighted over the five opportunity areas. Each circle is one mile in diameter, or 1/2 mile sur rounding each station area. A. 38th & Blake Station Area B. Denver Union Station C. Auraria West Campus Station* D. Decatur Federal Station E. Alameda Station F. Broadway Station G. Evans Station Two additional stations are located between B. Denver Union Station and C. Auraria West Campus to serve the Mile High Stadium and the Pepsi Center / Elitch Gardens. Pedestrian Crossings(Right) Although the stations listed above are within a 1/2 mile walk ing distance of the river, some station platforms would not be accessible without a pedestrian crossing over the river or railway. The map to the right shows existing bridges (white), existing underpasses (fuchsia) and proposed bridges (green). In most cases, f unding for propos e d bridges has not been identified.

PAGE 38

SECTION 2. CORRIDOR ANALYSIS AND CATALYTIC SITE SELECTION24 Greenway investmentsA number of South Platte greenway plan ning and design efforts are underway that are leading to phased work for the devel opment of exciting recreational places along the river. The five catalytic sites were selected with the following areas in mind to encourage a strong connection between new development and the green way: A. River North Park (Arkins Park) Creating a community with a focus on the South Platte River is an opportunity in northern Denver, and one that Denver Parks and Recreation put in place with the acquisition of 2 acres of land near the river in 2010. The park space will include passive and active recreational spaces, informal gathering areas, bike and pedest rian trai ls that connect to the Platte River greenway, and re use of an existing building into a park pavilion for events like Movies in the Park and concerts. Project improvements will include strides to naturalize the river bank by reducing the side slopes along the river to the extent possible. This will create an area for new wetlands and riparian habitats that lead to water quality improvements with self sustaining native vegetation. Significant to this park development will also be a pedes trian bridge crossing the river near 35th Avenue. The bridge will connect cur rent and future development to the park and help to activate the spaces it connects. B. Confluence Park The confluence of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek is the historic birthplace of Denver. The revitalization of the river began in the 1970s with the construction of Shoemaker Plaza, the regional trail and the cantilevered ramps. The existing ramps do not meet current accessibility or trail standards and capital improvements to these assets will be made starting in 2013. Th e City and County of Denver has also undertaken a master plan of the entire Confluence Park area to more fully under stand pedestrian circulation patterns, areas for special events, new mixeduse develop ment potential, locations for waterway crossings and areas for interacting with the water. Lands cape and water quality im provements will also be ide ntified. The goal is to ultimately develop a cohesive plan for the entire Confluence Park area. C. Sun Valley Sun Valley is one of the areas along the South Platte River where families reside, making park space in this area a critical en try point to the South Platte River green way. This community has the lowest an nual household income in Denver at $12,400, and one of the highest percent ages of ethnic or racial mi nority reside nts at 89%. These citizens have experienced a disproportional share of impacts related to heavy industrial uses and isolation from a disconnected street network near the river. The intent is to create a place where chil dren and their parents can be active in play while learning valuable less ons about the environment around them. Weir Gulch and Lakewood Gulch both feed into the River in this neighborhoodand provide trail con nections to neighborhoods west of Sun Val ley. These regional connections will be en hanced by a series of wetland water quality basins. Small backwater areas will be cr e ated near the gulch confluences with the river to help improve fish and macroinver tebrate habitats, and to improve water quality. Recreational highlights of the park areas include an interactive spray ground with shade sculptures, natural play spaces with boulders and sand, an improved sec tion of regional trail for bi kes and pedes t ri ans, an overlook bridge crossing Weir Gulch, and community gathering spaces for socialization and informal play. D. Johnson Habitat The redevelopment of Johnson Habitat Park will educate children and adults of the important role that the South Platte River plays in nature and their daily lives. The valuable natural amenity that the river of fers will be celebrated with a new environ mental educational facility and a diverse recreational area as a national model of commu nity cooperation and success. Rec

PAGE 39

25 reational and educational highlights of the planned park improvements include an outdoor classroom, riverbank and upland area enhancements, boating and fishing access improvements, river overlooks, an urban tent camping area, interpretive trails and new section of regional bike trail, wa ter access, public gathering space, active recreational areas, and play area impr ove ments. The park areas are intended to be interactive and han d s on, while providing a sense of adventure for visitors. Activities that are inviting, exciting, and fun enhance learning and fitness, including the award winning South Platte River Environmental Education (SPREE) program. E. Grant Frontier / Pasquinels LandingBoating, tubing, fishing and wildlife watch ing in an urban environment are the focus of Grant Frontier Park and Pasquinels Landing. Providing multi use river access facilities will provide a new recreational destination for residents of southern Den ver. Existing drop structures will be recon structed into multiple drop structures that will provide st at e of the art boating and fishing experiences through the length of these park spaces. Multiple boat launches and river access points will provide options for experiencing the river. The project ar eas will also improve wildlife habitat and water quality by laying back the side slopes and creating new wetland and riparian habitats with native vegetation. B. C. D. E. A.

PAGE 40

SECTION 2. CORRIDOR ANALYSIS AND CATALYTIC SITE SELECTION26 Sustainability and Healthy Living With more people living, working and visit ing destinations along the South Platte River, several public benefits related to healthier living and sustainability could be achieved. These benefits relate to the po tential for reduced automobile use in walk able developments near transit, trails and existing services in Denver. New walkable development next to th e river could serve to revitalize ad jacent neighborhoods by creating more neighborhood activities and destinations that would be accessible by foot, cycling or transit. Denvers Living Streets Initiative documents several key trends and growing national awareness related to healthy living and the built environment. Over twothirds of American adults and one fifth of Americ an children are obese or overweight. The prevalence of obesity has doubled and the number of overweight children nation wide has tripled over a 25year period, from 1980 to 2004 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009). Colorado was recently ranked as the fittest of 50 states in 2010 with an obesity rate of 19.1 percent compared to the national fi g ure of 34 perc ent. However, childhood obesity in Colorado increased 23% between 2003 and 2007 the second fastest rate of increase in the nation behind Nevada (CalorieLab, Inc., 2011). While there may be many reasons for this large increase, one major reason is a lack of physical activ i ty, and the built environment is believed to play a major role in the sed entary behavior of Americans. Over 55% of American adults do not meet the recom mended levels of physical activity (150 min utes of moderate to vigorous physical activ ity per week) and 25% reported no physical activity at all (Department of Health and Human Services, Healthy People 2010, 2000). The presence and condition of sidewalks, safe crossings, traffic calming features, and design of roads can encourage or impede physical activity. Wide roads and fast moving cars are major barr iers to walkab il ity, while land use and zoning patterns tend to isolate many Americans from grocery stores, retail centers, and employment cen ters, leaving most people with little option but to drive. Having shops and services near ones resi dence was the best predictor of not being obese in a study of the health benefits as sociated with mixed use development. The study found that the relative risk of being obese increased by 35% between the most and least mixed areas (Frank et al., 2004). Other related findings: Mixed land use, street connectivity, and residential density are the built envi ronment attributes most consistently re lated to total physical activity. Street con nectivity creates shorter routes to destina Image Source: Green Growth Cascadia Image Source: Unknown

PAGE 41

27 tions and higher density supports local re tail and mayprovide social support, and perceived safety that encourages physical activity. People walk and exercise more if they live near mixed use communities that are well connected with a street network that is safe for walking and biking (Saelens et al., 2003). People who use public transit are three times more likely to be physically active than motorists (Lachappelle and Frank, 2009). Residents of walkable neighborhoods with sidewalks and connected streets did about 35 to 45 minutes more moderate physical activity per week and were sub stantially less likely to be overweight (Sallis et al., 2009). In regards to social capital, residents of pedestrian oriented environments re ported a much stronger sense of commu nity (Lund, 2002). Even pedestrian activities like dog walking can serve as an opportu nity for informal social interactions, but only when walkable, connectedstreets are available. After San Franscisco reduced traffic lanes to slow down cars and accommodate other users on Valencia Street, nearly 40% of Mission District merchants reported in creased sales, and 60% reported more area residents shopping locally (San Francisco State University). Living close to parks, trails, retail areas and recreation facilities is also related to greater use of facilities and more recrea tional physical activity (Dannenberg et al., 2011) Greenhouse gas emissions are 43% less for households living in compact, mixed use neighborhoods and 78% less in central business districts (FTA and Center for Tran sit Oriented Development, 2008). The City of Portland estimates that its transit and bicycle infrastructure investments since 1993 have resulted in a 12.5% reduction in per capita CO2 emissions from 1993 to 2005, which translates to carbon savings of $28M to $78M annually (City of Portland, Office of Sustainable Development, 2005). The average American household spends 19% of its income on transportation costs. This rises to 25% in auto dependent exurbs, compared to only 9% in neighbor hoods with transportation options (Center for Transit Oriented Development, 2009). Transportation sources account for 70% of the nations oil consumption and 30% of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions (Energy Information Administration, 2009). Improvements to Water Quality When older parts of the city developed, little consideration was given for stomwa ter quality. Todays regulatory standards require capturing the first flush of rainfall to remove pollutants from stormwater run off before they enter rivers and streams. Typical pollutants include solids (such as soil particles), petroleum hydrocar bons from automobiles, ni trogen and phos phorus, pathogens, metals and synthetic organics. Redevelopment and reuse of ag ing urban areas creates an opportunity to improve stormwater quality by removing pollutants before the runoff enters water ways. Image Source: John Paige Courtesy CNT

PAGE 42

SECTION 2. CORRIDOR ANALYSIS AND CATALYTIC SITE SELECTION28 Each catalytic site presented in this study recommends innovative solutions for cap turing and enhancing the quality of storm water on or near the site. Instead of using pipes (gray infrastructure) to dispose of stormwater, green infrastructure uses the natural retention and adsorption capabili ties of vegetation and porous soils to col lect and treat stormwater runoff. Green infrastructur e integrates on site natural features, landscaped areas, and smallscale engineered hydrologic controls to promote pollutant removal and reduce stormwater runoff volumes and peak flows in receiving waterways. Rain gardens, stormwater planters, bioswales, permeable pavers, and tree box filters are green infrastructure techniques that can provide for enhanced water quality reduced flo oding, improved air quality, increased aesthetics, and lower long term maintenance costs.The evolution of the South Platte Corridor in Denver presents an opportunity for con tinued revitalization in Denver to create more sustainable development patterns and healthier neighborhoods. The corridor provides access to an expanding greenway and rail transit network as well as conven ient access to amenities and services avail able in Denver. The goals of Denvers Liv ing St re ets Initiative and Blueprint Denver will be significantly advanced through revi talizing efforts along the South Platte Corri dor.

PAGE 43

3. RiverNorthCatalyticSite

PAGE 44

SECTION 3. RIVER NORTH CATALYTIC SITE30 River North Opportunity AreaThe River North (RiNo) opportunity area runs north to south from 38th Street to De nargo Street along the river (to the west) and the Union Pacific railway (to the east). The center spine of the area is Brighton Boulevard which provides connection be tween downtown and I 70. This aging in dustrial neighborhood is known for the emerging RiNo Art District, and the nearby pioneer developm en t TAXI a creative office and residential community on the west side of the river on Ringsby Court. Recently adopted land use plans recom mend higher density mixed used develop ment that could replace significant portions of existing commercial and industrial prop erties. These plans include Blueprint Den ver, the River North Neighborhood Plan and the 38th & Blake Station Area Plan. These adopted plans define the general location, character and intensity of mixed residential, commercial and industrial dis tricts. In 2010, many of the recommended land uses from these plans were applied to properties as part of Denvers city wide zoning code update and rezoning process. Two new projects are currently under con struction that will add over 500 new resi dential units in the southern half of the RiNo opportunity area. These include the first phase of Denargo Market a residen tial mixed use development with ground level retail to be constructed near 29th Street and Brighton, and a 200unit apart ment complex at 32nd Street and Brighton. Multiple property assemblages by investors throughout the area further indicate that the area is poised to transform from an aging industrial district to a mixed use com munity near the river. Residents in River North are located just minutes away from downtown Denver by vehicle, bicycle (via the South Platte River Trail ) or bus. Existing Area Conditions The blocks north of 35th Street contain smaller parcels with a mix of older single family homes from the early 1900s, and commercial / industrial buildings built from the 1940s to the 1970s. South of 35th Street, the parcels are much larger, with fewer structures and virtually no residential development. The area north of 35th Street is a more complex ownership pat tern that is less likely to re develop with larger projects and taller building heights. The larger parcels to the south are due in part to the lack of cross streets between 35th and 31st Streets west of Brighton. These larger parcels more condu cive to larger develo pmen t projects where struc tured parking with surrounding higher den sity buildings could be situated. Many of the existing streets in River North lack curb, gutter, sidewalk and stormwater

PAGE 45

31 River North Opportunity Area is located along Brighton Boulevard be tween the River and the Union Pacific Railway. Image Source: Bing Maps

