s park development, in harmony with the master p lan. Closing is anticipated in the summer of 1995. contingent upon zoning acceprohle to both p;.lrties. E<:onornictl buildings wi II be lcascd fur lbe intcri m uses rcllcctccl in transitional zoning legis luljon. The buildings have already anracled considemble interest for light industrial U$C. The sites unique titcilities will be marketell as fi1r events"hwnwt-scale .. activities to tnUisfonu Stap l eton s image from that or an abandoned single-usc site to thai of un intcrcJ>ling site The Denver S mart Places Project: A public private partnership of local, slnte nnd national inter To these land sales, rhe City will purchase environmen-es1s hus been created to develop The Denver Sman P l aces tal insurance, which will cover potential costs of litigmion and Pmjcct for usc in Stapleton rcdcvdupment. The project remediation. Coverage will be tn huycr al dosing. involves lhc !idaptalion ;md application of a GTS-bascd energy modelling progr.un (PLACE3S Planning for Community In both cCapt: maintenance; and removal. Energy. Environmemal and Economic SuStainnbllily) to the Stapleton site. L"he dcvelopmem Md usc ofthis roof ror sub area planrung will gremly aid efforts to meet the goal of tainable resource (tor energy. air. water and land 011 I he site. The prujccl uho c.lcmunstmtes the benefits uf inno vative planning und tl.x:hnolugy fnr c.:ommunity dcvclopm.:nl. The program hus pmvcn to be a valuable planrung tool in loca tions as diverse as San Jose and San l)iego, CA; Tucson, AZ. Ponland. OR and British Columbia. Project pi.Utnerli include Oll: Denver Department of Heui01 und Hospitals. Environmental Prutcclion Public Service Company of Color,Kio: Ehxlric Power Research lnslillltc CEPRI): ColorJdo Public Utilities Governor's Otlice of boergy Conservation; US EPA; Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) and the Stapleton Redevelopmenr FoWidation.

PAGE 150

8 SECTION VIII I CONCLUSION VIII. CONCLUSIONIMAGES OF THE FUTURE A New Approach Through its hist01y, the Stapleton site has changed dramatically I t is about to change again. Stapleton's clos ur e and reuse is not an isolated evenr. The entire region continues to change and mature. The challenges we .face today are more pressing and more complex than those of the past. Staple t on's next needs to be part of a meaningful response to the eco nomic, social and enviromnenta( demands o.f the 21st Centwy. Stapleton presents many opportunities to the Denver commu nity. The choices are ours to make

PAGE 151

The Development Plan presented in d1is docwnent represents a new approach -to pl:uming and design. to markets and regulation and to governance. II sets out a very ambitious agenda. but one that is witl1in the capacity of the community to achieve. Wl1at is the alternative? We leave sites like Stapleton behind. and continue to urbani7..e the far of t:he metropol itan area at a rapid rate. This pattern addrcssc:-; few of the region's economic ;md social needs, and compounds environ menral damage exponentially. We can encou r age development in a more conventional fashion, but will a market with an enormous supply of land support such an Will Stapleton really charlge. or will iL become a rnargmally used site tlJa contributes lillie in lhe end to the renewal of northeast Denver"? Simple mfllling of the site is nor enough. Liquidation isnot the answer. The community must pursue a more significant furure for tJ1e Stapleton site. It must have the proper tools and it must have the perseverance to pursue community development goals over an extended period of time. lt must also have the private panners who are willing to anu invest in this vision. lf the development of Stapleton follows the direction outlined in this Development Plan. what will the community have gained? Firsta job that increases the depth and diversity of the regional economy, oriented towards expanding markets. Development of thi.s job base must be accompanied by an increased commitment to develop skills in all segments of the population to participate in this job base. Secondcommunities that can work in rhe 2Lst Century. com bining 1.he best of the old and the new. 1ne communities crented at Stapleton will excel in traming and educate people. They will be better prepared to support diversity. encourage participation and local control tmd satisfy the needs of people. Community structure and technology will promote rather than dimim!:.h a sen:;e of cummunily. Thir-d -an unprecedented expan1oion of open space and recre ational opporrumties. The benefits of these resources will accrue to the entire rt:gion. F(mrfh -a start in the trend towards Uving beyond the capacities of the natural environment. Stapleton will consume far Jess :md p r oduce far Fewer impacts. It witt do so not at the expense of people and economic needl>, but as a fundrunental part of the commonity's approach to addressing these need:.. Images of the Future What will life at Stapleton really he like in ten. twenty or thir ty years? We close withfourpMsihle glimpses ofthatjimwe. 8-3

PAGE 152

SCl'ION VHI I COHCt.USION STAPLETON TECHNOLOGY INCUBATOR ln Dave and Dorothy imagt nat ion, their new fil tration system will revolutionize drinking water around I he.! world. The Mitchells designed the device seve r al month:ago. hut finding the right place tO develop it was prnving difficuh Withom the resourcl's o t Stapleton's Technology Incubator, their mvention might never have lett the drawing board. Nter touring Lhe Incubator-on the grounds of the former Stapleton Int ernational Airport -the Mitchells it would sui t I heir needs perfectly. They were loolang for a that retlecred their concern for the environment: St.1pleton ex"eeded their expectations. Each of the lncul)arors buildings ret:ycled runway con crete passive solar design, high-efficienc> lighting. and low water-use plumbing. Overall energy costs have been reduced by more than 75 percent. Recycling also curs waste and landlill costs. The Mitchells nre equally appreciative of Staplet.on's laudThe building they occupy on a greenway. offering a spectacular view of th e mountains. A nearby trail l eads from the lncublator to Sand Creek. passing th rough a park along the way. Stapleton's recre
PAGE 153

SECTiON Vtll/ CONCLUSION WESTERLY PARK NEIGHBORHOOD After finishing his exam. Bill Romero places it on his After work, Linda retrieves her son from day care. her instructor's desk and accepts her congratulations with pride. daughter from dance class. and her electric car from the In another two weeks, Bill will complete the requirements nearby Recharging Facility (one of the local inn ovations for an environmental accounting ccrl i ficate, and join 20 that has kept Westerly Park's pollution l evels among the other adults in the Whole Life Education Center's first -ever lowest in the state). Nearly all of the Romcros' emmds lie commencement exe rci ses. within walking distance; their car spends most days in th e alley behind their house. The Center'l> open in g last year marked the newest addition to the Park Community School-a cluster of buildings in a quiet residential neighborhood on the grounds of what was once S t apleton lnternational Airport Bill's Education Center shares space with his daughter's elemen tary school and several other uses. A large building that once served as an aviation hangar is a neighborhood recre ation facility. Alongside sit a block or administrative offices. a day care center. and a small public library. And across the street li e s a village greenU1e very heart of Westerly Park. Bill and his wife moved here four years ago seeking a more tightly knit community in wllich to raise their fanliJy. Westerly Park pmvcd perfect. 'n1e wide lawns and stntel) trees remind Bill of his childhood in Park Hill. A mix of young families and older lends !he neighbo r hood a sense of stability. And B ill managed to fmd not on l y a house for his own family but an aprutment for his mother ill-law as well -in a quiet brick building overlooking the villaze ween. Bill's wife Linda finishes work ar about th e same nme his classes begin. The export company she runs is headquar t ered in a modem building. just blocks from ber mother\ apa1tment house. When she has time. Linda joins her moth er for lunch at the local cafe, or picks up supplies at th e business service center next door. (Par t convenience mart. part post off i ce. part telecommunications facility. the service center i s Westerly Park s equ i valent of a 'general store.") Bill bikes home after dusk and shares a lat e dinner with Linda. Their son is already asl eep, rest in g up for a big day of community gardening with his grandmo ther. But Bill and Linda's daughter stays up t o tell her about next week's lield trip to the Westerly C r eek N ature C e nter. Her has been collecting prairie seeds to be plant ed on lhe hike. Bill s only question: Why he can't go. too?

PAGE 154

I \ 8-6 SECTION VII I I CONCLUSIOfr4 STAPLETON PARKS AND OPEN SPACE Amy crouches by the rivcrbaill.. her tixed on the oprx1sitc 'hore. The od1er fifth-gnuk:rs have already headed down the tr.til. but Amy is mesmemed by dle scene befon: her. Moments e-Mlier. a hawk plunged into the water. snatched a fish and lifted it into the air. Now the bird has retunled to itJ. roostm :mold tree along the river. and Amy watche.' with a mixture of fear and fascination it'-prey in vain. The 'iiiC or Amy', adventure. Sand CT\Xk W;l\ onl"C hidden behind the fences of Stapleton lnternauond Atrpon and the development ot nearb:y Commerce City. But thanks to the airpon's closure. tJ1e commitnn::ut of w1u local officials, and Lhe hard work of the has ll\.-.:n to ccologkal health. 11Jc lrailthm now runs atlung it thl' lfigh Line C reach the confluence of Sand Creel.. nnd Westerly Creek. Bcfnrc them stretch. I 75 acre..., of mcuduws :md '-Pilplaying fields and even a nine-hole le:rrning !!olf coun.c1 l11b lush parkland is designed w1th the sarnc respect for nature lhm charuct .e1izes the entire Stapleton development. Mnny or the plants, f or example. n.:quirc lillie irrigation; tn.:;1ted 1\.'\JSC water from the-neighborhoods l.upplies all of the park's irrigation needs. .. Amy\ older brother spent last summer in the pari.. "s ,tcw ardshtp training'" program. learning how to protect and man age natural and recreational like thh one. (Amy hcr..cll attended a workshop in Bluff Lake Lnvuonmental Education Cemcr. ) Amy and her leave the park ami rejoin the Sand C:n.'\.'k tn.il. They through a S<.:ric ... nf dminagc corridor... that once .... as runway tunnelsa ll'mnant ur Stapleton s past. The stream bank.!. here have been to shelter wildlrfe migration, and as Amy walks along, she a <;et of tUlllllal U1tcks. Bending down, she recogni1es thl! hoofprints of a deer. From the other side of tht: creek, Amy t:an hc11r loud and cheers-the sounds of a Little League game in progrc,s. CStapleron "s new m:hletic complex hostl. tearru. from through out the c tty. and night) Amy her classmme..' "The tmil near Quebec Street. Stapleton's wc:,tcm houllllaJ) group r.'lkes the branch leading north, towanl1hc SJlldhiiJo; Proine Park and the Rocky Mount:un Urban Wildlife ne\\ championship golf cour:.c and bini s.:mctuary. Bc)IJtxlli.:' the Pmirie Park: 365 acres of rolling :.andhilb. native .... indigenou.\ wildflower... and willow gmvc.,. exploration hereto be she h<1pc.'>. another day. ..

PAGE 155

GREEN BUILDER Brenda Williams enters the linul of data into her computer and. with the press of a key, .;ubmit' the tina! building plans for her next project. Next Brenda's homebuilding company will huild it' eighth project on the former site of Stapleton International Airport. Brenda hs hils changed signilicanlly over 1he last J 5 yea...... Building coJes. 1oning and c.>ntrols ha\e been greatly and reuricmeJ. The cur rent rc ulmory structure conunues to ensure public safety. convenience tlnd .-ommunity character, but it al'o facilitates thai are highly elticient. take time to produce, use mauy 111ure recycled materials, and are far more adapt able to changl'l> in lifestyle and over lime. Zoning at Sarlcton. lor identify gencml re4urcments for height. density. .. and the relution-hip uf buildings to public nod 0 e. another. R.'\trictiuns tend ltl be nc'tible anJ tu n:tlcct perfomlancc chartlclcristics. TI1c d.:sign revie\' C:taplcton hu.' used for lhc l;1st 15 year; is demanding hut predil:tabkand actually les:. lime-consuming than fonns of regulati,)n untlre4uired rezonings. vuntulecs. conditions and npp<::Jis. Many uf the mcchanil>ms first t.:st.:J al Stapleton h:tvt now hccn applied dty-widc. Swpleton\ evolution ha.' parallf.'led lh:lt ot Brenda\ own cnmpany. Over the last 15 years, her comp;my produced atlea't live different types of housing pnxluc1s at Slaplcton. fmm \inglc-family and unils ttl a senior care facility, a *5-unit co-housing villagc and a I (lO-unit mutual huu,ing prujt.:ct. Brenda dc,crihc\ hc1 work as hav ing evolve,] from homebuilding to "community hui l diug." Brenda's company has also experimented wilh new approache.' 10 highly efficient commumty lawn irrigation 8

PAGE 156

8-8 S&CTtON \1 It I I CONCL.USlOH telecommunications among homes. schools :md workplaces; and mcorporation of electric vehicle recharging facilities in residential projecL,. Stapleton's focus on recycliug has helped Brenda become u local expert on reducing and recyc l ing construction debrb. Her company is currently expl oring plans to manu t'aciUrc building products from recycled materialsforth.: compuny's own and for sale to other builders. The Stapleton Development Corporation will assist Brenda in identifying financing sources and training area residents 1t1 starr the operation. Twelve years ago. when Brenda received her first communi ty builder award for producing an environmentally and socially superior housing project, she was tru l y worried. She feared that consumers would award as a sign that her housing products were ton cxpcnsivc or impmctical. I nstead. the have come to represenr dumhility. a healthy environment and anemion to detail valuc1> that any seriou!> homebuilder would be happy to have associated with hi!> or her name.

PAGE 158

9-2 5:CTION lX I IX. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Muny indiviuu;tk corpor:ltions Ulld the creuliouof iht Dcvelopmcm Plan. These include Stapleto n Ret.levdopmcm f:tnl Mcmbcn. IIJ1(J City Ulld llinny clcctt!d C"iri1en' Arlvisory flpnnl mcmhers, orgnni.wtiut\\ umlto:hnicnl <'UIIllnl.,. Fullowing b u lbl ltf thl!l.C in<.lividullls and otgani:r.!llions: STAPLETON REDEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION F'UNDERS .l.nnnymous Bn> Foundutinn CRL A.\MJCi"le.s [)avis Grah:un & Stubl:>. l'ho fl<,nver Fmondmion Eileen Bymc Al;suc:iutcs El Pumnr Fnunrlntion f'nirfield :tlltl Woctd' Pmondation Gary Willi:um/Piton FououJ:ttinn Greenberg Bruon Sim o n & Miner llaoircn lmboO' n,, Haddon Fuunt:hllton Hog:111 & Ha11son Hulme Robc:rts unc.l Owen Kirchner Group of Geol'j!e K Baum Nonwst Public Service Company SRF Bourd Members .!:>tmllon Dupree & Dumnle fauru Foundalinu STAPLETON REDEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION STAFF Ahm Drown lim Chrisman ll1lth Conol'er 'rom Wllflda Vcslermark STAPLETON REDEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION BOARD OF DIRECTORS Lu" renee .\. Aller O(C'n/11/Sel Gell, Aeishmao & Sterling Linda ,1. Collins yecutin 1 'iu. l'fl'sid,,uunrmttl Nnrwe>r C"nlnmdn. It'll.. RubL'f't A. fllr'bt.,, .lo: P mr "''' llym Furber & Srricklar.<.J. Zt'(' Ferrulino Manager KBNORndio S amuel Gnry Gal)' William> Fnr'l!Y Cmpormi11n llaula Hcr-tJnark Dittctor Jewish Cnmmuniry < Del Hock Clmirmun & C Puhlk t ol Colnmo1u l:lar lmnt H nrniJ) f'll1Sif lf!nt Cnlnr:JJ.I< Hh1oricallmtnclmlun Ruroy T. Lcwi,, .Jr. l..e\\'i!-1 Will F. Nicholson, Jr. Chuir>llhmtd" I 7u Pre.\fdtJI/ US We-;t ( '<11111!1UUicaJion,. lnr, SttgQ f'n.sid< m lnll'r-Purifk ln,titutclur CumnuwkutiHoo .lames w. "'Skip .. Mtm!H!r Ht>lone, Roboo)t<. & Owc11 .lack U. Thyl llr l.)ril'f1f( tor Vt'fXUYmttlll Development Brmk Rei'. Sandra ,\. /(I'CftJI' St. 'lloctmu.' Ephl!h[llil Art Harela rLO Ulld Chrlll'll/1111 Burelururt.l Sorh. hi(. I )'Tone !lull \rrorncy m Law Juck l'vlilc;\lli.kr f'ltainnnn US West. Inc t\nn Mitre I leo f'rrlrltm Fedcml Mongugc datlou llill Roberts C'omp:my W. R11uo
PAGE 159

CITY AND COU .. TV OF DENVER EI.ECTED OFFICIAL.S Honorable Wcllingtoo Webb, Mayor l:lonorablr Happy ncnwr City Cno1nl'il Honorable D a,e OtKrin.11., D enver City C'.mmcil Hnnoruble Dcho1:lb Ortega. Denwr City Council Hunoruble Bill &hcillcr. Dcmcr City Counctl llonorabl e tlnckworth, Denver Cily Council Runurai:Jie Ramumt Mnrtincz, Dcnwr City CtHIIt\il Honorable .loyl't' Fnstet; Denver City Comtcil HunoruiJlc l'oll y Floheck. Denv.: r City Count:ll Jlonorahle Mary Det;nml, Dcnvcr City Council l:liltwnthn On vis. Jr .. Denver City C'oundl Honorublc Cntlty Reynolds. Duuvcr City CuuncU Hnnorublc Tim San dus. Denver City CliUilril Honorable Ed Thomas. I)Cnvt:t City Cmrr .. il Honorable Rubert Ctidcr, AuJitor CITY AND COUN'TY OF DENVER STAFF Knrl'll A\ili!S C.i1y AllulC)! s OOil.:c lkucc Ale..andcr -"r Purk.' tllld Rccr<:>uon Susan llaircl O.:panmem nf Pnrk' and lk<:reation Teny 8aus -Denver Wa\1Cwater Ui<:k llmsher -Dcp:mmcm of Public Works lle\ crly ( 'arapella Administmtion Mill'S Carter -uf Aviation Unda Clurk Sluplclon 2000 F..d l :llcrbroc k Dcpanment oJ Public Dicit Farlc,t -PIJnni11g lllitl C'omnmnity Stephanie Foote Muyor \ Omcc Stel'e f'clutr Depm1mem of llellltll amlllontlnll!lh)' [kvclopml'lll Roger Mutt-O,flllrlmcflt of Puhlk Wurh Thm Nc.b'On Wu,tewut lloroth,v Nepn Zoning Albninirr) Rosa pep 0f Dttu],! Wheeler l'lunning tmd Community !Mvetopmem Thwe Wicks Planning anti Community ncvelnpmeut Wiley -Mayor\ Orfkc uf F.collomk Ocvdupnwnt CITIZEN'S ADVISORY BOARD MEMBERS l.'t1CI111ir. Rtv. J>nul Martin. J.Jcnv.:r Ministerial Alliance Cr>l 'hflir: Aller. Melfa Denver Chamber of Commerce Cvn,titwn.;y Gmuo Pum Jc CoMMI 'Nil v rsst1r, St "ll Chair: .lunct Arnm-.Hltl ........... Womcu, Charnb<-r of Commerce Chair: Alice Kelly ... __ ... J .. nfW11uwn Sal'a fuenles .................. llhp:mic Chllmht:rofCommrrc Honorable l'oll y IIJoheck .. .. .. Oenwr City Council. Chisty Rmnrmo ...... ... ..... EI.L'l Montcl:tlr As.. ... ocintron S loan Stevens ................... lnh:re:;rcd Citizen Edna Yribia Trujillo ........... .Denver Di'>lrict Aunmcys Office llarton Won!! .... .. .... .... City of Aurnrn t \NIII.I< INOIII' St ttttl\IMrrrEr ( 'holt Smnley l'om1 . .A,inu Cluuiii?Cr nf Commc1cc ltcc t ltmr: Orluodo .Public Scrvtcc Co1npuny u( Colonlllt> Jane Amc>mso . . ... Colmndn Women s Ch.unlx:r or Commerce lrv Ash _. ... ........ Denver Airpcut llotcl A."'nci:uinn L.mn Cle' rr ...... ........ .lnlcre,led CitrLeJr OcJ'ek Fai sun ...... ......... Mc.tntbcUo Par!. lntcreMs llonorahle l'nll_v Flobcck ....... DenverC'ity Cuuncil. Dbtricl #5 Sanr vi CvnHrtm'l! llc\'crly lladdun .............. SmpletIIIICilclll l'mLie.' Council lltt C/111ir. Karen !.nlimn ..... On:atcr Hilll\Unily, In. Anderson ... ... ...... hll creslc d t'itl1en Uev J. Lanl,l.'iltln llnytl Pa,;t Deuwr Mi11i,tt'rial Alli:uwc Hunnrublc Nut.Unc t:Jtldwcll ....... i\urum City Council

PAGE 160

9-4 SECil"IOH I X I ACKNOWL.EOOE"ME:NTS Sgt. Mark Chanin .. Pc>lice IA>p:111me111 Vcmnico LcOcu>. ............. .Jme,.,tcd Cilieu Hooontble Polly F'lobock ......... O.:nver Cny Council, Olstrictll:\ Roland Russell ... ...... ..... T'onner Commerce City Council member l'v\NI"ll'O AND ZllNIN<:k ........ DeJIVet City C011ncil. l'at HumiJJ .................... .lmerc;.tcd Citi7.cn HPIII'Y s ,Jnckon ... -.. -. City or Aur,ml Munucl Martinez .............. lnl1:n...,tctl Citizen raJ bert M cNe ish ........... Q,wer Plruming llrui\: !Jill Comminee lor Safe huuds Karen S:11imun ......... ....... Grc:.ater Park Hill Community. Inc. !'\loan Stevens ............. .lnteresrtd Citi'"'" .lim Wugcnlumlcr .............. .lntere:.ted Citizen Watcman ............. Oenver Puhlic Sd>mmittec ((,,. Nd,l!bborttoods PtlilMI.ll Cnrol Bonin . . ... Public Service C"tY of Color>k1n l'atrick D Uroc ... .... R!!al &.tate Development lmlustry Sundra Coale> ................. Gn:atc r !'ark HiU C.Jolflluniry. Inc. Richnrd Cohen ..... ....... Denver Aii]X!n Hotel A':r Danid Ynhannes ............... 1-in:mcial Conununiry CONSULTANTS CORJ!ThAM An drop ogon Associ ott'S. Inc. f'hiladclphi a BRW, Inc .. D e n ver CivitU'I. ln c .. Denver Cooper Robcrlwn & Pnrtn c r s, Nc" York Econ omic Plannin g Systems, ll crkclc.l. <'A H arold Ma.>..'iOJ l &: A:.sociutcs. Denver 1\TI::C AssocfHtc,, Inc .. Dcnv,,r nnd Philndelphin Archiwcrurnl Enrrgy C'orpomtlon. Bonldrr R.. W. Bed.. :md Associntes. Denver Centcr fur Resoun:" Mrumg.,mcnL Deuve1 CH2MHill, Dcnwr City Works. Uahimoll!. Md. C'oley/ 1 -om"L Denver Workshnp, Denver Do.:wr. Boultler Eltnll Cuusonmm. Denver C\'UJ" Land Curnpnny. Upp<:rco. Md. r-elshurg, llo h llll.,\'ig, Denver 01WI1I'eJ'!!. Btu'On. Simnn and MUter, iNJtver utnc't' HuhniUI. D.:llVCI WilUum J. Jubu;on King Des.gn, Columbia. Mtl LDR. lrlll'm:ninnlll. I nc .. Cnlumhi1l, Mel. I .one,,, Inc .. Denv.-r Jnhn 1\. Mill1in. Jlnuldt:r Nntiuual Civic Denwr Prcscrvutiou Denver Ramrum De;;ign. J. 11 Suto and A.sodatc. Denver \Villem V;m Vliet, Buulder 1\ssodutes. Dunn L. W'''l!l" & Cl> .. Dcnv..-r Additionul 1.hank. tn a number of public and p1ivate agencies who jlurticif'l'l''tl in (r tlSsi:-ted thi> c ll',llt. inrwdiug: Urlmn Dminag;: iUJ(I Fltw.>d C\nlrv l METRO Wustewmcr R.t'Ciarnutkut Dh.uict Denver Public Regional Tmnpomnion District \\'alt'r J'ublk Service Comptmy of Colormlu US West City nf /\umrn City nf Cnnunerce Cily Denver Regional Council of Guvcmmerll" U.S. anti Wilt! life Strvicc Colonu:lu Divisiun uf Wilulile of Com: tiotlS Demer UrtMn Renew;;) Authority


Citation
Stapleton development plan

Material Information

Title:
Stapleton development plan
Creator:
Stapleton Redevelopment Foundation
City and County of Denver
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
Forest City Development
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
City planning
Community planning
Neighborhood plans
Spatial Coverage:
Denver -- Stapleton

Record Information

Source Institution:
Auraria Library
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
STAPLETON
DEVELOPMENT PLAN
Integrating Jobs, Environment and Community
ForestCity
DEVELOPMENT
ysi
331
y f*r. ~


STAPLETON
DEVELOPMENT PLAN
CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER, WELLINGTON E. WEBB- MAYOR
Stapleton redevelopment foundation, Harry T. Lewis, Jr.- Chairman
CITIZENS ADVISORY BOARD, REVEREND PAUL MARTIN- CO-CHAIRMAN
Lawrence A. Atler- co-chairman
THIS DOCUMENT IS PRINTED ON RECYCLED
PAPER WITH SOY-RASED INKS.
March 1995


Im'IIow (.'ili/cns mid Interested Keadcrs:
It is with great pride that ivc present to you the Stapleton Development Plan. Phis document and its supporting materi-
al have been developed by our community to provide a blueprint for the reuse of the 4,700 acre Stapleton International
Airport site.
Staplettm has served the aviation needs of our community for more than 65 years. The relocation of aviation activities
to Denver tnternafumat Airport provides an unprecedented opportunity. The Stapleton site is a t ontmuniiy owned
asset whose use will have enormous implications for the futute of Denver, the region and Colorado. Our goal is to
insure that the reuse program for this seven and one half square mile site addresses important community objectives
and can he successfully supported over time by the marketplace and our community.
The Development Plan pivsented here describes the conversion of Stapleton over a 50 to 40 year period to a series of
vibrant, mixed use communities connected by an extensive system of open space and transportation improvements.
The elements of the Development Plan are united by a commitment to a sustainable form of development, Av a result,
the Plan emphasizes such things as the integration of housing and recreation within a regional employment center,
walkalde scale communities that promote diversity and reduce dependence on the automobile, reduced consumption oj
resoutees and impacts on the potential of each citizen. Stapleton will be a place of economic, social and environmen-
tal innovation that will provide a new development model for the region.
An additional strength of the Development Plan is in the connections it forges between Stapleton and the surrounding
community. Stapleton has been a fenced and secured island for two thirds of a century. The former Rocky Mountain
Arsenal to the north and hnvty Air Tone Hose to the south removed an additional 50 square miles of laud from publit
access. These facilities together have created enormous holes and discontinuities in the urban fabric of northeast
Denver. The conversion over time of all three of these sites will ptoduce substantial change. 'The Stapleton
Development Plan creates strong ties between this site and the future wildlife refuge at the Arsenal and the education-
al, recreational, residential and business activities at the Lowry site. In addition, the Plan seeks to reunite the
Stapleton site with adjacent neighborhoods in Denver, Aurora and Commetve City.
This plan is the product of a substantial commitment of time, energy and money by many partieijumts. The ejforl has
benefited from the dedicated /xirticipation of many elected officials and staff of the City and County of Denver, as well
as the Stapleton Redevelopment Foundation, a talented team of local and national technical consultants, and many
other public and private organizations. The creation of the Development Plan has also benefited from tin unprecedent-
ed investment by the local philanihiopic community who provided a large portion of the resounes necessary to support
the Foundation staff and professional consultants involved. Most importantly, the Development Plan has been
enriched by the thousands of hours of effort contributed by members of the Citizen Advisory Hoard, and by the individ-
ual citizens who have taken the time to participate in the process. The effort made collectively by all these people
demonstrates the aff ection they share for this community and their desire to shape its future.


The Development Plan has been formally approval by the Denver Planning Hoard and adopted ax an amendment to
the City and County nj Denver's Comprehensive Plan by the City Conned. The Plan is one part of a package of
activities necessary to advance this redevelopment program. Concurrent with the adoption of the Plan are the tasks
of establishing a new public development entity to provide long-term stewardship of the site and project, marshaling
the human and financial resources necessary to initiate redevelopment and pursuing the initial projects that will
begin to give life to the Plan.
Stapleton will be part of the legacy nr leave for future generations. If it provides a model for addressing the eco-
nomic and social needs of people while respecting our natural world, it will be a legacy of which nr can all be
proud. We benefit daily from the beauty and opportunity created by the vision of DeBoer, Speer, Cranmer and so
many others over the last century. In their spirit, nr must ensure that a century from today Stapleton will he making
a similar contribution to the beauty and vitality of this Queen City at the convergence of the mountains and plains.

Wellinuton li. Webb
Mayor, City and County of Denver
Allcgra I iappy I laynes
District 11, Denver C'ily Council
i lurry T. Lewis, Jr. r
Chairman, Stapleton Redevelopment Foundation

Revcivnd Paul Marlin
Co-Chair, Citizens Advisory Hoard
I .awivnee A. Alice
Co-Chair, Citizens Advisory Hoard


TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Kxccnlive Summary..............................1-1
A. Introduction
B. Context and Objectives
C. The Development Plan
D. Management Structure
li. Parly Action Items
F, (Conclusion
II. Inli'mliidion ami Background.....................2-1
A. Introduction...................................2-2
1. A New Approach
2. Gottis
3. Mow the Development Plan is Used
B. background.................................2-(>
1. Process History
2. Relationship to (lie 19X9 Denver
Comprehensive Plan
3. Stapleton Tomorrow
4. City and Counly/Staplclon Redevelopment
Foundation Partnership
5. Citizens Advisory Hoard
6. Technical Consulting Team
7. Community Outreach
III. Context.....................................3-1
A. National and International Context............ 3-2
1. linvironmental Challenges
2. Kconomic Challenges
3. Social Challenges
B. Community Context..........................3-4
1. I .oral Resurgence
2. Local Challenges
3. Local Market Conditions
3-10
C. Site Context ........................
1. Site 1 listory
2. Changes in Regional Land Use
3. Surrounding Neighborhoods and Uses
4. Site Character
5. I,egal Framework
IV. Community Objectives and Guiding Principles. 4-1
A. Major Questions and Community Objectives.... 4-2
B, Guiding Principles...........................4-4
I. Fnvimnmeulal Responsibility
2. Social liquity
3. liconomie Opportunity
4. Physical Design
5. Implementation
V. Development Plan ............................ 5*1
A. Vision........................................5-3
I. Key Features of the Vision
B. I lighlighls.............................. 5-X
1. Link With Nature
2. Urban Villages
3. Mobility
4. Best Technologies and Practices
5. Green Business Luvironmcnl
h. Community Linkages
7, Governance, Service Delivery and Participation
0. Structuring Klcmcnls....................... 5-10
1. Introduction
2. Open Space and Parks
3. Transportation
4. Services
5. Land Use and Urban Design


D. District Descriptions...........................5-40
1. District I
2. District II
3. District III
4. District IV
5. District V
6. Districts Vl/Vn
7. District VTT1
E. Social and Economic Initiatives.................5-68
1. Introduction
2. Goals and Principles
3. Criteria and Next Steps
4. Employment Base
5. Economic Program
6. Education and Training Systems
F. Financial Analysis..............................5-73
1. Infrastructure Costs
2. Description of Facilities
3. Overview of Financial Strategy
4. Funding Sources
G. Regulatory and Market Mechanisms................5-85
1. A New Approach
2. Examples
VI. Redevelnpinenl Management Structure.......6-1
A. The Need .................................6-2
B. Roles and Possible Structures............6-2
C. Recommended Approach......................6-3
VII. Phasing Strategy and Early Action Items..7-1
A. Phasing Strategy...........................7-2
1. Location of Development
2. Timing of Development
3. Type of Development
B. Phase I Development Recommendations
7-2
C. Early Action Items......................7-3
1. Redevelopment Management Structure
2. Regulatory and Institutional Structure
3. Finance
4. Marketing/Communications
5. Planning and Infrastructure Design
6. Project Management
7. Asset Management
8. Demonstration Opportunities
9. Additional Studies
10. Social and Economic Strategies
D. Current Work on Action Items ............ 7-5
1. BluiT Lake Environmental
Education Center
2. Rocky Mountain Wildlife Refuge
3. Sand Creek Corridor
4. Westerly Creek Multiple Use Greenway and
Water Quality Area
5. Residential Development Pilot Project
6. "GroundsweN Community Farm and Just Say
Whoa at the Urban Agriculture Center
7. Environmental Remediation
8. 56lh Avenue
9. Runway Recycling
10. Terminal
11. Industrial Land Sales
12. Asset Management
13. The Denver Smart Places Project
VIII. Conclusion Images of the Future...... 8-1
A. A New Approach
B. Stapleton Technology Incubator
C. Westerly Park Neighborhood
D. Green Builder
E. Stapleton Parks and Open Space
IX. Acknowledgments
9-1


I. Executive
Summary


r
i
After 65 years of avia-
tion activity, Stapleton
International Airport
is about to undergo a
transformation...
1-2
Introduction
After 65 years of aviation activity, Stapleton International
Airport is about to undergo a transformation which will take at
least 30 to 40 years to complete. The Stapleton Development
Plan describes a physical, social, environmental, economic
and regulatory framework intended to guide this transforma-
tion over the next several decades. It describes a new
approach to development, a real world example of sustainable
development of significant scale. Emerging over time on the
Stapleton site will be a network of urban villages, employment
centers and significant open spaces, all linked by a commit-
ment to the protection of natural resources and the develop-
ment of human resources.
The Development Plan has been adopted by the City Council
as an amendment to the City's Comprehensive Plan. It is
supported by die Development Plan Resource Document
which contains illustrative examples as well as extensive
detailed technical support material. The Resource Document
was not intended to be adopted by the City Council.
Planning for the future of Stapleton has been ongoing since
1989, beginning with the Stapleton Tomorrow process and
culminating with this Development Plan. This Plan is the
product of a partnership between the City and County of
Denver, the Stapleton Redevelopment Foundation, a Citizen's
Advisory Board appointed by the Mayor and a highly skilled
technical consulting team. Throughout die process, more than
100 community presentations and meetings were held to
insure community-wide participation and input.
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES
The redevelopment program will be presented with many
challenges and opportunities. The national and international
context requires attention to the economic realities of a more
global and more competitive marketplace, as well as the
worldwide challenge to reduce natural resource consumption
and the potential for global climate change. Locally, die


executive suwm/vhy
Stapleton site provides an opportunity to address important
community needs resulting front a shifting job base, demo-
graphic change and renewed pressures on the stability of
many neighborhoods. The Phut must also distinguish the site
from other large scale projects within the City and County
such as the Airport Gateway, Lowry, the Central Platte Valley
mid downtown. In addition, the Development Plan must
respond to the specific market and neighborhood context of
the site, and the significant changes resulting from conversion
of the nearby Rocky Mountain Arsenal Base to new civilian ascs.
Over the course of the last six years, there has been a great
deal of discussion oflhe variety of objectives held by the
community for the reuse of the Stapleton site. The principle
questions have been:
- What is the appropriate role of the Stapleton site in the
regional economy and its relationship to other community
centers?
- How can Stapleton contribute to improvement of the envi-
ronment for surrounding neighborhoods and increased
access ami opportunities for their residents?
- How can Stapleton respond to the development and envi-
ronmental challenges wr face locally and globally?
- How ran Stapleton respond to the significant social and
demographic changes taking place and create diverse,
successful urban communities?
- How can Stapleton succeed in the marketplace and fidfdi
the disposition obligations of the Denver airport system?
In 1991, the City Council adopted Ihe Stapleton Tomorrow
Concept Plan, which identified the following eight basic objec-
tives for reuse of the site. These objectives continue to enjoy
broad community support and have provided the foundation
upon which the Stapleton Development Plan has been built:
1. Generate significant economic development.
2. Produce a positive impact on existing neighborhoods and
businesses.
The Stapleton site will
he a network of urban
villages, employment
centers and significant
open spaces, all linked
by a commitment to the
protection of natural
resources and the
development of human
resources.
tion options and spacious parks and open space.
Creation of tlte Development Plan was guided by a set of prin-
ciples developed by the project team staff and the Citizens
Advisory Board. These principles address the economic,
social and environmental objectives of the project, as well as
the physical design of the community and the methods used to
manage and implement the project over lime.
3. Fnhance environmental qual-
ity throughout the site and
surrounding areas.
4. Create a positive identity
unique to Denver and the
surrounding region.
5. Promote high standards of
urban design.
6. Generate revenues through
appropriate asset manage-
ment to help fund D1A.
7. Create substantial educa-
tional and cultural opportu-
nities and support systems.
8. Provide balanced transporta-
1-3


IXECUTIVG SUMMARY
The history of a
NATION 15 ONLY THE
HISTORY OF ITS VU.LAOE5
WRITTEN LARGE.*
Woodrow Wilson. 1900
J
Strong Connections
Mixed Use CovnmunRJeo
Walkible Scale
The Development Plan
The Development Plan created for Stapleton is a direct
response to the projects community context and the adopted
principles. Stapleton will be a unique mixed-use community
capable of supporting more than 30,00n jobs and 25.000 resi-
dents. More than one third of the property will be managed
for parks, recreation and open space purposes. Developed
portions of the site will provide an integrated mix of employ-
ment, housing, recreation and access to public transportation.
Stapletons reuse will support the health of surrounding neigh-
borhoods and provide strong ties to the adjacent Rocky
Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge ttnd the Lowry
education campus.
Development is organized in eight distinct districts. Each district
contains an identifiable center and emphasizes die integration of
employment, housing, public transportation and walkable scale.
The Plan reinforces Stapleton's role as a regional employment
center through the creation of compact, accessible communities
that integrate uses and create slrong ties between Ihe Stapleton
site and the surrounding community. rrhe open space system
serves a major role in unifying die eight districts making effec-
tive regional connections and restoring the ecological liealth of
natural systems on and off the site.
An employment base of 30,000 35,000 jobs can be readily
accommodated over time on the site. The Havana Street corri-
dor and areas north and south of 1-70 provide significant
opportunities for creating a manufacturing, assembly and distri-
bution base on the site. These areas offer rail service and easy
interstate access. Section 10 on Ihc far north anti the interior
area above the 1-70 corridor provide significant office and
research and development opportunities. The area surrounding
die existing terminal will become a regional destination offer-
ing a mix of exhibition, entertainment, retail, office and other
uses. Each neighborhood center on the site will also provide
opportunities for employment. In total, the Development Phut
allocates roughly 1,200 acres, or 54% of the developable land,
to employment use.
1-4
The Plan also emphasizes establishing the site as a national
center for the development of environmental technologies,
products and services; creating an environmental technology
incubator to support start up firms; creating training and skill
development programs designed to provide area residents with
the work skills needed by employers operating on the Stapleton
site; and developing programs dial encourage die participation of
youth and entrepreneurs, particularly from minority communities.
Creation of the Development
Plan was guided by a set
of principles... These
principles address the
economic, social and
environmental objectives
of the project, as well as
the physical design of the
community...
Stapletons mixed use neighborhoods can accommodate an
ultimate population of approximately 10,OCX) households. The
average density of residential areas for the entire site is roughly
12 units per acre, sufficient to support reasonable public trans-
portation service. Higher densities are provided for in close
proximity to neighborhood centers, transit stops and major
public amenities. Each neighborhood on site is organized
around a center and provides a variety of mobility options
beyond die automobile including walking, bus. bicycling, rail
transit (along the Smith Road corridor) and the use of
telecommunications to substitute for the need for travel.
School facilities will be located in neighborhood centers.


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
will be multi-use community facilities and will play a central
role in the life of the surrounding neighborhood. Stapleton
neighborhoods will provide a range of housing types and den-
sities that support diversity.
The Stapleton open space system includes more than 1,600
acres of parks, trails, recreation facilities and natural areas.
The principle trail corridors are along Sand Creek, Westerly
Creek and the newly created open space corridor connecting
Sand Creek with the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National
Wildlife Area. The system includes a championship goif
course above 1-70 and a nine-hole learning course along
Westerly Creek. A major ballfield and outdoor recreation com-
plex is located between Sand Creek and 1-70 west of Yosemite
Parkway. An urban agriculture center and equestrian facility are
accommodated on the north side of Sand Creek just west of
Havana Street. A major urban park is provided at the confluence
of Sand and Westerly Creeks, as well as a number of smaller
scale paries and public spaces. Parkways and landscaped
drainageways connect neighborhoods to each other and to the
major components of the open space system. Significant areas of
prairie and riparian corridor restoration, particularly in the north-
ern half of (lie site, will dramatically increase the wildlife habitat
provided by the site. A 365-acre Prairie Park in tiie far northern
portion of the site, primarily above 56th Avenue, will be the cen-
terpiece of these restoration efforts.
The projects sustainable development philosophy is reflected
in many different aspects of the program. Land use planning
and community design stress compact, mixed use communities
that are walkable and transit-oriented. These characteristics can
reduce automobile dependence and emissions and increase the
efficiency of service delivery. Approaches to community infra-
structure stress water reuse, energy and water conservation,
renewable sources of eneigy supply and innovative stormwater
management approaches to maximize opportunities for on-site
irrigation and water quality improvement. The solid waste
management strategy seeks to achieve a zero net contribution
from the site to local landfills, in part through the creation of a
resource recovery village on site to promote waste minimiza-
tion, recycling and reuse. Transportation technologies empha-
size bus and rail transit, bicycling, walking and alternative
fuels for vehicles. The Development Plan also emphasizes
the need to support demonslratioas of technologies and
practices on site that support the projects basic sustainable
development objectives.
Funding
Development of the site in accordance with the Plan will
require significant infrastructure including major iransportation
improvements such as public transit, roadways and bridges;
utilities: drainage in greenways; parks and parkways; and com-
munity facilities sucli as schools, libraries and recreation facili-
ties. The estimated cost of this infrastructure is approximately
$288 million (in 1994 dollars). Financing will come from a
Park* and Open Space
f

Habitat Restoration
Stormwater Management
1-3


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
A GARDEN CITY IS A
Town designed for
HEALTHY LIVING AND
industry; of a size
THAT MAKES POSSIBLE
A FULL MEASURE OF
SOCIAL LIFE. BUT NOT
larger; surrounded
BY A RURAL BELT; THE
WHOLE OF THE LAND
BEING IN FUBLIC OWNER-
SHIP OR HELD IN TRUST
FOR THE COMMUNITY."
euenezer Howard, 189B
variety of sources, depending upon the type of improvement
and the relative benefit to the local community and/or region.
Funding will be obtained through a combination of infrastruc-
ture fees, local tax and assessment districts, private capital,
state turd federal transportation funding, grants, general munic-
ipal revenues, tax increment financing. Airport System rev-
enues, connection fees and special districts.
Regulatory and Market Mechanisms
Perhaps one of the more significant challenges associated with
the Stapleton project is the creation of regulatory approaches,
market mechanisms and programs which together can encour-
age achievement of lire projects sustainable development
objectives. As an example, creation of the type of mixed use
communities desired for Stapleton will require an innovative
approach to land use and design regulation. The approach
recommended includes three components: 1) broad land use
controls defining the general use, density tmd character of
development at a site-wide level. 2) more detailed design con-
trols for individual districts, and 3) a mix of standards and
programs applicable at die individual project scale.
Management Structure
Adoption of the Plan is an important step towards redevelop-
ment. Equally important is the type of management structure
created to guide the sites disposition and development. Alter
significant analysis by a work group comprised of representa-
tives of the City and County administration. City Council, the
Stapleton Redevelopment Foundation, the Citizens Advisory
Board and the Denver Urban Renewal Authority (DURA), a
preferred scenario emerged. This scenario involves die City
and County and DURA entering into an agreement to create
a third structure, a nonprofit development corporation
which would assume responsibility for management of the
site and redevelopment.
The development corporation would be governed by a board of
directors appointed by the Mayor and DURA Commissioners
and confirmed by the Denver City Council. The development
corporation would function under a contract with the City and
County of Denver specifying its authority and responsibilities.
It is intended that the corporation ultimately be financially self-
sufficient and recover the costs of its operations from the rev-
enues generated by its activities. Initial start up will likely
require support from the City and County and/or other public
or philanthropic resources.
Private Development


Early Action Items
The development corporation will have several immediate pri-
orities to address related to project finance, marketing, com-
munications. planning, infrastructure design, project
management, asset management, pursuit of demonstration
opportunities and additional studies. 'Hiese priorities are sum-
marized below. Work has already commenced in many of
llie.se areas. In addition, a phasing strategy has been devel-
oped which identifies Districts I and V as areas of initial
development for residential, business and other uses.
1. Redevelopment Management Structure
- define character and role of the organization
- appoint the Board of Directors
- determine funding mechanisms
- identify and hire staff
2. Regulatory and Institutional Structure
- prepare and adopt site infrastructure and subdivision plans
- adopt master rezoning ordinance
- permanently designate open spaces through conveyance,
easement, dedication or other mechanisms, as appropriate
- develop regulatory incentive :md programmatic structures
to support the development programs environmental,
social and economic objectives
- establish a Transportation Management Organization
3. Finance
- develop initial infrastructure funding mechanisms
- identify initial carrying cost funding sources
- identify initial environmental remediation funding sources
- develop open space funding structures
- develop linal impact fee structure
4. Marketing/Communications
- develop and implement land marketing program
- develop and implement existing building marketing program
- develop communications and public outreach program
- develop and implement strategies to attract environmental
science and technology firms
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
. Planning and Infrastructure Design
- develop plans for initial northern site storm drain
improvements and diversion of Havana ditch flows from
Havana Lake
- identify and design infrastructure improvements for subar-
eas of Districts I and V
- complete design of Sand Creek corridor restoration
improvements
- complete design of Westerly Creek channel restoration
improvements
- commence planning and design for the learning golf
course adjacent to Westerly Creek
- commence design of the District VIII Prairie Pink
- continue Section 10 design coordination with the Rocky
Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge planning and
Commerce Citys planning of Section 9
- prepare tree planting program for Montview Boulevard
. Project Management
- complete terminal reuse solicitation process
- initiate first phase of airfield recycling program to support
new road and site improvement construction
- construct 56th and 51st Avenue roadway improvements
- construct northern site stormwater management
improvements and diversion of Havana ditch flows from
Havana Lake
- construct infrastructure improvements for subareas of
Districts 1 and V
- commence Sand Creek corridor restoration and trail
development
- commence Westerly Creek channel, water quality,
stormwater management and trail improvements
- continue on site environmental remediation activities
- coordinate with the Denver Smart Places Project
- complete King Soopers and Union Pacific transactions and
manage development of these initial business environments
- initiate tree planting program along Montview Boulevard
Street Connections
Transit Options
Multl-lfse TVails
1-7


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Reuse of Existing Facilities
Recycling at Airfield Paving
7. Asset Management
- implement property management program
- implement site security program
- selectively demolish and recycle structures and
airfield improvements
- implement interim management and events program
8. Demonstration Opportunities
- Pursue homebuilding demonstration opportunities for
District I with partners interested in promoting resource
conservation and oilier sustainable development objectives.
- Pursue infraslmcture demonstration opportunities, includ-
ing water reuse for golf course and open space irrigation
and waste minimization, reuse and recycling through ini-
tial elements of a resource recovery program.
9. Additional Studies
- evaluate village scale energy system application to Phase 1
neighborhood development
- develop a tree planting program
- develop short and long-term water and wastewater man-
agement strategy
- identify feasibility of a solid waste resource village
- continue joint visitor facility and program planning with
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
- participate in the RTD rail corridor alignment
- identify and complete necessary environmental studies
- evaluate and recommend appropriate open space manage-
ment strategies
- participate in the DRCOG 1-70 corridor study
- identify and evaluate options to provide innovative educa-
tional opportunities
10. Social and Economic Strategies
- Create a business plan for die Center for Environmental
Technology and Sustainable Development including pur-
suit of an environmental business incubator.
- Develop a program lo expand entrepreneurial skills of sur-
rounding and new residents.
- Create a task force to develop an education and job training
delivery model lor Stapleton and to identify specific K-12
educational options for future residents.
- Pursue establishment of, and funding opportunities for,
school to work programs with employers recruited to the site.
- Evaluate Stapleton buildings for reuse as educational or
community facilities.
- Initiate collaborative planning efforts with Aurora to
rejuvenate the area between Stapleton and t.owry.
Conclusion
Redevelopment of the Stapleton site presents a significant
opportunity to shape the future of our community. The
Stapleton Development Plan describes a framework and some
new approaches to planning and design, to markets and
regulation and project management. The Plan describes a
very ambitious agenda, hut one that is within the capacity of
the community to achieve.
If the development of Stapleton follows the
DIRECTION OUTLINED IN THIS DEVELOPMENT PLAN,
WHAT WILL THE COMMUNITY HAVE GAINED?
First a job base that increases the depth and diversity of the
regional economy, oriented towards expanding markets,
Development of this job base must be accompanied by an
increased commitment to develop skills in all segments of the
population to participate in this job base.
Second communities lhai can work in the 21 si Century,
combining the best of the old and the new. 'Die communities
created al Stapleton will excel in training and educating people.
They will be better prepared to support diversity, encourage
participation and local control and satisfy the needs of people
Community structure and technology will promote rather than
diminish a sease of community.
Third an unprecedented expansion of open space and recre-
ationul opportunities. The benefits of these resources will
accrue to the enure region.
Fourth a start in reversing the trend inwards living beyond the
capacities of the natural environment. Staplelon will consume
far less and produce (hr fewer impacts. It will do so not al die
expense of people and economic needs, bin as a fundamental
part of the community's approach lo addressing these needs.
1-8


II. Introduction
and Background


Section II / introduction and Background
A. Introduction
J he closure of Stapleton International Airport in 1995
marked a unique moment in Denver's history. Sixty-
five years of aviation activity came to mi end
Stapletons closure also marked an important beginning.
Denver is faced with the largest urban redevelopment
opportunity in its history 4,700 acres of publicly
owned land in the heart of the City.
Stapleton sits at the center of a major transformation
taking place in the northeast portion of the metropolitan
area. Three significant public sites the Rocky
Mountain Arsenal, Stapleton and Lowry Air Force Base
- are all undergoing dramatic change. Weapons produc-
tion, military training and commercial aviation will give
way to a major wildlife refuge, mixed-use community
and civilian educational and training campus. These
changes provide an unprecedented opportunity to shape
the future of the Denver area.
What will the people of Denver do with this opportunity?
How can the community make the most of it?
For more tlian five years, public, private and nonprofit
organizations have been working with Denver area resi-
dents to answer these questions. The results of these
efforts are presented in this Development Plan u
blueprint for the transformation of the Stapleton site and
the Denver community.


Section II / Introduction and sackgrouno
ttiiphiton Is cumMitty- an island.
U Is a lingls uw asset, with
isgtonsl exposure but limited
*cosn, surrounded by urban
development. Now should the
people of Denver transform, such
an asset and integrds It with
surrounding neighborhoods and
communities?
Stapleton provides an enormous
opportunity. The community can
shape its long-term future by
offering a new model for develop-
ment. Stapleton must succeed in
the marketplace and demon-
strate the viability and wisdom ol
a more sustainable approach to
economic and human develop-
ment. This Development Plan
describes that path and address-
es the challenges that must be
faced along the way.
2-3


Section ll / Introduction and
2-4
A New Approach
The redevelopment of the Stapleton site will take at least 30 to 40
years to complete. The decisions made with respect to the site
will influence the Denver community for many generations to
come. Redevelopment presents an unparalleled opportunity for
leadership. The world is desperately searching for Ire tier exam-
ples of how urban communities can adapt and renew themselves.
Stapleton can address important local needs and provide an
important model. The community planned for the Stapleton site
will provide a real world example of sustainable development of
significant scale. Sustainable development, in the words of the
United Nations, describes a community that can meet the needs
of the present without compromising the ability of future genera-
tions to meet their own needs.
What will emeige over time on the Stapleton site will be a net-
work of urban villages, employment centers and significant open
spaces all linked by a commitment to the protection of natural
resources and the development of human resources. Stapletons
new neighborhoods will reconnect adjacent neighborhoods and
promote a strong sense of community. With proper stewardship,
Stapleton will become a truly lasting legacy, a tribute to Denvers
ingenuity and its integrity for decades to come.
Goals
file development o! Stapleton u41 be guided by three lumhuncnraJ goals;
1. Economic Opportunely. Stapleton will tv a regional centei lor |oh creation in
diverse fields, with an emphmitwin new tr.dinologtes and emerging liiiluMnes. When
Completed. Stapleton could support more than 3(>.()(X) jobs and resident*,
becoming a mmoi eonirihmnr to the long lerm cconomn health of the (it-
2. Environmental Responsibility. Stapleton will drmunsmue die economic mid
community tvnelitsof a long-term commitment to reducing anisutii|Jtiun ot Manual
icsourees and impacts on the natural environment. I liun.in activities will he conducted
in a tad non that ucknow kihjus_aod respect' the importance of natural system*
3. Social Equity. Stapleton will provide broad access lo *ueinl. culitini! mid ccntinm
ic opjwmunmes ti>i all xcgmctlts of the cnmniiiiiily Successful redevelopment of the
Stapleton mu- will be u_catulvsi lor improvement in the larger community, and |xrtii.u-
larly in the neighborhoods surrounding the site


Fulfilling these goals will require substantial innovation in the
physical design of the Stapleton community and the institu-
tional arrangements used to guide its development. A strong
commitment to honor diversity anil to ensure broad-based par-
ticipation of minorities and women in all opportunities provid-
ed by Stapleton is fundamental to the redevelopment program,
hi addition, Stapleton must be a pioneer in crafting market-
based responses to community, social and economic needs and
protection of the natural environment. These attributes will
provide Stapleton with a unique identity that will distinguish it
locally, nationally and internationally from other large-scale
development programs.
How the Development Plan is Used
The Development Plan is the statement of the communitys
goals for the sites redevelopment and defines the direction for
the redevelopment program. It describes a physical, social, envi-
ronmental. economic and regulatory framework to guide devel-
opment of the site over the next several decades. The frame-
work is intended to endure over many years and provides die
context within which private investment and land ownership can
occur. The Development Plan is also intended to provide an
effective context for early decision-making regarding important
components of the redevelopment program. Although the Plan
provides exteasive information on tire topics mentioned above,
no plan can cover every topic in exhaustive detail, and a reason-
able amount of flexibility must be retained in any event when
addressing the buildout of a community over several decades.
The Development Plan has been adopted by the City Council
as an amendment to the Citys Comprehensive Plan. It is
supported by The Development Plan Resource Document
which contains illustrative examples as well as extensive
detailed technical support material. The Resource Document
was not intended to be adopted by the City Council.
SECTION II / INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
Shottft and FtorinskJ
2-S


SECTION II / INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
Stapleton Airport has
grown dramatically over
65 years. Capacity con-
straints and community
concerns led to the deci-
sion In 1985 to relocate
aviation activities.
Process History
Stapleton International Airport has served the Denver areas
commercial aviation needs for 65 years. Discussion of expan-
sion or replacement of Stapleton began in the 1970s and grew
more urgent in the early 1980s. The airport experienced signif-
icant growth in passenger volumes anil air traffic throughout
the 1970s and during the first half of the 1980s. Stapletons
primary' capacity constraint was the lack of adequate separation
between its runways to support dual arrival streams under
reduced visibility conditions. A significant portion of the
delays ex|joricneed at Stapleton resulted from this limitation.
With separation of 800 feet between the cast/wesl runways and
1.600 feel between the north/soulh runways, Stapleton fell far
short of the required 4.300 foot minimum. In addition, dra-
matic growth in aviation activity led to significant neighbor-
hood opposition to airport operations and expansion proposals.
In January of 1985, representatives of the City and County of
Denver and Adams County announced an agreement in principle
to relocate commercial aviation operations to a new site north
east of Stapleton. Subsequently, this plan and the agreements
required to implement it were approved by the voters of Adams
County in May of 1988 and by the voters of the City and County
of Denver in May of 1989. Stapletons closure at some time in
the first half of the 1990s thus became a virtual certainty.
Ayewncni ill Adams County Denver voten Supleum Stnplrtnn Stapleton Mayor Webb SRfylrt) SKF contracts Supletoo Suplcton
principle to build voters approve JJIffOkC 1KV. Tomorrow Citturo Rctfcvdopmt*ni Tomorrow appoints Partnership KWIMlItAItt* to Public Public
1)1 A (Drum .mil new lirpuit airpoil and Advisory Committee Foundation Concept Plan Ciiizm formalized Willi Utl Meetup Meeting
Album County) tun! cJtKWic of ck&uictif begin* mjti ISRF) adopted hy Advisory Devdflptntfiti Plan
Stapleton .Si.ijlcton created City Council Buanl
Stnpltruiat
Public
Meeting
2-6


Section II / Introduction and background
Relationship to the 1989 Denver
Comprehensive Plan
In 1989, the Mayor and City Council adopted a new
Comprehensive Plan that contains the communitys vision for
the future and identifies broad policies, priorities and specific
actions intended to move the city toward that vision. Because
of the size and complexity of the city, the plan cannot contain
sufficient detail on every neighborhood or issue in the city.
More focused direction is provided through detailed neighbor-
hood or subarea plans, such as this plan for Stapleton, or func-
tional plans, such as the Parks Master Plan. Each plan must he
consistent with the overall direclion of the Comprehensive Plan
and is reviewed by the Planning Board and adopted by the City
Council as an amendment to the Comprehensive Plan. Each
plan is then used to guide decision-making about the area.
In the Compreheasive Plan, Denver citizens expressed their
vision for the city: "the fundamental thing we want Denver to
both be and become is a city that's liveable for all its people."
The Comprehensive Plan identified ten core goals related to
Denvers economic, environmental and social needs.
Specifically, these core goals are:
1. Stimulate the economy
2. Beautify the City and preserve its history
3. Protect, enhance and integrate a city of neighborhoods
4. Educate all of Denvers residents with excellence
5. Clean the air. now
6. Meet expanding transportation needs, efficiently, cleanly,
economically and innovativcly
7. Help the disadvantaged help themselves
8. Revise land use controls, streamline the procedures
9. Celebrate tlte Citys arts, culture anti ethnic diversity
.Staple run
plihlk
Meeting
ConHilunH Draft Development
cmnplric technical Plan miIwhiicU
waA for for Approval
Drvrioftnmi Plan
Planning
Hoard wurk
version
PI inning
Down! puNft'
hearing
Draft Doclrpmciii Planning
LifcUl} aiUmiittaJ BiranJ
fnr icvicvr Rmxithietuljiiw
tu L'llj Council
City Council
first finding of
Development
Plan
CH> Council City Council
final reading. Decision
pubbe hearing. rt&anling !*
and approval of Development
Development Plan Entity
MipH/ftniKil
ippumis
Devefcipiikcni
Emil) Botuil


Section II / Introduction and Background
After nearly six
YEARS OF COMMUNITY
EFFORT* AU OF THE PAR-
TICIPANTS ARE READY TO
COMMIT TO A VISION AND
BEGIN TAKING THE STEPS
NECESSARY TO REALIZE
THAT VISION.
The final recommendations of die Stapleton Development Plan
seek lo lie responsive to each of these cone goals and describe
how they can be advanced on the Stapleton site. The
Development Plan directly supports the Comprehensive Plan
goals through its emphasis on expanding the depth and diver-
sity of Denvers job base; restoring natural areas on site and
designating an extensive portion of the site for parks and open
space; creating diverse, walkable urban neighborhoods: recon-
necting and supporting die health of neighborhoods adjacent to
the site; providing public transit, bicycle and pedestrian alterna-
tives to increase mobility and reduce dependence on die per-
sonal automobile; linking job creation on site with training and
skill development opportunities for low income and minority
populations in the surrounding community; reinforcing the cen-
tral role of education and civic uses and spaces in the organiza-
tion of neighborhoods; pursuing innovative approaches to land
use controls and regulatory mechanisms; and pursuing coopera-
tive activities such as tmil coastruction. open space development
and neighborhood rehabilitation with Aurora and Commerce City.
Stapleton Tomorrow
Planning for the future of the Stapleton property liegan in 1989
with the formation of a group of 35 citizens to direct a large-
scale community planning exercise known as Stapleton
Tomorrow. Over the course of nearly two years, Stapleton
Tomorrow sought input from a broad spectnim of Denver area
citizens regarding the most desirable approaches to redevelop-
ment of the Stapleton site. Public interest covered a variety of
issues, but the predominant concerns included the sites poten-
tial to address job creation, open space and recreation, and cul-
tural opportunities.
In 1991, the Stapleton Tomorrow work culminated in the cre-
ation of a concept plan for Stapleton reuse. The concept plan
emphasized economic development, positive impacts on adja-
cent neighborhoods, enhanced environmental quality, high
standards of urban design, educational and cultural opportuni-
ties. and the generation of revenue lo support airport revenue
objectives. Tlie Stapleton Tomorrow concept plan was adopted
by the Denver City Council in June of 1991.
Work on the Stapleton Development Plan has built on the
foundation established by the Stapleton Tomorrow Concept
Plan. Hie objectives identified in 1991 continue to enjoy broad
community support. Adjustments have been made to respond
to cliangcd circumstances, such as the closure and conversion of
Lowry Air Force Base to a significant civilian educational cam-
pus. Additional areas nf emphasis have been explored in the
course of creating a more complete development program for
the site. The dibits of the last two years have:
developed a detailed site-wide drainage plan
produced a more detailed physical Development Plan tlutl
empliasiz.es mixed use communities; wtilkable scale; a balance
between jobs and housing; and a diverse open space system;
made the redevelopment program more responsive to the
site's physical, social and market context;
given greater priority to sustainable approaches to resource
management and economic and social development;
stressed environmentally related technologies, pnxlucls anil
services as an important element of the Stapleton economic base;
advocated new forms of institutional structures mid the cre-
ation of an environment that promotes teclinological and social
innovation.
Tlie 1995 Stapleton Development Plan replaces the Stapleton
Tomorrow Concept Plan adopted in 1991,
2-8


Section II / Introduction and Background
City and Coiinty/Stapleton Redevelopment
Foundation Partnership
Following completion of the Stapleton Tomorrow process.
City ami County staff began focusing on initial elements of
the redevelopment program. In 1993. die City and County
entered into a partnership agreement with the Stapleton
Redevelopment Foundation (SRF). file SRF is a nonprofit
501(e)(3) corporation established by community leaders to
assist the City and County in maximizing the opportunities
provided by the closure and reuse of the Stapleton site. The
SRF has raised approximately $3 million from foundations,
corporations and individuals to support its activities and
redevelopment objectives.
Working with City and County elected officials and staff, the
SRF agreed to lake responsibility foi management and the
majority of funding of the creation of a development plan and
physical and financial development program for the Stapleton
site, rhe SRF also agreed to assist the City and County in
defining a long-term management structure for the Stapleton
redevelopment program and in pursuing desirable first-phase
projects and demonstration opportunities.
The City and County of Denver has contributed approximately
$75().IXX) and considerable staff support from numerous City and
County agencies to the Development Plan process. Primary staff
support has been provided by the Mayors Office of Economic
Development, die Planning and Community Development
Office, the Department of Parks and Recreation, and the
Department of Aviation through the Stapleton 2000 office.
Citizens Advisory Board
Redevelopment activities, including creation of the
Development Plan, have been overseen by a Citizens Advisory
Board (CAB) appointed by the Mayor in early 1993. The
Board includes 42 members representing a variety of perspec-
tives and constituencies, including business, neighborhood and
professional associations. Board members have devoted hun-
dreds of hours to preparation and review of material created for
the Development Plan, as well as participation in an extensive
community outreach effort.
Technical Consulting Team
The SRF and the City and County established a Development
Plan team of technical consultants representing a variety or
skills such as planning, architecture, landscape architecture,
urban design, civil engineering, transportation planning and
engineering, environmental sciences, market and financial
analysis and project management. Team members included
firms and individuals from the local community and across the
country. Work on the Development Plan commenced in the
fall of 1993 and concluded in November of 1994.
The Development Plan is
the result of a partnership
between the City and
County of Denver, the
Stapleton Redevelopment
Foundation and the
Citizens Advisory Board.
The work included three phases. Analysis, Options and Preferred
Plan. During the Analysis Phase, the consulting team worked
over three months to understand the physical, economic, social
anil environmental characteristics of the site and its surroundings.
All relevant prior planning efforts were also reviewed, such as
ilic Comprehensive Plan, (he Stapleton Tomorrow Plan and
adjoining neighborhood plans.
As a result of the Analysts Phase, the SRF, City and County,
CAB and consulting team adopted a set of principles intended
to guide creation of the Plan. The principles covered five spe-
cific subjects: Environmental Responsibility, Social Equity.
Economic Opportunity, Physical Design and Implementation.


