Citation
West Washington Park neighborhood plan, 1991

Material Information

Title:
West Washington Park neighborhood plan, 1991
Creator:
Community Planning and Development, City and County of Denver
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
City and County of Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Neighborhood plans
Community planning
City planning
Spatial Coverage:
Denver -- West Washington Park

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Source Institution:
Auraria Library
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
WEST WASHINGTON PARK
NEIGHBORHOOD PLAN
PLANNING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT OFFICE
C I T Y AND COUNTY 0~F DENVER
FALL 1991


Acknowledgements
West Washington Park Neighborhood Planning Steering Committee and Other Participants
Steering Committee:
Councilman Dave Doering and Judy Rocciano, Staff Assistant
Chairperson, Craig Kara
Vice Chairperson, Carol Clinkenbeard
Secretary, Lawrence Depenbusch
Jane Craft
John Desmond
Gertie Grant
Sarah Jones
Keith Krebs
Charlie Myers
Jessica McMillan
Joan and Chuck Newton
Barbara Paul
Mary Schuh
James Stratis
James Winzenburg
Other Participants:
Steve Autry
Dave Beus, Business Representative
Lisa Chalmers
Joe J. DeLeo
Tony Gengaro, Business Representative
Bob Hamppi, Business Representative
Maurice Head
Frank Martinez
Margaret Poland
Theresa Pytell
Doug Reed
Gordon Shaw
Diane Shortsleeve
City Staff:
Susan Foley, Senior City Planner and Project Manager Denver Planning and
Community Development Office
Billie Bramhall, Deputy Director of Neighborhood Planning Denver Planning and
Community Development Office
Frank Gray, Director of Planning and Development
The Honorable Federico Pena, Mayor
Consultant Assistant with Plan Preparation:
Frederick G. Fox, AJCP
Foxfire Community Planning and Development
Histoiy Section written by Millie Van Wyke
Historic Preservation Information (Appendix C) written by Bob Spude


Acknowledgements (continued)
Special thanks to Dennis Royer and Bob Dorroh with Denver Department of Public Works
(DPW) for their numerous hours of assistance with traffic and transportation issues; Dick
Farley and Mark Leese, Denver Office of Planning and Community Development (OPCD)
and DPW for extensive urban design assistance; and Doug Hendrixson, OPCD, and Kent
Strapko, Zoning Administration, for providing technical assistance on zoning issues.
Special thanks goes out to Bob Francella, Director of the Washington Park Community
Center for his support in hosting all the meetings at the Center.


West Washington Park Neighborhood Plan
Table of Contents
Page
I. INTRODUCTION ..................................................... 1
A. The Neighborhoods Vision for the Future.........................1
B. Location and Description.........................................2
C. Use of the Plan..................................................4
II. EARLY HISTORY OF WEST WASHINGTON PARK.................................6
A. Broadway and Its Early Settlers..................................6
B. "Rapid Transit" .................................................6
C. Saloons and the Town of South Denver.............................7
D. Landmarks ...................................................... 8
E. Washington Park................................................ 8
III. LAND USE PLAN .................................................... 9
A Goal.............................................................9
B. Neighborhood-wide Land Use Plan .................................9
1. Overview of Existing Land Use and Issues .................9
2. Neighborhood-wide Land Use Recommendations.................15
C. Residential Land Use Plan ..................................... 16
1. Existing Residential Land Use and Issues....................16
2. Residential Land Use Recommendations ....................... 17
D. Commercial Land Use Plan....................................... 18
1. Existing Commercial Land Use and Issues .................. 18
2. Commercial/Business Land Use Recommendations .............21
E. Industrial Land Use Plan........................................24
1. Existing Industrial Land Use and Issues ..................24
2. Industrial Land Use Recommendations...................... 24
F. Public Uses.....................................................25


w ;>
Table of Contents (Continued)
Page
G. Lincoln Street Special Area..................................25
1. Lincoln Street Existing Conditions and Issues...............25
2. Lincoln Street Special Area Recommendations ................26
IV. TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION.......................................... 28
Goals ........................................................ 28
Overview of Existing Circulation,
Transportation Systems and Issues.............................. 28
1. Circulation System..........................................28
a. Introduction ............................................28
b. One-Way Street System....................................29
c. General Street System....................................29
d. Traffic Levels ..........................................31
e. Circulation System Recommendations.......................33
2. Parking ....................................................37
a. General Overview and Issues..............................37
b. Parking Recommendations .................................39
3. Public Transportation Systems ..............................40
a. RTD..................................................... 40
b. Future Mass Transit .................................... 40
c. Recommendations .........................................41
4. Bicycle Circulation....................................... 42
a. Overview.................................................42
b. Recommendations.........................................44
5. Urban Design of the Neighborhood Streets....................45
a. Introduction ............................................45
b. Recommendations....................................... 46
C. Lincoln Street Study Overview................................. 49
D. Transportation Summaryy ...................................... 50
F. Urban Design Summary..................................... 50
V. HOUSING..............................................................54
A. Goals .......................................... 54
Overview of Existing Conditions and Issues .....................54
Recommendations ................................................55
Census Tracts 28.02 and 29.01...................................56
Census Tracts 28.03 and 29.02 ................................. 57

F:
[


Table of Contents (Continued)
v. Page
VI. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT................................................. 59
A. Goals ..........................................................59
B. Overview of Existing Conditions and Issues .................... 59
C. Economic Development Recommendations ...........................60
VII. CODE ENFORCEMENT......................................................63
A. Goals ..........................................................63
B. Overview of Existing Conditions and Issues......................63
C. Code Enforcement Recommendations.............................. 65
VIII. PUBLIC FACILITIES AND PARKS ..........................................68
A. Goals ..........................................................68
B. Overview of Existing Conditions and Issues.................... 68
Introduction ................................................. 68
Facilities Description......................................... 68
1. Public Parks.................................................68
2. Parkways and Boulevards................................... 69
3. Schools .....................................................69
4. Community Centers.......................................... 71
5. Police and Fire Stations.....................................71
6. Churches.....................................................71
7. Library......................................................71
C. Public Facilities Recommendations ..............................72
APPENDIX A ................................................................A-l
1. Neighborhood Planning ................................... A-l
2. West Washington Park Planning Process.......................A-l
APPENDIX B - Existing Zoning Descriptions ............................ B-l
APPENDIX C -- Historic Preservation ...................................C-l
1. General Overview of Historic Preservation.................C-l
2. Denver Landmark Preservation Ordinance .....................C-l
3. National Register of Historic Places ...................... C-2
4. Denver Certified Local Government.......................... C-4
5. Other Public Incentives for Historic Preservation ..........C-5
6. Public Awareness of Historic Preservation.................. C-5


List of Figures
Page
Figure 1. Location ................................................... 3
Figure 2. Landmarks ...................................................... 5
Figure 3. Existing Land Use...............................................10
Figure 4. Existing Zoning............................................... 13
Figure 5. Mountain View Preservation......................................14
Figure 6. Existing Commercial Land Use....................................20
Figure 7. Traffic Count and Street Classification.........................32
Figure 8. Bicycle Trail System ...........................................43
Figure 9. Downing/Bayaud/Marion Intersection (Existing)...................47
Figure 10. Downing/Bayaud/Marion Intersection (Proposed)...................48
Figure 11. Lincoln Corridor Overlay Zone Study (Sheets 1-6)................51
Figure 12. Summary of Residents Transportation Recommendations ...........52
Figure 13. Urban Design....................................................53
Figure 14. vacant Commercial...............................................61
Figure 15. Existing Infrastructure
F-"
jgr-
r*
64


WEST WASHINGTON PARK
NEIGHBORHOOD PLAN
Denver, Colorado
I. INTRODUCTION
A. The Neighborhoods Vision for the Future
The future vision for West Washington Park Neighborhood (WWPN) is to preserve and
enhance the following positive qualities that make the neighborhood a unique place to live
and work. Those qualities are:
The diversity of people (ages, economic mix, lifestyle choices).
The historic buildings and diversity of residential architectural styles.
The mature trees and landscaping, tree replacement programs and flower
gardens.
The land use mix at a human scale and urban character of the neighborhood.
The "small town environment" with people on the streets, enjoying a sense of
safety, recreation opportunities, public facilities, shops and jobs, all within
walking distance.
The convenient location relative to transportation lines, downtown Denver, good
schools, mountains and mountain views, highways, parks and parkways and small
neighborhood businesses.
The high level of energy, interaction, cooperation and enthusiasm, among
residents and business people, which has fostered pride and a feeling of
community in the neighborhood.
-1-


The stable neighborhood character resulting from long time residents and
business people who are committed to the area.
Residents, business people and city representatives envision tremendous potential for the
neighborhood by building on these characteristics. Neighborhood meetings have established
the following priority topics:
land use and zoning
traffic and transportation
housing
economic development
code enforcement
parks and public facilities
urban design of all of the above
In the future, the residents wish to distinguish a unique urban design character for the
neighborhood. The urban design character incorporates unique physical features of the
neighborhood, enhances its existing architectural character, and distinguishes entiy points
into the neighborhood and to Washington Park, the neighborhoods namesake. In addition,
design guidelines are to be used that will increase the compatibility between different
residential building types, e.g., single-family detached and high-rise structures.
B. Location and Description
The WWPN is bounded by Speer Boulevard on the north, 1-25 on the south, the east face
block of South Broadway on the west and South Downing Street and Washington Park on
the east (see Figure 1). Its general shape is that of a parallelogram with strong boundary
edges defined by the park and the arterial streets which surround it. The neighborhood is
primarily residential in changer and in the 50s and 60s was partially redeveloped into
higher density residential ar~ s north of Alameda Avenue. The central and southern
portions are among t e most stable single-family detached housing stock in the city,
characterized primari' y brick bungalows mixed with two-story structures of the "Victorian"
and "Denver Square' :ety. With the exception of Downing Street, businesses generally
line the arterials in th neighborhood and otherwise are scattered in distinct nodes
-2-


WEST
WASHINGTON
PARK
rlGURE 1
LOCATION
$ GLOBE VILLEJ
X
f | |
/ ELYRIA J SWANSEA ^
s : s

A
A \
y
NORTHEAST
PARK HILL
Si S
$ COLE J CLAYTON fc
i i S
C____i.__ 1
I Ai \?entT CHEESMAN & T
H ^ \ pPITOLf PARK ^CONGRESS HALE LnMrr. a,
p ^LINCOLN PARK\ \ HILL fe $ PARK | HALE t^NTCLAI
y l \i b~H f
s 1 'ye0smsr0m0SI\ 5 S S
T v-'
HILLTOP
£
JL
1 V
- w .3 WASHINGTON
1 VIRGINIA
JLmll VALE
INVER
J' i >3L s
8 j PLATTE p*v S
OVERLAND PARK |
_ i 5 i
B| \U_____
^ dale" 4n,vers,tV park
l l l
lOI^Bliraij^ jh
WEST
WASHINGTON
PARK
I Blimm OLi,DClMN,VERSlTYa "*
**l,fc ^llshire^ hills |
"I I \
! i Hi aiii !
kiMI^IHI|
SOUTHMOOR


throughout the neighborhood. The most distinctive feature of the neighborhood is
Washington Park on its eastern edge. Other neighborhood features are noted on Figure 2.
This 25-square-block park offers recreation opportunities not only to neighborhood residents
but to residents of surrounding neighborhoods and others from the Denver metro area who
visit this park for recreation and relaxation.
C. Use of the Plan
The plan presents the best thinking of the city and neighborhood and provides a city-
approved guide to the acceptable future physical development of the neighborhood. It is
intended for use by the Office of Planning and Community Development, the Denver
Planning Board, the Mayor, City Council, and other governmental agencies, residents,
property owners, business people and private organizations concerned with planning,
development, and neighborhood improvement. The plan is neither an official zone map nor
does it imply or deny any implicit rights to a particular zone. Zone changes that may be
proposed by property owners as part of any plan must be initiated under a separate
procedure established under the City and County of Denver Municipal Code.
This plan is intended to promote patterns of land use, urban design, circulation and services
that contribute to the economic, social, and physical health, safety and welfare of the people
who live and work in the neighborhood. The neighborhood plan addresses issues and
opportunities at a scale that is more refined and more responsive to specific needs than the
citys Comprehensive Plan. The neighborhood plan serves as a component of that
document.
-4-


WEST
WASHINGTON
PARK
IGURE 2
LANDMARKS
HUNGARIAN
FREEDOM
PARK
ROSS-BROADWAY
LIBRARY
BYERS
SCHOOL
ST. FRANCIS
DeSALES
WASHINGTON
PARK
LINCOLN
ELEMENTARY
SCHOOL
WASH. PARK
COMMUNITY
CENTER
1000- 300tr


II. EARLY HISTORY OF WEST WASHINGTON PARK
A. Broadway and Its Early Settlers
Truck gardeners and farmers who supplied Denver with fruits and vegetables in the 1860s
had no efficient way to transport that produce to the city from their orchards and gardens
far to the south of Cherry Creek. Finally* in 1871, a frustrated Thomas Skerritt and his sons
hitched a team of horses to a heavy wagon, locked its hind wheels, and cut a straight track
from Hampden Avenue to Cherry Creek, dragging a heavy log back and forth several times
over the 100-foot-wide "Broad Way" to level it. The Skerritts then graded the banks of
Cherry Creek down and laid heavy planks across the creeks roadbed so wagons could cross
without sinking into the sand. Above this bridge they added a plank walk for pedestrians.
With a fine, tree-lined boulevard and access to Denver via the new wooden bridge, settlers
who had congregate a along Broadway between the creek and Alameda Avenue established
the beginnings of a permanent community of mostly truck gardens and homes. In 1881,
Avery Gallup built a "country estate" and acres of greenhouses at Alameda and Broadway,
and William Butters opened the first grocery store near First Avenue. But, to their dismay
the Cherry Creek bridge and the inviting new street beyond also caught the eye of saloon
proprietors, and these early home owners were only partially successful in keeping the hated
taverns from crawling up Broadway into their neighborhood.
B. "Rapid Transit"
William A.H. Loveland built the narrow gauge Denver Circle Railroad through South
Denver in 1881, he ng to build entire communities on land his company owned along the
line; its tracks began at Larimer Street, ran east on Bayaud Avenue, turned south again at
Kansas (Logan) Street, and ended at Jewell Avenue. At 5 cents a ride snd much faster than
horse and buggy. :e railroad was popular, but did not convince buyers to purchase lots so
far out in the country. To increase usage of the train, Loveland and millionaire stockholder
Horace Tabor decided to erect some enticements along the line. They convinced Denvers
leaders to lold a Mining and Industrial Exposition on 40 acres of land along the rar iad
between Broadway and Logan Streets and Virginia and Exposition Avenues. Arc; ct
Willoughby J. Edbrooke designed a stunning two-story exhibit hall of nearly 150,000 sq : e
feet, and thousands of spectators came to see the gold and silver exhibits when the -st
-f-


mining exhibition opened in 1881. Loveland later developed the fabulous Jewell Park (now
Overland) and extended the tracks west on Jewell Avenue into the resort, but the Denver
Circle went bankrupt in 1887.
About the same time, former Governor John Evans built a standard gauge train track
through the town. The Denver and New Orleans Railroad originated downtown in 1882,
went south along the river, crossed Broadway at Kentucky Avenue, angled through Lincoln,
Sherman, Stebbins Heights, and University Park subdivisions, and exited South Denver at
Jewell Avenue and South Colorado Boulevard, where it continued on toward Pueblo. This
railroad was used into the 1950s and much of the trackage is still visible.
Another route to and from the city was via the "little brown horsecar," which Southsiders
boarded at Alameda Avenue and Broadway for the trip to 16th Street downtown. But in
1887, the horsecar company switched to a green car that traveled to 18th Street, This
change was met with loud, but futile, protests from the riders. When the horsecar company
refused to give back the brown car and old route, angered citizens convinced the Tramway
Company to install the new-fangled cable cars on the old route instead, and the first cable
car in Denver traveled south on Broadway in December of 1888, full of jubilant
merrymakers. The Tramway Company built a depot at Dakota Avenue and Broadway in
1890 and extended the tracks to Englewood.
C. Saloons and the Town of South Denver
When a dozen new saloons sprouted up around the Exposition Building in 1882, Southsiders
decided to take action. On August 9,1886, reformed alcoholic Rufus "Potato" Clark, Avery
Gallup, and real estate developer James A. Fleming (Flemings Grove subdivision),
incorporated the Town of South Denver as a prohibition suburb. Boundaries were Alameda
Avenue (Denver city limits), Colorado Boulevard, Yale Avenue, and the South Platte River.
By levying annual wholesale liquor licenses of $3,500 and retail licenses of $2,500, Mayor
Fleming and his board of trustees ran many of the saloons out of town within a year. The
town even converted one former saloon at South Logan and Center Streets into a jail,
which, ironically, housed mostly liquor violators. The Town of South Denver was annexed
to the city of Denver in 1894.
-7-


D. Landmarks
Lincoln Schc. I was erected at Pearl Street and Exposition Avenue in 1891. The next year
the first post office opened in the Jefferson Building at 432 South Broadway and the
beautiful South Broadway Christian Church at Ellsworth Avenue and Lincoln Street was
dedicated. The Russell "hose house" was built at Center Avenue and Broadway, also in
1892. St. Frances De Sales Catholic Church held its first services at the firehouse before
building a chapel and later its existing church structure at Sherman Street and Alameda
Avenue. The Presbyterian Reformed Church at Virginia Avenue and Pearl Street was
erected in 1893.
E. Washington Park
In 1890 South Denvers Town Council chose Smiths Lake for park purposes, but detractors
insisted the location was too remote. But in 1899 the City of Denver established
Washington Park on those same grounds, increased it to 155 acres, and transformed it into
the lovely and much-used park of today.
-8-


III. LAND USE PLAN
A. Goal
Retain the existing residential neighborhood character.
B. Neighborhood-wide Land Use Plan
1. Overview of Existing Land Use and Issues
West Washington Park (WWP) is primarily a residential neighborhood of single-family brick
structures built prior to World War I. Over the years a few neighborhood commercial uses
have sprung up within the neighborhood, particularly along Denvers old trolley line that
meandered along South Pearl, Pennsylvania and Emerson streets. Otherwise, the residential
nature of the neighborhood has remained intact (see Figure 3). The neighborhood meetings
established that the preservation of the existing neighborhood character and its diversity is
the main issue confronting the neighborhood in the future.
The neighborhood consists of a total of 596 acres. Of this total, land use types are divided
as shown in the chart on page 11 in the last row (Totals"). As expected, the neighborhood
is predominantly residential (80%) where single family detached units comprise the majority
land use type (55%). Commercial and services uses comprise about eight percent (8%) of
the land area and the rest is industrial and "other." Very little vacant land exists,limiting
most new development to redevelopment of existing land use, typical of older neighborhoods
such as West Washington Park.
The chart also shows how land uses are zoned and distributed in each zone district. Existing
zoning is predominantly R2 (295 acres) which allows duplexes as well as single-family
detached units. The single-family district is R-l (31 acres). The high density multifamily
districts are R-3, R-3X and R-4 (186 acres) which allow up to 150 dwelling units per acre
with appropriate land assemblage. These zones allow significantly more height and density
than the R-2 zone which creates incentives for demolition of existing structures and
redevelopment of the land.
-9-


WEST
WASHINGTON
PARK
FIGURE 3
EXISTING
LAND USE
KEY:
COMMERCIAL
SINGLE-FAMILY
EH3 MIXED-SINGLE &
MULTI-FAMILY
SCHOOLS


WWP/Zoning vs. Existing Land Use
Dist. £ £ % Comm. £ £ £
Zone Dist. Acres % SF Acres % MF Acres Service Acres % Ind. Acres % Other* Acres
R1 31.0 94.5 29.4 4.4 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 1.3 0.4
R2 295.0 77.1 229.3 19.1 56.8 0.6 1.8 0.0 0.0 2.5 7.4
R3 177.1 37.7 66.8 44.2 85.3 0.5 0.97 0.0 0.4 13.7 24.3
R3X 3.4 64.7 2.2 26.5 0.9 2.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 5.9 0.2
R4 5.3 73.6 0.6 1.7 0.1 73.6 3.9 0.0 0.0 13.2 0.7
B1 3.1 3.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 96.7 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
B2 14.3 7.0 1.0 7.0 1.1 73.4 10.5 6.3 0.9 5.6 0.8
B4 25.1 1.2 0.3 6.0 1.5 16.1 16.6 11.6 2.9 15.1 3.8
B8 9.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 38.9 3.5 37.8 3.4 23.3 2.1
10 10.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.2 0.3 17.2 1.8 79.6** 8.1
12 20.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 28.8 5.7 58.9 11.7 12.3 2.4
PUD 2.2 18.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 72.7 1.6 *9.1 0.2
PI 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.2
Totals 368.0*** 243.1 62.1 24.1 17.3 20.9
% of
Total 100.0 55.2 24.6 7.8 4.0 8.4
Source: Denver Office of Planning and Community Development, "Census Tract Land Use by Zoning Detail Report," April
1986.
* Other = vacant; transportation, communication, and utilities; public and quasi-public; and parks and recreation land
uses.
** 90% of this category is the U.S. Postal Service vehicle storage and repair facility located at 1-25 and Kentucky, which
is zoned 1-0 but considered a "public" land use.
*** Total acreage rounded to nearest acre.
SF = single-family; MF = multifamily
-11-


Comparing these zone districts points out a major discrepancy between the zoning'and how
the land is actually used. Both the R-2 and R-3 districts, which allow multifamily units,
contain a majority of existing single-family uses. In the R-2 district, over 77% of the existing
uses are single-family. Thus, the potential for further conversions from single-family to
multifamily in this district alone could significantly change the existing single-family
character of the neighborhood. Additional rezonings to R-3 or higher density districts would
have an even more dramatic effect.
The map on the following page (Figure 4) shows geographically how the neighborhood is
zoned. In general, lower density residential zoning is found interior to the neighborhood
and south of Alameda. Descriptions of the uses allowed in each zone district can be found
in Appendix B.
In addition to zone district height restrictions, height of new structures is limited by two
mountain view preservation ordinances Governors Park and Washington Park. Both of
these ordinances preserve mountain views in a fan shape from the parks centers to the
mountains. Specifics of angles and height limits are shown in Figure 5.
Generally, intense commercial uses have been confined to bordering arterial streets (with
the exception of Alameda which is interior to the neighborhood). Small areas of business
use are found in the neighborhoods interior as well. Business encroachments into the
residential portions of the neighborhood have created compatibility problems. Minimal
industrial uses exist in the neighborhood. Other general land use issues articulated by
residents at the neighborhood meetings were the need to preserve historic buildings to
curtail high-rise development in the northern portion of the neighborhood. Regarding high-
rise development, density and height limits were often repeated issues.
Except for Speer Boulevard and 1-25, WWP is laid out on a standard north/south, east/west
grid that, with a few minor ex ptions, contains streets and blocks of uniform size. Blocks
are lined with mature trees and the neighborhood has a "friendly," urban, single-family
residential character that promotes a good permanent community feeling. Through the
West Washington Park Neighborhood Association, residents actively participate in resolving
zoning and land use issues on both neighborhood and city-wide levels. Maintaining an
active neighborhood organization is important to residents.
-12-


WEST
WASHINGTON
PARK
FIGURE 4
EXISTING ZONING
;EY:
R-0 Single units detatched
' dwellings, low density
: -1 Single unit detatched
dwellings, low density
; ~-2 Multi-unit dwellings
moderate density
h-3X High-density
apartment district
3 High-density
apartment district
4 Very high-density
apartment district
B-1 Limited office district
Neighborhood business
district
~ 4 General business
district
B-8 Intensive general
business / very-high
density residential
district
Light industrial district
i-<- Heavy industrial district
F 1 Off-street parking district
- ) Plannedunit
development


WEST
WASHINGTON
PARK
FIGURES
MOUNTAIN VIEW
PRESERVATION
Proposed Governors Park
View Preservation Ordinance
Origin point is at the 'high point*
of Governors Park at the
Grant-Humphries Mansion.
Edge boundaries are defined by
existing tall buildings which
frame views to the mountains
and the Washington Park View
Preservation Ordinance
boundary.
The maximum height permitted
for new buildings is measured
from the high point of the park.
This is intended to allow views
over the buildings to see the
mountains located behind the
hogback ridge.
NOTE: tf redesign and
reconstruction of the park
occurs to take Getter advantage
of this natura: menity, the view
corridor can be adjusted slightly
to accomodate spectacular
views of Pikes Peak.
NOTE: This ordinance is also
proposed in the draft Capital
Hill/Cheesman Park
Neighborhood Plan.
Adopted Washington Park
view Preservation Ordinance
Drigin point is at a brass cap
it at the elevation 5,323.9 feet
Edge boundaries are cefined by
interlines of streets.
he maximum height permitted
or new buildings shall not
xceed an elevation of 5,3233
set plus one foot for each one
iundred feet from the reference
rigin point
Fr'rSr;
S'-'
F '
F


2. Neighborhood-wide Land Use Recommendations
NW-1
NW-2
NW-3
NW-4
Continue neighborhood monitoring of all
formal land use changes, rezonings and vari-
ances for conformance with the WWP Plan.
Prepare of design guidelines that encourage
neighborhood preservation including land-
scaping, architecture, open space develop-
ment, street furniture, guidelines for appropri-
ate new development and infill projects to en-
sure compatibility with existing uses; imple-
ment the guidelines through the OPCD as
part of the normal City review process. Work
with developers to make building and site
designs fit in with the existing neighborhood.
Develop a special neighborhood zone district
that utilizes design review as a requirement
for project approval, particularly for the
Lincoln Street corridor and the area north of
Alameda. The zone district would define
appropriate locations for specific uses.
Implement the Washington Park Mountain
View Preservation Ordinance. Adopt the
Governors Park Mountain View Preservation
ordinance to help preserve mountain views by
controlling excessive heights of new structures
in the central and the northwest comer of the
neighborhood that block views (see Figure 5).
Responsible Parties
West Washington Park
Neighborhood Associa-
tion (WWPNA); City
Council
Office of Planning and
Community Develop-
ment (OPCD), Zoning
Administration (ZA),
other City and County
development review
offices, WWPNA, De-
partment of Parks and
Recreation (DPR)
WWPNA, ZA, OPCD
OPCD, ZA, DPR, Build-
ing Department (BD)
-15-