PAGE 46

SECTION 3. RIVER NORTH CATALYTIC SITE32 drainage systems. Redevelopment in the neighborhood would improve these streets to meet current service levels, and could present an opportunity to explore water quality treatment in the right of way, or green streets. Brighton Boulevard is an arterial street with over 16,000 vehicle trips per day, and a forecast of over 25,000 trips by the year 2025 (De n ver Regional Council of Governments). This high level of visibility provides an opportunity to create ground level retail and other commercial services along the corridor. However, di rect access to new development should be provided on side streets rather than on Brighton to minimize interference with traffic flows an d to reduce the number of conflicting turns. Public Investments The Regional Transportation Districts (RTD) FastTracks program will bring commuter rail service through the River North neighborhood in 2016 to connect down town Denver and the Denver International Airport along the East Rail Line. The River North station at 38th and Blake will be the first stop from the downtown Union Sta tion transit hub. RTD will construct a pe destrian crossing at 38th Street to connect the station to a park nride lot on the west side of the tracks. The City of Denver is also studying the potential of a second pe destrian bridge between 35th and 36th Streets to improve connection between the station and the river south of 38th Street. The City is investing over $40 Million in planning, design and installation of infra structure improvements surrounding the transit station (See Appendix F) These include street and sidewalk improvements to provide safer pedestrian access to the station, and major storm drainage improve ments to convey regional stormwater flows to the river. As describe d in the Corridor Analysis, Denver Parks recently purchased a 2 acre brownfield property for a future park near the river in response to recent redevelopment trends. Studies of this fu ture park included exploring the possibility of relocating Arkins Court away from the river along the Delgany RightofWay align ment to expand the greenway (see ab ove image) The Catalytic Site The catalytic site selected for conceptual study is located on the east side of the river, adjacent to the Citys future park parcel (see above graphic). The site is Future City Park C a ta l y t i c Si te C a ta l y t i c Si te Taxi De velopmen Image Source: Bing Maps

PAGE 47

33 fronted by Brighton Boulevard to the east, and 35th Street to the north. This location is within walking distance of the proposed pedestrian bridge between 35th and 36th Streets as a direct walking route to the fu ture rail station. Study of this site has pro vided the opportunity to explore how de velopment could relate to a new public park next the river, and how this integral relationship could benefit the develop ment, the park and the surrounding neighborhood. Existing Site Conditions The majority of this 5.6 acre site is an out door auto salvage yard, with five small to moderate sized buildings fronting Brighton Boulevard. The main building is a nicely detailed 1941 Streamline Moderne brick office/warehouse with decorative stepped brick pilasters, a horizontal band of steel windows and projecting steel awnings. There are no residential housing units on the property. Views of downtown and mountains to the southw e st would add to the scenic value of development located next to a new riverside park. At over 800 feet long, the site is equivalent in size to two city blocks, but is only fronted on two sides by Brighton Boulevard and 35th Street. New east / west streets would be essential to serve new development, reduce conflict with north / south bound traffic along Brighton Boulevard and pro vide additional connections to the future park. Currently, vehicle parking is located in front of the buildings along the street with no designated parking lot entrance. Vehicles pull in and out of head in parking and ba ck out directly into the closest southbound travel lane.The existing utility infrastructure is ade quate for site development, although sev eral utility upgrades would be required to support mixed use redevelopment, as sum marized below: A 12 water line runs along Brighton Boulevard. Additional looping of the water line through the site will likely be required to meet the current Uniform Fire Code to place an adequate number of hydrants around new buildings. Sewer lines would need to be extended into the site to direct sewage flows from new buildings to the 42 sanitary collector line in 35th Avenue. Stormwater Sewers: There are minimal storm sewers serving the site. A new 100year capacity storm drain would be required to convey water from the site to the river. This would reduce the on site detention requirement from 100 year service to 10year rainfall event service level. Neighborhood Input: Public feedback collected at the neighbor hood workshops served as a valuable refer ence to the consultant team as concepts were developed for the site. Alternatives were created that could make redevelop ment both catalytic and beneficial to the neighborhood. Key takeaways from the public meetings include the following sug gestions: Existing buildings should be preserved and reused to the extent possible to keep key elements of the RiNo

PAGE 48

SECTION 3. RIVER NORTH CATALYTIC SITE34 neighborhood identity intact. New development should support the growth and prominence of the RiNo Art District by creating studio and gallery opportunities for artists, and outdoor spaces for civic art features. The proposed scale, density and mix of uses of the concepts appear to be in compatible with the light industrial na ture of art studios. Eight story build ings that are predominantly residential could be cost prohibitive for new artists and small businesses seeking to locate in the district. If area rents rise too high, es tablished artists and business owners may move to a dif ferent neighborhood. Questions were raised relating to the feasibility and benefits of water quality enhancement in the right of way. This treatment would require professional design, as well as on going mainte nance and irrigation by a managing au thority. Preferred AlternativesThe consultant team developed two alter native concepts that responded to neighborhood input, and tested the feasi bility of the preferred alternative through a financial proforma analysis. The concepts demonstrate how new mixed use develop ment could relate to a new park, and how the neighborhood could better access the river by re establishing the street grid and creating stro nger pedestrian connections. Both alternatives would include the follow ing urban design elements: New east / west streets would be intro duced at 33rd and 34th streets to re establish the street grid. These streets would disperse local traffic, reduce congestion on Brighton Boulevard, and establish more pedestrian connections to the river from Brighton Boulevard. Provide access to interior block parking to prevent turning conflicts with north / south traffic flows along Brigh ton Boulevard. A portion of Arkins Court is shown be ing vacated from 32nd to 35th Streets a street that currently runs at the top of the river bank. The street would be converted to open park land next to the river that would provide an amen ity for future residents. For the pur pose of keeping a redundant parallel route along Brighton, Arkins Court could only be vacated once th e Delgan y street realignment has been completed from 31st Street to 35th Streets. The development costs listed on page 40 include a realigned Arkins Court along the Delgany right of way align ment. This new street would serve the west side of the new development and the east edge of the park, and allow for the vacation of Arkins Court along the river and con version into greenway / park expansio n. Commercial uses such as retail, flex office, studios and gallery space fronting Brighton Boulevard would be provided in each alternative to serve the new residents and to capture busi ness from the high traffic volumes along Brighton Boulevard. The fall in grade across the site toward the river (from east to west) could pro vide an extra floor of parking accessible from the realigned Arkins Court. A pedestrian bridge over the river is shown at 35th Street to connect the existing TAXI development to the park and pedestrian route toward the future commuter rail station (this concept is not currently funded). A proposed pedestrian bridge (at 35th or 36th Street) would further expand the walkability of the RiNo district and improve neighborhood connectivity on both sides of the River.Reuse of the existing Streamline Mod erne building would allow for the areas history to remain, helping to preserve RiNos unique mixed indus trial character.

PAGE 49

35 Green Infrastructure Concepts Concepts for green stormwater infra structure were further explored in a separately funded study to demonstrate how private and public investment could result in more efficient and sustainable solutions for stormwater management. The River North Consolidated Green In frastructure Study provides a sub regional analysis of the neighborhood and demonstrates the foll owing opportu nities for the catalytic site: The potential to enhance water qual ity in the right of way tree lawn area (between the sidewalk and the street curb) Storing water detention in vaults un der new local streets (private or pub lic) or under the future park. Grant funding of the park parcel does not allow for water quality or detention to be treated or stored on the park property. Stormwater management in the rightof way would allow for more efficient use of the property for de velopment, and create consolidated green infrastructure facilities that could be more efficient to maintain. Delgany* 33rd Street* 34th Street* 35th Street Brighton Boulevard A r k i n s C o u r t Gr e e n w a y Proposed Potential Storm water Manage ment Area* Possible park Expansion Area* 2Acre Park Parcel Interior Parking Interior Parking N

PAGE 50

SECTION 3. RIVER NORTH CATALYTIC SITE36 density phase could respond to a poten tially stronger residential market. This strategy is consistent with the neighborhood preference for a less inten sive development scheme on the north end of the site near 35th Street. Both alterna tives share the same development program for the Phase IIsouth block development. This second phase is assumed to be a longer term opportunity after some of the current projects under construction in the area are built out and fully occupied. About 40 percent of the new development in Phase I (53,000 s.f.) would be flex space and retail commercial building space that could attract small businesses, light manu facturing and artisans. A 73,000 s.f., 80 unit residential building fills the remaining 60 percent of the development program. This building could house around 150 re si dents that would increase the local pop ula tion and bring more eyes on the future park during evening hours and weekends. Parking would be provided by a 2 level parking garage that could take advantage of the change in grade across the site. Demand for this program represents cur rent or near term market demand in the next 5 years. The new commercial build Alternative 1: C MX 8 Less Than Full Build out This concept explores a Phase I building program on the north block (between 34th and 35th Streets) that represents present day market opportunities for moderate density residential and commercial devel opment. With a large supply of new resi dential units currently under construction south of 32nd Avenue, a full build out of C MX 8 zoning (Commer cial Mixe d Use, eight story building height) on another compet ing residential project does not seem likely in the next five years. A Phase I project with employment and a smaller mix of residential development could make more sense as a near term de velopment opportunity. This project could be introduced at a competitive price point by scaling back the height (and resulting cost per square foot of the buildings), and by limiting the structured parking to a two level deck. Th ese cost factors would signifi cantly influe nce the lease or purchase pr ice of new development. This approach would logically phase the lower density as the first phase on the north block in response to the current market. Later, a possibly higher ings include re use of the one story art dec o building fronting Brighton, and two other buildings shown at two stories each. A five story residential building would be placed on the south end of the site to create a transition in building height from two story at the north end toward the future eight story development on the Phase II south block. Th e building on the corner of De l gany and 35th Street would be pulled back from the corner to open up the pedestrian approach to the park. This plaza space, as well as the park itself could feature artwork produced by local artists. Image Source: Kelan Smith

PAGE 51

37 Residential Commercial Parking Park / Courtyard Water Quality Enhancement Renovated Existing Building Alternative 1 Development Yields First Phase (north block): 80 Residential Units (73,000 GSF) 43,600 GSF Office / Flex Space / Stu dios / Galleries 9,500 GSF Retail / Restaurant / Gallery renovation of existing building 185 parking spaces in a two level park ing garage. Second Phase (south block): 250 Residential Units 14,000 GSF Retail / Restaurant / Gallery 270 parking spaces in a 3 level garage Left: Art integrated into a building and land scape draws attention to a low impact design (LID) for on site stormwater management. Near Right: Public art combined with stormwa ter quality / detention in Portland. Far Right: A low impact design art feature collects water from a roof downspout to reduce flows into the storm dr ainage sys tem. N Image Source: City of Portland A3 Image Source: Kelan Smith

PAGE 52

SECTION 3. RIVER NORTH CATALYTIC SITE38 (Below) Existing Condition: Arkins Court fronts the river corridor and Delgany Street stops at a T intersection at 35th Street. The 800 foot long site fronts Brighton Boulevard, an important gate way corridor to Downtown Denver from I 70. N Image Source: Google Earth

PAGE 53

39 (Right) Alternative 1 is shown with a fully developed park with east side street frontage along a new Delgany alignment, and the addition of new 34th and 33rd Streets that connect the neighborhood from Brighton Boulevard to the future park. Alternative 1 shows a phase 1 block on the north (f oreground, betwee n 34t h and 35th Streets) that includes mixed employment and residential at a moderate density ranging from two to five stories.This scale and use mix are consistent with the neighborhood preference for less intensive development along 35th Street that could provide affordable spaces for art studios and other light industrial business uses. The second phase (north block between 33rd and 34th Streets) is assumed to be a longer term opportunity after residential develop ment currently under construction in the area has been completed and occupied. N Image Source: Google Earth

PAGE 54

SECTION 3. RIVER NORTH CATALYTIC SITE40 Alternative 2 Fully Utilized C MX 8 Zoning This alternative illustrates full utilization of the C MX 8 zoning entitlement for an eight story building applied in two phases. Phase II is the same in Alternative 1 and Alternative 2. The greater densities and higher price of this alter native could be in direct competition with pro jects in the are a such as Denargo Mark et This potential for over saturation of the market sug gests that this alternative is more of a mid to long term development opportunity in the next 10 to 15 years. First Phase (north block) 275 Residential Units (251,000 GSF) 10,000 GSF Retail / Restaurant / Gallery renovation of existing building 265 parking spaces in a two level park ing garage. Second phase (south block): 250 Residential Units 14,000 GSF Retail / Restaurant / Gallery 270 parking spaces in a multilevel ga rage N Residential Commercial Parking Park / Courtyard Water Quality Enhancement Renovated Existing Building A3 A3 Underground Detention Underground Detention N Image Source: Google Earth

PAGE 55

41 This rendering of Alternative 2 depicts full utilization of the C MX 8 (commercial mixed use, eight story) zoning for an eight story building in Phases I and II.Market demand for this higher density residential mixed use application may be 10 to 15 years out as a longer term development opp ortunity, compared to the flex space commercial Phase I of Alter native 1 that represents a near to mid term opportu nity. N Taxi Image Source: Google Earth

