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West Colfax plan, 2006

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West Colfax plan, 2006
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Community Planning and Development, City and County of Denver
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
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City and County of Denver
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English

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Colfax Avenue (Denver, Colo.)
Neighborhood plans
Community planning
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Denver -- West Colfax

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Auraria Library
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Auraria Library
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Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN
West Colfax Plan
Adopted by City Council on
September 18,2006
Prepared by the Denver Dpeartment of
Community Planning and Development
201 West Colfax Avenue, Dept. 205
Denver, Colorado 80202
720-865-2915
www.denvergov.org/westcolfaxplan


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Denver Parks & Recreation
Andrea Riner
Keith French
Mayor John Hickenlooper
Denver City Council
Rosemary Rodriguez (District 3), President
Rick Garcia (District 1)
Jeanne Faatz (District 2)
Peggy Lehman (District 4)
Marcia Johnson (District 5)
Charlie Brown (District 6)
Kathleen MacKenzie (District 7)
Elbra Wedgeworth (District 8)
Judy Montero (District 9)
Jeanne Robb (District 10)
Michael Hancock (District 11)
Carol Boigon (At-Large)
Doug Linkhart (At-Large)
Denver Planning Board
Barabara Kelley, Chair
Brad Buchanan
William Hornby
Laura Aldrete
JeffWalker
Richard Delanoy
Mason Lewis
Judith Martinez
Thomas Potter
Fred Corn
Bruce ODonnell
Denver Community Planning & Development
Peter J. Park, Manager
Katherine K. Cornwell, Project Manager
Eric McClelland
Jim Ottenstein
Catherine Cox-Blair
Chris Gleissner
Denver Public Works
AmyWiedeman
Jason Longsdorf
Brian Mitchell
Bob Kochevar
Dave Weaver
David Ridenour
Office of Economic Development
Jacky Morales-Ferrand
Cec Ortiz
Katherine OConnor
BethTruby
Denver Urban Renewal Authority
Tracey Huggins
Laura Aldrete
Cameron Bertron
Denver Public Works
AmyWiedeman
Jason Longsdorf
Brian Mitchell
Bob Kochevar
Denver Housing Authority
Chris Parr
Stella Madrid
Denver Public Schools
Ethan Hemming
Regional Transportation District
Bill Sirois
Dave Hollis
City of Lakewood
Colorado Department of Transportation
Leland Consulting Group
Anne Ricker
Bill Cunningham
University of Colorado College of
Architecture & Planning
Kevin Pucdo
WEST COLFAX PLAN
West Colfax Stakeholders:
Barabara Baker
Niccolo Casewit
Collen Colarelli
Dennis Cox
Pat Defa
Ray Defa
Beth Elland
Robert Finnerty
Lisa Goldberg
David Goldblatt
Ismael Guerrero
Jim Hannifin
Rabbi Israel Kagan
Sharon Klein
Kathleen Krager
Robert Larsen
Nettie Moore
JoAnn Phillips
Cmdr. David Quinones
Kathy Sandoval
Lindi Sinton
Daryle Snyder
Tom Trujillo
Angela Varela
DaveWalstrom
Howard Zeppelin
West Colfax Neighborhood Associations:
West Colfax Partnership
West Colfax Business Community
Sloans Lake Citizens Group
Villa Park Neighborhood Association
Sloan Neighbors Association


WEST COLFAX PLAN
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Executive Summary........................................................1
Introduction..............................................................7
Physical Boundaries of the Study Area..................................9
Project Partners & Plan Process........................................9
Purpose of the Plan....................................................9
Relationship to Existing Plans & Studies..............................11
West Colfax History...................................................17
Demographics & Existing Conditions......................................21
Demographics Characteristics..........................................22
Density & Household Size..............................................22
Race & Ethnicity......................................................24
Composition of Households.............................................25
Risk Factors..........................................................26
Existing Conditions...................................................27
Zoning & Land Use.....................................................27
Land Utilization & Condition of Property..............................31
Housing...............................................................33
Parks & Recreation....................................................39
Mobility..............................................................42
Economic Activity.....................................................47
Safety................................................................68
StormWater Drainage & Water Quality...................................70
Vision Statement........................................................73
Framework Plan..........................................................77
Purpose of the Framework Plan.........................................78
Urban Design..........................................................80
Land Use..............................................................89
Mobility..............................................................99
Economic Development.................................................113
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
District Plans...............................................................119
Purpose of the District Plans.............................................120
Main Street Districts.....................................................123
Town Center Districts.....................................................127
Urban Neighborhood Districts..............................................137
Urban Neighborhood Station Districts..................................... 141
Implementation Strategy......................................................145
Appendix.....................................................................157
Map Appendix.................................................................183
Map Index
West Colfax Location Map......................................................23
Existing Land Use Map ..................................................... 29
Existing Zoning Map...........................................................30
Land Utilization & Condition of Property Map..................................31
Household Condition &Tax Delinquency Map......................................32
Housing Density...............................................................35
Owner vs. Renter Occupancy Map................................................36
Housing Value Map.............................................................38
Parks & Recreational Facilities Map...........................................40
Street Typology Map...........................................................45
Transportation Characteristics...........................................46,100
Floodplain & Landfills Map....................................................71
West Colfax Future Land Use Concept Map.......................................79
Urban Design Concept Map......................................................81
K-5 Population Density .................................................... 92
Transit Station Access Map...................................................104
District Plans Map...........................................................121


WEST COLFAX PLAN
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WEST COL FAX PLAN
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Things may come to those who wait...but only the things left by those who hustle. Abraham Lincoln


WEST CO
The West Colfax study area lies west of downtown Denver between
Federal Bird, and Sheridan Blvd. from W. 18th Ave. to W. 10th
Ave. Approximately 25% or 320 acres within this area is designated
by Blueprint Denver as an Area of Change. The Area of Change
incorporates the commercialparcels along West Colfax Ave, land in
close proximity to future light rail stations areas and strategic growth
areas such as the approximately 20 acre Saint Anthony's Hospital
redevelopment site.
FAX PLAN
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Sustainable Growth. Forecasts estimate that Denvers population will grow by 132,000 people, and that
the metro-region will grow by 800,000 people, over the next twenty years. In response to the anticipated
growth, Blueprint Denver, the citys award winning plan to integrate land use and transportation,
identified Areas of Change where the city should direct growth in order to connect people to jobs,
housing and the transportation system. Blueprint Denver defines an Area of Change as a place where
growth and redevelopment are either desirable or underway. The plan identified the West Colfax Ave
commercial area together with the land around future light rail station areas along the West Corridor light
rail extension as Areas of Change for several reasons related to latent land development potential, access
to and demand for enhanced transit, proximity to downtown, opportunity to strategically supply more
housing and ability to stimulate economic development, as well as reinvestment in historic resources.
Zoning Challenges. Existing zoning along the West Colfax corridor and surrounding the future light rail
stations results in a development pattern inconsistent with the areas future growth and investment
potential. Existing zoning throughout Denver has the capacity to accommodate 247,000 new jobs, more
than twice the forecasted job growth. Conversely, existing zoning has the capacity to provide housing for
69,800 new households citywide, just enough to keep pace with forecasted growth of 60,700 new
households, according to Blueprint Denver (pgs. 9-14). Without greater housing development potential
through regulatory incentives for housing, demand will exceed the communitys ability to produce
affordable units. This plan identifies a number of locations within the West Colfax area where strategic
increases in residential densities may reinforce the citys goal of integrating land use with transportation,
while having a more localized impact that supports placemaking and builds a more vibrant, active and
attractive community for residents.
The majority of the commercial parcels along West Colfax are zoned B-4, one of the citys broadest
business zone districts. Under this existing commercial zoning, it is difficult, if not impossible to achieve
a compact, mixed-use development pattern that includes residential units along the corridor. The
permitted building intensity under the B-4 zone district is nearly unattainable when coupled with parking
requirements and the small average lot sizes of commercial parcels lining the street. Construction of low
density commercial development such as auto-oriented franchises often results under this zone district.
Such development does not maximize the lands potential to repopulate the parcels adjacent to this
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WEST COL
transit rich corridor, and consequently the zoning does not support the communitys vision for growth
identified in Blueprint Denver.
Around the transit station areas, the majority of the land is zoned R-2, one of the citys most restrictive,
lower density residential districts. Approximately four-percent (4%) of the citys population live in the
West Colfax area Census tracts, which constitute just over one-percent (1.3%) of Denvers land area. The
area exhibits higher than average density, however the existing residential zoning district will not permit
the discreet increases in development densities that are appropriate as the neighborhood approaches
higher intensity areas such as the transit stations, town centers or busy streets. Additionally, the zoning
does not adequately promote the character and forms of development that define this established urban
neighborhood. Both the commercial and residential zone districts fall short of achieving the citys vision
for both the Areas of Change and the Areas of Stability within the neighborhood.
Integrating Land Use and Transportation. The area bus routes carry nearly 23,000 transit riders per day,
while West Colfax Ave., Federal Blvd. and Sheridan Blvd. carry from 35,000 to 45,000 vehicles per day.
Approximately 50% of area residents commute to work by alternative modes (walk, bike, bus) or work
from home. Despite the existing high volume of transit, and future light rail service, land uses along the
areas major streets are geared toward low density, auto-oriented commercial development. Along the
Lakewood Dry Gulch where the future West Corridor Light Rail will run, the land uses consist of low
density residential structures that will not capitalize of the future transit service that will be available to
residents. The transportation and land use systems along the West Colfax areas corridors are out of
balance with each other.
Estimates from 2001, suggest that approximately 62% of the trips in Denver either originated or ended
outside of the city limits, according to the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG). As major
cross town arterials and state highways, the major corridors in the West Colfax area must incorporate
innovative ways to move more people through these routes. Expanding the number of travel lanes is
not a feasible or sustainable solution. Increasing the supply of housing along these routes and in close
proximity to the future light rail stations is transit-oriented development that brings more residents
closer to transit service. However, it is not enough to bring more people to these places without
ensuring the future transit service is development-oriented and capable of tapping and supporting an
increased number of riders. The streets carry a significantly high level of traffic throughout the day and
not just in peak traffic commuting hours. Consistently high traffic volume (especially in off-peak hours)
FAX PLAN
"Existing zoning in the West Colfax area falls short of providing the
appropriate regulatory tools to promote a Main Street development
environment along the commercial corridor A.rea of Change.
In A.reas of Stability, the zoning lacks the tools to ensure that infill
and redevelopment projects protect and complement the character of
established urban neighborhoods.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
"Existing development along West Colfax does not capitalize on the
transit rich nature of the corridor. This plan identifies approximately
320 acres where infill and redevelopment projects are appropriate and
desired. Mixed-use redevelopment of these sites will ensure a more
sustainable future by providing housing options near transit and building
in a customer base to support existing and expanded commercial
development.
coupled with a strong alternative mode split among commuters are favorable indicators for mutually
supportive enhanced transit technology and mixed-use development.
Development Opportunity. Potential exists for transit supportive infill and redevelopment of vacant,
underutilized and deteriorated parcels along the corridors, in town centers and in close proximity to the
future light rail stations. This plan identifies approximately 320 acres (25% of the study area) as Areas of
Change where large and small scale redevelopment may be appropriate over time. These redevelopment
areas concentrate around light rail station areas and in town center nodes along main street arterials. A
rough estimate of potential development in these strategic locations (assuming an achieved development
intensity or Floor Area Ratio of between 2:1 and 3:1) reveals that the land area could accommodate
between 6,000,000 SF to 10,000,000 SF of new development. This figure translates into roughly
1,000,000 SF of ground floor commercial development and between 6,000 and 8,000 residential units.
Of course, the market will drive demand in this area. These figures simply illustrate that there is great
potential for the West Colfax area to accommodate future growth in a compact, dense and strategic way.
This plan emphasizes the areas assets such as regional transportation system access, superior transit
service, park amenities, views and proximity to downtown. Successful implementation of this plan will
increase this areas competitive advantage for investment and development.
In five years Saint Anthonys Central hospital will move its campus to the Federal Center in Lakewood.
This site plus the blocks fronting West Colfax Avenue constitute approximately 20 urban acres of land
development potential. In 2005, Mayor John Hickenlooper and Councilman Rick Garcia organized a task
force to study redevelopment options for the site. Advance planning will continue to promote this site as
a catalyst redevelopment opportunity for the entire West Colfax area. Ideally the scale and quality of
development will bring an influx of new residents and a mix of commercial activities that promote West
Colfax and its environs as a destination. In addition to the potential catalytic redevelopment of Saint
Anthonys Central, the extension of the West Corridor light rail line may encourage interest in investment
and redevelopment near the station areas.
Placemakmg. Placemaking and character conservation will augment investment and economic
development in the West Colfax area. A strong commitment to preservation and urban design quality
means creating and tapping economic and regulatory incentives to build, maintain, restore and adaptively
reuse architectural resources that add value and character to a place. Preservation of existing historic
resources, stabilization of established residential areas and promotion of high quality design in new
construction need not be at odds with development objectives. Flexible standards that focus on


WEST COLFAX PLAN
conservation of cherished historic resources without prohibiting development in the surrounding area
and promoting compatible development reinforces a vibrant, eclectic, healthy and diverse urban
environment. Cities thrive on variety blending different places such as corridors and town centers with
urban neighborhoods, and on a finer grained level, mixing a variety of building forms and site
development patterns within these areas in a rational, orderly and compatible way contributes to a
sense place.
Human Capital. As interest builds in the development opportunities throughout the West Colfax area, it is
important to remember and plan for the retention of the existing residents and consider ways to
enhance the human capital of the community. Today, the West Colfax area supplies Denver residents
with a reservoir of affordable housing options, and it is home to multicultural mix of people. Affordable
housing and homeownership programs will play an important role in the development of this
community over time. The rich blend of cultures, ethnic groups, ages and incomes that define this
community provides a touchstone for future placemaking activities that reference the culture and
history of area residents.
A.s interest builds in the development opportunities throughout the West
Colfax area, it is important to remember and plan for the retention of
existing residents and consider ways to enhance the human capital of the
community.
The primary goals of this plan are:
1. Create a sense of place with identifiable districts that support discernible patterns of land
development, high quality urban design, and gateways and focal points at key destinations or
neighborhood entries.
2. Promote high quality design, preserve historic resources and complement the traditional urban
patterns of development.
3. Maximize urban land development potential; promote compact, mixed-use development and focus
intense development to strategic growth areas.
4. Increase the supply of residential units and provide diverse housing options.
5. Increase opportunities for informal and formal public gathering.
6. Connect residential areas and neighborhood gathering places with safe and attractive multimodal
linkages and distinguish a clear hierarchy of streets.
7. Improve roadway safety for all modes of travel and enhance the convenience ease and enjoyment of
public streets for bicyclists, pedestrians and transit commuters.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
8. Upgrade public infrastructure and capitalize on public investments in transit and infrastructure.
9. Augment the West Colfax areas competitive advantage for investment and redevelopment.
10. Organize business interests in commercial areas and enhance the image of commercial districts.
11. Implementation of this plan ensures a sustainable future for one of Denvers defining urban
communities.


WEST COLFAX PLAN
INTRODUCTION
I Physical Boundaries of the Study Area
I Project Partners and Plan Process
I Purpose of the Plan
I Existing Plans & Studies
I West Colfax Area History
Hope is the ability to act without the promise of
the outcome.
Bill Ritter


00


PHYSICAL BOUNDARIES OF THE STUDY AREA
The West Colfax study area lies between central Denver and Lakewood. Sloans Lake and the Lakewood
Dry Gulch flank the areas northern and southern borders.The West Colfax area boundaries are: Federal
Boulevard on the east, Sheridan Boulevard on the west, West 17thAvenue/West 19thAvenue on the north
and West 10th Avenue on the south in the Villa Park neighborhood. Other significant features include
Ivesco Field at Mile High Stadium to the northeast and Denver Human Services complex to the southeast.
The stadium, the lake and the gulch are significant man-made and natural features that clearly define the
boundaries of the area and influence circulation patterns.The 2000 U.S. Census Tracts 7.01 and 7.02
delineate the West Colfax area; the study area also includes portions of Census Tracts 9.04 and 9.05.
PROJECT PARTNERS 0 PLAN PROCESS
Project Partners volunteered over 3,000 hours to craft and refine a vision and strategy for revitalization of
Colfax. The West Colfax Plan is the result of this input from a broad stakeholder group comprised of
residents, business owners, property owners, non-profit organizations, developers, architects, real estate
professionals, political leaders and city staff. The West Colfax study area overlaps two City Council Districts
and four neighborhood associations, Villa Park, West Colfax, Sloans Lake Citizens Group and Sloans
Neighbor Association as well as the West Colfax Partnership and the West Colfax Business Community.
PURPOSE OF THE PLAN
The West Colfax Plan is intended to guide public and private decision-making and investment in the West
Colfax area over the next 20 years. The plan provides policy direction in a number of key areas, including
land use, urban design, mobility, economic development and district identity development. The West
Colfax Plan builds on the vision established by Blueprint Denver, the citys plan to integrate land use and
transportation. The West Colfax Plan provides the direction to protect and enhance the stability, livability,
urban character and economic vitality of this inner-urban area while guiding change over time.
Many residents, business owners and property owners contributed to the
planning process including over 150 residents who shared their visions
for future growth of the community in an intensive land use workshop.


WEST COLFAX PLAN
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RELATIONSHIP TO EXISTING PLANS AND STODIES
> West Colfax Neighborhood Plan, 1987
The West Colfax Neighborhood Plan prioritizes neighborhood character preservation. The plan
emphasizes the importance of the ethnic mix of people.Various housing, zoning and land use strategies
support the plan priorities. It calls for gateways at Federal and Sheridan, as well as additional commercial
node development at Lowell, Perry andVrain. The plan identifies moderate density residential infill
opportunities along the gulch, east of Lake Middle School and north ofW. 17th Avenue.
i Villa Park Neighborhood Plan, 1991
Eleven key goals provide the framework for the Villa Park Neighborhood Plan. These goals are: improve
neighborhood arterials, plant trees and improve tree maintenance, establish a neighborhood image or
identity, support and enhance neighborhood commercial activity, enhance the appearance and quality of
neighborhood housing, improve neighborhood environmental conditions, improve neighborhood
circulation for all modes of travel, enhance neighborhood safety, upgrade neighborhood infrastructure,
create neighborhood recreation opportunities and develop Lakewood Dry Gulch as a neighborhood asset.
% West Colfax Revitalization Plan, 1993
The West Colfax Revitalization Plan provides a set of strategies organized around six key objectives to
improve businesses and support neighborhoods in the West Colfax corridor. The six objectives include:
1. Develop a clear and coordinated course of action to establish the West Colfax corridor as a vital and
prosperous place to work, live, visit and conduct business.
2. Support existing West Colfax businesses.
3. Strengthen the neighborhoods next to West Colfax.
4. Remove existing physical constraints to redevelopment.
5. Create a physical setting which will attract and retain business.
6. Attract new business to West Colfax.
FAX PLAN
#
A. number of plans have attempted to tackle the challenges facing the
West Colfax area, especially the conditions of the commercial
environment.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
Eddie Bohns PigN Whistle once served bbq to hungry motor travelers
passing through Denver on historic US Route 40. It is identified as a
significant landmark by the Colfax Corridor Historical &
Transportation Services Joint Study.
\ Federal Boulevard Corridor Plan, 1995
The Federal Boulevard Corridor Study was initiated in order to achieve three primary goals:
) Enhance the image of Federal Boulevard for residents and visitors
l Improve the safety and operating efficiency of the corridor for pedestrians and vehicles
) Limit land acquisition to the minimum needed to improve the image and safety of the corridor
The study addresses Federal Boulevard from 52nd Avenue to Evans Avenue, which includes the portion of
Federal within boundaries of the West Colfax study area. For this portion, the plan recommends an 8
median, a detached sidewalk with a paved transition zone and trees in grates, pedestrian lights as well as
other pedestrian amenities (benches, trash receptacles, special plantings).The plan identifies the segment
between Colfax and 6th Avenue as having the greatest safety, pedestrian and right of way constraints. (pg.
83) It goes on to list some of the key actions that need to be funded in order to deal with these problems
including right-of-way acquisition and reconstruction of the bridge over the Lakewood Dry Gulch.
I Colfax Corridor Historical & Transportation Services Joint Study, 1997
A collaborative effort between Denver, Lakewood and Aurora, the Colfax Corridor Historical &
Transportation Services Joint Study recommends corridor wide strategies to improve the function and
appearance of Colfax. The study identifies significant characteristics of the corridor and calls for
preservation; enhancement and interpretation of contributing historical resources. The study addresses the
interpretive elements by segment to establish distinct districts along the corridor. It is a rich source of
historical information about significant landmarks and the evolution of this primary transportation route.
i West Colfax Transportation Study, 1999
The goals of the West Colfax Transportation Study are:
1. Improve pedestrian safety, particularly crossings ofWest Colfax and within designated school
safety zones.
2. Improve vehicular safety and preserve mobility throughout the corridor.
3. Improve overall appearance and visual quality of the corridor.
4. Enhance land use and redevelopment opportunities.
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WEST COL
5. Accommodate alternative modes of transportation within the corridor, including transit, pedestrians
and bicyclists.
The study analyzed traffic operations and safety, infrastructure conditions and redevelopment
considerations. The study identified both Sheridan and Irving as having significant intersection delays
and congestion in peak hours. Accident rates were found to be 46% higher than statewide average,
including numerous fatalities and accidents between vehicles and pedestrians/cyclists. Poor pavement,
drainage and sidewalk conditions were also noted as problems, as well as frequent curb cuts. The study
analyzed four street cross section alternatives, and ultimately selected a status quo five through-lane
alternative. The study fell short of neighborhood expectations and the desire for a four through-lane
cross section with a pedestrian refuge area. The study gave little consideration to establishing a street
hierarchy to better disperse traffic throughout the grid despite the geographic constraints imposed by
the gulch and Sloans Lake which limit north-south traffic movements to only a couple of streets in
either direction. The various alternatives did not produce significantly different results at the two key
intersections where delay and congestion have the greatest impact on traffic operations, except for some
differences in the p.m. peak hour when traffic congestion is greatest. This study contains a wealth of
information that that can be reconsidered in light of Blueprint Denver, Main Street zoning and a more
context sensitive approach to street cross-section design that ensures a more sustainable, attractive street
to serve the region, the neighborhoods and the adjacent commercial districts.
) Parks & Recreation Game Plan, 2002
The Parks and Recreation Game Plan is the master plan for the maintenance and development of
existing and future parks and recreation amenities. At its core are 10 primary goals:
1. Equitable expansion of parks and recreation amenities citywide
2. Increasing the citys tree canopy
3. Conservation of water with better irrigation management practices and inclusion of more drought
tolerant natural areas
4. Sustainable development to conserve natural resources
5. Improved access to parks and recreation centers (multi-modal access, trails, sidewalks, safe crossings,
green streets enhanced tree lined streets)
6. Predicting and meeting the recreation trends of the future
7. Better integration and expansion of natural areas
FAX PLAN
Despite excellent park amenities such as Sloan jt Lake Park, Rude
Park and Lakewood Dry Gulch (pictured above), the West Colfax
and Villa Park neighborhoods are underservedfor park facilities,
especially multi-use, soccer and footballfields.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
Sloan's Lake Is a unique and specialplace in our city: a ribbon of
green surrounding a great sheet of water that opens the park to the
sky, with the office towers of downtown Denver rising up in the east
and the snow-capped Rocky Mountains spread across the western
horizon. The park is a haven for both people and wildlife, an inner city
retreat where one can enjoy the expansive views, water, openness and
natural beauty of the place.
Sloan's Lake Master Plan
8. Protection of historic parks, parkways and structures
9. Revitalization of the mountain parks
10. Effective management and increased funding through department organizational changes.
Though served by Sloans Lake Park and the parks in the Lakewood Dry Gulch, the West Colfax and Villa
Park Neighborhoods were identified by the Game Plan as neighborhoods of greatest need based on
performance indicators for the amount of parkland per person relative to projected growth (the ideal
target is to provide 10 acres of parkland per 1000 residents West Colfax and Villa Park neighborhoods
provide between 2.6 and 5 acres of parkland per 1000 people, and the neighborhoods fall below 50% of
the benchmark for soccer, football, and multi-use fields). The plan identifies federal Boulevard as a
designated parkway with special preservation and design standards. Within the study area, the Game Plan
identifies green streets on West 17th Ave., Perry Street, Julian, Conejos, Lowell, and in a portion of the
Lakewood Dry Gulch.
\ Lakewood Dry Gulch Master Plan, 2003
The Lakewood Dry Gulch Park Master Plan provides a set of recommendations for improving park
facilities and amenities to enhance its destination appeal and function as a major multimodal connection
to downtown. The improvements include pedestrian bridges over the gulch and station area
improvements around the planned future light rail stops at Decatur Street, Knox Court, Perry Street and
Sheridan Boulevard. Nine design principles guide the plan recommendations, and the improvements
concentrate on five functional areas: access (trails, park edges), creek improvements, park improvements,
site restoration, and future infill land development sites.
I Sloans Lake Park Master Plan, 2002
The Sloans Lake Master Plan deals with five subject areas related to the park: nature and beauty in the
park (park character, landscape features, the lake edge, water quality, fish and wildlife), activities in the
park (sports, trails, picnicking, boating, special events), automobiles in the park, structures in the park,
and operations and managements. The plan concludes with priorities and funding recommendations.
The plan places the cost of parks improvements at approximately $12 million through the Capital
Improvements Program and supplemental grants, as well as through general obligation bonds for larger
projects over $500,000. The plan assumes funding of $500,000 per year through 2018 in order to
complete all of the recommended improvements.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
I Blueprint Denver: An Integrated Land Use and Transportation Plan, 2002
Blueprint Denver identified the West Colfax/West TOD Area of Change. The plan recommends transit
oriented development flanking the future West Corridor light rail line and clustered around the transit
station areas at Decatur Street, Knox Court, Perry Street and Sheridan Boulevard. The plan also identifies
a linear mixed use development pattern along West Colfax Avenue with nodes of mixed use around St.
Anthonys Hospital, the intersection of Colfax and Federal and the intersection of Colfax and Sheridan.
Due to its transit rich nature, proximity to downtown and open space amenities, the plan targets this
area for sustainable residential growth and commercial revitalization.
West Colfax Land Area ! Area of Change
By Change & Stability Area of Stability
In 2002, Denver City Council adopted Blueprint
Denver, the citys plan to manage growth through
the integration of land use and transportation.
The plan identified:
> Areas of Change where the city should
direct growth in order to connect people
to jobs, housing and the transportation
system
> Areas of Stability where neighborhood
character conservation is the priority with
growth occurring as reinvestment or
complementary infill or redevelopment.
Blueprint Denver promotes growth in a significant
portion of the West Colfax area primarily around
future light rail transit stations, along Main Street
corridors and in town center areas.
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WEST COLFAX HISTORY
Transportation. West Colfax Avenue, the focus of this plan, has a long and colorful history. Colfax
Avenue has been a major transportation route for over 100 years. Extending 26 miles from the
mountains to the plains through the cities of Lakewood, Denver and Aurora, Colfax is one of the longest
continuous commercial streets in the United States. More than 8,000 years ago Native Americans first
made the trek between the foothills and plains on paths that would one day become Colfax Avenue. By
the mid 1800s,Ute Indians routinely used this route to bring trade goods to markets in Denver. Golden
Road, as it was first called, ran through the countryside connecting the early settlements of Denver and
Golden. That countryside today is west Denver and Lakewood. In 1896, Golden Road was officially
renamed Colfax Avenue after Schuyler Colfax, Vice President under Ulysses S. Grant.
Patterns of residential growth on the west side imitated those of other areas around Denver, springing up
with the expansion of transit services such as streetcar lines. Street railways reached across the Larimer
Bridge in 1892, then west along Colfax to Sheridan, providing service to these new subdivisions.West
Colfax Avenue was the main street of the Town of Colfax (incorporated in 1897). ft was lined with two-
story brick commercial buildings, stores, saloons, a restaurant, a meeting hall and a hotel called the
Grandview at federal and 17thAvenue.
Settlement. In the late 1800s the West Colfax area experienced its first housing boom. Most of the
development tended toward small residences to serve factory workers and laborers. However in 1891,
Ralph Voorhees established an upscale residential enclave now known as the Stuart Street Historic
District. The remaining collection of homes in the Voorhees subdivision lie between Perry and Tennyson
from West 13th Avenue to West Colfax.
Prom the 1920s to the 1950s, the West Colfax area was a predominantly Jewish settlement. Known as
the Ostrovers (or more affectionately as the Ostys), because of their eastern European birthpace of
Ostrov, Poland, these settlers began to arrive in Denver at the turn of the century. These industrious
immigrants established businesses, cultural facilities and residential niches from Auraria west along the
avenue. The area retains a significant amount of its Jewish history and is home to theYeshivaToras
Chaim, Beth Jacob High School, the Lake Steam Baths and other such organizations that nurture Jewish
culture. The West Colfax environs also contain an Eruv with boundaries demarcated by wires strung
between utility poles in the area. The Eruv is recognized by city ordinance, ft establishes a walkable area
within which Jewish people may socialize on the Sabbath without breaking with cultural traditions.
FAX PLAN
r
h
St. Anthonys, 1893

Dickenson Branch Ubraty building at Conejos and Hooker Streets.
17


WEST COLFAX PLAN
In the mid 1870s the Sloans hake Ferry operated on a canal between
the lake and Federal Bird, along what is now 17th A.ve.
Sloans Lake Park. Thomas F. Sloan filed homestead papers on what is now the southwest comer of
Sloans Lake Park and received a patent signed from President Andrew Johnson on December 13,1866.
He later purchased additional acreage.While using his land as a farm, he became a prize winning
exhibitor of cattle and produce and built an ice house next to the lake to help supply Denvers summer
cooling needs. In 1872, Sloan marketed his home as the best farm in Colorado of 100 acres fronting
on the road from Denver to Georgetown and running back to Sloans Lake. Unsuccessful in selling his
homestead, he platted it for development as Lakeville. Shortly thereafter he died leaving legal estate
claims that would not be totally resolved for over sixty years.
There are as yet undocumented legends on the formation of the lake.They involve Thomas Sloan either
planting potatoes or digging of a well over an aquifier or high water table. Shortly thereafter, there was a
lake where none was before.
Manhattan Beach on the banks of Sloans Fake provided West
Colfax residents with opportunities for social gatherings and recreation.
In 1874, Sloans Lake was connected to Cheltenham Heights by a canal. Cheltenham Heights was near
todays Federal Boulevard and Cheltenham Elementary School. It was about half-way between downtown
Denver and Sloans Lake. For thirty-five cents, one could take a horse drawn trolley from Denver to the
boat dock at Cheltenham Heights, board the only steamship in Colorado, and cruise around Sloans Lake.
It was not profitable and shortly went out of business.The canal became a dump site and was filled in
over the years. By the 1890s Manhattan Beach had appeared on the Sloans Lake banks. It was one of
several private amusement parks in the Denver area. Private amusement parks were in vogue both locally
and nationally during this era, and were one of the precursors to the public park system. The nearby
competition proved to be powerful.White City, which was to become todays Lakeside Amusement
Park and the historic Elitch Gardens, since moved to its Central Platte Valley location, were both within
two miles of Manhattan Beach.
In the 1870s, Denvers Mayor Richard Sopris envisioned two great parks connected with a grand
parkway. Known as The Hourglass Plan, the parks were to be todays City and Sloans Lake Parks, and
the parkway, Colfax Avenue. While unsuccessful in obtaining Sloans Lake and the Colfax Parkway, the
efforts did obtain Denvers first major park. City Park became the formal start of Denvers park system.
At the start of the 20th Century, the national City and Park Planning movements made their appearance
in Denver under the leadership of Mayor Robert W Speer. In 1906, the Highland Park bond issue
purchased parks in the northwest of the city, including Sloans Lake.These parks were to be connected by
a series of parkways, allowing for day trips through the parks for the new fangled automobile. During
the 1930s, control of the adjoining Cooper Lake fell into Denver hands after the discovery of a lost
18


WEST COLFAX PLAN
Thomas Sloan heir helped end his long standing estate problems. A federal program, (The Works Progress
Administration) constructed channels in effect joining the two lakes and built a jetty providing a safe
boat area.
A bathhouse was built in the parks early history and swimming was popular since the Manhattan Beach
days.As in all Denver lakes the 1950s polio epidemics closed the beaches, first temporarily and finally
permanently. By the 1960s, population pressure and the advent of recreation centers and municipal
swimming pools continued their closure.
20th Century Developments. In the 1920s two public schools opened, Colfax Elementary and Lake
Junior High School. Little development occurred over the Depression years, but this lull gave way to a
boom in the 1940s and 1950s. Most of the vacant land west of Utica was purchased for home building.
Historic Cheltenham School, demolished in the 1970s for Hurban
renewal
The Mayoral Administration of the 1950s promoted civil bond issues that funded the construction of
public housing in and near West Colfax. Between 1956 and 1971, Denver Urban Renewal Authority
planned and executed the construction of the Avondale center that included a shopping center, high rise
multi-family apartments and townhomes. The project covered 22 square blocks and 101 acres. Since
construction of the residences and shopping center, marginal light industrial and commercial uses were
built on the hillside below the shopping center and along federal Boulevard. It is a classic example of
the failings of urban renewal of that era. The project included demolition of the historic Cheltenham
School, which was replaced by the significantly architecturally inferior school that stands today. The
planned community of Avondale has not succeeded in bringing investment or improving quality of life,
forty years later it is a prime location for redevelopment.
The Brookings Institution has identified Denver as one of eight re-emerging gateway cities in the
country, those that began in the 20th century attracting large numbers of immigrants, but waned as
destinations during the middle of the century, and are now re-emerging as important immigrant
gateways. By 2000, more than one in six Denver residents was an immigrant. In the last part of the 20th
century many Latino immigrants began to settle in Denver. At the time of the 2000 Census, the citys
population was just slightly more than half White (52%), nearly one-third (32%) Latino, and 11% African
American.Almost 80% of Denvers new residents between 1990 and 2000 were Latino.The increase in
Latinos was almost entirely attributable to immigrants from Mexico. By 2000, one in six Denver residents
was an immigrant, with Mexicans making up two thirds of the citys foreign-born population. More than
half of Denvers neighborhoods experienced an increase of 50% in their Latino population over the
19


WEST COLFAX PLAN
decade. And by 2000,21 of the 76 neighborhoods had populations greater than 50% Latino. Immigrants
concentrated in neighborhoods in west and northeast Denver, including West Colfax and Villa Park which
comprise the plan study area. Within Denver, immigrants concentrated in about one-third of Denvers
neighborhoods, and these neighborhoods to be the poor and at-risk neighborhoods. (Source: Piton
Foundation 2004 Neighborhood Facts).
20


WEST COLFAX PLAN
EMDGRAPHIGS AND
EXISTING CONDITIONS
I Demographic Characteristics
I Population Density & Household Size
I Race & Ethnicity
I Composition of Households
I Risk Factors
I Existing Conditions
I Zoning & Land Use
I Land Utilization & Condition
I Housing
I Parks & Recreation
I Mobility
I Economic Activity
I Safety
I Storm Water Drainage & Water Quality
It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has
data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit
theories, instead of theories to suit facts.
Sherlock Holmes
21


Average Number of People/Household
WEST COLFAX PLAN
Average Household Size
2.61 2.72
2.27 1.97 2.23





Northeast Northwest Southeast DENVER West Colfax
Study Area
DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS
Unless otherwise noted, all demographic data was collected from the 2000 Census (Census tracts: 7.01,
7.02,9.04 and 9.05). In some instances (for a more thorough analysis), the data compares the West Colfax
area to Denver, as well as other, similar central city urban neighborhoods described as:
> Northeast (Five Points, Whittier, Clayton, Cole, City Park West, City Park, Congress Park)
l Northwest (Highlands, West Highlands, Berkley, Sloans Lake, Sunnyside, Sun Valley, Jefferson Park)
l Southeast (Platte Park, Washington Park, West Washington Park)
§
Population Density (by neighborhoods)
14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0






% Demographic Characteristics: Population & Household Size
Population & Housing Density. According to Census data, just over 20,800 people or approximately 4%
of the population of Denver reside in the Census tracts that comprise the Villa Park and West Colfax
statistical neighborhoods. At a total land area of 1,279 acres, these two neighborhoods comprise
approximately 1.3% of the land are of Denver. Population and housing densities are nearly three times
more concentrated than the average for Denver.The average population density in this area is 13.2
people per acre (population density for Denver is 5.1 people per acre). The average housing density is
5.5 dwelling units per acre which is typical of central city urban neighborhoods (average housing density
for Denver is 2.5 dwelling units per acre).
Northeast Northwest
Southeast
DENVER
West Colfax
Study Area
Household Size. West Colfax residents live in households of larger than average size (2.72 people per
household) compared to both Denver (2.23 people per household) and other central city neighborhoods
(1.97-2.61 people per household) which helps explain the greater population density of this area relative
to other central city urban neighborhoods and the city as a whole.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
) West Colfax Study Area & Census Tracts
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
White Alone
r Black/African American
j American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander
Some Other Race
'1 Two or More Races
) Demographic Characteristics: Race & Ethnicity
Race. Individuals categorized as White alone comprise approximately 50% of the 2000 population.
Individuals identified as Some other race or Two or more races comprise 43% of the population,
followed by Black/African American (3%),American Indian/Alaska Native (2%),Asian (2%) and a
nominal percent identified as Hawaiian/Pacific Islander.
Ethnicity. Individuals identified as Hispanic/Latino comprise approximately 73% of the West Colfax
population in 2000, an increase of approximately 10 percentage points over 1990.
Neighborhood challenges should be considered within the context of Latino demographics. The
demographic data that follows highlights some of the social conditions that are characteristic of Latino and
immigrant households. Issues like language, citizenship, family support networks, etc., are important to
note here because they inform strategies for improving education attainment levels and homeownership
levels. For example, home ownership strategies in Latino communities need to encourage larger units (3+
bedrooms), deal with a lack of credit history, and focus on Spanish-language outlets.
24


WEST COLFAX PLAN
) Demographic Characteristics: Composition of Households
Household T^pe. The vast majority of people in the West Colfax study area live in family households.
Latinos comprise 73% of the West Colfax area population. Considering this fact in the context of population
density and household size, the data suggests that the West Colfax area is home to immigrant families that are
typically larger than the citys average household size. This information is consistent with the Piton
Foundations findings on household characteristics in Denver:The Census defines households in terms of
family and non-family households.A non-family household could be a single person living alone or two or
more unrelated persons living together.A family can be with or without children. For example, a married
couple without children is considered a family. National household data from Census 2000 confirms that the
traditional family married parents with children under 18 comprised less than one-quarter (23.5%) of all
households in the United States. In fact, people living alone represented a larger share (26%) of households
than traditional families. Demographers say these numbers reflect the aging of Baby Boomers into Empty
Nesters and an increase in the typical age of first marriages. Corresponding with the population increase in
Denver over the decade was an increase in the number of households.According to Census 2000 data,
Denver had the most (50%) non-family households of all metro area counties and the smallest percentage
(23%) of families with children. But those percentages vary widely by neighborhood. Poor and at-risk
neighborhoods had the highest percentage of families with children, (source: Piton Foundation)
The West Colfax area is ideally suited to deal with the changing demographics of American families, and the
expression of these family types within Denver. Strategic increases in housing development may provide
options that appeal to new market segments such as aging Baby Boomers and young, childless couples
who seek housing in more densely populated areas that are served by a mix of uses (as might be found in a
downtown, town center or along a busy transportation corridor). Additionally, strategic redevelopment of
public housing facilities and in portions of the single family neighborhoods presents opportunities to cater
to the larger family types that find this area appealing. Housing development and home ownership
programs should consider the unique opportunities presented by the areas demographics to facilitate the
growth of a mixed-income neighborhood that appeals to a variety of incomes, ages, ethnic groups and
family types.
Household Type
* I Non-Family Households
Group Quarters
11 Family Households
100%
75%
50%
25%
0%
1


' f
7.01 7.02 9.04 9.05
II Northeast
Concentration of Age Groups
Relative to Denver (by neighborhoods)
II Northwest
11 Southeast
11 West Colfax Study Area
Under 6 6 to 18 18 to 84 85+
Age. The West Colfax age distribution roughly follows the distribution of age groups for Denver as a
whole, but with a significantly greater concentration of children and a lower concentration of mature
adults. The composition of the population by sex and age suggest that this area is home to families with
many young children.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
11 West Colfax
) Demographic Characteristics: Risk Factors
Educational Attainment 2000 n DENVER
Education. Educational attainment for the population over age 25 in the West Colfax study area lags far
behind the city average. Roughly forty percent (40%) of the population has no high school diploma,
compared to approximately twenty percent (20%) of the city as a whole. About forty-five percent (45%)
of the population has earned a diploma or higher, compared to over seventy-five percent (75%) of the
city. Of this group, approximately ten percent (10%) are college graduates, and under five percent (5%)
hold Masters degrees. Roughly forty percent (40%) of the total population of the city are college
graduates and ten percent (10%) hold Masters degrees. Between 1995 and 2000, Hispanics comprised
between seventy percent (75%) and eighty percent (80%) of the West Colfax neighborhood Denver
Public School population, followed by whites, other races and African-Americans.
n Births with 3 Risk Factors
High Risk Birth Factors. An examination of births to mothers with three high risk factors (teens, unwed,
without a high school diploma) reveals that the average is considerably higher in the West Colfax area
than in Denver as a whole, particularly births to mothers without a high school education where the rate
is consistently twenty percentage (20%) points greater. Births to teen mothers show general declines
from a peak between 1990 and 2000.
While the West Colfax Plan deals primarily with economic development and the integration of land use
and transportation, this area should be targeted with educational and social service programs to ensure
investment in the human capital of area residents.
26


WEST COL
EXISTING CONDITIONS
I Existing Conditions: Zoning & Land Use
B-l Limited Office. This district provides office space for services related to dental and medical care and
for office-type services, often for residents of nearby residential areas.The district is characterized by a
low-volume of direct daily customer contact.This district is characteristically small in size and is situated
near major hospitals or between large business areas and residential areas.The district regulations
establish standards comparable to those of the low density residential districts, resulting in similar building
bulk and retaining the low concentration of pedestrian and vehicular traffic. Building height is controlled
by bulk standards and open space requirements. Building floor area cannot exceed the site area.
B-2 Neighborhood Business. This district provides for the retailing of commodities classed as
convenience goods, and the furnishing of certain personal services, to satisfy the daily and weekly
household or personal needs of the residents of surrounding residential neighborhoods.This district is
located on collector streets, characteristically is small in size, usually is entirely surrounded by residential
districts and is located at a convenient walking distance from the residential districts it is designed to
serve.The district regulations establish standards comparable to those of low density residential districts,
resulting in similar standards. Building floor area cannot exceed the site area.
B4 General Business. This district is intended to provide for and encourage appropriate commercial
uses adjacent to arterial streets, which are normally transit routes. Uses include a wide variety of
consumer and business services and retail establishments that serve other business activities, and local
transit-dependent residents within the district as well as residents throughout the city. The regulations
generally allow a moderate intensity of use and concentration for the purpose of achieving compatibility
between the wide variety of uses permitted in the district. Building height is not controlled by bulk
standards unless there is a property line to property line abutment with a protected residential zone
district. Building floor area cannot exceed twice the site area.
H1A Hospitals. The H-l-A and H-l-B districts are intended to promote the concentration of existing and
proposed healthcare facilities and their related uses. They are intended to contain the principal
structures and related facilities of healthcare institutions. The H-l-A district generally corresponds to the
R-3 zone district as to permitted structures and to the R-4 zone district as to permitted uses.
FAX PLAN
B-4 jotting allows general business uses with very few urban design
standards.
H1A zoning allows hospitals like St. Anthony's Central.
27


WEST COLFAX PLAN
Single Family
40.19%
Industrial
0.44% J VaCant
5.5%
General Sales Service
k 7.7%
Institutional
.14%
Park Open Space
14.34%
Multi-Family,
2 Units
9.67%
Multi-Family,
>2 Units
13.94%
NOTE: The limited amount of vacant land in the study area
highlights the needfor targeted strategies which stabilise those uses that
advance the vision of the corridor while encouraging investment in
those areas that are either under-utilised or in conflict with the goals of
this plan.
R-l Single-Unit Detached Dwellings/Low Density. Foster family care and day care allowed as home
occupations by permit and other additional home occupations and room-renting to one or two persons
are allowed upon application and issuance of a permit.. Minimum of 6,000 SF of land required for each
dwelling unit. (Density is approximately 7.3 dwelling units/acre.)
R-2 Multi-Unit Dwellings/Low Density. Typically duplexes and triplexes. Home occupations are allowed
by permit. Minimum of 6,000 SF of land required for each duplex structure with an additional 3,000 SF
required for every unit over 2. (Density is approximately 14.5 dwelling units/acre.)
R-2A Multi-Unit Dwellings/Medium Density. 2,000 SF of land required for each dwelling unit unless site
plan is submitted under the Planned Building Group (PBG) provisions, in which case 1,500 SF of land is
required for each unit. Home occupations are allowed by permit. (Density is approximately 21.8 dwelling
units/acre, 29 unit/acre under PBG, depending on open-space requirements.)
R-3 Multi-Unit Dwellings/High Density. Building size is controlled by bulk standards, off-street parking
and open space requirements. Building floor area cannot exceed 3 times the site area. Maximum density
is determined by the size of the units and the factors mentioned above.
Typical residential development patterns in R-1 and R-2 yone districts
includes front yards, uniform building setbacks, detached sidewalks,
residences of one or two stories andfront porches.
R-3X Multi-Unit Dwellings/Medium Density. This is a medium density district intended to encourage
new residential development. Building size is controlled by bulk standards and open space requirements.
Building floor area cannot exceed 2 times the site area. Maximum lot coverage is 40%.
P-1 Off-Street Parking. Allows parking lots and structures. Bulk and setback regulations apply to
structures.This zone is intended to provide needed business parking without the expansion of the
business zone; e.g. a buffer between business and residential uses. Requires visual barriers adjacent to
residential uses.
\ Land Use Statistics
Sixty-four percent (64%) of the land in the West Colfax neighborhood is residential (40.19% single
family; 23.7% multi-family). Commercial, service and industrial uses comprise 0.44% of the land area. Only
5.5% of the land area is vacant. Institutional uses comprise 8.14% of the land area. Parks and Open Space
comprise 14.34% of the land area.
28


WEST COLFAX PLAN
) Existing Conditions: Land Use
29


WEST COLFAX PLAN
) Existing Conditions: Zoning
30


WEST COLFAX PLAN
) Existing Conditions: Land Utilization
Auto oriented uses comprise a large portion of the West Colfax
commercial district. These low density uses consume valuable urban
land and often contain architecturally insignificant structures. The
buildings are often so marginal that the land value exceeds the
improvement value. Kedevelopment of these parcels to a higher and
better use, such as housing over shops or restaurants, will address this
disequilibrium.
31


WEST COLFAX PLAN
I Household Condition and Tax Delinquency
32


WEST COLFAX PLAN
) Existing Conditions: Housing
West Colfax housing values increased 193.5% from 1980 to 2000. While a significant change, this
increase occurred at 80% of the citywide rate of housing value increase. Between 1990 and 2000, this lag
shifted with West Colfax housing prices increasing at 116% of the citywide rate.This shift suggests that
the area is becoming a more competitive market for housing. Approximately 30% of the West Colfax
area housing units are owner-occupied (a decrease of 10 percentage points from 1990). The city as a
whole has an owner-occupancy rate of 52% (up 3 percentage points from 1990).
Relatively few housing units were built in the West Colfax area between 1996 and 2002 (no new units
were added in both 1997 and 2002). The rate of new housing growth in West Colfax is 13% of the rate
for Denver new housing development. This suggests that growth has been stagnant in West Colfax.
However, in light of the increasing rate of housing prices, West Colfax may be an emerging market for
residential growth. Blueprint Denver identified 26.9% of the land area in West Colfax as an Area of
Change these locations include land around future light rail station areas and the commercial corridor
on Colfax (especially at nodes around the Avondale shopping center at Colfax and Federal, St.Anthonys
Hospital and at Colfax and Sheridan).
Owner vs. Rental
Occupancy Rates
Colfax
(Owner)
- W. Colfax
(Renter)
Denver
(Owner)
Denver
(Renter)
1990 2000
Over the last ten years, citywide rental occupancy rates decreased. However, rental occupancy in West
Colfax increased over the same time period. There has been no growth in the number of rental units
constructed in the study area over this time period.Two issues can arise in the context of such a trend
such. The first issue is a potential period of no investment as property owners make the minimum level
of improvements to attract tenants, thereby suppressing appreciation rates. The second issue is the fact
that this trend often occurs during a period prior to an increase in speculation activity. Property owners
get revenue from tenants while they wait and see if appreciation levels warrant reinvestment or a sale.
Either way, it serves as an investment holding period which can create stagnation without investment in
catalyst areas which prove up market opportunities and motivate property owners and investors.
1250.000
1200.000
1150,000
Furthermore, the data suggests that single family owner occupied units have been converted to rental
occupancy. There are many problems associated with heavy reliance on single-family homes as
affordable rental housing, ft is an inefficient way to provide affordable rental housing options. Such
units are often vulnerable to poor management (absentee owners and/or it is just economically and
logistically more difficult to provide upkeep and maintenance for scattered-site properties. Good
management and maintenance is easier to provide in multi-tenant buildings that can support on-site
D West Colfax
Housing Prices 1980-2000 i Denver
33


WEST COLFAX PLAN
management and provide more on-site amenities to residents. Additionally, this type of housing can be
very unstable for tenants: booming market conditions result in unit sales, resident displacement and a
shrinking supply of affordable units. When the city has actively planned for growth, changes occur in
stagnant growth rates that are desirable to change. Redevelopment opportunities in the West Colfax
area present ideal conditions to plan for and facilitate increased housing development accompanied by
home-ownership programs and incentives, as well as more strict enforcement of rental property
management standards.
34


WEST COLFAX PLAN
) Housing Units Per Acre
) Population & Housing Density
Population Density (people per acre)


IL
West Colfax Denver
Housing Density (housing units per acre)


1
1
1 1
West Colfax
Denver
35


WEST COLFAX PLAN
) Housing Value & Occupancy Status
) Housing Occupancy Status
West Colfax
Average Rental Rates w Denver
Low Median High
Quintile Quintile
West Colfax rental rates are slightly lower than citywide rates.
However, there is a concentration of affordable owner-occupied housing
units in the West Colfax area. Home-ownership programs targeted at
area renters should be explored to improve local residents housing
options.
Distribution of Owner Occupied West Colfax
Housing Units (by value)
$100k $150k $200k $250k $300k $300k
36


WEST COLFAX PLAN
) Average Annual Income
) Household Income & Housing Value
West Colfax
Income Comparisons
D Denver
O West Colfax
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
Median Household
Income
Per Capita
Income
2000 Census data shows both household and per capita income to be
lower than the citywide levels. The map (left) illustrates that there are
concentrations of higher and lower household incomes throughout the
study area. Breaking up concentrations of poverty will be an
important to the implementation of this plan. The challenge will be to
maintain a strong supply of affordable housing options while
introducing new product types that promote a healthier mix of incomes
and increase concentrations housing in transit rich places.
37


WEST COLFAX PLAN
$200,000
$150,000
$100,000
$500,000
$0
Median Housing Value
(Owner-Occupied Units) ^^800
West Colfax
Denver
2000 Census data shows the average home value to be $124,150;
while most recent sales data (2003) shows that the average home sales
price for this area is $199,153 with an average price per square foot of
$175.97.
I Housing Value
38


WEST COL
EXISTING CONDITIONS: PARKS 0 RECREATION
The West Colfax corridor is bounded by parks along its north and south edges for most of its length.
Sloans Lake Park is located along the north side ofWest 17th Avenue, while Rude, Paco Sanchez, and
Lakewood Dry Gulch Parks form virtually the entire south edge from Decatur Street to Sheridan Blvd.
While these parks offer a wonderful open space experience for all the residents of the corridor, they also
create challenges to the vehicular traffic flow in the area, in that there are very few north-south
connecting streets. Between Federal and Sheridan, a distance of one and a half miles, only Perry Street
(which jogs east to Meade Street at W. 17th) and Knox Court (which jogs east to Irving Street at Colfax)
offer any feasible north-south traffic flow.
Sloans Lake Park. Sloans Lake Park is the second largest park within Denver City limits, consisting of
295 acres bounded by West 17th, Sheridan, West 26th and Meade. The lake itself is 176 acres in size and
is widely used for water skiing, although some non-motorized boating also takes place on the lake. The
park offers a variety of walking and running trails, including a 2.6 mile circuit around the lake. The park
has several athletic fields that are heavily permitted during the appropriate seasons for football, softball
and soccer. Eight tennis courts and two basketball courts are also located in the park, along with two
large playgrounds. Picnicking is a very popular weekend activity, and large picnic areas are located on
both the north and south sides of the lake. The park also offers spectacular views across the lake, from
the east looking toward the mountains and from the west looking toward the city skyline. The
Northwest Parks Maintenance District Headquarters are located in Sloans Lake Park.
Lakewood Dry Gulch. The principal feature of the parks on the south side is the deep gulch that flows
eastward from the City of Lakewood and empties into the Platte River. The gulch was created by a
perennial stream that is known as Dry Gulch until it merges with Lakewood Gulch just east of the Perry-
10th Ave. intersection, at which point it becomes Lakewood Dry Gulch. The three parks that are
formed along this stretch are characterized by steep topography, a natural appearance, and a number of
vistas both toward the city skyline and the mountains. The most prominent recreational feature is a
continuous bike trail that leads from the Platte River trail to the Lakewood city limits. Also running the
entire length of this open space system are the high tension lines of Xcel Energy and railroad tracks that
are used by a historic trolley (recreational site-seeing activity).The tracks follow the approximate route
of the proposed West Corridor Light Rail Line. Rude Park (Decatur to Federal) features a large baseball
FAX PLAN
Sloan's hake Park.
39


WEST COLFAX PLAN
) Parks & Recreational Facilities
Denver Park & Open Space
Recreation Center
40


WEST COLFAX PLAN
field and a new recreation center that was opened in 2003. Sanchez Park (Federal to Knox) includes
two basketball courts, a softball field, a playground and generous passive open space. Lakewood Dry
Gulch Park (Knox to Sheridan) is the least developed and most passive, with three playgrounds, some
picnic tables, trails, and an informal multi-purpose field. Except for the crossing streets (Knox and
Perry), there are very few north-south pedestrian connections across the gulch, although three major
pedestrian bridges (at Wolff,Tennyson and Irving) are planned in conjunction with the Light Rail project
to provide better circulation within the neighborhood.
Rude Recreation Center. The new Rude Recreation Center is located in Rude Park at the intersection of
Federal and Holden Place.The old center was built in 1968 and demolished in 2001.The new center was
re-opened in May 2003.The center serves the Sun Valley, West Colfax, Villa Park and surrounding areas.
*
Rude Recreation Center
41


WEST COLFAX PLAN
Commuting Patterns West Colfax
by Census Tract
11 Alternative Mode
11 Drove Alone
EXISTING CONDITIONS: MOBILITY
0% -------------r---------1 -----1---1-------
7.01 7.02 9.04 9.05
West Colfax Commuting Time (in minutes)