NW-5 Encourage replacement of old trees as neces- WWPNA, Property
sary and new tree planting on vacant parking Owners
strips to improve the neighborhoods quality
of life and community atmosphere.
C. Residential Land Use Plan
1. Existing Residential Land Use and Issues
Greater than fifty percent of the neighborhoods single-family housing stock lies south of
Alameda Avenue. Variations to the single-family pattern consist primarily of duplexes and
tnplexes, a few larger three- to five-story multifamily units and a half dozen pockets of
neighborhood commercial uses. In general, these single-family units are in good condition
with well landscaped yards and clean alleys. Resale values have stabilized and now are on
the increase (see page 54), plus encroachment of the commercial pockets into the neighbor-
hood has stopped. WWP has historically served as a middle income residential neighbor-
hood for residents working in the nearby industrial areas or downtown.
Some of the neighborhood-wide land use issues are closely related to the residential land
use issues. The maintenance of strong, low-density, residential land use in the neighborhood
is the central point of the many issues expressed by the neighborhood residents. Property
owners of single-family units in R-2 areas are encouraged to maintain the single-family
pattern in strong, single-family blocks. The zoning and land use chart in the previous
section shows that neighborhood-wide, more than 75% of the R-2 or duplex zone areas
contain single-family detached residences.
Maintenance of single-family structures was observed to be a much more serious problem
in R-3 zoned areas where the overall unit density is high. Also, illegal additional units were
found in a number of blocks throughout the neighborhood. The primary issue in R-3 zoned
areas is the high density (up to 150 units/acre) that can be attained in multifamily
redevelopment projects with appropriate land assemblage. This issue was analyzed in a
workshop session durir .e planning process. It was found that a typical R-3 block
(bounded by First Avenue, Pearl Street, Ellsworth Avenue and Pennsylvania Street) north
of Alameda tnat had a mixture of single- and multifamily units, including a high-rise
-16-


structure, averaged about thirty units per acre as an overall density. This Scale of
development was determined to be acceptable for R-3 areas, and it was felt this would be
a good limit for future redevelopment in the neighborhood.
North of Alameda Avenue, a mixture of single-family, moderate- and high-density residential
uses exist. Although single-family uses are scattered throughout the area, single-family
blocks are located predominantly in pockets along the 100 and 200 blocks of Sherman
Street, between 1st and 2nd Avenues on Pennsylvania Street, and between Pearl and
Downing Streets north of Alameda Avenue. Moderate density residential uses are generally
located west of Pearl Street and high density uses to the east of Pearl Street and north to
Speer Boulevard. Redevelopment and the conversion of existing uses (single-family and
multifamily for example, Country Club Gardens) to higher-density residential multifamily
uses is vigorously opposed by the residents. Some of the moderate density low-rise walk-up
multifamily structures built in the 1950s were found to be in need of better maintenance and
landscaping, while the lack of off-street parking was considered to be a serious problem.
2. Residential Land Use Recommendations
Responsible Parties
RLU-1
Permit no more than the current average of WWPNA, ZA, OPCD,
30 du/acre limit for higher density develop- City Council (CC)
ments and discourage rezonings to R-3 and R-
4.
RLU-2
As an interim measure, explore the possibility ZA, OPCD, WWPNA
of reviewing the R-3 zone district for possible
changes to make allowed uses more com-
patible with existing moderate density land
uses.
RLU-3
Consider implementing zone changes on WWPNA, ZA, property
selected blocks of R-3 and R-2 areas to R-l owners, OPCD
status south of Cedar to 1-25 and east from
Pennsylvania and Pearl to Washington Park.
-17-


North of Alameda, consider rezoning R-3 areas to R-2 where uses of the R-2 type exist as small strips or "fingers" in the neighbor- hood.
RLU-4 Maintain and improve existing residential uses and all historic and architecturally significant structures. New infill housing should be compatible with historic buildings and charac- ter. Prepare an inventory of historic struc- tures. Property owners, ten- ants; City agencies, State Historical Society; Den- ver Landmark Preserva- tion Commission (DLPC)
RLU-5 Include compatible setbacks, significant buf- fering, and landscaping in site plans for new moderate density residential development to ensure compatibility with adjacent low-density residential uses. Develop design guidelines which deal with bulk, size and shape, height, architecture, wall treatments, location and adequacy of parking for new developments. OPCD, ZA
D. Commercial Land Use Plan
\ Existing Commercial Land Use and Issues
West Washington Park is bordered on the west by the South Broadway commercial strip.
An extensive mix of retail use exists along the entire length of Broadway through the
neighborhood. The highest concentration of retail uses and the general neighborhood
shopping area is between 2nd Avenue and Alameda Avenue. Auto-oriented commercial,
convenience retud and various other uses closely akin to light industrial are located at either
end of this central retail area. Office uses exist at the north end of Broadway. A portion
of Broadway from Second Avenue to Broadway was landsca*' d in the late 1970s through
the citys Neighborhood Business Revitalization Streetsc program. The area is
-18-


*
maintained through a special district which assesses merchants and property owners in the
revitalization area. Further improvements or expansion of this area is possible.
The urban design character of Broadway was viewed by residents and business people as
needing improvement. Expansion of the streetscaping project, design of buildings and
facades, landscaping of setbacks and parking areas were specifically identified as elements
of the streets character needing improvement. It was also noted that the Inter
Plaza/Intemational Collection project at Exposition and Broadway needs to be completed
or replanned and constructed utilizing a revised Planned Unit Development (PUD) plan.
This special zone district allows unique development plans to be implemented which
maximizes a parcels development potential through a public involvement process. PUD
plan revisions need to be negotiated with neighborhood organizations that are affected to
ensure that there is compatibility with the design and scale of the adjacent uses. In addition,
access to this site needs to be coordinated with the implementation of the redesigned I-
25/Broadway exit so that traffic generated by the development does not further impact
Lincoln Street. The old vacant Wards building is a particular eyesore. In the north, B-8
zoning was felt to be too intensive and liberal, in terms of uses allowed, and conflicts with
the existing neighborhood character. In general, pedestrian access and mobility to and
among businesses along Broadway was identified as a problem. For safety reasons,
pedestrian crossings between both sides of the street were identified as needing improve-
ment. It was felt by residents that this might encourage pedestrian shopping, thereby
improving sales as well as the general business climate along the street.
Clusters of commercial uses are also scattered throughout the neighborhood, particularly
along Pearl Street and Alameda Avenue. These uses are primarily concentrated around
intersections rather than stripped out along major collectors or arterials. Most of these
small commercial areas serve neighborhood residents. The most developed commercial
areas are found at the following locations: Bayaud Avenue between Logan and Pennsylva-
nia Streets, Alameda Avenue between Grant and Pearl Streets, the intersection of Downing
Street and Alameda Avenue, the intersection of Exposition Avenue and Pearl Street,
Kentucky Avenue between Pearl and Washington Street and the 1-25 frontage road between
Pennsylvania and Clarkson Streets (see Figure 6). Residents noted that lack of compatibility
between business and residential uses in terms of site and structure design was a problem
at some of these interior business centers. In particular, lack of buffering landscaping,
parking and traffic movements were noted as problems.
-19-


WEST
WASHINGTON
PARK
SURE 6
LISTING
COMMERCIAL
LAND USE


2. Commercial/Business Land Use Recommendations
CB-1
CB-2
CB-3
Prevent future rezoning of residential land for
commercial use particularly around interior
areas of business use. Develop vacant store-
fronts (e.g., old TJ.s store) and zoned prop-
erty as first priority into neighborhood serving
businesses.
Preserve and strengthen existing neighbor-
hood businesses and the Broadway commer-
cial district and encourage buffering between
business and residential uses. Encourage the
development of low-rise office and business
uses on Broadway in the "triangle" area
(Speer Boulevard, Broadway and Fourth
Avenue) as a first priority.
Implement the recommendations of the
Broadway Parking District and establish some
central parking areas for all businesses to
utilize. Discuss with the City and the Organ-
ized Baker Residents Neighborhood
Association the development of some cul-de-
sac parking along Broadway by closing select-
ed streets.
Responsible Parties
WWPNA, ZA, OPCD,
City Council
Property owners, City
Agencies, OPCD
Broadway business peo-
ple, OPCD, MDLDC,
OBR
-21-


CB-4
CB-5
CB-6
CB-7
Establish a Broadway building design and
signage theme as a guide for future re-
modeling of storefronts to project a high
quality retail business image. Develop block-
by-block sign directories that list businesses in
that block. Encourage structures with similar
architectural character to be designed and
built to carry out a theme for the area.
Improve the pedestrian shopping atmosphere
along Broadway through extending the special
lighting scheme to Ohio Avenue; extension of
sidewalks utilizing street "neckdowns" to
shorten pedestrian crossing distances and
install pavers at key crosswalks; install attrac-
tive arrangements of street furniture and
more landscaping along the street.
Implement a market study for Broadway to
identify what market shares the area should
serve at both the regional and local levels and
how the Broadway business area can capture
that market share. Encourage more retail, of-
fice and restaurant development.
Maintain current landscaped setbacks of
business and office uses and implement spe-
cial design guidelines along Speer Boulevard
to improve the parkway design of Denvers
premier parkway.
Broadway business
people, OPCD, MDLDC
Broadway business
people, OPCD MDLDC
OPCD, Broadway busi-
ness owners, MDLDC
ZA, OPCD, Property
owners, Denver Land-
marks Commission
(DLC), Department of
Parks and Recreation
(DPR)
-22-


CB-8
CB-9
CB-10
CB-11
CB-12
CB-13
Consider rezoning of the B-8 area in the
northwest corner of the neighborhood to a
less intense business zoning category in order
to encourage more compatible land uses and
neighborhood serving business.
Prohibit the use of billboards for off-site
advertising in the neighborhood; remove
existing billboards when property redevelops.
As initially agreed with Safeway owners,
follow up to ensure that redevelopment design
guidelines become a condition of any sale of
the property at Logan and Alameda.
Encourage the conversion of undesirable uses
such as run-down auto service stations and
adult entertainment businesses to neighbor-
hood serving uses; encourage clean-up of
existing business areas.
Maintain a single-story scale for new business
development in existing business zones along
Buchtel Boulevard at Washington Street. If I-
25 access is eliminated and widened, consider
rezoning these uses for residential use.
Require landscaping around all new parking
lots; do not allow parking in standard front
setbacks.
Property owners, ZA,
OPCD, WWPNA, City
Representative
City Council, ZA,
OPCD, P&R Dept.,
DPW
OPCD, WWPNA, City
Council Representative
WWPNA, OPCD,
Property Owners
WWPNA, OPCD, City
Council Representative,
Property Owners
ZA, OPCD, Property
Owners
-23-


CB-14
Encourage the development of a full service OPCD, WWPNA, City
grocery store in the neighborhood whose site Council Representative,
design is compatible with the surrounding OBR
uses. Consult with the Organized Baker
Residents Neighborhood Association on this
issue.
E. Industrial Land Use Plan
1. Existing Land Use and Issues
Minimal industrial uses exist in the interior of the neighborhood except for the Royal Crest
Dairy operation on South Pearl Street. This business has expanded over the years and has
remained compatible with surrounding residential uses. A small industrial triangle exists in
the southwest portion of the neighborhood. The U.S. Post Office, Centennial Wood
Products, an electronics warehouse, and a car leasing company currently occupy this site.
Maintenance of compatibility between these uses and the adjacent residential uses was
identified as a concern.
Industrial uses exist to the west and southwest of the neighborhood boundary. In the past,
West Washington Park has traditionally provided housing opportunities for employees of
businesses in these areas, especially Gates Rubber Company; however, this is less true today.
2. Industrial Land Use Recommendations
Responsible Parties
1-1
1-2
Maintain strong on-site landscaping features OPCD, WWPNA
at industrial sites to ensure neighborhood
compatibility.
Encourage rezoning from industrial to busi- OPCD, ZA, WWPNA,
ness-related uses as use of existing facilities Industrial Property Own-
change. ers
-24-


F.
Public Uses
The predominant public uses consist of Byers and Lincoln Schools, the Washington Park
Community Center and Hungarian Freedom and Washington Parks. Washington Park is
a major city and regional park and contains a city-owned recreation center with an indoor
swimming pool which is used by neighborhood residents. There are no city-owned parks in
the interior of the neighborhood. Public uses and parks and associated recommendations
are described in Section VIII, Public Facilities and Parks. Numerous churches also exist in
the neighborhood. For the most part, these uses are integrated well into the neighborhoods
residential fabric.
G. Lincoln Street Special Area
1. Lincoln Street Existing Conditions and Issues
Lincoln Street was originally developed in residential uses along its entire length in the
neighborhood. Many of the units are large and some are examples of classic Victorian
architecture. Homes having bay windows and turrets can be found along the street. Many
residents have restored these structures to their original elegance, particularly on the east
side of the street.
As the Broadway business area grew, many lots along the west side of Lincoln Street were
converted into parking lots, to accommodate the parking needs of Broadway merchants,
churches and moderate density multifamily developments. These changes occurred as a
result of demand and through rezonings and redevelopment of properties already zoned for
more intense uses. An additional catalyst of change was the conversion of Lincoln Street
to a one-way street. The increase in traffic, particularly after the development of 1-25 with
a major north-bound off-ramp at Lincoln Street, has had a negative impact on the existing
uses and residential character of the street.
Although Lincoln Street has been negatively impacted, residents are concerned that the
residential character of the street be maintained. Unnecessary through traffic, such as "dead
head" RTD buses, regional route RTD buses which could use Colfax Avenue as an exit
route off of 1-25 to downtown, truck traffic and vehicle speed were cited as issues that could
be dealt with in cooperation with regional and city agencies. Additional conversion of
-25-


parcels to parking lots and structures to office or retail use should be curtailed. Existing
parking lots and business uses on the west side of the street lack adequate landscaping in
order to maintain their compatibility, in terms of urban design, with uses on the east side.
2. Lincoln Street Special Area Recommendations
Responsible Parties
LS-1
LS-2
LS-3
LS-4
LS-5
LS-6
Encourage infill and rehabilitation of struc- City agencies, property
tures on the west side of Lincoln street to owners, OPCD
maintain the residential scale of the street in
lieu of demolition or commercial remodeling.
Maintain existing residential uses along both City agencies, OPCD,
sides of Lincoln Street. WWPNA, property own-
ers, CC
Implement a streetscape and buffering plan City agencies, OPCD,
along the street right-of-way (ROW). (See WWPNA, property own-
Traffic and Transportation Section.) ers
Encourage renovation of deteriorating homes City agencies, OPCD
in the vicinity of Third Avenue and Lincoln
Street.
Prohibit removal of houses for parking or City agencies, OPCD,
business use along both sides of Lincoln WWPNA
Street.
Encourage development of vacant lots into City agencies, OPCD,
temporary open space uses or low-rise multi- Neighborhood Residents
family buildings north of Fourth Avenue. and property owners
-26-


LS-7
OPCD, City agencies
Develop a consistent 12 foot curbside planting
strip with street trees and maintain 20 foot
building setbacks all along Lincoln Street to
present a consistent community image. Place
any parking lots to the rear or side of build-
ings behind the front setback line.
-27-


IV. TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION
A. Goals
Reduce unnecessary through traffic in the neighborhood to a level of local and
regional traffic circulation in West Washington Park that is similar to other
adjacent neighborhoods and compatible with the neighborhoods land uses to
preserve the residential quality of life.
Provide for an increasing number of public transportation options for
neighborhood residents.
Create a safe, efficient bicycle and pedestrian circulation system that provides
convenient connections to places of work, public facilities and the Denver trails
system.
Utilize major streets and public transportation facilities to create neighborhood
urban design elements for West Washington Park.
B. Overview of Existing Circulation. Transportation Systems and Issues
1. Circulation System
a. Introduction
Originally, the West Washington Park neighborhood was primarily laid out as a series of
subdivisions of single-family residential homes. The larger arterial streets of Speer
Boulevard and Broadway defined the northern and western edges and little distinction in
subdivision design or structure architecture was made between the east and west sides of
Washington Park. This larger residential area, including the neighborhoods south of 1-25,
was broken only by small clusters of neighborhood-serving commercial areas. Broadway and
Pearl Street were tramway lines and early transit links to downtown. Over the years,
commercial uses developed at various points on this street. The construction of 1-25 further
defined the neighborhood on the south. Exit ramps to Downing and Emerson Streets were
added in the mid-1950s. Prior to this, Denver implemented the one-way couplet system on
Broadway and Lincoln, Emerson and Washington, and Logan and Grant Streets to facilitate
-28-


traffic movement to downtown. As traffic flows increased, Downing Street became a busy
two-way arterial and the Emerson/Washington, Logan/Grant and Lincoln/Broadway one-
way pairs or couplets funneled more and more traffic through the neighborhood.
b. One-Way Street System
In the early 1970s, it was perceived by neighborhood residents that increased volume in the
traffic system had become a serious threat to the neighborhoods residential cohesiveness
and the quality of life. The street traffic was perceived to be negatively affecting property
values and had become a safety hazard. The residents organized a movement with their
neighbors north of Speer Boulevard to convince the City to study the return of the one-way
pairs to local two-way streets. Beginning in 1984, the City, in conjunction with neighborhood
organizations, laid out a one-way street study and conversion program. Labeled the Central
Denver North-South Traffic Impact Mitigation Study, the City approved this phase on a trial
basis with the understanding that the impacts of the initial one-way conversions be studied
and Planning Board approval be obtained for permanent implementation prior to beginning
subsequent phases of the program. The first study has been implemented, with Downing,
Ogden and Marion Streets north of Colfax Avenue and Logan and Grant Streets (both
within and external to the neighborhood) returned to two-way status and Emerson and
Washington Streets south of 1-25 (outside of the neighborhood) converted in the same
manner. The traffic barrier that was constructed at Third Avenue and Grant Street as part
of the implementation plan has become more of an eyesore and has now been slated for
removal. The neighborhood is generally satisfied with the results of the first study and the
implementation process; however, residents on Logan and Downing Streets have mixed
reactions and are not pleased with the resulting traffic increases that occurred after the
conversions. Emerson and Washington Streets remain one-way and may be the subject of
another study for possible permanent conversion to two-way, local street status.
c. General Street System
Downing and Logan Streets and the remaining one-way couplets carry traffic north and
south through West Washington Park. East/west traffic is primarily carried on Louisiana,
Virginia, Alameda and First Avenues. Of these four, Alameda Avenue is a primary east-
west arterial that becomes discontinuous at Cherry Creek east of the neighborhood. Traffic
on Alameda Avenue west of Downing Street and east of Cherry Creek is extremely heavy.
This street has been widened to four travel lanes from Cherry Creek to the east and from
-29-


Franklin Street to the west leaving an eight-block section in the Washington Park East,
Country Club and Polo Club neighborhoods limited to two travel lanes. To date, the
widening of this section of Alameda Avenue has been opposed by all adjacent
neighborhoods, including West Washington Park.
Speer Boulevard and 1-25 are major diagonal traffic corridors paralleling each other in a
northwest/southeast direction at the neighborhoods north and south boundaries. These
diagonal arterials funnel a large volume of regional traffic around the neighborhood and are
important components of the metro-wide circulation system. Speer Boulevard has seen
various improvements over the years to increase capacity. Intersection improvements along
Speer at Eighth Avenue and at Sixth Avenue and Broadway and Lincoln Streets will
continue to increase the efficiency of traffic flow along Lincoln Street, a major arterial, and
will either be completed or under construction by 1991. Major improvements are also
planned for 1-25 over the next 20 years. These improvements (increased number of lanes,
landscaping, etc.), in conjunction with implementing the RTD regional transit corridor plan,
could change the access configuration to and from 1-25 in the neighborhood. Discussions
about 1-25 improvements included identifying both positive and negative impacts on the
neighborhood from ramp closures and noise and air pollution resulting from increasing the
capacity of the freeway. Additionally, the use of 1-25 as an expanded traffic artery and mass
transit corridor is supported by the neighborhood as a means of reducing traffic movement
through the neighborhood. The acquisition of additional ROW to accommodate increased
capacity is a serious issue and must be planned in detail with the neighborhood.
Recommendations for 1-25 improvements are contained in the 1-25 Task Force Report by
the Colorado Department of Highways (CDH). A major element of those improvements
is a reconfiguration of the Broadway and Lincoln Street interchange to ease congestion,
increase the number of travel lanes and add rapid transit and HOV lanes in the ROW.
The Southeast Quadrant Land Use and Transportation Study, completed in 1987 by the City,
outlines a series of improvements, some of which are located in West Washington Park.
Most of the improvements recommended involve improving the quality of the street (grade,
pavement, curbs and gutters) and increasing the carrying capacity of the major streets in the
neighborhood without major widening. There was qualified support by the neighborhood
residents for the recommendations as long as the number of lanes on these streets were not
increased.
-30-


Broadway and Lincoln Streets are major circulation routes in and out of Downtown Denver.
The intersections in the major retail section of Broadway are not particularly pedestrian
friendly and utilization of on-street parking during rush hour is difficult.
Other issues concerning the street system identified by residents included less than adequate
maintenance of Buchtel Boulevard and adjacent open areas, the impacts of increasing traffic
on Logan Street from the conversions of one-ways, unkempt ROW and intersection humps
along Alameda Avenue, and side-swiping and hit-and-run damage to parked cars along
Downing and Logan Streets. Special meetings were held by the Steering Committee to
address safety problems associated with the design and circulation pattern of the Downing
Street, Bayaud Avenue, and Marion Parkway intersection.
d. Traffic Levels
Traffic levels have changed on the streets in the area over the last several years. Traffic
volumes have increased on some streets and decreased on others. Some of the traffic
volume changes are due to the conversions of the one-way streets discussed above.
Figure 7 shows the street classifications of the major streets that traverse the neighborhood.
This figure also shows the traffic count comparisons that were done for the analysis of the
1984 street conversion study. Traffic counts were collected on various streets in 1986 prior
to the one-way conversion, and were also collected at the same locations in 1989 after a
period of time elapsed following the one-way to two-way conversions of Grant Street and
Logan Street. The figure also shows the percentage change of the traffic volumes between
the two counts. The converted one-way streets of Grant and Logan both show a respective
sizeable decrease and an increase in volume subsequent to the conversion. A few
conclusions concerning traffic levels from the One-Way Street Monitoring Study are worth
repeating here:
1) The overall decline in background traffic has tended to dampen negative impacts on
system capacity and the diversion of traffic to other streets through residential
neighborhoods.
-31-


WEST
WASHINGTON
PARK
FIGURE 7
TRAFFIC COUNT
& STREET
CLASSIFICATION


2) Peak hour commuter trips, while having the greatest impact on system capacity, are
only about 25% of affected trips; most of the trips diverted from converted one-ways
are non-peak trips associated with local and central Denver based destinations.
3) Converting one-way pairs and maintaining one street as a collector/arterial (two-way)
could significantly reduce the diversion of traffic to other streets. (As in the case of
Logan Street where total traffic volumes have increased significantly since the
conversion.)
4) Measurable benefits for residents adjacent to one-way streets result primarily from
the conversion to local streets rather than two-way operations alone.
e. Circulation System Recommendations
TS-1 Overall Recommendations
Responsible Parties
All future traffic improvements and programs WWPNA, Transportation
shall be coordinated with adjacent neighborhoods. Division (TD), OPCD
TS-2 One Wav Streets
a. Reduce one-way commuter traffic through the WWPNA, OPCD, TD
neighborhood by completing implementation of
the one-way street conversion project.
b.
Further consideration and studies of one-way
street conversions should be delayed until the
construction of the Speer Boulevard/Sixth Aven-
ue/Lincoln Street grade separation project is
completed and its effect on traffic patterns can be
adequately assessed. In assessing one-way street
conversions, the status of major ingress and
egress routes to the downtown should be con-
sidered.
Denver Planning Board,
WWPNA, OPCD, TD
Department of Public
Works (DPW)
-33-


c. Remove the Grant Street barrier at Third
Avenue; convert Third Avenue to two-way street
between Grant and Logan Streets.
d. Improve the quality of life on remaining one-way
streets by installing pedestrian actuated signals,
moving signals to corners and using pavers to
create better pedestrian crossings, by allowing
parking on both sides of the street during off-
peak hours, creating only one lane of traffic, and
planting more street trees.
e. Control traffic flow with better signal timing.
Research reducing strict speed control to 25
m.p.h.
TS-3 Alameda Avenue
a. Discourage the widening of Alameda Avenue and
the bridging of Cherry Creek.
b. Support the reconstruction of Alameda Avenue in
concrete to provide an improved appearance to
the right-of-way, smooth intersections, and
provide better drainage, turning lanes, streetscap-
ing, and pedestrian friendly sidewalks.
TS-4 Broadway
a. Rebuild the street in concrete and provide for
better pedestrian crossings, bulb-outs at key
inter: -tions, handicapped ramps and longer sight
dista; is at intersections.
b. Re^ea^ch reducing the speed on the street to 25
ir. 1 md provide better speed control enforce-
mv .it.
TD
v
TD, WWPNA
TD, Denver Police Dept.
(DPD)
WWPNA
WWPNA, TD, OPCD
TD, Broadway Businesses
TD, DPD
-34-


TS-5 Lincoln Street
a. Support traffic capacity improvements on 1-25
south of the neighborhood.
b. Monitor the Lincoln Street,. Speer Boulevard,
Sixth Avenue intersection improvements to assure
that compatibility is maintained between traffic
flow and neighboring uses.
c. Mitigate street noise and vibration with new
street surfacing
d. Research reducing the speed to 25 m.p.h. and
monitoring compliance with this limit.
TS-6 Logan Street
a. Research reducing the speed to 25 m.p.h.
b. Clean up the existing ROW with street recon-
struction projects by providing streetscaping,
turning lanes, on-street parking (both sides) and
well-marked pedestrian crossings.
c. Future traffic modifications in other parts of
WWP should not create significant additional
traffic increases on South Logan.
d. Maintain basic two through lane traffic pattern
(one lane in each direction).
TD, DPW, Colorado
Department of Highways
(CDH)
WWPNA
TD
TD
TD
TD
TD, OPCD, WWPNA
TD
-35-


e. Convert the one-way Logan Street bridge at
Speer Boulevard to two-way to ease traffic flow
on Logan Street at Speer Boulevard and to
permit turns onto southbound Logan Street off of
westbound Speer Boulevard and remove some
traffic from Grant Street.
TS-7 1-25
a. Monitor progress of 1-25 Task Force report to
implement needs of the West Washington Park
neighborhood plan.
b. Ensure full accessibility from 1-25 at University
Boulevard and Lincoln/Broadway Streets.
c. Research the impacts of selected ramp closures at
Downing, Emerson and Washington Streets on
West Washington Park internal street patterns
when frontage road improvements to access
Washington Park between Downing Street and
University Boulevard are made. Closure of the
Washington/Emerson Streets north bound off-
ramp and south-bound on-ramp is currently
favored by West Washington Park residents.
d. Improve the I-25/Buchtel Boulevard frontage
ROW owned by RTD in terms of clean-up, main-
tenance, sidewalks and handicapped ramps in
conjunction with nearby residents and the
affected neighborhood associations. Study the
possibility of installing an off-street bike path
along Buchtel Boulevard.
e Reevaluate where new bridges across 1-25 are
placed when old ones are renovated or removed
WWPNA, OPCD, City
Council (CC)
WWPNA, OPCD, CDH
ID, CDH
RTD, ID, WWPNA, West
University Community
Association (WUCA)
CDH, TD, WWPNA, CC
-36-


for mass transit construction and freeway widen-
ing. Encourage construction of a bridge at Pearl
Street to provide neighborhood access to Pearl
Street businesses south of 1-25.
f. Should widening of 1-25 ROW become necessary, WWPNA, OPCD, CDH,
acquire sufficient ROW to provide strong buffer- WUCA, CC
ing room between adjacent lots/streets and high-
way. Avoid "squeezing" residential units next to
ROW by acquiring total parcels and concentrate
acquisition on the south side of 1-25 to maximize
sun exposure to landscaping in consultation with
residents and the West University Community
Association.
TS-8 Implement the new preferred reconstruction TD, WWPNA, DPR
design of the intersection of Bayaud Avenue,
Downing Street and Marion Parkway to increase
safety and accessibility. (See Figures 9 and 10.)
TS-9 Improve traffic signalization in the neighborhood TD
to lessen idling time and air pollution and im-
prove pedestrian signalization.
TS-10 Monitor and enforce traffic speeds on all collec- DPD
tors and arterials.
TS-11 Stripe arterial streets more frequently for better TD
motorist and pedestrian visibility.
2. Parking
a. General Overview and Issues
Except on one-way streets, on-street parking is readily available for the predominantly
single-family residential areas. Lack of parking, both on and off-street, is a problem in the
-37-


commercial areas and higher density multifamily areas where tenants must pqy fees in
addition to their rent. On-site parking is required in multifamily residential developments
to relieve the congestion in the northern sections of the neighborhood.
The major parking problems in the neighborhood occur in and around the South Broadway
business district with parking spilling over into the residential areas. Residents observed
that parking areas that do exist are not perceived to be in convenient locations for shoppers
and business persons alike. Redevelopment projects, such as One Broadway at Ellsworth,
have incorporated on-site parking into the development scheme and this seems to be
working well. On the other hand, other businesses have tried to solve their parking
problems by acquiring lots along Lincoln Street and over the years, the single-family
character of the west side of Lincoln Street is being lost. This presents a sterile view to
property owners on the east side of the street and could be improved by adequate setbacks
and landscaping.
In 1986, the City, in cooperation with South Broadway merchants and residents, conducted
a parking study focusing on south Broadway business parking needs between Third and
Cedar Avenues. The goals of the study were to evaluate existing conditions, project needs
fifteen years into the future, evaluate costs of improvements, identify design elements which
will make parking improvements compatible with the surrounding neighborhood and identify
alternative funding sources to pay for the improvements. The result of the study was a
series of recommendations to improve the parking situation in the north central portion of
the South Broadway business district. The following is a summary of these recommenda-
tions:
Immediate and short-term parking management strategies include:
- Formation of a Parking District;
- Joint use parking agreements between property owners;
- Acquire vacant parcels;
- Residential Permit Program
- Lighting/landscaping of lots;
- Signing of off-street parking;
- Increr jd ticketing towing activities; and
- Prov, designate cpool/vanpool parking.
-38-


