JAMES HENDERSON ANDREWS 1882 1970, A BIOGRAPHY
James Warren Andrews
E.M., Colorado School of Mines, 1963
B.A., Metropolitan State College of Denver, 1994
B.S., Metropolitan State College of Denver, 1998
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado Denver
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Arts
2011 by James Warren Andrews
All rights reserved
This thesis for the Master of Arts degree
James Warren Andrews
has been approved
Rebecca A Hunt
Thomas J. Noel
Andrews, James Warren (M. A. History)
James Henderson Andrews 1882 1970, A Biography
Thesis directed by Senior Instructor Rebecca A. Hunt
The paper is a combined chronological and topical presentation of the life
and times of James H. Andrews from his birth in 1882 to his death in 1970. It
includes some of his familys Scottish antecedents that molded part of his life in
Larimer County, Colorado. His fathers cattle ranching success in Wyoming and
later banking business in the Poudre Valley National Bank of Fort Collins gave
James a successful start. James early education at the Remington School in Fort
Collins was followed by college at the Colorado Agricultural College now C. S. U.
and culminated in his graduation as a civil and irrigation engineer. His work
experience included the construction of the Fort Collins Sugar Factory, the
construction of several major irrigation canals, the reconstruction of part of the
Colorado and Southern Railway roadbed, and the construction of the Ideal Cement
Company plant at Laporte. He bought the Stonewall Ranch at Livermore of some
10,000 acres and raised purebred Shorthorn Hereford cattle for thirty-two years.
During the Depression years of the 1930s and after, he was involved in mining which
helped financially when he lost the Stonewall Ranch by foreclosure in November
1938. He was well thought of for his engineering and surveying abilities and was
elected several times as County Surveyor. He married Lydia Warren late in life and
had three children; Warren, Julia, and Helen. After Lydia died in 1956, James
married an old-time grade school friend, Shirley Kissock DeConley, (only partially
successfully, he had to get his own breakfasts.) James father had died of asthma at
fifty-one and James had asthma most of his life which made it difficult to work.
Most of the paper is derived from original documentation of letters, deeds, diaries,
checkbooks, and pictures the family has preserved.
This abstract accurately represents the contents of the candidates thesis. I
recommend its publication.
Rebecca A. Hunt
I dedicate this thesis to my family, those who came before and those who will come
after, to those who brought the ethic of Scottish Persistence, to those who use it now,
and to those who will continue it.
I wish to thank those who provided the additional data for this thesis and those who
helped; the librarians, historians, and archivists; secretary Jill Hutchison, typist
Jennifer Anderson, Denise at the Larimer County Clerk and Recorders office, and
Jeff at Wolf Camera who copied the pictures. I acknowledge those professors
including Dr. Carl Pletch and Dr. Pamela Laird who inspired me plus the professors
who both taught me and served on my committee, Dr. Tom Noel and Dr. Jay Fell.
Particularly I am indebted to my teacher and advisor, Dr. Rebecca Hunt, for her
initial acceptance of the topic and her grammatical critiques to change government
engineering report writing to historical writing. Without the continued support and
sometimes heavy humorous comments to bring me back on track by my son, Brad,
my daughter, Karen, and my wife, Nancy, the thesis would never have been finished;
Thank you all.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES....................................................xi
1. INTENT AND GENERAL OUTLINE...................................2
2. ANTECEDENTS AND FAMILY BACKGROUND............................4
James Family in Scotland...................................4
James Family In Alleghany City Pennsylvania...............7
James Grandfather, Col. James Andrews.................7
James Father, Charles Bruce Andrews.......................14
C. B. Andrews Early Letters............................16
James Father At Fort Collins..............................20
James Fathers Cattle Ranching in Wyoming.............21
James Father as a Freemason...........................26
James Mother, Julia Henderson.............................26
3. JAMES H. ANDREWS............................................31
James Early Schooling.....................................35
James College Days........................................40
James Grand River Ditch Survey............................50
James Fort Collins Sugar Factory Engineering..............61
James Other Engineering Notes..........................66
Houses Connected With James H. Andrews.......................66
James As Head of Family......................................71
Stonewall And Rockdale Ranches...............................73
James Auto Mileage.....................................79
James 1910 Diary............................................80
James 1911 Diary............................................80
James 1912 Diary............................................81
James Record 1913 To 1924...................................82
James 1925 Diary............................................84
James 1926 Diary............................................84
James 1927 Diary............................................85
James 1928 Diary............................................86
6. JAMES AND LYDIAS COURTSHIP LETTERS............................87
7. JAMES AND LYDIA ON THE RANCH..................................157
Stonewall Ranch Period......................................157
James Mothers Philanthropy............................157
James Records of the Ranch...............................157
8. JAMES AND LYDIAS DIARIES.......................................160
James 1930 Diary.............................................160
James And Lydias 1931 Diary..................................160
James And Lydias 1932 Diary..................................161
Lydias 1933 Diary............................................161
James 1939 Diary.............................................164
James And Lydias Diary Records, 1934 1954................. 164
James Bank Records.......................................174
Grand River Ditch Second Survey...............................175
9. JAMES MINING VENTURES.........................................177
Mining At Manhattan And Essex.................................177
Mining At Cotopaxi............................................185
Mining Near Buena Vista At Cottonwood Mine....................191
Mining at Prairie Divide Near Cherokee Park...................193
Cherokee Park Mine........................................193
Prairie Divide Mine.......................................196
10. JAMES LATER YEARS.............................................199
APPENDICES A THROUGH Q...............................203
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1. ANDREWS FAMILY COAT OF ARMS AND TARTAN.
FIGURE 2. SILHOUETTES OF JOHN AND MARY ANDREWS ca. 1820.
FIGURE 3. INGLESTON FARM, SCOTLAND.
FIGURE 4. COL. JAMES ANDREWS ca. 1880.
FIGURE 5. PAINTING OF EADS BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION.
FIGURE 6. ANDREWS AND EADS ON CAMELS.
FIGURE 7. LETTER FROM CARNEGIE.
FIGURE 8. COPY OF PRESENTATION.
FIGURE 9. C.B. ANDREWS AS A YOUNG BOY.
FIGURE 10. C.B. ANDREWS AS A BOY.
FIGURE 11. C.B. ANDREWS IN 1877.
FIGURE 12. L.D. HENDERSONS HEADSTONE, JUNE 2000.
FIGURE 13. MR AND MRS. C.B. ANDREWS ca. 1881.
FIGURE 14. C.B. AND JULIA H. ANDREWS FIRST HOUSE.
FIGURE 15. TWO OF THE EARLIEST PICTURES OF J. H. ANDREWS.
FIGURE 16. JAMES H. ANDREWS AS A CHILD.
FIGURE 17. JAMES H. ANDREWS AS A YOUNG BOY.
FIGURE 18. JAMES AS A BOY AT KINIKINIK ca. 1890.
FIGURE 19. JAMES AND FRIEND WITH SHETLAND PONIES.
REMINGTON SCHOOL, FORT COLLINS.
JAMES FIRST GRADE STRING DESIGN.
JAMES H. ANDREWS ca. 1896.
JAMES ANDREWS AS A CADET PRIVATE.
JAMES ANDREWS AS FIRST SERGEANT, COMPANY B.
JAMES ANDREWS AS CAPTAIN, COMPANY B.
OFFICERS AND NON-COMS OF COMPANY B.
PRONE CADETS FIRING A VOLLEY.
JAMES ANDREWS COLLEGE GYM CLASS.
GRADUATING CLASS OF 1901, C.A.C.
FORT COLLINS SUGAR BEET DUMP.
BEET PILES AND SLUICE.
HOUSE AT 202 REMINGTON STREET.
SHADELANDS OR COLLEGE FARM HOUSE.
211 CANYON AVE. ANDREWS HOUSE.
STONEWALL RANCH RANCHHOUSE.
ZIMMERMAN PLACE HOUSE.