II ihnr
Under 10 to 20 to 30 to 40 to 60 to 90 +
10 20 30 40 60 89
The West Colfax area enjoys a high degree of bus service and in the future the area will be served by the
West Corridor Light Rail Line. Approximately 50% of the population commutes to work by alternatives to
the single occupant vehicle. Improvements to bus, bike and pedestrian facilities will continue to support
the existing number of people commuting by alternative modes and encourage additional alternative
mode commuters once light rail begins to serve this area. The existing transit rich environment coupled
with the future light rail expansion will increase the appeal of this area as a place of residence for choice
riders (individuals who could drive, but choose to use an alternative mode of transportation) and transit-
reliant populations.
Three express bus routes (16L, 30L, 36L) and six local bus routes (9,16,20,30,31,49) serve the West
Colfax area. The volume of transit boardings and alightings is greatest at the intersections of Colfax with
Irving, Perry, Winona and Sheridan.
Pedestrian & Bicycle Circulation. The pedestrian transportation network includes both attached and
detached sidewalks, as well as off-road paved walking and biking trails. Detached sidewalks are
characteristic in the older sections of the neighborhoods where houses were built primarily before 1940.
In areas where construction occurred predominantly after 1940, attached sidewalks are the norm.
Bicycle routes connect the community to parks, adjacent neighborhoods, nearby trails, and downtown
access ways. Lakewood Dry Gulch and Sloans Lake Park provide miles of off-road trails for pedestrians
and bicyclists.
Choice rider: A. person who could otherwise drive, but chooses to
take transit.
Defining Streets -Functional Classification & Typology. The City and County of Denver uses two
methods to identify streets. First, the more conventional street functional classification encompasses a
streets design and the characterization of service the street is intended to provide. This classification
forms a hierarchy of streets ranging from those that are primarily for travel mobility (arterials) to those
that are primarily for access to property (local streets). Second, Blueprint Denver adopted typologies to
further define streets by relating them to the adjacent land use and their function for pedestrians,
bicyclists and transit. These typologies acknowledge that the design of a street, its intersections,
sidewalks, and transit stops should reflect the adjacent land uses since the type and intensity of the
adjacent land use directly influences the level of use by other modes.
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WEST COL
Functional Classification. The primary street network ofWest Colfax consists of three arterials (West
Colfax Avenue, Federal Boulevard and Sheridan Boulevard) and four collectors (W 17thAve.,W. 10th Ave.,
Perry Street and Knox Court). The remainder of the street network serves a local traffic function.
Arterial Streets. West Colfax Avenue, Federal Boulevard and Sheridan Boulevard are classified as arterial
streets in the study area. The Average Daily Traffic (ADT) volumes on these streets are as follows:
> West Colfax Ave. ADT = 35,000 (Mixed-Use Arterial)
i Federal Blvd.ADT = 38,000 (CommercialArterial)
> Sheridan Blvd.ADT = 45,000 (Mixed-Use Arterial)
Collector Streets. Knox Court, Perry Street, West 17th Ave. and West 10th Ave. are classified as collector
streets.The average daily traffic volume of these streets is as follows:
> West 17th Ave ADT = 9,628 (Combination of Main Street Collector, Mixed-Use Collector &
Residential Collector)
) West lOthAve. = 5,607 (Residential Collector)
) Knox Court (south of Colfax) ADT = 4,155 (Residential Collector)
) Perry Street ADT = 4,773 (Main Street Collector)
Street Typology. Blueprint Denver identified 13 different street types, 4 of which appear in the study
area including:
) Mixed Use Arterial & Collector Streets. Blueprint Denver states that mixed-use streets emphasize a
variety of travel choices such as pedestrian, bicycle and transit uses. Mixed-use streets are located in
high intensity mixed-use commercial, retail and residential areas with substantial pedestrian activity.
These streets are attractive for pedestrians and bicyclists, and can have on-street parking, wide
sidewalks and bicycle lanes which are viewed as higher priorities than the number of travel lanes on
these types of streets. (Blueprint Denver, pg. 57) West Colfax and Sheridan Blvd are designated as
Mixed-Use Streets. While Blueprint Denver places a priority on parking, pedestrian and bicycle
facilities on mixed-use streets, it is important to acknowledge that regional arterial streets must
balance the needs of all modes of transportation to ensure a high volume of multi-modal trips,
including the automobile. Within the study area, West Colfax Avenue, Sheridan Boulevard and part of
West 17th Avenue are designated as either Mixed Use Arterial or Collector.
FAX PLAN
Both Knox Court (above) and Federal Blvd. (below) provide access to
light rail stations. Knox Court is designated by Blueprint Denver as a
Residential Collector; while Federal Blvd. is designated as a
Commercial Arterial. Pedestrian safety and comfort are critical along
these streets. Due to the amount of transit activity and the need to
reconstruct the Federal Bridge, consideration should be given to whether
Federal Blvd. should be classified as a mixed use street rather than a
commercial street.
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WEST CO
West 17th Ave. is designated as a Main Street, Mixed-Use and
Residential Collector. There may be some discrepancies in these
designations and consideration should be given to whether a
combination of predominantly Residential with Main Street along the
edge of the Saint Anthony's Hospital redevelopment site is more
appropriate. Regardless the lack of pedestrian facilities in the existing
cross-section does not meet the intent of the Blueprint Denver
designation, nor is it satisfactory for the location of the street between a
residential neighborhood and the second largest park in Denver.
FAX PLAN
) Commercial Arterial Streets. Blueprint Denver states that commercial streets are designed with
multiple lanes divided by a landscaped median or a continuous two-way left turn lane in the center.
Commercial streets are designed to balance traffic mobility with access to nearby businesses.
However, because there are so many intersections and access points, commercial streets often become
congested. (Blueprint Denver, pg. 58) Federal Blvd. south of West Colfax Ave. is designated as a
Commercial Arterial.
I Residential Arterial & Collector Streets. Blueprint Denver states that residential streets serve two major
purposes in Denvers neighborhoods. As arterials, residential streets balance transportation choices
with land access, without sacrificing auto mobility. As collectors and local streets, residential streets
emphasize walking, bicycling and land access over auto mobility. In all cases, residential streets tend to
be more pedestrian oriented, giving higher priority to landscaped medians, tree lawns, sidewalks, on-
street parking and bicycle lanes. Residential streets provide important connections to Denvers local
parks. (Blueprint Denverlpg. 55). Meade Street north ofWest 17th Ave., Knox Court south ofWest
Colfax Ave.,West 17th Ave. between Meade and Federal, and West 10th Ave. between Federal and
Sheridan are designated as Residential Collectors. Federal Blvd. north ofWest Colfax Ave. is designated
as a Residential Arterial.
I Main Street Collectors. Blueprint Denver states that main streets serve the highest intensity retail and
mixed land uses in areas such as downtown and in regional and neighborhood centers. Main Streets
are designed to promote walking, bicycling, and transit within an attractive landscaped corridor. Main
Streets may have two to four travel lanes, tree lawns/trees in grates, detached sidewalks, streetscape
amenities, wide sidewalks, and public gathering spaces. (Blueprint Denver, pg. 56).West 17th Ave
(between Sheridan and Stuart) and Perry Street (between West lOthAve andWest 17thAve.) are
designated as Main Street Collectors.
I Street Network
Grid Interruptions. Geographic constraints limit the distribution of traffic across the grid. Sloans Lake and
Lakewood Dry Gulch limit north-south traffic movement. Only Knox Court, Perry Street, Irving Street
(local street) and Julian Street (local street) move cars more than a few blocks north or south of the Colfax
corridor without interruption. Mile High Stadium, the Platte River and 1-25 limit east-west traffic
movement, and downtown access/egress is limited primarily to West Colfax. West 17th Ave., West 14th
Ave. andWest 10th Ave. could offset some of the east-west traffic burden with better promotion of the
connection to downtown via Holden Place andW 13th Avenue (east of Decatur Street) where it crosses
the Platte or under the Colfax viaduct where the street grid provides a link to Auraria Parkway.
Additionally, ways to enhance the connections from West 17th Ave., West 14th Ave. andWest 10th Ave. to
the Colfax viaduct should be explored.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
) Street Typology Map
45


WEST COLFAX PLAN
> Transportation Characteristics
46


WEST COL
EXISTING CONDITIONS: ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
Trade Area. A trade area is an area of geography that developers (of residential, retail, office and other
income producing products) and business owners use to define that area from which the majority of
their residents, patrons, or employees will originate.The best estimated trade areas take into account
factors such as population densities, competitive locations, demographic, housing and lifestyle
characteristics, physical and psychological barriers and access patterns. Estimated trade areas may be
used for proposed developments or redevelopment situations.The experience of successfully
redeveloped infill areas (such as that proposed for the West Colfax Avenue corridor) is that they tend to
draw from an area larger than their primary trade area as they become a place unique to the
environment around them, and therefore a destination in the region. A well-defined trade area
demonstrates the realistic potential of an area to grow and change beyond its current condition (existing
conditions) and capture a share of the growth and transition occurring around it. To that end, future
competitive areas for a revitalized West Colfax Avenue corridor include the retail spine of the Highlands
neighborhood on 32nd Street; former Gates Rubber factory planned redevelopment; Belmar (Villa Italia
Mall redevelopment); West ColfaxAvenue in Lakewood (particularly in the area of Colfax and
Wadsworth); retail / residential mixed-use enclaves on Sheridan and Federal Boulevard and residential
developments in Jefferson Park and the Highlands neighborhood. The trade area for West Colfax is
defined by 1-70 on the north; Pecos Street, Speer Boulevard, Broadway on the east; Mississippi Avenue on
the south; and, approximately Kipling Street on the west. This trade area takes into account the market
dynamics of a potential customer base for the West Colfax study area and provides a broad enough
geographic area to allow for a thorough examination of competition within the larger market area.
Future Competitive Activity. The vision for the West Colfax Corridor as a mixed-use, mixed-income
climate with new development and redevelopment in a dense form and connections to transit corridors
suggests future competition will include Highlands neighborhood; former Gates Rubber factory planned
redevelopment, Belmar (Villa Italia), and the Mercy Hospital redevelopment (outside of the trade area).
Demographic Highlights. Trade area population, relative to the Metro Area as a whole, is growing at a
slower pace, somewhat younger, less well-educated, and more ethnically diverse. Growth rate projections
are affected by agency estimates, historical activity and lack of information about events which will
influence future market activity.Trade area residents are more likely to be employed in blue collar jobs
FAX PLAN
West Colfax Trade Area ) Imw
The West Colfax Study area (which lies between Federal and Sheridan
Birds, and 10th to 17th A.ves.) is centrally located within a larger
trade area defined by the red lines in the above map. This trade area
identifies a potential customer base forfuture retail, office and housing
developments. The trade area provides a broad enough geographic area
to allow a thorough analysis of competition within a larger market
area. Catalytic events (such as the extension of light rail) may
increase the study areas demand and capture rate for new retail, office
and housing development.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
I Market Demand Highlights
The trade area annual demand for:
and take public transportation or carpool to work. Household incomes today are lower than the Metro
Area and the housing stock is older and at lower price points.
1. Housing 475 units
2. Retail 100,000 SF
3. Office 160,000 SF
The factors affecting the trade area demand and
the study areas capacity to capture a greater share
of this demand include:
1. Zoning regulatory changes that allow
increased development potential with
more predictable standards
2. Introduction of new housing product
types and vertically integrated mixed
use.
Market Demand. Over five years, the trade area household growth is estimated to support approximately
475 new units of residential construction per year (but for, increases in allowable zoning, introduction of
new housing product types, and introduction of vertically integrated mixed-use. Over the next five years,
the trade area is estimated to support approximately 100,000 sf of new retail space per year from
demand due to existing voids, household growth and replacement of obsolete space. Demand will
increase with creation of destination and mixed-use environments on the corridor. Over five years, the
trade area is estimated to support approximately 160,000 sf of office space per year from demand due to
employment growth, and turnover of obsolete space.The bulk of this demand will likely not be realized
until 2006 / 2007, due to excess supply in the office market but for, products which are introduced
which address niche opportunities not present (i.e., live/work integrated products).
3. Filling excess office supply and
employment growth.
4. Creation of destination and mixed-use
environments.
I. Development of niche environments,
especially live/work spaces.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
I Trade Area Psychographics.
Psychographics is a term which describes peoplespsychology, as distinct from physical
characteristics. Psychographic analyses identify personality characteristics and attitudes that affect a
persons lifestyle and purchasing behavior. To this end, individuals that may not be grouped together
in the traditional demographic delineations (age, race, gender) rather they may be grouped together in
various psychographic sets. For example, not all Latinos would be grouped together in one
psychographic category, as lifestyle choices can be as much an individual as cultural choice. This
concept explains any discrepancy in the breakout in renter households, as renting as a choice crosses
multiple psychographic categories. Commercial retail developers, in particular, are interested in
understanding a communitys psychographic profile, as this is an indication of its residents propensity
to spend across select retail categories.
Trade Area Index to
Segment Households U.S.
Metropolitans 8,111 882
Industrious Urban Fringe 7,711 798
Main Street, USA 7,330 456
Old and Newcomers 5,834 445
Las Casas 4,36 9 649
International Marketplace 4,024 506
NeWest Residents 3,714 558
There are 62 psychographic categories, and this report only presents the top (largest numbers of
households by category) 7 which are present within the trade area (larger than study area).The top
seven psychographic clusters present within the West Colfax trade area include: Metropolitans,
Industrious Urban Fringe, Main Street USA, Old and Newcomers, Las Casas, International Marketplace,
and NeWest Residents. A description of each is presented in the discussion which follows.
Metropolitans. These residents favor city living in older neighborhoods populated by singles or childless
couples. Neighborhoods are an eclectic mix of single- and multifamily structures, with a median home
value of $ 183,000. Residents include both Gen Xers and retirees, most of whom are prosperous with a
median household income over $55,000. Busy and actively living the urban lifestyle, they participate in
yoga, attend concerts, and visit museums. Listen to jazz, news, talk, and sports radio and rent foreign
videos.Travel for business & pleasure, belonging to 3+ frequent flyer programs. Civically active and
frequent volunteers.
Industrious Utban Fringe. Settled on the fringe of metropolitan cities, residents in this market use access
to the city to earn a living. Diverse families relying on blue collar sectors for employment. Median
household income is $39,000. Family is important, with many living in multi-generational households.
Two-thirds own their homes, which are mostly older. Budget-conscious, with kids, mortgage and pets
taking top priority. Big movie fans both at the cinema and at home.
West Colfax
Income Comparisons
O Denver
West Colfax
Main Street USA. This group profiles the American population. Household size is 2.51, but with a
growing mix of single-households. Median age is 36, with a comfortable middle income of $50,000.64%
49


WEST CO
West Colfax Household Income
The West Colfax area is home to a diverse range of household incomes
with a nearly even split across every income range. Preserving this mix
of incomes will help West Colfax remain a welcome place for many
types of residents.
FAX PLAN
are homeowners in older single-family homes with median value of $165,000.They are active community
members and volunteers, as well as frequent do-it-yourselfers, relying on large home improvement stores.
Old & Newcomers. These neighborhoods are in transition, populated by renters who are starting their
careers or retiring. Many householders are in their 20s or above age 75. Many residents have moved
recently, to apartment buildings constructed in the 1970s. Purchasing behavior reflects their
unencumbered, often single, lifestyle.They are avid book readers.
Las Casas. This group is the latest wave of western pioneers. Settled primarily in California, almost half
were born outside the U.S.Young, Hispanic, and family oriented 62% have kids. Most rent in older
apartment buildings, although 42% own a home, with a median value of $201,000.They are a strong
market for baby and childrens products. Cars are important to this group primarily older models.
International Marketplace. The cutting edge of immigration, this market presents a blend of cultures and
household types. Median age of only 30 years, with married-couple and single-parent families
predominate. Most rent apartments, but almost one-third own. Family is the top purchasing priority, with
medical insurance, groceries, kids clothing and diapers dominating the budget.
NeWest Residents. Among the newest residents in the West, young families, living in mid- or high-rise
apartments, comprise this market. More than half are foreign-born, the population is young, with a
median age of 25. With many small children, the median household size of this group is 3.56.They lead
a strong family-oriented lifestyle with an emphasis on budget-constrained spending on childrens
products and groceries.
50


WEST COLFAX PLAN DRA
EVENTS MATRIX
Critical to interpreting the study areas future competitive position for development growth is an
understanding of potential events which could impact the character and quantity of select land uses as
reflected in absorption activity and project values. Three types of events were considered including:
1. Competition or introduction of major improvement projects (infrastructure events)
2. New development and redevelopment projects (development events)
3. Completion of land use and capital planning documents (planning events)
For the purpose of this analysis, infrastructure events were considered to have an impact when money
had been committed or construction had begun. Development events were considered to have a
significant impact as they essentially served to prove up the market. A planning event was not
considered to have any immediate impact in and of itself. Finally, it was assumed that regulatory barriers
would be eliminated to accommodate the vision of the plan.
The events identified are presented on the following page. The numbers presented in the matrix reflect
the net effect (increase or decrease), as a percent of the baseline capture rate. Events with a neutral
impact are left blank. Impacts from the events matrix were then combined to establish an overall
estimated percentage increase (or decrease) in forecasted capture rates by land use over time.
The discussion that follows presents supply conditions and demand analyses for each land use, which
are then adjusted to reflect the defined impacts of the identified events at select intervals over a fifteen-
year period.
Baseline trade area demand for residential development is a function of projected household growth
across income groups, as is baseline retail demand. Baseline office demand is a function of projected
trade area employment growth. The West Colfax study area is expected to capture some share of this
baseline demand.The capture rate, or market share, is determined based on the level of competitive
activity and the relative advantages of the subject site versus the likely competition. These baseline
demand projections dont, however, take into account certain events that may boost demand.
T FOR COMMUNITY REVIEW
I Corridor Programming Recommendations:
) Improve the mix of land uses
> Establish market niches which provide
near-term development potential
) Analyze existing sale prices and lease rate
ranges, as well as those which are likely
over time
> Encourage development product types
which promote sustainability
> Target growth and investment to areas of
change within the study boundaries
> Establish a desired image and theme
) Enhance community amenities
) Plan for infrastructure improvements
> Develop a policy framework which supports
the community vision and market reality
51


WEST CO
I Pie Analogy
Understanding the trade area, the events matrix
& the capture rate:
Trade area demand is like a whole pie. Multiple
small areas drive total demand within the trade
area. The ability of small areas to capture that
demand (or increase the size of their slice) is a
function of existing conditions (within the small
area), as well as "events" that occur such as
development or infrastructure improvements.
These events improve the ability of the small area
to capture a greater share of the demand (or a
bigger piece of the pie). Therefore:
1. Trade area demand = the pie
2. Study area capture = pie slice
3. Events matrix = factors that affect the size of
the pie slice
FAX PLAN
A wide variety of planned and proposed events over the next twenty years in the trade area have the
potential to positively affect the overall trade area demand and the proportion (capture rate) of that
demand likely to develop along West Colfax. Because of this, development of the Events Matrix to helps
to make more logical, systematic adjustments to these baseline levels. Basically, it assumes that each event
might have some impact on overall trade area market demand (the size of the pie).The matrix also
assumes that these events will increase the capture rate (the size of the study areas slice) attainable by
properties along West Colfax.
The matrix considers first the likelihood of the event occurring over the short, medium or long term. The
sum of these likelihoods is equal to the overall likelihood of the event happening at all, with a combined
score of 10 meaning that the event will certainly happen and a combined score of 5 meaning that it is
50% likely to happen.
Next, the matrix assigns a score for the impact on overall baseline demand. In the model, a score of 5
indicates a very strong positive impact (theoretically the impact could go as high as 10, but that would be
reserved for an extreme impact, like a relocation of a major corporate headquarters).This gets multiplied
by the likelihood to give a percent increase in baseline demand for a given time period.
Finally, the matrix scores for impact on subject capture rate.The redevelopment of a medium-sized
shopping center would be expected to have more impact on capture rate than on baseline demand, since
it wouldnt affect overall fundamental demand so much as increase the chances of landing a development
on a property, given the shortage of developable land. Again, 5 should be considered very high, although
this impact could go as high as 10 in theory. The capture rate gets multiplied by likelihood of the event
occurring in a given time period to give a percentage increase in capture rate (note, this is not a point
increase if the starting capture rate is 10%, a 20 percent increase means 12%, not 30%).
52


WEST COLFAX PLAN
WEST COLFAX EVENTS MATRIX
Event TyPe Likelihood (highest sum=10) tafactaiTtadeAtBidaiBiidfcr...(io=piihciin(iict) tap^ottCofaterfMkadamiidibt...
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________1-5 vts 6-10 vts 10-15 yrs________________________________________residental retail_______________________office______________________residental retail_______________________office
Construct West Corridor light rail line infrastructure 0 1 9 4 5 3 6 7 5
Redevelop St.Anthonys Hospital development 4 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 1
Redevelop Avondale Shopping Center development 4 4 1 3 2 2 3 2 1
Redevelop West Ridge homes development 4 4 1 3 2 0 3 2 1
Redevelop Avondale housing (high-rise & townhomes) development 4 4 1 3 2 0 3 2 1
Redevelop Centura Senior Life Center development 2 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1
Relocate Cheltenham Elementary & mixed-use redevelopment of site development 2 4 3 2 2 0 2 2 0
Relocate Colfax Elementary & mixed-use redevelopment of site development 2 4 3 2 2 0 2 2 0
Reconstruct Federal Bridge infrastructure 5 5 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
Construct Sheridan bridge over gulch infrastructure 5 5 0 0 0 0 1 1 1
Improve intersection at Colfax and Sheridan infrastructure 4 5 0 0 0 0 1 2 1
Assemble & develop mixed-use at Colfax & Sheridan (Arc Thrift Store) development 6 2 0 2 2 1 2 2 1
Roadway/streetscape improvements to Colfax infrastructure 3 4 3 0 0 0 3 5 3
Enhanced transit technology on Colfax infrastructure 0 2 3 0 0 0 2 2 2
Station area development at Decatur/Federal, Knox Court, Perry street, Sheridan/Gulch development 0 4 4 3 3 3 3 5 3
Complete West Colfax Plan planning/policy 10 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 2
Complete Colfax Street Development Guidelines planning/policy 10 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 2
Circulator bus service btw. Knox/Perry stations & Colfax community context infrastructure 0 2 6 0 0 0 2 2 0
Stadium area mixed-use development along Federal development 2 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1
53


WEST COLFAX PLAN

RESIDENTIAL DEMAND ANALYSIS
Residential uses dominate the study area land mix, including a combination of single and multi-family
residences and the Denver Housing Authority community, Westridge Homes. The neighborhoods which
abut the West Colfax Corridor to the north and south were largely built prior to the 1950s, with the
multi-family and public housing components added during the 1970s. Although enjoying many of the
traditional physical elements which have contributed to significant levels of appreciation in other Denver
neighborhoods mature trees, detached sidewalks, neighborhood parks, close in medical services, etc.-
West Colfax neighborhoods have not historically attracted the same level of investor interest. Between
1980 and 2000, housing prices in the area rose at 80 percent of the citywide rate, increasing 194 percent.
This trend, however, may be improving as West Colfax housing price between 1990 and 2000 grew at 116
percent of the citywide rate. Price increases will likely continue to lag behind other neighborhoods
given the areas high concentration of renter-occupied housing units 70 percent in 2000. Comparatively,
the city as a whole has a renter-occupancy rate of 48 percent. Another factor contributing to depressed
home prices in the area is an overall lack of new inventory. Few housing units were built in the West
Colfax area between 1996 and 2002. In fact, the rate of new housing growth in West Colfax has averaged
13 percent of the rate for Denver new housing starts in recent years.
Opportunities to introduce new housing units, a denser housing product and potentially an increase in
home ownership will likely parallel construction of a future light rail line adjacent to the Lakewood Dry
Gulch. The West Corridor Line construction program includes rail station areas at Knox Court, Perry
Street and Sheridan Street. Increased investment at these locations will likely ripple through the
neighborhood, essentially proving up the market for more units and reinvestment in existing units.
A number of recent and planned residential infill projects in the trade area suggest steady demand for
well-designed projects in cases where scarce infill sites are available. Selected residential developments
are profiled briefly below.
Zocalo Condominiums Located on the site of the former Denver Police Department District 1 at West
22nd Avenue and Decatur Street, next to Jefferson Park, the project consists of 42 for-sale condominium
units in a four-story building, with three commercial spaces on the ground floor. Construction is
underway, with pricing from $200,000 to $300,000. 33 of 42 units already sold.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
Walkers Row Located on West 23rd Avenue near Denvers Jefferson Park, Walker's Row is a 15-unit
residential for-sale development consisting of 12 row homes in two buildings and three carriage homes
located over garages. The first row home building with seven units and carriage home/garage buildings
were completed in early 2005. Construction of the second row home building will follow. Carriage
homes are priced from the upper § 100,000s with row homes from the upper $200,000s.
Highlands Square Lofts & Offices Located on the western half of a triangular block along Speer
Boulevard at West 28th Avenue and Clay Street, the Highland Square Lofts is a mixed-use project
consisting of a 10-unit apartment building and professional office space. The project was completed in
2003 and designed by Casey and Godden Architects.
Speer Lofts Located at the corner of Speer Boulevard and West 29th Avenue, across from Viking Park,
Speer Lofts features a four-story building containing 15 residential loft units and five commercial spaces.
Speer Lofts were designed by Real Architecture, Ltd. which also now maintains its offices in one of the
buildings commercial spaces. The project was completed in March 2003.
The Dakota This 61-unit, five-story condominium development is located at the corner of 15th and
Central Streets across 1-25 from the Central Platte Valley. The project also features ground-floor retail and
superior visibility and views from a bluff location. The Dakota was designed by Buchanan Yonushewski
Group. Construction was completed in Spring 2005 with pricing ranging from the low $ 100,000s to
low $400,000s.
Wyandot Overlook Planned for the northeast corner ofWest 29th Avenue and Wyandot Street, this
project consists of 15 for-sale condominium units in a three-story building and is scheduled to be
completed in the Summer of 2006. The architect is Sprocket Design-Build.
Wellington Apartments (Vulcan Ironworks) Home of the former Vulcan Ironworks plant, this 10th
Avenue and Santa Fe site was rezoned in 2002 for a 250-unit mixed-use residential project.After a delay
while developers worked to secure an additional parcel from RTD, the project appears to be back on
track as a multi-family rental development.
Santa Fe Commons This project at the corner ofWest 10th Avenue and Santa Fe Drive was completed
in 2004 on a vacant lot in the heart of the historic Santa Fe business district. The project includes 38
affordable apartment units, 6,000 square feet of ground-floor retail space, 6,000 square feet of second-
floor office space, and two levels of underground parking.
I Strategies to Improve Investment Climate:
I Promote minimum densities at key locations
to facilitate strategic growth
I Restrict under-utilization of urban land
I Apply new zoning in key locations (with
standards to encourage appropriate density,
use mix, open space, setbacks, parking, etc.)
I Invest in infrastructure upgrades
I Cultivate and engage the political will to
make changes happen
I Establish programs which support home
ownership and reinvestment
I Provide incentives (residential reverse
mortgages, smart commute mortgages, etc.)
I Identify catalyst areas (favorable zoning,
incentives, public improvements, etc.)
I Establish a community development entity
to acquire, hold and position key parcels for
redevelopment
55


WEST COLFAX PLAN
Households (DRCOG projection) Colfax Region
2001 65,529 963,607
2005 72,504 1,120,651
2015 77,693 1,329,444
CAGR (05-15) 0.46% 1.72%
Population (DRCOG projection) Colfax Region
2001 174,233 2,467,301
2005 183,559 2,858,885
2015 199,301 3,370,980
CAGR (05-15) 0.37% 1.66%
RESIDENTIAL DEMAND SUMMARY
Demand for new residential units is primarily a factor of growth in income-qualified households within a
trade area. Projected household growth was analyzed along with historical patterns of single and multi-
family development to arrive at a baseline demand estimate within the trade area (represented in the
map on page 54) of approximately 2,050 units between 2005 and 2010. After adjusting for catalyst
events, total study area demand increased to approximately 2,640 units, or 1,700 ownership units and
940 rental units. Assuming a market share of 15 percent for ownership units and 20 percent for rental
units, the study area could capture approximately 250 new ownership units and 190 new rental units of
total trade area growth over the near-term.
*Cy4GR Compound A.nual Growth Rate
** "Colfax" refers to the West Colfax trade area which is
significantly larger than the study area
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
1 Residential supply characteristics for the
RESIDENTIAL DEMAND ANALYSIS trade area housing markets are summarized
as follows:
) West Colfax Trade Area Five Year Demand estimates ) According to MetroList data through July
Households 2005 72,504 Annual Growth Rate 0.50% 2005, home sales under contract were 2.2
2010 74,335 Demolition Rate/yr 0.05% percent below 2004 levels and inventory
levels are up 5.2 percent over 2004. Homes
Household Growth (05-10) 1,831 Annual Pet. 2nd Home 2.0% are staying on the market an average of 91
Total Unit Requirement 2,049 Current Pet. Renters 46% days compared to 85 days during the same
period in 2004.The median price for a
single-family home set another record in July
2005 of $252,250. Higher-end homes are
Trade Area Demand from New Households (5-yr) now seUing faster than entry-level homes,
PiifppntHHs Vet Nrt which was not the case when interest rates
Annual Inmme in Income NewHHs EstFcL total total first feU to historicaUy low levels.
Range (2005) Approx. Rent Approx. Home Bracket by Income total Renters Rental Ownership ) The Denver Metro Apartment Vacancy and
dollars) Range Price Range (2005) Bracket Units (new units) Units Units Rent Survey indicates that vacancy rates fell
up to $15K up to $375 up to $50K 15% 2% 41 95% 39 2 to 8 percent during the second quarter of
$15-25K $375-$625 $50 to $80K 12% 7% 143 85% 122 22 2005 from 9-3 percent in the first quarter,
$25-35K $625 $875 $85 to $120K 13% 8% 164 75% 123 41 the lowest rate since third quarter of 2001.
$35 50K $875 $1000 $120 to $175K 18% 17% 348 50% 174 174 However, average rental rates also declined
$50-75K $1000+ $175 to $250K 20% 25% 512 30% 154 359 to $826 per month during the second
$75 100K $1000+ $250 to $350K 10% 18% 369 20% 74 295 quarter from $836, but remain above second
$100- 150K $1000+ $350 to $500K 8% 16% 328 10% 33 295 quarter of 2004 rates.
$150Kandup $1000+ $500K and up 3% 7% 143 5% 7 136
Totals 100% 100% 2,049 35% 725 1,323
Source: ESRI-BIS, DRCOG, U.S. Census, and Leland Consulting Group
Notes: Household growth rate is based on DRCOG projections
57


WEST COLFAX PLAN
Events that may catalyze residential demand
capture rates include: IMPACT OF EVENTS ON CORRIDOR DEMAND
1. Expansion of light rail service to the study area 2. Application of Main Street zoning along the Demandfor... Residential rental Residential ownership
major commercial streets in the study area (units) (units)
3. Redevelopment ofWestridge Homes as a higher density, mixed-income community 5-year base Unadjusted total 725 1,323
4. Redevelopment of residential land around capture rate 10% 8%
Avondale subject capture 73 106
5. Redevelopment of the Saint Anthonys hospital
site that includes residential investment 2006-2010 Event-adjusted total 936 1,707
capture rate 20% 15%
subject capture 189 250
2011-2015 Event-adjusted total 1,366 2,476
capture rate 21% 15%
subject capture 280 368
2016-2020 Event-adjusted total 2,131 3,639
Capture rate: A comparison of the sales or leasing capture rate 20% 14%
rate of real estate development in a particular study area to the sales or leasing rate of all developments in a larger trade area. The ratio indicates the percent of total development within a trade area that may be captured by a smaller area inside the trade area. subject capture 428 501
58


WEST COLFAX PLAN
RETAIL DEMAND ANALYSIS
Existing retail space in the study area is both aging and relatively dispersed. A significant oversupply of
commercial zoned land along West Colfax Avenue contributes to conditions including flat and declining
property values, high vacancies and limited reinvestment activity. There are few concentrations of
commercial space which provide the critical mass necessary to attract an adequate mix of quality retail
tenants much less draw shoppers from a broader trade area. One of the primary goals of the plan is to
direct retail/service activity to key centers, or nodes along commercial corridors. By doing this, activity
is concentrated, rather than diluted along a lengthy service area. The resulting activity centers serve to
encourage both expansion and diversification of the corridors overall retail/service tenant base. The
tables that follow present a more detailed summary of retail supply conditions within the trade area.
59
"Y~


WEST COLFAX PLAN
) West Colfax Distribution of Jobs by Sector
I Services
4 Retail Trade
4 Trans., Comm., & Pub. Utilities
4 Financial, Insurance & Real Estate
Manufacturing
Wholesale Trade
4 Construction
Other
DETAIL CENTERS OVER 60,000 SQUARE FEET CRLFAX WEST TRARE AREA
Building Name Building Address City Year Built Square FeetPercent Leased Anchor Tenants
Broadway Marketplace 351-417 S Broadway Denver 1994 400,726 98 Albertsons, Kmart, Office Max, Sams Club
Lakewood City Commons Alameda @ Wadsworth Lakewood 2000 310,000 96 Office Max
The Collections 601-695 S Broadway Denver 1966 267,812 100 Culinary Art School, John Brooks, Quest
Edgewater Marketplace 1711-1975 Sheridan Blvd Edgewater 1987 233,670 97 Ace Hardware, King Soopers
JCRS Shopping Center 6501-6791W ColfaxAve Lakewood 1969 192,911 74 Family Dollar, H & R Block, Hollywood Video, Office Max
Alameda Square 2200 W Alameda Ave Denver I960 138,381 0
Fairfield Commons 98 Wadsworth Blvd Lakewood 1985 133,322 86 Burger King, Chilis, Famous Footwear, Kinkos,Tj Max
Alameda Crossing 145-275 S Sheridan Blvd Lakewood 1985 130,782 94 Albertsons,Walgreens
Wal-Mart 300 Wadsworth Blvd Lakewood 121,565 100
Gaylans Bldg (part of Belmar) 7200 W Alameda Ave Lakewood 2004 120,000 100
Home Depot 6701W Alameda Ave Lakewood 1998 119,094 100 Home Depot
Bldg 3B1 7171W Alaska Dr Denver 2004 77,300 100 Victorias Secret
Villa South Shopping Center 1000-1090 S Wadsworth Lakewood 1983 69,071 100 Countrywide Mortgages,TCBY
Ridge Village 3817 Sheridan Blvd Wheat Ridge 1982 60,000 100 King Soopers, Subway
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WEST CO
RETAIL SUPPLY TRENDS COLFAX WEST TRADE AREA 1999 TO PRESENT
Period # Bldgs Total RBA Occupied SF Occupied /o Direct Net Absorption
QTD 188 4,307,589 3,824,128 88.8% (11,558)
2005 2Q 181 4,085,115 3,613,212 88.4% 81,497
2005 IQ 169 4,030,570 3,487,687 86.5% (23,099)
2004 4Q 169 4,030,570 3,511,746 87.1% 97,136
2004 3Q 169 4,030,570 3,416,306 84.8% 15,736
2004 2Q 169 4,030,570 3,400,570 84.4% 145,402
2004 IQ 167 3,833,270 3,251,197 84.8% 9,845
2003 4Q 165 3,819,420 3,313,323 86.7% (137,421)
2003 3Q 165 3,819,420 3,468,290 90.8% 15,141
2003 2Q 164 3,812,720 3,454,449 90.6% (55,121)
2003 IQ 164 3,812,720 3,509,570 92.0% (132,874)
2002 4Q 163 3,802,720 3,642,444 95.8% (3,611)
2002 3Q 163 3,802,720 3,640,389 95.7% 0
2002 2Q 163 3,802,720 3,646,055 95.9% 0
2002 IQ 163 3,802,720 3,646,055 95.9% 1,981
2001 4Q 163 3,802,720 3,644,074 95.8% 5,039
2001 3Q 163 3,802,720 3,639,035 95.7% 4,510
2001 2Q 162 3,799,410 3,634,525 95.7% 3,011
2001 IQ 162 3,799,410 3,631,514 95.6% 0
2000 4Q 162 3,799,410 3,631,514 95.6% 17,175
2000 3Q 162 3,799,410 3,614,339 95.1% 0
2000 2Q 162 3,799,410 3,614,339 95.1% (1,425)
2000 IQ 162 3,799,410 3,615,764 95.2% 363,945
1999 4Q 158 3,435,465 3,251,819 94.7% 0
Source: Costar and Leland Consulting Group, RBA = Rentable Building Area
FAX PLAN
l Retail Supply Trends Highlights:
P The retail trade area (see map, page 61)
currently has 4.3 million square feet of retail
space, of which 3.8 million, or 89 percent
is occupied.
I Retail vacancy rates have continued to
increase since 1999 reaching a mid-2005 high
of over 15 percent. Recent estimates suggest
a leveling off of vacancy rates.
P 2.2 million square feet of the existing 4.2
million square feet of trade area retail space
was constructed, or last renovated, prior to
1985, according to Costar, suggesting an aging
store inventory.
P In the overall Metro Denver market, 60
percent of all retail space was built after 1985,
versus 48 percent in the trade area.
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WEST CO
There is unmet demand in the study area for
the following uses:
1. Full service restaurants and drinking places
2. Clothing stores
3. Electronics & appliance stores
4. Specialty food stores
L F A X PLAN
Demand for retail space is determined by the potential level of retail expenditures in a given trade area.
Existing and projected total household retail expenditures in the trade area were determined by
multiplying growth in households with that portion of household income typically spent on general retail
purchases. The results of this analysis indicate baseline demand for over 320,000 square feet of additional
retail space in the trade area over the next five years. This estimate is based on demand from household
growth, as well as replacement of obsolete space, but does not include demand from dollars occurring
outside the area (retail void). As presented in the table below, several spending categories show a retail
void (evidence that money is being spent outside the trade area). Expenditures made outside the market
are estimated to be supporting over 500,000 square feet somewhere else.After adjusting for key events,
trade area demand increases to approximately 410,000 square feet of retail. Assuming a capture rate of
22 percent, the study area could support the addition of nearly 90,000 square feet of retail space over the
five year period between 2005 and 2010.
Category Supply [sales] Oeiand [retail potential] Unmet Demand Est. Sales/ S.I. Current Retail Void s.(. Additional Demand Iran Hnusehold m Additional Demand frum Obsolescence [Syr.]
Auto parts, Accessories, & Tire Stores $60,492,787 $34,227,031 n/a $250 n/a 3,457 12,099
Furniture & Home Furnishings Stores $84,163,050 $43,311,904 n/a $225 n/a 4,861 18,703
Electronics & Appliance Stores $20,046,596 $34,427,590 $14,380,994 $225 63,916 3,864 4,455
Bldg Mater., Garden Equip. & Supply $74,407,406 $57,693,363 n/a $300 n/a 4,856 12,401
Food & Beverage Stores Grocery Stores $308,692,842 $239,709,683 n/a $375 n/a 16,141 0 41,159
Specialty Food Stores $10,159,562 $12,996,540 $2,836,978 $350 8,106 938 1,451
Beer, Wine & Liquor Stores $53,591,666 $18,778,098 n/a $300 n/a 1,581 8,932
Health & Personal Care Stores $86,804,457 $43,440,591 n/a $275 n/a 3,989 15,783
Clothing & Clothing Accessories Stores $45,296,818 $85,475,449 $40,178,631 $200 200,893 10,792 11,324
Sporting Goods, Hobby Book & Music $77,261,439 $36,719,437 n/a $200 n/a 4,636 19,315
General Merchandise Stores $212,938,723 $141,470,783 n/a $325 n/a 10,992 32,760
Miscellaneous Store Retailers $84,259,040 $31,146,171 n/a $200 n/a 3,932 21,065
Food Services & Drinking Places Full-Sendee Restaurants $27,115,138 $88,082,913 $60,967,775 $225 270,968 9,885 0 6,026
Limited-Service Eating Places $107,733,825 $97,648,271 n/a $325 n/a 7,587 16,574
Special Food Services $20,120,466 $$19,221,835 n/a $250 n/a 1,942 4,024
Drinking Places (Alchoholic Beverages) $19,874,726 $23,534,967 $3,660,241 $350 10,458 1,698 2,839
total from void categories only 554,340 91,150 228,910
Source: US Census, ESRJ-BIS, Urban land Institute, leland Consulting Group
Note: Assumes trade area household growth of 0.5% annually; Assumes 5% turnover from retail space obsoksence over 5 years
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WEST COL FAX PLAN
Events that may have a catalytic effect on office
IMPACT OF EVENTS ON CORRIDOR DEMAND demand capture rates:
Demandfor... 1. Redevelopment of town center destinations with an agglomeration of employment and
Retail space (s.f.), excluding services
existing retail void 2. Expansion of light rail service to the study
5-year base Unadjusted total 320,060 area that provides efficient connections to downtown, the airport and regional
capture rate 10% residential enclaves
subject capture 32,006 3. In-migration of urban families and young professionals seeking housing near downtown
2006-2010 Event-adjusted total 412,877 and light rail
capture rate 22%
subject capture 90,420
2011-2015 Event-adjusted total 606,929
capture rate 21%
subject capture 129,276
2016-2020 Event-adjusted total 1,001,433
capture rate 22%
subject capture 216,310
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
Employed Population by Occupation (2004)
West
Colfax Trade Area Denver MSA
White Collar 52% 68%
Management/Busine s s/Financial 11% 18%
Professional 16% 21%
Sales 11% 14%
Administrative Support 15% 15%
Services 20% 13%
Blue Collar 23% 13%
OFFICE DEMAND ANALYSIS
The provision of live/work opportunities within the study area is a foundation of the plan. In concert
with increased housing density, office development could be introduced to further strengthen the
connection between employment and residential uses. The West Colfax corridor and other key enclaves
within the study area will work as a business address if there are ample opportunities to grow business
support and retail services, eating and drinking establishments, as well as government and other
institutional tenants. Redevelopment of the St.Anthonys medical campus and Avondale shopping center
are obvious locations for an integration of living and working spaces.
Demand for new office space is derived from two primary sources: expansion of existing industry and
the relocation of new companies into the market. In the tables presented below, employment growth
projections by industry classification for the trade area were used to estimate new demand for office
space, using the same trade area boundaries presented above. Based on this analysis, total trade area
baseline demand is estimated to be approximately 600,000 square feet over five years between 2005 and
2010.After adjusting for catalyst events, total study area demand increases to approximately 700,000
square feet. Assuming a capture rate of 9 percent, the study area could expect an increase of more than
60,000 square feet of new / replacement office space with an additional 200,000 square feet over the
following ten years. Office demand will likely be limited to smaller Class B multi-tenant space, with the
exception of catalyst nodes where Class A space may be possible in the mid- or long-term. As the study
area redevelops and land prices begin to increase, demand for higher density mixed-use projects (e.g.
office-over-retail) will begin to emerge. Establishin gthe West Colfax corridor as a destination (for
shopping, dining, services, entertainment, housing and employment) will concurrently enhance this areas
ability to capture demand from tenants seeking these kinds of progressive, mature urban locations.
Forecast tables and the event-based adjustment analysis follow.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
Office supply characteristics within the trade
SUMMARY OF OFFICE SPACE DEMAND FROM EMPLOYMENT GROWTH area are summarized as follows:
1. As of mid-2005, the trade area maintained
) West Colfax Trade Area Five Year Demand 6.4 million square feet of office space, of
which 5.4 million square feet was occupied.
5-yr. Office Est. Est. Office 2. The current trade area vacancy rate of
Est. Annual Job Demand Annual Demand
Current Growth 5-yr. Job Est. Pet. from Job Turnover From 15.6 percent is nearly double the 1999 rate
Jobs Rate* Growth Office Growth (s.f.) Rate Turnover of 7.8 percent, yet down from its peak of

Agriculture & Mining 661 1.0% 34 10% 708 1% 694 18.9 percent in the third quarter of 2003.
Construction 6,558 1.0% 335 15% 10,537 1% 10,328
Manufacturing 5,426 1.0% 277 20% 11,625 1% 11,394
Transportation 999 1.0% 51 20% 2,141 1% 2,099
Communication 392 1.0% 20 30% 1,259 1% 1,234
Electric, Gas, Water, Sanitary Svcs. 302 1.0% 15 30% 972 1% 953
Wholesale Trade 7,799 1.0% 398 10% 8,354 1% 8,189
Retail Trade Summary 24,191 1.0% 1,234 10% 25,913 1% 25,400
Finance, Insurance, Real Estate Services (Non-Retail) 5,171 1.0% 264 90% 49,853 1% 48,866
Hotels & Lodging 359 1.0% 18 10% 384 1% 376
Automotive Services 1,734 1.0% 88 10% 1,857 1% 1,820
Entertainment & Recreation Svcs. 2,491 1.0% 127 10% 2,669 1% 2,616
Health Services 17,882 1.0% 912 30% 57,466 1% 56,328
Legal Services 505 1.0% 26 90% 4,873 1% 4,776
Educational Institutions & Libraries 7,835 1.0% 400 20% 16,786 1% 16,454
Other Services 20,580 1.0% 1,050 30% 66,138 1% 64,829
Government 11,831 1.0% 604 30% 38,021 1% 37,268
Other 592 1.0% 30 30% 1,092 1% 1,864
Totals 115,308 5,882 301,458 295,489
Sources: ESRIBIS, DRCOG, Colorado Division of Local Governments, Leland Consulting Group
*Employment growth rate is between 2,8% forecast for Metro Denver and 0.1% DRCOG forecasts for trade area
Note:Assumes 210 sf of office space per office employee
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
Events that may have a catalytic effect on office
demand capture rates:
1. Redevelopment of town center destinations
with an agglomeration of employment and
service uses.
2. Expansion of light rail service to the study
area that provides efficient connections to
downtown, the airport and regional
residential enclaves
3. In-migration of urban families and young
professionals seeking housing near downtown
and light rail
The proximity of downtown and destinations like Invesco Field at
Mile High Stadium make the West Colfax area an interesting setting
that may appeal to hip professions like architecture firms\ graphic
designers, web designers, public relations firms and start-up businesses.
IMPACT OF EVENTS ON CORRIDOR DEMAND Demandfor... Office Space space (s.f.)
5-year base Unadjusted total 596,946
capture rate 5%
subject capture 29,847
2006-2010 Event-adjusted total 698,427
capture rate 9%
subject capture 60,763
2011-2015 Event-adjusted total 907,956
capture rate 9%
subject capture 80,354
2016-2020 Event-adjusted total 1,343,774
capture rate 9%
subject capture 126,315
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WEST CO
MARKET OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE STUDY AREA
The degree to which the Corridor is able to capture new demand within the trade area (and beyond)
is a function of the redevelopment process itself. Given the highly competitive nature of new
development, and the heightened challenges of developing in an urban infill environment, successful
redevelopment of the West Colfax corridor and study area will depend on defining a place in the
minds of the regions residents. Redeveloping key catalyst areas as retail, residential, employment and
community destinations will necessarily increase its ability to capture not only a greater share of its
trade area demand, but also to reach beyond those boundaries. As redevelopment begins to take hold
and land prices begin to rise, physical limitations which currently restrict the scale of redevelopment
opportunities will lessen as low FAR (Floor Area Ratio) uses, such as automotive sales, succumb to
market forces and land owners begin to seek the highest and best use for an increasingly valuable
asset. This evolution will obviously be expedited if assisted by a favorable regulatory environment
which encourages a denser product model, tighter building form, balanced parking requirements, and
stronger connections.
FAX PLAN
Key Strategies to enhance market opportunities:
1. Define the study area as a place in the minds
of residents and visitors.
2. Develop catalyst sites with a concentration of
housing and destination uses (especially
unique independent busineses such as shops,
restaurants and entertainment venues).
3. Improve the regulatory environment to
encourage desired development patterns.
67


Total Numbet of Violent Crimes ,Lower per Population Relative to Denver Average Relative to Denver Average
WEST COLFAX PLAN
150%
100%
50%
0%
-50%
-100%
-150%
0.015
0.01
0.005
Safety Index: Crimes vs. Persons
(Relative to Denver)
u i
u
u
Northeast Northwest Southeast W. Colfax
Study Area
Violent Crimes per Person by Area
11

Northeast Northwest Southeast DENVER W. Colfax
Study Area
EXISTING CONDITIONS: SAFETY
Safety. Relative to the Denver average, there is a higher rate of crime in the West Colfax area. There are
8.7 violent crimes per 1,000 people in the West Colfax study, which compares to the citywide average of
5.4 crimes per 1,000 people. Denvers Department of Safety Office of Policy Analysis (SOPA) reports
that between 2002 and 2003 the total number of crimes in the West Colfax neighborhood dropped by
4.1% and stayed the same in the Villa Park neighborhood (the two neighborhoods that comprise the
statistical boundaries of the study area). Between, 2003 and 2004 SOPA reports that total crimes
increased 9.7% in the West Colfax neighborhood and 0.4% in the Villa Park neighborhood.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
Theft. Auto theft comprises 32% of all of the crimes in West Colfax, while for the city as a whole, auto
thefts comprise 23% of all crimes. However, burglary, larceny and theft from a motor vehicle comprise a
lesser percentage of the total crimes in West Colfax than the city on the whole. Sexual assaults and
murder occur at roughly the same percentage as the city.
Violent Crimes. Between 1990 and 2000, crime vs. persons (defined by the Denver Police as murder,
sexual assault, aggravated assault and robbery) declined steadily overall despite a slight increase from
2000 to 2001. The rate of violent crimes (total number of violent crimes per person) is greater than the
citywide index with 8.7 crimes per 1,000 people compared to the citywide rate of 5.4 crimes per 1,000
people. West Colfax is generally consistent with the overall city rates of various other crimes. A greater
number of robberies and aggravated assaults are the primary drivers of this difference. Arson, also
comprise a slightly greater percentage of all of the crimes in West Colfax.
Burglary Larceny Theft From Auto
Motor Vehicle Theft
Homicide Sexual Robbery Aggravated Arson
Assault Assault
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
Improve drainage facilities and incorporate water quality best
management practices in the redevelopment of the West Colfax area.
EXISTING CONDITIONS: STORM WATER DRAINAGE 0 WATER QUALITY
Storm Water Drainage Master Plan. The City prepared a Storm Water Drainage Master Plan, based on
Blueprint Denver projections, that addresses the drainage along W Colfax Avenue. From the eastern limit
of the Colfax Corridor at Colfax and Broadway to the western limit at Colfax and Sheridan, the plan
identifies the following issues:
) Basin 4700-01: Sloan Lake- Main feature is Sloan Lake in the NW corner of the Plan area. The
existing drainage system below the lake can not handle the local runoff and is undersized for
the 5-year event. The following projects are identified in the Storm Water Drainage Master
Plan (these projects are not included in the current 6-Year Plan):
A) N. Stuart Outfall-18 Lateral to provide additional inlets for 17th Ave.
B) N.Wolfe Street Outfall-18 Lateral to provide additional inlets for 17th Ave
Q W. 15thAvenue Improvements- 42upgrade to mains
D) W. Colfax Improvements- 36 to 78 upgrade to mains serving the South Platte outfall.
I Basin 0061-01:27th & Federal Basin- Much of the existing system is undersized and can not
convey the 2-year or 5-year event. Two alternatives were proposed, a detention and a
conveyance mode. These were estimated at $35.5 M and $35.0 M respectively. Some work is
underway and included in 07, 08 and lOthrough 12 of the 6-year plan.
I Basin 4800-01: Lakewood Gulch- This basin is involved in major work to support the RTD Fast
Tracks West Corridor program. In addition, minor north-south pipe upgrades are identified
for Knox Ct and Irving St. Work to support the crossing of Sheridan by Lakewood Gulch is
planned for 07 and 08 and totals $5 M.
I Basin 4801-01: Dry Gulch- No major deficiencies. The following projects are identified in the
StormWater Drainage Master Plan (these projects are not included in the current 6-Year Plan):
A) N Wolfe St Improvements- 42 Lateral to provide additional inlets
B) N Stuart St Improvements- 42 Lateral to provide additional inlets
Water Quality Management Plan. The Water Quality Management Plan prescribes a number of best
management practices to protect water quality. Given the prevalence of important drainage basins, future
planning and redevelopment efforts should incorporate water quality management plans to prevent
sediment and contaminants run-off into area water bodies.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
West Colfax Floodplain and Landfills
S
r-j.
Permeable pavers in parking lots (above) and alleys (below)
Kooftop rain gardens (below)
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
72


WEST COLFAX PLAN
VISION STATEMENT
I skate where the puck is going to be,
not where it has been.
Wayne Gretzky
73


WEST COLFAX PLAN
WEST COLFAX VISION STATEMENT
West Colfax Avenue will be a safe and attractive mixed-use commercial and residential corridor that
complements and sustains the adjacent residential neighborhoods. Future development preserves and
enhances the ethnic and economic mix of people while encouraging walking, biking and transit use.
Growth promotes and reinforces a positive community image.
After
74