Medium-term strategies include:
- Fee parking/merchant validation for off-street lots; and
- Construct additional surface lots.
Long-term strategies include the construction of one or more parking structures.
b. Parking Recommendations
Responsible Parties
P-1 Study the use of street closures adjacent to
Broadway to provide cul-de-sac parking areas for
Broadway businesses.
OPCD, Broadway Busi-
nesses, OBR, WWPNA,
TD
P-2 Enforce one-hour parking signs on streets ad-
jacent to the business areas.
DPD, Parking Manage-
ment Section of the
Transportation Division
(PMSTD)
P-3 Encourage Broadway businesses to establish a
parking district, develop a central parking garage
and implement the recommendations of the
South Broadway Area Parking Study.
OPCD, South Broadway
Businesses
P-4 Maintain on-street resident parking on the east
side of Lincoln Street.
PMSTD, Parking Control
P-5 Research the possibility of increasing safety and PMSTD
visibility at key intersections, by increasing some
no-parking zone lengths, for example, at 2nd and
Logan, Logan and Ohio, Downing at Bayaud and
Bayaud at Ogden.
-39-


3.
Public Transportation Systems
a. Regional Transportation District (RTD)
West Washington Park is served by nine local bus routes. Three of these routes cross
through the interior of the neighborhood, the rest are on arterials at the edges of the
neighborhood. Numerous regional buse§ pass through the neighborhood on Lincoln Street
and Broadway during the business day rush hours. Bus service is generally considered to
be excellent during the peak hours throughout the neighborhood. It remains good on the
edge and arterials in the neighborhood during the entire day but drops off considerably in
the interior during off-peak hours. Lincoln Street and Broadway are also used by RTD to
deadhead buses during the morning peak and evening mrs. Residents objected to this
latter practice and to RTD routing regional buses through the neighborhood and prefer that
all of these buses utilize the freeway system for access into downtown. Other issues
identified were the need for more and larger shelters at popular stops and better
maintenance of the shelters.
b. Future Mass Transit
The neighborhood is well positioned to benefit from the future development of mass transit
in the Denver Metropolitan area. Although shuttles would be necessary for most residents
to get to the stations, proposed mass transit routes along I-25/Buchtel on the neighborhoods
south boundary could easily serve the neighborhood, particularly for regional transportation
needs. An important issue for residents is convenient location and access to these stations.
For some residents it may be more efficient to use the local bus routes to get to downtown
for example, than using mass transit.
Tie station locations fo; the mass transit system have not been specifically identified at this
time. However, the I-25/Buchtel corridor right-of-way (ROW) has generally been identified
to entail a minimum of 230-250 feet of ROW containing 8 traffic lanes, 2 HOV (high
occupancy vehicle) lanes and a transit easement. WWP residents are concerned that
improvement of the corridor include urban design elements that improve the image of the
neighborhood.
-40-


PT-1
PT-2
PT-3
PT-4
PT-5
PT-6
Recommendations
Provide for more and larger bus shelters along
Alameda Avenue and Downing Street and on
other streets where stops are used frequently, e.g.,
at Alameda Avenue and Lincoln Street and at
Hungarian Park. Design shelters with resident
input to fit in with the adjacent uses and ar-
chitecture. Consider designs developed by the
Department of Parks and Recreation.
Improve bus stops by installing concrete stopping
pads, clean and maintain them more frequently
and place a decal in the shelter with the RTD
maintenance phone number.
Retain the bus stop at Downing Street and
Bayaud Avenue on the south side of Bayaud
Avenue.
Designate 1-25 as the mass transit corridor-and
provide for Light Rail Transit (LRT) stations at
Downing and Broadway Streets. Construct LRT
facilities with adequate landscaping and buffering
from existing uses.
Reduce express regional bus traffic along Lincoln
Street by using 1-25 with exits at Colfax Avenue
and the Auraria Parkway. Eliminate regional bus
traffic with improvements to 1-25 corridor.
Reroute "dead-head" buses off of Lincoln Street;
utilize 1-25 corridor only and exit at Colfax
Avenue and the Auraria Parkway.
Responsible Parties
WWPNA, RTD, DPR
RTD
RTD
RTD
RTD
RTD
-41-


fT-.
PT-7 Stabilize traffic volumes in the neighborhood by Residents, Business
supporting efforts to increase mass transit rider- People, WWPNA
ship alternatives for residents.
PT-9
Encourage the use of grade separated crossings RTD, WWPNA, OPCD,
of LRT at major intersections. TD
4. Bicycle Circulation
a. Overview
Bicycle circulation within the neighborhood is excellent with the large number of local
streets available allowing riders to avoid the busy streets. Signed and officially designated
on-street routes are shown on Figure 8. Washington Park offers bicycling routes for
recreation, and access to the Platte River Trail system can be made along Louisiana and
Bayaud Avenues. This access is not clearly marked and no designated on-street path exists.
Improvements to the Mississippi Bridge at Santa Fe can help to improve this route.
Residents noted that another east/west access to this trail is needed. The Cherry
Creel; 'Speer Boulevard bicycle trail is located at the northern border of the neighborhood
can also access the Platte River Trail system to the northeast and the Highline Canal and
Cherry Creek Reservoir system to the southeast.
Pedestrian circulation is adequate since all blocks have sidewalks. Some intersections are
difficult to cross, particularly Marion Parkway at Alameda Avenue and all along Broadway
except at traffic lights. Residents noted that pedestrian accesses across Downing Street to
Washington Park are not well defined. Conflicts between turning movements of cars and
pedestrians crossing the intersection are particularly evident at Downing Street and
Exposition Avenue.
-42-




b.
Recommendations
BP-1
BP-2
BP-3
BP-4
BP-5
Clearly identify with signs and street markings
safe pedestrian and bicycle accesses from the
west to Washington Park at Exposition, Kentucky,
Mississippi and Louisiana Ayenues.
Develop signed connections between the neigh-
borhood and Washington Park to the Cherry
Creek trail system and the South Platte River
trail system utilizing Marion Parkway, Pearl
Street, Logan Street, and Mississippi Avenue and
a proposed overpass connection at Louisiana
Avenue. Improve the Marion Parkway crossing
at Alameda. Designate another east-west connec-
tion to the South Platte River Trail in the vicinity
of Alameda Avenue.
Explore use of alleyways for bike routes.
Improve signage to more clearly designate exist-
ing on-street routes on Kentucky Avenue (east of
Pearl Street), Pearl Street, Bayaud Avenue (west
of Pearl Street) and Downing Street (Bayaud
Avenue to Speer Boulevard).
Add additional on-street bicycle rentes on Logan
Street from 1-25 to Tennessee Avenue, Tennessee
Avenue from Logan to Pearl Streets, and on
Pearl Street from Tennessee to Kentucky
Avenues.
Responsible Parties
OPCD, Department of
Public Works (DPW),
DPR, WWPNA, Property
Owners, TD
DPR, WWPNA, TD,
Washington Park East
Neighborhood Association
(WPENA)
TD, OPCD, WWPNA
OPCD, TD, WWPNA
OPCD, TD, DPR
-44-


BP-6 Construct an off-street bicycle route from Pearl OPCD, TD, DPR
Street to Logan Street on the south side of Speer
Boulevard to funnel bicycle traffic to the Cherry
Creek trail.
BP-7 Construct new off-street bicycle routes on the OPCD, TD, DPW, DPR
north side of Speer Boulevard from Downing to
Broadway to make access to the street system and
Cherry Creek trail easier.
BP-8 Monitor any changes to bicycle traffic routes in WWPNA, DPR
Washington Park proposed in the new master
plan for the park.
BP-9 Improve bicycle route at Cherry Creek bridge TD
crossings on Downing and Logan Streets to
improve safety of bike riders.
BP-10 Improve the at-grade crossing on Marion Parkway TD, DPR
at Alameda for safe bike and pedestrian crossings
by improving lighting and clearly marking the
crossing.
5. Urban Design of the Neighborhood Streets
a. Introduction
The most obvious place to improve the image of West Washington Park is along its major
streets. This issue came up at numerous neighborhood meetings and Broadway, Lincoln and
Logan Streets and Alameda Avenue were identified as streets needing the most attention.
Considerable work by the Office of Planning and Community Development staff and
residents went into formulating the recommendations below and those that appear in the
graphics at the end of this section. Design guidelines for Speer Boulevard currently exist
to guide the City and developers when implementing redevelopment projects.
-45-


The Downing Street, Bayaud Avenue and Marion Parkway intersection was an issue- at
several planning meetings. Residents felt that the intersection needed to be redesigned to
improve the safety of drivers, pedestrians and bicyclists. The existing intersection
configuration shown in Figure 9 and the new design, preferred by residents, shown in
Figure 10. The design in Figure 10 allows a smoother transition for pedestrians and
bicyclists from Downing Street to Marion Parkway by reducing the number of automobile
turning movements at the intersection. .
b. Recommendations
Responsible Parties
UDS-1 Support the implementation of the Speer OPCD, TD, WWPNA,
Boulevard Urban Design Guidelines for public DPR, DLC
and private development of landscaped areas.
UDS-2 Enforce landscaping requirements on new park- OPCD, TD, ZA
ing lots and encourage landscaping and improve-
ment of existing parking lots.
UDS-3 Design and develop neighborhood gateway entry OPCD, TD, CDH,
features on Speer Boulevard at Logan and WWPNA
Downing Streets, on Alameda Avenue at Broad-
way and Downing Streets, Logan and Downing
Streets and at 1-25 on Broadway/Lincoln, Logan,
and Downing Streets. These entry features need
to be designed so that they are compatible with
the neighborhood scale and architecture.
UDS-4 Reconstruct Bayaud Avenue/Downing Street/ OPCD, TD, WPENA,
Marion Parkway intersection preserving the WWPNA, DLDC
historic Marion Parkway as much as possible and
practical, utilizing the proposed landscape con-
cept design (Figure 10); retain the gazebo and as
many existing trees as possible as part of the
design.
-46-


WEST
WASHINGTON
PARK
TORE 9
DOWNING / BAYAUD
/ MARION INTERSECTION
EXISTING)


WEST
WASHINGTON
PARK
FIGURE 10
DOWNING / BAYAUD
/ MARION INTERSECTION
(PROPOSED)
S. DO
wr^iiNp;
ST.
S. MARIO
N P^RBjWAY


UDS-5 Landscape local street accesses to Washington OPCD, TD, DPR
Park on Louisiana, Mississippi, Kentucky, Exposi-
tion, and Virginia Avenues.
UDS-6 Implement the streetscape plan for a new median OPCD, TD, WWPNA,
on wider portions of the street and ROW edges DPR
on Logan Street through the entire neighborhood.
Street trees and landscaping are needed at Logan
Street and 1-25 as part of gateway design.
UDS-7 Develop and implement a streetscape plan for OPCD, TD, WWPNA
Broadway and have the existing streetscape
between First and Cedar Avenues extended
further south.
UDS-8 Encourage ROW and setback landscaping by WWPNA, OPCD
businesses in the neighborhood to integrate them
better with adjacent residential uses.
UDS-9 Plan and implement a streetscape plan for Lin- OPCD, TD, WWPNA
coin Street throughout the neighborhood to aid in
buffering traffic impacts on residences. Require
landscaping of parking lots to enhance the
buffering effect. (See Figure 11, Sheets 1-6.)
C. Lincoln Street Study Overview
The Neighborhood Plan Steering Committee identified Lincoln Street as a very important
part of the neighborhood, for several reasons:
Residents who live there perceive it is the most-traveled part of the neighbor-
hood, and that it bears a tremendous traffic burden.
It is the gateway to both downtown and to the neighborhood, and gives a lasting
impression to the greatest number of people.
-49-


It is the buffer between Broadways business community and the residential
neighborhood.
It has suffered years of use, abuse and neglect, and is most in need of special
attention.
A Lincoln Street Subcommittee walked, the entire length of Lincoln Street, from 1-25 to
Speer Boulevard, and then had several planning meetings with city representatives and two
public meetings with residents of Lincoln Street. The Lincoln Street Subcommittee
presented its recommendations to the Steering Committee, which adopted a final "study,"
summarized in the graphics that follow. The neighborhood envisions that Lincoln Street
become a "quality boulevard" that establishes a visually unified landscape design theme for
the neighborhood. Improvements to the street are to be phased in as resources are
available. Streetscaping improvements are to be made within the existing right-of-way and
are to include tree planting, landscaping, curb, gutter and sidewalk reconstruction, pavement
replacement to concrete (preferably not white in color), grade resetting and pedestrian
crossing definition. Figure 11 (Sheets 1-6) summarizes these recommendations in graphic
form.
D. Transportation Summary'
Figure 12 is a visual compilation of all the key traffic recommendations of this plan. This
graphic is included to give the reader a clearer idea of the neighborhoods intentions for
future transportation development.
F. Urban Design Summary
The urban design graphic (Figure 13) shows, in plan form, the design image envisioned for
the neighborhood. It summarizes the recommendations presented in the text in this section.
-50-


WEST
WASHINGTON
'ARK
FIGURE 11
LINCOLN CORRIDOR
OVERLAY ZONE STUDY
Design: Shrub or fence parking lot and add trees
Stable; preserve character using design guidelines
Do not make Lincoln any wider than necessary.
Consider narrower lanes
l:
Bend future sidewalk to curbside at garage
Consider centering street between existing sidewalks to
get equal widths on tree lawns each side.
Hold the "line" at alley
Create "gateway" in first two blocks Ohio to Center
Look at creating a row of trees, hedges, between
sidewalk and R-O-W- line
Stable; preserve character using design guidelines
Preserve this residential structure as an entrance
monument. Coordinate architectural style of other
monuments to this.
Develop "gateway" monuments to signify entrance to
neighborhood.
Redevelop as open space entry into neighborhood
Consider supplementing landscaping in island.
Develop a pattern and style of enclosed bus stop at
each point where we have enclosed bus stop for
residential Victorian continuity
Look at installing new sidewalks closer to houses to
ru i
0 100 200
SHEET 1
Center
Sherman*


WEST
WASHINGTON
PARK
SHEET2
FIGURE 11
LINCOLN CORRIDOR
OVERLAY ZONE STUDY
Opportunity for residential infill Landscape parking tots,
make sure they are legal; and enforce all codes
Establish guidelines for colors and designs for rehabe
to neighborhood a brick color with white trim. Also,
establish for fencing, etc.
Stable; preserve character using guidelines
Soft stop Decay code enforcement and design
Add bollards, maximize the feel of a curve to slow down
traffic
Develop as mini park
Stable; preserve character using guidelines
Consider removing existing sidewall end ins: inew
one closerto houses to create tree iawn larc: nough
:o grow trees. Both sides of street from Virgi; ;a to Ohio
Develop a plan for boarded up buildings that create
najor negative impact on all of Lincoln
ru i
0 100 200'
Sherman


WEST
WASHINGTON
DARK
SHEET 3
FIGURE 11
LINCOLN CORRIDOR
OVERLAY ZONE STUDY
Stable; preserve character using guidelines
RTD stop needs improvement
Turret Row" if renovated would be delightful small
[ 'istrict residential only save Turret Row [e.g. Historic
l istrict]
Screen parking and car storage using landscaping and
ill. Code enforcement concerning use and junk cars
Develop Victorian style bus stop, set back with sidewalk
front, integrated with PSCo box, garbage, newspaper
3 etc. which would be enclosed
Remove asphalt and restore tree lawn
; ant trees along Alameda from Lincoln to Logan.
Restore tree lawns, both side
phasize design on all four comers
.... ,'te entire intersection "pedestrian friendly"
' 1< with Amoco on appearance
-ook at conducting a design contest with owners, to
r-nrove site
>3 out billboard.

T ovate facade, tree lawn
.
id aen car storage with landscaping walls. Long-term
: residential infill
jrage small "antique row" good transition use -
iserves the character and make rehab feasible.
example of fine streetscape
0 100 200
~iri


WEST
WASHINGTON
PARK
SHEET4
311
20LN CORRIDOR
v vERLAY ZONE STUDY
Improve parking lot screen at World Savings
Screen parking lot using landscaping
Decay problems due to vacant lots etc. on west side of
Lincoln
Design way to prevent auto and pedestrian traffic from
having -cess to alley and liquor store. Code
enforce ent for signs, etc. on back of Broadway stores.
Improve design
Install pedestrian lights, trees, ("streetscape") from alley
to north edge of parking lot
Improve landscape and parking lot design
Reduce curb cuts
Stable, preserve character using guidelines
Structural and decay problems vacant and deteriorating
due to west side vacant lots etc.
Consolidate curb cuts
Screen parking using trees, landscaping
Eliminate unnecessary curb cuts where possible
.andscape needed
nfiil with .esidential units if possible. Design overlay
n the meantime use landscaping to screen parking on
;outh and east tdges also to buffer residential to nonh
mprove code enforcement
N
0 100 200
Maple


SHEETS
^EST
WASHINGTON
DARK
"IGURE 11
JNCOLN CORRIDOR
OVERLAY ZONE STUDY
evelop a neighborhood gateway
r atable; preserve character using guidelines
avelop a theme for every block or two or three, such
as the enclosed porches
i iclosed porches are a beautiful feature that give this
brack distinction encourage it to occur more often!
alls and landscaping to screen parking under apt.
i _.ng on stitts.
bo. .sider rezoning and mixed use of this group of very
im down houses
: en parking lot
V eve chain link fence
curb cut, add landscaping
- .in, landscape parking lot, tree lawn
r ; 'Tt lot/parking Improve code enforcement and
cape
' '
a-'ove small building
g lot design
o_n
0 100 200*
1st Ave.
Sherman


WEST
WASHINGTON
PARK
SHEET 6
FIGURE 11
LINCOLN CORRIDOR
OVERLAY ZONE STUDY

F
r ^


WEST
WASHINGTON
PARK
.GURE12
1ESIDENTS'
fRANSPORTATION
RECOMEND ATIONS
NUMMARY
EDESIGN BARRIER
RREMOVE
ORK ON PERCEPTION
OF LACK OF PARKING
t )OK AT STREET
! ..OSURES AND
CUL-DE-SACS FOR
PARKING
! PROVE PARKING
L.IFORCEMENT
OUTSIDE
IGHBORHOOD
SINESS
f VITALIZATION AREA
BEAUTIFY LOGAN-
S' IEETSCAPE
- IKWAY
RESOLVE PARKING
:: UES-PEAK HOURS
.INSTRUCT
E hOADWAY, LINCOLN
:m CONCRETE (CITY &
:v BOUT KEY
BROADWAY
N^ERSECTIONS FOR
, CROSSINGS
c 3 EXPRESS BUS
HAFFIC ON 1-25 TO
C FAX EXIT
... TRAIL: PREFER
25 '.BOSSING. DO
SUPPORT
BADE
iSINGS. WANT
n^.JE-SEPARATED
ROSSING.
: KPANSION
£ ARCH CLOSING
i AMPS EXCEPT
RC DWAY &
li RSITY. SLIP
*t S FOR ENTRY
iL Y AT EMERSON OR
ARLINGTON.
VE1-25
X AGE ACCESS
DOWNING, FOR
ACCESS TO
-- NGTON PARK
Nr GHBORHOOD WIDE RECOMMENDATIONS
TUNNEL SPEER UNDER
BROADWAY AND
LANDSCAPE DECK ON
TOP. CREATE
NEIGHBORHOOD
GATEWAY.
SAFETY HAZARD-
REDESIGN
INTERSECTION.
NO WIDENING OF
ALAMEDA. REDUCE
TRAFFIC GROWTH.
ENCOURAGE BETTER
DESIGN OF BUS STOPS
AND CLEAN-UP
BEAUTIFY ALL MAJOR
STREET AND
NEIGHBORHOOD
ENTRIES THROUGH
STREET TREES, SOD,
PLANTING AND CLEAN
UP R.O.W.S
SYNCRONIZE VEHICLE
SIGNALS:
-BROADWAY, UNCOLN
-EMERSON, VIRGINIA
-LOGAN BAYAUD
-LOGAN
IMPROVE BUS STOP
LOCATIONS,
REINFORCE, E.G.
ALAMEDA,
BROADWAY, UNCOLN,
DOWNING.
REDUCE TRAFFIC
CONGESTION.
CREATE MORE
BIKEWAYS AND
CONNECTIONS TO
CHERRY CREEK,
SOUTH PLATTE
BIKEWAY AND TO
WASHINGTON PARK
IMPROVE PEDESTRIAN
CROSSINGS
STUDY THE
P0SSIB1UTY OF
LENGTHENING "NO
PARKING" AREA AT
INTERSECTIONS TO
IMPROVE VISIBILITY:
-2ND & LOGAN
-BAYAUD & LOGAN
-BAYAUD & OGDEN
STUDY ONE WAY
STREET TRAFFIC
MITIGATION IDEAS.
RESEARCH IMPACTS
ON BROADWAY,
UNCOLN, DOWNING &
LOGAN
DEVELOP
NEIGHBORHOOD
GATEWAY
CREATE LRT STOP


WEST
WASHINGTON
PARK
FIGURE 13
URBAN DESIGN
Logan streetscape with median,
edge landscaping and gateway
monuments. Future extension
though entire neighborhood.
Encourage Broadway property
owners to provide streetscape
elements including sidewalks,
lighting, landscaping, paving and
street furniture.
Establish Broadway design and
sign theme for storefronts.
Improve building facades which
face existing residences.
Extend existing Broadway
streetscape treatments south
from Cedar.
Implement a Lincoln streetscape
and buffering plan for right-of-
way with curbside planting with
street trees, building setbacks,
and parking placement to the
rear of buildings.
Streetscape treatment along
Pearl Street.
Community and Commercial
activity centers.
^ Adopt proposed Governors Park view ordinance
Preserve view from high point of park.
Create Speer Boulevard design guidelines for private
development.
11 Support implementa^on of Speer Boulevard public design
guidelines^
Ne'ghborhood gateways
Develop design guidelines
for all moderate and high
density residential including
bulk, setbacks, parking,
and architecture issues.
Create zoning district with
design review for all major areas.
Reconstruct the intersection
and preserve the
Downing/Marion historic
parkway including trees and
gazebo.
Maintain and
improve all
historic and
architecturally
significant
structures.
Deliniate park
entrances with
gateway monuments
and landscaping.
1-25 STUDY AREA
Provide significant buffers,
streetscaping and gateway features
if widened.
Re-evaluate new bridges which cross 1-25
Designate as the mass transit corridor.
Evaluate as
neighborhood
gateways.


V. HOUSING
A. Goals
To plan for a mix of people (individuals, families, ages, renters and homeowners and
lifestyles); to permit a mix of housing types; to encourage new housing that is compatible
with the existing housing stock in character, design and scale.
B. Overview of Existing Conditions and Issues
Housing data from the 1986 Office of Planning and Community Developments "Housing
Detail Report" is available for the four city census tracts that make up WWP and is
presented below. The tracts are:
Tract
Number Bordered by:
28.02 Speer Boulevard/Alameda Avenue/Broadway and Pearl Streets
28.03 Speer Boulevard/Alameda Avenue/Pearl and Downing Streets
29.01 Alameda Avenue/I-25/Pearl and Broadway Streets
29.02 Alameda Avenue/I-25/Pearl and Downing Streets
Tract Number
28.02 28.03 29.01 29.02 Total
Total Units 2,823 2,826 1,641 1,987 9,277
Number Single-Family 497 277 733 1442 2,949
% SF* Owner-Occupied 67.8% 78.0% 76.2% . 78.0%
Average Age (SF) 83 yrs. 76 yrs. 80 yrs. 69 yrs.
1986 Number of Sales 44 34 69 118
1986 Ave. Sales Price $77,500 $82,700 $75,800 $93,100
1989 Number of Sales** 19 21 33 72
1989 Ave. Sales Price $63,318 $88,511 $76,070 $92,599
Source: Denver Housing Detail Report 1986
* SF = Single-Family
** 1989 sales data provided by Jim Winzenberg
-54-


The two census tracts closer to Broadway (28.02, 29.01) are considered by residents to be
less stable in relation to long-term owner occupancy structure, maintenance and single-
family property values than the others. These two areas contain most of the R-3 zoned
properties in WWP and the majority of business and commercial properties.
As can be seen from the data presented above, much of the housing stock in WWP is 70 or
more years old. It is no surprise that inadequate property maintenance and management
are concerns, including on-site management, absentee owners, renters, and single-family
homeowners.
Along with maintenance, issues of code enforcement and code violations are of concern.
In reality, code enforcement is a joint responsibility between the city and the residents;
however, overall code enforcement is regarded as less than adequate by the residents. It
is perceived by residents that agencies in charge often do not respond in a timely manner
or at all. Weekend code violations, such as home repairs that require a permit but are
performed without one, are sometimes left uncompleted for long periods of time. Active
enforcement by the city is lacking and penalties for infractions are small.
Other concerns include single-family additions that are architecturally incompatible and
decrease the amount of open space, and the lack of enforcement of the registered agent
ordinance. This ordinance requires an absentee landlord to have a registered agent on file
with the assessors office, giving the City someone to serve in case of a code violation.
Typically this ordinance is enforced by complaint. The background issue of absentee or
nonresident landlords appears to be the crux of this problem.
C. Recommendations
The following action items are divided into two groups, based on the census tract locations.
Tracts 28.02 and 29.01 qualify for a number of federally-funded City programs (based on
income guidelines) not available to the other two census tracts, 28.03 and 29.02. These
j *ams include low interest loans for housing revitalization, exterior rehabilitation, and
t programs administered by the Office of Planning and Community Development
( X>). In addition, the issue of code enforcement is viewed as both a resident and city
a.L cy responsibility. The idea here is to keep code enforcement reasonable to allow
home-' ner repairs and a simple permitting and inspection process. Strict attention should
s given to structures that have serious violations.
-55-


Census Tracts 28.02 and 29.01 Recommendations
H-l Collect data to determine a priority target area to
start improvement work. DATA: number of
HUD foreclosures, recent sales prices, infrastruc-
ture needs, number of subsidized housing, num-
ber of zone change requests, vacant and
abandoned buildings, code enforcement invento-
ry, safety hazards.
H-2 In the priority target area, organize residents,
identify and contact property owners to partici-
pate in code enforcement, clean-up, sponsor
neighborhood self-help and pride-building events.
Start work around a focal point, (e.g., Lincoln
Street, Exposition Avenue and Pearl Street,
schools and churches).
H-3 Implement infrastructure improvements.
H-4 Implement streetscape programs identified in the
plan (coordinate with infrastructure work).
H-5 Work with City agencies to improve response
time, to stiffen financial penalties (e.g., owners of
vacant and abandoned housing), address weekend
code enforcement issues; strengthen the regis-
tered agent ordinance, put liens on property
where owners refuse to respond to citations.
Create penalties/solutions that work.
H-6 Conduct a literature campaign on single- and
multifamily housing programs in focus area (e.g.,
single-family rehab loans at low interest for
Responsible Parties
WWPNA, OPCD, ZA, and
other agencies
WWPNA, ZA, CC
OPCD, PW, WWPNA
OPCD, PW, WWPNA
WWPNA, OPCD, ZA,
other agencies, Police De-
partment
OPCD, DURA, Colorado
Housing and Finance Au-
-56-