Section II / Introduction and Background
The land lives in its
peoptR. It is more
ALIVE BECAUSE THEY
WORKED IT, BECAUSE
THEY LEFT THIS HILLSIDE
AND THAT CREEK BOTTOM
MARKED BY THEIR SHOV-
ELS AND AXES. THE
MEANING OF THIS PLACE
LIES IN THE ROUGH
WEIGHT OF THEIR HANDS,
IN THE IMPRINT OF THEIR
GUM-BOOTED TRAVEL.
JOHN HAINES
THE STARS, THE SNOW,
the Fire
FROM: THE THUNDER TREE
Lessons from an Urban
Wildland
BY ROBERT MICHAEL PYLE
Districts Option
Neighborhoods Option
2*10
The team also developed a set of framework drawings describ-
ing the sites drainage, open space and natural features, trans-
portation systems and potential patterns of urbanization. In
addition, a preliminary kind allocation and development pro-
gram was prepared.
During the Options Phase, the team developed three distinct
options for the direction ihe preferred plan should take. Each
option accommodated the preliminary land use program and
reflected adherence to the principles adopted during the
Analysis Phase. The Options Phase concluded with Lite selec-
tion of a preferred option, i.e. the option most responsive to the
adopted principles and Analysis Phase findings.
During the final phase. Preferred Plan, the preferred option was
further tested for tecluiical and economic feasibility. The
Preferred Plan was refined to produce Ihe basis for the
Development Plan presented here.
Community Outreach
During Lhe preparation of this Development Plan, more than
100 community presentations and meetings were held, a
number of which were televised. Four general public work-
shops provided status reports on the Plans progress and col-
lected feedback on interim products. Additional presentations
and public hearings were held as part of the final adoption of
the Development Plan by llie Denver Planning Board and
City Council.
All of the participants in this process, including stuff and com-
munity representatives, remain committed to the belief that the
Stapleton site can make an exceptional contribution to
Denvers long-term future. After nearly six years of commu-
nity effort, all of the participants arc ready to commit to a
vision and begin taking the steps necessary to realize that
vision. With closure of Stapleton as an operating airport, this
enormous asset can begin to be transformed to address a new
generation of community needs. This Development Plan is
intended to provide a roadmap.




SECTION III / CONTEXT
III. CONTEXT
A. National and International
Context
The redevelopment of Stapleton comes at a time of tremendous
national and international flux. The speed and extent of social,
economic and environmental change is remarkable. The iron
curtain has crumbled, ethnic tumioil has increased, a truly
world marketplace is emerging, telecommunications technol
ogy is shrinking the planet, and global population growth and
environmental deterioration threaten the basic capacity of the
planet to support life.
Decisions regarding redevelopment of the Stapleton site may
not by themselves change any of these trends, The primary
objectives and circumstances shaping the redevelopment pro-
gram will appropriately be local. At the same time, Stapletons
future must be considered in this broader context. The redevel-
opment of this property should be pari of the Denver commu-
nity's response to the challenges and opportunities presented
by this world context. How will wc respond? What factors
will play the greatest role in influencing the type of community
we build, the products and services we produce and the social
institutions we rely upon?
1. Environmental Challenges
The world is literally reeling under the combined impacts of
population growth and resource depletion. The potential for
significant global climate change and irreversible losses of bio-
diversity are increasingly preoccupying the attention of the sci-
entific community. In the first half of the next century, the
worlds population will surpass 10 billion. Long before that
point has been reached, the worlds supply of cropland, range-
land and forest will have fallen on a per capita basis by more
than 25 percent.
Third world nations arc rapidly emulating the production and
resource consumption patterns of the industrialized first
world. In 1950, seven of the ten largest metropolitan areas in
the world were in the first world. By the year 2000, seven of
the ten largest metropolitan areas in the world will be in the
third world. Mexico City will lead the list at 25 million plus.


SECTION III / CONTEXT
Mexico Cily, Sao Paulo and Jakarta alone will have more
people than New York, London, Tokyo. Paris, Shanghai,
Buenos Aires, Chicago, Moscow, Calcutta and Los Angeles
had combined in 1950. Replication of U.S. or European pat-
terns of resource use. energy consumption, and waste genera-
tion holds the potential for environmental catastrophe of
enormous proportions.
Cities as diverse as Hanover, Germany, Curitiba, Brazil and
Chattanooga, Tennessee are already among those dial have
moved environmental protection and sustainable development
to the top of their agendas in response to these trends. The
United States and Denver will not he immune to the global
pressures resulting from |x>pulatiwi growth, resource depiction,
global climate change and fcxxl shortages.
Stapleton reuse must begin to address the need for greater effi-
ciency in the use of natural resources, reduced impacts on the
natural environment and development of the technologies urul
practices tlua will allow the first and third worlds to develop
economically without surpassing the capacities of the planet's
natural resources.
2. Economic Challenges
Global markets and competition have provided .significant eco-
nomic opportunities for United States businesses. These trends
have also stripped Americans of much or the economic secu-
rity we once took for granted. Average wages in the United
Stales have remained relatively stagnant for most of the past 20
years. The average U.S. manufacturer and producer of goods
consumes twice the energy and material per unit of output as
our next closest competitors. Germany and Japan. In the
United States, the gap between rich and poor has continued to
widen. On an international scale, this gap has grown even more
profound. In 1960. the richest 20 percent of the world's popu-
lation absorbed 70 percent of global income. By 1989, this
proportion had increased to 83 percent. The poorest 20 percent
in 1989 received only 1.4 percent of global income.
Economic trends have placed increased significance on effi-
ciency, trade and workforce skills. Unlike periods of economic
expansion in the early portions of this century, the modem
economy will provide limited income opportunities and little
security to those without significant skills. The globalization
of labor markets lias served to compound this problem.
Changes in Denvers economy reflect nationwide trends. Job
creation is shifting to the high technology and service indus-
tries that demand more highly skilled workers. Increasing
globalization of the economy is forcing businesses to be highly
competitive, particularly in terms of labor casts. As the econ-
omy shifts, there is a growing need to retrain workers and for
workers to he able to change jobs. Opportunities for life long
learning are important to maintaining productivity and compet-
itiveness for individuals and communities. These demands are
particularly relevant to the economic well being of minority
communities. With increasing frequency, businesses and edu-
cational institutions are using experiential learning in the work-
place to reinforce the importance of formal education. These
trends present challenges and opportunities for Stapleton.
How can the local workforce and Denver's job base be devel-
oped to compete in this new environment? Where are the
employers responding to these challenges? What resources
are available to expand the skills of those least prepared to
participate in this new economy?
There is growing evidence that many businesses are rescinding
to these challenges. Corporations in Colorado and worldwide
are pursuing gains in efficiency and environmental performance.
The 3M Corporation has established the target of eliminating 9U
percent of waste from all of its production processes by 2(XK).
Its ultimate gixil is to achieve a zero waste state. Volkswagen is
designing all of the parts of its cars to be recycled, and experi-
menting with the first plant to disassemble and recycle automo-
biles. S. C. Johnson has made great .strides in reducing
packaging waste and increasing the recyclability of its products.


Section ill t contest
Employers throughout the world are focusing more on elimi-
nating waste and maximizing their investment in their labor
force. Stapleton must develop an environment and capacities
that respond to these interests.
3. Social Challenges
America, like much of the world, is also experiencing signifi-
cunl social change. American society is struggling with the
challenges of diversity. Immigration, racial and economic divi-
sions and a loss of confidence in virtually all forms of institu-
tional authority are realities for every major urban area. We are
creating walled communities and edge cities" at the same
lime we are experimenting with transit-oriented and so-called
lien-traditional communities that reflect more traditional commu-
nity patterns of the late 19th and early 20th century. We arc rein-
venting forms of government, education and tlie corporation.
We are seeking new approaches, less bureaucracy and turning
more frequently to community-based third sector" institutions.
More Americans now live in suburbs than cities and rural areas
combined. The urbanization of the suburb has brought with it
many of the same problems of crime, violence and physical
deterioration that caused many people to leave central cities in
the first place. Isolated suburban enclaves, insulated from
some of these forces, have failed to satisfy the desires of many
for a greater sense of community. Even as technology frees
more people to perfonn work outside of traditional urban areas,
we face the .significant challenge of remaking much of the
urban landscape we have fashioned over Lhe last 50-100 years.
How will Stapleton provide a model of urban communities
that work? Can it offer an alternative that accommodates
diversity and promotes participation in the life of the commu-
nity? Are there better answers to urban ills than escapism or
walled communities? The development of Stapleton as an
integral part of the northeast Denver community will require
a direct and thoughtful response to these challenges.
B. Community Context
1. Local Resurgence
The Denver area has much to be happy about in 1995. After a
major regional recession in the mid-1980s, Denvers economy
has experienced a significant recovery. Denver is at or near the
lop nationally in tern is of every economic indicator.
Unemployment remains relatively low, retail sales mid home-
building activity arc growing and new businesses and residents
continue to be attracted to the area.
Denver in 1995 offers
many of the qualities
that distinguish the
small number of truly
vital, livable urban
centers in the world.
By national standards, the quality of life in the Denver area is
also extremely high. Denver lias a highly educated population,
enviable climate, substantial recreational and cultural resources
and relatively alTordablc and diverse housing opportunities.
Recent investments in civic infrastructure include a new inter-
national aiiport. central library, baseball stadium, convention
center, stock show facilities, light rail system and expanded
theater complex. There is renewed enetgy and investment in
downtown and the Iaiwer Downtown Historic District. Hie
Central Platte Valley will soon host the reloaded Elitchs
amusement park, a new aquarium and a new sports arena and
production studio. Ollier areas of the city, including Cherry
Creek, the southeast 1-25 corridor and a number of neighbor-
hood centers, are experiencing a similar resurgence.
3-4


In many respects, the people of the Denver area are very fortu-
nate. Denver in 1995 offers many of the qualities that distin-
guish the small number of truly vital, livable urban centers in
the world. Despite all of these strengths. Denver faces many of
the same problems that plague cities around the world.
2. luteal Challenges
Denver is struggling with a variety of environmental, economic
and social problems dial threaten to undermine its other .suc-
cesses. For example:
Growth and Environmental Pressures Colorado is a
beautiful and fragile environment. Population growth, loss of
open space and high rates of automobile usage threaten
Denvers physical environment. Despite recent improvements,
regional air quality is likely to once again decline. Facli day.
Denver area motorists drive more than 30 million miles, or the
equivalent of 1,200 times around the circumference of the earth.
Urbanization continues to reduce habitat tor wildlife, eliminate
views and threaten water quality, hi recent years, die regions
population has grown by 2-3% annually, and Is projected to reach
3 million by the year 2025. Denver and tlie slate of Colorado
face a significant challenge in coping widi diese realities.
Stapleton must provide an opportunity to accommodate
regional growth in a fashion more efficient and far less dam-
aging than continuing urbanization of the outer edges of the
metropolitan area.
Poverty Despite Denvers relative alTIuence, die gap between
the haves and havc-nols continues to grow. In 1989, 17 per-
cent of Denver residents lived in poverty, and another 19 per-
cenl were defined as being on the brink of poverty. For people
of color, the rate of poverty is two to four times greater than for
whites. Between 1979 and 1989, poverty increased in 60 out
of 78 Denver neighborhoods. For children, die statistics arc
even grimmer. Approximately 27 percent of all children in
Denver live in poverty. In 1990, only 58 percent of children
in Denver lived with two married parents. Fully 43 percent of
all single parent families lived in poverty.
Section III I Context
As one of the largest urban
Infill projects in the country,
Stapleton redevelopment
offers an opportunity to
enhance the strengths of the
neighborhoods which have
grown up around It, by pro-
viding employment and Job-
training opportunities,
extensive parks, trails and
open space, and a diversity
of housing options.
Description of income,
Denver vs. suburbs: 1989
w*
tsa
BOV.
Hnanrcfti Hrwhntt tbuetati
nxn* 8M nx*rabfl*MB*n atcotne^fMlx
Kan 1,'jrw 13? wit atm frantwofrr**
matonicomc frnmKt KnitBttei
3-5


Section IM / Context
Stapleton must provide opportunities for those at or near
the poverty level to earn a reasonable income and improve
their lives.
Job Loss Over the last fifteen to twenty years, the job base of
the metropolitan area has grown substantially. In Denver, how-
ever, there has been a significant shift in die job base and a loss
of jobs for those with the lowest skill levels. In the 1980s,
employment in industries that offer the greatest percentage of
jobs to workers with less than a high school education declined
sixteen percent. While average wage levels increased in tlie l9K0s
hy four percent in die metro area alter adjusting tor inflation, wage
levels declined in three out of four of tlie industries employing the
highest percentage of low-skilled or unskilled workers. Of Ihe
new jobs being created in the regional economy, the majority arc
in high-skill sectors and the vast ma jority of these jobs are being
created in tlie suburbs outside of Denver.
Stapleton must respond to these trends, Ixtth by capturing a great-
er share of regional employment growth and by providing entry
level and skill development opportimities. Stapleton provides land
tit accommodate employment opportunities on a scale largely
unamilable to ihe City and County in the last two decades.
In Denver, however, there
has been a significant
shift in the job base and a
loss of jobs for those with
the lowest skill levels.
Demographic Change The City and County of Denver's
population is growing older and more ellinieally diverse. The
City and County's population also tends to have lower average
incomes, more single person households and fewer households
with schixil age children than surrounding suburbs. Denver has
also experienced a loss of middle income groups. Suburban job
growth and perceptions regarding tlie quality of public educa-
tion and personal safety have contributed to these changes. In
addition, technology has greatly increased the ability of people
to work at home or at locations far removed from traditional
centers of employment. Population shifts are reflected in the
demographic makeup of the. Denver Public School population
and the changing demand for housing. Unless these ebunges
are altered, Denver's schools will increasingly serve only the
poorest families who cannot afford the costs of private educa-
tion. Tlie loss of middle class families also reduces Denver's
tax base, making it more dilficult to financially support public
education and services. As the population ages and more
women enter the workforce, demand has also increased for a
variety of services such as childcare and eldercare that hardly
existed in die not-to-distuni past,
Stapleton must respond to these demographic changes by
providing a mix of housing products, supporting diverse com-
mumties, offering a broad range of community services and
providing viable alternatives for m'uldle class families.
Loss of a Sense of Community Many neighborhoods are
affected by increased levels of youth violence, nsing school
dropout rates and the disintegration of community structure,
liven residents of affluent suburban neighborhoods express con-
cern for die isolation and loss of connection or commitment to
community that many modem neighborhoods engender. Both the
urban and suburban community model show signs of failing to
satisfy the needs of families and individuals. Demographic
changes liavc compounded these concerns. The traditional
American Itousehold now represents a minority of tlie population in
most urban communities. Roughly one-third of our population is
too young, too old, too poor or physically unable to drive a cur, yet
our communities continue to be shaped dramatically by die auto-
mobile. Our notions of community mast be updated and adapted
to respond to these changed circumstances and new challenges.
Stapleton must respond by siqqmrting successful communities
that promote individual involvement and address resident con-
cerns regarding personal safety, the quality of education and
other community characteristics.


section III / Context
3. Local Market Conditions
[/and Availability
Upon closure, the Stapleton site will introduce approximately
4,700 acres of new, developable land to the regional real estate
market. The regional market is composed of six counties:
Adams. Arapahoe, Boulder, Denver, Douglas and Jefferson.
In 1988 there were over 472,000 acres of undeveloped land
within this area. Currently, about 25% of this land, or 115,130
acres, consists of 58 projects in excess of 300 acres which are
zoned and approved for development. Thirty of these projects,
covering 67,630 acres, arc under development, and the remain-
ing 28 projects, covering 47,500 acres, have not yet com-
menced development. Of the 30 projects under development,
only three are more than 75% complete.
I .and Absorption
Over the last 30 years, private sector development absorbed an
average of 4,700 acres annually within the regional market. Tlie
geographic distribution of this activity was approximately 37% to
tlie southeast, 25%> to the northwest. 20% to the .southwest and
18% to the northeast. Given die existing supply of land in the
regional market, and Ihis average annual historical absorption, it is
clear that Stapleton will take several decades to develop.
Market Summaries
Following are summaries of each real estate market sector in the
Denver region. Because of Stapletons magnitude, it Is likely
that each sector, with the passible exception of lodging, will
have a significant role in the sites build out.
Residential Current new construction is close to historic aver-
ages and substantially above the construction levels of the last
five years. Construction is expected lo continue at current rates
(about 16,000 units annually) as households continue to migrate
to Colorado and interest rates remain relatively low.
Office- Current vacancy rates arc still high, at 19.1%. Annual
absorption has averaged 1.9 million square feel since 1980, but
has varied substantially. Current office rents are substantially
below revenue requirements which would support new con-
struction.
Industrial Annual absorption for industrial product has aver-
aged 1.4 million square feel since 1980. Current vacancy rates
average 8.1% and arc declining. Rental rates are still low relative
lo rales necessary to support new construction. However, as
vacancy rates decline, lease rates are increasing and new construc-
tion is likely to follow.
Retail Recent new construction has been primarily for large
box users, such as K-Mart and Wal-Mart, and the factory out-
let malt in Douglas County. Annual absorption has averaged
1.2 million square feet since 1980. Vacancies in most
regional malls are 10% or less. Vacancies in older strip cen-
ters are coasiderably higher. The average vacancy rale among
all leasable space is 13.4% and declining. Retail construction
is expected to increase consistently with increases in the num-
ber of households.
Privately Developed acres
AVERAGE Annual Adsorption:
1960-1988, SIX COUNTY
Regional Market
2.000 --------------------
Developed and
UNDEVELOPED ACRES! 1988
SIX COUNTY REGIONAL MARKET
350,000
Ujijj
tnrm
200.000

1 >31,nOO
Mart**** ND/ftme* SoitfivM Baulwi
DmJiiwnpad
3-7


Section III / Context
Lodging Lodging vacancies are relatively low. While there
is market demand for new construction in some portions of the
metropolitan area such as downtown and adjacent to Denver
International Airport, die difficulties associated with current
lodging mom fates and securing financing have discouraged
new construction to date.
City and County of Denver Sites
The Stapleton site is one of several sites located within the City
and County of Denver which could attract the above referenced
uses. The planning process recognized other significant City
and County of Denver development efforts and tried to distin-
guish the Stapleton site as much as possible from them.
The other most significant City and County of Denver sites are
the downtown area, the Central Platte Valley, die former Lowry
Air Force Base, the Airport Gateway, the Denver Technological
Center (Denver's portion). Cherry Creek area, Monlbello.
Green Valley Ranch and the Southwest Denver Grant Ranch
annexation. Each of these sites plays a distinctive role in the
City and County;
Downtown: Downtown is the metropolitan areas most sig-
nificant employment, entertainment and cultural center. As a
major visitors center, it conrains numerous hotels, tourist attrac-
tions and a convention center. As the region's hugest employ-
ment center, its product market emphasizes government,
financial, legal and insurance services. As the regions cultural
center it features the performing and visual arts and historical
and educational institutions. There is also a growing number
of housing units downtown that support retail, restaurant and
entertainment facilities.
Central Platte Valley: Hie Central Platte Valley is planned
as a mixed use development supportive of, but not competitive
with, downtown. It will provide tourisi/regional sports and
entertainment attractions to support convention center business,
hotel occupancies, retail, restaurants and entertainment. It will
also contain parks, housing and locations lor downtown events.
Light industrial, back office and showrooms are intended to
provide support services to downtown businesses. Transit and
transportation facilities will improve access to downtown.
Overall, the Central Platte Valley will play a significant role in
increasing Denver's tax base.
Ijnwry: Redevelopment of the former Lowry Air Force Base
will include mixed use infill development that is supportive of
the surrounding neighborhoods. Ixiwry will host residential,
neighborhood and regional open .space and recreational facilities,
an educational campus including a community college and UCD
facilities, as well as business training and an office park campus.
Gateway Area: Tire Gateway area is 4,500 acres of unde-
veloped land adjacent to die entry to D1A. This new mixed-
use community will include hotels, light industry, businesses,
and residential development. It will also contain retail uses,
parks, recreational areas and open space to serve Gateway
residents and adjoining neighborhoods. Like die Central
Platte Valley, it will also serve to increase the City and
County of Denver's tax base.
Denver Tech Center: As the metropolitan areas most suc-
cessful suburban office park, the City and County of Denver
portion of the Tech Center will continue to be a major employ-
ment center complementary to downtown. As die Tech Center
grows, il will also provide complementary residential and
commercial uses.
Cherry Creek: The Cherry Creek area serves a variety of
market needs. It contains a significant comparison shopping
mall, specialty shops, restaurants, neighborhood retail, office,
and high-end housing in adjoining neighborhoods.
Other Developing Areas: Areas of die City and County that
still have open, developable land must also lie considered.
These areas include Montbello. Green Valley Ranch and die
Southwest Denver Grant Ranch annexauon area. These areas
can provide a variety of residential, commercial, industrial and
office sites.
3-8


Scction III t Context
Stapleton's Competitive Position
Positioning Stapleton not only requires an understanding of
regional conditions and the role of other Denver sites, hut an
understanding of the sites competitive position relative to the resi-
dential. office, industrial, retail, lodging and institutional nutrkets.
Residential: The southern por-
tion of Stapleton in the near term
is the most viable for residential
development. Other residential
projects are dependent on the
development of major amenities.
These areas will accommodate a variety of product types
including high-end. as long as appropriate amenities are pro-
vided. Among the developments that are likely to be providing
housing opportunities in Denver at the same time are Ixtwry.
the Airport Gateway, Central Platte Valley. Montbello and
Green Valley Ranch. Significant housing supply will also be
added in suburban areas such as Jefferson, Arapahoe, Douglas
and Boulder counties.
Office: Stapleton is well posi-
tioned to attract single-tenant
owner/asers who seek location
advantages, maintain average
wage levels, and do not desire a
location in an established office
center. The principle supply of
potential sites serving these uses
currently lies along the 1-25 corridor and the US-36 corridor, as
well as in downtown.
Industrial: Stapletons prox-
imity to rail service, the inter-
state highway system and DIA
will position it well with
respect to industrial develop-
ment. The 1-70 corridor cur-
rently contains more than 50
percent of the metropolitan areas total market for these uses. The
site can also compete favorably tor high-quality research and
development uses, if an attractive environment can be created.
1'5
1 "
In general, the northeast
* v-w quadrant of Denver is underserved
for retail purposes. There is cur-
rently a limited set of opportunities
for convenience shopping, as well
as purchases of clothing, electron-
ics and major household items.
Stapleton and the Gateway area
will increase the size of this market
over time. Stapleton may be able to respond to a portion of this
regional demand. Most on-site retail uses are anticipated to be
at the community scale. Since this type of retailing will primar-
ily serve newly developed residential areas, it should not com-
pete significantly with existing neighborhood centers, the East
Colfax business district in Denver, or Original Aurora.
Lodging: More than 4.000
hotel and motel rooms now lie
within 1/2 mile of Stapletons
perimeter. The site is therefore
unlikely to attract new invest-
ment in lodging facilities
unless a regional attraction is
developed.
Institutions: The present
and future; growth of a num-
ber of local institutions is
constrained by a lack of
available acreage at or adja-
cent to their current sites.
The Denver Botanic
Gardens, Denver Zoo. Museum of Natural Histoiy and University
Health Sciences Center provide just a few examples. Stapleton
provides a potentially appropriate site for expansion through satel-
lite facilities, or even long-tenm relocation. It will be important to
retain flexibility to accommodate the long-term needs of regional
educational, cultural and other institutions as they materialize.
"Industrial ecology
CONTEMPLATES NOT
JUST THE REMEDIATION
OF ISOLATED ENVIRON*
MENTAL INSULTS, BUT
THE RE-ENGINEERING OF
the Industrial
revolution to provide
THE TECHNOLOGICAL
oasis FOR a long-term.
STABLE, AND SUSTAIN-
ABLE ECONOMY.
Brad allenby
Vice President -
Research, AT&T
3-9


Section III / Context
C. SITE CONTEXT
Site History
The land where vStapleton Airport now sits has seen human
.activity, in some form or another, for thousands of years.
Archeological Evidence
Two archeological sites near Stapleton have yielded clues to the
areas history. At Henderson Hill, a low grassy knoll just north
of Stapleton, archeologists have discovered a variety of prehis-
toric artifacts, including stone flakes from spearheads and
knives, fire-cracked rocks from cooking hearths, and a hammer
and grinding stones once used for cooking. The artifacts were
prohably left between 3.500 B.C. and 1,000 A.D. by Archaic
Indians, who hunted game and gathered plants for food.
A second archeological site was discovered along Toll Gate
Creek at East Iliff Avenue and Chambers Road. The remains
of a man and a boy found at the site were dated 670 A.D.
Stapleton Airport is just the
most recent of many land
uses on former prairie grass-
lands. Before aviation, this
land supported extensive
wildlife populations, native
hunter-gatherers, dry land and
irrigated farming, dairy opera-
tions and gunpowder manu-
facturing.
Native American Activity and Pioneer Settlement:
During the early 1500s, Native Americans reached the
Stapleton area in tightly organized agricultural units. The
arrival of Spanish conquistadors in the southern mountains of
Colorado brought horses to the region in the mid-1700s.
In the early 1800s, the Arapahoe and their allies, the
Cheyenne, spread south and west from Canada, the Dakotas
anti Minnesota, periodically warring with the Ute and
Comanche. The Arapahoe near Stapleton were completely
nomadic, having no pennanent settlements, nor any fixed
dwellings. They lived exclusively in tents made of buffalo
skias. The Arapahoe also depended on the buffalo for food;
they did not practice agriculture.
At the same time, many pioneers hoping to escape the
poverty and hind shortages of the east saw their Eldorado
in the prairies east of Denver. By the end of the nineteenth
centuiy, die area was extensively populated with farmers.
3-10


Section III / Context
Industrial Development:
In the 1920s, when Mayor Ben Stapleton considered the Sand
Creek site for a new municipal airport, the area supported not
only ranchers and homesteaders but several industrial users as
well. The Standard Meat and Livestock Company, the Dupont
DeNumours Powder Company, and the Atlas Powder
Company all hail facilities on the site as did Windsor Dairy,
die largest operation of its type in Colorado.
Tlie vast Sand Hills prairie had already begun to change. High
Line Canal was in place, serving many business and agricul-
tural interests south and east of Denver. Smaller water projects
abounded. Rcmnunts of this irrigation system, such as Bluff
Lake and the Sand Creek Lateral. are still visible. The urban
neighborhoods of Original Aurora, Montclair and Park Hill
were beginning development and thousands of trees were
being planted. The Denver park and parkway system had been
laid out, but slopped short of Stapleton.
Aviation Use:
When the Denver Municipal Airport was dedicated in 1929, it
was intended to consolidate the growing general and commer-
cial aviation interests in the metropolitan area. The initial site
covered 345 acres soutlieast of 32nd and Syracuse Streets.
While improved over time, the aviation complex remained
south of Sand Creek and bounded by Syracuse Street.
Montview Boulevard and 1 lavana Street until the great
expansions of the jet age.
World War U brought lasting changes to Denver Municipal
Airport and the surrounding area. Wiirtime mobilization
resulted in the construction of Lowry Airfield, Fitzsimons
Amiy Medical Center and the Rocky Mountain Arsenal.
The arrival of the jet age in 1959 prompted a quarter-centuiy of
expansion for Stapleton and the entire air travel industry. Land
acquisitions to the east and the north gave Stapleton most of
the 4,700 acres it covers today. Neighborhoods soon bordered
the airport on eveiy side.
WHICH SITE WILL BECOME CITY AIRPORT?
The Denver street grid and
parkway system organized
the eastern expansion of
the city and reached the
current Stapleton site by
the early 1820s.
3-1 1


SECTION III / CONTEXT
tfC 'V"'
V.t
The Denver Mwicipal
Airport opened for
business in 1929 on
the Sand Hills site
east of Parte Hill
considered by many
to be too remote. It
was renamed after
Mayor Ben Stapleton
in 1944.
Changes in Regional
Land Use
Northeast Denver is now experiencing a
shift as dramatic as any in its modern his-
tory. In addition to the conversion of the
Rocky Mountain Arsenal to a National
Wildlife Refuge. the I.ROO-acre Lowry
Air Training Center, located nine blocks
to the south, has closed and is now in the
early stages of redevelopment. The
, advent of Denver International Airport
has opened up an additional 4,500 acres
- of land for development in the Airport
Gateway three miles east of Stapleton. In central Denver,
new infrastructure will allow the several hundred acres of
reclaimed rail yard in the Central Platte Valley to develop as
well. As these sites are reclaimed and the process of urban-
ization unfolds, a complete transformation of Denver will
occur with profound regional implications.
Surrounding Neighborhoods and Uses:
The Stapleton site is surrounded by many different neighbor-
hoods and land uses. These include Park Hill, East Montclair,
Original Aurora, Morris Heights. Monibello, the Rocky
Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area, Commerce City and
state and local correctional facilities. Each of these is dis-
cussed in more detail below.
Park Hill
The Park Hill neighborhood located to tlie west and southwest of
the site consists of4,058 acres. Single and multi-family residences
make up tlie largest land use in the neighborhood. Industrial/com-
mercial uses are located at the north end of the neighbor!rood
along Smith Road.
3-12
The Park Hill neighborhood has the distinction of being one of
ihe country's most successfiil self-integrated communities. Its
population is approximately 25,000.
East Montclair
East Montclair is located on the eastern edge of Denver, at the
Aurora city line. The neighborhood is bounded to the north
and south by the large, institutional uses at Stapleton Airport
and Lowry Air Force Base and contains primarily single and
multi-family residential uses. It is clearly defined by higher vol-
ume streets at its edges, including Quebec Street, 11th Avenue,
Yosemite Street and Montview Boulevard. 'Ihe Colfax Avenue
commercial corridor bisects the residential areas of East
Montclair. This historic main street" is currently experiencing
renewal in Denver, Aurora and l^kewood.
Original A urora
Original Aurora is located immediately cast of Denvers East
Montclair neighborhood, directly south of the Stapleton site.
The neighborhood is primarily comprised of single and multi-
family residential uses, with the exception of Colfax Avenue
which Is commercial. As an older neighborhood, it is cur-
rently the focus of several revitalization efforts within the City
of Aurora.
Morris Heights
Morris Heights is an Aurora neighborhood east of Stapleton
along Peoria Street. Business and industrial uses occur on both
sides of Peoria Street. Residential development is located east
of Peoria Street between Fitzsimons Amiy Medical Center and
Smith Road.
Monibello
Ihe Monibello neighborhood is bounded by 1-70 on the south,
56th Avenue on the north, Havana Street on the west and
Chambers Road on the cast. East of Peoria street, the neighbor-
hood is residential in character, witli slightly more than 5,600
single family homes and 1,250 multi-family units. Businesses
generally are located in the Peoria Street commercial area
south of Albrook Drive and in the Chambers Place Shopping
Center al Chambers Road and 48th Avenue. 'Ihe office and
industrial parks located between Peoria Street and Havana
Street provide more than 12,000 jobs. Montbcllo is the largest
of Denver's neighborhoods in both land area and population.


SECTION III / CONTEXT
National Wildlife Area
The 27 square mile Rocky Mountain Arsenal National
Wildlife Area surrounds the northern-most area of Stapleton on
three sides. Formerly the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, it is in the
process of being converter! to a national wildlife refuge.
Commerce City
Commerce City is an Adams County community which abuts
Stapleton on the northwest. Generally, Commerce City is
bounded by 48lh Avenue (N.li Park Hill) on the south. Quebec
Street on the east and the Platte River on the west. The south-
eastern and older area of Commerce City is immediately adja-
cent to Stapleton. The residential population of Commerce City
is approximately 16,000, and the area supports a significantly
greater number of jobs in manufacturing, distribution and
commercial uses.
Correctional Complex
Southeast of Stapleton near Smith Road is a correctional com-
plex containing the Denver County Jail and a State Diagnostic
Center. Efforts are under way to identify and minimize the
impact of the expansions on the reuse of the Stapleton site.
Expansion is planned for both the City and County and state
facilities on the site.
3-13


Section ill t context
In the early planning
STAGES OF THE AIRPORT,
MANY POSSIBLE SITES
WERE SUGGESTED. THE
Sand Creek site, some-
times CALLED "THE SAND
DUNES, OR "RATTLESNAKE
Hollow", was east of
Colorado Women's
college... The center of
THE PROPOSED TRACT OP
ROLLING, SANDY HILL5 WAS
at East 32nd Avenue
and Wabash Sikeei**
SCALE OF THE SITE
| Stapleton comprises approximately 4,700 acres
and Ls located within six miles of downtown
Denver. It is truly an urban infill project, hill one
of enormous size, approximately 7.5 square
miles. If the site (shown as red outline) was over-
laid unto the existing city, it would extend from
City Park south to Washington Park and include
the neighborhoods of City Park, North Capitol
Hill. East Colfax, Capitol Hill. Congress Park.
Country Club, Cherry Creek, Bonnie Brae.
Washington Park and West Washington Park, as
well as much of lire City of Glendale.
DESCRIPTION OF EVENTS
in 1927 in Stapleton
INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT:
The First Fifty Years
by Jeffrey B. Miller
3-14


£_ he Development Plan must recognize the opportunities amt
limitations presented by the scale and physical characteris-
tics of the site. As a single-purpose site for many decades, it
has many unique characteristics, the highlights of which are
briefly summarized below;
Hydrology All Stapleton runoff south of 1-70 flows into existing
creeks. North of 1-70 soils are sandy and absorb water readily. No
stream outfall occurs and there is no outfall to the north onto the
Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area.
Physiography Many areas of the site enjoy spectacular views of
downtown and the Rocky Mountains. An existing lake, two streams
and bluffs provide attractive natural environments. Distinct sand hills
patterning of interconnected low and high areas occurs on a limited
basis on the north part of the site.
Wildlife Habitat A variety of wildlife currently exists on the site.
The northern portion of the site serves as range and feeding
ground for birds or prey, prairie dog colonics and burrowing
owls. The Sand Creek Corridor provides habitat for deer, fox
and other animals.
Utilities Private utilities have been extended into the site to primar-
ily serve the terminal and the area surrounding it. The majority of
the site has no internal utility service but does have good utility ser-
vice up to its edge.
Environmental Contamination Activities on and off the airport
have contributed to several areas of surface, subsurface or groundwa-
ter contamination. The total area impacted is approximately five to ten
|iereent of flic entire site. Remediation activities are either ongoing or
planned for these areas.
section ill Context
A number of buildings on site also contain hazardous sub-
stances such as asbestos, PCBs or lead-based paint.
Assessment and remediation activities are ongoing.
Existing Buildings and Structures The site contains about
150 buildings and structures, including hangars, storage build-
ings. concourses, parking lots, rental car facilities, fuel farms
and lighting. Some of the buildings may have either short- or
long-term reuse potential, while others may have no reuse
potential and should be dcmolislted.
Airfields Runways, taxiways and apron areas cover over
1.000 acres of the site and are composed of multilayered mate-
rials dial may reach three to four feet in depth.
Access One roadway corridor. 1-70. crosses the 2'h mile wide
site. The interior of Stapleton is largely isolated from the sur-
rounding roadway network, but the site does have good access
to its perimeter on several sides.
These tuid other elements of the site characteristics are dis-
cussed in detail in the accompanying Development Plan
Resource Document. Each characteristic has specific implica-
tions for the final Development Plan.


Section 111 / Context
Site Character
During the Analysts phase of planning, the technical consulting
team established an understanding of the essential character of
the site which served as a building block for the creation of
Development Plan options, and the final Development Plan.
The she has many significant attributes which define its charac-
ter and provide opportunities to define its future.
As an edge site, where the city meets open land, an opportunity
exists to create a destination on the perimeter which is never-
theless an extension of the city, ;uid to explore new forms of
urban edges using open space systems, vegetation and wildlife
habitat, and historic regional development patterns. As an orig-
inal semi-arid sandhill and prairie environment, an opportunity
exists to reinforce the prairie setting with a new' landscape aes-
thetic and vocabulary of landscape prototypes adding a prairie
park system to the existing system of city and mountain parks.
As pan of a regional stream corridor system, Stapleton should
lake advantage of the sites natural features and systems in set-
ting I He tone and character of development and explore innova-
live approaches to (he use and management of water resources,
urban drainage and water quality Ireaimenl areas.
As a thoroughfare, the site is part of a larger transportation con-
text where various regional highway and rail routes pass through
or come logether. Lying directly between DIA and downtown
Denver. Stapleton can benefit from its relationship to both.
The Stapleton site has distinct places with distinct characters,
reinforced by the adjacent context. Therefore, it can accommo-
date neighborhoods and districts of many different activities
and uses, densities, access characteristics, park types ;uid char-
acter, each with clearly defined edges and boundaries.
Finally, as a former airport site, Stapleton is a reuse, remedia-
tion, reclamation and recycling project of unprecedented scale.
I.cgal Framework
The Stapleton site and its improvements are owned by the City
and County of Denver. The airport is an asset of the City and
Countys airport system, which is a financially self-sufficient
component of lire City and Countys overall structure.
Disposition of the site is subject to specific obligations that arise
from FAA grant conditions, commitments to airport system bond-
holders, lease agreements with tenant airlines and other sources.
In general, these obligations require that:
the City and County dispose of the Stapleton property in an
expeditioas but prudent fashion:
the net proceeds of disposition lie retained by the airport .system
to retire bonded indebtedness or otherwise support the require-
ments of the airport system;
the City ;uid County receive fair market value for land at the time
of its disposition (the only exceptions involve (a) property neces-
sary to support conventional public services; ami (h) property con-
veyed at less than fair market value that enhances the value of
remaining Stapleton parcels by a more than ulTselting amount).


IV. Community
Objectives and
Guiding
Principles


Section IV/ Community Objectives and
Guiding Principus
Stapletons
Appropriate
>
V
i
w
1' I
r I
Succeeding in the
Marketplace
Siurounding
Neighborhoods
Development mu!
environmental Challenges
4-2
IV. Community Objectives
and Guiding Principles
What do people want from Stapleton? What role can it play in
responding to the context described in the previous section?
What principles should guide its development? For nearly six
years, questions such as these have occupied the attention of
individuals within Denver and beyond.
Members of the community recognize the unique opportunity
that Stapleton presents. They are also quite aware of die many
challenges inherent in the transformation of such a large and
complex site over an extended period of time.
Major questions and Community
Objectives
Among the many important concerns identified by the commu-
nity are the following:
What is the appropriate role of the Stapleton site in the regional
economy and its relationship to other community centers?
Stapleton is expected to:
serve as a regional employment center that makes a positive
contribution to the economic base of the community (rather dian
simply relocates economic activity from one site to anodier)
be absorbed into the marketplace without undermining pri-
vate property values
complement rather than compete with other community cen-
ters such as downtown, the Central Platte Valley, the former
Lowry Air Force Base, DIA, the Gateway or surrounding
neighborhood business areas
position Denver to compete in increasingly global markets and
provide opportunities to capitalize on emerging technologies
address die need to directly link job creation on the site with
training and skill development opportunities for those currently
least able to take advantage of such opportunities


section tv / comnuNiTV Objectives and
ouioino Principles
How can Stapleton contribute to improvement of the environ-
ment for surrounding neighborhoods and increased access
twd opportunities for their residents?
Stapi kton is expected "m:
improve Uie neighborhood physical environment ;md
strengthen the identity of adjacent communities
increase resident access to jobs, business, education and cul-
tural opportunities
increase the supply of middle and upper end housing to
improve the diversity of housing options in the northeast area
improve public safety and reconnect long-separated
neighborhoods
provide amenities and services that can be shared by adjoin-
ing neighborhoods
ensure that the benefits of eliminating jet noise are not offset
by deterioration of the site and its surroundings during transition
provide continuing opportunities for meaningful citizen par-
ticipation throughout the life of the redevelopment program
How can Stapleton respond to the development and environ-
mental challenges we face locally and globally?
Stapleton is expected io:
provide an opportunity to restore the health of natural sys-
tems on site and make important regional connections to sig-
nificant natural resources offsite
demonstrate effective approaches to development that
emphasi/c efficiency, reduced resource consumption anil
reduced impacts on the natural environment
help solve rather than compound existing problems by pro-
viding open space and trails, addressing regional transportation
needs in the northeast metro area, reducing air emissions and
providing adequate fiscal support for education and
service delivery
How can Stapleton respond to the significant social and
demographic changes taking place and create diverse, suc-
cessful urban communities?
Stapleton is expected to:
attract middle income families and provide an environment
that supports a stable and diverse population
promote the integration of employment, housing and recre-
ation, and insure diversity in age, income and ethnic groups
provide walkahlc scale communities that offer a variety of
mobility options and address residents' most basic concerns
regarding safety and public education
encourage community participation and provide opportuni-
ties for resident involvement in community governance
How can Stapleton redevelopment succeed in the market-
place and fulfill the disposition obligations of Denver's air-
port system?
Stapleton is expected to:
create value and cam a financial return
minimize up-front costs of transition and offset these costs a<
much as possible with revenue generated by the site
balance long-term value creation objectives with near-term
cash flow needs.
TO WASTE, TO DESTROY.
OUR NATURAL RESOURCES.
TO SKIN AND EXHAUST THE
LAND INSTEAD OF USING IT
SO AS TO INCREASE ITS
USEFULNESS, WILL RESULT
IN UNOCRMININB IN THE
DAYS OF OUR CHILDREN
THE VERY PROSPERITY
WHICH WE OUGHT BY
RIGHT TO HAND DOWN TO
THEM AMPLIFIED AND
OEV ELOPED.**
Theodore Roosevelt
MESSAGE TO CONGRESS
DECEMBER 3, 1907
4-3


PRINCIPLE 3
Section IV / Community Objectives and
Guiding Principles
Guiding Principles
The community and project team have developed a set of prin-
ciples to guide decision-making in die creation and implemen-
tation of the Development Plan. These principles address the
economic, social and environmental objectives addressed
above, as well as the physical design of die community and the
methods used to manage and implement the project over time.
ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY
The challenge of the next century will be the creation and man-
agement of urhan environments dial meet social needs and pro-
vide economic opportunity in a manner that preserves rather
than degrades the natural environment. Redevelopment of the
Stapleton site shall be based on the principle of sustainability,
which seeks to manage natural, economic and social systems
and resources in a Fashion that enhances quality of life yet does
not diminish the ability of future generations to also meet their
needs. Sustainable design reflects an appreciation of the unique
qualities of place and the strong ties between people, nature and
the built environment. The Stapleton project will achieve its
economic and soda! objectives, in the context of a high quality
sustainable physical environment.
PRINCIPLE 1
Minimize demand for resources {on-site requirements for
water, energy, materials, etcJ and maximize opporttmities
for on-site supply of resources. Resource management
will follow this hierarchy of consumption:
a) Eliminate the need for the resource
h) Reduce use of the resource
r) Reuse resources
d) Recycle resources
PRINCIPLE 2
Maximize the use of renewable and indigenous resources
in site development and management.
Restore and enhance existing natural systems to achieve
optimal health and viability.
PRINCIPLE 4
Promote natural, economic and social systems that are
diverse and durable. Seek design solutions and develop-
ment opportunities that integrate systems to produce
greater efficiencies and benefits.
PRINCIPLE 5
Place priority on pollution prevention rather than control.
Mitigate impacts on site where possible, and as close to
the point of impact as possible.
PRINCIPLE 6
Use the following hierarchy in decision-making regarding
the use of resources and project impacts:
a) First, satisfy resource needs and/or control project
impacts entirely on site if possible.
b) Second, where not possible, satisfy resource needs
and/or control project impacts within the region.
c) Third, seek to reduce resource demands and project
impacts that extend beyond the region.
PRINCIPLE 7
Include consideration of potential reuse of facilities and
improvements over time in site, system and building designs.
PRINCIPLE 8
Support development of environmental technologies, prod-
ucts and services as a significant component of the site's
and the region's economic ixise.
4-4


SOCIAL. EQUITY
PRINCIPLE 6
Section IV / community Objectives and
GUIDING PRINCIPLES
Equity, diversity and opportunity arc fundamental to the objec-
tives of the redevelopment program. Stapleton redevelopment
shall provide broad access to social, cultural and economic
opportunities for all segments of the community. These oppor-
tunities will address important community needs and enhance
community stability. Successful redevelopment of the
Stapleton site will be a catalyst for improvement in the larger
community, particularly in the Denver. Aurora and Commerce
City neighborhoods surrounding the site.
PRINCIPLE 1
Create a community that accommodates a diversity of
people ages, incomes,races, occu/xttions and lifestyles
and reinforces and enhances the cultural, ethnic and
racial diversity of adjacent neighborhoods.
PRINCIPLE 2
Create opportunities for significant minority participation
in the development process, employment and residency.
Create opportunities for small business participation in
the development process.
PRINCIPLE 3
Provide quality neighborhood schools and life-long train-
ing and education opportunities.
PRINCIPLE 4
Insure diversity in the job base to provide employment
opportunities for a wide range of socio-economic groups,
and work with adjacent communities to develop workfone
skills and entrepreneurial opportunities for local residents.
PRINCIPLE S
Facilitate the development of affordable housing as well
as attraction of middle and upper income families to the
northeast area through provision of a broad mix of hous-
ing types, densities and price ranges.
Benefit Stapleton and surrowuling neighborhoods through
the integration of services, public facilities and amenities.
ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY
The Stapleton site shall be a regional center for job creation in
diverse fields with emphasis on emerging technologies and
industries. Stapleton will provide an environment that encour-
ages and rewards innovation. The program for the site shall be
designed to attract private investment and to provide the finan-
cial capacity to support necessary public capital improvements
and services over time. The development and operations of
the Stapleton community must generate an economic and
social return on investment and encourage participation by
segments of the community that are often excluded. The char-
acteristics of the community must provide a unique, mar-
ketable identity.
PRINCIPLE 1
Establish Stapleton as a major regional employment center
and position Stapleton in the marketplace to minimize com-
petition with Lowry, the GatewaytDIA area and downtown.
Focus on the quality of jobs treated, as well as the quantity
PRINCIPLE 2
Insure public investment in infrastructure, site amenities
and institutional support that will attract private investment
and the presence of businesses. institutions and residents.
PRINCIPLE 3
Seek partners for demonstration projects to reduce up
firmt capital costs of community and project infrastructure.
PRINCIPLE 4
Provide for a broad mix of land use types, densities atul
prices to serve multiple markets, and create economic and
social diversity.
4-5


PRINCIPLE 1
SECTION IV / COMMUNITY OBJECTIVES 4MO
guiding Principles
PRINCIPLE 5
Create an environment that is competitive and adaptable
by incorporating advanced telecommunications, trans-
portation, production, environmental and other technolo-
gies to anticipate future market opportunities and
environmental imperatives.
PRINCIPLE 6
Utilize on-site environmental and open space features to
create amenity value for residential and commercial
development,
PRINCIPLE 7
Maximize cost-effective public service delivery through
efficient land use patterns, appropriate placement of
public facilities, use of multi-purpose and shared public
facilities, and understanding of the implications of
changing demographics.
PHYSICAL DESIGN
Transform ihc character and image of the airport site in a dra-
matic and decisive manner. While the site consists of three
areas with distinct characters, the overarching physical design
principle is to consider the property as a single site with a
unique, defining identity. Integration of work, recreation and
living environments is essential to Stapleton's success.
natural Systems and land form:
The form of the site will he heavily influenced by tlve process of
reclamation and the establishment of a series of highly related
systems. Critical systems and features include regional storm
drainage, wildlife habitat corridors, active and passive recreation
areas, transportation, recycling and regrading of runway areas,
and soil and groundwater remediation. A comprehensive open
space system can accommodate a wide variety of uses and
serve multiple functions.
Use the pre-existing environment as a Ixtsis for change.
The site's topography, drainage flows, stream corridors
and historic channels will give shape, form and structure
to the basic site plan.
PRINCIPLE 2
Support development of the adjacent Rocky Mountain
National Wildlife Area as the premier urban wildlife
refuge in the US., and use the Stapleton open space sys-
tem to make vital connections between the Wildlife Area
and the regional open space system using the Sand
Creek/Westerly Creek corridors.
PRINCIPLE 3
Program the Stapleton open space system to sene multi-
ple needs, including: storm drainage, water treatment,
wildlife habitats, active and passive recreation and the
creation of superior sites for institutional uses.
PRINCIPLE 4
Achieve multiple benefits by using earth moving activities
to create necessary drainage basins and .males, improve
habitat, provide visual amenity and recreation opportuni-
ties and improve soil and water quality.
Qj Transportation systems and corridors:
Take advantage of the Stapleton site's potential to provide
extremely high levels of mobility and alternatives to the auto-
mobile for residents, employees and visitors. Organize a flexi-
ble transportation system which provides superior access to the
site from the arterial system and seeks to minimize impacts to
air quality. Dramatically reduce reliance on the automobile
and vehicle miles generated by activity on the Stapleton site.
PRINCIPLE 1
Organize community form to provide walkable centers of
activity which can be connected to regional public trans-
portation systems on-site. Maximize accessibility of
future rail systems and use local and regional bus senice
to provide access to regional systems and destinations.


Section iv l Community Objectives and
Guiding principles
PRINCIPLE 2
Establish an intermodal facility on site which will ulti-
mately be capable of sewing light rail, hea\y rail, bus,
auto, truck, bicycle and pedestrian traffic.
PRINCIPLE 3
Clarify and extend the mile-by-mile arterial system
through the site wherever possible. Evaluate the feasibil-
ity of this system for 56th Ave., 4Hth Ave., 26th Ave.,
Quebec St.. Yosemite St., Havana St. and Smith Road,
working with adjacent jurisdictions and communities
where relevant.
PRINCIPLE 4
Design the 56th Avenue corridor as a major parkway con-
nection that will ser\>e as an important connection
between downtown and Denver International Aiiport.
PRINCIPLE S
Provide a continuous bikeway system throughout the site
connecting to the bikeway system described in the
recently adopted Bicycle Master Plan and to the Aurora
bikeway system.
Q City Street grid and Urban
Development Patterns:
Incorporate the patterns of the Denver street grid and extend
it through the site, adjusting and transforming them to accom-
modate natural features, large scale parcels and facilities and
the building program for the site. Create effective physical
and social linkage with adjacent neighborhoods on the south-
ern, southwestern and eastern perimeter of the site.
PRINCIPLE 1
Extend the surrounding street and block configuration into
the southeast and southwest portions of the site as an
extension of the city.
PRINCIPLE 2
Extend the City and Countys parkway system onto the site
for streets of major image and character.
PRINCIPLE 3
Plan the site as a mixed-use, balanced community incor-
porating a coordinated grouping of neighborhoods, spe-
cialized districts and sjtecial corridors.
PRINCIPLE 4
Utilize a village concept in each of the site's neighbor-
hoods which will incorporate multiple uses, transit access,
walk-to-work possibilities, public scwices and appropriate
public sjutces.
PRINCIPLE S
Preserve structures of historic significance and seek to the
maximum extern possible to integrate and reuse existing
structures and improvements.
PRINCIPLE B
Evaluate the potential of the terminal building to serve as
a regional destination for multiple uses.
PRINCIPLE 7
Ensure flexibility of the physical design to respond to
changing market conditions affecting housing densities,
transportation systems, types of open space, etc.
Parks. Recreation and Open Space:
Utilize portions of the Stapleton site to dramatically alter the
identity of the site, create value and add significant new park,
recreation and open space resources to the City and County's
system. Explore new open space types, designs and manage-
ment systems and their relationship to urban development.
PRINCIPLE 1
Effectively define the transitions from itrlxin uses to less
intensive uses such as open space and the Rocky
Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area.


section iv / Community objective* end
Ouioinc Principles
PRINCIPLE 2
Connect the Stapleton open space system not only with
regional resourc es, hut also with adjacent neighborhoods.
PRINCIPLE 3
Extend the existing park system legacy of a formal net-
work of parks and parkways and an informal system of
open spaces and trails associated with regional drainage.
Introduce new variations emphasizing a metre natural set-
ting, indigenous vegetation, reduced irrigation and alter-
native forms of management and maintenance.
PRINCIPLE 4
Use natural features and the pre-existing environment as
a basis for the design of the park system.
PRINCIPLE S
In addition to the prairie park, natural areas, and stream
corridors, the open space system should also provide at
least one new major urban park.
PRINCIPLE 6
Create open space settings as addresses for value creation
and as central elements of a phasing strategy for site
buildout over an extended period of time.
PRINCIPLE 7
Insure that the open space system and its development and
management structure are all designed to be supportable
over time.
PRINCIPLE 8
u
4-8
Insure that appropriate recreation facilities are provided
on an equitable basis to meet community needs.
IMPLEMENTATION
In order to create a sustainable community that insures a range
of housing choices, creates opportunity, celebrates diversity
and encourages personal choice. Ihe processes of development
and management will also require attention. Success will
depend in large part on the ability to create and implement new
institutional structures, forms of governance and market mech-
anisms. The broad goal is to create substantial community
access to the benefits generated by Stapletons reuse.
PRINCIPLE 1
Create a development!management entity with the author-
ity, skills and financing capabilities to successfully pursue
community-wide goals and carry out the requirements of
development and disposition of the site over many years.
PRINCIPLE 2
Formulate a phasing program that seeks to strengthen the
site's market identity and respond to market opportunities
while ejfecth'ely managing financial risk.
PRINCIPLE 3
Establish innovative mechanisms for sendee delivery and
the development and management of open space, ameni-
ties and infrastructure.
PRINCIPLE 4
Guide development activity to meet the policy standards of
the City and County and achieve important program
objectives through a creative blending of regulatory con-
trols. market mechanisms, incentives, financing programs
atui direct investment.
PRINCIPLE S
Pursue catalytic uses that embody both the innovative
vision and the economic significance to attract public
(Federal, State, local) and philanthropic financial support.
PRINCIPLE 8
Incorporate the broadest possible spectrum of citizenry in
decision-making regarding the design, development and
implementation of the reuse program, and make substan-
tial use of decentralized and community-based gover-
nance structures.