WEST COL
Several components of the vision resonated throughout the West Colfax planning process:
1. Improve the urban design
2. Strengthen the mix of land uses
3. Enhance the mobility options for residents
Urban Design. A network of green connections forms the basis of the urban design concept. This green
network links focal points and gateways (such as public art or fountains) at key destinations or
intersections. Uniform streetscaping with pedestrian lighting, improves connections between the
neighborhood and parks, trails, schools, commercial areas and transit stops. Sloans Lake and the Lakewood
Dry Gulch integrate seamlessly with the community offering community gardens, an arboretum,
recreational activity, an amphitheater and miles of trails. The rolling topography of the area provides the
potential for unmatched views of the mountains, Sloans Lake, the urban forest and city lights.
Land Uses. Targeted increases in residential density in transit rich parts of the neighborhood build in a
customer base for a diverse local business market.This dense customer base attracts a variety of
businesses to meet daily needs a hardware store, sporting goods store, etc. Residents represent a rich
mix of cultures that attract ethnic businesses and build on the areas historic attributes: Jewish, Latino,
Italian, and Asian shops, services and cultural activities. Other businesses locate here including live
theater, bistros, offices, grocery stores. Emerging land development patterns encourage walking, biking
and transit use.
Mobility. Enhanced pedestrian, bicycle and transit connections between the neighborhoods north and
south of Colfax are safe and attractive.A community shuttle helps integrate the greater west side with
the light rail, businesses on Colfax and other destinations throughout the west side neighborhoods.
FAX PLAN
"Have a vision not clouded by fear.
Cherokee Proverb
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
DRAFT FOR CO MM UNITY R E V i EW
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
FRAMEWORK PLAN
I Urban Design
I Land Use
I Mobility
I Economic Development
Creativity can solve almost any problem. The
creative act, the defeat of habit by originality,
overcomes everything.
George Lois
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WEST CO
Members of the community participated in workshops and numerous
stakeholder meetings to identify a future land use development concept.
These community advocates considered development opportunities,
important transportation routes, edge conflict areas and significant
historic resources, as well as distinct districts such as main streets, town
centers and urban neighborhoods (and their associated station areas).
L F A X PLAN
PURPOSE OF THE FRAMEWORK PLAN
This chapter provides the framework for understanding the organization of the corridor and the
overriding issues faced by all of the subareas. Several elements comprise the study areas: main streets,
urban neighborhoods (includes both conservation and growth areas), urban neighborhood station areas
and town centers. The Framework Plan provides the overarching goals and recommendations for these
places within the study area; it provides technical guidance for zoning regulatory changes, infrastructure
planning and policy direction. As conditions change within the study area, the Framework Plan provides
the first source of information for the appropriate course of action.
The West Colfax Stakeholders and members of the general public participated in workshops to craft a
land development concept for the study area. The participants identified development opportunities,
important transportation routes, edge conflict areas and significant historic resources, as well as
distinct urban design districts such as main streets, town centers and urban neighborhoods (and their
associated station areas). The land use concept map articulates a vision of main street districts
punctuated by town centers at key activity nodes and surrounded by urban neighborhood districts
with two light rail transit stations.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
I Future Land Use Concept
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
Ensure that new construction complements traditional urban patterns of
development in both neighborhood and commercial districts.
URBAN DESIGN: GOALS
\ Goal 1: Development Patterns Urban Design Districts
Establish distinct urban design districts that prescribe the pattern of existing and future development, as
well as contribute to an evolving sense of place within the West Colfax study area.
\ Goal 2: Centers, Gateways & Focal Points
Establish identifiable gateways and focal points to signal arrival at key neighborhood destinations, town
centers and station areas.
\ Goal 3: Design Quality
Promote quality design in growth areas where intensive, mixed-use development is expected to occur.
\ Goal 4: Historic Resources & Compatible Development
Preserve historic resources and complement the traditional urban patterns of development.
\ Goal 5: Street Character and Hierarchy
Connect residential areas and neighborhood gathering places with safe and attractive multimodal
linkages. Identify the appropriate urban design details to distinguish a clear hierarchy of street types in
the West Colfax area.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
) Urban Design Concept Map
Main Street Mixed Use Area
Town Center Growth Area
Residential Stabilization Area
Residential Growth Opportunity Area
Main Street
Multimodal Green Street
Pedestrian/Bike Route
Light Rail (approximate alignment)
Bridge
Pedestrian Bridge/Underpass
Gateway
Neighborhood Focal Point
Future Open Space
Reconnected Street Grid
Transit Station
# Points of Interest
1 ... Invesco Field at Mile High
2 ...Rude Recreation Center
3 ...Denver Human Services
4 ...Historic Carnegie Library Building
5 ...Lake Steam Baths
6 ... Mulroy Community Center
7 ...Future Community Garden
8 ...Stuart Street Historic District
9 ... Yeshiva Toras Chaim
10 & 1 ..Beth Jacob High School
12 ...Park Overlook (planned)
13 ..Waterfall & Park Overlook (planned)
14 .. Multi-use Playing Field (planned)
15 .. Perry Street Station Improvements t Ampitheater t Destination Park t WaterAccess t Public Art Elements
16 Volleyball Court
17 Wetland Park
18 Infill Development Site (planned City-owned property)
19 Knox Street Station Improvements t Pedestrian Bridge t Water Edge Improvements
20 Baseball Field
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&
'Buildings that for a consistent street wall with residential units and/or
office space over active groundfiloor uses characterise Main Street
development patterns.
FAX PLAN
URBAN DESIGN: RECOMMENDATIONS
\ Recommendation 1: Development Patterns Urban Design Districts
The Urban Design concept creates a framework for future growth and change, as well as preservation
and stability where an existing development pattern is consistent with the district descriptions that
follow. The urban design concept identifies four types of urban design districts: Main Street, Urban
Town Center, Urban Neighborhood and Urban Neighborhood Station. These four districts (as described
in the following text) illustrate a potential future structure of the urban environment that may be
achieved with successful implementation of this plan.
\ Main Street
Development pattern:
Typical scale:
Uses:
Features:
Street Character:
Parking:
Linear, buildings oriented to the street/sidewalk
2-5 stories (up to 10 stories in transit rich places), 75%-100% lot
coverage (minimum 75% building frontage)
Mixed vertically and/or horizontally
Large display windows, balconies, patios, plazas, iconographic and
projecting signs, direct access from public sidewalks
Street furniture, street trees and wide sidewalks with trees in grates
On-street, in structures or behind street-facing buildings
A linear development pattern applied primarily as a veneer along commercial thoroughfares defines Main
Street urban design districts. Buildings of 2 to 5 stories with residential units or office space over active
ground floor uses such as retail shops or restaurants typify the character of Main Streets. Buildings of
greater intensity (up to 8-10 stories) may occur at major transit stations areas or other centers of
pedestrian activity. Fully residential buildings located between commercial nodes may include lower
level, street oriented walk-up units with individual entry stoops to facilitate both activity and privacy. The
orientation of buildings is to the sidewalk in a pattern that defines street edges and corners, and creates a
comfortable pedestrian environment. Large display windows, balconies, patios, plazas, street furniture,
street trees, wide sidewalks, iconographic and projecting signs are common Main Street features.
Sidewalks areas are attached and wide enough to accommodate an 8 wide amenity zone (with trees in
grates, bike parking facilities, street furniture, information/parking kiosks and pedestrian lighting) and an
8 12wide sidewalk. Parking is provided on-street, in structures or behind street-facing buildings.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
) Urban Town Center
Development pattern:
Typical scale:
Uses:
Features:
Compact, development radiates from dense core and
a centralized gathering place
Variable greatest height and intensity of lot coverage in core radiates
to lower intensity at fringe
Mixed vertically and/or horizontally, highest intensity destination and
employment uses in the core, civic amenities and housing dispersed
throughout
Stoops, plazas, outdoor seating and pocket parks
Street Character: Street trees, street furniture, wide sidewalks and pedestrian lighting
Parking: On-street, in structures or behind street-facing buildings
A compact, dense, inter-connected and walkable development pattern typically clustered at or near the
intersection of major arterials defines Town Centers. Often these activity centers include a mixed-use
retail and employment oriented core organized around a central plaza or formal green space. Live-work
units, residential structures with accessory retail and residential structures (used solely for residential
occupancy) radiate in intensity from the core. Housing options come in a variety of forms from
townhomes and row houses dispersed throughout the Town Center to condominium buildings in the
core. The highest intensity residential buildings are associated with large development parcels or the
presence of transit. Typically, such larger residential buildings capitalize on an opportunity to offer
extraordinary views of city lights or the mountains. Town Centers are perfect locations for destination
retail, employment, dining and entertainment venues as well as elderly housing, housing for low- to
moderate-income workers, daycare and youth programs. Civic amenities such as satellite libraries and
postal offices are key elements that support common needs of residents and reinforce public gathering.
Plentiful street trees, street furniture and pedestrian lighting soften the urban context ofTown Centers
and encourage inhabitants and visitors to walk and mingle on the streets. Stoops, plazas, outdoor seating
and pocket parks provide discreet public gathering places. Sidewalks are wide and depending on
locations are either attached with trees in grates (in the core) or detached with tree lawns (at the
fringe). Parking is provided primarily in structures out of view from public areas.
Urban Town Centers contain a compact mix of destination,
employment and residential uses. With careful design treatment these
places provide opportunities for both formal and informal community
gathering.
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Urban neighborhood areas provide a sense of privacy despite the
intensity of development.
\ Urban Neighborhood
Development pattern:
Typical scale:
Uses:
Features:
story
Street Character:
Parking:
Variable, compact, dense
Buildings 1-4 stories, 25%-75% lot coverage
Healthy mix of residential housing options single family, duplex,
apartments, rowhouses, townhomes and condominiums
Extraordinary views of city lights or the mountains, balconies, upper
step backs and subordinate building volumes
Street trees, street furniture, detached sidewalks and pedestrian lighting
On-street or in structures
A range of development intensities defines Urban Neighborhood areas. Housing options are appropriate
for a central city location including single-family houses, carriage houses, duplexes, apartments,
townhomes, row houses and condominiums. Buildings of one to four stories characterize the prevailing
degree of development, with buildings over two stories typically forming neighborhood edges or end
cap structures on blocks fronting busy streets. High intensity parts of an Urban Neighborhood form a
transition between the prevailing neighborhood pattern and an activity center or take advantage of a
significant infill opportunity on a larger than average development site. Urban neighborhoods are dense
and private, offering a place for urban dwellers to find refuge close to downtown, main streets, town
centers and transit stations. Buildings are often setback from the sidewalk to provide a semi-private green
edge or patio space. Back yards or courtyards provide private open space in Urban Neighborhoods.
Design features such as upper story setbacks, balconies and subordinate building volumes help minimize
the perceived mass of larger than average residential structures. Sidewalks are generally detached with
trees in tree lawns. Parking is provided on-street, in structures or in garages or parking spaces accessed
from alleys. Parking is rarely visible from public areas. There are two general types of urban
neighborhood areas:
1. Residential Stabilization Areas where existing buildings should be preserved, rehabilitated
and reused.
2. Residential Growth Opportunity Areas where the existing housing stock is dated and declining, and
may be appropriate for redevelopment to encourage revitalization and reinvestment.
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) Urban Neighborhood Station
Development pattern:
Typical scale:
Uses:
Features:
Street Character:
Parking:
Variable, compact, dense highest intensity focused around the
station platform
Buildings 1-5 stories, 30%-100% lot coverage
Single-family and multi-family residential
Front yards, courtyards, porches, stoops, and balconies
Street trees, detached sidewalks
On-street or in garages or parking spaces accessed from alleys
An evolving and flexible development pattern defines an Urban Neighborhood Station. This land use
development pattern occurs within a 1/4 to 1/2 mile radius of light rail stations in the central city of a
metropolitan region. Generally, development happens here as infill on vacant parcels or redevelopment
of underutilized parcels or dated and declining properties. Since, the stations evolve in established
residential areas, initial changes may add density and intensity in compact building forms that blend in
with the prevailing residential context. Development may progress initially from residential additions and
rehabilitations to the addition of carriage houses and conversion of single-family structures to duplexes,
triplexes and quads. Over the long-term, some more significant and welcome redevelopment may occur,
adding small and medium scale apartments or condominium buildings in close proximity to the station
areas. Front yards, courtyards, porches, stoops, and balconies are key features. Sidewalks are detached
with tree lawns. Parking is provided on-street or in garages and parking spaces accessed from alleys.
FAX PLAN
Compact development around a shared courtyard id typical of an
Urban Neighborhood Station.
More intense residential development may be appropriate in the
immediate vicinity of an urban neighborhood light rail stop.
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Gateways andfocal points may provide distinguishable landmarks
within the urban environment to mark a significant point of entry or
community gathering area. The presence of such landmarks facilitates
wayfinding and draws attention to special areas within a community.
"Tandmarks can make important to our eyes city areas which are
important in functional fact but need to have that fact visually
acknowledged and dignified."
Jane Jacobs
FAX PLAN
I Recommendation 2: Gateways & Focal Points
Establish gateways and focal points in key locations with significant or unique attributes such as an
historic building, unique neighborhood destination, a notable entry point or critical intersection.
Gateways and focal points may include public art, fountains, plazas, a sign, a landmark building or
significant architectural feature (such as a clocktower).
I Recommendation 3: Patterns of Development
Create a pattern book for urban neighborhoods, town centers and main streets to illustrate preferred land
development patterns. Promote this document to architects, homebuilders, developers, residents, realtors
and other groups to help educate the community about design.
I Recommendation 4: Compatible Development & Design Standards
Integrate new development with the existing urban fabric by acknowledging the scale, proportions,
orientation, quality of construction and other architectural and site design features of existing buildings
that exhibit the traditional development patterns of urban neighborhoods, main streets or town centers.
Refer to the following design principles as the foundation on which to design architectural forms which
challenge the senses, spark debate, draw visitors and create future landmarks:
1. Arrange residential, employment, retail, service and open space uses to be convenient to and
compatible with each other.
2. Create spatial definition of the street with buildings and landscaping to promote
pedestrian activity:
a. Orient main street buildings to form a consistent street wall; orient structures on corner
lots to hold the corner.
b. Consider the different street edges created by front yards and the variety of residential
building types that comprise urban neighborhoods.
c. Consider the street edge created by the variety of buildings in town centers.
3. Minimize the visual impacts of parking areas, parking structures and residential garages on
streets, open spaces and adjoining development.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
4. Design parking and site access so that impact on the pedestrian realm is minimized.
Examples of such techniques include locating parking at the rear of the site away from the
street, utilizing the alley for site access and designing drive-through uses so that they do not
conflict with the pedestrian realm.
5. Create buildings that provide human scale and interest through the use of varied forms,
materials, details and colors while relating the size, dimension and symmetry of new
construction to the proportions of adjacent buildings.
a. Mass Relate the perceived form, quantity or aggregate volumes of new construction to
the form of traditional development patterns.
b. Scale Relate the intervals, rhythm and order of new construction to traditional
development patterns.
c. Spacing Relate the location of windows, doorways and other features, horizontal or
vertical banding, caps, bases and central entries to relate to adjacent structures that reflect
traditional development patterns.
Create buildings that provide human scale and interest through the use
of varied forms, materials, details and colors while relating the sfe,
dimension and symmetry of new construction to the proportions of
adjacent buildings.
d. The upper stories of taller buildings are expected to step back to preserve pedestrian
scale and compatibility with existing structures.
6. Provide architecturally finished and detailed elevations for all exposures of the building with
the primary street facing facade having appropriate architectural expression.
a. Include human scaled building elements and architectural variation including form, detail,
materials and colors to provide visual interest. Prominent and/decorative parapets and
cornices are appropriate. Use repeating patterns of color, texture, material or change in
plane as integral parts of the building fabric, not superficially applied.
b. Provide pedestrian active uses on the first floor of commercial and mixed-use buildings,
directly accessible from public space. Use transparent clear glazed areas that permit
views of interior activities. Large expanses of blank wall are not appropriate for
pedestrian oriented development.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
Design architectural forms which challenge the senses, spark debate,
draw visitors and create future landmarks, like these infill buildings
constructed in ;Amsterdam (above), Denvers Merchants Row in the
Curtis Park neighborhood (below) or this commercialpop-top in
Boulder (bottom).
c. Provide design features such as stoops, patios, porches and balconies on the
street facing facades of residential buildings to promote informal opportunities for
community interaction.
7. Provide a primary building entrance facing or clearly visible from the public sidewalk. Clearly
articulate the main entrance of buildings. Secondary entrances may be provided from parking
areas or side streets.
8. Use durable materials that complement Denvers tradition as a city of brick and
masonry construction.
9. Ensure that signs are compatible with and enhance the character of the surrounding area
when considered in terms of scale, color, material and lighting levels. Signs should be creative
in the use of two and three dimension forms, profiles and monographic representation while
being constructed of high quality, durable materials that are appropriate to an urban setting.
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LAND USE
I Primary Issues and Opportunities
Underutilized commercial properties. West Colfax, Federal and Sheridan contain a significant number of
underutilized properties characterized by a land value that is greater than the improvements value. Auto-
oriented development (gas stations, auto repair), single use commercial structures surrounded by
parking, and drive through facilities comprise the majority of the commercially zoned land along West
Colfax, Federal and Sheridan. At high concentrations, these uses have a corrosive effect on the urban
environment and contribute to the depopulation of land in transit rich areas. Ultimately, such conditions
have a negative influence on area land values.
West Colfax commercial area. Lot depths of commercially zoned property along West Colfax vary from
50 feet to 250 feet. Existing commercial zoning standards (especially the combination of relatively low
permitted floor area ratio and a high parking ratio) limit the land development potential along the
corridor particularly on small, shallow parcels. This combination of factors can create pressure to
assemble land beyond that zoned for commercial use in order to amass an appealing development site
and meet parking requirements.The edge between the commercial area and the residential area is
abrupt with little room to make smooth transitions or provide significant buffers.
Inadequate design & development standards. Existing zoning along West Colfax lacks the appropriate
design and development standards to define street edges and corners, encourage mixed use
development and enhance the pedestrian experience at street level. Parking is often provided between
buildings and streets, and excessive curb cuts interrupt the pedestrian realm.
Degraded commercial storefronts. Many commercial properties show signs of neglect. Peeling paint,
vacant storefronts, deteriorated signs, excessive visual clutter from window signs and temporary banners,
and broken windows communicate an image of decay, inferior products and services, as well as an
overall lack of safety. Inadequate separation between buildings and streets (caused by a lack of on-street
parking in some places and narrow sidewalks) contributes to the deteriorating conditions and creates
hazardous conditions for pedestrians. Passing vehicles create splash and throw rocks onto sidewalks and
storefronts causing chipped paint and broken windows.
FAX PLAN
Underutilised commercial land along West Colfax abuts stable
residential areas.
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Center Commons> PortlandOR
A. 5-acre showcase of mixed-income, transit-oriented urban
development\ Center Commons includes 172 units of low-income
housing for seniors, 56 market-rate apartments, and 60 apartments for
very low-income families. Phis development is within walking distance
of a MAX light rail line and has on-site day care options as well as a
play area for children. It is an ideal development model for land
assemblages in urban neighborhood stations, in particular West-ridge
Homes adjacent to the station at Knox Court.
L F A X PLAN
Ethnic and cultural heritage. The West Colfax study area is home to a diverse mix of ethnic groups and
cultural heritages. The Jewish, Italian, and Latino cultures combine in a healthy urban mix in the West
Colfax study area and form the basis for establishing a distinct set of identifiable districts within the
context of the larger neighborhood and Denver community.
Residential character and stability. Three discernible construction periods define the bulk of the stable
housing stock found in the West Colfax area Victorian, Craftsman and Mid-Century modern. The brick
and masonry construction of these architectural styles make these residential areas attractive for
conservation, reinvestment and rehabilitation. In unstable parts of the neighborhood the housing stock is
dated, the building materials are of an inferior design quality (including vinyl siding, concrete block) and
the overall condition of these structures is often poor; rehabilitation is a less appealing option here, but
redevelopment may occur at higher densities that are typically found when there is a rich supply of
transit in close proximity.
Housing density. While the housing density in the West Colfax area is more urban than Denver as a
whole, there is opportunity to significantly increase the number roof tops in the area without
dramatically altering the character of the neighborhood. Adding more residences in strategic locations
(such as designated town centers, main streets, and urban neighborhood stations) will position the
community to take greater advantage of the coming light rail and help support the revitalization of
commercial areas by building in a more populous customer base.
Housing occupancy status. Housing occupancy status in the West Colfax study area is heavily skewed
toward rental occupancy. Renters occupy a full 70% of available housing units. There are several public
housing facilities that concentrate and isolate large numbers of low-income households.The community
would benefit from two things: programs to encourage homeownership and redevelopment that breaks
up concentrations of poverty. Such redevelopment should occur at higher densities to retain the
affordable and subsidized units while introducing a greater share of housing for higher income
individuals than what exists today. Examples include the ParkAvenue Redevelopment, developed by the
Denver Housing Authority, were a low density, low-income project has been scraped and is being
replaced with a mixed-income rental and homeownership development. This project is being
accomplished by the above suggestions. The density is being doubled, the entire site has been rezoned to
mixed-use, the development has been replatted to reintegrate it with the street grid opening up to the
neighborhood and encouraging pedestrian activity including connectivity to light rail which is within
walking distance.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
Proximity to downtown and the regional transportation network. The West Colfax area affords superior
access to the regional transportation network and to downtown Denver. This area is particularly well
suited as a place of residence for employees of downtown Denver or the Federal Center in Lakewood, as
well as Auraria students. Existing and future transit service will provide many opportunities for future
redevelopment to cater to residents, students and employees who use alternative modes of transportation.
Views. The rolling topography of the West Colfax study area offers noteworthy views of the mountains,
city lights and parkland.
Parks and open space. West Colfax open space amenities provide nearby residents with many
recreational options. These open spaces also provide breathing space in areas where redevelopment
and intensification may be expected, especially near town centers and transit station areas.Though
served by Sloans Lake Park and the parks in the Lakewood Dry Gulch, the West Colfax and Villa Park
Neighborhoods were identified by the Game Plan as neighborhoods of greatest need based on
performance indicators for the amount of parkland per person relative to projected growth.The ideal
target is to provide 10 acres of parkland per 1000 residents. West Colfax and Villa Park neighborhoods
provide between 2.6 and 5 acres of parkland per 1000 people, and the neighborhoods fall below 50% of
the benchmark for soccer, football, and multi-use fields.
Alley configuration. Alleys which lead to West Colfax Avenue (due to their orientation to the street grid)
cause a number of problems. First, the alleys interrupt the pedestrian realm and disrupt traffic flow as a
result of turning movements. Second, the alleys limit linear land assemblages and inhibit the
construction of buildings that would form a more consistent street wall along main street arterials.Third,
when an alley terminates at West Colfax, rather than in T or L configurations behind commercial
structures, it does not form a natural boundary between mixed-use main streets and residential
neighborhoods. By encouraging T and L configurations, pedestrian and vehicle conflicts may be
lessened and clearer boundaries may be formed between commercial and residential districts.
The West Colfax area affords breathtaking views of downtown, the
mountains, Sloans Take and area parks.
Elementary school presence. There are two elementary schools located on West Colfax Cheltenham
Elementary (at Colfax and Irving) and Colfax Elementary (at Colfax and Tennyson). According to Denver
Public Schools, a majority of the students come from south of Colfax. With an average daily traffic
volume of approximately 35,000 vehicles per day and a posted speed limit of 35 mph, Colfax is an
undesirable address for an elementary school. The schools occupy valuable assemblages along the main
street. The City and DPS should explore all opportunities to relocate the schools to a more appropriate
location, and redevelop the sites with a mix of uses that facilitate revitalization of the corridor.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
There are two elementary schools located on West Colfax
Cheltenham TLlementary (at Colfax and Irving) and Colfax
elementary (at Colfax and Tennyson), yAccording to Denver Public
Schools, a majority of students come from south of Colfax. With an
average daily traffic volume of approximately 35,000 vehicles per day
and a posted speed limit of 35 mph, Colfax is an undesirable address
for an elementary school. The schools occupy valuable assemblages along
the main street. The City and DPS should explore all opportunities to
relocate the schools to a more appropriate location, and redevelop the
sites with a mix of uses that facilitate revitalisation of the corridor.
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WEST COLFAX PLAN
LAND USE: GOALS
I Goal 1: Compact, Mixed-Use Development
Encourage corridor growth to be dense, compact and transit supportive to create healthy neighborhood
edges along main streets that serve nearby residents with an urban mix of retail shops, services,
employment and civic uses.
I Goal 2: Focus Intense Growth to Target Areas
Focus intense development to strategic growth areas at the edges of neighborhoods along Main Street
corridors or in neighborhood centers such as transit station areas and town centers.
I Goal 3: Diverse Housing Options
Provide a diverse mix of housing types (townhouse, rowhouse, duplex, multi-family, live work and artist
studio), occupancy status (rental and ownership units), densities and costs (low-income, affordable and
market rate).
I Goal 4: Value Historic Resources
Promote restorations and renovations of residential and commercial structures that maintain the historic
style, quality and character of original buildings, and adaptively reuse historic resources in the study area.
I Goal 5: Neighborhood Character Stability
Respect the urban design and architectural character of established residential areas.



1 I'r i ijpwr'j-'i.vv-
Renovate and adaptively reuse original buildings in the study area as
Confluence Ministries and Volunteers of Mmerica did with the
buildings pictured above and below.
\ Goal 6: Maximize Urban Land Development Potential
Maximize development of urban land through infill on vacant parcels, redevelopment of underutilized
parcels or dilapidated properties and adaptive reuse of historic resources.
\ Goal 7: Parks & Recreation Resources
Maintain, enhance and expand parks, open spaces and recreational facilities.
\ Goal 8: Public Gathering
Increase the opportunities for informal and formal public gathering in the community.
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"Establish and apply form based zoning tools appropriate for the
structure, uses and character of urban neighborhoods.
Consider lot and block structure, site design, building orientation,
architectural character, the range of appropriate building types and
location criteria for the variety of appropriate structures.
FAX PLAN
[AND USE: RECOMMENDATIONS
\ Recommendation 1: Urban Neighborhood Regulatory Tools
Work with the Zoning Code Task Force to establish and apply form based zoning tools appropriate for
the mix of building types and uses (primarily housing and complementary uses) that define an urban
neighborhood and their associated station areas. Ensure that these zoning tools consider, define and
respect the traditional and desired forms of urban neighborhood patterns of development. Consider:
\ Urban design (lot and block structure, site design, building orientation, setbacks, relationship
of buildings to streets)
\ Range of building types (single family structures, duplexes, triplexes, quads, courtyard
apartments, carriage houses, row houses, town homes) and associated design elements
(entries, balconies, stoops, materiality, glazing)
\ Architectural character (building envelope, scale, proportions, materiality, rhythm, massing
and height)
\ Location criteria for certain building types and uses to ensure the evolution of the appropriate
urban neighborhood texture that complements the transportation network:
I Ensure rational evolution of urban neighborhoods and their station areas, so that changes
in development intensities occur in harmony with prevailing neighborhood character.
I Correlate higher intensity structures to within close proximity of station area platforms or
as end cap buildings on block faces fronting busy neighborhood streets.
I Limit non-residential uses to select small-scale, low impact uses such as a corner store,
small office or service (daycare, printer, post office) that reinforce traditional
neighborhood patterns of development by providing for daily needs of neighborhood
residents in appropriate locations.
\ Recommendation 2: Town Center Regulatory Tools
Establish form based zoning tools appropriate for the mix of buildings types and uses that define a town
center. Ensure that these zoning tools consider, define and respect the traditional and desired forms of
town center patterns of development. Develop standards for:
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WEST COLFAX PLANADOPTED BY CITY COUNCIL SEPTEMBER 18,2006

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WEST COLFAX PLAN ii West Colfax Plan Adopted by City Council on September 18,2006 Prepared by the Denver Dpeartment of Community Planning and Development 201 West Colfax Avenue,Dept.205 Denver,Colorado 80202 720-865-2915 www.denvergov.org/westcolfaxplan

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WEST COLFAX PLANACKNOWLEDGEMENTSMayor John Hickenlooper Denver City Council Rosemary Rodriguez (District 3),President Rick Garcia (District 1) Jeanne Faatz (District 2) Peggy Lehman (District 4) Marcia Johnson (District 5) Charlie Brown (District 6) Kathleen MacKenzie (District 7) Elbra Wedgeworth (District 8) Judy Montero (District 9) Jeanne Robb (District 10) Michael Hancock (District 11) Carol Boigon (At-Large) Doug Linkhart (At-Large) Denver Planning Board Barabara Kelley,Chair Brad Buchanan William Hornby Laura Aldrete Jeff Walker Richard Delanoy Mason Lewis Judith Martinez Thomas Potter Fred Corn Bruce ODonnell Denver Community Planning & Development Peter J.Park,Manager Katherine K.Cornwell,Project Manager Eric McClelland Jim Ottenstein Catherine Cox-Blair Chris Gleissner Denver Public Works Amy Wiedeman Jason Longsdorf Brian Mitchell Bob Kochevar Dave Weaver David Ridenour Denver Parks & Recreation Andrea Riner Keith French Office of Economic Development Jacky Morales-Ferrand Cec Ortiz Katherine OConnor Beth Truby Denver Urban Renewal Authority Tracey Huggins Laura Aldrete Cameron Bertron Denver Public Works Amy Wiedeman Jason Longsdorf Brian Mitchell Bob Kochevar Denver Housing Authority Chris Parr Stella Madrid Denver Public Schools Ethan Hemming Regional Transportation District Bill Sirois Dave Hollis City of Lakewood Colorado Department of Transportation Leland Consulting Group Anne Ricker Bill Cunningham University of Colorado College of Architecture & Planning Kevin Puccio West Colfax Stakeholders: Barabara Baker Niccolo Casewit Collen Colarelli Dennis Cox Pat Defa Ray Defa Beth Elland Robert Finnerty Lisa Goldberg David Goldblatt Ismael Guerrero Jim Hannifin Rabbi Israel Kagan Sharon Klein Kathleen Krager Robert Larsen Nettie Moore JoAnn Phillips Cmdr.David Quinones Kathy Sandoval Lindi Sinton Daryle Snyder Tom Trujillo Angela Varela Dave Walstrom Howard Zeppelin West Colfax Neighborhood Associations: West Colfax Partnership West Colfax Business Community Sloans Lake Citizens Group Villa Park Neighborhood Association Sloan Neighbors Association iii

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TABLE OF CONTENTSExecutive Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Physical Boundaries of the Study Area. . . . . . . . . 9 Project Partners & Plan Process. . . . . . . . . . . 9 Purpose of the Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Relationship to Existing Plans & Studies. . . . . . . . . 11 West Colfax History. . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Demographics & Existing Conditions. . . . . . . . . . 21 Demographics Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . 22 Density & Household Size. . . . . . . . . . . 22 Race & Ethnicity. . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Composition of Households. . . . . . . . . . . 25 Risk Factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Existing Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Zoning & Land Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Land Utilization & Condition of Property. . . . . . . . 31 Housing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Parks & Recreation. . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Mobility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Economic Activity. . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Storm Water Drainage & Water Quality. . . . . . . . . 70 Vision Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Framework Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Purpose of the Framework Plan. . . . . . . . . . 78 Urban Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Land Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Mobility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Economic Development. . . . . . . . . . . . 113 WEST COLFAX PLAN iv

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WEST COLFAX PLANDistrict Plans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Purpose of the District Plans. . . . . . . . . . . 120 Main Street Districts. . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Town Center Districts. . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Urban Neighborhood Districts. . . . . . . . . . 137 Urban Neighborhood Station Districts. . . . . . . . . 141 Implementation Strategy. . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Appendix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Map Appendix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183Map IndexWest Colfax Location Map. . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Existing Land Use Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Existing Zoning Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Land Utilization & Condition of Property Map. . . . . . . . 31 Household Condition & Tax Delinquency Map. . . . . . . . 32 Housing Density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Owner vs.Renter Occupancy Map. . . . . . . . . . 36 Housing Value Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Parks & Recreational Facilities Map. . . . . . . . . . 40 Street Typology Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Transportation Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . 46,100 Floodplain & Landfills Map. . . . . . . . . . . . 71 West Colfax Future Land Use Concept Map. . . . . . . . . 79 Urban Design Concept Map. . . . . . . . . . . . 81 K-5 Population Density. . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Transit Station Access Map. . . . . . . . . . . . 104 District Plans Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 v

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Things may come to those who waitbut only the things left by those who hustle. Abraham Lincoln

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WEST COLFAX PLANEXECUTIVE SUMMARYS S u u s s t t a a i i n n a a b b l l e e G G r r o o w w t t h h Forecasts estimate that Denvers population will grow by 132,000 people,and that the metro-region will grow by 800,000 people,over the next twenty years.In response to the anticipated growth, Blueprint Denver, the citys award winning plan to integrate land use and transportation, identified Areas of Change where the city should direct growth in order to connect people to jobs, housing and the transportation system. Blueprint Denver defines an Area of Change as a place where growth and redevelopment are either desirable or underway.The plan identified the West Colfax Ave commercial area together with the land around future light rail station areas along the West Corridor light rail extension as Areas of Change for several reasons related to latent land development potential,access to and demand for enhanced transit,proximity to downtown,opportunity to strategically supply more housing and ability to stimulate economic development,as well as reinvestment in historic resources. Z Z o o n n i i n n g g C C h h a a l l l l e e n n g g e e s s Existing zoning along the West Colfax corridor and surrounding the future light rail stations results in a development pattern inconsistent with the areas future growth and investment potential.Existing zoning throughout Denver has the capacity to accommodate 247,000 new jobs,more than twice the forecasted job growth.Conversely,existing zoning has the capacity to provide housing for 69,800 new households citywide,just enough to keep pace with forecasted growth of 60,700 new households,according to Blueprint Denver (pgs.9-14).Without greater housing development potential through regulatory incentives for housing,demand will exceed the communitys ability to produce affordable units.This plan identifies a number of locations within the West Colfax area where strategic increases in residential densities may reinforce the citys goal of integrating land use with transportation, while having a more localized impact that supports placemaking and builds a more vibrant,active and attractive community for residents. The majority of the commercial parcels along West Colfax are zoned B-4,one of the citys broadest business zone districts.Under this existing commercial zoning,it is difficult,if not impossible to achieve a compact,mixed-use development pattern that includes residential units along the corridor.The permitted building intensity under the B-4 zone district is nearly unattainable when coupled with parking requirements and the small average lot sizes of commercial parcels lining the street.Construction of low density commercial development such as auto-oriented franchises often results under this zone district. Such development does not maximize the lands potential to repopulate the parcels adjacent to this 2 The West Colfax study area lies west ofdowntown Denver between Federal Blvd. and Sheridan Blvd. from W. 18th Ave. to W. 10th Ave. Approximately 25% or 320 acres within this area is designated by Blueprint Denver as an Area ofChange. The Area ofChange incorporates the commercial parcels along West Colfax Ave, land in close proximity to future light rail stations areas and strategic growth areas such as the approximately 20 acre Saint Anthonys Hospital redevelopment site.

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WEST COLFAX PLANtransit rich corridor,and consequently the zoning does not support the communitys vision for growth identified in Blueprint Denver. Around the transit station areas,the majority of the land is zoned R-2,one of the citys most restrictive, lower density residential districts.Approximately four-percent (4%) of the citys population live in the West Colfax area Census tracts,which constitute just over one-percent (1.3%) of Denvers land area.The area exhibits higher than average density,however the existing residential zoning district will not permit the discreet increases in development densities that are appropriate as the neighborhood approaches higher intensity areas such as the transit stations,town centers or busy streets.Additionally,the zoning does not adequately promote the character and forms of development that define this established urban neighborhood.Both the commercial and residential zone districts fall short of achieving the citys vision for both the Areas of Change and the Areas of Stability within the neighborhood. I I n n t t e e g g r r a a t t i i n n g g L L a a n n d d U U s s e e a a n n d d T T r r a a n n s s p p o o r r t t a a t t i i o o n n The area bus routes carry nearly 23,000 transit riders per day, while West Colfax Ave.,Federal Blvd.and Sheridan Blvd.carry from 35,000 to 45,000 vehicles per day. Approximately 50% of area residents commute to work by alternative modes (walk,bike,bus) or work from home.Despite the existing high volume of transit,and future light rail service,land uses along the areas major streets are geared toward low density,auto-oriented commercial development.Along the Lakewood Dry Gulch where the future West Corridor Light Rail will run,the land uses consist of low density residential structures that will not capitalize of the future transit service that will be available to residents.The transportation and land use systems along the West Colfax areas corridors are out of balance with each other. Estimates from 2001,suggest that approximately 62% of the trips in Denver either originated or ended outside of the city limits,according to the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG).As major cross town arterials and state highways,the major corridors in the West Colfax area must incorporate innovative ways to move more people through these routes.Expanding the number of travel lanes is not a feasible or sustainable solution.Increasing the supply of housing along these routes and in close proximity to the future light rail stations is transit-oriented development that brings more residents closer to transit service.However,it is not enough to bring more people to these places without ensuring the future transit service is development-oriented and capable of tapping and supporting an increased number of riders.The streets carry a significantly high level of traffic throughout the day and not just in peak traffic commuting hours.Consistently high traffic volume (especially in off-peak hours) 3 Existing zoning in the West Colfax area falls short ofproviding the appropriate regulatory tools to promote a Main Street development environment along the commercial corridor Area ofChange. In Areas ofStability, the zoning lacks the tools to ensure that infill and redevelopment projects protect and complement the character of established urban neighborhoods.

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WEST COLFAX PLANcoupled with a strong alternative mode split among commuters are favorable indicators for mutually supportive enhanced transit technology and mixed-use development. D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t O O p p p p o o r r t t u u n n i i t t y y Potential exists for transit supportive infill and redevelopment of vacant, underutilized and deteriorated parcels along the corridors,in town centers and in close proximity to the future light rail stations.This plan identifies approximately 320 acres (25% of the study area) as Areas of Change where large and small scale redevelopment may be appropriate over time.These redevelopment areas concentrate around light rail station areas and in town center nodes along main street arterials.A rough estimate of potential development in these strategic locations (assuming an achieved development intensity or Floor Area Ratio of between 2:1 and 3:1) reveals that the land area could accommodate between 6,000,000 SF to 10,000,000 SF of new development.This figure translates into roughly 1,000,000 SF of ground floor commercial development and between 6,000 and 8,000 residential units. Of course,the market will drive demand in this area.These figures simply illustrate that there is great potential for the West Colfax area to accommodate future growth in a compact,dense and strategic way. This plan emphasizes the areas assets such as regional transportation system access,superior transit service,park amenities,views and proximity to downtown.Successful implementation of this plan will increase this areas competitive advantage for investment and development. In five years Saint Anthonys Central hospital will move its campus to the Federal Center in Lakewood. This site plus the blocks fronting West Colfax Avenue constitute approximately 20 urban acres of land development potential.In 2005,Mayor John Hickenlooper and Councilman Rick Garcia organized a task force to study redevelopment options for the site.Advance planning will continue to promote this site as a catalyst redevelopment opportunity for the entire West Colfax area.Ideally the scale and quality of development will bring an influx of new residents and a mix of commercial activities that promote West Colfax and its environs as a destination.In addition to the potential catalytic redevelopment of Saint Anthonys Central,the extension of the West Corridor light rail line may encourage interest in investment and redevelopment near the station areas. P P l l a a c c e e m m a a k k i i n n g g Placemaking and character conservation will augment investment and economic development in the West Colfax area.A strong commitment to preservation and urban design quality means creating and tapping economic and regulatory incentives to build,maintain,restore and adaptively reuse architectural resources that add value and character to a place.Preservation of existing historic resources,stabilization of established residential areas and promotion of high quality design in new construction need not be at odds with development objectives.Flexible standards that focus on 4 Existing development along West Colfax does not capitalize on the transit rich nature ofthe corridor. This plan identifies approximately 320 acres where infill and redevelopment projects are appropriate and desired. Mixed-use redevelopment ofthese sites will ensure a more sustainable future by providing housing options near transit and building in a customer base to support existing and expanded commercial development.

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WEST COLFAX PLANconservation of cherished historic resources without prohibiting development in the surrounding area and promoting compatible development reinforces a vibrant,eclectic,healthy and diverse urban environment.Cities thrive on variety blending different places such as corridors and town centers with urban neighborhoods,and on a finer grained level,mixing a variety of building forms and site development patterns within these areas in a rational,orderly and compatible way contributes to a sense place. H H u u m m a a n n C C a a p p i i t t a a l l As interest builds in the development opportunities throughout the West Colfax area,it is important to remember and plan for the retention of the existing residents and consider ways to enhance the human capital of the community.Today,the West Colfax area supplies Denver residents with a reservoir of affordable housing options,and it is home to multicultural mix of people.Affordable housing and homeownership programs will play an important role in the development of this community over time.The rich blend of cultures,ethnic groups,ages and incomes that define this community provides a touchstone for future placemaking activities that reference the culture and history of area residents. The primary goals of this plan are: 1 1 Create a sense of place with identifiable districts that support discernible patterns of land development,high quality urban design,and gateways and focal points at key destinations or neighborhood entries. 2 2 Promote high quality design,preserve historic resources and complement the traditional urban patterns of development. 3 3 Maximize urban land development potential;promote compact,mixed-use development and focus intense development to strategic growth areas. 4 4 Increase the supply of residential units and provide diverse housing options. 5 5 Increase opportunities for informal and formal public gathering. 6 6 Connect residential areas and neighborhood gathering places with safe and attractive multimodal linkages and distinguish a clear hierarchy of streets. 7 7 Improve roadway safety for all modes of travel and enhance the convenience ease and enjoyment of public streets for bicyclists,pedestrians and transit commuters. 5 As interest builds in the development opportunities throughout the West Colfax area, it is important to remember and plan for the retention of existing residents and consider ways to enhance the human capital ofthe community.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN8 8 Upgrade public infrastructure and capitalize on public investments in transit and infrastructure. 9 9 Augment the West Colfax areas competitive advantage for investment and redevelopment. 1 1 0 0 Organize business interests in commercial areas and enhance the image of commercial districts. 1 1 1 1 Implementation of this plan ensures a sustainable future for one of Denvers defining urban communities. 6

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INTRODUCTION P P h h y y s s i i c c a a l l B B o o u u n n d d a a r r i i e e s s o o f f t t h h e e S S t t u u d d y y A A r r e e a a P P r r o o j j e e c c t t P P a a r r t t n n e e r r s s a a n n d d P P l l a a n n P P r r o o c c e e s s s s P P u u r r p p o o s s e e o o f f t t h h e e P P l l a a n n E E x x i i s s t t i i n n g g P P l l a a n n s s & & S S t t u u d d i i e e s s W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x A A r r e e a a H H i i s s t t o o r r y y Hope is the ability to act without the promise of the outcome. Bill Ritter WEST COLFAX PLAN 7

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 8 S S l l o o a a n n s s L L a a k k e e W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x S S t t u u d d y y A A r r e e a aC C o o l l f f a a x x A A v v e e n n u u e eC C o o l l f f a a x x A A v v e e n n u u e e

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WEST COLFAX PLANPHYSICAL BOUNDARIES OF THE STUDY AREAThe West Colfax study area lies between central Denver and Lakewood.Sloans Lake and the Lakewood Dry Gulch flank the areas northern and southern borders.The West Colfax area boundaries are:Federal Boulevard on the east,Sheridan Boulevard on the west,West 17th Avenue/West 19th Avenue on the north and West 10th Avenue on the south in the Villa Park neighborhood.Other significant features include Ivesco Field at Mile High Stadium to the northeast and Denver Human Services complex to the southeast. The stadium,the lake and the gulch are significant man-made and natural features that clearly define the boundaries of the area and influence circulation patterns.The 2000 U.S.Census Tracts 7.01 and 7.02 delineate the West Colfax area;the study area also includes portions of Census Tracts 9.04 and 9.05.PROJECT PARTNERS & PLAN PROCESSProject Partners volunteered over 3,000 hours to craft and refine a vision and strategy for revitalization of Colfax.The West Colfax Plan is the result of this input from a broad stakeholder group comprised of residents,business owners,property owners,non-profit organizations,developers,architects,real estate professionals,political leaders and city staff.The West Colfax study area overlaps two City Council Districts and four neighborhood associations,Villa Park,West Colfax,Sloans Lake Citizens Group and Sloans Neighbor Association ,as well as the West Colfax Partnership and the West Colfax Business Community.PURPOSE OF THE PLANThe West Colfax Plan is intended to guide public and private decision-making and investment in the West Colfax area over the next 20 years.The plan provides policy direction in a number of key areas,including land use,urban design,mobility,economic development and district identity development.The West Colfax Plan builds on the vision established by Blueprint Denver,the citys plan to integrate land use and transportation. The West Colfax Plan provides the direction to protect and enhance the stability,livability, urban character and economic vitality of this inner-urban area while guiding change over time. 9 Many residents, business owners and property owners contributed to the planning process including over 150 residents who shared their visions for future growth ofthe community in an intensive land use workshop.

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WEST COLFAX PLANRELATIONSHIP TO EXISTING PLANS AND STUDIES W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x N N e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d P P l l a a n n 1 1 9 9 8 8 7 7 The West Colfax Neighborhood Plan prioritizes neighborhood character preservation.The plan emphasizes the importance of the ethnic mix of people.Various housing,zoning and land use strategies support the plan priorities.It calls for gateways at Federal and Sheridan,as well as additional commercial node development at Lowell,Perry and Vrain.The plan identifies moderate density residential infill opportunities along the gulch,east of Lake Middle School and north of W.17th Avenue. V V i i l l l l a a P P a a r r k k N N e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d P P l l a a n n 1 1 9 9 9 9 1 1 Eleven key goals provide the framework for the Villa Park Neighborhood Plan. These goals are:improve neighborhood arterials,plant trees and improve tree maintenance,establish a neighborhood image or identity,support and enhance neighborhood commercial activity,enhance the appearance and quality of neighborhood housing,improve neighborhood environmental conditions,improve neighborhood circulation for all modes of travel,enhance neighborhood safety,upgrade neighborhood infrastructure, create neighborhood recreation opportunities and develop Lakewood Dry Gulch as a neighborhood asset. W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x R R e e v v i i t t a a l l i i z z a a t t i i o o n n P P l l a a n n 1 1 9 9 9 9 3 3 The West C olfax Revitalization Plan provides a set of strategies organized around six key objectives to improve businesses and support neighborhoods in the West Colfax corridor.The six objectives include: 1 1 Develop a clear and coordinated course of action to establish the West Colfax corridor as a vital and prosperous place to work,live,visit and conduct business. 2 2 Support existing West Colfax businesses. 3 3 Strengthen the neighborhoods next to West Colfax. 4 4 Remove existing physical constraints to redevelopment. 5 5 Create a physical setting which will attract and retain business. 6 6 Attract new business to West Colfax. 11 A number ofplans have attempted to tackle the challenges facing the West Colfax area, especially the conditions ofthe commercial environment.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN F F e e d d e e r r a a l l B B o o u u l l e e v v a a r r d d C C o o r r r r i i d d o o r r P P l l a a n n 1 1 9 9 9 9 5 5 The Federal Boulevard Corridor Study was initiated in order to achieve three primary goals: Enhance the image of Federal Boulevard for residents and visitors Improve the safety and operating efficiency of the corridor for pedestrians and vehicles Limit land acquisition to the minimum needed to improve the image and safety of the corridor The study addresses Federal Boulevard from 52nd Avenue to Evans Avenue,which includes the portion of Federal within boundaries of the West Colfax study area.For this portion,the plan recommends an 8 median,a detached sidewalk with a paved transition zone and trees in grates,pedestrian lights as well as other pedestrian amenities (benches,trash receptacles,special plantings).The plan identifies the segment between Colfax and 6th Avenue as having the greatest safety,pedestrian and right of way constraints.(pg. 83) It goes on to list some of the key actions that need to be funded in order to deal with these problems including right-of-way acquisition and reconstruction of the bridge over the Lakewood Dry Gulch. C C o o l l f f a a x x C C o o r r r r i i d d o o r r H H i i s s t t o o r r i i c c a a l l & & T T r r a a n n s s p p o o r r t t a a t t i i o o n n S S e e r r v v i i c c e e s s J J o o i i n n t t S S t t u u d d y y 1 1 9 9 9 9 7 7 A collabor ative effort between Denver,Lakewood and Aurora,the Colfax Corridor Historical & Transportation Services Joint Study recommends corridor wide strategies to improve the function and appearance of Colfax.The study identifies significant characteristics of the corridor and calls for preservation;enhancement and interpretation of contributing historical resources.The study addresses the interpretive elements by segment to establish distinct districts along the corridor.It is a rich source of historical information about significant landmarks and the evolution of this primary transportation route. W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x T T r r a a n n s s p p o o r r t t a a t t i i o o n n S S t t u u d d y y 1 1 9 9 9 9 9 9 The goals of the West Colfax Transportation Study are: 1 1 Improve pedestrian safety,particularly crossings of West Colfax and within designated school safety zones. 2 2 Improve vehicular safety and preserve mobility throughout the corridor. 3 3 Improve overall appearance and visual quality of the corridor. 4 4 Enhance land use and redevelopment opportunities. 12 Eddie Bohns PigN Whistle once served bbq to hungry motor travelers passing through Denver on historic US Route 40. It is identified as a significant landmark by the Colfax Corridor Historical & Transportation Services Joint Study.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN5 5 Accommodate alternative modes of transportation within the corridor,including transit,pedestrians and bicyclists. The study analyzed traffic operations and safety,infrastructure conditions and redevelopment considerations.The study identified both Sheridan and Irving as having significant intersection delays and congestion in peak hours.Accident rates were found to be 46% higher than statewide average, including numerous fatalities and accidents between vehicles and pedestrians/cyclists.Poor pavement, drainage and sidewalk conditions were also noted as problems,as well as frequent curb cuts.The study analyzed four street cross section alternatives,and ultimately selected a status quo five through-lane alternative.The study fell short of neighborhood expectations and the desire for a four through-lane cross section with a pedestrian refuge area.The study gave little consideration to establishing a street hierarchy to better disperse traffic throughout the grid despite the geographic constraints imposed by the gulch and Sloans Lake which limit north-south traffic movements to only a couple of streets in either direction.The various alternatives did not produce significantly different results at the two key intersections where delay and congestion have the greatest impact on traffic operations,except for some differences in the p.m.peak hour when traffic congestion is greatest.This study contains a wealth of information that that can be reconsidered in light of Blueprint Denver,Main Street zoning and a more context sensitive approach to street cross-section design that ensures a more sustainable,attractive street to serve the region,the neighborhoods and the adjacent commercial districts. P P a a r r k k s s & & R R e e c c r r e e a a t t i i o o n n G G a a m m e e P P l l a a n n 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 The Parks and Recreation Game Plan is the master plan for the maintenance and development of existing and future parks and recreation amenities.At its core are 10 primary goals: 1 1 Equitable expansion of parks and recreation amenities citywide 2 2 Increasing the citys tree canopy 3 3 Conservation of water with better irrigation management practices and inclusion of more drought tolerant natural areas 4 4 Sustainable development to conserve natural resources 5 5 Improved access to parks and recreation centers (multi-modal access,trails,sidewalks,safe crossings, green streets enhanced tree lined streets) 6 6 Predicting and meeting the recreation trends of the future 7 7 Better integration and expansion of natural areas 13 Despite excellent park amenities such as Sloans Lake Park, Rude Park and Lakewood Dry Gulch (pictured above), the West Colfax and Villa Park neighborhoods are underserved for park facilities, especially multi-use, soccer and football fields.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN8 8 Protection of historic parks,parkways and structures 9 9 Revitalization of the mountain parks 1 1 0 0 Effective management and increased funding through department organizational changes. Though served by Sloans Lake Park and the parks in the Lakewood Dry Gulch,the West Colfax and Villa Park Neighborhoods were identified by the Game Plan as neighborhoods of greatest needbased on performance indicators for the amount of parkland per person relative to projected growth (the ideal target is to provide 10 acres of parkland per 1000 residents West Colfax and Villa Park neighborhoods provide between 2.6 and 5 acres of parkland per 1000 people,and the neighborhoods fall below 50% of the benchmark for soccer,football,and multi-use fields).The plan identifies Federal Boulevard as a designated parkway with special preservation and design standards.Within the study area,the Game Plan identifies green streets on West 17th Ave.,Perry Street,Julian,Conejos,Lowell,and in a portion of the Lakewood Dry Gulch. L L a a k k e e w w o o o o d d D D r r y y G G u u l l c c h h M M a a s s t t e e r r P P l l a a n n 2 2 0 0 0 0 3 3 The Lakewood Dry Gulch Park Master Plan provides a set of recommendations for improving park facilities and amenities to enhance its destination appeal and function as a major multimodal connection to downtown.The improvements include pedestrian bridges over the gulch and station area improvements around the planned future light rail stops at Decatur Street,Knox Court,Perry Street and Sheridan Boulevard.Nine design principles guide the plan recommendations,and the improvements concentrate on five functional areas:access (trails,park edges),creek improvements,park improvements, site restoration,and future infill land development sites. S S l l o o a a n n s s L L a a k k e e P P a a r r k k M M a a s s t t e e r r P P l l a a n n 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 The Sloans Lake Master Plan deals with five subject areas related to the park:nature and beauty in the park (par k character,landscape features,the lake edge,water quality,fish and wildlife),activities in the park (sports,trails,picnicking,boating,special events),automobiles in the park,structures in the park, and operations and managements.The plan concludes with priorities and funding recommendations. The plan places the cost of parks improvements at approximately $12 million through the Capital Improvements Program and supplemental grants,as well as through general obligation bonds for larger projects over $500,000.The plan assumes funding of $500,000 per year through 2018 in order to complete all of the recommended improvements. 14 Sloans Lake is a unique and special place in our city: a ribbon of green surrounding a great sheet ofwater that opens the park to the sky, with the office towers ofdowntown Denver rising up in the east and the snow-capped Rocky Mountains spread across the western horizon. The park is a haven for both people and wildlife, an inner city retreat where one can enjoy the expansive views, water, openness and natural beauty ofthe place. Sloans Lake Master Plan

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WEST COLFAX PLAN B B l l u u e e p p r r i i n n t t D D e e n n v v e e r r : : A A n n I I n n t t e e g g r r a a t t e e d d L L a a n n d d U U s s e e a a n n d d T T r r a a n n s s p p o o r r t t a a t t i i o o n n P P l l a a n n 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 Blueprint Denver identified the West Colfax/West TOD Area of Change.The plan recommends transit oriented development flanking the future West Corridor light rail line and clustered around the transit station areas at Decatur Street,Knox Court,Perry Street and Sheridan Boulevard.The plan also identifies a linear mixed use development pattern along West Colfax Avenue with nodes of mixed use around St. Anthonys Hospital,the intersection of Colfax and Federal and the intersection of Colfax and Sheridan. Due to its transit rich nature,proximity to downtown and open space amenities,the plan targets this area for sustainable residential growth and commercial revitalization. 15 West Colfax Land Area By Change & StabilityArea of Change Area of Stability 27% 73% In 2002,Denver City Council adopted Blueprint Denver,the citys plan to manage growth through the integration of land use and transportation. The plan identified: Areas of Changewhere the city should direct growth in order to connect people to jobs,housing and the transportation system Areas of Stabilitywhere neighborhood character conservation is the priority with growth occurring as reinvestment or complementary infill or redevelopment. Blueprint Denver promotes growth in a significant portion of the West Colfax area primarily around future light rail transit stations,along Main Street corridors and in town center areas.

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WEST COLFAX PLANWEST COLFAX HISTORYT T r r a a n n s s p p o o r r t t a a t t i i o o n n West Colfax Avenue,the focus of this plan,has a long and colorful history.Colfax Avenue has been a major transportation route for over 100 years.Extending 26 miles from the mountains to the plains through the cities of Lakewood,Denver and Aurora,Colfax is one of the longest continuous commercial streets in the United States.More than 8,000 years ago Native Americans first made the trek between the foothills and plains on paths that would one day become Colfax Avenue.By the mid 1800s,Ute Indians routinely used this route to bring trade goods to markets in Denver.Golden Road,as it was first called,ran through the countryside connecting the early settlements of Denver and Golden.That countryside today is west Denver and Lakewood.In 1896,Golden Road was officially renamed Colfax Avenue after Schuyler Colfax,Vice President under Ulysses S.Grant. Patterns of residential growth on the west side imitated those of other areas around Denver,springing up with the expansion of transit services such as streetcar lines.Street railways reached across the Larimer Bridge in 1892,then west along Colfax to Sheridan,providing service to these new subdivisions.West Colfax Avenue was the main street of the Town of Colfax (incorporated in 1897).It was lined with twostory brick commercial buildings,stores,saloons,a restaurant,a meeting hall and a hotel called the Grandview at Federal and 17th Avenue. S S e e t t t t l l e e m m e e n n t t In the late 1800s the West Colfax area experienced its first housing boom.Most of the development tended toward small residences to serve factory workers and laborers.However in 1891, Ralph Voorhees established an upscale residential enclave now known as the Stuart Street Historic District.The remaining collection of homes in the Voorhees subdivision lie between Perry and Tennyson from West 13th Avenue to West Colfax. From the 1920s to the 1950s,the West Colfax area was a predominantly Jewish settlement.Known as the Ostrovers (or more affectionately as the Ostys),because of their eastern European birthpace of Ostrov,Poland,these settlers began to arrive in Denver at the turn of the century.These industrious immigrants established businesses,cultural facilities and residential niches from Auraria west along the avenue.The area retains a significant amount of its Jewish history and is home to the Yeshiva Toras Chaim,Beth Jacob High School,the Lake Steam Baths and other such organizations that nurture Jewish culture.The West Colfax environs also contain an Eruv with boundaries demarcated by wires strung between utility poles in the area.The Eruv is recognized by city ordinance.It establishes a walkable area within which Jewish people may socialize on the Sabbath without breaking with cultural traditions. 17 St. Anthonys, 1893 Dickenson Branch Library building at Conejos and Hooker Streets.

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WEST COLFAX PLANS S l l o o a a n n s s L L a a k k e e P P a a r r k k Thomas F.Sloan filed homestead papers on what is now the southwest corner of Sloans Lake Park and received a patent signed from President Andrew Johnson on December 13,1866. He later purchased additional acreage.While using his land as a farm,he became a prize winning exhibitor of cattle and produce and built an ice house next to the lake to help supply Denvers summer cooling needs.In 1872,Sloan marketed his home as the best farm in Colorado of 100 acresfronting on the road from Denver to Georgetown and running back to Sloans Lake.Unsuccessful in selling his homestead,he platted it for development as Lakeville.Shortly thereafter he died leaving legal estate claims that would not be totally resolved for over sixty years. There are as yet undocumented legends on the formation of the lake.They involve Thomas Sloan either planting potatoes or digging of a well over an aquifier or high water table.Shortly thereafter,there was a lake where none was before. In 1874,Sloans Lake was connected to Cheltenham Heights by a canal.Cheltenham Heights was near todays Federal Boulevard and Cheltenham Elementary School.It was about half-way between downtown Denver and Sloans Lake.For thirty-five cents,one could take a horse drawn trolley from Denver to the boat dock at Cheltenham Heights,board the only steamship in Colorado,and cruise around Sloans Lake. It was not profitable and shortly went out of business.The canal became a dump site and was filled in over the years.By the 1890s Manhattan Beach had appeared on the Sloans Lake banks.It was one of several private amusement parks in the Denver area.Private amusement parks were in vogue both locally and nationally during this era,and were one of the precursors to the public park system.The nearby competition proved to be powerful.White City,which was to become todays Lakeside Amusement Parkand the historic Elitch Gardens,since moved to its Central Platte Valley location,were both within two miles of Manhattan Beach. In the 1870s,Denvers Mayor Richard Sopris envisioned two great parks connected with a grand parkway.Known as The Hourglass Plan,the parks were to be todays City and Sloans Lake Parks,and the parkway,Colfax Avenue.While unsuccessful in obtaining Sloans Lake and the Colfax Parkway,the efforts did obtain Denvers first major park.City Park became the formal start of Denvers park system. At the start of the 20th Century,the national City and Park Planning movements made their appearance in Denver under the leadership of Mayor Robert W.Speer.In 1906,the Highland Park bond issue purchased parks in the northwest of the city,including Sloans Lake.These parks were to be connected by a series of parkways,allowing for day trips through the parks for the new fangledautomobile.During the 1930s,control of the adjoining Cooper Lake fell into Denver hands after the discovery of a lost 18 Manhattan Beach on the banks ofSloans Lake provided West Colfax residents with opportunities for social gatherings and recreation. In the mid 1870s the Sloans Lake Ferry operated on a canal between the lake and Federal Blvd. along what is now 17th Ave.

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WEST COLFAX PLANThomas Sloan heir helped end his long standing estate problems.A federal program,(The Works Progress Administration) constructed channels in effect joining the two lakes and built a jetty providing a safe boat area. A bathhouse was built in the parks early history and swimming was popular since the Manhattan Beach days.As in all Denver lakes the 1950s polio epidemics closed the beaches,first temporarily and finally permanently.By the 1960s,population pressure and the advent of recreation centers and municipal swimming pools continued their closure. 2 2 0 0 t t h h C C e e n n t t u u r r y y D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t s s In the 1920s two public schools opened,Colfax Elementary and Lake Junior High School.Little development occurred over the Depression years,but this lull gave way to a boom in the 1940s and 1950s.Most of the vacant land west of Utica was purchased for home building. The Mayoral Administration of the 1950s promoted civil bond issues that funded the construction of public housing in and near West Colfax.Between 1956 and 1971,Denver Urban Renewal Authority planned and executed the construction of the Avondale center that included a shopping center,high rise multi-family apartments and townhomes.The project covered 22 square blocks and 101 acres.Since construction of the residences and shopping center,marginal light industrial and commercial uses were built on the hillside below the shopping center and along Federal Boulevard.It is a classic example of the failings of urban renewal of that era.The project included demolition of the historic Cheltenham School,which was replaced by the significantly architecturally inferior school that stands today.The planned communityof Avondale has not succeeded in bringing investment or improving quality of life. Forty years later it is a prime location for redevelopment. The Brookings Institution has identified Denver as one of eight re-emerging gateway citiesin the country,those that began in the 20th century attracting large numbers of immigrants,but waned as destinations during the middle of the century,and are now re-emerging as important immigrant gateways.By 2000,more than one in six Denver residents was an immigrant.In the last part of the 20th century many Latino immigrants began to settle in Denver.At the time of the 2000 Census,the citys population was just slightly more than half White (52%),nearly one-third (32%) Latino,and 11% African American.Almost 80% of Denvers new residents between 1990 and 2000 were Latino.The increase in Latinos was almost entirely attributable to immigrants from Mexico.By 2000,one in six Denver residents was an immigrant,with Mexicans making up two thirds of the citys foreign-born population.More than half of Denvers neighborhoods experienced an increase of 50% in their Latino population over the 19 Historic Cheltenham School, demolished in the 1970s for urban renewal. Avondale, circa 1971.