H-7
H-8
Census
H-9
H-10
H-ll
t-12
owner occupants; multifamily rental rehab;
homeownership programs, foreclosure and home-
ownership counseling; boarded up housing rehab
program).
Select 5-10 of the least desirable structures within
the focus area to target more aggressively and
publicize it if cooperation is not forthcoming.
Improve architectural design of new facades,
lighting, second story additions. Encourage
single-family additions to keep families in the
neighborhood, but encourage design and charac-
ter compatibility, perhaps through design guide-
lines.
Tracts 28.03 and 29.02 Recommendations
Work to improve overall maintenance of single-
and multifamily structures; enforce codes on
improvement projects.
Organize a neighborhood effort to increase
awareness of property maintenance, increase
pride and hold special events.
Implement streetscape projects identified in
target area study through property owner con-
structed improvements or through city programs.
Further identify and work on infrastructure needs.
thority (CHAFA),
WWPNA
WWPNA
OPCD, WWPNA
Responsible Parties
WWPNA, Code Enforce-
ment Agencies
WWPNA, CC
OPCD, WWPNA, PW, CC
OPCD, WWPNA, PW
-57-


H-13 Encourage additions to single-family structures to OPCD, WWPNA
keep families in the neighborhood; encourage
design and character compatibility, perhaps
through design guidelines.
-58-


VI. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
A. Goals
By fostering neighborhood oriented businesses, improve the environment for business and
development in areas currently zoned for commercial use.
B. Overview of Existing Conditions and Issues
West Washington Park has diverse retail businesses concentrated along South Broadway and
Alameda Avenue and in small pockets throughout the neighborhood. These areas are
shown in Figure 6.
The main retail center along Broadway is between Second Avenue and Bayaud Street,
approximately three blocks in length. Because most of the zoning is B-4, there are a variety
of retail outlets. In addition, the Mayan Theater, the proposed Shops at the Mayan,
Omnibank Southeast, a number of restaurants and office uses make this area quite diverse.
The One Broadway mixed-use PUD on the west side of Broadway is an example of a
successful redevelopment project that is a result of the economic development efforts of the
City and the Metropolitan Denver Local Development Corporation (MDLDC).
Further south on Broadway, between Virginia and Exposition Avenues, is the Interplaza
International Collection, an ambitious redevelopment project of the old Wards building and
adjacent blocks. This mixed-use project has been partially successful and, although
technically outside of the West Washington Park neighborhood boundaries, it affects the
neighborhood due to its proximity to it. Parts of the project, particularly the Design Center,
have been successful, whereas the Wards building is basically still a gutted shell.
Alar-eda Avenue has pockets of commercial development from Broadway to Downing
Street. These commercial areas are struggling. Small and new development projects have
recently been 01 ied at Alameda Avenue and South Logan Streets. The dispersed
commercial areas consist of neighborhood businesses and seem to be holding their own. No
expansion of these areas has occurred in recent years.
The general health of the neighborhoods commercial areas is good but continued efforts
to encourage vacancy infill, up-grading of businesses, business expansion, and increased
-59-


employment opportunities in commercially zoned areas need to be made over the long term.
A commercial vacancy study in March 1990 pinpointed vacant commercial buildings (see
Figure 14). The majority of these occur along South Broadway and Alameda Avenues. The
remainder are scattered along South Pearl Street, south of Alameda and South Pennsylvania
Street, north of Alameda.
In neighborhood meetings, numerous issues concerning economic development in WWP
have been raised, mostly focusing on the Broadway business/commercial area. There is a
general consensus that Broadway business activity needs to be strengthened and that special
attention is needed to maintain its economic vitality. In particular, attention needs to be
given to the Interplaza project to eliminate remaining vacant properties and replace them
with businesses that are neighborhood serving and which strengthen existing businesses along
Broadway. Another issue on Broadway involves the increasing amount of antisocial street
activity by vagrants and loiterers. Humane and legal methods of minimizing this activity
need to be employed in the interests of public safety and improving the shopping image of
Broadway. Parking problems for Broadway businesses need to be solved, with assemblage
of parking areas to encourage increased pedestrian shopping traffic. Along with improved
parking, streetscaping projects are needed to improve the image and attractiveness of
business areas for shopping and continued development. In another image-related area,
vacant business properties are perceived as a blight on the entire neighborhood. Residents
are also opposed to any expansion of business uses along Lincoln Street.
Activities of the Miracle Mile Merchants Association (MMMA) and the MDLDC should
place greater emphasis and focus on economic development, and the MDLDC should
expand their district. The business association needs to be strengthened.
C. Economic Development Recommendations
Responsible Parties
ED-1 Preserve and improve existing commercial areas. EDA, OPCD
Encourage redevelopment of marginal commer-
cial areas into mixed-use projects and provide for
employment opportunities and local services.
-60-


r'-v
WEST
WASHINGTON
PARK
FIGURE 14
VACANT
COMMERCIAL

SOURCE: NORTH
1939 RESIDENT CONDUCTED SURVEY


ED-2
ED-3
ED-4
ED-5
ED-6
ED-7
ED-8
ED-9
Encourage new business infill development in
existing business areas where feasible and oppose
new business development along Lincoln Street
(please refer to policies CB-1 to 14, pp. 21-24; 1-1
and 2, p. 24; LS-1 and 2, p. 26 of this Plan).
Target economic development funds to neigh-
borhood business development.
Implement an extension of the streetscaping
project along Broadway.
Apply for grants under the CNSP program for
specialized business areas at Kentucky Avenue
and Pearl Street, Pearl Street and Alameda
Avenue, and Alameda Avenue and Broadway to
improve streetscaping, visual appearance and
business image.
Develop business directories for neighborhood
business areas to distribute to residents to en-
courage tirordmeighborhood shopping.
Allow compatible low-rise office development in
the area bounded by Speer Boulevard, Broadway
and Fourth Avenue.
Encourage more merchant and business property
owner involvement in city economic development
activities.
Work to minimize the antisocial behavior in the
neighborhood through humane and legal means.
-62-
OPCD, Mayors ..Office of
Economic Development
(MOED), WWPNA
MOED, MMMA
OPCD, Business Owners
Business owners, OPCD,
MOED
WWPNA, Business own-
ers, MDLDC, Washington
Park Community Center
(WPCC)
MOED, OPCD
MOED, OPCD
DPD, WWPNA, Broadway
Business Owners, Dept, of
Health and Hospitals


VII. CODE ENFORCEMENT
A. Goals
Maintain and improve the historic design image of WWP through consistent property
maintenance and improved code enforcement.
B. Overview of Existing Conditions and Issues
West Washington Park is an older, established urban neighborhood with infrastructure as
well as housing stock that averages 70-80 years of age. The infrastructure is in need of
minor to major repair and there are instances where sidewalks have become safety hazards.
A resident-conducted environmental study thoroughly documented locations in WWP that
have been targeted for improvements and gives an overview of sites where code
enforcement actions should be directed (See Figure 15). The survey involved a walk
through the neighborhood and a list of violations of code enforcement rules. Most of the
vacant buildings in WWP are located along Broadway and Lincoln Street.
Areas with deteriorated sidewalks are scattered throughout the neighborhood, typically in
fragments less than a block in length. Some of these fragments include flagstone sidewalks
and property owners wishing to keep these historic style of walk should be allowed to do so
by leveling them and/or replacing: flagstone. Numerous areas have deteriorated right-of-
ways. Approximately 70 percent of the sidewalk comer intersections lack handicap ramps
on either some or all of the comers. Potholes in alleys are also present.
Issues associated with code enforcement in WWP are centered on code violations, image,
historic character, sendees, and infrastructure. An underlying issue involves the maintenance
of a balance between .ne desire of residents to upgrade their properties and doing so within
the rules of the current codes. The city administration can be helpful in working with
residents to make conformance to these rules a matter of common sense and less onerous
from both complia e as well as financial standpoints. All of these areas interrelate and
affect the character of the neighborhood as perceived by the residents and the public. The
most frequently cited code violations are illegally parked vehicles, junk cars, and illegal
second units. Run-down properties and vacant or deteriorated buildings are an eyesore and
detract from the image and value of the neighborhood. Additionally, they can pose a
physical threat, such as fires or as habitation for vagrants. Those structures
-63-


WEST
WASHINGTON
PARK
FIGURE 15
EXISTING
INFRASTRUCTURE
KEY:
1
POTHOLE
HANDICAP
RAMP NEEDED
DETERIORATED
RIGHT OF WAY
DETERIORATED
SIDEWALK
SOURCE:
1989 RESIDENT
CONDUCTED SURVEY
vxa


that are salvageable should be repaired; those that are not should be torn down. Billboards
impact the visual character of WWP, and no new billboards should be permitted. Private
property maintenance needs to be improved, including enforcement of the weed and junk
ordinances. Rega ing services, residents feel that street and alley cleaning and trash
collection needs to L>e improved. Curbs, gutters and sidewalks need repair in many areas.
Alleys exist throughout the neighborhood and they vary in width. Many small garages access
the alleys. In the absence of garages, many residents have built their own off-street parking
areas. The alleys can become filled with trash and are unsightly. Residents have
complained about the general state of the alleys and have noted that better maintenance
is needed. Other issues raised concerning alleys include long-term parked cars which narrow
the alleys and make it difficult for trash trucks to pass, dogs rummaging in open garbage
cans, improved maintenance for the City-owned dumpsters, and providing more automated
dumpster systems where feasible.
C. Code Enforcement Recommendations
Responsible Parties
CE-1 Enforce the zoning code governing illegal second ZA, WWPNA
dwelling units.
CE-2 Improve street and alley cleaning and trash WWPNA, Public Works
collection; consider adding dumpsters where Dept,
feasible.
CE-3 Disallow any additional billboards; remove OPCD, WWPNA, City
existing billboards on South Broadway where Council
feasible.
CE-4 Improve private property maintenance.
WWPNA, Property owners
-65-


CE-5
CE-6
CE-7
CE-8
CE-9
CE-10
CE-11
CE-11
CE-13
Implement improvements recommended in the
neighborhood infrastructure study (handicapped
ramps, alley potholes, streetscape [curb, gutters,
sidewalks], vacant and deteriorated buildings,
deteriorated ROW).
Enforce weed ordinance so weeds are cut to the
required minimum six inches in height.
Consider formation of a code enforcement
committee of the WWPNA to deal with com-
plaints; include city administrative staff.
Maintain flagstone curbs and walks where
possible; encourage flagstone leveling and/or
replacement instead of concrete reconstruction.
Encourage the city to improve the enforcement
provisions of the property maintenance
ordinances. Penalties for multiple violations
should be increased.
Improve alley maintenance to eliminate trash,
potholes, debris and old cars in alley ROW and
on adjacent private property.
Clean dumpsters more often.
Spruce up building facades facing alleys and
encourage better lot maintenance by businesses
along Broadway and other areas where residences
are located across the alley from businesses.
Police and ticket cars parked illegally in alleys.
OPCD, PW, ZA, other
City agencies
ZA, WWPNA
WWPNA
Property owners, Public
Works Dept.
WWPNA
Department of Public
Works (DPW), ZA,
Property Owners
DPW, WWPNA
WWPNA, Neighborhood
Businesses
DPD
-66-


CE-14 Conduct a neighborhood-wide needs and DPW, OPCD, WWPNA,
implementation assessment of the current CC
dumpster program.
CE-15 Provide more dumpsters b: ween Lincoln and DPW
Broadway where desired by residents.
-67-


VIII. PUBLIC FACILITIES AND PARKS
A. Goals
Maintain and improve accessibility to and functionality of public facilities and parks for all
citizens of the neighborhood.
B. Overview of Existing Conditions
Introduction
WWP has an extensive mix of public/quasi-public facilities scattered throughout the
neighborhood. The quality of these facilities and their continued upkeep are important to
the identity of the neighborhood, feelings of pride by residents, and positive perceptions to
visitors and potential investors. Washington Park is the major amenity and is held dear by
the residents. But there are other facilities that also have an important niche in the life of
the neighborhood and contribute to its cohesiveness. Changing circumstances can result in
pressure to adapt certain facilities to other uses. Such plans should be considered very
carefully to ensure continued neighborhood compatibility for new uses.
Facilities Descriptions
1. Public Parks
Washington Park forms the eastern boundary of the neighborhood along Downing Street,
from Virginia to Louisiana Avenues. It was acquired by the City in 1898 and is approxi-
mately 161 acres in size, with two lakes covering 34.5 acres. It is classified as a "city" park
and has nearly every amenity except baseball or softball fields (i.e., indoor pool, rec center,
tennis courts, bike and fitness trails, playgrounds, picnic areas, etc.), allowing a full range
of passive and active recreation. The Department of Parks and Recreation is currently
preparing a master plan for the park. Planned improvements include replacing the
pumphouse, switching from irrigation to an automatic sprinkler system to save water,
rebuilding the central tennis courts, expanding the recreation center weight room, providing
handicapped access, pool improvements and forming a maintenance district. Parking areas
within the park are not planned to be increased. A major issue for residents is spill-over
-68-


parking occurring when the park is used heavily. This has been an irritating issue with
property owners who have lived nearby for many years. The negative impact of speeding
bicyc. traffic in Washington Park is another concern of the residents.
Hungarian Freedom Park at Speer Boulevard and Clarkson Street in the northeast corner
of WWP is a three-acre neighbo rhood park acquired by the City in 1912. This is a passive
park with picnic facilities and features § monument and fountain. This park ties in with
Speer Boulevard and the greenway along Cherry Creek. Alamo Placita Park, although not
in WWP, lies directly north of Hungarian Freedom Park across Speer Boulevard and adds
to the greenway along Cherry Creek.
2. Parkways and Boulevards
Downing Street Parkway connects to Marion Street Parkway and provides an approximately
one-mile long link from Speer Boulevard to the north entrance of Washington Park. Denver
is well known for its parkways, and this portion is an example of the usefulness of this urban
design feature in emphasizing the entryway to the park. Speer Boulevard also is a major
urban design feature in Denver and forms the northern boundary of WWP. The City has
recently embarked upon efforts to preserve and upgrade Speer Boulevard with landscaping,
lighting, and new bridges and bikeways.
3. Schools
Washington Park West residents desire strong neighborhood-serving schools for their
children to attend. Of the five public schools in or adjacent to the neighborhood, two have
been closed. This is an issue with residents since it increases the need for transporting
students out of the neighborhood and sends a negative message to families with school-age
children considering relocating to the neighborhood.
Lincoln Elementary at 715 S. Pearl Street is located in the south central portion of WWP.
It was built in 1891, improved ;n 1904 and 1929. In 1929, the original structure was
removed. The schools site com; es 2.76 acres, and the school has a rated capacity of 473
. tudents. Steele Elementary at S. M; on Parkway is found on the eastern edge of
WWP. Built in 1913, it has a capacity f 494 students with a 3.68-acre site. The
neigh -orhood identified the need for the City and Denver Public Schools to work together
-69-


to landscape the property better by providing street trees and an irrigation system for better
maintenance. Both these schools are among the oldest in the city.
Byers Alternative Learning Center, now a private school on Pearl Street between Bayaud
and Cedar Avenues, occupies an entire block. A fenced playground area about one-half
block in size is located diagonally southwest of the school at Cedar Avenue and Pennsylva-
nia Street. The neighborhood desires that this area remain open and become a park or
garden area should the Denver Public School District (DPS) consider redevelopment of the
school buildings.
Other private institutions in WWP include the Montessori Child Development Center at 400
S. Logan Street and St. Francis DeSales Catholic School at 235 S. Sherman Street.
Sherman School, at the northeast comer of Second Avenue and Grant Street, is a former
public school consisting of two buildings on a 24,000-square-foot property. The school was
built in 1896 and in 1924 an annex was built. The building could be a candidate for historic
structure status. The Sherman School property is owned by DPS and includes 9-1/2 lots on
the west side of Grant (currently a community garden) zoned R-3 and approximately 11 lots
on the east side zoned PUD. Currently the school is occupied by two tenants, the Grant
Street Arts Center and Horizon Dance Studio. DPS has announced it wishes to sell the
property and will consider breaking the parcels into two packages. The parking area for the
community gardens needs to be maintained.
The nearest middle school to WWP is Grant Junior High at 1751 S. Washington Street and
the closest high school is South Senior High at 1700 E. Louisiana Avenue, opposite the
south end of Washington Park.
The compatibility of existing and former school grounds and facilities with the neighborhood
is a concern. The grounds and facilities are stark and landscaping (aside from the front
lawns) is not well maintained. The playground at Byers Jr. High is a particular source of
consternation to the neighbors. It is a weed-infested eyesore that is not maintained by the
public school system. There is also a concern about the future of Sherman School and how
this facility can be preserved and reused in a compatible manner. In conjunction with
Sherman School, the residents want the community garden to remain there and those at
other locations to be maintained.
-70-


4. Community Centers
Washington Park Community Center is located at 809 S. Washington Street in a one-stoiy
brick building of 6,610 square feet. The building is owned by the City and leased to
Washington Park Community Center, Inc. at an annual cost of one dollar. The center offers
senior, preschool, ; id family programs, plus summer camp and informal education. It is
also available for neighborhood and organizational meetings and special classes. The
diversity of activities available at the center and the frequency of its use is a source of pride
for neighborhood residents.
5. Police and Fire Stations
Although part of the Police District 4, the nearest police facility is the District 3 Station, ten
blocks east of the neighborhood at 1625 S. University Boulevard. The District 4 Station is
at 2100 S. Clay Street. Two fire stations are located on the edges of the neighborhood:
Station 11 just west of Broadway at 40 W. Second Avenue and Station 21, east of Marion
Parkway at 1580 E. Virginia Avenue. City crime statistics by neighborhood place WWP at
number 40 out of 68, with 94.3 total offenses per 1,000 people.
6. Churches
The neighborhood is well served by several churches located throughout the area,
representing many denominations.
7. Library
The Ross-Broadway Brt Th Library, located at the northwest omer of Lincoln and Bayaud,
is part of the Denver p. ; library system. The library is named after Frederick R. Ross,
who donated the money tor the construction of this library and several others throughout
the city. The library was built in 1951 and was modeled after the Prairie style of
architecture epitomized by Frank Lloyd Wright. It was designed by noted local architect,
Victor Hombein. The building has approximately 3,585 square feet of space on one floor.
Designed to hold 10,000 volumes, the collection is currently at 19,000 volumes which is
curre v overcrowding ihe building. Library patrons have access through a centralized
coir. r system to al .he volumes in the Denver library system, located at the central
libra: ji at other branch facilities, totaling 3.8 million items, with overnight delivery.
-71-


The Ross-Broadway branch is primarily a neighborhood library, serving patrons within about
a 3-mile radius. The library is open five days a week, closed on Thursdays and Sundays.
It is a full-service branch library, offering numerous services including telephone reference,
book renewal by phone, books on tape and in Spanish, large print books, free story times
and programs for children, a gay and lesbian theme collection, and many others. The library
currently does not have any type of meeting room or auditorium.
C. Public Facilities Recommendations
Responsible Parties
PFP-1 Develop and implement plans to improve the OPCD, WWPNA DPS
landscaping and maintenance of public school
grounds.
PFP-2 Work to preserve Sherman School uses and OPCD, WWPNA, DPS,
structures in a way compatible with the surround- CC
ing neighborhood.
PFP-3 Look at options for increasing the amount of OPCD, WWPNA, DPR
open space in the neighborhood for the devel-
opment of more pocket parks.
PFP-4 Encourage the continuation of community gar- WWPNA OPCD, DPR,
dens. CC
PFP-5 Consider development of a bike trail facility for DPR
training and racing at another park or in un-
developed areas of the city to relieve pressure on
the use of Washington Park for these activities.
PFP-6 Research collecting unused parcels, triangles, OPCD, DPR
ROW, etc., along 1-25 to make a linear park and
trails.
-72-


PFP-7
PFP-8
Work with the city to up-grade and expand the
Ross-Broadway library to accommodate a com-
munity meeting room and more books.
Work with Parks and Recreation Department on
the new Master Plan for Washington Park.
Resolve issues dealing with parking, automobile
circulation and speeding bicycles.
WWPNA, Denver Public
Library (DPL), City Coun-
cil Representative
WWPNA, OPCD, DPR
-73-


APPENDIX A
1. Neighborhood Planning
Neighborhood planning is a collaborative process between the City, citizens, and property
owners of a particular area which actively solicits participation in the formulation of a plan
for that neighborhood. The process enunciates goals, identifies and discusses issues,
generates and tests alternative ways to achieve the desired ends, proposes a plan for the
area, and spells out policy changes and investments that should be implemented to help
realize that goal. It is a forum in which people initiate rather than react to change, and in
which the various interest groups within a neighborhood, who may have different goals, work
out their differences to arrive at a mutually satisfactory plan. The private-public partnership
is essential to the ultimate success of the venture.
2. West Washington Park Neighborhood Planning Process
The planning process used to develop this plan was open and interactive with the residents
and business people in the neighborhood. It was started at the request of Councilman Dave
Doering of District 7 and the West Washington Park Neighborhood Association (WWPNA)
Board of Directors. Both Councilman Doering and the WWPNA Board felt that the
existing neighborhood character was being threatened as a result of rezoning pressure and
a lack of direction regarding development and design of vacant and underdeveloped
properties.
A volunteer steering committee was organized consisting of residents, business people, and
public agency representatives to oversee the development of the plan. Coordination and
technical assistance for plan development was provided by the Neighborhood Planning
Division of the Office of Planning and Community Development. The steering committee
representatives were geographically dispersed throughout the neighborhood and represented
a diverse mix of ages and backgrounds. All meetings were open to the public and many
individuals not on the plan committee also participated.
A-l


'1 February 1989, the first large neighborhood public meeting was held. A series of steering
mmittee meetings were held over the course of fifteen months by the committee to discuss
issues, determine p als and 2velop a common vision for the neighborhood under the
following priority topics:
land use and zoning
traffic and transportation
housing
economic development
code enforcement
parks and public facilities
urban design
These discussions led to preparation of drafts of the plan and this final document. Early in
the process, meetings were held in different sections of the neighborhood as a means of
getting f 2 maximum amount of public involvement in the process and to clearly identify
neighborhood issues.
The plan development process concluded with a subcommittee, plus support from the Office
of Planning and Community Development, preparing the initial plan draft. The Steering
Committee subsequently reviewed the draft plan prior to the formal public hearing. The
Denver Planning Boards public hearing was then held on November 14,1990, and the plan
was adopted by the Denver City Council on January 14, 1991.
A-2


APPENDIX B
Existing Zoning Description
The map on page 13 shows the existing zoning for West Washington Park. Currently the
neighborhood is divided into 11 zoning, districts and three Planned Unit Developments
(PUD). These zone districts and their principal puiposes are taken from the Denver Zoning
Code and summarized below:
Residential
Zone District Purpose
R-l (Single Family) Single-Unit Detached Dwellings; home occu-
pations and room renting allowed
R-2 (Duplex) Single-Unit Detached Dwellings, Multi-Unit
Dwellings, Low Density, typically duplexes and
triplexes
R-3 (High Density Residential) High Density Apartment District
R-3X (High Density Residen- High Density Apartment District intended to
tial) encourage new residential development in older
developed areas
R-4 (Very High Intensity Very High Density Apartment and Office District
Residential or Office) - allows hotel and motel uses and limited
accessory retail shopping
Commercial:
B-l (Limited Office)
Limited Office District, primarily for medical and
dental care
B-l


B-2 (Convenience Retail) Neighborhood Business District convenience
goods and personal services
B-4 (General Business District) General Business District wide variety of
commercial uses
B-8 (Intensive, Very High Intensive General Business/Very High Density
Density/Warehouse) . Residential District concentration of uses
designed to be served by mass transit
P-1 (Parking) Parking, off-street parking district, buffer between
business and residential uses
Industrial:
1-0 (Light Industrial) Light Industrial District, limited manufacturing,
wholesale and retail and offices and
motels/transitionbetweenintensiveindustrial and
residential
PUD (Planned Unit Develop- Dairy facilities and equipment/vehicle storage
ment) -- Royal Crest Dairy; School adaptive reuse
- Sherman School; Television station complex
(KUSA-9) Logan and Speer.
B-2


APPENDIX C
Historic Preservation
1. General Overview of Historic Preservation
As seen elsewhere in this plan, preservation of the historic structures and districts, the
feeling and setting of the West Washington Park Neighborhood takes a high priority among
the concerns of its residents. Planning for the neighborhoods development should focus on
the valuable architectural and landscape characteristics that remain in it. Information is
needed about the historic context of the neighborhood, a thorough survey and inventory is
a necessity, and the identification and application for designation of worthy properties to the
Denver Landmarks Commission and the National Register of Historic Places needs to be
accomplished.
2. Denver Landmark Preservation Ordinance
In 1967, the City of Denver made a major commitment to historic preservation in the
community by passing the Denver Landmark Preservation Ordinance. The preamble of the
ordinance states: "It is hereby declared as a matter of public policy that the protection,
enhancement, perpetuation, and use of structures and districts of historic, architectural, and
geographic significance, located within the city, is a public necessity and is required in the
interest of the prosperity, civic pride, and general welfare of the people." The Citys
commitment to preservation was reiterated in the 1989 Denver Comprehensive Plan.
This ordinance establishes, with subsequent amendments, a framework for the orderly
planning and development of historic districts in the city. The ordinance contains three
main provisions: 1) procedures to designate local historic districts or landmarks, 2) the
organization of a Landmarks Commission, 3) review and monitor alterations to local historic
properties. The Landmark Preservation Commission is appointed by the Mayor and has
specialists with knowledge of or interest in historic preservation. The Commission serves
to promote preservation in the City and to assist in the identification and survey of
properties and districts worthy of Landmark status.
C-l


The landmark ordinance is a protection tool which allows the public and the City a certain
flexibility in preservation matters. Property owners can, for example, avail themselves of
landmark status without reference to the federal government and the National Register.
The local landmark designation procedure can be swifter than listing on the National
Register.
Like other historic neighborhoods in D.enver, the West Washington Park Neighborhood
should request the assistance of the Landmark Commission to help preserve historic
resources. The neighborhood and Commission should work together to complete a thorough
survey and inventory of the neighborhood, identify significant or exemplary properties, and
provide information about preservation options. If desired, an ordinance could be applied
to help preserve the character and architecture of a significant historic district.
3. National Register of Historic Places
Besides recommending designation of City Landmarks, the Landmark Commission reviews
nominations to the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register is a federal
designation, which lists historic properties worthy of preservation. The process for
designation includes review by the Landmark Commission, the Colorado State Historic
Preservation Officer at the Colorado Historical Society, and the federal Keeper of the
National Register. Owner consent must be given before a privately owned historic property
can be listed.
The West Washington Park Neighborhood has seven properties on the National Register
and has one property eligible for the Register, which to date has only been designated a city
Landmark:
The Smith Ditch, which flows through Washington Park, was listed on the
National Register on October 8, 1976. It was built as an early irrigation ditch
and later served the Citys municipal needs.
The Eugene Field House was moved to Washington Park and was listed on the
National Register November 1, 1974. It commemorates Denvers beloved
rhildrens poet and journalist.