- .r 1 71C Mi . UF.VFI If. < =
V. DEVELOPMENT PLAN
S-2
The Stapleton
Development Plan
defines a new develop-
ment model for Denver
for the next century.
The redevelopment of
the Stapleton site Is
based upon the principle
of sustainability. In
addition, the physical
plan is based on four
important concepts:
9DB, the successful inte-
gration of urban devel-
opment. transportation,
natural systems and
wildlife habitat; two, a
balanced mix of uses
and densities to provide
efficient, accessible,
diverse neighborhoods
and communities; three,
a desire to Incorporate,
build and improve upon
what is best about
Denvers neighborhoods,
parks, and natural set-
tings; and four, response
to the environment, con-
text and character of
the site and the commu-
nities that surround It.


sit
A. VISION
The Development Plan created for Stapleton is a direct
response to llte contexts and principles described in the previ-
ous sections. Stapleton will be a unique mixed-use community
capuhlc of supporting more than 30,0(10 jobs and 25,000 resi-
dents. More than one third of the property will be managed for
parks, recreation and open space purposes. Developed portions
of the site will provide an integrated mix of employment, hous-
ing, recreation and access to public transportation.
Stapletons reuse will support the health of surrounding neigh-
borhoods and provide strong tics to tle adjacent Rocky
Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area and Ixiwry educa-
tional campus. Development and operation of the Stapleton
community will provide a model for the region of serving the
economic and social needs of people without degrading the
natural environment. The process of restoration and redevelop-
ment of the Stapleton site will establish Denver and Colorado
as world leaders in addressing the economic, social and envi-
ronmental challenges of the next century.
The Plan reinforces
Stapleton's role as a regional
employment center; hut
through the creation of
compact, accessible commu-
nities that integrate uses and
create strong ties between
the Stapleton site and the
surrounding community.
Key Features of the Vision
The Development Plan assigns approximately 65 percent of
the site to urban development and 35 percent to a mix of
open space uses. Development is organized in eight distinct
districts. The districts each contain an identifiable center and
emphasize the integration of employment and housing and
walkable scale. The Plan reinforces Stapletons role as a
regional employment center, but through the creation of
compact, accessible communities that integrate uses and cre-
ate strong ties between the Stapleton site and the surrounding
community. The open space system serves a major role in
unifying the eight districts, making effective regional connec-
tions and restoring the ecological health of natural systems on
and off the site.
Any Development Plan for a site of this significant scale must
provide a degree of flexibility. The Development Plan identi-
fies the general scale, character, density and mix of uses
desired in each district. Specific land uses, parcel configura-
tions and the relationship between employment, housing anti
oilier uses will vary as development proceeds. What are most
important to establish now are the basic character of the sites
mixed use districts and the basic community infrastructure,
open space, civic sites and other elements of the public realm
which will guide the long-term development of the site.
The Stapleton Development Plan describes a community that
is different in important respects from many large scale subur-
ban or urban infill projects. Key features of the Development
Plan include:
Unking the physical plan with people through the integra-
tion of economic and social objectives with development
The challenge is not simply to fill available land or build build-
ings, it is to create successful communities for people. Most
fundamental to the Stapleton Development Plan is the integra-
tion of economic and social objectives with physical develop-
ment. Creation of a new job base at Stapleton provides an
important opportunity to increase and diversify employment
opportunities available in the City and County. Job creation
Development and
OPERATION OP THE
Stapleton community
WILL PROVIDE A MODEL
FOR THE REGION OF
SERVING THE ECONOMIC
AND SOCIAL NEEDS OF
PEOPLE WITHOUT
DEGRADING THE NATUR-
AL ENVIRONMENT.
5-3



It is merely possible
TO SET THE STAGE FOR
COMMUNITY. THE EXTENT
AND THE WAYS IN WHICH
COMMUNITY IS REALIZED
DEPENDS ON A RANGE OF
OTHER, NON-PHYSICAL
FACTORS.**
WILLEM VAN VLIET,
College of Architecture:
AND PLANNING,
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO
musl be accompanied by a commitment to education, skill
development and entrepreneurial opportunity for disadvantaged
and minority populations in our community.
An employment base of 30,000 35,000 jobs can be readily
accommodated over time on the site. The Havana Street corri-
dor and areas north and south of 1-70 provide significant oppor-
tunities for creating a manufacturing, assembly and distribution
base on the site. These areas otfer rail service and easy inter-
state access. Section 10 on the tar north and the interior area
above the 1-70 corridor provide significant office and research
and development opportunities. The area surrounding the exist-
ing terminal will become a regional destination offering a mix
of exhibition, entertainment, retail, office and other uses. Each
neighborhood center on the site will also provide opportunities
for employment. In total, the Development Plan allocates
roughly 1,200 acres, or 54% of the developable land, to
employment use.
'Hie Plan also emphasizes establishing the site as a national cen-
ter for the development of environmental technologies, pnxlucls
and services; creating an environmental technology incubator to
support start up firms; creating training and skill development
programs designed to provide area residents with the work skills
needed by employers operating on the Stapleton site; anti devel-
oping programs that encourage the participation of youth and
entrepreneurs, particularly from minority communities.
Development of successful neighborhoods wdl require direct
involvement in die nature and quality of educational and other
services, enhancement of public safety and promotion of
opportunities for resilient participation in all forms of gover-
nance and service delivery. The physical form of the commu-
nity can do a great deal to support these objectives and foster a
strong sense of community. Attention to the human aspects of
development, however, will be essential for Stapleton to
achieve its stated objectives.
Building true urban
neighltorhoods that have
characteridentity and
meet the needs of people
Denver has a strong tradi-
tion of urban neighbor-
hoods as the foundation of
the community. The Development Plan reflects a strong
commitment to the continuation of this tradition. Foremost,
the Plan seeks neighborhoods that can encuurage and support
diversity in age, income and ethnicity. These neighborhoods
must be inclusive and accessible. Their physical form will
emphasize defined centers tor services and civic uses, walkable
scale, access to nearby employment, diverse transportation
options and strong connections to parks and nature. lliese are
many of the same qualities that have allowed some of Denvers
strongest neighborhoods to thrive over many decades of eco-
nomic, social and technological change.
Within the City and County of Denver, one percent of all
public works projects musl be invested in public art.
Public art is ail important part of Denvers character, cul-
tural expression and history. It creates memorable
impressions in the minds of residents and visitors alike.
The current Public Art Program creates opportunities for
all people to experience art in a broad range of public
spaces. Stapleton will build upon the existing program
by identifying additional funding sources and creating a
Public Art Master Plan to provide guidelines and a
vision for public art projects throughout the implementa-
tion of the Development Plun. A Public Art Master Plan
wiLI provide the opportunity for public art conimissioas
within the site to respond to the goals of the
Development Plan, to provide a relationship between
individual projects, and provide a model for private
development on the site to incorporate public art.
5-4


Stapletons mixed use neighborhoods can accommodate an
ultimate population of approximately 10,000 households. The
average density of residential areas for the entire site is roughly
12 units per acre, sufficient to support reasonable public trans-
portation service. Higher densities are provided for in close
proximity to neighborhood centers, transit stops and major
public amenities. Each neighborhood on site is organized
around a center and provides a variety of mobility options
beyond the automobile including walking, bus, bicycling, rail
transit (along the Smith Road corridor) and the use of
telecommunications to substitute for the need for travel.
School facilities will be located in neighborhood centers, will
be multi-use community facilities and will play a central role in
the life of the surrounding neighborhood. Stapleton neighbor-
IkxxJs will provide a range of housing types arrd densities dial
support diversity.
Integrating nature and wildlife with the urban
environment on a permanent basis
The open space system planned for Stapleton is rich and
diverse. 'Hie system includes a wide range of opportunities,
from urban parks, trails and recreation facilities, to extensive
natural areas that support significant wildlife and allow the
restoration of native plant and animal communities that have
been displaced or eliminated. This focus represents a return to
Denvers natural heritage as a city established on the prairie. In
its scale and diversity, the Stapleton system is unlike anything
undertaken by Uiis community since the City and Countys
basic urban and mountain park systems were established
roughly a century ago.
The Stapleton open space system includes more than 1,600
acres of parks, trails, recreation facilities and natural areas.
The principle trail corridors are along Sand Creek, Westerly
Creek and die newly created open space corridor connecting
Sand Creek with the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National
Wildlife Area. The system includes a championship golf
course above 1-70 and a nine-hole learning course along
Westerly Creek. A major ballficld and outdoor recreation
,l1
Shorn and FRsaoak*
5-5


in*
complex is located between Sand Creek and 1-70 west of
Yosemitc Parkway. An urban agriculture center and equestrian
facility are accommodated on the north side of Sand Creek just
west of Havana Street. A major urban park is provided at the
confluence of Sand and Westerly Creeks, as well as a number of
smaller scale parks and public spaces. Parkways and land-
scaped drainageways connect neighborhoods to each other and
to die major components of the open space system. Significant
areas of prairie arid riparian corridor restoration, particularly in
the northern half of the site, will dramatically increase the
wildlife habitat provided by the site. A 365-acre Prairie Park in
the far northern portion of the site, primarily above 56th
Avenue, will be the centerpiece of these restoration efforts.
The open space system is
completely integrated with
the urban community that
will develop around it.
Perhaps equally important, the open space system is complete-
ly integrated with the urban community that will develop
around it. The system is functional. It addresses stormwater
management, water quality improvement, irrigation and odier
development requirements, ft is also a defining element of the
communities that will emerge at Stapleton. All portions of the
site and all types of land use have strong connections to die
system. Denver is a city whose early identity was largely
framed by parks and parkways. The transformation of
Stapletons identity from airport to mixed use community will
be even more directly dependent on die development and care
of its open space and natural resources.
Implementing a more sustainable pattern of develop-
ment that supports economic and community needs, but
consumes fewer natural resources and creates fewer
impacts on the natural environment
The Development Plan is rooted in the presumption dial eco-
nomic. social and natural systems must be sustainable over
time. Our region is beautiful and fragile, and in search of bel-
ter mediods to accommodate our needs without degrading the
natural health and beauty of our home. The Stapleton
Development Plan stresses efficiency in the use of resources
and the reduction of environmental impacts.
This sustainable philosophy is reflected in many different
aspects of the program. Land use planning and community
design stress compact, mixed use communities that are walka-
ble and transit-oriented. These characteristics can reduce auto-
mobile dependence and emissions and increase the efficiency
of service delivery. Approaches to community infrastructure
stress water reuse, energy and water conservation, renewable
sources of energy supply and innovative stormwater manage-
ment approaches to maximize opportunities for on-site irriga-
tion and water quality improvement. The solid waste manage-
ment strategy seeks to achieve a zero net contribution from the
site to local landfills, in ptirt through the creation of a
resource recovery village on site to promote waste mini-
mization, recycling and reuse. Transportation technologies
emphasize bus and rail transit, bicycling, walking anti alterna-
tive fuels fur vehicles. The Development Plan also empha-
sizes the need to support demonstrations of technologies and
practices on site that support the project's basic sustainable
development objectives.
5-6


Basic choices about land use patterns and community infra-
structure can have enormous implications for the long-term
resource needs and impacts of the Stapleton community.
The Development Plan identifies important choices that can
result in infrastructure and operating practices that are effi-
cient, affordable and more environmentally benign. In addi-
tion, the Plan calls for approaches that provide the ultimate
users of the site with more options, more information and
more incentive to manage resources wisely. Stapleton is
intended to be a place of innovation in these areas, and a
center for the development of environmentally-oriented
technologies, services and businesses.
The Development Plan
identifies important choices
that can result in infra-
structure and operating
practices that are efficient,
affordable and more
environmentally benign.
section v a i ot i.oi*MrNT *** am
VlOIOM
PhohVfl(* by Stoplmn NYf Speda/I^tun MbqnTinni Inc.
Copyright 19fk$.
5*7


B. Highlights
Stapleton has the potential to integrate economic, social and
environmental objectives in a fashion unique within the region.
The result will he an extraordinary set of communities that com-
bine strong Denver traditions with new forms of innovation.
Defining features will include:
1. Link With
Nature: Stapleton
will demonstrate the
most successful inte-
gration of urban
activity with wildlife
and the natural envi-
ronment in Colorado.
Stapleton will serve
as a catalyst tor restoration and trail development in the Sand
Creek and Westerly Creek corridors. Stapleton will provide
approximately 1,6K0 acres of open space, much of it restored
native grasslands, stream corridors and animal habitat. The
Arsenal wildlife program will be extended onto the Stapleton
property and etHineeted to the Sand Creek waterway. Stapleton
and Lowry together will increase the recreational and open space
opportunities provided by the Denver park system by 50 percent.
The Rocky- Mountain .Arsenal National Wildlife Area will
become the premier urban wildlife refuge in the country.
2. Urban Villages:
Development at
Stapleton will occur
in a series of urban
centers or villages.
Each will provide a
mix of employment
and housing, as well
as walking access to
public transportation and recreation. These communities will be
efficient, people-oriented and accessible. They will support a
diversity of income, age and ethnic groups and address the
demand for locally accessible, quality public education.


3. Mobility:
Stapleton must pro-
vide an unparalleled
set of mobility
optioas ro employ-
ees, residents visitors. These
options must de-
emphasize the car
and allow tor dramatic reduction in the ownership and usage of
personal automobiles on the site. Walkable neighborhoods,
housing/employment links, an attractive bikeway system and a
variety of forms of transit and paralransit will be used to
expand mobility options.
4. Best
Technologies and
Practices:
Stapleton will be
developed with a
commitment to use
the best technolo-
gies and practices
available in creating
and managing the urban environment. Systems will be effi-
cient, environmentally benign and economical.
5. Green Business
Environment: Stapleton will
be a regional employment cen-
ter and offer a new environ-
ment for businesses seeking to
reduce consumption of natural
resources and become more
competitive in a global market-
place. Stapleton will offer an
environment that encourages
demonstrations and supports
innovation. Stapleton will also be a center for environmental
business and a leader in advancing the development of envi-
ronmentally-oriented products and services.
t rv. > -f
6. Community Linkage:
The economic opportunities
created at Stapleton must be
tied directly to individuals with
the greatest economic needs.
Job cretuion and investment at
Stapleton must be linked to
training, skill development and
entrepreneurship opportunities.
The outmigration of middle
income families must he
reversed. Stapleton will be a tool for investing in people and
strengthening the communities around the site, and protecting
and enhancing the social and economic well being of children
and their families.
4
"The world we have
CREATED TODAY AS A
RESULT Or OUR THINKING

t;



f^KK-y
7. Governance,
Service
Delivery and
Participation:
Stapleton provides
the opportunity to
explore new forms
of governance, ser-
vice delivery citizen participation that empower people. Tltese features can
expand opportunity, mcrea.se the level of community commit-
ment and enhance the overall health of the community.
Stapleton will encourage innovation and demonstrate new
approaches to the use of regulatory structures, market mecha-
nisms and community-based initiatives.
THUS FAR HAS PROBLEMS
WHICH CANNOT BE
SOLVED BY THINKING THE
WAY WE THOUGHT WHEN
WE CREATED THEM.**
Albert Einstein
5-9


r i otf.
If you dont know how
THINGS ARE INTERCON-
NECTED, THEN A SOLUTION
CAN CAUSE MORE PROB-
LEMS THAN IT SOLVES, ON
THE OTHER KANO, IF YOU
UNDERSTAND THE HIDDEN
CONNECTIONS BETWEEN
ENERGY, WATER, AGRICUL-
TURE, TRANSPORTATION,
SECURITY, AND ECONOMIC
AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT,
YOU CAN OFTEN DEVISE A
SOLUTION TO ONE PROBLEM
(SUCH AS ENERGY) THAT
WILL CREATE SOLUTIONS TO
MANY MORE PROBLEMS AT
NO EXTRA COST. **
Amory Lovins,
Rocky Mountain
Institute
C. Structuring Elements
INTRODUCTION
The Development Plan presented here was not derived in the
abstract and imposed on the site. The Development Plan has
grown nut of a careful analysis that has considered the sites
local and regional context, a wide variety of community objec-
tives and a set of specific intentions regarding the purpose and
form of this new community that are summarized in the
Guiding Principles presented in Section IV of this plan.
What follows here are descriptions of the essential structuring
dements of the Development Plan open space anti parks,
transportation, services and land use and urban design. The
layering and integration of these elements is what defines the
form and character of this new" place. The approach taken
places strong emphasis on the following:
The community that emerges at Stapleton must respond to its
immediate neighborhixxl anti regional context. Staplelon is not
an island, but a part of the community fabric that must be
reconnected. Its future use will be heavily influenced by exist-
ing patterns of land use and by larger natural, transportation
and infrastructure systems that cross and convetge on lire site.
The pattern of urban development on the property will be sig-
nificantly shaped by restoration of natural systems and the cre-
ation of a new permanent open space system. Development and
healthy natural areas can be integrated on a permanent basis.
The provision of transportation and utility services to the new
Stapleton community is an integral component of community
development. Decisions regarding these systems arc funda-
mental to the form and life of this new community.
A conscious attempt has been made to apply the principles
developed to the creation of viable urban neighborhoods. The
structure of these neighborhoods emphasizes districts with
definable centers; mixing of uses to support diversity, efficien-
cy and mobility objectives; walkable scale, transit orientation.
5-10
and a defined hierarchy of streets; prominent roles and loca-
tions for public spaces and civic uses; and an extension of
some of the best traditions of Denver neighborhoods, parks and
public spaces.
The overall success of die environments created at Stapleton
for work, home, play and other uses will be a function of the
ability to thoroughly integrate land uses, man-made and natural
systems and the site and its larger community context. The
physical structure of the community seeks to combine many
old and new approaches, pursue efficiency and livability simul-
taneously, and create a diverse, urban mixed use community
that can attract the support of the marketplace and the loyalty
and commitment of its residents and users.
Th structuring elements of the development plan;
open space and parks, transportation, services,
and land use and urban design, will begin to orga-
nize development areas on the Stapleton site.


STRUCTURING ELEMENTS
Open Space and Parks
The Big Picture
Stapleton's open space system builds on Denvers rich park
legacy of traditional community parks find recreation facilities,
parkways and greenbelts connecting neighborhoods, natural fea-
tures defining the city and a visionary string of mountain parks.
The Plan ulso expands our traditional ideas of a park with its
High Plains landscape restoration, extensive natural systems,
and commitment to water quality, wildlife and habilat develop-
ment. The Stapleton open space system is a blend of the best of
Denver's past and present parks and a new attention to Denver's
lost landscapes and critical need for environmental stewardship.
Approximately 35 percent of the Stapleton site will be devoted
to some form of open space. This system will address a
varicly of goals for Denver, including:
t. Contributing to a dramatic change in lire physical ap[>eur-
ance and identity of tire Stapleton site. The investment in open
space will not only increase adjacent property values, it will
expand market opportunities, create long-term value and pro-
vide each new neighborhood with on identifiable center and
defined edges.
2. Meeting local and regional demand for open space and
recreation opportunities. As important, Stapleton enables
Denver to provide major, specialized recreation facilities for
the city at large that it cannot provide elsewhere. These facili-
ties include a lighted outdoor sports complex, golf courses,
agricultural and equestrian facilities and a large urban park for
northeast Denver.
3. Complementing the classic urban park system of the City
and County, the mountain park system on the west, with a bold
regional system on the east that celebrates the original Denver
landscape of High Plains plants, water and animals. The
Stapleton system will support the restoration of natural systems
on site and establish and maintain extensive wildlife hahitaL
4. Providing cost effective and environmentally beneficial
approaches to water management on site. The open space sys-
tem is designed to accommodate all of the sites stormwater
management and 100-year flond control requirements. The
system also uses natural filtration, constructed wetlands, water
reuse and other techniques to improve water quality and mini-
mize the use of .scarce water resources for irrigation.
5. Reconnecting Stapleton to the rest of the city and region.
Major regional trail connections will be provided between
Stapleton and live Platte River and High Line Canal trail sys-
tems, Lowry Air Force Base, the Rocky Mountain Arsenal
National Wildlife Area and adjacent neighborhoods. These
trail linkages, along with extensions of Denver's historic park-
ways, will greatly encourage pedestrian and bicycle travel.
Approximately 35 percent
of the Stapleton site will
be dewted to parks, recre-
ation and open space.
Approximately 1,680 acres of the Plan is devoted to some form
of park, open space or stonnwater management. The break-
down of components of the system is roughly as follows:
formal parks (neighborhood and large urban). 250-275 acres.
This commitment to formal parks is comparable to the ratio of
parklands to residents in oilier portions of Denver.
special facilities (outdoor sports complex, golf courses, agri-
cultural center), 350-400 acres.
natural areas, creek and trail corridors and floodplain (Sand
Creek. Westerly Creek. Sand HilLs Park). 600-650 acres.
parkways and greenways carrying stormwater. 375-425 acres.
You CAN LOOK AT A
PARK PRIMARILY AS A
SOCIAL TOOL, PRIMARILY
AS AN AESTHETIC ELE-
MENT, OR PRIMARILY AS
A PRACTICAL AND FUNC-
TIONAL THING."
Paul Goidberger,
NEW YORK TIMES
NOTE: Double counting of open space acreage occurs when
areas perform multiple functions.
5-tl


Town and Country
MUST BE MARRIED AND
OUT OF THIS JOYOUS
UNION WILL SPRING A
NEW HOPE, A NEW LIFE,
A NEW CIVILIZATION."
EHENETER HOWARD
a Sustainable Resources
As this list indicates, the open
space system planned for
Stapleton is diverse and com-
plex. Open space improvements
will support restoration and
enhancement of habitat in all
areas of the Stapleton site. The
on* im Plains landscapes will incorporate a variety of indigenous types
of vegetation and provide a viahle scale and healthy environ-
ment for wildlife. 'Ibis restoration will affect the kind of trans-
formation of the whole site that Is crucial to building the vision
and identity of the new Stapleton. Healthy habitat areas will add
value to the site as aesthetic and recreational amenities, with
trails, wildlife viewing areas, picnic areas and volunteer restora-
tion opportunities. These habitats wall enhance and benefit 1'iurn
the storm water drainage system, and provide a model of
reduced irrigation demand in public spaces.
The sustainability of indigenous landscapes depends not only
on the restoration and protection of significant natural areas but
also on maintaining vital biotic corridors, and on landscu|ie
management practices that sustain the natural processes of die
huger ecosystem. The goal is to restore and manage the indige-
nous plant and animal communities of die Western 1 !igh Plains
Drainage Corridor Illustration: A network of drainage corridors will con-
nect developed neighborhoods to Westerly Creek and other primary
drainage ways, serving to detain water and clean pollutants from the
urban runoff. As stormwater infiltrates along the canal, it will sustain a
network of trees and vegetation. A pedestrian path will allow access
for periodic maintenance and cleaning.
within a renewed urban fabric. This goal will be realized at
many scales throughout Stapleton, from a regional scale estab-
lishment of sandhills prairie and restoration of die historic
forested stream channels of Sand and Westerly Creeks to die
smallest habitat areas in gardens or schoolyards.
The components of die open space system must he carefully
integrated in order lo prevent conflicts. No piece of the system
can be one-dimensional. A golf course, for instance, must sup-
port broader objectives such as habitat development, water
conservation and reuse, trail connections, stormwater manage-
ment and public access.
Management and Funding
A syslem of this scale and diversity will require new approach-
es to development and long-term funding and management.
Phasing will also be a critical issue since open space develop-
ment (and its costs) may precede adjacent residential and com-
mercial development (and their revenues). Open space devel-
opment costs, like the rest of the infrastructure, will be shared
by development fees, city funds, philanthropic and oilier exter-
nal sources of funding and other special revenue mechanisms.
Long-term management and maintenance responsibilities will
require similar sophistication. Formal parks, from neighbor-
hood to large urban parks, and recreation facilities must be sup-
ported either by city revenues generated by development on the
site, special district fees or other financial tools. The regionaL
High Plains syslem will require a partnership with other inter-
ested agencies and jurisdictions. The extensive greenways cur-
rying stormwater, loo, must have a solid funding source to
finance their maintenance. The development program must
take advantage of opportunities to reduce costs and capture
value through the development and operation of die open space
system. Elements of this system will increase adjacent land
values and broaden market opportunity. The integration of
flood control, natural irrigation and walcr quality treatment
through filtration can also offset costs that would otherwise he
incurred for more expensive infrastructure lo satisfy the same
requirements. Native plants and natural ureas can ulso reduce
overall maintenance requirements.
5-12


The parks plan below identifies the major components ol'ihe
Stapleton open space system. These include:
/. Major Urban Park
(marked E on the accompa-
nying map): This park,
planned for the southern end
of the site, to the east of the
terminal area, will be similar
to traditional Denver parks,
such as Washington.
Cheesman and City Parks,
ft will cover approximately 175 acres, bordered on two edges
by Westerly and Sand Creek greenwav corridors. The park
will accommodate a variety of uses from playing fields to
social gathering areas serving as an amenity both for new
residential and commercial development on the site, and for
existing neighborlitxxls.

-e*
2. Sandhills Prairie Park
(M on the map): This park
will be the defining character-
istic for the northern half of
tile site. It will be approxi-
mately a 365-acre restoration
of the original landscape type
of this area the Sand Hills
Prairie bringing a sense of
the High Plains back into Denver. The park's topography of
rolling sand hills, vegetated with tall and short prairie grasses,
cottonwoods, willows and other shrubs, will attract a wide vari-
ety of birds and small mammals. Among other uses, the park
will provide an enlryway into the National Wildlife Refuge
under development at the Rocky Mountain .Arsenal National
Wildlife Area to the north. The scale and unique character of
the site will require a major restoration effort. It will be man-
aged to protect the restored prairie ecosystem, while providing
maximum opportunities for public enjoyment and learning
through bicycle/pedcslrian trail systems, bird/unimal watching,
picnicing and scenic drives, restoration demonstration areas and
volunteer activities.

The Stapleton Parks Recreation and Open Space Plan will become
a nationally recognized model of restoration and Integration of a
diverse set of urban and natural land uses.
5-13


I
two cases, be co-located with elementary
3. Community Parks
(A and G on map):
The plan calls for the
creation or expansion
of three community-
scale parks of 20-40
acres each. These
parks will feature
playing fields and. in
schools.
4. Neighborhood
Parks (B and C on
map): Them will be
several smaller parks
(up to 10 acres each)
within easy walking
distance for families
and children. In some
cases, these may serve
as transition areas between different types of development (c.g.
single family homes, commercial areas and multiple family resi-
dences). or as important components of a neighborhood center.
5. Parkways
(O and P on
map): Parkways
will provide conti-
nuity between tra-
ditional Denver
neighborhoods and
new development
at Stapleton.
Parkways will be developed along selected major streets as
well as small neighborhood streets, where they will serve as
local park areas and enhance real estate values. Parkways will
also incorporate grass-lined drainage swales and trail systems
in many areas.
5-14
6. Outdoor Sports
Complex (I on
Sand Creek, a 107-
acre outdoor recre-
ational area will be
accessible by bike,
transit and car to
groups both day and night. This area could potentially
include a full range of amenities, including lighted basketball
courts, ball fields, etc.
7. Golf Courses (D
and Lon map):
The plan calls for
two courses to be
developed on the
Stapleton site: one, a
youth training
course and driving
range at the south
end of the site adjacent to Westerly Creek: and the other, an 18-hole
championship golf course integrated wilh the Sand Hills Prairie
restoration to tlie north. Both would seek to minimize environmen-
tal impact through water reuse for irrigation, low chemical use.
Iiabitat development and integration of natural landscapes.
8. Urban
Agricultural
Center (Jon
map): This center
is to he located on
or ad jacent to the
site of the current
city nursery. Initial
plans are to develop a community fann. market and garden area,
with an equestrian center and programming for at-risk jxipulations.


9. Trail Systems:
Extensive trail sys-
tems are planned
throughout the
Stapleton site for
both recreation and
commuting (.pedes-
trian, bicycle and
possibly equestri-
an). Trails will be located along Sand and Westerly Creek
corridors, and through the central habitat and open space cor-
ridor to the northeast, as well as along roads and in parks and
drainage corridors. Trail improvements will provide both
local and regional access.
10. Bluff Lake
Environmental
Education Area:
The City and
County of Denver
has already commit-
ted over a million
dollars to funding
for restoration ;tnd
development of the Bluff Lake area as an urban environmental
education facility. Bluffl-ake has significant wildlife resources,
and is located adjacent to Sand Creek. Partnerships with local,
stale and federal agencies will support united programming for
school children in the fall of IW5.
11. Greenway
Corridors: The
Sand and Westerly
Creek corridors
will be important
elements of the
Stapleton parks
and open space
system. Both cor-
ridors will be the focus of intensive resource inventory and
restoration efforts. Once developed, they will provide
regional trails and wildlife corridors and will provide natur-
al water quality enhancement features (ponds and wetlands) for
surface water drainage. Both efforts will require extensive
ax)peration between the cities of Denver. Aurora and
Commerce City and among local, regional, state and (in some
cases) federal agencies. The Sand Creek Corridor also otters the
opportunity to connect the existing Platte River and High Line canal
mail systems, forming a loop for these linear systems.
Since its origins in the last century, parks and natural features
have been the defining elements of Denver's neighborhoods
and urban fabric. The Stapleton Development Plan builds on
this legacy, but also expands it to include a broader apprecia-
tion for natural and man-made landscapes. Denver's tradition
of parks and parkways can be extended onto the site and con-
nected to extensive open space areas that transition from for-
mal urban spaces to far more natural areas. The Stapleton sys-
tem will forge important connections to regional trail systems,
adjacent neighborhoods, the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National
Wildlife Area and Lowry open space and recreation facilities.
This system can also increase understanding of our natural
envimnment, its resources and our role as responsible stewards
for future generations.
ANO IN TIME THERE'S NO
MORE TELLING WHICH IS
WHICH BETWEEN THEM,
NO SHARP DISTINCTION,
NO CLEAR EDGE OF
DIFFERENCE WHERE IT
CAN BE SAID THAT HERE
THE LAND ENOS AND HERE
THE MAN BEGINS.
Don Berry
Trask
from: THE THUNDER TREE
LESSONS FROM AN
urban Wildland
by Robert Michael Pyle
5-15


They call, our
is % t
'
'I
Cotton woo os a cheap
TREE. IT IS ALONG THE
Missouri River* out rr
HAS NOT BEEN A CHEAP
TREE IN DENVER. OUR
PEOPLE HAVE PAID LARGE
prices for Cottonwoods.
AND LARGER SUMS FOR
WATER TO MAKE THEM
grow...The cottonwooo
HAS BEEN A NECESSITY,
NAY MORE. IT HAS BEEN A
LUXURY AND A LIVING JOY
A LUXURY AND JOY NO
PEOPLE CAN EXPERIENCE
WHO LIVE IN A TIMBERED
COUNTRY. NO MATTER HOW
BEAUTIFUL OR GRACEFUL
OR EVER RENOWNED THEIR
TREES FOR SHADE MAY BE-
W.G.M, STONE, THE
Colorado Handbook. i B93
The Plan for Restoration of Soils, Vegetation and
Wildlife Habitat
The Stapleton
Development Plan envi-
sions urban and natural
environments that strength-
en each other for their
mutual benefit. Restored
site soils, vegetation com-
munities and animal habi-
tat will play an important
role in the making of new, healthy Denver communities.
These natural system concerns have been incorporated into the
Parks. Recioation and Open Space initiative as a key structur-
ing element of the Development Plan.
Aviation use has allowed for degraded topsoil conditions and
severe changes to natural site grading. The vegetation of the
Stapleton site today has been so modified that, with the excep-
tion of a few patches along Sand Creek, virtually all of the his-
toric vegetation has been eliminated. As a result, only degrad-
ed remnants ot the native prairie anti riparian habitats are left
and these fail to capture any of the drama scale or beauty of
the original Colorado landscape. These fragments also are nei-
ther laige enough nor continuous enough to sustain the indige-
nous plant and animal communities of the region.
Redevelopment of the Stapleton site otters the opportunity to
restore the patterns and the functions of the larger ecosystem
that will he required if these natural values are to be sustained
into the future within the Denver metropolitan area.
these landscapes will foster native plants and animals and also
serve as models for reduced irrigation demand as well as inno-
vative and cost effective stormwater control and pollutant
reduction. More than any other single feature, the restoration
of the landscapes of the High Plains will affect the kind of
transformation of the whole site that is crucial to building the
vision of the new Stapleton.
A comprehensive restoration and management strategy is
included in the Development Plan support documentation. The
The Stapleton Development
Plan envisions urban and
natural environments that
strengthen each other for
their mutual benefit.
intent is simply to reintroduce the matrix of mixed prairie veg-
etation landscapes naturally found on the site. Included are
Upland Landscape types such as short grass prairie and sandhills
prairie. Riparian Landscape types such as sandbar channels, lake
bottoms and lake fringes, and Modified Prairie Landscape types
such as woody draws anti prairie turf. These landscapes will in
turn support a diverse mix of wildlife and provide important
habitat connections for regional wildlife resources.
from: the thunder tree
LESSONS FROM AN URBAN
Wildland
BY ROBERT MfCHAEL PYl E
The proposed open space system integrates a unique mix of
natural areas, outdoor sports facilities, drainage corridors,
multi-usc Irails and scenic urban parks and parkways. The
plan includes traditional parks and parkways as well as
restored native landscapes. The best landscape images of
urban and rural Colorado will be brought together to change
Stapleton. Familiar landscape types such as golf courses, park
drives and residential streets will be retained but subtly modi-
fied to reflect the goals of sustainability. The management of
5-16


Major Habitat IVpes
Upland landscape shortgrass prairie
The short grass prairie, characterized by short-
er. more drought resistant grasses, occurs
where there are heavier, finer-textured day
soils that prevent water from percolating to
depth. In the larger open spaces in the southern part of the
Stapleton site, short grass prairie can be restored adjacent to
Sand and Westerly Creeks. It could also be used at the farthest
margins of drainage corridors in this portion of the site and
along landscape edges where an alternative to turf is desired.
Upland Landscape sandhills prairie
Tile sandhills prairie will be the primary prairie
landscape of Stapleton, with its centerpiece at
the Prairie Park. Tlie terrain consists of gendy
undulating hills oriented to and created by the
prevailing winds. Tallgrass prairie occurs in tlx; High Plains
where the more permeable soils allow moisture to percolate deep
into the sand. Sand blowouts and sandhill depressions can also
be found in the rolling prairie dune environments.
Riparian Landscape sandbar channels
All the drainageways within the larger open
space system of Stapleton are modelled on
sandbar channels free-flowing, wide, fiat,
main channels, within which minor channels
are free to braid and meander. Sinuous lines of cottonwoods
grow on higher ground and thick patches of sandbar willows
with occasional peachleaf willow grow within the channels.
Riparian ljuniscape streamside prairie
In the lower area, along the prairie stream corri-
dors. switchgrass covers the entire ground except
wlrere the stream channel is actively eroding.
Switchgrass should be established early on so
that as the site gels wetter the plants can spread. Prairie cordgrass
can be planted across the bottom of the channel as it will grow in
standing water. Western wheatgrass lias a wide range of tolerance
and can be planted when the channel is still relatively dry. Later it
will be able to tolerate Hooding and grow even in standing water.
Riparian Landscape lake bottom
Where a basin is constructed for
stormwater management, either to
improve water quality or to control
flooding, the model will be the playa
lake, Playa lakes are ephemeral
waterbodies that are found throughout the plains region. The
playa lakes at Stapleton will be designed to maintain ground-
water contact and to build up the "groundwater mound that
will develop beneath the basin. Continuous groundwater con-
tact allows the basin bottom to support a rush meadow that will
reduce pollutants and improve water quality.
Riparian Landscape lake fringes.
Water bodies that fluctuate between
wet and dry are found throughout the
high plains region. At the upper reach-
es of the playa basins and along their
matgins there will be less frequent con-
tact with groundwater and the moisture regimen will fluctuate
more dramatically. These fringes are characterized by spike
rush and dense stands of prairie cordgrass.
Modified Prairie Landscape
- woody draw
The woody draw is an intermediate
prairie landscape zone where root sys-
tems can access water sources below.
Example species are box elder, green ash,
serviceberry, American elm, red-osier
dogwood, ponderosa pine and burr oak.
Modified Prairie landscape
- prairie turf
Many buffer or transition areas
will occur in the restored urban
and natural landscapes. Turf areas
should be durable, easily main-
tained and water conserving. Indigenous examples are buffalo
grass, blue gramma grass and western wheatgrass.


sfction v c / niviLoptiriT
SIRUCTURIHO H-llEMTS
The Habitat Plan identi-
fies locations for the
mixed prairie vegetation
landscape types on the
Stapleton site. It illus-
trates the integration of
natural areas, transition-
al parklands and urban
development.


- i;£ vei- U*
i li t f l Til M* H -* CC ll >1 fc. i*B
WESTERLY CREEK CORRIDOR AND
SURROUNDINGS:
A blrds-eye vlaw looking south along a 1 Va milo length
ot Westerly Creek between Send Creek and Montview
Boulevard. This segment of the corridor contains the
following elements:
A) Excavation and restoration of the natural stream
corridor where aircraft runways previously constricted
local and regional storm flows;
B) major urban park adjacent to the District II employ-
ment neighborhood;
C) District III residential neighborhood;
DJ learning golf course adjacent to Westerly Creek and
the District I residential neighborhood;
E) tree-lined local drainage corridor connecting adja-
cent urban neighborhood flows through to Westerly
Creek;
Fj hierarchy of surface channels and canals convey
stormwater from larger urbanized basins to wator qual-
ity treatment areas;
G) ponds and wetlands where stormwater is temporari-
ly detained allowing for biological uptake and sedimen-
tation of pollutants and nutrients;
H| a series of grade control drop structures stabilize
the stream bed, preventing further erosion; and
I) wetlands at the edge of Sand Creek valley provide
wildlife habitat and Improve Westerly Croak stormwa-
ter quality before entering Sand Creek.
5-13


STRUCTURING ELEMENTS
Transportation
Ihc Denver region has one of
the highest per capita rates of
vehicle ownership in the
nation and is grappling with
the air quality impacts of a
largely automobile-based sys-
tem. From 1980 to 1991,
vehicle miles travelled in the
region increased by 35%. As
the metropolitan region continues to grow, the number of pri-
vately owned vehicles will grow as well. As suburbs continue
their outward expansion, commute distances will lengthen and
vehicle miles traveled will grow. Resulting impacts to air qual-
ity and roadway congestion are likely to worsen.
The Stapleton Development Plan offers an alternative approach
to development and mobility that seeks to reduce vehicle miles
traveled and resulting air quality impacts through land use
design, multiple modes of transit, and transportation demand
management strategies. Diverse transportation options will be
a long-term key to Stapleton's success as a place of employ-
ment, housing and recreation.
Existing Conditions
As an island surrounded by development, the Stapleton site is
reasonably well served by streets leading up to its perimeter.
As an operating airport however, Stapleton has created a sig-
nificant barrier to east/west and north/soulh continuity in the
areas roadway system. 1-70 is the only roadway corridor
crossing the site, providing two regional access points, the
Quebec Street and Havana Street interchanges. Primary
east/wesl streets leading to the perimeter of the site arc 56th
Avenue. Smith Road, Martin Luther King Boulevard and
Montvicw Boulevard. Primary north/south streets leading lo
Ihe perimeter include Quebec Street and Havana Street. A
number of neighborhood sheets also intersect with lire site's
perimeter on the west, south and northeast.
In addition to the 1-70 roadway corridor, the Union Pacific rail
main line also crosses die site. This line travels through down-
low n and is a primary corridor in the national system.
Surrounding neighborhoods are currently provided with rea-
sonably efficient bus service, a network of on-street bike trails
and pedestrian sidewalks. Existing bus service tor l he
Stapleton site serves only the terminal location. No regional
trails of any sort cross the Stapleton property.
Land Use Design
Fundamental to the Development Plan are compact, transit-ori-
ented. mixed use neighborhoods. Walkttble scale, mixed use
neighborhoods encourage walking and transit use by generat-
ing many relatively short trips. These trips are spread out
llirough the day creating a steady demand for transit as
opposed to the peak morning and evening rush hours. Also
fundamental are greater densities around access points Tor pub-
lic transportation. Greater densities will maximize the number
of people who either live or work within walking distance of
public transportation, increasing the likelihood of its use. In
each district of the site, minimum densities necessary to sup-
port transit are incorporated into the Plan and ail employment
areas are located within walking or biking distance of housing.


Travel Modes
Kail Transit
The existing Union Pacific rail corridor crossing the site south
of 1-70 along Smith Road is currently tlte proposed alignment
for rail transit in the east corridor as defined by the Regional
Transportation District (RTD). The Development Plan supports
this specific Iocalion, and recommends locating two intcmiodal
facilities along the corridor at its intersection with Syracuse
Street and Yosemite Parkway. These facilities will link rail tran-
sit, bus transit, bikeways, pedestrian networks and automobiles
TRANSIT PLAN: Alt portions of the site will be within
five minutes walking distance (1/4 mile or less) of pub-
lic transportation. Fixed rail service in the l-70/Smith Rd.
corridor Is currently under study. The Development Rian
proposes rail stations along Smith Road at Syracuse
Street and Yosemite Parkway.
within one single facility. These locations can also serve
regional connections to downtown, DIA. the Rocky Mountain
Arsenal National Wildlife Area and the Lowry campus. The
cast corridor will be studied over the next 18 months by the
Denver Regional Council of Governments l'DRC(Xi), Colorado
Department of Transportation (CDOT) and RTD to determine
which transportation improvements will serve the corridor most
efficiently. This effort must be coordinated with Stapletons rede-
velopment. Ihe goal will be to maximize the potential for future
rail investment and complimentary adjacent development to gen-
erate significant transit rider.ship and reduced automobile reliance
in tills portion of the Smith Road corridor.
A Regional rapid transit
SYSTEM IS NECESSARY TO
SERVE CITY RESIDENTS AS
WELL AS SUBURBAN COM-
MUTERS to the Central
Business district (CBD)
AND OTHER ACTIVITY CEN-
TERS. Increases in ride
SHARING, VEHICLE OCCUPAN-
Bus Service
it
Introduction of bus service to the site will requite logical
_ extensions of existing routes. The Stapleton Development
Plan provides necessary through street connections for bus ser-
vice to operate through the site and into surrounding locations.
Bus slops will he located throughout the site in locations that
will ensure all residents and workers are within a five minute
walk of a stop. All district and neighborhood centers will be
served by this route structure.
CY, BICYCLING AND WALKING
ARE ALSO VIEWED AS VITAL-
LY IMPORTANT GOALS
City and County of
DENVER COMPREHENSIVE
Plan, 1988
Bicycles
The Development Plan is designed to encourage greater usage
or bicycles for recreation and commuting. A comprehensive
bicycle network has been developed for die site as an extension
of the route structure defined in the Denver Bicycle Master
Plan. This network features off-street regional bikeways paral-
lel to Sand Creek, Westerly Creek and the major open space cor-
ridor in die northern half of the property connecting Sand Creek
to the Rix:ky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area. An
extensive collection of signed on-street bike routes serves all por-
tions of the site. For on-street bike routes, the curb lane will he at
least 15 feet wide to accommodate (xitli vehicles and bicycles.
5-21


SAND CREEK
TRAIL: Tha exist-
ing runway tunnel
structure could be
opened up with the
arched wall ele-
ments remaining for
historical interest.
2. 1 . N '
" r -
ucrr :in
Rntaoi) TrtlU
lu* AHlv
On-frTfoei MUlll'Mir Titles
IW
(MThUcvI MmIIi-uio TnuU
ilnt mum
(HT'iUMt Mut|i*ui I rail*
t*W (u<
Qrtuk Sc^'^'on or &r(*Jje
TRAILS PLAN: Multi-use pedestrian, bike and equestrian
trails will connect the sites mixed use districts and link
the site with the region.
Pedestrian Walkways and IVaiLs
Sidewalks will be provided adjacent to all streets. Special
pedestrian amenities will be provided in the area between
Quebec Street and Yosemite Parkway, and Smith Road and
29th Avenue to help mitigate the pedestrian impacts of wider
streets and intersections. The Development Plan also includes
a number of parkways with significant landscaping lhal will
encourage pedestrian use and designates multiple use trail
linkages to connect the site into the regional trails system.
Trails lie within mapped street or open space areas. Regional
trails include the Sand Creek Trail connecting the Platte
River Grccnwuy east through Stapleton into Aurora to the
High Line Canal, the Westerly Creek Trail From the Sand
Creek Trail ultimately to the High Line Canal through
Lowry, and a new trail from Sand Creek northeast along
the Sandhills Prairie Park to the Rocky Mountain Arsenal
National Wildlife Area. Fingers from these backbone trails
will penetrate development areas via the surface water
drainage system, parks anti parkways. The multi-use Sand
Creek Trail will also have an equestrian component for its full
length on Stapleton.
Automobiles
Recognizing that 1-70 is currently the only major roadway
across the site, a number of roadway improvements will be
required to reconnect the site with neighborhood and
regional systems.
Highways
Until the 1-70 corridor study is complete, it is impossible to
know how the site will be impacted by future potential
improvements. Accordingly, a 300 to 350-fool envelope is
being reserved for these as yet unspecified improvements with
additional buffering ami drainage along the perimeter. The
total corridor width for all of these combined purposes equals
700 feet. All travel demand modeling for the site assumed
eight through lanes for 1-70. If this does not become the case,
tlie size and capacity of each recommended roadway will need
to be reevaluated. Irrespective of the results of the study, it is
clear, however, that both the 1-70/Havana Street interchange
and the I-70/I-270/Quebec Street interchange will need to be
redesigned to accommodate the ultimate access needs of the
site through these key points. More specific design recommen-
dations will be made as part of the 1-70 corridor study.
S-22


rc
Lcflcucf
1 h rnwiji
Primary ,Sf*vri*
Putraliil Primary Sttw
iK Prkwi>i
uiuruM Fihttng Dallv Traffrufirntre not? TVafTkr
i.DBfBKi'
1'irlt Onro
n*4lHr>trHkli M*Wtilrrw**yi- 'ml TW/art MMmlH Ik N Ulaiinmit inn< Hurt** f tirio ami dl|mmH b dtfiaa4 fliortaa Ik* *fe* The Stapleton Development
Plan provides necessary
through street connections
for bus service to operate
through the site and into
surrounding locations.
STREET PLAN: The basic
grid of Northeast Denver
will be extended onto the
site. Important connec-
tions will occur along
56th Ave.p Smith Road,
26th Ave., 49th / 47th
Aves., Syracuse St., and
Vo Semite Parkway within
the site. Quebec St.
Havana St., Montviow
Blvd. and Martin Luther
King Blvd. provide Impor-
tant perimeter connections.
5-23


Streets
Primary recommended street improvements are broken down
between north/south and cast/wesl improvements. Final street
improvement design will require coordination with existing
plans of jurisdictions surrounding the site.
Hie primary north/south streets include Quebec Street, Syracuse
Street, Yosemitc Parkway, I lavana Street and Peoria Street.
Quebec Street: Currently Quebec Street is a two-lane facility
south of 23rd Avenue, a four-lane facility between 23rd Avenue
and 29th Avenue, and a six lane facility between 29th Avenue
and 1-70. In order to accommodate projected 2015 regional
traffic volumes of 20,000 to 29.U00 vehicles per day, it is nec-
essary to widen Quebec to four lanes between 29th Avenue and
Colfax Avenue. Widening is consistent with the Lowry
Redevelopment Plan and would not he required until the south-
western portion of the site is substantially developed. Right-of-
way will need to be acquired to construct this facility.
North of 1-70. the Plan proposes a realignment of Quebec east-
ward to provide improved access to 1-270, a high capacity con-
nection to 1-70 and an appropriate entrance into Districts VI and
VU. A connection hack to the existing Quebec Street alignment
north of 1-270 occurs at 56th Avenue. It must be noted that the
alignment represented is conceptual. Determination of a final
engineered alignment will be the result of a future study involv-
ing Commence City, the (DOT and the City and Comity of
Denver. Final construction will not be necessary until the north-
west portion of the site is actively under development.
Syracuse Street: Syracuse Street is a two-lane neighborhood
street serving the hast Montclair neighborhood. It will be
extended north into the site to serve neighborhoods planned in
District I and will be terminated near Fred Thomas Park.
North of 26th Avenue, it will be continued as a four-lane facili-
ty to serve District II and will not extend north of 1-70.
B-24
Yosemitc Parkway: Yosemitc Parkway provides direct conti-
nuity from 56th Avenue to Montview Boulevard through the
"heart' of the development. It will bridge over both the rail-
road corridor and 1-70 using existing roadway bridge structures
that will remain in place. Yosemitc Parkway will also provide
access to the businesses along Colfax Avenue and to the Lowry'
campus to the south.
Havana Street: Havana Street provides continuity from 56th
Avenue to 26th Avenue, where it will terminate. The seg-
menl between 56lh Avenue and 1-70 is currently a four lane
facility. Havana Street between 1-70 and 26th Avenue is
initially proposed as a two hme facility, but right-of-way
should be preserved for a future four-lane section to
accommodate future development.
Peoria Street No changes to Peoria Street are proposed,
although several streets serving the Stapleton site will now
connect to it. They include 26th Avenue. Smith Road. 47th
Avenue and 56th Avenue.
Tlie primary cast/west streets include 56di Avenue, 47th Avenue.
Smith Road. 35th Avenue, Mad in Luther King Boulevard, 29th
Avenue, 26th Avenue. 23rd Avenue and Montview Boulevard.
56th Avenue; Fifty-sixth Avenue right-of-way will be capable
of ultimately accommodating a parkway of up to six-lanes with
a landscaped median, setbacks aid limited access. Within 90
ilays of the closure of Stapleton, construction on two lanes of
56lh Avenue will commence. Construction will utilize materi-
als recycled from die Stapleton airfield
47th Avenue: Forty-seventh Avenue, transitioning tu 49th
Avenue, will provide continuity through the north lialf of the
development from Quebec Street to Havana and Peoria Sheets.
This will be a four-lane facility widi minimal tmek traffic.
Smith Road: Smith Road currently penetrates the site from the
east and west but is not continuous. It will be connected and
reconstructed as a four-lane facility with an intersection with


Yosemite Parkway. The Smith Road corridor will provide a
major east/west connection and will accommodate rail transit,
bicycles and pedestrians as well as automobiles,
35th Avenue, Martin Luther King Boulevard and 29th
Avenue: Thirty-fifth Avenue, Martin Luther King Boulevard
and 29th Avenue are intended to serve the proposed high densi-
ty LcmiinnJ area in District fl. The existing MLK
Boulevard/Quehee Slreet inlcrseclion will be preserved to pro-
vide a high capacity "front door to the terminal area develop-
ment sites. Both 35th and 29th Avenues will he disconnect-
ed' west of Quebec Street to discourage travel through the resi-
dential Park Hill neighborhood to the west. 'Ihe emergence of
a major regional traffic generator at die terminal may necessi-
tate modifications to these configurations and other connec-
tions different or in addition to those the Plan currently recom-
mends. In addition, more detailed intersection design in this
area may result in further modification to the street system.
26th Avenue: Twenty-sixth Avenue provides continuity
through the south half of tire site from Quebec Street to Peoria
Slicet. it will Ire discontinued west of Quebec Street to dis-
courage travel through neighborhoods to the west. It will be a
standard four-lane street west of Yosemite Parkway, and a four-
lane residential parkway east of Yosemite Parkway.
23rd Avenue: Currently, 23rd Avenue carries more traffic
tlirough Park I fill than Montview Boulevard and 26th Avenue
combined. It will be extended into the site until it intersects
Yosemite Parkway.
Montview Boulevard: No changes to Montview Boulevard
are proposed, other than a large, landscaped setback on the
north side along the Stapleton property.
Secure Parkways: Two scenic parkways will be located along
tire major open space and drainage corridors. One will follow
the south bank of Sand Creek across tire site. The other will
travel along the Sandhills Prairie Park open space network in
the north half of the site. Final locations for these parkways
T cc* c * '( t
will be developed with detailed design anti engineering of the
open space system.
Transportation Demand Management Strategies
Transportation demand management (TDM) strategies are
intended to maximize the people-moving capability of the
transportation system by increasing the number of persons in a
vehicle, or by influencing the lime of, or need to, travel. To
accomplish these types of changes in travel behavior, a combi-
nation of incentives and disincentives are typically used.
Examples of TDM strategies lor lire Stapleton area include:
Residential Neighborhoods
Neighborhood transit subsidy (Eco-Pass) program
Tele-work, teleconference centers in neighborhoods
tele-service centers (bonking, city services, library access, etc.)
Latest communication technologies (home shopping, etc.)
Daycare, health and public services and schools in neighbor-
hood cenrers
Commercial/Retail/Office Development
Establishing maximum parking ratios
Charging fitr parking
Rcduccd-price. preferential location parking for carpool/van
pool users
Subsidies for transit and taxis for retail customers
Employer-based Eco-Pass program
Compressed work weeks and other alternative work sched-
ules such as staggered shifts
Support retail and restaurant facilities within walking dis-
tance of workplaces
Shared fleet of low-emission vehicles for midday travel
Shuttles to/froni DIA or to/from transit station
Bicycle parking, lockers and showers
Health clubs in office developments
Guaranteed Ride Home programs
Rideshare matching
Providing ready access and encouraging use of
alternative fuels
Financial incentives for ridesharing, bicycling or walking
Multi Use Streets
Extensive Bikeways
5 Minute walk to bus
Rail Transit
5-25


-lr.T--r o v*;- :l._ ir~
rtll(
Intelligent Vehicle Highway System
ln-home transit information
Travel advisories (changeable message signs, highway advi-
sory radio, personal communication devices, smart kiosks; etc.)
Incident detection and response information
Successful implementation of some or all of these strategies
will require early establishment of a Transportation
Management Organization (TMO). The TMO would be
responsible for incorporating and implementing strategies in
new development rather titan trying to retrofit them in estab-
lished areas of development which may be resistant to change.
PARKING AND PARKWAY ILLUSTRATIONS: On site parking areas and some parkways, such as extended 35th or 29th Avenues,
are examples of multiple use right-of-way design. A coordinated approach will Integrate public safety, transportation, land-
scape, drainage and water quality functions. Maintenance concerns are Incorporated as well.
Above right for example, parking lot runoff is directed to a series of connected shallow landscaped basins in order to detain
stormwater, remove urban pollutants and irrigate drought tolerant and riparian plantings. The shallow basins connect to either
on-site or regional detention areas via drainage corridors.
Above left for example, small rain showers are collected within the parkways in cleanable canals at the bottom edge of a broad
median channel that directly infiltrates stormwater, irrigating adjacent street trees. Larger storms are conveyed to the regional
stream network by the grass-lined median channel which also acts as a linear park. Along the sides, right-of-way is also
reserved for pedestrians and bicyclists.


c
STRUCTURING ELEMENTS
SERVICES
Overview
For much of ils history, the
Stapleton site was open
land or in agricultural use.
Urbanization of the prop-
erly began in earnest in the
late 1920s with the con-
struction of Denvers first municipal airport Since that time,
the site has been extensively modified. Many physical
improvements and an extensive system of infrastructure have
been added over the last 65 years to support the growing
demands of aviation activity.
LJjxhi the airport's closure in 1995, a new set of requirements and
service demands will begin to emerge. Improvements and infra-
structure originally created to serve aviation must be adapted
and/or replaced with larger and different infrastructure systems
designed to serve non-aviation use. In its present form, Stapleton
is only partially prepared to support extensive reuse. Its existing
infrastructure is concentrated in the southwestern portion of the
site. It lacks internal systems sufficient to accommodate sub-
stantial employment, housing and other activities on site.
Natural systems of topography, vegetation and drainage have
also been destroyed or significantly altered. In addition, tlie inte-
rior of the site is disconnected from much of the local and region-
al systems of transportation, open space and service delivery.
Fundamental to the task of redevelopment is the ability to
design and construct new systems to support new mixed-use
communities and public use of the site. Existing infrastructure
and impmvement-s will be adapter!, reused or recycled when-
ever possible. Significant new infrastucture investment in
energy, water, wastewater, stormwater, solid waste, telecom-
munications. transportation and open space systems will be
required. These investments must he made in a fashion that is
cost-effective and supports the larger sustainable development
objectives of the redevelopment program.
Stapleton infrastructure must provide cost-effective. low main-
tenance and environmentally sustainable approaches to urban
service delivery'. It must integrate urban and natural systems. It
must respond to the limitations of traditional infrastructure pro-
vision where systems are often built and operated in isolation
from one another and from consideration of hroader environ-
mental and social costs. For example, stormwater has tradi-
tionally been conveyed directly from streets to underground
storm drains to rivers as quickly as possible. This approach
eliminates opportunities for on-site irrigation and increases
water quality impacts. When solid waste is indiscriminately
landfilled, opportunities to reclaim its value as a resource
through reuse, recycling and com|ms(ing arc also lost Fjieigy
production is often associated with reduced air quality and glob-
Stapleton infrastmeture
must provide cost-effective,
low maintenance and
environmentally sustain-
able approaches to urban
service delivery.
al warming impacts, fossil fuel mining and geojxililical strife,
hul new developments of Stapletons magnitude jure often
designed with insufficient attention to energy conservation.
Stapleton provides an opportunity to integrate utility systems in
a way that recognizes resource values in both inflows (water,
energy, consumer goods from raw materials) and outflows
(wastewater, stormwater, garbage), and captures these values
through conservation and reuse wherever possible. Stormwater
runoff channeled through grass-lined swales provides irrigation
for green spaces and is filtered through vegetation, improving
downstream water quality in river systems. Solid waste, pre-
sorted and processed, produces raw materials for local end-use

5-27


Economic growth has
its imperatives;
it wia OCCUR,
The key question is;
WITH WHAT nrCHNOLOfilESr
James Gustave Speth
United Nations
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
industry production activity or compost lor soil amendment.
Energy conseivadon through both demand and supply-side
management reduces consumption and internalizes costs.
Proposed systems will thus be both more resource-efficient and
cost-effective, and will minimize environmental impacts.
The new systems developed for Stapleton must facilitate effi-
cient use of natural resources, provide diverse mobility
options, support compact communities, promote restoration of
natural systems (habitat, plant communities, water quality,
etc.) and take advantage of technological advancement and
opportunities lor demonstration projects.
Meeting Future Service Demands
Fundamental to redevelopment is the delivery and pricing of a
wide variety of urban infrastructure services to the people liv-
ing, working and recreating on the Stapleton site. Existing
improvements will be adapted, reused and recycled whenever
possible, but significant new investment in infrastructure will
be necessary.
With environmental responsibility as a principle focus of the
development program, implementation must go further than
simply identifying the delivery of utilities to the site. New
community infrastructure services must be sustainable over
time. 'Hie goals have been to define cost-effective approaches
to service delivery that make a project truly sustainable, to inte-
grate systemic solutions wlien possible, and to produce effi-
cient, durable and manageable solutions. In addition, it will be
important to price these services in a manner that accurately
reflects their cost including economic, social and environmen-
tal costs. Accurate pricing will provide incentives for achieve-
ment of a sustainable urban form. Four areas are highlighted in
order to demonstrate an integrated systems approach. They are
slomi-waier management, energy management, water and waste-
water management and solid waste management.
Storm Water Management
and Flood Control
Currently, Stapleton has a
very limited set of stonnwater
management improvements.
The portion of the site below
1-70 has some piped collec-
tion facilities that direct
_____ stormwater (lows to Sand
Creek and Westerly Creek. The balance of the flows are surface
flows carried by the topography to these same waterways. North
of 1-70, the site has little in the way of stormwater management
facilities. Tire .soil is extremely sandy and porous, and most of
die rainwater is absorbed directly into the ground. This infiltra-
tion is possihle because so huge a proportion of Ihe northern half
of the site is open land with no impervious surface.
% latnil TfKi vcr Flusl SlwtiT IMMW Rv *ihb
Uni Flw Oiiftiel in Fiftr Cutuutttlaft
- |fc CVlUUl iffVClMW*
** 'Nile! to >and 4-neI IM p^a a *IT Pp. we cwMia p< *ssr rokns tinny halt ml I-* I lid* wee w uu Cma* >w sadWw. m wmtm at Mfaa.lv tnit
PA litiintM *i,*i
Pi'lnitlms Wiitt Cltalll) i*UU
The Surface
Water Management
Plan. In addition
to addressing the
sites drainage
and Rood control
needs, the plan
will contribute to
pollution reduction,
wildlife habitat,
water conserva-
tion, public open
space develop-
ment and reduced
capital invest-
ment.
S-28