PAGE 56

SECTION 3. RIVER NORTH CATALYTIC SITE42 Relationship to the River The section drawing above further illus trates how new development and a new park could relate to the river. The river side park is shown with Arkins Court re aligned to the Delgany alignment in order to directly connect the park to the River, and to provide access and observation to the rear portion of the park. The new park would provide the benefits of excep tional southwestern views of the moun tains, a direct view of the River as well as a recreational amenity at its front door. The development would increase safety by putting eyes on the park, and gener ating a ctivity. Great Outdoors Colorado grant fu ndin g used to purchase the park land allows for some of the typical right of way uses such as the new streets park side sidewalk, landscaping and on street parking The grant restricts non park rightof way uses such as a vehicle travel lane in the street on the park land. Stormwater Management Opportunity Although the grant funding also restricts use of the park for surface water quality and/or detention, the new park could incorporate subsurface stormwater de tention from the catalyst site and sur rounding area, allowing for more devel opment density on private property. This increase of value for private development could provide some of the fundin g neces sary to devel op the park through a pay ment inlieu fee, or direct negotiation with the city. Consolidated detention within a pub lic space would replace the need for on site detention on nearby develop ment. Consolidated green infrastructure located offsite could strengthen ur ban design goals by increasing den sity and walkability by creating more attractive recreational facilities. Consolidated green infrastructure can be less expensive to construct and maintain, and more effective at removing pollutants and managing flooding compared to multiple stom water facilities located on individual parcels. Stormwater fees captured from de velopers could be used to construct and maintain district stormwater fa cilities while also funding park and public space

PAGE 57

43 Left: Installation of underground stormwater detention pipes. Total Investment $73,170,000 Includes construction costs, tenant im provements, and personal property such as computer systems and equipment. Construction Jobs 217 Total temporary employment related to site work and building construction Employment 188 Potentialnumber of jobs located in new office, flex space or retail buildings Average Annual Wage $63,400 Based on average employment wages by industry in Denver New Housing Units 333 Includes a mix of studio, 1bedroom and 2 bedroom units New On site Residents 633 Based on Denvers multi family household size average of 1.9 persons per household Annual Household Consumer Income $11,172,000 Estimated household income is basedon the assumption that housing payments are 30% of total income Annual Taxable Goods Purchased in Denver $2,396,000 Projection based upon Denver residents spending 28% of their household consumer income on taxable goods, and purchasing 77% of taxable goods from retail stores in the City Sales Tax Revenues1 Property Tax Revenues2 Occupational Privilege Tax3 Total $238,400 $252,800 $22,000 $513,000 1. Includes a) sales tax from annual taxable goods purchased in Denver by on site resi dents, b) sales tax revenues generated from onsite retail sales (at$360 per s.f. with 60% of taxable retail sales, and c) business spending on taxable materials. 2. Total property taxes of residential and commer cial development. 3. Denvers m onthly Occupational Pr ivilege Tax in Denver is $9.75 per employee, with $5.75 paid by the employer and $4.00 paid by the employee Table 3.1 Fiscal and Economic Benefits Fiscal and economic impact projections were generated in the SiteStats model for Alternative 1: C MX 8 Less Than Full Build out Phases I and II.An investment of over $73M could result in 217 temporary con struction jobs, and 188 permanent jobs related to the flex space and retail com mercial areas. The projecte d average an nual wage of $63,400 is based on Denvers average wages for these industry sectors. With an estimated household income of $35,500, the 655 new on site residents are projected to spend about 20% of their household consumer income on goods sold in Denver, resulting in the pu rchase of about $2. 4M of taxable goods within Den ver City Limits. The annual sales tax reve nue generated from this consumer spend ing coupled with on site sales and business spending is estimated at $238,400. Prop erty tax revenues for on site residential and commercial uses are estimated at $252 ,800. This figure is based on Denvers 28.419 mill levy for general fund and gov ernmental funds, and does not include ad ditional revenues within the city wide aver age mill levy of 74.954 that includes all tax districts.

PAGE 58

SECTION 3. RIVER NORTH CATALYTIC SITE44 Item Cost Notes Land $4,646,400 Current county valuation of land and improvements. Actual property value to be determined by willing sellers through vol untary land transaction. Includes demolition, environmental remediation assumptions, utility upgrades, roadway improvements, stormwater, and off site landscaping costs Site Improvements $2,983,785 Parcel A: Buildings & Structured Parking $12,402,700 Residential 5story$90 / s.f. Office / Studio / Commercial / Retail $65 / s.f. Structured parking $45/ s.f. Parcel B: Buildings & Structured Parking $39,510,000 Residential 8story$105 to $160 / s.f. Office / Studio / Commercial / Retail $65 / s.f. Structured parking $45/ s.f. Commercial Tennant Improvements $2,393,100 $45 per s.f. applied to 53,180 net s.f. Total Hard Costs $57,289,585 Soft Costs $15,127,612 Includes 20% soft costs (engineering, architectural, surveying, marketing, financing costs, consultants, etc.) and 5% developer fee Contingency $3,437,375 5% hard cost & 5% soft cost contingencies Total Project Costs $80,500,972 Total Residential Units 333 Units ranging from 550 1,100 s.f. Studios, 1Bedroom, 2Bed room units Total Commercial Space 47,862 net s.f. Net Operating Income $5,685,566 Residential rents $2.00 $2.10 per s.f., covered parking $80/ month Commercial rents $1.80 per s.f. Residential vacancy 5%, Commercial vacancy 5%, Parking va cancy 10% Expenses $5.88 per s.f. 5year Internal Rate of Return 46.4% Stabilized Cashon CashReturn 11.1% Above: A residential mid rise building with ground level retail or office uses. Below: A two story flex industrial building providing for office and light manufacturing uses. A mix of these building types up to 8 stories high is allowed on the same site in Denvers C MX 8 zoning district, althou gh prop erty insurance typically precludes residential uses above light industrial. Table 3.2 Redevelopment Feasibility A summary of the cost proforma analysis for Alternative 1, showing a potential total investment and return on investment for both phases. The complete analysis is provided in 2012 dollars, and shows that mixed use building in both phases is economically feasible, with the assumption that acquisition of multiple parcels is feasibl e.Land acquisition costs (Ro w 1) are based on present day assessed values. Site improve ments (Row 2) includes environmental remediation of assumed conditions.

PAGE 59

45 Task Type Timing Lead Potential Funding Property assemblage Site Improvement Short Developer, Land owners Private Investment Conductenvironmental assessment of all lands Environmental Short Developer, Land owner or City Private Investment, EPA As sessment Grants, State and Federal Targeted Brownfields Assessments Conductrisk basedenvironmental remediation through the states voluntary cleanup program appropriate for the intended redeveloped land use. Environmental Short Mid Developer Private investment, State & Federal Cleanup Grants ** Design surface and sub surface detention in the park for adjoining develop ment in return for park land dedication and funding Public Improve ment Short Mid City CIP,City Staff resources *** Establish design standards for stormwater quality treatment in the right of way Regulatory Short Mid City CIP,City Staff resources (in kind) Establish stormwater district and funding mechanismto allow for private stormwater detention on public or district owned lands Regulatory Short Mid City CIP,City staff resources, spe cial improvement district bonds, Federal or State grants Consider art installations by local RiNo artists as part of site planning, program ming and feasibility analysis Coordination Short Mid Developer n/a Design the Arkins Court realignment and negotiate the dedication of right of way from adjoining property owners Public Improve ment Short Mid City Construct the park and incorporate subsurface detention in the park for ad joining development in return for park land dedication and funding. Public Improve ment, Coordina tion Short Long City, Developer In lieu stormwater fees Construct phase 1of the development Site Improvement Short Long Developer Private Investment *** Construct phase 2of the development Site Improvement Long Developer Private Investment *** Table 3.3 River North Action Plan This implementation guide assumes voluntary participation by property owners to sell property or combine into a single ownership entity for future development. The timing of the implementation steps below are therefore dependent upon the interests of property owners and their collective will to pursue redevelopment. **EPA cleanup grants, Colorado 1306 cleanup fund grant, Colorado Brownfields Revolving Loan Fund (CBRLF) grantare available for eligible non profit or local government entities. CBRLF pro vides low interest rate loansfor cleanup activi ties to all eligible entities including for profit entities. ***Community Development Block Grant Program (CDBG ), New Markets Tax CreditProgram (NMTC), Tax Increment Financing (TIF) as possible funding sources for infrastructure development, project construction and may include environmental cleanup funding. For profit entities are only eligible for NMTC andTIF. State andEPA TargetedBrownfields Assessments can be conducted for eligible non profit andgover nment entities at eligible sites. As indicated in the report, one of the report recommendations is for the City to obtain an EPA brownfields assessment grantfocused on the river corridor from which envi ronmental site assessment activities could be conducted on behalfof eligible for profit entities such as bonafideprospective pu rchase rs and eligible prop erty owners at eligible sites.

PAGE 60

SECTION 3. RIVER NORTH CATALYTIC SITE46

PAGE 61

4. Water Street CatalyticSite

PAGE 62

SECTION 4. WATER STREET CATALYTIC SITE48 Water Street Opportunity Area Water Street is the location of some of Denvers most sought after public and pri vate destinations that were established as part of the Denver Central Platte Valley redevelopment in the 1990s. These in clude the Downtown Aquarium, the Chil drens Museum, the REI Flagship Store and Confluence Pa rk where th e Cherry Creek Bike Path meets the South Platte River Trail. Highly visible on the opposite side of the river is Elitch Gardens, a downtown amusement park and the Pepsi Center, home of the Denver Nuggets and Colorado Avalanche. The Water Street area lies be tween Downtown and I 25 at th e base of the Jefferson Park neighborhood, making it an attractive infill opportu n ity. The area was historically a mix of industrial and residential development. The Zang Brewery complex operated next to the river until the early 20th century with a residential neighborhood to the north that included employee housin g for the Brew ery (see aerial image below). Planning and construction of I 25 (also known as the Val ley Highway) in the late 1950s resulted in the replacement of a number of existing homes, and isolated some of the remaining An 1933 aerial image showing homes and businesses that were impacted by I 25(black lines). The Water Street study area is shown in red.

PAGE 63

49 Water Street Opportunity Area, an underutilized site amid Denvers successful riverfront redevelopment efforts in the Central Platte Valley. Image Source: Bing Maps

PAGE 64

SECTION 4. WATER STREET CATALYTIC SITE50 homes between the freeway and Water Street. For the next few decades, the river side industry continued to deteriorate and houses in the residential area became rent als ina holding pattern for redevelopment. In the 1980s the majority of the remaining buildings and homes were demolished and the site was converted in the 1990s into a surface parki ng area for th e aquarium. Public Investments Planning and redesign of the nearby Con fluence Park are underway, including an update of the bike ramps, bridges and park program to meet increasing demand for this site (See Appendix F) The River North Greenway Master Plan recommends a fu ture pedestrian bridge over the South Platte River that would co nnect Fishback Park and Elitch Gard ens (Point A in the site image). Although funding has not been identified for this bridge, this new connec tion would make the Pepsi Center / Elitch Gardens light rail station more accessible to new residents and visitors on the north / west side of the river. The Catalytic Site While busy and active during the daytime hours especially during peak tourism in the summerWater Street activity dies down during the evening after the aquar ium closes, and very few people are seen in the area. The aquariums 8 acre, 800stall parking lot is on the north side of Water Street, and is rarely more than two thir ds full on a busy day. A porti on of the lot is leased to the REI flagship store for overflow parking. Although this area has been sig nificantly improved since its mid century decline, the full vision depicted in the 1991 Central Platte Valley Plan has not been achieved. Additional in vestm ent and infill development could add more energy, vi brancy and over all success to the area. Blueprint Denver identifiesthe site as an area of change, and the Central Platte Val ley Plan recommends mid rise residential mixed use. This somewhat forgotten op portunity is compelling giv en the park and trail ame nities that are already in place, and given the sites close proximity to Den vers prominent Lower Downtown district (LoDo) and Commons Park further down stream to the northeast. Introducing residential infill development could transform the quiet evening hours A Image Source: Bing Maps

PAGE 65

51 into a more vibrant place with more people and a greater variety of daytime and eve ning activity. Without the presence of people into the evening hours, the green way feels dark, empty and less safe for public use. New residents could greatly benefit from a location next to some of Denvers most sough t after publ ic and pr i vate destinations, including the existing parks and greenway. Located between the edge of Downtown and the Lower Highland and Jefferson Park neighborhoods, the po tential to complete a mixed use urban neighborhood near downtown is un matched in the South Platte Corridor Study. New Water S treet improv ements and var ied building configurations could create an active street with opportunities for ground floor retail, as well as courtyards and festi vals in the park that can further activate the site. Public Input Participants at the neighborhood workshop responded enthusiastically to the prelimi nary infill development concepts that were introduced. The design team was encour aged to consider the future function and safety of an existing cycling route along Water Street from Jefferson Park / High lands to Downtown, as local traffic and pedestrian activity would in cr e ase consid erably with new development. Green spaces along the right of ways for water quality enhancement were supported for the sustainability value as well as the aes thetic value. These areas could relate visu ally and thematically to the greenway and park across the street. Preferred Alternative The preferred alternative demonstrates how Water Street could be activated with mixed use development near existing amenities and downtown Denver. Several mixed use buildings are oriented along the street with many units enjoying an open view of the river, with downtown or the mountains in the background. Parking ar eas are oriented to the rea r of these bui ld ings, and serv e as a sound barrier and vis ual buffer between I 25 and Water Street. A new parking garage with retail fronting the street is proposed on the southwest end of the site to serve the aquarium, which would make the infill development on the remai ning 7 acres of the site possi ble. An improved streetscape and new resi dential population could help to extend the activity from REI to Water Street and into the Jefferson Park Neighbor hood, providing increased economic activity and a greater use of Fishback Park. An infill development along Water Street is potentially a near term oppor tunity given its single ownership struc ture, its location adjacent to existing neighborhoods and close proximity to previous infill projects. Stormwater could be detained under private streets and beneath surface parking lots tucked behind buildings. Water quality could be enhanced within the development landscaping areas and within the right of way in tree lawns. Water Street could become a more ac tive commercial and pedestrian ori ented street with the addition of resi dential and groundlevel retail develop ment. Streetscape improvements would have the opportunity to make meaningful connection from the devel opment to popular destinations.