Washington Park was listed on the National Register September, 17, 1986.
Though the City purchased the land in 1898, Washington Park gained its present
configuration during the tenure of Mayor Speer and the "City Beautiful"
movement of the early 1900s. The significant parts of the park include the
Washington Park Boating Pavilion (1913) designed by the eccentric architect
Jules Jacques Benois Benedict; the statue of Wynken, Blynken, and Nod, the
children sailing in a wooden shoe in Eugene Fields famous poem; and the
designed park landscape.
Washington Park was listed as part of a thematic nomination of properties
associated with the "Denver Parks and Parkway System." These other properties
in the neighborhood were listed as part of this system: Hungarian Freedom
Park, Speer Boulevard and South Marion Street. All were listed September 17,
1986.
The Norman Apartment Building at 99 South Downing was listed on the
National Register on December 22,1983. It is representative of early twentieth
century apartment houses.
The Mayan Theater, though not on the National Register, is a designated
Denver Landmark. Built in 1930, the Mayan Theater is one of the best
remaining examples of the big, elaborate movie houses of the 1920s and 1930s.
The theater is adorned with Mayan warriors and has rich details of polychrome
terra cotta. Replicas of Aztec images in the interior and a blocky temple form
add to the Mayan Revival architecture of the movie palace reopened in 1985.
Denver Landmark status is conferred, upon application by any person or group of persons,
by vote of the Denver Landmark Commission. The Commission recommends designation
to the Mayor and City Council. Designation is by ordinance, like zoning. Properties must
possess significance and integrity as defined by the National Register of Historic Places
criteria. Properties do not have to be listed on the National Register.
The Neighborhood could initiate, either through the Landmarks Commission or some other
preservation group, a thorough survey of the neighborhood. In 1981 a minimal
reconnaissance-level survey of the neighborhood was published by the city as part of the
Historic Building Inventory. City and County of Denver. This report lacks much. A new
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survey should be undertaken. All historic properties should be identified using..standard
professional guidelines for the survey and inventory of historic properties.
The Broadway Avenue "Miracle Mile" should receive high priority as well as representative
blocks of Queen Anne and Bungalow residences.
Once individual properties or districts ar;e identified, National Register of Historic Places
nomination forms should be completed and submitted to the city, under the Certified Local
Government Program, and to the State for review, comment and forwarding to the Federal
Keeper of the National Register.
4. Denver Certified Local Government
On September 23, 1985, the City of Denver became a Certified Local Government (CLG).
This program was developed by the National Park Service and is administered by the
Colorado State Historic Preservation Office to assist local preservation efforts through
matching grants. Cities must pass acceptable historic preservation ordinances, convene
historic commissions, and identify historic properties in order to become CLGs.
Ten percent of the federal preservation annual historic preservation grant to the State must
be passed through to CLGs (an estimated $50,000 for 1991). The City of Denver may apply
for a share of these funds to conduct such projects as survey and inventory of historic
properties, preservation education programs, or workshops. As part of Denver, the West
Washington Park Neighborhood is eligible to apply through the Denver CLG (Landmarks
Commission) for a grant-funded preservation project.
The West Washington Park Neighborhood should receive high priority from the Denver
CLG for funding a thorough survey and inventory of historic properties. The history,
characteristics and architecture of the neighborhood has not received a share of the study
monies made available to the City. It is time to request funds and expertise to accomplish
the goals of completing an historic context, survey and inventory and nomination of
properties to either the National Register or City Landmarks. A portion of the funds could
be used for compiling illustrated design guidelines.
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5.
Other Public Incentives for Historic Preservation
Besides the grants awarded to the Denver CLG, other grants are available directly to the
State for preservation projects such as survey and inventories and preservation of historic
properties. If funds are requested for restoration work, the property must be on the
National Register. Because funds are very limited for grants for restoration projects, owners
of historic structures have utilized the t§x incentives.
Tax incentives for historic preservation are available both from the State and federal
government for the rehabilitation of commercial properties. The investment tax credits,
again, are available only for historic properties considered eligible for or already on the
National Register. State tax incentives are available to properties designated historically
significant by local entities. These State tax incentives went into effect January 1,1991 and
are available to commercial properties as well as owner-occupied residences.
No properties in the West Washington Park Neighborhood have utilized the grants or tax
credits. A survey of the neighborhood could identify numbers of historic properties eligible
for these public incentives. Information about preservation incentives is available at the
State Historic Preservation Office at the Colorado History Museum on Broadway at 13th.
As part of the survey and inventory project, information about federal and State
preservation incentives should be mailed or handed to all residents and property owners.
6. Public Awareness of Historic Preservation
Our societys attitude has become increasingly more positive towards preservation and the
movement has become a mainstream activity. This interest is shown on the local level as
well. As described above, the City of Denver has adopted several ordinances to promote
preservation. Also as described above, the Federal government during the same period has
provided new techniques, tax advantages, and monies for preservation projects.
The neighborhood has also worked to improve awareness of the history and architecture of
the area by supporting Preservation Week activities held in May, usually through walking
tours, by providing a forum for preservation discussions as seen by several public meetings
held in the neighborhood specifically on preservation issues, and, finally, by incorporating
into this plan the concerns over historic preservation issues.
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Many homes are being rehabilitated by their owners and other owners desire information
on how to appropriately and sympathetically renovate their homes and businesses.
Illustrated design guidelines or a similar document should be prepared to help property
owners in their rehabilitation work. The standards for historic preservation are in the
Secretary of Interiors "Standards for Historic Preservation Projects." These give general
guidance. Design guidelines developed for the neighborhood will help home owners build
compatible new additions and preserve the character-defining elements of the
neighborhoods architecture.
The Neighborhood should continue its support of walking tours and public meetings. A self-
guided tour could be developed in conjunction with the Denver Landmark Commission on
all significant properties in South Denver. This tour could feature community leaders,
significant buildings, sites of historic events that took place in the area, architectural styles,
historic streetscapes, scenic views, etc. The potential to educate -- and entertain the
public while increasing awareness, familiarity and appreciation of Washington Park could
produce long-lasting dividends for the neighborhood and the city.
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Full Text

PAGE 1

WEST WASHINGTON PARK NEIGHBORHOOD PLAN PLANNING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT OFFICE CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER FALL 1991

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I I ,. I West Washington Park Neighborhood Planning Steering Committee and Other Participants Steering Committee: Councilman Dave Doering and Judy Rocciano, Staff Assistant Chairperson, Craig Karn Vice Chairperson, Carol Clinkenbeard Secretary, Lawrence Depenbusch. Jane Craft John Desmond Gertie Grant Sarah Jones Keith Krebs Charlie Myers Jessica McMillan Joan and Chuck Newton Barbara Paul Mary Schuh James Stratis James Winzenburg Other Participants: Steve Autry Dave Beus, Business Representative Lisa Chalmers Joe J. DeLeo Tony Gengaro, Business Representative Bob Hamppi, Business Representative Maurice Head Frank Martinez Margaret Poland Theresa Pytell Doug Reed Gordon Shaw Diane Shortsleeve City Staff: Susan Foley, Senior City Planner and Project Manager Denver Planning and Community Development Office Billie Bramhall, Deputy Director of Neighborhood PlanningDenver Planning and Community Development Office Frank Gray, Director of Planning and Development The Honorable Federico Pefta, Mayor Consultant Assistant with Plan Preparation: Frederick G. Fox, AICP Foxfire Community Planning and Development History Section written by Millie Van Wyke Historic Preservation Information (Appendix C) written by Bob Spude

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Acknowledgements (continued) Special thanks to Dennis Royer and Bob Dorroh with Denver Department of Public Works (DPW) for their numerous hours of assistance with traffic and transportation issues; Dick Farley and Mark Leese, Denver Office of Planning and Community Development (OPCD) and DPW for extensive urban design assistance; and Doug Hendrixson, OPCD, and Kent Strapko, Zoning Administration, for providing technical assistance on zoning issues. Special thanks goes out to Bob Francella, Director of the Washington Park Community Center for his support in hosting all the meetings at the Center. r ; I, i ,_

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West Washington Park Neighborhood Plan Table of Contents I. INTRODUCTION ............................................. 1 A The Neighborhood's Vision"for the Future ....................... 1 B. Location and Description . . . . . . . . . 2 C. Use of the Plan . . . . . . . . . . 4 II. EARLY HISTORY OF \VEST WASHINGTON PARK ................... 6 A Broadway and Its Early Settlers . . . . . . . 6 B. "Rapid Transit" . . . . . . . . . . 6 C. Saloons and the Town of South Denver . . . . . . 7 D. l..andmarks . . . . . . . . . . . 8 E. Washington Park . . . . . . . . . . 8 III. lAND USE P.LAN .................... ,. .. . . . . . 9 A Goal ................................................... 9 B. Neighborhood-wide Land Use Plan ............................ 9 1. Overview of Existing Land Use and Issues ................... 9 2. Neighborhood-wide Land Use Recommendations ............. 15 C. Residentiall..and Use Plan . . . . . . . . 16 1. Existing Residential Land Use and Issues . . . . 16 2. Residential l..and Use Recommendations . . . . 17 D. Commercial Land Use Plan ................................. 18 1. Existing Commercial Land Use and Issues .................. 18 2. Commercial/Business Land Use Recommendations ........... 21 E. Industrial Land Use Plan . . . . . . . . 24 1. Existing Industrial Land Use and Issues . . . . . 24 2. Industrial Land Use Recommendations . . . . . 24 F. Public Uses . . . . . . . . . . . 25

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Table of Contents (Continued) G. Lincoln Street Special Area ................................. 25 1. Lincoln Street Existing Conditions and Issues . . . . 25 2. Lincoln Street Special Area Recommendations . . . 26 IV. TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTAT-ION .............................. 28A Goals ................................................. 28 B. Overview of Existing Circulation, Transportation Systems and Issues . . . . . . . 28 1. Circulation System . . . . . . . . . 28 a. Introduction . . . . . . . . . 28 b. One-Way Street System .............................. 29 c. General Street System . . . . . . . 29 d. Traffic Levels ..................................... 31 e. Circulation System Recommendations . . . . 33 2. Parking . . . . . . . . . . . 37 a. General Overview and Issues .......................... 37 b. Parking Recommendations . . . . . . 39 3. Public Transportation Systems . . . . . . 40 a. RID ............................................ 40 b. Future Mass Transit . . . . . . . . 40 c. Recommendations .................................. 41 4. Bicycle Circulation . . . . . . . . . 42 a. Overview .................. :. . . . . . 42 b. Recommendations . . . . . . . . 44 5. Urban Design of the Neighborhood Streets .......... . 45 a. Introduction . . . . . . . . . 45 b. Recommendations . . . . . . . . 46 C. IJncoln Street Study Overview . . . . . . . 49 D. Transportation Summaryy .................................. 50 F. Urban Design Summary .................................... 50 V. HOUSING . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 A Goals ............... . . . . . . . . 54 Overview of Existing Conditions and Issues . . . . . 54 Recommendations ... . . . . . . . . . 55 Census Tracts 28.02 and 29.01 . . . . . . . 56 Census Tracts 28.03 and 29.02 ............................... 57 r

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Table of Contents (Continued) VI. ECONOMIC DEVELOPME:!'.TT . . . . . . . . 59 A. Goals ................................................. 59 B. Overview of Existing Conditions and Issues ..................... 59 C. Economic Development Recommendations . . . . . 60 VII. CODE ENFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . 63 A Goals ................................................. 63 B. Overview of Existing Conditions and Issues . . . . . 63 C. Code Enforcement Recommendations ........ . . . . 65 VIII. PUBLIC FACILITIES AND PARKS .............................. 68 A. Goals ................................................. 68 B. Overview of Existing Conditions and Issues . . . . . 68 Introduction . . . . . .. . . . . . 68 Facilities Description . . . . . . . . . 68 1. Public Parks . . . . . . . . . . 68 2. Parkways and Boulevards ....... : : .. . . . . . 69 3. Schools . . . . . . . . . . . 69 4. Community Centers . . . . . . . . 71 5. Police and Fire Stations . . . . . . . . 71 6. Churches . . . . . . . . . . 71 7. Library . . . . . . . . . . . 71 C. Public Facilities Recommendations . . . . . . 72 APPENDIX A 1. 2. ......................... A-1 Neighborhood Planning ............................... A-1 West Washington Park Planning Process ................... A-1 APPENDIX B --Existing Zoning Descriptions . . . . . . B-1 APPENDIX C --Historic Preservation . . . . . . . . C-1 1. General Overview of Historic Preservation . . . . C-1 2. Denver Landmark Preservation Ordinance . . . . C-1 3. National Register of Historic Places . . . . . C-2 4. Denver Certified Local Government . . . . . C-4 5. Other Public Incentives for Historic Preservation . . . C-5 6. Public Awareness of Historic Preservation . . . . C-5

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List of Figure 1. I..ocation . . . . . . .. . . . . 3 Figure 2. l..andmarks . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Figure 3. Existing !..and Use . . . . . . . . . 10 Figure 4. Exi to Z 0 13 s 1ng omng ....................................... Figure 5. Mountain View Preservation .............................. 14 Figure 6. Existing Commercial !..and Use ............................ 20 Figure 7. Traffic Count and Street Classification . . . . . 32 Figure 8. Bicycle Trail System . . . . . . . . . 43 Figure 9. Downing/Bayaud/Marion Intersection (Existing) .............. 0 47 Figure 10. Downing/Bayaud/Marion Intersection (Proposed) 0 0 48 Figure 11. Uncoln Corridor Overlay Zone Study (Sheets 1-6) o 0 0 0 0 51 Figure 12. Summary of Residents' Transportation Recommendations . . 52 Figure 13. Urban Design ........ 0 53 Figure 14. -/acant Commercial ...... o 61 Figure 15. Existing Infrastructure . . . . . . . . 64

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I. INTRODUCTION WEST WASlllNGTON PARK NEIGHBORHOOD PLAN Denver, Colorado A. The Neighborhood's Vision for the Future The future vision for West Washington Park Neighborhood (WWPN) is to preserve and enhance the following positive qualities that make the neighborhood a unique place to live and work. Those qualities are: The diversity of people (ages, economic mix, lifestyle choices). The historic buildings and diversity of residential architectural styles. The mature trees and landscaping, tree replacement programs and flower gardens. The land use mix at a human scale and urban character of the neighborhood. The "small town environment" with people on the streets, enjoying a sense of safety, recreation opportunities, public facilities, shops and jobs, all within walking distance. The convenient location relative to transportation lines, downtown Denver, good schools, mountains and mountain views, highways, parks and parkways and small neighborhood businesses. The high level of energy, interaction, cooperation and enthusiasm, among residents and business people, which has fostered pride and a feeling of community in the neighborhood. -1-

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The stable neighborhood character resulting from long time and business people who are committed to the area. Residents, business people ard city representatives envision tremendous potential for the neighborhood by building on these characteristics. Neighborhood meetings have established the following priority topics: land use and zoning traffic and transportation housing economic development code enforcement parks and public facilities urban design of all of the above In the future, the residents wish to distinguish a unique urban design character for the neighborhood. The urban design character incorporates unique physical features of the neighborhood, enhances its existing architectural character, and distinguishes entry points into the neighborhood and to Washington Park, the neighborhood's namesake. In addition, design guidelines are to be used that will increase the compatibility between different residential building types, e.g., single-family detached and high-rise structures. B. Location and Description The WWPN is bounded by Speer Boulevard on the north, 1-25 on the south, the east face block of South Broadway on the west and South Downing Street and Washington Park on the east (see Figure 1). Its general shape is that of a parallelogram with strong boundary edges defined by the park and the arterial streets which surround it. The neighborhood is primarily residential in char: -ter and in the '50s and '60s was partially redeveloped into higher density residential .s north of Alameda Avenue. The central and southern portions are among t e most stable single-family detached housing stock in the city, characterized prirnari1 .y brick bungalows mixed with two-story structures of the "Victorian" and Square' ;ety. With the exception of Downing Street, businesses generally line the arterials in th .. eighborhood and otherwise are scattered in distinct nodes -2-

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WEST WASHINGTON PARK WEST WASHINGTON PARK 1--.. NORTHEAST PARK HILL

PAGE 11

throughout the neighborhood. The most distinctive feature of the neighblrhood is Washington Park on its eastern edge. Other neighborhood features are noted on Figure 2. This 25-square-block park offers recreation opportunities not only to neighborhood residents. but to residents of surrounding neighborhoods and others from the Denver metro area who visit this park for recreation and relaxation. C. Use of the Plan The plan presents the best thinking of the city and neighborhood and provides a city approved guide to the acceptable future physical development of the neighborhood. It is intended for use by the Office of Planning and Community Development, the Denver Planning Board, the Mayor, City Council, and other governmental agencies, residents, property owners, business people and private organizations concerned with planning, deveivpment, and neighborhood improvement. The plan is neither an official zone map nor does it imply or deny any implicit rights to a particular zone. Zone changes that may be proposed by property owners as part of any plan must be initiated under a separate procedure established under the City and County of Denver Municipal Code. This p1an is intended to promote patterns of land use, urban design, circulation and services that contribute to the economic, social, and physical health, safety and welfare of the people who live and work in the neighborhood. The neighborhood plan addresses issues and opportunities at a scale that is more refined and more. responsive to specific needs than the city's Comprehensive Plan. The neighborhood plan serves as a component of that document. -4-. r,

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IGURE 2 LANDMARKS WASHINGTON PARK

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II. EARLY HISTORY OF WEST WASHINGTON PARK A. Broadway and Its EarlY Settlers Truck gardeners and farmers who supplied Denver with fruits and vegetables in the 1860s bad no efficient way to transport that produce to the city from their orchards and gardens far to the south of Cherry Creek. Finally; in 1871, a frustrated Thomas Skerritt and his sons hitched a team of horses to a heavy wagon, locked its hind wheels, and cut a straight track from Hampden Avenue to Cherry Creek, dragging a heavy log back and forth several times over the 100-foot-wide "Broad Way" to level it. The Skerritts then graded the banks of Cherry Creek down and laid heavy planks across the creek's roadbed so wagons could cross without sinking into the sand. Above this bridge they added a plank walk for pedestrians. With a fine, tree-lined boulevard and access to Denver via the new wooden bridge, settlers who had congregatt along Broadway between the creek and Alameda Avenue established the beginnings of a permanent community of mostly truck gardens and homes. In 1881, Avery Gallup built a "country estate" and acres of greenhouses at Alameda and Broadway, and William Butters opened the first grocery store near First Avenue. But, to their dismay the Cherry Creek bridge and the inviting new street beyond also caught the eye of saloon proprietors, and these early home owners were only partially successful in keeping the bated taverns from crawling up Broadway into their B. "Rapid Transit" William AH. Loveland built the narrow gauge Denver Circle Railroad through South Denver in 1881, h( :ng to build entire communities on land his company owned along the line; its tracks began at Larimer Street, ran east on Bayaud Avenue, turned south again at Kansas (Logan) Street, and ended at Jewell Avenue. At 5 cents a ride much faster than horse and buggy, railroad was popular, but did not convince buyers to purchase lots so far out in the To increase usage of the train, Loveland and m:llionaire stockholder Horace Tabor decided to erect some enticements along the line. They convinced Denver's leaders to 10ld a Mining and Industrial Exposition on 40 acres of land along t.he raJ: ")ad between Broadway and Logan Streets and Virginia and Expositior Avenues. Arc: ct Willoughby J. Edbrooke designed a stunning two-story e:'(t:ibit hall of nearly 150,000 sq :e feet, and thousands of spectators came to see the gold silver exhibits when the st f.

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mining exhibition opened in 1881. Loveland later developed the fabulous Jewell Park (r{ow Overland) and extended the tracks west on Jewell Avenue into the resort, but the Denver Circle went bankrupt in 1887. About the same time, former Governor John Evans built a standard gauge train track through the town. The Denver and New Orleans Railroad originated downtown in 1882, went south along the river, crossed Broaoway at Kentucky Avenue, angled through Lincoln, Sherman, Stebbins Heights, and University Park subdivisions, and exited South Denver at Jewell Avenue and South Colorado Boulevard, where it continued on toward Pueblo. This .i railroad was used into the 1950s and much of the trackage is still visible. Another route to and from the city was via the "little brown horsecar," which Southsiders boarded at Alameda Avenue and Broadway for the trip to 16th Street downtown. But in 1887, the horsecar company switched to a green car that traveled to 18th Street, This change was met with loud, but futile, protests from the riders. When the horsecar company refused to give back the brown car and old route, angered citizens convinced the Tramway Company to install the new-fangled cable cars on the old route instead, and the first cable car in Denver traveled south on Broadway in December of 1888, full of jubilant merrymakers. The Tramway Company built a depot at Dakota Avenue and Broadway in 1890 and extended the tracks to Englewood. C. Saloons and the Town of South Denver When a dozen new saloons sprouted up around the Exposition Building in 1882, Southsiders decided to take action. On August 9, 1886, reformed alcoholic Rufus "Potato" Clark, Avery Gallup, and real estate developer James A. Fleming (Fleming's Grove subdivision), incorporated the Town of South Denver as a prohibition suburb. Boundaries were Alameda Avenue (Denver city limits), Colorado Boulevard, Yale Avenue, and the South Platte River. By levying annual wholesale liquor licenses of $3,500 and retail licenses of $2,500, Mayor Fleming and his board of trustees ran many of the saloons out of town within a year. The town even converted one former saloon at South Logan and Center Streets into a jail, which, ironically, housed mostly liquor violators. The Town of South Denver was annexed to the city of Denver in 1894. -7-

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D. Landmarks Lincoln Scho,.1 was erected at Pearl Street and Exposition Avenue in 1891. The next year the first post office opened in the Jefferson Building at 432 South Broadway and the beautiful South Broadway Christian Church at Ellsworth Avenue and Lincoln Street was dedicated. The Russell "hose house" was built at Center Avenue and Broadway, also in 1892. St. Frances De Sales Catholic Church held its first services at the firehouse before building a chapel and later its existing church structure at Sherman Street and Alameda Avenue. The Presbyterian Reformed Church at Virginia Avenue and Pearl Street was erected in 1893. E. Washin2fon Park In 1890 South Denver's Town Council chose Smith's Lake for park purposes, but detractors insisted the location was too remote. But in 1899 the City of Denver established ashington Park on those same grounds, increased it to 155 acres, and transformed it into the lovely and much-used park of today. -8-F

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III. LAND USE PLAN Retain the existing residential neighborhood character. B. Neighborhood-wide Land Use Plan 1. Overview of Existing Land Use and Issues West Washington Park (WWP) is primarily a residential neighborhood of single-family brick structures built prior to World War I. Over the years a few neighborhood commercial uses have sprung up within the neighborhood, particularly along Denver's old trolley line that meandered along South Pearl, Pennsylvania and Emerson streets. Otherwise, the residential nature of the neighborhood has remained intact (see Figure 3). The neighborhood meetings established that the preservation of the existing neighborhood character and its diversity is the main issue confronting the neighborhood in the future. The neighborhood consists of a total of 596 acres. Of this total, land use types are divided as shown in the chart on page 11 in the last row ('Totals"). As expected, the neighborhood is predominantly residential (80%) where single family units comprise the majority land use type (55%). Commercial and services uses comprise about eight percent (8%) of the land area and the rest is industrial and "other." Very little vacant land exists,limiting most new development to redevelopment of existing land use, typical of older neighborhoods such as West Washington Park. The chart also shows how land uses are zoned and distributed in each zone district. Existing zoning is predominantly R2 (295 acres) which allows duplexes as well as single-family detached units. The single-family district is R-1 (31 acres). The high density multifamily districts are R-3, R-3X and R-4 (186 acres) which allow up to 150 dwelling units per acre with appropriate land assemblage. These zones allow significantly more height and density than the R-2 zone which creates incentives for demolition of existing structures and redevelopment of the land. -9-

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' KEY: COMMERCIAL j::::::::::::j SINGLE-FAMILY EITill MIXED-SINGLE & MULTI-FAMILY .. SCHOOLS "' I

PAGE 18

, .. WWP /Zoning vs. Existing Land Use Dist. _#_ if. %Comm. if. if. if. Zone Dist. Acres %SF Acres %MF Acres Service Acres %Ind. Acres % Other* Acres R1 31.0 94.5 29.4 4.4 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 1.3 0.4 R2 295.0 77.1 229.3 19.1 56.8 0.6 1.8 0.0 0.0 2.5 7.4 R3 177.1 37.7 66.8 44.2 85.3 0.5 0.97 0.0 0.4 13.7 24.3 R3X 3.4 64.7 2.2 26.5 0.9 2.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 5;9 0.2 R4 5.3 73.6 0.6 1.7 0.1 73.6 3.9 0.0 0.0 13.2 0.7 B1 3.1 3.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 96.7 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 B2 14.3 7.0 1.0 7.0 1.1 73.4 10.5 6.3 0.9 5.6 0.8 B4 25.1 1.2 0.3 6.0 1.5 16.1 16.6 11.6 2.9 15.1 3.8 88 9.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 38.9 3.5 37.8 3.4 23.3 2.1 10 10.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.2 0.3 17.2 1.8 79.6** 8.1 12 20.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 28.8 5.7 58.9 11.7 12.3 2.4 PUD 2.2 18.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 72.7 1.6 "9.1 0.2 P1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.2 ----Totals 368.0*** 243.1 62.1 24.1 17.3 20.9 %of Total 100.0 55.2 24.6 7.8 4.0 8.4 Source: Denver Office of Planning and Community Development, "Census Tract Land Use by Zoning Detail Report," April 1986. Other = vacant; transportation, communication, and utilities; public and quasi-public; and parks and recreation land uses. ** 90% of this category is the U.S. Postal Service vehicle storage and repair facility located at 1-25 and Kentucky, which is zoned 1-0 but considered a "public" land use. *** Total acreage rounded to nearest acre. SF = single-family; MF = multifamily .. -11-

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.... Comparing these zone districts points out a major discrepancy between the zoningand hJw the land is actually used. Both the R-2 and R-3 districts, which allow multifamily units, contain a majority of existing single-family uses. In the R-2 district, over 77% of the existing uses are single-family. Thus, the potential for further conversions from single-family to multifamily in this district alone could significantly change the existing single-family character of the neighborhood. Additional rezonings to R-3 or higher density districts would have an even more dramatic effect. The map on the following page (Figure 4) shows geographically how the neighborhood is zoned. In general, lower density residential zoning is found interior to the neighborhood and south of Alameda. Descriptions of the uses allowed in each zone district can be found in Appendix B. In addition to zone district height restrictions, height of new structures is limited by two mountain view preservation ordinances -Governor's Park and Washington Park. Both of these ordinances preserve mountain views in a fan shape from the parks' centers to the mountains. Specifics of angles and height limits are shown in Figure 5. Generally, intense commercial uses have been confined to bordering arterial streets (with the exception of Alameda which is interior to the neighborhood). Small areas of business use are founc in the neighborhood's interior as well. _Business encroachments into the residential portions of the neighborhood have created compatibility problems. Minimal industrial uses exist in the neighborhood. Other general land use issues articulated by residents at the neighborhood meetings were the need to preserve historic buildings to curtail high-rise development in the northern portion of the neighborhood. Regarding high rise development, density and height limits were often repeated issues. for Speer Boulevard and 1-25, WWP is laid out on a standard north/south, east/west grid that, with a few minor ex ptions, contains streets and blocks of uniform size. Blocks are lined with mature trees cilld the neighborhood has a "friendly," urban, single-family residential character that promotes a good permanent community feeling. Through the West Washington Park Neighborhood Association, residents actively participate in resolving zoning and lanJ use issues on both neighborhood and city-wide levels. Maintaining an active neighborhood organization is important to residents. -12r. .. <"''

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, ) Planned unit development

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Edge boundaries are defined by existing tall buildings which \' frame views to the mountains ) and the Washington Park VIeW PreservationOrdinance boundary. \\I\ The maximum height pennitted tor new buildings is measured from the high point of the park. 1 This is intended to allow views over the buildings to see the mountains located behind the hogback ridge. NOTE: If redesign and reconstruction of the park occurs to takE' oetter advantage ot this natura! 11enity, the view corridor can be adjusted slightly i, to accomodate spectacular views of Pikes Peal<. NOTE: This ordinance is alsc proposed in the draft Capital HiiVCheesman Park Neighborhood Plan. Adopted Washington Park lD /lew Preservation Ordinance Jrigin point is at a brass cap ID ;et at the elevation 5,323.9 feet. :dge boundaries are r.efined by 10 .:enter lines of s:'eets. he maximum height pennitted x new buildings shall not ,xceed an elevation of 5,323.9 plus one foot for each one 11oRTH ,undred feet from the refererce E9 rig in JX)int. r-..---o r