428 ELIZABETH STREET, FORT COLLINS.
322 EAST OAK STREET, FORT COLLINS.
FIGURE 40. LADY MOON WITH ROB AND KATE ANDREWS.
FIGURE 41. 1908 MAXWELL AUTOMOBILE.
FIGURE 42. 1912 MAXWELL AUTOMOBILE.
FIGURE 43. COLLEGE AVENUE, FORT COLLINS, 1913.
FIGURE 44. PORTALS OF N. POUDRE IRRIGATION TUNNEL.
FIGURE 45. LYDIA, PISTOL-PACKIN COW GIRL, AND JAMES, BRANDING
IN HIS ANGORA CHAPS.
FIGURE 46. JAMES AND LYDIAS WEDDING PICTURE.
FIGURE 47. JAMES PRIZE PERCHERON HORSE.
FIGURE 48. CABIN AT COTTONWOOD, 1946
FIGURE 49. 322 E. OAK ST., ANDREWS WITH AUNT ELLA AND AUNT RIE.
FIGURE 50. JAMES AND LYDIA AT 322 EAST OAK STREET.
FIGURE 51. SURVEY CREW ON LEFT, BLASTING CREW ON RIGHT.
FIGURE 52. MANHATTAN MILL FOUNDATION, 2010.
FIGURE 53. MANHATTAN, COLORADO, 1888.
FIGURE 54. MANHATTAN MINE TIME RECORD, JUNE 1939 TO DECEMBER
FIGURE 55. MANHATTAN MINE TIME RECORD, DECEMBER 1940 TO
FIGURE 56. MANHATTAN MILL INVESTMENT.
FIGURE 57. GUMAER MINE DUMPS, 2010.
FIGURE 58. COTTONWOOD MINE, LOWER PORTAL, 2010.
FIGURE 59. CHEROKEE PARK MINE ca. 1950.
FIGURE 60. PRAIRIE DIVIDE URANIUM MINE ADVERTISEMENT.
FIGURE 61. JAMES AND HIS GRANDCHILDREN, 1966.
FIGURE 62. JAMES ANDREWS SECOND MARRAGE.
FIGURE 63. LAST PICTURE OF JAMES H. ANDREWS.
FIGURE 64. BACK OF JAMES AND LYDIAS HEADSTONE.
If you can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you,
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you,
But make allowance for their doubting too;
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or being lied about, dont deal in lies,
Or being hated dont give way to hating,
And yet dont look too good, nor talk too wise:
If you can dream-and not make dreams your master;
If you can think-and not make thoughts your aim,
If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster
And treat those two imposters just the same;
If you can bear to hear the truth youve spoken
Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,
Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken,
And stoop and build em up with worn-out tools:
If you can make one heap of all your winnings
And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss,
And lose, and start again at your beginnings
And never breathe a word about your loss;
If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew
To serve your turn long after they are gone,
And so hold on when there is nothing in you
Except the Will which says to them: Hold on!
If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue,
Or walk with Kings nor lose the common touch,
If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you,
If all men count with you, but none too much;
If you can fill the unforgiving minute
With sixty seconds worth of distance run,
Yours is the Earth and everything thats in it,
And which is more youll be a Man, my son!
INTENT AND GENERAL OUTLINE
The intent of this presentation is to give as fully as the documentation allows
a biography of James Henderson Andrews. The documentation is intended to assist
future historians in Larimer County. It will start with his antecedents and family
background, first with his original family in Scotland and then with his immediate
family in Alleghany City, Pennsylvania (now Pittsburgh), and continue with his
father and mother in Fort Collins, Colorado. James father, Charles Bruce Andrews,
was heavily involved in the cattle ranching business in Wyoming and also
homesteaded part of the Kinikinik (Shetland) Ranch on the upper Cache la Poudre
River west of Fort Collins. James mother was quite active in Fort Collins social life.
Pictures of James boyhood life in Fort Collins and at the Kinikinik Ranch show
some of his early life although few records of his grammar school days at the
Remington School still exist. His transcript and pictures of him document his college
education at the Colorado Agricultural College (C.A.C) (predecessor in name of the
Colorado State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts that is now Colorado State
University). Some records exist of James work history after graduation, such as
construction of the Fort Collins Sugar Factory, construction of the Grand River
Ditch as chief surveyor, re-grading of the Colorado and Southern Railway tracks
from Longmont north toward Fort Collins, and construction of the Ideal Cement
plant at Laporte.
James acquisition of the Stonewall Ranch at Livermore started his thirty-
two-year ranching career and his involvement in that community. His courtship
letters were extensive and give many personal and historical details leading up to his
marriage. His marriage to Lydia Warren in 1928 was just before the 1930s
Depression during which his son and two daughters grew up at Livermore and had
their early schooling at the Livermore School (a two-room country school.) To help
out financially while on the ranch, James partnered in gold mining at Manhattan (a
ghost town in northwest Larimer County) with a neighbor and friend, Thorwald
Sackett. In November 1938 Fred Kluver, a former friend, landowner, and mortgage
holder, foreclosed his mortgage on the Stonewall Ranch in which James lost all the
land and cattle and even a few of his personal things. To James and his family this
was a major disaster in which they had only three weeks to vacate the ranch.
His later mining venture with Thorwald Sackett at Cotopaxi, Colorado,
during the Second World War, paid off enough so that he was able to eliminate his
other remaining debts from the ranch and begin to make a comeback. His land
surveying business was enough to keep him going after the Cotopaxi Mine burned
and a mining venture west of Buena Vista was not successful. He was then involved
in the uranium mine at Prairie Divide, northwest of Fort Collins, during the uranium
and radon gas period in the early 1950s.
During most of James life he was handicapped with asthma; his father had
died of asthma at the early age of fifty-one in Fort Collins. His wife, Lydia, based on
her nutritional training, tried for many years to find a cause and a cure for the asthma
through food and nutritional supplements but she was unsuccessful. Lydia died in
1956, during a trip to Tucson, Arizona. Afterward, James daughter, Julia, was with
him for several years, commuting back and forth to Denver where she worked as a
landscape architect. James health deteriorated and his gradual blindness was a severe
handicap. He tried to make a comeback by marrying an old-time grade school friend,
Shirley Kissock DeConley, which was not very satisfactory since James had to get
his own breakfasts usually downtown. He died twenty days short of his eighty-
eighth birthday in Fort Collins.
ANTECEDENTS AND FAMILY BACKGROUND
James Family in Scotland
Due to the economic conditions succeeding the Napoleonic Wars after 1815,
the Andrews family emigrated from Scotland to the United States. As Alex
Murdoch, lecturer in Scottish History at Edinburgh University, says, The post-war
depression led many of those who had been proud to be members of the British war
effort, and had served in Scottish regiments against the French before 1815, to
question why they had done that, when they and their families were now starving.1
The post-Napoleonic agricultural depression in Scotland mentioned above was a
deciding factor in the Andrews decision to emigrate from Scotland to America.
They had close relatives in the area of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
James H. Andrews ancestry was Scottish on his fathers side and Scottish,
with a mixture of Irish and English, on his mothers side. The origin of the name
Andrews was Andrias in the old Scots and Siol Andrea in its pre-Celtic Pictish
beginnings.2 The Chief of the Clan had moved south to Galway with part of the Clan
before the time of Robert the Bruce but many had remained under the over-lord-ship
of Clan Ross in the northwest of Scotland. Today Andrews is a sept, or allied family,
of Clan Ross. Appendix A shows the clan locations on a map of Scotland at the time
of Robert the Bruce.3
The Chief of Clan Andrias, Duncan Andrew, signed the Ragman Roll as
forced fealty to Edward I of England in 1296 and then disappeared in history. A coat
of arms and tartan of the Clan have not been publicly displayed in many centuries.4
1 Magnus Magnusson, Scotland, The Story of a Nation. (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2000),
2 Hall of Names Marketing, Inc., 1984-1992.
3 John Garnons Williams, (Artists Map of Scotland under Robert the Bruce, 1314. 1994).
4 Reconstructed from Andrews Archives.
VICTRIX FORTUNA SAPIENTIA
FIGURE 1. ANDREWS FAMILY COAT OF ARMS AND TARTAN
James H. Andrews great-great-grandfather, as shown on his horizontal
tombstone in the ancient New Abbey churchyard in Scotland, was born in 1752 and
died there in 1814 (seen by the author in the ancient burial ground.) He was also
named James Andrews. (An Andrews Warren genealogy is shown in Appendix
B.)5 James H. Andrews' great-grandfather, John Andrews, was born in 1795 and
married Mary Stitt in 1820. An unknown artist made pen-and-ink silhouettes of them
at, or soon after, their wedding.6
5 Andrews Archives records.
6 Andrews Archives, from E, L. Andrews, Ashland, Virginia.
FIGURE 2. SILHOUETTES OF MARY AND JOHN ANDREWS, ca. 1820
The location of the old Ingleston Farm on which they were tenants is still currently
shown on the British Ordnance Survey 1:10,560 sheet No. NX 96 NE (Appendix C)
and the farm buildings are pictured in an old photograph.7
Andrews Archives photographs.