PAGE 66

SECTION 4. WATER STREET CATALYTIC SITE52 Residential Commercial Parking Park / Courtyard Water Quality Treatment Development Yields 384 Residential Units (73,000 GSF) 12,450 GSF Commercial / Retail 295 Structured parking spaces 32Surface parking spaces A. Restaurant: 4,500 s.f. B. Surface parking C. Area not studied D. Retail/restaurant: 7,000 s.f. E. Parking garage: 412 spaces F. Residential mid rise: 157 Units G. Townhomes (wrapped): 51 Units H. Corner retail/restaurant: 945 s.f. I. Parking garage: 253 spaces J. Residential mid rise: 112 units K. Townhomes (wrapped): 26 units L. Podium garag e: 140 spaces M. Apartmen ts: 38 units N. Surface & tuck under parking: 48 spaces A. B. D. E. C. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. N Image Source: Google Earth

PAGE 67

53 Lower Left: Existing site condition shows an expansive 8 acre parking area between I 25 and Water Street. The small parcel to the west (A) is a vacant lot owned by the City of Denver. REI and Confluence Park are visible in the back ground beyond Speer Boulevard. Below: The proposed archite ctural massin g would he lp to define the street, suggesting an activated river corridor with ground level retail and residential units facing the street (Buildings A and B). Commercial uses are proposed di rectly facing the Aquarium, including a retail building with a parking garage to the rear that replaces the former surfac e park in g areas (Structure C). Residential buildings with a small amount of retail are proposed on the eastern edge of the site (Buildings D, E & F). New side streets would create an interior fire lane and access to parking areas and side facing walk up residential units. Landscaped ar eas along the streets would provid e ar eas for linear rain gardens that could filter out stormwater pollutants while providing a visual amenity. These water quality features could be designed with plant materials and trees to visually relate to the park across the street, and to reinforce the theme of clean water fl owing into the river. A. B. C. D. E. F. Image Source: Google Earth

PAGE 68

SECTION 4. WATER STREET CATALYTIC SITE54 Relationship to the River(Right) A detail of the residential mixed use buildings between Speer Boulevard (background) and the aquarium parking ga rage (not visible). A double row of street trees would create a unique street identity wile adding shade and comfort to this key pedestrian zone. Portions of this wide pedes trian sidewalk zone an d the c ourtyard s pace (within the building in the foreground) could be converted to rain garden planters that filter stormwater pollutants from the drives and street, while adding to the beauty of an enhanced Water Street corridor. Street trees on both sides of Water Street provide shade and visual appeal for a uniqu e identity and inviting ped estrian experience near the river. Changes in pavement patterns designate pedestrian crossing areas, reduce traffic speeds to make the street more ideal as a shared cycling route. A designated cy cling pathway connects the bike route on Wa ter Street to the greenway trail. Reference Images Images representing possible building types and placemaking opportunities applicable to the river corridor were provided at public workshops to serve as a reference to partici pants. A worksheet was provided with spe cific questions about development forms, styles, intensities, and riverside activities. Worksheet questions invited reference to the image numbers, resulting in a blend of writ ten comments and images in supp ort of a particular th eme or idea. These comments guided the consultant team toward comple tion of preferred alternative, such as the final Water Street concept depicted on the oppos ing page. Image Sources: 7. Carolina Realty Guide, 23. Project for Public Spaces, 26. Mission Bay Development Group, LLC

PAGE 69

55 Image Source: Google Earth

PAGE 70

SECTION 4. WATER STREET CATALYTIC SITE56 Existing Relationship to the River The Aquarium parking lot spans a distance of over 1,000 ft along the north side of Water Street. Street improvements from the 1990s development of the Aquarium include a de tached 5 foot sidewalk, a tree lawn with street trees, and landscaping between the sidewalk and the parking lot that provides a parti al visual screen. While the s treet is in good condition and still feels relatively new, the area appears to be underutilized with an over supply of park ing.This is especially apparent during the eve ning hours after the Aquarium is closed for busi ness.

PAGE 71

57 Potential Relationship to the River A key element for successful relationship be tween infill development along Water Street and the river is the enhanced parkway street scape, with a pedestrian realm that creates an attractive environment for walking, sitting, shopping and dining.Ground level retail would add vitality to the street while the up per residential stories ta ke ad vantag e of the views and convenient access to the existing park and trail along the river. Stormwater could be captured and enhanced within or next to the right of way in rain gardens that provide an attractive visual amenity as part of the streetscape.

PAGE 72

SECTION 4. WATER STREET CATALYTIC SITE58 Total Investment $75,430,000 Includes construction costs, tenant im provements, and personal property such as computer systems and equipment. Construction Jobs 225 Total temporary employment related to site work and building construction Employment 30 Potentialnumber of jobs located in new office, flex space or retail buildings Average Annual Wage $23,200 Based on average employment wages by industry in Denver New Housing Units 384 Includes a mix of studio, 1bedroom and 2bedroom units New On site Residents 755 Based on Denvers multi family house hold size average of 1.9 persons per household Annual Household Consumer Income $13,970,000 Estimated household income is basedon the assumption that housing payments are 30% of total income Annual Taxable Goods Purchased in Denver $2,996,000 Projection based upon Denver residents spending 28% of their household con sumer income on taxable goods, and purchasing 77% of taxable goods from retail stores in the City Sales Tax Revenues1 Property Tax Revenues2 Occupational Privilege Tax3 Total $203,000 $182,300 $3,500 $389,000 1. Includes a) sales tax from annual tax able goods purchased in Denver by on site residents, b) sales tax revenues gen erated from onsite retail sales (at$360 per s.f. with 60% of taxable retail sales, and c) business spending on taxable ma terials. 2. Total property taxes of residen tial and commercial developmen t. 3. Denvers mon thly Occupational Privi lege Tax in Denver is $9.75 per employee, with $5.75 paid by the employer and 4.00 paid by the employee Table 4.1 Fiscal and Economic Benefits Fiscal and economic impact projections generated in the SiteStats model show a total private investment of over $75M that could result in 225 temporary construction jobs, and 30 permanent jobs related to the retail/restaurant commercial uses.The projected average annual wage of $23,200 is based on Denvers average wages for this industry sector. With an estim a ted household income of $38,500, 755 new on site residents are pro jected to spend about 20% of their house hold consumer income on goods sold in Denver, resulting in the purchase of nearly $3M of taxable goods within Denver City Limits.The annual sales tax revenues gen erated from this consumer spending cou pled with on si t e sales and business spend ing is estimated at $203,000. Property tax revenues for on site residential and com mercial uses estimated at $182,300. This figure is based on Denvers 28.419 mill levy for general fund and governmental funds, and does not i nclude additional revenues within the ci ty wide average mill levy of 74.954 that includes all tax districts.

PAGE 73

59 Table 4.2 Redevelopment Feasibility A summary of the cost proforma analysis for Water Street infill development, showing a plausible total invest ment and return on investment for both phases.The complete analysis is provided in 2012 dollars, and shows that mixed use buildings are economically feasi ble. Land acquisition costs (Row 1) are based on pres ent day a ssessed values. Site improvements (Row 2) includes environmental remediation of assumed conditions. Item Cost Notes Land $0 No land purchase land lease assumed for property Includes demolition, environmental remediation assumptions, utility upgrades, roadway improvements, stormwater, and off site land scaping costs Site Improvements $3,131,165 Building 1 $292,500 Restaurant Pad and Surface Parking $56 / s.f. Building 2 $6,215,000 Retail/restaurant $65 / s.f. Aquarium Parking $45 / s. f. B u ilding 3 $31,152,125 Residential units (townhomes and double loaded corridor)$85 160 / s.f. Structured parking $45/ s.f. Retail/restaurant $65 / s.f. Building 4 $20,054,700 Residential units (townhomes and double loaded corridor)$85 160 / s.f. Structured parking $45/ s.f. Building 5 $3,705,000 Residential units (double loaded corridor) $95/ s.f. Commercial Tennant Improvements $504,023 $45 per s.f. applied to 53,180 net s.f. Total Hard Costs $65,054,513 Soft Costs $16,914,173 Includes 20% soft costs (engineering, architectural, surveying, mar keting, financing costs, consultants, etc.) and 5% developer fee Contingency $3,903,271 5% hard cost & 5% soft cos t con tingencies Total Project Costs $85,871,957 Total Residential Units 384 Units ranging from 495 1,300 s.f. Studios, 1Bedroom, 2Bedroom units Total Commercial Space 11,201 net s.f. Net Operating Income $6,027,567 Residential rents $2.20 $2.30 per s.f., covered parking $125/month Commercial rents $1.90 per s.f. Aquarium Parking $200 / month Residential vacancy 5%, Commercial vacancy 5% Residential Par king vacancy 10%, Aquarium Parking vacancy 12% Expenses $10.46 per s.f. Land Lease 10% of property's annual value (2012) $734,500/yr 5year Internal Rate of Return 47.3% Stabilized Cashon CashReturn 10.7%

PAGE 74

SECTION 4. WATER STREET CATALYTIC SITE60 Task Type Timing Lead Potential Funding Shared parking analysis consider long term parking needs and potential efficiencies Site Planning N/A Developer, Land owners Private Investment Review existing environmental data and conduct assessment for residential standard Environmental Short Developer, Land owner Private Investment, EPA Assessment Grants, State and Federal Targeted Brown fields Assessments Study increased traffic impacts on Water Street basedon new activity. Assure that cycling route needs are accommodated. Site Planning Short Developer, City Private, City Staff Resources Study capacity of existing utilities including water, sewer, power natural gas, etc. Site Planning Short Developer, City Private, City Staff Resources (in kind) Study feasibility of a future pedestrian bridge over the South Platte to connect Water Street to the Existing Pepsi Center Light Rail Station City Short Mid City Developer, Business Im provement District,City Conductrisk basedenvironmental remediation through the states voluntary cleanup program appropriate for the intended redeveloped land use. Environmental Short Mid Developer Private investment, State & Federal Cleanup Grants ** Construct development Site Improvement Short Long Developer Private Investment *** Study increased demand for existing bus route and explore potential of increase of service level during peak demand hours Public Improve ment Short Developer, City, RTD RTD Service covered by In creased User fees Explore potential of a metropolitan district that could provide funding mechanisms to allow for private stormwater detention on public or district ow ned lands and to provide funding for construction and operation of shared parking structures. Regulatory Short Mid City CIP,City staff resources, special improvement district bonds, Federal or State grants Table 4.3Water Street Action Plan This implementation guide assumes voluntary participation by the property owner to initiate any future develop ment. Any development and the timing of suggested implementation steps below is therefore entirely dependent upon the interests of the owner.**EPA cleanup grants, Colorado 1306 cleanup fund grant, Colorado Brownfields Revolving Loan Fund (CBRLF) grantare available for eligible non profit or local government entities. CBRLF pro vides low interest rate loansfor cleanup activi ties to all eligible entities including for profit entities. ***Community Development Block Grant Program (CDBG ), New Markets Tax CreditProgram (NMTC), Tax Increment Financing (TIF) as possible funding sources for infrastructure development, project construction and may include environmental cleanup funding. For profit entities are only eligible for NMTC andTIF. State andEPA TargetedBrownfields Assessments can be conducted for eligible non profit andgover nment entities at eligible sites. As indicated in the report, one of the report recommendations is for the City to obtain an EPA brownfields assessment grantfocused on the river corridor from which envi ronmental site assessment activities could be conducted on behalfof eligible for profit entities such as bonafideprospective pu rchas e rs and eligible prop erty owners at eligible sites.