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2. NW-1 NW-2 r NW-3 NW-4 Neighborhood-wide Land Use Recommendations Continue neighborhood monitoring of all formal land use changes, rezonings and vari ances for conformance with the WWP Plan. Prepare of design guidelines that encourage neighborhood preservation including land scaping, architecture, open space develop ment, street furniture, guidelines for appropri ate new development and infill projects to en sure compatibility with existing uses; imple ment the guidelines through the OPCD as part of the normal City review process. Work with developers to make building and site designs fit in with the existing neighborhood. .. Responsible Parties West Washington Park Neighborhood Associa tion (WWPNA); City Council Office of Planning and Community Develop ment (OPCD), Zoning Administration (ZA), other City and County development review offices, WWPNA, De partment of Parks and Recreation (DPR) Develop a special neighborhood zone WWPNA, ZA, OPCD that utilizes design review as a requirement for project approval, particularly for the Lincoln Street corridor and the area north of Alameda. The zone district would define appropriate locations for specific uses. Implement the Washington Park Mountain OPCD, ZA, DPR, BuildView Preservation Ordinance. Adopt the ing Department (BD) Governor's Park Mountain View Preservation ordinance to help preserve mountain views by controlling excessive heights of new structures in the central and the northwest comer of the neighborhood that block views (see Figure 5). -15-

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NW-5 Encourage replacement of old trees as neces-WWPNA, Property sary and new tree planting on vacant parking Owners strips to improve the neighborhood's quality of life and community atmosphere. c. Residential Land Use Plan 1. Existing Residential Land Use and Issues Greater than fifty percent of the neighborhood's single-family housing stock lies south of Alameda Avenue. Variations to the single-family pattern consist primarily of duplexes and tr:plexes, a few larger threeto five-story multifamily units and a half dozen pockets of neighborhood commercial uses. In general, these single-family units are in good condition with well landscaped yards and clean alleys. Resale values have stabilized and now are on the increase (see page 54), plus encroachment of the commercial pockets into the neighbor hood has stopped. WWP has historically served as a middle income residential neighbor hood for residents working in the nearby industrial areas or downtown. Some of the neighborhood-wide land use issues are closely related to the residential land use issues. The maintenance of strong, low-density, use in the neighborhood is the central point of the many issues expressed by the neighborhood residents. Property owners of single-family units in R-2 areas are encouraged to maintain the single-family pattern in strong, single-family blocks. The zoning and land use chart in the previous section shows that neighborhood-wide, more than 75% of the R-2 or duplex zone areas contain single-family detached residences. Maintenance of single-family structures was observed to be a much more serious problem in R-3 zoned areas where the overall unit density is high. Also, illegal additional units were found in a number of blocks throughout the neighborhood. The primary issue in R-3 zoned areas is the high density {up to 150 units/acre) that can be attained in multifamily redevelopment projects ""ith appropriate land assemblage. This issue was analyzed in a workshop session durir :e planning process. It was found that a typical R-3 block (bounded by F!rst Avenue, Pearl Street, Ellsworth Avenue and Pennsylvania Street) north of Alameda tnat had a mixture of singleand multifamily units, including a high-rise -16F :. F

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structure, averaged about thirty units per acre as an overall density. This .. scale .of development was determined to be acceptable for R-3 areas, and it was felt this would be a good limit for future redevelopment in the neighborhood. North of Alameda Avenue, a mixture of single-family, moderateand high-density residential uses exist. Although single-family uses are scattered throughout the area, single-family blocks are located predominantly in pockets along the 100 and 200 blocks of Sherman Street, between 1st and 2nd Avenues on Pennsylvania Street, and between Pearl and Downing Streets north of Alameda Avenue. Moderate density residential uses are generally located west of Pearl Street and high density uses to the east of Pearl Street and north to Speer Boulevard. Redevelopment and the conversion of existing uses (single-family and multifamily-for example, Country Club Gardens) to higher-density residential multifamily uses is vigorously opposed by the residents. Some of the moderate density low-rise walk-up multifamily structures built in the 1950s were found to be in need of better maintenance and landscaping, while the lack of off-street parking was considered to be a serious problem. 2. Residential Land Use Recommendations RLU-1 RLU-2 RLU-3 Responsible Parties Permit no more than the current of WWPNA, ZA, OPCD, 30 du/acre limit for higher density developCity Council (CC) ments and discourage rezonings to R-3 and R-4. As an interim measure, explore the possibility ZA, OPCD, WWPNA of reviewing the R-3 zone district for possible changes to make allowed uses more compatible with existing moderate density land uses. Consider implementing zone changes on WWPNA, ZA, property selected blocks of R-3 and R-2 areas to R-1 owners, OPCD status south of Cedar to I-25 and east from Pennsylvania and Pearl to Washington Park. -17-

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RLU-4 RLU-5 D. North of Alameda, consider rezoning R-3 areas to R-2 where uses of the R-2 type exist as small strips or "fingers" in the neighbor hood. Maintain and improve existing residential uses and all historic and arcbitecturally significant structures. New infill housing should be compatible with historic buildings and characProperty owners, ten ants; City agencies, State Historical Society; Den ver Landmark Preservater. Prepare an inventory of historic struct ion Commission tures. (DLPC) Include compatible setbacks, significant bufOPCD, ZA fering, and landscaping in site plans for new moderate density residential development to ensure compatibility with adjacent low-density residential uses. Develop design guidelines which deal with bulk, size and shape, height, architecture, wall treatments, location and adequacy of parking for new developments. Commercial Land Use Plan Existing Commercial Land Use and Issues West Washington Park is bordered on the west by the South Broadway commercial strip. An extensive mix of retail use exists along the entiF length of Broadway through the neighborhood. The highest concentration of retail uses and the general neighborhood area is 'Jetween 2nd Avenue and Alameda Avenue. Auto-oriented commercial, convenience retc....l and various other uses closely akin to light industrial are located at either end of this central retail area. Office uses exist at the north end of Broadway. A portion of Broadway from Second Avenue to Broadway was landsC2""' .. d in the late 1970s through the city's Neighborhood Business Revitalization Streetsc program. The area is -18...

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maintained through a special district which assesses merchants and property owners in the revitalization area. Further improvements or expansion of this area is possible. The urban design character of Broadway was viewed by residents and business people as needirig improvement. Expansion of the streetscaping project, design of buildings and facades, landscaping of setbacks and parking areas were specifically identified as elements of the street's character needing improvement. It was also noted that the Inter Plaza/International Collection project at Exposition and Broadway needs to be completed or replanned and constructed utilizing a revised Planned Unit Development (PUD) plan. This special zone district allows unique development plans to be implemented which maximizes a parcel's development potential through a public involvement process. PUD plan revisions need to be negotiated with neighborhood organizations that are affected to l ensure that there is compatibility with the design and scale of the adjacent uses. In addition, access to this site needs to be coordinated with the implementation of the redesigned I25/Broadway exit so that traffic generated by the development does not further impact Lincoln Street. The old vacant Ward's building is a particular eyesore. In the north, B-8 zoning was felt to be too intensive and liberal, in terms of uses allowed, and conflicts with the existing neighborhood character. In general, pedestrian access and mobility to and among businesses along Broadway was identified as a problem. For safety reasons, pedestrian crossings between both sides of the street were identified as needing improve ment. It was felt by residents that this might pedestrian shopping, thereby improving sales as well as the general business climate along the street. Clusters of commercial uses are also scattered throughout the neighborhood, particularly along Pearl Street and Alameda Avenue. These uses are primarily concentrated around intersections rather than stripped out along major collectors or arterials. Most of these small commercial areas serve neighborhood residents. The most developed commercial areas are found at the following locations: Bayaud Avenue between Logan and Pennsylva nia Streets, Alameda Avenue between Grant and Pearl Streets, the intersection of Downing Street and Alameda Avenue, the intersection of Exposition Avenue and Pearl Street, Kentucky Avenue between Pearl and Washington Street and the I-25 frontage road between Pennsylvania and Clarkson Streets (see Figure 6). Residents noted that lack of compatibility between business and residential uses in terms of site and structure design was a problem at some of these interior business centers. In particular, lack of buffering landscaping, parking and traffic movements were noted as problems. -19-

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2. CB-1 CB-2 CB-3 Commercial/Business Land Use Recommendations Responsible Parties Prevent future rezoning of residential land for WWPNA, ZA, OPCD, commercial use particularly around interior City Council areas of business use. bevelop vacant storefronts (e.g., old TJ.'s store) and zoned property as first priority into neighborhood serving businesses. Preserve and strengthen existing neighbor hood businesses and the Broadway commer cial district and encourage buffering between business and residential uses. Encourage the development of low-rise office and business uses on Broadway in the "triangle" area (Speer Boulevard, Broadway and Fourth Avenue) as a first priority. Implement the recommendations Qf the Broadway Parking District and establish some central parking areas for all businesses to utilize. Discuss with the City and the Organ ized Baker Residents Neighborhood Association the development of some cul-de sac parking along Broadway by closing selected streets. -21Property owners, City Agencies, OPCD Broadway business peo ple, OPCD, MDLDC, OBR

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CB-4 CB-5 CB-6 CB-7 Establish a Broadway building design and Broadway business signage theme as a guide for future repeople, OPCD, MDLDC modeling of storefronts to project a high ,. quality retail business image. Develop blockby-block sign directories that list businesses in that block. Encourage structures with similar architectural character to be designed and built to carry out a theme for the area. Improve the pedestrian shopping atmosphere Broadway business along Broadway through extending the special people, OPCD MDLDC ; scheme to Ohio Avenue; extension of sidewalks utilizing street "neckdowns" to shorten pedestrian crossing distances and install pavers at key crosswalks; install attrac tive arrangements of street furniture and more landscaping along the street. Implement a market study for Broadway to OPCD, Broadway busi identify what market shares the area should ness owners, MDLDC serve at both the regional and local levels and how the Broadway business area can capture that market share. Encourage more retail, office and restaurant development. Maintain current landscaped setbacks of ZA, OPCD, Property business and office uses and implement spe cial design guidelines along Speer Boulevard to improve the parkway design of Denver's premier parkway. -22-owners, Denver Landmarks Commission (DLC), Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR)

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CB-8 CB-9 CB-10 CB-11 CB-12 CB-13 Consider rezomng of the B-8 area in the northwest corner of the neighborhood to a Property owners, ZA, OPCD, WWPNA, City less intense business zoning category in order Representative to encourage more compatible land uses and neighborhood serving business. Prohibit the use of billboards for off-site advertising in the neighborhood; remove existing billboards when property redevelops. City Council, OPCD, P&R DPW ZA, Dept., As initially agreed with Safeway owners, OPCD, WWPNA, City follow .up. to ensure that redevelopment design Council Representative guidelines become a condition of any sale of the property at Logan and Alameda. Encourage the conversion of undesirable uses W W P N A, 0 PC D such as run-down auto service stations and Property Owners adult entertainment businesses to neighborhood serving uses; encourage clean-up of existing business areas. Maintain a single-story scale for new business WWPNA, OPCD, City development in existing business zones along Buchtel Boulevard at Washington Street. If 1-25 access is eliminated and widened, consider rezoning these uses for residential use. Council Representative, Property Owners Require landscaping around all new parking ZA, OPCD, Property lots; do not allow parking in standard front Owners setbacks. -23-

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CB-14 Encourage the development of a full service OPCD, WWPNA, City grocery store in the neighborhood whose site design is compatible with the surrounding uses. Consult with the Organized Baker Residents Neighborhood Association on this ISSUe. Council Representative, OBR E. Industrial Land Use PlaR 1. Existing Land Use and Issues :.'I Minimal industrial uses exist in the interior of the neighborhood except for the Royal Crest Dairy operation on South Pearl Street. This business has expanded over the years and has remained compatible with surrounding residential uses. A small industrial triangle exists in the southwest portion of the neighborhood. The U.S. Post Office, Centennial Wood Products. an electronics warehouse, and a car leasing company currently occupy this site. Maintenance of compatibility between these uses and the adjacent residential uses was identified as a concern. Industrial exist to the west and southwest of the neighborhood boundary. In the past, West Wac;hington Park has traditionally provided housing opportunities for employees of businesses in these areas, especially Gates Rubber Company; however, this is less true today. 2. Industrial Land Use Recommendations ResponsiDle Parties 1-1 Maintain strong on-site landscaping features OPCD, WWPNA at industrial sites to ensure neighborhood compatibility. 1-2 Encourage rezoning from industrial to busiOPCD, ZA, WWPNA, ness-related uses as use of existing facilities Industrial Property Own-change. ers -24-

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F Public Uses The predominant public uses consist of Byers and Lincoln Schools, the Washington Park Community Center and Hungarian Freedom and Washington Parks. Washington Park is a major city and regional park and contains a city-owned recreation center with an indoor swimming pool which is used by neighborhood residents. There are no city-owned parks in the interior of the neighborhood. Public uses and parks and associated recommendations are described in Section VIII, Public Facilities and Parks. Numerous churches also exist in the neighborhood. For the most part, these uses are integrated well into the neighborhood s residential fabric. G. Lincoln Street Area 1. Lincoln Street Existing Conditions and Issues Lincoln Street was originally developed in residential uses along its entire length in the neighborhood. Many of the units are large and some are examples of classic Victorian architecture. Homes having bay windows and turrets can be found along the street. Many residents have restored these structures to their original elegance particularly on the east side of the street. As the Broadway business area grew, many lots along the west side of Lincoln Street were converted into parking lots, to accommodate the parking needs of Broadway merchants churches and moderate density multifamily developments. These changes occurred as a result of demand and through rezonings and redevelopment of properties already zoned for more intense uses. An additional catalyst of change was the conversion of Lincoln Street to a one-way street. The increase in traffic particularly after the development of 1-25 with a major north-bound off-ramp at Lincoln Street, has had a negative impact on the existing uses and residential character of the street Although Lincoln Street has been negatively impacted, residents are concerned that the residential character of the street be maintained. Unnecessary through traffic, such as dead head" RTD buse s regional route RID bu s es which could use Colfax Avenue as an exit route off of 1-25 to downtown, truck traffic and vehicle speed were cited as iss ues that co u ld be dealt with in cooperation with regional and city agencies. Additional conversion of -25-

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parcels to parking lots and structures to office or retail use should be curtailed. Existing parking lots and business uses on the west side of the street lack adequate landscaping in order to maintain their compatibility, in terms of urban design, with uses on the east side. 2. Lincoln Street Special Area Recommendations LS-1 LS-2 LS-3 LS-4 LS-5 LS-6 Responsible Parties Encourage infill and rehabilitation of strucCity agencies, property tures on the west side of Lincoln street to owners, OPCD maintain the residential scale of the street in lieu, .of demolition or commercial remodeling. Maintain existing residential uses along both sides of Lincoln Street. Implement a streetscape and buffering plan along the street right-of-way (ROW) (See Traffic and Transportation Section.) City agencies, OPCD, WWPNA, property owners, CC City agencies, OPCD, WWPNA, property own ers Encourage renovation of deteriorating homes City agencies, OPCD in the vicinity of Third Avenue and Lincoln Street. Prohibit removal of houses for parking or business use along both sides of Lincoln Street. Encourage development of vacant lots into temporary open space uses or low-rise multi family buildings north of Fourth Avenue -26-City agenCies, OPCD, WWPNA City agencies OPCD, Neighborhood Residents and property owners

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II II LS-7 Develop a consistent 12 foot curbside planting OPCD, City agencies strip with street trees and maintain 20 foot building setbacks all along Lincoln Street to present a consistent community image. Place any parking lots to the rear or side of buildings behind the front setback line -27,.

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IV. TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION Reduce unnecessary through traffic in the neighborhood to a level of local and regional traffic circulation in West Washington Park that is similar to other adjacent neighborhoods and compatible with the neighborhood's land uses to preserve the residential quality of life. Provide for an increasing number of public transportation options for neighborhood residents. Create a safe, efficient bicycle and pedestrian circulation system that provides connections to places of work, public facilities and the Denver trails system. Utilize major streets and public transportation facilities to create neighborhood urban design elements for West Washington Park. B. Q,eniew of Circulation, Transportation Systems and Issues 1. Circulation System a. Introduction Originally, the West Washington Park neighborhood was primarily laid out a series of subdivisions of single-family residential homes. The larger arterial streets of Speer Boulevard and Broadway defined the northern and western edges and little distinction in subdivision design or structure architecture was made between the east and west sides of Washington Park. This larger residential area, including the neighborhoods south of 1-25, was broken only by small clusters of neighborhood-serving commercial areas. Broadway and Pearl Street were tramway lines and early transit links to downtown. Over the years, commercial uses developed at various points on this street. The construction of 1-25 further defined the neighborhood on the south. Exit ramps to Downing and Emerson Streets were added in the mid-1950s. Prior to this, Denver implemented the one-way couplet system on Broadway and Lincoln, Emerson and Washington, and Logan and Grant Streets to facilitate -28-

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traffic movement to downtown. As traffic flows increased, Downing Street became a busy two-way arterial and the Emerson/Washington, Logan/Grant and Lincoln/Broadway oneway pairs or couplets funneled more and more traffic through the neighborhood. b. One-Way Street System In the early 1970s, it was perceived by neighborhood residents that increased volume in the traffic system had become a serious threat to the neighborhood's residential cohesiveness and the quality of life. The street traffic was perceived to be negatively affecting property values and had become a safety hazard. The residents organized a movement with their neighbors north of Speer Boulevard to convince the City to study the return of the one-way pairs to local two-way Begirining in 1984, the City, in conjunction with neighborhood organizations, laid out a: one-way street study and conversion program. Labeled the Central Denver North-S
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Franklin Street to the west leaving an eight-block section in the Washington Park East Country Club and Polo Club neighborhoods limited to two travel lanes. To date, the widening of this section of Alameda Avenue has been opposed by all adjacent neighborhoods, including West Washington Park Speer Boulevard and 1-25 are major diagonal traffic corridors paralleling each other in a northwest/southeast direction at the neighborhood's north and south boundaries. These diagonal arterials funnel a large volume of regional traffic around the neighborhood and are important components of the metro-wide circulation system. Speer Boulevard has seen various improvements over the years to increase capacity. Intersection improvements along Speer at Eighth Avenue and Sixth Avenue and Broadway and Lincoln Streets will continue to the efficiency of traffic flow along Lincoln Street, a major arterial, and will either be completed or under construction by 1991. Major improvements are also planned for 1-25 over the next 20 years. These improvements (increased number of lanes landscaping, etc.), in conjunction with implementing the RID regional transit corridor plan could change the access configuration to and from 1-25 in the neighborhood. Discussions about I-25 improvements included identifying both positive and negative impacts on the neighborhood from ramp closures and noise and air pollution resulting from increasing the capacity of the freeway. Additionally, the use of l-25 as an expanded traffic artery and mass transit corridor is supported by the neighborhood as a means of reducing traffic movement through the neighborhood. The acquisition of additional ROW to accommodate increased capacity is a serious issue and must be planned in detail with the neighborhood. Recommendations for 1-25 improvements are contained in the I-25 Task Force Report by the Colorado Department of Highways (CDH) A major element of those improvements is a reconfiguration of the Broadway and Lincoln Street interchange to ease congestion, increase the number of travel lanes and add rapid transit and HOY lanes in the ROW. The Southeast Ouadrant Land Use and Transportation Study, completed in 1987 by the City, outlines a series of improvements, some of which are located in West Washington Park. Most of the improvements recommended involve improving the quality of the street (grade, pavement, curbs and gutters) and increasing the carrying capacity of the major streets in the neighborhood without major widening. There was qualified support by the neighborhood residents for the recommendations as long as the number of lanes on these street s were not increased. -30-

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Broadway and Lincoln Streets are major circulation routes in and out of Downtown Denver. The intersections in the major retail section of Broadway are not particularly pedestrian friendly and utilization of on-street parking during rush hour is difficult. Other issues concerning the street system identified by residents included less than adequate maintenance of Buchtel Boulevard and adjacent open areas, the impacts of increasing traffic on Logan Street from the conversions of one-ways, unkempt ROW and intersection humps along Alameda Avenue, and side-swiping and hit-and-run damage to parked cars along Downing and Logan Streets. Special meetings were held by the Steering Committee to address safety problems associated with the design and circulation pattern of the Downing Street, Bayaud Avenue, and Marion Parkway intersection. d. Traffic Levels ; Traffic levels have changed on the streets in the area over the last several years. Traffic volumes have increased on some streets and decreased on others. Some of the traffic volume changes are due to the conversions of the one-way streets discussed above. Figure 7 shows the street classifications of the major streets that traverse the neighborhood. This figure also shows the traffic count comparisons that were done for the analysis of the 1984 street conversion study. Traffic counts were collected on various streets in 1986 prior to the one-way conversion, and were also collected at the same locations in 1989 after a period of time elapsed following the one-way to two-way conversions of Grant Street and Logan Street. The figure also shows the percentage change of the traffic volumes between the two counts. The converted one-way streets of Grant and Logan both show a respective sizeable decrease and an increase in volume subsequent to the conversion. A few conclusions concerning traffic levels from the OneWay Street Monitoring Study are worth repeating here: 1) The overall decline in background traffic has tended to dampen negative impacts on system capacity and the diversion of traffic to other streets through residential neighborhoods. -31-

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WEST WASHINGTON PARK FIGURE 7 TRAFFIC COUNT &STREET CLASSIFICATION KEY: .. FREEWAY -ARTERIAL -COLLECTOR 000 1989 COUNT OC: 1986 COUNT (before conversion) %CHANGE 86-89 sc CITY AND COUNlY ENVER TRANSPORTATION DEPT. v--.:., c 1000' 2000"

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2) Peak hour commuter trips, while having the greatest impact on system capf.city, are only about 25% of affected trips; most of the trips diverted from converted one-ways are non-peak trips associated with local and central Denver based destinations. 3) Converting one-way pairs and maintaining one street as a collector/ arterial (two-way) could significantly reduce the diversion of traffic to other streets. (As in the case of Logan Street where total traffic; volumes have increased significantly since the conversion.) 4) e. Measurable benefits for residents adjacent to one-way streets result primarily from the conversion to local streets rather than two-way operations alone. Circulation System Recommendations Responsible Parties TS-1 All future traffic improvements and programs shall be coordinated with adjacent neighborhoods. TS-2 One Way Streets a. b. Reduce one-way commuter traffic through the neighborhood by completing implementation of the one-way street conversion project. Further consideration and studies of one-way street conversions should be delayed until the construction of the Speer Boulevard/Sixth Aven ue/Lincoln Street grade separation project is completed and its effect on traffic patterns can be adequately assessed. In assessing one-way street conversions, the status of major ingress and egress routes to the downtown should be con sidered. -33-WWPNA, Transportation Division (TD), OPCD WWPNA, OPCD, TD Denver Planning Board, WWPNA, OPCD, TD Department of Public Works (DPW)

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c. d. Remove the Grant Street barrier at Third TD Avenue; convert Third Avenue to two-way street between Grant and Logan Streets. Improve the quality of life on remaining one-way TD, WWPNA streets by installing pedestrian actuated signals, moving signals to corners and using pavers to create better pedestrian crossings, by allowing parking on both sides of the street during off-peak hours, creating only one lane of traffic, and planting more street trees. e. Control traffic flow with better signal tnmng. Research reducing strict speed control to 25 m.p.h. TD, Denver Police Dept. (DPD) TS-3 Alameda Avenue a. Discourage the widening of Alameda Avenue and WWPNA the bridging of Cherry Creek. b. Support the reconstruction of Alameda in WWPNA, TD, OPCD concrete to provide an improved appearance to the right-of-way, smooth intersections, and provide better drainage, turning lanes, streetscaping, and pedestrian friendly sidewalks. TS-4 Broadway a. Rebuild the street in concrete and provide for 'ID, Broadway Businesses better pedestrian crossmgs, bulb-outs at key inter' handicapped ramps an-1 longer sight dista; ::s at intersections. b. Re-,earch r:" jucing the speed on the street to 25 'ID, DPD rr. r md .r1rovide better speed control enforce-34

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TS-5 Lincoln Street a. Support traffic capacity improvements on I-25 south of the neighborhood. TD, DPW, Colorado Department of Highways (CDH) b. Monitor the Lincoln Street,. Speer Boulevard, Sixth Avenue intersection improvements to assure that compatibility is maintained between traffic flow and neighboring uses. WWPNA c. Mitigate street noise and vibration with new 1D street surfacing d. Research reducing the speed to 25 m.p.h. and TD monitoring compliance with this limit. TS-6 Logan Street a. Research reducing the speed to 25 m.p.h. 1D b. Clean up the existing ROW with street recenTD struction projects by providing streetscaping, turning lanes, on-street parking (both sides) and well-marked pedestrian crossings. c. Future traffic modifications in other parts of ID, OPCD, WWPNA WWP should not create significant additional d. traffic increases on South Logan. Maintain basic two through lane traffic pattern (one lane in each direction). -351D

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e. Convert the one-way Logan Street bridge at Speer Boulevard to two-way to ease traffic flow on Logan Street at Speer Boulevard and to permit turns onto southbound Logan Street off of westbound Speer Boulevard and remove some traffic from Grant Street. TS-7 I-25 a. b. c. d. Monitor progress of I-25 Task Force report to implement needs of the West Washington Park neighborhood plan. Ensure full accessibility from I-25 at University Boulevard and Lincoln/Broadway Streets. Research the impacts of selected ramp closures at Downing, Emerson and Washington Streets on West Washington Park internal street patterns when frontage road improvements to access Washington Park between Downing Street and University Boulevard are made. Closure of the Washington/Emerson Streets north bound off ramp and south-bound on-ramp is currently favored by West Washington Park residents. Improve the I-25/Buchtel Boulevard frontage ROW owned by RTD in terms of clean-up, main tenance, sidewalks and handicapped ramps in conjunction with nearby residents and the affected neighborhood associations. Study the possibility of installing an off-street bike path along Buchtel Boulevard. Reevaluate where new bridges across I-25 are placed when old ones are renovated or removed -36-TD .. WWPNA, OPCD, City Council (CC) WWPNA, OPCD, CDH TD, CDH RTD, ID, WWPNA, West University Community Association (WUCA) CDH, TD, WWPNA, CC

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f. for mass transit construction and freeway widen ing. Encourage construction of a bridge at Pearl Street to provide neighborhood access to Pearl Street businesses south of I-25. Should widening of I-25 ROW become necessary, acquire sufficient ROW to prqvide strong buffer ing room between adjacent lots/streets and high way. Avoid "squeezing" residential units next to ROW by acquiring total parcels and concentrate acquisition on the south side of I-25 to maximize sun exposure to landscaping in consultation with residents and the West University Community Association. WWPNA, OPCD, CDH, WUCA, CC TS-8 Implement the new preferred reconstruction TD, WWPNA, DPR design of the intersection of Bayaud Avenue, Downing Street and Marion Parkway to increase safety and accessibility. (See Figures 9 and 10.) TS-9 Improve traffic signalization in the neighborhood TD to lessen idling time and air pollution and imTS-10 TS-11 prove pedestrian signalization. Monitor and enforce traffic speeds on all collec tors and arterials. Stripe arterial streets more frequently for better motorist and pedestrian visibility. 2. Parking a. General Overview and Issues DPD TD Except on one-way streets, on-street parking is readily available for the predominantly single-family residential areas. Lack of parking, both on and off-street, is a problem in the -37-

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commercial areas and higher density multifamily areas where tenants must P'\y fees. in addition to their rent. On-site parking is required in multifamily residential developments to relieve the congestion in the northern sections of the neighborhood. The major parking problems in the neighborhood occur in and around the South Broadway business district with parking spilling over into the residential areas. Residents observed that parking areas that do exist are not to be in convenient locations for shoppers and business persons alike. Redevelopment projects, such as One Broadway at Ellsworth, have incorporated on-site parking into the development scheme and this seems to be working well. On the other hand, other businesses have tried to solve their parking problems by acquiring lots along Lincoln Street and over the years, the single-family character of the west side of Lincoln Street is being lost. This presents a sterile view to property owners on the east side of the street and could be improved by adequate setbacks and landscaping. In 1986, the City, in cooperation with South Broadway merchants and residents, conducted a parking study focusing on south Broadway business parking needs between Third and Cedar Avenues. The goals of the study were to evaluate existing conditions, project needs fifteen years into the future, evaluate costs of improvements, identify design elements which will make parking improvements compatible with the surrounding neighborhood and identify alternative funding sources to pay for the improvements. The result of the study was a series of recommendations to improve the parking situation in the north central portion of the South Broadway business district. The following is a summary of these recommenda tions: Immediate and short-term parking management strategies include: Formation of a Parking District; Joint use parking agreements between property owners; Acquire vacant parcels; Residential Permit Program Lighting/landscaping of lots; Signing of off-street parking; Increr. ticketing towing activities; and Prov, .iesignate '--.t>OOI/vanpool parking. -38c r