FIGURE 3. INGLESTON FARM, SCOTLAND
James Family In Alleghany City Pennsylvania.
The rapid expansion of America occurred during and after the time the
Andrews family immigrated to the Pittsburgh area. Historically, after the period
called the Era of Good Feelings following the War of 1812, this expansionism of the
Americans was expressed in the concept of Manifest Destiny (John L. Sullivans
July 1845 slogan). James H. Andrews grandfather, Colonel James Andrews, who
had no middle name but was politely designated Col. even though he was never in
the military, started his career during this period of time. The post Civil War period
was a major influence affecting the following two generations, both C. B. Andrews
and James H. Andrews, as will be described.
James Grandfather, Col. James Andrews
Col. Andrews was one of the six children of John and Mary Andrews. He
emigrated along with his father, John, and his brothers, Robert, and John, and sisters,
Mary, Margaret, and Jannett, in the summer of 1838.9 Because Johns wife, Mary,
had died at New Abbey, John gave up the farm and became a recluse the rest of his
8 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1966 ed., s. v. Manifest Destiny by R. M. Dorson.
9 Communication from the Minister of New Abbey Kirk, Scotland, custodian of the Curling Society
records about John Andrews.
life in the United States.10 Col. Andrews, as a boy of fourteen, started as an
apprentice bricklayer and stonemason and without much formal schooling worked up
to become a masonry contractor to support the family.
Col. Andrews made his fortune by building the masonry abutments for many
of the road and railway bridges in the eastern United States. He also was involved as
a contractor in constructing part of the masonry lining in the famous 4.73 mile long
Hoosac Tunnel in northwestern Massachusetts. This tunnel was initially proposed as
a canal tunnel to link Boston with the Hudson River and developed into a railway
tunnel for the Greenfield and Troy Railway Co. (The Hoosac Tunnel used the first
pneumatic-powered rock drills underground in the United States and used the first
nitroglycerine instead of gunpowder for blasting underground.)11 Also the tunnel
was where Charles Burleigh in 1866, invented his pneumatic rock drill that he
brought to Silver Plume, Colorado, in 1868 for driving the Burleigh Tunnel there,
shortly before C. B. Andrews arrived in the Silver Plume area.12
Col. Andrews built the Old Pittsburgh Post Office, a massive Victorian-style
stone building in downtown Pittsburgh, in 1846. During this time he also built the
Steubenville Bridge over the Ohio River.13 A later picture shows him, probably in
FIGURE 4. COL JAMES ANDREWS ca. 1880.
10 Personal communication from Ella Andrews Schaff, 1947.
11 Gosta Sandstrom, Tunnels, (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963), 152-160.
12 Sandstrom, 291.
13 Col. James Andrews' obituary, Engineering News and American Railway Journal, vol. XXXVIII,
no. 8, Aug. 19, 1897, 124.
14 Andrews Archives photographs.
Col. Andrews married Maria Carson April 13, 1849, and they had eight
children as follows:
Mary Virginia Andrews, b. January 29, 1850, d. January 5, 1944.
Ellen Carson Andrews, b. February 19, 1852, d. September 30, 1947.
Charles Bruce Andrews, b. August 6, 1854, d. November 17, 1905.
Sydney Francis Andrews, b. March 2, 1857, d. February 16, 1933.
Maria Carson Andrews, b. September 10, 1859, d. March 13, 1955.
Robert James Andrews, b. May 11, 1862, d. November 24, 1939.
Walter Winfield Andrews, b. August 27, 1866, d. June 24, 1947.
Edwin Eads Andrews, b. April 1, 1869, d. August 12, 1946.15
A period of great fortunes made and lost followed the American Civil War after
1865. The serious inequities allowed by unchecked capitalism exploded in the
violent strikes of the labor movement. Mark Twain cleverly caught the speculative
spirit and the governmental corruption of the times when he, in 1873, titled a novel,
The Gilded Age, and this became the descriptor of the period.16 Col. Andrews was
not in the same class as the multi-millionaires such as Carnegie, Rockefeller, and
Gould, but he did have money from his masonry contracting and bridge building
business. Building the huge Eads Bridge across the Mississippi River at St. Louis,
was Col. Andrews biggest construction project, first as contractor to and then in
partnership with, Captain James Buchanan Eads. The pneumatic caisson method
sank the pier foundation on the Illinois side 152 feet into the mud down to a solid
footing. The resident doctor required the sand hogs to spend more time coming up
through the airlocks after the high-pressure air killed fourteen men with the bends.
The Bridge is still in use today. Florence Dorsey spells out the many
tribulations of building the Bridge in the story of James B. Eads.17 The builders used
a different technique of cantilevering the steelwork from the piers to prevent
interference with the steamboat traffic on the Mississippi River below.
15 Andrews Archives genealogical records.
16 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1966 ed., s. v. Mark Twain by Walter Blair.
17 Florence Dorsey, Road to the Sea, The Story of James B. Eads and the Mississippi River. (Gretna,
Louisiana: Pelican Publishing Co., 1998).
18 Gary Lucy, artist, Gary Lucy Gallery, Washington, Missouri. Eads Bridge, The Eads Bridge under
Construction. 1873. (Print 144/1250 from original painting).
FIGURE 5. PAINTING OF EADS BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION.
The date of the official completion of the Bridge was July 4, 1874. Eads and
Andrews then went to the mouth of the Mississippi below New Orleans, Louisiana,
to construct the Jetties to deepen the ship channel, again with many political
difficulties, as documented by Dorsey.19 20 21 On one of their European trips Eads and
Andrews saw the Jetties used successfully in Russia on many of the big rivers
there. The method consisted of very stout non-rotting woven willow mats heavily
weighted with large stones to direct the River to cut and deepen its own channel
without sluggishly spreading out and depositing its thick load of mud on the way to
the Gulf of Mexico. Below New Orleans, the Jetties still work to this day.
According to Col. Andrews obituary, he and Capt. Eads took a world trip to
celebrate after the completion of the Jetties. A picture, probably taken in Egypt
during the trip, shows Col. Andrews, his wife, Maria Carson Andrews, his daughter,
Ella, and Capt. Eads on camels.
19 Dorsey, 166-217.
20 Dorsey, 177.
21 Andrews Archives photographs.
FIGURE 6. ANDREWS AND EADS ON CAMELS.
The Andrews and their Caird relatives lived in Alleghany City, Pennsylvania,
across the Alleghany River from Pittsburgh. Alleghany City history is documented
by the Western Pennsylvania Flistorical Society and Alleghany City later became
part of Pittsburgh.22 After the Civil War, Col. Andrews built a large Victorian-style
mansion on the site of an old Catholic convent, the area being called at that time
Nunnery Hill (it is now called Fineview) with a commanding view over the City of
Pittsburgh. Col. Andrews was a friend of the other Scots in the area and probably
benefited financially from that friendship. A letter to him from Andrew Carnegie
22 Charles W. Dahlinger, Old Alleghany, Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, vol. 1, no. 4
(Pittsburgh: The Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, 1918), 161 213. 23
23 Andrews Archives documents.
S Wmt *tr *r.