PAGE 75

5.Zuni & LowerColfaxAvenue Catalytic Site

PAGE 76

SECTION 5. ZUNI & LOWER COLFAX CATALYTIC SITE62 Zuni & Lower Colfax Opportunity Area The Zuni Street east riverfront area lies within a transitioning industrial location in a rare setting along the river where proper ties directly front the river, as opposed to fronting a street that fronts the river. The introduction of a new light rail line and sta tion provides an opportunity to create a mixed use re sidential envi ronment tha t would be within walking distance of two light rail stations.Stations include the ex isting Auraria West campus stop, and the future Decatur Federal light rail station which opens in April, 2013. Current Planning Context A separate public engagement and plan ning process occurred simultaneously with the South Platte Corridor Study for the Sun Valley neighborhood and the Decatur Fed eral station by the Denver Livability Part nership, made possible through a concur rent Federal Partnership grant funded by HUDs Sustainable Communities Initiative and DOTs TIGER II gran t program Detailed study of a catalytic site on the east side of the river complements the more general land use and transportation study of the station area plan. The primary focus of the station area plan is to provide policy rec ommendations for land use, development intensity, as well as a framework for multi modal circulation. This plan was adopted by the City on April 22, 2013 to guide fu ture land use, infrastructure investments, and rezoning decisions. The Sun Valley community has the lowest annual house hold income in Denver at $12,164, and the highest percentage of ethnic or racial mi nority reside nts at 92.3%. These citizen s have experienced a disproportional share of impacts related to heavy industrial uses and isolation from a disconnected street network near the river. The existing Sun Valley neighborhood will eventually be relocated into this new neighborhood as a mixed income commu nity developed by the Denver Housing Au thority. The new housing area will replace former heavy industrial uses and be situ ated closer to the rail station with con nected streets, safe walking routes an d convenient a ccess to the greenway. The adopted station area plan and this catalytic site study provide valuable cross reference between higher level policy rec ommendations, and detailed feasibility study of an important site on the east bank of the river. This dual focus has provided an opportunity to test the ideal building

PAGE 77

63 The Zuni catalytic site (A) is highlighted below to show its walking distance between two light rail stations. The site is shown within an early concept graphic of the Decatur / Federal Station Area Plan. See www.denvergov.org/decaturfederal for the most current station area planning documents. A

PAGE 78

SECTION 5. ZUNI & LOWER COLFAX CATALYTIC SITE64 height and form to encourage private in vestment and reuse of the site. It has also helped to determine the recommended land use and greenway recommendations in the plan for the site and surrounding area on the east bank of the river. In re sponse to the favorable public reaction to the fi ndings of this study, the Decatur Federal plan was adopted with a land use recommendation of transit oriented devel opment for the catalytic site area on the east bank, with a maximum building height of up to 12 stories. Existing Conditions The east side of the river is an industrial and warehouse commercial district void of any residential development. Some of the buildings are empty and in need of rein vestment, repair or demolition. Former uses include industrial cleaners, auto ser vice, insulation manufacturing and rail sid ings. A recent U.S. EPA Tar geted Brown fields Assessment (TBA) was conducted on a portion of this site. The results of this assessment informed the study and finan cial analysis of the catalytic site. Xcel Energy owns surrounding properties on both sides of the river, including a five story power plant with 200ft smoke stacks, and a system of cooling towers on the east side of the river near 13th Avenue. On the west bank is a dormant tank site with 50 ft tall by 100 ft diameter fuel tanks, and an active transformer lot that lies just to the north of Sun Valley Homes. These features are highly visible and iconic of the areas industrial character. In December 2012, Xcel a nnounced plans to pursu e the de commissioning of the Zuni power plant by 2015, which may open up some property along the river for redevelopment, pending regulatory approval. While the details and timing of these significant changes are not finalized, the transformative nature of these changes is already influencing the local p lanning efforts and stakeholder in terest to in tr oduce mixed use development near the light rail service lines. This ap proach is likely to result in an adopted plan that could support and encourage future rezoning of some riverfront properties, and provide investor confidence to move forImage Source: Bing Maps

PAGE 79

65 ward with development planning. Public Investments Recent public investment in light rail and floodway improvements also make the area more attractive for residential and employment mixed use development. The Urban Drainage and Flood Control District recently worked in partnership with the City of Denver to remove 365 acres from the floodplain along the river corridor and Lakewood Gulch conflue nc e (See Appendix F) This improvement allows the West Rail Line to open in 2013 and allows for new development near the river. The partnership also has significantly trans formed Lakewood Gulch from an urban ditch into an important green space with an improved trail and water feature at the confluence with the South Platte River. The natural vegetation in e green space area will also serve to infiltrate runoff wa ter from surrounding impervious areas to improve water quali ty that enters he wat e r courses. Public Input A joint public river front Focus Group meet ing was held for the Decatur Federal station plan and the South Platte Corridor study to invite input on how development should relate to a unique stretch of river where property directly touches the river bank (see image on opposing page). Virtually all other proper ties along the entire river cor ridor in Denv er are separated from the river by an existing str eet, highway or rail way. Invitees included Decatur Federal plan participants on the west side of the river, and the La Alma/Lincoln Park neighborhood association on the east side. Flyers were circulated to businesses within 1,000 ft of th e river on the east bank sur rounding th e catalyti c site. The workshop was attended by about 60 participants, in cluding a mix of residents, property owners and public officials. The workshop activi ties encouraged discussion of a variety of potential riverfront conditions that could be consi dere d in th e area, including: Preferred land use: residential, office, commercial / entertainment, indus trial / manufacturing / flex space Riverfront utilization: private, activity node, private or public or a mix, trail and green space Building orientation: front door facing river, back door facing river, double frontage where buildings face the river and the opposing street Relationship of buildings to the green way: large setback, moderate setback, minimal setback Open space: passive recreation, active recreation, and greenway enhance ments Open space programming or landscap S o u t h N o r t h Zuni Street

PAGE 80

SECTION 5. ZUNI & LOWER COLFAX CATALYTIC SITE66 ing applied to residual spaces: exam ples include volleyball or basketball under freeway viaducts, performance venues, versatile spaces for festivals and gatherings River bank treatment: promenade, natural edge and park edge Following a small group exercise where reference images were discussed and notes recorded, participants supported a variety of riverside conditions and experiences that would create an active and well visited riv erfront. These include passive and active recreation experiences, natural and devel oped edges, public gathering spaces, desti nations to attract regional visitors, varying building setbacks, residential and comm er cial e mployment land uses, including shop ping and dining experiences. Less support was expressed for light indus trial land uses, and no support expressed for privatizing the river front area exclu sively for the adjacent development. This critical input served as the basis for design of the catalytic site concept for the South Platte Corridor Study, and greenway and urban design concepts for the Decatur Federal St ation Area planning process. An early concept graphic from the DecaturFederal planning process depicting the potential for a variety of river front building types, setbacks, open space activities and recreational experiences. The Zuni site is highlighted to show the relationship of this site to the river front context. See www.denvergov.org/decaturfederal for the most current station area planning documents.

PAGE 81

67 Residential Commercial Retail Office Preferred Alternative The Zuni catalytic concept would transform the site into an exciting redevelopment pro ject that is oriented to the river. A pedestrian promenade would provide public access to the river front (A), and also serve as a fire lane.The new building fronting the river (B) would provide walk up residential or com mercial units on the ground level with a small entry courtyar d (C) tha t would open to the promenade. Upper story residential units would look out over the promenade, the river, and the recently improved Lakewood Gulch to the west (D).The existing three story brick and timber frame warehouse building fronting Zuni (E) would be repur posed into a r esidential building with ground level retail or restaurant. Another mixed use building would front Lower Colfax and the river to the north (F) providing opportunities for a ground floor restaurant overlooking the river with residential above.A two story of fice building with a double parking deck would fill the lower portion of the site next to the light rail line (H). The ex i sting building on the corner (G) is a multi story self storage facility that is likely to stay in place. 14th Avenue is shown as a pedestrian only corri dor and fire lane (I) that would include seat ing, street tre es, lighting and rain gardens to collect and enhance stormwater quality. This would create an inviting approach to the river where a plaza and stair seating would create the opportunity to launch a kayak or eat lunch by the river. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Parking Park / Courtyard Water Quality Treatment H. Development Yields 340 parking spaces 12,000 GSF Retail/Restaurant 51,600 GSF Office 320 Residential Units I. N (Ground Level Retail)

PAGE 82

SECTION 5. ZUNI & LOWER COLFAX CATALYTIC SITE68 (Above) Existing Condition: Aging buildings show signs of extensive industrial use from the late 19th Century to present. The riverbank is owned by the City of Denver, and was recently restored with na tive vegetation for bank stabilization and wildlife habitat. The newly constructed light rail bridge is shown in the for eground next to th e rec ently improved Lakewood Gulch / Platte River confluence. (Right) The Zuni site transformation is shown next to an operating light rail line and across from the improved Lakewood Gulch floodplain with mature landscap ing.Important urban design considerations include a) a pedestrian zone / fire lane t hat co n nects Zuni to the river with a stepped plaza that provides for inter action with the river, b) a pedestrian promenade between the private building entrance spaces and the river, c). fully enclosed parking, and d) varied building heights along the river that would provided views of downtown from th e Lake wood Gu lch trail, e) renovation and reuse of an existing brick and heavy timber structured warehouse. Image Source: Google Earth

PAGE 83

69 Image Source: Google Earth

PAGE 84

SECTION 5. ZUNI & LOWER COLFAX CATALYTIC SITE70 Existing Relationship to the River The property fronting the east (right) side of the river does not pro vide public access to the river front. An existing private service drive provides access to the interior of the site for parking, shipping and delivery. A public greenway trail currently exists on the west side of the river. Potential Relationship to the River Three new zones could be created between new residential mixed use buildings fronting the river. These in clude 1. a possible new greenway trail closer to the river bank on City owned property, 2. a semi public river promenade (public access easement on private land), and 3. a private zone where gro und level resi dent ial could create enclosed entry courtyards, or a corner business could invite customers into the building through a more open courtyard area. The river promenade zone is shown at 45 ft wide, and the private zone at 30 ft for a total building setback distance of 75 feet from the river bank. 45 ft 30 ft Private Drive

PAGE 85

71 Table 5.1 Redevelopment Feasibility Summary of the cost proforma analysis for Zuni & Old Colfax Avenue infill development, showing a plausible total investment and return on investment.. The complete analysis is provided in 2012 dollars, and shows that mixed use building in both phases is economi cally feasible, with the assumption that acquisition of multiple parcels is feasibl e. Site im provements (Row 2) include environmental remediation of assumed conditions Item Total Cost All In: HC&SC Notes Land & Closing $3,000,000 Listing Price Site Improvements $2,500,000 Includes demo, remediation, utility upgrades, roadway and stormwater improvements. Building 1/Phase I $13,500,000 Hard & Soft Costs. 120 affordable (55% AMI) units. Stick construction. Building 2/Phase II $24,000,000 Hard & Soft Costs 220 market rate/mixed income units. Stick construction. Office: Core & Shell $4,644, 0 00 Location: Historic Warehouse & South of 14th Avenue Office: TI $1,032,000 Incubator space; very little tenant improvement Retail: Core & Shell $390,000 Retail: TI $150,000 Restaurant: Core & Shell $540,000 Restaurant: TI $330,000 Parking $5,780,000 Structured for full build out. Surface for Phase I. Total $55,866,000 Contingency/Placemaking $2,7 93,300 7% TOTAL DEVELOPMENT COSTS $58,659,300 5 year Internal Rate of Return 15% 25% Depends upon market conditions for debt & equity Debt Assumption 1:1. Tax Exempt Bonds (4% Low Income Housing Tax Credits) Debt Assumption 2:2. Section 108 Loan, 3. Traditional Debt Equity Assumptions: A. 4% LIHTC, B. TIF Debt Assumption 3:3. Historic Tax Credits (olderwarehouse buildings)Debt Assumption 4: 4. Grants (environmental cleanup & NSP) Stabilized Cash on Cash 12% Varies Image Source: Project for Public Spaces Image Source: MissionBay Development Group, LLC Image Source: Greenvillemoves.com

PAGE 86

SECTION 5. ZUNI & LOWER COLFAX CATALYTIC SITE72 Total Investment $84,280,000 Includes construction costs, tenant im provements, and personal property such as computer systems and equipment. Construction Jobs 252 Total temporary employment related to site work and building construction Employment 57 Potentialnumber of jobs located in new office, flex space or retail buildings Average Annual Wage $48,400 Based on average employment wages by industry in Denver New Housing Units 320 Includes a mix of studio, 1bedroom and 2bedroom units New On site Residents 629 Based on Denvers multi family house hold size average of 1.9 persons per household Annual Household Consumer Income $10,700,000 Estimated household income is basedon the assumption that housing payments are 30% of total income Annual Taxable Goods Purchased in Denver $2,300,000 Projection based upon Denver residents spending 28% of their household con sumer income on taxable goods, and purchasing 77% of taxable goods from retail stores in the City Sales Tax Revenues1 Property Tax Revenues2 Occupational Privilege Tax3 Total $179,400 $212,840 $6,700 $400,000 1. Includes a) sales tax from annual tax able goods purchased in Denver by on site residents, b) sales tax revenues gen erated from onsite retail sales (at$360 per s.f. with 60% of taxable retail sales, and c) business spending on taxable ma terials. 2. Total property taxes of residen tial and commercial development. 3. Denvers mon t hly Occupational Privi lege Tax in Denver is $9.75 per employee, with $5.75 paid by the employer and $4.00 paid by the employee Table 5.2 Fiscal and Economic Benefits Fiscal and economic impact projections generated in the SiteStats model show a total private investment of over $84M that could result in 252 temporary construction jobs, and 57 permanent jobs related to the proposed retail and office commercial uses. The projected average annual wage of $48,400 is based on Denvers average wages for this industry sector. With an estim ated household income of $35,500,* 629 new on site residents are projected to spend about 20% of their household consumer income on goods sold in Denver, resulting in the purchase of nearly $2.3M of taxable goods within Den ver City Limits. The annual sales tax reve nues generated from this consumer spend ing coupled with on site sales and business spending is estimated at $1 79,400. Prop erty tax reven u es for on site residential and commercial uses estimated at $212,840. This figure is based on Denvers 28.419 mill levy for general fund and governmental funds, and does not include additional revenues within the city wide average mill levy of 74.954 that includes all tax districts. State andEPA TargetedBrownfields Assessments can be conducted for eligible non profit andgovernment entities at eligible sites. As indicated in the report,oneof the report rec ommendationsis for property ownersat eligible sites.