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Medium-term strategies include: -Fee parking/merchant validation for off-street lots; and Construct additional surface lots. Long-term strategies include the construction of one or more parking structures. b. Parking Recommendations P-1 Study the use of street closures adjacent to Broadway to provide cul-de-sac parking areas for Broadway businesses. Responsible Parties OPCD, Broadway Busi nesses, OBR, WWPNA, TD P-2 Enforce one-hour parking signs on streets adDPD, Parking Managejacent to the business areas. ment Section of the Transportation Division (PMSTD) P-3 Encourage Broadway businesses to establish a OPCD, South Broadway parking district, develop a central parking garage Businesses and implement the recommendations of the South Broadway Area Parking Study. P-4 Maintain on-street resident parking on the east PMSID, Parking Control side of Lincoln Street. P-5 Research the possibility of increasing safety and PMSID visibility at key intersections, by increasing some no-parking zone lengths, for example, at 2nd and Logan, Logan and Ohio, Downing at Bayaud and Bayaud at Ogden. -39-

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3. Public Transportation Systems .. a. Regional Transportation District (RID) West Washington Park is served by nine local bus routes. Three of these routes cross through the interior of the neighborhood, the rest are on arterials at the edges of the neighborhood. Numerous regional pass through the neighborhood on Lincoln Street and Broadway during the business day rush hours. Bus service is generally considered to be excellent during the peak hours throughout the neighborhood. It remains good on the edge and arterials in the neighborhood during the entire day but drops off considerably.in the interior during off-peak hours. Lincoln Street and Broadway are also used by R 1D to deadhead buses during the morning peak and evening Residents objected to this latter practice and to RID routing regional buses through the neighborhood and prefer that all of these buses utilize the freeway system for access into downtown. Other issues identified were the need for more and larger shelters at popular stops and better maintenance of the shelters. b. Future Mass Transit The neighborhood is well positioned to benefit from the future development of mass transit in the Denver Metropolitan area. Although shuttles would be necessary for most residents to get to the stations, proposed mass transit routes along I-25/Buchtel on the neighborhood's south boundary could easily serve the neighborhood, particularly for regional transportation needs. An important issue for residents is convenient location and access to these stations. For some residents it may be more efficient to use the local bus routes to get to downtown for example, than using mass transit. T1e station locations fo; the mass transit system have not been specifically identified at this time. However, the I-25 /Buchtel corridor right-of-way (ROW) bas generally been identified to entail a minimum 0f 230-250 feet of ROW containing 8 traffic lanes, 2 HOV (high occupancy vehicle) lanes and a transit easement. WWP residents are concerned that improvement of the corridor include urban design elements that improve the image of the neighborhood. -40-r (

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c. Recommendations Responsible Parties PT-1 Provide for more and larger bus shelters along WWPNA, RID, DPR Alameda Avenue and Downing Street and on PT-2 other streets where stops are used frequently, e.g., at Alameda Avenue and Lii}coln Street and at Hungarian Park. Design shelters with resident input to fit in with the adjacent uses and architecture. Consider designs developed by the Department of Parks and Recreation. Improve bus stops by installing concrete stopping RID pads, clean and maintain them more frequently and place a decal in the shelter with the RID maintenance phone number. PT-3 Retain the bus stop at Downing Street and RID Bayaud Avenue on the south side of Bayaud Avenue. PT -4 Designate I-25 as the mass transit corridorand RID provide for Light Rail Transit (LRT) stations at Dovming and Broadway Streets. Construct LRT facilities with adequate landscaping and buffering from existing uses. PT-5 Reduce express regional bus traffic along Lincoln RID Street by using I-25 with exits at Colfax Avenue and the Auraria Parkway. Eliminate regional bus traffic with improvements to I-25 corridor. PT-6 Reroute "dead-head" buses off of Lincoln Street; RID utilize 1-25 corridor only and exit at Colfax Avenue and the Auraria Parkway. -41-

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PT-7 PT-9 Stabilize traffic volumes in the neighborhood by supporting efforts to increase mass transit rider ship alternatives for residents. Encourage the use of grade separated crossings of LRT at major intersections. 4. Bicycle Circulation a. Overview Residents, :ausiness People, \VWPNA RTD, WWPNA, OPCD, TD Bicycle circulation within the neighborhood is excellent with the large number of local streets available allowing riders to avoid the busy streets. Signed and officially designated on-street routes are shown on Figure 8. Washington Park offers bicycling routes for recreation, and access to the Platte River Trail system can be made along Louisiana and Bayaud Avenues. This access is not clearly marked and no designated on-street path exists. Improvements to the Mississippi Bridge at Santa Fe can help to improve this route. Residents noted that another east/west access to this trail is needed. The Cherry Creek /Speer Boulevard bicycle trail is located at the northern border of the neighborhood can also access the Platte River Trail system to the northeast and the Highline Canal and Cherry Creek Reservoir system to the southeast. Pedestrian circulation is adequate since all blocks have sidewalks. Some intersections are difficult to cross, particularly Marion Parkway at Alameda Avenue and all along Broadway except at traffic lights. Residents noted that pedestrian accesses across Downing Street to Washington Park are not well defmed. Conflicts between turning movements of cars and pedestrians crossing the intersection are particularly evident at Downing Street and Exposition Avenue. -42r: ..

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PLAm RIVER ACCESS

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b. BP-1 BP-2 Bf-3 BP-4 BP-5 Recommendations Responsible Parties Clearly identify with signs and street markings OPCD, Department of safe pedestrian and bicycle accesses from the Public Works (DPW), west to Washington Park at Exposition, Kentucky, DPR, WWPNA, Property Mississippi and Louisiana Ayenues. Develop signed connections between the neigh borhood and Washington Park to the Cherry Creek trail system and the South Platte River trail system utilizing Marion Parkway, Pearl Street, Logan Street, and Mississippi Avenue and a proposed overpass connection at Louisiana Avenue. Improve the Marion Parkway crossing at Alameda. Designate another east-west connec tion to the South Platte River Trail in the vicinity of Alameda Avenue. Explore use of alleyways for bike routes. Improve signage to more clearly designate exist ing on-street routes on Kentucky Avenue (east of Pearl Street), Pearl Street, Bayaud Avenue (west of Pearl Street) and Downing Street (Bayaud Avenue to Speer Boulevard). Add additional on-street bicycle rc; tes on Logan Street from I-25 to Tennessee Averue, Tennessee Avenue from Logan to Pearl Streets, and on Pearl Street from Tennessee to Kentu .. ,::_y Avenues. -44-Owners, ID DPR, WWPNA, TD, Washington Park East Neighborhood Association (WPENA) TD, OPCD, WWPNA OPCD, ID, WWPNA OPCD,ID,DPR f ..

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i i BP-6 BP-7 BP-8 BP-9 BP-10 Construct an off-street bicycle route from Pearl Street to Logan Street on the south side of Speer Boulevard to funnel bicycle traffic to the Cherry Creek trail. Construct new off-street bicycle routes on the north side of Speer Boulevarp from Downing to Broadway to make access to the street system and Cherry Creek trail easier. Monitor any changes to bicycle traffic routes in Washington Park proposed in the new master plan for the park. Improve bicycle route at Cherry Creek bridge crossings on Downing and Logan Streets to improve safety of bike riders. Improve the at-grade crossing on Marion Parkway at Alameda for safe bike and pedestrian crossings by improving lighting and clearly marking the crossmg. 5. Urban Design of the Neighborhood Streets a. Introduction OPCD, ID, OPCD, ID, DPW, DPR WWPNA, DPR TD TD,DPR The most obvious place to improve the image of West Washington Park is along its major streets. This issue came up at numerous neighborhood meetings and Broadway, Lincoln and Logan Streets and Alameda Avenue were identified as streets needing the most attention. Considerable work by the Office of Planning and Community Development staff and residents went into formulating the recommendations below and those that appear in the graphics at the end of this section. Design guidelines for Speer Boulevard currently exist to guide the City and developers when implementing redevelopment projects. -45-

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The Downing Street, Bayaud Avenue and Marion Parkway intersection was all. issue at several planning meetings. Residents felt that the intersection needed to be redesigned to improve the safety of drivers, pedestrians and bicyclists. The existing intersection configuration : shown in Figure 9 and the new design, preferred by residents, shown in Figure 10. The design in Figure 10 allows a smoother transition for pedestrians and bicydists from Downing Street to Marion Parkway by reducing the number of automobile turning movements at the intersection. b. Recommendations UDS-1 UDS-2 UDS-3 UDS-4 Support the implementation of the Speer Boulevard Urban Design Guidelines for public and private development of landscaped areas. Enforce landscaping requirements on new park ing lo::; and encourage landscaping and improve ment of existing parking lots. Design and develop neighborhood gateway-entry features on Speer Boulevard at Logan and Downing Streets, on Alameda Avenue at Broad way and Downing Streets, Logan and Downing Streets and at I-25 on Broadway /Lincoln, Logan, and Downing Streets. These entry features need to be designed so that they are compatible with the neighborhood scale and architecture. Reconstruct Bayaud Avenue/Downing Street/ Marion Parkway intersection preser.ing the historic Marion Parkway as much as possible and practical, utilizing the proposed landscape con cept design (Figure 10); retain the gazebo and as many existing trees as possible as part of the design. -46-Responsible Parties OPCD, ID, WWPNA, DPR,DLC OPCD, ID, ZA OPCD, TD, CDH, WWPNA OPCD, ID, WPENA, WWPNA, DlDC

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WEST WASHINGTON PARK !:"JGURE 9 DOWNING I BA YAUD I MARION INTERSECTION EXISTING ) ST.

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WEST WASHINGTON PARK nGURE10 DOWNING I BA YAUD I MARION INTERSECTION (PROPOSED) .. ::::::.::. _.: L_j : .. -! ... iiL J I .. -I ?f;: ,, ;.r::: I ... i ::.:t.;t:: I I I I .. ...... -.::.----4..:..-.. ---r : \

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UDS-5 UDS-6 UDS-7 UDS-8 UDS-9 Landscape local street accesses to Washington Park on Louisiana, Mississippi, Kentucky, Exposi tion, and Virginia Avenues. Implement the streetscape plan for a new median on wider portions of the street and ROW edges on Logan Street through the e_ntire neighborhood. Street trees and landscaping are needed at Logan Street and I-25 as part of gateway design. Develop and implement a streetscape plan for Broadway and have the existing streetscape between First and Cedar Avenues extended further south. Encourage ROW and setback landscaping by businesses in the neighborhood to integrate them better with adjacent residential uses. Plan and implement a streetscape plan for Lin coln Street throughout the neighborhood to aid in buffering traffic impacts on residences. Require landscaping of parking lots to enhance the buffering effect. (See Figure 11, Sheets 1-6.) C. Lincoln Street Study Overview OPCD, TD, WWPNA, DPR OPCD, TD, WWPNA WWPNA, OPCD OPCD, TD, WWPNA The Neighborhood Plan Steering Committee identified Lincoln Street as a very important part of the neighborhood, for several reasons: Residents who live there perceive it is the most-traveled part of the neighbor hood, and that it bears a tremendous traffic burden. It is the gateway to both downtown and to the neighborhood, and gives a lasting impression to the greatest number of people. -49-

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It is the buffer between Broadway's business community and the neighborhood. It has suffered years of use, abuse and neglect, and is most in need of special attention. A Lincoln Street Subcommittee walked. the entire length of Lincoln Street, from I-25 to Speer Boulevard, and then had several planning meetings with city representatives and two public meetings with residents of Lincoln Street. The Lincoln Street Subcommittee presented its recommendations to the Steering Committee, which adopted a final "study," summarized in the graphics that follow. The neighborhood envisions that Lincoln Street become a "quality boulevard" that establishes a visually unified landscape design theme for the neighborhood. Improvements to the street are to be phased in as resources are available. Streetscaping improvements are to be made within the existing right-of-way and are to include tree planting, landscaping, curb, gutter and sidewalk reconstruction, pavement replacement to concrete (preferably not white in color), grade resetting and pedestrian crossing definition. Figure 11 (Sheets 1-6) summarizes these recommendations in graphic form. D. Transportation Summary Figure 12 is a visual compilation of all the key traffic recommendations of this plan. This graphic is included to give the reader a clearer idea of the neighborhood's intentions for future transportation development. F. Urban Design Summary The urban design graphic (Figure 13) shows, in plan form, the design image envisioned for the neighborhood. It summarizes the recommendations presented in the text in this section. -50-

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WEST WASHINGTON ""ARK FIGURE 11 LINCOLN CORRIDOR OVERLAY ZONE STUDY Design: Shrub or fence parking lot and add trees Stable; preserve character using design guidelines *Do not make Lincoln any wider than necessary. Consider narrower lanes __ Bend future sidewalk to curbside at garage Consider centering street between existing sidewalks to get equal widths on tree lawns each side. Hold the "line" at alley Create "gateway" in first two blocks Ohio to Center Look at creating a row of trees, hedges, between sidewalk and R-O-W-line Stable; preserve character using design guidelines Preserve this residential structure as an entrance monument. Coordinate architectural style of other monuments to this. Develop "gateway" monuments to signify entrance to neighborhood. Redevelop as open space entry into neighborhood Consider supplementing landscaping in island. Develop a pattern and style of enclosed bus stop-at each point where we have enc,losed bus stop -for residential Victorian continuity *Look at Installing new sidewalks closer to houses to N ru-1 0 100' 200' EB SHEET 1 t=li 1 t:L .. t:t-, ll -IN

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WEST WASHINGTON PARK FIGURE 11 LINCOLN CORRIDOR OVERLAY ZONE STUDY Opportunity for residential infill Landscape parking lots, make sure they are legal; and enforce all codes Establish guidelines for colors and designs for rehabe to neighborhooda brick color with white trim. Also, establish for fencing, etc. Stable; preserve character using guidelines Softstop Decay;ode enforcement and design Add bollards, maximize the feel of a curve to slow down traffic Develop as mini park Stable; preserve character using guidelines Consider removing existing sidewal! ins: 'I new ::>ne closer to houses to create tree i.:..rm larg .nough :o grow trees. Both sides of street from Virgi: a to Ohio )eve lop a plan for boarded up buildings -that create najor negative impact on all of Uncoln N ru 0 100 EB l 200' SHEET2 _.CL

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WEST WASHINGTON DARK FIGURE 11 LINCOLN CORRIDOR _OVERLAY ZONE STUDY .Stable; preserve character using guidelines RTD stop needs improvement Turret Row"-if renovated would be delightful small f 'istrict-residential only save Turret Row [e.g. Historic 'i istrict] Screen parking and car storage using landscaping and lfl. Code enforcement concerning use and junk cars uevelop Victorian style bus stop, set back with sidewalk '-front, integrated with PSCo box, garbage, newspaper s etc. which would be enclosed Remove asphalt and restore tree lawn ant trees along Alameda from Lincoln to Logan. riestore tree lawns, both side phasize design on all four comers ... entire intersection "pedestrian friendly" i< with Amoco on appearance _oor; at conducting a design contest with owners, to site :::e out billboard. ;vate facade, tree lawn car storage with landscaping walls. Long-term ; : residential infill Jrage small "antique row" good transition use .;;..;..;;rves the character and make rehab feasible. example of fine streetscape N IL_Il 0 100'. 200' E9 SHEET3

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WEST WASHINGTON PARK ;11 :!OLN CORRIDOR v ERLA Y ZONE STUDY Improve parking lot screen at World Savings Screen parking lot using landscaping Decay problems due to vacant lots etc. on west side of Lincoln Design way to prevent auto and pedestrian traffic from having .cess to alley and liquor store. Code enforcE: :ent for signs, etc. on back of Broadway stores. _______ lmprovedesign Install pedestrian lights, trees, ("streetscape") from ... to north edge of parking Jot Improve landscape and parking lot design Reduce curb cuts Stable, preserve character using guidelines Structural and decay problems vacant and deteriorating due to west side vacant lots etc. Consolidate curb cuts Screen parking using trees, !c:I"Jdscaping Eliminate unnecessary curb cuts where possible _andscape needed nfill with .esidential units i1 possible. Design overlay n the use landscaping to screen parking on ;outh and east ::. jges -also to buffer reSidential to nonh '"'l;Jrove code enforcement N n.JI 0 100' 200' E9 SHEET4

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i NEST WASHINGTON 04RK -:.IGURE 11 1 JNCOLN CORRIDOR OVERLAY ZONE STUDY : eve lop a neighborhood gateway I I preserve character using guidelines I I .:lVelop a theme for every block or two or three, such as the enclosed porches r i 1closed porches are a beautiful feature that give this bock distinction -encourage it to occur more often! ails and landscaping to screen parking under apt. on stilts. .sider rezoning and mixed use of this group of very 1rn down houses en parking lot ove chain link fence curb cut, add landscaping .. m, landscape parking lot, tree lawn tt loVparking Improve code enforcement and -;ape small building .g lot design .LJI ') 100' 200' N E9 1st Ave. SHEETS c CQ E .. Gl .c C/)

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WEST WASHINGTON PARK FIGURE 11 LINCOLN CORRIDOR OVERLAY ZONE STUDY This intersection will be reconstructed in 1991-1993-and will become major gateway Develop in accordance with Corridor Plan Phase-out billboard Gateway into Downtown, transition zone from R-4 to B-8 .;)ere en and landscape parking lot and vacant land Chaves Industrial Bank Site A =iemove on-street parking Jane -Jrcd install trees and )edestrian lighting full length both sides of block. >hase out billboard ere en, landscape parking lots ru--1 0 100' 200' N E9 SHEETS .. L .. r -!''

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WEST I WASHINGTON PARK TRAIL: PREFER 25 :'10SSING. DO 'FlADE >SINGS. WAtrr :i,...uE..SEPARATEO qQSSING. S i(PANSION ARCH CLOSING :l.MPS EXCEPT "l(' .oWAY& 1'. RSITY. SUP r t S FOR ENTRY iL Y AT EMERSON OR 4fYINGTON. ;; :"''lHBORHOOO WIDE RECOMMENDATIONS CREATE LRT STOP 1COC" i 2000" --

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; Adopt proposed Governors Park view ordinance Preserve view from high point of park. WEST WASHINGTON PARK Create Speer Boulevard design guideline$ for private FIGURE 13 URBAN DESIGN Logan streetscape with median, edge landscaping and gateway monuments. Future extension tho;.;gh entire neighborhood. Encourage Broadway property owners to provide streetscape elements including sidewalks, lighting, landscaping, paving and street furniture. Establish Broadway design and sign theme for storefronts. lrrprove building facades which face existing residences. Extend existing Broadway streetscape treatments south from Cedar. Implement a Lincoln streetscape and buffering plan for right-ofway with curbside planting with street trees, building setbacks, and parking placement to the rear of buildings. Streetscape treatment along Pearl Street. Community and Commercial activity centers. 1-25 STUDY AREA Provide significant buffers, streetscaping and gateway features Hwidened. Re-evaluate new bridges which cross 1-25 Designate as the mass transit corridor development. Support implementa':on of Speer Boulevard public design Nf' gateways Develop design guidelines for all moderate and high density residential including bulk, setbacks, parking, and architecture issues. Create zoning district with design review for all major areas. Reconstruct the intersection and preserve the Downing/Marion historic parkway including trees and gazebo. Maintain and improve all historic and architecturally significant structures. Deliniate park entrances with gateway monuments and landscaping. Evaluate as neighborhood gateways. NORTH E9

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, \ \., V. HOUSING A. Goals To plan for a mix of people (individuals, families, ages, renters and homeowners and lifestyles); to permit a mix of housing types; to encourage new housing that is compatible with the existing housing stock in design and scale. B. Overview of Conditions and Issues Housing data from the 1986 Office of Planning and Community Development's "Housing Detail Report" is available for the four city census tracts that make up WWP and is presented below. The tracts are: Tract Number Bordered by: 28.02 28.03 29.01 29.02 Speer Boulevard/ Alameda Avenue/Broadway and Pearl Streets Speer Boulevard/ Alameda Avenue/Pearl and Downing Streets Alameda Avenue/I-25/Pearl and Broadway Streets Alameda Avenue/I-25/Pearl and Downing Streets Tract Number Total Units Number Single-Family % SF* Owner-Occupied Average Age (SF) 1986 Number of Sales 1986 Ave. Sales Price 1989 Number of Sales** 1989 Ave. Sales Price 2,823 497 67.8% 83 yrs. 44 $77,500 19 $63,318 2,826 277 78.0% 76 yrs. 34 $82,700 21 $88,511 Source: Denver Housing Detail Report 1986 SF = Single-Family ** 1989 sales data provided by Jim Winzenberg -54-1,641 733 76.2% 80 yrs. 69 $75,800 33 $76,070 1,987 1442 69 yrs. 118 $93,100 72 $92,599 9,277 2,949 78.0%

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The two census tracts closer to Broadway (28.02, 29.01) are considered by to. be less stable in relation to long-term owner occupancy structure, maintenance and single family property values than the others. These two areas contain most of the R-3 zoned properties in WWP and the majority of business and commercial properties. As can be seen from the data presented above, much of the housing stock in WWP is 70 or more years old. It is no surprise that inadequate property maintenance and management are concerns, including on-site management, absentee owners, renters, and single-family homeowners. Along with maintenance, issues of code enforcement and code violations are of concern. In reality, code enforcement is a joint responsibility between the city and the residents; however, overall code enforcement is regarded as less than adequate by the residents. It is perceived by residents that agencies in charge often do not respond in a timely manner or at all. Weekend code violations, such as home repairs that require a permit but are performed without one, are sometimes left uncompleted for long periods of time. Active enforcement by the city is lacking and penalties for infractions are small. Other concerns include single-family additions that are architecturally incompatible and decrease the amount of open space, and the lack of enforcement of the registered agent ordinance. This ordinance requires an absentee landlord to have a registered agent on file with the assessor's office, giving the City someone to serve in case of a code violation. Typically this ordinance is enforced by complaint. The background issue of absentee or nonresident landlords appears to be the crux of this problem. C. Recommendations The following action items are divided into two groups, based on the census tract locations. Tracts 28.02 and 29.01 qualify for a number of federally-funded City programs (based on income guidelines) not available to the other two census tracts, 28.03 and 29.02. These r ams include low interest loans for housing revitalization, exterior rehabilitation, and programs administered by the Office of Planning and Community Development ( :D). In addition, the issue of code enforcement is viewed as both a resident and city a;:.. -:y responsibility. The idea here is to keep code enforcement reasonable to allow r<)nle: ner repairs and a permitting and inspection proress. Strict attention should .;iwn to structures that have serious violations. -55r'

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Census Tracts 28.02 and 29.01 Recommendations Responsible Parties H-1 Collect data to determine a priority target area to WWPNA, OPCD, ZA, and H-2 H-3 H-4 H-5 start improvement work. DATA: number of other agencies HUD foreclosures, recent prices, infrastructure needs, number of subsidized housing, number of zone change requests, vacant and abandoned buildings, code enforcement invento-ry, safety hazards. In the priority target area, organize residents, identify and contact property owners to partici pate in code enforcement, clean-up, sponsor neighborhood self-help and pride-building events. Start work around a focal point, (e.g., Lincoln Street, Exposition Avenue and Pearl Street, schools and churches). Implement infrastructure improvements. Implement streetscape programs identified in the plan (coordinate with infrastructure work). Work with City agencies to improve response WWPNA, ZA, CC OPCD, PW, WWPNA OPCD, PW, WWPNA WWPNA, OPCD, ZA, time, to stiffen financial penalties (e.g., owners of other agencies, Police Devacant and abandoned housing), address weekend partment code enforcement issues; strengthen the registered agent ordinance, put liens on property where owners refuse to respond to citations. Create penalties/solutions that work. H-6 Conduct a literature campaign on singleand OPCD, DURA, Colorado multifamily housing programs in focus area (e.g., Housing and Finance Ausingle-family rehab loans at low interest for -56-

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H-7 H-8 owner occupants; multifamily rental rehab; homeownership programs, foreclosure and home ownership counseling; boarded up housing rehab program). Select 5-10 of the least desirable structures within the focus area to target more aggressively and publicize it if cooperation is not forthcoming. Improve architectural design of new facades, lighting, second story additions. Encourage single-family additions to keep families in the neighborhood, but encourage design and charac ter compatibility, perhaps through design guide lines. Census Tracts 28.03 and 29.02 Recommendations H-9 H-10 H-11 i-12 Work to improve overall maintenance of single and multifamily structures; enforce codes on improvement projects. Organize a neighborhood effort to increase awareness of property maintenance, increase pride and hold special events. Implement streetscape projects identified in target area study through property owner con structed improvements or through city programs. Further identify and work on infrastructure needs. -57-thority (ClfAFA), WWPNA WWPNA OPCD, WWPNA Responsible Parties WWPNA, Code Enforce ment Agencies WWPNA, CC OPCD, WWPNA, PW, CC OPCD, WWPNA, PW F,

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H-13 : (, r .. Encourage additions to single-family structures to keep families in the neighborhood; encourage design and character compatibility, perhaps through design guidelines. -58OPCD,

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VI. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT A. Goals By fostering neighborhood oriented businesses, improve the environment for business and development in areas currently zoned for commercial use. B. Overview of Existinf: Conditions and Issues West Washington Park bas diverse retail businesses concentrated along South Broadway and Alameda Avenue and in small pockets throughout the neighborhood. These areas are shown in Figure 6. The main retail center along Broadway is between Second Avenue and Bayaud Street, approximately three blocks in length. Because most of the zoning is B-4, there are a variety of retail outlets. In addition, the Mayan Theater, the proposed Shops at the Mayan, Omnibank Southeast, a number of restaurants and office uses make this area quite diverse. The One Broadway mixed-use PUD on the west side of Broadway is an example of a successful redevelopment project that is a result of the economic development efforts of the. City and the Metropolitan Denver Local Development Corporation (MDLDC). Further south on Broadway, between Virginia and Avenues, is the Interplaza International Collection, an ambitious redevelopment project of the old Ward's building and adjacent blocks. This mixed-use project bas been partially successful and, although technically outside of the West Washington Park neighborhood boundaries, it affects the neighborhood due to its proximity to it. Parts of the project, particularly the Design Center, have been successful, whereas the Ward's building is basically still a gutted shell. Ala;, eda Avenue has pockets of commercial development from Broadway to Downing Street. These commercial areas are struggling. Small and new development projects have recently been 01 ted at Alameda Avenue and South Logan Streets. The dispersed commercial areas consist of neighborhood businesses and seem to be holding their own. No expansion of these areas bas occurred in recent years. The general health of the neighborhood's commercial areas is good but continued efforts to encourage vacancy infill, up-grading of businesses, business expansion, and increased -59-

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employment opportunities in commercially zoned areas need to be made over the long term. A commercial vacancy study in March 1990 pinpointed vacant commercial buildings (see Figure 14). The majority of these occur along South Broadway and Alameda Avenues. The remainder are scattered along South Pearl Street, south of Alameda and South Pennsylvania Street, north of Alameda. In neighborhood meetings, numerous isues concerning economic development in WWP have been raised, mostly focusing on the Broadway business/commercial area. There is a general consensus that Broadway business activity needs to be strengthened and that special attention is needed to maintain its economic vitality. In particular, attention needs to be given to the Interplaza project to eliminate remaining vacant properties and replace them with businesses that are neighborhood serving and which strengthen existing businesses along Broadway. Another issue on Broadway involves the increasing amount of antisocial street activity by vagrants and loiterers. Humane and legal methods of minimizing this activity need to be employed in the interests of public safety and improving the shopping image of Broadway. Parking problems for Broadway businesses need to be solved, with assemblage of parking areas to encourage increased pedestrian shopping traffic. Along with improved parking, streetscaping projects are needed to improve the image and attractiveness of business areas for shopping and continued development. In another image-related area, vacant business properties are perceived as a blight on the entire neighborhood. Residents are also opposed to any expansion of business uses along Lincoln Street. Activities of the Miracle Mile Merchants Association (MMMA) and the :MDLDC should place greater emphasis and focus on economic development, and the :MDLDC should expand their district. The business association needs to be strengthened. C. Economic Development Recommendations ED-1 Preserve and improve existing commercial areas. Encourage redevelopment of marginal commer cial areas into mixed-use projects and provide for employment opportunities and local services. -60Responsible Parties EDA, OPCD

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r.-:

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ED-2 ED-3 ED-4 ,;_ ED-5 ED-6 ED-7 ED-8 ED-9 Encourage new business infill development in existing business areas where feasible and oppose new business development along Lincoln Street (please refer to policies CB-1 to 14, pp. 21-24; I-1 and 2, p. 24; LS-1 and 2, p. 26 of this Plan). Target economic developmept funds to neigh borhood business development. Implement an extension of the streetscaping project along Broadway. Apply for grants under the CNSP program for specialized business areas at Kentucky Avenue and Pearl Street, Pearl Street and Alameda Avenue, and Alameda Avenue and Broadway to improve streetscaping, visual appearance and business image. Develop business directories for neighborhood business areas to distribute to residents to en courage limrt:hne"ighborhood shopping. Allow compatible low-rise office development in the area bounded by Speer Boulevard, Broadway and Fourth Avenue. Encourage more merchant and business property owner involvement in city economic development activities. Work to minimize the antisocial behavior in the neighborhood through humane and legal means. -62OPCD, Mayor's .. Qffice of Economic Development (MOED), WWPNA MOED,MMMA OPCD, Business Owners Business owners, OPCD, MOED WWPNA, Business own ers, MDLDC, Washington Park Community Center (WPCC) MOED, OPCD MOED, OPCD DPD, WWPNA, Broadway Business Owners, Dept. of Health and Hospitals

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CODEENFORCEMENT .... A. Goals Maintain and improve the historic design image of WWP through consistent property maintenance and improved code enforcement. B. Overview of Existin2 Conditions and Issues West Washington Park is an older, established urban neighborhood with infrastructure as well as housing stock that averages 70-80 years of age. The infrastructure is in need of minor to major repair and there are instances where sidewalks have become safety hazards. A resident-conducted environmental study thoroughly documented locations in WWP that have been targeted for improvements and gives an overview of sites where code enforcement actions should be directed (See Figure 15). The survey involved a walk through the neighborhood and a list of violations of code enforcement rules. Most of the vacant buildings in WWP are located along Broadway and Lincoln Street. Areas with deteriorated sidewalks are scattered throughout the neighborhood, typically in fragments less than a block in length. Some of these fragments include flagstone sidewalks and property owners wishing to keep these historic style of walk should be allowed to do so by leveling them and/or !---flagstone. Numerous areas have deteriorated right-of ways. Approximately 70 percent of the sidewalk corner intersections lack handicap ramps on either some or all of the comers. Potholes in alleys are also present. Issues associated with code enforcement in WWP are centered on code violations, image, historic character, and infrastructure. An underlying issue involves the maintenance of a balance .ne desire of residents to upgrade their properties and doing so within the rules of the current codes. The city administration can be helpful in working with residents to make r--"'lformance to these rules a matter of common sense and less onerous from both complia: e as well as financial All of these areas interrelate and affect the character uf the neighborhood as perceived by the residents and the public. The most frequently cited code violations are illegally parked vehicles, junk cars, and illegal second units. Run-down properties and vacant or deteriorated buildings are an eyesore and detract from the image and valufof the neighborhood. Additionally, they can pose a physical threat, such as fires or as habitation for vagrants. Those structures -63r.