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WEST COLFAX PLANdecade.And by 2000,21 of the 76 neighborhoods had populations greater than 50% Latino.Immigrants concentrated in neighborhoods in west and northeast Denver,including West Colfax and Villa Park which comprise the plan study area.Within Denver,immigrants concentrated in about one-third of Denvers neighborhoods,and these neighborhoods to be the poor and at-risk neighborhoods.(Source:Piton Foundation 2004 Neighborhood Facts). 20

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 21 DEMOGRAPHICS AND EXISTING CONDITIONS D D e e m m o o g g r r a a p p h h i i c c C C h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r i i s s t t i i c c s s P P o o p p u u l l a a t t i i o o n n D D e e n n s s i i t t y y & & H H o o u u s s e e h h o o l l d d S S i i z z e e R R a a c c e e & & E E t t h h n n i i c c i i t t y y C C o o m m p p o o s s i i t t i i o o n n o o f f H H o o u u s s e e h h o o l l d d s s R R i i s s k k F F a a c c t t o o r r s s E E x x i i s s t t i i n n g g C C o o n n d d i i t t i i o o n n s s Z Z o o n n i i n n g g & & L L a a n n d d U U s s e e L L a a n n d d U U t t i i l l i i z z a a t t i i o o n n & & C C o o n n d d i i t t i i o o n n H H o o u u s s i i n n g g P P a a r r k k s s & & R R e e c c r r e e a a t t i i o o n n M M o o b b i i l l i i t t y y E E c c o o n n o o m m i i c c A A c c t t i i v v i i t t y y S S a a f f e e t t y y S S t t o o r r m m W W a a t t e e r r D D r r a a i i n n a a g g e e & & W W a a t t e e r r Q Q u u a a l l i i t t y y It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts. Sherlock Holmes

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WEST COLFAX PLANDEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICSUnless otherwise noted,all demographic data was collected from the 2000 Census (Census tracts:7.01, 7.02,9.04 and 9.05).In some instances (for a more thorough analysis),the data compares the West Colfax area to Denver,as well as other,similar central city urban neighborhoods described as: Northeast (Five Points,Whittier,Clayton,Cole,City Park West,City Park,Congress Park) Northwest (Highlands,West Highlands,Berkley,Sloans Lake,Sunnyside,Sun Valley,Jefferson Park) Southeast (Platte Park,Washington Park,West Washington Park) D D e e m m o o g g r r a a p p h h i i c c C C h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r i i s s t t i i c c s s : : P P o o p p u u l l a a t t i i o o n n & & H H o o u u s s e e h h o o l l d d S S i i z z e e P P o o p p u u l l a a t t i i o o n n & & H H o o u u s s i i n n g g D D e e n n s s i i t t y y According to Census data,just over 20,800 people or approximately 4% of the population of Denver reside in the Census tracts that comprise the Villa Park and West Colfax statistical neighborhoods.At a total land area of 1,279 acres,these two neighborhoods comprise appr o ximately 1.3% of the land are of Denver.Population and housing densities are nearly three times more concentrated than the average for Denver.The average population density in this area is 13.2 people per acre (population density for Denver is 5.1 people per acre).The average housing density is 5.5 dwelling units per acre which is typical of central city urban neighborhoods (average housing density for Denver is 2.5 dwelling units per acre). H H o o u u s s e e h h o o l l d d S S i i z z e e West Colfax residents live in households of larger than average size (2.72 people per household) compared to both Denver (2.23 people per household) and other central city neighborhoods (1.97-2.61 people per household) which helps explain the greater population density of this area relative to other central city urban neighborhoods and the city as a whole. 22 Average Household Size0 0.5 1.52.27 2.61 1.97 2.23 2.722 3 1Average Number of People/HouseholdNortheast SoutheastDENVER Northwest West Colfax Study Area 0 8 10 12 14 2 4 6People/acrePopulation Density (by neighborhoods)Northeast SoutheastDENVER Northwest West Colfax Study Area

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 23 W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x S S t t u u d d y y A A r r e e a a & & C C e e n n s s u u s s T T r r a a c c t t s s

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WEST COLFAX PLAN D D e e m m o o g g r r a a p p h h i i c c C C h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r i i s s t t i i c c s s : : R R a a c c e e & & E E t t h h n n i i c c i i t t y y R R a a c c e e Individuals categorized as White alonecomprise approximately 50% of the 2000 population. Individuals identified as Some other raceor Two or more racescomprise 43% of the population, followed by Black/African American(3%),American Indian/Alaska Native(2%),Asian(2%) and a nominal percent identified as Hawaiian/Pacific Islander. E E t t h h n n i i c c i i t t y y Individuals identified as Hispanic/Latinocomprise approximately 73% of the West Colfax population in 2000,an increase of approximately 10 percentage points over 1990. Neighborhood challenges should be considered within the context of Latino demographics.The demographic data that follows highlights some of the social conditions that are characteristic of Latino and immigrant households.Issues like language,citizenship,family support networks,etc.,are important to note here because they inform strategies for improving education attainment levels and homeownership levels.For example,home ownership strategies in Latino communities need to encourage larger units (3+ bedrooms),deal with a lack of credit history,and focus on Spanish-language outlets. 24 Hispanic/Latino: 15,223 73% Other Ethnicity: 5,586 27% White Alone Black/African American American Indian/Alaska Nati v e Asian Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Some Other Race Two or More Races

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WEST COLFAX PLAN D D e e m m o o g g r r a a p p h h i i c c C C h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r i i s s t t i i c c s s : : C C o o m m p p o o s s i i t t i i o o n n o o f f H H o o u u s s e e h h o o l l d d s s H H o o u u s s e e h h o o l l d d T T y y p p e e The vast majority of people in the West Colfax study area live in family households. Latinos comprise 73% of the West Colfax area population.Considering this fact in the context of population density and household size,the data suggests that the West Colfax area is home to immigrant families that are typically larger than the citys average household size.This information is consistent with the Piton Foundations findings on household characteristics in Denver:The Census defines households in terms of family and non-family households.A non-family household could be a single person living alone or two or more unrelated persons living together.A family can be with or without children.For example,a married couple without children is considered a family.National household data from Census 2000 confirms that the traditionalfamily married parents with children under 18 comprised less than one-quarter (23.5%) of all households in the United States.In fact,people living alone represented a larger share (26%) of households than traditional families.Demographers say these numbers reflect the aging of Baby Boomersinto Empty Nestersand an increase in the typical age of first marriages.Corresponding with the population increase in Denver over the decade was an increase in the number of households.According to Census 2000 data, Denver had the most (50%) non-family households of all metro area counties and the smallest percentage (23%) of families with children.But those percentages vary widely by neighborhood.Poor and at-risk neighborhoods had the highest percentage of families with children.(source:Piton Foundation) The West Colfax area is ideally suited to deal with the changing demographics of American families,and the expression of these family types within Denver.Strategic increases in housing development may provide options that appeal to new market segments such as aging Baby Boomers and young,childless couples who seek housing in more densely populated areas that are served by a mix of uses (as might be found in a downtown,town center or along a busy transportation corridor).Additionally,strategic redevelopment of public housing facilities and in portions of the single family neighborhoods presents opportunities to cater to the larger family types that find this area appealing.Housing development and home ownership programs should consider the unique opportunities presented by the areas demographics to facilitate the growth of a mixed-income neighborhood that appeals to a variety of incomes,ages,ethnic groups and family types. A A g g e e The West Colfax age distribution roughly follows the distribution of age groups for Denver as a whole,but with a significantly greater concentration of children and a lower concentration of mature adults.The composition of the population by sex and age suggest that this area is home to families with many young children. 25 9.05 9.04 7.02 7.01 Non-Family Households Group Quarters Family Households 0% 25% 50% 75% 100%Household Type Northeast Northwest Southeast West Colfax Study AreaMore Concentrated Less ConcentratedUnder 66 to 1818 to 8485+Concentration of Age Groups Relative to Denver (by neighborhoods)

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WEST COLFAX PLAN D D e e m m o o g g r r a a p p h h i i c c C C h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r i i s s t t i i c c s s : : R R i i s s k k F F a a c c t t o o r r s s E E d d u u c c a a t t i i o o n n Educational attainment for the population over age 25 in the West Colfax study area lags far behind the city average.Roughly forty percent (40%) of the population has no high school diploma, compared to approximately twenty percent (20%) of the city as a whole.About forty-five percent (45%) of the population has earned a diploma or higher,compared to over seventy-five percent (75%) of the city.Of this group,approximately ten percent (10%) are college graduates,and under five percent (5%) hold Masters degrees.Roughly forty percent (40%) of the total population of the city are college graduates and ten percent (10%) hold Masters degrees.Between 1995 and 2000,Hispanics comprised between seventy percent (75%) and eighty percent (80%) of the West Colfax neighborhood Denver Public School population,followed by whites,other races and African-Americans. H H i i g g h h R R i i s s k k B B i i r r t t h h F F a a c c t t o o r r s s An examination of births to mothers with three high risk factors (teens,unwed, without a high school diploma) reveals that the average is considerably higher in the West Colfax area than in Denver as a whole,particularly births to mothers without a high school education where the rate is consistently twenty percentage (20%) points greater.Births to teen mothers show general declines from a peak between 1990 and 2000. While the West Colfax Plan deals primarily with economic development and the integration of land use and transportation,this area should be targeted with educational and social service programs to ensure investment in the human capital of area residents. 26 West Colfax DENVEREducational Attainment 2000No DiplomaDiploma or Higher College Grad or Higher Masters +0% 25% 75% 100% 50% Births with 3 Risk Factors Births to Teen Mothers Births to Unwed Mothers Births to Mothers w/o HS DiplomaNortheastNorthwestSoutheast W. Colfax Study Area DENVERPercent of Births with Risk Factors by Neighborhoods 0% 20% 10% 40% 50% 60% 70% 30%

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WEST COLFAX PLANEXISTING CONDITIONS E E x x i i s s t t i i n n g g C C o o n n d d i i t t i i o o n n s s : : Z Z o o n n i i n n g g & & L L a a n n d d U U s s e e B B 1 1 L L i i m m i i t t e e d d O O f f f f i i c c e e This district provides office space for services related to dental and medical care and for office-type services,often for residents of nearby residential areas.The district is characterized by a low-volume of direct daily customer contact.This district is characteristically small in size and is situated near major hospitals or between large business areas and residential areas.The district regulations establish standards comparable to those of the low density residential districts,resulting in similar building bulk and retaining the low concentration of pedestrian and vehicular traffic.Building height is controlled by bulk standards and open space requirements.Building floor area cannot exceed the site area. B B 2 2 N N e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d B B u u s s i i n n e e s s s s This district provides for the retailing of commodities classed as convenience goods,and the furnishing of certain personal services,to satisfy the daily and weekly household or personal needs of the residents of surrounding residential neighborhoods.This district is located on collector streets,characteristically is small in size,usually is entirely surrounded by residential districts and is located at a convenient walking distance from the residential districts it is designed to serve.The district regulations establish standards comparable to those of low density residential districts, resulting in similar standards.Building floor area cannot exceed the site area. B B 4 4 G G e e n n e e r r a a l l B B u u s s i i n n e e s s s s This distr ict is intended to pr ovide for and encourage appropriate commercial uses adjacent to arterial streets,which are normally transit routes.Uses include a wide variety of consumer and business services and retail establishments that serve other business activities,and local transit-dependent residents within the district as well as residents throughout the city.The regulations generally allow a moderate intensity of use and concentration for the purpose of achieving compatibility between the wide variety of uses permitted in the district.Building height is not controlled by bulk standards unless there is a property line to property line abutment with a protected residential zone district.Building floor area cannot exceed twice the site area. H H 1 1 A A H H o o s s p p i i t t a a l l s s The H-1-A and H-1-B districts are intended to promote the concentration of existing and proposed healthcare facilities and their related uses.They are intended to contain the principal structures and related facilities of healthcare institutions.The H-1-A district generally corresponds to the R-3 zone district as to permitted structures and to the R-4 zone district as to permitted uses. 27 B-4 zoning allows general business uses with very few urban design standards. H1A zoning allows hospitals like St. Anthonys Central.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 28 R R 1 1 S S i i n n g g l l e e U U n n i i t t D D e e t t a a c c h h e e d d D D w w e e l l l l i i n n g g s s / / L L o o w w D D e e n n s s i i t t y y Foster family care and day care allowed as home occupations by permit and other additional home occupations and room-renting to one or two persons are allowed upon application and issuance of a permit..Minimum of 6,000 SF of land required for each dwelling unit.(Density is approximately 7.3 dwelling units/acre.) R R 2 2 M M u u l l t t i i U U n n i i t t D D w w e e l l l l i i n n g g s s / / L L o o w w D D e e n n s s i i t t y y Typically duplexes and triplexes.Home occupations are allowed by permit.Minimum of 6,000 SF of land required for each duplex structure with an additional 3,000 SF required for every unit over 2.(Density is approximately 14.5 dwelling units/acre.) R R 2 2 A A M M u u l l t t i i U U n n i i t t D D w w e e l l l l i i n n g g s s / / M M e e d d i i u u m m D D e e n n s s i i t t y y 2,000 SF of land r equir ed for each dwelling unit unless site plan is submitted under the Planned Building Group (PBG) provisions,in which case 1,500 SF of land is required for each unit.Home occupations are allowed by permit.(Density is approximately 21.8 dwelling units/acre,29 unit/acre under PBG,depending on open-space requirements.) R R 3 3 M M u u l l t t i i U U n n i i t t D D w w e e l l l l i i n n g g s s / / H H i i g g h h D D e e n n s s i i t t y y Building size is controlled by bulk standards,off-street parking and open space requirements.Building floor area cannot exceed 3 times the site area.Maximum density is determined by the size of the units and the factors mentioned above. R R 3 3 X X M M u u l l t t i i U U n n i i t t D D w w e e l l l l i i n n g g s s / / M M e e d d i i u u m m D D e e n n s s i i t t y y This is a medium density distr ict intended to encour age new residential development.Building size is controlled by bulk standards and open space requirements. Building floor area cannot exceed 2 times the site area.Maximum lot coverage is 40%. P P 1 1 O O f f f f S S t t r r e e e e t t P P a a r r k k i i n n g g Allows parking lots and structures.Bulk and setback regulations apply to structures.This zone is intended to provide needed business parking without the expansion of the business zone;e.g.a buffer between business and residential uses.Requires visual barriers adjacent to residential uses. L L a a n n d d U U s s e e S S t t a a t t i i s s t t i i c c s s Sixty-four percent (64%) of the land in the West Colfax neighborhood is residential (40.19% single family;23.7% multi-family).Commercial,service and industrial uses comprise 0.44% of the land area.Only 5.5% of the land area is vacant.Institutional uses comprise 8.14% of the land area.Parks and Open Space comprise 14.34% of the land area. NOTE: The limited amount ofvacant land in the study area highlights the need for targeted strategies which stabilize those uses that advance the vision ofthe corridor while encouraging investment in those areas that are either under-utilized or in conflict with the goals of this plan. Single Family 40.19% Park Open Space 14.34% Multi-Family, 2 Units 9.67% Institutional 8.14% General Sales Service 7.7% Vacant 5.5% Industrial 0.44% Multi-Family, >2 Units 13.94% Typical residential development patterns in R-1 and R-2 zone districts includes front yards, uniform building setbacks, detached sidewalks, residences ofone or two stories and front porches.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN E E x x i i s s t t i i n n g g C C o o n n d d i i t t i i o o n n s s : : L L a a n n d d U U s s e e 29

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 30 E E x x i i s s t t i i n n g g C C o o n n d d i i t t i i o o n n s s : : Z Z o o n n i i n n g g

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WEST COLFAX PLAN E E x x i i s s t t i i n n g g C C o o n n d d i i t t i i o o n n s s : : L L a a n n d d U U t t i i l l i i z z a a t t i i o o n n 31 Auto oriented uses comprise a large portion ofthe West Colfax commercial district. These low density uses consume valuable urban land and often contain architecturally insignificant structures. The buildings are often so marginal that the land value exceeds the improvement value. Redevelopment ofthese parcels to a higher and better use, such as housing over shops or restaurants, will address this disequilibrium.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 32 H H o o u u s s e e h h o o l l d d C C o o n n d d i i t t i i o o n n a a n n d d T T a a x x D D e e l l i i n n q q u u e e n n c c y y

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WEST COLFAX PLAN E E x x i i s s t t i i n n g g C C o o n n d d i i t t i i o o n n s s : : H H o o u u s s i i n n g g West Colfax housing values increased 193.5% from 1980 to 2000.While a significant change,this increase occurred at 80% of the citywide rate of housing value increase.Between 1990 and 2000,this lag shifted with West Colfax housing prices increasing at 116% of the citywide rate.This shift suggests that the area is becoming a more competitive market for housing.Approximately 30% of the West Colfax area housing units are owner-occupied (a decrease of 10 percentage points from 1990).The city as a whole has an owner-occupancy rate of 52% (up 3 percentage points from 1990). Relatively few housing units were built in the West Colfax area between 1996 and 2002 (no new units were added in both 1997 and 2002).The rate of new housing growth in West Colfax is 13% of the rate for Denver new housing development.This suggests that growth has been stagnant in West Colfax. However,in light of the increasing rate of housing prices,West Colfax may be an emerging market for residential growth.Blueprint Denver identified 26.9% of the land area in West Colfax as an Area of Change these locations include land around future light rail station areas and the commercial corridor on Colfax (especially at nodes around the Avondale shopping center at Colfax and Federal,St.Anthonys Hospital and at Colfax and Sheridan). Over the last ten years,citywide rental occupancy rates decreased.However,rental occupancy in West Colfax increased over the same time period.There has been no growth in the number of rental units constructed in the study area over this time period.Two issues can arise in the context of such a trend such.The first issue is a potential period of no investmentas property owners make the minimum level of improvements to attract tenants,thereby suppressing appreciation rates.The second issue is the fact that this trend often occurs during a period prior to an increase in speculation activity.Property owners get revenue from tenants while they wait and see if appreciation levels warrant reinvestment or a sale. Either way,it serves as an investment holding period which can create stagnation without investment in catalyst areas which prove up market opportunities and motivate property owners and investors. Furthermore,the data suggests that single family owner occupied units have been converted to rental occupancy.There are many problems associated with heavy reliance on single-family homes as affordable rental housing.It is an inefficient way to provide affordable rental housing options.Such units are often vulnerable to poor management (absentee owners and/or it is just economically and logistically more difficult to provide upkeep and maintenance for scattered-siteproperties.Good management and maintenance is easier to provide in multi-tenant buildings that can support on-site 33 W. Colfax (Owner) Denver (Owner) 0% 20% 40% 60%Percent of Housing Units80% 100% Denver (Renter) W. Colfax (Renter) 19902000Owner vs. Rental Occupancy Rates West Colfax DENVER 2000 Price 1990 Price 1980 Price $250,000 $150,000 $50,000 $0 $100,000 $200,000Housing Prices 1980-2000

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WEST COLFAX PLANmanagement and provide more on-site amenities to residents.Additionally,this type of housing can be very unstable for tenants:booming market conditions result in unit sales,resident displacement and a shrinking supply of affordable units.When the city has actively planned for growth,changes occur in stagnant growth rates that are desirable to change.Redevelopment opportunities in the West Colfax area present ideal conditions to plan for and facilitate increased housing development accompanied by home-ownership programs and incentives,as well as more strict enforcement of rental property management standards. 34

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 35 P P o o p p u u l l a a t t i i o o n n & & H H o o u u s s i i n n g g D D e e n n s s i i t t y y 0 5 15 10 20Population Density (people per acre) West Colfax Denver 0 1 2 3 4 5 6Housing Density (housing units per acre) West ColfaxDenver H H o o u u s s i i n n g g U U n n i i t t s s P P e e r r A A c c r r e e

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 36 H H o o u u s s i i n n g g V V a a l l u u e e & & O O c c c c u u p p a a n n c c y y S S t t a a t t u u s s West Colfax Denver $1,000 $800 $600 $400 $200 $0Low Quintile High Quintile MedianAverage Rental Rates West Colfax Denver 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0%Under $100k $100k to $150k $150k to $200k $200k to $250k $250k to $300k Over $300kDistribution of Owner Occupied Housing Units (by value) West Colfax rental rates are slightly lower than citywide rates. However, there is a concentration ofaffordable owner-occupied housing units in the West Colfax area. Home-ownership programs targeted at area renters should be explored to improve local residentshousing options. H H o o u u s s i i n n g g O O c c c c u u p p a a n n c c y y S S t t a a t t u u s s

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 37 H H o o u u s s e e h h o o l l d d I I n n c c o o m m e e & & H H o o u u s s i i n n g g V V a a l l u u e e Denver West Colfax 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000Median Household Income Per Capita IncomeWest Colfax Income Comparisons 2000 Census data shows both household and per capita income to be lower than the citywide levels. The map (left) illustrates that there are concentrations ofhigher and lower household incomes throughout the study area. Breaking up concentrations ofpoverty will be an important to the implementation ofthis plan. The challenge will be to maintain a strong supply ofaffordable housing options while introducing new product types that promote a healthier mix ofincomes and increase concentrations housing in transit rich places. A A v v e e r r a a g g e e A A n n n n u u a a l l I I n n c c o o m m e e

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 38 $200,000 $150,000 $165,800 $124,150 $100,000 $500,000 $0Median Housing Value (Owner-Occupied Units) West ColfaxDenver 2000 Census data shows the average home value to be $124,150; while most recent sales data (2003) shows that the average home sales price for this area is $199,153 with an average price per square foot of $175.97. H H o o u u s s i i n n g g V V a a l l u u e e

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WEST COLFAX PLANEXISTING CONDITIONS: PARKS & RECREATIONThe West Colfax corridor is bounded by parks along its north and south edges for most of its length. Sloans Lake Park is located along the north side of West 17th Avenue,while Rude,Paco Sanchez,and Lakewood Dry Gulch Parks form virtually the entire south edge from Decatur Street to Sheridan Blvd. While these parks offer a wonderful open space experience for all the residents of the corridor,they also create challenges to the vehicular traffic flow in the area,in that there are very few north-south connecting streets.Between Federal and Sheridan,a distance of one and a half miles,only Perry Street (which jogs east to Meade Street at W.17th) and Knox Court (which jogs east to Irving Street at Colfax) offer any feasible north-south traffic flow. S S l l o o a a n n s s L L a a k k e e P P a a r r k k Sloans Lake Park is the second largest park within Denver City limits,consisting of 295 acres bounded by West 17th,Sheridan,West 26th and Meade.The lake itself is 176 acres in size and is widely used for water skiing,although some non-motorized boating also takes place on the lake.The park offers a variety of walking and running trails,including a 2.6 mile circuit around the lake.The park has several athletic fields that are heavily permitted during the appropriate seasons for football,softball and soccer.Eight tennis courts and two basketball courts are also located in the park,along with two large playgrounds.Picnicking is a very popular weekend activity,and large picnic areas are located on both the north and south sides of the lake.The park also offers spectacular views across the lake,from the east looking toward the mountains and from the west looking toward the city skyline.The Northwest Parks Maintenance District Headquarters are located in Sloans Lake Park. L L a a k k e e w w o o o o d d D D r r y y G G u u l l c c h h The principal feature of the parks on the south side is the deep gulch that flows eastward from the City of Lakewood and empties into the Platte River.The gulch was created by a perennial stream that is known as Dry Gulch until it merges with Lakewood Gulch just east of the Perry10th Ave.intersection,at which point it becomes Lakewood Dry Gulch.The three parks that are formed along this stretch are characterized by steep topography,a natural appearance,and a number of vistas both toward the city skyline and the mountains.The most prominent recreational feature is a continuous bike trail that leads from the Platte River trail to the Lakewood city limits.Also running the entire length of this open space system are the high tension lines of Xcel Energy and railroad tracks that are used by a historic trolley (recreational site-seeing activity).The tracks follow the approximate route of the proposed West Corridor Light Rail Line.Rude Park (Decatur to Federal) features a large baseball 39 Sloans Lake Park.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 40 P P a a r r k k s s & & R R e e c c r r e e a a t t i i o o n n a a l l F F a a c c i i l l i i t t i i e e s s

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WEST COLFAX PLANfield and a new recreation center that was opened in 2003.Sanchez Park (Federal to Knox) includes two basketball courts,a softball field,a playground and generous passive open space.Lakewood Dry Gulch Park (Knox to Sheridan) is the least developed and most passive,with three playgrounds,some picnic tables,trails,and an informal multi-purpose field.Except for the crossing streets (Knox and Perry),there are very few north-south pedestrian connections across the gulch,although three major pedestrian bridges (at Wolff,Tennyson and Irving) are planned in conjunction with the Light Rail project to provide better circulation within the neighborhood. R R u u d d e e R R e e c c r r e e a a t t i i o o n n C C e e n n t t e e r r The new Rude Recreation Center is located in Rude Park at the intersection of Federal and Holden Place.The old center was built in 1968 and demolished in 2001.The new center was re-opened in May 2003.The center serves the Sun Valley,West Colfax,Villa Park and surrounding areas. 41 Rude Recreation Center Paco Sanchez Park in the Lakewood Dry Gulch.

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WEST COLFAX PLANEXISTING CONDITIONS: MOBILITYThe West Colfax area enjoys a high degree of bus service and in the future the area will be served by the West Corridor Light Rail Line.Approximately 50% of the population commutes to work by alternatives to the single occupant vehicle.Improvements to bus,bike and pedestrian facilities will continue to support the existing number of people commuting by alternative modes and encourage additional alternative mode commuters once light rail begins to serve this area.The existing transit rich environment coupled with the future light rail expansion will increase the appeal of this area as a place of residence for choice riders (individuals who could drive,but choose to use an alternative mode of transportation) and transitreliant populations. Three express bus routes (16L,30L,36L) and six local bus routes (9,16,20,30,31,49) serve the West Colfax area.The volume of transit boardings and alightings is greatest at the intersections of Colfax with Irving,Perry,Winona and Sheridan. P P e e d d e e s s t t r r i i a a n n & & B B i i c c y y c c l l e e C C i i r r c c u u l l a a t t i i o o n n The pedestrian transportation network includes both attached and detached sidewalks,as well as off-road paved walking and biking trails.Detached sidewalks are characteristic in the older sections of the neighborhoods where houses were built primarily before 1940. In areas where construction occurred predominantly after 1940,attached sidewalks are the norm. Bicycle routes connect the community to parks,adjacent neighborhoods,nearby trails,and downtown access ways.Lakewood Dry Gulch and Sloans Lake Park provide miles of off-road trails for pedestrians and bicyclists. D D e e f f i i n n i i n n g g S S t t r r e e e e t t s s F F u u n n c c t t i i o o n n a a l l C C l l a a s s s s i i f f i i c c a a t t i i o o n n & & T T y y p p o o l l o o g g y y The City and County of Denver uses two methods to identify streets.First,the more conventional street functional classification encompasses a str eet s design and the characterization of service the street is intended to provide.This classification forms a hierarchy of streets ranging from those that are primarily for travel mobility (arterials) to those that are primarily for access to property (local streets).Second, Blueprint Denver adopted typologies to further define streets by relating them to the adjacent land use and their function for pedestrians, bicyclists and transit.These typologies acknowledge that the design of a street,its intersections, sidewalks,and transit stops should reflect the adjacent land uses since the type and intensity of the adjacent land use directly influences the level of use by other modes. 42 C C h h o o i i c c e e r r i i d d e e r r : : A person who could otherwise drive, but chooses to take transit. Alternative Mode Drove AloneCommuting Patterns West Colfax by Census Tract 7.017.029.049.05 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% West Colfax Commuting Time (in minutes)Under 10 10 to 20 20 to 30 30 to 40 40 to 60 60 to 89 90 +0 500 1500 1000 2000 2500

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WEST COLFAX PLANF F u u n n c c t t i i o o n n a a l l C C l l a a s s s s i i f f i i c c a a t t i i o o n n The primary street network of West Colfax consists of three arterials (West Colfax Avenue,Federal Boulevard and Sheridan Boulevard) and four collectors (W.17th Ave.,W.10th Ave., Perry Street and Knox Court).The remainder of the street network serves a local traffic function. A A r r t t e e r r i i a a l l S S t t r r e e e e t t s s West Colfax Avenue,Federal Boulevard and Sheridan Boulevard are classified as arterial streets in the study area.The Average Daily Traffic (ADT) volumes on these streets are as follows: West Colfax Ave.ADT = 35,000 (Mixed-Use Arterial) Federal Blvd.ADT = 38,000 (Commercial Arterial) Sheridan Blvd.ADT = 45,000 (Mixed-Use Arterial) C C o o l l l l e e c c t t o o r r S S t t r r e e e e t t s s Knox Court,Perry Street,West 17th Ave.and West 10th Ave.are classified as collector streets.The average daily traffic volume of these streets is as follows: West 17th Ave ADT = 9,628 (Combination of Main Street Collector,Mixed-Use Collector & Residential Collector) West 10th Ave.= 5,607 (Residential Collector) Knox Court (south of Colfax) ADT = 4,155 (Residential Collector) Perry Street ADT = 4,773 (Main Street Collector) S S t t r r e e e e t t T T y y p p o o l l o o g g y y B lueprint D enver identified 13 different street types,4 of which appear in the study area including: M M i i x x e e d d U U s s e e A A r r t t e e r r i i a a l l & & C C o o l l l l e e c c t t o o r r S S t t r r e e e e t t s s Blueprint Denver states that mixed-use streets emphasize a variety of travel choices such as pedestrian,bicycle and transit uses.Mixed-use streets are located in high intensity mixed-use commercial,retail and residential areas with substantial pedestrian activity. These streets are attractive for pedestrians and bicyclists,and can have on-street parking,wide sidewalks and bicycle lanes which are viewed as higher priorities than the number of travel lanes on these types of streets. (Blueprint Denver, pg. 57) West Colfax and Sheridan Blvd are designated as Mixed-Use Streets.While Blueprint Denver places a priority on parking,pedestrian and bicycle facilities on mixed-use streets,it is important to acknowledge that regional arterial streets must balance the needs of all modes of transportation to ensure a high volume of multi-modal trips, including the automobile.Within the study area,West Colfax Avenue,Sheridan Boulevard and part of West 17th Avenue are designated as either Mixed Use Arterial or Collector. 43 Both Knox Court (above) and Federal Blvd. (below) provide access to light rail stations. Knox Court is designated by Blueprint Denver as a Residential Collector, while Federal Blvd. is designated as a Commercial Arterial. Pedestrian safety and comfort are critical along these streets. Due to the amount oftransit activity and the need to reconstruct the Federal Bridge, consideration should be given to whether Federal Blvd. should be classified as a mixed use street rather than a commercial street.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN C C o o m m m m e e r r c c i i a a l l A A r r t t e e r r i i a a l l S S t t r r e e e e t t s s Blueprint Denver states that commercial streets are designed with multiple lanes divided by a landscaped median or a continuous two-way left turn lane in the center. Commercial streets are designed to balance traffic mobility with access to nearby businesses. However,because there are so many intersections and access points,commercial streets often become congested. (Blueprint Denver, pg. 58) Federal Blvd.south of West Colfax Ave.is designated as a Commercial Arterial. R R e e s s i i d d e e n n t t i i a a l l A A r r t t e e r r i i a a l l & & C C o o l l l l e e c c t t o o r r S S t t r r e e e e t t s s Blueprint Denver states that residential streets serve two major purposes in Denvers neighborhoods.As arterials,residential streets balance transportation choices with land access,without sacrificing auto mobility.As collectors and local streets,residential streets emphasize walking,bicycling and land access over auto mobility.In all cases,residential streets tend to be more pedestrian oriented,giving higher priority to landscaped medians,tree lawns,sidewalks,onstreet parking and bicycle lanes.Residential streets provide important connections to Denvers local parks. (Blueprint DenverI pg. 55). Meade Street north of West 17th Ave.,Knox Court south of West Colfax Ave.,West 17th Ave.between Meade and Federal,and West 10th Ave.between Federal and Sheridan are designated as Residential Collectors.Federal Blvd.north of West Colfax Ave.is designated as a Residential Arterial. M M a a i i n n S S t t r r e e e e t t C C o o l l l l e e c c t t o o r r s s B lueprint D enver states that main streets serve the highest intensity retail and mixed land uses in areas such as downtown and in regional and neighborhood centers.Main Streets are designed to promote walking,bicycling,and transit within an attractive landscaped corridor.Main Streets may have two to four travel lanes,tree lawns/trees in grates,detached sidewalks,streetscape amenities,wide sidewalks,and public gathering spaces.(Blueprint Denver,pg.56).West 17th Ave (between Sheridan and Stuart) and Perry Street (between West 10th Ave and West 17th Ave.) are designated as Main Street Collectors. S S t t r r e e e e t t N N e e t t w w o o r r k k G G r r i i d d I I n n t t e e r r r r u u p p t t i i o o n n s s Geographic constraints limit the distribution of traffic across the grid.Sloans Lake and Lakewood Dry Gulch limit north-south traffic movement.Only Knox Court,Perry Street,Irving Street (local street) and Julian Street (local street) move cars more than a few blocks north or south of the Colfax corridor without interruption.Mile High Stadium,the Platte River and I-25 limit east-west traffic movement,and downtown access/egress is limited primarily to West Colfax.West 17th Ave.,West 14th Ave.and West 10th Ave.could offset some of the east-west traffic burden with better promotion of the connection to downtown via Holden Place and W.13th Avenue (east of Decatur Street) where it crosses the Platte or under the Colfax viaduct where the street grid provides a link to Auraria Parkway. Additionally,ways to enhance the connections from West 17th Ave.,West 14th Ave.and West 10th Ave.to the Colfax viaduct should be explored. 44 West 17th Ave. is designated as a Main Street, Mixed-Use and Residential Collector. There may be some discrepancies in these designations and consideration should be given to whether a combination ofpredominantly Residential with Main Street along the edge ofthe Saint Anthonys Hospital redevelopment site is more appropriate. Regardless the lack ofpedestrian facilities in the existing cross-section does not meet the intent ofthe Blueprint Denver designation, nor is it satisfactory for the location ofthe street between a residential neighborhood and the second largest park in Denver.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 45 S S t t r r e e e e t t T T y y p p o o l l o o g g y y M M a a p p

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WEST COLFAX PLAN T T r r a a n n s s p p o o r r t t a a t t i i o o n n C C h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r i i s s t t i i c c s s 46

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WEST COLFAX PLANEXISTING CONDITIONS: ECONOMIC ACTIVITYT T r r a a d d e e A A r r e e a a A trade area is an area of geography that developers (of residential,retail,office and other income producing products) and business owners use to define that area from which the majority of their residents,patrons,or employees will originate.The best estimated trade areas take into account factors such as population densities,competitive locations,demographic,housing and lifestyle characteristics,physical and psychological barriers and access patterns.Estimated trade areas may be used for proposed developments or redevelopment situations.The experience of successfully redeveloped infill areas (such as that proposed for the West Colfax Avenue corridor) is that they tend to draw from an area larger than their primary trade area as they become a placeunique to the environment around them,and therefore a destination in the region.A well-defined trade area demonstrates the r ealistic potential of an area to grow and change beyond its current condition (existing conditions) and capture a share of the growth and transition occurring around it.To that end,future competitive areas for a revitalized West Colfax Avenue corridor include the retail spine of the Highlands neighborhood on 32nd Street;former Gates Rubber factory planned redevelopment;Belmar (Villa Italia Mall redevelopment);West Colfax Avenue in Lakewood (particularly in the area of Colfax and Wadsworth);retail / residential mixed-use enclaves on Sheridan and Federal Boulevard and residential developments in Jefferson Park and the Highlands neighborhood.The trade area for West Colfax is defined by I-70 on the north;Pecos Street,Speer Boulevard,Broadway on the east;Mississippi Avenue on the south;and,approximately Kipling Street on the west.This trade area takes into account the market dynamics of a potential customer base for the West Colfax study area and provides a broad enough geographic area to allow for a thorough examination of competition within the larger market area. F F u u t t u u r r e e C C o o m m p p e e t t i i t t i i v v e e A A c c t t i i v v i i t t y y The vision for the West Colfax Corridor as a mixed-use,mixed-income climate with new development and redevelopment in a dense form and connections to transit corridors suggests future competition will include Highlands neighborhood;former Gates Rubber factory planned redevelopment,Belmar (Villa Italia),and the Mercy Hospital redevelopment (outside of the trade area). D D e e m m o o g g r r a a p p h h i i c c H H i i g g h h l l i i g g h h t t s s Trade area population,relative to the Metro Area as a whole,is growing at a slower pace,somewhat younger,less well-educated,and more ethnically diverse.Growth rate projections are affected by agency estimates,historical activity and lack of information about eventswhich will influence future market activity.Trade area residents are more likely to be employed in blue collar jobs 47 The West Colfax Study area (which lies between Federal and Sheridan Blvds. and 10th to 17th Aves.) is centrally located within a larger trade area defined by the red lines in the above map. This trade area identifies a potential customer base for future retail, office and housing developments. The trade area provides a broad enough geographic area to allow a thorough analysis ofcompetition within a larger market area. Catalytic events (such as the extension oflight rail) may increase the study areas demand and capture rate for new retail, office and housing development.

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WEST COLFAX PLANand take public transportation or carpool to work.Household incomes today are lower than the Metro Area and the housing stock is older and at lower price points. M M a a r r k k e e t t D D e e m m a a n n d d Over five years,the trade area household growth is estimated to support approximately 475 new units of residential construction per year (but for,increases in allowable zoning,introduction of new housing product types,and introduction of vertically integrated mixed-use.Over the next five years, the trade area is estimated to support approximately 100,000 sf of new retail space per year from demand due to existing voids,household growth and replacement of obsolete space.Demand will increase with creation of destination and mixed-use environments on the corridor.Over five years,the trade area is estimated to support approximately 160,000 sf of office space per year from demand due to employment growth,and turnover of obsolete space.The bulk of this demand will likely not be realized until 2006 / 2007,due to excess supply in the office market but for,products which are introduced which address niche opportunities not present (i.e.,live/work integrated products). 48 M M a a r r k k e e t t D D e e m m a a n n d d H H i i g g h h l l i i g g h h t t s s The trade area annual demand for: 1. Housing 475 units 2. Retail 100,000 SF 3. Office 160,000 SF The factors affecting the trade area demand and the study areas capacity to capture a greater share of this demand include: 1. Zoning regulatory changes that allow increased development potential with more predictable standards 2. Introduction of new housing product types and vertically integrated mixed use. 3. Filling excess office supply and employment growth. 4. Creation of destination and mixed-use environments. 5. Development of niche environments, especially live/work spaces.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN T T r r a a d d e e A A r r e e a a P P s s y y c c h h o o g g r r a a p p h h i i c c s s Psychographics is a term which describes peoplespsychology,as distinct from physical characteristics.Psychographic analyses identify personality characteristics and attitudes that affect a persons lifestyle and purchasing behavior.To this end,individuals that may not be grouped together in the traditional demographic delineations (age,race,gender) rather they may be grouped together in various psychographic sets.For example,not all Latinos would be grouped together in one psychographic category,as lifestyle choices can be as much an individual as cultural choice.This concept explains any discrepancy in the breakout in renter households,as renting as a choice crosses multiple psychographic categories.Commercial retail developers,in particular,are interested in understanding a communitys psychographic profile,as this is an indication of its residents propensity to spend across select retail categories. There are 62 psychographic categories,and this report only presents the top (largest numbers of households by category) 7 which are present within the trade area (larger than study area).The top seven psychographic clusters present within the West Colfax trade area include:Metropolitans, Industrious Urban Fringe,Main Street USA,Old and Newcomers,Las Casas,International Marketplace, and NeWest Residents.A description of each is presented in the discussion which follows. M M e e t t r r o o p p o o l l i i t t a a n n s s These residents favor city living in older neighborhoods populated by singles or childless couples.Neighborhoods are an eclectic mix of singleand multifamily structures,with a median home value of $183,000.Residents include both Gen Xers and retirees,most of whom are prosperous with a median household income over $55,000.Busy and actively living the urban lifestyle,they participate in yoga,attend concerts,and visit museums.Listen to jazz,news,talk,and sports radio and rent foreign videos.Travel for business & pleasure,belonging to 3+ frequent flyer programs.Civically active and frequent volunteers. I I n n d d u u s s t t r r i i o o u u s s U U r r b b a a n n F F r r i i n n g g e e Settled on the fringe of metropolitan cities,residents in this market use access to the city to earn a living.Diverse families relying on blue collar sectors for employment.Median household income is $39,000.Family is important,with many living in multi-generational households. Two-thirds own their homes,which are mostly older.Budget-conscious,with kids,mortgage and pets taking top priority.Big movie fans both at the cinema and at home. M M a a i i n n S S t t r r e e e e t t U U S S A A This group profiles the American population.Household size is 2.51,but with a growing mix of single-households.Median age is 36,with a comfortable middle income of $50,000.64% 49 Denver West Colfax 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000Median Household Income Per Capita IncomeWest Colfax Income Comparisons

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WEST COLFAX PLANare homeowners in older single-family homes with median value of $165,000.They are active community members and volunteers,as well as frequent do-it-yourselfers,relying on large home improvement stores. O O l l d d & & N N e e w w c c o o m m e e r r s s These neighborhoods are in transition,populated by renters who are starting their careers or retiring.Many householders are in their 20s or above age 75.Many residents have moved recently,to apartment buildings constructed in the 1970s.Purchasing behavior reflects their unencumbered,often single,lifestyle.They are avid book readers. L L a a s s C C a a s s a a s s This group is the latest wave of western pioneers.Settled primarily in California,almost half were born outside the U.S.Young,Hispanic,and family oriented 62% have kids.Most rent in older apartment buildings,although 42% own a home,with a median value of $201,000.They are a strong market for baby and childrens products.Cars are important to this group primarily older models. I I n n t t e e r r n n a a t t i i o o n n a a l l M M a a r r k k e e t t p p l l a a c c e e The cutting edge of immigration,this market presents a blend of cultures and household types.Median age of only 30 years,with married-couple and single-parent families predominate.Most rent apartments,but almost one-third own.Family is the top purchasing priority,with medical insurance,groceries,kids clothing and diapers dominating the budget. N N e e W W e e s s t t R R e e s s i i d d e e n n t t s s Among the newest residents in the West,young families,living in midor high-rise apartments,comprise this market.More than half are foreign-born,the population is young,with a median age of 25.With many small children,the median household size of this group is 3.56.They lead a strong family-oriented lifestyle with an emphasis on budget-constrained spending on childrens products and groceries. 50 The West Colfax area is home to a diverse range ofhousehold incomes with a nearly even split across every income range. Preserving this mix ofincomes will help West Colfax remain a welcome place for many types ofresidents. West Colfax Household Income>$10,000 16% $10K $20K 19% $20K $30K 17% $30K $40K 16% $40K $50K 10% $50K $60K 6% $60K+ 16%

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EVENTS MATRIXCritical to interpreting the study areas future competitive position for development growth is an understanding of potential events which could impact the character and quantity of select land uses as reflected in absorption activity and project values.Three types of events were considered including: 1 1 Competition or introduction of major improvement projects (infrastructure events) 2 2 New development and redevelopment projects (development events) 3 3 Completion of land use and capital planning documents (planning events) For the purpose of this analysis,infrastructure events were considered to have an impact when money had been committed or construction had begun.Development events were considered to have a significant impact as they essentially served to prove upthe market.A planning event was not considered to have any immediate impact in and of itself.Finally,it was assumed that regulatory barriers would be eliminated to accommodate the vision of the plan. The events identified are presented on the following page.The numbers presented in the matrix reflect the net effect (increase or decrease),as a percent of the baseline capture rate.Events with a neutral impact are left blank.Impacts from the events matrix were then combined to establish an overall estimated percentage increase (or decrease) in forecasted capture rates by land use over time. The discussion that follows presents supply conditions and demand analyses for each land use,which are then adjusted to reflect the defined impacts of the identified events at select intervals over a fifteenyear period. Baseline trade area demand for residential development is a function of projected household growth across income groups,as is baseline retail demand.Baseline office demand is a function of projected trade area employment growth.The West Colfax study area is expected to capture some share of this baseline demand.The capture rate,or market share,is determined based on the level of competitive activity and the relative advantages of the subject site versus the likely competition.These baseline demand projections dont,however,take into account certain events that may boost demand. C C o o r r r r i i d d o o r r P P r r o o g g r r a a m m m m i i n n g g R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n s s : : Improve the mix of land uses Establish market niches which provide near-term development potential Analyze existing sale prices and lease rate ranges,as well as those which are likely over time Encourage development product types which promote sustainability Target growth and investment to areas of change within the study boundaries Establish a desired image and theme Enhance community amenities Plan for infrastructure improvements Develop a policy framework which supports the community vision and market reality 51 WEST COLFAX PLAN DRAFT FOR COMMUNITY REVIEW

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WEST COLFAX PLANA wide variety of planned and proposed events over the next twenty years in the trade area have the potential to positively affect the overall trade area demand and the proportion (capture rate) of that demand likely to develop along West Colfax.Because of this,development of the Events Matrix to helps to make more logical,systematic adjustments to these baseline levels.Basically,it assumes that each event might have some impact on overall trade area market demand (the size of the pie).The matrix also assumes that these events will increase the capture rate (the size of the study areas slice) attainable by properties along West Colfax. The matrix considers first the likelihood of the event occurring over the short,medium or long term.The sum of these likelihoods is equal to the overall likelihood of the event happening at all,with a combined score of 10 meaning that the event will certainly happen and a combined score of 5 meaning that it is 50% likely to happen. Next,the matrix assigns a score for the impact on overall baseline demand.In the model,a score of 5 indicates a very strong positive impact (theoretically the impact could go as high as 10,but that would be reserved for an extreme impact,like a relocation of a major corporate headquarters).This gets multiplied by the likelihood to give a percent increase in baseline demand for a given time period. Finally,the matrix scores for impact on subject capture rate.The redevelopment of a medium-sized shopping center would be expected to have more impact on capture rate than on baseline demand,since it wouldnt affect overall fundamental demand so much as increase the chances of landing a development on a property,given the shortage of developable land.Again,5 should be considered very high,although this impact could go as high as 10 in theory.The capture rate gets multiplied by likelihood of the event occurring in a given time period to give a percentage increase in capture rate (note,this is not a point increase if the starting capture rate is 10%,a 20 percent increase means 12%,not 30%). P P i i e e A A n n a a l l o o g g y y Understanding the trade area,the events matrix & the capture rate: Trade area demand is like a whole pie.Multiple small areas drive total demand within the trade area.The ability of small areas to capture that demand (or increase the size of their slice) is a function of existing conditions (within the small area),as well as "events" that occur such as development or infrastructure improvements. These events improve the ability of the small area to capture a greater share of the demand (or a bigger piece of the pie).Therefore: 1 1 Trade area demand = the pie 2 2 Study area capture = pie slice 3 3 Events matrix = factors that affect the size of the pie slice 52

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WEST COLFAX PLAN WEST COLFAX EVENTS MATRIX 53 E E v v e e n n t tConstruct West Corridor light rail line Redevelop St.Anthonys Hospital Redevelop Avondale Shopping Center Redevelop West Ridge homes Redevelop Avondale housing (high-rise & townhomes) Redevelop Centura Senior Life Center Relocate Cheltenham Elementary & mixed-use redevelopment of site Relocate Colfax Elementary & mixed-use redevelopment of site Reconstruct Federal Bridge Construct Sheridan bridge over gulch Improveintersection at Colfax and Sheridan Assemble & develop mixed-use at Colfax & Sheridan (Arc Thrift Store) Roadway/streetscape improvements to Colfax Enhanced transit technology on Colfax Station area development at Decatur/Federal,Knox Court,Perry street,Sheridan/Gulch Complete West Colfax Plan Complete Colfax Street Development Guidelines Circulator bus service btw.Knox/Perry stations & Colfax community context Stadium area mixed-use development along FederalL L i i k k e e l l i i h h o o o o d d ( ( h h i i g g h h e e s s t t s s u u m m = = 1 1 0 0 ) )1 1 5 5 y y r r s s 6 6 1 1 0 0 y y r r s s 1 1 0 0 1 1 5 5 y y r r s s019 431 441 441 441 243 243 243 550 550 450 620 343 023 044 1000 1000 026 233I I m m p p a a c c t t o o n n T T r r a a d d e e A A r r e e a a d d e e m m a a n n d d f f o o r r . ( ( 1 1 0 0 = = p p o o s s i i t t i i v v e e i i m m p p a a c c t t ) )r r e e s s i i d d e e n n t t a a l l r r e e t t a a i i l l o o f f f f i i c c e e453 111 322 320 320 111 220 220 000 000 000 221 000 000 333 000 000 000 221I I m m p p a a c c t t o o n n C C o o l l f f a a x x s s h h a a r r e e o o f f T T r r a a d d e e A A r r e e a a d d e e m m a a n n d d f f o o r r . .r r e e s s i i d d e e n n t t a a l l r r e e t t a a i i l l o o f f f f i i c c e e675 221 321 321 321 111 220 220 111 111 121 221 353 222 353 232 232 220 111T Ty yp pe einfrastructure development development development development development development development infrastructure infrastructure infrastructure development infrastructure infrastructure development planning/policy planning/policy infrastructure development

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WEST COLFAX PLANRESIDENTIAL DEMAND ANALYSISResidential uses dominate the study area land mix,including a combination of single and multi-family residences and the Denver Housing Authority community,Westridge Homes.The neighborhoods which abut the West Colfax Corridor to the north and south were largely built prior to the 1950s,with the multi-family and public housing components added during the 1970s.Although enjoying many of the traditional physical elements which have contributed to significant levels of appreciation in other Denver neighborhoods mature trees,detached sidewalks,neighborhood parks,close in medical services,etc.West Colfax neighborhoods have not historically attracted the same level of investor interest.Between 1980 and 2000,housing prices in the area rose at 80 percent of the citywide rate,increasing 194 percent. This trend,however,may be improving as West Colfax housing price between 1990 and 2000 grew at 116 percent of the citywide rate.Price increases will likely continue to lag behind other neighborhoods given the areas high concentration of renter-occupied housing units 70 percent in 2000.Comparatively, the city as a whole has a renter-occupancy rate of 48 percent.Another factor contributing to depressed home prices in the area is an overall lack of new inventory.Few housing units were built in the West Colfax area between 1996 and 2002.In fact,the rate of new housing growth in West Colfax has averaged 13 percent of the rate for Denver new housing starts in recent years. Opportunities to introduce new housing units,a denser housing product and potentially an increase in home ownership will likely parallel construction of a future light rail line adjacent to the Lakewood Dry Gulch.The West Corridor Line construction program includes rail station areas at Knox Court,Perry Street and Sheridan Street.Increased investment at these locations will likely ripple through the neighborhood,essentially proving upthe market for more units and reinvestment in existing units. A number of recent and planned residential infill projects in the trade area suggest steady demand for well-designed projects in cases where scarce infill sites are available.Selected residential developments are profiled briefly below. Z Z o o c c a a l l o o C C o o n n d d o o m m i i n n i i u u m m s s Located on the site of the former Denver Police Department District 1 at West 22nd Avenue and Decatur Street,next to Jefferson Park,the project consists of 42 for-sale condominium units in a four-story building,with three commercial spaces on the ground floor.Construction is underway,with pricing from $200,000 to $300,000.33 of 42 units already sold. 54

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WEST COLFAX PLANW W a a l l k k e e r r s s R R o o w w Located on West 23rd Avenue near Denvers Jefferson Park,Walkers Row is a 15-unit residential for-sale development consisting of 12 row homes in two buildings and three carriage homes located over garages.The first row home building with seven units and carriage home/garage buildings were completed in early 2005.Construction of the second row home building will follow.Carriage homes are priced from the upper $100,000s with row homes from the upper $200,000s. H H i i g g h h l l a a n n d d s s S S q q u u a a r r e e L L o o f f t t s s & & O O f f f f i i c c e e s s Located on the western half of a triangular block along Speer Boulevard at West 28th Avenue and Clay Street,the Highland Square Lofts is a mixed-use project consisting of a 10-unit apartment building and professional office space.The project was completed in 2003 and designed by Casey and Godden Architects. S S p p e e e e r r L L o o f f t t s s Located at the corner of Speer Boulevard and West 29th Avenue,across from Viking Park, Speer Lofts features a four-story building containing 15 residential loft units and five commercial spaces. Speer Lofts were designed by Real Architecture,Ltd.which also now maintains its offices in one of the buildings commercial spaces.The project was completed in March 2003. T T h h e e D D a a k k o o t t a a This 61-unit,five-story condominium development is located at the corner of 15th and Central Streets across I-25 from the Central Platte Valley.The project also features ground-floor retail and superior visibility and views from a bluff location.The Dakota was designed by Buchanan Yonushewski Group.Construction was completed in Spring 2005 with pricing ranging from the low $100,000s to low $400,000s. W W y y a a n n d d o o t t O O v v e e r r l l o o o o k k Planned f or the nor theast corner of West 29th Avenue and Wyandot Street,this project consists of 15 for-sale condominium units in a three-story building and is scheduled to be completed in the Summer of 2006.The architect is Sprocket Design-Build. W W e e l l l l i i n n g g t t o o n n A A p p a a r r t t m m e e n n t t s s ( ( V V u u l l c c a a n n I I r r o o n n w w o o r r k k s s ) ) Home of the former Vulcan Ironworks plant,this 10th Avenue and Santa Fe site was rezoned in 2002 for a 250-unit mixed-use residential project.After a delay while developers worked to secure an additional parcel from RTD,the project appears to be back on track as a multi-family rental development. S S a a n n t t a a F F e e C C o o m m m m o o n n s s This project at the corner of West 10th Avenue and Santa Fe Drive was completed in 2004 on a vacant lot in the heart of the historic Santa Fe business district.The project includes 38 affordable apartment units,6,000 square feet of ground-floor retail space,6,000 square feet of secondfloor office space,and two levels of underground parking. 55 S S t t r r a a t t e e g g i i e e s s t t o o I I m m p p r r o o v v e e I I n n v v e e s s t t m m e e n n t t C C l l i i m m a a t t e e : : Promote minimum densities at key locations to facilitate strategic growth Restrict under-utilization of urban land Apply new zoning in key locations (with standards to encourage appropriate density, use mix,open space,setbacks,parking,etc.) Invest in infrastructure upgrades Cultivate and engage the political will to make changes happen Establish programs which support home ownership and reinvestment Provide incentives (residential reverse mortgages,smart commute mortgages,etc.) Identify catalyst areas (favorable zoning, incentives,public improvements,etc.) Establish a community development entity to acquire,hold and position key parcels for redevelopment

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WEST COLFAX PLANRESIDENTIAL DEMAND SUMMARYDemand for new residential units is primarily a factor of growth in income-qualified households within a trade area.Projected household growth was analyzed along with historical patterns of single and multifamily development to arrive at a baseline demand estimate within the trade area (represented in the map on page 54) of approximately 2,050 units between 2005 and 2010.After adjusting for catalyst events,total study area demand increased to approximately 2,640 units,or 1,700 ownership units and 940 rental units.Assuming a market share of 15 percent for ownership units and 20 percent for rental units,the study area could capture approximately 250 new ownership units and 190 new rental units of total trade area growth over the near-term. 56 *CAGR Compound Anual Growth Rate ** "Colfax" refers to the West Colfax trade area which is significantly larger than the study area

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WEST COLFAX PLANRESIDENTIAL DEMAND ANALYSIS W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x T T r r a a d d e e A A r r e e a a F F i i v v e e Y Y e e a a r r D D e e m m a a n n d d e e s s t t i i m m a a t t e e s s Households200572,504Annual Growth Rate0.50% 201074,335Demolition Rate/yr0.05% Household Growth (05-10)1,831Annual Pct.nd Home2.0% Total Unit Requirement2,049Current Pct.Renters46% T T r r a a d d e e A A r r e e a a D D e e m m a a n n d d f f r r o o m m N N e e w w H H o o u u s s e e h h o o l l d d s s ( ( 5 5 y y r r ) )C C u u r r r r e e n n t t H H H H s s E E s s t t N N e e t t A A n n n n u u a a l l I I n n c c o o m m e e i i n n I I n n c c o o m m e e N N e e w w H H H H s s E E s s t t P P c c t t T T o o t t a a l l T T o o t t a a l l R R a a n n g g e e ( ( 2 2 0 0 0 0 5 5 ) ) A A p p p p r r o o x x R R e e n n t t A A p p p p r r o o x x H H o o m m e e B B r r a a c c k k e e t t b b y y I I n n c c o o m m e e T T o o t t a a l l R R e e n n t t e e r r s s R R e e n n t t a a l l O O w w n n e e r r s s h h i i p p d d o o l l l l a a r r s s ) ) R R a a n n g g e e P P r r i i c c e e R R a a n n g g e e ( ( 2 2 0 0 0 0 5 5 ) ) B B r r a a c c k k e e t t U U n n i i t t s s ( ( n n e e w w u u n n i i t t s s ) ) U U n n i i t t s s U U n n i i t t s sup to $15Kup to $375up to $50K15%2%4195%392 $15 25K$375 $625$50 to $80K12%7%14385%12222 $25 35K$625 $875$85 to $120K13%8%16475%12341 $35 50K$875 $1000$120 to $175K18%17%34850%174174 $50 75K$1000+$175 to $250K20%25%51230%154359 $75 100K$1000+$250 to $350K10%18%36920%74295 $100 150K$1000+$350 to $500K8%16%32810%33295 $150K and up$1000+$500K and up3%7%1435%7136 T T o o t t a a l l s s 1 1 0 0 0 0 % % 1 1 0 0 0 0 % % 2 2 0 0 4 4 9 9 3 3 5 5 % % 7 7 2 2 5 5 1 1 3 3 2 2 3 3 Source:ESRI-BIS,DRCOG,U.S.Census,and Leland Consulting Group Notes:Household growth rate is based on DRCOG projections 57 R R e e s s i i d d e e n n t t i i a a l l s s u u p p p p l l y y c c h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r i i s s t t i i c c s s f f o o r r t t h h e e t t r r a a d d e e a a r r e e a a h h o o u u s s i i n n g g m m a a r r k k e e t t s s a a r r e e s s u u m m m m a a r r i i z z e e d d a a s s f f o o l l l l o o w w s s : : According to MetroList data through July 2005,home sales under contract were 2.2 percent below 2004 levels and inventory levels ar e up 5.2 percent over 2004.Homes are staying on the market an average of 91 days compared to 85 days during the same period in 2004.The median price for a single-family home set another record in July 2005 of $252,250.Higher-end homes are now selling faster than entry-level homes, which was not the case when interest rates first fell to historically low levels. The Denver Metro Apartment Vacancy and Rent Survey indicates that vacancy rates fell to 8 percent during the second quarter of 2005 from 9.3 percent in the first quarter, the lowest rate since third quarter of 2001. However,average rental rates also declined to $826 per month during the second quarter from $836,but remain above second quarter of 2004 rates.

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WEST COLFAX PLANIMPACT OF EVENTS ON CORRIDOR DEMANDDemand forR R e e s s i i d d e e n n t t i i a a l l r r e e n n t t a a l l R R e e s s i i d d e e n n t t i i a a l l o o w w n n e e r r s s h h i i p p ( ( u u n n i i t t s s ) ) ( ( u u n n i i t t s s ) )5-year baseUnadjusted total725 1,323 capture rate 10% 8% subject capture 73106 2006-2010Event-adjusted total936 1,707 capture rate 20%15% subject capture 189250 2011-2015Event-adjusted total1,366 2,476 capture rate 21%15% subject capture 280368 2016-2020Event-adjusted total2,131 3,639 capture rate 20%14% subject capture 428501 58 E E v v e e n n t t s s t t h h a a t t m m a a y y c c a a t t a a l l y y z z e e r r e e s s i i d d e e n n t t i i a a l l d d e e m m a a n n d d c c a a p p t t u u r r e e r r a a t t e e s s i i n n c c l l u u d d e e : : 1 1 Expansion of light rail service to the study area 2 2 Application of Main Street zoning along the major commercial streets in the study area 3 3 Redevelopment of Westridge Homes as a higher density,mixed-income community 4 4 Redevelopment of residential land around Avondale 5 5 Redevelopment of the Saint Anthonys hospital site that includes residential investment C C a a p p t t u u r r e e r r a a t t e e : : A comparison of the sales or leasing r ate of real estate development in a particular study area to the sales or leasing rate of all developments in a larger trade area.The ratio indicates the percent of total development within a trade area that may be captured by a smaller area inside the trade area.