PAGE 87

73 Task Type Timing Lead Potential Funding Finalize phasing and funding strategies Site Improve ment Short Developer, Land owners Private Investment, Private non profit Develop an environmental remediation strategy based on existing Phase I and Phase IIenvironmental assessments Environmental Short Developer, Land owner Private Investment, EPA Assessment Grants, State and Fed eral Targeted Brown fields Assessments Study increased traffic impacts on Zuni Street based on potential new growth. Assure that pedestrian and cycling connectivity to rail stations is addressed and assess needs for sidewalk and traffic signal upgrades. Study / Site Planning Short Developer, Cit y Private, City Staff Re sources (i n kind) Coordinate with RTD to integrate adjacent property into a coordinated site plan. Site improve ment Short Developer, RTD, City Private, RTD, City Staff Conduct risk based environmental remediation through the states voluntary cleanup program appropriate for the intended redeveloped land use. Environmental Short Mid Developer Private investment, State & Federal Cleanup Grants** Construction (in one or two phases) Site Improve ment Mid Long Developer Private Investment*** Table 5.3 Zuni & Lower Colfax Action Plan This implementation guide assumes voluntary participation by multiple property owners to sell property or combine ownership into a single shared entity to position an assemblage for future development. The timing below is therefore entirely dependent upon the interests of property owners and their collective will to pursue redevelopment. **EPA cleanup grants, Colorado 1306 cleanup fund grant, Colorado Brownfields Revolving Loan Fund (CBRLF) grantare available for eligible non profit or local government entities. CBRLF pro vides low interest rate loansfor cleanup activi ties to all eligible entities including for profit entities. ***Community Development Block Grant Program (CDBG ), New Markets Tax CreditProgram (NMTC), Tax Increment Financing (TIF) as possible funding sources for infrastructure development, project construction and may include environmental cleanup funding. For profit entities are only eligible for NMTC andTIF. State andEPA TargetedBrownfields Assessments can be conducted for eligible non profit andgover nment entities at eligible sites. As indicated in the report, one of the report recommendations is for the City to obtain an EPA brownfields assessment grantfocused on the river corridor from which envi ronmental site assessment activities could be conducted on behalfof eligible for profit entities such as bonafideprospective pu rchase rs and eligible prop erty owners at eligible sites.

PAGE 88

SECTION 5. ZUNI & LOWER COLFAX CATALYTIC SITE74 A joint public river front Focus Group meeting was held in May 2012 for the Decatur Federal station plan and the South Platte Corridor study planning processes. The meeting activities invite input on how development should relate to a unique stretch of river where property directly touches the river bank.

PAGE 89

6. AlamedaAvenueCatalytic Site

PAGE 90

SECTION 7. ALAMEDA AVENUE CATALYTIC SITE76 Alameda Avenue Study Area The Alameda study area is part of an exist ing light industrial district at the center of the river corridor. Services and industry sectors include contracting, printing, hard ware and lumber supplies, stone distribu tion, carpet and tile, and many others. The Citys tax base is supported by the prop erty and sales tax revenues generate d from these properties. Mu ch of this area along the west bank of the river was historically operated as a landfill, which is estimated to range in depth from 20 to 40 feet. In contrast to the other opportunity areas, the west side of the river at Alameda is not likely to transition from industrial to mixed residential and commercial uses. This is due to the predominant industrial uses in the area and the great distance and diffi culty of the walking route to the existi ng light rail station. Mix e d use projects are being planned adjacent to the Alameda light rail station where walking and cycling to the station are more convenient and desirable. As shown in the area diagram (on the opposing page), light rail service is within a mile as the crow flies, bu t not as the pedes trian walks or cyclist bikes. This route is dominated by intensive automobile and truck travel, with a significant impedi ment to walking in major freeway inter change intersections at I 25 / Sante Fe and Alameda. The stretch where Alameda passes under a railway bridge near th e light rail station is perhaps the most challenging with only one attached sidewalk on the north side of the street. Public Investments To the south of the area is Johnson Habitat Park, one of the current focus areas for river implementation by the Greenway Foundation and Denver Parks and Recrea tion (see page 24). This park will be redes igned and reworked to become a natural area with outdoor educational and camp ground a ctivities for youth programs, in cluding sc outing and other organizations (See Appendix F) The native areas will help to absorb rainfall and reduce storm water runoff and associated pollutants into the river Another possible greenway enhancement is a future phase for the reconstruction asso ciated with I 25 and the Alameda overpass, located just north of Alameda on the west side of the river. This former commercial property is the current staging area for con

PAGE 91

77 Although the Alameda light industrial site is within a half mile of the Alameda light rail station, the walking route along the I 25 in terchange and under the existing railways is not accessible or de sirable for frequent pedestrian activity. Image Source: Bing Maps A.

PAGE 92

SECTION 7. ALAMEDA AVENUE CATALYTIC SITE78 struction equipment during CDOTs phase I reconstruction of I 25 and the Alameda Bridge (see Area A on page 77 graphic). Following CDOTs construction activity, this triangular 1.3 acre site and a portion of South Platte River Drive from Alameda to Cedar Avenue will be converted to a green space water quality / de tention area next to the river. The Catalytic Site This 11acre site is roughly the equivalent of 2 1/2 city blocks that lines about one quarter of a mile along South Platte River Drive. The site includes a mix of larger commercial buildings that date from the late 1950s to the mid 1980s, which are surrounded by asphalt parking an d loading areas that extend to the adjacent streets. The buildi ng uses incl ude light industrial, office, and a church that is located on the southeast corner of the site. The church operates a small charter school during the day, and draws about 150 pa trons for Sunday services and select week night activities. Most of the commercial properties are vacant, and seem to be slow in attracting new tenants. Property own ers expressed an interest to explore reuse strategies for the site bu t were not suppor tive of any redevelopme n t alternatives. Public Input Opinions about the potential of this site were collected at a public workshop and at a presentation made to the Athmar Park Neighborhood meeting. Common themes of feedback include 1. a desire to see some investment in the site to increase the beauty and vibrancy of the area, 2. to add green ve getation and landscaping areas along the str eets and within the site, and 3. to introduce commercial uses that might relate to potential growth of greenway ac tivity, such as a caf or bike shop. Preferred Alternative A reuse and reinvestment strategy was de veloped that is consistent with the owners A Image Source: Bing Maps

PAGE 93

79 preference to explore new uses for the ex isting buildings, and to explore more effi cient use of parking areas for mixed com mercial and light industrial use. The over all goal is to position the area to be more competitive in todays commercial / light industrial market, and to prevent fu rther decline on th e site. Reinv estment could attract specialized uses and encourage sur rounding infill development of more com mercial, industrial, even mixed residential uses as allowed by current zoning. The following strategies could be pursued by the collective ownership on the block to develop a cohesive site theme, and posi tion the properties to be more competitive in todays e xpanding light industrial ma r ket. Landscaped areas and walkways could be introduced between parking areas and along streets. Some of the green areas could be established as porous landscape rain gardens that absorb stormwater and remove pollutants be fore releasing runoff to the South Platte River (see page 78). Although the site is separated from the river by South Platte River Drive, the addition of green areas with street trees and site vegetation would create a strong visual relationship between the site and the river. Architectural facades could be added to enhance the appearance and mar ketability of the buildings. Enhanced entrances, pronounced building cor ners, new entrances, windows (real or implied), integrated signage areas could improve the building relation ships to the street, and to each other. Property owners could work together to attract a new tenant mix that could benefit from shared parking agree ments. For example, the churchs peak uses are on Sunday and select week night evenings. The underutilized park ing area during weekday business hours could be leased by commercial uses on the site, and vice ve rsa. Property owners could explore busi ness clusters that could benefit from other shared facilities, including food preparation industries, shipping and handling companies, printing and light assembly. A unified campus approach could allow for the church to lease or purchase properties as its membership and pro grams expand. The site could also be converted to a private school campus. Johnson Habitat Park program areas could be reserved for use by the churchs educational and religious pro grams. View A from Virginia Avenue and SouthPlatte River Drive looking from west (left side)to north along the river (right side).

PAGE 94

SECTION 7. ALAMEDA AVENUE CATALYTIC SITE80 The existing condition of the Alameda block shows indus trial and institutional buildings surrounded by parking ar eas that blend into the surrounding streets. N Image Source: Google Earth

PAGE 95

81 The Alameda site shown with building faade, landscape and streetscape improvements.The addition of green landscaping could help the site portray a new image and better relate to the river greenway and nearby Johnson Habitat Park. N Image Source: Google Earth

PAGE 96

SECTION 7. ALAMEDA AVENUE CATALYTIC SITE82 Potential Relationship to the River Landscaped areas and walkways introduced between parking areas and the street could include porous landscape rain gardens that absorb stormwater and remove pollutants before releasing runoff to the South Platte River.The addition of green areas with street trees and site vegetation creates a stronger visual relationship between the site and th e river.Existing Relationship to the River The site is paved with parking and loading areas that blend into the adjacent paved surface of South Platte River Drive.

PAGE 97

7.Evans AvenueCatalytic Site

PAGE 98

SECTION 7. EVANS AVENUE CATALYTIC SITE84 Evans & Grant Frontier Park The Evans catalytic site lies within the Over land neighborhood in south central Den ver, the Citys first recorded settlement in 1858. The residential area is divided by a major highway (Santa Fe Drive) and railway corridor that replaced some of the early residential with transportation with indus trial uses on the east side. The i ndustrial areas are char acterized by multiple, long term industrial activity that involves paint shops with potential long term solvent uses, fabrication, construction yards and light manufacturing. The area is also im pacted by a known offsite chromium groundwater plume that is currently being mitigated under State re gulatory superv i sion. In 2000, the T REX light rail and freeway project added a light rail station to this cor ridor with a small park nride on the east side of the railway. The Overland neighborhood now has rail transit service that connects north to downtown Denver and south to the neig hboring cities of Englewood, C entennial and Littleton. An Evans Station Area Plan was adopted in 2009 with recommendations for new mixed used infill and redevelopment for areas within a half mile of the station. Properties recommended for transit oriented develop ment include aging industrial areas near the rail statio n, properties fronting Evans Avenue an d other arterial streets, and ex isting commercial properties fronting the river The mixed use areas range from three to five stories, and are reflected in Blueprint Denver as areas of change. To further encourage investment in the neighborhood and generate more transit ridership, the plan also re commends an option to conv ert single unit homes into two unit homes in the traditional residen tial neighborhoods. As with other station area plans, many properties surrounding the station were rezoned in June 2010 to encourage private investment in transit oriented develop ment. A new five storymixed use develop ment is being buil t across fr om the station that will provide affordable and market rate housing. Contained within the west side of Santa Fe Drive and the river to the west is a small residential pocket that lies within a quarter to half mile walking distance from the Ev

PAGE 99

85 Evans Avenue crosses the river near the cross alignment of Huron / South Platte River Drive. A small pocket of retail and lightin dustrial development was built in the 1960s directly fronting the river on the east bank in what is otherwise a small residential neighborhood. The west side of th e river is stable industri a l with little to no residential development. Two parks book end this mix of commercial indus trial and vacant lots, with Pasquinels Land ing to the north, and Grant Frontier Park to the south. Image Source: Bing Maps S a n t a F e R o a d R a i l w a y

PAGE 100

SECTION 7. EVANS AVENUE CATALYTIC SITE86 ans rail station. However, walking or biking to the station has been described by resi dents as an uncomfortable experience due to the limited sidewalk width that is pro vided on only one side of the viaduct. The sidewalks along Evans Avenue that connect the river greenway to the viaduct have been substan dard for years, with utility poles lining the center of the walk, sections that are too narrow for walking and biking or segments in disrepair. Public Investments In response to this need, the City of Denver recently began a $4 Million improvement project to Evans Avenue and the viaduct to improve conditions for pedestrians be tween the river and the light rail station, including passage over the Santa Fe via duct. By the end of summer 2013, there will be an 8 foot wide wal king an d cycling path on both sides of the street and the viaduct, and utilities will be buried under ground to eliminate safety hazards. The project will also upgrade the traffic signal at South Platte River Drive and Evans, and make surface and structural improvements to the viaduct at Santa Fe (See Appendi x F) As described in Se ction 2Greenway In vestment, DenverParks and Recreation in partnership with the Greenway Foundation is working with the Overland neighborhood to design improvements to the existing Grant Frontier and Pasquinels Landing View B. A 180 degree view of the block north of Evans from the intersection of South Platte River Drive and Huron. Evans Avenue is to the South in the background. View A. An elongated view along Evans looking South at South Platte River Drive, the greenway trail and the river. North Sout h East