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PARK =rGURE 15 KEY: POTHOLE HANDICAP I RAMP NEEDED DETERIORATED RIGHTOFWAY DETERIORATED ... SIDEWALK ....

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that are salvageable should be repaired; those that are not should be torn down. impact the visual character of WWP, and no new billboards should be permitted. Private property needs to be improved, including enforcement of the weed and junk ordinances. Rega .. ing services, residents feel that street and alley cleaning and trash collection needs to ue improved. Curbs, gutters and need repair in many areas. Alleys exist throughout the neighborhooq and they vary in width. Many small garages access the alleys. In the absence of garages, many residents have built their own off-street parking areas. The alleys can become filled with trash and are unsightly. Residents have complained about the general state of the alleys and have noted that better maintenance is needed. Other issues raised concerning alleys include long-term parked cars which narrow the alleys and make it difficult for trash trucks to pass, dogs rummaging in open garbage cans, improved maintenance for the City-owned dumpsters, and providing more automated dumpster systems where feasible. C. Code Enforcement Recommendations CE-1 CE-2 CE-3 CE-4 Enforce the zoning code governing illegal second dwelling units. Improve street and alley cleaning and trash collection; consider adding dumpsters where feasible. Disallow any additional billboards; remove existing billboards on South Broadway where feasible. Improve private property maintenance. -65-Responsible Parties ZA, WWPNA WWPNA, Public Works Dept. OPCD, WWPNA, City Council WWPNA, Property owners

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CE-5 CE-6 CE-7 CE-8 CE-9 CE-10 CE-ll CE-ll CE-13 Implement improvements recommended in the neighborhood infrastructure study (handicapped ramps, alley potholes, streetscape [curb, gutters, sidewalks], vacant and deteriorated buildings, deteriorated ROW). Enforce weed ordinance so \}'eeds are cut to the required minimum six inches in height. Consider formation of a code enforcement committee of the WWPNA to deal with com plaints; include city administrative staff. Maintain flagstone curbs and walks where possible; encourage flagstone leveling and/or replacement instead of concrete reconstruction. Encourage the city to improve the enforcement provisions of the property maintenance ordinances. Penalties for multiple violations should be increased. Improve alley maintenance to eliminate trash, potholes, debris and old cars in alley ROW and on adjacent private property. Clean dumpsters more often. Spruce up building facades facing alleys and encourage better lot maintenance by businesses along Broadway and other areas where residences are located across the alley from businesses. Police and ticket cars parked illegally in alleys. -66OPCD, PW, ZA, other .. City agencies ZA, WWPNA. WWPNA Property owners, Public Works Dept. WWPNA Department of Public Works (DPW), ZA, Property Owners DPW, WWPNA WWPNA, Neighborhood Businesses DPD

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. CE-14 Conduct a neighborhood-wide needs and DPW, OPCD, WWPNA, implementation assessment of the current CC dumpster program. CE-15 Provide more dumpsters b: ween Lincoln and DPW Broadway where desired by .tesidents. -67-

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VIII. PUBLIC FACILITIES AND PARKS A. Goals Maintain and improve accessibility to and functionality of public facilities and parks for all citizens of the neighborhood. B. Overview of Existin2 Conditions Introduction r WWP has an extensive mix of public/quasi-public facilities scattered throughout the neighborhood. The quality of these facilities and their continued upkeep are important to the identity of the neighborhood, feelings of pride by residents, and positive perceptions to visitors and potential investors. Washington Park is the major amenity and is held dear by the residents. But there are other facilities that also have an important niche in the life of the neighborhood and contribute to its cohesiveness. Changing circumstances can result in pressure to adapt certain facilities to other uses. Such plans should be considered very carefully to ensure continued neighborhood compatibility for new uses. Facilities Descriptions 1. Public Parks Washington Park forms the eastern boundary of the neighborhood along Downing Street, from Virginia to Louisiana Avenues. It was acquired by the City in 1898 and is approxi mately 161 acres in size, with two lakes covering 34.5 acres. It is classified as a "city" park and has nearly every amenity except baseball or softball fields (i.e., indoor pool, rec center, tennis courts, bike and fitness trails, playgrounds, picnic areas, etc.), allowing a full range of passive and active recreation. The Department of Parks and Recreation is currently preparing a master plan for the park. Planned improvements include replacing the pumphouse, switching from irrigation to an automatic sprinkler system to save water, rebuilding the central tennis courts, expanding the recreation center weight room, providing handicapped access, pool improvements and forming a maintenance district. Parking areas within the park are not planned to be increased. A major issue for residents is spill-over -68-

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parking occurring when the park is used heavily. This has been an irritating with property owners who have lived nearby for many years. The negative impact of speeding bicyc. traffic in Washington Park is another concem.of the residents. Hungarian Freedom Park at Speer Boulevard and Clarkson Street in the northeast comer of WWP is a three-acre neighbdhood park acquired by the City in 1912. This is a passive park with picnic facilities and features ? monument and fountain. This park ties in with Speer Boulevard and the greenway along Cherry Creek. Alamo Placita Park, although not in WWP, lies directly north of Hungarian Freedom Park across Speer Boulevard and adds to the greenway along Cherry Creek. 2. Parkways and Boulevards Downing Street Parkway connects to Marion Street Parkway and provides an approximately one-mile long link from Speer Boulevard to the north entrance of Washington Park. Denver is well known for its parkways, and this portion is an example of the usefulness of this urban design feature in emphasizing the entryway to the park. Speer Boulevard also is a major urban design feature in Denver and forms the northern boundary of WWP. The City has recently embarked upon efforts to preserve and upgrade Speer Boulevard with landscaping, lighting, and new bridges and bikeways. 3. Schools Washington Park West residents desire strong neighborhood-serving schools for their children to attend. Of the five public schools in or adjacent to the neighborhood, two have been closed. This is an issue with residents since it increases the need for transporting students out of the neighborhood and sends a negative message to families with school-age children considering relocating to the neighborhood. Lincoln Elementary at 715 S. Pearl Street is located in the south central portion of WWP. It was built in 1891, improved ;n 1904 and 1929. In 1929, the original structure was removed. The school's site comi es 2.76 acres, and the school has a rated capacity of 473 .. tudents. Steele Elementary at .}.iO S. Me -.-m Parkway is found on the eastern edge of WWP. Built in 1913, it has a capacity i 494 students with a 3.68-acre site. The neigh or hood identified the need for the City and Denver Public Schools to work together -69= F

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to landscape the property better by providing street trees and an irrigation system.:(?r better maintenance. Both these schools are among the oldest in the city. Byers Alternative Learning Center, now a private school on Pearl Street between Bayaud and Cedar Avenues, occupies an entire block. A fenced playground area about one-half block in size is located diagonally southwest of the school at Cedar Avenue and Pennsylva nia Street. The neighborhood desires tl}at this area remain open and become a park or garden area should the Denver Public School District (DPS) consider redevelopment of the school buildings. Other private institutions in WWP include the Montessori Child Development Center at 400 S. Logan Street and St. Francis DeSales Catholic School at 235 S. Sherman Street. Sherman School, at the northeast comer of Second Avenue and Grant Street, is a former public school consisting of two buildings on a 24,000-square-foot property. The school was built in 1896 and in 1924 an annex was built. The building could be a candidate for historic structure status. The Sherman School property is owned by DPS and includes 9-1/2lots on the west side of Grant (currently a community garden) zoned R-3 and approximately lllots on the east side zoned PUD. Currently the school is occupied by two tenants, the Grant Street Arts Center and Horizon Dance Studio. DPS has announced it wishes to sell the property and will consider breaking the parcels into two packages. The parking area for the community gardens needs to be maintained. The nearest middle school to WWP is Grant Junior High at 1751 S. Washington Street and the closest high school is South Senior High at 1700 E. Louisiana Avenue, opposite the south end of Washington Park. The compatibility of existing and former school grounds and facilities with the neighborhood is a concern. The grounds and facilities are stark and landscaping (aside from the front lawns) is not well maintained. The playground at Byers Jr. High is a particular source of consternation to the neighbors. It is a weed-infested eyesore that is not maintained by the public school system. There is also a concern about the future of Sherman School and how this facility can be preserved and reused in a compatible manner. In conjunction with Sherman School, the residents want the community garden to remain there and those at other locations to be maintained. -70-

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4. Community Centers Washington Park Community Center is located at 809 S. Washington Street in a one-story brick building of 6,610 square feet. The building is owned by the City and leased to Washington Park Community Center, Inc. at an annual cost of one dollar. The center offers senior, preschool, ,. ::;d family programs, plus summer camp and informal education. It is also available for neighborhood and organizational meetings and special classes. The diversity of activities available at the center and the frequency of its use is a source of pride for neighborhood residents. 5. Police and Fire Stations Although part of the Police District 4, the nearest police facility is the District 3 Station, ten blocks east of the neighborhood at 1625 S. University Boulevard. The District 4 Station is at 2100 S. Clay Street. Two fire stations are located on the edges of the neighborhood: Station 11 just west of Broadway at 40 W. Second Avenue and Station 21, east of Marion Parkway at 1580 E. Virginia Avenue. City crime statistics by neighborhood place WWP at number 40 out of 68, with 94.3 total offenses per 1,000 people. 6. Churches The neighborhood is well served by several churches located throughout the area, representing many denominations. 7. library The Ross-Broadway ,ch Library, located at the northwest orner of Lincoln and Bayaud, is part of the Denver p. :. library syste n. The library is na.med after Frederick R. Ross, who donated the money .wr the construction of this library and several others throughout the city. The library was built in 1951 and was modeled after the Prairie style of architecture epitomized by Frank Lloyd Wright. It was designed by noted local architect, Victor Hornbein. The building has approximately 3,585 square feet of space on one floor. Designed to hold 10,000 volumes, the collection is currently at 19,000 volumes. which is curre : v overcrowdin!! 1 he building. Library patrons have access through a centralized corr: .r system to ar .he volumes in the Denver library system, located at the central libra: Jr at other bran.::h facilities, totaling 3.8 million items, with overnight delivery. -71r '.

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The Ross-Broadway branch is primarily a neighborhood library, serving patrons wit!!in about a 3-mile radius. The library is open five days a week, closed on Thursdays and Sundays. It is a full-service branch library, offering numerous services including telephone reference, book renewal by phone, books on tape and in Spanish, large print books, free story times and programs for children, a gay and lesbian theme collection, and many others. The library currently does not have any type of meeting room or auditorium. C. Public Facilities Recommendations PFP-1 PFP-2 PFP-3 PFP-4 PFP-5 PFP-6 Develop and implement plans to improve the landscaping and maintenance of public school grounds. Work to preserve Sherman School uses and structures in a way compatible with the surround ing neighborhood. Look at options for increasing the amount of open space in the neighborhood for the devel opment of more pocket parks. Encourage the continuation of community gar dens. Consider development of a bike trail facility for training and racing at another park or in un developed areas of the city to relieve pressure on the use of Washington Park for these activities. Research collecting unused parcels, triangles, ROW, etc., along 1-25 to make a linear park and trails. -72-Responsible Parties OPCD, WWPNA, DPS OPCD, WWPNA,_ DPS, cc OPCD, WWPNA, DPR WWPNA, OPCD, DPR, cc DPR OPCD,DPR

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PFP-7 PFP-8 Work with the city to up-grade and expand the Ross-Broadway library to accommodate a com munity meeting room and more books. WWPNA, Den\!er Public .. Ubrary (DPL), City Council Representative Work with Parks and Recreation Department on WWPNA, OPCD, DPR the new Master Plan for Washington Park. Resolve issues dealing with parking, automobile circulation and speeding bicycles. -73F r--!

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APPENDIX A 1. Nei2hborhood Plannin2 Neighborhood planning is a collaborative process between the City, citizens, and property owners of a particular area which activefy solicits participation in the formulation of a plan for that neighborhood. The process enunciates goals, identifies and discusses issues, generates and tests alternative ways to achieve the desired ends, proposes a plan for the area, and spells out policy changes and investments that should be implemented to help realize that goal. It is a forum in which people initiate rather than react to change, and in which the various interest groups within a neighborhood, who may have different goals, work out their differences to arrive at a mutually satisfactory plan. The private-public partnership is essential to the ultimate success of the venture. 2. West Washinf:!on Park Nei2hborhood Process The planning process used to develop this plan was open and interactive with the residents and business people in the neighborhood. It was started at the request of Councilman Dave Doering of District 7 and the West Washington Park Neighborhood Association (WWPNA) Board of Directors. Both Councilman Doering and WWPNA Board felt that the existing neighborhood character was being threatened as a result of rezoning pressure and a lack of direction regarding development and design of vacant and underdeveloped properties. A volunteer steering committee was organized consisting of residents, business people, and public agency representatives to oversee the development of the plan. Coordination and technical assistance for plan development was provided by the Neighborhood Planning Division of the Office of Planning and Community Development. The steering committee representatives were geographically dispersed throughout the neighborhood and represented a diverse mix of ages and backgrounds. All meetings were open to the public and many individuals not on the plan committee also participated. A-1

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., February 1989, the first large neighborhood public meeting was held. A series steering ,mmittee meetings were held over the course of fifteen months by the committee to discuss issues, determine and : Jvelop a common vision for the neighborhood under the following priority topics: land use and zoning traffic and transportation housing economic development code enforcement parks and public facilities urban design These discussions led to preparation of drafts of the plan and this final document. Early in the process, meetings were held in different sections of the neighborhood as a means of getting t' maximum amount of public involvement in the process and to clearly identify neighborhood issues. The plan development process concluded with a subcommittee, plus support from the Office of Planning and Community Development, preparing the initial plan draft. The Steerir;g Committee subsequently reviewed the draft plan prior the formal public hearing. The Denver Planning Board's public bearing was then held on November 14, 1990, and the plan was adopted by the Denver City Council on January 14, 1991. A-2 f-

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APPENDIXB Existin2 Zonin2 Description The map on page 13 shows the existing zoning for West Washington Park. Currently the neighborhood is divided into 11 zoning_ districts and three Planned Unit Developments (PUD). These zone districts and their principal purposes are taken from the Denver Zoning Code and summarized below: Residential Zone District R-1 (Single Family) R-2 (Duplex) R-3 (High Density Residential) R-3X (High Density Residen tial) Purpose Single-Unit Detached Dwellings; home occu pations and room renting allowed Single-Unit Detached Dwellings, Multi-Unit Dwellings, Low Density, typically duplexes and triplexes High Density Apartment District High Density Apartment District intended to encourage new residential development in older developed areas R-4 (Very High Intensity Very High Density Apartment and Office District Residential or Office) allows hotel and motel uses and limited accessory retail shopping Commercial: B-1 (Limited Office) Limited Office District, primarily for medical and dental care B-1

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B-2 (Convenience Retail) Neighborhood Business District cotlvenience goods and personal services B-4 (General Business District) General Business District commercial uses wide variety of B-8 (Intensive, Very High Density /Warehouse) P-1 (Parking) Industrial: I-0 (Light Industrial) Intensive General Business/Very High Density Residential District concentration of uses designed to be served by mass transit Parking, off-street parking district, buffer between business and residential uses Light Industrial District, limited manufacturing, wholesale and retail and offices and motels/transition between intensive industrial and residential PUD (Planned Unit DevelopDairy facilities and equipment/vehicle storage ment) --Royal Crest Dairy; School adaptive reuse --Sherman School; Television station complex (KUSA-9) Logan and Speer. B-2 !["""

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APPENDIX C Historic Preservation 1. General Overview of Historic Preservation As seen elsewhere in this plan, preservation of the historic structures and districts, the feeling and setting of the West Washington Park Neighborhood takes a high priority among the concerns of its residents. Planning for the neighborhood's development should focus on the valuable architectural and landscape characteristics that remain in it. Information is needed about the historic context of the neighborhood, a thorough survey and inventory is \., a necessity, and the identification and application for designation of worthy properties to the. t Denver Landmarks Commission and the National Register of Historic Places needs to be accomplished. 2. Denver Landmark Preservation Ordinance In 1967, the City of Denver made a major commitment to historic preservation in the community by passing the Denver Landmark Preservation Ordinance. The preamble of the ordinance states: "It is hereby declared as a matter of public policy that the protection, enhancement, perpetuation, and use of structures and districts of historic, architectural, and geographic significance, located within the city, is a public necessity and is required in the interest of the prosperity, civic pride, and general welfare of the people." The City's commitment to preservation was reiterated in the 1989 Denver Comprehensive Plan. This ordinance establishes, with subsequent amendments, a framework for the orderly planning and development of historic districts in the city. The ordinance contains three main provisions: 1) procedures to designate local historic districts or landmarks, 2) the orgariization of a Landmarks Commission, 3) review and monitor alterations to local historic properties. The Landmark Preservation Commission is appointed by the Mayor and has specialists with knowledge of or interest in historic preservation. The Commission serves to promote preservation in the City and to assist in the identification and survey of properties and districts worthy of Landmark status. C-1

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The landmark ordinance is a protection tool which allows the public and the Cit){_a certain flexibility in preservation matters. Property owners can, for example, avail themselves of landmark status without reference to the federal government and the National Register. The local landmark designation procedure can be swifter than listing on the National Register. Like other historic neighborhoods in D.enver, the West Washington Park Neighborhood should request the assistance of the Landmark Commission to help preserve historic resources. The neighborhood and Commission should work together to complete a thorough survey ai:J.d inventory of the neighborhood, identify significant or exemplary properties, and provide information about preservation options. If desired, an ordinance could be applied to help preserve the character and architecture of a significant historic district. 3. National Re!Dster of Historic Places Besides recommending designation of City Landmarks, the Landmark Commission reviews nominations to the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register is a federal designation, which lists historic properties worthy of preservation. The process for designation includes review by the Landmark Commission, the Colorado State Historic Preservation Officer at the Colorado Historical Society, and the federal Keeper of the National Register. Owner consent must be given before a privately owned historic property can be listed. The West Washington Park Neighborhood has seven properties on the National Register and has one property eligible for the Register, which to date has only been designated a city Landmark: The Smith Ditch, which flows through Washington Park, was listed on the National Register on October 8, 1976. It was built as an early irrigation ditch and later served the City's municipal needs. The Eugene Field House was moved to Washington Park and was listed on the National Register November 1, 1974. It commemorates Denver's beloved poet and journalist. C-2 [;

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Washington Park was listed on the National Register September._17, 1986. Though the City purchased the land in 1898, Washington Park gained its present configuration during the tenure of Mayor Speer and the "City Beautiful" movement of the early 1900s. The significant parts of the park include the Washington Park Boating Pavilion (1913) designed by the eccentric architect Jules Jacques Benois Benedict; the statue of Wynken, Blynken, and Nod, the children sailing in a woodel). shoe in Eugene Field's famous poem; and the designed park landscape. Washington Park was listed as part of a thematic nomination of properties associated with the "Denver Parks and Parkway System." These other properties in the neighborhood were listed as part of this system: Hungarian Freedom Park, Speer Boulevard and South Marion Street. All were listed September 17, 1986. The Norman Apartment Building at 99 South Downing was listed on the National Register on December 22, 1983. It is representative of early twentieth century apartment houses. The Mayan Theater, though not on the National Register, is a designated Denver Landmark. Built in 1930, the Mayan Theater is one of the best remaining examples of the big, elaborate movie houses of the 1920s and 1930s. The theater is adorned with Mayan warriors and has rich details of polychrome terra cotta. Replicas of Aztec images in the interior and a blocky temple form add to the Mayan Revival architecture of the movie palace reopened in 1985. Denver Landmark status is conferred, upon application by any person or group of persons, by vote of the Denver Landmark Commission. The Commission recommends designation to the Mayor and City Council. Designation is by ordinance, like zoning. Properties must possess significance and integrity as defined by the National Register of Historic Places' criteria. Properties do not have to be listed on the National Register. The Neighborhood could initiate, either through the Landmarks Commission or some other preservation group, a thorough survey of the neighborhood. In 1981 a minimal reconnaissance-level survey of the neighborhood was published by the city as part of the Historic Building Inventory. City and County of Denver. This report lacks much. A new C-3

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survey should be undertaken. All historic properties should be identified professional guidelines for the survey and inventory of historic properties. The Broadway Avenue "Miracle Mile" should receive high priority as well as representative blocks of Queen Anne and Bungalow residences. Once individual properties or districts ru:e identified, National Register of Historic Places nomination forms should be completed and submitted to the city, under the Certified Local Government Program, and to the State for review, comment and forwarding to the Federal Keeper of the National Register. 4. Denver Certified Local Government On September 23, 1985, the City of. Denver became a Certified Local Government (CLG). This program was developed by the National Park Service and is administered by the Colorado State Historic Preservation Office to assist local preservation efforts through matching grants. Cities must pass acceptable historic preservation ordinances, convene historic commissions, and identify historic properties in order to become CLGs. Ten percent of the federal preservation annual historic preservation grant to the State must. be passed through to CLGs (an estimated $50,000 for 1991). The City of Denver may apply for a share of these funds to conduct such projects .assurvey and inventory of historic properties, preservation education programs, or workshops. As part of Denver, the West Washington Park Neighborhood is eligible to apply through the Denver CLG (Landmarks Commission) for a grant-funded preservation project. The West Washington Park Neighborhood should receive high priority from the Denver CLG for funding a thorough survey and inventory of historic properties. The history, characteristics and architecture of the neighborhood has not received a share of the study monies made available to the City. It is time to request funds and expertise to accomplish the goals of completing an historic context, survey and inventory and nomination of properties to either the National Register or City Landmarks. A portion of the funds could be used for compiling illustrated design guidelines. C-4 r ..

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5. Other Public Incentives for Historic Preservation Besides the grants awarded to the Denver CLG, other grants are available directly to the State for preservation projects such as survey and inventories and preservation of historic properties. H funds are requested for restoration work, the property must be on the National Register. Because funds are very limited for grants for restoration projects, owners of historic structures have utilized the tqx incentives. Tax incentives for historic preservation are available both from the State and federal government for the rehabilitation of commercial properties. The investment tax credits, again, are available only for historic properties considered eligible for or already on the National Register. State tax incentives are available to properties designated historically significant by local entities. These State tax incentives went into effect January 1, 1991 and are available to commercial properties as well as owner-occupied residences. No properties in the West Washington Park Neighborhood have utilized the grants or tax credits. A survey of the neighborhood could identify numbers of historic properties eligible for these public incentives. Information about preservation incentives is available at the State Historic Preservation Office at the Colorado History Museum on Broadway at 13th. As part of the survey and inventory project, information about federal and State preservation incentives should be mailed or handed to all residents and property owners. 6. Public Awareness of Historic Preservation Our society's attitude has become increasingly more positive towards preservation and the movement has become a mainstream activity. This interest is shown on the local level as well. As described above, the City of Denver has adopted several ordinances to promote preservation. Also as described above, the Federal government during the same period bas provided new techniques, tax advantages, and monies for preservation projects. The neighborhood has also worked to improve awareness of the history and architecture of the area by supporting Preservation Week activities held in May, usually through walking tours, by providing a forum for preservation discussions as seen by several public meetings held in the neighborhood specifically on preservation issues, and, finally, by incorporating into this plan the concerns over historic preservation issues. C-5

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Many homes are being rehabilitated by their owners and other owners desire infprmation on how to appropriately and sympathetically renovate their homes and businesses. Illustrated design guidelines or a similar document should be prepared to help property owners in their rehabilitation work. The standards for historic preservation are in the Secretary of Interior's "Standards for Historic Preservation Projects." These give general guidance. Design guidelines developed for the neighborhood will help home owners build compatible new additions and presprve the character-defining elements of the neighborhood's architecture. The Neighborhood should continue its support of walking tours and public meetings. A self guided tour could be developed in conjunction with the Denver Landmark Commission on all significant properties in South Denver. This tour could feature community leaders, significant buildings, sites of historic events that took place in the area, architectural styles, historic streetscapes, scenic views, etc. The potential to educate --and entertain --the public while increasing awareness, familiarity and appreciation of Washington Park could produce long-lasting dividends for the neighborhood and the city. C-6 r: r