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WEST COLFAX PLANRETAIL DEMAND ANALYSISExisting retail space in the study area is both aging and relatively dispersed.A significant oversupply of commercial zoned land along West Colfax Avenue contributes to conditions including flat and declining property values,high vacancies and limited reinvestment activity.There are few concentrations of commercial space which provide the critical massnecessary to attract an adequate mix of quality retail tenants much less draw shoppers from a broader trade area.One of the primary goals of the plan is to direct retail/service activity to key centers,or nodesalong commercial corridors.By doing this,activity is concentrated,rather than diluted along a lengthy service area.The resulting activity centers serve to encourage both expansion and diversification of the corridors overall retail/service tenant base.The tables that follow present a more detailed summary of retail supply conditions within the trade area. 59

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WEST COLFAX PLANRETAIL CENTERS OVER 60,000 SQUARE FEET COLFAX WEST TRADE AREA Building NameBuilding Address CityYear BuiltSquare FeetPercent LeasedAnchor TenantsBroadway Marketplace351-417 S BroadwayDenver1994400,72698Albertsons,Kmart, Office Max,Sams Club Lakewood CityAlameda @ Wadsworth Lakewood2000310,00096Office Max Commons The Collections601-695 S BroadwayDenver1966267,812100Culinary Art School, John Brooks,Quest Edgewater Marketplace1711-1975 Sheridan BlvdEdgewater1987233,67097Ace Hardware, King Soopers JCRS Shopping Center6501-6791 W Colfax AveLakewood1969192,91174Family Dollar, H & R Block,Hollywood Video,Office Max Alameda Square 2200 W Alameda AveDenver1960138,3810 Fairfield Commons98 Wadsworth BlvdLakewood1985133,32286Burger King,Chilis, Famous Footwear, Kinkos,TJ Max Alameda Crossing145-275 S Sheridan BlvdLakewood1985130,78294Albertsons,Walgreens Wal-Mart300 Wadsworth BlvdLakewood121,565100 Gaylans Bldg7200 W Alameda AveLakewood2004120,000100 (part of Belmar) Home Depot6701 W Alameda AveLakewood1998119,094100Home Depot Bldg 3B17171 W Alaska DrDenver200477,300100Victorias Secret Villa South 1000-1090 S WadsworthLakewood198369,071100Countrywide Shopping Center Mortgages,TCBY Ridge Village3817 Sheridan BlvdWheat Ridge198260,000100King Soopers,Subway 60 Ser vice s R e tail T rade T rans., Comm., & Pub. Ut ilit ie s F inan ci al, Insur ance & R e al Estate Manufac tu ri ng W holesale T rade Constr uc t ion Other W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x D D i i s s t t r r i i b b u u t t i i o o n n o o f f J J o o b b s s b b y y S S e e c c t t o o r r

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WEST COLFAX PLANRETAIL SUPPLY TRENDS COLFAX WEST TRADE AREA 1999 TO PRESENT Period# BldgsTotal RBAOccupied SFOccupied %Direct Net Absorption QTD188 4,307,589 3,824,128 88.8% (11,558) 2005 2Q181 4,085,115 3,613,212 88.4%81,497 2005 1Q169 4,030,570 3,487,687 86.5% (23,099) 2004 4Q169 4,030,570 3,511,746 87.1%97,136 2004 3Q169 4,030,570 3,416,306 84.8%15,736 2004 2Q169 4,030,570 3,400,570 84.4%145,402 2004 1Q167 3,833,270 3,251,197 84.8%9,845 2003 4Q165 3,819,420 3,313,323 86.7% (137,421) 2003 3Q165 3,819,420 3,468,290 90.8%15,141 2003 2Q164 3,812,720 3,454,449 90.6% (55,121) 2003 1Q164 3,812,720 3,509,570 92.0% (132,874) 2002 4Q163 3,802,720 3,642,444 95.8% (3,611) 2002 3Q163 3,802,720 3,640,389 95.7% 0 2002 2Q 163 3,802,720 3,646,055 95.9% 0 2002 1Q163 3,802,720 3,646,055 95.9% 1,981 2001 4Q163 3,802,720 3,644,074 95.8% 5,039 2001 3Q163 3,802,720 3,639,035 95.7% 4,510 2001 2Q162 3,799,410 3,634,525 95.7% 3,011 2001 1Q162 3,799,410 3,631,514 95.6% 0 2000 4Q162 3,799,410 3,631,514 95.6% 17,175 2000 3Q162 3,799,410 3,614,339 95.1% 0 2000 2Q162 3,799,410 3,614,339 95.1% (1,425) 2000 1Q162 3,799,410 3,615,764 95.2% 363,945 1999 4Q 158 3,435,465 3,251,819 94.7% 0 Source:Costar and Leland Consulting Group,RBA = Rentable Building Area 61 R R e e t t a a i i l l S S u u p p p p l l y y T T r r e e n n d d s s H H i i g g h h l l i i g g h h t t s s : : The retail trade area (see map,page 61) currently has 4.3 million square feet of retail space,of which 3.8 million,or 89 percent is occupied. Retail vacancy rates have continued to increase since 1999 reaching a mid-2005 high of over 15 percent.Recent estimates suggest a leveling off of vacancy rates. 2.2 million square feet of the existing 4.2 million square feet of trade area retail space was constructed,or last renovated,prior to 1985,according to Costar,suggesting an aging store inventory. In the overall Metro Denver market,60 percent of all retail space was built after 1985, versus 48 percent in the trade area.

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WEST COLFAX PLANDemand for retail space is determined by the potential level of retail expenditures in a given trade area. Existing and projected total household retail expenditures in the trade area were determined by multiplying growth in households with that portion of household income typically spent on general retail purchases.The results of this analysis indicate baseline demand for over 320,000 square feet of additional retail space in the trade area over the next five years.This estimate is based on demand from household growth,as well as replacement of obsolete space,but does not include demand from dollars occurring outside the area (retail void).As presented in the table below,several spending categories show a retail void (evidence that money is being spent outside the trade area).Expenditures made outside the market are estimated to be supporting over 500,000 square feet somewhere else.After adjusting for key events, trade area demand increases to approximately 410,000 square feet of retail.Assuming a capture rate of 22 percent,the study area could support the addition of nearly 90,000 square feet of retail space over the five year period between 2005 and 2010.AdditionalAdditional DemandDemand DemandEst.Currentfromfrom (retailUnmetSales/Retail VoidHousehold Obsolescence Category Supply (sales)potential)Demands.f.s.f.(5 yr.)(5 yr.)Auto parts,Accessories,& Tire Stores$60,492,787$34,227,031n/a$250n/a3,45712,099 Furniture & Home Furnishings Stores$84,163,050$43,311,904n/a$225n/a4,86118,703 Electronics & Appliance Stores$20,046,596$34,427,590$14,380,994$22563,9163,8644,455 Bldg Mater.,Garden Equip.& Supply$74,407,406$57,693,363n/a$300n/a4,85612,401 Food & Beverage Stores 0 Grocery Stores$308,692,842$239,709,683n/a$375n/a16,14141,159 Specialty Food Stores$10,159,562$12,996,540$2,836,978$3508,1069381,451 Beer,Wine & Liquor Stores$53,591,666$18,778,098n/a$300n/a1,5818,932 Health & Personal Care Stores$86,804,457$43,440,591n/a$275n/a3,98915,783 Clothing & Clothing Accessories Stores$45,296,818$85,475,449$40,178,631$200200,89310,79211,324 Sporting Goods,Hobby,Book & Music$77,261,439$36,719,437n/a$200n/a4,63619,315 General Merchandise Stores$212,938,723$141,470,783n/a$325n/a10,99232,760 Miscellaneous Store Retailers$84,259,040$31,146,171n/a$200n/a3,93221,065 Food Services & Drinking Places 0 Full-Service Restaurants$27,115,138$88,082,913$60,967,775$225270,9689,8856,026 Limited-Service Eating Places$107,733,825$97,648,271n/a$325n/a7,58716,574 Special Food Services$20,120,466$$19,221,835n/a$250n/a1,9424,024 Drinking Places (Alchoholic Beverages)$19,874,726$23,534,967$3,660,241$35010,4581,6982,839 T T o o t t a a l l f f r r o o m m v v o o i i d d c c a a t t e e g g o o r r i i e e s s o o n n l l y y 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 3 4 4 0 0 9 9 1 1 1 1 5 5 0 0 2 2 2 2 8 8 9 9 1 1 0 0Source:U.S.Census,ESRI-BIS,Urban Land Institute,Leland Consulting Group Note:Assumes trade area household growth of 0.5% annually;Assumes 5% turnover from retail space obsolesence over 5 years 62 T T h h e e r r e e i i s s u u n n m m e e t t d d e e m m a a n n d d i i n n t t h h e e s s t t u u d d y y a a r r e e a a f f o o r r t t h h e e f f o o l l l l o o w w i i n n g g u u s s e e s s : : 1 1 Full service restaurants and drinking places 2 2 Clothing stores 3 3 Electronics & appliance stores 4 4 Specialty food stores

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WEST COLFAX PLANIMPACT OF EVENTS ON CORRIDOR DEMANDDemand for R R e e t t a a i i l l s s p p a a c c e e ( ( s s f f ) ) e e x x c c l l u u d d i i n n g g e e x x i i s s t t i i n n g g r r e e t t a a i i l l v v o o i i d d 5-year baseUnadjustedtotal320,060 capture rate10% subject capture32,006 2006-2010Event-adjustedtotal412,877 capture rate22% subject capture90,420 2011-2015Event-adjustedtotal606,929 capture rate21% subject capture129,276 2016-2020Event-adjustedtotal1,001,433 capture rate22% subject capture216,310 63 E E v v e e n n t t s s t t h h a a t t m m a a y y h h a a v v e e a a c c a a t t a a l l y y t t i i c c e e f f f f e e c c t t o o n n o o f f f f i i c c e e d d e e m m a a n n d d c c a a p p t t u u r r e e r r a a t t e e s s : : 1 1 Redevelopment of town center destinations with an agglomeration of employment and services 2 2 Expansion of light rail service to the study area that provides efficient connections to downtown,the airport and regional residential enclaves 3 3 In-migration of urban families and young professionals seeking housing near downtown and light rail

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WEST COLFAX PLANOFFICE DEMAND ANALYSISThe provision of live/work opportunities within the study area is a foundation of the plan.In concert with increased housing density,office development could be introduced to further strengthen the connection between employment and residential uses.The West Colfax corridor and other key enclaves within the study area will work as a business addressif there are ample opportunities to grow business support and retail services,eating and drinking establishments,as well as government and other institutional tenants.Redevelopment of the St.Anthonys medical campus and Avondale shopping center are obvious locations for an integration of living and working spaces. Demand for new office space is derived from two primary sources:expansion of existing industry and the relocation of new companies into the market.In the tables presented below,employment growth projections by industry classification for the trade area were used to estimate new demand for office space,using the same trade area boundaries presented above.Based on this analysis,total trade area baseline demand is estimated to be approximately 600,000 square feet over five years between 2005 and 2010.After adjusting for catalyst events,total study area demand increases to approximately 700,000 square feet.Assuming a capture rate of 9 percent,the study area could expect an increase of more than 60,000 square feet of new / replacement office space with an additional 200,000 square feet over the following ten years.Office demand will likely be limited to smaller Class B multi-tenant space,with the exception of catalyst nodes where Class A space may be possible in the midor long-term.As the study area redevelops and land prices begin to increase,demand for higher density mixed-use projects (e.g. office-over-retail) will begin to emerge.Establishin gthe West Colfax corridor as a destination (for shopping,dining,services,entertainment,housing and employment) will concurrently enhance this areas ability to capture demand from tenants seeking these kinds of progressive,mature urban locations. Forecast tables and the event-based adjustment analysis follow. 64

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WEST COLFAX PLANSUMMARY OF OFFICE SPACE DEMAND FROM EMPLOYMENT GROWTH W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x T T r r a a d d e e A A r r e e a a F F i i v v e e Y Y e e a a r r D D e e m m a a n n d d5 5 y y r r O O f f f f i i c c e e E Es st t. E E s s t t O O f f f f i i c c e e E Es st t. A A n n n n u u a a l l J J o o b b D D e e m m a a n n d d A A n n n n u u a a l l D D e e m m a a n n d d C C u u r r r r e e n n t t G G r r o o w w t t h h 5 5 y y r r J J o o b b E E s s t t P P c c t t f f r r o o m m J J o o b b T T u u r r n n o o v v e e r r F Fr ro om m J Jo ob bs s R R a a t t e e G G r r o o w w t t h h O O f f f f i i c c e e G G r r o o w w t t h h ( ( s s f f ) ) R Ra at te e T T u u r r n n o o v v e e r r Agriculture & Mining6611.0%3410%7081%694 Construction6,5581.0%33515%10,5371%10,328 Manufacturing5,4261.0%27720%11,6251%11,394 Transportation9991.0%5120%2,1411%2,099 Communication3921.0%2030%1,2591%1,234 Electric,Gas,Water,Sanitary Svcs.3021.0%1530%9721%953 Wholesale Trade7,7991.0%39810%8,3541%8,189 Retail Trade Summary24,1911.0%1,23410%25,9131%25,400 Finance,Insurance,Real Estate5,1711.0%26490%49,8531%48,866 Services (Non-Retail) Hotels & Lodging3591.0%1810%3841%376 Automotive Services1,7341.0%8810%1,8571%1,820Entertainment & Recreation Svcs.2,4911.0%12710%2,6691%2,616 Health Services 17,8821.0%91230%57,4661%56,328 Legal Services 5051.0%2690%4,8731%4,776Educational Institutions & Libraries7,8351.0%40020%16,7861%16,454 Other Services 20,5801.0%1,05030%66,1381%64,829 Government 11,8311.0%60430%38,0211%37,268 Other 5921.0%3030%1,0921%1,864 Totals 115,308 5,882 301,458 295,489 Sources:ESRIBIS,DRCOG,Colorado Division of Local Governments,Leland Consulting Group *Employment growth rate is between 2.8% forecast for Metro Denver and 0.1% DRCOG forecasts for trade area Note:Assumes 210 s.f.of office space per office employee 65 O O f f f f i i c c e e s s u u p p p p l l y y c c h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r i i s s t t i i c c s s w w i i t t h h i i n n t t h h e e t t r r a a d d e e a a r r e e a a a a r r e e s s u u m m m m a a r r i i z z e e d d a a s s f f o o l l l l o o w w s s : : 1 1 As of mid-2005,the trade area maintained 6.4 million square feet of office space,of which 5.4 million square feet was occupied. 2 2 The current trade area vacancy rate of 15.6 percent is nearly double the 1999 rate of 7.8 percent,yet down from its peak of 18.9 percent in the third quarter of 2003.

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WEST COLFAX PLANIMPACT OF EVENTS ON CORRIDOR DEMANDDemand for O O f f f f i i c c e e S S p p a a c c e e s s p p a a c c e e ( ( s s f f ) ) 5-year baseUnadjustedtotal596,946 capture rate5% subject capture29,847 2006-2010Event-adjustedtotal698,427 capture rate9% subject capture60,763 2011-2015Event-adjustedtotal907,956 capture rate9% subject capture80,354 2016-2020Event-adjustedtotal1,343,774 capture rate9% subject capture126,315 66 The proximity ofdowntown and destinations like Invesco Field at Mile High Stadium make the West Colfax area an interesting setting that may appeal to hip professions like architecture firms, graphic designers, web designers, public relations firms and start-up businesses. E E v v e e n n t t s s t t h h a a t t m m a a y y h h a a v v e e a a c c a a t t a a l l y y t t i i c c e e f f f f e e c c t t o o n n o o f f f f i i c c e e d d e e m m a a n n d d c c a a p p t t u u r r e e r r a a t t e e s s : : 1 1 Redevelopment of town center destinations with an agglomeration of employment and service uses. 2 2 Expansion of light rail service to the study area that provides efficient connections to downtown,the airport and regional residential enclaves 3 3 In-migration of urban families and young professionals seeking housing near downtown and light rail

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WEST COLFAX PLANMARKET OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE STUDY AREAThe degree to which the Corridor is able to capture new demand within the trade area (and beyond) is a function of the redevelopment process itself.Given the highly competitive nature of new development,and the heightened challenges of developing in an urban infill environment,successful redevelopment of the West Colfax corridor and study area will depend on defining a placein the minds of the regions residents.Redeveloping key catalyst areas as retail,residential,employment and community destinations will necessarily increase its ability to capture not only a greater share of its trade area demand,but also to reach beyond those boundaries.As redevelopment begins to take hold and land prices begin to rise,physical limitations which currently restrict the scale of redevelopment opportunities will lessen as low FAR (Floor Area Ratio) uses,such as automotive sales,succumb to market forces and land owners begin to seek the highest and best use for an increasingly valuable asset.This evolution will obviously be expedited if assisted by a favorable regulatory environment which encourages a denser product model,tighter building form,balanced parking requirements,and stronger connections. 67 K K e e y y S S t t r r a a t t e e g g i i e e s s t t o o e e n n h h a a n n c c e e m m a a r r k k e e t t o o p p p p o o r r t t u u n n i i t t i i e e s s : : 1 1 Define the study area as a place in the minds of residents and visitors. 2 2 Develop catalyst sites with a concentration of housing and destination uses (especially unique independent busineses such as shops, restaurants and entertainment venues). 3 3 Improve the regulatory environment to encourage desired development patterns.

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WEST COLFAX PLANEXISTING CONDITIONS: SAFETYS S a a f f e e t t y y Relative to the Denver average,there is a higher rate of crime in the West Colfax area.There are 8.7 violent crimes per 1,000 people in the West Colfax study,which compares to the citywide average of 5.4 crimes per 1,000 people.Denvers Department of Safety Office of Policy Analysis (SOPA) reports that between 2002 and 2003 the total number of crimes in the West Colfax neighborhood dropped by 4.1% and stayed the same in the Villa Park neighborhood (the two neighborhoods that comprise the statistical boundaries of the study area).Between,2003 and 2004 SOPA reports that total crimes increased 9.7% in the West Colfax neighborhood and 0.4% in the Villa Park neighborhood. 68 Northeast -150% 150% -100% 100% -50% 50% 0% SoutheastW. Colfax Study Area Northwest Northeast 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 SoutheastDENVERW. Colfax Study Area NorthwestTotal Number of Violent Crimes per PopulationLower Crime Rate Relative to Denver Average Higher Crime Rate Relative to Denver AverageSafety Index: Crimes vs. Persons (Relative to Denver) Violent Crimes per Person by Area

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WEST COLFAX PLANT T h h e e f f t t Auto theft comprises 32% of all of the crimes in West Colfax,while for the city as a whole,auto thefts comprise 23% of all crimes.However,burglary,larceny and theft from a motor vehicle comprise a lesser percentage of the total crimes in West Colfax than the city on the whole.Sexual assaults and murder occur at roughly the same percentage as the city. V V i i o o l l e e n n t t C C r r i i m m e e s s Between 1990 and 2000,crime vs.persons (defined by the Denver Police as murder, sexual assault,aggravated assault and robbery) declined steadily overall despite a slight increase from 2000 to 2001.The rate of violent crimes (total number of violent crimes per person) is greater than the citywide index with 8.7 crimes per 1,000 people compared to the citywide rate of 5.4 crimes per 1,000 people.West Colfax is generally consistent with the overall city rates of various other crimes.A greater number of robberies and aggravated assaults are the primary drivers of this difference.Arson,also comprise a slightly greater percentage of all of the crimes in West Colfax. 69 Burglary Homicide Robbery Sexual Assault Aggravated Assault Arson Theft From Motor Vehicle Larceny Auto Theft 0.0% 0.0% 2.0% 4.0% 6.0% 8.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% W. Colfax Denver W. Colfax DenverTheft Violent Crimes & Arson as a Percent of All Crime

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WEST COLFAX PLANEXISTING CONDITIONS: STORM WATER DRAINAGE & WATER QUALITYS S t t o o r r m m W W a a t t e e r r D D r r a a i i n n a a g g e e M M a a s s t t e e r r P P l l a a n n The City prepared a Storm Water Drainage Master Plan,based on Blueprint Denver projections,that addresses the drainage along W Colfax Avenue.From the eastern limit of the Colfax Corridor at Colfax and Broadway to the western limit at Colfax and Sheridan,the plan identifies the following issues: Basin 4700-01:Sloan LakeMain feature is Sloan Lake in the NW corner of the Plan area.The existing drainage system below the lake can not handle the local runoff and is undersized for the 5-year event.The following projects are identified in the Storm Water Drainage Master Plan (these projects are not included in the current 6-Year Plan): A A ) ) N.Stuart Outfall18Lateral to provide additional inlets for 17th Ave. B B ) ) N.Wolfe Street Outfall18Lateral to provide additional inlets for 17th Ave C C ) ) W.15th Avenue Improvements42upgrade to mains D D ) ) W.Colfax Improvements36to 78upgrade to mains serving the South Platte outfall. Basin 0061-01:27th & Federal BasinMuch of the existing system is undersized and can not convey the 2-year or 5-year event.Two alternatives were proposed,a detention and a conveyance mode.These were estimated at $35.5 M and $35.0 M respectively.Some work is underway and included in and through of the 6-year plan. Basin 4800-01:Lakewood GulchThis basin is involved in major work to support the RTD Fast Tracks West Corridor program.In addition,minor north-south pipe upgrades are identified for Knox Ct and Irving St.Work to support the crossing of Sheridan by Lakewood Gulch is planned for and and totals $5 M. Basin 4801-01:Dry GulchNo major deficiencies.The following projects are identified in the Storm Water Drainage Master Plan (these projects are not included in the current 6-Year Plan): A A ) ) N Wolfe St Improvements42Lateral to provide additional inlets B B ) ) N Stuart St Improvements42Lateral to provide additional inlets W W a a t t e e r r Q Q u u a a l l i i t t y y M M a a n n a a g g e e m m e e n n t t P P l l a a n n The Water Q uality Management Plan prescribes a number of best management practices to protect water quality.Given the prevalence of important drainage basins,future planning and redevelopment efforts should incorporate water quality management plans to prevent sediment and contaminants run-off into area water bodies. 70 Improve drainage facilities and incorporate water quality best management practices in the redevelopment ofthe West Colfax area.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 71 W W a a t t e e r r Q Q u u a a l l i i t t y y B B M M P P s s : : Permeable pavers in parking lots (above) and alleys (below) Rooftop rain gardens (below)

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 72

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 73 VISION STATEMENT I skate where the puck is going to be, not where it has been. Wayne Gretzky

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WEST COLFAX PLANWEST COLFAX VISION STATEMENTWest Colfax Avenue will be a safe and attractive mixed-use commercial and residential corridor that complements and sustains the adjacent residential neighborhoods.Future development preserves and enhances the ethnic and economic mix of people while encouraging walking,biking and transit use. Growth promotes and reinforces a positive community image. 74 Before After

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WEST COLFAX PLANSeveral components of the vision resonated throughout the West Colfax planning process: 1 1 Improve the urban design 2 2 Strengthen the mix of land uses 3 3 Enhance the mobility options for residents U U r r b b a a n n D D e e s s i i g g n n A network of green connections forms the basis of the urban design concept.This green network links focal points and gateways (such as public art or fountains) at key destinations or intersections.Uniform streetscaping with pedestrian lighting,improves connections between the neighborhood and parks,trails,schools,commercial areas and transit stops.Sloans Lake and the Lakewood Dry Gulch integrate seamlessly with the community offering community gardens,an arboretum, recreational activity,an amphitheater and miles of trails.The rolling topography of the area provides the potential for unmatched views of the mountains,Sloans Lake,the urban forest and city lights. L L a a n n d d U U s s e e s s Targeted increases in residential density in transit rich parts of the neighborhood build in a customer base for a diverse local business market.This dense customer base attracts a variety of businesses to meet daily needs a hardware store,sporting goods store,etc.Residents represent a rich mix of cultures that attract ethnic businesses and build on the areas historic attributes:Jewish,Latino, Italian,and Asian shops,services and cultural activities.Other businesses locate here including live theater,bistros,offices,grocery stores.Emerging land development patterns encourage walking,biking and transit use. M M o o b b i i l l i i t t y y Enhanced pedestrian,bicycle and transit connections between the neighborhoods north and south of Colfax are safe and attractive.A community shuttle helps integrate the greater west side with the light rail,businesses on Colfax and other destinations throughout the west side neighborhoods. 75 "Have a vision not clouded by fear." Cherokee Proverb

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WEST COLFAX PLAN DRAFT FOR COMMUNITY REVIEW 76

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 77 FRAMEWORK PLAN U U r r b b a a n n D D e e s s i i g g n n L L a a n n d d U U s s e e M M o o b b i i l l i i t t y y E E c c o o n n o o m m i i c c D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t Creativity can solve almost any problem. The creative act, the defeat of habit by originality, overcomes everything. George Lois

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WEST COLFAX PLANPURPOSE OF THE FRAMEWORK PLANThis chapter provides the framework for understanding the organization of the corridor and the overriding issues faced by all of the subareas.Several elements comprise the study areas:main streets, urban neighborhoods (includes both conservation and growth areas),urban neighborhood station areas and town centers.The Framework Plan provides the overarching goals and recommendations for these places within the study area;it provides technical guidance for zoning regulatory changes,infrastructure planning and policy direction.As conditions change within the study area,the Framework Plan provides the first source of information for the appropriate course of action. The West Colfax Stakeholders and members of the general public participated in workshops to craft a land development concept for the study area.The participants identified development opportunities, important transportation routes,edge conflict areas and significant historic resources,as well as distinct urban design districts such as main streets,town centers and urban neighborhoods (and their associated station areas).The land use concept map articulates a vision of main street districts punctuated by town centers at key activity nodes and surrounded by urban neighborhood districts with two light rail transit stations. 78 Members ofthe community participated in workshops and numerous stakeholder meetings to identify a future land use development concept. These community advocates considered development opportunities, important transportation routes, edge conflict areas and significant historic resources, as well as distinct districts such as main streets, town centers and urban neighborhoods (and their associated station areas).

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 79 F F u u t t u u r r e e L L a a n n d d U U s s e e C C o o n n c c e e p p t t

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WEST COLFAX PLANURBAN DESIGN: GOALS G G o o a a l l 1 1 : : D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t P P a a t t t t e e r r n n s s U U r r b b a a n n D D e e s s i i g g n n D D i i s s t t r r i i c c t t s s Establish distinct urban design districts that prescribe the pattern of existing and future development,as well as contribute to an evolving sense of place within the West Colfax study area. G G o o a a l l 2 2 : : C C e e n n t t e e r r s s G G a a t t e e w w a a y y s s & & F F o o c c a a l l P P o o i i n n t t s s Establish identifiable gateways and focal points to signal arrival at key neighborhood destinations,town centers and station areas. G G o o a a l l 3 3 : : D D e e s s i i g g n n Q Q u u a a l l i i t t y y Pr omote quality design in g rowth areas where intensive,mixed-use development is expected to occur. G G o o a a l l 4 4 : : H H i i s s t t o o r r i i c c R R e e s s o o u u r r c c e e s s & & C C o o m m p p a a t t i i b b l l e e D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t Preserve historic resources and complement the traditional urban patterns of development. G G o o a a l l 5 5 : : S S t t r r e e e e t t C C h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r a a n n d d H H i i e e r r a a r r c c h h y y Connect r esidential ar eas and neighborhood gathering places with safe and attractive multimodal linkages.Identify the appropriate urban design details to distinguish a clear hierarchy of street types in the West Colfax area. 80 Ensure that new construction complements traditional urban patterns of development in both neighborhood and commercial districts.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 81 23RD AVE. JEFFERSON PARKDECATUR ST. ELIOT ST. FEDERAL BLVD.22ND AVE. 21ST AVE. 20TH AVE. SHERIDAN BLVD. STUART ST. RALEIGH ST. QUITMAN ST. PERRY ST. OSCEOLA ST. MEADE ST. LOWELL ST. KING ST. JULIAN ST. IRVING ST.W. 23RD AVE. W. 22ND AVE. W. 21ST AVE. W. 20TH AVE. W. 19TH AVE. W. 18TH AVE. W. 17TH AVE. LAKE MIDDLE SCHOOL HALLACK PARK W. 16TH AVE. W. CONEJOS PL.WINONA CT. VRAIN ST. UTICA ST. TENNYSON ST. STUART ST. RALEIGH ST. QUITMAN ST. PERRY ST. ZENOBIA ST. SHERIDAN BLVD. YATES ST. XAVIER ST. WOLFF ST. OSCEOLA ST. NEWTON ST. MEADE ST. LOWELL BLVD. KING ST. KNOX CT.W. 12TH AVE. W. 10TH AVE. DRY GULCH COLFAX ELEMENTARY CHELTENHAM ELEMENTARY PACO SANCHEZ PARKLAKEWOOD GU LCHAVONDALEDR.W. COLFAX AVEELIOT ST. BRYANT ST. FEDERAL BLVD.W. 12TH A VE.HOLDEN PL. W. 13TH AVE. W. 11TH AVE. W. 10TH AVE. W. 9TH AVE. W. 8TH AVE. W. 7TH AVE. W. 6TH AVE. W. SEVERN PL.DECATUR ST.ZUNI ST.ALCOTT ST. BRYANTT ST. CANOSA CT.HO W ARD P L.OLD COLFAX AVE. W. COLFAX AVE WINONA CT. VRAIN ST. UTICA ST. TENNYSON ST. STUART ST. RALEIGH ST. QUITMAN ST. PERRY ST. ZENOBIA ST. SHERIDAN BLVD. YATES ST. XAVIER ST. WOLFF ST. OSCEOLA ST. NEWTON ST. MEADE ST. LOWELL BLVD. LINLEY CT. KING ST. KNOX CT. JULIAN ST. IRVING ST. HOOKER ST. HAZEL CT. GROVE ST.W. 9TH AVE. JOSEPH MARTINEZ PARK LAKEWOOD GULCH COLWELL ELEMENTARY W. 8TH AVE. EAGLETON ELEMENTARY BARNUM NORTH PARKWEIR GULCH|| |||||||||||||||| |||||||||| ||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||| ||||| ||||| |||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| |||||| ||| ||| |||| ||||| |||||||||||||| |||| |||||| || || ||| ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Main Street Mixed Use Area Town Center Growth Area Residential Stabilization Area Residential Growth Opportunity Area Main Street Multimodal Green Street Pedestrian/Bike Route Light Rail (approximate alignment) Bridge Pedestrian Bridge/Underpass Gateway Neighborhood Focal Point Future Open Space Reconnected Street Grid Transit Station Points of Interest Invesco Field at Mile High Rude Recreation Center Denver Human Services Historic Carnegie Library Building Lake Steam Baths Mulroy Community Center Future Community Garden Stuart Street Historic District Yeshiva Toras Chaim Beth Jacob High School Park Overlook (planned) Waterfall & Park Overlook (planned) Multi-use Playing Field (planned) Perry Street Station Improvements Ampitheater Destination Park Water Access Public Art Elements Volleyball Court Wetland Park Infill Development Site (planned City-owned property) Knox Street Station Improvements Pedestrian Bridge Water Edge Improvements Baseball Field T T T * 1 7 6 9 8 10 11 12 13 14 16 18 17 19 20 15 1 2 4 5 3 ||||||||| 1............ 2............ 3............ 4............ 5............ 6............ 7............ 8............ 9............ 10 & 11.. 12.......... 13.......... 14.......... 15.......... 16.......... 17.......... 18.......... 19.......... 20.......... U U r r b b a a n n D D e e s s i i g g n n C C o o n n c c e e p p t t M M a a p p

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WEST COLFAX PLANURBAN DESIGN: RECOMMENDATIONS R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 1 1 : : D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t P P a a t t t t e e r r n n s s U U r r b b a a n n D D e e s s i i g g n n D D i i s s t t r r i i c c t t s s The Urban Design concept creates a framework for future growth and change,as well as preservation and stability where an existing development pattern is consistent with the district descriptions that follow.The urban design concept identifies four types of urban design districts: M M a a i i n n S S t t r r e e e e t t U U r r b b a a n n T T o o w w n n C C e e n n t t e e r r U U r r b b a a n n N N e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d and U U r r b b a a n n N N e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d S S t t a a t t i i o o n n .These f our districts (as described in the following text) illustrate a potential future structure of the urban environment that may be achieved with successful implementation of this plan. M M a a i i n n S S t t r r e e e e t t Development pattern: Linear,buildings oriented to the street/sidewalk Typical scale: 2-5 stories (up to 10 stories in transit rich places),75%-100% lot coverage (minimum 75% building frontage) Uses: Mixed vertically and/or horizontally Features: Large display windows,balconies,patios,plazas,iconographic and projecting signs,direct access from public sidewalks Street Character: Street furniture,street trees and wide sidewalks with trees in grates Parking: On-street,in structures or behind street-facing buildings A linear development pattern applied primarily as a veneer along commercial thoroughfares defines Main Street urban design districts.Buildings of 2 to 5 stories with residential units or office space over active ground floor uses such as retail shops or restaurants typify the character of Main Streets.Buildings of greater intensity (up to 8-10 stories) may occur at major transit stations areas or other centers of pedestrian activity.Fully residential buildings located between commercial nodes may include lower level,street oriented walk-up units with individual entry stoops to facilitate both activity and privacy.The orientation of buildings is to the sidewalk in a pattern that defines street edges and corners,and creates a comfortable pedestrian environment.Large display windows,balconies,patios,plazas,street furniture, street trees,wide sidewalks,iconographic and projecting signs are common Main Street features. Sidewalks areas are attached and wide enough to accommodate an 8wide amenity zone (with trees in grates,bike parking facilities,street furniture,information/parking kiosks and pedestrian lighting) and an 8 12wide sidewalk.Parking is provided on-street,in structures or behind street-facing buildings. 82 Buildings that for a consistent street wall with residential units and/or office space over active ground floor uses characterize Main Street development patterns.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN U U r r b b a a n n T T o o w w n n C C e e n n t t e e r r Development pattern:Compact,development radiates from dense core and a centralized gathering place Typical scale:Variable greatest height and intensity of lot coverage in core radiates to lower intensity at fringe Uses:Mixed vertically and/or horizontally,highest intensity destination and employment uses in the core,civic amenities and housing dispersed throughout Features:Stoops,plazas,outdoor seating and pocket parks Street Character:Street trees,street furniture,wide sidewalks and pedestrian lighting Parking:On-street,in structures or behind street-facing buildings A compact,dense,inter-connected and walkable development pattern typically clustered at or near the intersection of major arterials defines Town Centers.Often these activity centers include a mixed-use retail and employment oriented core organized around a central plaza or formal green space.Live-work units,residential structures with accessory retail and residential structures (used solely for residential occupancy) radiate in intensity from the core.Housing options come in a variety offorms from townhomes and row houses dispersed throughout the Town Center to condominium buildings in the core.The highest intensity residential buildings are associated with large development parcels or the presence of transit.Typically,such larger residential buildings capitalize on an opportunity to offer extraordinary views of city lights or the mountains.Town Centers are perfect locations for destination retail,employment,dining and entertainment venues as well as elderly housing,housing for lowto moderate-income workers,daycare and youth programs.Civic amenities such as satellite libraries and postal offices are key elements that support common needs of residents and reinforce public gathering. Plentiful street trees,street furniture and pedestrian lighting soften the urban context of Town Centers and encourage inhabitants and visitors to walk and mingle on the streets.Stoops,plazas,outdoor seating and pocket parks provide discreet public gathering places.Sidewalks are wide and depending on locations are either attached with trees in grates (in the core) or detached with tree lawns (at the fringe).Parking is provided primarily in structures out of view from public areas. 83 Urban Town Centers contain a compact mix ofdestination, employment and residential uses. With careful design treatment these places provide opportunities for both formal and informal community gathering.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN U U r r b b a a n n N N e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d Development pattern:Variable,compact,dense Typical scale:Buildings 1-4 stories,25%-75% lot coverage Uses:Healthy mix of residential housing options single family,duplex, apartments,rowhouses,townhomes and condominiums Features:Extraordinary views of city lights or the mountains,balconies,upper story step backs and subordinate building volumes Street Character:Street trees,street furniture,detached sidewalks and pedestrian lighting Parking:On-street or in structures A range of development intensities defines Urban Neighborhood areas.Housing options are appropriate for a central city location including single-family houses,carriage houses,duplexes,apartments, townhomes,row houses and condominiums.Buildings of one to four stories characterize the prevailing degree of development,with buildings over two stories typically forming neighborhood edges or end capstructures on blocks fronting busy streets.High intensity parts of an Urban Neighborhood form a transition between the prevailing neighborhood pattern and an activity center or take advantage of a significant infill opportunity on a larger than average development site.Urban neighborhoods are dense and private,offering a place for urban dwellers to find refuge close to downtown,main streets,town centers and transit stations.Buildings are often setback from the sidewalk to provide a semi-private green edge or patio space.Back yards or courtyards provide private open space in Urban Neighborhoods. Design features such as upper story setbacks,balconies and subordinate building volumes help minimize the perceived mass of larger than average residential structures.Sidewalks are generally detached with trees in tree lawns.Parking is provided on-street,in structures or in garages or parking spaces accessed from alleys.Parking is rarely visible from public areas.There are two general types of urban neighborhood areas: 1 1 Residential Stabilization Areas where existing buildings should be preserved,rehabilitated and reused. 2 2 Residential Growth Opportunity Areas where the existing housing stock is dated and declining,and may be appropriate for redevelopment to encourage revitalization and reinvestment. 84 Urban neighborhood areas provide a sense ofprivacy despite the intensity ofdevelopment.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN U U r r b b a a n n N N e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d S S t t a a t t i i o o n n Development pattern:Variable,compact,dense highest intensity focused around the station platform Typical scale:Buildings 1-5 stories,30%-100% lot coverage Uses:Single-family and multi-family residential Features:Front yards,courtyards,porches,stoops,and balconies Street Character:Street trees,detached sidewalks Parking:On-street orin garages or parking spaces accessed from alleys An evolving and flexible development pattern defines an Urban Neighborhood Station.This land use development pattern occurs within a 1/4 to 1/2 mile radius of light rail stations in the central city of a metropolitan region.Generally,development happens here as infill on vacant parcels or redevelopment of underutilized parcels or dated and declining properties.Since,the stations evolve in established residential areas,initial changes may add density and intensity in compact building forms that blend in with the prevailing residential context.Development may progress initially from residential additions and rehabilitations to the addition of carriage houses and conversion of single-family structures to duplexes, triplexes and quads.Over the long-term,some more significant and welcome redevelopment may occur, adding small and medium scale apartments or condominium buildings in close proximity to the station areas.Front yards,courtyards,porches,stoops,and balconies are key features.Sidewalks are detached with tree lawns.Parking is provided on-street or in garages and parking spaces accessed from alleys. 85 More intense residential development may be appropriate in the immediate vicinity ofan urban neighborhood light rail stop. Compact development around a shared courtyard id typical ofan Urban Neighborhood Station.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 2 2 : : G G a a t t e e w w a a y y s s & & F F o o c c a a l l P P o o i i n n t t s s Establish gateways and focal points in key locations with significant or unique attributes such as an historic building,unique neighborhood destination,a notable entry point or critical intersection. Gateways and focal points may include public art,fountains,plazas,a sign,a landmark building or significant architectural feature (such as a clocktower). R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 3 3 : : P P a a t t t t e e r r n n s s o o f f D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t Create a pattern book for urban neighborhoods,town centers and main streets to illustrate preferred land development patterns.Promote this document to architects,homebuilders,developers,residents,realtors and other groups to help educate the community about design. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 4 4 : : C C o o m m p p a a t t i i b b l l e e D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t & & D D e e s s i i g g n n S S t t a a n n d d a a r r d d s s Integ r ate new development with the existing urban fabric by acknowledging the scale,proportions, orientation,quality of construction and other architectural and site design features of existing buildings that exhibit the traditional development patterns of urban neighborhoods,main streets or town centers. Refer to the following design principles as the foundation on which to design architectural forms which challenge the senses,spark debate,draw visitors and create future landmarks: 1 1 Arrange residential,employment,retail,service and open space uses to be convenient to and compatible with each other. 2 2 Create spatial definition of the street with buildings and landscaping to promote pedestrian activity: a a Orient main street buildings to form a consistent street wall;orient structures on corner lots to hold the corner. b b Consider the different street edges created by front yards and the variety of residential building types that comprise urban neighborhoods. c c Consider the street edge created by the variety of buildings in town centers. 3 3 Minimize the visual impacts of parking areas,parking structures and residential garages on streets,open spaces and adjoining development. 86 Gateways and focal points may provide distinguishable landmarks within the urban environment to mark a significant point ofentry or community gathering area. The presence ofsuch landmarks facilitates wayfinding and draws attention to special areas within a community. "Landmarks can make important to our eyes city areas which are important in functional fact but need to have that fact visually acknowledged and dignified." Jane Jacobs

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WEST COLFAX PLAN4 4 Design parking and site access so that impact on the pedestrian realm is minimized. Examples of such techniques include locating parking at the rear of the site away from the street,utilizing the alley for site access and designing drive-through uses so that they do not conflict with the pedestrian realm. 5 5 Create buildings that provide human scale and interest through the use of varied forms, materials,details and colors while relating the size,dimension and symmetry of new construction to the proportions of adjacent buildings. a a Mass Relate the perceived form,quantity or aggregate volumes of new construction to the form of traditional development patterns. b b Scale Relate the intervals,rhythm and order of new construction to traditional development patterns. c c Spacing Relate the location of windows,doorways and other features,horizontal or vertical banding,caps,bases and central entries to relate to adjacent structures that reflect traditional development patterns. d d The upper stories of taller buildings are expected to step back to preserve pedestrian scale and compatibility with existing structures. 6 6 Provide architecturally finished and detailed elevations for all exposures of the building with the primary street facing faade having appropriate architectural expression. a a Include human scaled building elements and architectural variation including form,detail, materials and colors to provide visual interest.Prominent and/decorative parapets and cornices are appropriate.Use repeating patterns of color,texture,material or change in plane as integral parts of the building fabric,not superficially applied. b b Provide pedestrian active uses on the first floor of commercial and mixed-use buildings, directly accessible from public space.Use transparent clear glazed areas that permit views of interior activities.Large expanses of blank wall are not appropriate for pedestrian oriented development. 87 Create buildings that provide human scale and interest through the use ofvaried forms, materials, details and colors while relating the size, dimension and symmetry ofnew construction to the proportions of adjacent buildings.

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WEST COLFAX PLANc c Provide design features such as stoops,patios,porches and balconies on the street facing facades of residential buildings to promote informal opportunities for community interaction. 7 7 Provide a primary building entrance facing or clearly visible from the public sidewalk.Clearly articulate the main entrance of buildings.Secondary entrances may be provided from parking areas or side streets. 8 8 Use durable materials that complement Denvers tradition as a city of brick and masonry construction. 9 9 Ensure that signs are compatible with and enhance the character of the surrounding area when considered in terms of scale,color,material and lighting levels.Signs should be creative in the use of two and three dimension forms,profiles and iconographic representation while being constructed of high quality,durable materials that are appropriate to an urban setting. 88 Design architectural forms which challenge the senses, spark debate, draw visitors and create future landmarks, like these infill buildings constructed in Amsterdam (above), Denvers Merchants Row in the Curtis Park neighborhood (below) or this commercial pop-top in Boulder (bottom).

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WEST COLFAX PLANLAND USE P P r r i i m m a a r r y y I I s s s s u u e e s s a a n n d d O O p p p p o o r r t t u u n n i i t t i i e e s s U U n n d d e e r r u u t t i i l l i i z z e e d d c c o o m m m m e e r r c c i i a a l l p p r r o o p p e e r r t t i i e e s s West Colfax,Federal and Sheridan contain a significant number of underutilized properties characterized by a land value that is greater than the improvements value.Autooriented development (gas stations,auto repair),single use commercial structures surrounded by parking,and drive through facilities comprise the majority of the commercially zoned land along West Colfax,Federal and Sheridan.At high concentrations,these uses have a corrosive effect on the urban environment and contribute to the depopulation of land in transit rich areas.Ultimately,such conditions have a negative influence on area land values. W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x c c o o m m m m e e r r c c i i a a l l a a r r e e a a Lot depths of commer ciall y zoned property along West Colfax vary from 50 feet to 250 feet.Existing commercial zoning standards (especially the combination of relatively low permitted floor area ratio and a high parking ratio) limit the land development potential along the corridor particularly on small,shallow parcels.This combination of factors can create pressure to assemble land beyond that zoned for commercial use in order to amass an appealing development site and meet parking requirements.The edge between the commercial area and the residential area is abrupt with little room to make smooth transitions or provide significant buffers. I I n n a a d d e e q q u u a a t t e e d d e e s s i i g g n n & & d d e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t s s t t a a n n d d a a r r d d s s Existing zoning along West Colfax lacks the appropriate design and development standards to define street edges and corners,encourage mixed use development and enhance the pedestrian experience at street level.Parking is often provided between buildings and streets,and excessive curb cuts interrupt the pedestrian realm. D D e e g g r r a a d d e e d d c c o o m m m m e e r r c c i i a a l l s s t t o o r r e e f f r r o o n n t t s s Many commercial properties show signs of neglect.Peeling paint, vacant storefronts,deteriorated signs,excessive visual clutter from window signs and temporary banners, and broken windows communicate an image of decay,inferior products and services,as well as an overall lack of safety.Inadequate separation between buildings and streets (caused by a lack of on-street parking in some places and narrow sidewalks) contributes to the deteriorating conditions and creates hazardous conditions for pedestrians.Passing vehicles create splash and throw rocks onto sidewalks and storefronts causing chipped paint and broken windows. 89 Underutilized commercial land along West Colfax abuts stable residential areas.

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WEST COLFAX PLANE E t t h h n n i i c c a a n n d d c c u u l l t t u u r r a a l l h h e e r r i i t t a a g g e e The West Colfax study area is home to a diverse mix of ethnic groups and cultural heritages.The Jewish,Italian,and Latino cultures combine in a healthy urban mix in the West Colfax study area and form the basis for establishing a distinct set of identifiable districts within the context of the larger neighborhood and Denver community. R R e e s s i i d d e e n n t t i i a a l l c c h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r a a n n d d s s t t a a b b i i l l i i t t y y Three discernible construction periods define the bulk of the stable housing stock found in the West Colfax area Victorian,Craftsman and Mid-Century modern.The brick and masonry construction of these architectural styles make these residential areas attractive for conservation,reinvestment and rehabilitation.In unstable parts of the neighborhood the housing stock is dated,the building materials are of an inferior design quality (including vinyl siding,concrete block) and the overall condition of these structures is often poor;rehabilitation is a less appealing option here,but redevelopment may occur at higher densities that are typically found when there is a rich supply of transit in close proximity. H H o o u u s s i i n n g g d d e e n n s s i i t t y y While the housing density in the West Colfax area is more urban than Denver as a whole,there is opportunity to significantly increase the number roof tops in the area without dramatically altering the character of the neighborhood.Adding more residences in strategic locations (such as designated town centers,main streets,and urban neighborhood stations) will position the community to take greater advantage of the coming light rail and help support the revitalization of commercial areas by building in a more populous customer base. H H o o u u s s i i n n g g o o c c c c u u p p a a n n c c y y s s t t a a t t u u s s Housing occupancy status in the W est Colfax study area is heavily skewed toward rental occupancy.Renters occupy a full 70% of available housing units.There are several public housing facilities that concentrate and isolate large numbers of low-income households.The community would benefit from two things:programs to encourage homeownership and redevelopment that breaks up concentrations of poverty.Such redevelopment should occur at higher densities to retain the affordable and subsidized units while introducing a greater share of housing for higher income individuals than what exists today.Examples include the Park Avenue Redevelopment,developed by the Denver Housing Authority,were a low density,low-income project has been scraped and is being replaced with a mixed-income rental and homeownership development.This project is being accomplished by the above suggestions.The density is being doubled,the entire site has been rezoned to mixed-use,the development has been replatted to reintegrate it with the street grid opening up to the neighborhood and encouraging pedestrian activity including connectivity to light rail which is within walking distance. 90 Center Commons, Portland, OR A 5-acre showcase ofmixed-income, transit-oriented urban development, Center Commons includes 172 units oflow-income housing for seniors, 56 market-rate apartments, and 60 apartments for very low-income families. This development is within walking distance ofa MAX light rail line and has on-site day care options as well as a play area for children. It is an ideal development model for land assemblages in urban neighborhood stations, in particular Westridge Homes adjacent to the station at Knox Court.

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WEST COLFAX PLANP P r r o o x x i i m m i i t t y y t t o o d d o o w w n n t t o o w w n n a a n n d d t t h h e e r r e e g g i i o o n n a a l l t t r r a a n n s s p p o o r r t t a a t t i i o o n n n n e e t t w w o o r r k k The West Colfax area affords superior access to the regional transportation network and to downtown Denver.This area is particularly well suited as a place of residence for employees of downtown Denver or the Federal Center in Lakewood,as well as Auraria students.Existing and future transit service will provide many opportunities for future redevelopment to cater to residents,students and employees who use alternative modes of transportation. V V i i e e w w s s The rolling topography of the West Colfax study area offers noteworthy views of the mountains, city lights and parkland. P P a a r r k k s s a a n n d d o o p p e e n n s s p p a a c c e e West Colfax open space amenities provide nearby residents with many recreational options.These open spaces also provide breathing spacein areas where redevelopment and intensification ma y be e xpected,especially near town centers and transit station areas.Though served by Sloans Lake Park and the parks in the Lakewood Dry Gulch,the West Colfax and Villa Park Neighborhoods were identified by the Game Plan as neighborhoods of greatest needbased on performance indicators for the amount of parkland per person relative to projected growth.The ideal target is to provide 10 acres of parkland per 1000 residents.West Colfax and Villa Park neighborhoods provide between 2.6 and 5 acres of parkland per 1000 people,and the neighborhoods fall below 50% of the benchmark for soccer,football,and multi-use fields. A A l l l l e e y y c c o o n n f f i i g g u u r r a a t t i i o o n n Alleys which lead to West Colfax Avenue (due to their orientation to the street grid) cause a number of problems.First,the alleys interrupt the pedestrian realm and disrupt traffic flow as a result of turning movements.Second,the alleys limit linear land assemblages and inhibit the construction of buildings that would form a more consistent street wall along main street arterials.Third, when an alley terminates at West Colfax,rather than in Tor Lconfigurations behind commercial structures,it does not form a natural boundary between mixed-use main streets and residential neighborhoods.By encouraging Tand Lconfigurations,pedestrian and vehicle conflicts may be lessened and clearer boundaries may be formed between commercial and residential districts. E E l l e e m m e e n n t t a a r r y y s s c c h h o o o o l l p p r r e e s s e e n n c c e e There are two elementary schools located on West Colfax Cheltenham Elementary (at Colfax and Irving) and Colfax Elementary (at Colfax and Tennyson).According to Denver Public Schools,a majority of the students come from south of Colfax.With an average daily traffic volume of approximately 35,000 vehicles per day and a posted speed limit of 35 mph,Colfax is an undesirable address for an elementary school.The schools occupy valuable assemblages along the main street.The City and DPS should explore all opportunities to relocate the schools to a more appropriate location,and redevelop the sites with a mix of uses that facilitate revitalization of the corridor. 91 The West Colfax area affords breathtaking views ofdowntown, the mountains, Sloans Lake and area parks.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 92 There are two elementary schools located on West Colfax Cheltenham Elementary (at Colfax and Irving) and Colfax Elementary (at Colfax and Tennyson). According to Denver Public Schools, a majority ofstudents come from south ofColfax. With an average daily traffic volume ofapproximately 35,000 vehicles per day and a posted speed limit of35 mph, Colfax is an undesirable address for an elementary school. The schools occupy valuable assemblages along the main street. The City and DPS should explore all opportunities to relocate the schools to a more appropriate location, and redevelop the sites with a mix ofuses that facilitate revitalization ofthe corridor.

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WEST COLFAX PLANLAND USE: GOALS G G o o a a l l 1 1 : : C C o o m m p p a a c c t t M M i i x x e e d d U U s s e e D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t Encourage corridor growth to be dense,compact and transit supportive to create healthy neighborhood edges along main streets that serve nearby residents with an urban mix of retail shops,services, employment and civic uses. G G o o a a l l 2 2 : : F F o o c c u u s s I I n n t t e e n n s s e e G G r r o o w w t t h h t t o o T T a a r r g g e e t t A A r r e e a a s s Focus intense development to strategic growth areas at the edges of neighborhoods along Main Street corridors or in neighborhood centers such as transit station areas and town centers. G G o o a a l l 3 3 : : D D i i v v e e r r s s e e H H o o u u s s i i n n g g O O p p t t i i o o n n s s Pr o vide a diverse mix of housing types (townhouse,rowhouse,duplex,multi-family,live work and artist studio),occupancy status (rental and ownership units),densities and costs (low-income,affordable and market rate). G G o o a a l l 4 4 : : V V a a l l u u e e H H i i s s t t o o r r i i c c R R e e s s o o u u r r c c e e s s Promote restorations and renovations of residential and commercial structures that maintain the historic style,quality and character of original buildings,and adaptively reuse historic resources in the study area. G G o o a a l l 5 5 : : N N e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d C C h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r S S t t a a b b i i l l i i t t y y Respect the urban design and ar c hitectural character of established residential areas. G G o o a a l l 6 6 : : M M a a x x i i m m i i z z e e U U r r b b a a n n L L a a n n d d D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t P P o o t t e e n n t t i i a a l l Maximize development of urban land through infill on vacant parcels,redevelopment of underutilized parcels or dilapidated properties and adaptive reuse of historic resources. G G o o a a l l 7 7 : : P P a a r r k k s s & & R R e e c c r r e e a a t t i i o o n n R R e e s s o o u u r r c c e e s s Maintain,enhance and expand parks,open spaces and recreational facilities. G G o o a a l l 8 8 : : P P u u b b l l i i c c G G a a t t h h e e r r i i n n g g Incr ease the oppor tunities for informal and formal public gathering in the community. 93 Renovate and adaptively reuse original buildings in the study area as Confluence Ministries and Volunteers ofAmerica did with the buildings pictured above and below.

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WEST COLFAX PLANLAND USE: RECOMMENDATIONS R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 1 1 : : U U r r b b a a n n N N e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d R R e e g g u u l l a a t t o o r r y y T T o o o o l l s s Work with the Zoning Code Task Force to establish and apply form based zoning tools appropriate for the mix of building types and uses (primarily housing and complementary uses) that define an urban neighborhood and their associated station areas.Ensure that these zoning tools consider,define and respect the traditional and desired forms of urban neighborhood patterns of development.Consider: Urban design (lot and block structure,site design,building orientation,setbacks,relationship of buildings to streets) Range of building types (single family structures,duplexes,triplexes,quads,courtyard apartments,carriage houses,row houses,town homes) and associated design elements (entries,balconies,stoops,materiality,glazing) Architectural character (building envelope,scale,proportions,materiality,rhythm,massing and height) Location criteria for certain building types and uses to ensure the evolution of the appropriate urban neighborhood texture that complements the transportation network: Ensure rational evolution of urban neighborhoods and their station areas,so that changes in development intensities occur in harmony with prevailing neighborhood character. Correlate higher intensity structures to within close proximity of station area platforms or as end cap buildings on block faces fronting busy neighborhood streets. Limit non-residential uses to select small-scale,low impact uses such as a corner store, small office or service (daycare,printer,post office) that reinforce traditional neighborhood patterns of development by providing for daily needs of neighborhood residents in appropriate locations. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 2 2 : : T T o o w w n n C C e e n n t t e e r r R R e e g g u u l l a a t t o o r r y y T T o o o o l l s s Esta b lish form based zoning tools appropriate for the mix of buildings types and uses that define a town center.Ensure that these zoning tools consider,define and respect the traditional and desired forms of town center patterns of development.Develop standards for: 94 Establish and apply form based zoning tools appropriate for the structure, uses and character ofurban neighborhoods. Consider lot and block structure, site design, building orientation, architectural character, the range ofappropriate building types and location criteria for the variety ofappropriate structures.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN Range of building types (mixed-use structures,single tenant structures,residential buildings) and associated design elements (entries,balconies,stoops,materiality,glazing) Mix of land uses that support the function of town centers (retail,restaurants,services,office, civic,residential,entertainment,open space) Urban design (lot and block structure,site design,building orientation,setbacks,relationship of buildings to streets) Location criteria to aid in the rational organization of the town center,to support the myriad functions associated with these districts and to ensure the appropriate integration of the town center within the context of the larger community (establish standards for the development of core,ring,fringe areas) Aggregation of open space for plazas,pocket parks,paseos,greens and other opportunities to promote community gathering R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 3 3 : : A A p p p p l l i i c c a a t t i i o o n n o o f f M M a a i i n n S S t t r r e e e e t t R R e e g g u u l l a a t t o o r r y y T T o o o o l l s s Rezone the commercial properties and opportunity sites along West Colfax Avenue,Federal Boulevard and Sheridan Boulevard to Main Street.Refer to the District Plans section for guidance as to the character of the main street districts and the corresponding recommendations for the application of Main Street zones to these areas. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 4 4 : : P P u u b b l l i i c c G G a a t t h h e e r r i i n n g g Pr omote dev elopment that includes formal,useable public gathering spaces such as plazas,pocket parks, amphitheaters and gardens.Encourage development that increases opportunities for informal public gathering with stoops,terraces,courtyards,balconies and other places where natural,unexpected community interaction may occur. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 5 5 : : H H o o m m e e o o w w n n e e r r s s h h i i p p Target the West Colfax study area with home ownership education and down payment assistance programs.Help existing renters transition to home ownership within the study area especially near the transit stations. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 6 6 : : H H o o u u s s i i n n g g D D i i v v e e r r s s i i f f i i c c a a t t i i o o n n Promote the inclusion of affordable units in new residential developments with appropriate regulatory tools and incentives.Repair or replace the existing stock of substandard affordable residential housing units.Create safe and decent affordable housing options throughout the study area.Introduce a greater 95 Providing a centralized mailbox station creates a way for area residents to gather informally and interact on a daily basis. Promote a range ofhousing types and costs at higher densities in strategic locations (town centers, station areas, main streets.