PAGE 101

87 Parks. The 8 foot wide greenway trail that runs through the parks will also be widened to 12 feet, making the parks more accessi ble and safe for cyclists, joggers and walk ers of all abilities and ages. The Catalytic Site The catalytic site straddles both sides of Evans Avenue near the river, and is a col lection of multiple parcels owned by 13 different property owners. The properties are predominantly small businesses with small 1960s era commercial buildings and a few vacant lots. Some of the buildings are void of tenants, while ot hers have been occupi ed continuously for years. The new est commercial building is a light manufac turing aluminum building that was con structed in 2008. Public input Input from the neighborhood stated a clear preference for three story development as allowed by current zoning, rather than the five story development on portions of the site recommended in the adopted Evans Station Area Plan. Also desired are retail uses on the ground level fronting a re aligned Huron Street. This could crea te an attractive atmosphere for dining near the greenway, and opportun ities for purchas ing groceries, cycling repair and rentals, refreshments and other business opportu nities associated with the greenway. When presented with the option to reduce the paved footprint of South Platte River Drive, participants strongly supported the idea of pulling the street away fro m the river and realigning clos er to the Huron alignm ent. Preferred Alternative Two alternatives were studied to test rede velopment feasibility, including a five story building scheme next to the river with three story buildings facing the residential side of the block, and an all three story al ternative. The three story alternative proved to be the only feasible option due to the hi gher costs associated with struc tured parking and a taller five story build ing. A B Evans Avenue Galapago Huron S o u t h P l a t t e R i v e r D r i v e N View A an View B corre spond with the images on the opposing page.

PAGE 102

SECTION 7. EVANS AVENUE CATALYTIC SITE88 Preferred Alternative The Evans site could be converted into a three story mixed use development with ground level commercial buildings fronting Evans Avenue (A), and three story walk up units fronting the River (Huron Street) and Galapago Street on the opposing block face (B). The concept plan shows the potential to realign South Platte River Drive fro m its current river edge locati on (C) to th e Huron alignment (D). Private invest ment could make this realignment possible and provide more space for an expanded public greenway that would enhance the connection between Grant Frontier Park to the south and Pasquinels Landing to the north. Surface park ing woul d be loca t ed behind buildings in the block interior, as well as under the rear portion of each walk up residential unit (E). Stormwa ter quality could be treated in rain gardens Residential Commercial Parking Park / Courtyard Water Quality Treatment B A. C D. E. F. G. H. I. Development Yields Both Blocks 192 Residential Units (160,850 GSF) 26,000 GSF Office Flex / Retail GALAPAGO ST. HURON ST. N N Image Source: Google Earth

PAGE 103

89 along the street (F) which could also improve the streetscape aesthetic and enhance storm water quality before draining into the South Platte River. Water detention could be stored in underground vaults beneath the surface parking (G), or as surface enhancement to the greenway (H). Investment in realignment of trees, linear rain gar dens, and plaza areas near the greenway with vertical el ements marking arrival at the river from east Evans.The green way is expanded with the street pulled back to the Huron alignment, and the trail is improved as a continuous experience between Grant Frontier and Pasquinels Landing parks.Huron Street and creating a landscaped median and attractive streetscape along Evens Avenue (I) are considered key to maximizing lease rates and attracting new residents and commercial tenants to the neighborhood. Streetscape en hancements are shown in the three dimensional rendering below, including street N Image Source: Google Earth

PAGE 104

SECTION 7. EVANS AVENUE CATALYTIC SITE90 Existing Relationship to the River The existing condition along the river south of Evans, show ing South Platte River Drive near the greenway trail on the river side, and the road pavement that blends into parking areas in front of the buildings without any streetscape vege tation or existing sidewalk separation.Potential Relationship to the River The potential relationship of new development front ing a new street along the Huron alignment.South Platte River Drive is replaced by additional greenway area that could also serve as a water quality reten tion area for the new development.

PAGE 105

91 Total Investment $26,585,000 Includes construction costs, tenant im provements, and personal property such as computer systems and equipment. Construction Jobs 79 Total temporary employment related to site work and building construction Employment 59 Potentialnumber of jobs located in new office, flex space or retail buildings Average Annual Wage $46,000 Based on average employment wages by industry in Denver New Housing Units 192 Includes a mix of studio, 1bedroom and 2bedroom units New On site Residents 377 Based on Denvers multi family house hold size average of 1.9 persons per household Annual Household Consumer Income $4,700,000 Estimated household income is basedon the assumption that housing payments are 30% of total income Annual Taxable Goods Purchased in Denver $1,000,000 Projection based upon Denver residents spending 28% of their household con sumer income on taxable goods, and purchasing 77% of taxable goods from retail stores in the City Sales Tax Revenues1 Property Tax Revenues2 Occupational Privilege Tax3 Total $143,800 $93,000 $6,800 $241,000 1. Includes a) sales tax from annual tax able goods purchased in Denver by on site residents, b) sales tax revenues gen erated from onsite retail sales (at$360 per s.f. with 60% of taxable retail sales, and c) business spending on taxable ma terials. 2. Total property taxes of residen tial and commercial development. 3. Denvers mon t hly Occupational Privi lege Tax in Denver is $9.75 per employee, with $5.75 paid by the employer and 4.00 paid by the employee Table 7.1 Fiscal and Economic Benefits Fiscal and economic impact projections gen erated in the SiteStats model show a total private investment of over $27Million that could result in 78 temporary construction jobs, and 59 permanent jobs related to the proposed retail and office/flex commercial uses.The projected average annual wage of $46,000 is based on Denvers average wages for this in dustry sector. With an estimated household income of $26,000, 377 new on site residents are pro jected to spend about 20% of their household consumer income on goods sold in Denver, resulting in the purchase of about $1M of taxable goods within Denver City Limits. The annual sales ta x revenues gene rated from this consumer spending coupled with on site sales and business spending is estimated at $143,800. Property tax revenues for on site residential and commercial uses estimated at $93,000. This figure is based on Denvers 28.419 mill levy for general fund and govern mental funds, and does not in clude additio n al revenues within the city wide average mill levy of 74.954 that includes all tax districts.

PAGE 106

SECTION 7. EVANS AVENUE CATALYTIC SITE92 Table 7.2North Evans Phase 1 Redevelopment Feasibility A summary of the cost proforma analysis for the North Evans infill development, showing a plausible total investment and return on investment (for Phases 1 and 2) .The complete analysis is provided in 2012 dollars, and shows that mixed use building in both phases is economically feasible, with the assumption that acquisition of multiple pa rcels is feasibl e. Land acquisition costs (Row 1) are based on present day assessed values. Site improvements (Row 2) includes environmental remediation of assumed conditions. Item Cost Notes Land $1,089,300 Current county valuation of land and improvements. Actual property value to be determined by willing sellers through voluntary land transaction. Site Improvements $1,401,510 Includes demolition, environmental remediation assump tions, utility upgrades, roadway improvements, stormwater, and off site landscaping costs Building C $1,290,680 Type 5(2 story above commercial) $ 92/s.f. Commercial space $65 /s.f. B uilding D $1,277,200 Type 5 (2 story above commercial) $92/s.f. Commercial space $65 /s.f. Commercial Tennant Improvements $445,500 $45 per s.f. Total Hard Costs $7,037,490 Soft Costs $1,884,212 Includes 20% soft costs (engineering, architectural, survey ing, marketing, financing costs, consultants, etc.) and 5% developer fee Contingency $422,249 5% hard cost & 5% soft cos t contingencies Total Project Costs $10,433,251 Total Residential Units 59 Units ranging from 360 1,170 s.f. Studios, 1Bedroom, 2 Bedroom units Total Commercial Space 9,900 net s.f. Net Operating Income Residential rents $1.49 1.50 per s. f. Commercial rents $1.34 per s.f. Residential vacancy 5%, Commercial vacancy 5% Expenses $4.50 per s.f. 5year Internal Rate of Return 43.6% Stabilized Cashon CashReturn 11.8% 1. 2 3

PAGE 107

93 Item Cost Notes Land $3,572,600 Current county valuation of land and improvements. Actual property value to be determined by willing sellers through vol untary land transaction. Site Improvements $2,464,851 Includes demolition, environmental remediation assumptions, utility upgrades, roadway improvements, stormwater, and off site landscaping costs Type 2Building $892,500 1xType 2building, 3 story walk ups $85 / s.f. Type 3B uilding $777,600 2x Type 2building,3story with tuck under parking $90/ s.f. Type 4Building $2,461,500 5xType 4building, 2story, tuck under walkups $ 90/ s.f. Building A $1,893,060 Type 5(2 story above commercial) $92/s.f. Commercial space $65 /s.f. B uilding B $1,393,900 Type 5 (2 story above commercial) $92/s.f. Commercial space $65 /s.f. Commercial Tennant Improvements $607,500 $45 per s.f. Total Hard Costs $14,086,411 Soft Costs $3,841,097 Includes 20% soft costs (engineering, architectural, surveying, marketing, financing costs, consultants, etc.) and 5% developer fee Contingency $845,185 5% hard cost & 5% soft cost conting encies Total Project Costs $22,345,293 Total Residential Units 133 Units ranging from 360 1,170 s.f. Studios, 1Bedroom, 2Bed room units Total Commercial Space 13,500 net s.f. Net Operating Income $1,528,691 Residential rents $1.481.50 per s.f. Commercial rents $1.34 per s.f. Residential vacancy 5%, Commercial vacancy 5% Expenses $4.60 per s.f. 5year Internal Rate of Return 40.3% Stabilized Cashon CashReturn 10.2% Table 7.3 South Evans Phase 2 Redevelopment Feasibility A summary of the cost proforma analysis for the South Evans infill development, with Phase I assumptions also applicable to Phase 2. The re development of North and South Evans is feasible based on the probability that rents would be on the lower side of the market, but would take advantage of the river and impr oved g reenway amenities. Images 1 through 6: Mixed use development near greenway activities and rail transit would combine to attract residential and commercial markets to the Evans site.. 4 5 6

PAGE 108

SECTION 7. EVANS AVENUE CATALYTIC SITE94 Task Type Timing Lead Potential Funding Voluntary property assemblages to be created on north and / or south sides of Evans. Site Improvement Short Developer, Land owners Private Investment, Private non profit Conductenvironmental Phase I and Phase II assessments Environmental Mid Developer, Land owner or City Private Investment, EPA Assessment Grants, State and Federal Targeted Brownfields Assessments Design Huron Street realignment and consider cost feasibility relativeto scale of redevelopment and phasing on north / south sides of Evans Site Improvement Mid Developer, City Private, City Staff Re sources (in kind) Developer to work with Denver Public Works, Parks & Rec reation and Community Planning and Development to vacate South Platte River Drive, expand the greenway. Site Improvement Mid Long Developer, City Private investment & City staff resources ** Conductrisk basedenvironmental remediation through the states voluntary cleanup program appropriate for the intended redeveloped land use. Environmental Short Mid Developer Private investment, State & Federal Cleanup Grants ** Construct development phase I Site Improvement Mid Long Developer Private Investment *** Construct development phase II Site Improvement Mid Long Developer Private Investment *** Developer to work with Denver Public Works, Parks & Rec reation and Community Planning and Development to en hance the Evans streetscape and median improvements Site Improvement Mid Long Developer, City Private investment & City staff resources ** Table 7.4 Evans Action PlanThis implementation guide assumes voluntary participation by multiple property owners to sell property or combine own ership into a single shared entity to position an assemblage for future development. The timing below is therefore entirely dependent upon the interests of property owners and their collective will to pursue redevelopment. **EPA cleanup grants, Colorado 1306 cleanupfund grant, Colorado BrownfieldsRevolving LoanFund (CBRLF) grantare available for eligi ble non profit or local government entities.CBRLF provides low inter est rate loansfor cleanup activities to all eligible entities including for profit entities. Additional cleanup andcontaminated materialsmanagementcosts associated with the known chromiumgroundwater plume would be the responsibility of Powers Engineering, Inc., the responsible party, who is under a RCRA Corrective Action order with CDPHE. Activities should be coordinated with CDPHE prior to undertaking. ***Community Development Block Grant Program (CDBG), New Mark ets Tax Credit Program (NMTC), Tax Increment Financing (TIF) as possible funding sources for infrastructure development, project construction andmay in clude environmental cleanupfund ing. For profit entities are only eligible for NMTC andTIF. State andEPA TargetedBrownfields Assessments can be conducted for eligible non profit andgover nment entities at eligible sites. As indicated in the report, one of the report recommendations is for the City to obtain an EPA brownfields assessment grantfocused on the river corridor from which envi ronmental site assessment activities could be conducted on behalfof eligible for profit entities such as bonafideprospective pu rchase rs and eligible prop erty owners at eligible sites.