"*<*- t
|*#V* l -t M I,
* 'If IMk ft* <
I
Non-aviation use of the site will dramatically increase the
amount of connected impervious surface in many areas of the
property, and particularly north ol'I-70. Much higher concentra
tions and volumes of water will need to he accommodated. 'ITie
existing grade will lend to direct surface flows to the northwest
towards Commerce City and (lie Rocky Mountain Arsenal
National Wildlife Area. Commerce City's stormwater system is
not designed or intended to manage these Hows, and the Arsenal
can acccjrt only historic Hows due to its unique circumstances
(containing and treating groundwater nows as part of the overall
cleanup program).
The project team has worked with the Urban Drainage and
Mood Control District, Denver Wastewater and other agencies
to develop a comprehensive flood control and stormwater man-
agement system for Stapleton. This system will:
avoid piped collection systems and rely primarily instead on
storage and management of water on site through a series of
swales, small channels, storage facilities, and a new riparian
corridor north of 1-70, with an outfaU at Sand Creek near
Quebec Street:
handle the vast majority of the sites stormwater management
needs in the public realm to ensure ongoing maintenance, assist
natural irrigation of public spaces, and provide greater site
development flexibility;
serve multiple purposes, including:
irrigation of natural areas;
establishment of vegetation for wildlife habitat;
100-year flood detention;
extensive use of natural filtration to control nonpoint
source pollution and improve water quality.
provision of a more cost-effective solution than traditional
piped systems.
creation of water amenities; streams, ponds and wetlands
The Surface Water Management Plan illustrates the essential
elements of this system. This approach allows for state-of-the-
art management of stormwater. Regional detention is maxi-
mized, water is essentially harvested from private property to
Irrigate and improve public spaces, and overall capital invest-
ment in tiie site is reduced.
B Energy Management
During the last It) years, ener-
gy efficiency in American
industry (bonne building, auto-
mobile manufacturing, etc.)
has improved significantly in
response to market demand.
The social costs of energy
consumption include environ-
mental damage and geopolitical conflict over fossil fuel sources;
the risks of nuclear power, air pollution, potential climate change
and the consumption of forest, desert, river and ocean habitats.
These relationships are increasingly apparent to consumers, who
have, developed a greater interest in conservation, and in products
that have reduced impacts on the environment. In addition, buy-
ers ol real estate increasingly consider long-term energy costs as
a factor in purchase decisions.
During the last 10 years,
energy efficiency in
American industiy has
improved significantly in
response to market demand.
The goal of the Development Plan Is to use innovative building
and community design, technology and market mechanisms to
decrease the overall energy demand at Stapleton, and to incor-
porate clean energy sources wherever possible.
5-29


5* : > ..* V < R k *- l.
As part i)f the Stapleton Development Plan, an analysis identi-
fied potential energy requirements for the site and scenarios for
meeting those requirements. Once again, the goal was to
explore the most effective options likely to be available over
time to meet energy requirements while promoting efficient use
of resources and reduced impacts on tire natural environment.
Three different demand scenarios were examined, each pre-
suming different levels of conservation and demand-side man-
agement. These scenarios illustrated the [xrtential at buildout
to achieve savings of 50, 60 and 70 percent over current stan-
dard practices, relying on presently available technology. The
analysis emphasizes the critical role of demand-side strategies
as die most cost-effective and most readily available compo-
nents of an overall energy strategy for the site. Demand-side
management includes all forms of design, construction and
operating practices that reduce energy consumption. Demand-
side efficiency will be directly affected by land use patterns,
building orientation, density, landscaping, solar access, wind
protection and other factors.
Supply-side options were also evaluated. Given the 30-40 year
anticipated buildout of the site, a number of renewable sources
can play a role in meeting the sites supply requirements. The
analysis specifically examined wind electric conversion sys-
tems, solar thermal applications, distributed and concentrating
phntovnltaics and fuel cells. The cost competitiveness and
opportunities to incorporate these approaches may vary, but
Stapleton does provide an ideal setting for demonstrations of
these and other renewable technologies, even in the short term.
The report also examined the potential role of village-scale dis-
trict energy systems and opportunities for commercial/industrial
energy cascading among different energy users on the Stapleton
site. District energy systems may be a viable allemative to dis-
tributed (individual) heating, cooling, and hot water systems.
These systems could meet die diennal and electric demand
requirements of a properly balanced mix of users minimizing
the peak demand of the electric utility. Opportunities for cas-
cading on the site should also exist, given the potential close
proximity of industrial, commercial and residential users.
THE MiUGM WgCCMMBUIQWS WITH U&SPCCT TO
CNCAOT MkHACtHTNT IMCI.LIDS'
Maximize conservation through demand-side strategies.
Establish energy performance standards for buildings rather than
prescribe levels of component performance.
Ensure solar access rights through multi-lewt solar zoning.
Use life-cycle cost analysis to select demand-side lectmologies.
Develop appropriate zoning, codes, covenants and incentives to
ent ourage!require energy efficient site and building designs.
Dewlop village-scale energy systems (cogeneration) Ixtsed
on mixed land-use scenarios that support energy mattagement goals.
Install renewable energy demonstration projects
Use tree planting to reduce heating and cooling loads on site.
Develop energy hook-up, delivery, transmission and end use pric-
ing schedules that encourage conservation
Wafer and Wastewater
Management
Denver, though located in a
semi-arid region, has long
enjoyed its status as an irrigat-
ed community. Water con-
sumption in the Denver metro
area (at an average rate of 151
gallons per person per day)
has grown steadily over time, and has skyrocketed in recent years
with population grawlh. This trend has not been without costs to
the region. Water use in Denver has implications not only for
the long-term viability of our rivers and groundwater, but for
the viability of regional agriculture and critical wildlife habitat
on the South Platte and other regional rivers.
Current Denver water supplies are adequate to support the full
buildout of Stapleton. However, Stapleton represents an oppor-
tunity to demonstrate new approaches to water use, reuse and
5-30


v c ,-n p. :
lUIMrn. K.L* M} >!
ated on site, will need to Ik anticipated now hut will not he
possible to implement until later stages of the program.
conservation. Efficient use of the resource, through the use
of new technologies and management practices, can provide a
model for the west.
Potahle water for the Stapleton site is provided by Denver
Water. Stapleton has been essentially a private system for all
of its history. All of its existing on-site improvements for
water distribution were constructed and operated by the airport.
Stapletons system must now be adapted, extended, and inte-
grated with the rest of the public water system.
Wastewater services are currently handled by the Metro
Wastewater Reclamation District. Ln addition to their other ser-
vice delivery responsibilities. Denver Water and Metro
Wastewater are each currently studying options for a northeast
metro area reuse water system.
As with all oilier services, the goals regarding water and waste-
water have been to maximize efficient use of the resource, to
minimize environmental impacts, and to support the broader
objectives of the redevelopment program. Over the course of
the redevelopment program, we should be able to move
towards an ideal in which:
use of potable water is greatly reduced from present con-
sumption patterns;
non-potable water reuse and stomiwatcr flows play an
increasingly greater role in meeting irrigation, industrial and
oilier non-huinan consumption demands;
reuse water is supplied by wastewater treaUnenl facilities
treating flows that currently move through the site or that in the
future are geiteraled on site,;
water management approaches will reduce demand, con-
tribute to water quality improvements in the South Platte River
basin and support habitat development and restoration on site.
Achievement of these objectives will require a phased
approach. Some options, such as enhanced conservation mea-
sures, are available immediately. Others, such as regional
reuse programs or significant reuse of wastewater flows gener-
THE MAJOR RECOMMCNOATION5 WITH III LCT TO
WITTER AND WASTEWATER MANAkNt IHCUUSS:
Short Term Policies
Implement aggressive conservation and demand manage-
ment programs.
Install dual distribution systems within public open spaces.
Use nontributary groundwater to supplement dual distribution
system until on-sitc wastewater flows are sufficient to meet
supply needs for irrigation.
Explore opportunities for a one-million-gallon-per-day reuse
program with Auroras Sand Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant
immediately adjacent to the site.
Explore options for diverting ami treating wastewater flows in the
56th Avenue sanitary sewer at a satellite treatment facility on site.
Pursue wetlands hanking opponunities and incorporate best
available technologies for water quality management in site
restoration, open space and storm drainage improvements.
Mid and Long Term Policies
Continue above efforts, and:
Explore possible expansion of Sand Creek treatment facilities
and increased reuse volumes.
Pursue opportunities to work with Metro Wastewater to receive
additional reuse flows as pan of its respoase to South Platte River
j water quality issues or its effluent management program.
j Pursue similar reuse opportunities with Denver Water through
future phases of its water reclamation project.
I1
I Apply local or sub-regional approaches to wastewater treat-
| ment and reuse as opportunities arise.
Stapleton's approach
TO WATER MANAGEMENT
WILL EMPHASIZE CONSER-
VATION AND MAXIMUM
USE OF STORMWATER
FLOWS AND WATER REU5E
O ADDRESS IRRIGATION
AND INDUSTRIAL NEEDS.
5-31


IMAGING WASTES
BEING CONVERTED INTO
HIGH VALUE PACKAGING,
WHICH OFFERS A VIABLE
SUBSTITUTE FOR SEVER-
AL PETROLEUM PLAS-
TICS* SUBSEQUENTLY
PEGRAOES TOTALLY, OR |
ALTERNATELY, CAN BE
RECYCLED BACK TO THE
EXACT SAME USE."
MARK MONTGOMERY.
President of Ecochem
(A JOINT VENTURE OF
CON AGRA AND DUPONT
FOUNDED IN 1 990 TO
PRODUCE PACKAGING
MATERIALS FROM WASTE
PRODUCTS)
$.1 ;TtCH V C Qif V ft LOl*ML> * m
ELEMKRTi
[l should be noted that the recommendations described on the
previous pages with respect to water reuse will require a high
degree of intergovernmental cooperation between various ser-
vice providers, Hie Metro Wastewater Reclamation District is
responsible for treatment of wastewater collected by Denver
within Denvers bounderies. Denvers current contractual rela-
tionship requires the direction of all Hows to the Districts
treatment system. The Board of Dhectors of the Metro
District, as well as other policy makers, will need to ultimately
approve a number of the more innovative concepts described
above. All of the relevant service providers have expressed a
willingness ro pursue the general service objectives identified
for the Stapleton site.
Solid Waste Management
The average American gener-
ates 4.4 pounds of solid waste
per day, resulting in a national
total of 208 million tons per
year, according to die U.S.
Environmental Protection
Agency. Even though landfill
capacity and disposal costs are not perceived to be a constraint
in the Denver region, there are increasing concerns and conse-
quences resulting from our waste disposal practices. Much of
wliat we dispose is reusable, recyclable or compostable. In
addition, the entire process of raw material development, use
and disposal has economic and environmental consequences.
In planning for the Stapleton site, emphasis has been placed
on achieving higher ratios of recovery and reuse of materials.
Evaluation of solid waste options for the site began with an
evaluation of the volume and composition of waste a commu-
nity of the size planned for Stapleton would currently generate,
Strategics were then evaluated for moving the community as
close as possible to a condition of no net waste: i.e. no contri-
bution of waste to local landfills.
well as opportunities to import material to the site for reuse as
part of an overall solid waste management system. The strategy
addresses handling and processing of material, remanufaeturing
opportunities and institutional policies required to support suc-
cessful implementation of the program. Many components of
this plan are considered viable in the current market.
The uroa oeconnENoimciNE with respect to
encbov Management include:
Develop a resource village on site to address processing of
recyclahle material, yard waste, household hazardous waste and
construction/demolition debris.
Identify public or private organizations to manage and/or pro-
vide the following services:
- operation of recyclable materials processing facility,
- operation of yard-waste composting facility, in combina-
tion with a clean source of sludge, to be recycled as part of
Stapleton land restoration:
- handling and transportation of household hazardous wastes:
- operation of construction/demolition debris processing
facility;
- collection of wet/dry wastes from commercial and residen-
tial generators;
- operation of end-market manufacturing facilities to create
reusable products from processed, reusable, recyclable and
compostable materials.
Coordinate with the City and County of Denver and Stapleton
development management entity to implement a solid waste
rate structure and public education programs necessary to
achieve source reduction
Establish procurement policies that maximize the use of
reusable or recycled content products in development, operation
and maintenance of the site.
S-32L
At full buildout, the Stapleton community is anticipated to pro-
duce 25,000 tons of waste products per year. 'Jhe strategy
developed for the site includes reduction of this volume, as


' V <
I *
I-
I
STRUCTURING ELEMENTS
Land Use and Urban
Design
Tlic land use plan and development program far Stapleton
reflect the site's context and the principles adopted to guide
redevelopment. The land use plan describes a substantial
mixed-use community which could support an ultimate
employment base of more than 30,000 jobs and 10,000 house-
holds in a unique environment: u series of urban villages that
each provide access to employment, housing, public trans-
portation and open space. Districts of the site are organized
around identifiable centers that support a variety of services
and civic uses. The emphasis i.s on compact, walkable com-
munities and strong ties between the Stapleton site and the
surrounding community.
The land use plan reflects Stapletons future role as a signifi-
cant employment center. Stapleton represents :tn important
opportunity to create an employment base in response to the
significant trend towards concentration of employment growth
in suburban areas. At the same time, the plan attempts to cre-
ate integrated communities rather titan large, single-use dis-
tricts. The integration of jobs and housing farms part of an
overall strategy to increase access and reduce vehicle miles and
regional air quality impacts. This plan also suits the size of the
site: absorbing such a large property in the Denver market-
would be difficult without a broad mix of uses.
The land use plan is intended to be flexible. No one can pre-
dict market demand or absorption of land with any accuracy
over 30 or 40 years. As a result, the mix of uses and densities
must remain somewhat flexible particularly for portions of
the site likely to be developed in later phases of the project.
What are most important to establish now are the general char-
acter, scale and density of the mixed-use community and its
districts, as well as rhe basic community infrastructure, open
space, civic sites and oilier elements of tlic public realm.
Specific land uses, parcel configurations and relationships
among various fomis of employment, housing and other uses
should be determined more definitely as development and the
process of district planning, zoning and platting proceeds.
'Hie development program defines the land use allocations,
average densities and anticipated employment and population
totals projected for buildout of the site. Some of these parame-
ters will vary over time, but the development program provides
a feasible baseline, consistent with current and iinticipaled mar-
ket conditions.
'rhe development program assigns 65 percent of the site to
urban development and 35 percent to a mix of open space uses
(stormwater management, parks, golf courses, recreation facili-
ties, trails and natural areas). Approximately 16 percent of the
site will be required far parkways, streets and other forms of
public rights-of-way. With all forms of open space and public
rights-of-way accounted for, approximately 2,285 acres of net
developable properly remain. Of this acreage, 52 percent is
allocated to all forms of employment and commercial uses, 41
percent to residential use and 7 percent to inslitutional/cultural
use. The figures on the following page describe the preliminary
Land Budget for the sile.
The land use plan
reflects Stapletons future
role as a significant
employment center.
The allocation described above supports approximately 10,000
housing units with approximately 25,000 residents (at densities
that vary Tram three to sixty dwelling units per acre) and
approximalely 17-20 million square feet of office, commercial
and industrial space (at floor-to-area ratios ranging from 0.3 to
1.0). In addition. 1.680 acres of parks, recreation and natural
areas arc provided by the development program. Portions of
this system also address necessary slorm drainage management
and water quality improvement requirements of the site.
i
"UKf THE TRAOITIONM.
VILLAGE, THE NEW KINO
PROVIDES FOR A VARIETY OF |
HOUSING TYPES {DETACHED. j
TOWNHOUSE, GRANNY
FLAT5" ABOVE GARAGES ^
I
AND SHOPKEEPERS' APART*
ME NTS ABOVE THE STORES)
- WHICH IMPLIES A RANGE
OF INCOMES. AGES AND
FAMILY TYPES.*4
NEWSWEEK
December 26, 1994
i
.1,
5-33


itnto* V C PLVtlOPfniMf PUM
Land Budget
Preliminary Land Use Allocation and Building program summary
Cdhnf/lnrt_
7.1%
PkfiDormy
SuonoetL
14%
UoAnnutty
BuamoA
Z3%
(i.1%
ia.7%
Strwli, 1U\
Opm SfK, JJ7%
Employment and Population Distribution
Modum DonMy
ftlwHM, i7A%
Nnr> fenf EUanrt, <
OKttHitom MU%
On Site Employment, 31,136
tt!>Dmar
Itewkmtf 1BB%
UriMl Dumt)1
Resident PvpuUUon. 25.-160
Non-Dovelopmmt Areas
Regional (not included in the districts)
Local (wiOvn the districts)
\iiiiNMo ocvctoeeaLt nnccvt own total impiovimnt
UNITS (NET AOflCSI (ACHES) 9MC |OHOSI Ofl fttWO
iwif on ou (Adtui *eus) wojucehs
rua. ns. 33 ac* 1,154 ac 1.18? ae na.
ita.. n.a. I75ac* 491 ac" 666 ac n,a,
* (Includes streets and the railroad R.O.W.]
** (Includes community parks and local drainage )
All neighborhood open spaces and local streets are included below
Non-Rwktenllal
Dovolopmenl
Cultural,'(nsl Public Servtces/Amenfliee 2 FAR. 1000 ef- employe* 0.86 mst
High Density Business OffictfFtataii t0 FAR. 250 str employee 1.39 mat
Medium Density Business Ottica'Retail .5 FAR. a 00 si' employee 1.15 ms1
Low Density Bufikiuss Offioe/netaii' R&D^ia* Ughi ManulvAsaemWv .3 FA R 700 st/ employee 9.37 msl
Waielwusu-Dist/ Light Manui/Assembty .3 FAR. 1000 fit'employee 5.06 msf
Non Land-b3Sod 6% of employees n.4
Residential Development
Neighborhood institutional 2 FAR, 1000 sV employee 0.54 msf
High Density Mulll-ffimDy 18 du/ac avg (16+) 2.0 res^du; se/res^nc 2,496 du (23%)
Medium Density Mulll & Single Family 14 dufac evg flO-17.6) 5.181 du 2500-4400 si lata 2,375 res/du; 33.25/reslac 5161 du (48%)
Low Oanslty Single Family 7 du/ac avg (3-9) 4500-14500 St tots 2.75 re&'du, 19.25to&/ac 2,983 du (28%)
Totals Cullural/lnslilutlonal Residential 0.54 msi 10,646 du
She Totals Rasldential CultureUlnslltutionai Commercial Nnn-di?vnlopmf>ni 10,646 du 1.40 msf 16.96 msl
Total 10,646 du 16,30 msl
Residential Average 11.4 du/acre
99 ac 25 ac 0 ac 124 60 86-4 empl (23%)
32 ac 16 ac 0 OC 49 ac 5,576 ampr (17.9% I
53 ac IQ DC 2 sc 73 ac 3,848 Bmpi (I2.41W
7t7 ac 108 nc 5 ac 850 BO 13.385 empt (43.0%)
367 ac 6Bsc 2 60 45560 5,057 smpl (ia.2%1
n.a. n.a. n.a. n^L 1 .QBQ amp) (6.0%)
62 ac 21 60 (Included elsewhere) B3 ac $40nmpJ (1.7%1
139 ac 52 ac 6 ac 207 ac 4,993 res
369 ac 126 ac 15 ac 51260 12,257 res
427 60 77 Sc 10 ac 514 ac 8,219 res
62 ac 21 ac 0 ac B3 ac 540empl
935 ac 267 ac 31 ac 1,233 ac 25.469 res
935 60 267 ac 31 oc 1.233 ac 25,469 res
161 as 46 ac 0 ac 207 ac 1,404 ernpl
1.169 ac 230 ac 208 ac 11 ac 1645 ac 1.430 DC 1853 ac 29,734 urtipl
£ 286 oc 751 ac 1.587 ac 25,469 res
31,13$ erupt
Gross Devetopmcnl Arsa * 2,870 ac
Gross District Area 3,536 ac
Gross Site Area 4.723 ac
5*34
excludes non-dovetopment areas; arterial streets, principal streets, local drainage, community parks, the ralrcad r.aw, and all regional parks and drainage.


The Preliminary I .and Use Allocation and Ruilding Program
Summary provides a illustrative summary of the development
program's land allocation, densities, square footages, unit totals
and population and employment goals. The densities assumed
for employment and residential uses will be influenced by mar-
ket demands over time. In some areas, increased density of
activity would further enhance project economics and improve
the efficiency of a variety of forms of transportation and ser-
vice delivery. Increased densities in some locations could
increase demands on the capacities of some elements of neces-
sary infrastructure as well. Reductions in densities below those
depicted in the Preliminary land Use Allocation and Building
Program Summary could adverccly affect project economics and
would likely reduce tile efficiency of service delivery and increase
some forms of environmental imjxict-s.
The district and
neighborhood centers
help establish
neighborhood identity.
Districts and Centers
The land use concept for die site divides the Stapleton property
into eight distinct districts. Each district is intended to support
a mix of uses. The specific mix of uses depends upon location,
size, site characteristics and adjacencies. The districts vary
from providing great diversity to circumstances where one or
more uses predominate. In every case, the goal is to promote
diverse and successful communities rather than isolated, single-
use developments.
Each district consists of a neighborhood, a grouping of neigli-
Ixirhoods or a special-usc area. The districts have defined
edges and an identifiable center. The edges can be natural or
man-made features. Open space areas, drainage corridors, golf
courses, high volume regional roadways or lower density resi-
dential neighborhoods can all serve as edges.
The district and neighborhood centers help establish neighbor-
hood identity. Each is sized according to its role within each
district. Some are modest and local in size and function, pri-
marily serving the nearby imputation. Others are larger in scale,
incorporating a greater mix of uses intended to service a larger
population. Each center will include a puhtic place of some
kind (a park, square, community garden), an educational facility
(elementary school, daycare, etc.) and a public transit stop. These
centers can also serve as a location tor other public buildings
and uses (church, post office, library, meeting hail). In addition,
the centers can provide retail services and employment opportu-
nities within walking distance of home or workplace.
Mixed Use Districts
Mixed use districts are essential to achieving die projects social,
economic and environmental goals. Mixing of uses has far-
reaching implications with respect to crime, economic and social
diversity, transit and access, operating costs and utility costs.
Crime Planning for a variety of residential uses adjacent to and
within commercial developments will allow thoughtful intro-
duction of people and activity to areas which would otherwise
be dormant after business hours. Potential benefits may include
reduced crime and vandalism, helping to increase land values.
Diversity Mixed-use and mixed-density developments can
help achieve economic and social diversity by providing a vari-
ety of housing products tor family sizes, age groups and eco-
nomic levels. A diverse neighborhood will encourage regional
migration to lire site.
Transit und Access Mixed-use developments encourage the
use of transit by generating many relatively short Irips. These
trips are spread throughout the day creating a steady demand for
transit as opposed to the peak morning and evening rush hours.
Illustrative plan
showing the possi-
ble buildout of the
District I cantor. A
series of uses are
grouped around a
two acre neighbor-
hood park or
square. They
include community
gardens, day care,
an elementary
school, a bus stop,
services, neighbor-
hood businesses,
church sites and
elderly midrise
housing.
5-35


to .. V £
'Jr mi=.t f *%
Operational Costs 'Hie proper integration of design elements
in a mixed-use development results in operational savings in
energy, maintenance, security, management, communications,
utility access, parking and water supply.
Utility Costs Mixed-use developments diversify energy and
utility demands which causes a lowering of peak usage. In
turn, this can cause a reduction in utility rates.
Traditional Denver residential neighborhoods such as Park Hill,
Washington Park and Congress Park have pockets of increased
density and mixed use which enhance the quality of life within
these neighborhoods. Future neighborhoods of Stapleton will
share these qualities and exploit the benefits outlined above.
The density of residential or employment-related development
in each district is typically described with net dwelling units
per acre (for residential development) or floor-to-area ratio
(for employment-related development). Both of these mea-
sures can be confusing and easily misinterpreted. Dwelling
units per acre can vary substantially depending on the type and
mix of housing units as shown in the adjacent chart.
2. Medium lot single family, hingulnws,
cottage, polio homes
3. Zero Vh line single family, inwnhouse
4. Townhouses with stacked Rais
5. Two families, three families,
carriage houses
ft. Courtyard apartments, garden
apartments
3-5 dwelling units/ner acre
6-9 dwelling units/net acre,
8-12 dwelling unirx/nct acre
10-14 dwelling units/net acre
10-20 dwelling units/net acre
20-30dwelling units/net acre
Average residential densities
for lire different districts
range from eight dwelling
units/acre to 18 dwelling
units/acre. Eight dwelling
units per acre is considered to
be the minimum necessary to
support public transit.
7. Apartments, stacked flats 30-50dwelling units/net acre
B, Mid/high nsc apartment buildings 60+ dwelling unils/nct acre
(assumes decked parking)
The Park Hill neighborhood, immediately
west of Districts I and II, la shown In an
aerial view. The residential street grid
and alley pattern will be repeated in
nuw Stapleton neighborhoods as will the
Integration of Institutional, commercial
and other land uses.
Denver residential neighborhoods reflect a great variety
of block patterns, densities and mix of uses.
5-36


Districts
Major stroots and open space improvements define eight land
use districts within the Stapleton Development Plan. These land
use districts are intended to support a mix of uses, hut each with
a separate and distinct character. The goal of each district is to
promote diverse and successful communities rather than isolat-
ed. single-use developments- General character, scale and densi-
ties are defined, but substantial flexibility is provided for a vari-
ety of market responses.
sr-rtor* t' t- DfvELOri-tENT
Sm uctunm^ fl.UMLiHr -
Each district will contain a district center to Help establish
neighborhood identity. Uses within each center will vary, but at
a minimum will include a public area (park, square, community
garden), an educational facility (elementary school, daycare),
and a transit stop. Many centers will include employment, and
larger centers may also contain retail, commercial services and
other public buildings.


?*r
i
The urban Intersection
of Drake and Laroay in
East Fort Collins demon-
strates the successful
Integration of land uses.
The Woodward-Governor
Industrial campus occu-
pies the northwest cor-
ner (upper right). A lake
and luxury housing are
to the northeast. A
church complex is on
the southeast corner. A
retail center and multi-
family housing is to the
southwest.
i
i
Wallace Park in the
Denver Technological
Center provides a shared
amenity that buffers
high density office and
residential towers on the
west from lower density
townhome and single
family housing develop-
ment to the east.
The Cherry Creek neighborhood today pro-
vides an example of a major regional des-
tination and activity center, surrounded by
an area that transitions from medium den-
sity commercial, office and residential
uses to a predominately residential envi-
ronment of single family homes and town-
houses. A transition similar to this one
may occur In the terminal area (District II)
on the Stapleton site. Regional destina-
tion uses at the terminal may be surround-
ed by a mix of office, commercial and
housing uses that will ultimately transition
to the single family housing in District I
and adjacent existing neighborhoods.
While (lie projected buildout density of a district will remain
constant to preserve its ultimate character, die mix of individual
uses which will define the density may vary in response to demo-
graphics, economics and lifestyle changes. For instance, a net
density of eight dwelling units per acre will be realized under
either of the following scenarios:
Garden apts.. townhouses 25 3 story apts., garden apts. 20
2-3 families 20 2-3 families 10
Small lot single family 20 Small lot single family 30
Large lot single family 35 Large lot single family 40
of net land area
Within any given district, the site will be able to accommodate
a variety of product types and densities while still meeting the
overall density and land use goals which will ultimately define
the character of the district.
Floor-to-area ratio (FAR) describes the extent of development
on a given site in comparison to the sites overall area. For
example, if an office building covers 25 percent of a site and is
one story in height the FAR is 0.25. If the building is four sto-
ries in height, the FAR would be 1.0. The building has a floor
area equivalent to covering the entire site with a one-story
building. FAR is a useful measure, although density calcula-
tions based solely on FAR can be deceiving. Low density, sub-
urban style office parks can have very low FARs due to the
significant amount of hind devoted to surface parking and land-
scaping, but still accommodate individual structures of substan-
tial height and mass.
I
S-3S |




Kev Elements
s-cttON VO / Development plan
DlBTHtCT DEICMIPriONb
1. Predominately vusldart.
Hal ||nd |||9 with smaller
cal* CMr^tomBitlwy
mptoymont.
2. District C*rrt*r near
25th Avenue and Wabash
Street.
3. Average densities el
8-15 dwelling unite per
acre for residential uses,
with greater mixed use
density between 26th and
29Ui Avaeues.
4. Transportation elements
Inoludlng 26th Avenue
discontinuous entering
Park Hill on the west* and
Syraeuso discontinuous
entering East Montclair
on the south.
A. Parks including
treslawn setback on
Montview Boulevard* an
improved Fred Thornes
Park* a neighborhood
confer park, dralnego oor-
ridors, and a learning golf
course along Westerly
Creek.
6. Special sites are
reserved for institutional
or corporate use.
7. Reuse identified lor
existing structures that
complements residential
quality.
8. Elementary school site
at neighborhood center.
District I
Westerly Creek Neighborhood"
Urban Neighborhood
moderate density
Building Reuse
Opportunities
I
I

District I is a 489 acre residential neighborhood located In the south-
west corner of the Stapleton site adjacent to the Park Hill, East
Montclair and Original Aurora neighborhoods. It Is bounded by
Quebec Street and Fred Thomas Park on the west, Montview
Boulevard on the south, the Westerly Creek area on the east and
extended 29th Avenue on the north.
5-40


i .1
Dr.vc ; r siz-\ 7 *'
Dl-ITnCT J.-:'-S r<|f Ji F. _
District I comprises 489 acres in the far southwest comer of the site. The site abuts the
existing Park Hill and East Montclair neighborhoods on the west and south. The goal is to
create an urban, predominantly single family residential neighborhood connected to and
consistent in scale with the adjacent residential communities. Some of the sites existing
structures can support employment and public uses within the newly created neighborhood.
Selected aviation
structures, such as
the AMR Combs
Executive Terminal,
will become part ot
the new neighbor-
hood. The balance
will be phased out
and their materials
recycled to the
extent possible.
A district center is
a small mixed-use
area providing ser-
vices and amenities
to residential and
employment uses In
the surrounding
neighborhood. Uses
in District I would
include a park,
school, day care,
recreation, apart-
ments, community
gardens, bus ser-
vice and limited
employment.
Birds-eye view of District I looking west from Westerly Creek across rooftops and dralnageways to the neighbor-
hood center, and beyond to Park Hill.
5-41


Moderate density residential projects will comprise the
majority of housing south of 2Gtti Avonue. The illustration
above depicts single family detached homos currently being
constructed In an Infill project In northwest Denver.
Housing patterns in neighborhoods such as Park Hill or
Washington Park illustrate desirable aspects of a model for
new development. Streets are residential In scale with park-
ing, tree lawns and detached sidewalks. Homes are typically
single family and duplex structures with porches in front and
alley access In the back.
5-42
District i is a moderate density residential neighborhood.
South of 26th Avenue, residential densities averaging eight
du/acre will blend with those of existing adj'acent neighbor-
hoods. Twenty-Sixth Avenue and north will have a mix of
more moderate density housing averaging fifteen du/acre,
including single family detached, townhouses. duplexes and
triplexes, garden apartments and walk-ups. two to four stories.
Tit is area will also provide a mix of lower density, two to four
story commercial uses, including office campus, research, pro-
fessional, educational and employment services. A careful
selection of existing smaller-scale buildings reused for these
types of commercial uses can he interwoven into this neighbor-
hood providing walk-to-work opportunities for residents. The
neighborhood will be flanked on its edges by parks and open
space an enhanced Quebec Street and Fred Thomas Park on
the west; and a restored Westerly Creek/drainageway/golf
course network on the east. Other smaller parkways, boule-
vards and parks will also become part of the neighborhood.
These provide additional opportunities for unique residential
settings, including some higher-density, two to three story, sin-
gle-family residential building types (townhouses, carriage
houses, two families, etc,).
A District Center will serve the population of the immediate
neighborhood as well as existing adjacent neighborhoods.
This center will provide services to allow surrounding resi-
dents lo meel their daily needs within walking distance. The
center will also serve as a focal point for community facilities
and resources. Daycare, transit slops and an elementary
school with recreation areas, will he located around a two-
acre public square. This area could become the setting for a
post office, church or community hall, with convenience
retail and professional offices focused around 26th Avenue.
The District Center will also provide sites for moderate densi-
ty housing types, including elderly housing and fiats above
shops and offices.


Private Development At full buildout H Is anticipated that District I
will contain approximately 2,400 units of housing and 2,100 jobs in
1.31 million square feet of space. Housing densities will vary from
an average of eight du/acre (sufficient to support transit) south of
26th Avenue to IS du/acre north of 26th Avenue transitioning Into
District II. The District Center will serve the population of the
immediate neighborhood as well as adjacent existing neighbor*
hoods, allowing the majority of residents to meet their daily needs
within walking distance of their residence.
mroc
Public Realm District I Is anchored at its east and
west edges by parks and recreation facilities. Along
its western edge will be an enlarged and enhanced
Fred Thomas Park. Along Its eastern edge will be a
nine hole learning golf course and driving range, a
restored Westerly Creek and a large urban park. A
landscaped drainageway will serve as a linear park
along 23rd Avenue, connecting the eastern and west-
ern open space elements. In addition to 23rd
Avenue, primary new streets serving District I will be
26th Avenue, 29th Avenue and Yosemlte Parkway.
TWenty-sIxth Avenue will be discontinuous at Quebec
Street so that traffic cannot move west eoross
Quebec Street and impact the adjacent neighbor-
hood. Syracuse Street will also be discontinuous
near Fred Thomas Park to prevent continuous traffic
south through existing neighborhoods. A neighbor-
hood park and school site are located at the District
Center. A specie! site reserved for a public, institu-
tional or civic use is indicated by the star.


Section V O Oev orMc nt Plan
D;C?*fCT Or-TfltF *IONi
Key elements
1. Pradomfciatery employ-
nwit lrx) ure. with rent-
donllal arm adjacent to
parks*
2. iu limit Dfgbtet.Genter
at Syracuse Stiuat and
Smith Road, aorvtng tha
entire ifivtrict includrig the
existing terminal.
& Higher employment and
residential denaHfej
throughout, partlcularty at
major rafl or street access
points. Mkftrloe density
average with structured
periling.
4* Dwmrtatifin elements
Include an Improved Smith
Road corridor connecting
Smith Road to Yoeemtte
Parkway. The street system
surrounding the terminal
wIN be heavffy Influenced by
the nature of the buildings'
use. Emergence ot a major
regional traffic generator at
the terminal could oecesal*
late modified access and
other connections.
6. Midrise housing ad|aeent
to parks* TWonty-ninth and
Ihlrty-ttflti Avenues Include
park and drainageway
medtons.
6* SpOfitaLattsa reserved
lor institutional or corpo*
rate uses.
7* Reuse of aH or portions of
existing Terminal buildings,
as well as appropriate sup-
port structure*.
B. Incorporate reuse of
historic stnicUro* into dis-
trict development plan.
District II
Stapleton Park Neighborhood"
Regional Activity Center
i %
t
.
t
L
q

j
District II Is a 654 acre high density mixed use district located in the
southwest part of the Stapleton site at the terminus of Martin Luther
King Boulevard. It is adjacent to the Park Hill neighborhood, the
1-70/270/ Quebec freeway interchange and the hotels along Quebec
Street. District boundaries are Quebec Street on the west, Send
Creek near 1-70 on the north, extended 29th Avenue on the south,
and a major urban park at the confluence of Sand and Westerly
Creeks on the east.
5-44


SCCTION VO ; Ot *'? LOPf. NT |*t Af
DisTpjrr Df- .i*iPTii:;::
District II is a 654-acre area that includes the existing Stapleton terminal and Lhe major
support buildings and airfield improvements that surround it. This district is currently the
most urbanized portion of the Stapleton site. It has the greatest concentration of building
space, paved surface, infrastructure and environmental remediation requirements. The
district has been an important regional destination for 65 years. With regional highway
access and a future regional transit center at Smith Road and Syracuse Street, the area
will retain the capacity to support large-scale regional activities. Whether the terminal
building itself is reused or removed, this site will be important to the entire northeast
metropolitan area.
District II contains
the vast majority of
existing building
space on the
Stapleton property.
Medium to high den-
sity mixed-use
development will
benefit from excel-
lent access, visibili-
ty and many other
site amenities.
Birds-eye view of District II looking west from the urban park over a mixed-use commercial neighborhood to the
Smith Road transit station, and the Quebec Street hotels Just beyond.
5-45


r v D OtVCLOl HINT
CiaT %|r
A transit-oriented District Center will be located by a proposed
rail corridor along the north edge of the district where Smith
Road intersects with Syracuse Street. Ibis Center will serve
primarily employment and higher-density residential needs. It
will also serve as an intermodal facility linking rail, bus and
pedestrian networks.
District n is considered a special-use district, but it is not a sin-
gle-use zone. The terminal building or site will accommodate
a mix of retail/commercial/entertainment/ educational
resources for the region. This location of higher-density
office/commercial uses may expand over time from the termi-
nal area to Quebec and Syracuse streets, with densities of 0.5
to 1.0 FAR in buildings ranging from three up to seven stories.
Lower-density commercial, office and research facilities will
be located south of the terminal. Average FARs of 0.5 in
buildings of two to four stories and higher density housing
along Yosemite Parkway and the new urban park will be typi-
cal in this area.
Over the long term, this area will become appropriate for con-
centrations of higher density office/commercial as well as resi-
dential space within Stapleton, taking advantage of extraordi-
nary access, amenities, and visibility and the rail stop and bus
feeder system. Office densities up to 1.5 FAR and housing
densities of up to 40 du/aerc could be located here.
5-46


Private Development At full buildout, District II could employ
more than 15,000 people, roughly 49% of the sites total, In 6.6
million square feet of space. In addition. It will contain
approximately 850 housing units at densities reaching up to
40 du/acre. Higher employment and housing densities are
consistent with the districts high degree of accessibility to
regional transportation systems and the presence of the sub-
stantial base of hotels along Quebec Street. While this dis-
trict will benefit greatly from successful reuse of the terminal
building, its long-term viability Is not dependent on the termi-
nal structure.
,'f , % F> i v* l M I1
Ur t irriH,.
Public Realm The public realm of Distract II includes sever-
al parks and parkway components. The major urban park to
the east links Westerly Creek to the terminal area. In antici-
pation of the terminal area's role as a regional destination, it
Is surrounded by a street and parkway system including
Syracuse Street to the west, Yosemite Parkway to the east,
35th Avenue to the north and 29th Avenue to the south.
Parkways on 35th Avenue and 29th Avenue will also act as
linear graenways conveying surface water drainage to
Westerly Creek. A water quality enhancement area Is located
adjacent to Sand Creek near a special site reserved for a sig-
nificant Institutional or corporate use, as indicated by the star.
5-47


SECTION V D / DEViiLOPM'TrfT PLAN
DlsrICT DE*GKltT10N!'
Key Elements
1. Predominately mlderv
Hal tAod m
2. Dfitrlct Cntr at
Havana Street amt 26th
Avwiu*.
3. Density of 6-12 dwelling
units pf acre lor rasfden-
tlal usas.
4. Ttanfi£rtnliOD stomenta
including Improved Havana
StrMtf which Is discontinue
oub ontorlng Original
Aurora to the south, and
26lh Avenue ocumeolUig
east to Peoria B1
ff 8and/Westerly Crook
oovrJdor |Nirlu restoration.
Landscaped setbacks*
drainage corridors* and
median on 26th Ave.
6. Dovolop neighborhood
reboWMlntionantf
entiaoearmNit programs
with Aurora.
7. Dovolop state/efty and
county correctional fasfli-
tydeiign .guideline* for
he*0it, right-of-way
improvements, drainage
and buffers, access,
screening and sound con-
trol, ate.
A Elementary school alto
at neighborhood center.
District III
Bluff Lake Neighborhood"
Urban Neighborhood
Moderate Density
Significant natural
Amenities
i
District III is a 429 acre residential neighborhood located In the
southwest corner at the Stapleton site adjacent to Original Aurora,
Peoria Street and Morris Heights neighborhoods. It is bounded by
the 25th Avenue area of northwest Aurora on the south, Peoria
Street, Fitzsimons Hospital, Sand Creek Park on the east, Sand
Creek to the north and Westerly Creek ta the west. Immediately
northeast of Sand Creek are correctional facilities of both the City
and County and the State of Colorado.
S-48


-SrCTION V P - P*tA
District III is a 429-acre area occupying the far southeast corner of the Stapleton site. It
lies adjacent to the existing residential communities in Aurora immediately to the south.
District III provides another opportunity to create a diverse, vibrant residential communi-
ty with strong ties to the adjacent neighborhoods. The future of District IE will be heavi-
ly influenced by the areas around it. The restoration and improvement of Westerly
Creek, Sand Creek and Bluff Lake will allow this district extraordinary access to outdoor
amenities, wildlife and recreation.



Birds-eye view looking southeast from the confluence of Sand and Westerly Creeks to the neighborhood center,
26th Avenue parkway and beyond, to Original Aurora.
Bluff Lake is an
important natural
amenity along Sand
Creek. The area
offers significant
wildlife and impres-
sive views of down-
town and the front
Single family
detached resi-
dences, townho us-
es. and multi-unit
structures will be
mixed within the
natural neighbor-
hood setting of
District III.
S-49


... --_ t>. II
Bluff Lake will be the focal point of an extenatve open space sys-
tem within and adjacent to District III. This area will be restored
along with Westerly Creek and Sand Creek as part of the sites
overall open space system. One million dollars of funding has been
committed to Its development as an Environmental Education
Center where local schools will begin on-site environmental educa-
tion programs in the fall of 1995.
Access to adjacent open space amenities, coupled with dramatic views of
the Front Range and skyline of downtown Denver, will give the site signif-
icant appeal. Successful development as an urban village, however, will
also require joint efforts with Aurora to improve the edge conditions along
the current airport boundary and rehabilitate housing and commercial
structures in the area between Colfax Avenue and 25th Avenue. In addi-
tion. proposer! expansion of City and County and State correctional facili-
ties immediately north of Bluff Lake will need to he managed carefully, so
that it does not prevent successful conversion of District III to primarily
residential use. Access to correctional sites should be oriented to Smith
Road. Buildings should not exceed midrise heights. Facility perimeters
should screen ground level activity from view, reduce visibility of security
wire and limit sound (loudspeaker) impacts.
District III is intended as a low-rise, relatively low-density residential neigh-
borhood (at 10 du/acre average) with densities and scale roughly similar to
that of adjacent residential neighborhoods. Predominantly a single-family
residential district, it will contain a neighborhood center of lesser size, inten-
sity and mix of uses than the District Center in District 1 or 11. This will be
tlte center of community facilities (including elementary school and recre-
ation facilities) around a community park anil adjacent to Bluff Lake. A
range of more moderate-density housing types (two to three story lownhous-
es, duplexes, flats and apartments) could also be located here.
The District will also contain a traditional residential parkway, and a park
drive edging the Sand and Westerly Creek corridors, as well as smaller
parks and drainage-ways. These locations provide opportunities for a
range of housing types.
5-50


Ctr N TIH n V tJ Dl T t L>!wrhl 1 -r-
" > T'-wr* - = T*l**'-2
Private Development
District III Is comprised
mostly of residential
housing at relatively
low densities (to
du/acre). At build out it
is anticipated that
District III will accom-
modate approximately
2,550 housing units and
a limited amount ot
employment- The
majority of these jobs
will he located in a
small neighborhood
center. An elementary
school will be Incorpo-
rated within the center
adjacent to Bluff Lake-
Public Realm District III
Is surrounded by public
parks and open space
amenities. Immediately
to the north will be the
Bluff Lake Environmental
Education Center and the
restored Sand Creek,
which will be fronted by a
scenic roadway.
Immediately to the west
will be restored Westerly
Creek and a large urban
park similar in size to
Washington Park. A linear
dralnage/greenway will
extend into the district
from Westerly Creek.
Twenty-Sixth Avenue
Parkway will extend along
the southern edge of the
district terminating at a
special site Indicated by
the star near Peoria
Street. As with the other
district sites Identified by
stars, this site Is a loca-
tion where the combina-
tion of access, visibility^
proximity to open space or
other factors suggests
that only special public or
private uses should occur.
NOTE: A handful of hll*bk>ch partaU alartg lh tdtfthftrti boundary of District III ore part of tlie Stapleton
alto owned by the City and County of Denver, but Ho within the municipal boundaries of the City of
Aurora. Ultimate declolons regarding the use oral zoning of those paroeli mu*l bo approved by Aurora.
A cooperative effort wilt bo undertaken with Aurora to address the specific circumstances of this south'
om perimeler of the silo.
5-51


S\C1 tor* VO' OEVCLOVHLNr PCAP*
Distict otscmpttoNr
Key Elements
1. Predominately omploy^
meet land uiea with
highest quality office and
R&D uses along
Yoaevnite Parkway.
2. Ttomsft-arJented
DislricLCenter at
Yosamlte Parkway and
Smith Road.
-)
3. Penalty of 1*3 story
struct urea and surface
parking, with greater
height along Yosemite
Parkway.
4. Transportation elements
Including preservation
end use of the existing
Yosemtte Parkway bridge
across 1-70, Improve*
merits to the Smith Road
arterial corridor, realign*
morrt of the existing rail
spur to ths north and full
buildout of the Havana
Street Interchange.
5. Landscape the 1*70
setback and restore and
dovoJpp mutii-ya* timtts in
the Sand Creek corridor.
6. Reuse existing nurs-
ery and weather servloo
site for community agri-
culture and equestrian
activities. Expand the
organic composting
operation there.
District IV
Sand Creek Neighborhood"
employment Center
I
*
1
J

i
I
i
District IV is a Z79 acra employment-oriented area located In the
middle of the Stapleton site flanked by regional highway and rail cor-
ridors. It Is bounded by 1-70 on the north, Havana Street on the east,
and Sand Creek on the south and west.
5-52


Full Text

PAGE 2

STAPLETON DEVELOPMENT P LA N CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER, WELLINGTON E. WEOD MAYOR STAPLETON REDEVELOPMENT FOUNDATI O N HARRY T L EWIS, JR. CHAIRMAN CITIZENS ADVI SORY BOARD, R E VEREND PAUL MARTIN COCHAIRMAN LAWRE NCE A ATLER COCHAIRMAN THIS DOCUf-1ElNT I S PlliN'T' O N RECYCLED PAPI!Il WITH SOY -01\SED INKS. MARC H 1995

PAGE 3

Fl.!lluw Cili1.cns mul Int e rest e d H ea d e rs: /tis with grNII pridt tha t we present t o )'lilt/h e S tn,l etn u /)ewlllfJ//11'/It Plnn. 'fhi.r do rw1W/111111d Its mottri ttl hmc he en de1'elnped hy mtr t : ommunity In provide a /Jiueprilll for the rt'/1.1'1! of the 4,700 acre Stapht011 llllt'rllutional Aitport site. Swplelflll hrJ, f sen withe lll'intitm lll'l'd.v n/ our t'll/11/llllllily tor morr than 65 ye ur ,fllllt'l/1 P/a11 is i11 lite COIIIWI'timts it jorge \ bl'!ll'ten Staphttlll o11d the \ urmllndill ,ii c:u/1111/tillity. Stapletmt It as heen a fenced amlsemred islmul for tuo thiHI. 1 of a celllm' y Tlte jimner N ocky Mo1111tain Arsenal t o tlte mmlt and /.o1w)' J \ir Pmu /l(l.l e 111 the .m111l 1 remmcd 1111 additionttl 30 S(/II(Jn' miles of la11tl fmm pill)/ it access. These jiwilities togttlterlull 't' 1'/'t at etl e11o1 maus hol es a11d dism11ti11uities in tlw urbu11 fahric of northcmt Denwt : The comc1:violl Cll'l'r time<>/ all litre< of tlu.vc sill.v ll'illfm x lun s ulwautia/ dum/It'. '11tc Stnplrton De1elopment l'l11n rnate.r .rtron,r: tit s /lttwcclltlti:. .1ite mutt he fl1111rt' wildlifl refitgc attht Jlrse nal cmd the edumtion al. recrcmiona/, reside11tial a11d lm. i n e.u twlillilie utthc I MI'IY .lire. In addition, lite f >fall sel'lis to reunite tltt S tapl eto n si t e wit It adjac e nt n e i gll/Jt!rltriOtls in Uen11e1: Aurora and Commene City. Thi.v plan i s tlw pmdu r t of a Mtlwantia/ commitm e111 of time, l'IWI'J/)' am/money hy mcmy partidptmt.v Tlte e)Jim lws b e nefited fivmtltc dedicat e d partif'ipati o11 ofmcmy elected n.Dirials mul sta.D of the C ity rmd County of Oenve1; a well as the Staplrt1111 Retft'l't'IUfllllent a talentt d team of l oca l am/ uationaltcdmi c ol tmd many miter pull/it am/ pri l'ltle orga11iwtion. 1 Tltc t'l'eltlion of lite Dtlelofmte nt Pltm ltas also bcnefitt>tl fimn c/11 111/f/H'f<'dmt ed inW!SIIIIt'/11 by tile local philamhmpir c mlummity wlto pmvidtd 11 largt!fiOrtion r>f the n scllun. m ce.vsary to Slltlfi0/'1 /In Pmmdarirm l 'tclj)'mul profcs.fimml nm.l'llltcllltS in1olved. Most imlmrttmtly, lite Otrl'!oplllt!ltt Planltas b e t II cnridwd by tl w tlum.wmds of 1t011r, o f effrm romrilm t ed h y mtmlwr. \ of tlw Citi zen /lt/Visory l]omrl, and b y tlw iutlh itl twl c itizen s wlw have /liken the time to participutt in the process. '11w rj)ill'l mad e mlll'ctirely fly all these pt'Ofl/(' dcmoustmu s the affertioll they s/wre for this Cfl/1/111111/ity and tlwir de.1ire to shape it. fittare

PAGE 4

Til e Deve/ opmentl'la n /ius been jormall;y IIJIJIIYiretl fl y tlt c D t 'lll' t 'l' N annini{ llo u rd an d a do,r>MI 1 1 s m1 ame mltn e n/111 1/u> Cily oud Cnumy rl} IJ<'IIvtr's CmiiJII't'lwnsht P i a u by l i lt' Cit y Co wwil 'J'Ite P la n is one Jllll'l of'' packa,flt' of actitilie \ uetessmy fO adttmce litis redetclopmrm JIIV,i!,l'(l/11, Cou('l(rrellf Willi tiiC' mlo11fioll of lite Pflllll/re lite tmk of r.\lall/isllill,ll a puhlic drtelopmellf cllfily In wmidc IOIIJ:Iam .rfcnm'dfhip n( tltc ,lilt' omlflroject. mar ,ltalill!: tlu: ltumnn tmd finmwiul re.wmrces lll'l't'.f.\ '(11)'/o initiflle retlei'I!IOIII/It'llf and pursuing !Itt i11ifial pmjl't l \ fltat will begin 111 g ite lifc 111 1/w l'luu Slaphlo n will b e purl tif lit e legacy II'<' letii'C for jil f ure gc urr(l(iun.,. I f if provide. a m ndcl fl w addrrs .1in g 1/w eco nomic' aut/ .wl'ia lmtd. v ofpeoplt wltilr 1'1'. \fll'l'liltR o u rnaturulnot'/d, it will he ull',t
PAGE 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Executive S unuuary ....................... 1 1 A. lntrm l u c tion U. Contex t and Objec t ive s C'. 'l'h1: D eve lopm e nt Plan D M;tnagcmen t Structure rl. Eafl y Act i un hems F. Con c lu sion II. lutmducliuu and ll :ic k ttro uttcl. ........ ...... 21 A. lnu oduction ............................. 2-2 I. A N e w Approach 2. Goals :l. I low t h e Developmem l 'hu l is Used B llackground ........................... 26 I P rocess II is t ory 2 Rch1tion:;hip t o th e 19X9 Dc nvn Compre h e n sive P l:tll J. Stapleton T omo r row 4. City ; m d Foundat i on P artners hi p 5. Cititens Advisory Brmrcl (1. Tcchnic11l Cons uhin g 'lcnm 7. Co mmuni!) Outreach 111. Cuntcxt .............................. 3-1 A. Nntionul illld Int ernational Context. ........ 3 2 I Enviro nm ental C hall e nges 2. E co nomi c Challenges 3. Socia l Challenges B. Co mmunity Con t ext. ................... 3-4 I. LOl:al 2. l.oca l C hall e nges 3. Loc;1l Marke t Con diti o n s C. Site Co nt ext ...... ................ 3-10 I S it e 2 Cha nges i n R c .giou u l I .and Usc ]. Sut r o undin g Ne i g hborhoods nnd Uses 11 Si t e C hant e ter 5. l 1:g11l Fram ework IV. Community Ohjcct i vcs and Guidin,:t l'rind1>ICs .. 4 1 A. Mujor Questio n s and Com munity .... 4-2 ll (hti cling Pl'inciplcs ...................... .. 4 4 I Envimnmcntu l R esponsibility 2. Soc ial Equ it y 3. Opportu nit y '1. Physicn l Desi g n 5. I mpl e m e nlntion V l>cvC'IOJHnc nt l'lan .... .................. Sl A. .............................. ... 5-J I. K ey Features of the Vision n llighlights ........................... 5-li I Lir1k With Nntnre '2. Urhan Villagl!s .t M c bility '1. Besl l i;ehno l ogics <111<1 Pme ti c.:s 5. "Gree n Uus ine:)s Environment 6 t 'on nnnnity l .i nka gcs 7. Govcrnrtnec. Service Delivery ami Patti c ipalit111 ('. Stn t c lln ing Elements .......... ......... 5-1 0 I. lntroduc1iun 2 Open Space :ult l Parks :l. Scl'viccs 5. l.und lise a n d Urh
PAGE 6

D. District Descriptions .................... 5-40 I. Di.strkt I 2. District ll 3. District m 4. Dist r ict I V 5. District V 6. Dis t ricts Vl/Vfi 7. District VTD E. Social and Economic lniliatiws ........ .... 5-68 1. lntroduction 2. Goals and Principles 3. Criteria and Next Steps 4. Empl oyment Base 5. Economic Program 6. Education and !'raining Systems F. FiuanciaJ AnaJys i s ...................... 5-73 1. Infrastructure Costs 2. Description of 3 Overview of Financial Strategy 4. F unding Sour ces G. Regulatory and Market Mechanisms ......... 5-KS 1. A New Approach 2. Examples VJ. R e d eve lopment Managemenf Slruchtre 6-l A. The Need ....... . . . 6-2 B. Ro les and Possible Structures ................ 6-2 C. Recommended Approach . . . . 6-3 VII. P hasing Str ategy and Earl y Actio n Tle m s ..... 7-l A. Phasing Strategy ........................ 7-2 l. Location of Developmenr 2. Timi ng of Devel opment 3. 1)'pe of Development B. Phase I Development Recommendations ..... 7-2 C. Early Action ftems ................ .... 7-:1 l. RedeveJopmcnt Management Structure 2. Regulatory and Institutio n a l Structure 3. Finance 4. Marke ti ng/Communications 5. P lanning an d Infr astructure D es ign 6 Project Managemen t 7. Asset Management 8. Demoustrutio n Opportunities 9. Additional Studies J 0. Social and Economic Strategies D. Cu n ent Work on Action Items .......... J B luff Lake Envi ronmenta l Education Center 2. Rocky Mountain Wil dlife Refuge 3 Sand Creek Cor r idor 4. Wes t erly C reek Mul tiple Use Greenway und Water Quality Area 5. ResidentiaJ DeveJopment P ilot Project 6. "Groundswcll" Commun i ty Pam1 and ''Jus t Say Whoa" at the Urb;m Agri.:uJture Center 7. E n vironmental Remediation 8. 56t h Avenue 9 Runway Recycling 10. Term i nal 11. Jodustrial Land Sales 12. Asset Management 13. The Denver Smart P l aces Proje.cr VJII. Co nclu s ion Images o f t h e Future .......... 8-1 A A New Approach 13. Stapleton Techno logy incubator C. Westerly Park Neighbor h ood D. Green Builder E. Stapleton Parks and Open Space I X Ack n ow l edg m e n ts ......................... 91

PAGE 8

aXICU riVE 9UMMAR't EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Aft e r 65 years of avia tion activity, Stapleton Int e rnational Airport is about to und e r g o a tran s formation ... INTRODUCTION After 65 years of avi a tion activil)'. Stapleton International Airport about to undergo a lrJJlSforrnntion which will tnke at l east .iO to 40 years to complete. 'T11e S t ap l eto n Devdopment P l a n describes a p h ysical, soc i al, envi r onmental. economic and regul a t ory framework intended to guide this transfonna tion ove r the nex t several decades. I t describes a new approach to development, a real world example of sustainable d eve lopmen t of significant scale. Emerging over time on the Shtpleton will be a network of urban villages. employment center., and significant open space:.. all linked by a commit ment to the protection of natural resources and the develop ment of human resources. T h e D evelopment P l an has been adopted by the City Council us an amend111cn t to the City's Comprehensive P l an. ll is supported by the Development Plan Docw n cnt which conl
PAGE 9

Stapleton site provides an oppostuoity to address important co mmunity n eeds resulling from n base, demo graphic change and renew ed pressures on the stability of many neighborhoods. Tbe Plan must also distinguish tJ1e site from other larg e scale projects within the City and County such ru; the Airport Gateway, Lowry. the Central Platte Valley tmd downtown. In addition, the Development Plan mll!it respond to the spec ifi c market resulting from conversion of the nearby Rocky Mountain Arsenal and Lowry Air Force E ase to new civilian uses. Over the of thl! last yearS, the!'e has been a great clcal of discussion of' the variety of objec tiv es h eld by the comm unit y for the. reuse of the Stapleton site. The principle questions have beeu: }Vhat is the appropriate role of the Stapll'lwr site ill lite regional t !COIIomy and ils relationship to mfler t 'utlttlllnit)' CC'IJiers? flow can Staple/on contnbule tu mtprovemenr of !Ire' environment for swm11nding neighhorhoods and increaud ol'ress and opportunities jar their resideJils? -Hnw L'cm Staphtnll tt!,,'llmul ro 1/te dew!loplllf!lll and env i mmnemal clwlleuges Wl' face locally and globally? /low l 'ao Sw!lle/OI/ ltspoml ro 1he significam svclal rmtl demographic changes p/aC<' and 1'/WJ/e di)!ersl', ,\' llttes.'ifulurhuiJ I OIIIflllllliths ? -/-low 1'011 Stapleto11 succeed in the marketplace andfu/fi/1 ''"' disposition obligmions of the Denl'er aiq70rl sy.l'tem !' ln 1991, the City Coum:il adopted the Stapleton Tomorrow Concept Plan, which identified the following eigh t basic objiec tiveR for reuse of the site. These objectives continue to enjoy broad community support and have provided the foundatio111 upon which the Stapleton Devclopmenl P l!lll has been built: I. Generate significant ecu nurnic development. 2. Produce a pos-ilive impact l}n existing neighhorhoods businesses. 3. Enhance e nvironmental qualThe StajJleton site will ity dU'Ougboul the site :md surrounding areas. be a network of urban 4 Create u positive jclentity villages:, employment unique tn Denver and the surrou nding r egion. centers and significant 5. Promote high st;J,Ildards of open spaces, all linked urban design. by a con'lmitment to the 6. Generate revenues through protection of natural appropriate asset mnnage -naent to help fund DIA. resources and the 7. C r eate educBdeveloprnent of human t ional and cull ural oppurtunilies
PAGE 10

.. THE HISTORY OF A NATION IS ONLY THE HISTORY OF fTS VfLLAG&:.S WRITT'EN WOODROW WILSON, f900 Strong Conn octfon.s Walkabla Scale 1-4 :XEOUTIVE SUMMARY T H E DEVELOPMENT PLAN The Development Plan created for Stapleton is a direct response to tlle project's commwlity context and the adopted principles. Stapleton will be a w1ique mixed-use community capable of supporting more than 30,000 jobs and 25,000 resi dents. More than one lltin.l of the prope11.y will be managed for purks. recreation and open space purposes. Developed portions of the site will provide an integrated mix of employ ment. housing. recreation and access to public transportation. Stapleton s reuse will support the health of surrounding neigh borhoods and provide strong ties to the adjacent Rocl.-y Mo. untain Arsenal Nat i onal Wildlife Refuge and the Lowry education campus. Development is organized in eight distinct districts. Elich district contains identifiable center ;md emphasizes the integration of employment housing, public transportation and walkable scale. l11e Plan reinforces Sti.tpleton s role as a regional employment C(!Oter through the creation of compact. accessible commWJities thai integrate uses ;md create strong ties between I he Stapleton site and the surrounding community. The open space system serves a major role in unifying the eight districts making effec tive regional connections and restoring the ecological hen.lth of nawml systems on and off tl1e site. An employment base of 30,000 35,000 jobs coo be readily accommodated over time on the site. The Hav:ma Street corri dor and areas north and soUJth of 1 -70 provide significant The Plan emphasizes establishing the site as u national center for the development of environmental technologies. products and services; creating an environmental rechnology incubator to support start up fmns; creating training Wld skill development programs designed to provide area residents with the work skills needed by employers operating on the Stapleton site; and developing programs that encourage U1e participation of youth and entrepreneurs. particularly from mlnotity communities. Creation of the Development Plan was guided by a set of principles ... These principles address the economic, social and environtJnentalobjectives of the project, as well as the physical design of the community ... opportw1ities for creating a manufacturing, assembly and disuiStapleton's mixed usc neighborhoods can accommodate an bulion base on the s ite. l11ese areas offer rail service and ultimate popltlation of approximately 10,000 households. l11e interstate access. Section 10 on the Far north and the interior area alxwe the l-70 corridor provide significant office and research and development opportunities. l11c area surrounding the existing tenninal will become a rebrional destination offer ing a mix of exhibition, ent cruinmem retail, otlice and other uses. Each neighborhood center on U1e will also provide opportunities for employment. ln total, the Development Plan allocates roughly l ,200 acres, or 54% of the developable lw1d, to employment use. avemge density of residential areas for the entire site is roughly 12 per acre, sufficienl to support reasonable public tnms portation service. Higher densities are provided for in close proximity to neighborhood cenrcrs. tmnsit stops and m,1_jor public an1enities. Each neighborhood on sile is organized armmd a t.-eoter and provides a variety of mobility options beyond the automobile including walking, bus. bicycling. r.UI transit (along the Smith Road corridor) and the u s e of tetecommWlications 10 substitute for the need for lrdvel. School facilities will be located in neighborhood centers.