November XI, XByft.
My Dear Triend:
Whnt an original genius you are.
Great ideas upon many subjects. I am sorry thHt I
did not see you while in Pittsburgh. Your favor of
the 31st ult. has Just been read. When next there, I
do hope you wl ll show me your plans and explain them.
I take it that you see the necessity for Al-
legheny County doing something to prevent the future
growth of manufacturing being located near the Lake.
? -Tfr WftBltse thl*, <1* the first great step. When Pitts-
burgh reaches this point, the remedy will not be far
distant, and as you well know, 1 am not prejudiced In
favor of any one scheme. I think, connecting the wat-
ers or Lake Erie with the Ohio River is an undertaking
of almost national importunce, quite as much as the
Hennepin Canal connecting the water of the Lakes with
the Mississippi. It is exactly on a par with that.
Youre very truly,
James Andrews, Esq.,
Pittsburgh Steel & Iron Works,
FIGURE 7. LETTER FROM CARNEGIE.
At one time Carnegie courted Col. Andrews daughter, Ella, but she privately
designated him a pipsqueak and turned him down flat.24
24 Personal communication from Ella Andrews Schaff, 1947.
James H. Andrews knew his grandfather well. He had spent at least one
winter as a boy back in Alleghany City at his grandfathers place, called Ingleside
(meaning hearthside in Scots.) One of the few places that Col. Andrews signature
shows, in a dedication to his grandson, is on the flyleaf of the first volume of the
two-volume set of the Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant,25
The Ship Railway across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Mexico
involved Eads and Andrews after the Mississippi Jetties project. This project was an
alternate to the Panama Canal of Ferdinand de Lesseps but when Eads died and the
U. S. Congress would not put up any money to fund the project, Col. Andrews
abandoned it. Col. Andrews came back to Pittsburgh and organized the Moorhead
and McCleane furnaces and iron works into the Pittsburgh Iron and Steel Company
and became president until the time of his death.26 27 At one time, in between financial
panics, Col. Andrews had his own private railway car. According to his obituary,
he had plans for the North River Bridge Company to build a suspension bridge
25 U. S. Grant, Personal Memoirs ofU. S. Grant in two volumes (New York: Charles L. Webster &
26 Col. James Andrews' obituary.
27 Personal communication from Ella Andrews Schaff, 1947.
across the Hudson River at New York City. After he died in 1897 the bridge was
James Father, Charles Bruce Andrews
Col. James Andrews' son, Charles Bruce Andrews, lived during the Gilded
Age. His lifelong, severe health problem restricted his life. The rapid
industrialization of the Pittsburgh area, producing iron and steel for the rest of the
country, formed an atmosphere so polluted that C. B. Andrews as a boy and as a
young man could not breathe it and survive with his asthma. The earliest picture of
C. B. Andrews as a boy in Alleghany City showed him before he started to school. 28 29
FIGURE 9. C.B. ANDREWS AS A YOUNG BOY.
28 Col. James Andrews obituary.
29 Andrews Archives photographs.
C. B. Andrews biography said he started in the public schools of Alleghany
City and entered the Western University of Pennsylvania at Pittsburgh but he
dropped out and never finished because of failing health.30 The biography further
said he first went to Florida and then to California for his health. This biography
probably copied some details from the earlier biography of C. B. Andrews in the
Denver and Vicinity book.31 The inaccuracies in this earlier biography, unfortunately,
throw it into question. For example, the statement, John Andrews, who was an old
laird of Scotland, and owned the town of Ingleston, brought his family to America
and settled in Alleghany City, Pa., where he lived retired. John Andrews was not a
laird [lord] of Scotland at all; he was a tenant farmer. There was no town of
Ingleston. That was the name of the farm near New Abbey, Scotland, that John
Andrews rented that is shown on the British Ordnance Survey map No. NX 96 NE.
John Andrews, instead of an ordinary retirement, became a total recluse till his death
in 1881 in Alleghany City, Pennsylvania.32 C. B. Andrews recorded nothing about
seeking better health in Florida other than the two references just cited, but he
documented his stay, first in Colorado and then in California, in early letters and his
picture shows poor health.33
30 Ansel Watrous, History of Larimer County, Colorado, (Fort Collins, Colorado: The Courier
Printing and Publishing Company, 1911), 355.
30 Portrait and Biographical Record of Denver and Vicinity, Colorado (Chicago: Chapman Publishing
Company, 1898), 365-367.
32 Personal communication from Ella Andrews Schaff, 1947.
33 Andrews Archives photographs.
FIGURE 10. C. B. ANDREWS AS A BOY.
C. B. Andrews Early Letters
A sequence of twenty-one letters from C. B. Andrews, mostly to his father,
dated from September 23, 1870, to October 5, 1871, gave quite a bit of detail about
his activities during that time. These letters are all from the Andrews Archives and
short quotes from them follow.
The first letter was headed Georgetown [Colorado] and dated September 23,
1870. C. B. Andrews wrote of eight to ten inches of snow coming up from Denver in
a snowstorm [by stagecoach]. He also mentioned being homesick; he was only
sixteen at the time. On a horseback excursion up a narrow path the next day he said
they had to get out of the way for a train of small donkeys or jacks [burros] loaded
with silver ore.34
The second letter was dated the 26th in Georgetown and he said to send any
letters c/o R. S. Morrison or H. C. Campbell. He also mentioned Dr. Cochran,
possibly his sister's father-in-law, returning to St. Louis.35
The third letter was dated Saturday, October 1st where he mentioned a
snowdrift twenty-feet-deep across from him and that he was getting bored shooting
squirrels all day but he was taking his medicine regularly.36
34 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No.l Letter, September 23, 1870.
35 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No.2 Letter, September 26, 1870.
36 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No.3 Letter, October 1, 1870.
The fourth letter written on October 4th mentioned taking a run down to
town [Georgetown?] this morning and writing this short note with a lawyers pen. [It
looks like a broad heavy quill pen on the original.]
The fifth letter of October 8, 1870, was headed Sherman Mountain so
probably he was staying somewhere around Silver Plume. He said if his mother
came to see him to warn him in plenty of time so he could meet her.37 38
The sixth letter written on Tuesday, October 18, again headed Sherman
Mountain, said there was eighteen to twenty inches of new snow and that he
expected a new pair of boots when the jacks come up.39
On the same day he wrote the seventh letter to his mother saying he cant
believe Dr. Cochran is dead. What did he do it for or was it accidental [Possible
suicide?] He mentioned that Mr. Campbell is the Superintendents father and is
from Alleghany City. He said tell Sid [C. B. Andrews brother] that Alf Bryan, a
short stop on the Alleghany Base Ball Club, was here and Harry Campbell used to
belong to the Enterprise Base Ball Club. He continued that, "We have to pack up all
our provisions on donkeys or jacks and at $25 a month it is about one-fourth of the
cost of staying in Georgetown at $4 a day where they have to bring flour and other
things away from the Mysouri [sic] river. He said he was feeling very very much
C. B. Andrews eighth letter, dated October 23, 1870, and headlined
Georgetown, to his father, said that he had to come down town to get a pair of
boots to fit. When weighed he only weighed 78 lbs. I only gained Vi lb. last week.
He additionally said he would like to go to the one little school in Georgetown but
felt it would be so very lonely down here.41
On December 2nd, headlined California, he wrote to his father that I arrived
up here at Uncles Ranch last evening. Since none of the envelopes have survived
apparently the ninth letter went on from St. Louis to Alleghany City, from his father
to his mother, with this addition; St. Louis Dec. 13th 70 Dear Ma I have just
received this from Charlie announcing his safe arrival at Uncle Jims. Getting along
very well. Jas Andrews. The letter gave considerable detail about the train trip from
Denver; the ticket, Denver to Ogden, was $57. He had checked his trunk through to
San Lrancisco for $62 but through the conductor en route found out that he was able
37 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No.4 Letter, October 4, 1870.