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WEST COLFAX PLANshare of market rate housing units.Diversify housing options and encourage a healthy urban mix of incomes.Promote a range of housing types and costs at higher densities in strategic locations (town centers,station areas,main streets). R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 7 7 : : I I n n f f i i l l l l D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t Support infill development.Mixed-use projects that include housing (combining low-income,affordable and market rate units) or offices over active ground floor uses (shops,restaurants and services) are especially appropriate in town centers,along main streets and in close proximity to transit stops.Consider the complementary nature of a project in the context of surrounding or nearby uses.Encourage both horizontal and vertical mixed-use development.Minimize new development with extremely low site coverage ratios and discourage low density,single use development with excessive parking. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 8 8 : : T T r r a a n n s s i i t t i i o o n n s s To the greatest extent possible,focus both structural and use intensity to main streets,transit station areas and town centers.Incorporate design and development standards to address solar access and privacy protection,such as bulk plane,building orientation and roof form standards.To ensure neighborhood stability,stratify the commercial uses that may extend from main streets,station areas or town centers into the neighborhood so that only those uses with positive impacts on residential character (such as small scale,neighborhood serving,walk-up traffic generators) seep into the neighborhood. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 9 9 : : A A l l l l e e y y C C o o n n f f i i g g u u r r a a t t i i o o n n & & L L i i n n e e a a r r D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t A A s s s s e e m m b b l l a a g g e e s s Consider alle y v acations,alley easements and new alley configurations (Tor Lalignments between commercial properties and residential neighborhood boundaries see illustration on opposing page) along West Colfax where such changes facilitate the recommended land uses and encourage linear development assemblages along the Main Street.An alley vacation may be appropriate when: 1 1 All property owners on both sides of the alley support the alley vacation. 2 2 New alley construction meets the standard dimensions prescribed by the Manager of Public Works depending on traffic conditions and location (such as in an Historic District). 3 3 Owners come to agreement on how to relocate and pay any costs associated with relocating buried and/or poled utilities accessed through the existing alley. 4 4 Owners come to agreement on how to relocate and pay any costs associated with relocating storm drainage. 5 5 The owners pave the reconfigured alley in concrete. 6 6 The owners demonstrate that potential traffic numbers and impacts on adjacent land uses will not have a net negative effect. 96 A A l l l l e e y y C C o o n n f f i i g g u u r r a a t t i i o o n n Consider alley vacations,alley easements and new alley configurations ("T" or "L" alignments see opposing page) along West Colfax where such changes would facilitate the recommended land uses.An alley vacation may be appropriate when: 1 1 All property owners on both sides of the alley support the alley vacation. 2 2 New alley construction meets the standard dimensions prescribed by the Manager of Public Works depending on traffic conditions and location (such as in an Historic District). 3 3 Owners come to agreement on how to relocate and pay any costs associated with relocating buried and/or poled utilities accessed through the existing alley. 4 4 Owners come to agreement on how to relocate and pay any costs associated with relocating storm drainage. 5 5 The owners pave the reconfigured alley in concrete. 6 6 The owners demonstrate that potential traffic numbers and impacts on adjacent land uses will not have a net negative effect.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 97 A A l l l l e e y y s s t t h h a a t t L L e e a a d d t t o o C C o o l l f f a a x x ( ( F F i i g g u u r r e e 1 1 ) ) Curb cuts interrupt the sidewalk and reduce pedestrian safety and comfort Mid-block vehicle turning movements increase the potential for accidents and traffic congestion These types of alleys bisect the commercial frontage along commercial streets and limit linear property assemblage and development. A A l l l l e e y y s s t t h h a a t t t t e e r r m m i i n n a a t t e e i i n n T T o o r r L L c c o o n n f f i i g g u u r r a a t t i i o o n n s s ( ( F F i i g g u u r r e e s s 2 2 a a n n d d 3 3 ) ) Alleys doub le as driveways that provide access to parking areas. T/Lalleys encourage linear assemblage and property development along the commercial corridor,rather than deep into adjoining residential areas. These alleys define natural boundaries between commercial and residential areas;the alley width acts as a buffer zone creating distance between residential and commercial development. These alleys improve the pedestrian environment and reduce mid-block turning movements. Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 3

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WEST COLFAX PLAN R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 1 1 0 0 : : I I n n c c r r e e a a s s e e H H o o m m e e B B u u y y i i n n g g P P o o w w e e r r i i n n T T r r a a n n s s i i t t R R i i c c h h A A r r e e a a s s To encourage home ownership and dense residential development near transit,work with developers and private lenders to establish programs to increase the home buying power of residents.As gas prices rise households must spend an increasing portion of their income on commuting costs.Households living near transit may choose an alternative mode of transportation.By decreasing their transportation costs,these households may direct a greater share of their income toward housing and ideally home ownership.Establish Smart Commute Mortgage programs for housing available in the West Colfax area. Complement Smart Commute Mortgage programs by encouraging developers to incorporate share car programs with new projects. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 1 1 1 1 : : R R e e n n a a m m e e L L a a k k e e w w o o o o d d / / D D r r y y G G u u l l c c h h P P a a r r k k s s Hold a community contest to r ename Dr y Gulch and Lakewood Gulch to more interesting monikers that reflect the history of the parks.Consider references to the circus uses that PT Barnum once brought to this area,such as Ballyhoo Park or Big Top Park.Alternately,consider selling naming rights for different portions of the park in order to raise funds for improvement projects. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 1 1 2 2 : : P P r r o o v v i i d d e e A A m m p p l l e e C C o o m m m m u u n n i i t t y y F F a a c c i i l l i i t t i i e e s s a a n n d d N N e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d / / H H u u m m a a n n S S e e r r v v i i c c e e s s W or k with Denver Public Schools,Denver Human Services,Denver Public Libraries,Denver Department of Safety,Denver Health and Denver Department of Parks and Recreation and other community facility/service provides to ensure the provision of adequate services and facilities to nurture the human capital of area residents as redevelopment occurs in the study area.Per the plans vision,if population and housing densities increase both strategically and dramatically,it will be important to maintain a high level of community amenities and services for residents,such as adequate libraries,recreation centers, health care facilities and schools. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 1 1 3 3 : : E E x x p p a a n n d d P P a a r r k k a a n n d d O O p p e e n n S S p p a a c c e e A A m m e e n n i i t t i i e e s s West Colfax and Villa Park neighborhoods currently provide between 2.6 and 5 acres of parkland per 1000 people,and the neighborhoods fall below 50% of the benchmark for soccer,football,and multi-use fields.To meet current demand and keep pace with future increases in population and housing densities, identify opportunities to significantly expand park amenities to meet the Department of Parks and Recreation benchmark of 10 acres of parkland per 1000 people.With redevelopment around station areas,along main streets and in town centers integrate pocket parks,plazas,courtyards and other urban open spaces that provide breathing roomfor residents and visitors. 98 The Sloan Lake View Plane affects a small portion ofthe study area. Information on calculating the permitted building heights within the view plane may be obtained from: h h t t t t p p : : / / / / w w w w w w d d e e n n v v e e r r g g o o v v o o r r g g / / V V i i e e w w P P l l a a n n e e s s Generally, buildings may be constructed to a height of35 feet above natural grade, though this height may vary depending on the grade and distance from the view planes reference point. For example, allowable building height in the vicinity ofW. 18th Ave. and Federal is approximately 65-70 feet.

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WEST COLFAX PLANMOBILITY P P r r i i m m a a r r y y I I s s s s u u e e s s a a n n d d O O p p p p o o r r t t u u n n i i t t i i e e s s W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x A A v v e e n n u u e e West Colfax Avenue carries a significant volume of traffic throughout the day (with an average daily traffic volume of approximately 35,000 vehicles),and particularly during peak commuting hours (when the traffic volume is between 2000-3000 vehicles).It is one of two primary routes used to access downtown Denver from western suburbs.Street widening has reduced the land area available to pedestrians and on-street parking.A part-time parking lane that converts to a drive lane in the pm peak hours is present on the north side of the street.The Colorado Department of Transportation has stated that the minimum acceptable travelway for West Colfax Avenue should include four-eleven foot (11) through lanes (two in each direction) plus a center turn lane.Denver Public Works has called for the preservation of a sixty foot (60) travelway.Taking these factors into consideration,the city should explore all available options to enhance the multi-modal capacity of the street with particular attention to increasing the convenience,ease and enjoyment of walking along West Colfax,as well as ways to improve east-west connections for all modes of travel. W W e e s s t t S S e e v v e e n n t t e e e e n n t t h h A A v v e e n n u u e e Parking has been prohibited on West Seventeenth Avenue in an attempt to curb the cruising around Sloans Lake that created a nuisance for the neighborhoods.While this action may have reduced cruising,valuable parkland must now be dedicated to parking,rather than playing fields (an amenity that is deficient in this area).Without parking lining the street,the width of the automobile travelway is perceived to be greater and may increase the speeds at which motorists travel. Both sides of the street lack adequate facilities for pedestrians and bicyclists.West 17th Avenue (with an ADT of approximately10,000 vehicles) is designated as a green streetin the Game Plan (the Parks and Recreation Master Plan).The street rests between an established residential neighborhood and the second largest park in Denver.The current street typology (form and cross section design) is not appropriate for such a location and the desired appearance and function of a green street. S S t t r r e e e e t t G G r r i i d d Interruptions to the street grid pose interesting challenges and opportunities for the West Colfax area.Two significant natural features,Sloans Lake and the Lakewood Dry Gulch,inhibit north south connections along the grid.Knox Court and Perry Street provide the only uninterrupted connections south acr oss the gulc h by car,and Julian and Irving Streets provide the only uninterrupted connections north past West 17th Avenue.These limits on north-south mobility may be used to the citys 99 Restore human legs as a means of travel. Pedestrians rely on food for fuel and need no special parking facilities. Lewis MumfordUses that cater to the automobile place heavy demands on the transportation system and inhibit the development ofhospitable places for pedestrians.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 100 T T r r a a n n s s p p o o r r t t a a t t i i o o n n C C h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r i i s s t t i i c c s s

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WEST COLFAX PLANadvantage to define a clearer street hierarchy and limit left turning movements from West Colfax to intersections where logical connections north and south are possible or where it is important to provide neighborhood access or entry to key destinations (such as the Saint Anthonys Hospital redevelopment site or transit station areas). In addition to the natural features,several street closures inhibit dispersal of traffic throughout the area street grid.Street closures occur in the following locations: Meade Street between West 16th and West 17th Avenues West 16th Avenue between Meade and Lowell Streets West 16th Avenue,Raleigh Street and Stuart Street through the Saint Anthonys Hospital site West 13th Avenue between Zenobia and Xavier West 13th Avenue between Winona and Vrain Conejos Street between Irving and Julian Streets at Cheltenham Elementary Hooker Street at West Colfax Avenue The street closure on Meade between West 16th and West 17th Avenues,for example,is particularly important to consider.Meade/Lowell is the primary route connecting northwest Denver neighborhoods to West 17th Avenue (and the West Colfax area) and it is a direct route to the very popular neighborhood destinations at Highland Square (32nd & Lowell).Meade Street south of West Colfax Avenue links to West 13th Avenue providing an alternate means of access to the Perry Street and Knox Court light rail stations.Again,the grid on Meade between West 16th and West 17th Avenues could create more direct access between northwest Denver neighborhoods and the light rail station areas. Mile High Stadium,the Platte River and I-25 limit east-west traffic movement;downtown access/egress is limited primarily to West Colfax.West 17th Ave.,West 14th Ave.and West 10th Ave.could offset some of the east-west traffic burden with better promotion of the connection to downtown via Howard/Holden Place and W.13th Avenue (east of Decatur Street) where it crosses the Platte or under the Colfax viaduct where the street grid provides a link to Auraria Parkway.Additionally,ways to enhance the connections from West 17th Ave.,West 14th Ave.and West 10th Ave.to the Colfax viaduct should be explored. 101 Some people who regularly cross West Colfax find that traffic signals do not seem to provide an adequate amount oftime for pedestrians (in particular seniors, people with disabilities & young children to cross the street comfortably. Stranded pedestrian.

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WEST COLFAX PLANB B i i c c y y c c l l e e a a n n d d p p e e d d e e s s t t r r i i a a n n c c o o n n n n e e c c t t i i o o n n s s West Colfax today functions as a barrier and not a seam between the neighborhoods north and south of Colfax.Pedestrians often find themselves trapped in the middle of the street without refuge areas as they try to cross the persistent flow of traffic.Though traffic signals are timed per AASHTO standards,pedestrians (especially seniors,persons with disabilities or small children) frequently perceive the street to be unsafe and find it difficult to comfortably cross West Colfax. P P e e d d e e s s t t r r i i a a n n f f a a c c i i l l i i t t i i e e s s An overall lack of continuity in the pedestrian facilities,narrow sidewalks,splash and snow removal makes the West Colfax area inhospitable to pedestrians.Vacant land and underutilized properties create gaps in the urban fabric and an inconsistent building edge.Excessive curb cuts for driveways and alleys permit and encourage turning movements that interrupt traffic flow,introduce conflicts with pedestrians,reduce safety,and break the continuity of the streetscape..An overabundance of obstructions in the sidewalks (sign posts,dumpsters,utility poles and the like) hinder a clear path for pedestrians. A A l l t t e e r r n n a a t t i i v v e e m m o o d d e e s s o o f f t t r r a a n n s s p p o o r r t t a a t t i i o o n n W est Colf ax residents enjoy a rich supply of transit,off road trails and bicycle routes that increase resident mobility options.Greater continuity of pedestrian facilities and improved bicycle and pedestrian connections may influence more residents to choose alternative modes particularly once light rail service extends to the West Corridor. F F e e d d e e r r a a l l B B r r i i d d g g e e The existing Federal Boulevard Bridge over the Lakewood Dry Gulch is aged and will need to be replaced with the expansion of light rail to this area.The new bridge may impact Rude Park and Lakewood Dry Gulch.Impacts to these park facilities should be minimized.The new bridge is an opportunity to create architecturally significant civic infrastructure that serves an important function,but also acts as a focal point that contributes to the urban design of the community S S h h e e r r i i d d a a n n B B r r i i d d g g e e With the expansion of light rail to the study area,Sheridan Boulevard will be elevated over the Lakewood Dry Gulch to separate the grades of the rail and automobile travelway.Construction of the bridge is an opportunity to enhance the park and trail connections beneath the bridge,as well as a chance to add architecturally significant civic infrastructure to the community.The design of the bridge has the potential to create an aesthetically pleasing community focal point and gateway between Denver and Lakewood. 102 The balance between a secluded, segregated private life and a diverse, shared public life has changed dramatically in recent decades. The suburbs have come to represent and facilitate the privatization ofour lives in social form, in political priorities, and in physical character. The movement is circular; the more privatized our technology and social forms become, the more isolated and defensive we are. To walk or take transit is a public act which makes the street a safer component of community; to drive is a private act which turns the street into a utility. The former leads in many ways to a richer public domain, the latter into the world we have come to kknow, ifnot love. The loss ofvariety in these modes is both the symbol and the reality ofa loss ofbalance between our private and public lives. Peter Calthorpe

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WEST COLFAX PLANS S h h e e r r i i d d a a n n i i n n t t e e r r s s e e c c t t i i o o n n Sheridan Boulevard is the boundary between Denver and Lakewood.At this point the cross section of West Colfax Avenue changes from Denvers five travel lanes to Lakewoods six travel lanes.Improvements to this intersection need to consider ways to enhance traffic flow through the intersection,better protect pedestrians crossing the streets and alleviate bottlenecking as the street narrows into Denvers cross section.Consideration should be given to matching Lakewoods six lane cross section on West Colfax Ave.for a short distance into Denver (tapering to a four lane cross section at Yates) in order to improve the intersection function at West Colfax and Sheridan. S S h h e e r r i i d d a a n n & & W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x t t r r a a n n s s i i t t e e n n h h a a n n c c e e m m e e n n t t s s The intersection of Sheridan and West Colfax is a logical place to promote enhanced transit facilities.Denver and Lakewood should explore ways to promote this area as a regional transit station.To shift travel behavior,motorists need to be encouraged to park and ride from this location.Alternately,the cities might explore ways to direct motorists to the light rail station just south of this intersection at Sheridan and Lakewood Dry Gulch. C C o o n n d d i i t t i i o o n n o o f f i i n n f f r r a a s s t t r r u u c c t t u u r r e e In man y places thr oughout the West Colfax area the public infrastructure is aged,degraded or wanting.Unpaved alleys,a lack of curb and gutter,broken sidewalks and tree lawns covered in asphalt are a few of the signs of neglect and decay in the West Colfax area.These signs of decay contribute to a sense of disinvestment and increase perceptions that the area is unsafe.Capital investments need to be made to upgrade the areas infrastructure as a matter of the publics health,safety and welfare,as well as to convey a message that the area is ripe for investment and redevelopment. T T r r a a n n s s i i t t s s t t a a t t i i o o n n v v i i s s i i b b i i l l i i t t y y a a n n d d a a c c c c e e s s s s Major bus transit station areas and transfer points are virtually indistinguishable from subordinate stops.Future transit improvements should include unique designs and markers that distinguish important transit nodes within the context of the bus corridor along Colfax.Additionally,the future light rail that will serve the area is located in a gulch at the bottom of a hill,approximately three blocks south of West Colfax Ave.Wayfinding to and from Colfax will be crucial. Topography will pose a challenge for access by elderly and disabled commuters. W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x A A v v e e a a t t R R a a l l e e i i g g h h S S t t The Roadway Safety Inventory ranks West Colfax Ave.at Raleigh Street as one of the most dangerous intersections for pedestrians.This intersection is within one block of the West Colfax Elementary School and several elderly and assisted living facilities.Potential pedestrian safety improvements should be considered at this location. 103 Asphalt covered tree lawns, a lack ofcurb and gutter and unpaved alleys are signs ofaged and neglected infrastructure.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 104 It is particulaly important to reopen the street closure on Meade between West 16th and West 17th Avenues (highlighted in red). Meade/Lowell is the primary route connecting northwest Denver neighborhoods to West 17th Avenue (and the West Colfax area) and it is a direct route to the very popular neighborhood destinations at Highland Square (32nd and Lowell). Meade Street south ofWest Colfax Avenue links to West 13th Avenue providing an alternate means ofaccess to the Perry Street and Knox Court light rail stations. Reopening the grid on Meade between West 16th and West 17th Avenues will create more direct access between northwest Denver neighborhoods and the light rail station areas. T T r r a a n n s s i i t t S S t t a a t t i i o o n n A A c c c c e e s s s s M M a a p p

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WEST COLFAX PLANMOBILITY: GOALS G G o o a a l l 1 1 : : R R o o a a d d w w a a y y S S a a f f e e t t y y Improve roadway safety for all modes of travel. G G o o a a l l 2 2 : : M M u u l l t t i i m m o o d d a a l l C C a a p p a a c c i i t t y y Enhance the multi-modal capacity of the area street network while making necessary accommodations for the automobile. G G o o a a l l 3 3 : : P P e e d d e e s s t t r r i i a a n n C C o o m m f f o o r r t t Enhance the convenience,ease and enjoyment of public streets for bicyclists,pedestrians and transit commuters. G G o o a a l l 4 4 : : S S t t r r e e e e t t H H i i e e r r a a r r c c h h y y Define a c lear hier archy of streets and distribute multi-modal traffic throughout the area street grid. G G o o a a l l 5 5 : : C C o o n n n n e e c c t t i i o o n n s s Improve transportation connectivity within the neighborhood and enhance links to the regional transportation network. G G o o a a l l 6 6 : : C C a a p p i i t t a a l l I I m m p p r r o o v v e e m m e e n n t t s s Upgrade the public infrastructure in the study area. G G o o a a l l 7 7 : : S S h h i i f f t t T T r r a a v v e e l l B B e e h h a a v v i i o o r r Design programs to target choiceriders and change commuter travel behavior. G G o o a a l l 8 8 : : D D r r a a i i n n a a g g e e & & W W a a t t e e r r Q Q u u a a l l i i t t y y Incorpor ate w ater quality best management practices,provide adequate site drainage facilities and water detention. 105 Aging pedestrian infrastructure creates an uncomfortable walking environment and conveys an image ofneglect that threatens neighborhood stability.

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WEST COLFAX PLANPEDESTRIAN MASTER PLAN GUIDELINES FOR KEY PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES:L L e e v v e e l l o o f f Q Q u u a a l l i i t t y y E E n n h h a a n n c c e e d d B B u u s s T T r r a a n n s s i i t t C C o o r r r r i i d d o o r r s s G G r r e e e e n n S S t t r r e e e e t t s s / / P P e e d d e e s s t t r r i i a a n n R R o o u u t t e e s s T T y y p p i i c c a a l l S S t t r r e e e e t t s sD D e e f f i i n n i i t t i i o o n n As defined by As defined by the G G a a m m e e P P l l a a n n Any pedestrian way not on an B B l l u u e e p p r r i i n n t t D D e e n n v v e e r r and the P P e e d d e e s s t t r r i i a a n n M M a a s s t t e e r r P P l l a a n n enhanced bus transit corridor, Green Street,or Pedestrian Route G G u u i i d d e e l l i i n n e e s s 1.16minimum pedestrian zone.1.13minimum pedestrian zone.1.13minimum pedestrian zone. 2.8minimum tree lawn,either2.8minimum green tree lawn,2.8minimum tree lawn,either green or hardscaped.preferably wider on Green green or hardscaped. Streets. 3.8minimum continuous 3.5minimum continuous3.5minimum continuous detached or 16continuousdetached sidewalk.detached or attached sidewalk. attached sidewalk. 4.Curb ramps at every 4.Continuous curb ramps at4.Curb ramps at every intersection.every intersection.intersection. 5.Benches or shelters at most5.Benches and trash cans 5.Benches or shelters at most transit stops.where appropriate.transit stops with trash cans at heavy use stops. 6.Pedestrian signals at all 6.Pedestrian signals at all 6.Pedestrian signals at all signalized arterials.signalized arterials.signalized arterials. 7.Crosswalks,signage,7.Crosswalks or other features7.Crosswalks or other features pedestrian refuges and other define the pedestrian define the pedestrian safety features define the environment at major environment at major pedestrian environment at intersections.intersections. major intersections. 106 Many West Colfax residents rely on the rich supply oftransit to meet their mobility needs.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 107 W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x A A v v e e S S t t r r e e e e t t C C h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r Vertically mixed use buildings define the street edge (typical building height 38-65 feet) Wide sidewalk areas provide ample space for pedestrian activity and mobility between buildings and streets: Preferred width:168amenity zone/buffer, 8sidewalk Street trees shade the sidewalk Parking lanes buffer pedestrians from traffic lanes and provide curbside parking for customers Preferred width:8 Narrow drive lanes reduce the width of the travel way needed for vehicles and subsequently reduces crossing distances that expose pedestrians to traffic: Preferred width:11 Raised center median provides an area for pedestrian refuge and limits left turning movements (reduced turning movement conflicts enhance traffic flow/capacity,as well as vehicles and pedestrianssafety).Ideally the median includes a railing to discourage midblock pedestrian crossings. Dual mast light fixtures with permanent banner displays offer an urban alternative to a tree lined median (requires less maintenance watering/pruning yet still provides vertical definition of the street). W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x A A v v e e S S t t r r e e e e t t C C h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r

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WEST COLFAX PLANMOBILITY: RECOMMENDATIONS R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 1 1 : : S S t t r r e e e e t t C C r r o o s s s s S S e e c c t t i i o o n n s s & & T T y y p p o o l l o o g g i i e e s s W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x Preserve a sixty foot (60) wide travelway along West Colfax.Redesign the street to include four through lanes (2 in each direction) plus a center median/turn lane.Preserve or require the dedication of adequate right-of-way for both on-street parallel parking (minimum eight foot wide parking lanes) and an enhanced pedestrian zone (ideally sixteen feet from the curb to the property line).Another option would be to consider narrowing the width of the traffic lanes to a minimum of ten feet,thereby reducing the area within the travel way needed for vehicular traffic and subsequently reducing the area where pedestrians crossing the street are exposed to traffic. W W e e s s t t S S e e v v e e n n t t e e e e n n t t h h A A v v e e n n u u e e Redesign West 17th Avenue to include one travel lane in each direction plus on street parking lanes with landscaped bump outs,wide sidewalks and a tree lined median.Explore the possibility of providing two 10travel lanes,two 7.5parking lanes,a tree lined median,a 10wide sidewalk on the south side,two 5wide striped bike lanes.Limit median crossings to Hooker,Irving, Meade,Perry,Stuart,Wolff (pedestrian only) and Xavier. W W e e s s t t F F o o u u r r t t e e e e n n t t h h A A v v e e n n u u e e W est 14th Ave.provides an alternative to West Colfax for east-west traffic circulation.Explore ways to enhance this function without sacrificing the residential character of the street and safety for pedestrians and bicyclists.Improve West 14th Ave.s connection to the West Colfax viaduct to improve this street as an alternate downtown access route.In the event of the redevelopment of the Avondale area,create a more direct connection between west 14th Ave.and Howard Place. F F e e d d e e r r a a l l B B o o u u l l e e v v a a r r d d Reassess the appropriate Blueprint Denver street type designation for Federal Blvd. Blueprint Denver currently designates Federal as a commercial arterial.However,as the primary access route to the Decatur Street light rail station,Avondale center,Cheltenham Heights Town Center and Mile High Stadium,this street may be more appropriately designated as mixed-use arterial between West Colfax Ave.and West 6th Ave.Additionally,Federal Blvd.is a designated parkway.Though a lack of enforcement of parkway standards has led to the streets degradation,consideration should be given to the restoration of the parkway character,even if it takes on a more urban form.Reconstruction of the Federal Bridge provides the opportunity to explore such options. 108 Along W. 17th Ave. explore new street cross-section alternatives to enhance the green streetcharacter and function. Investigate new ways to provide safe bicycle and pedestrian space, like a bike lane inside of the parking lane as pictured above.

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WEST COLFAX PLANS S h h e e r r i i d d a a n n B B o o u u l l e e v v a a r r d d Blueprint Denver designates Sheridan Blvd.as a mixed-use arterial.As reconstruction of the street occurs to elevate it over the Lakewood Dry Gulch and West Corridor light rail line,consider the appropriate cross-section that is consistent with the Blueprint Denver street typology. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 2 2 : : R R a a i i s s e e d d M M e e d d i i a a n n o o n n W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x Install a raised median on West Colfax Ave.to improve traffic flow,enhance safety,restrict left turning movements,manage access and provide an area for pedestrian refuge.Include trees or dual mast lighting fixtures with permanent banner display arms in the median to help define the architectural volume of the street.Provide median crossings in the following locations: 1 1 M M u u l l t t i i m m o o d d a a l l c c r r o o s s s s i i n n g g s s Provide left turning movements and pedestrian crosswalks at the following streets:Xavier,Raleigh,Perry,Meade,Knox and Irving 2. P P e e d d e e s s t t r r i i a a n n a a n n d d b b i i c c y y c c l l e e c c r r o o s s s s i i n n g g s s Pr o vide pedestrian crossings and explore the option of pedestrian activated signals at these locations:Wolff and Tennyson R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 3 3 : : A A c c c c e e s s s s M M a a n n a a g g e e m m e e n n t t Preserve traffic flow,limit left turning movements,improve roadway safety and enhance pedestrian safety and comfort by managing access and eliminating curb cuts (for driveways and/or alleys) along West Colfax Ave.,Federal Blvd.,Sheridan Blvd.,West 17th Ave.,and W.10th Ave.Encourage private property access from shared driveways,side streets or from proposed Lor Talley connections.Restricting full movement access points at mid-block locations along West Colfax will improve safety for both pedestrians and vehicles by reducing the number of turning movement conflict points in a given block. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 4 4 : : S S t t r r e e e e t t H H i i e e r r a a r r c c h h y y The plan esta b lishes an urban design framework for a hierarchy of streets to serve a variety of mobility functions and promote safe and pleasant multi-modal connections throughout the neighborhood and to key destinations such as transit stations,town centers,schools and parks.For this hierarchy of streets establish ideal street cross sections that enhance the character and identified function of the streets. B B i i c c y y c c l l e e a a n n d d P P e e d d e e s s t t r r i i a a n n R R o o u u t t e e s s Establish a network of enhanced pedestrian/bike routes on Wolff St.,Tennyson St.,Perry St.,Knox Ct.and Meade St.Consider the following elements for bicycle and pedestrian routes:striped bike lanes,9wide travel lanes,detached sidewalks (ideally 5tree lawn,8sidewalk) and on-street parking. 109 Ensure the provision ofgenerous sidewalk space and amenities along Blueprint Denver designated Main Streets and Mixed Use streets to increase pedestrian safety, comfort and enjoyment.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN M M u u l l t t i i m m o o d d a a l l G G r r e e e e n n S S t t r r e e e e t t s s Establish a network of multi-modal green streets on W.17th Ave. and West 10th Ave.between Federal and Sheridan,on West 13th between Perry St.and Knox Ct.,and on Meade St.(north of West 13th Ave.),Perry St.and Knox Ct.Where right of way permits,consider the following elements:10wide travel lanes,striped bike lanes, detached sidewalk (ideally 10tree lawn,5sidewalk),landscaped median,and on street parking.On Meade St.between W.17th and W.13th Aves.,the street cross section should remain in its current form with 10wide tree lawns,5wide sidewalks,on-street parking and very narrow travel lanes to emphasize pedestrian and bicycle mobility,but still provide a link in the street grid for local automobile trips. M M a a i i n n S S t t r r e e e e t t s s Establish a network of main streets to create strong neighborhood edges and enhance the pedestrian experience in transit rich corridors including West Colfax Ave., Sheridan Blvd.and Federal Blvd.Consider the following elements:11travel lanes,on street parking,hardscaped median with dual mast lighting fixtures with permanent banner displays arms,detached sidewalks (ideally an 8amenity zone and 8-10sidewalk). R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 5 5 : : P P u u b b l l i i c c I I n n f f r r a a s s t t r r u u c c t t u u r r e e I I n n v v e e s s t t m m e e n n t t s s Inv entor y broken sidewalks,deteriorated tree lawns,deficient curb and gutter,unpaved alleys and degraded streets within the study area.Program the needed improvements and secure funding though the Capital Improvements Program,Community Development Block Grants,General Obligation Bonds and/or other sources of funds.Establish a Local Improvements District and Maintenance District to supplement other funds and sustain the capital investments over the long term.Ensure the formation of a Community Development Corporation and/or a Business Improvement District to help the city orchestrate the infrastructure improvements. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 6 6 : : B B u u s s S S e e r r v v i i c c e e Work with the Regional Transportation District to study the possible introduction of a Northwest Denver circulator to transport residents to/from the light rail stations and key West side neighborhood destinations (such as the future Saint Anthonys redevelopment site,Highland Square,Highland Garden Village,1st and Knox Ct.,North High,or other destinations). 110 Work with RTD to study the possible introduction ofa circulator bus, like Boulders Hop, to transport residents to/from the light rail stations and key West side destinations such as: Saint Anthonys hospital redevelopment site Highland Square and other neighborhood shopping districts Highland Garden Village Area schools

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WEST COLFAX PLAN R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 7 7 : : S S t t r r e e e e t t G G r r i i d d Promote safe and pleasant multi-modal connections throughout the neighborhood and to key destinations such as transit stations,town centers,schools and parks.As property redevelops,study the possibility of reconnecting the street grid within the study area and ensure neighborhood participation in this study.Consider circulation patterns,safe routes to school,pedestrian behavior,safety concerns and traffic volumes.Alterations to the street grid can be a sensitive topic for community members.Such decisions deserve thoughtful consideration of impacts and ample communication with affected residents through a study.To this end,work through the Council District office to engage appropriate entities (the Department of Public Works,the Department of Community Planning & Development,the Mayors Neighborhood Liaison) and the property owner/developer to design a process for community participation in the study.Ensure that any alteration to the grid positively benefits the community by improving neighborhood connectivity and enhancing access to destinations.Ensure appropriate mitigation of potentially negative impacts that a study identifies.Study street grid reconnections in the following areas: Saint Anthonys hospital redevelopment site (see illustrative image on page 135) as redevelopment of the 16 acre site occurs,consider the variety of ways to reintegrate the street grid through the site.Options may include a traditional street grid,a combination of streets and pedestrian paseos,boulevards or other street types. Meade Street between West 16th and 17th Aves.to provide more direct access to West Colfax Avenue,the light rail stations and NW Denver. West 16th Ave between Meade and Lowell Hooker St.at West Colfax to allow right in,right out turning movements and enhance the connection and permeability of Cheltenham Heights Town Center. Conejos St.between Irving and Julian in the event of the relocation or closure of Cheltenham Elementary School,reconnect Conejos St.in this area. 111

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WEST COLFAX PLAN R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 8 8 : : T T r r a a n n s s i i t t S S t t a a t t i i o o n n D D e e s s i i g g n n T T r r a a n n s s i i t t M M a a r r k k e e t t i i n n g g & & I I n n c c r r e e a a s s i i n n g g C C h h o o i i c c e e R R i i d d e e r r s s h h i i p p Develop a program for the design of light rail stations and high volume bus stops in the study area. Incorporate marketing principles in the design of station area features.Study the characteristics that when incorporated in a design or marketing program will influence the behavior of choice riders (individuals who could otherwise drive,but choose to take transit). R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 9 9 : : W W a a t t e e r r Q Q u u a a l l i i t t y y B B e e s s t t M M a a n n a a g g e e m m e e n n t t P P r r a a c c t t i i c c e e s s In site planning, and par ticularly in the design of surface parking lots,incorporate water quality best management practices to retain water on site and reduce pollutant and particulate matter run-off into area bodies of water such as Sloans Lake,Lakewood Gulch and the Platte River.Refer to the City and County of Denvers Water Quality Management Plan for best management practices. 112 Enhance the design ofbus stops to increase their contribution to and visibility within the urban environment. A typical bus stop (above) vs. an enhanced bus stop (below) makes a difference in the appeal of transit as a mode choice for commuters.

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WEST COLFAX PLANECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT P P r r i i m m a a r r y y I I s s s s u u e e s s & & O O p p p p o o r r t t u u n n i i t t i i e e s s F F r r a a g g m m e e n n t t e e d d O O w w n n e e r r s s h h i i p p Small average lot sizes and fragmented ownership patterns are two of the most significant barriers to sizable development projects in the West Colfax area.Fragmented ownership can limit continuity in design character and quality across multiple uses in the same location.The complexity and timing of redevelopment projects is directly proportionate to the number of affected property owners. V V a a c c a a n n t t & & U U n n d d e e r r u u t t i i l l i i z z e e d d L L a a n n d d Underutilized and vacant sites within the West Colfax corridor have a physical,as well as fiscal impact.Inconsistencies in character and a dilution of uses is common to corridors with undeveloped and underdeveloped parcels.Vehicles tend to be the dominant mode of transportation and traffic tends to pass-through,rather than stay.The exception to this would be those uses which attract destination traffic.While these properties present an opportunity for investment, the methods used to bring the current use to something higher and better are broad and at-best controversial. C C o o h h e e s s i i v v e e B B u u s s i i n n e e s s s s E E n n v v i i r r o o n n m m e e n n t t The W est Colfax area lacks a cohesive business environment.The commercial climate is defined by negative images of decay,run down storefronts and underutilized properties.A business improvement entity can be a significant agent of revitalization in declining business areas.These organizing entities pay for programs and services to enhance and promote a geographically defined business area.Such an organization performs a variety of functions including collective advertising and marketing,special event promotion,beautification and maintenance projects, advocacy,and data collection and analysis. 113 Fragmented ownership and small average lot sizes create redevelopment challenges for West Colfax.

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WEST COLFAX PLANECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: GOALS G G o o a a l l 1 1 : : C C o o m m p p e e t t i i t t i i v v e e A A d d v v a a n n t t a a g g e e Augment the West Colfax areas competitive advantage for investment and redevelopment. G G o o a a l l 2 2 : : R R e e d d e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t Redevelop vacant and underutilized property. G G o o a a l l 3 3 : : B B u u s s i i n n e e s s s s O O r r g g a a n n i i z z a a t t i i o o n n Organize business interest along the corridor. G G o o a a l l 4 4 : : C C o o m m m m u u n n i i t t y y D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t Enhance the physical natur e of the community,from its housing to its shopping areas,transportation, public spaces,and environment.Establish cohesive and vibrant commercial and residential district identities.Ensure clean,safe and decent housing conditions that enhance the attractiveness and quality of urban neighborhoods and their associated station areas. G G o o a a l l 5 5 : : C C a a p p i i t t a a l l i i z z e e o o n n I I n n v v e e s s t t m m e e n n t t i i n n L L i i g g h h t t R R a a i i l l Leverage additional private investment to capitalize on the public investments in light rail expansion to the study area. 114 Some buildings along West Colfax exhibit attractive main street qualities such as large display windows, defined street wall, brick construction, etc. However, a lack ofmaintenance and upkeep of signage and facades conveys an image ofinferior goods and services to passing motorists, pedestrians and other potential customers. Additionally, the presence ofmassive billboards dwarfdiscreet main street buildings, and contribute to a visually cluttered environment.

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WEST COLFAX PLANECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: RECOMMENDATIONS R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 1 1 : : W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x C C o o m m m m u u n n i i t t y y D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t C C o o r r p p o o r r a a t t i i o o n n Establish a West Colfax Community Development Corporation with the following proactive responsibilities for community investment,redevelopment and overall enhancement: 1 1 Assist with property assemblages at catalyst locations: a a Use mechanisms for property acquisition including land swaps,low-interest loans, land write-downs,etc. b b Work with the private sector to position opportunity sites in appropriate locations for local,national and regional interest. c c Work with the public sector to ready the regulatory environment for investment (zoning,alley width and access,lighting,streetscape improvements,parking,etc.). 2 2 Explore designation of urban renewal districts in blighted areas that have feasible,desirable redevelopment projects that are struggling financially. 3 3 Work with intermediary organizations (i.e.,Piton Foundation),whether corporate,non-profit, or philanthropic,which have the flexibility to provide patient capital (20to 30-year time horizon) for financing land banking efforts. 4 4 Support efforts to form a Community Development Finance Institution. 5 5 Develop home o wnership,maintenance and rehabilitation strategies to improve the image and quality of urban neighborhoods and their associated station areas,while helping residents achieve home ownership and high quality living conditions. a a Target deteriorated residential properties for DURAs Emergency Home Repair and Single Family Home Rehabilitation programs.Promote these programs to area property owners b b Work with DURA and the Office of Economic Development Housing and Neighborhood Development Services to identify existing assistance programs and establish additional funding programs for home ownership and housing maintenance/rehabilitation assistance. 115 Establish a Community Development Corporation that can assemble underutilized land in strategic locations and ready it for redevelopment.

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WEST COLFAX PLANc c Monitor neglected properties,especially vacant property,boarded-up buildings,and poorly maintained or managed rental units. i i Create and maintain a list of these properties and structures in the neighborhood. Research the ownership of these properties through the Denver Assessors Office. ii.Write letters to the owner(s) of problem properties as an advocacy entity requesting that they repair their property and have it occupied. i i i i i i Provide information to owners of neglected property on minimum standards of property maintenance and available programs for funding renovations. i i v v Follow-up on the initial contact with additional letters and telephone calls. v v Copy Neighborhood Inspection Services and the City Council District Office on all written correspondence to ensure an appropriate record of communication. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 2 2 : : R R e e v v i i t t a a l l i i z z a a t t i i o o n n S S t t r r a a t t e e g g y y Target deteriorated,vacant and underutilized properties for reinvestment using the following strategies: 1 1 Update the zoning on commercial properties along West Colfax,Federal and Sheridan to Main Street to allow for more density,adjusted parking requirements,and a stronger building edge. 2 2 Explore the creation of a land-taxing program (speculator tax) which penalizes absentee land owners and rewards property owners who make viable investments. 3 3 Offer incentives such as short-term financing,subsidies,or tax benefits to attract private investment and development and offset additional costs incurred and associated with property acquisition. 4 4 Strengthen the local governments authority to put underused property back on the market. 5 5 Consider a demolition by neglect statute which could be added to zoning and land development codes to deter landowners from letting their properties deteriorate. 116 Explore the creation ofa land-taxing program (speculator tax) which penalizes absentee land owners and rewards property owners who make viable investments.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 3 3 : : W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x A A d d v v o o c c a a c c y y E E n n t t i i t t y y Formalize an advocacy entity,such as a West Colfax Business Improvement District to champion implementation of the plan over the nearand long-term.The entitys primary function is to advance the actions of the plan,keep stakeholders involved in the process,and promote consensus.This entity will have the following roles and responsibilities: 1 1 D D a a t t a a c c o o l l l l e e c c t t i i o o n n a a n n d d a a n n a a l l y y s s i i s s Inventory available properties,know the market value and the zoning for these properties,determine their ownership and make the data publicly available.Together with corridor advocates (merchants representative),continue to monitor market conditions changing demographics,lease rates,absorption and the performance of merchants (using benchmarks) maintain a business database and update this market analysis. 2 2 A A d d v v o o c c a a c c y y & & P P a a r r t t n n e e r r s s h h i i p p s s Keep pr operty and business owners apprised of market opportunities (host property and business owner round tables) and facilitate discussions among potential partners.Facilitate relationships with and solicit the input of property owners,residents,churches,colleges and hospitals in the neighborhood because these groups have the most at stake,they have the strongest vested interest in the neighborhood environment. 3 3 M M a a r r k k e e t t i i n n g g & & S S p p e e c c i i a a l l E E v v e e n n t t s s Create targeted marketing materials which tell the storyof the corridor and study area;coordinate these efforts with OED (Office of Economic Development).Work with area experts to develop a heritage tourism route through the study area and promote it at local,state and regional levels.This will increase the visibility of the area and create a programmatic draw for visitors.Market the area in presentations to local professional and member organizations such as the Board of Realtors,the many Chambers of Commerce and Home Builders Association to highlight development and business opportunities. 117

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WEST COLFAX PLAN4 4 S S t t o o r r e e f f r r o o n n t t I I m m p p r r o o v v e e m m e e n n t t Work with the Office of Economic Development to provide revolving loan funds and grant dollars for faade improvements.Monitor the programs use over time and measure the Citys return on investment based on increases in property values rather than increases in sales revenue.Offer storefront design assistance with the disbursement of faade loans and grants. 5 5 B B u u s s i i n n e e s s s s A A t t t t r r a a c c t t i i o o n n & & P P r r o o m m o o t t i i o o n n Promote a mix of stores including specialty food stores (selling baked goods,ethnic foods,coffee,and wine),ethnic restaurants,pharmacies,art shops,antique stores,hardware stores,and service providers (laundry,video rental,garden). Concentrate on attracting locally owned and operated businesses that build a uniquely Denver commercial environment.Hire a leasing professional,or establish a quasi-public retail leasing and management agency to plan and coordinate management and recruitment of retail tenants.Develop a tenanting strategy for the corridor to guide their efforts.Initiate a leasing program along one or two blocks that have the greatest potential to leverage private investment.Get landlord input / buy-in on where this should happen.Provide technical assistance to existing and prospective retailers. 6 6 C C l l e e a a n n & & S S a a f f e e P P r r o o g g r r a a m m Develop a clean and safe program for the corridor managing the streets image and providing service levels above standard city services.Consider levying an additional assessment on property owners who neglect their property. 118

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 119 Planning for vitality must help promote peoples identification with city districts that are large enough and varied enough in inner and outer contacts to deal with the tough, inescapable, practical problems of big city life. Jane JacobsDISTRICT PLANS M M a a i i n n S S t t r r e e e e t t D D i i s s t t r r i i c c t t s s O O s s t t r r o o v v e e r r D D i i s s t t r r i i c c t t T T o o b b i i n n s s R R o o w w P P i i g g N N W W h h i i s s t t l l e e D D i i s s t t r r i i c c t t T T o o w w n n C C e e n n t t e e r r D D i i s s t t r r i i c c t t s s H H o o l l y y T T o o n n y y s s T T o o w w n n C C e e n n t t e e r r C C h h e e l l t t e e n n h h a a m m H H e e i i g g h h t t s s T T o o w w n n C C e e n n t t e e r r U U r r b b a a n n N N e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d D D i i s s t t r r i i c c t t s s T T u u x x e e d d o o P P a a r r k k E E a a s s t t T T u u x x e e d d o o P P a a r r k k W W e e s s t t U U r r b b a a n n N N e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d S S t t a a t t i i o o n n s s M M a a p p l l e e G G r r o o v v e e S S t t a a t t i i o o n n ( ( K K n n o o x x C C o o u u r r t t ) ) P P l l e e a a s s a a n n t t H H i i l l l l S S t t a a t t i i o o n n ( ( P P e e r r r r y y S S t t r r e e e e t t ) )

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WEST COLFAX PLANPURPOSE OF THE DISTRICT PLANSClusters of residential and mixed-use/commercial districts characterize the West Colfax area.Overall, these districts lack identity despite some common threads such as prevailing age of construction and architectural styles within residential portions of the community.The purpose of the District Plans section is to distinguish the unique attributes of distinct parts of the neighborhood.It is a way to use important community markers or references to heritage as building blocks for a more coherent set of niche environments.District Plans do not imply zoning changes per se (please refer to the framework plan for guidance about zoning changes).The district plans provide direction about unique places or niches within the larger community and may include both areas of change and areas of stability.Should zoning changes occur,the District Plans provide guidance regarding the appropriate character and scale of an area.However,the overriding intent of this section is to create a finer-grained sense of place within portions of the study area.A district identity is a rallying point;it allows inhabitants,visitors and businesses to distinguish a particular territory as a spatially defined place of interest within the context of the larger community.The district plans augment the prevailing goals and recommendations contained in the framework plan. 120

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 121 TOWN CENTER DISTRICTS CHELTENHAM HEIGHTS HOLY TONYS TOWN CENTER RESIDENTIAL DISTRICTS TUXEDO PARK EAST TUXEDO PARK WEST PLEASANT HILL MAIN STREET DISTRICTS OSTROVER DISTRICT TOBINS ROW PIG N WHISTLE DISTRICT TRANSIT STATIONS MAPLE GROVE PLEASANT HILL| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 23RD AVE. JEFFERSON PARKDECATUR ST. ELIOT ST. FEDERAL BLVD.22ND AVE. 21ST AVE. 20TH AVE. SHERIDAN BLVD. STUART ST. RALEIGH ST. QUITMAN ST. PERRY ST. OSCEOLA ST. MEADE ST. LOWELL ST. KING ST. JULIAN ST. IRVING ST.W. 23RD AVE. W. 22ND AVE. W. 21ST AVE. W. 20TH AVE. W. 19TH AVE. W. 18TH AVE. W. 17TH AVE. LAKE MIDDLE SCHOOL HALLACK PARK W. 16TH AVE. W. CONEJOS PL.WINONA CT. VRAIN ST. UTICA ST. TENNYSON ST. STUART ST. RALEIGH ST. QUITMAN ST. PERRY ST. ZENOBIA ST. YATES ST. XAVIER ST. WOLFF ST. OSCEOLA ST. NEWTON ST. MEADE ST. LOWELL BLVD. KING ST. KNOX CT.W. 12TH AVE. W. 10TH AVE. DRY GULCH COLFAX ELEMENTARY YESHIVA TORAS CHAIM CHELTENHAM ELEMENTARY PACO SANCHEZ PARKLAKEWOOD GULCHAVONDALE DR. W. COLFAX AVEELIOT ST. BRYANT ST. FEDERAL BLVD.W. 1 2TH AVE .HOLDEN PL. W. 13TH AVE. W. 11TH AVE. W. 10TH AVE. W. 9TH AVE. W. 8TH AVE. W. 7TH AVE. W. 6TH AVE. W. SEVERN PL.DECATUR ST.ZUNI ST.ALCOTT ST. BRYANTT ST. CANOSA CT.HOW ARD PL.OLD COLFAX AVE. W. COLFAX AVE WINONA CT. VRAIN ST. UTICA ST. TENNYSON ST. STUART ST. RALEIGH ST. QUITMAN ST. PERRY ST. ZENOBIA ST. SHERIDAN BLVD. YATES ST. XAVIER ST. WOLFF ST. OSCEOLA ST. NEWTON ST. MEADE ST. LOWELL BLVD. LINLEY CT. KING ST. KNOX CT. JULIAN ST. IRVING ST. HOOKER ST. HAZEL CT. GROVE ST.W. 9TH AVE. JOSEPH MARTINEZ PARK LAKEWOOD GULCH COLWELL ELEMENTARY W. 8TH AVE. EAGLETON ELEMENTARY BARNUM NORTH PARKWEIR GULCH PLEASANT HILL STATION MAPLE GROVE STATION RTD LIGHT RAIL STATION TUXEDO TUXEDO PARK PARK EAST EAST TUXEDO PARK EAST TUXEDO TUXEDO PARK PARK WEST WEST TUXEDO PARK WEST HOLY HOLY TONYS TONYS TOWN TOWN CENTER CENTER HOLY TONYS TOWN CENTER CHELTENHAM CHELTENHAM HEIGHTS HEIGHTS CHELTENHAM HEIGHTS OSTROVER DISTRICT OSTROVER DISTRICT OSTROVER DISTRICT MAPLE GROVE STATION MAPLE GROVE STATION MAPLE GROVE STATION TOBINS ROW TOBINS ROW TOBINS ROW PIG N WHISTLE DISTRICT PIG N WHISTLE DISTRICT PIG N WHISTLE DISTRICT PLEASANT HILL PLEASANT HILL PLEASANT HILL PLEASANT HILL STATION PLEASANT HILL STATION PLEASANT HILL STATION D D i i s s t t r r i i c c t t P P l l a a n n s s

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 122

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WEST COLFAX PLANMAIN STREET DISTRICTSO O s s t t r r o o v v e e r r D D i i s s t t r r i i c c t t This district gets its name from one of the earliest group of settlers in this part of town, the Ostrover Jews.The many Jewish businesses and cultural affiliations that still exist today echo the influences of these early immigrants.This sub area includes all of the commercial parcels adjacent to West Colfax between Irving and Perry Streets.Auto-oriented uses,small retail shops and services in historic tax payer strip buildings,and some neighborhood fixtures including Lake Steam Baths and Girls Inc. T T o o b b i i n n s s R R o o w w Since the 1930s the family owned and operated Tobins Pharmacy on West Colfax at Quitman has been a signature local business that has faithfully served the daily needs of residents, commuters and travelers passing through this part of town.During the drafting of this plan,the community learned that Tobins Pharmacy would close its doors following the arrival of a national pharmacy chain nearby.In naming this area Tobins Row it is hoped that the local business roots will sprout new Colfax entrepreneurs from this lovingly and long-tended stretch of the corridor.This subarea includes all of the commercial parcels on the south side of West Colfax Avenue between Tennyson and Perry Streets. P P i i g g N N W W h h i i s s t t l l e e D D i i s s t t r r i i c c t t Pugilist Eddie Bohn opened the PigNWhistle BBQ joint in this stretch of West Colfax in 1926 on the birthday of his sparring partner,boxing great Jack Dempsey.This renowned restaurant provided an oasis for motor tourists between 1926 and 1991.Business declined steadily after the construction of Interstate 70 which provided a bypass of US 40 for automobile travelers.Eddies son Punch closed the restaurant in 1991.This subarea includes all the commercial parcels around West Colfax and Sheridan over to Tennyson.Auto-oriented uses (such as drive through franchises and car sales),small retail businesses,restaurants,as well as services and community gathering facilities (VFW, Ready Labor) line the street.The district includes the Golden Manor Assisted Living Facility,as well as an important transit transfer point at West Colfax and Sheridan. 123 Eddie Bohns Pig NWhistle served hungry motorists from 1926 to 1991. Lake Steam Baths is a prominent landmark in the Ostrover District.

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WEST COLFAX PLANMAIN STREET DISTRICTS: GOALS G G o o a a l l 1 1 : : S S p p a a t t i i a a l l D D e e f f i i n n i i t t i i o o n n o o f f M M a a i i n n S S t t r r e e e e t t s s Spatially define Main Streets with multi-storied buildings that form a continuous street wall. G G o o a a l l 2 2 : : O O r r i i e e n n t t a a t t i i o o n n o o f f M M i i x x e e d d U U s s e e D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t Encourage mixed-use development with the greatest intensity focused to the corridor,and especially near major transit stops. G G o o a a l l 3 3 : : D D e e s s t t i i n n a a t t i i o o n n D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t Pr omote Main Str eet districts as a destination for locally owned shops,restaurants and entertainment venues. G G o o a a l l 4 4 : : S S t t r r a a t t e e g g i i c c S S u u p p p p l l y y o o f f P P a a r r k k i i n n g g Provide a strategic supply of parking to serve regional visitors to Main Street districts and minimize the adverse affects of spillover parking in neighborhoods. G G o o a a l l 5 5 : : P P e e d d e e s s t t r r i i a a n n C C o o n n n n e e c c t t i i o o n n s s Provide strong pedestrian connections to and crossings along Main Street districts and encourage neighborhood access by foot and bike. G G o o a a l l 6 6 : : S S i i d d e e w w a a l l k k C C h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r Enhance the c har acter of sidewalks along Main Street districts. G G o o a a l l 7 7 : : B B u u s s i i n n e e s s s s O O p p e e r r a a t t i i o o n n s s Manage Main Street business operations to avoid negative impacts on nearby residential areas caused by lighting,hours of operation,noise,drive-through speakers,trash removal,deliveries,odors,etc. 124 M M a a i i n n S S t t r r e e e e t t D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t F F o o r r m m s s

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WEST COLFAX PLANMAIN STREET DISTRICTS: RECOMMENDATIONS R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 1 1 : : D D i i s s t t r r i i c c t t S S c c a a l l e e & & A A p p p p l l i i c c a a t t i i o o n n o o f f M M a a i i n n S S t t r r e e e e t t Z Z o o n n e e D D i i s s t t r r i i c c t t s s Respect the variations in appropriate scale in the different urban design districts that comprise the West Colfax Main Street.Consider the impact of Main Street zoning and future development on adjacent residential districts.Ensure appropriate transitions in height,bulk and mass as Main Street buildings approach residential structures.Respect the scale of the Main Street districts.To that end,the appropriate application of the Main Street zones is as follows: O O s s t t r r o o v v e e r r D D i i s s t t r r i i c c t t Due to the narrow commercial parcels in this area Main Street 1,which permits buildings between one and three stories,is appropriate.However,in the event of land assemb la ges that offer opportunity for desired redevelopment of dilapidated property, consideration should be given to Main Street 2,which allows buildings up to five stories, expescially where this area abuts the Cheltenham Heights Town Center or the Maple Grove Station district (east of Lowell). T T o o b b i i n n s s R R o o w w This district includes parcels on the south side of West Colfax Ave.bordering the Stuart Street Historic District and across the street from the Saint Anthonys redevelopment site.Parcel depths are typically shallow.Where parcels approach or exceed 125,Main Street 2 should be the preferred zone district,otherwise MS-1 is most appropriate in this area. P P i i g g N N W W h h i i s s t t l l e e D D i i s s t t r r i i c c t t Deeper parcels,the presence of more intense residential structures and the proximity to a rich supply of transit make this an appropriate place for the application of Main Street 2 (which permits structures up to 65tall),as well as limited application of Main Street 3 (which permits structures up to 100tall) in the immediate vicinity of the intersection of West Colfax and Sheridan. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 2 2 : : P P i i g g N N W W h h i i s s t t l l e e D D i i s s t t r r i i c c t t W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x A A v v e e a a n n d d S S h h e e r r i i d d a a n n P osition the ar ea around West Colfax and Sheridan as a regional transit hub.Work with Lakewood and RTD to divert downtown commuters to the West Corridor light rail line before they reach the Denver city limits.Intercept downtown commuters at Sheridan and encourage them to park and ride the bus from this location or to access the light rail station at Sheridan and the M M a a i i n n S S t t r r e e e e t t Z Z o o n n e e D D i i s s t t r r i i c c t t s sIn September of2005, Denver City Council adopted Main Street a new category ofzone districts (MS-1, MS-2, & MS-3) that are appropriate for transit rich environments where the community desires an enhanced pedestrian experience at street level and greater mixed-use development that includes housing over ground floor shops, services, restaurants and entertainment venues. Main Street zoning includes design and development standards like build-to lines, street frontage requirements and display windows at street level, to ensure that future development reinforces the communitys desire for pedestrian friendly, mixed-use development.M M a a x x i i m m u u m m d d e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t p p o o t t e e n n t t i i a a l l ( ( M M S S 2 2 ) )MS-2 may be appropriate in the Tobins Row and PigN Whistle Districts. 125

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WEST COLFAX PLANLakewood Dry Gulch.Support development of high density projects that include housing over ground floor uses that meet daily needs of commuters such as day care,dry cleaning,postal services,specialty food stores,coffee shops and newsstands.Provide structured parking facilities.Create a choice rider marketing program to influence the behavior of commuters and promote a mode shift to transit.Ensure that bus service provides regular,fast,direct connections to and from downtown during peak hours. P P i i g g N N W W h h i i s s t t l l e e R R e e s s t t a a u u r r a a n n t t Encourage the existing property owner to bring back the BBQ restaurant. Restore the sign as a focal point for the PigN Whistle district.Pursue historic status and grant funds to pay for the restoration,provide low interest loans through the city to finance the restaurant rehabilitation and faade improvements. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 3 3 : : P P r r o o m m o o t t i i o o n n o o f f E E v v e e n n t t s s & & T T r r a a n n s s i i t t A A c c c c e e s s s s Work with area activity generators like Mile High Stadium and Sloans Lake Park to co-promote businesses along Colfax and in the town centers with events occurring at these attractions.Work with RTD to encourage transit access to events (such as game day tickets dual as a transit pass for a day). R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 4 4 : : P P a a r r k k i i n n g g S S u u p p p p l l y y Encour a ge reservoirs of structured parking in strategic locations,as well as shared parking throughout the main street corridor to accommodate uses with intense parking needs. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 5 5 : : P P r r o o m m o o t t e e L L o o c c a a l l B B u u s s i i n n e e s s s s e e s s Establish business development programs to attract,retain and promote mom & popbusinesses that are low impact,serve a primarily walk-up,neighborhood customer base and contribute to a unique local main street district identity. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 6 6 : : H H o o u u s s i i n n g g S S u u p p p p l l y y Suppor t the dev elopment of residential projects along West Colfax Ave,both stand alone multi-family structures and residential units over active ground floor uses.Encourage developers to incorporate residential units in projects that would otherwise be single use commercial developments. 126 San Diego approved five "Pilot Villages" in 2004. One ofthem, Mi Pueblo in San Ysidro has been described as Latino new urbanism. Building facades incorporate vibrant hues ofred, blue, yellow and green. Build-out will include 1,143 residential units, about a quarter of them moderately priced. Three-bedroom, two-bath homes built so far are selling for $270,000, about halfthe local median price. This project is a model for redevelopment along West Colfax Avenue that can bring needed new housing options, revitalize the street and positively reference the rich cultural heritage ofarea Latino residents.