PAGE 11

wi 11 be multi-usc community facilities and will play a central role in the life of the surrounding neighborhood. Stapleton neighborhoods will provide a range of housing rypes and den sities that supp011 diversity. The Stapleton open space system includes more than 1,600 acres of parks, recreation facilities and natural areas. The principle trail corridors are along Sand Creek, Westerly Creek and the newly created open space corridor connecting Sand Creek with the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area. The system includes a championship golf cow-se above l-70 and a nine-hole t eaming course along Creek. A major ballfield and outdoor recreation com plex .is located between Sand Creek and I-70 west of Yosemite Parkway. An urban agriculture center and equestrian facility are EXECUTI V E SUMMA.RV accommodated on the north side of Sand Creek just west of Havana Street. A urban park is provided nllhe conlluence or Sand and Westerly Creeks, as well as a number of smaller s cale parks and public spaces. Parkways and landscaped drainageways connect neighborhoods to eacb other and to the major components of !he open space system. Significant areas of pmitie and riparian corridor restoration, particularly in !he north em half of the site, will dramatically increase the wildlife habitat provided by the site. A 365-acre Prairie Park in the far northern portion of the site, primarily above 56th Avenue. will be the cen terpiece of these restoration efforts The project's sustainable development philosophy is reflected in many different of the program. Land use planning
PAGE 12

"'A GARDEN CJTY IS A TOWN DSIGND FOR HEALTHY LtVING AND INDUSTRY; OF" A St'Z.E THAT MAKES POSSIBLE A FULL MEASURE OF SOCIAL L IFE. OUT NOT LARGER; SURROUNDED BY A RURAL BELT: THE WHOLE OF THE LAND IN PUBLIC OWNER'-SHIP OR HELD IN TRUST FOR THE COMMUNITY." EBENEZER HOWARD. 1898 Private Development 1 I EXECUTIVE SlJMMARV variety of sources, depending upon the type of improvement and the relative benefit to the local commu nity and/or region. Fu ndin g will be obtai ned through a combination of infrastruc ture fees. local tax and assessment districts, private capital state and federal transp01tation fu ndin g. grants, general munic ipal revenues, tax increment financing, Airport System rev enues, connection f ees and special Regulatory and Market Mechanisms Perhaps one of the more s ignificant challenges associated witb the Stapleton project is the c reation of regulat ory approaches. markelmecbanisms and programs which roget11er can encour age achievement of tl1c project's sustainab l e development objectives As an examp l e, creation of the typ e of mixed use communities d esired for Stapleton will require an innovative approac h to land use and design regulation. The approach recommended includes three components: I ) broad land use controls defining the general use, density and character of development at a site-w id e level, 2) more detailed design con trols for individual districts, and 3) a mix of standards
PAGE 13

E ARLY A CTION I TEMS The developmen t co rporation will hav e severa l immediate pri orities to rel ated to project linum:c, marketing, com munications, plauning, tii.!Sign. project management, as-;et managemcru. pursuit of opportunities and additional studies. 'lllese priorities are sum marized below. Work bas already commenced in many of these l11 addition, a phasing slrategy has been developed which identiti es Districts l and Vas areas of initial tlevelopment for residential. business and other uses. L R edevelopment Managem e n t Structure define character and role of the organi7.ation appoint the Board of Directors detem1ine funding mechanisms identify and h ire 2. Regu latory und Instituti onal Structure prepare and adopt site infrclStructure and :.ubdivision plans adopt rezoning ordinance pem1ancntly open spaces thro u gh conveyance, casement, dedic11tion or other mechanisms, as appropriate dev e lop 1 \!g ulutory incen tive and progn1mmatic structures to !:.Uppo11 the development progmm's env ironmental. socia l and economic objectives establish a Transponarion Management Organization 3. F in ance develop initial infms t ruc turo funding identify initial currying cost funding sources identify initial environmentn.l remediation funding sources develop open space funding structure), develop tina! impact fee structure 4. Markcti n g/Com m unic:llio n s develop unci implem en t land marketing program uevelop tuld implement existing building marketing progr.un devel op communications and public outreach program develop and inlplcment to auract environmental science and technology finn5 5. Plann ing and D es i gn develop plans for initial northern s it e stoffil drain improvements w1d divers i on of Havana clit<.:h llow s from llavana Lake identify and inrrasLructure for subareas of I and V comp l ete design of Sand Cree k corridor rcstor-.uion improvement s complete design of W es terly Creek channel commence planning and d esign for the le..'Ulling golf course adjacem to Creek -commence design of the Di strict VIll Prairie Park continue Section 10 design coordination with the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wil
PAGE 14

Rouse of Existing Facilities Recycling of Airfield Paving 1-8 7. Asset Management implement property management program implement site security program selectively demolish and recycle slmcturcs and airtield improvements implement interim managemem anti events pro!,'Tllm 8. Demonstration Opportunities Pursue homebuilding demonstration opportunities fo r District! with partners interested in promoting resource conservation and other development objectives. Pursue infrastmcrure demonstration opportunities. includ ing water for golf course and open space irrigation and waste minimization, reuse and recycling through initial clements of a resource recovery program. 9. Additional Studies evaluate village scale energy sys tem appl i cation to Phase 1 neighborhood development develop a nee planting program develop s hort and longterm water and wastewater man-agement strategy identify feasibility of a solid resource village continue joint visitor facility and program planning with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service participate in the RTD rail conidor alignment identify and complete necessary environmental studies evaluate and r ecommend appropriate open sp ace manage -ment strategies participate in the DRCOG l -70 conidor study identify and evaluate options to provide innovativ e educa tional opportunities LO. Social and Economic Strategies Create a business plan lor the Center for Bnv ironmemaJ Technology and Sustainable Development including pur suit of an e n vi ronment'dl business incubator. Develop a program to expand entrepreneurial s kills of sur rounding and new residents. Create a task force to develop an education anti job twining delivery mode l for Stapleton and to ide ntify speci fic.: K-12 educational options for future residents. Pursue establLo;hment of, and funding opportunities for, school to work programs with employers recruited to the site. Evaluate Stapleton bui !dings for reuse as educatiomtl or community faci liti es. Initiate collaborative planning effons with Aurora to rejuvenate the area between Stapleton and Lowry. Conclusion Redevelopment of the Stapleton site presents a significant opportunity to shape the future of our community. The Stapleton Development Plan describes a framework and some new approaches -to planrling and design, to market s and regulation and project managemt::nL Th e Plan de sc ribes a very ambitious agenda, but one that is within the capacity of the commur:Uty to achieve. IF THE OEVEL.OPMENT OF' STAPL.ETON FOI.L.OWS THE DIRECTION OUTL.INEO IN THIS DEVEL.OPMENT PL.AN, WHAT WIL.L. THE COMMUNITY HAVE GAINED? a jllh hase that the depth and diversit) of t:h.: regional economy. onented row:trds eJqlanding Developmem of thts (Oh hasc must be accompanied h\ an rncl\!ast:o curumitment to develop sl-.ills in all nf the poptrlation to participate tn this JOM haM. Secmul-communitit:" that can work in the 21st Century comhrnmg the hest of the old and the n.:w The created ut Stapleton will e"c.:el in n-aming and educating The) will be bettt:r prepared to support divcrsit)'. encourage purticip11tion and local control und satisf) the needs of peoplt: Community strurt:ure and technnlog) will promote rather than a of comnJunrty. 1'hird an unprecedented expansion of OJA!ll space and recreationul opportunities The henelits of the.'c resources will accme to the enure regl(ln. Fom11la slllfl in reversing the !Tend hvmg heynnd the capm.:iucs ot U1e natumJ envtronmenl. Stapleton will consume far lcs.' and produce htr tewe1 tmpacts. It will do '>ll not at the of people aml economic but '" a fundamental p\lrt nf the :ommuntt} 's approach In utldressing these needs.

PAGE 16

S&CTIO .. 11 I IN"TROOUC.TIOH AHO 8ACKGROUPID A. INTRODUCTION ( Y.,e closure of Stapleton !ntemal;unol AUport ;n 19\IS marked a unique moment in Denver's history. Sixty five years of aviation activity came to an end. Stapleton's closure also marked !Ul important beginning Denver is faced with the l argest urban redevelopment opportunity in its history 4,700 acres of publicly owned land in the heart of the City. Stapleton sits at the center of a major transformation taking p l ace in the northeast portion of the metropolit.an area. Three significant public -the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Stapleton and Lowry Air Force Ba.c;e are all undergoing dmmatic change. Weapons produc tion, milirary training and commercial aviation will give way to a major wildlife ref uge, mixed-use comm u nity and civi lian educational and training campus. These changes provide an unprecedented opportunity to shape the future or the Denver area. What will the people of Denver do with this opportunity? How can the community make the most of it? For more than five years, public, p1ivate and nonprofit organizations have been worldng with Denver area resi dents to answe r these questions. The results of these efforts are presente
PAGE 17

SECTION II/ tHTftOOUCTIOH AND BACKGROUND 2-3

PAGE 18

5CTIO,.. II I INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 2 A New Approach The redevelopment of the Stapleton site will take at least 30 to 40 years to complete. 'I11e decisions made with respect to the site will influence the Denver community for many generations to come. Redevelopment presents an unparalleled opportunity for leadership. The world is desperately searching for better exam ples of how urban communities can adapt and rum:w themselves. Stapleton can address important loca l needs and provide an impo1tant model. l11e community planned for the Stapleton site will provide a real world examp l e of sustainable development of significant scale. Sustainable development, in the words of the United Nations, describes a community that ean "meet tl1e needs of the present without compromising the ability of future genera tions to meet their own needs". What will emerge over time on the Stapleton site will be a net work of urban villages, employment centers and significant open all linked by a comm im1ent to the protection of natural resources and the development of human resources. Stapleton's new neighborhoods will reconnect adjacent neighborhoods and promote a strong sense of community. With proper stewardship, Stapleton will become a truly lasting legacy. a tribute to Denver's ingenuity-and its integrity -for decades to come.

PAGE 19

Fulfilling these goals will require substantial innovation in the physical design of the Stapleton community and the institu tional arrangements used to guide its development. A strong commitment to honor divel'liity and to ensure broad-based par ticipation of minoriti es ;md women in all opportunities provid ed by Stapleton i s fundamental to the redevelopment program. In addition, Stapleton must be a pioneer in crafting market based responses to community, socia l and economic needs and prol<:clion of the natural environment These attributes will provide Stapleton with a unique identity tl1at will distinguish it locally, nationally and internationally from oth.:r large-scale development programs. How tbe Development Plan is Used The Development Plan is the st.aremcnt of the community's goals for the site's redevelopment and the direction for tl1c redevelopment pro!,'l"33TT. Tt dc.-;crihes a physical. social, envi ronmental, economic and regulatory framework to guide development of the site over the next several decades. The frame work is intended to endw-e over many years and provides tl1e context within which private investment and land ownership can occur. The Development Plan is also intended to provide an effective context for early decision-making regarding important components of the redevelopment program. Although the Plan extensive infom1ation on the topics mentioned above, no plan can cover every topic in exhaustive detail, and a reason able amount of flexibility must be retained in any event when addressing the buildout of a community over several decades. 111e Developmenr Pl
PAGE 20

hi tnl'trko I U ft'lll <\dMI')(' ... Allan Counry 't'Oier\ approw """' ;urport ...,.-,.r Stlpiel<0 C"itium BwnJ Proc ess His tor y S1aplc1on lnlcmatiooal Airport has served the Denver areas commercia l aviation neelb for 65 yean.. Discu'-'ion of expan sion or replacement of Stapleton b..:g<111 iu tlu.: and grew more nrgcnl in lhe early 1980s. The airpon experienced iC:Ull growth in passenger volumes ami air Ira !lie thmug h out th e 1 970s ;md during I he first half of the 19HOs. primary capacity constraint was the lack of adequate sep and 1.600 feet between the north/south nmway\. Staplcton !'ell far shon of the required 4JOO foot minimum. In addition, elmmarie growth in aviation activity led to signilicant n c i ghbor houd opposition to airport operations nnd expansion propo:.als. In January of 1985, representatives of t he City and County of Denver :md Co011ty lllmounced an agreement in principle lo rel oca l c rommerdal aviation operations Ill n new site north of Stapleton. Subsequently. this plan and UIC agreements required to implement it were approved by lhe volcrs of C'uunt y in May of 19!.18 and by the voters of the City and County of Denver in May of 1989. closure at some time in the first hau of the 1990s thus became a vinua l ce1tninty. .,., f'lll1lM1'111ill r "',''"'J( ,, SK.F' (..'O(I(CAb t.:ort.\UII-nllt:. ttl 11o1dun llrc\t'klc .. P't.m ... Mtdttl! surkl'o pw_,(J, liiQpkiOil htolk Mllll'

PAGE 21

!\U!pkf\1"1 Publw Relationship to the 1989 Denver Comprehensive Plan In 1989, the Mayor and Oty Council adopted a new Comprehensive Plan that contains the commu n ity's vision for the future and identifies broad policies. prior i ties and specilic actions intended lo move the city lowartl that vision. Because of the siL.C and complexity of the city.ll1e plan cannot contain suniciem detail on every neighborhood or i ssue in the city. More focused direction is provided through detailed neighbor hood or subarea plnns, such as tl1is plan for Stapleton. nr func tional p lans. such as t11e Pru"ks Plan. E1,, oval or 0.:\'CI"pmeni nan CuyCountil l)t.(:i, .. il)ll 1)(-vctoj:HUCPI Entity M:aym/('n u 1,.,,1 oppotttt't 0e\'dOJli1..:UI t:. ilfi l ) Jli'IOitlJ 2-7

PAGE 22

AFTER NEARLY SIX VE,AR.S OF COMfWIUNITV TICIPANTS ARE READY TO COMMIT TO A VISION AND BEGIN TI\KING THE NECESSARY TO RE.ALI .ZE THAT 2-8 SECTIOI"f 11 I IHTftObUCTtON AND 8AC:KGROUNO 111e final reconm1endution s of the Stapleton Development Plan seek to be respons i ve tu each o r thesl! core goals and describe how U1cy can be auva m:cJ on the Stapleton The Dcv.::lopmcnt Plan directly ll1c Plan goa l s through its emphasis on expanding the deplll and diver sity of Denver's job base: restoring natural areas on site .md designating a n extensive portion of the site for parks and open space: creating diverse. walkablc urban recon necting and supporting tbe health of neighborhoods adjacen t to the site; providing public lrWlSiL bicycle and pedestrian alterna tives to increase mobility and red u ce dependence on t11e per sonal automobile; linking job creation on site with lmining and developmen t opportunities for l ow i ncome 11nd minority populations in the surrounding community; reinforci11g t h e central rol e of ed u cation and civic uses and spaces in the organization of n e ighborhoods: pursuing innovative approaches to land use contro l s anJ regulaJ.ory mechanisms;
PAGE 23

City and County/Stapleton Redevelopment Foundation Partn ers hip Followin,!! completion of the Stapleton Tomorrow process. City 1111d Couuty sLalr began fot:using un initial elemen t s of tht: redevelopment program. ln 1993. the City lind County entered into a parmers ltip agreement with the S t ap l eton Redevelopment Jloundatton (SRP). l"he SRP is a nonprof it corporation cstahlbhcd h y wrumtmity lenders Lu the Cit y County in mmtimmng the opportunities provtded hy the and ot the St:tpleton site. The SRF has raised approximately $3 mtllton from foundations. and tO it' activities anti redevelopment Working witJt City and County c:lcctc<.l otlicials ami sta!T. th.: SRF :tgfl:t:d to take responsib ility ror management and tht: nmjnrit y of fumliug of the cn.:atJuu uf n and demonstration 'Tlrt City and County uf Denver contrib uted $750.000 and considerable statr support from numerous City ;md Cowuy agencies to the Develop ment Pltm p r ocess. Primary stalf hns been provided by the Mayor\ Office o f&,)nomic Devel opment, the Planning ru1d Community Dcvdopmcnl Ortict:. the Depmtmcnt of and Rccrcmiun, and the Dcrmnmcnt nf Aviation thmugh thl' Srnph.:ton 2fl0CJ uflil'6. Citizens Advisory Board Redevelopment acuvities. mcludtng creation or the Developmen t Plan have been overso::n by ;1 Citizens Advisory Board (CAB) appointed by the Mayor in early 1993. 1l1c Bo:ud i nclud es 42 members teprcloentiug.u variety o f pen,pcc tives Md constJtuen c i es. busim::! 1994. The Development Plan is the result of a partnership between the City and County of Denver, the Stapleton Redevelopment Foundation and the Citizens Adviso1y Board. The worl. included three phases, Analysis, Opt inns nnd Prclcn-cd Plnn. During the Analysis Phase t h e t ea m worked over three months to undershmd the economic. social aut! environmen tal of the site and iiS surroundings All n:lcvant prior planning efforts were also revtewed, such as the Comprehensive f>lan, the Stapleton lbmorrow Plan and adjouung neighborhood plans. As a result of the Analysis Phase. tho: SRF, City and County. CAB and terun adopted a set of prin cip le.' i n t ended t o guide c reation of IJ1e Plan. Th e principles t:nvcrcd tive specili(; subjects: Environrnentul Eqltily. &nnornic Opportunity. Physical D .:sign und Implementation. 2

PAGE 24

THE LAND LIVES IN ITS PE.OPL, I T IS MORE ALIVE BECAUSE THEY WORKED IT, BECAUSE THEY LEFT THIS HILLSIDE AND THAT CREEK DOTTOM MARKED BY THI;IR SHOV ELS AND AXES. THE MEANING OP THIS PLACE LIES IN THE ROUGH WEIGHT OF THEIR HANDS, IN THE; OF THEIR' GUMBDOTED TRAVEL. JOHN HAINI!S THE STARS. THE SNOW, THE FIRE FROM: THE THUNDER "l'REE I..ESSONS PROM AN URBAN WILDLAND BY ROBERT MICHAEL PYLE 2 SECTION II I INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND Land Forms Option Districts Option Neighbol'f\oods Option The team also developed a set of framework drawings ing the si te 's drainage, open space and natural features, trans portation sys t ems and potential pattems of urbanization. In addition. a preliminary land allocation nnd deve lopment pro gram was prepared. During the Options Phac;e, tJ1e team developed three distinct options for the direction the preferred plan should take. Each oplion accorrunodated the prelimimuy land use program and reflected adherence to the principles adopted during the Analysis Pha<;e The Options Phase concluded with the selection of a preferred option, i.e. the option most responsive to the adopted p1inciples
PAGE 26

SECTION Ill I COHTEltT Ill. CONTEXT 3 2 A. NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT 1l1e redevelopment of Stap l eton comes at a time of tremendous nuliooal and international flux. The speed and extent of social, economic and environmental change is rem nf population growth and resource depletion. The potent ittl for s i gnificant global climate change and irreversib l e losses uf bio diversity are incJenslngly preoccupying the atte ntion of the sci entific community. In the !irst half of tl1e next century. the wnrld's populatinn will SWlJasS 10 billion. Long before that point has been reached, I he world's supply of cropland. range land and forest will have fallen on a per capita by more them 25 percent. T h ird world nations arc rapid l y emulating t h e production and t't'source consumption patterns of tl1e industrialized tirst world. ln 1950. seven of tbe ten largest metropolitan arcus in Lite world were in th e first world. By the year 20()(), seven of the ten largest metropolitan in the world will be in the third world. M exico City will lead the list at 25 million plus.

PAGE 27

Mc>tic(l City, Sao P aulo and Jakarta alone will hnve more people than New York. Lon don, 1okyo. Paris, Sllllnghui. Bueno' Aiws. Chicago. Mnscow, Cakutta and Los Angeles had comhined m 1950. Replication of U.S. or European pat tern.\ of resource use. energy com.umpbon, and waste genem tion holdN the JXltentinl for environmental calllJ-trophe o J proponions. Citie.' ;L' diverse as Hanover. Germany. Curitiba, Bruzil and ChattMooga. Tennessee ;u e already among thC"c that have moved environmental protection and devclopmcul to the top of their agendas in respon se to these t n:nds. 1ne United Stare:; 1md Denver will not he immune to the global 1\!Sult.ing from IX>Ilulalion growth, rc.\ource depletion, ,glolr.1l climate change and fOmtion\ in Colnrado and wClrldwide are pursuing )!aim, in efficiency ami cnvironmen tLll perforrmmce. lne 3 M Corpormion ha1; establis h e d t h e target o f eliminating 90 percent of frum aU of its production processes by 2(X)(). lb ultimale gual to achieve a zero w:L\le s t ate. is llc.,igning dll of J1311s of ili. C.'ln> to be recycled. and experi menting wnh the !ir..t pl:mt to an d n:cyclc automo biles. S. C. lm.> made grcn t s1ridcs in reducin g packaging wttStc Wld increasing Lite rccyclahility of its products.

PAGE 28

3 Sc:;CTtON U I I CONTEXT Employers througlumt the world are focusing more onefiminatUlg waste and maximizing tlleir investment in their labor force. Stapleton must develop an environment and capacities that respond to these illferests. B. COMMUNITY CON1"EXT 1. Local Resurgence The Denver area much to be happy about in 1995. After a major regional recl!ssion in the mid-1980s, De. nver s economy 3. Social Challenges has cxpcricnccu a significan t recovery. Denver is at or near the America. like much of the world, is also experiencing signifi-top nationally in ll!mls of every economic indicator. cant suciul change. Amerit:an socie t y is struggling with the LTnemploymenl remains relatively low, retail sales and homechaJJenges of divcn;ily. Inutligr'dtion. ratial anti et:onomic clivibuilding activity arc growing new and sions and a loss of confidence in virtually aU forms of instilucontinue to be attracted to the
PAGE 29

Jn many respects, the people of the Denver urea ru-e very fortu nate. Denver in 1995 offers mruty of the tj u alit i es tha t distin guish the small number of truly vital, livable urban centers in the worlcl Despite all of sttengths. D enver faces many of the same problems t h a t p l ag u e cities arou n d the world 2 Local Challenges Denve r i s with a variety of environmenta l economic ruul social prob l ems tlmt t hreaten to undermine its ot h e r suc For examp l e: G rowth and E n v ir o nmental Prelism -esColorado ls a beautiful and fmgile enviro nmenL Popu l atio n growth l oss of open space and high rates of a u tomobile usage tlu-eaten Denver's physical Despite recent improvements, regional air quality is likely t o o n ce aga i n decline. Each tlay, Denwr area motorists drive more tlum 30 million miles. or the equivalent of 1,200 times around the circumference of the earth. Urbanization continues t o reduce habitat for wildlife, elim i nate views and threaten water q uality. l n r ecent years, tl1e regi on's population hru, grown by 2-3% annually, and is to reach 3 million by the year 2025. Denver and t11e state of Colorndo fuce :.1 s i gnificant challenge in copi11g with t11= realities. Stapleton m u.1t prnv u le a n o pportrmity t o accomm od a te reg i o n a l grow t h in afaNIIion m o r e efficumt and.far l ess d amaging t han con ti nuin g ttrba11izalio n of t h e o u ter e dges nf th e metJopol iian area. P o v erty -Despite D enver s relative affiucnce, the gap between the haves and have-nols contin u es to grow. [n 1989. 17 per cent of Denver residents I ivcd in poverty. and another l 9 cent were defined as being on t11e brink of poverty. For people of color. the rare of poverty is two to four times greater than for whites. Betwee n 1 Y79 and 1989. povetty increased in 60 out of 78 Denver ncighborl10ods. For children, tl1e statistks arc even grimme r Approximately 27 percent of all chil dren in Denver live in poverty. In 1990, on l y 5R percent of eh.il.drcn in Denver l i ved with two married parents. Fully 43 percen t of all single parent families lived in poverty. SECTION Ill I COHTEXT A s one of the lar,gest urban lnflll pt'ojects in the country, Stapleton redevelopment offers an opportunity to enhance the st .... ngths of tho neighborhoods which have grown up around It, by pro viding employment and job training opportunities, extensive parks, trails and open space, and a diversity or housing options .. DESCRIPTION O F I NCOME, D ENVER V S SUBUR OSt 1989 ...... ..... 3-5

PAGE 30

3 SI!CTION: Itt/ CONl"EXT Stapwta n must provide opportunities for at or near the poverty level co eam a rna.wmable income and improve their lives. .I ob Loss Over the last fit\een to twenty years, the job buse of 111c rnctropnliw.n area hns grown substtmtiully. In Denver. how ever, there has hcen a shrfl in tl1c job base and u of jobs for those with the lowest skill levels. Tn the 1980s, employment in industries that offer the greate-st pt>.rcentage of jol>s to workers witb less than a bigb school education si)(tecn pcrcoot. While average wage levels increased in dll! lY!e levels declined in three oul of four of the industries employing l11c highest percentage of low-sldlled or unskilled workers. or IJ1t: new jobs being created in the regional economy, the majority urc in high-skill sectors and dlc vnst majority of these jobs are bcmg ..:reated in !be suburbs outside of Denver. Stopkto11 mtJ.It respond to these trendf, botl1 by cap1uri11g a great er share of regional employmelli growth and by providiflg entry level ami skill development opporlunilies. StnpllillJn pmvides land tu acwmmodate employment opportunities 011 tt scale largely t.o the City and County in the last two decades. In Denver, however, there has been a significant shtft in the job base and a loss of jobs for those with the lowest skill levels. Demographic Change -l11c City and Cow11y of Denver s population is growing older and more etlmically diver.:.'C. Th 1 : City and County s population also to have lower average incomes. more single person \iOUloeholds and fewer households growth Wld perceptions regarding the 4uality of public educa tion and personal salety have contJibuted to these changes. ln addition. technology grcatJy the ability of people to wor k al home oral locations far removed from cmdiuonal centers of employment. Population shifts are reflected in the demogmphic makeup of the Denver Public School population and the changing demand for hous.ing. Uolcslarc altered, Denver's schools will increru,ingly serve only I lie poorest fnmilie.s who cannot atlord dle costs of ptivate educa tion. The loss of middle class famiHcs also reduces Denver s tax ba.-;c, malcing it more dillicult w tinancially suppon public education and M:rviccs. As the population agel. and more womcn enter dle workforce, demand also increased fvt a variety of services such as childcare and eldercarc !hal hartlly existed in the nut-to-distant past. Staple/on must to Dre11e tlemograp!Jic changes by providing a mix of ltt1U8iflg supporting dilcrsc communities, offering a brood range of community services rmd providing viable alteriUitives for middle cl/.1$11 families. Loss of a Se11se of CommunityMany neighborhoods ure alTcctcd by levt:ls or youllt violence. nsing school dropout r.rtes and the disinf!jgration of community structure. Even residents uf afflut:nl neigltbortmods e)(prcss con cern for the isolation and loss of connection or comminnent w commumty that many modem neighborl1oods engender. Bodl the urban and suburban community model show signs of failing to s.ui'lf) the neecb of families :UJd individuals. Demogrnphic change s have compounded these concerns The traditional American household now represents a minority of the population in most urban mmmuuities. Roughly one-l11ird of our population is too young, too old, too poor or physically unable tu drive ll cnr, yet oun:ommw1ities t:ontinuc to be shaped dr.unatic:illy by the uuto tnnhilc Out nuliuns or community must be updated and adaptctl to responJ to 1hcse changed cin:wnstances and new t : hallenges. S/npleion must by supporting successful communiJies that promote individual involveme11t and udilress residenJ amwith school age children lhiin surrounding subuti1s. Denver hns regarding persollill .tnfety, !he qualiJy of educu/i(l/l mul also expericnt:cd a loss of middle mcomc Suburl'lWl joh other cmmiumity dwrru:teristics.

PAGE 31

3 Local Market Cond i tions Land AvaiJ abmty Upon closure, the Stapleton site will introduce approximately 4,700 acres of ne w, developable land lO the regional real market. The regio .nal market is composed of six counties: Adams, Arapahoe, Boulder, Denver, Douglas and J efferson. ln llJRR tJu:re were over472,000 acres of undeveloped l
PAGE 32

3 SECTION It I I C:OHTWXT U1df{i11g Lodging vacancies ::tre relatively low. While there Light industrial ruck office and arc intended to market demand for new consln tt:tion in some portions of the provide support services to downtown busincsst:s. and metropolitwl .ed U.\c mfill development that IS supportive of the summnding ncighhorhoods. will host residential, nt'ighborhood and regional open space uncllcctcutional an educatiotml campo:including a c.:onununily t:ollege and UCD fociliues. as well as bu'iness rmining and an office parlc campus. Gateway A rea: The Gateway un::a 4,500 :1cre1. o f untll' veloped lund udjuc.:cnl to the entry ro DJA. Jhis new mixed use COIIIOIIIIllty will indude horcl!>, li!!ht industry, and Jt will also ..:ontain retail uses parks. recreational are.1s
PAGE 33

Sta pl eto n's Co m peti the Po.li/lolll//11 Staph-ton not on/, rr't{lllll'S tllllllllftnumding of rc:gumu/ umduiun.\ aJulthe mit (If 111/rer !Jenn:r sitc:s. but an undtr.l1ululing q( the site:, ClllllfX'IItiw pt'.lllion rdtllin! w tire f'f'Stdtmtitl, oJ]in>.uulusmiJI. retwl.lodlilll!l 11111/ 11/.ltitutuma/ markets. R esidential: TI1e southern pur lion of Swplcmn in rho.: near Lt:ml the most v table for residential de,clupnk:nt. Other tt::.itkntial pm;cct-. are dcpenden1 on !he J.:, clupnk.'lll uf majtlr amcmti.:,. Thes.: will nng oeighborllood centers. the Ea!.t 'itlt:d Among the that are to be pro' idmg C\1ltax district in Demcr. or Origmul Aurora. hnU\IIl!t opportunitie' 111 Denver at the same time are Lowry. tht: A u-pon Gateway. Cenrral Platte VJile}'. Montbello and utc.:n Valle) R:mch. Signilicmll housing supply Will alw be added tn suburban area;, such Jt'tli!rson. Arapahoe. Dougla.s ;tnd counties. Office: Stapleton is weU llonetlto allmt:t -;in!!l.:-tcnant who sed. location mrunt:un average lcveb. ;md do not de:.ire a ron rn an C\l. imity to mil s.::rvit:c. the intcr-;tatc highway and DlA will posiuon it well with n.'\flt't't to industnal develop mcm. llu: J 70 corridor cur-rcntly more than 50 pen.-cnt of the metropolmm areas total market lor these uses.ll1c site can aiMt compete favorably for lugh- a lack of .IV:tilable <.k.'re(lj!C appropriate -.ne fi.1r expansion through satellite hJCilillcs.ur even long-teml relocation. h be impuruuntu n:t;un nextbtltt) tO :x.-commodate the lung-term nt.'t'd\ of rcgtonal o.!duc.:atHinal. culntral and mher as they mutcriali7.e. INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY COHTKMPLATES NOT JUST THill RCME..DIATION TH INDUSTRIAL RlllVO\.UTION TO PAOVIOE. THE TECHNOLOGICAl.,. 11'A8L.Co AND &US"TAIN ... OAAO AL..&...ENDY V1Lf1 PAL SIDE-NT RSV\RCH, AT&T 3

PAGE 34

SECTION Ill I CONTEKT 3-1 0 Stapleton Airport Is just tho most recent of many land on former prairie vr lands. Before aviation, thlll land supported oxtonslvo wildlife p-ulatlon-. native hunte,.gathoNrs, dry land and Irrigated farming, datrv oper tlons and gunpowder manufacturing. C. SITE CONTEX1r Site History The land where Stapleton Ail]lOrt now seen human activity, in 100me fonn or another. for thousand'> of yean.. Arclleological Evidence 'J'wo an:heological <;itcs near Stapleton yielded to the ;u-eas history. At Henderson Hill, a low !.null ju\t north of Stapleton. an:heologists have a variety of prehb torie artifacts. including stone flakes from and knives, lire-crocked rock:. fi:um cooking hearths, and a hammer and grinding stones once us.ed for cooking. 1l1e were probably l eft between 3.500 B.C. and l ,000 A.D. by Areha i c Indians. who hunted game and gathered plants for food. 1\ second archeological site was discovered Toll Gut..: Crt:ek at East lliff Avenue < m d Chambers Road. The rema ins of a man and a boy fow1 d m the site were dated 670 A.D. Native American Activity a11d Piomer Set1leme111: During the ear l y 1 500s, Native Americans reached t h e Stapleton area in lightly agricultural unatl.. ll1e arrival of Spanish conquil>ladon. in the southern mountairu. of Colorado brought horses t o the region in the mid -1700s. ln the early 1800s. the Arapahoe and their allic,, the Cheyenne. spread south and west from Canada. the Dakotas and Minnesota, periodically warring with the Ute :md Comanche. The Ampahoe ncar Stapleton were completely nomadic. having no permanent settlements, nor any fixed dwellings. Tiley lived exclusively in tents made of buffalo skins. The Arapahoe also depended un the butTalu for l'ood; they did not practice agriculture. At the swm: time. many pioneers h oping to escape the poverty and land sbortages of the :.aw their in the prai1ies e:u.t of Denver. By the end of the nineteenth c.:ntury, the area extensively populated with

PAGE 35

lndustria / Developmettt: I n the 1920s, when Mayor Ben Stapleton considered the Sand Creek site for a new municipal airport, the arcH supported not only ranchers and homesteaders but several industrial users as well. The Standard Meat and Company, the Dupont SecTioN Ill I CoNTEJlT WorlJ WaJ U brought lasting changes to Denver Municipal Airpor1 and the surrounding are<1. Wartime mobilization resulted in the construction of Lowry Am1y Medical Cen t er and d1e Rocky Mountain Arsenal. DeNumourn Powder Company, and the Atlas Powder The anival of the jet age in 1959 prompt ed a qu arter-century of Company all had fitcilities on the site-as dic.l \Vindsor Dairy. expans i on for Stapleton and the entire air travel industry. Lru1d the lru-gest operation of type i n Colorado. ncquisilions to the and the north gave Stap leron most of the 4,700 acres i t covers today. Neighborhoods soon bordered TI1e vast Sand Hills prairie had already hcgun to clmngc. Hig h the airport on every side. Line Can!! I was in pl:-tce, serving many business and agricul tural interests south and east of Denver. Smaller water projecrs abounded. Remounts of this irrigation system, such as Bluff Lake and tbe Sm1d Creek Lateral. are still visib l e. The urban neighborhoods of Original Aurora. Montclair and Park Hill were beginning devdupment, and thousands of trees were being planted. The: Denver park and parkway system had been laid out, hut short of Stap l eton. Aviation Use: When the Denver Munieipa!Airport was dedicated in 1929, it intended to conso l idate the growing gener.tl and conuncr cial aviation interests in the metropoUtan area. The initial site oovered 345 acre.\ of 32nd and Symcuse Stree t;,. While improved over time. d1e aviation complex remained south of Smd Creek and bounded by Syracuse Street, Montview Boult!vard and Havana Street -until the great e;-."J)anSions of the jet age. When selected as a site for municipal aviation in 1929, the Stapleton site represented the far eastem edge of the urban area, The Denver street grid and parkwa)' aystem organized the eastern expansion of the city and reached the current Stapleton site by the earl11 1920s. 3-11

PAGE 36

The Denver M ... lCipal Airport opened for buslnep In 1929 on "the Sand Hills alte" east of Part< Hill consldorod by ""'"II to be too remote. It waa....,...ectllft ... Mayor Ben Stapleton in 1944. 3 SCTION It I / CONT RXT Changes in Region a l Land Use Northeast Denver now experiencing n shift as drnmatic a\ any in it s modem hb tory. ln addition to the couvcr..ion uf the Rocl..y Mountain Ar..enal to u N11tionul Wildlife Refuge. the I .800-acn: Lnwry Air Trnining Center locutcd nine to t h e south, has closed and is now in the early stages of redevelopment. The advent of Denver l mernarional Airpon has opened up an additionul4,500 acres of land for deve l opment in the Airpon Gateway lhn:c miles east of Stapleton. l n centrnl Denver, new infrastructure will allow the severn! hundred acres nf reclaimed raiJ yard in tbe Ce n t ral Platte Valley t o deve l op as well. As these arc reclaimed and the process of urb; m ization unfolds, a comp l ete lransfonnation of Denver will occur witl1 profound regionul implications. Surrounding Neighborhoods and Uses: 'Jbe Stapleton site is surrounded by many diiTerent ncighhur hoods and land uses. These include Park llill, Montclair. Originul Aurora, Morris Heights. Mombcllo, the Roc!..)' Mountain Arsenal Nationul Wildlife Area, Commerce Cit y and 'l residentinl in character, with slightly more than 5,6(KI single family homes and 1.250 mul ti-family genemlly are located in the Peoria Street co r nmercinl m-ea south of A I brook Drive and in the Chambers Pln<.'C Shopptng Center at Chamlx:rs Road and 48th Avenue. '!he olflce and industrial parks located between Peoria Street and Havana Street pmvitlc more than 12.0()() jobs. Mont bello is the large s t of Denver's neighborhoods i n botl1 lund arcn m1d population.

PAGE 37

National Wikllij'e Area The 27 1.quan: mile Rocky Mountain Aniena l National Wildlife Area sun-ounds the northem -rnoM area of Stapleton on thn.-oc sides. Fonn 1 crly the Rocky Mountain Arsenal, it is in the process of hcing c:onvened to a national wild lite refuge. Commerce City Commerce City b an County community which abuts Stapleton on the morthwesL Generally, Commerce City is bounded by 48th Avenue (N.E. Park I Lill) o n the south, Quebec Street on the and the Platte River on the west. 1l1e south eastern and older area of Commerce City is immediately adja cent to Stapleton. The residential population of Commerce City is approximately 16,000, and the area supports a significantly greater number of jobs in manufacturing. rihution and commercial uses. Correctional Complex Southeast of Stapleton ncar Smith Road is a correctional com plex containing the Denver County Jail and a State Diagnostic Center. Efforts am under way to identify and minimize the impact of the on the reuse of the Stapleton site. Expansion is p lann ed for both the City and County and state facilities on the sit,c. SeCTION Ill I COHT.XT 3-13

PAGE 38

''IH ntC CAIIILV PLANNING STAGES OP THit AIRPORT, MANY POSSIDL.. 81Ta SAND CRf!l itt< S ITI'!, SOMB .. TIMU eALL.KO ''THIE SAND DUND", OR ""RATTLESNAKE HOLLOW'", WAS ltAST OF COLORADO WOMI!:N'S cou.acc THe c.a:HR:R cw TH& PROfltO .. &D TR.ACT 01" ROLLING, SANOY HILLS WAS AT EAST 32N D AVENUE DESCRiftTION OF EVE.H'I"$ IN 1927 IN STAPLETON INT!ANAT.IONAL. AIRPORT: FIR8T n"Y YEARS 8V .JI!FFRI!V B. MIL.l.ER 3-14 StrCTIOH Ill I CONTEXT SCALE OF THE SITE Slapleloo comprises appiWUIIIIIIely 4. 700 IK.Tell and ill located within sut miles of downtown Denver. It is truly an urban infiU project, but one of stze. approximately 7 .!5 miles. lflbe Slte Csbown red outline) was overlaid onto the existinB cily. it would exrend from City Park south to Washington Park and include: the neighborbood!i of Oty Park. Nonh Capitol Hill. East CoHax. Capitol Hill Congr&l55 Park. Countty Club, Cherry Creek, Bonnie Brae. Wa.'ihington Park and West Washington Park. 115 weD WI much of lhe City of Glendale. -CAPITOl. HIU. I IIOIITM PAIIII MJU; 80UTH PAIIII HIU. I

PAGE 39

r Derdopment Plan IntiS[ recogm:e Ill< opportunirie.\ and lunitatiun:s presetlled by the :.cafe and physical charucrenstics of Lhe site As a single-pW/WSe sire for many decudes. u has manv unique charactemtics. the htf.!h/tght.l of which are hriejly \'1111/muri:ed l>elt>H: Rydrulugy All Stapleton runoff of 1 -70 tlows into eJUSong. creeks. 'Jonh of 1-7U soils are :.andy and absorb warcr readit}. No stream outfall occur; ;ationaJ Wildlife Area.. Pltysiograplt_v-Man) areas of the enjoy uf downtown and the Rocky An lake. two streams :Uld bluffs provnle nttrucllve naturdl cnvironmenrs. sand hills paltcming of interconnected lo" and htgh areas occurs on a limited basis on the nonh pan of the site. Wildlife Habitat-A vanety of wildlife cunemly on the The northern portion of the us range and feeding ground for birds or prey. prairie dog colonic:. and burrowtng nwl ... The Sand Creel. Corridor provides habitat for deer. fox ami other anim edge. EnviromnenJal ConJaminati11n Acuviucs on and off the airpon have contributed tu several areas of surface. subsurface or groundwa ter conr:urunation. The total :trea unpacted IS approximately llve to ten percent or tlu: cnlire site. Remedtation acnviues are enher ongoing or planned for the.\e area\. Srcno,_. lit f COr'#'rEXT A number nf on site also comatn hazardous sub>st;mres such as
PAGE 40

3-16 Str:CTION Ill /CONTEXT S ite C h a r acter During the Analysis phase of planning, rhe te-.Jm established an understanding of the esscnti:ll character of the which seJVed as a building block for the of O.:velopment Plan options. and the ftnal Development Pl;m. 1l1e site has many significant anributes which define charnc ter and pmvide opportunities to define ill. future. As an edge site. where the city mech c1pcn lund. an opportunity exists to create a dcstin:1tion on rhe perimeter which never theless llil exteru;ion of the city. ;md to explore new of urb;m edges using open systems. vegcmrion and wildlife habitnt. and historic regional development nn original semi-arid and prairie environment_ an opportunity to rdrtforcc the pmil'ic setting with u new landscape ;testhet.ic ami vot:abulllfy of huuJsc.:apc udding a pmirie park system to the ex1sLing system of ciry 1111d mount ain parks. As part of n r egional stream cotTidor Stapleton should lnke advantage of the site's natural features and systems 111 ting the tone and character of development and explore innova tive approac.:hes to t11e usc and management of water re.\ources. urban dr.UruJge and water 4uality trcallncnt As a thoroughfare, the site tS pall of a larger trnnsponmion cnn tt:xt wb.:re various n::gional highway and rail routes through or come together. Lying directly between DlA and downtown Denver. Stapleton can bcncfir from it' to bodt The Stapleton site hliS distinct plac..-e;; with dL\Linct chnruclen>. reinforced by Lhe adjac..-ent contexL llJCrefore, it can accommo date and districll. of rrmny tliffercut uc.:tivitic.' and uses. access cbaractcrisrics park types and char each with clearly defined edges and boundancs. Finally. as a former airport site, S t uplcton is <1 reuse, rcr ncdinLion, reclamation :tncl recycl i ng project uf' uupruccdcutcd Legal Fram ework llte Stapleton and its tmprovements are ownec.l by the C'ity and County of Denver. The airport an l:IS'-CI ol the City and County\ airport ")'Stem. which is a financially sclf--;utlrctent component of the City and C.oumy's overall srructure Dbpos11ion of the sjte c.s s.ubject to specific obhgatiow. that ari-.c from FAA grant conditions commitments to airport syM..:m bontlholders, lease agreements with renant airlines and oth e r 'oon:cs ln general. lhese obligations require that the City and County dis1posc of the St;lplrton pmpcny in an expcc.litiOLL'but prudent ftt!>hiou: the net proceeds of disp!Jsition be retained by l11e :urpnn system ro retire bonded indebtedness or otherwise suppon the rcquirc mcnts or lite airport tl1e City mld Couury n:<:dvc lair market value tor lanc.J at 1 he tiiTI\; of it\ disposition {the only exceptions involve (a) property nct:cssury to support convcnrior.tal public servic.:c);; and (hi property con veycd at less tllrut fair mrulcer value thar enhances rh<.' value uf remaining Stapleton parcels by .t more than offretling amount).

PAGE 42

SECTION IV/ COMMUNITY OB.JI!CTtVES AND GUIDING PRINCIPLES SUCCEEDING IN THE MARKETPLACE v ll zn N lllt l l 'Uld 1 n Cl c.tllen n IV. COMMUNITY OBJECTIVES AND GUIDING PRINCIPLES What do people want from Stapleton? What role can it play in responding to the context described in the. previous section? What principles should guide its development? For nearly six years, questions such these have occupied the anention of individuals within Denver and beyond. M embers of the community recognize the tmique opportunity that Stapleton presents. They are also quite aware of the tmmy challenges inherent in the tranJ.formation of such a large and complex site over an extended period of time. MAJOR QUESTiONS AND COMMUNITY OBJECTIVES Among the many important concerns identified by the commu nity are the foUowing: Wlwl is the appropriate role of the Stapleton site in the regional economy and iJs relation.vlzip to other co1111111tniiy centers? STAPLETON IS EXPECIF..O TO: serve a regional employmen t center ll1at makes a positive contribution to the economic base of the community (nUhcr than simply relocates economic activity from one site to unoll1er) be absorbed into the marketplace without unde1111ining pri vate propeny values complement mther than compete with other community cen ters such as downtown, the Central Platte Valley, the Fonn er Lowry Air Force Base, DIA, the Gateway or surroundiog neighborhood business areas position Denver to compete ill increasingly global markets and provide opportunities to capitalize on emerging technologies address the need to directly link jub creation on the site wrth training and skill development opportuni1ies for thnse currently least able to take advantage of such opportunities

PAGE 43

SECTIOW IV/ CO,.,MVHtT'V OoJitcTIYES A,..O GUtOINQ PRINCIPL-ES II ow call Stapleton contribllte to improvement ojl/1e environHow can Stapleton respond to the significant social and menJfur surrounding and increased demographic c/rangeA taking place t1nd create di1'erse, suc-tVld opportunities for their ces.ifulurbon communities'! STAI't F.TON 1.s F.XI'F.crl'..n To: STAPLb-roN 1s ttXPECTED m: improve the neighhnrhnod cuvirnumcnt and strengthen the identity of adjacent communities increase resident uccess to jobs, business, education and cultural opportunities increase the supply of middle ;md upper end hoJ.!sing to improve the diversity of housing options in the area improve public safety and reconnect long-separated ndghborhonds pnwtde amenities and services that can be shared by adjoin ing neighborhoods ensure that the benefit<; of eliminating jet noise are l1l1t altracl middle income frunilies and provide an environment that suppMs a stnble and diverse population promote the integration of employment housing ami recreation, and insure diversity in age, income and ethnic provide walkahlc scale communities thm offer a variety of mobiliLy options and address residents most basic cor11.:ems regarding safety and public education encourage community pmticipation ru1d provide surroundings during u-ansition port system? pmvidc conlinuing opportunities for meaningful citizen par ticipation Um. lllghuut tht> life of the redevelopment progmm How COil Stapleton respond to the development tmd environmental clwllenges we face wcaliy and globally? STAPl..!lTON IS EA'PECTED TO: provide an oppornmity to restore the health of natural sys tems on site and make important regional connections to signitic.:
PAGE 44

4-4 SECTION IV I COMMUNITY OBJECTIVES AND CiUIDtNG PRINC:IPL&& GUIDING PRINCIPLES The commun tl) and project tearn have developed a set of prin ciples to guide decision making in the creation and implemen tation of the Development Plan. These principles address the economic. social and environme ntal objectives addressed above. as well as the phystcal design of the community and the methods used to manage and implement the project over time. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY l11e challenge of the next century will be the creation and man agement of urban environments lhal meet social anti pro vide economi c opportunity in a manner that preserves mther than degrades the natural environment. Redevelopment of the Stapleton site shall be based on the principle of sustainability. which seeks to manage natural. economic and soctal and resources in a fashion that enhances quality of life yet does not diminish the ability of future generations to also meet U1eir needs. Sustmnable reflects :m appreciation of the unique qualities of pi ace and the sttung ties between people. nature and the built environment. l1 1 e Stapleton project will achieve its economic and S
PAGE 45

Equity, diversity and oppommity are fundamental ro the objec tives of the redevelopment program. Stapleton redevelopment provide bwad acces> to social, cultural and economic for aU segments of the community. These oppor tunities will addre!>.' important community needs and enhance community stability. Suc:cel>Sful redevelopment of the Swpleton site wi.ll be a catalyst for improvement in the larger communit)' particularly in the Denver. Aurora and Commerce City netghborhoods surrounding the site. -...... Creme a community that accommodates a diversity af people ages, incomcs,races. occupauons and lifestyles -and reinforces and enhances the c ultural. ethnic and racial tliwm;iry of adjacent neighborhoods. Creare opporwnities for significant minority participation mthe developmem process. employment and Create opportunities for small business participarion in the de1elopment process. Provide quality neighborhood sclzools and life-lonJ? train and cduamon opportunities. Insure diversity in the joh base to prol'ide employment opporwmties for a wide of socw-economic groups. and work with adjacent communities to develop workfone skills and emrepreneurial opporumilies for local Fadlitme the dt'l'elupmem of affordable as well as attraclion of middle and upper income families m rhe northea.sr area rhrough provision of a broad mh of housing densilies and price ranges. SllCTJON IV I COMMUNITY 08Jit_CT,VES 4ND GuOING PtuNc:tPl..tt5 Benefit Stapleton and surrounding neighborhoods through 1he imegration ofservtces. public facilities and amenities. The Stapleton site shall be a regional center for job creation in diverse fields with emphru..is on emerging technologiC!. and industries. Stapleton will provide an environment that encour ages and rewards innovation. The pro&>rd.!TI for the site shall be designed to attract private and to provide the rman cial capacity to suppon necess;uy public capillll m1provemenli> and services over time. The development and of the Srapleton community must generate an economic and ren1m on investment and encourage participation by segmenL\ of the community that are often excluded. The char of the community must provide a unique. mar ketable identity. PRINCIPLE 1 Estahlisfl Stapleton as a major regional employmeflf center and position Stapleton in the marketplace to minimize com petition wuh Lowry. the Gateway/DIA area and dowmown. Focus on the quality ofjohs created. as well as the quamity PAINCP! 'I" 2 insure public investme111 in infrastrucrure. site amenities and insrmuional suppon that will atrracl pril'are investme/U and the presence of husinesses. institution.1 and residems. Seek partners for demonstration pmjec1s to reduce up front capital cosu of community and projec1 I ""'CfP&..-.. .. Provide for a hroad mix of land use densities and piKes w serve multiple markets. and create economic and social diversity 4

PAGE 46

SCCTIOH IV I CO"C ... UHITY 01UCCT1VESI a""n (jjjUIOif'IG PIII'INCIP\.C'S> PRfNCIPLE 5 Creme l.'nllal to Stapleton\ success II NATURAL SYSTEM S A N D L A N D FORM : 1llt: tonn of tk site will he heavily innucnlcd h1 tJ1e proc'C"' n f reclruna u o n and the csrablishlllcnl uf a of highly related Cn u cal systems and features mcludc regwnal stom1 dr.unage, wtldlife habn;u active and p;tssive recreation areas. tr.ulsj)l mauon. n:cycling :Uld regrnding of runwa) an:a.s. and soJI and gmtUJdwater n:me\ open \pace 'Y'tem can accommodate a w t de v;mer y of a n d o;erve mult rplc PRINCIP L E 1 Usc the fll'l'l' llsling l!lll'lrtJIIIIWIIIII.\ cJ lxtsis for cluwgc. ., ht sitt>., drailltl!:c' jhnn. stream cormlnr 1 unci historic clllll/1/d( 11i/J gil'l' shatll!.j'orm and lfrtll'lllre to tlte hasu .11ft' pla11. PRINCIPLE 2 Suppot1 tltldopmclll nftllt' adjai'CIIt Rod.y Afou111a111 \'atinnal Wilcl/ifi' Arec1 a' till' f'l'l'/lllcr urban 11 ilt!/Jji rdirgc m tlu L .\ and usc the Stapll'ton open .\flc/c't S_\'1-remlo ma/,e l'ttal collnerllolls ltctt\'l'C'/1 thf I ,\rea am/ the rn:uma/of?C/1 spuce .\ \'.\lt'IIIIISIIIg tlu Sand Cree/.;IWc.ltcrl\' Creek mnidor. PAIHCIPLI! 3 Pro(! ram the StaelcUJ/1 open .IJuwe system to senc mulllple neet/.1. storm drai11age. warer trN/1111'111 lti/dlije habitat.\, actf\'f? and fUIUJ\e recrl!allo/1 amltltr nmtion tif. \ttpt rior .1ius Fw in.llitunimal use 1 PRINCIPLE 4 4cluel'l' multiplr hy 11.1i11g earth mol'ing tll'lll'lfies N1 t -r!'!l!!! h,Hint and sualt'.\ tlltprtn'e lwhirat. prm'idc \'tsual amemty and recreation OflflOr/11111-ties and impml't' soil and wwer qua/try. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM S AND C O R R IDORS: T akc advanr.1gc uf the Stapleton 'ite j)llh!ntialto pro1 ide cxrremel) high kvcls nf mobiltt) and tuthe auto mobile for rc,tJcnL,, employee' and Orgmll/e a lli!x.ihh: transportatton syMcm w hiLh 10 the from the urtcnal \)'Stem and seeks to minim11..e rmpacts to atr quality. reduce rcli:111ce on the automobile
PAGE 47

PRINCIPLE 2 Establish an mtermodal facility on si1e whtch will ulrimately be mpahle of serving fight rail. heury rail, hus. auto, truck, IJit)'L'Ie and pedestrian rraffic PRINCIPLE 3 Clarify and extend th e mile-by-mile arrerial s ystem thraugh the site whet'ei'Cr possible Evaluate the feusibilit) of this system fin 56/hAve .. 48th Ate 26th A1 e., Quebec St .. Yosemite St .. Hm'/w St. and Smith Rood. workm,rt wnh adjacem juri wlictiom and communities ....-here re/emnt. PRINCIPLE 4 Design the 56th 1\\ '1?11111! corridor us a major parkway connection that will serve CIS an important connect inn between downtown and Dem erlnrernational Ait7wrt. PRINCIPLE 5 Provide a tontumous btkeway system througltow the si1e connectill.!! ro the bik eway system described in the rccxmly adopted Bicycle Master Plan and to rlre Aurora bikeway system. II CITY STREET GRID AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS: Incorporate the panem:. of the Denver suect grid and extend it through the site. adjusting and transforming them to accom modat.: narurul Features. large scale and facilinel. and the building program for the sire. Creme effective physical and social linkage with adjacent neighborhoods on the cm. and eru.tem perimeter of tht: site. PRINCIPLE f Extend the surrounding street and h/ock cm!/igurmivn imo the southtast and sowhwest porLions of the site as an extension (/f the ciry. PRINCIPLE 2 SECTiON IV I COMNUNITV 0BJIECTIVES AND GUIOIHG EJ.1end the Cuy and Coumy':, par/...way system omo the srte for streets of major image and tharacrer PRINCIPLE 3 Plan the sire as a mixed-use. balanced community mcvr poratmg a coordinmed grouping of neiRit/)()rhnods. spe ciali:ed distrias and specral c orridors. PRINCIPLE 4 Utili::.e a concepT in each of the site's neighbor hoods which will inrorporate multiple uses cransa access .. walk-to-work possibilities, public scrwce \ and appropnare public PRtNCIPLE $ Presene structures of hisroric siNnifimnce and seek to rhe ma.\imum ex1e111 possible ro mrewace and reuse existmg structures and improvemems. PRINCIPLE 6 El'uluate the potenual of the terminal building ro sene as a regional destination .for multiple uses PRINCIPLE 7 Ensure jlexibiliry of tlte phvsical design w respond to dumging marker conditions affecting housing densities. tral1:lponcuion .\)>stems. types of open space. ere II PARKS. RECREATION AND OPEN SPACE: Uttli1.e portions of the Stapleton site ro dramruicaJiy alter the identity of site, create value und add significam nC\\ park. recreHtion and open space rewurces to the City and Count) s system. Explore oew open space types. dcstgns and m!mage ment systems and their relationship to urban developmt:nt. PRINCIPLE t Ejfectil ely define lite lramirions fmm urban uses tl' less imenszw: uses such as c1pen space and rite Rm .:kl' Maulllain Arsenal Naumwl Wildlife Area. 4-7

PAGE 48

SGCTION IV I COMHUtfiTY OIDJECTIYI!.. AND GrUIDIHC PRINCIPLE 2 Connect 1he Swpleton open space system not only with resources. hut also wilh adjacenr neighborhoods PRINCIPLE 3 Extmd the existing park system legacy of a.fonnalnel wnrk of parks and par/,;ways and an informal of open spaces and trails assnciated wirh regional Introduce new variarimzs emphasi:;ing a more natural set rinf?. vegetation. reduced irrigatlfm and alter native forms of mana.r:emenr and mainrenance. PRINCIPLE 4 Use naturaljcarures and the pre-existing emimnmenl as a basis for the design of the park sys1em. PRINCIPLE 5 In addition w the prairie pork. natural areas. and stream corridors. the open space system should also pro1ide ar least one new major wban park. PRINCIPLE 6 Create open space settings us for value creation and a.1 cemr;al elemellfs of a phasing strategy for site buildout over an extended period of time. PRINCIPLE 7 insure rhat the open space am/ its developmem and management strurtrtre are all designed ro be :.upportahle over time. PRINCIPLE 8 Insure that appropriate recreatirm facilities are provided on un c>qurtahle basis to meet community needs. IMPLEMENTATION ln order to create a community !hat insures a range of housing cboices. creates opportunity. celebrates diversity and encourages personal choice. the processes of development and management will also require anentiou. Success will depend in large part on the ability to create and tmplement new institutional structures. forms or governance and market mech anisms The broad goal is to create substantial community access to the benefilS generated by Stapleton's reuse. PRINCIPLE 1 Create a development l numagnnent entity with 1he mlllwr ity. s!..ills and finanring capahililies to succ essfully pursue rommuniry-wide goals and mrry ollf the requirements of de1elopmenl and disposition of the sire over many yean. PRINCIPLE 2 Formulate a phasing program that seeks to strmgthenthe site's market identity cmd respond to markel oppornm11ies while effeelively managing financial risk. PRINCIPLE 3 EstaMisll iml()I'Util e mechanisms for service delil'ely and thl! del elopment and managemelll of npe11 space anumities and infrastrucTure. PRINCIPLE 4 Guide developmem acrMty to meet the policy standards of the C if)' and C oumy and achieve important program tltroup,h a creatiw blending of regula/my controls. market mechanisms. incentives. financing programs and direct investmem. PRINCIPLE 5 Pursue rata lytic uses that embody hoth the inmll'ariw vision and the economic significance w amact puhfic (Federal, State,local) and philamhropicjinancial support PRINCIPLE 6 lncmporatc th' broadesr pnssihle spectrum of citi::enry t11 decision-ma!J.11g regarding the design. developmenT and implementation of the reuse program. und make substcmtialuse of deceJllrali:ed and community-hosed govername stmctures

PAGE 50

5-2 T101t VA OF:'\" tO 'f'IIE:PtT PL"" Vtstfll V. DEVELOPMENT PLAN The Stapleton Dovclopment Plan defines a new develop ment model for Denver for the noxt century. The redevelopment of the Stapleton site Is based upon the principle of sustalnabillty. In addition, the physical plan Is based on four ltnportant concepts: Jm.llo the successful lnte gratlon of urban devel opment, transportation, natural systeons and wildlife habitat; lW.Q, a balanced mix of uses and densities to provido efficient, accessible, diverse neighborhoods and communities; lJloUl, a desire to Incorporate, build and improve upon what Is best about Donver's neighborhoods, parks, and natural set tlngs; and 1sHR, response to the environment, con text and character of the site and the communities that surround lt.