38 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No.5 Letter, October 8, 1870.
39 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No.6 Letter, October 18, 1870.
40 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No.7 Letter, October 18, 1870.
41 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No.8 Letter, October 23, 1870.
to get off at the preceding stop before San Francisco, San Jose Junction, which was
much closer to his uncle's. He commented that the stage from town to three miles
from his uncles ranch went through some awful wild country and that some of
the largest trees ever I saw grow around here.42
The date on the tenth letter was Feb.l, 1871, in which he said he received
the paper with the picture of the bridge in it. [The bridge was the Eads Bridge at St.
Louis under construction by his father.] His father had added on the back of the letter
in purple ink, "St. Louis Feb. 9th 71 Dear Wife Weather was cold this morning But it
has warmed up again and I have just started the men to work Yours Ever Jas
In the eleventh letter, again headed California, dated Feb. 9, 1871, and
superscripted All well JA, Charles mentioned that Uncle Jim [Uncle Jim was C. B.
Andrews mothers brother, James Carson] the last time he went into town brought
back some cod liver oil and whiskey that C. B. Andrews was now taking pretty
regular and feels very well. His other comment was that I have got a slate and
arithmetic and grammar and other school books from Johnnie Gordon which I study
in the evenings and rainy weather.44
On Feb. 20, 1871, also headed California and again superscripted by his
father, All well St. Louis Mar.l JA, Charles wrote confidentially in the twelfth
letter that his Uncle James is going to get married I am certain of it to one of Mrs.
Gordons daughters. he told me he sent her picture home to Elnor [?] but did not
say anything about who it was.45
The next two letters were exceptions, not addressed to Charles father. Letter
number thirteen was dated Feb. 24, 1871, again headed California, and was to his
brother, Sid. He underlines, I think you may expect a new Aunt before long. He
asked if Sid got any Valentines this year and said, I got one very nice one from
___________some person I dont know who.46
The second letter (number fourteen) not to his father, was to his mother
instead. The letter, dated March 19, 1871, was the first one headed Santa Clara
instead of just California. The salutation was Dear Ma. Charles wrote that he was
now living with Uncle Jim three miles from San Jose in Santa Clara. This town is a
great deal older than San Jose. And mostly Spaniards live in it in old houses made of
brick they dry in the sun. He also wrote that They look, the Spaniards I mean/ just
42 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No.9 Letter, December 2, 1870.
43 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No. 10 Letter, February 1,1871.
44 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No.l 1 Letter, February 9, 1871.
45 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No. 12 Letter, February 20, 1871.
46 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No. 13 Letter, February 24, 1871.
between an Indian and a Darkie. Every person out here calls them greazers." Charles
also mentioned to his mother about being alarmed at a narrow escape his father had
on a collapse of the bridge at the pier, but that his father, fortunately, was not on the
pier at St. Louis at the time of the collapse, when a strong wind blew that section of
the bridge down.47
The fifteenth letter was dated a month later on March 23, 1871, at Santa
Clara and superscripted St. Louis Apr 3rd Arrived all right Yours ever J. Andrews.
Charles wrote to his father about starting with a new doctor whose medicine made
me pretty sick. But he said the new doctor still gave him some more cod liver oil.
He was now staying with Mrs. Sykes but he does not know how much he owed
Uncle Jim and Mrs. Gordon for room and board.48
On Apr. 5, 1871, at Santa Clara Charles wrote the sixteenth letter to his father
that he wanted to get over the effects of the new medicine before going to school
again as it made me feel pretty bad for a week or so. At the end of the letter he
said, We had quite an earth-auake here on Sabbath evening. Added on was, Saint
Louis Apr. 13 Am well J A 4
Charles seventeenth letter from Santa Clara dated April 17, 1871, to his
father said, Uncle Jim had a splendid day for his wedding which went off in grand
style they were married in the church at twelve Oclock noon. And then they had a
reception at the Brides House it was very nice. He also said that the Doctor thought
he was getting along very well. Mrs. Sykes, who he was boarding with, greatly
respected the Doctors opinion and she said that Charles would be much worse off
On Friday, May 2, 1871, in the eighteenth letter from Charles to his father
from Santa Clara, he said for the last day or so he "has been feeling splendid. He
continued And if I keep on feeling I will do as you say either go to school or else
ask Uncle Jim to teach me the plumbing trade. His details on clearing out his lungs
were somewhat graphic!51
Again from Santa Clara on Sabbath, May 7, 1871, to his father, Charles wrote
in his nineteenth letter that he wished he were in St. Louis helping his father and also
wished he would receive a letter once or twice a week. He said he realized his father
was very busy now trying to finish that big job of yours [the Eads Bridge] so that
you can go to Scotland next year. He said he felt the same as usual but still taking
47 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No. 14 Letter, March 19, 1871.
48 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No. 15 Letter, March 23, 1871.
49 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No. 16 Letter, April 5, 1871.
50 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No. 17 Letter, April 17, 1871.
51 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No. 18 Letter, May 2, 1871.
a great deal of medicine and so do not feel as strong as I did when up on the
mountains in Colorado Also he said Uncle Jim intended to leave in about a
week and then I guess it will be pretty lonely. As Santa Clara is the dullest old town
ever I saw.'
The next to the last letter to his father, the twentieth, was dated July 8, 1871,
but oddly enough was headlined Lexington. The details were apparently written
about Santa Clara, California, and he said to use the return address of Box 41 San
Jose. Since there is no Lexington, California, but there is a Lexington, New York,
near where he went next to Livingston, New York, in the Catskills, he probably
confused the two names. He was debating whether to go down to Los Angloes [sic]
or to go home to Alleghany and whether his health was really improving or not.''
The last letter to his father was quite different, but dated later on Oct. 5, 1871,
and headlined Our Home. On the back of the letter was Dansville Livingston Co.
N.Y. Our Home [sic]. Charles detailed an extensive daily and weekly regimen of
baths and exercise, early rising and no eating between meals, plus massage and a
daily one-hour carriage ride at 50 cents per hour.52 53 54
James Father At Fort Collins
Charles B. Andrews came back to Colorado in 1872 according to Ansel
Watrous in his previously cited 1911 History of Larimer County, Colorado.55
Charles apparently found more relief from his respiratory problems in Colorado than
any other place he tried. A family story about Charles early days in Fort Collins
involved an old family retainer, Billy Mable, who came out to stay with Charles in a
little place just west of the town. Billy brought a pet monkey with him. One day after
being chastised by Billy for some infraction of the rules the monkey ran off never to
be seen again; there were a lot of coyotes in the foothills west of Fort Collins in the
52 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No. 19 Letter, May 7, 1871.
53 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No.20 Letter, July 8, 1871.
54 Andrews Archives, C. B. Andrews No.21 Letter, October 5, 1871.
55 Watrous, 355.
56 Personal communication from James H. Andrews.
James Fathers Cattle Ranching in Wyoming
He had his range first at Fort Casper, Wyo.,
the Black Hills .58 Charles went into
Charles started in the cattle business in Wyoming.
The picture shows him as a flamboyantly attired Western
partnership with Abner Loomis in 1879 and Ansel
Watrous says, The Loomis & Andrews range was near
Casper, Wyoming, for a time and then on the Belle
Fourche, South Dakota. They sold their herds in 1882 for
$127,000 and retired from the cattle business.59 [The
range was not in South Dakota but on the Belle Fourche in
Wyoming.] In Abner Loomis biography Watrous said
there were 7,000 head of cattle.60 The only reference
found in the South Dakota archives was in the Black Hills
Daily Times, June 12, 1881, p.4, col. 4, that said, A
gentleman, in whom we can place confidence, states that a
number of large herds are now
enroute. Loomis and Andrews are
bringing in twelve thousand head.61 The Wyoming Brand Book of 1885 listed
Loomis & Andrews as having a range on the Belle Fourche and Donkey Creek,
Wyoming, with two brands, the ship wheel (a circle with four outgoing spokes) and a
quarter circle end connected bar.62 (Donkey Creek, Campbell [County]: named by
early settler for a runaway donkey; a post office was here for one year, while it was
headquarters for the engineers constructing Burlington railroad.)63
James H. Andrews' early life was during the period of time from 1882 to
1900. In contrast to Ansel Watrous statement just referred to that Loomis and
FIGURE 11. C. B. ANDREWS IN 1877
57 Andrews Archives photograph.
58 Portrait and Biographical Record of Denver and Vicinity, Colorado, 366.
59 Watrous, 355.
60 Watrous, 405.
61 Ken R. Stewart, Research Administrator, South Dakota State Historical Society.
62 The Wyoming Stock Growers Association, Brand Book for 1885, fourth edition,
(Cheyenne: Northwestern Livestock Journal).