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WEST COLFAX PLANTown centers support a range oflifestyle choices and enhance the experience ofurban community living. Belmar Town Center in Lakewood, CO is a model development type for Cheltenham Heights and Holy Tonys.TOWN CENTER DISTRICTSC C h h e e l l t t e e n n h h a a m m H H e e i i g g h h t t s s The boundaries of this town center are West Colfax Ave.,Lowell Blvd.,West 17th Ave.and Federal Blvd.Land use in this area includes single family homes,several duplex or row house buildings and walk-up apartment buildings.Several community buildings dot the landscape including churches,the Civil Service Building and the Boys Club of America.A large housing project,Town View Mutual Housing forms the northeastern gateway to the town center,while Cheltenham occupies the southern gateway to this area at West Colfax Ave.and Irving St.The area also contains several buildings with historical value the Carnegie Dickenson Branch Library,as well as several structures with ties to the Jewish history of this area.This town center gets it name from original subdivision plat maps,and the name promotes the areas location perched upon a bluff overlooking the Platte Valley and downtown Denver. H H o o l l y y T T o o n n y y s s T T o o w w n n C C e e n n t t e e r r Area bounded by West Colfax Ave.,Tennyson/Stuart Streets.Perry St.,and West 17th Ave.This area contains hospital facilities,medical offices,religious facilities,an elementary school,surface and structured parking lots,apartments and a small amount of single-family residential uses.Saint Anthonys Central hospital occupies 16 acres of the town center.The hospital will relocate to the Federal Center in Lakewood within the next five years.The hospital has been a fixture in this area since the earliest days of the community.Neighborsaffectionate and tongue-in-cheek reference to the hospital as Holy Tonysis the impetus for the name of the town center.Coincidentally,Saint Anthony is one of five patron saints of travelers and an ideal namesake for a town center that provides a place of refuge,relaxation and enjoyment along a bustling transportation corridor. 127

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WEST COLFAX PLANTOWN CENTER DISTRICTS: GOALS G G o o a a l l 1 1 : : T T o o w w n n C C e e n n t t e e r r O O r r g g a a n n i i z z a a t t i i o o n n Organize town centers to fit seamlessly with surrounding neighborhoods. G G o o a a l l 2 2 : : T T o o w w n n C C e e n n t t e e r r F F u u n n c c t t i i o o n n Develop town centers to function as the heart of the community with a concentration of housing, employment,civic amenities and services,as well as destination entertainment venues,shops and restaurants. G G o o a a l l 3 3 : : P P u u b b l l i i c c G G a a t t h h e e r r i i n n g g Aggregate open spaces within a town center to provide focal points for community gathering,festivals, concerts,seasonal farmers markets and other special events. G G o o a a l l 4 4 : : T T o o w w n n C C e e n n t t e e r r D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t T T o o o o l l s s Esta b lish regulatory and redevelopment tools to guide the development of town centers in strategic locations. 128 Town centers function as the heart ofthe community. To ensure the successful evolution ofthe places appropriate regulatory and redevelopment tools are needed.

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WEST COLFAX PLANTOWN CENTER DISTRICTS: RECOMMENDATIONS R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 1 1 : : S S t t r r u u c c t t u u r r e e o o f f T T o o w w n n C C e e n n t t e e r r s s Consider the layout and relationship of buildings to the town center core.Focus the most intense structures and uses to a dense core surrounding a community gathering place.Ring this dense core with medium intensity structures that taper in height,mass and scale to a fringe area where the town center blends with surrounding neighborhoods.Establish a typology of building structures appropriate for each level of the town center. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 2 2 : : T T o o w w n n C C e e n n t t e e r r U U s s e e s s Ensure a dynamic mix of uses to serve the daily needs of nearby residents and destination itineraries of regional visitors.Shops,restaurants,entertainment,civic amenities (satellite libraries,recreation centers, postal facilities) and services (dry cleaners,day care) are especially appropriate uses to serve nearby offices and residents.Offer a broad mix of housing types,occupancy status,densities and costs. Encourage this mix to support a range of lifestyle choices and enhance the experience of urban community living. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 3 3 : : T T o o w w n n C C e e n n t t e e r r D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t S S t t r r a a t t e e g g y y Esta b lish a Town Center Development Strategy. 1 1 Create a form-based Town Center zone district. 2 2 Require that a General Development Plan accompany the application of Town Center zoning to ensure the rational and strategic growth of these places. Include standards for the development of streets,water quality management and infrastructure upgrades. Since the application and implementation of a Town Center Development Strategy would involve significant,but ultimately positive changes to the existing structure of the community,require Planning Board adoption of Town Center General Development Plans. Requiring this process will ensure adequate opportunity for property owner participation, community involvement and public comment. Work with OED,DURA,CHAFA,DHA,DPS,Piton,the Enterprise Foundation and other entities to establish partnership tools to aid in Town Center redevelopment. 3 3 Work with OED and DURA to craft financing strategies to stimulate investment in these areas. 129 Town centers contain a dynamic mix ofuses to serve the daily needs of residents and the destination itineraries ofregional visitors.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 4 4 : : H H o o l l y y T T o o n n y y s s T T o o w w n n C C e e n n t t e e r r R R e e d d e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t Utilize the guiding principles of the Saint Anthonys Hospital Redevelopment Task Force in preparing and implementing future plans for the redevelopment of this 16+ acre urban site.Consider the following elements in planning for the future of this area: 1 1 Redevelop Saint Anthonys hospital in such a manner that it catalyzes reinvestment in the larger study area while respecting,complementing and enhancing the stability of the surrounding residential neighborhoods. 2 2 Establish a unique identity for the site and ensure that the new development anchors the community and functions as the social and cultural heart of the neighborhood. 3 3 Identify an optimal density range that assures economic viability of the site and incorporates a vigorous mix of uses.Consider the appropriate use mix to encourage active,urban living on the site. Promote a diverse range of housing options (especially a combination of affordable and market rate), maintain a health care presence on site and incorporate civic uses like a library. 4 4 If cost retention and reuse is appropriate,explore opportunities for the adaptive reuse of the pool and exercise rooms,the chapels,the Kuhlman Building and the parking garage (if it can serve adjacent uses).Consider reuse of the site as a job training facility especially for high demand health care professions such as nursing. 5 5 Promote safe and attractive pedestrian linkages throughout the site,as well as between the site and nearby destinations such as the park and transit stations areas.Provide wide sidewalks,pleasant streetscape amenities,ample shade trees and well-designed lighting schemes.Plan the site to be particularly accommodating to children,seniors and people with disabilities. 6 6 Seriously consider the extension of the street grid through the site to reduce dangerous concentrations of traffic on edge streets,enhance neighborhood connectivity and connect bicyclists and pedestrian routes through the site. 7 7 Encourage sustainability in future development of the site.Promote quality construction that includes green building techniques that are energy efficient,non-polluting and use sustainable building materials.Ensure harmonious integration of the site with the surrounding natural and built environments with particular attention to solar access,as well as air and water quality.Incorporate life cycle cost-benefit analysis in future development planning to ensure that new growth is economically sustainable,responsive to relevant community economics and lasting for generations. 8 8 Promote health and wellness in future development of the site in reference to the human health mission of St.Anthonys Hospital mission and to respond to future health needs of the community. 130 The recommendations and guiding principles created by the Saint Anthonys Hospital Redevelopment Task Force call for a central plaza or neighborhood square with special street and pedestrian facilities that will provide community identity, a sense ofplace and a focal point for the development site and the surrounding neighborhood.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN9 9 Ensure that new development enhances the urban design of the site. Capitalize on the views of mountains,lake and city lights. Create an urban edge along W.17th Ave.to define the park. Incorporate focal points,public gathering spaces and strong pedestrian linkages (such as plazas, paseos,and/or a pedestrian promenade) to connect the town center to the neighborhood, transit stations and the park,and provide focal points for development. Use high quality design and materials.Transition height and density of the site edges to respect the scale of adjacent neighborhoods. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 5 5 : : C C h h e e l l t t e e n n h h a a m m H H e e i i g g h h t t s s T T o o w w n n C C e e n n t t e e r r Use the following guiding principles in preparing and implementing future plans for the redevelopment of the Cheltenham Heights Town Center: 1 1 Focus the most intense development to areas east of Julian Street and taper development intensity and scale as the town center approaches Tuxedo Park East. 2 2 Promote significant increases in residential densities (including both affordable and market rate units) to encourage urban living near downtown,transit and community activities. 3 3 Consider ways to develop the edges of the town center along Federal Blvd.and West Colfax Ave.and ensure the development of uses and structures that take advantage of the extraordinary views of downtown,the mountains,the Platte Valley and Mile High Stadium. 4 4 Create stronger connections between Lake Middle School and West Colfax Ave. 5 5 Explore ways to better integrate carriage lots in the urban fabric as aggregated open spaces. 6 6 In the event of the closure or relocation of Cheltenham Elementary School,explore mixed-use redevelopment scenarios for the site and reconnect Conejos St.between Julian St.and Irving St. 7 7 Improve the permeability of the town center and establish gateways at West 17th Ave.,Hooker and Irving Streets to better incorporate this area with the larger community. 8 8 Identify the appropr iate character of streets within the town center and ensure the provision of wide sidewalks,plentiful street trees,parking (explore the possibility of providing angled parking in order to increase the supply of on-street spaces) and bike lanes throughout. 9 9 Incorporate water quality best management practices in future planning and redevelopment of Cheltenham Town Center. 131 Urban apartments in the Belmar Town Center in Lakewood, CO build in a residential customer base to support commercial development within the cor ofthe town center.

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WEST COLFAX PLANHOLY TONYS ILLUSTRATIVE PLANThe concept for Holy Tonys Town Center on the opposing page illustrates one of many possible options for the configuration,massing and scale of the Saint Anthonys Hospital redevelopment site.It illustrates a high intensity option.The image interprets several key ideas from the St.Anthonys Hospital Redevelopment Task Force report and the goals of this plan.The elements include: Neighborhood connectivity and enhanced pedestrian facilities two green courtyards reconnect the street grid and provide pedestrian only connections between Sloans Lake Park and the interior of the redevelopment site.A multi-modal promenade or paseo reconnects the grid east to west through the heart of the site and provides significant breathing space and opportunity for public gathering adjacent to the core of the town center. Catalyst development buildings of a high intensity form the core of the redevelopment site and provide opportunity for significant increases in residential densities and employment uses (such as office space) that would benefit from a rich mix of uses within the site.The shapes illustrate general massing and scale of potential development.The colors illustrate a potential land use development pattern as follows: :Highest intensity residential uses over ground floor retail or office:Medium intensity residential uses over active ground floor commercial uses:Higher density/intensity,fully residential structures: : Lower intensity,fully residential structures to promote smooth transitions to the surrounding neighborhoods.: : Existing buildings Gateways/focal points the rendering shows focal points at Stuart & W.16th Ave.with the retention of the chapel; Across from the park along 17th with an ice rink (winter)/plaza (summer); At the town center entrances on W.16th Ave.as gateway buildings;and In the park across from the key pedestrian entry points to the town center. Context sensitive transitions buildings taper in height as the town center approaches neighborhood edges Maximization of views a central tower,building pedestals,courtyards and upper story setbacks maximize the views of mountains,lake and city lights afforded by the site,as well as preserve solar access to the sidewalks,streets and integrated open spaces. 132 The Saint Anthonys Hospital Redevelopment Task Force recognized the existing chapel as an important reference to the sites history and recommended that future redevelopment incorporate it as a focal point of the town center.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 133 Integrated open spaces such as a promenade, courtyards & an ice rink provide opportunities for public gathering, development focal points (e.g. retention of the chapel at 16th and Stuart) & strong pedestrian connections. Highest density and intensity focused to core and toward Colfax. Development tapers in scale and intensity at edges approaching the neighborhood.

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WEST COLFAX PLANURBAN NEIGHBORHOOD DISTRICTSTwo connected lakes,Cooper and Sloan,comprise Sloans Lake and are the focal point of the area neighborhoods.The three residential districts in the study area rest south of Sloans Lake.The majority of homes in these districts were built in the early part of the 20th century,however,pockets of structures built in the 1880s and 1950s plus several high rise buildings constructed in the 1960s co-exist with the Craftsman era homes.The names of the residential districts are derived from original subdivision plat maps for this area. P P l l e e a a s s a a n n t t H H i i l l l l This area is bounded by the limits of commercial properties on West Colfax,Newton Street,Sheridan Blvd.and West 13th Avenue.This residential district contains a stable collection of primarily single-family and duplex residential structures predominantly built prior to 1950.The area includes the Stuart Street Historic District,one of the first areas to be settled in this part of Denver,when the area was being considered as a location for the State Capitol.Pleasant Hill contains an eclectic mix of historic houses on 14th Avenue and Stuart Street.Each unique in design,the 1890 Voorhees House,the 1888 Spangler House,the 1890 Smith House,the 1892 McNulty House and the 1892 Bliss House reflect beautiful architectural styles of the era. T T u u x x e e d d o o P P a a r r k k E E a a s s t t & & W W e e s s t t The Tuxedo Park district straddles the Holy Tonys Town Center like a bow tie south of Sloans Lake.The area includes a mix of residential housing types.Intact Craftsman style bungalows dominate the residential character of Tuxedo Park East between Perry St.and Lowell Blvd.north of West Colfax Ave.,while the mid-century modern structures in Tuxedo Park West recall the swingindays of the Rat Pack,martinis and the eras futuristic vibe. 135 Stuart Street Historic District is in the Pleasant Hill residential district. 19901980197019601950 1940 193019201910190018901880 200020% 10% 0% 40% 30% 60% 50% 80% 70%West Colfax Periods of Construction90%

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WEST COLFAX PLANURBAN NEIGHBORHOOD DISTRICTS: GOALS G G o o a a l l 1 1 : : N N e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d C C h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r Reinforce the character defining elements of established residential districts when redeveloping underutilized or dilapidated properties or when infilling on vacant land. G G o o a a l l 2 2 : : D D e e n n s s i i t t y y Promote discreet increases in residential densities within established residential districts. G G o o a a l l 3 3 : : S S t t r r a a t t e e g g i i c c G G r r o o w w t t h h Focus intense residential development to strategic growth and redevelopment areas and away from established urban neighborhood areas. 136

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WEST COLFAX PLANURBAN NEIGHBORHOOD DISTRICTS: RECOMMENDATIONS R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 1 1 : : U U r r b b a a n n N N e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d S S t t a a b b i i l l i i t t y y Support the efforts of the Zoning Code Task Force to update residential zone districts and ensure the provision of appropriate design and development standards for additions,infill and redevelopment in established urban neighborhood areas. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 2 2 : : U U r r b b a a n n N N e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d C C h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r C C o o n n s s e e r r v v a a t t i i o o n n Safeguar d the character of established urban neighborhoods that contain an intact inventory of buildings characteristic of a particular construction era such as Victorian,Craftsman or Mid-Century Modern.Ensure that additions,infill and redevelopment projects complement the urban design of established urban neighborhood patterns of development,but allow and encourage designs that are of their time.Respect the mass and scale (perceived form,quantity or aggregate volumes) of traditional development.Reinforce the rhythm and spacing of windows and entries and the horizontal alignment of banding,caps.Promote pedestrian active features on the street facing facades of residential structures such as porches,stoops,balconies and patios.Include human scaled building elements and architectural variation including form,detail,materials,and colors to provide visual interest.Use repeating patterns of color,texture,material or change in plane as integral parts of the building fabric,not superficially applied.Use durable materials that complement Denvers urban neighborhood tradition as a city of brick and mortar construction. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 3 3 : : U U r r b b a a n n N N e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d B B u u i i l l d d i i n n g g T T y y p p e e s s Establish a vocabulary of urban neighborhood building types.Promote the construction of these buildings within appropriate locations in urban neighborhood districts.Include a range of building types that permit discreet increases in residential densities such as carriage houses,multiplexes,small apartments,townhouses or rowhouses. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 4 4 : : P P a a t t t t e e r r n n B B o o o o k k Work with a community stakeholder committee comprised of architecture and historic preservation professionals to create an Urban Neighborhood Pattern Book illustrating context sensitive design solutions for r esidential additions,infill development or redevelopment of property within established urban neighborhoods where architectural character preservation is a priority.Provide an array of patterns from traditional to contemporary that comprise an appropriate mix of architectural styles. Promote this document to home builders,architects,real estate professionals and residents. 137 Row houses (lining a pedestrian courts) provide a high density development pattern that is human-scaled, welcoming and appropriate for an urban neighborhood.

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WEST COLFAX PLANURBAN NEIGHBORHOOD STATION DISTRICTSThe West Corridor Light Rail line will bring a new mode of transit to the West Colfax area through the Lakewood Dry Gulch Park.There are two transit stations in this area that are intended to serve walk-up traffic from the surrounding neighborhoods.These stations include Maple Grove Station at Knox Court and Pleasant Hill Station at Perry Street. In its current form,existing development does not take advantage of the park setting.Rather,residential buildings turn a blank wall to the park edge,and streets terminate in dead ends with little in the way of urban design features to signal arrival at a park.The park itself is often overgrown at its edges and creates a foreboding atmosphere that is not conducive to public gathering and recreation.The first block of development north and south of Dry Gulch from Perry to Sheridan and north of Lakewood Gulch contains a mix of single family residential structures,apartments and duplexes with a greater diversity in the periods of construction (and prevailing condition of the housing stock) than in other,more stable parts of the larger community.It is likely that with the expansion of light rail,a gradual redevelopment and intensification of the housing stock in these urban neighborhood transit station areas will occur. Westridge Homes,a walk-up family apartment project owned by Denver Housing Authority,is the prevailing land use in the immediate vicinity of Maple Grove Station.Outside of Westridge,single family homes and duplexes prevail north of this area along 14th Avenue.There are some additional dated public housing developments in this station area along Knox and Julian between West Colfax Ave.and West 14th Ave.that could be redeveloped at a higher intensity and healthier mix of incomes.The shopping center lies northeast of the station and Paco Sanchez Park.This area includes a dated low-density commercial center,a large surface parking lot,marginal light industrial uses,highrise multifamily buildings and townhouses. Pleasant Hill Station is a primarily single family residential neighborhood with a few multifamily structures and an elementary school.The station area extends from Sheridan Blvd.to Newton St.,from Lakewood Gulch to West 14th Ave. The light rail stations are geographically isolated.Signage,wayfinding and appropriate focal points on Colfax indicating the nearby presence of transit are critical features to program with future development.Interrupted street grid and geographic barriers to the north (Sloans Lake) and south 139 With time Urban Neighborhood Station areas may grow to include apartment buildings, particularly in the immediate vicinity ofthe light rail platform.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN(Lakewood Dry Gulch),limit neighborhood connections to the station area.Located at the bottom of a hill,the incline of the street may be a physical barrier for elderly and disabled populations. Development in the vicinity of Maple Grove Station does not capitalize on the proximity to downtown, regional access and availability of rapid transit.The advancement of light rail in this area will catalyze the redevelopment potential of two areas Westridge Homes and the Avondale shopping center which includes the Overlook Apartments and Townhomes. The Westridge public housing project is typical of its era in that it concentrates and isolates low income residents.Effort should be made to integrate this population within a healthier mixed-income community similar to what the Denver Housing Authority has been able to do in the Curtis Park and Park Avenue mixed-income redevelopment programs completed and underway.The current land development potential of the site is underutilized. The Overlook apartments and the former Avondale shopping center are dated,with little architectural value and poor site planning/land utilization.These sites,located between Knox Court and Decatur Stations,south of the Avondale retail center have been neglected as opportunity sites for redevelopment and reinvestment.There is community support for much higher density redevelopment of these sites, particularly at an intensity that supports commercial development in the shopping center. 140 The Westridge public housing project is typical ofits era in that it concentrates and isolates low income r esidents Effort should be made to integrate this population within a healthier mixed-income community similar to what the Denver Housing Authority has been able to do in the Curtis Park and Park Avenue mixed-income redevelopment programs completed and underway. The current land development potential ofthe site is underutilized.

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WEST COLFAX PLANURBAN NEIGHBORHOOD STATION DISTRICTS: GOALS G G o o a a l l 1 1 : : S S i i g g n n a a g g e e a a n n d d W W a a y y f f i i n n d d i i n n g g Clearly identify and direct residents and commuters to the light rail stations with visible and understandable signage and wayfinding elements. G G o o a a l l 2 2 : : V V a a l l u u e e t t h h e e P P a a r r k k S S e e t t t t i i n n g g Harmonize development of the station areas with the park setting. G G o o a a l l 3 3 : : P P u u b b l l i i c c a a r r t t a a n n d d c c i i v v i i c c a a m m e e n n i i t t i i e e s s a a t t s s t t a a t t i i o o n n a a r r e e a a s s Beautify and incr ease the destination appeal of the stations with pub lic art and civic amenities. G G o o a a l l 4 4 : : W W a a l l k k u u p p s s t t a a t t i i o o n n s s & & p p e e d d e e s s t t r r i i a a n n c c o o n n n n e e c c t t i i o o n n s s Serve the stations with strong pedestrian connections that generate a proportionately greater share of walk-up traffic or access by bicycle. G G o o a a l l 5 5 : : S S t t a a t t i i o o n n A A r r e e a a D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t Catal yze r einvestment in the neighborhood with future redevelopment. G G o o a a l l 6 6 : : H H o o u u s s i i n n g g D D e e n n s s i i t t i i e e s s & & T T r r a a n n s s i i t t Strategically increase residential densities and provide a variety of housing options for transit reliant populations and choice riders. 141 The Point (Denver, pictured above) and Addison Circle (a development adjacent to a bus transit center in Dallas, TX, pictured below) are good examples of Urban Neighborhood Stations.

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WEST COLFAX PLANURBAN NEIGHBORHOOD STATION DISTRICTS: RECOMMENDATIONS R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 1 1 : : U U r r b b a a n n N N e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d S S t t a a t t i i o o n n E E l l e e m m e e n n t t s s Establish the appropriate regulatory conditions and incentives to facilitate the redevelopment of the edges of Villa Park and West Colfax neighborhoods near the rail facilities,as well as the catalyst development sites at Avondale and Westridge.Incorporate special features to reinforce stations as a key transit transfer point or stop.Include: 1 1 Distinct platform or transit stop architecture 2 2 Real time arrival/departure forecasting device 3 3 Visual media display 4 4 Amenities clock,newsstand,pay phone,information booth/kiosk,police substation, schedule posting 5 5 Plaza area with adequate space to sit and rest while waiting for transit 6 6 Distinctive wayfinding system that includes directions to destinations within a 1/4 to 1/2 mile walking distance from the station R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 2 2 : : R R e e d d e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t o o f f S S t t a a t t i i o o n n A A r r e e a a s s M M a a p p l l e e G G r r o o v v e e S S t t a a t t i i o o n n Maple Gro ve Station presents the greatest opportunity for redevelopment.Advance planning should explore the opportunity to use Decatur Station as an initial staging area for the redevelopment of Avondale,the Overlook Apartments,Westridge Homes and other nearby obsolete/dated public housing facilities as higher density,healthier mixed-income communities.Land around Decatur Station,which lies on the east of Federal Blvd.,is owned in large part by city or quasi governmental entities;much of the land is vacant or used as surface parking.West of Lowell,the predominantly Craftsman style residential structures are desirable for rehabilitation and reinvestment.East of Lowell, encourage redevelopment at higher intensity to improve the housing stock and residential densities as the district approaches the Avondale shopping center. P P l l e e a a s s a a n n t t H H i i l l l l S S t t a a t t i i o o n n It is likely that redevelopment may occur more gradually in Pleasant Hill Station. Unlike Maple Grove Station fewer large assemblages exist in this area that may be appropriate for comprehensive redevelopment.Redevelopment sites in this area may include dilapidated residential 142 Along International Drive in Orlando, Florida is the Mercado, an integrated 250,000 square-foot multiple building facility, near the Orange County Convention Center. The center is based on the festival marketplace concept developed by James Rouse as part ofhis planned community design at Columbia, Maryland. The Mercado architectural design centers on a Mediterranean village theme, and includes several separate component buildings, including 6 major restaurants, a large open plaza, and a 120 foot tower. The project was built in 12 months. This development is a potential model for redevelopment ofthe Avondale shopping center in the Maple Grove Station area which lies minutes from downtown and the Colorado Convention Center and caddy corner from Mile High Stadium.

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WEST COLFAX PLANstructures (containing both single and multi-family units) close to the light rail stations areas or lining 10th Avenue.In stable,predominantly single-family areas,consideration should be given to appropriate ways to encourage reinvestment and discreetly increase population densities without substantially altering the character of the area. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 3 3 : : P P a a r r k k S S e e t t t t i i n n g g S S t t a a t t i i o o n n A A r r e e a a D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t & & P P e e d d e e s s t t r r i i a a n n C C o o n n n n e e c c t t i i o o n n s s To the greatest extent possible,the stations should be integrated into the park environment,both for aesthetic reasons and for the enjoyment of transit users and residents.Enhance the relationship between residential uses and public open space.Orient new construction to face the parkland and capitalize on the views.Ensure that the streets which terminate at the edge of the gulch include pleasant urban design features,rather than simply leading to a dead end.To enhance the park edges pursue the following: Improve pedestrian connections from the stations to West Colfax,Holy Tonys Town Center and the former Avondale shopping center,as well as nearby residential districts. 1 1 Improve Perry Street to include bike lanes,wide sidewalks,on-street parking and narrow travel lanes. 2 2 Where streets terminate at the park,consider urban design improvement such as a cul de sac and traffic circle with public art.Another option to consider would be to convert streets to courtyards to create fingers of the park into the neighborhood,provide additional room for drainage and water quality management and enhance the access to station areas for pedestrians.In such a circumstance ensure alley access to residential parking facilities. Implement the Lakewood Dry Gulch Master Plan to complement investment in the station ar ea infr astructure. 143 Enhancements ofthe parks edges and redevelopment that capitalizes on open space views will improve the investment climate ofMaple Grove & Pleasant Hill stations.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 4 4 : : M M u u l l t t i i m m o o d d a a l l C C o o n n n n e e c c t t i i o o n n s s Consideration should be given to the neighborhood street connections and multimodal access to the station areas.Kiss and ride patrons coming from Northwest Denver would benefit from a reconnected street grid on Meade between W.16th Ave and W.17th Ave (at the Centura/Beth Israel site) that would provide more direct access to the station area.Since the stations are primarily intended to serve walk-up patrons,RTD should explore the provision of a circulator bus.A circulator bus may enhance access to nearby neighborhood centers/destinations such as Highland Square at 32nd & Lowell and the neighborhood shopping district between Perry & Knox on W.1st Ave.(or even further south to Morrison Road),as well as Edgewater.The former streetcar circuit should be studied as a starting point for a potential circulator route.Such a system would expand the reach of the transit investment to a greater number of West side residents.Additionally,a circulator would help elderly individuals and people with disabilities overcome the incline of the street which might otherwise be a barrier to transit access. R R e e c c o o m m m m e e n n d d a a t t i i o o n n 5 5 : : L L i i m m i i t t P P a a r r k k i i n n g g S S u u p p p p l l y y Preserve the supply of on-street parking,but limit off-street reservoirs to parking that meets the needs of residential uses at Pleasant Hill and Maple Grove stations.Consider ways to increase the supply of onstreet parking by eliminating curb cuts and exploring the possibility of providing angled parking where possible or appropriate.Discourage park and ride behavior since these stations are meant to serve walkup transit commuters from the surrounding neighborhoods.Divert motorists wishing to park and ride to the regional stations at Decatur St.or Sheridan Blvd.On site structured parking is appropriate to serve visitors to the Avondale shopping center,and to serve residents in more intense developments that may occur over the long run.However,new projects should consider alternative ways to meet resident demands for automobile access such as share car programs. 144 The Maple Grove (Knox Court) and Pleasant Hill (Perry St.) Stations will primarily serve walk-up and kiss-n-ride traffic from the neighborhood. These areas will provide a limited supply ofparking. As redevelopment occurs around these stations advance planning should place pedestrian improvements as a high priority and consider ways to improve station area access by foot, bicycle and transit. Additionally, new development should incorporate higher density development and pedestrian friendly designs that activate the station area and park edges.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 145 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY Actions speak louder than words; let your words teach and your actions speak Saint Anthony of Padua

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IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY: LAND USE & URBAN DESIGN W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x Z Z o o n n i i n n g g U U p p d d a a t t e e Update the zoning along West Colfax Avenue;include portions of Federal Blvd.and Sheridan Blvd.in this zoning map amendment.Apply Main Street zoning to existing commercially zoned properties and opportunity sites that meet the application criteria of Main Street.Pursue the zoning update through a legislative process to approach the map amendment in a more comprehensive and efficient manner.Use the West Colfax Plan as a guide to the application of the Main Street Districts in the appropriate locations. R R e e s s p p o o n n s s i i b b i i l l i i t t y y : : Community Planning & Development (Plan Implementation),City Council T T i i m m e e f f r r a a m m e e : : Short-term (1-3 years) P P r r i i o o r r i i t t y y : : 1 U U r r b b a a n n N N e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d Z Z o o n n e e D D i i s s t t r r i i c c t t L L a a n n g g u u a a g g e e A A m m e e n n d d m m e e n n t t W or k with the Zoning Code Task Force to establish form based zoning tools appropriate for the mix of building types and uses (primarily housing and complementary uses) that define an urban neighborhood and their associated station areas.Ensure that these zoning tools consider,define and respect the traditional and desired forms of urban neighborhood patterns of development.Consider: Urban design (lot and block structure,site design,building orientation,setbacks) Range of building types (single family structures,duplexes,triplexes,quads,courtyard apartments,end cap buildings,carriage houses,row houses,town homes) Architectural character (building envelope,scale,proportions,materiality,rhythm,massing and height) Location criteria for certain building types to ensure the evolution of the appropriate urban neighborhood texture that complements the transportation network Provide for a range of densities and housing types and correlate higher density/intensity development to transit rich areas. R R e e s s p p o o n n s s i i b b i i l l i i t t y y : : Community Planning & Development (Plan Implementation),Zoning Code Task Force T T i i m m e e f f r r a a m m e e : : Short-term (1-3 years) P P r r i i o o r r i i t t y y : : 1 146WEST COLFAX PLAN Update the zoning along West Colfax Ave. to encourage multistoried, mixed-use development along the transit-rich corridor.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN T T o o w w n n C C e e n n t t e e r r Z Z o o n n e e D D i i s s t t r r i i c c t t L L a a n n g g u u a a g g e e A A m m e e n n d d m m e e n n t t Establish form based zoning tools appropriate for the mix of buildings types and uses that define a town center.Ensure that these zoning tools consider,define and respect the traditional and desired forms of town center patterns of development.Develop standards for: Range of building types (mixed-use structures,single tenant structures,residential buildings) and associated design elements (entries,balconies,stoops,materiality,glazing) Mix of land uses that support the function of town centers (retail,restaurants,services,office, civic,residential,entertainment,open space) with minimum densities and standards for appropriate scale of development Location criteria to aid in the rational organization of the town center,to support the myriad functions associated with these districts and to ensure the appropriate integration of the town center within the context of the larger community (establish standards for the development of core,ring,fringe areas) Aggregation of open space for plazas,pocket parks,paseos,greens and other opportunities to promote community gathering Work with the Zoning Code Task Force to establish regulatory tools to facilitate a town center pattern of development.As part of the zoning consider incorporating tools to regulate the comprehensive and cohesive development of the town center concept. R R e e s s p p o o n n s s i i b b i i l l i i t t y y : : Community Planning & Development,Zoning Code Task Force T T i i m m e e f f r r a a m m e e : : Short-term (1-3 years) P P r r i i o o r r i i t t y y : : 1 U U r r b b a a n n N N e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d Z Z o o n n i i n n g g U U p p d d a a t t e e M M a a p p A A m m e e n n d d m m e e n n t t Appl y Urban Neighborhood Zone Districts in the West Colfax area to ensure the compatible,sustainable and rational growth of the residential portions of the neighborhood.Pursue the zoning update through a legislative process to approach the map amendment in a more comprehensive and efficient manner. R R e e s s p p o o n n s s i i b b i i l l i i t t y y : : CommunityPlanning & Development,City Council T T i i m m e e f f r r a a m m e e : : Short-term (1-3 years) P P r r i i o o r r i i t t y y : : 2 147 Prepare new urban neighborhood zoning tools that promote discreet increases in residential densities, such as allowing carriage houses that provide housing units over garages.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN T T o o w w n n C C e e n n t t e e r r Z Z o o n n i i n n g g U U p p d d a a t t e e H H o o l l y y T T o o n n y y s s & & C C h h e e l l t t e e n n h h a a m m H H e e i i g g h h t t s s M M a a p p A A m m e e n n d d m m e e n n t t Prepare Town Center framework plans for Holy Tonys Town Center and Cheltenham Heights Town Center to regulate the comprehensive and cohesive development of these areas.Pursue the zoning update through a legislative process to approach the map amendment in a more comprehensive and efficient manner.Apply town center zoning as prescribed by the framework plan. R R e e s s p p o o n n s s i i b b i i l l i i t t y y : : Community Planning & Development T T i i m m e e f f r r a a m m e e : : Mid-term (2-5 y ears) P P r r i i o o r r i i t t y y : : 2 P P a a r r k k l l a a n n d d a a n n d d P P u u b b l l i i c c G G a a t t h h e e r r i i n n g g Incorporate public gathering spaces in new developments,especially in town center areas.Work with Parks and Recreation to identify opportunities to acquire land for parks. Responsibility:Parks & Recreation,Community Planning & Development Timeframe:Short-term (1-3 years) Priority:2 H H o o u u s s i i n n g g D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t H H o o m m e e o o w w n n e e r r s s h h i i p p a a n n d d S S m m a a r r t t C C o o m m m m u u t t e e M M o o r r t t g g a a g g e e P P r r o o g g r r a a m m s s W or k with the Office of Economic Development to establish housing development,homeownership and unique lending programs for both developers (low interest loans,tax credits) and home buyers (Smart Commute mortgages). R R e e s s p p o o n n s s i i b b i i l l i i t t y y : : Office of Economic Development Housing & Neighborhood Development Services, Denver Housing Authority,Non-Profit Housing Organizations (including mutual housing, elderly housing and transitional facilities,Enterprise Foundation,Mercy Housing), Community Planning & Development T T i i m m e e f f r r a a m m e e : : Mid-term (2-5 years) P P r r i i o o r r i i t t y y : : 2 148 Encouraage home ownership and develop smart commute mortgage programs for residents in transit-rich areas.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN P P a a t t t t e e r r n n B B o o o o k k Create a pattern book for the urban neighborhoods,town centers and main streets within the West Colfax study area to illustrate preferred land development patterns.Promote this document to architects,homebuilders,developers,residents,realtors and other groups to help educate the community about design. R R e e s s p p o o n n s s i i b b i i l l i i t t y y : : Community Planning & Development (Comprehensive Planning & Landmarks Preservation) T T i i m m e e f f r r a a m m e e : : Mid-term (2-5 years) P P r r i i o o r r i i t t y y : : 3 S S c c h h o o o o l l P P l l a a n n n n i i n n g g & & R R e e l l o o c c a a t t i i o o n n S S t t r r a a t t e e g g y y Work with Denver Public Schools to establish a school planning and relocation strategy.Identify appropriate locations for schools within the West Colfax study area.Relocate elementary schools from Colfax to settings more appropriate for small children,especially where a school may take advantage of existing parks and open space amenities. R R e e s s p p o o n n s s i i b b i i l l i i t t y y : : Denv er Pub lic Schools,Community Planning & Development, Office of Economic Development,Mayors Office of Education and Children, Parks & Recreation T T i i m m e e f f r r a a m m e e : : Long-term (5-10 years) P P r r i i o o r r i i t t y y : : 3 149 Create a Pattern Book that communicates the character-defining elements ofthe stable neighborhood areas.

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WEST COLFAX PLANIMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY: ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x B B u u s s i i n n e e s s s s I I m m p p r r o o v v e e m m e e n n t t D D i i s s t t r r i i c c t t / / A A d d v v o o c c a a c c y y E E n n t t i i t t y y Formalize an advocacy entity,such as a West Colfax Business Improvement District to champion implementation of the plan over the nearand long-term.The entitys primary function is to advance the actions of the plan,keep stakeholders involved in the process,and promote consensus.This entity will have the following roles and responsibilities: 1 1 D D a a t t a a c c o o l l l l e e c c t t i i o o n n a a n n d d a a n n a a l l y y s s i i s s Inventory available properties,know the market value and the zoning for these properties,determine their ownership and make the data publicly available.Together with corridor advocates (merchants representative),continue to monitor market conditions changing demographics,lease rates,absorption and the performance of merchants (using benchmarks) maintain a business database and update this market analysis. 2 2 A A d d v v o o c c a a c c y y & & P P a a r r t t n n e e r r s s h h i i p p s s K eep pr operty and business owners apprised of market opportunities (host property and business owner round tables) and facilitate discussions among potential partners.Facilitate relationships with and solicit the input of property owners,residents,churches,colleges and hospitals in the neighborhood because these groups have the most at stake,they have the strongest vested interest in the neighborhood environment. 3 3 M M a a r r k k e e t t i i n n g g & & S S p p e e c c i i a a l l E E v v e e n n t t s s Create targeted marketing materials which tell the storyof the corridor and study area;coordinate these efforts with OED (Office of Economic Development).Work with area experts to develop a heritage tourism route through the study area and promote it at local,state and regional levels.This will increase the visibility of the area and create a programmatic draw for visitors.Market the area in presentations to local professional and member organizations such as the Board of Realtors,the many Chambers of Commerce and Home Builders Association to highlight development and business opportunities. 4 4 S S t t o o r r e e f f r r o o n n t t I I m m p p r r o o v v e e m m e e n n t t Work with the Office of Economic Development to provide revolving loan funds and grant dollars for faade improvements.Monitor the programs use 150

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WEST COLFAX PLANover time and measure the Citys return on investment based on increases in property values rather than increases in sales revenue.Offer storefront design assistance. 5 5 B B u u s s i i n n e e s s s s A A t t t t r r a a c c t t i i o o n n & & P P r r o o m m o o t t i i o o n n Promote a mix of stores including specialty food stores (selling baked goods,ethnic foods,coffee,and wine),ethnic restaurants,pharmacies,art shops,antique stores,hardware stores,and service providers (laundry,video rental,garden). Concentrate on attracting locally owned and operated businesses that build a uniquely Denver business environment.Hire a leasing professional,or establish a quasi-public retail leasing and management agency to plan and coordinate management and recruitment of retail tenants.Develop a tenanting strategy for the corridor to guide their efforts.Initiate a leasing program along one or two blocks that have the greatest potential to leverage private investment.Get landlord input / buy-in on where this should happen.Provide technical assistance to existing and prospective retailers. 6 6 C C l l e e a a n n & & S S a a f f e e P P r r o o g g r r a a m m Develop a clean and safe program for the corridor managing the streets image and providing service levels above standard city services.Consider levying an additional assessment on property owners who neglect their property. 7 7 R R e e v v i i t t a a l l i i z z a a t t i i o o n n S S t t r r a a t t e e g g y y Work with the city to target vacant and underutilized properties for reinvestment using the following strategies: Explore the creation of a land-taxing program (speculator tax) which penalizes absentee land owners and rewards property owners who make viable investments. Offer incentives such as short-term financing,subsidies,or tax benefits to attract private investment and development and offset additional costs incurred and associated with pr oper ty acquisition. Strengthen the local governments authority to put underused property back on the market. Consider a demolition by neglect statute which could be added to zoning and land development codes to deter landowners from letting their properties deteriorate. 151

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WEST COLFAX PLANR R e e s s p p o o n n s s i i b b i i l l i i t t y y : : Office of Economic Development,Community Planning & Development Public Works T T i i m m e e f f r r a a m m e e : : Underway/Ongoing P P r r i i o o r r i i t t y y : : 1 W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x C C o o m m m m u u n n i i t t y y D D e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t C C o o r r p p o o r r a a t t i i o o n n Establish a West Colfax Community Development Corporation with the following proactive responsibilities for the assemblage of properties for redevelopment: 1 1 Assist with property assemblages at catalyst locations: a a Use mechanisms for acquisition including land swaps,low-interest loans, land write-downs,etc. b b W or k with the private sector to position opportunity sites in appropriate locations for local,national and regional interest. c c Work with the public sector to ready the regulatory environment for investment (zoning, alley width and access,lighting,streetscape improvements,parking,etc.). 2 2 Explore designation of urban renewal areas in blighted areas that have feasible desirable redevelopment projects that are struglling financially. a a Work with intermediary organizations (i.e.,Piton Foundation),whether corporate, non-profit,or philanthropic,which have the flexibility to provide patient capital (20to 30-year time horizon) for financing land banking efforts. b b Support efforts to form a Community Development Finance Institution. R R e e s s p p o o n n s s i i b b i i l l i i t t y y : : Office of Economic Development,Community Planning & Development, West Colfax Partnership T T i i m m e e f f r r a a m m e e : : Mid-term (2-5 years) establish;Ongoing implementation P P r r i i o o r r i i t t y y : : 2 152

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WEST COLFAX PLANIMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY: MOBILITY & INFRASTRUCTURE STRATEGY ELEMENTS S S t t o o r r m m w w a a t t e e r r D D e e t t e e n n t t i i o o n n a a n n d d W W a a t t e e r r Q Q u u a a l l i i t t y y S S t t r r a a t t e e g g y y Address stormwater detention and water quality strategies comprehensively in the West Colfax area to ensure the inclusion of appropriate features and systems as property redevelops over time.Ensure the application of water quality best management practices appropriate for a high density,urban environment in the design and construction of new projects.Explore creative strategies to integrate water quality and detention features as urban design amenities. R R e e s s p p o o n n s s i i b b i i l l i i t t y y : : Urban Drainage & Flood Control District,Colorado Department of Transportation, Army Corps of Engineers,Public Works Design Engineering Services, Community Planning & Development,Parks and Recreation, AIA/Urban Design Committee,American Society of Landscape Architects Denver Chapter T T i i m m e e f f r r a a m m e e : : Short-term (1-3 years) P P r r i i o o r r i i t t y y : : 1 153

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WEST COLFAX PLAN W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x M M o o b b i i l l i i t t y y U U p p d d a a t t e e Implement the West Colfax Plan mobility recommendations in a comprehensive manner and ensure compatibility with the citys Strategic Transportation Plan and the Colfax Street Design Guidelines.Make certain that any recommendations which necessitate the dedication of right-of-way are implemented as part of any future street improvements projects or as property redevelops (ensure adequate study of impacts of reconnecting the street grid in areas where a disconnect exists that may be corrected with property redevelopment). 1 1 Complete the Colfax Street Design Guidelines 2 2 West Colfax improvements 3 3 West 17th Ave improvements 4 4 Identify funding sources to implement transportation improvements and ensure maintenance of infrastructure investments over the long-term R R e e s s p p o o n n s s i i b b i i l l i i t t y y : : Public Works,Community Planning & Development,Office of Economic Development, Colorado Department of Transportation,Denver Regional Council of Governments, West Colfax Partnership/West Colfax Business Improvement District T T i i m m e e f f r r a a m m e e : : Short-term (1-3 years) to Long-term (5-10 years) P P r r i i o o r r i i t t y y : : 1 154 Complete the Colfax Street Design Guidelines and enhance the safety, efficiency, and design qualities ofWest Colfax Avenue.

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WEST COLFAX PLAN W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x T T r r a a n n s s i i t t E E n n h h a a n n c c e e m m e e n n t t s s Complement investment in the West Corridor Light Rail Line with programs and enhancements to encourage greater transit ridership.These enhancements include: 1 1 Light rail and bus shelter design to make stations clearly identifiable within the urban environment and improve experience for commuters waiting for buses and trains. 2 2 Transit signage and wayfinding program to clearly identify the most direct routes to the station areas. 3 3 Westside circulator to connect residents to transit stations and other neighborhood destinations 4 4 Choice rider transit marketing plan to promote transit as a convenient alternative mode and shift the travel behavior of residents near transit facilities. R R e e s s p p o o n n s s i i b b i i l l i i t t y y : : Regional Transportation District,Public Works,Community Planning & Development T T i i m m e e f f r r a a m m e e : : Long-term (5-10 years) P P r r i i o o r r i i t t y y : : 3 S S t t r r a a t t e e g g i i c c P P a a r r k k i i n n g g P P l l a a n n Pr o vide a strategic parking management plan to support commercial development along West Colfax and in town centers while preserving the residential character of surrounding neighborhoods.Establish a funding mechanism to offset the costs of implementing,installing,and enforcing new parking regulations and/or structured parking and establish an entity to manage and enforce parking demand. R R e e s s p p o o n n s s i i b b i i l l i i t t y y : : Public Works Parking Management,Community Planning & Development, Office of Economic Development,West Colfax Partnership/West Colfax Business Improvement District (once formed) T T i i m m e e f f r r a a m m e e : : Mid-term (2-5 years) P P r r i i o o r r i i t t y y : : 3 155 Encourage a strategic supply ofparking along West Colfax Avenue. Provide ample parking for visitors to Town Center development areas or to commuters who wish to park in one of these areas and take an express bus into downtown. Wrap structured parking facilities with mixed-use buildings to create a better synergy between parking areas and the urban environment (like the structure pictured above and below).

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 157 APPENDIX

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WEST COLFAX PLANWEST COLFAX ASSESSMENT WORKBOOK COMMUNITY RESPONSES1 1 W W h h e e r r e e a a r r e e t t h h e e i i m m p p o o r r t t a a n n t t p p l l a a c c e e s s i i n n t t h h e e n n e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d ? ? W W h h y y a a r r e e t t h h e e s s e e p p l l a a c c e e s s i i m m p p o o r r t t a a n n t t ? ? Important places now are the places people go or come to from within the neighborhood and from outside neighborhood S S t t A A n n t t h h o o n n y y s s C C e e n n t t r r a a l l H H o o s s p p i i t t a a l l & & C C e e n n t t u u r r a a T he hospital facilities pro vide emergency and long-term care.The facilities are stable neighborhood anchors that provide needed services and employment opportunities,as well as create a customer base for goods and services on Colfax between Perry and Tennyson.St.Anthonys is a 1st class emergency and hospital facility that is very giving to the surrounding community.The hospitals bring people into the neighborhood to live,work,shop,etc.Because it is a major employer for the neighborhood and the City ofDenver,it is a focal point for redevelopment around it. P P a a r r k k s s The parks are important as they provide an area for communing and recreation,a respite from the activity ofthe city,and break up the landscape.Sloans Lake Park provide open space,recreation, boating and park amenities to the surrounding neighborhoods.Events in the park draw visitors.The parks are a positive place for the community to come together and interact in a spirit offun and recreation.Lakewood Dry Gulch contains many park facilities and trails,but it is underutilized and would benefit from improvements. S S c c h h o o o o l l s s & & S S e e r r v v i i c c e e O O r r g g a a n n i i z z a a t t i i o o n n s s Lake Middle School,Cheltenham & West Colfax elementary schools provide an educational environment for our children.The schools are safe havens and centers for families.They are a foundation ofa neighborhood.Colfax and Cheltenham Elementary Schools currently do not provide the neighborhood stability normally performed by educational institutions,but they do provide the potential to perform such a function ifDenver Public Schools makes as a goal the reestablishment ofneighborhood schools. 158

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WEST COLFAX PLAN Girls,Inc provides token cost,after-school and summer programs for young girls,These are needed social service for Northwest Denver.It is the most ambitious,new building built on West Colfax that represents a significant investment and neighborhood anchor. Volunteers ofAmerica Elderly care facilities such as Golden Manor Assisted Living. Area Businesses The businesses are important;there are very few chains,making them seem more community-oriented. Lake Steam Baths because its ownership has been in the same family since the enterprise was built in the 1920s and represents the stabilizing influence ofdedication that people have for the neighborhood.The businessestablished reputation for high quality baths and massage therapy make it a local and regional draw for visitors to West Colfax. Tobins Drug Store is a neighborhood business on Colfax providing a wide variety ofgoods and services, including a neighborhood post office.Its ownership has either been in the same family or in the ownership oflong-time neighborhood residents and represents the stabilizing influence ofdedication that people have for the neighborhood. Mile-High Stadium draws significant visitors that could provide a consumer base for West Colfax as a destination for post-game entertainment,eateries and other neighborhood supportive activities.Currently West Colfax does not capitalize on this potential. McDonalds and Wendys Jewish Community This is the historic Jewish area ofDenver.Jewish property owners are very desirable to have here they are good neighbors,taking care oftheir children and oftheir properties.Would like to see them stay in the area.Other elements help build a sense ofcommunity such as the various Jewish schools & places of prayer.The Jewish community contributes a vibrant cultural amenity and brings people with common interests together in the neighborhood. Areas ofStability Historic areas:Carnegie library,Stuart Historical District,historic route 40 buildings and signage along W Colfax,Lake Steam Baths.There are many historic houses beautiful 2-story structures with stone.These 159 The Areas ofStability, like Stuart Street Historic District are important to the character ofthe West Colfax neighborhood.

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WEST COLFAX PLANare important to keep because oftheir history and beauty.There are also some funky businesses like the Pig-N-Whistle and Aristocrat Hotel,which should be restored to give character to the neighborhood.The Area ofStability and Stuart Street Historic District are characterized by long-lasting construction materials, trees,and families that choose to live there for decades,and provide a demographic base for neighborhood-oriented services and a reason to redevelop the West Colfax Area ofChange.This is one of the historic areas ofDenver West Colfax is the historic gateway to the mountains and that should always be considered in planning for the area. A A r r e e a a s s o o f f C C h h a a n n g g e e The Area ofChange because there are numerous underused and vacant properties that are opportunities for constructive change that would integrate with and reinforce the Area ofStability. FasTrack to downtown & other parts ofCity in future.Proximity to downtown because the neighborhood can be a residential market especially for young professionals and families wanting close proximity and public transportation for employment and entertainment.The light rail station may be ideal locations for child care facilities so parents may drop kids offon the way to work and pick them up on the way home.Also discreet shops such as places to get take home food.Residential areas around Lakewood Gulch provide opportunity for development,housing,mixed use,open space,park area and recreation.Avondale shopping center is also an important gateway/catalyst redevelopment area. Colfax Ave.needs redevelopment along its entire length,especially development that encourages people to live along the corridor and provides ample shops and services so that nearby residents can walk up to Colfax and leave their cars at home.Colfax should capture business from commuters living out ofthe area by providing enough shops,services and on-street parking to encourage them to stop and shop on the way home.These places are important.Denver has lost a lot ofits tax base to outside areas.We need to bring it back.Without the development business will not want to expand into the area.People want to buy in the surrounding area and improve the area homes within the locality.The transportation function ofWest Colfax Avenue as a state highway,bus route,main thoroughfare creates many possibilities for development. 2 2 W W h h a a t t i i s s t t h h e e e e x x i i s s t t i i n n g g c c h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r o o f f t t h h e e a a r r e e a a l l i i k k e e ? ? W W h h a a t t a a r r e e t t h h e e p p o o s s i i t t i i v v e e t t h h i i n n g g s s a a b b o o u u t t t t h h e e a a r r e e a a t t h h a a t t y y o o u u w w a a n n t t t t o o r r e e m m a a i i n n e e s s s s e e n n t t i i a a l l l l y y t t h h e e s s a a m m e e ? ? W W h h a a t t a a r r e e t t h h e e n n e e g g a a t t i i v v e e t t h h i i n n g g s s a a b b o o u u t t t t h h e e a a r r e e a a t t h h a a t t y y o o u u w w a a n n t t t t o o c c h h a a n n g g e e ? ? The existing single family homes near do wntown Denver.I like to see as many single and two family homes that are well run and not problematic to the neighbors.There are way too many houses that are rented to people who 160 The West Colfax area lies minutes from downtown Denver and offers extraordinary views ofthe city, the stadium, and the mountains.

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WEST COLFAX PLANnot only abuse the property but also their neighbors.There needs to be a more significant presence ofpolice to handle the crime in this area and inspectors to deal with owners ofproperty that all are allowing abuse of the neighborhood. I like the park areas and think these places need to be maintained.We definitely need a facelift though.I believe certain areas (i.e.housing projects,run down neighborhoods) need help,maybe through mixed use. Existing character is diversified.Some ofus are proud ofour area and what we have gotten done so far.The changes that came about so far.Without the planned development we have nowhere to go.The area will become a blight area increase crime etc.Positive things about the area include light rail to start development along the line in the gulch,Tobins drug,Wendys,McDonalds,St.Anthonys,and some nice senior citizen places.Negative things include car lots,adult uses,and prostitution. The existing character ofthis area is run down.It can be a great place to live.but the City ofDenver has forgotten about this area.It is very accessible to downtown.City ordinances are not being enforced. The existing character is a neglected commercial strip segregated from its stable residential boundary neighborhood consisting oftree-lined streets,masonry building materials,and long-term socio-economic diversity. Generally,the positive things about the area include adequate 10to 15wide sidewalks,the Area ofStability,Stuart Street Historic District,Girls,Inc.,Lake Steam Baths,Tobins Drug Store,St.Anthony Hospital,Cheltenham and Colfax Elementary Schools,tree-lined streets,masonry building materials,and long-term socio-economic diversity, singleand multi-family housing,and Sloans Lake and Dry Gulch Parks. The negative aspects ofthe area include insufficient buffer between traffic and pedestrians,pedestrian-hostile environment,lack ofpedestrian island in the turning lane ofColfax,criminal activity,slumlords,nonneighborhood schools,use-based zoning,lack ofneighborhood-oriented retail services that meets the current demographic. When I think ofthis neighborhood,I think about a) diversity,b) stability,c) poverty,and d) family. a ) Diversity ofpopulation is a hallmark ofthis neighborhood,contrary to what one might think from the attendance at our meeting the other night.I love the diversity and hope this is a value others share and want to promote with the physical planning process. 161 The existing character ofWest Colfax is a neglected commercial strip.

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WEST COLFAX PLANb ) The built environment is stable this can be a positive or negative.Not much is being built,and not much gets torn down (with the notable building exceptions ofGirls,Inc.and the Habitat for Humanity homes on Stuart St.). c ) One doesnt need to consult US Census to see that people are poor in this neighborhood.The zip code 80204 is considered a Historically Underutilized Business zone by the federal government,which is an area where the unemployment rate is twice that ofthe national average.Most ofthe homes are rentals and the local schools are atrocious.But whats to be done about poverty? Improving the schools can be a great catalyst for change.The 4th grade reading and writing level (as determined by the CSAP) for Colfax Elementary was 8% (down from 31% in 2003).Cheltenham is just as dismal.I think its vital to talk about schools when we talk about developing this area.Nobody wants to move into a neighborhood to send their kids to the worst schools around. d ) I think about families when I think about our neighborhood.I have neighbors who have been here all their lives,in houses their parents purchased before they even had families.I like that feeling ofhistory and roots. The West Colfax area could b ems.Positive things that should remain the same include St.Anthonys Hospital,the mix and diversity ofhomes,residents and cultures,green park areas and open spaces for recreation and leisure, historic buildings and established neighborhoods.Negative things to change include:crime and gang activity, slumlords,not business friendly,not pedestrian friendly,lack ofreasons to want to be on or shop on Colfax. Nothing in the area needs to remain the same.I see no change ifit remains the same.Change is good.West Colfax has a bad image ifthe image is not changed,nothing else will happen. W.Colfax is interesting because it may contain the largest concentration ofnative Denverites,as well as a high concentration ofLatino immigrants (70%).Add in Jewish and Vietnamese enclaves,and Colfax becomes a uniquely diverse area.This should be celebrated and nurtured.At the same time,Colfax has the clear marking ofa lowincomeneighborhood,in particular the lack ofpublic investment in schools,streets,and parks. Car dealerships can certainly go away.T here is entirely too much flat black top along W.Colfax.Small one-story buildings,circa 1960s or earlier,should be kept for character.There are plenty ofbuildings that could be revamped for small neighborhood feel. 162

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WEST COLFAX PLANCertain character defining elements to keep or improve in the West Colfax area include brick homes/duplexes on Denver grid blocks and retail along Colfax.Elements that need to change include the character ofthe streetscape ofColfax,it is too run down.Crime prevention and police patrols need to be increased in the neighborhood. 3 3 W W h h a a t t a a r r e e t t h h e e d d e e f f i i n n i i n n g g c c h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r i i s s t t i i c c s s o o f f t t h h e e s s i i n n g g l l e e f f a a m m i i l l y y r r e e s s i i d d e e n n t t i i a a l l a a r r e e a a s s ? ? H H o o w w w w o o u u l l d d y y o o u u d d e e s s c c r r i i b b e e t t h h e e m m u u l l t t i i f f a a m m i i l l y y r r e e s s i i d d e e n n t t i i a a l l a a r r e e a a s s ? ? I I s s i i t t a a p p p p r r o o p p r r i i a a t t e e f f o o r r t t h h e e s s e e a a r r e e a a s s t t o o c c o o n n t t a a i i n n a a m m i i x x o o f f h h o o u u s s i i n n g g t t y y p p e e s s ? ? A A r r e e t t h h e e r r e e l l o o c c a a t t i i o o n n s s w w h h e e r r e e i i t t w w o o u u l l d d b b e e a a p p p p r r o o p p r r i i a a t t e e t t o o r r e e d d e e v v e e l l o o p p a a r r e e s s i i d d e e n n t t i i a a l l a a r r e e a a ? ? I I f f s s o o h h o o w w w w o o u u l l d d y y o o u u c c h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r i i z z e e t t h h e e n n e e w w d d e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t ? ? W W h h a a t t l l o o c c a a t t i i o o n n s s w w o o u u l l d d b b e e n n e e f f i i t t f f r r o o m m m m o o r r e e h h o o u u s s i i n n g g a a n n d d m m o o r r e e h h o o u u s s i i n n g g o o p p t t i i o o n n s s ? ? T here are too many rentals and too many idle y outh in the single-family residential areas.The multi-family areas contain a concentration ofpoverty,handicapped and aged.Mixed housing would and should bring in additional economic mixes.There are a number oflocations where it would be appropriate to redevelop a residential area with a range ofhousing options from low to high density targeting low to high income.Such redevelopment opportunities include:Julian to Federal,13th to 17th High density,Julian to Sheridan,14th to Conejos Medium,Both sides ofgulch high to medium density,Sheridan between 17th & 10th high density. Usually are close to schools,churches,libraries and mass transportation.Multi-family residential areas are usually over crowded areas where parking is a problem and noted for problems in regards to noise and community problems.A mix ofhousing types in multi-family areas is appropriate,however,I believe that the more private residences you have the better the situation,also the more individual ownership ofhousing the better.Thus,I prefer town homes and condos.I believe that the closer to mass transportation the higher the need for multifamily housing again with greater emphasis on ownership ofthe housing by the residents. I think its possible to put single and multi-family residences together and also through mixed use with business and housing on different levels.I would like to see the projectsredeveloped into multilevel housing and mixed use, something like Belmar at Alameda & Wadsworth. The single-family areas are quiet,with some beautiful old homes (my home was built in 1892).It is very family friendly,I love to live here,great neighbors.Multi-family buildings dont fit here because they are never kept up. Redevelop the area east ofPerry to a medium density.Other locations appropriate for redevelopment include Avondale and West Colfax at medium density. The single-family residential areas contain a mix ofowner-occupied and renter-occupied masonry homes characterized by long-term occupancy.The multi-family residential areas contains renter-occupied one to four 163 The housing stock around West Colfax includes many early 20th century construction styles characteristic ofdesirable traditional neighborhoods.