PAGE 51

A. VISION The Development Plan created for Stapleton is a direct response In the contc.xts and principle' clcscrii>..'CI in the previ ous Stapleton will he a unique commumty ,,r l111H'c than 30,000 juhs tmd 25,000 resident,. More than one thm:l of the properry will be managed for parks, recreation and open space purposes. Developed portions of the site wifl provide an intcgmtcd mix of employment, housmg. recreation and at"cc.-.s to public Stapleton s reuse will support the health of neighand provide \trong tic., Ill the adjm:cm Rocky Mountain Arsenal Natinoal Wildlife Area ;md Lowry educarional campus. Development and opcnuion of rhe S t aplerou will provide u model lor the region of serving the economic and social need' o f people without deg111ding the nutun1l cnv ir onmer r L The of rc.'>lomlion Md redeve lorr mcnt ol' the Stapleton sirc will clitablish Denver and Colorado as world leaders in addressing the economrc, social and envi ronmental ch:illenges ot lbe nc'(t century. The P Zan reiriforces Stapleton's 1vle as a regional employment cente1; but th1vugh the creation of compact, accessible communities that integrate uses and create strong ties between the Stapleton site and the sunvunding community. Key Features of the Vision The Ot>velopmcnt Plan assigns approximately 65 percent of the to urbrul development and 35 pcn:cnt In a of open Ot>velopment is organiL.ed rn eight distinct districts llle each contain an rdemr tiable center and emphasize the integration of employment nnd housing and walknble scale. The Plan reinforces role aJ. a rcgro11al emp l oyment center. but U1rough the creatio n of comrxu:t. accc.ssible communities thatrntcgrate uses and cre ate uc.' berween the Stapleton and the surrounding community. lne open space system a major role in the eight districts. making. ctTcctivc regional connec tions and restoring the ecological health of nntur.ll on and off the s1te. Any Dcvclopmcn1 Plun for a of scale must provide a degree of flexibility. The Devel opment l'lan identi fies the genera l scale, character and mix or uses desired in each districL Specific land parcel conligumtiOn$ und the rclmionship between lolmployment. housing and other u-;e!. will Val) as devclopmcnl prcK'CCtk Wh;ot arc mo.st important to cst.1blish now an: the bas1c drar:lctcr of the site's mixed u..c cJb1rich and the basic commumty mfrastruc t urc, open space, civic sit
PAGE 52

... IT IS MERELY POSSIBLE. TO SET THe: STAGE FOR c;oMMUHITV THF! EXTENT AND THI! WAYS IN WHICH COMMUNITY IS RE.Al.1XED DEPEND. S ON A RANGE OP" OTHER, NON .. PHYSICA,L FACTORS." WfLLEM VAN VLIET, OF ARCHITCTUR 1\ND PLANNING: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO 5 must be accompanied by a commitment to education, skill development and entrepreneurial opportunity for disadvantaged and minority populations in our community. An employment base of30,00035,000 jobs can be readily accommodated over time on the site. 'The Havana Street corri dor and areas north and south of 1-70 provide significan t oppor tunities for creating a manufacturing, assembly and distribution base on t11e site. These areas offer rail service and easy inlerstate access. Section 10 on the far north and tl1e interior area above the T-70 conilior provide signilicanl office and research and development opportunities The area surrounding the exist ing terminal will become a regional destination offe1ing a mix of exhibition, entertainment, retail, office and other uses. Each neighborhood center on the site will also provide opportunities for employment In total. the Development Plan allocates roughly 1 ,200 acres or 54% of the developable land, to employmen t usc The Plan also emphasizes establishing the site as <1 national cen ter for the development of environmental t echnologies, products and services: creating an environmental technology incubator to su pport start up fim1s; creating training and skil l development programs designed to provide area residents with the work ski lls needed by employers oper.tting on the Stapleton site; and devel oping progrnms that encourage the participation of youth and entrepreneurs, particularly from minority communities Development of successful neighborhoods will require direct involvement in the nature and quality of educational and other enhancement of public safety and promotion of opportunities f'or resident participation in all forms of gover nance and service delivery The physical form of the commu nity can do a great deal to support these objectives and foster a strong sense of community. Attention to the hum(m aspects of development., however, will be essential tor Stapleton to achieve its stated objectives. Building true urban neighborhoods that have c h aracter, identity and meet tlte needs of people Denver has a strong tradi tion of urban neighbor hoods as d1e founda tion of tbe community. 1l1 e Development Plan ret1ects a strong commitment to the continua lion or this tradition. Foremost:, the Plan seeks neighborhoods that can encourage and s upport diversity in age, income and ethnicity. TI1ese neighborhoods must be inclusive and accessible. Their physical fonn will emphasize defined centers for services and civic uses. walkable scale, access to nearby employment diverse traJlsportation options and connections to parks and nature. 'Il1ese are many of the same qualities !bat have allowed some of Denver's strongest neighborhoods to thrive over many decades of eco nomic. social and technological cbange. Withm the Ctty and County of Denver. one p..:rcent oJ all public works projects mt1st be invested to public: a11. Publir nrt is an important p:U1 of Denver's character. cui l und and history. II memorable m tbe mmd<. nf residents and visii;QJ'!> alike. 111e current Public Art Program creates opponunities l'or all people to experience art in a broad range of publk spaces. Stapleton will build upnn tJte ex isLutg. program bv identifymg additional funding sourc-es ancl lrealiug a An Master Plan to provide guidelines IDld u vis1on for public rut projects throughout the implementa tion nfthe Development Plun. A Public An Master Plan will provide the upportunity for public art within the site to respond to the g11als of the Development Plan. to provide a relationship between ind!VJdual projects. and provide a model for private development on the sJte to incorporate public arl.

PAGE 53

Stapleton s mixed use neighborhoods can accommodate an ultimate population of approximate l y 10,000 households. The average density of residential areas for the entire site is roughly 12 unilS per acre. sufficient to support reasonable public transportation service Hjgbcr densities are provided for in close proximity to neighborhood centers, transit stops and major public amenities Each neighborhood on site is organjzed around a center and provides a variety of mohility options beyond the automobile including walking, bus, bicycling, rail trdl1sit (along the Smith Road corridor) and the use of telecommunications to substitute for tbe need for travel. School facilities wiU be located in neighborhood centers, will be multi-use community facilities and wiU play a central role in tbe life of the surrounding neighborhood. Stapleton neighbor hoods wiU provide a range of housing L ypes and densities ll1al support drvcrsity. Integrating nature and wildlife with the urban environme11t 011 a permanent basis The open space system planned for Stapleton i s rich and diverse. The system includes a wide range of opportun i tics, from urban parks, trails and recreation facili ties, lo extensive natural areas that suppt11t significant wildHfe and aU ow the restoration of nutive plant and animal communities that have been displaced or eliminated. This focus represents a return to Denver's natural heritage as a city established on the prairie. I n its scale and diversity, the Stapleton system is unlike anything undertaken by tllis community since the City and County's basic urban and mountain park systems were establ i shed roughly a century ago. The Stapleton open :;pace system includes more than I ,600 acres of parks, trails, recreation Jacilities and natural areas. The principle trail corridors are along Sand Creek, Westerly Creek and the newly created open space corridor connecting Sand Creek with the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildl ife Area. The system includes a championship golf course above 1 70 and a nine-hole learning course along Westerly Creek. A major ballfield and outdoor recreation 'I .. s-s

PAGE 54

complex locaaed between Sand Creek and I70 west or Parkway. An urban agriculture t..-eoter and e4 u estrian facility ace acwmmod;Uec.l on the north side of Smd Creek just west of Havana Street. A major urban park is provided at the confluence of Sand :md Westerly Creeks. as well
PAGE 55

Basic choices about land use pa tt erns and commun it y infra can have enormous imp lications for the long-term reso u rce n eeds and i mpac t s of the Stapleton comm u nity. The Development Plan identifies importan t c h oices tl1at can r esu It i n i n f rastmc t ure and operating p ractices t h at ar e effi cient, affordab l e and more env i ronmenta ll y be n ig n In addi tion, the Plan calls for app roaches that provide tlle ulti mate users of tbe si t e w i t h more options, mo r e informat i on and more i n cent ive to m anage reso u rces w i sely. Stap l eton i s intended to be a place of inn o vati on in t h ese areas and a c e nter for the developmen t of envi r o n mentally-or i e n ted tech nologies, services an d b u sinesses. The Development Plan identifies important choices that can result in infrastructure and operating practi ces that are efficient, affordable and more environmentally benign. S \. I Ot-t \1 A I Dr V I 01'1-'rN I I. A lilt V1 iOf
PAGE 56

5-8 B HIGHLIGHTS Stapleton has lhe potemial to inle8t'Gte ec01wmic. social and enl'imnmen laf objectives in a fashion unique within the region. Tht result will he an extraordinarv set of conmumities rllal comhine slmng Denver 1radi1ions wilh new.formr ()(innovation. Dejininf{jeature.\ will inrlude: 1. Link With Nature: Stapleton will demonstrate the most successful integration of urban activity with wilcllife and the natural envi ronment in Colorddo. Stapleton will SCIVe as a catalyst for restoration and trail development in the Sand Creek and Westerly Creek corridors. Stapleton will pmvidc approximately 1,680 acres of open space. much of it restored native stream corridors and animal habitat. The Arsenal wildlife program will be extended onro the Stapleton property and connected to the Sand Creek wareJWay. Stapleton and Lowry together will increase the recreational and open space opportunities provided by d1e Denver park system hy 50 percent. The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area wilJ become the ptemier urban wildlife refuge in the country. 2. Urban ViUages: Development at Stapleton will occur in a series of urban centers or villages. Each will provide a .. ._ mix of employment .,...,...,._ '<'AIJ.n.l. and housing. as well walking to public transportation ;md recreation. These communities will be efficient, people-oriented and ac.;cessible. They will support a diversity of mcome, age and ethnic groups 1md address the demand for locaUy accessible. quality public education.

PAGE 57

3. Mobility: Sropleton must pro vide an unparalleled set of mobility opnons to employ ees. residents lUld These m ll.'>t deemphasize the car and allow for dramatic reducuon m the ownership and usage of automobiles on the Walkable neaghborhoods. housmg/employmem links. an aurncuve bikeway system and a of forms of transit and paratralll>tt will be used to expand mobility options. ; .. -. 'I ( .,. .,. ... ..t..; .. / 4. Jk."it Technologies and PrdCtice;: Stapleton will be developed with a commitment to usc the be.<;t technolo gtc\ and practices available in creating and managing the urban environment. SyMcms will be efli ctent. environmentally bcmgn ;md economical. 5. "(;rccn'' Bus ines s Environment: Stapleton w ill be a regional employment cen ter and offer a new envrron ment for bll.'>ines!>eS seeking to reduce consumption of naturnJ rel>Ources and become more competitive in a global market place. Sropleton will offer an environment that ond suppons mnovallon. Stapleton will abo be a center fur cnvirunmcrual ;md a leader in adv;ltlCmg the development of envi ronmentally-oriented producu. and 6. Linkage: The economtc oppommiries created at SUtplcton be ned directly 10 individuals with the brrcatcsl economic needs. Jo b cremi on and investment at Stap l eton must be lirtked to tmming. skill development of service delivery 1md citilen pltr1icipation that empower peop le. 'll1e:.e fearures can expand o p portunity. mcrease d1e level of conunum t y commit ment and enhance the overall health of the community. Stapleton will encourage innovation and new to the w.c of regulatory market mccham:.ml> and community-based muial iv<:l.. .. THE WORLD WE HAYI! CAEA"Tf!O TODA V AS A A8.VLT OIF OUR THINKII'(G THUG FAR HAS PAOOLI!MS WI>IICH CANNOT DE 80LYKO BV THINKING THB WAV WE THOUGHT WHEN Wf' CREATED THEM." ALBE.RT EINSTEIN 5-9

PAGE 58

"IF YOU DON'T H. NOW HOW THING.S ARE INTI!:RCON NECTEO, THE!N A SOLU"TtON CAN CAUSE MORE. PROD-LI!MS THAN IT $01-V$, OJ'C YH 0Tttl 'HAND. IF YOU UNDERSTAND THE HIDDltN CONNI!CTIONS BlitTWEN ENERGY, WATE'l', AGRtCUL TURE. TRANSPORTATIOI'I. SECURITY. AND !ECONOMIC:: A N D SOCIAL OEVEL.OPMENTt YOU CAN OFTI!:tt DEVISE A SOLUTION TO ON I! f'ROOLEM (SUCH AS ENERGY) THAT WIU.. CREATE SOLUTIONS TO MANY MORE PAOBLMS AT NO I!XTRA COST." AMORY LoVINS ROr.hood and regional context. Staple ton .iJ; not an island, but a part of the community fabric that must be reconnected. lfs future u se wiU be heavily int1uenced by ex.ist ing patterns of hmd use and by lar ger n atural. transportation and infrastructure systems LhaL cross ami converge on the site. The pattern of urban develop1ne11t on Lhe property will be significantly shaped by restoration of natural systems and the cre ation of a new permanen t open space system. Oevelopment and healthy natural areas can be integrated on a pem1aneor basis The provision of transpOJtation and utility services to Lhe new Stapleton community is an integral component of commu.nit y development. Decision$ regarding Lhese syste m s are funda mental t o the form and life of this new community. A conscious att empt h as been made to apply the principles developed to the of viable urban neighborhoods. The structure of these neighborhoods emphasizes districts with definab l e centers; mbdng of uses t o support diversity efficien cy and mobility objectives; walkable scale, transit orientation. and a define.d hierarchy of streets; prominent roles and loca tions for pubJJc spaces and civi c u:es; and an extension of some of the beSt tmdirions of Denver neighborhoods, parks and public spaces. The overall success of d1e e n vironments crea ted at Stap l eton for work, home, p lay and other uses will be a function of the ability to thoroughly integrate land uses, man-made and naturd! systems and t11e site tUJd its larger community coutext. The physical structure of I he communi t y seeks to combine many old and new approaches. pursue efficiency and livahilily simul taneo usly. and create a diverse, urban mixed use community rhat can attract the s u pport of the marketplace and the loyalty and commitmen t of its residents and users. l'llolla.!.i li.at .U I )UIIl._t CvrmiUt t t hoi 1\ L "MI!IIlitl,. I (Jt.J!f Cmoff' Sp;a ...... ,, .. l.ll(. "'"v..-... MS The structuring elements of the development plan; open space and parks, transportation, aervicos, .and land use and urban design, will begin to orga nize development areas on the Stapleton site.

PAGE 59

STRUCTURING E L E M ENTS El OPEN SPACE AND PARKS The Big Picture Stapleton\ open \pace bwlds ou!Xnver's rich park legacy of tr.K!Itional community parks und recreation facilities, parkwJys und greenbelts connecting neighborhoods, natural features defming the city and a visi onary string of mountain parlcs. l11c Plan ul\0 expands our trddiiJon:ll ideas of a par!< with ill. High Plain., lando;cupc rc.\tomtinn, extensive n:ttwul systems, and commitment 10 water quality, wildlife and habitat develop ment. The Stapleton open 'Ystem is a blend of the hcst ,,r Denver's past 1md present p;trk.<; ;md u new ;l1fenlion to Denver's lost landscapes uml critical need for environmenta l stewardship. Approximately 35 percent of the Staple ton site will be devoted LO some l'orm or open space. This system will address a vanuly uf gna l:. for Denver. induding: I. Contributing 111 u dmmulic clnmgc in lire ;mcc and identity tlf IJJC Stnplcton site. l11c investment in open space will not only int-re:tse adj:rcent property values, it will expand market opponunilte.<>. long-rerm value and pro vide each new neighborhood with an ic:k.--ntifiable center and defined edges. 2. Meeting local and regional dcmtmd for open space and rccrCHtion oppor1un itics. A' important, Stapleton enabll!l> Denver to provilk major. spcciali1e0 for the city ul large that it cannnl pnwidc elsewhere. Tiu:se facili ties include a lighted outdoor liports complex, golf cour.ses. agricultural and facilities :md a large urban par!< for northeast Denver. 3. Complementing the clas.,ic urban park system of the City and County. the mountmn park $}'Stem the west. with a bo l d regional o;ystcm on the east thai C'elehrares the origin;1l Denver landsc, Lowry Air Force Rase. the Rocky Mountain National Wildlife Area and adjacrnt ncighborhoocls. 11JCse trailllnkagc:; along with extensions of Denver\ historic park ways, will greatly encoumge pcdestrim1 and bicycle travel. Approximately 35 percent of the Stapleton site will be devoted to parks, recreation and open space. Approximately 1.680 of the Plan devoted to some fo!UI of park. open space or s tonnwat er l1le break down of components of tbe system is roughly as follows: format (neighborhood and lncgc urban), 250-::!75 acres. 1l1is commitment to lormul is comp:u11ble to the ratio of parklonds to re,.<,idcnt:, in uthcr portions of Denver. special facilities (o utdoor 5portl. complex, golf courst:.-:., ngricultural center). 350-400 naru111l areas, creek and trail corridor:. and lloodpluin (Sand Creek, Westerly Cree k Sand Hills Park). 600-650 acres. parkways and gr-c.enways c:IJT)'ln g stom 1water. 375-42.) acres. NOTE: DoufJ/e t't>llllfing of npen \f}{JI'<' ocrtnge (/l't'llf,\' when area. v perform multiplt fimcflons. ""YOU CAf'f LOOI( AT A .-ARK PRIMARILY AS A r.-oc;-IAL T'OOI.o PRINAfUL AS AH A&nHCTtC: &&..a MltNT, OR PRIMARILY AS A PRACTICAL AHO PUNC-TIOHI\L THING.-NCW VOAK TIM 5

PAGE 60

AND COUNTRY MUST UE MARRIED AND OUT OF THIS JOYOUS UNION WI-LL. SPiliNG A NEW HOP A NI!W l,.IF'Ct A NfJW IZATION.'" EBENE'ZJ!R HOWAI'tD 5-1 2 S tJ:>fninabl e Re.\ullrce,y within a renewed urban fabric. 1bis goal will be realized at As this list indicates, the open many S(:ules throughout Stapleton, fmm a regional scale estab-planned for lbhmcru of :.andhills prairie and restomtioo of the Stapleton is diver.;e and com-channels of Sand and Westerly Creel.:> to the ple..'t. Open space rmproverueots hahiLat area:. in gardens or :.chool)lllllh. will suppon restorJtion and The component!-. of the open !-.pace sy,tcm mLL\t he carefully enhllncemcru of habrttlt in all intcgrmed in un!L-r to prevent connicL'>. No (IIIX'C nf the '>ystcm are:lS of the Stapleton site. The rei11troduction nf original High Plains lanlkapes will incorpomtc :r variety uf typ.:s of vegetation and provide a viable sc:lle and healthy envimn ment for wildlite. This res10mtion w ill affect the kmd oltr.lllN fonnatro n of the whol e site tha t is cnrcial to building the vision and identity of the new Stapleto n H ealthy habitat are:t.s will add value to the site us and recreationnl anrcnities, with I nt i Is. wildlife viewi ng and vnltrnt ocr lion opportu n ities. 1l1cse habital!i will en h not only on the rcstomtion and protection of significant natural w-ea:. but also on mainJaiuing vital biotic corridun;, and on landscape rrumagcment prnctices that susrnin 11JC natural pl'l'oCC:.SCS uf llrc larger ecosystem. The goal is to restore and manage the indige nous plant and animal communities of the Weo;tem lligh Plain:. Drainaga Corridor Illustration: A n atwc. for in,tanre. mt"t port brooder objectives such as habitat development, w:tter conservation and reuse. trail connections. stormwater manage ment and public access. Marza ge m e nt alld Ftmdiltg A syst1m uf this scale and diven;ity will require new approach es to t.levelopment and l ong-term f undlng and nHrnugcmcnt. Phaslng will also be a critical issu e si n ce open space tlcvc lop men L (and i t s costs) may precede adjacem und com trtcrcial development (and thelf reven u es). Open :,pace devel like tlle rest of the infrastruc ture, will be shared hy clcvelopmcnt fees. city funds, philanthropic and otl1er exter nal sources of funding and other o;pecinl revenue Long -tem1 management and ntainten;mcc respousihilitie.' will require similar sophrsl.lcalion. Formal (YMks. from nc:rghbor hood to large urban parks, and recreation mu't be sup ported e itlu:r by city revenues genemted by development on the c. special fees nr other financial tools. The High Plain.., will require a partnership with other inter ested agencres and The grcenwnys carrying storm water. too, must have a solid funding suurce lu finance their 1l1c development rnust take advantage of opportunities to reduee costs and e:rpturc value through the development and operation of the open space system. Elements uf'this system will adjaeentlnnd vnlues and broaden market opportunity 1111.! t n tcgration t t f noocJ rontrol. n atural irrigation ;md water quality tt'Cutmcnt through filtration can also offset costs that woul d o t herwise he incum::U for more expensive infnrstructurc 10 the requirements. N:ttive p l ants and nalur d nre<.t s can ulso owral l muintenance requirements.

PAGE 61

The parks plan below identifies the major comJX>ncnts of the Stapleton open space system These include: 1. Major Urlxm Park ( marked E 011 Ore accompa nying rru1p) : This parK. planned tor the southern end of the site. to the east of tin: termina l area, will be similar to tnuJitional Denver parks, sud1 as Washington. Cheesman and City Parks. h will cover approximately 175 acres. bordered on two edges by Westerly and Sand Creek greenway corridors. The park will accommodate a variety of uses from playing fields to social gathering areasan amenity both for new residential and commercial development on the site. iDld for existing neighborhoods. 2. Sand hill Prairi e Park ( M on tJre map): TI1is park will be tiJC defining ehar.tcter istic for the tlorthem half of ti1e site. I t will be approxi mately a 365-acre restoration of the original land scape type of this area-the Sand Prairie bringing a sense of the High P l ains back into Denver. 11te park's topography of rolling sand hills. vegetated with taU and shott prairie grasses. cottonwoods, willows and other shrubs. will attract a wide vari ety of birds and small mammals. Among other uses, the park will provide an entryway into the National Wildlife Refuge under develop m ent at tl1e Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area t o tile north. The scale and unique charc!Cter of the site will require a majo r restoration effort Jt will be man aged to protect the restored prairie ecosystem, while providing maxunum opportunities for public enjoyment and learning through bicycle/pedestrian trail sysrems. bird/animal watching. picoicing :md scenic d1ives restomtion demonstration areas and volunteer activities. .. C. t\lcmenaary Sdtool '!"hh NclaltbUtbood Puk ll LnnUl.(C Oolf Cowsc wdtl Dnvm1 kaole M .vc.r li rbail 1-'arl' P Pus.1oibll'l 0(\l:n SMU Bv Dtvc11'1rcr (l Sttmen01,-$( boul W11h It .. ,. Flt'lch 1 f)U;tdt!Ot C.lmf!le:t J. llfblln 1\Jrk"Uhllrnl Cenlllt ,_ No'-). r............_ 1'-a. .. K Blurt Pmnt Pa r t Ov(.rlool, t.. II Hvlt Ot.lU M. SauJluU l'lirt N, Rue\) MOUn-Lilf R.efeae lhtrtool fJ .. I .. C' The Stapleton Partts Recreation end Open S-ee Plan will become a nationally recognized model of rostoration and Integration of a diverse set of urban and natural land uses. 513

PAGE 62

5-14 3. Community Parks (A artd G 011 map): The plan for the creauon or exparu.um of lhn:c cnn UllWHtyscale parks of 20-40 acres ealh. Thc-.c parks will fc:11ure playmg fields and. m I wo ca-.c.,, he co-located with elementary schools. 4. Neighborhood Park s ( B and C 011 map): Th.:n: will hc several smaller Cup to l 0 acres each) within walkmg di5tance for tlm1ilies and children. In some ca. '\ell. thc.-.c may as trans111on areas berween different types of development (e.g. smgle family homes, commercml ;Uld multiple litmily resi dences), or as importan t components of a neighborhood center. 5. Parkways ( 0 aJUI Po11 map): Parkways will pmvidc conti nuity hetwecn tra ditional Uenver neighborhoods ;md new development at S t apleton. Parkways will be developed along selected major \lrect' a' well small neighborhood where thq w ill 'crve a:-. local park areas and enhance real e.state P;ukway:-. will alsn inCOilJorate grass-llned drumage swales and trail system:. 111 many areas. 6. Outdoor Cumpkx ( I 011 map): Adjacent to Sand Creek. a 107 acre outdoor recre allonal area w1ll be b) bike, tnmsit and car to groups both day and rught. This area could potentially include a full range of amenities. mcluding Ugbted basket bull court.,. ball fields. etc. 7. Golf Courses (I) mulL on map): The plan calls tO.. t Wll C.'OUl'l.CS tO be developed on the Stapletoo site: one. :1 youth traimng course and dnving range at the south end of the site adjacent to Wester!} C'n:ck: and the other. an IS-hole chru11p10nshJp golf course integnucd with 1 he Sand Hills Prairie re:;toration to the north. Both would seck to minimize environmental impoct llll'ough water reuse for tmgation. low cbemk:a!Ltsc. habitat dcvclopnl<:nl and integration of naturJI landscapes. 8. Urban Agricultural Ceflter (Jon map): llus ccmer is to be located on or adjacent to the of the current Cll} nurse!}'. lmual plans are to develop a community fantl, market and garden :tre:1. with an center and prognunming lbr at-risk populations.

PAGE 63

9. Trail Systems: Extensive U'ail sys tems are planned throughout the Stapleton site for both recreation and commuting {pedes trian. bicycle anti po s sibly equestri an). Trails will be located along Sand and Westerly Creek corridors. and through the habitat and open space cor riclor to the northeast. as well as along roads and in parks and drainage corridors. Trail improvements will provide both local and regional access. 10. Bhtff Lake Enviromnentnl EducaJionArea: The City and 11. Greenway Corridors: The Sand and Westerly Creek corridors will be important elements of the Stapleton parks and open space system. Both cor Jidors will be the of intensive resource inventory and restordtion efforts. Once developed. rhey will provide regional trails and wildlife corridors and will provide natur al water quality enhancement teatures and wetlands) for burlace water drainage. Both efforts will require extensive cooperation between the cities of Denver. Aurora and Commerce City and among local, regional, state and (in some cases) federal agencies. The Sand Crozk Corridor also offers the opportunity to connoct the existing Platte River and High Lme canal trail forming a loop for these linear sysrems. AND IN TIME THIERI!'S HO MORE TltLUNG WHICH IS WHICH BI!TWI!.EN THe:M, NO SHARP OJS'rfNCTJOH, NO CLSAR ll:bGG: OF DIFF"ER.ItNCE WHERE IT CAN 811!: SAID THAT HERE THE LAND N.DS AND HERE Tl1E MAN OI!GIN.S. DON BEARY TRASK. FROM: THE THUNDER TREE Cmmry of Denver LEssoNs F'RoM AN has already commit Since its 01igins in the last cenrury, parks and natural features ted over a million dollars to funding for restoration and development of the BJuJJ'I...akc area as an urt>an environmental education taeility. Blu1TLake has significant wildlife resources. and is located adjacent to Sand Creek. Pannerships with locaL state and federal agencies will support united prognunming for school children in the fall of 1995. have been the defining of Denver's neighborhoods urban fabric. The Stapleton Development Plan bllllds on this legacy. but also itlo include a broader apprecia tion for naturdl and man-made landscapes. Denver's tradition of parks and parkways can be extended onto the site and con nected to extensive open space m-eas that transition from formal urban to far more nantral areas. The Stapleton sys tem wiU forge important connections to regional trail systems. adjacent neighborhoods. the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wild lite Area and Lowry open and recreation facilities This s ystem can increl1se understanding of our natural environment, its resources and our role as responsible stewards for future generJtions. UROAN WILDLAND BY ROBERT MICHAEL PYLE 5-15

PAGE 64

THEY O U R COTT'OfiWOOO$ A CHEAP MISSOU R I R t YEFf, b U T rr H"-5 N O T OGCN A C HEAP PIEOPL& HAYI: PJ\10 LARGe PRIC 5 FOR CO'n"'HWOOOS. A .. D LAROt'.R SUM S FOR TO M A K C T HRM GROW Tttlt COTTONWOOO L-UXURV A UYIHG .lOY -A LUXURY A H O JO't NO WHO UVE: I N A nMD.DUiD COUNTAV. ,.0 MATTBP tiOW OCAUTtFVL OR ORI\C&JI'UL TREES FOR MAY aE. W .G.M. STo,..-F, ntL COC..ORAPO HAHODOOK. 1 899 !"'ROM: "lliE THUNDER mE WU Dt..AND 5-Ui uv The Plan for Restoration of Snil s, Veg etation and Wildlife Habitat The S t nple t on Development Plan enviSJOOS urban lUid natuml environme nts lh.'lt strengthe n each ot h er tor their m u tual be nefit Restored site soils. vegetation com m unities and animal habi tat will play an i m p orlimt role in the making of new, heallhy D enver commun i ties. These naturnl system concerns have been incorpor:ned into the Parks. Recreation and Ope n Space initiative as a key s t ructur ing eleme n t uf t11e Development P lnn. Aviation use has allowed for degraded topsoil conditionl. aocJ chun!!es to narural site grading. 1be vegemtion of the S t ap l eton site today hru, been so modified that, with the exce p tion of a few p atches a l ong Sand Creek, virtuaUy all of the historic vegetation lla!; been eliminated. As a res u lt, only degrad ed o f the native pmirie and riparian habitats are left and these fail to capture :my o f the dmma scale or beauty of lhe original Co l omdo ltmdscape. These f'mgmentll also are nei ther large enough nor con t inuous enough to sustain the indige plant and animal commurutie:. of the region. Redeve l op m e n t o f tl1e Stapleto n site otters the o pportunity to restore the patterns and t he functions of the l arger ecosystem that ,vj]J he required if these natural values are to be sus t ained into the future within ll1e Denver metropolitan area. The pmposed o pe n space system i n tegnues a unique rnix of' muurnl outdoor sportS facilities, drainage conidor;, multi-usc trnils and scenic urban parks and parkway:,. llle plan inclu des tmdiliu n al parks and parkways as well as res tol'ed n ative landsc:1pcs. 1l1e best l:tndl.cape images of urban and rurnl Colorado will be broughttogelher 10 change Stapleton. Familiar landscape types such as golf courses, part dri ves and will be r etained but subLiy modi fied to reflect the goals of' 1l1e manage m ent of these landscapes w i U fos ter native p l ants and amlnlso as models for reduced inigation demand well as inno vative and coM stom1water conr:rol and poUutant reduction. M ore t hw1 any other feature, the restora t io n of t he landscapes of the High P l uins will aJ'fec1 U1e kind of o-.msfom1ation of whole site that is crucial to building the of the new Stap l eton. A comprehe n sive re<.t oration a nd munage m cn t is included in the Developmen t Plan support documcntalion. 1l1c The Stapleton Development Plan envisions urban and natural environments that strengthen each other for their mutual benefit. intent simp l y t o remtroduce the matrix of mixed prairie veg ctl.ltion l andscapes naturally found on t h e site. ln ciUJ.IeU are Unland Landscape t ypes such as shOit grass pmhie and sondhills prairie, Riparian Laudscape types such as sandbar channels. lake bouorru. and lake and Modified Prnjrie L;m
PAGE 65

Major Habitat Type s U plalld Lands cape slzortgras s p rairi e The shortgraJ>s prdirie. chamcterized by short er. more drought resistant grasses. occurs where rhere are heavier. fin ert extured clay soils that p r event water from pcrcol m.in g to de p th. In rhe large r open spaces in the souThern part of the Smpleton site shortgrass prnirie can be rest ored adjacent to Sand and Westerly Creeks. It co uld also be used at the farthes t m;u-gins of drainage corridon. in t h is portion of t h e site and along landscape edges where an alternative t o turf is desired. U plafld Landscape s andhills prairi e The sandhills pr.lliie will be the primary prair i e landscape of Stapler.on. wit h its centerpiece at the Pmirie Park. The t errain consists of gently undu l ating hills oriented t o and created by the prevailing wind;,. Tallgrass prairie occurs i n the H i gh P l ains where the more pem1eable allow moisture t o pereolat e deep into the sand. Sand blowou!l> illld san d hill depressions can also be found in the rolling prairie dune environments. Riparian Lands cape sandbar t:lumnels All the drainageways within the larger open space system of Staple t on are modelled on sandbar free-tlowing. wide. tlat. main charmels. wiThin which minor chilllnels are free to br'aid and mccmder. Sinuous lines of cottonwoods grow on higher ground and thick patches of sandba r wil l ows with
PAGE 66

FJ.r-c: liON \ C I Orvt L.OPMtH PC.Af 51 Ru-.;.TURtNQ C'l...E.MK:NtS 5 l'l*-'rWa:f!\1 ra1 .,.. P"""" tua:tJ l'&lk 1!... rAJ AJJ"'Slut!' l.alc .....,,. )Ow\ .,.,. tt(>I!Pl 1'1)&-;fnllft Y.."ll;o)) ar.. """"o.f .. ._."""'_....,.... .... '"""-... The Habitat Plan Identi fies locations for the mixed prairie vegetation landscape types on the Stapleton site. It Illus trates the integration of natural areas, transition al parklands and urban development ..

PAGE 67

WESTERLY CREEK CORRIDOR AND SURROUNDINGS: A birds-eye view looking south along a 1 t/2 milo length of Westerly Creek between Sand Creek and Montvlew Boulevard. This segment of the corridor contains the following elements: A) Excavation and restoration of the natural str-m corridor where aircraft n1nways previously constricted local and regional storm flows; B) major urban park adjacent to the District II employ ment neighborhood; C) District Ill residential neighborhood; D) learning golf course adjacent to Westet'ly Creek and the District I residential neighborhood; E) tree-linod local drainage corridor connecting adja cent urban neighborhood flows through to Westerly Creek; F) hierarchy of surface channels and canal. s convey stormwater from larger urbanized basins to water quality treatment areas; G) ponds and wetlands where stormwater is temporarily detelned allowing for biological uptake and sedimen tation of pollutants and nutrients; HJ a series of grade control drop structures stabilize t .he stream bed, preventing further erosion; and I) wetlands at the edge of Sand Creek valley provide wildlife habitat and Improve Westerly Creek stormwa ter quality before antoring Sand Crook. 5-19

PAGE 68

S-40 t. STRUCTURING ELEMENTS E1 TRANSPORTATION The Denver region has one of the highest per capita rates of vehicle ownership in the nation and is grappling with the air quality of a largely automobile based rem. From 1980 to 1991, vehicle miles travelled in U1e region increased by 35%. As the metropolilall region continues to grow, the number of pri vately owned vehicles will grow as well. As s uburbs con t inue their outwurtl expansion, com mut e distances will lengthen and vehicle miles traveled will grow. Resulting impacrs to air quality and roadway co n gestion are likely to worsen. 'I11e Stapleton Development Plan offers an alternative approach to development and mobility that seeks to reduce vehicle miles traveled and resulting air y_ualily impacts through land use design. multipl e modes of tmd transportation demand management strategies. Diverse transportation options will be a long-te1m key to Stapleton's success as a place of employ ment. housing and recreation. Existing Conditions As an island surrounded by development, the Stapleton site is reasonably well served by l eadi n g up to i ts perimeter. As an opemling airport, however, Stapleton l1as created a sig nificant barrier lo east/west and north/sout h continuity in tl1e area's roadway system. I-70 is the only roadway con id or crossing the site, providing two regional access points, the Quebec Street and Havana Street interchanges. Primary east/wes t streets leading to the perimeter of the site arc 56th Avenue, Smit h Road. Martin Luther King Boulevard and Mont view Boulevard Primary north/south streets leading to the perimeter include Quebec Street and Hav;ma Street. A number of neighb01i1ood streets also intersect with IJ1e perimeter on the south and north easl. ln addition ro the 1-70 roadway corridor tJ1e Union Pacific rail main line also tl1e site. This line travels through down town and is a primwy corridor in the national system. Surroundi n g are t:urrcntly provided with Jea sunably efficient bus service, a network Clf on-su-eet bike trails and pedestrian sidewalks. Existing bus se.rvicc for I he Stapleto n site serves only the tcnninal location. No regional trails of any son cross the Stapleton propeny. Land Use Design Fundam ental to the Development Plan are compact, trun.sll-uri ented. mixed u se neigbbomoods. Walkuble scale, mixed use neighbomoods encourage walking and o-,msit use by genemt ing many Je lativ ely short trips. These trips are spread out through the day creating a steady demand for transit as opposed Lo the peak morning and evening hours. Also fundamental are greater densities muund access points for pulr lie transportation. Greater densities will maximize the 11umbcr of peop l e who either live or work within walking distance Clf public transportation. increasing the likelihood of its use. lo each district of the site. minimum densities necessary lo sup pan transit are incorporated into the Plan and all employme n t areas are locat e d within walking or biking distance of housing

PAGE 69

Travel M o d es Rail Tran s il lhe existing Union Pacific rail conidor crossing the site south of T-70 along Smith Road is currently the proposed alignment for rail trdJl!,it m the conidor as defined by the Regional Transportation Oistnct (RTD). The Development Plan supports specific location, and recommend\ locating two intcnnodal fac ilities along the corridor at it:. intersection with Syr.tcuse Street and Yosemite Park. way. These facilities will link rdil tnm sit, bus tr!ll1$11, pedestrian networks and automobiles l'""t,.-.lr1 ... 1 Hlf)"'WI11 I ......... U .. ll, ftil \'-J TRANSIT PLAN: All portion of tho ita will bo within flvo minutes walking dlstunco (1/4 ftllle or less) of pub lic tra nspo r t ation. Fixed rail service In the 1-70/Srnith Rd. corridor Ia currentlv unde r atud]f. Tha Development Plan propo- rail atatlone along Smith Road at SvracuSbeo t and Yoaemlto P arkwav. within one single facility. These locations can also serve regional connections to dowtltown, DlA, the Rocky Mountain Arse nal National Wildlife Area and the Lov.lf}' campus. The cast corridor will be over the next 18 months by the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DR COG), Colorado Department (COOl) and RTD to dcu:rmine which tron<;po11aLion improvemenL\ will :,erve the conidor most efficiently. This cfi'ort must be coordinated with Stapleton's redevelopment The goal will be to maximize the potential lor future rail investment and complimentary adjacent dcvclormcnt to gen erate significant transit rider:<>hip and reduced aut omohile reliance in this portir)fl of the Smith Road coniclor. Bus Se r v ice i n troductio n of bus service to the site will require logicru of exhting routes. 1l1 e Stapleton Developmen t P l an p r ovides necessary t h rough street connections for bus ser vice to operate through the site H n d into surrounding l ocatio n s Bus slops w ill he located throughou t tJte site in locations that will ensure all rc:.idents a n d workers are within a five minute walk of a stop. All district and neighborllood centers will be served by this route struct:ure. Bicycles The Development Plan is dc.,igned to e ncoumge greater usage or bicycles for rctTeation and commuting. A comprehensive bicycle network has been developed for the site as an extension of the route structure defwed in the Denver Bicycle Master Plan. This network features oiT-stre.:t regional bikeways paral lel to Sand Creek, Westerly Creek arKI the major open cor ridor in the northern half of property connecting Sand Creek to the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife /\rea. An extensive collection of signed on-street bike routes serves all por tions of the site. I :or on-street bike routes, the curb lane will be a1 least I 5 feet wide to accommodate both vehicles and bicycles. A REGIONAL tfAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM ts NllCUSARY TO SltRVC CITY RESIDil.NYS AS AS SUOUROAH C-OM f!4UT1Ut5 TO THI[ CCN'rAAL 8U.91NUS DUM''RtCT (COD) AND OTHIIR ACTIVITY C&f+-TE.R5'. lf"tCREA&CS IN HIOit SHARING, VBHICLC: OCC:UPAN CY, OICYCL.I H O AND WAL.KiftQ LV IMPORTAN T GOAL..S CITV AND COVNTV Oil" O ENVI!R COMPAIHUNSIV Pt.AN, 1988 5-21

PAGE 70

SAND CREEK TRAIL: The o>dst lng runway tunnel stn>cture could b e opened up with the arched wall ele ments remaining for historical Interest. 5 -Oft .. tme.J y,,.u. ,, ........ .... --tdestrian impacts of w i der streets and intersections The Developme n t Plan al:-;o includes a number of parl-.-ways with significan t landst:aping that will encourage pedestrian use and designates multiple use trail linkages to connect the sit e int o th e regional trails system. Trails lie w ithin mnppcd sired or open space areas. R egional trai Is include th1.: Santi C r eek Trail connecting the Platte River Greenway throug h Stapleton into Aurora to the High Lin e Canal, I he Wester l y Creek Trail from the Sand Creek Trail ultimately to the High Line Cana l through Lowry, and a new trail from Sand Creek northeast along the S andhills P rairie Park t o the Rocky Mountain Ar.;enal Nat i o nal Wildli fe Area Fingers from these backbone trails will penetn1tc deve l opment areas via the surface water drainage system, par k s ami 111 e mult i -use Sand Creek Trail will also have an equestrian wmponenl for full length on Stap l eton. A utomobile s Recognizing t hat J. 70 is currently the only major roadway across the site, a number of roadway improvements will be =1uiretlto reconne<.:l t he site with neighborhood and regiona l systems. Hi g hwa ys Until the 1-70 corridor study is com p l ete, i t is i mpossible to know how the sire will be impacted by future potential improvements. According ly, a 300 to 350-foot envelope is being reser ved for these as yet unspecified i mprovements with additional buffering and drainage along the perime ter. The total coni dor w idth for all of these comhined purposes equals 700 teet. All travel demand modeling for the site eigh t through lanes for l 70. l f this does not become the ca<>e. th e size and capacity of each recommended roadway will need to be reevaluated [rrespective of th e results of tbe study, it is clear, howeve r that horl1 the J 70/Havana Street i n terchange anti the l-70/1-270/Quelx::c StTeet inter change will need to be redesigned to accommodate the ultimate access n eeds o f the site through these key point s More specific desij,rn recommen dations will be made as part of the 1 70 corridor study.

PAGE 71

1.--;;;..-.. !1rimU) Pt.:adal l'ritnl} Stnrc ra ... "'lf}-Olty 'rratfltJf\uure llLtv l'll"tt o,-,. \!l .. ... NIIr$ tlotdlluwl 101' t-. 1'1wJ lltl N"l'llflf"ttlll ... )llli)llnllft. A""""' t'nnot ,.....,tlllllll.,._tii...,IWI4111,_.011,,. ...,_4ffw,. ......... ,""''" Gr.CTIUH Y I fW UIJOHr.-r PLAN The Stapleton Development Plan provides necessary throughsueetconnections for bus service to operate through the site and into surrounding locations. STREET PLAN: The basic grid of Northeast Denver will be extended onto the site. Important connec tions will occu r along 56th Ave., Smith Road, 26th Ave., 49th 1 47th Aves ... Syracuse St and Yosemite Parkway within tho site. Quobec St. Havana St., Montviaw Blvd. and Martin Luther King Blvd. provide Impor tant perimeter connections. 5-23

PAGE 72

!5 ., Streets Primary recommended street improvements m-e broken down between north/south and cast/west imp rovements. F inal street lmprovcmt:nt design will require lXJordiuation with existing plans uf jurisdictions surrounding the sit.e. n1e primary n orth/south streets include Quebec Sb-eet, Symcusc Street. Yosemite Part...way, Havana Su-eet and Peo1ja Street. Quebec Street: Cun-emly Quebec Su-eet is a two-lane facility south of 23rd Avenue. a four-lane facilily between 23rd Avl!nue and 29th Avenue, and" six l ane facility between 29th Avenue and l-70. T n order to accommodate projected 2015 regional lraffie volumes of 20,000 to 29,000 vehicles per day. it is nec essary to widen Quebec to four lm1es between 29th Avenue und Colfax Avenue. Widening is consisten t w ith the Lowry Redevelopm e nt Plan and would not be required untU lhc soulh western portion of the site i s substantially developed. Right-<>f way will need to be acquired t o constntct this facility. North of 1 70. the Plan p1uposes a realignment of Quebec east-Yo.,emite Parkway: Yosemi t e Parkway pmvides direct conti nuity from 56th Avenue to Montview Boulevard through lhe "heart" of the devcloprncnL Tt will bridge over botb the rail road conidor and 1-70 using e xisting roadway bridge souctures that will remain in place. Yosemite Parkway will aJso provide access to the businesses along Colfax Avenue and to the Lowry campus to tJ1e south. Havana Street: Havana Street provides contimuty from 56lh Avenue to 16tJ1 Avenue. where it will terminate. The segment betwt:cn 561h Avenue and T -70 i:, currently a four lane facility. llavana Street betweenl-70 and 26 th Avenue is initiaUy proposed as a two lm1e facility, but right-of-way should be preserved for a future four lane section to accommodate future development. Peoria Street: No changes to Peoria Strt:el an: propolied, although several serving the Stapleton site will now connect to it. They include 26th Avem10. Smith Rolld. 47th Avenue and 56th Avenue. ward to provide impmvecl uccess to l -270. a hi gh capacity l:Uil -1l1e prim;uy east/west streets include 56th Avenue. 47th Avenue, nection to L-70 and an appropriate eutram:e into Dislrit:ts VT and Smith Road. 35th Avenue, Mrutin Luther King Boulevard, 29lh VU. A connection back to the ex i sting Quebec Street alignment Avenue, 26th Avenue. 23rd Avenue and Mont view Boulevard. north of 1 -270 occurs at 56th Avenue. It must be noted that d1e alignment represented is conceptuaL Determination of a final engineered alignment will be the result of a future study involv ing Commerce City. the COOT and the City and County of Denver. PinaJ construction will not be necessary until tl1e nurtllportion of the silo is at:lively underdevelopment. Syracuse Street: Syracuse Street i s a two -lane neighborhood stree t serving the J::ast Montclair neighborhood. It will be e xtended north into the s it e to serve neighborhoods planned in Dislrict T and will be terminated near Fn::d Thomas Park. North of 26th Avenue. it will be co ntinued as a fourl ane faeili ty to serve District JJ und will not exten d north of 1 70. 56 til Averme: Fifty-sixth Avenue right -ofway will be capable or ultimately accommodating a parkway of up to six lane s wit:h a median, setbacks and limited acces s Within 90 days of the closure of Stapleton, construction on two lanes of 56th Avenue will commence. C'.onslruction will utillze i'tlll.teriHis recycled fi.um the Stapleton airlield. 47th Avenue: rorty-seventh Avenue, transitionlng to 49th Avenue, will provide continuity through the north half of the dcvc l opmen l fTOm Quc:bcc Street to Havana and Peoria St r eets. This will be a fom-lane facility wilh minimaJ truck traffic. Smith Road: Smith Road ctm-ently peneU'lltes t11e site from the east and west but is not continuous. ll will be connected and reconstructed l1S a four-laue facility with m1 intersection with

PAGE 73

Yosemite Parkway. The Smiili Road corridor will provide a major ensl/weM connection and will accommodate rail transit, bicycles plldcsuiwlS erve the proposed high densiintended to rnaximi1.c the people-moving C.tri<:t n. 'The existing MLK Boulcvard/Quehcc Street intcn;cction will be preserved to prtr vide :t high e:tpacity "front door'' to the terminal area develop ment sites. Boili J5ili and 29th Avenues will be 'disconnected" west of Quebec Street to discoumge tmvel through the resi dential Park HiU neighborhood to the west. The emergence of a regional truftic gener.ttor at the tenninol may necessi tate modilications to these conJigurations and other connec tions t.liff'crcnt nr in additicn to those the Plan currentJy recom In Hd!litiun, more dct:-tilcd intersection design in area may re. sult in fut1her modification to the stteet system. 26111 Aveu11e: 1\venty sixth Avenue provides continuity t hrough the <>outh half of the fmm Quebec Street t o Peoria Street. It will he discominued of Quebec Street to discourage travelthrnug/1 neighborhood' to the west. lt will be a four-lttnc we:,t of Yosemite Parkway. and a four lane residenrial parkway east of Yosemite Parkway 23rd Avenue: Currently. 23rd Avenue carries more traffic through l'arlllill than Montview Boulevard 26th Avenue combined. It will be extended into the site until it intersects Yosemite Partcway. Monlviett' Houlevnrtl: Nu ch;mgcs to Montview Boulevard are propo!ied. other than a large. landscaped setback on the north side a l ong the Slilpleton property. Sce11ic Parkways: l\vo 5cenic parkways will be located along the major open space and drainage co1Tidors. One will follow the lmnk of Sand Creek ucr'Oss tl1e site. TI1e other will travel the Sandhi Us Prairie Park open space network in the north half of the site. Final locutions for these parkwnys lr.tnsportation !oyMem by increasing the number of persons in a vehicle, or by influencing the time of, or need to. traveL To accomplish these types of changes in travel behavior, a combi nation of incentive:; disincentives arc typically used. Examples of TOM !otrotcgic..<; lor the Staplctoo are;, include: Residential Neighborhoods Neighborhood tr.msit subsidy (.Ec()-Pass) program Tete-work, teleconference centers in neighborhoods lele-service center.. (banki ng, city services. librmy U<.'CCl)s, etc.) Lmcst communication tccllllologics (horne s h opping, etc.} Daycnrc. health and public scrvkes and schools in nei ghbor hood cenrcrs Commerciat/Retaii!Office Development maximum rarking Charging for panoing Rcducecl-prire. prefcrcntialloc;uion parloog for carpooVvan pool users Subsidies for transit and taXis for retuil customers Employer based Ec()-Pass program Compn:ssed work and other alternative work sched ules such a!\ SupJXtn retail and restaurant racilities within walking dis-tance of wono-places Shared fleet of vclticlcs for midday travel Shuttles to/from DTA or to/from tronsit station Bicycle parking, Iocken; und showers Health clubs in oflir.:c development:, Guarb'l'UITlS Riclcsh11re mmching Providin g ready and cncour.1ging use of alternative fuels Hnancial incentives for rideshruing, bicycling or walking Multi Use St ... ta Extensive Bikeways 5 Minute walk to bus Rail Tranall 5-25

PAGE 74

52 6 .. Intelligenf Vehicle Highway S ys lem lnh ome transit infommtion Travel udvisorie.-. (changeab l e message signs, h1ghway tdvi radio. pcr.;onal communication dcvicel., kiosks; l!tc.) Incident det ection and response inf onnation Successful tmplementation of sume or all of these strategies w1U require early establishment of a Tnlfl!,ponation Manageme n t Oqmnizatioo ( TM O). The TMO woul d be rel>ponsibl c for incorporating nod implem em ing s tmtegiel> in 11cw dcvelo pmem rath er than trying t o retrofi t them i n C!>tablishcd a reas of dcvelopmcnt whic.:h may be resistant to PARKING AND PARKWAY ILLUSTRATIONS: On site parking areas and so,... parkways, such as extended 35th or 29th Avenues. are eJUimplas of multiple usa right-of-way design. A coordinated approach will Integrate public safety, transportation, land scape, drainage and water quality functions. Maintenance concems are lncorporetad as well. Above right for exemple, parking lot Is directed to a sarles of connected shallow landscaped basins In order to detain stormwator, remove urban pollutants and Irrigate drought tolerant and riparian plantings. The shallow basins connect to either onte or regional detention areas via dr.lnage col"''ldora. Above left for example, small rain showers are collected within the parkways In cleanable canals at the bottom edge of a broad modlan channel that diHtctly Infiltrates stormwater, Irrigating adjacent street trees. Larger sto""s are conveyed to the regional atream network by the gras.s-llned median channel which alao acta a linear park. Along the sides, right-of-way I& also reserved for pedeatrlans and bicyclists.

PAGE 75

STRUCTURING ELEMENTS Ia SERVICES Overview Por much of its history, the Stapleton site open land or in agricultural use. Umanit.atiun of the prop eny began in earnest in lhe late 1920s with the con suuctioo of Denver's rtrst municipal airport. Since that time. l11c has lx.-en modilied. Many physical impmvcu1<:nL\ and an cxtl.'nsive system of infrast:roctW"e have been 3dtled over the 6:'i In support lhe growing dem:mds of aviation m;tivity. Upon the closure in I W:'i, a new set of requirements and Nervicc willl11:gin lo emerge. I mprovements anu infra structure originally cn:atL'\.1 to serve av i ation must be adapted and/or rt'placcd with larger and different infTastructurc ! internal sull'icicnt to au.'Ommodate sub employment. housing and olllcr acti\rities on site. Nawrul uf vegetation and drainage have also lx.'CI'l dc\troycd or altacd. In addition. the IDle nor of the s1te i:; di'iCO!mo:t:ted from much of the local and region al OJ' open SJXICC and service delivery. Fundamclllal to the task of redevelopment is ll1c ability to and new w "upport new mixcJ-u.,e communities and public use of the !Hie. Existing mfTasUlJcturc and will :\dnpted, reu"ed or when ever possib l e. Significant new infr:a.stucture invesLment in energy, w;'lter, stom1wnter. solid waste, telecomtransportation and open space systems will be required. be made i n 11 fushion thal is and the larger sustainable development or the rcc.levclupmcnt progranl. Stapleton infrastructure must provide cost-effective, low main t enance and env1romnemally sust;mJable approaches to urban service delivery. II must integrate urban aod ru.Jtural systems. lt must m;pond to lllc limitations of traditional mfmstructure pro vision where syMems are often buill and operated in isolation from one a n olhcr and from considcrution of broader environ mental and social cosK For example. stormwater has tr:Jdi tionally been conveyed directly from to underground stollll drains to nvcrs as quickly as This approach eliminates opportw1ities for irrigation and increases wat.cr quality imJ>aCis. When solid wa:;te is indiscriminately landfillcd, opportunities tn reclaim its value H resoun:c tl1rough recycling and arc nlso lo\1. Energy production is ollen associated with reduced ai r quHlity and glob Stapleton infrastructure must provide cost-effective, low maintenance and environmentally sustainable approaches to urban service delivery. al warming impacts. fossil fuel mining and gcoJXlliticaJ hut new dcvelupmcnl\ of Staplcmo 's magnitude arc nficn c.lc.\igned wich artennon to energy collSCfVation. Stapleton provides an opportunity to integrate utility systems in a way that recognizes resource values in both inflows (water. energy. consumer goods from mw materials) and outtlows (was t ewater, stormwatet, garbage), and capt ur es these values through conservation nncl reus.: w h erever Sumnwatcr runofl' dliUIIlcll!cl thmugh swalcs provides irrigation for green :md is l"ilt.red through vegetarian. improving down:>trcam wmcr quality in river systems. Solid waste, pre sorted and produc.:es mw mntcrial.s for local end-lL<:e s-:n

PAGE 76

.. ECJONOMIO GROWTH HAS ITS IMPERATIVES; I T WlLL OCCUR. THII KEY QUEST10N rs-: WITH WHAT TI!CHNOLDGIES?" JAMES GUSTAVE SPETH UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM 5 industry production activity or compost for soil amendment. Energy conservation throug h bot h demand and s upply -side management redut:es t:onstunption 11\IUiol UUd tfl '\IMI l red ....... '1<1.11 ....... -!1-2-............ ... The Surface --Manageonent Plan .. In addition to addressing the site's drainage and flood control needs, the plan will contribute to pollution reduction, wildlife habitat, water conserva-tion, public open space develop ment and reduced capital lnvast ment.