63 Mae Urbanek, Wyoming Place Names, (Missoula, Montana: Mountain Press Publishing Company,
Andrews retired from the cattle business in 1882, the historic Wyoming newspapers
documented a different story. Starting with the November 20, 1877, issue of the
newspaper in Cheyenne, C. B. Andrews registered at the Dyers [Hotel].64 On August
7, 1878, C. B. Andrews was also at the Dyers.65 The other newspaper, the Daily
Leader, picked this up the next day and printed it on page 4. Then on April 12, 1879,
the Daily Leader printed that C. B. Andrews of Fort Collins was at the Railroad
House.66 On July 3, 1879, C. B. Andrews, Fort Collins, was also at the Railroad
Later that month, on Sunday, July 27, 1879, in the alternate Cheyenne
newspaper, the Sun, the variation write up was, The following are autographed at
Dyers: ... C. B. Andrews, Fort Collins,. .68 In 1880, under the heading, Personal
Points, C. B. Andrews of Fort Collins was in the city yesterday and registered at
the railroad house.69 On Tuesday, July 15, 1880, both Abner Loomis and C. B.
Andrews registered at the Inter Ocean Hotel in Cheyenne.
An article in the Cheyenne Daily Sun on March 11, 1881, entitled Large Sale
of Cattle was highly pertinent:
A Fort Collins correspondent has this to say concerning a large sale
of cattle from Wyoming to Colorado: Mr. Loomis and his partner,
Charles Andrews, have been all winter corresponding with James
Allison, the great Texas cattle king, for an extensive purchase. The
result of this was a visit of Mr. Allison to Collins, last week and on
Thursday last a contract was closed for 6,500 head of cattle, one of
the largest cattle purchases that has culminated in Colorado for
years. The purchase comprises 5,000 yearling steers, 1,600 yearling
heifers and 1,000 cows, also 150 head of horses and ten yoke of
work cattle, the whole to be delivered in July. The purchase price
was $8 each for steers, $8.50 for heifers and $18 for cows. For the
horses and work cattle was paid $42.50, making a grand total of
$71,600. Aside from this contract Messrs. Loomis and Andrews are
negotiating with Mr. Allison for 3,000 head of two-year-olds. They
64 Cheyenne Daily Leader, p. 4.
65 Cheyenne Daily Sun, p. 2.
66 Cheyenne Daily Leader, p. 4.
67 Cheyenne Daily Leader, p. 4.
68 Cheyenne Daily Sun, p. 4.
69 Cheyenne Daily Leader, p. 4.
70 Cheyenne Daily Sun, p. 4.
have at present 9,000 head of cattle on Bates Creek 150 miles
northwest of Cheyenne, where they have been wintering, and this
new addition of 6,500 head places Messrs. Loomis and Andrews in
the front rank of cattle growers. Abner Loomis is well known in
Northern Colorado, having lived in the Poudre valley twenty-one
years this coming June, hence he can truly be called a pioneer, or as
the Denver press would style him, a barnacle. He initiated himself
into the cattle business in 1862 at Grasshopper Flats on the Poudre,
where he traded a set of hewed house logs for a cow, since which
time he has been increasing his stock as his means would permit.71
In the one Cheyenne newspaper, the Weekly Leader, Loomis and Andrews,
from June 8, 1881, to May 5, 1882, in sixteen advertisements, showed their brands as
part of the Wyoming Stockgrowers Association page. They used the 07, HCO, and
LO brands on the right side plus a wattle on the right side of the neck.72 Also the
Cheyenne daily newspaper, the Daily Leader, from April 8, 1881, to July 10, 1881,
in twenty-six listings, used the same advertisement.73
In the July 19, 1881, Daily Leader, as a follow up to the March 11 Daily Sun,
article just quoted, the write-up said, C. B. Andrews returned yesterday from
Ogallala [Nebraska] where he went to complete the purchase of a large number of
cattle to add to his already large herd in northern Wyoming.74 In the Cheyenne
newspaper of July 21, 1881, the Daily Leader, it merely mentioned that Loomis and
Andrews will start next week to look after their large herd of cattle.75 Then on
October 2, 1881, the Daily Leader said, C. B. Andrews of Fort Collins, who came
in from the west Friday, went east yesterday to attend to the sale of his cattle.76
Shortly after, on Wednesday, October 5, 1881, the newspaper, the Daily Leader,
listed C. B. Andrews at the Inter Ocean Hotel.77 C. B. Andrews of Fort Collins was
yesterdays arrival at the Inter Ocean Hotel as recorded in the other Cheyenne
newspaper, the Daily Sun, on October 5.78 The same newspaper on the same date
71 Cheyenne Daily Sun, p. 4.
72 Cheyenne Weekly Leader, usually on page 3 or 5.
73 Cheyenne Daily Leader, usually on page 3.
74 Cheyenne Daily Leader, p. 4.
75 Cheyenne Daily Leader, p. 4.
76 Cheyenne Daily Leader, p. 4.
77 Cheyenne Daily Leader, p. 4.
78 Cheyenne Daily Sun, p. 4.
reported the eighty-eight new members of the Wyoming Stockgrowers Association,
including C. B. Andrews, at their annual meeting. 9
Then on Saturday, April 4, 1885, at Sundance, Wyoming, in the northeastern
corner of the Territory, the newspaper there, the Gazette, wrote:
The firm of Loomis & Andrews, which recently sold to the Standard
Cattle Co., does not propose to remain out of the cow business. Mr.
Charles B. Andrews, of the firm, spent several days in Cheyenne last
week, and on Friday purchased from Bartlett Richards, the
Shipwheel brand of cattle and range on the Belle Fourche, and
Donkey creek, this territory. There [sic] about 3,000 cattle bearing
the above brand, and the consideration of the sale is about $90,000.
North Western Live Stock Journal.
Later on in June, 1885, on the 8th at Laramie, the newspaper there, the
Laramie Boomerang, reported, under the Personal column heading, that, W. H.
Forrest and C. B. Andrews, the Cheyenne stockmen were in the city Saturday
night. The next month in June in Cheyenne on Tuesday the 30 under the heading
Individualities, the Daily Sun reported C. B. Andrews, W. W. Andrews, E. E.
Andrews, and J. M. Cross, are up from Fort Collins.79 80 81 82
A probably erroneous notice in the other Cheyenne newspaper, the
Democratic Leader, the same day said, Charles B. Andrews, one of the cattle kings
of Wyoming, arrived in the city last evening from his home in Fort Collins. He will
leave for his ranch on Green River this evening.83 84 Nowhere else is there any
reference to C. B. Andrews having a ranch on Green River. (His brother Robert did
have a ranch in that area.) Shortly after the June 30th reference, a note in the same
newspaper, the Cheyenne Democratic Leader, under the heading, Personal
Mention, on Tuesday July 14, 1885, showed that C. B. Andrews of Fort Collins and
James Andrews of Alleghany, Pennsylvania, were at the Inter Ocean the previous
evening. The next month in Laramie the newspaper there, the Boomerang, on
Friday, August 28, 1885, under the Personal column, said C. B. Andrews of Fort
79 Cheyenne Daily Sun, p. 4.
80 Sundance Gazette, Crook County, Wyoming, p. 1.
81 Laramie Boomerang, p. 4.
82 Cheyenne Daily Sun, p. 3.
83 Cheyenne Democratic Leader, p. 4.
84 Cheyenne Democratic Leader, p. 1.
Collins and Alex G. Cochran of St. Louis [C B. Andrews brother-in-law] were in
In the Sundance Gazette on Friday, December 21, 1888, an unusual note said
that Loomis & Andrews of the Shipwheel will also next year begin the spaying of
all heifer calves.86 87 In a preceding statement before the above quote, the Standard
Cattle Company was also spaying all of their heifers until the herd is transformed
into an almost exclusive beef herd, which seems at odds with a cattlemans intent to
increase his herd by the cows having more, not less, calves!