PAGE 109

Public Kick off Meeting at the Denver Childrens Museum, April 19th 2012 8. Resultsand Lessons Learned

PAGE 110

SECTION 8. RESULTS AND LESSONS LEARNED 96 The City and County of Denver has gained significant value from this area wide plan ning opportunity made possible by the EPA Brownfields Area wide Planning Grant. It has allowed Denver to explore a new ap proach to planning that is proactive, explor ative and implementation minded. Engag ing stakeholders in conceptual site design and feasibili ty studies within the context of neighborhood revitalization has resulted in findings that have already started to bene fit multiple City agencies, property owners, and prospective developers and investors. Summary of Deliverables and Potential Benefits A summary of deliverables and the result ing benefits of conducting this study is pro vided in the following lists. Deliverables A documented corridor analysis pro vided a comprehensive overview of current land use and transportation along the river corridor, including the identification of over a dozen develop ment opportunities near the river that could result in clean up and reuse of brownfields (see Appendix E ). Five priority areas for potential invest ment, reuse and redevelopment were identified.A detailed vision for investment, reuse and redevelopment at five catalytic sites has been shaped with public in put, and documented for future use. Multiple stakeholders and neighbor hood residents have been engaged, including over 25 property owners of the five catalytic sites. Owners now have access to new information that could inspire conversations with neighbors, investors, developers, and city officials about the timing and ap proach to future implementation. The study provides a vision for future rede velopment that is supported by a plau sible mark et analysis. The market analysis includes site preparation and infrastructure costs, as well as an estimate of environmental remediation costs based on assump tions from limited research of available environmental records and property observations. Site screenings and observations of properties by the Colorado Brownfields Foundation provided a better under standing of site characteristics and po tential environmental conditions. These observations were paired with public records and translated into plau sible cleanup cost assumptions that are useful for market feasibility analysis. Fiscal and economic projections related to potential catalytic site investments were provided using the SiteStats model. The Citys new capacity to ap ply this model to future brownfields area wide planning will broaden the discussion for potential reuse and revi talization of underutilized properties in Denver (see Table 8.1 on page 101). Potential Benefits New housing, jobs and shopping near transit stations within walking distance of the river will generate more use of the South Platte Greenway trail and public transit. More people living and working in new and exciting destinations along the river corridor are likely to generate more regional visitation as the river corridor is further transformed into an exciting sequence of recreational, en tertainment and greenway activities. More eyes and ears on the river corri dor would make it a safe and inviting place to be during the day and evening hours. New development near the river could serve to enhance public access along the river and create increased connec tivity for surrounding neighborhoods to safely walk or bike to the greenway.

PAGE 111

97 Greenway improvements and new de velopment would increase the desir ability and value of surrounding neighborhoods.Although this study does not look spe cifically at affordable and mixed in come housing opportunities within catalytic site studies, inclusionary hous ing options should be implemented to provide for all stages of life and income along the river corridor. This would increase the potential of people living closer to the places they r egularly visit with convenient access to rail transit and cycling routes. Key Lessons Learned Study of the corridor, as well as the five catalytic sites and surrounding neighbor hood area has provided a better under standing of cleanup and reuse opportuni ties along the river corridor.The findings from this study relate to the six project goals identified in the introduction: 1. Demonstrate how potential brown field sites can redevelop and relate to the river / greenway, and revitalize the surrounding area A healthy and revitalized urban river corri dor requires More people living, working and visit ing the river with a variety of activities and destinations. More people equates to activated parks, prome nades and plazas with more activity during the day time and evening hours during the week and weekends, with consideration of year round activities. Development that fronts the river, and does not back onto the river. A pedes trian friendly street or river promenade provides a public face to the river, with more activity, visitation and eyes on the greenway from adjacent develop ment. Rethinking how streets and existing urban forms relate to the river corridor. Where appropriate and feasible, the greenway can be enhanced and as a greater amenity for new development if roadways are pulled away from the river. 2. Demonstrate how to create more pub lic spaces along the river Understanding was gained through ex tensive public involvement that no one size fits all setback is appropriate for the urbanized river corridor. An ideal relationship between new develop ment and the river requires careful study of existing conditions and neighborhood context.Three of the five sites illustrated how new development would activate exist ing and newly purchased park land, giving these parks greater importance and exposure (1. River North, 2. Water Street and 3. Evans). The Zuni and Lower Colfax Avenue site illustrated how new public access could be provided along a semi public river promenade. 3. Demonstrate how Denvers recently adopted land use plans and form based zoning code can be applied to specific sites along the corridor.Area wide planning can serve as a dem onstration for potential implementa tion of existing plans and initiatives. The catalytic site studies point to a path forward for the river corridor and other areas in Denver where much of the Citys future growth could occur in through redevelopment of aging or un derutilized urban areas. Meaningful engagement for stake holders and the public can be achieved to develop detailed urban design con cepts, while testing concept feasibility through proforma analysis based on todays market. This process creates a compelling demonstration for redevel opment along the river for property

PAGE 112

SECTION 8. RESULTS AND LESSONS LEARNED 98 owners, neighborhoods, and City agen cies. 4. Encourage economic development associated with new construction that grows both jobs and housing along the riverProperty owners respond to a message of optimism; concerns of government involvement in development can be allayed with the offering of urban de sign services and an open and transpar ent dialog.Critical conversations around redevel opment and property owner rights re quire tact and prudence in order to have a successful dialog. Some owners sought assurance that the City would not require sale of property for rede velopment. Property owners were re assured that they could choose to con tinue their current use, and tha t they should not feel thr eatened or pres sured by this study. Owners privacy was respected by only sharing detailed conditions with property owners, inter nal agencies and EPA grantors. Four of the five sites were included in a fiscal and economic impact analysis, resulting in a total potential investment of nearly $260 M that could generate 773 construction jobs and provide space for 352 permanent employment positions with an annual projected sal ary of $54,159 in Denver. This repre sents an in crease of 1.7% to the ex ist ing employment of 21,000 along the river corridor. About 1,230 new resi dents would live near the river in these projects, a 16% increase above the cur rent residential population of 7,500 in the corridor. These new residents could spend $8.7M each year on tax able goods purch ased in Denver, which would increase sales tax revenues col lected in Denver. The combined sales tax revenues from consumer spending, business spending, and on site sales, and property and occupation tax reve nues from the new commercial areas is projected at over $1.5M annually (see Table 8.1 ).Area wide planning can be integral to encourage and guide successful infill development. This study demonstrates how It can directly tie point to eco nomic prosperity and sustainable growth that increasingly relies upon an expanding public transit system. A proactive area wide planning ap proach creates an early discussion about urban design opportunities and potential infrastructure and park im provements. This detailed planning is typically initiated by private developer applications in site planning or general development plan review. A more pro active area wide planning approach could cultivate more development ap plications with greater certainty about the collective vision of future develop ment opportunities. 5. Encou rage community revitalization by exploring appropriate new devel opment and its relationship to existing neighborhoods Because there is extensive presence of major transportation infrastructure along the river corridor, limited oppor tunities exist for new development to relate directlyto the river. These op portunities are smaller scale and more targeted to site specific circumstances compared to the larger scale of the Central Platte Valley redevelopment. Some sites that could be redeveloped are more isolated, and not as poten tially catalytic as other sites that are adjacent to existing residential or po tential new mixed use neighborhoods. This study has provided vision and open communication between public and private sectors. This process has demonstrated that the City has an in terest in the river corridor, and has served to further expand and refine the

PAGE 113

99 river corridor vision based on property ownerand public input. Conversations are already taking place about near term and long term potential of the opportunity areas identified along the corridor. The concepts could also serve to inform substantive discussions to ward private and public partnerships regarding infrastructure investments, River Vision Implementation projects, and proper ty owner plans. 6. Dem o nstrate innovative on site storm water management to improve water quality runoff into the river Water quality trenches or rain gardens in public areas could serve as both an amenity and a tool to improve water quality prior to draining into the South Platte River. To meet stormwater detention require ments on limited redevelopment sites, detention vaults may be placed under parking areas, drives or open space areas. Utilizing these areas would al low a higher development yield to im prove project financial performance and over all feasibility. Water quality areas can be landscaped with vegetation and trees to visually complement the greenway environ ment. 7. Understand the environmental condi tions that are present at each catalytic site as a first step in promoting their ultimate redevelopment and/or reuse. The process of conducting site screen ings and observations of properties paired with public records was a valu able process that served as a basis for environmental assumptions and esti mated remediation costs. This process could be replicated in support of other area wide planning projects in the City prior to any public or private Phase I or Phase II en vironmental assessment. More detailed environmental assess ment data, including extensive Phase II Environmental Site Assessments, will be needed prior to initiating redevelop ment at each site. Given the likely en vironmental challenges that many of the catalytic sites could potentially face, and the limited return on invest ment, the project corridor could greatly benefit from a themed brow nfields as sessment grant award to assist in the implementation of the shared vision for catalytic redevelopment that is articu lated in the South Platte Corridor Study. The potential environmental conditions that may exist at catalytic sites as well as prevalent corridor wide will be a hurdle to corridor revitalization. Exten sive environmental due diligence inves tigations, e.g. phase I & II environ mental site assessments, asbestos building inspections, etc., will be needed prior to initiating redevelop ment at each site. All of the catalytic sites had mul t iple significant potential sources for soil and groundwater im pacts onsite and adjacent to properties that will likely require a robust field investigation phase to identify and characterize recognized environmental conditions. The costs of these extensive studies will likely inhibit redevelopment as it cr eates significan t uncertainty about the actual development costs, potential investment returns, and time line for redevelopment completion. To assist in overcoming this hurdle to cor ridor revitalization, particularly for for profit entities, a report recommenda tions is for the City and County of Den vers Brownfields Program to pursue an EPA brownfie lds assessment gran t to fund environmental site assessments and cl eanup planning on behalf of pro spective purchasers and consenting property owners throughout the corri dor. The redevelopment of the South Platte River Corridor is a major focus for the

PAGE 114

SECTION 8. RESULTS AND LESSONS LEARNED 100 City and County of Denver from the Citys ongoing partnership with the Ur ban Waters Federal Partnership, the partnership between the City and Greenway Foundation on the South Platte River Vision Implementation Plan and associated river improvement pro jects, and the Mayors Smart Jobs De velopment program which has the river corridor as one of three focus areas. A brownfields assessment gr ant would fill a key nich e a round all of these initia tives to create local jobs, improve qual ity of life, and protect Coloradoans' health by revitalizing this urban river and its surrounding communities.

PAGE 115

101 A summaryof projected fiscal and economic benefits from the SiteStats model that could result from invest ment in four of the catalytic sites. The model was not used for the Alameda Site given the different focus on thematic reuse, and the non profit nature of the existing Church. Once filled with new businesses, the other proper ties will generat e mor e jobs in addition to the property tax revenues and potential sales tax revenues. An equivalentresidential unit (ERU) is based on 1,000 s.f. of non residential build ing area as a comparable occupancy standard to resi dential development. This figure does not repr esent equivalency in standard im pacts in daily vehicle t rips water use, sanitary or solid waste, or other typical im pactfeemeasurements. The purpose of this ERU is to construct a total density metricuseful for common comparison of people per acre that would have access to the greenway and rai l transit (See total unitsper Acre**). Table 8.1 Summary of Projected Fiscal and Economic Benefits Related to Four Redevelopment Sites River North Water Street Zuni Evans Total / Aver age Total Acres 5.5 8.9 4.8 5.2 24.4 Total Investment $73,170,344 $75,434,010 $84,281,174 $27,083,000 $259,968,528 Construction Jobs 217 225 252 78 772 Employment 188 30 57 59 334Employees per Acre 34 3 12 11 14New Commercial Development g.s.f. 67100 12450 63600 26000 169,150 Total Equivalent Residential Units* 67 12 64 26 169 Average Annual Wage $63,420 $23,200 $48,353 $46,000 $54,159 New Housing Units 333 384 320 192 1,229 Housing Units per Acre 61 43 67 37 50 Total Units per Acre (ERU's + Housing Units)** 73 45 80 42 57 Assumed Household Income $38,500 $35,500 $35,500 $26,000 $34,829 New Residents Living Near the River 633 730 608 365 2,335 New Residents per Acre 115 82 127 70 96 On site occupants per acre (residents and employees) 149 85 139 82 109 Annual Household Consumer Income $11,171,850 $13,971,650 $10,735,200 $4,716,400 $40,595,100 Annual Taxable Goods Purchased in Denver $2,396,138 $2,996,639 $2,302,486 $1,011,573 $8,706,837 Annual Retail, Occ. & Property Tax Revenues $513,181 $388,791 $398,933 $243,696 $1,544,602 Total Property Tax Revenues $252,760 $182,309 $212,839 $93,050 $740,958 Total Sales Tax Revenues $238,401 $203,006 $179,398 $143,780 $764,586 Occupational Privilege Tax $22,020 $3,476 $6,695 $6,866 $39,058

PAGE 116

SECTION 8. RESULTS AND LESSONS LEARNED 102