PAGE 77

Nonaviation use of the site will dramntic:illy increase the amount of COIIIltXted in many an:as of the property, and particularly north ofl-70. Much higher concentra tions and volumes of w:uer will need to be accommodated. 'J11e cxiMing grade will tend to d irect lluws to the northwest t owards Com merce City anrlthe Rocky Mountain Arsenal Nnrionnl Wildlife Are:L Commerce C i ty's system is not designed or inten ded to numage t hese llows, and t h e Arsenal c.1n act:opt only historic l1ows rluc to iL\ unique cireumstauces (containing lln a tilctor in purchase decisions. During the last 10 y ears, e n e rgy efficiency in Amencan industry has improved significGJ1tly in r esponse to market demand. 'll1e goal of the D evelopment Plrua is to innovMtive buil ding and comm u nity design, technology and marke t mec haniSJlls to decrease tlte overall energy demand at Stapleton, and ro incor pumte "clean" energy sources wherever possible. 5-29

PAGE 78

5 "' As part of the St.apleton Development Plan, an lmalysis identi fied potential energy requirements for the site W!IUJnrN nnd im'l'lrlii'I.'.V /rJ encmtraRt:lrettllire energy e_flicir.ml site and brrilcllng D('l'llop vil/age-srale energy sysrenrs (cogeneratUJ/1) ba.\ed on mixed 7andt4Vi' /lr(l/ Str(Jportcner;f{y nranll?,t!IIU!/11 gaols. {11stal/ renewab/( energy demmtstra111m pmjet'ls U.ve tn:e to reduce hearing and cooling /()(Ids on site. Develop euergy lrookllfl, delivery. a11d entluse pricing sclu:dules rho/ encourage rnllsf'natrmt Water atul Wastewater Management Denver, though located in a semi-arid region, has long en joyed its stal.l.ls as an irrigat ed community. Water COO sumption in the Denver metro area (at an average mte of 15 I gallons per person per day) has grown steadi l y uver Lime, 1md has skyrocketed in recent years with population growth. This trend has not been without costs to the region. Water use in Denver has implications nnt only for the long-tenn viability of our rivers and groundwater. but for the viability or regional agriculture and critical wildlife habitat on the South Platte and other regional rivers. Current Denver water supplies are adequate to support the full buildout of Stapleton. However, Stapleton representS an oppor tunity to demonstrate new approaches to water use, reuse and

PAGE 79

conservation. Efficient use of the resource, through the use of new technologies and management practices. can provide a model for the wesL Potable water for the Stapleton site is provided by Denver Water. Stapleton has been essentially a private system for all of history. All of its existing on-site improvements for water disttibution were coostmcted and operated by the airport Stapleton 's system must now be adapted. extended, and intebrr&tcd with the rest of the public water system. Wastewater servk:es are currently handled by lbe Metro Wastewater Reclamation District In addition t o their other ser vice delivery responsibilities. Denver Water and Metro Wastewarer are each currently studying options for a 001theast metro area reuse wat er system. with all otl1cr services. the goals rcgartling wa t er and wastewater have been r o maximize efficient usc of the resource, to minimize environmental impacrs, and to support the broader objectives of the redevelopment progran1. Over Lhe course of the redevelopment program, we sbould be able to move towards an ideal in which: use of potable water is greatly reduced from present con sumption pattems; non-potable water reuse and stonnwatcr flows play an incn:asingly greater role in meew1g irtigation, industrial and other non-human l:Onsumption demands; reuse water is supplied hy treatment fucililic.<> trcaring nows that currcmly move through the site or that in the future are generated on site.; water management approaches will reduce demand, con tribute to water quality improvements in the South Platte River and !:upport habirm deve l opment and restoration on site. Achievement of these objectives will require a phased approach. Some options. such as enhanced conservation mea sures, are available immediately. Others, sucb as regional reuse programs or significant reuse of wastewater flows generated on site, w ill need to be anticipated now hut wjJI not be possible to implement until later stages of rhe program. ::;Jzort Tcmz Policies Implement aggressive conservation and demand manage ment programs. lnstull dual distribution systems within public open spaces. Use nontribUJary grouLldwater to supplemem duo! disLnlJULiun system until on-site wastewater fluws arc sutncicnt to meet supply needs for iFTigation. Explore opportunities liw a one-million-gallon-per-day reuse pmgrarn wit11 Aurora's Sand Creek Wastcwnter Treatment Plant immediately adjacent to the site. Explore optkms for diverting and treating wastewater lows in the 56th Avenue sanitary sewer ;tt a sateiJite rreatment facility on site. Pursue wetland:-. nanking opponunities and ineorporate be.st avail11ble technologies for water quality management in site restoration, open space and stoon &.linage improvementS. Mid and Long 1'en n Policies Continue above effortS, and: Explore possible expansion of Sand Creek treatment facilities and increased reuse volumes. Pursue opporrunit:ies to work with Metro Wastewatet tO rereive additional reuse flows ru. pan of iLs response to South Pintle River warer quality issu.:s or effiuent management program. Pursue similar rew,e opportunities with Denver Wa[er tbrough future phasC!!> of its water reclamation project. Apply local or sub -reg1onal upproaches ro wastewater Lre
PAGE 80

'IM-AGIHB WI\STES 0NG CONYRT INTO HIGH VALUE: PACKAGING, WHICH Of!F"l!RS A. SUBSTITUTE FOR SEVER AL. PETROLEUM TtCS, 5UOSEQUENTL.Y DEGRA0 TOTALLY, OR AL.TERN.ATELY1 CAN EIE RECYCLED SACK TO THE. EXACT SAME USE." MARK MONTGOMERY. PRESIDENT OF ECOCHEM (A JOINT VENTURE OF CON AGRA AND DUPONT POUNDED IN 1990 TO PRODUCE PACKAGING MATERIAL.S PROM WAST PRODUCTS) 5-32 lr:.at 'V c v fo'C:h. .. Ct..tPa lt should be noted that tho recommendations described on the well as opportunit cies to import material to the site for reuse as previous pages with respect to water reuse will require a high part of an overaU solid management system. The srrategy degree of intergovernmental cooperation between various scr-addresses handling and processing ur material, remanufacturing vice providers. The Metro Wastewater Reclamation District is opportunities and institutional policies required to support sueresponsible for tream1ent of wastewater coUected by Denver ccssfu l implem entation of the progmm. Many compunenl'> of within Denver's bounderies. Denver's current contractual rela this plan are considered viab l e in the current market. tionsbip requires the direction of aU tlows to the District's treatment system. The Board of Directors of the Metro District, as well as other policy makers will need to ultimately approve a number of the more innovative concepts described above. AU of the relevant service providers have expressed a willingness to pursue the general service objectives identified for the Stapleton site. Solid Waste Manageme11t Th e average American gener ates 4.4 pounds of solid waste per day, resulting in a national total of 208 million tons per year, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Even though landfill capacity and disposal costs are not perceived to be a constrdint in the Denver region. there are increasing concerns and conse quences resulting from our waste disposal practices. Much of what we dispose is reusable, recyclable or compostable. In addition. the entire process of raw material development use and disposal has economic and environmental consequences. ln planning for the Stap l eton site, emphasis has been placed on achieving higher ratios of recovery and reuse of materials. Evaluation of solid waste options for the site began with an ev aluation of the volume and composition of a commu nity of the size planned for Stap l eton would cum:ntly generate. Strategies were then evaluated for moving the community as close as possible to a condition of no net waste: i.e. no contri bution of waste to locallandtills. At full buildout.. the Stapleton community is anticipated ro pro duce 25,000 tons of waste products per year. The strategy developed for d1e site includes reduction of thi s volume. as Develop a resource village on site to address processing of recyclab l e material. yard waste. household ha7..ardous waste and constnrct:ion/de m o lition dcbril.. Tdentify public or private organizations lo manage ancVor pro vide the following -operation of recyclable materials processing facility: operarion of yard-waste composting fadlity, in combina tion with a c l ean source of sludge. to be recycled as pari of Stapleton land restoration: h andling and transportation of h ousehold ha7..unlous waste.': operation of construction/de mt1litiou debris pmcc .. ;sing facility: collection or wet/dry wastes from commercial ;md tial genemtors; opemtion of end-market manufacturing facililie,o, to create reusable prod u cts from processed. reusable, recyclable ;md compostablc mnterials. Coordinate w rU1 t:lle Ciry and County of Denver and Stapleton development management entity to implement a solid wast e rate litruc:ture and public education necessary to achieve source reduction Establish procurement polioie.-; that maximize the use of reusalJie or recycled content products in development. operation ;wd maintenance o f the site.

PAGE 81

STRUCTURIN G ELEMENTS EJ LAND USE AND URBAN DESIGN TI1c lwRI usc plan and tlevelopmcnl prngmm for StnplcJoo re1lecl the site's context and the principles adopted to guide l'edevelopmenl. T h e land use plan describes a substantial mixed usc community whlch could support nn ultimate emp loym ent base of mon: Uulll 30.000 jobs and 10.000 bouse holds in a unique environment: 11 scrics uf urb;m viUages that each provide a=s to employment. housing. public trnns ponauon and open space Districts of the site are organized around identifiable centers that support a variety of services and civic uses. The emphasis is on compact. walkable com munities and strong lies between me Stapleton site and the su1Tounding community. The land usc p lan rcnccts future rnlc as a sign i lieult. the mix of and den:.itics must remnm somewhat flexible particularly for portions o the likely to be developed in later phases of the project. Whnt are important to now are the general char acter. scn.le and density of the community ;md its districts, well as the basic community infrastructure, open spuc:e, civic s ites ond ollaer elcment!t of U 1 c public realm Specific land parcel ronfigumtions and relationships among various forms of employment, h ousmg and other uses should be determined more defirutely development and the process of district planning zoning and plantng proceeds. lhe development program defmcs the land u;;c allocations, average den11ities and anticipaletl employment and popul ation tota l s projected for buildout of the site. Some of these pamme ters will vary ovcr time. but the development program provides n feasible bttscli ne, consistent current !UI U untidpalcd mar ket conditions. The development program assigns 65 percen1 of the site to urban development and 35 percent to a mix of open space uses (stormwater management parks, golf course;, n.'Crcntion facilitie.,, trail s and naturnl areas). Approximately 16 percent of the site will be required for parkways, and other forms of public With all forms of Opt'n space and public 11ccounted for, approxim:uely 2.,2!15 acres of net dcvelupablc property remain. Of this acreage, 52 percent is allocmed to all forms of employment und commercial u ses, 41 percent to residential u se and 7 percent to inslltutiumal/culLuml use. The figures on the foUowing pag..: the preliminary umcl Budget fur the site. The l a nd u se pla n reflect s Stapl eton's fu t u r e r ol e as a si g nifican t empl oy m e n t center. The :Ulocation described above support.!-appmximatcly 10,000 units with approxima1ely 25.000 (at dens1ries that vary fmm lhrcc to sixty dwelling unitS per acre) and appruximotcly 17-20 million square feet of onice, com mercial and industrial 'lmce (:II floor-to-urea ratio s rang1ng from U.J ro I.U). In addition, I ,680 acres of parks, recreation und natu r al areas arc provided by d1e development program. Portions of this system also address necessary stom !.lroinagc management ancl water quality improvement 1\Xjuircmenti> of the site. .. LIKE THE FOR A VARIETY Of!' HOUSING TVP e:.S {DETACHED. 'TOWNHOUSE, .. GRANNY FLATS .. AOOV E GARAGES MI!NTS ABOVE" T H E: STORES) WHICH IMPLJI!S A RANG OF INCOMI!S, AGO /\NO F.4MILY TYPES."' NRW'JWEEK 0CCEMDCR 26. t994

PAGE 82

l.AND BUDGET PRELIMINARY LAND USE ALLOCATION AND BUILDING PROGRAM SUMMARY Cull!.nt/lo"'-7,t% I"" W;nt'OAf!NDI!It.. 1 ...... o,.,., .sp.c.. EMPLOYMENT AND POPULATION DISTRIBUTION ....... 12.,4% ..... 1-!lghOOn..., SlAI IIIIGL -43,; .. ........ HMt.rwiUalllll\ .... WatiiiOv ... r )l,! On Sne Employment 31,138 .. .......... FlosiCfent Popui.Utkm 25.469 5 Non-O...e l opment Areas Reg1on.al (no t 111cluded '" the dist11C't$) LocaltW1Uiin the diotncts) Devolopmonl Cultural,11nst. 2F.AR Publi<' Selal Ret1dent1al Avera-go n .s n.a 33ac' 1,154ae 1 ,197ac n.a o.a 175 ac 491 ac 666 ao ( I ncludes slr001s ancJ the rtllrood Ft.O. W.J {ioc l udes communhy patks and kxal drainage All .oe ms1 387 ac 69ac 2ac n .. rl.i! n.a. "" 0.54 mst 62oc 21ac (IOOudi!CI 83QC olw"""'"' 2.496 du 13980 62 ac Gac 207 ac (23'1(,1 5161' ct2 .4q,o1 13.38St>n11ll t431l%1 5.05'7 !!lnol 182"' 16,00.1 540 empl (1.'/"k) 4.993""' 12,257 ros 6.2.19 res 540empl 25.469100 25.469 r aa 1.404 ompl 29.73'lP.IIlpl 25469165 31.138 empl 'ax eludes non davelopmen l rueas: orterial streets, p r i ndpal streots l ocal communi1y parks., I he mit r oad r o.w. And aU rogionrt l pnrtc.s and d r oif"lllij9.

PAGE 83

The Preliminary Land Use Allocation and Building Progrdm Each district consists of u a grouping of rJcigh.Summary provides a illustr.ttive summary of ilie development borhoods or a specialuse area. The districts have detjned program's land allocation. densities, square footages, unit totals edges and an identifiabl e center. The edges can be natural or and population and employment goals The densities a<>sumecl man-made features. Open space areas, drainage corridors, golf for employment and residential u ses will be influenced hy mar-cow'Ses, h.igh volwne regional roadways or lower density resiket demands over time. In some areas, increased density of dcntiaJ neighborhoods can all a" activity would further enhance project economics and improve the efficiency of a variety of fom1s of tmnsponation and ser-The district and neighborhood centers help establish neighborvice delivery. Increased densities in some locutions could hood identity. Each is sized according ro its role within each increase demands on t.he capacities of some eleme nts of neces sary infcaslructure as well. Reductions in densities below those dcpictt:J in the Preliminary Land Use Allocation and Buildin g Prognm1 Summary eou ld adversely affect project economics and would likely reduce the efficiency of service delivery and increase some torms of environmental impacts. The district and neighborhood centers help establish neighborhood identity. Districts and Ce11ters Th e land usc concept for tl1.: site divides the Stapleton property into eight distinct. dislricls. Each district is intended to support. a mix of uses. The specific mix of uses depends upon l ocation, size, site characteristics and adjacencies. The distri cts vary from providing great diversity to circumstances where one or more predominate. Jn every case, the goal i s to promote diverse and successfu l comm uniti es rutl1er than isolated, single usc developments. district. Some are modest and local in si7.e and function, pri marily serving the nearby population. Others are larger iu scale, incorporating a 1,>reater mix of uses intended to service a larger population. Each cenrer will include a public place of some kind (a park, square, community garden), an educational facility (elementary school, daycare. etc.) and a public mmsir stop. Th ese centers can also serve as a location tor other public buildings and uses (church, post oftice, Hbrary, meeting Luul). In addition. the tenten; can provide retail services and employment opportu nities witb.io walking distance of home or wmkpl ace. Mixed Ube Mixed u se are essential to achieving the project's social, economic and env ironmental goals. Mixing of uses has farreaching implications with respect to crime, economic and social tmnsit and access opcr-dling and utility CrimePlanning for a variety of residential uses adjacent to and within commercial developments will allow thoughtful intro duction of people and activity to areas which would otherwise be dormant after business hours. Potential benefits may include reduced crime and vandalism, helping to increase land values. Diversity Mixed-use and mixed-density developments et m help achieve economic and social diven;ity by providing a vari ety of housing products for fanUly sizes, age groups and eco nomic levels. A diverse neighborhood will encourage regional migration to the site. Tmnsit and AccessMixedu se developments encoumge the use of tntnliit by generating many relatively short trips TI1csc trips are spread throughout the day creating a steady demand for transit as opposed to the peak morning and evening rush hours. lllus1ratlve plan showing the possi ble buildout of the DistYlct I center. A series of uses are grouped around a two acre neighbo .... hood park or square. They include community gaJ'dens, day ca.re, an elemental')f' school. a bus stop, services. neighbor hood businesses, church sites and eldet'ly mldrlse housjng .. 5-35

PAGE 84

Large lot. single family. detached Medium 101 slngle t'lunil}, hnngalows. cotillge. patio bomc.' Zero 19_1 line ;ingle family. townhou'e TownhouS<', with Rats Two fwnilu:, frunilies. carnage 6 Cnlll1)'lfr\l Jpartmenll\. garden apurtru(lnts 7 Apartments. flats 8 Mid/high nsc apartment building.' (asswucs decked parldugl 5-36 II f 'V C Operational Costs The proper integration of design e l ements in a mixed-use development in operational savings in energy, maintemmce, security, management, commun ications. utili t y access. parking and wat er supply. Utility CostsMixed-use deve l op m ents d i versify e n ergy and utility dem ands which causes a lowerin g of peak usage. Tn tum, this cause a reduct ion in utility rates. Traditiona l Denver residentia l neighborhoods such as Park Hill, Washington Park and Congress Park have pockets of increased densit y and mixed usc which enhance the quality of life within these neighborhoods. Future of Stap l e ton will share these qualities 1U1d exploit the benefits outlined above. The density of residential or empl oymen t -related development in each district is typically described wit h net dwelllng units per acre (for resi dential development) or floor-to-area ratio (for e m p l oyment-related development). Both of these mea sures can be confusing and easily misinterpreted. Dwelling units per acre can vary substantially depending on the type and mix of housing units as shown in the adjacent c hart. 1 5 dwelling acre li9 dwelling uniwnel acre 8-2 dwelling l llliiMICI aot: t0-14 ilwelling uniL'I/nel acre 10-20 dwelling units/net acre 20-30 dwelling umL'l/nct acre 30-50 dwelling umlli/net acre 60+ dwelling unils,/nct acre Average resi dentia l densities for the different disiTicts r.mge from eight dwelling units/acre to 1 8 dwelling units/acre. Eigh t dwelling units per acre is cons idered to be the minimum necessary ro support public transit. The Park Hill neighborhood, Immediately west of Districts I and 11, Is shown In an aerial view. Tho residential street grid and alley patte.-n will be repeated in new Stapleton neighborhoods as will the Integration of Institutional, commercial and other land uses. Denver residential neighborhoods reflect a great vart.-v of block patterns, densities and mix of usos.

PAGE 85

DISTRICTS t )....... ..,, -1'_--" ._--......._.... ..... V c:-.--_,._ Disttk: 1 lll ..... .._ tlP _,.., ,___ b Major streets and open space improvements define eight land use districts within the Stapleton Development Plan. These land use districts are intended to support a mix of uses, but each with a separate and distinct character.. The goal of oach distr-ict is to promote diverse and successful communities rather than lsolat ed. slngleuse developments. General charecter. scale and densJ .. ties are defined, but substantial flexibility is provided for a varl ety of market responses. St:;CTJON Y c.;,; PEYEL..Of' 11:.N1' PL.AN &tnucuuiNG CUI"'LNrs CENTERS :..! _j 0 r .... 1\.,11...._1....,_, l t \l.mOIII'""' "''"'"" Jl:n.W..., U. -firlllfU,too" tlw.-\ Uitk"'IIU.U '"'""'"'"J"cl'tnu 11M !$f t lf'"lllr11V E .._ ...... M S Each district will contain a district center to help establish neighborhood identity. Uses within each center will vary, but at a minimum will Include a public area (park, square, community garden), an educational facilitw (elementary school, daycare), and a transit stop. Many centers will include emplo)fment, and larger centers may also contain retail, commercial services and other public buildings. 5-37

PAGE 86

5 The urban Intersection of Drake and Lemay In East Fort Collin& demon strates the successful lnt-ratlon of land uses. The Woodward-Governor Industrial campus occupies the northwest co,.... ner (upper right). A lake and luxury housing are to the northeast. A church complex Is on the southeast corner. A retail center and multi family housing Is to the southwest. Wallace Park in the Denver Technological Center provides a shared amenity that buffers high density office and residential towers on the west from lower density townhoma and single family housing develop ment to the east. The Charry Crcok neighborhood today pro vide& an example of a regional destination and activity center, surrounded by an area that transitions from medium density commercial, office and residential uses to a predomina1elv residential envi ronment of single family homes and town houses. A transition similar to this one may occur In the terminal area (District Ill on the Stapleton site. Regional deallna tlon uses at the terminal may be surround ed by a tnlx of office. co.-nrnercfal and housing uses that will ultimatel y transition to the single family housing In District I and adjacent exhotlng neighborhoods. While the projected bui.ldout density of a district will remain constant to preserve itS ultimate chameter, the mix or individual uses which will define the density may vary in response to demo graphics, economics and lifestyle changes. For instance, a net density of eight dwelling unitS per acre wiU be realized under either of the following scenarios: Garden apts .. townhouses 25 3 story apts. garden apts 2 3 familie s 20 2-3 families Smal l lot si n g l e fumily 20 Small l ot single fam i ly Large lot single famil y 35 Large lot single family or net land area Within any given district, the site will be able to accommodate a variety of product types and densities while still meeting the overnll density and land use goals which will ultimately defme the character of the district. Aoor-to-area ratio (FAR) the extent of development on a given site in comparison to the site's ovcnlll area. For example, if an office building covers 25 percent of a site and is one story in height, the FAR is 0.25. If the building is four sto ries in height, the FAR would be l.O. l11e building has a tloor area cquivalcnl to covering the entire site wilh a one-s1ory building. FAR is a useful measure, although density ca l cula tions solely on FAR can be deceiving. Low density, suburban sl yle office parks can have very low FARs due to the significant amount of land devoted to surface parking and lru1dscaping, but still accommodate individual structures of substanLial height and 20 10 30 40

PAGE 87

DISTRICT DESCRIPTIONS

PAGE 88

KIEV ELE"tENTS 1. Predominately resldantiallmd..u.u with smaller aca .. complementary employment. 2. ""'" 25111 Avenue .,.. Wab .. h Street. 3. o1 8-t5 dwelling ..,Its per acre for residential usee, with greater mixed use denoHy betwMn 26th.,.. 29thAvonue.. 4. lrAn8QOthl!tiQD element& lnolucUng 26th A.Yeftue dlsoontlnuous entering Parll Hill on tho west, and Syracuse discontinuous onterlng East Montclair on tho !JOUth. 5. enm.t lncludlng treelawn aetlwlck on MontYiew Boulevard, an improved Fred Thomas Parte:, a neighborhood center park, d ralnago coP. ridora, and a learning golf COU1'a& along WMteriy Creek. 6.. lpecfal alta are res..-ved for lna:tttuUon.al or corporate u:ae. 7 .8iu1JJt Identified for e_xiating structure tbat COft1Plements residential quality. 8. ElementAry srut
PAGE 89

SCC"fiON V 0 LOP, NT JL..AN DI.STfUGT De&c IPTIOtlli District I comprises 489 acres in th e far so uthw est comer of th e site. The s it e abuts th e existing Park Hill and East Montclair neighborhoods on the west and south The goal is to create an urban predominantly sing l e family re si d e ntial n eigh borhood connected to and cons i s t ent in scale with the adjacent r esiden tial communities. Some of the s ite' s existing str u ctu r es can s upport employment and public u ses within th e newly created n eig hborhood. Birds-eye view of District I looking west from Westerly Creek across rooftops and dralnageways to the neighbor hood center, and beyond to Park HilL Selected aviation such as the AMR Contbs Executive Terminal, will become part of the new neighbor hood. The balance will bo phasod out and their materials recycled to the extent possible. A district center Is a small mixed-usa a'ea providing ser vices and amenities to residential and etnployment uses In the surrounding neighborhood. Uses In District I would include a park, school, day care, recreation, apart ments, communhy gardens, bus ser .. vico and limited employment. S-41

PAGE 90

5 42 Moderate density residential project s will comprise the majority of housing sout h of 26th The illustration above depicts single family detached homos currently baing constructed In an lnflll project In not'thwest Denver. Housing patterns in neighborhoods such a s Park Hill or Washington Park Illustrate desirable aspects of a modal for new development. Str-ta are residential I n scala with park ing, tree lawns and detached sidewalks. Homes are typically single family and duplex structures with porches In front and alley access In the back. District J i s a m oderate density residential neighborhood. South of 26th Avenue, residential densities averaging eight du/acre will blend with those of existing adj acen t neighbor hoods. Twenty-Sixth Avenue and n orth will have a mix of more moderate density h ousing averaging fifteen du/acre, including single family detac h ed. townhous
PAGE 91

Private Development At full bulldout It Is anticipated that District I will contain approximately 2,400 units of housing and 2,100 jobs in 1.31 million square feet of space. Housing densities will vary from an average of eight du/acre (sufficient to support transit) south of 26th Avenue to 15 dU/acre north of 26th Avenue transitloning into District 11. The District Center will serve the population of the immediate neighborhood as well as adjacent existing neighbor hoods, allowing the majority of residents to meet their dally needs within walking cOstance of their residence. Public Realm District I Is anchored at Its east and west edges by parks and recreation facilities. Along Ita western edge will be an enlarged and enhanced Fred Thomas Perk. Along Its eastet'n edge will be a nine hole learning golf course and driving range, a restored Westerly Creek and a large urban park. A landscaped dralnageway will set've as a linear park along 23rd Avenue, connecting the eastern and west ern open space elements. In addition to 23rd Avenue, primary new streets & erving District I will be 26th Avenu&, 29th Avenu& and Yoaemlt& Parkway. Twenty-slldh Avenu& will be discontinuous at Quebec Street so that traffic cannot movo west across Quebec Street and Impact the adjacent neighbor hood. Syracuse Street wiJI also b& discontinuous near Fred Thomas Park to prevent continuous traffic south through existing neighborhoods. A neighbor hood park and school site are located at tho District Center. A special site reserved for a public, Institu tional or civic use is indicated by -the st"ar .. 5

PAGE 92

t< V ELEMENTS 1 -ely employ -IAII ..,_ dlao
PAGE 93

I!CTIOH V 0 I OCVt:LOP ENT PL.Aff D1'5"1'PICT Dt: I.IIP'TI t s District II is a 654-acre area that inc lud es th e existing Stapleton t ermi n a l and lhe major s upport buildings and airfield improvements th at s urro u nd il. This district is c urr ently th e most urbanized po rtion of the Stapleton site. It has the greatest conce n tration of building space, paved surface, infrastructure and e n vironme ntal remediation requirements. The district has been an important regional destination for 65 years. With r egional highway access and a future regional transit center at Smith Road and Syrac u se Street, the area will retai n the capacity to support lar ge-scale regional activit i es. Whether the terminal buildin g itself is reused or removed, thi s site will be imp orta nt to the entire north east metropolitan area Blrda-ovo vlow of Dlatrlct II looking west front the urban park over a n>lx......,se commercial neighbomood to the Sn>lth Road transit station, and the Quebec Street hotels just beyond. District II contains the vast majority of existing building apace on the Stapleton property. M edium to high den sity n>lxeduse development will benefit from excel lent access, vlslblll ty and many other site amanltlea. 5

PAGE 94

5-46 An intennodal transporta tion facilitv, linking rail transit with buses, autos, pedestrians and bicycles will be located within the District Center, at the lnter$8Cllon of Syracuse Street and the proposed rail corrf. dor along Smith Road. Historic structures within District II such as Hangars 5 and 6, provide opportu nities for creative reuse. These facilities ntay be suitable for recreational, retail, or entertainment reuse within this spacial ty use district. A Iran sit -oriented District Center will be located by a proposed rail corridor along the north edge of the district where Srn ilh Road intersects with Syracuse StreeL This Center will seiVe primarily employment and higher-density 1-esidential needs. It will also seiVe as an interrnodal facility linking rail, bus and pedestrian networks. District I is considered a special -use district, but it is not a sin gle-use zone. TI1e terminal building or s ite will accommodate a mix of retaiVcommercial/entertainment/ educational 1-esources for the region. This location of higher-density office/commerc ial uses may expand over time !Tom the termi nal area to Quebec and Syracuse streets, with densities of 0.5 to 1.0 FAR in buildings ranging !Tom three up to seven stories. Lower density commercial, office and research facilities will be located south of the tenninal. Average FARs of 0.5 in buildings of two to four stories and higher density housing along Yosemite Parkway and the new urban park will be typi cal in litis area. Over the long terrn, this area will become appropriate for con centrations of higher density office/commercial well resi dential space within Stap l e t on, taking advantage of extmordi nary access, amenities, and visibility and the ra i l stop and bus feeder system. Office densities up to 1.5 FAR and housing densities of up to 40 du/acre could be located here.

PAGE 95

Private Development At full buildout, District II could employ more than 15,000 people, roughly 49o/o of the site's total, In 6.6 million square feet of space. In addition, It will contain approximately 850 housing units at densities reaching up to 40 du/acre. Higher employment and housing densities are consistent with the district's high degr-of accessibility to regional transportation systems and the presence of the sub stantial base of hotels along Quebec StreeL While this dis trict will benefit greatly from successful reuse of the terminal building, Its long-term viability Is not dependent on the terminal structure. ., Public Realm The public realm of District II includes sever al parka and parkway components. The major urban park to the east links Westerly Creek to the terminal area. In antici pation of the tertninal area' s role as a roglonal destination, It is surroundod bya s-treet and parkway system including Syracuse Str-t to the west, Yosemite Parkway to the east, 35th Avenue to the north and 29th Avenue to the south. Parkways on 35th Avenue and 29th Avenue will also act as linear greanways convev-ing surface water drainage to Westerly Creek. A water quality enhancement area Is located adjacent to Sand Creek near a special site reserved for a significant Institutional or corporate use, as Indicated by the star. 5-47

PAGE 96

KEY ELEMENTS 1. Pntdomlraatolv realdenotlal laollJ!H, 2. lllllrl.!>.Lc:.ntllr at Havana Street and 26th Avenue .. 3. QMUIY of 6-12 dwelling .-tt. per acre for ""'"""' tlaJ ueea. 4.. Jmnspodallon elements Including lmpovad Havana Stn..t, whlctlls discontinuous ontoring Original Aworca to tho aouttt. artd 26th"""""" tine 011sl to Peoria 81. II. Sand/Westerly C.Wek oonldor RAfU restoration. undscapocl setback., dralnavo oorriclors, and modlan on 26th Ave 6. Dovolop nefphbprbpod l!lbablll\DIIOOI!Qd tlllbaOQQJD!IId prognoms with ,...,.,.,. 7. Oevolop tate/citv and county tululelulldlll!llllliJI for hel9hl, rtghtofway improvements drainage Wid buffrs, ace .. -. creening and eoWMI cora trol. tc. 8. Elemenlllry Kb1121 alte et neighborhood center. 5 SeCTION "t/ 0 I OEVCLOPMEHT PLAI' 015 0.:SCMt ... DISTRICT Ill "Bluff Lak e N e i g hb orhoo d URBAN NEI G HBORHOOD MODERATE DENSITY S I GNIFICANT NATURAL AMENITIES STRONG TIES TO ORI G INAL AURORA District Ill is a 429 aero residential neighborhood located In the southwest corner of the Stapleton site adjacent to Original Aurora, Peoria Str-t and Morris Heights neighborhoods. It Is bounded by the 25th Avenue area of northwest Aurora on the south, Peoria Street, Fitzsimons Hospital, Sand Creek Park on tha oast, Sand Creek to the north and Westerly Creek to the west. Immediately northeast of Sand Creek are correctional facilities of both the City and County and the State of Colorado.

PAGE 97

5 TIOH Y 0 I DLYL0PMHT .. L'If' Dt l'RJC."'f Ou;: 1111 nDft District ill is a 429-acre area occupying the far s outheast corne r of Lhe Stapleton site. It Jies adjacent to the exis tin g residen tial communities in Aurora immediately to the so uth. District ill provides another opportunity to create a diverse, vibrant residential communi-ty with stro n g tics to tl1c adjacent neighborhoods. The future of Dis tri c t ill will be heavily innuenced by Lhe areas around it. The r estora tion and improvement of Westerly Creek, Sand Creek and Bluff Lake will allow this district extrao rdinary access to outdoor amenities, wildlife and recreation. Birds-eye view looking southeast from the confluence of Sand and Westerly Creeks to the neighborhood center, 28th Avenue parkway and beyond, to Original Aurora. Bluff Lake Is an Important natural amenity along Sand Croak. The area offers algnlflcn nt wildlife and lmproa alve views of downtown and the front range. Single family detached real dences, townhouses, and multi-unit structures will be mixed within the natural neighbor hood setting of District Ill. 5

PAGE 98

5 -50 Bluff Lake will b e the focal point o f an extensive open space sys tem within and adjacent to District Ill. This area will be restored along with W estertv Creek and Sand Creek as part of the site's overall open space system. One million dollars o f funding has been committed to Its development as an Environmental Education C enter where local s chools will begin on site environrnontal educa tion programs in the fall of 1995. Access r o adjacem open space amen i ties, coup l ed with dmmatic views of the Front Range and sky l i n e of downtown Denver, will give the site signif icant appeal S u ccessful development as an urban village however, will also n:quire joi n t t:ffons with Aurora to improve the edge conditions along r h e current a i rpor t bo u ndary and rehabilitate hous i ng and commercial structures in the are
PAGE 99

NOTa* A handful of haU .. blook along tho aoulhorn boundary of Dlatrlct Ill are part of the Stapleton alto ownod by th CU:y nd County of Denver, &MAt U o within IIUJ tnUnfclpl boundri of tho CJlv of Aurora. Uttl.mate declafona rogardlng tho uso .and zoning of tho$0 parcels mus t bo approved by Aurora. A cooparattva effort will be undertaken with A .uf'Ora to ad.dresa the apecfflo c'rcurnatllncea o1 thla aoU1bom pvrimotor of lh alto. Private Development -District Ill Is comprised mostly of residential housing at relatively low densities (10 du/acre). At build out H Is anticipated that District Ill will accom tnodato approximately 2.,550 housing units and a limited amount of employment. "''he majority of these jobs will be located in a small neighborhood center. An elementary school will be Incorpo rated within the center adjacent to Bluff Lake. Public Realm -District Ill Is SUITOUnded by public parks and open space amenities. Immediately to the north will be the Bluff Lako Envii'Oftrnontal Education Center and the restored Sand Creek, which will be fronted by a scenic roadway. lnvnadiatoly to the wast will be restored Westerly Creek and a large taban park similar In size to Washington Park. A llnoar drainage/greenway will extend into tho district from Westerly Creek. Twenty.Sixth Avenue Parkway will extend along the southern edge of tho district terminating at a special site Indicated by the star near Peoria Street. As with the othor district sites ldentlflad by stars, this site Is a loc,a tion where the combina tion of access, visibility, proximity to open space or other foctors suggests that only special public or private uses should occur. 5-51

PAGE 100

Kav lh.EMNTS 1. PredomlnatefW' ment land uses with highest quality office and R&D uses along Yosemite Prkway. 2. li'anaitorfented al Yosemtt. Partc.way and Smtth Road. 3. 1-3 tory atruct&na and aurfece P"''tlng, with great.,. along Yoemfte Parkway. tnclucllng preervatlon ond use of tho eafatJng YosemHe -way bridge acron lmprov ments to t11e Smith Road artorial corridor, reUgn.. ment oflh& existing 1'1111 spur to the north and full bulldout ofHavana St...,.t Interchange. 5. 1-70 .. IINiell do.efOA muttl-uM IraQ In llw> Sand c:...&ll corridor. 6. exlsU119"""" cwy and woathor .sorvioo stto for cotnml.lftlly agrf. Clllturo and oquestnan aotlvltles. Ex.,-the organlo cotnpostlng operation thote. 5 6LC110r. V 0 DLVCIOPMlNIT PLAN DIS,.RICT OCSCftiPTtO;..s ""DISTRICT IV S and Cr e e k Neighbor hood" EMPLOYMENT CENTER OUTDOOR SPORTS COMPLEX RAIL AND HIGHWAY ACCESS VISIBILITY AND TRAIL CONNECTIONS URBAN AGRICULTURE CENTER Dlstrlc:t IV Is a 279 ac:re employment-oriented area loc:ated In the middle of the Stapleton site flanked by regional highway and rail corridors. It is bounded by 1 on the north, Havana Street on the east, and Sand Creek on the south and west.

PAGE 101

CTO District N comprises 279 acres between I-70 and the Smith Road/Union Pacific railroad conidor. This area is highly vi s ible [Tom the highway and ha s direct access to the highway via the Havana Street interchange. Site access is complicated to some extent by the pres ence of the rail spur running north to serve the Montbello area and the nmthern portion of the Stapleton site. Thi s district can accommodate a wide variety of employment-related uses. Once the Yosemite Parkway road connections are in place, the portion s of the dist.tict abutting Yosemite will provide exceptional vi s ibility, dramatic views and good acces s for busine s s users. A future rail transit stop will become a neighborhood focal point at Smith Road and Yosemite Parkway near the Sand Creek corridor trail system. Birds-eye view of District IV looking east from the Sand Creek ball field complex across transit-oriented business development on Yosemite Parkway to flex and Industrial structures, the rail corridor and freeway interchange. Long-span aviation structures could be disassembled and relocated to the District IV urban agriculture area for use as a horse barn or for other related functions Transit and highway-oriented busi ness development and related employee services occur in District IV. 5-53

PAGE 102

5-54 E 'YT H V D 0 VC1. OPM.I. 1' P&. N C t I t" 0 4U tt District IV will be located imme dlately adjacent to a regional out door Sports Complex of approxl mately 100 acres. Providing lighted ball fields, basketball courts, etc., this complex will serve all of northeast Denver. In addition to substantial business uses, an Urban Agricultural Center will be located in District IV south of the Union Pacific rail corridor, north of Sand Creek and west of tho County jail facility. This unique slto will be tho horne of a community farm, equestrian facilities, compostlng yards and a nursery. These facilitias offer an excellent opportunity to provide job training and experiential edu cation programming for dlsadvan taged youth, as well as food for the needy. Sites located between Smith Road and 1-70 will typically suppOit low-rise, lowden sity business uses with the exception of the highly visible f r ontage along Yosemite Parkway, which could accommodate h igher density business uses. A diversity of business uses is encouraged in l11is disuicL TI 1 e western half towards Yose mite Pm:k.way will be reserved for office and office campus uses with sit e densitie s up tu 1 .0 FAR in three to five story buildings oriented to preserve mountain v i ews 'TI1e eastern half towards Havana Street, Smith Road md Union Pacific rail con idors will incorporate office campus. R&D and tlex-l> pace uses with a density of 0.3 FAR in one to three story buildings.

PAGE 103

Privata Development At buildout, District IV is anticipated to accommodate approximatety 3,250 jobs In 12.3 million square feet of space. No residential units are cuJYenUy anticipated to be located here. f JN Y 0 A Hewlett-Packard Company plant located In East Fort Collins provides a good example of how thoughtful slUng of buildings, truck access, parking and landscape buffers can minimize impact to surrounding areas. Public Realm District IV Is enhanced by Its relationship to the parks, recreation and open space system. To the west lies the ball field complex and to the south, the restored Sand Creek Corridor. Along 1-70 a significant setback will be reserved for land scaping. Stormwater will be transmitted to Sand Creek via surface drainageways which will also serve as linear graenways and parkways. 5-55

PAGE 104

KEY ELE M E NT$ t. PNdomlnately O"'''loy ..-t lmKl..uu Including manufacturing, a5aembly, dlatribuUon. offlce and re.soarch and dovolopmont with highest quality onvl ronment PtOvhtod ctoMr to I 70 and Di1tric:t Vl. 2. aervlng "'''tor ... and others near 47th Avenue and Havana Stt"Mt 3 -.ttx of 1-3 atoey stNCtu,.. with aurtace parking. 4 Including Nlocatlon ol rail 1pw to ttt. west. minimization of truck tratflc on 47th Ave,... and truck routin g t hrough adjacent re-.slclentla l areas In DlotrictVt. 5. Onll nage eorJCdora aervtng as public wtth trelt. U.e t-70 set-.._ and completion of """-Dltctl dlv.,.lon. 5 5t::C:'JION v D DJrVL l.OPJ11CHT PLAN Ot ""ftflC.T Or.SCA P'TIONS V "Irondal e Park N e i g hborhood PRIMARY E MPLOYMENT AREA LARGER, FLEXIBLE SITES RAIL AND HIGHWAY ACCESS TRAN S ITION TO RESIDENTIAL USE . . . . . . ..... j'.. .......... District V Is a 561 acre employment-oriented area locat ed In the northeast corner of the Stapleton site adjacent to the Montbello industrial area. It is bounded by 1 on the south, Havana Street on the east, the extended 56th Avenue on the north, and a major dralnageway and open space area to the west.

PAGE 105

Sr TION V 0 01:YLOPMCNT PLAN PIS"TfPJCT bESc:.fti"P'TtOHS: District V compr i ses 561 acres north of I-70 and imm edia t e l y west of Havana S tr eet. Tbi s area has the greates t capaci ty to accommo dat e e mpl oy m ent activity particularly larger footprin t bu ildin gs. T h e area al so prov ides the greates t access and Oexibility for truck and rail serv i ce. Whil e thi s area will b e Largely e mplo yme nt -orien t ed, it will abut a r es id e ntial area imm ed i a t e l y to it s west. T h e goal i s to create a s u ccessfu l environmen t for man y f orm s of bu s ines s activity, while keepin g the site walkable, tran sit access ibl e, re s pectful of the natural e nvir onme nt and co mpl e t ely integrated with th e adjacent e l e m e nt s o f the co mmunity. Birds-eye view of District V looking northwest h'om the 1/ Havana freeway lntorchango acroas gonorous sot backs to an employment-oriented complex of corporate and manufacturing facilities. VIews beyond are to the pri mary open pace corridor and adjacent residential areas. Havana Street provides accosa to District V. Rail and bike corridors paral lot the street. The Havana Ditch, a dlvorslon of lrondalo Gulch storm water from adjacent Montbello, also par allots this major street. District v will otter an environment capable of accommodating high quaff.. ty corpOf"ate, ,. .. arch and developntent and manu facturfng facilities. 5

PAGE 106

5 -58 DJtPTfiiCT OU Jht JN Major employers fronting the 1-70 corridor will have a significant Influence on the site's Image. These uses will be substantially set back from the landscaped freeway frontage and linked to the Interior of the Stapleton community through open space, trail and roadway connections D i strict V will contain a mix of employment uses. including l ow-dens ity war e house, d i wibutio n and light manufdcturing; as well as tlex, R&D and potentially office-rela t ed uses. TI1e King Soopers site immediately west of Havana Street and sout h of 56th Avenue, i s part of this dis trict. A variety of par cel sit.cs anti conligurations can be accommodated, from two up ro 30 or more acres. Al5o. various frontage OPIXlr1uni t i es will include the Havana and associat.ed rai l corridors. a new b u si n ess boul evard alo n g the exte n ded 47 t h/49th Stree t corridor, 51st Street extended. as well as new d r ai n ageway/open space corridor s ant! the l andscaped 1-70 corr i dor itself. Careful s ite p l anning alid build ing criteria will the succes s of these more visib l e locations. A Distric t Center will be locmed n ear 4 7th Avenu e and Havana Street, offering transit access, daycare and other ser vices t o area employees. District V Is Intended to accommodate a m i x of workplace uses, including warehouse, distribution and light manufac turing; low density Hex, R&D, and office campus uses; low to medium density office uses; and at a later stage, higher densHy office ... es. The Intent Is that the land use mix and parcel slz.e become more flno .. gralned with a greater propor .. tion of office-type uses in the areas closer to 1 and to District VI.

PAGE 107

Private Development At bulldout, District V will employ approximately 5,300 people in about 4.5 million square feet of space. It will offer rail served sitos as well as freeway frontage. Densities will be low to moderate ( 3 to .s FAR) with typical buildIng configurations of one to three stories. Limited services that do not compote with the commercial center in District VI will be provided near 47th Avenue and Havana Street. Public Realm Linear public dralnageways of widths up to 200 feet organize District V into larger parcel groupings, reinforced by a modified grid network of streets. Those street extensions provide direct connections to the Montbollo Industrial district directly to the east. Boulevard extensions will occur at 45th Avenue, 47th Avenue and 51st Avenue. FortySeventh Avenue provides access across the site to Quebec Street, and sorves as the main entry point for this area and District VI. The design of local street systems Is flexible enough to accommodate a variety of parcel configurations and uses. 'Tft.tck loop accoss is provided from Havana Street at reasonable Intervals to distribute traffic through the site without unduly impacting 47th Avenue .. 5

PAGE 108

KEY ELMENTS 1. Ml of residential and land uses, with omptoymont o'lented along 49th/47th Avenue end near t-70. 2. io located in ch District. Tho Dmric:t Vt Center pntvtca.s buai: neb/retail to the nortbem portion of lh pr-rtv. 3. RtM!tlt. of 8-15 dwelling unila per acre for residential use. 4. including frnpto""*'t of the .. Inter change, p-lolon of diN<:t access Into the nottfMm ponlon of the olte from Quebec Str-and mlnlmbatlon ollnlc:k ll'alfic on -d-Ial-to. 5. lntegr'8ted devet. opment and management of golf, drainage, trail.&, natural areas. wildlife habttat and othor uses. e. Spoell sites reserved tot Institutional or corporato uses. 7. Elam-arv sb.!l2l sfta:8 In VI and VII ancl middle school site In VI. 5 . SII.Ct tOr V D D Pt "TIH .,.. DISTRICTS VINII S and Hill s N e i g hborh o od ... M IXED RESIDENTIAL/ EMPLOYMENT ZONE SIGNIFICANT OUTDOOR AMENITIES TOWN CENTER .. . .. . . WALKABLE SCALE .... .... ..... ... Districts VI/VII are BOB acres of mixed use neighborhoods located In the northwest corner of the Stapleton site near the 1/ Quebec Street interchange and Commerce Citlf. Thelf are bounded blf 1 on the south, Quebec and Rosl)fn Streets on the West, blf 56th Avenue on the north nd blf District V to the east. Tha Districts are bisected by the major amenlllf on the northern portion of the site a multi-use parks and open space corridor which connects to the adjacent national wlldiHe area.

PAGE 109

or.v D "' The s e two district s contain a total of 808 acres of land. Together, they provid e a mix of housing, emp loym en t and institu ti onal u ses flanking the h eart of the open space sys t em on the northern portion of the S tapl eton property. District VI will accommodate a variety of e mploym ent activities t11at arc l ess buck-ori e nt ed t han those in Di s trict V and m ore co mpati b l e wit h adjacent residential usc. D istrict VI will a l so be the site o f the "commercia l center" for all of th e people living and working north o f 1 70. Birds-eye view of Districts YINII looldng northeast through tho parka and open apace corridor from near the 1/ Quebec Street Interchange, across commercial and residential sites to the national wlldiHe .,ea beyond. IOK The multi-use parks nd open space corridor will be a roglonally accesal blo amenity within the neighborhood. lntag .. ted uses will Include storm drainage,. water qualfty enttancem ent, trails,. a goH oourse, canals and p onds for Irrigation, natural ......,. and wildlife habHat. The District VI Center will be the heart and gathering placo for surround.. lng neighborhoods. Services will occur In this center and will be limited on perimeter arterial roads. 5-411

PAGE 110

5-62 A hlghhr visible District Center, located at the Intersection of 49th Street and Yosemite Parkway, will contain a mix of residential, retail and commercial services, In addition to a transit stop and elemen tary achool. The center will be within walking dis tance for a substantial number of residents and employ-s. It will provide commercial services for tho entire northern portion of the site. District VI i s intended as a mixed-use district, conta.ining a b:ll ance of r es identia l office, commercial and retai l u ses. 1l1e so uthern portions of the d.lstrict adjacent to the interstate corri dor and District V will contain a mix of low density office. office campus or R&D/flex type uses. Higher-density ollice sites are appropriate along the most visible portions of the site: lhe dminage/golf course /hi ghway corridors. TI1e remainder of i.he district will cunlain residential uses. with a mix of low-and mid-density housing types in one-to three-story An average density of 8-15 du/acre is caUed for here. The Dist:rict Center s its at the crossroads of 49th Avenue and Pa.rkway. Highly visible and accessible. this c.enter will contain a mix of mid to hig her -de n sity ho u sing and local convenience retail to serve the resident iaJ and nearby workplace populations possibly anchored by a neighborhoo d reta i l cen ter (co ntainin g supermarket, drugstore and sup p ort retail). Commercial se vice.<; for the majority of adjacent residential areas and workplaces will be located w it hin walking distance. Competing services will be discouraged in strip commercial cen t ers flanking arterials such as Quebec Street, Havana St reet and 56th Avenue on the exterior of the property The cemer will contain tmnsit stop, as well as an e l ementary school, mid dle schoo l and possibly other civ i c or institutional facilities. A majnr cast/west drainageway connectS the center to the major e>pen space/golf coun;e amenity, where the golf club facilities wilt be located. TI1is center is connected to Distri ct Vll via bridge and open space connections. where it serves as the loca tion for mode rat e density housing clustered around special l y designated sites for civic or corpora t e fucililjes. Di strict Vn is predominantly a residential neighborhood, with a mix of low und modemte density housing types Residential densities will average JO unit> per acre in one-to three-story housing types. So m e moderate density housing types (townhouses, co urt yard apartments, garden apa rtments and Llats) will be located along the open space corridor uod public open spaces. A small neighborhood center is clustered around the local e l ementruy school, with access to the adjacenr community park/drainageway system, and will contain small quamities of moderute d ensity housing, daycare and public

PAGE 111

Private Development -Districts VI and VII will contain approxlmatelll 3,000 housing units and emplo11 approxlrnatel11 4,000.5,000 people In about th,.. million square feet of space. Many prominont commercial and residential development sites will IHt located along the significant open space Slfstem, either adjacent to the golf course, habitat at'aaa or the prairie pal1&. Given tholr setting, accessibility and proxJmlty to tho airport and downtown, these sites will be difficult to duplicate an11where In the metropolitan region. Public Realm Districts VI end VII will Include slg nlflcant public as-ts Including pal1&wa1fs, greenWAifS, special sites, two elementaf'Y school alt-, a middle school, a communlt11 park, and one of the largeat open apace cownponents found on sJte. The open apace will serve a varlallf of needs. Including addt'eulng local and regional pal1la, rec,...atlon and golf demand, supporting restora tion of natural Slfat&ms, establishing wildlife habi tat and trail connections, accommo-ting tOO 11ear flood requirements and reducing nonpoint source pollution. Major road connections serving tho dlstrlot ere Yosemite Parkwa11 running north/south, and 49thl47th Avenues running east/west. A redesigned 1-270/Queb
PAGE 112

KEV ELEMENTS 1. Predominat.ly ,..ldentlalynd..lw> with .. tuniti" for corPQftlte and inthutional u 2. th middle. 3. 1!mW1J< ol 8-1 5 ctwofllng Wllts per acre for realdentlal uaea. 4. ltahl!!!!datlon Inch lng 58th as a llmfted acceu paf'kway with landscaped medl thn>ugh the site. S.. re.tortlon of sand hUla prairie char acter of 8.dm, tr$1Ja c.o,.. nectlollo uolng the 56th Avo. undetpas-. and de"olopl'ft8ftt o f habitat, foc.Httles and programs to complement and connect to tho w ildlife "'fuga. 6. Soecl g l oltu ntMnod for lnatttutlon.l and/or corporate usea. 7. Jglot plannloa. with Commerco City and tho u.s. Fl.., 11nd Wildlife Serv Jce fOr refuge and _., spaco visitor faclll Uea.. accHs, pt'Ogratnming_, habitat dowolopo mont and mena.go.mont. 5 SEC"'IDH v D I Pt....AN DtS'tRIC.'I" 0UCfJIV11 'NS .,._ DISTRICT VIII Prairi e Park Nei g hb orhoo d RESIDENTIAL/ EMPLOYMENT ENCLAVE 0 MODERATE DENSITY REFUGE AND PRAIRIE PARK SENSITIVE ENVIRONMENT ..... .. 0 0 ..... ... . .. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I -( District VIII is a 316 acre compact residential nelghbomood located at the northern extant of the Stapleton site. It is adjacent to the Rockv Mountain Arsenal National WildiHo Area which, following environmenta l cleanup, will becorno a national wildlife refuge and permanent open space. District VIII Is bounded by 56th Avenue on the south, and by the wildlife refuge to the north and east. The Arsenal land immediately west, Section 9, is Intended to be excluded from the Wlldllfa Area's boundaries and mav ultimately ba annaxed to Commerce City.

PAGE 113

rtoN v o P\.AN PIT I "''' District Vlll is a 316-acre parcel located in the far northern portion of the site above 56th Avenue. Today this area i s bounded on three sides by the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area. This district's future i s closely tied to the development of th e Arsenal National Wildlife Area as a Nationa l Wildlife Refu ge, and the major Sandhills Prairie Park on the Stap l eton site. The uses accommodated in this district mu st be very well integrat ed with a sens iti ve natural environment dedicated to restoration, wildlife and habitat management, and public education. While the district is pre su med to be primarily r es id ent ial appropriate-scale r esearc h or office u ses could be incorporated as well. This area also offers seve ral excellent facilities. Blrdeye view of District VIII looking northeast from tha nature trail bridge at 56th Avenue across Institutional and corporate development bordering the Sandhllls PraiJ'Ie Park, to a compact residential neighborhood, and finally beyond to tho grasaland8, lakoa and wooded areas of the National WUdllfe Area. The northern areas of Stapleton such as Dlsh'lct VIII are vaal open spacoa which hava bean regraded to accommodate long paved runway and taxiway structures. Compac:l development of raaldantiAI, Institutional and corporate usas will front onto natural open apace, offrtng exceptional vlawa and rocreatlon accesa. 5-65

PAGE 114

5 Residents of District VIII will have unparalleled access to wildlife and the outdoors.. Adjacent to the 27-square mile Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area and the Pralrfo Park, District VIII offors the opportunity to llve in an environment dominated by nature, but minutes from the heart of the metropolitan area. This district also provides an seHing for busi nesses and public Institutions. Key sites along the prairie park have boen reserved for these uses. District vm is a residential neighborhood of modemte-density housing types, with average densities of 8-15 du/acrc (sin gle family, townhouses, t errace housing. flats. apartments. carriage houses in two to four stmy configurations). With orientation, access and/or views to the mountains. Sandhills Prairie Park. wildlife refuge and local neighborhood parks, this neighbor hood will offer a unique living environment. A neighborhood center will contai n smaiJ amounts of public space, commw1ity facilities, and a transit stop. To the cast is the National Wildlife Area interpretation site, destinution for thousands of visitors. To the west is se<.:tion 9, an area emmarked for commerc ial, park and visitor facilities by Commerce City. Cooperative planning regardin g Disrrict vm, the National Wildlife Area and Section 9 has already begun, including represen tatives of Commerce City, Denver, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Stapleton Redevelopment FoWldation.

PAGE 115

Private Development Ultimately, approximately 4,300 residents will occuplf 1,900 units of housing In District VIII at densities averaging B-15 d"'acre. An additional 500 or more employees will work In this district as well. Resldentlel units will be oriented around the Prairie Park, National Wildlife Area, and Internal green ways as much as possible. Special use sites occur along 56th Avenue fronting tho open spaco. The promi nent locations have been set aside for major instltu tional or corporate users. 'wo Public Realm The dominant public feature of District VIII will be the 365 acre Sandhills Prairie Park. It will be a new type of park for the City and County of Denver and metropolitan region, restoring the original High Plains landscape, the Sandhllls Prairie. The park's topography of rolling aandhilla, vegetated with tall and short prairie grasses, cottonwoods, willows and other shrubs will oHrnct a wide va,iety of birds and small mammals. With a direct connection to the National Wildlife Area to the north and east, it will be managed to protect the restored prairie ecosystem. while providing maximum opportunities for public recreation. A grade ... separation at 56th Avenue pro .. vides connections for animals, trails and drainage between Stapleton and the National Wildlife Area to the north. Spoclal uso sitos occur along 56th Avonue fronting tho open apace.

PAGE 116

.. TH. FINAL. TU:5T OF AN ECONOMIC IS NOT THE TONS OJ' IRON. THE TANKS Oft OIL. OR THii. MILI!.S Off Ttl:JIITit..CS tT PRODUCU: TH& FINAL TeST LfS IN ITS PROOUC"TS Tt1E WOII'IN IT NURTURES AND THE ORO&fl AND THE AHO SAHITY 0,. THI!.IR COMMUNITIES," LEWIS MUM,.OAD 5-68 E. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC INITIATIVES Introduction 'T11e sociaJ und economic aspects of a community are key com fll)nefll:! of the cone<.1Jt of A strong sell!iC of community. I1C<1lthy and stable households, vital socialmstiru tions and a resilient local economy capable of providing continuing support t o the populat i o n are all necessary ele m ents. These conditions must accompany innovations in the physical environment and resource management if Swpleton is to become a truly sustninable commw1ity. While the Development Plan process did not provide the opportunity to fully explore these aspects, some important directions did emerge. Additional work and communi t y con sensus building will be required t o more completely define and pw-sue the social and economic objectives of the Development Plan. Discussion with a variety of community representa tiv es identi fied a number of functions and services as important aspects of social :md economic development for the Swpleton project Among those cmphasit.cll were the following: Economic Devclopmeut Employment Assistance Youth Progrwus Business Assistance Education & Job Training Senior Cw-e Program:. Public Safety and Ilousing Childcure Family Assist:mce Recreation/Leisure Ubrary & [nformarion Services Culture Elder tmd lnlcrgenerational Cttre Public Art The greatest :mention m the Development Plan pnlCCl>s w:l.' given to housing nnd the creation of a sense of tlevelopmcnl of an evunmn i c base and educatio n and tmining_ Guals and Principles part of the Devel opment Plan process, project team members and commu nity representatives reviewed goals identi lied in the City an d CoW1ty's Comprehensive Plan, Ovemll Economic Dcvclopmcm Plan, ncighbomootl and other documents. E11ch of these documents irlwifictl important com munity objectives rugarding the development of exp:uJSion of the community's economic base, advancement of educational and training objectives nnd most desirable methods for addressing a variety of social and culrural chaJienges. The pmjcct team and Citit.ens Advisory Bowd also creutecl a set or principles to guide planning anti tlcvclopmenl of the Stapleton l>itc. Thirteen of these principles related directly to the goals of creating and supporting viable neighborhoods, promoting diverse opportuniJies. fostering a strong se n se of community. i n creasing educationni and training cnpacity und relevance, and expanding economic opportunities ror Denver residents. Criteria and Next Steps C l early many aspects of social. community and economic development will need to be addressed as the Stapleton devel opment program moves forward. The Development Plan does provide some specifLc guidance with respect to I) housing and the creation of diverse and a sense of community, 2) devclopmenl of the Stapleton employment base and 3) creation of an innovative education and training system. of the r ecornmcndaticms regarding each all! pmvided be l ow: Neighborhood Diversity and Sense of Co mmunity Specia l attention shall be given In providiug a variety nf hous ing at Sta pl eton und to p r oducing a diverse residen t popuMion tor the project and for each of it\ rcsidentiw neighborhoods. l11ese objectives inclutJc tlhen.ity in n.'Sident incomes, race s, ugcs and family types.