On Friday, June 28, 1889, the Sundance newspaper in Crook County,
Wyoming, the Gazette, published the taxes paid by the cattle companies there. It was
probable that the list contained the assessed value of cattle, not the actual taxes
themselves. The largest amount was the Standard Cattle Co. at $197, 290 while the
figure for Loomis & Andrews was $41,870. That same year the newspaper at
Sundance reported on August 1st, at the regular meeting of the Crook County Board
of Commissioners, that the Board approved a lease on school Section 36, Township
49 North, Range 69 West [of the Sixth Principal Meridian] to A. B. Lane, agent for
Loomis & Andrews, for 55 cents per acre and he filed bond as required.88 The two
additional notices in the historic Wyoming newspapers were only peripheral to the C.
B. Andrews Wyoming cattle business. One in the Rawlins newspaper, the
Republican, on October 8, 1891, under the heading of Western News Notes says, C.
B. Andrews of Fort Collins has got a verdict of $1076 against the Larimer County
Ditch Company for damage to his farm caused by the bursting of Chambers Lake.89
The last item on November 15, 1900, in the Laramie Boomerang, was a notice by C.
B. Andrews to stockmen about fifteen head of dehorned three-year-old steers
branded 7 on the left shoulder that had strayed on the upper Laramie River.90 Other
notes in the Wyoming newspapers were of the wrong C. B. Andrews, such as at Lusk
in the 1920s (C. B. Andrews of Fort Collins died in 1905!)
85 Laramie Boomerang, p. 4.
86 Sundance Gazette, p. 8.
87 Sundance Gazette, p. 4.
88 Sundance Gazette, p. 8.
89 Rawlins Republican, p. 2.
90 Laramie Boomerang, p. 4.
James Father as a Freemason
C. B. Andrews 1898 biography said: He was made a Mason in Collins
Lodge No. 19 A F & A M, to which he belongs, as he also does to Collins Chapter
No. 11, R. A. M., DeMolay Commandery No. 13, K. T., Colorado Consistory of
Denver, and El Jebel Temple, N. M. S. The present records of the Grand Lodge of
Colorado first mention C. B. Andrews in the 1880 Proceedings. He was initiated as a
Fellowcraft on May 6, 1879, and raised to the degree of a master mason in 1880. He
was demitted on December 21, 1901. His thirty-second degree parchment from the
Pennsylvania Consistory, dated November 22, 1888, is still in the possession of the
James Mother, Julia Henderson
Charles Bruce Andrews married Julia Woodford Henderson on March 31,
1881, at Fort Collins. Her fathers family, the Hill-Drake-Drummond-Henderson
family, was a pioneer Virginia Family whose first ancestor on American soil came to
Accomac, Virginia, in the early 1630s.92 The family story was that one of Julias
very distant cousins who inherited the remnant of the old tobacco plantation of the
Drummond family in 1861, to be patriotic to the Confederate Cause, sold the
plantation and put the proceeds in Confederate War Bonds!93
Her mothers family, the Durkee family, came from an ancestor, William
Durgy from County Meath in Ireland, who was an indentured servant to Boston in
1666.94 He married his master's daughter one week before the child was born. There
are some 14,000 American Durkees descended from him!
Before the Civil War, Julia's father moved from Accomac, Virginia, to a farm
at La Grange, Missouri, and also had a town house in Hannibal, Missouri, up the
street from the Clemens family (Mark Twains family.) Julia was born on April 9,
1862, during the Civil War, while there were still slaves in the household and on the
The family came out to Colorado, according to an obituary in the Fort Collins
Courier, in 1878 and to Fort Collins in 1879.96 The Denver and Vicinity biographical
91 Andrews Archives Masonic records.
92 Andrews Archives genealogical records.
93 Anne Zink personal communication.
94 Durkee Family Society records.
95 Andrews Archives, Henderson Family Bible birth records.
96 Andrews Archives, Henderson Family Bible obituary.
book says the Henderson Family came to Leadville, Colorado, in 1880 and two years
later came to Fort Collins. Since Julia Henderson was married in Fort Collins on
March 31, 1881,97 the Deriver and Vicinity book is obviously wrong!98
The obituary referred to is sewn into the family record page in the Henderson
Family Bible and records the death of Julias older brother, Lucien Durkee
Henderson. He was born April 1, 1857, in Lewis County, Missouri, and died in
Silverton, Colorado, on July 29, 1880, by an accidental shooting. Lucien and his
father, John W. Henderson, had brought a string of Missouri mules to Colorado to go
into the lucrative mining freighting business.99 100 Lucien as a twenty-three year old man
had taken a load of supplies to Silverton, Colorado. He had been there as a stranger,
only about two weeks, waiting for a load to bring back and had temporarily worked
for daily wages at one of the two Silverton slaughter houses. Lucien was peacefully
sitting in a corner of the Ambold Slaughter House when Mr. Siegel from across the
street at the other slaughter house appeared in the doorway, jokingly talking to the
Ambold employees while carrying a loaded pistol that he had forgotten he had not
uncocked. While gesturing, according to the article, the pistol discharged, just
grazing the stomach of one of the workmen and hitting Lucien in the shoulder,
breaking his neck, lodging in his heart, and killing him instantly.
The Silverton Miner newspaper on July 31st erroneously reported his name as
Robert Anderson but the Fort Collins newspaper picked up the story and correctly
reported his name (never notifying Silverton.) The incident in the history of San Juan
County was called the famous slaughterhouse shooting by Judge Allen Nossaman
(San Juan County Historical Society Archives Director and County Judge).101 With
no family and no friends in Silverton, Lucien was buried in the northwestern part of
Hillside Cemetery in Silverton, in an unmarked grave, along with some 400 others in
unmarked graves.102 In June 1999, the author met Judge Nossaman during a Mining
History Association field trip at Silverton and Judge Nossaman was most
appreciative of the opportunity to correct the historical record. On August 10, 1999,
while coming back from a trip to Electra Lake south of Silverton, the author visited
Hillside Cemetery and found the gravesite of his great uncle, Lucien Henderson. The
97 Andrews Archives, Henderson Family Bible marriage records.
98 Portrait and Biographical Record of Denver and Vicinity, Colorado, 366.
99 Personal communication by Mrs. C. B. Andrews.
100 Andrews Archives, Henderson Family Bible.
101 Personal communication by Allen Nossaman.
102 Allen Nossaman. Many More Mountains, vol. 2: Ruts Into Silverton, (Denver: Sundance
Publications, Ltd., 1993), 304.
following year, during the annual cleanup of the cemetery by the Cemetery
Association, by arrangement with the Association, the author placed a small granite
marker at the gravesite 120 years after Luciens burial.102 103
FIGURE 12. L. D. HENDERSONS HEADSTONE, JUNE 2000.
James H. Andrews and his mother, Julia Henderson Andrews, many years
ago on a trip to Silverton, were unable to find the gravesite of her brother and were
most disappointed.104 Later photographs of Mrs. Julia H. Andrews show her sadness
that she never really recovered from the grief of losing her brother and carried it with
her the rest of her life.