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WEST COLFAX PLANstoried masonry apartment buildings and typical 1960s mid-rise construction that generally integrates well with the single-family construction.It is appropriate for these areas to contain a mix ofhousing types.The connectivity corridors between higher density development nodes at Sheridan Boulevard,Winona,Perry Street,Knox Court, and Federal Boulevard along Colfax,the Knox Court corridor between Colfax and the Gulch Park light-rail loading platform and the Gulch Park light-rail corridor are appropriate places for residential redevelopment characterized by two to four story market rate and affordable condominiums and townhomes.In the Gulch Park,construction could be taller ifthe height were no more than two stories above the gulch rim.At Colfax and Federal Boulevard, development could be midto high-rise construction.The connectivity corridors between higher density development nodes at Sheridan Boulevard,Winona,Perry Street,Knox Court,and Federal Boulevard along Colfax, the Knox Court corridor between Colfax and the Gulch Park light-rail loading platform and the Gulch Park lightrail corridor would benefit from more housing and more housing options. I think age defines most ofthe residential areas.There are no new houses in my immediate area.I like the mix of single family and duplexes,such as on my street.I find older homes quite charming,but old trees,as one would expect to find coexisting with aged homes simply arent around.In fact,I can think ofno other thing that could improve the look and feel ofour neighborhood more immediately than a 100% increase in biomass! I think apartment complexes can fit in,but in small doses.Im thinking two-story 4-plexes among single family and duplex homes,maximum offour on a block.Large blocks ofapartment buildings are appropriate together,but not mixed in with single-family homes. Yes,a mix ofhousing types is appropriate.A mix will increase density and will keep the urban feelofthe area. There are some very decrepit looking buildings (seem to have been built around 1960) in the Southeast part of the area near the DHA area that really need to be revitalized or changed to discourage use as housing.(Maybe better as office or artist studios,etc.) Revitalization and new building along gulch and other key transit areas would be great.The new development should not be too dense.I am afraid that in 20 years the new loftswe see around the city will be seen as undesirable and ugly.Taller buildings would be okay.Incorporate community areas (centers,parks,library) Single Family:Primarily one story with small floor area.Multiple Family:A few free-standing high rises;some duplexes and row houses that area mostly all one story.There are very few vacant lots in the study area; opportunities for mixed residential will only occur with redevelopment (such as Avondale and the area northeast of the Colfax/Irving intersection.) 164

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WEST COLFAX PLANMultifamily residential areas:many could be better managed and kept up better for the surrounding neighborhood and residents.Yes it is appropriate to contain a mix ofhousing types.Locations to redevelop a residential area: along Colfax as live work,multi-use residential,higher density,along the Gulch for mixed use residential for the new light rail stops.Characterize new development as live/work,multi-use residential,higher density.Locations to benefit from housing and options are Colfax,Gulch area near light rail stops Knox,Perry,Sheridan and Federal and along 11th at the Gulch,Avondale,Federal,Sheridan and W Colfax. More dense housing is a necessity in the area to make it more desirable for business to move into the area.The density has to be designed to fit each and every area on a block by block basis,as each and every block is different. Sloans Lake,West Colfax,and Villa Park offer an abundance ofaffordable,entry-level,single-family homes that are ideal for low-mod income households (1st timers and immigrants).These areas should be allowed to redevelop organically and at a measured pace,with small assemblages encouraged by appropriate up-zoning to mid-density along specific corridors (Knox/Irving,Perry,13th,Conejos,10th,and along the Gulch).Large scale redevelopment efforts should be directed to the Sheridan/Federal areas and to parcels along Colfax Ave. Many ofthe brick bungalows are very nice.The high rises actually must have great views but unfortunately the neighborhood (as it exists today) makes the whole area feel run-down.I believe there should be a mix of building types. 4 4. W Wh he e r re e w wo o u ul ld d m mi ix xe ed d-u us se e b bu u i il ld di in ng g s s b be e a ap pp pr ro op p r ri ia at te e? ? W Wh ha at t p p u ur rp p o os se es s s sh ho ou ul ld d m mi ix x e ed d -u u s se e b bu ui il ld d i in ng g s s s se er rv ve e? ? A Ar re e t th he er re e p pl la ac ce es s w wh he er re e m mi ix xe ed d-u us se e b bu ui il ld di in ng gs s d do o n no ot t e ex xi is st t c cu ur rr re en nt tl ly y t th ha at t i in n 5 5, 1 10 0 o or r 2 20 0 y ye ea ar rs s m m i i g g h h t t b b e e a a p p p p r r o o p p r r i i a a t t e e ? ? Mix ed-use buildings are appropriate along F ederal,Sheridan & Colfax.These buildings should include residential, retail,office & employment uses.In 5,10 or 20 years mixed use buildings may be appropriate at the planned light rail stations at Knox,Perry and Sheridan. They are most appropriate along major travel lanes (ex.) Sheridan,Colfax,Federal.They should include housing, parking and sales ofservices,and products.In the future mixed use buildings will be critical close to mass transportation spots and major roads. Mixed use buildings are appropriate along business routes,i.e.Colfax,Perry and possibly 10th Ave.slightly,also along the light rail route when the time comes.These buildings can serve both business and housing at the same time. 165

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WEST COLFAX PLANColfax Ave.needs mixed-use development with larger units on main cross streets Perry,Sheridan Blvd.,Knox Ct.,Federal Blvd.and Avondale area.A very important area for a higher intensity mixed use is between the main cross streets.St.Anthony Hospital area could be higher mixed-use area.Vrain to WolffStreet could support higher mixed-use area.Wolffto Sheridan could support mixed-use living working areas. The purpose ofmixed use buildings should be to provide housing for all income levels plus businesses to provide jobs and services for the immediate areas I leave to go to Lakewood for shopping and banking.Art galleries? Where would mixed-use buildings be appropriate? Higher density development nodes at Sheridan Boulevard, Winona,Perry Street,Knox Court,Federal boulevard along Colfax,and the Gulch Park light-rail corridor.What purposes should mixed-use buildings serve? First floor retail and residential,second floor office and residential,and third and fourth floor residential.Are there places where mixed-use buildings do not exist currently that in 5,10 or 20 years might be appropriate? Higher density development nodes at Sheridan Boulevard,Winona,Perry Street, Knox Court,Federal boulevard along Colfax,and the Gulch Park light-rail corridor. I think mixed-use buildings represent thoughtful stewardship ofurban space.Since I sited education as a big issue for the neighborhood,Id suggest a community facility that housed a library on the first floor,adult classrooms and meeting rooms on the second floor,and perhaps office space for agencies specifically involved in the serving oflow-income on the third.I would highly encourage shared-use ofmixed-use buildings,such as different groups and agencies that can utilize the same space at different times.I think theres nothing more wasteful than a huge facility,such as a school,that gets used 40 hours per week and stands empty the rest ofthe time.I think the area is also severely underserved with childcare and health facilities.Crayon Academy (14th & Lowell) the daycare my son attended at one time,was little more than supervised television-watching,and ended up being burned by arsonists shortly before the owners threw in the towel and moved to a new location on 1st and Sheridan.A mixed-use structure housing childcare and adult education or teen recreation would be great.I would love to see a health club or general gymnasium in the area.Again,a community staple such as this could be combined in a mixed-use building with any ofthe uses Ive mentioned above.As for the positioning ofthis kind ofbuilding,there is a derelict building on 14th and Osceola (I think) and another behind Colfax Elementary and the synagogue on Tennyson.Both ofthese may be related to the synagogue.There also isnt a good grocery store in the area aside from the one in the shopping mall on 14th across from Cheltenham.A grocery store on the bottom with health club on the top would be an interesting combination. Mixed-use buildings are appropriate along Colfax where car lots exit now,also along the gulch from Meade Street to Sheridan. 166

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WEST COLFAX PLANMixed use would be appropriate wherever enough space/land can be acquired to develop,in a sustainable fashion, to include adequate open space,community uses (like a library or community center) or parking in each development or node.Mixed use should include office,retail,community use,services,housing,artist studios, etc.Mixed use is appropriate along Colfax or set back 1 block or so from Colfax at corridor streets (Irving/Perry). I think I should explain that by community useI mean a space or service area that benefits many residents i.e. workforce development office,childcare,library,city service center or community center,could be privately owned, but may in many cases be a public,city-service building. Mixed use buildings are appropriate at major focal points (Colfax between Perry and Tennyson Streets and area northeast ofthe Colfax/Irving intersection). Mixed use would be appropriate along Colfax,Federal and Sheridan and possibly the light rail at Perry & Knox. Mixed use should contain retail,office,medical,dental,professional,and restaurants.In 5,10,20 years,I am sure there will be and when the need exists,address it then. By definition,and by experience,mixed-use buildings will only work in commercial corridors,where the retail office component gets frontage on a visible street corridor.In our neighborhood,this should be targeted to Colfax Ave.and Perry/Knox Court,or on a smaller scale,around the transit stops. 5 5. W Wh ha at t d do oe es s d de en ns si it ty y m me ea an n t to o y yo ou u? ? W Wh ha at t d do o y yo ou u c co on ns si id de er r t to o b be e h hi ig gh h, m me ed di iu um m o or r l lo ow w d de en ns si it ty y i in n t te er rm ms s o of f t th he e n nu um mb be er r o of f s st to or ri ie es s o or r o ot th he er r c ch ha ar ra ac ct te er ri is st ti ic cs s o of f a a d de ev ve el lo op pm me en nt t s s f fo or rm m? ? A Ar re e t th he er re e p pl la ac ce es s a al lo on ng g t th he e c co or rr ri id do or r o or r i in n t th he e n ne ei ig gh hb bo or rh ho oo od d t th ha at t c co ou ul ld d b be en ne ef fi it t f fr ro om m a a h hi ig gh he er r d de en ns si it ty y d de ev ve el lo op pm me en nt t p pa at tt te er rn n? ? W Wh ha at t w w o o u u l ld d t t h h a at t p p a at t t t e e r r n n l lo o o o k k l li ik k e e ? ? W Wh h y y w w o o u u l ld d t t h h e e a ar r e e a a b b e e n n e e f fi it t f fr r o o m m a an n i in n c c r r e e a as se e i in n d d e e n n s si it t y y ? ? Density refers to height, bulk and f loor area (low = below 4 stories,medium = 4-8 stories,high = 8+ stories). Appropriate densities on Colfax would be high around Federal & Sheridan ends and medium density in between; along the gulch high density is appropriate at stations and medium density in between.The benefits would be increase in population,retail,services,and jobs.Higher densities would also help create low-income housing. Density means the number ofpeople living and using an area.High density is anything five stories and higher;also the number ofhigh-density buildings in an area,medium density include 3+4 storied buildings again the number in the surrounding area.Low density is one and two story.Im not sure any area benefits from high density look at high density areas downtown.What a mess ifyou want further evidence look at NYC.High-density buildings where people own their unit is one positive alternative. 167

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WEST COLFAX PLANI think medium density is a must in some areas but not in all ofthem.Medium density is 3 or 4 stories high with possible mixed-use applications to serve low and moderate income families. High density would be fine at Avondale,Sheridan,some places on Federal north ofAvondale should not be mixed with single family homes I wouldnt like that. The current density ofthe neighborhood is 9 dwelling units (DU) per acre and is low density.Moderate density is 20 to 40 DU/Acre and high density is over 40 DU/acre.One to four story developments are low density although three and four story developments can move into the moderate density zone ifthe DU/Acre exceeds 20 in a defined neighborhood.Five to eight stories are moderate densities although the same parameter applies as for low density.Above nine stories are high density developments.The Colfax and Gulch Park corridors could benefit from a higher density development pattern characterized by two to four story market rate and affordable condominiums and townhomes typified by design and materials consistent with the current single-family residential character.In the Gulch Park,construction could be taller ifthe height were no more than two stories above the gulch rim.At Colfax and Federal Boulevard,development could be midto high-rise construction.Increased density would improve the buying power ofthe neighborhood and would provide more and better quality neighborhood retail and entertainment options resulting in fewer and shorter car trips thereby reducing traffic congestion,improving air quality,and improving economic productivity. I suppose density means person per city block or whatever other unit ofgeographical measure you want to use.But it could also mean business use per building or area.I would consider high density residential to be a group of high-rise apartment buildings.I would consider medium density to be a 3 stories or less apartment buildings mixed in among single-family residences.I think it would be beneficial to create business buildings along Colfax up to 5 stories tall,both yielding neighborhoods from Colfax traffic,and providing a varied roofline for the area.It would also perhaps increase the density ofbusiness use.I dont think anywhere along Colfax would be appropriate residential use because ofthe volume and noise oftraffic.Whenever we talk about density,I hope we also talk about parking.I think parking is a real issue on all the residential streets,and Im not sure how to resolve that. High density to me means 10-15+ stories.Medium means 3-10.Low means 1-2 story building to me (with years, pocket parks,etc.sprinkled in and around).Avondale (apartment towers) is currently high density,corner ofColfax & Sheridan feels high density.Hospital area feels high too.Increased density could increase # ofpeople to use services and business offerings in the area and add additional ethnic diversity and economic diversity ofresidents. 168 The former Avondale shopping center (now called Mile High Festival Plaza) is an ideal place for high density mixed-use development.

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WEST COLFAX PLANDensity:Building bulk,height,and spacing.Low:1-2 stories;Medium:3 stories;High:4 stories and over.Location: Medium to high density in large,mixed use areas and TOD areas. Density means multi family usage,multi units with over two stories,larger buildings,town home,loft and apartment complexes.Low density 1-2 stories,Medium density 3-5 stories,High density 6+ stories.Make sure the development heights and levels are mixed.Increased density would support more restaurants,service providers, live/work and cultural amenities. Low density single family,duplex,triplex,medium density up to 3 stories,high density over 4 stories. High density includes 5+ story apt/condo buildings,mid density could be 3-5 story,and low are detached and row-homes.High/Med/low could go anywhere in the neighborhood ifdesigned correctly.However,high density does not work well for large families,which we have lots ofin W.Colfax. I believe it would be nice to have 6-story residential maximum,with nice courtyards behind or plazas in front. Keep the nice low-use neighborhoods intact. 6 6 W W h h a a t t a a r r e e t t h h e e g g o o o o d d f f o o c c a a l l p p o o i i n n t t s s o o n n C C o o l l f f a a x x ? ? W W h h a a t t m m a a k k e e s s t t h h e e s s e e l l o o c c a a t t i i o o n n s s f f o o c c a a l l p p o o i i n n t t s s ? ? Colfax is an excellent road West and East,also it has ready access to downtown Denver.Focal points are the two schools,the Bath House the Girls Club,Housing for elderly (multi-storied buildings) the few restaurants we have. These are focal points since they are used by a segment ofthe community for positive purposes. Anywhere with space! Specifically the SW corner ofFederal & Colfax.That area has the most potential to draw people to Colfax.It can be seen from downtown and I-25. Sheridan Blvd Perry Knox Ct. Federal Blvd Cross streets brining in traffic from both North and South These streets also cross Colfax to go East or West and business in between. Development potential and transit access makes a location a focal point. Currently,the focal points are the Colfax and Federal intersection and St.Anthony Hospital.After light-rail is built, the additional focal points could be the nodes at P er ry Street and Knox Court along Colfax,and the light-rail transit station at Gulch Park and Sheridan Boulevard.The Colfax and Federal intersection is a major image-maker for westbound traffic at the east end ofColfax because ofits prominent geographical siting overlooking the Central Platte Valley.St.Anthony Hospital is a lesser visual focal point because ofits tangential relationship to 169 Billboards, buildings setback from the street, used car lots, a lack of street trees, limited on street parking (that provides a buffer between the street and sidewalk), plus a constrained pedestrian area are just a few of the elements that cause residents to say, Colfax is a really ugly street.

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WEST COLFAX PLANColfax.However,it is an economic focal point due to its status as a major employer.The nodes at Perry Street and Knox Court on Colfax are potential focal points for higher density mixed-use developments due to their locations along the vehicular and pedestrian routes connecting Colfax to the light-rail loading platforms in the gulch.The Gulch Park and Sheridan light-rail stations will be a transit focal point due to its status as a parking garage for those people dependent on their cars to get them to use mass transit.Ofcourse,depending on design,it can also be a visual focal point for Sheridan Boulevard. Oh boy,I think Colfax is a really ugly street,and Im going to have trouble coming up with anything positive here. But there is one I think the best one will be Girls Inc.,hands down for me.The thrift store on Colfax and Sheridan is a focal point purely because ofits bulk.The shopping center on Colfax and Federal is a focal point because ofits huge parking lot and overall miserable presentation.The steam baths occupy a fairly interesting building and has a little charm because ofthe art-deco neon sign.Largely,though,the car lots,bars (the one you drink in and the ones across the windows on every business),and crappy bus stops just blend into a miasma of gritty sameness. Approaching West Colfax at Federal coming from downtown. Focal points to me are the large old neon signs and business they sit with (motels,stem baths,etc.) The mountains on one end and city lights are focal points for sure as well.The history,the urban feel,the altitude (up above the cityscape) make these focal points. Colfax between Perry and Tennyson Streets:Location midway between Sheridan Blvd and Irving Street;St. Anthony complex;Colfax Elementary School;opportunity to concentrate redevelopment;high volume bus transit stops.Colfax at Irving Street:Gateway to West Colfax neighborhood;potential redevelopment ofAvondale Shopping Center and Residential and opportunities and the area northeast ofthe Colfax/Irving intersection; Cheltenham Elementary School. Avondale,Irving/Colfax gateway to city and W Colfax community. Perry greenway from light rail to W Colfax and to Sloans Lake and St Anthonys Hospital Sheridan light rail transit area,gateway to Denver from the suburbs. Colfax at Sheridan and Colfax at Federal,they are the doorways into our neighborhood. The major intersections are Sheridan,Perry,Irving.These are the only thru-streets running North to South. 170

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WEST COLFAX PLANI think some ofthe small brick buildings could be revamped and charged up.Also,bringing the Pig-N-Whistle and some funky old hotels back to high or medium-class status would help.Also ...around Sloans Lake,streets from Colfax should not go through.This would give the Sloans Lake area a buffer. 7 7 W W h h a a t t a a r r e e u u r r b b a a n n o o p p e e n n s s p p a a c c e e o o r r p p u u b b l l i i c c g g a a t t h h e e r r i i n n g g p p l l a a c c e e s s ? ? W W h h e e r r e e a a r r e e u u r r b b a a n n o o p p e e n n s s p p a a c c e e s s o o r r p p u u b b l l i i c c g g a a t t h h e e r r i i n n g g p p l l a a c c e e s s i i m m p p o o r r t t a a n n t t ? ? I I s s i i t t i i m m p p o o r r t t a a n n t t t t o o i i n n c c o o r r p p o o r r a a t t e e p p u u b b l l i i c c o o p p e e n n s s p p a a c c e e o o r r g g a a t t h h e e r r i i n n g g s s p p a a c c e e s s i i n n h h i i g g h h e e r r d d e e n n s s i i t t y y d d e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t ? ? W W h h a a t t p p u u r r p p o o s s e e w w o o u u l l d d i i t t s s e e r r v v e e ? ? H H o o w w w w o o u u l l d d t t h h e e s s e e t t y y p p e e s s o o f f s s p p a a c c e e s s i i m m p p a a c c t t h h o o w w y y o o u u f f e e e e l l a a b b o o u u t t y y o o u u r r c c o o m m m m u u n n i i t t y y ? ? Open spaces or public g athering spaces are places where people can cong regate,meet,contemplate and feel safe and comfortable.They humanize an area and are important in higher density areas.It creates a public living space. These spaces allow us to interact with our neighbors and friends in a neutral space or they may act as a place ofsolitude. Usually parks,outside malls,churches,etc.They are very prevalent in Europe especially outside ofchurches.Here they are more prevalent at parks,arenas,rodeos,etc.I believe open spaces are critical for the well being of residents not only for physical but mental and emotional reasons.I think it is significant for the overall well being ofthe citizens but more critical they need to be secure,safe environments for the users. I think there needs to be small areas ofopen space with park benches,chess tables,etc.in the same vein as 16th Street but on smaller scale.It helps to bring people together and add atmosphere. Open spaces help people to sit and rest between shopping,they provide a space to get to know their neighbor. People being out in the open keeps down crime. Public gathering places are parks,malls,and any other sort ofpublic space designed for human interaction. Generally,urban open spaces or public gathering places are important anywhere that can function as an intersection ofhuman activity to allow interpersonal two-way communication.Public spaces humanize environments and make neighborhoods safer proportional to the number ofpeople in the public space.These spaces would improve a communitys attraction as places ofdiversity and leisure provided they are located to function properly.Otherwise,they can easily become either useless or opportunities for criminal activity. I dont really know ofany public gathering places (structures) that arent religious-related.The obvious public gathering places to me (non-structures) are Sloans Lake and Sanchez Park.I think its highly desirable to include open space in higher density developments.For one thing,it makes high-density seem less high.A few acres of 171 Parks and schools are important community gathering places for West Colfax community members.

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WEST COLFAX PLANopen space adjacent to high-rise apartment buildings gives everyone a break from humanity stacked upon one another,for the residents,the neighbors,and aesthetically. Current open spaces include Sloans Lake,Gulch,schoolyards,and smaller parks.These serve as gathering places too.I think open spaces and public gathering places are important wherever business or residential concentrations exist.We need more ofthese and more variety.Community center,skate park,playgrounds,movie theater, pedestrian mall,dog park,are all needed and should be incorporated in high density (or any density)! These spaces impact how connected,valued,and comfortable and safe I feel in the community. Open Space:Four parks now serve the neighborhood with large open spaces;pocketparks should be incorporated in the development ofhigh-density residential and mixed-use areas. Urban open spaces or public gathering places include cultural,recreational and gathering areas,courtyards,gardens and parks.These spaces are important close to commuter routes,near residential living areas.They provide areas to meet people,relax,wait,take a break.They are very important to include in higher density areas to allow a place to sit,rest and socialize.It makes the community a safe haven and gathering place. Gathering places include:Sloans Lake park,Lakewood Gulch,the bike path along the Platte,bars,churches,schools etc.These spaces bring people together and facilitate interaction.The higher the density the more important open space becomes. Sloans Lake and the Gulch should be the primary open space and gathering places.The Gulch in particular could benefit from more attention and investment.Smaller open spaces (i.e.courtyards/pocket parks) should be used as design elements to break up the mass ofbuildings along Colfax Ave.and create some open space buffers transitioning from low to med to high density developments. There should definitely be small pocket parks or bike trails with nice landscaping.Also,new residential buildings should have plazas differing front setbacks or courtyards.Landscaping along Colfax would help a lot. 8 8 I I s s t t h h e e r r e e a a p p a a r r t t i i c c u u l l a a r r l l o o o o k k t t h h a a t t y y o o u u w w o o u u l l d d l l i i k k e e t t o o d d e e f f i i n n e e C C o o l l f f a a x x ? ? W W h h a a t t d d e e f f i i n n e e s s t t h h i i s s l l o o o o k k ? ? I I s s i i t t t t h h e e b b u u i i l l d d i i n n g g s s i i s s i i t t t t h h e e u u s s e e s s i i s s i i t t t t h h e e s s t t r r e e e e t t s s c c a a p p e e ? ? W W h h a a t t a a r r e e t t h h e e m m o o s s t t i i m m p p o o r r t t a a n n t t c c o o m m p p o o n n e e n n t t s s o o f f t t h h e e l l o o o o k k t t h h a a t t y y o o u u w w o o u u l l d d l l i i k k e e t t o o s s e e e e ? ? Right no w I think of it as a semi-freeway that is unfriendly to humans.The traffic and the lack ofpedestrian amenities defines this look.Wider sidewalks,traffic buffers,streetscaping and local retail could improve this look. 172 Tree-lined streets with multifamily residential buildings scored highly in a visual preference survey conducted with community residents. This type ofdevelopment may be appropriate around neighborhood transit station areas.

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WEST COLFAX PLANI would like to see wider sidewalks with the elimination ofalleys opening to West Colfax more person friendly, traffic lights,trees and buildings that allow for businesses on the main floor,housing above (preferably condos) with offstreet parking.Traffic lights set up for reasonable speed flow on West Colfax.Liquor stores limited as to their proximity to schools.Housing provided for the disabled and needy. I really like the look ofBelmar on Alameda & Wadsworth,but think it needs to be stretched out along Colfax, maybe with a touch ofthe Capitol Hill areas,residential housing on small multi-level buildings together stretching perpendicular away from Colfax. A pedestrian,tree-lined environment ofresidences,and retail and office space primarily oriented to the local neighborhood accommodating a limited degree ofarchitectural diversity united by a common design thread in detailing and streetscaping is the look I envision for Colfax. As I mentioned before,Im a believer in trees and landscaping.Not only does it look inviting,it cuts down on noise and pollution.Landscaping allows existing building to get amazing facelifts with zero construction.A community garden would be a fabulous goodwill-builder among residents. I like the look and feel ofold buildings mixed with new,independent businesses,parks,and active street life.I like buildings with awnings on the front,offering both shade and a connected feeling.Im not proposing little sidewalk cafes on Colfax nobody wants to sit next to four lanes oftraffic,but on the rooftop ofa tall building,why not? I would like to see the biggest changes happen from Federal and spread west to Sheridan.That intersection is really the gateway to the neighborhood in my opinion.How many thousands ofpeople flock to sports events at the stadium and pass that area all year round? Millions? What is inviting them into our neighborhood? A dilapidated shopping center covered in graffiti,a huge bank of10 ft.weeds on the offramp from Federal on Colfax,and a ramshackle church that looks like its sinking into the ground.Ifany area gets a complete makeover, I think it needs to be this one.It needs to be a statement it needs to represent our community.Right now,it says we just dont care. Bicycle friendly.Streetscape,neat in appearance.All new structure set back 20 ft.from street with curbs and gutters.Keep alleys clean and maintained. I think it is important for Colfax to have its own look and feel.It shouldnt be so similar to RiverFront or 32nd Avenue that it is indistinguishable.I think that ifwe can keep the higher transit feel while also adding the amenities and changes we want it would be good.I dont know how you accommodate high traffic and pedestrians and bikes 173 The community desires mixed use buildings with residential or office uses lining West Colfax.

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WEST COLFAX PLANand playgrounds,etc.Build on the historic character while incorporating modern architecture. Colfax Look and Feel:Will be a combination ofbuilding bulk,height,setback,and use;accessibility to uses;and streetscaping;building form and spacing should vary to avoid the feeling ofa highway between two walls. Colfax should blend into the history,culture and importance ofthe area.Designs should be somewhat modern but blend to the area in type ofarchitecture,materials and design. Inviting,safe,friendly,convenient,wide open sidewalk,lots ofstreetscape,convenient parking. Colfax Ave.would benefit from green and natural elements that soften the hard urban corridor feel.Trees,grass,lights, and color will make it more appealing to the eye.The most import component to me is to see JOBS,JOBS,JOBS.I would encourage commercial uses or public uses that bring employment to residents and employees to retailers. Good landscaping would give elegance and continuity.Also,it should give the sense ofwhen Colfax was born keep elements from its early time.Dont tear everything down and make it sterile. 1950s commercial uses and buildings,old design,new look and materials (upkeep),maintenance,no crime,graffiti, no trite designs that are dated in a few years like 16th Street mall. 9 9 W W h h a a t t k k i i n n d d o o f f s s t t r r e e e e t t c c h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r i i s s a a p p p p r r o o p p r r i i a a t t e e f f o o r r C C o o l l f f a a x x ? ? I I n n t t h h e e n n e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d ? ? A A l l o o n n g g K K n n o o x x C C o o u u r r t t P P e e r r r r y y S S t t r r e e e e t t W W 1 1 0 0 t t h h A A v v e e n n u u e e F F e e d d e e r r a a l l S S h h e e r r i i d d a a n n ? ? All) P edestrian friendly W est Colfax I view as a perfect place to have three to four storied buildings that are a combination ofhousing, stores and restaurants along with offstreet parking.I see the same for Sheridan and Federal.10th Avenue should be a combination ofone family and some multi family residences with offstreet parking.Perry and Knox would be better used with wider sidewalks and a greater focus on single family residences with less focus on city housing on Knox Court.On Knox Court adjacent to the park multi storied condos (max 3 story) should be developed. Reiterate Capitol Hill area look. I would like to see a mixture ofbusiness and living areas condos apartments or whatever.It would even be nice ifthey could become owner occupied In other words mixed use landscaping attractive frontages. 174 Wide sidewalks, street trees and quality construction materials are important character building elements for West Colfax.

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WEST COLFAX PLANIn addition to the components described above,the 15 foot sidewalk width on the north and 10 foot sidewalk width on the south side ofColfax must be retained.The buffer between the vehicles and pedestrians should be created by trees,forcing the vehicles away from the curb rather than allow encroachment into the neighborhood, and off-street parking either in structures or surface lots located behind buildings instead ofparallel street parking. Street parking would not have the support oftraffic engineers because it would reduce traffic flow.Compromise on this matter is necessary including a compromise from traffic engineers to force the traffic from the curb and retain the current 10 foot lane widths to govern vehicle speeds and improved public safety.In the neighborhood leave the street character as it is currently.The current right-of-ways are sufficient to allow tree-lined avenues along Knox Court,Perry Street,and Tenth avenue reinforcing two to four story multi-family and townhome development.Federal and Sheridan Boulevards are higher volume traffic arterials that may force access from local streets rather than directly from the boulevards themselves.However,the street character can be the same as it is for the other streets. Mid-islands with grass on Colfax;Vintage lights along Perry;Wide sidewalks,traffic circle on 10th Avenue and Colfax and Perry. I am unsure.It seems that allowing for multi-lane traffic will be important (keep people coming through the area but encouraging them to stop and shop and eat and work,etc.) I think developing nodes around Avondale and on Colfax and 1-2 blocks offColfax (in couple areas) would make a blended use work.Keep the busy corridor but develop into the residential a ways to add to what we have now.Maybe reduce Colfax to 3-4 lanes oftraffic. Colfax:A high volume,commercial arterial street with controlled intersections;wide sidewalks / deeper building setbacks from the cur ;continuous,appropriate streetscaping;mixed use.(see West Colfax Transportation Plan, which needs updating).Knox Court:A residential collector street.One ofonly two streets crossing Lakewood/Dry Gulch park;a green streetconnecting the LRT station to Colfax and West 10th Avenue.Perry Street:One ofonly two streets crossing Lakewood/Dry Gulch park;a green streetconnecting the LRT station to Colfax and West 10th Avenue;could become a main streetbetween West 13th Avenue and West 17th Avenue. West 10th Avenue:A residential collector street.Federal Blvd:A commercial arterial street south ofColfax / mixed use north ofColfax;streetscaping north ofColfax.(see Federal Blvd Plan).Sheridan Blvd:A mixed use, arterial street;commercial use limited to stretch between West 13th Avenue and West 16th Avenue due to topography.Limited vehicular access to abutting property is a constraint. Street character to be pedestrian friendly,attractive,well lit,parking friendly,green space. 175

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WEST COLFAX PLANColfax should continue as a high-volume traffic corridor.The major improvements should be to slow traffic by making it 2-lanes,and making it more pedestrian friendly.The existing neighborhood feel should be preserved along all ofthe side streets. It would be nice ifSheridan and Federal could have parkway plantings that better define car usage and turn lanes. Perry as we talked could become another Lowell & 32ndand 10th should feel relaxed and park-like. 1 1 0 0 W W h h e e r r e e i i s s i i t t p p a a r r t t i i c c u u l l a a r r l l y y h h a a r r d d t t o o c c r r o o s s s s C C o o l l f f a a x x ? ? W W h h y y i i s s i i t t h h a a r r d d t t o o c c r r o o s s s s h h e e r r e e ? ? W W h h a a t t w w o o u u l l d d m m a a k k e e i i t t e e a a s s i i e e r r t t o o c c r r o o s s s s C C o o l l f f a a x x ? ? All areas where there are no traffic lights are timed and do not lea v e enough time to cross the streets.There is also a need to place lights on significant streets to allow cars to cross Colfax without competing with North-South traffic for example,Irving,Perry,Utica. Everywhere but schools and hospital. On Vrain St.people crossing from high-rise to go to Wendys [Note from city staff:since this comment was received the Wendys restaurant has closed].Possible light change to Winona Ct.from Wolff.It would also slow down traffic between Winona Ct.and Colfax school crossing at Tennyson. It is hard to cross Colfax everywhere due to heavy and fast traffic,as well as fast light changes.Less and slower traffic,more and longer stop lights would help. It is particularly hard to cross Colfax anywhere,especially where there are non-signalized intersections.The westbound parking lane on the north side is used as a driving lane and the visual openness ofthe Avenue encourage excessive traffic speeds.Two to four story buildings would reduce the visual openness and automatically reduce traffic speeds,and establishment ofa pedestrian flat median in the center turning lane would allow a safe island for those unable to cross safely between traffic waves regulated by traffic controls.The flat median is created by either paint striping or contrasting paving material to create a mental barrier for both traffic and pedestrians.The solution has worked successfully in other cities. Anywhere between stop lights it is hard to cross Colfax.Traffic moved too fast coming from bridge to Know going west. It is particularly hard to cross Colfax intersections at Irving Street and Sheridan Boulevard. 176 Without pedestrian refuge areas such as medians, West Colfax can be a challenging street to cross.

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WEST COLFAX PLANColfax is over 100wide at Irving Street and the all four legs ofthe intersection are skewed.This intersection is also a school crossing.The volume oftraffic making both right and left turns from all directions makes crossing the Colfax/Sheridan intersection very difficult.[Note from city staff:The traffic signal at West Colfax and Irving St.currently has a push button activated exclusive pedestrian phase which stops all traffic while pedestrians cross West Colfax). It is hard to cross Colfax where there are not lights.Especially by Lake Steam Baths.There is too much traffic going too fast commuter traffic that is fast and heavy making it not pedestrian friendly. Pick a spot.Problems:too much traffic,exceeding the speed limit,traffic light timing.Solutions:slower speeds, traffic light timing,longer walk signal. Its hard to cross between Irving and Sheridan! Its impossible most places and only dangerous at the lights.Two improvements are needed.First,reduce traffic to 2 lanes,adding parking on the street or allow wider sidewalks. Second,at the traffic lights,extend the sidewalk out about one lane at the cross-walk. Ifthere was a landscaped center median,it would be easier to cross Colfax. Lowell Boulevard:no lights,traffic move light from Meade.No one uses for pedestrians. 1 1 1 1 H H o o w w d d o o y y o o u u g g e e t t a a r r o o u u n n d d y y o o u u r r n n e e i i g g h h b b o o r r h h o o o o d d ? ? W W h h a a t t r r o o u u t t e e s s d d o o y y o o u u t t a a k k e e w w h h e e n n d d r r i i v v i i n n g g w w a a l l k k i i n n g g o o r r b b i i k k i i n n g g ? ? W W h h y y d d o o y y o o u u t t a a k k e e t t h h e e s s e e r r o o u u t t e e s s ? ? D D o o t t h h e e r r o o u u t t e e s s d d i i f f f f e e r r b b a a s s e e d d o o n n y y o o u u r r t t r r a a n n s s p p o o r r t t a a t t i i o o n n m m o o d d e e ? ? D D o o y y o o u u u u s s e e t t r r a a n n s s i i t t ? ? W W h h e e r r e e d d o o y y o o u u c c a a t t c c h h t t h h e e b b u u s s ? ? H H o o w w d d o o y y o o u u g g e e t t t t o o t t h h e e b b u u s s s s t t o o p p a a n n d d w w h h a a t t r r o o u u t t e e d d o o y y o o u u t t a a k k e e t t o o g g e e t t t t h h e e r r e e ? ? I I f f F F a a s s T T r r a a c c k k s s p p a a s s s s e e s s a a n n d d t t h h e e p p l l a a n n n n e e d d W W e e s s t t C C o o r r r r i i d d o o r r l l i i n n e e i i s s b b u u i i l l t t w w o o u u l l d d y y o o u u u u s s e e t t h h e e l l i i g g h h t t r r a a i i l l ? ? I I f f y y e e s s w w h h i i c c h h r r a a i i l l s s t t o o p p w w o o u u l l d d y y o o u u u u s s e e a a n n d d h h o o w w w w o o u u l l d d y y o o u u g g e e t t t t o o t t h h e e s s t t a a t t i i o o n n a a r r e e a a ( ( 4 4 s s t t a a t t i i o o n n a a r r e e a a s s a a r r e e p p l l a a n n n n e e d d f f o o r r t t h h e e W W e e s s t t C C o o r r r r i i d d o o r r l l i i n n e e a a t t F F e e d d e e r r a a l l n n e e a a r r R R u u d d e e R R e e c c C C e e n n t t e e r r a a t t K K n n o o x x a a n n d d t t h h e e G G u u l l c c h h a a t t P P e e r r r r y y a a n n d d t t h h e e G G u u l l c c h h a a n n d d a a t t S S h h e e r r i i d d a a n n a a n n d d t t h h e e G G u u l l c c h h ) ) ? ? I usually tra v el by car and use either Colfax or Seventeenth Street and on occasion use Lowell to go North.Unless I am not able to use my car I will continue to drive.Ifneeded I will use West Colfax buses,which are ? block from me,and when appropriate use the rail service to go to the airport.Again ifI cant use my car I will use both light rail and the bus.I am retired.I walk very often,usually to the park. I take 14th St.ifits rush hour,Colfax when its slow.I will use the light rail when its available. Walking on the bike path Xavier to Perry slight inclines no cross traffic (automobile). 177 There are a number ofbicycle routes, trails and transit routes that serve the mobility needs ofWest Colfax community members.

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WEST COLFAX PLANTransit sometimes When the light rail goes in much more because ofthe connections also able to either walk to the stop or drive to a light rail park and ride.Bus I catch on Colfax & Winona Ct. How do you get around your neighborhood? Car,bicycle,foot.What routes do you take when driving,walking or biking? Driving:14th Avenue,Colfax,and 17th Avenue for east-west travel and Federal,Irving,Lowell Tennyson, Sheridan for north-south travel.Walking and biking:Any street and path in the Gulch Park and Sloans Lake Park. Why do you take these routes? They are efficient,safe,and enjoyable.Do the routes differ based on your transportation mode? Driving:14th Avenue,Colfax,and 17th Avenue for east-west travel and Federal,Irving, Lowell Tennyson,Sheridan for north-south travel.Walking and biking:Any street and path in the Gulch Park and Sloans Lake Park.Do you use transit? Yes.Where do you catch the bus? On Colfax between Stuart and Tennyson Streets.How do you get to the bus stop and what route do you take to get there? Walking from my home on Utica to Colfax then to the stop.IfFasTracks passes,and the planned West Corridor line is built,would you use the light rail? Yes.Ifyes,which rail stop would you use and how would you get to the station area (4 station areas are planned for the West Corridor line at Federal near Rude Rec Center,at Knox and the Gulch,at Perry and the Gulch,and at Sheridan and the Gulch)? Walk to the Perry Street loading platform. Perry Street I use the most.Colfax 7/11 on corner Perry people make left turns in and out ofestablishment. Causes traffic problems right turns only.Catch bus on 12th Avenue.I would use rail catch it on Perry. I drive or walk around my neighborhood.I use 17th Avenue or Colfax.I take these routes because of2 traffic lights on 17th Avenue between Federal and Sheridan and the ease ofaccess offofColfax to I-25.I dont use the bus or light rail. I am a car guy,Im sad to say.I live too far from Colfax to walk there.I dont believe we will ever see a day when cars are not needed.We need to include free,easily accessible parking that gets folks within 1 block oftheir final destination. I typically use the #52 bus to get downtown to avoid driving downtown.In my own neighborhood th & Federal areaI walk around Rocky Mountain Park and the Regis campus. How do you get around your neighborhood? Walk/car.What routes do you take when driving,walking or biking? Colfax,17th,Federal,Sheridan,Sloans.Why do you take these routes? Car:speed,lights,Walk:no cars.Do the routes differ based on your transportation mode? Yes.Do you use transit? No.Where do you catch the bus? How do you get to the bus stop and what route do you take to get there? IfFasTracks passes,and the planned West 178

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WEST COLFAX PLANCorridor line is built,would you use the light rail? Yes.Ifyes,which rail stop would you use and how would you get to the station area (4 station areas are planned for the West Corridor line at Federal near Rude Rec Center,at Knox and the Gulch,at Perry and the Gulch,and at Sheridan and the Gulch)? Drive to Federal near Rude.If parking,Knox and the Gulch.Wouldnt walk across Colfax. 1 1 2 2 I I m m a a g g i i n n e e t t h h a a t t t t h h e e d d e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t o o c c c c u u r r s s t t h h a a t t y y o o u u w w a a n n t t A A r r e e t t h h e e r r e e a a n n y y t t r r a a d d e e o o f f f f s s ? ? W W h h a a t t m m i i g g h h t t b b e e s s o o m m e e o o f f t t h h e e i i m m p p a a c c t t s s o o f f t t h h e e d d e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t t t h h a a t t y y o o u u w w a a n n t t t t o o s s e e e e ? ? F F o o r r e e x x a a m m p p l l e e i i f f y y o o u u w w a a n n t t m m o o r r e e h h o o u u s s i i n n g g d d e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t w w o o u u l l d d y y o o u u b b e e w w i i l l l l i i n n g g o o r r u u n n w w i i l l l l i i n n g g t t o o d d e e a a l l w w i i t t h h m m o o r r e e t t r r a a f f f f i i c c ? ? H H o o w w m m i i g g h h t t y y o o u u p p r r e e e e m m p p t t t t h h e e s s e e i i m m p p a a c c t t s s ? ? A A r r e e y y o o u u w w i i l l l l i i n n g g t t o o l l i i v v e e w w i i t t h h c c e e r r t t a a i i n n t t r r a a d d e e o o f f f f s s i i n n o o r r d d e e r r t t o o g g e e t t t t h h e e d d e e v v e e l l o o p p m m e e n n t t t t h h a a t t y y o o u u w w a a n n t t ? ? W W h h a a t t c c o o u u l l d d y y o o u u r r e e a a s s o o n n a a b b l l y y l l i i v v e e w w i i t t h h i i n n t t e e r r m m s s o o f f i i m m p p a a c c t t s s a a n n d d w w h h a a t t i i s s a a d d e e a a l l b b r r e e a a k k e e r r ? ? I am not caught up with the proposed c hang es as much as I would like to see significant changes in law enforcement and zone enforcement on properties that are being used inappropriately.I can readily appreciate changes on West Colfax similar to changes that have occurred in Clayton Lane and recent buildings that have been developed on North Broadway and First and Second Streets.A deal breaker for me is buildings that are five stories and higher on West Colfax.I will most likely be affected by changes being proposed with the loss ofmy house which I can readily understand and appreciate. I dont know what to expect but I believe I can adapt to it as long as it doesnt all happen overnight. Trade-off that people when selling their property joining the West Colfax strip that the business area could extend North and South ofColfax to the areas the neighbors have shown in their meetings.We as neighbors have to expect more traffic in and out ofthe residential areas maybe going to light rail park & ride stations.When proper business is developed along Colfax more people will be able to walk.Better parking will become available for people coming from outside ofthe area to shop.Think ofthe help ofthe sales tax coming into this area. Would like to see tax incentives for property owners who improve their property(ies).Housing Authority knows what they have to do to straighten out the old way ofhousing people (Quigg Newton projects).Houses between Perry and Knox Court,14th and 12th should be removed and develop in a planned community.The rest probably take care ofitselfwith new development in years to come. Development:I cant speak to the issues as I am not a study are resident.Transit Oriented Development:The West Corridor LRT line will run through the gulch parks and there will be no redevelopment ofpark land regardless of 179

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WEST COLFAX PLANdedication;the Knox Court and Perry Street Stations are kiss and ridestations without parking that have been accepted by RTD as local neighborhood serving stations (despite their close proximity to Sheridan and Federal stations);topography north ofthe gulch parks is very steep and ill suited for mixed use development;transit oriented development around the Sheridan Blvd station is planed to occur in Jefferson County north ofWest 10th Avenue;any TOD development around the Federal Blvd LRT will occur east ofFederal Blvd and south of InvestCo Field in the Sun Valley Neighborhood;residents ofthe West Colfax and Villa Park Neighborhoods realistically cannot expect any significant TOD north and south ofthe LRT line in the study area. Yes,not sure what tradeoffs would be parking lots offColfax,walking halfa block to shop and eat on Colfax. Ifwe want to get the development that I want to see,the community will have to accept some higher home prices, mod to high income yuppies moving in,and some franchise retailers that cater to that demographic.Those folks will come without our invitation once things begin to improve.In order to preempt the impact ofgentrification,we need to bring good jobs to the neighborhood,or get our neighbors into good paying jobs elsewhere. Ifthere is more housing,some kind ofincentives should be put in place to limit car use and promote light rail or buses.Maybe every unit could have in its homeowners fees an EcoPass for all resident living in the new residences. Imagine that the development occurs that you want.Are there any trade-offs? Yes.What might be some ofthe impacts ofthe development that you want to see? For example,ifyou want more housing development,would you be willing or unwilling to deal with more traffic? Yes.How might you preempt these impacts? More open space in each for residents there.Are you willing to live with certain trade-offs in order to get the development that you want? Yes.What could you reasonably live with in terms ofimpacts and what is a deal breaker? Ifit produces more eyes on street to reduce crime.Deal breaker:cul-de-sacs and moderndevelopment that doesnt use street grid and street closings or gated communities separating new from old like East Bay.It should be a part ofWest Denver not a development located in West Denver. This question raises the issue oftraffic and implies that there would be more ofit with increase density.The current density ofWest Colfax is just under 9 dwelling units per acre (25.7 people per acre).Even ifthe density was doubled over time,people would perceive no increase in traffic in the neighborhood because ofthe minimal number ofdaily trips for residential,office,and business uses,integrating parking structures with mixed-use projects,and the use ofpublic transportation.There are numerous infill opportunities for large-scale development ranging in depth from 50 to 300 feet that would not destroy the good,stable areas that we need to protect.If 180

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WEST COLFAX PLANthe currently stable areas are to change,then change over time is essential for stability and to achieve the objectives we are developing.An obvious deal breakeris rezoning an area ofstability.Such a mistake is typical ofthe old urban renewal burn and destroy strategy in the Sixties.Under this scenario,properties are purchased,homes are demolished,and the vacant land sits idle for years waiting for a developer to build a suburban nightmare.Such is the case with Lakewoods portion ofWest Colfax.Lakewood is a failure we do not want to duplicate.Ifany rezoning is done beyond the boundaries ofthe B-4 Zone,then it must be done on a project-by-project basis for gradual change and neighborhood evaluation and acceptance. 1 1 3 3 W W h h a a t t a a b b o o u u t t t t h h e e k k i i d d s s ? ? ( ( Q Q u u e e s s t t i i o o n n a a d d d d e e d d b b y y r r e e s s p p o o n n d d e e n n t t ) ) West Colfax has a high concentration ofat-risk youth and drop-outs.We need to invest in facilities that engage youth and turn them into positive,productive citizens. 181

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 182

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 183 MAP APPENDIX

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 184 W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x L L o o c c a a t t i i o o n n M M a a p p

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 185 E E x x i i s s t t i i n n g g L L a a n n d d U U s s e e M M a a p p

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 186 E E x x i i s s t t i i n n g g Z Z o o n n i i n n g g M M a a p p

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 187 L L a a n n d d U U t t i i l l i i z z a a t t i i o o n n a a n n d d C C o o n n d d i i t t i i o o n n o o f f P P r r o o p p e e r r t t y y M M a a p p

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 188 H H o o u u s s e e h h o o l l d d C C o o n n d d i i t t i i o o n n a a n n d d T T a a x x D D e e l l i i n n q q u u e e n n c c y y

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 189 H H o o u u s s i i n n g g U U n n i i t t s s P P e e r r A A c c r r e e

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 190 H H o o u u s s i i n n g g O O c c c c u u p p a a n n c c y y S S t t a a t t u u s s

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 191 A A v v e e r r a a g g e e A A n n n n u u a a l l I I n n c c o o m m e e

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 192 H H o o u u s s i i n n g g V V a a l l u u e e

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 193 P P a a r r k k s s & & R R e e c c r r e e a a t t i i o o n n a a l l F F a a c c i i l l i i t t i i e e s s

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 194 S S t t r r e e e e t t T T y y p p o o l l o o g g y y M M a a p p

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 195 T T r r a a n n s s p p o o r r t t a a t t i i o o n n C C h h a a r r a a c c t t e e r r i i s s t t i i c c s s

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 196 W W e e s s t t C C o o l l f f a a x x F F l l o o o o d d p p l l a a i i n n s s a a n n d d L L a a n n d d f f i i l l l l s s

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 197 F F u u t t u u r r e e L L a a n n d d U U s s e e C C o o n n c c e e p p t t

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 198 23RD AVE. JEFFERSON PARKDECATUR ST. ELIOT ST. FEDERAL BLVD.22ND AVE. 21ST AVE. 20TH AVE. SHERIDAN BLVD. STUART ST. RALEIGH ST. QUITMAN ST. PERRY ST. OSCEOLA ST. MEADE ST. LOWELL ST. KING ST. JULIAN ST. IRVING ST.W. 23RD AVE. W. 22ND AVE. W. 21ST AVE. W. 20TH AVE. W. 19TH AVE. W. 18TH AVE. W. 17TH AVE. LAKE MIDDLE SCHOOL HALLACK PARK W. 16TH AVE. W. CONEJOS PL.WINONA CT. VRAIN ST. UTICA ST. TENNYSON ST. STUART ST. RALEIGH ST. QUITMAN ST. PERRY ST. ZENOBIA ST. SHERIDAN BLVD. YATES ST. XAVIER ST. WOLFF ST. OSCEOLA ST. NEWTON ST. MEADE ST. LOWELL BLVD. KING ST. KNOX CT.W. 12TH AVE. W. 10TH AVE. DRY GULCH COLFAX ELEMENTARY CHELTENHAM ELEMENTARY PACO SANCHEZ PARKLAKEWOOD GU LCHAVONDALEDR.W. COLFAX AVEELIOT ST. BRYANT ST. FEDERAL BLVD.W. 12TH A VE.HOLDEN PL. W. 13TH AVE. W. 11TH AVE. W. 10TH AVE. W. 9TH AVE. W. 8TH AVE. W. 7TH AVE. W. 6TH AVE. W. SEVERN PL.DECATUR ST.ZUNI ST.ALCOTT ST. BRYANTT ST. CANOSA CT.HO W ARD P L.OLD COLFAX AVE. W. COLFAX AVE WINONA CT. VRAIN ST. UTICA ST. TENNYSON ST. STUART ST. RALEIGH ST. QUITMAN ST. PERRY ST. ZENOBIA ST. SHERIDAN BLVD. YATES ST. XAVIER ST. WOLFF ST. OSCEOLA ST. NEWTON ST. MEADE ST. LOWELL BLVD. LINLEY CT. KING ST. KNOX CT. JULIAN ST. IRVING ST. HOOKER ST. HAZEL CT. GROVE ST.W. 9TH AVE. JOSEPH MARTINEZ PARK LAKEWOOD GULCH COLWELL ELEMENTARY W. 8TH AVE. EAGLETON ELEMENTARY BARNUM NORTH PARKWEIR GULCH|| |||||||||||||||| |||||||||| ||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||| |||||||||||| |||||||||||||| ||||| ||||| |||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| |||||| ||| ||| |||| ||||| |||||||||||||| |||| |||||| || || ||| ||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Main Street Mixed Use Area Town Center Growth Area Residential Stabilization Area Residential Growth Opportunity Area Main Street Multimodal Green Street Pedestrian/Bike Route Light Rail (approximate alignment) Bridge Pedestrian Bridge/Underpass Gateway Neighborhood Focal Point Future Open Space Reconnected Street Grid Transit Station Points of Interest Invesco Field at Mile High Rude Recreation Center Denver Human Services Historic Carnegie Library Building Lake Steam Baths Mulroy Community Center Future Community Garden Stuart Street Historic District Yeshiva Toras Chaim Beth Jacob High School Park Overlook (planned) Waterfall & Park Overlook (planned) Multi-use Playing Field (planned) Perry Street Station Improvements Ampitheater Destination Park Water Access Public Art Elements Volleyball Court Wetland Park Infill Development Site (planned City-owned property) Knox Street Station Improvements Pedestrian Bridge Water Edge Improvements Baseball Field T T T * 1 7 6 9 8 10 11 12 13 14 16 18 17 19 20 15 1 2 4 5 3 ||||||||| 1............ 2............ 3............ 4............ 5............ 6............ 7............ 8............ 9............ 10 & 11.. 12.......... 13.......... 14.......... 15.......... 16.......... 17.......... 18.......... 19.......... 20.......... U U r r b b a a n n D D e e s s i i g g n n C C o o n n c c e e p p t t M M a a p p

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 199 K K 5 5 P P o o p p u u l l a a t t i i o o n n D D e e n n s s i i t t y y

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 200 T T r r a a n n s s i i t t S S t t a a t t i i o o n n A A c c c c e e s s s s M M a a p p

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WEST COLFAX PLAN 201 TOWN CENTER DISTRICTS CHELTENHAM HEIGHTS HOLY TONYS TOWN CENTER RESIDENTIAL DISTRICTS TUXEDO PARK EAST TUXEDO PARK WEST PLEASANT HILL MAIN STREET DISTRICTS OSTROVER DISTRICT TOBINS ROW PIG N WHISTLE DISTRICT TRANSIT STATIONS MAPLE GROVE PLEASANT HILL| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 23RD AVE. JEFFERSON PARKDECATUR ST. ELIOT ST. FEDERAL BLVD.22ND AVE. 21ST AVE. 20TH AVE. SHERIDAN BLVD. STUART ST. RALEIGH ST. QUITMAN ST. PERRY ST. OSCEOLA ST. MEADE ST. LOWELL ST. KING ST. JULIAN ST. IRVING ST.W. 23RD AVE. W. 22ND AVE. W. 21ST AVE. W. 20TH AVE. W. 19TH AVE. W. 18TH AVE. W. 17TH AVE. LAKE MIDDLE SCHOOL HALLACK PARK W. 16TH AVE. W. CONEJOS PL.WINONA CT. VRAIN ST. UTICA ST. TENNYSON ST. STUART ST. RALEIGH ST. QUITMAN ST. PERRY ST. ZENOBIA ST. YATES ST. XAVIER ST. WOLFF ST. OSCEOLA ST. NEWTON ST. MEADE ST. LOWELL BLVD. KING ST. KNOX CT.W. 12TH AVE. W. 10TH AVE. DRY GULCH COLFAX ELEMENTARY YESHIVA TORAS CHAIM CHELTENHAM ELEMENTARY PACO SANCHEZ PARKLAKEWOOD GULCHAVONDALE DR. W. COLFAX AVEELIOT ST. BRYANT ST. FEDERAL BLVD.W. 1 2TH AVE .HOLDEN PL. W. 13TH AVE. W. 11TH AVE. W. 10TH AVE. W. 9TH AVE. W. 8TH AVE. W. 7TH AVE. W. 6TH AVE. W. SEVERN PL.DECATUR ST.ZUNI ST.ALCOTT ST. BRYANTT ST. CANOSA CT.HOW ARD PL.OLD COLFAX AVE. W. COLFAX AVE WINONA CT. VRAIN ST. UTICA ST. TENNYSON ST. STUART ST. RALEIGH ST. QUITMAN ST. PERRY ST. ZENOBIA ST. SHERIDAN BLVD. YATES ST. XAVIER ST. WOLFF ST. OSCEOLA ST. NEWTON ST. MEADE ST. LOWELL BLVD. LINLEY CT. KING ST. KNOX CT. JULIAN ST. IRVING ST. HOOKER ST. HAZEL CT. GROVE ST.W. 9TH AVE. JOSEPH MARTINEZ PARK LAKEWOOD GULCH COLWELL ELEMENTARY W. 8TH AVE. EAGLETON ELEMENTARY BARNUM NORTH PARKWEIR GULCH PLEASANT HILL STATION MAPLE GROVE STATION RTD LIGHT RAIL STATION TUXEDO TUXEDO PARK PARK EAST EAST TUXEDO PARK EAST TUXEDO TUXEDO PARK PARK WEST WEST TUXEDO PARK WEST HOLY HOLY TONYS TONYS TOWN TOWN CENTER CENTER HOLY TONYS TOWN CENTER CHELTENHAM CHELTENHAM HEIGHTS HEIGHTS CHELTENHAM HEIGHTS OSTROVER DISTRICT OSTROVER DISTRICT OSTROVER DISTRICT MAPLE GROVE STATION MAPLE GROVE STATION MAPLE GROVE STATION TOBINS ROW TOBINS ROW TOBINS ROW PIG N WHISTLE DISTRICT PIG N WHISTLE DISTRICT PIG N WHISTLE DISTRICT PLEASANT HILL PLEASANT HILL PLEASANT HILL PLEASANT HILL STATION PLEASANT HILL STATION PLEASANT HILL STATION D D i i s s t t r r i i c c t t P P l l a a n n s s