PAGE 117

Housing development policies should address a wide range of market regments and income levels. Stre5s homcown.:r:ship 10 the miX of Wlits provided. Stapleton mw.t compete c1Tct.1rvcly m the mclrullllU'kct b) c.:ombming the advantage.::. of uroon .lll 111 tlcighborltuod centers. l'nlYldc l(lwcr uK:omc 1111d spccn1l nccds holl.'!mg in u tushmn m 1111 nt:tghbQrhoods, keeping the (110(1Mll011 Ol UJ'I(ll'tlllblc UlliLs CUII>!SlCII[ With tbt: mix foUnd in the hu-ger .:ommunity. lxlVcll)p drs'j'lCrscd spcciul needs following ol market rare Emphllliil.C hou.smg for middle income l'rovde open sp;tcc and umsury 10 suppon the site's role al> an employment center. the l'lan \ 'u.swHlltbiliry ob.JOCIIVC b) .... npllllsitmg SU<:h ll'> :.olar wnter and energy district anti reus.1ble approoches tn enciiD' ;uppl). n.x:ychng unci trdllSir onentauun. Hi!!ltlight the postllve and :unenillt.'S of adjacent residen ual nt:1ghlxntroocJ.,, a' the maJOr rn Park Hill. wh\.'11 marteting Stnpleton housrnj! .uW nerghborhood:,. A variety of development and private land usc controls will be employed to seek a diverse housing population. Hou sing alter natives such ; 1 s co housing. murual hou sing. sweat equity pro grams and continuing care environments for the elderly will be allowed and encouraged together with combined live/work space. Specia l iJlcenLives might be needed to encourage the d eve lopment of targeted housing types. A design committee may be to, 11mong other things, carefully incorpo rate affordable into eac h neighborhood. Zoning and v building codes may require amendment to facilitate the devel opment of a mixture of housing types. Special s itin g and design requirements, beyond lho<;e currently required by City ordinance, shaU be created to effectively and appropriately integrate a Limited number of "special use" facilities into the overall development plan. All development decisions shaU tal.:e into consideration the varied characteristics of those housing neighborhoods that sur round the project. Along wiU1 tl1e dcl.ign and siting of the housing ilsclf tJlC deve l opment mtd managcnu.:nt of ancillary facilities such as schools. public fucilitics, recreation areas, day= facilities, transportation, job sites and shoppiJ1g areas shall also be evalu ated to determine how they can best etlect the c reation and maintenance of a
PAGE 118

5 EmpJ oy m ent Base Consistent with the Development Plan principle of Economic Opportunity, Stapleton will provide an employment center that serves needs into the next ce n tury and allows Denver residents to pm:.per through improved job und bu.,ine.-..; opportunnics and an enhanced tax base. Diverse opportunities shott l d be developed and encouraged. mcluding famil y enterprise, incubator busmesscs and secondary support busmesses. Redevelopment of Stapleton : :md Lowry c.:an a springboard to Mhnul:ue rcinvestm\!nt in the n\!ighl1<1rhoods and rounding t hl: two sites. E conomi c Program The pmject's long-term economic success will not be the result of early idcntilicatk)fl or one or two :.ubstantial users. An ceo nomic program for a site of this size will require several com includin g: Flexibi l ity: S t apleton must be able to respond to changing marlcct conditionr. over a long period of lime. A mix l,f u...es will c nubll\ t h e ;;it:e t o ofTcr product in din crcnt sectors or the real estate market. As one secto r becomes weak. the sire wiU be able to empha,Js to a stronger Adherence t o V is ion : Initial site uctivities need to demonthe vbim'' of UlC project and an image. Early will a l so set precedents for how future arc made and h ow future deve l opmem w ill occur. M arke t C r eat i o n Strat egies: T11c urullong.-tcnn blllldout of the site hc1ghten the need for smuegies to attract tenanL\. developer;; and owners to the Mlc. Prior work Lin der Stap l eton Tomorrow idcntilicd sever:li potcn tiillm:trkct creation strategies. 111esc strategies focused on I) federal cor porate and univcr..Jty-based research: 2) an cducauon and tram ing center; and 3) c.:ultural and tourisJn The Stap l eton Devel opment Plan hal> identified un additional stmtc gy which is consil;tent with the goal of environmentnl responsi bility prncticcd thmughoul the B&Cd upon the new murfor environmental being created t hroughout the world and Colomdo 's large existing base or protcssional institutional, acatkmic ;md re.'>fiU1'CC.'. the Stapleton site should be positioned as a Center for Environmental Teclmo l ogy and Sustainable Development. Stapleton hru; the opportunity to provide a thill can be identified nationaUy and intemationaUy ru; a v1tal center for the developmen t tmd application of environmenta l technology development providing o location for rcse:lrCh, demon:.! ration rr:uning and education. pro ducticm n:latcd and ins t itutional activities, c nvironment:ttll y sound wrumunitics and infrastruc ture sys tems. and a business environment that would provide et-onomic and marketing benefits for locating there. M a rketin g I'la n : Several charncte1istics of the s i te. includ ing its scale and proxinuty to downtown and D I A wiU a1trnct national and intemutional intCJC$l. A c;omprchensive mar keting plan must be drafted and imp l e mente-d to tttke advan tage nf this intcrc.'t. The plan strive to differentiate the in as many ways a:. poNhle: e.g. hy highlighting 1t' open mixed-use urban villages, mobility, efficient tech n olog i es. community tje::s, gnx:n" environmen t and :mel decentm li tcd managc111Cnt and service delivery structures.

PAGE 119

Diverse Fu11di11g Base: One of the keys to Stapleton's eco nomic succe1>-s will bt: ill. ability to pursue grdflts from state and tederal agencies, foundations and corporarions. 1lle s ite 's large open space and wildlife habitut con idors innovative iofnlstnJc ture and adv1mces in transportation system design. well as comm unity training ami initiatives, could all be eligi hlc tor grant funding under traditiona l programs or under special discretionary grants. Swpll:ton 's desi&>natinn the National Center for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Devclupmcol would enha nce its ability to obtain funding. developing nn aggressive marketing smnegy to seek and attrllcr tirms in the fieJds of environmental SCience and technology incorporating business areas in phase development continuing to pursue developers for rhe rem11mli area mounting an aggressive marketing cfforl 10 lease ex !Sting buildings and f.:Jcilitit!S engagmg local telecommunications experts to evaluate installminn of advanced information in the business and residential of Stapleton developing nn incubator on Stapleton to 11urrure emerging cnvironmentul teclmologies and businessel> providing entrepreneurial development and support prognuns initiating coUnbormive planning etl'otts with tbl) City of Aurora. iJ1e Lowry Redevelopment Authority and East Colfax business and neighborhood organizati
PAGE 120

5 l11e educational goal of Stapleton is to create an umovative public and private education and training system Educational programs at Stapleton will be linked to and comp lemenu1ry with those at L owry, well w ith other recreation and social service programs and facilities provided on site. As an example, Stapleton could bouse school-to-work programs. School to-work programs prepare young people for the labor market by integrating school-based learning at high school with structured leaming experie n ces at the workplace. Upon graduation, students are well prepared for a range of post sec ondary options, including skilled entry level work, technical Lraining and college. Employers enter into structured parmership.s with ed ucational mstirutions and community based orga nizations. European versions of such programs typically include structured learning at the work site under the tutelage of a master and certification of workplace skills by employers. of a strntcgic task force to develop ara ed u cation and job training delivery model for Stapleton. The task foree should mclude representatives of Denver Public Schools, higher education experts on ilmovative approaches to education. training and busine.<>s representatives, private an d nontraditional prov i ders of education and Lraining. and community and political leaders. The force should: Cond u ct research on the most effective educatio n and training models both nationaiiy and internationally to identify current ilmovations. -Evaluate whether the charter school l egislation and sue cessful progr.!ms at DPS represent opportunities for Stapleton and how education at Stap l eton could relate to the programs being offered at Lowry. -Evaluate bow education can be used as a magnet to attract busmesses and families to the site. Evaluate new approaches to educating and tramiog at risk students and integrating intern. training and employ ment opportunities with lirms locating on site. Determine if there are mnovative ways to develop entre preneurial skills and business opportunitie.' forre.,idcnls in the imrueiliate area Determine whellx:r the of education facilities and programs can provide a center for community life and how the design of ncighborboods or other of community planning would be affected ill order to achieve this end Develop specific recommendations for Stapleton regard ing what education services should be delivered, bow and by whom; what physical and design implications will arise and bow the reco m mendations can be implemented. Pursue schoo l to-wo r k programs with employers recruited to the site. Pursue funds available through Ute School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994. which provides 'venture capital" to j states and communities to develop approaches Utat are c:onsis tent with their unique social, economic and political Working with a clean slate, an opportunity exists to examine the physical location and f acil ity needs of schools on site and their proxiolity to other uses. Denver Public Schools is con cerned that stand alone, s ingle purpose education facilities will be int1exible and a burden to maintain in the future. Schools on Stapleton should share facilities witb other activities or encourage joint use of facilities. Shared facilities locat ed in a neighborhood center could offer private childcare, adull educa tion. recreation, health care, elder care or other services Existing Stapleton buildings should be evaluated for reuse as educational or comnumity facil ities. A hangar building, for example, could be renovated as a schoo l recreational facility Specific opportunities for such reuse exist within Distric l I of the site.

PAGE 121

F. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS lnfra'itructure Costs As rhe Stapleton site changes character over the next several decades, new development will require a significant inveshnent in incl uding major transportation projectS such freeway improvement:., public transiL roadways and bridges; utilities; dminagc in greenways; parh and parkways; recreation facilities; and community facilities such as schools, libraries, recreation facilities and police stations 1llis infmstrucrure is estimated to cost approximately $'288 miJlion (in 1994 dollars). This estimate assumes: that the Airpor1 System is responsible for the of abalcmr.:nl of ha:t.anlous materials in all buildings and of remediation of :111 surface, subsurface and t,rnlundwat er contamination; that the Airport is responsible for rhe cost of demoli tion of all buildings and structures not intended for use beyond Lhc interim pmgrru11; and !bar the cost or runway, taxiway and apron demolition will be fully offset by revenues generated through on-siJe and off site reuse of aggregates generated by recycling. 11lC chart tit led Summary of lnti"ru>tructure Costs provides a list of infmstructurc identified in t11C Stapleton Development Plan rhc of which $287.6 million. Some of the facilities, such as the regional parkJ> and culturdl facilities, benefit not only Stapleton but also the Denver region. These facilities are candidates for broad-based funding mechanisms. TI1c pl"eliminnry cost estimates tor bridges, water, sewer and parks, recreat ion and parkways/grecnways were based on average and unit cos t s. The estimates were pr epared by BRW, lm.:. and Civitas, Inc., and planners on l11e Development Phm learn. with review by City and County staff Stapleton will occupy a unique niche among the many new development and redevelopment areas within tho roglon. for are;1s such as parks, recreation and open space. Significant additional engineering work is necessary to refine rhe cost esti mates to account for engineering and design. An additional amount been added as a contingency allowance. do not include flllance chruges. All arc in 1994 dollars. The oost were prepared based on Development Plan level information and will be updated as the infrastructure items reach more detailed stages of design and engineering. The cost estimates are adequate for purposes of preparing the Infrastructure Financ ing Plan, but rhe expected changes in the estimates as bcltcr information available will require adjustments to calculations of fees and of costs to various funding sources. 5-73

PAGE 122

5-74 .. y 1 MaJor Tl'ansportallon Projects Havana/l-70 & Ouebeci 1 Interchange upgrades Loght Ralt & Air Train Stations Subtotal Tl'ensportatlon 2 Roadways/Structures Arterials Structures -Bridges Subtotal Roadways 3 Utllftles TOTAL UTIMA TI!O COST $50.000.000 $3.000,000 $53,000,000 $75.118,595 $14,249,400 $89,367.995 Sanitary Sewer $4,496 118 Water Distribution $14.557 172 Utility Abandonment $1.557.020 Subtotal Utilities $20,610,309 4 Drainage In Greenways $13,025,800 .................................................. ......................... ........... ,_. ..... ............................ J 5 Parks, Rec .. Parkways, etc. Major Traditional Park P rairie Park Community Parks Neighborhood Parks Parkways Trail Habitat Corridors Golf Course Other Recreallon Faclll11es Subtotal paries, etc. 6 Community facllllles Schools Library Fire Stations Police Stations Subtotal Community Fac. Total $14,875.000 $10.950.000 $8,250.000 $8,000,000 $9,866,340 $6,771,600 $7,000,000 $6,110,000 $73.822,940 $36.000.000 $1.125,300 $0 $835,100 $37,760,400 $287,587,444 Description of Facilitie s TI1e Stapleton D evelopment Plan identifies the major cate gories offacilities necessary to serve lhe redevelopment pro gram. lnfrastmcture and facilitie s will be con structed on Stapleton in response to development demands. As level of setvice thresholds arc approached for each facility, fur ther development will be pennitted only with the c.:onstructiou of lhe next needed inc.:remenl of infnt.\lmc.:ture. Since development will be in accordance with market demand, il i s not possible t o specify in this report precisely where or when various will be required. This section, therefore, wilJ describe infi-astructure needed at buildout. With respect to public works projects. Ordinance 717 will 11pply, requiring 1 % of U1e project cost to be invested in puhlic art. The following pamgraph!i pro vide an expanded description of the infrm;truclure to be funded. Major Tramporlation Projects NOTE: No speciJic cost estimates are presently available tor the freeway improvements or public transit improvements pro grammed to the Stapleton area. The Denver Regional Counci l of Governments (DR COG) will be the for developing these e.'iimates. DR COG has programmed over $325 million for the I -7 0 corridor which is defined as a Transp01tation investment Corridor in its 2015 lnterin1 Regional Transportation Plan dated October 13, 1993. A study of 1-70 cotTidor options i s ongoing.

PAGE 123

Freeway lmprowJmenls Development of the area will reqtLire improvements to the Quebec/1 -2 70 interchange and the Havanll/1-70 interchange. The of these interchanges are preliminarily estimated ut $50 million, but subs tantial engineer ing work is required to determine tina! cosL No other major freeway improv ements are necessary to support development of the 1-lowcvcr due 10 regional Lravel conditions, major expansion of L -70 and 1 -270 is programmed by DR COG. Public Tra11sit The Denver Regional Transportation D istrict (RTD) is responsible for providing tra. nsit service to the Stapleton site. I nitially tl1c site will be served by bus tmnsit. Rail t.ransi l is pi au ned In serve the pmjcct in later stages of development. Bu:. srop& and park-and-ride stutions will be provided :u the major activity centers liS a means of facilitating public transit. RTD will be responsible for construction of any mil system alignment between Downtown Denver an d the Denver lntemtllional Airport which will also serve development at Stupleton. RTtJ is presently studying the implementation nl' th e rail in the northeast corridor well 11s a 25% allowance lor design and contingenc ies. Rrntdway costs do nut includc for associated major sewer and water tmnsmission mains. Further. no cost sharing between Allfom or Commerce City is assumed. although these cities may contribute l'uncling.to tl1e roadways bencliting tltcir respective areas. Majnr eust/west connectors includ e: 56111 Avenue, 47th4Yth Avenue. Smith Road. exte nsion t)f Martin Lutl1er King Boulevard, 26 th Avenue and 23 rd Avenue. J nitially the site will be served by bus transit. Rail transit is planned to serve the project in the later stages of development. RTD lia.' not developed a tinal stmtegy for this exte n sio n and The major north/south connectors will be Yosl'trlitc Parkway substantia l additional work neecb to OCCllf before the alignment and Syracuse Street. Yosemit e Parkway will require new can be submiued for fumling. In financing for suc h improve ments. it is common for ?'i% of the ftmd.ing to come from local sources and 75% from fcdentJ and state sotLrces. Costs to new development at Stapleton will likely be the costs of bus bus shelter ru1d station costs at ru1 intermodal station serving buses and ruil vehicles. R oadwoy/StructureN The road will include lanes fonegional traffk as well as lanes serving locul traffic. None of the major roads are pro gmmmed for greater than four Innes. Cos1s oftbe se roadways include clearing and grading, curb, gutter, sidewa lk. paving tundscaping, drainage. lighting, street fumitw<:. as bridge consmtction or reconstruction of the existin g bridge over 1 -70. Quebec Street on tl1e west border and HavanaSrreet on the l!llS! border will require subs tantial improvements to 1>upport uevelopment of Stapleton. SignificaJ'lt slructure improvements are required across I-70 ;md ut lhc 1 -27 0/Qu cbec interchtmge to improve ca pacity safery and trail connec tions. Utililies Sanililry Sewer Cflsfs Sanitnry sewer costs are for the major sanitary sewer pipe system hnlh under the mudwuys and off mad. The only urcas served hy :-(;wcr arc tl1c t cmli nal complex ;md exis tin g buil dings. MIZ.E ITS E:CON_OMIC BEN-I!:FlT FROM T .. E flEDE-VltLOPMftNT OF HEW AIRPORT. INCI16ASED ACCIESS THAT TIES THUE AREI\S TO OTHER GROWTH AND EMPLOYMENT AffEAS IN WIU.. 01!. RUIREO, CITY A .NO COUNTY OF DENVER PLAN 1998 SS

PAGE 124

5 Water 1'rtJm;mission nnd Distribution Tbc existing Looped water supply network lies into eltistiog mains at the 56th Avenue 42" diameter steel conduit and terminat es with a con nection t o an existing 36" diameter RCP conduit in Mont view Boulevard. 'lbe proposed sito;: se rvice nr.tin is a 16" diamo::ter main that runs in Yosemite PMkway. All pmpo sod loops arc tapped into the Yosemite main with tnps provide d for by future-phased development. Water mmsmission and distribution costs include the major water line syste m both under the r oadways and ofl'-road. The only arulS presently served by water arc tbe terminal complex and locations occupied by existing hwldings. Utility A bandomnenl The has numerow. existing warer, sewer and drainage lines serving lhe existing airpon operation that will likel y be abandoned because they are urmccessary, subi;tan dard or ina.dequare to serve the new dcveloplllCntprogr&mned for the site. These lines will have to be remov
PAGE 125

Land for school sites would be dedicated by the Ciry and County w Denver Public Schoob consiJ>tent with the Ciry's Zoning Ordinance. DPS is assumed to be responsible for fund ing the constructio n of the schoob. 'l11e coot of school constmction is $6 million each for four e l eme ntary schools and $12 million for the middle school. 'l11e Development Plan Principles c are necessary. Denver relocated Policy Academy onto the site. U a subl>tation is necessary to serve the project, Stapleton will fund its in a fashion comparable to the Gateway devel opment area l11e infrastructure facilities described above will be phased in n.:sponse to the market for housing o nd commercial/industrial space. l11c overall project is anticipated to have a lengthy buildour period of 30 to 50 years depending on demand. The site doe:;. contain a number of areas where development can be initialed without significant infrastructure cost. Development will occur in these areas in to ruarlcct demand and the abi l ity ro fund necessary infrastructw'C. It will be important for the City and CoWJty to identify of development that arc limancially feasible. Appropriate will he particula r ly impnrtant f(}r the early of development to make certnin that the pmject hegins .,, The general requirements for and facilities. and the recommended method of funding to implement the Development Plan, are de...crihcd in tht' tollowmg paragr:aphs. The infrastructure and public reqwred ro serve Stapleton can be grouped into three cutegories: I. Rackbone Tnfrastructure. Th1s gruup inclucb ITceway and intcrchltnJ.>e improvemenll.. maJOr anenal roads. mil and tmnsit, roadway median:.. sewer trunk sysrem, W'.tter uan\miSl.ton drainage system. baste utihtics and neaghborhood connecror 2. C01111mmity Facilities. 1b.is group mdudcs rcgaonaJ and community parks, open space corridor,.,. Nchnoh, libmry. police and !Ire facilities. 3. In-Tract Subdivisioll bifrastructure. 'OltS group includes netghborilood roads, sewc:r, water. 'itOilll dminagc, >;Clbock IWl
PAGE 126

5 Backbone infrastructure typically assigned as frontage improvements and in-tract subdivision improvements are pro grammed to be f"manced privately. Regional serving back bone infrastructure costs and commw1ity facililics will be funded through a oomb i nation of impact fees, <.:onneclillll City and County funding sources. bond linaucing, gnmt und private funding. Fees uud connection <.:harges include City impact fee.'l, connccti11n fcc.s for sewer ami water and storm dr..Unage assessments. The Stapleton Development Plan includes many unique features associated with the concept of a sustainable community. Bond financing mechanisms may be used to fund either the private funding ur the fee funding. These mechanisms include local tax and asse..;smcnl districts, Title 32 Special Districts and Genem l Obligation honds. Grant funding may be available from a variety of feder.ll. state. foundntion und corporate sow-ces. Many grunt funding sottrces may not even be available today, but will evolve as !he result of new policies and programs. Additional funding may be uvv.ilablc from the Airport System, as discussed in the previous section, from either the interim use progn1m or froru !he operation of I) I A. 'n1e S tapleton Development Plan includes many unique fea tures associated witl1 the concept of a sustainable community. 'rl1e large open space and wildlife habitat corridors, innovative stonn drainage system and advances in transportation system design :ill rueriL special attention. Many of these improvements could be eligible for grant funding under 1ruditional pmgrnms or under special discretionary grants. A key to implementing many of U1e unique characteristics of tlte IJevelopment Plan will be devising n program to aggressively pursue grants from and ledernl agencies, foundations and corporations. The concept of Stapleton being designated as a national center for environmental technology and sustainable (Jevelopment may !he ability to attmct Facililit:s tbm provide speciJic benefits to the development pro jects should be funded through impact and connection fees unless liming considerations and costs require !he sale of special district bonds in or-der to provide tbe required infrastruc ture. Tn addition tu connection fees. a Stap l eton lnfrastructw-e Fee is proposed to fund m;1ny of the required infmsllucture inlprovcmcnts. This stnuegy is m!!l.ml to allow market demand to dictate lhe pace of development and to minimize the debt burden and interest carrying costs. ln addition. it retlects the anticipated desirahility or limiting the use of special difitri0t bunds fur tlte financing of Stapleton deve lopment. Funding Sou rce s Tbe following briefly describe the recommended linam:ing techniques. The li nuncing of Stapleton's infrastructure will come from a variety of tlcpending uptn the type of improvement and the relative bcnclit tu Ute local community amVor region. Funding w ill be obtained through a combination nr infrltSIJUerure fees, local tax and private capitul, state and federal oansport:ltion funding, grants, general mUiticipal revenues, tax increment financing, Airport System revenue, connl'cLion fees and special districts. Primruy und secondary funding for each infrastructure line item are in the chan titled Recommended Public Facilities and Funding Sow-ces. lnfmstructure commiTments associated with on-going negotiations with prospe<.:ti vu purclmsers of property were not considered in ihi5 analysis.

PAGE 127

TOTAL STAPLeTON ESTIMATeD DEVELOPMENT COST ($00081 1 ) Stapleton 1) Local TOJ< and Infrastructure Assessment Foo Olslrict 2) Priv a t e Capital Major Transporlallon Pro]9cts Havanan-70 & Ouobec/ 1 270 VC Imp. $50.000 L.ght Ran & Air Tran Stauon $3.000 Subtotal Transportation $53,000 2 Roadways/Structuros Roadways $75,119 p p Structures Bridges $14.249 p Subtotal Roadways $89,368 3 Ullllllea Sanitary Sewer $4.496 p p Warer O l stnbuUon $14.557 p p UWity Abandonment $1,557 Subtotal Uti flUes $20,610 4 Drainage In Greanways $13,026 p 5 Por1an Renewal Tax Schools Increment Finanou'1g 2) Connection Fees 2)RT0 3) N
PAGE 128

S-4,10 v Site Development Sources lion periods for some of the office and industrial land use.s, it is likely thai the fO:: collected will not be sullicientlo construct S tapleton lrrfrastructure Fee 'l11e S1apleton Development Plan some improvemenll> by the time they are A similar n::tluires co n struetiou of a uumber of fat:ilities that provide ben. problem is faced in the Gatcwlly Firumcing Plan. Financing cfill> so lely or primarily to Stapleton. Many of these facilities mecbanisrns may be necessary to address such timing 11re of ge ncml beneEit to the entire Stllplcton project Also, one of the major of the financing plan is to build facilities, where possible, on a pay-as-you-go basis. In order to fund these pay-as-you-go facilities, the financing plan calls for a special Stapleton Infrastructure J7ee to be charged at the time of develop ment (building pemlil). TI1e fee is similar in structure and intent to the proposed Gntcwuy Development Impact Fee tl1ut is pn..><>ently being reviewed by rhe City and County '[he Stapleton lflfra!;tructure Fee may be used to fund the following item,s: major roadways rmd medians bridges and collection li m:s and fucilities water distribu tion mains and facilitie s library facilities police facilitie-s community parks and recreation facilities t.r..rils and habitat corridors [f adopted, the City will establish a special fund for this fee and will determine the construction sequence of improvements funded by tl1e fee. The fee will be. udjusred annually for infla tion and periodically for cost changes as better information becomes available conceming the facilities. Many faciliti es proposed for funding by the Stapleton {nfrastmcturc Fee may instead be funded hy n special bond (e.g. roads, sewer, water park and recreation improvemeniS) with tredits against the infutstructnre fee. TI1e amount of fuudiug from each of these sources will evolve over time bascJ CJn actual needs, the pace of development and the ahillty to sell bonds. Pulentiul iipplitalion of these funding mcchatlisms is discussed below. 'l 'he Fee bus been estimated based on the full bui ldout of the prqject. L-lowever. due to the l engthy absorpLocal Tax fmdAssessmenl Districts Colorado taw provides for a variety of local tax and assessment districts. Property owners may establish one of these di strj cts through the City and Cuw1ty to accomplish specific pwposes. T he C i ty and County may also be ab l e to eslablish a district on own developable property. improvements constructed a s part of a special improvement district must confer a special ben elit to the real property which is included within the district and agains t which an assessment is imposed or l evied The following b1iefly describes each of four of special districts that could be implemented as part of U1e redevelop ment of Stapleton: Local Improvement District (UD): An LID 1s a geographi cal area defmed in the ordinance udopted by tbe mtmicipality creating the district. It is not a separale entity, has no power to lax or condemn property and does not h ave a separate govem ing board. Facilities funded typically include: street construc tion curb, gutter and sidewalk improvements. water distribu tion or sewer collection lines or facilities. The propeny to be assessed must recei ve a special benefit Bonds may be issued to fund in1provements. General Tmpmvcment District (GID): A GID re4uires thnt more rhan 50% of the register'l:d e lectors who own real proper ty in the proposed district file a petition. The district is a quasi municipal corporution and political subdivision of Ule stale. The governing board of the municipality is tl1e ex-officio board of directors of the district, but a sep11r.t.le governing board may be appointed. The district can be established lor I he purpose of con or acquiring any public improvement although the improvement cannot duplicate any existing or propoMld munici pal improvement Geller.!l ol>ligatir>n bonds of the district may be issued following approval by the registered voters of the district.

PAGE 129

Lluhiness lmprovement District (DID): A BID requires that 5(1"/f> ,,r t.he acreage have heen do!veloped and as commercial property prior lo !he ftH111lltion of the rlistricl. 'Tl1c district is a quasi municipal corporation and political sulxtivi sion of the slate. The governing board of d1e municipality is the ex-officio board of directors of the di:.trict, but the govern ing t>. Tille 32 Special Districts diiTcr from the LTD, GID or BID dislricl' in lhalthe developer. roJher than the City ru1d County, controls the District TIJC City has historically been opposed to such districts. but may consid er such a district al Stapleton under conditions und special circumstances. The impuct of Amendment I. which limits the City rutd County's rcvcnue.s and cxpenditure.s, may also warrant a new look ut Titk : U Special The use of thc;,c districts will evolve over time a.\ clcht financing requirements are identified. Different special :lppli cations are likely ro occur within specific development areas aJ Stapleton. However, these Spl."Citd will primarily be used to fund henetiting n specific project nnt fur a rnr1inn or the gcnern l improvemctrls I1Ct1clit in g. the entire project J>riyafe Capital Privme funding from development will primariJ y be used to fund m-tra(.1 sutxlivision improvements and 1iumage improve (road, curb. gutter. sidewalk, underground utilities. dminuge, neighbomood and ltmdsc-..tpmg). Private fw1ding may he advanced for certain area-wide that be funded to serve the with u agreement. TitC.'ie funding and will he handled with lmpmvemcnl Agreement:, and ConcWTCncy Requirements. Local tax or assessment discussed above may be u:-.ed to fund some or all of the in-uact improveme.nL ... tl t u: LAt '-" State, Regional, Federal Tmn,\portution Fundi11g improvements to the 1-70 corridor are presently being planned by the Derwe1 Regional Coum;il of Governments (DRCOG). TI1e 201 5 Interim Rcgiunal Tmnspm1at1nn Plan it.lentilies the J-70 corridor (rom Downtown Denver to DlA a Major Trnnsportation &westmenr Corridor. Curremly $325 million is programmed for investment io rhe corridor. DRCOG is beginning a Comdor Study w determine the necessary com bimuioo of freeway, ru1erjal roru:ls ;md/or tmnsil fncilities neces sary 10 the Corridor. It is likely that Stapleton will gain significant benefit from the rccommcnrletl impmvemcnts. runding for tr.msportation improvements is available from federal. state and local levels. DRCOG's Regional Transportation Plan descr ibes lf'.msportution funJing source$ in detail. The following paragrnphs brieny sumnmrize the n11uor lmnspor1aHon funding sources. Federal funds are programmed under the 1991 Lnremmdal Surface Tmnsponntion Efficiency Act (lSTEA). These funds are designated for highway, rronsit Md p:mu:ransit lSTEA provides unprecedented local discretion for tlirccting tl1e to road 11r transit pmjet:ts that substantially improve the ellicicnc.:y of the system. Demunstr,uion gmnts me available to test new technologies or operating systems. State funds are primarily provided by Lhe Colorntlo Highway Usen-TnL'rt Fund. TI1ese capital fw1ds are typically u.o;cd to match lederul projects to leverage as much federal money 11s [.(wal funds for highway anti roatl projects arc primarily pro vided by loc:lJ govcmment genernl funds or local government spec.:ial The E-470 Authority is a special district designed to fund the construct..ion of E-470. Local funds for hus and rail tronsit are provided by the Regional Transit District and use taX and farcbox revenues. 5

PAGE 130

5..S2 ------------------------------------------------------------Graul The innovative features of tbt: Stap l eton reu:,e plan may provide the opportunity to attract from a wide variety of sources including state, federal and cor110rn1e sources. The extent of gran! funding cannot he known wilh ccnainly. bw will require 1111 app ruuch l y pursuing gnmls where available. The innovative features qf the Stapleton reuse plan may provide the opportunity to attract grants from a wide variety of sources including state, .federal and corJJorate sources. Foundations and Speciallnt.erest Groups The unique teatl 1res of Stapleton associated with o sustainable commtmity may make improvements cligihlc for funding from a variety uf private ft1umlalions, spoda l interest groups, and and open spis prnvid
PAGE 131

City Profits from fheAirporl System OJid Land Saf.e Pl'l!jects Denver Public DI!IIV(!I' Public Schools (DPS), a seraNet revenues of the Airport System may be available to support mte entity from the City :Jnd County of Drnvcr, is responsible a limited number of early site transition and improvement for providing K-12 public school facilities. School facilities Al1-o potentially available lor investment are proceed" fmm land disposition program that c:m be used to enhance the land value-, of futun: hy in the infrastructure pro gmm. Usc l'lf tl1e or disposition land is an upen issue and requires negotiation between the City and Couttly, the the FAA and other interested parties. Cowu:ction Fees 11tc majrr connection fees include U1e following: Wafer Tofl Fee: runds water treatment ancltmnsmission cnl l ectcd by Denver Water Department Scl1'1'r Taf1 Fee: funds collection and rreatmenr Jacilitics-collt.:cted hy Metro Wastewater Reclanmtion Di'ltrict and Denver Wastewater Mwmgemenl Division. Stapleton Atrport has already funded both sewer and water capat.:ity fur the airpott opemtions. As u result, some for sewer trnd wmer system capacity may be avnilable to reduce the amount of connection fees re4uircd from the Swplcton projecL Estimates of these credits are not avail:thlc lllthis time. Also, the City wtd Coumy will ncxxl to detennine the most appmpriatc mcthoo of allocating the'c hcuefit:. til or uRers of the si te. Special Districts Regional Tnmsporration District (RTD) Sales and Use Tax Funding ror mil scrYit:c und bus service to the Stnplcton will be provicblthrough a comhimttiwt of l't:tl funding matched with local funding. RTD will a Ci>lllhination of Sales and Use Tax and other revenues (passenger fares. etc.) to fund capital imprnve RTD is presently studying u r-ut alignment from Downtown Denver to DIA ;liong with several other rransit nnriduts itt the metropo l itan :.rea. ure tn1ditionally funded through the DPS general fund or through gcncml obligation bonds authorized by the voters of the school district. 111e most IC(;cnr boncl issue was passed in 19R9 which included $100 million for schools con litruCtion. However. no schools located on the Stapleton site are presently pl:mned by the school and no funding is presently uvuiluble. [n order lfJ ftUnilit:S the pruposcJ residential included in the Development Plan, ll 'lronJ; program will be necessary. Funding for elementa ty schoo l s at the K-6 level located on the Stapleton site will be of critical concern. Enhanced funding for schools located on the Stapleton site may be needed to npen schools CM1y in the development Funds cuttld lx provided hy ;lor.ttion project. SBa

PAGE 132

5 L riCIN G D Yt:i.OP'4C.'T' Pl.Ah fl UL.A f0MY AHD MAJIKrt M The Public FramewOI'k Mopping Plan Illustrates tho essential elements of the public realm, such as ..terlal and principal -ts. I'IUijot' open ...,e and lnage _., and -laf sitfor efvlc, corporate, or fnstltutl-1 .-. Tho mapping plan identifies the kelf public decision thet wtn be necessary to establlah the comrn..Ullf atructuro within which development actlvit!f can take place. Tho mapping plan will be complemonted and rein forced by future doci slona made as part of zoning, aubdlvlslon, plat tlng and district planning actlvlll-. Upland Porlland I llbW o.w,. Comdot I I (,;ou (nurM srcna1 Sue: for ( r CO
PAGE 133

G. REGULATORY AND MARKET MECHANISMS one of the greutest challenges with the Stapleton project is the Cl'Cation of regul atory approac-hes. mar wHJ pmgmll\:. which together can encourage achievement of the pmject's susUtin11blc development objec tives. The development of Stapleton wiU be intluenccd by codes and other requirements relating to hmd use. e.nvimnmem, public safety and health, commerce ;md other subjeet Without changes ln our existing meth ods, many of the sociaJ. economic and environmental objec of lhe Stapleton development program will be difticull if not impossible to attain. At the stUlle time, !he approache!> rdied upon must be understood and acc!:"pted by rhe develnp mcnt indusu-y and marketplace. l11c Development Plun a general approach and pro vtdes some specific The for develop ing these tools will presurn:1bly fa11 to the newly created dev e lopment entity and the City and County of Denver, with assistance from interested individuals and org:lDjl.utions within the cnmmuniry. The opportunity Cl or signa.ls to businesses ;md individual s. These signals m:ly be tlistonctltodtty hy failure to account for eKtemaiJties. failure tu I ill: cydc bctw,'Cn activities and u-.crs, etc. The chilllenge will be to move towards more accurate mrut.et signals for activities withm the Stapleton sire withour cre ating a short-term clisince.ntlve for site investors l111d users. 1TO MOVE AHEAD, DVE:L-OPFrlS f'Hi:E O THE POLtCY TO 'RESPOND TO AND TH CERTAINTY OF APPROVALS. THE" CURACNT PROCS$5 1.5 A VERY REAL J\ND SIVC. PROCESS."' COMMISNTS FnOM DEVELOP.. PArtGIJ.IA.Nlt.> IN A 1991 DfZVEL.OPMEIItT ANO CALIFORNIA'S .. COMMUNITY E"''V!ff()NMt:NTA.l COUNClL SAN"rA BARBARA. CAL.IFORNtA s-as

PAGE 134

5 -86 It vo Regulatory. market and programmatic should ere aLe long-tenn benefits and value for Stapleton resi dents, visitors ;md investors. Potcntiul include increased competitiveness due to efficiency g11ins. improved worker productivity. protection from regulatory demands. increased community stability and increased cus tomer/employee/community loyalty. n1e enunnity of Ulis rask should not be unclt:restimmecl. AUenlion be given to a whole variety of land usc, design. infmstmcture, n;soun::e man:tgcment :.ervice delivery community linkage and community aspects of the program. One of Stapleton s greatest strengths. however, is the fact that the J>ite is publicly owned. Tbis circumstance provides a great opportunity for community innovation in these areas. Staple t on must be viewed as a "zone of innovation". where new approaches to all al;pecls of the institutional f r ame work will be deftned and imp l emented. Success in creating new model s that encourage innovation and suppon sustainable development objeetives will contribute greatly to the market identity and appeal of the Stapleton site. Rxamp les The project's institutional ff'.unework can be d i vided conceptu ally into two components: I. Those decisions l argely within the control of the project's sponsor/master developer (the City and County and new devel opment enlity). This category includes such things as basic t.kcisions on community infrastructurt:, lanJ U$C, urhan design and financial policies. It is essential tlu11 the choices involved in addressing these aspects of the deve l opmen t program result in a circumstance that is as supponive as possible of d1e pro gram's sustainable deve l opment objectives. 2. Those decision!> Ulat wiJI be made by many businesses. households and individuals. At this second level. the challenge to find ways to innucnec and support the decisions mucle hy businesses. households and individuals over the cou r se of the development and operation -, .; ...-.. 11#. ..-I GN I .. ,,,, .,. ... ---nc of the most bask and important of the institulion."ll framework will be the zo11ing. des1gn guidelines and other tools used to regulate the physical fom1 of the Stapleton commumty and enc.oumge the pattern of development described in the Stapleton Development Plan. The spe-cHic structure will likely be a comhination of some approaches as well ns tools and methods developed to address Stapleton s unique circumstances and objectives. The strucrure will mclude three components, rncluc.ling ll broad land usc controll>
PAGE 135

District Level District plan:. and design guidelines will be developed for each Disrrict. Disrrict plans will providt' more detailed delini lion of and block patterns. building relationships and d1e de..">ign characreris11cs of D1strict centers. Enforceable design will address issues such as construction quality. height. density. mal-sing. setbacks, solar access. pedestrian systems. parking, landscaping. etc. ami Programmatic ActiviJies at the ProJect Level -Approaches to encourab'lllg resource efficient design. ruduced reliance on the automobi l e and stronger commumty wil l abo influence the physical design of individual buildings and subareas. These provisions. in com bination with the subarea guidelines, will be extremely important in balancing Ute sustainable development and mar ket acceptance objectives of the Stapleton reuse program. Basic components of the land usc conu'OI such a.' the mappmg plan and master rezonmg will need to be early priorities. District plans can be pb11sed over time as different portlf U1e site are brought on line. Basic sumdards. design guidelines ru1d other progrummmic elements will be needed to gt1vcm disposition of land in designated for first phase markeTing and disposition. Tt is ru1ticipmed that the newly created Stapleron development enrity wil l play a nificant role in crafting and implementing many of the ele ments uf the land usc regululury structure. of the site. How will regulation, market mechanisms and programmatic initiatives lead to reduced consumption of resources, support cxp1mdcd economic opportunities and pmmotc diverse, successful communities? One m[\jor area of emphasis for the is to substantially reduce the resources consumed and environmental created by employment. housing and other human activity accommodated on the site. The project's basic resource management objectives cru1 be sunm1ari1..ed as reduce, reuse and recycle. This philosophy in tum can reduce waste vol umes. emissions and other impacts. At the macro the commitment to mixt:d usc village;;. intelligent infrastructure. diverse mobility options and restoration and preservation or natural systems will contribute significanUy tu achievement of tl1esc ohjectiv.:s. Beyond these commitments, however, the proji!Ct also requires successful approaches at the scale of indi vidual pmjects/developers/ busi There is a role for regulation, market approaches ancJ prognunmal ic initiatives in achieving these objectives. Regulatory approaches will be importatlt in areas such as defining overall urban design preserving solar access establishing minimum ener gy and water cfticiency standards for buildings. requiring waste separation
PAGE 136

5-88 I flv these are but a few examples nf n wide range of approaches that may be for Stapleton to its Jual objectives of succeeding in t11e marketplace ;md succeed ing a model or responsiblt: resow'Cc manugc.:m<.:lll. The mil or what is required. whut is cnc
PAGE 138

.,.INSTEAD OF' OPI&:RATIHG. "-S MASS SUPP\.I&R.-OF PAJt'Y,CULAR GOODS Or? c;IU ARE PlJNC:TIO,..ING MOJII! AS fl'ACILITATOM AND DROKERS A H D SCCD CAPtTAUSTS IN OR INClPU!HT MARKET OCCAD&. HAS TAUGHT MANY OF YHE: L.C.I\O INU II'I{IVATE CORPOJlATIONS, Nt::URIAL ROU: CANNOT OE PER'FORM.0 WELL In TRADf'rlONAL COMI"tAND TH!: CORPORA110N 110111 ENTERPRISE F'HoiA RE1HVNTtNG Gova1tNMNT Y D. OSOORNE AND T. GACBLER SE:CTION VI I A&.OYE..&..OPMCNT M"NAGHT STWUCTURE VI. REDEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE T h e Need One of the moS1 'igniliC3Jlt institutional SOCiated will1 the Stapleton redl."velopment progr.un is lhe type ol management structure crt:;Ued to guide lhe site':. disposition :Uld development 'I he acn: Swpletoo &ite is OWI'M..xl by th.: City :Uld County or Denver. di,position !>ubjccttu 'pccilic ubhgation' impu.-..:0 by lllC Clancr of City ami County, COOUllllrnt'fll' to ;ti'l1011 sysll'm bondholders. federal gmnt conditions. in airline tcnant leases and other Wwt'C\. r:undamentally. however. the City and County 1s the owner :md the Mayor and Cil) Collll<.'ll are lhc ultimate dc\:1ston-makers. fact places the City and County in the rot.: of owner and pmenti!llly direct participant in dcvclop!nt'nt atKitnanagt:lll(:tl( uf lilml. mll1er than IL' mon: traditional role of regulator of the 11-.e of privately nwncd land. 1 he City and Cmmty seeks to dispose of lhc Stapleton property in a prudent fa.,hinn and achieve a Jllhiltvc finnncial return on tin: Giv.:u the euur size of the asset. r.his I.J.kely to rake place over time mtller than through a single or con veyam.:e. In addition. the City and County tu udvunce a number of conullUility econl)lllic and objL't:tiws through the of the Stapleton propct ty. The City and County\ opponumty to potcnliully much grearer a:. an owner of land rather U1nn simply 11 n:gula tor. IL can nnd as nn owner. lt"ure qunlity deve lopmt>nt. 111L City ru1d County will seek way:. tn altnlCl private intere'il and in the 'it:tpkrnn fl!UIJ<:rty. li'om a linancinl and mmmtmity pcn.pcctive will ruquirc ongoing public involvement noliTlal regulntory approvals). m one fnnu nr annlhL"f. 11te :Jitcmativc wnukl he tu climiuare puhlic involvcnK:nt at thc uutSI!t and L'tlllvcy the entire sate mtmediatcly 10 on..: or more private rxuties (summg willing buycn; Abscm adopung lhis appro;ICb. the public will be :t p;miciplml .It some level in Ull' process. 11 plays nnd the vehicle or vdliclc:-11 uses to phi) them may well be L'ri!icalto the long-temr of the n.:clcvclopnacnt pmgrarn.11tc puhlic ammugumcm rok mus1 Cl1l1111r.tgc, rather than for, p1ivULe invulvement. The imponunt huw 1'11:'1 to slructln\! the puhhc mvolvcment. There a need In balilnce the for nmunuing public account;1bility with the: d..:sirc to create ossibl e S t r u ct u res 'TI1e structure need to uddres\ a number of governam:c. nmnagcmcnl ancllinuncing n:quircmcnls of a n:dcvcloprn.:nr progr.tnt. For example. u puhlic entity m;1y need to perform or require the ability to the following: pruj.:ct mana)!c:meou service delivery prog,mmmin!! and management of events and UJtenm on the ;;ite sales and le:1sing fmuncmg and prm i'inn ul' site impmvcrncnts and amenities) commumcauons and cornmunity outreach progr..unmat1C' Ctr:uning and economic devclflpmenr pmgram:.. project JinancinJ.!,. .tllimullive action programs, Cll',) design review Jlld other qu;t\i-rugulatury

PAGE 139

of possible management rnr the rede velopmen t program began in 1 990-1991 as part of the Stapleton Tomorrow process. More recently, a work group convened by the Stapleton Redevelopment Foundatiou and of representatives of the City and County adminis tration, City Couucil. Cilizens Advisory B6ard. Stapleton Redevelopment Fmmdation and the Denver Urban Renewal Authority reviewed the range of possible options. In addition to e11pl oring the possible roles a managemem or development entity might play, the work group considered the characteris lics th:ll might be essentia l or desirable in such an entity. The work !\Toup reviewed Jive categories or options for a Stapleton developmem entity. Those categurim. included: A newly fom1cd 501(c)(3) nonprofit development corporation. '11le Denver Urban Renewal Authority (DURA) or a sub structure created under DURA wilh provi...,kms of' urban renewal law. A newly created public development authority. requiring spc cilic authorization by the Colomdo General A new entity created pursuant to I he lnlergovcrmncnlal Agreement provisions of Colorado law. A City and County depanment or agency operating under the City and County Chaner. Recommended Approach 111e recommended approach that emerged involve.' the City and County and DURA ente ring into an il!,rrcemcnl lo crCiltt: a third strucrurc, a nonprofit development corporation. In gener al, the struc ture would have the following characteristics: The City anti County and DURA would create a third entity to assume n:spunsibility fur manugcmenl of the Stapleton site unci redevelopment project. lhe entity would be a 50 I (c)(3) corporation governed by a board of directo r s appointed by U1e Mayor and DURA and coutim1ed by the Denver City Council. SECTION VI I REDEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE THE ATTRIBUTES OF THE MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE SUGGESTED AS APPROPRIATE AT THE OUTSET OF THE INVESTIGATION INCl-UDED THE FOl-l-OWING: CUIJirol MuM conii'Oiuf StHpkh>ll J"'l'l .111d .uuhnnt) tn lllltk<' aJJd 'UIT)' 11111 dal') In nul rcsponsthlhtu.:.'> lca:s.:, own. o:tc I :\lust hav<' <'flmmmhf\ suppun .u11tu1ut'1: vn 111:11)' mission n l'llOWI..'l:S lu .:ov.:r I J uperJt Ill!! anJ dWilllllJ>trUllvc t:vl'ln[lmcnt mlliUtl\cs a!llc hllrdl' rcsuun:e,, frnm ,1 ',mety of public. pnlille U11tl philunlhrllpic ">tlrccs. Mus1 ttlnmmlll) til: A<'t'lJIIIIIabilil)' Mu\l n1Surc conrinumg \nmnulm.:ntrn pu!llic developmt.'nt obJ.:Cllvt:-!0 Jlltl re'-ponsr\<:neSli ru evolvmg llt'<'d' of Ill<' conunusuty. MlM be butnol polilieltl.

PAGE 140

6 Sl!CTION VI/ Rttoevt...OPMF.:NT STRUCTURE The Ciry and County would provide initial opemling. supp01t to the entiry with the expectation that it will ultinmtely iJc fumndaiJy self sut1icient The City and County will huve a fonnal upemting agreement with the entity dctining its role mu.l responsibilities. l1 e entity would function on behalf of the City and County and would have the necessary to perfonu l'l."C]uinxl functions (man age, lease, sell. contrdCl, pro vide seJVices. elc.) The eJUity would ope111tc outl.ide of Cit y and County contracting, per sonnel and oll1or systems. l1e entity could issue tax exempt n:vcnw.: bond debt to finance infrastructure and site improvemeuts with prior approval of t11e City and County. DURA would provide ;my necessary urban renewal powers such as tax-incrcm.:nt financ ing if requested by t11e entity riJid the City and Coun t y to tlo so. The entity woul d f1.mction consistcnJ wirh open meeting and open records provisions and would ado p t a code of etllics to govern members of i!S board and its staff. lle entity would be exempt for purposes of Amendment I. The entity could take Iitle to Stapleton pmpcrty if necessary and suhjcct to existing and obligations. The approach described above has been recommended by the group to the Mayor and City Council. TI1e dmf t tlucunccess.1ry to create such a stmcmrc have been be devel oped by the City and County and tlle Stapleton Redevelopment Foundation nnd reviewed by the Advisory Amml. Consideration and creation or u new l:!ntity i s expected t o take p lace at approximately the time consitleration ant.l adoption of the Stapleton Development Pl!m hy the City Cetmcil. Tnmsition of rcsponsibiliry ro rhc new entiry would begin fnllowing adoption of U1e Development Plan. Once tr.m sition to the new enrity has been sub.sttmtially achieved, it i$ the intention of the board of the Stapleton Redevelopment Fow1dation to sunset the foundation. I n adilition to the lega l required to create and empower" new development entity. there !If(' pecr to developmenl of the Jt will. however. shift the tlay-to-duy for the con uuctof the of' redevelopment Ill the new entity. 1l1e Mayor :md City Council will retain their role as the ultimate policy-makers amlthe ultimate point of account:Jhility for the redevelopment prot,>nlm.

PAGE 142

.,QUSINiiS$ lSTHE MOST f"ORCF'"VL AGENT OP C::HAfltGE. A$ UUJiiNE-55 L.EADERSo WE ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR C .HANCf! THA,T 1.& POSI TIVI!. THIS MEAN S TO OFFER RETURNS TO OWN ERS, JOBS A Hn DEVELOP. MENT OPPOR1'UNlTIE5 f"OR_ &MPLOVR.ES, OUALITV SEAVIC AND PRODUC1'S TO SUf:>PLIERS -.No CUS TOMI!:RS, BUT IT ALSO MAfltS TO BRING POSmVft CHANG TO SOCIETY 1\T U\RGE OVER THE LONG-TEAM. THIS CHANGE rwtUST nt! A COMMITMENT '1'1) S U$-ANTONIA AXSON JOHNSON AXEl-1\B, SWPEN 7-2 Vtt IPHI\"iiPfat .ANO EAI'tl.Y tfC'"S VI I. PHASING STRATEGY AND EARLY ACTION ITEMS PHASING STRATEGY The full huildout of lhe Staplc lon site will likely span decades. The exac t seq uence of cvl;!llt.s over this period or tirnc cannot be predic1ed with precis ion IJ will be important. however, to focu s development activity in a selected set of subareas ami p rov i de improvcmenlli and service extensio n s in a lo,!!ical e flicicnt f Following are specific phasing principles with respect to thl location. tinting and type of development. tocation of Developmellf Given d1e large scale of tl1e site. early development in a limited number orloca.rions, allowing for conc.:ntmtions o f in int"rastructure anti i l menitics and of the need to make expensive site improvements in mulllple locations at the swnl lime Eath area of development should facilitate efficient cx1ension ol inl"rasLructure and by takin g of opportu nities t tl build on cl(isting site :nd Timiug of DevelopmentNew p h ases of d evelopment should not be initiated tmtil previou:> h;Wt' reached !I critical ma..<:S to suppon facilities and services such as schools, 1\!tail services. public rransportation, etc. In addition, the phasing ">enmental condition of each of Districts, while not uw.:omplicated. doe s nnt a p pear to prevent the i r i m:lusion in Phase I of the development progr.un. The StapleJOu open space will Lake many years to reuch maturity and will do more to chang.: the chantclcr and identi t y of the thnn any olhcr improvements. Severa l of its componcnL,, such a.s Bluff Lake. Suncl Creek, Wes[erly Creek. the !:)andhills Prairie Park
PAGE 143

EARL Y ACTION ITEMS n1c !bclopment corporation will have ..cver.JI ammediare prionlll!' 10 ..1ddress related ro prOJ<:tt tina nee. marketing. communu.:auons. planmng, mlr.a.,tnactun.: desagn. proJect nmnug.:mcnt, management. pur.un or dt:monstrauon ami uc.ldititlnul an.: sum marucd below. Work already wmmcnccd in m;m} ol 1hcsc In addii:Lon. a phasmg hn or n1lwr mcdJani,ms. :t\ approprialc -dew lop regulatOI) incemive tmd pmg.r.tmmanc 10 'upport 1he dcvelopmem pmgr;un \ cnvrrorunen14tl. social and -a Manngcmclll 0r),UII1i/arion J. Finance develop minal tnfr:L'lntl'ture tunc.lang -imnal carry In)! lundmg ac.lcnuty imual .:nvm>nmemal rcm.:di;ltlon funding -c.lcvclop open 'Pale lundmg 'tntllurc' final unpa(t Icc lllilll..,lang pmgr.uu ,kvclnp ;mel impkm,nl c\isling huilding marJ..<.'tlllg fli'O!,.'f'..lm dt'\ clop \!OillmiiOIC;tllllll' and fllllliJl'
PAGE 144

'5CTION YU PHAfilNQ !i'rHATt:OV AND AJIL.,.'\o t\l;riON lt:MA 6. Pro j ect Management complete tenninal reuse solicitation procl!s:. initiat.: first pha-;e of airfield recycling pmgrum to \Uppon nev. rcmd and :-.ite improvement construct ion con,tn1ct 56th and 51st Avenue roadway unprovement!> consrruct nonhero stte stomnvater management and diversion of lla\ ana ditc h !lows from Havana Lake construct mfrdStructure improvement.., for subarea.\ of Districts I and V commence Sand Creek and trail dcvclnpmcnt commence Wesrerl)' Crcef.channel. water qual it}, stonnwater management and tnt.il continue on environmental remediation activities coordinate with the Denver Sman Project complete King Soopcrs a n d Union Pacific tr,msactions and manage development of iniual busin<:!>s mitiate tree planrmg program along Montvtew Boulevard 7. Asset \1a na ge m e nt implement property manage m ent program impl ement site Sl."Curit) program -;electively denl()li'h and recycle structures and :-tirfield improvements implement interim management and program :i. D e m o nstration Opportuni ties Pursue homebuilding demons t muon oppottuoitiel. for I with partncrl> intcf'C.\tcu in promot ing cnnscrvaJjon and other dcvclopmcn l objec tive-,. -Pursue infrdstructurc dcmon:.tration opportunil ic!., includmg water reuse for golf course and open space irrigation and waste m tmmi7.allon. reuse and recycling through i n i tial element!\ of a recovery program. 9 Addi ti o n a l S tudi es evaluate v i llage system applicanon to Phase I neighborhood dcvelopmem -clcvclop a tree planting progr.tm develop short and long-tcnn water and wastewater management strategy idennfy feasibilily of a village co n unue ,toint visitor facilit) and program planning with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service participate m the RTD rail corndor alignmen t idenufy and complete necessary environmcnt:U eva l uate and recnmrnend appropriate open space manage ment strategies panicipate 111 the DR COG J-70 wrndor study identify a n d evaluate options to provide innovative educa-tiOnal opportunities 1 0 Suda l a nd Eco numi c Create a plan fnr the Center for Environmental Techno logy and Sust.ainahle Development including pur suit of an environmental incubator. Develop a program ro expand entrcpreneunal of sur rounding and new restdents. Create a task force to develop an education and JOb tranung delivery moclcl fnr Staple t on
PAGE 145

CURRENT WORK O N A CTION ITE M S Prior lo and during the creation of the Development Plan. won.. hm, commenced on a number of tl11:sc items. This work from early silc and Ofl\:11 irnpmvc to aclual uisposilion of for indus trial usc. A hricf stulu:; report on the most si).!nificanl cum:nl project activities is pmvided below. RlufTLake F.n ironmenlal Cente r ; 11lc Bluff Lake area. in rhe o;outheasr comer of Sraplclon site (hctwacn Havamt Street and Sanu Cn.>ckl h.!ing developt:d an l!nvimnmental education cen ter Initial (!:>I million) for re'toration and development of th.: {for im.:rprctivc stgn;lg_e. elc.) have been wmmilted by tJlC Cit) nnd Coumy of a' pan of a M!tlferm:ntof a lawsuit with the Sicrr.1 C'luh over water quality in Sand Creel.. The rriends of Sand Creek a coalition of representatives from the Denver Parks and Recrcauon Dep:111 ment. Denver Public Schools, Staplelon Redevelopment Foundation and the llnivcr..ity or Denver Environmental Policy hus rursuetllhc tlevclupllll:nl of prugrnrnming lor lhc silt:. from rhe U.S. Fore\! Service under the Jllristhcuun of I he U.S. Fish :md Service. The Army and Shell Oil arc undcnaki11g c l eanup to address groundwater and soil problems. Once clcru1up complere, Nuiionul Wildlih.: Area will officially part uf the Nnlional Wildlife Rl'fuge syslem. National Wildlife AI'Cit conlauh import:tru wildlife induding winter conunun:tl IU0\1:-. lor hald :md olher of rnpto!"\. A planning for the Wildlife Refuge is currently und.:rway. and should be com plete by the tall or l\195. nte Stnplellln Redevelopment Found:ttinnlu" entered into a of Undel'itanding with I he U.S. Fish :tnd Wildlife Service. for malizmg an ongoing of cuopcrnlivc p lanninA between the two entities lor the n1c northcmmrn,t p<>t1ion of the Stapleton (Section I 0) is un lhn:.: hy the National WildlifL Area. areas for cnopcr.uiun include lhc 'iring of lal ihtie' t'll Stapleton land lt'admg inlo the WtJdlife Area: wrldfife and land usc m:tnagcment slrntegies bet ween the Wildlife 1\re:l and the :SI,rplcton Stmdhills Prairie Park ;Jnd drainage corridors; joint educauonnl program and interprelive urea development; :md coopt:rmive planning among the U.S. Fbh and Wildlitc Service, I he S t opleton Redeve l op n1cnt Foundatio11. am.l Commerce City for the futute clcvclopmem or ScctiouiJ of the Wildliti.: Aren. which tO he sold for private uevelopmcut 7-5

PAGE 146

7 Sr:.'-tloN Vtl I PHI\SINO STRATE:G'\' 1\ND EI\ALV /'CT,ON hEMS Sand Creek Corridor: TI1e Stapleton Redevelopment Foundation is coor dinuting a coopera tive master planning efton involving the cities of Aurora. Commcrre City ami Denver-ror the inventory. n::sturatiun and bcneilb of :.uch The devel opment wou l d be privately buill and rmunced. "Groundswell" Community t < urm and ''Just Say Whoa!" at the Urban i\gricnlturc Center: The Dcnv.:r Urhan Gardens and a n o n profit equ estrian progrdm for at risk youth have proposed a community farm. to be develope d tmd located on kllld near the existing city nursery facility in

PAGE 147

District V. TI'Iis area been dcsignatud in the development plan as an "Urban AgricultLrre Center." 'Lne proposal offers an catiy opp01tunity to meet long-term goals for the site. The farm would provide job-training and experiential educa t ion program ming for c.lisatlvantaged populations. as well :IS food for the needy. l11e development and maimenance of the facility would be funded through program fees und private "sho.rcs" in thu limn program (using the agriculture model). E n v iro n m enta l Reme di ation: Remediation of identified surface, and groundwater cont amina1ion been ongoing for several years and will continue for several more. The Development Plan Resource Document describes the locution :md types of contam ination a s well tl1c ongoing remedhtlion ell'on.s. The environmental remediation and restoration of muuml fea tures such as tl1ose a1 Bluff Lake, Westerly Creek and Snnd Creek -will create a soHd foundation for future developmenl. 56t h Aven ue: Within three months after air port closure. con struction will commence on 56th Avenue across the northern portion of the Stapleton fniti
PAGE 148

STAPLETON'S ASSET Mfi.NAGI!MIENT PROGJtAM S!ZKS TO PRESERVE, ENHANCE AND CAPTURE THE VALUI! Of: THE StTC'S 4,700 ACRES. 7-8 SI!C,ION V.l/ PHI\COtNO SiTtti\TEGV /\NO AitLV \CTIOH ITt:MS take-downs over a tive-ye