C. B. Andrews in the 1870s was quite an eligible bachelor in Fort Collins,
especially when he started making money in the Wyoming cattle business. Also
starting in 1879 in Fort Collins, the Larimer County Clerk and Recorders records
show a great many land transactions that he was involved in, buying, selling, and
mortgaging real estate. Appendix D shows the Fort Collins Lots and Blocks,
Appendix E gives the Grantee records, and Appendix F gives the Grantor records.105
The two lists in the Appendixes are from the Larimer County records but do
not include the twenty-eight affidavits, thirty-seven decrees, and sixty-two other
instruments of record filed by C. B. Andrews and his family.106 Note particularly No.
5 of the Grantor records on March 31, 1881, to Julia H. Andrews. On the day they
were married apparently C. B. Andrews gave his new wife title to the house they
moved into, or the two lots next door, (currently where the Union Pacific Railway
102 Headstone placed and photographed by author, June 2000.
104 Personal communication by James H. Andrews.
105 Andrews Archives records and map.
106 Larimer County, Colorado, Clerk and Recorders records.
tracks are in Fort Collins on the northeasterly side of Riverside Avenue at the east
end of Mountain Avenue.) When the railroad bought the property, the house was
moved to the middle of the 400 block on the east side of Stover Street and still exists
there. The following photographs were taken in Pittsburgh, probably during a visit
for Julia to meet the rest of her new relatives.107 108
FIGURE 13. MR. &AND MRS. C. B. ANDREWS ca. 1881.
Because Julia H. Andrews had not had much training in the culinary arts, one
story told by James about his mothers early cooking was this. One day she
approached her new husband with the question, Charlie, why is the rice not cooking
properly? She said it had been cooking for three days and it was still hard. After
looking into the double-boiler on the stove, Charlie very gently said, Julia, you need
to put some water on the rice, also!
107 Andrews Archives photographs.
108 Personal communication by James H. Andrews.
FIGURE 14. C. B. AND JULIA H. ANDREWS FIRST HOUSE.
JAMES H. ANDREWS
James Henderson Andrews was born on February 24, 1882, within a year
after his parents marriage. The baby dress and tiny shoes still exist in the family
trunks along with the baby pictures. 1
FIGURE 15. TWO OF THE EARLIEST PICTURES OF J. H. ANDREWS.
James grew up in Fort Collins but spent summers on his fathers ranch up
Poudre Canyon. When he had a full head of hair the photographer, G. T. Wilkins, in
Fort Collins took his picture.109 110
109 Andrews Archives photographs.
110 Andrews Archives photographs.
FIGURE 16. JAMES H. ANDREWS AS A CHILD.
F. W. Guerin in St. Louis took a smiling picture while he was visiting his Aunt
Mame (Mrs. Alexander G. Cochran.) James looked quite fashionably dressed for the
111 Andrews Archives photographs.
FIGURE 17. JAMES H. ANDREWS AS A YOUNG BOY
As mentioned James as a boy spent some of his summers at his fathers ranch
up the Poudre River northwest of Fort Collins. Before the 1920s there was no road
up the river where Colorado Highway 14 now goes and the only access was through
Livermore to Log Cabin and down Pingree Hill, a two days journey on horseback,
by buggy, or by wagon. The Grantee Table lists the land acquisitions by C. B.
Andrews starting with Grantee No.29 on the 12th of November, 1886, in Township 9
North, Range 74 and 75 West of the 6th Principal Meridian, just west of John
Zimmermans Keystone Hotel. (Zimmermans was later purchased by the Colorado
Division of Wildlife for their fish hatcheries.) Stan Case, in his history of the Poudre,
documented the Kinikinik Ranch of C. B. Andrews and the two later owners, Cap.
Williams and Clarence Bliss.112 Lance Williams also documented this.113 An early
picture showed James between his parents at Kinikinik Ranch house.114
FIGURE 18. JAMES AS A BOY AT KINIKINIK ca.1890.
The Kinikinik Ranch, was also called the Shetland Ranch, where C. B.
Andrews raised Shetland horses, broken to ride or to drive, He sold them either in the
eastern United States or in Europe. After his cattle ranching experience in Wyoming,
away from his family, possibly he felt this was a more desirable situation closer to
his family. He imported at least three Shetland stallions plus brood mares from the
Shetland Islands of Scotland.115 A photograph taken in Washington, D. C., identified
on the back, shows two of the Shetland ponies with Margaret Sands driving one and
James H. Andrews riding the other.116
112 Stanley R. Case, The Poudre, A Photo History (Bellvue, Colorado, Stanley R. Case, 1995), 142.
113 Personal Communication by Lance Williams.
114 Andrews Archives photographs.
115 Personal communication by James H. Andrews.
116 Andrews Archives photographs.
FIGURE 19. JAMES AND FRIEND WITH SHETLAND PONIES.
James Early Schooling
Since James was born in February 1882, if he was six years old when he
started school, that would mean he began grammar school in the fall of 1888. The
Remington Street School building at 318 Remington Street in Fort Collins was
completed in February 1879 but unfortunately no longer exists.117
117 Fort Collins Historical Society Archives.
FIGURE 20. REMINGTON SCHOOL FORT COLLINS.
In 1880, Fort Collins School District 5 added the first kindergarten west of St.
Louis. There is no record whether James attended that.118 An official letter from the
School District No. 5 census records showed James Andrews in school in 1888 at six
years old.119 A booklet labeled James H. Andrews, Remington School, Ft. Collins,
Colo., Spring 1889 contained seven paper and string designs.
118 Adam Thomas, In the Hallowed Halls of Learning, The History and Architecture ofPoudre School
District R-l, Historical Context (Historitecture, LLC, Estes Park, Colorado).
119 Harry B. McCreary, Secretary, School District No. 5, Fort Collins Public Schools, February 6,
1942 (original letter signed and sealed officially). 120
120 Andrews Archives documents.
. .. .
* t 5. t
> * 3 Â£
FIGURE 21. JAMES FIRST GRADE STRING DESIGN.
In the Fort Collins Courier newspaper of February 27, 1890, a column gave
the Washingtons Birthday celebration in the public schools. At Remington School
in GRADE II-Room 3 Miss Alice Cook, teacher, presented a program which
included a group of boys marching and singing with the retreat sung by student
James H. Andrews. In the July 26, 1894, Fort Collins Courier, Helen Ferrier was
listed as the teacher for the seventh grade but Beulah Churchill was listed for the
combined seventh and eighth grades. Which teacher James had was not recorded.
James earliest existing schoolbook was Robinsons Progressive Intellectual
Arithmetic on the Inductive Plan etc. copyrighted 1863 with James H. Andrews
name inside the cover.(This was along with Rays Practical Arithmetic by Induction
and Analysis, copyrighted 1857, with James mothers name, Julia W. Henderson,
uncles name, Joe Henderson, and cousins name, Hugh Workman, written in it in
pencil. There was also a copy of McGuffeys New Fifth Eclectic Reader, Selected
Exercises for Schools, copyrighted 1866, with James uncle, Joe Hendersons name
121 Andrews Archives books.
The School District completed the new Benjamin Franklin School at the
southwest corner of Howes Street and Mountain Avenue in time for the 1887-1888
school year but it was used for only the third through the eighth grades. The first and
second grades were only taught at the Remington School. James probably remained
at the Remington School for all eight grades. One exception was when James went
one year to a public school in the Pittsburgh area, most probably in Alleghany City,
while visiting his grandfather over the winter.122 Besides the school census
previously mentioned for 1888, the census also said James was in school in 1891 and
Prior to 1889 students wishing to go further than the eighth grade with their
education, could do so only at the Agricultural College. But in 1889 the Franklin
School, in two rooms on the second floor, started an experimental high school that
became a success. The first five students graduated in 1891. Then in 1903 the school
district built Lincoln High School the first all high school building. It later became
the Lincoln Junior High School, [the author was there for the ninth grade] and is now
the Lincoln Center. In 1925 the school district built the Fort Collins High School
building on Remington Street and it still stands.123 The Music Department of
Colorado State University currently uses the building.
Two additional school books used by James were Ficklins National
Arithmetic, copyrighted 1881124 (but with a lightly penciled date written in of 1896);
and Olneys Complete Algebra, also copyrighted in 1881, but on page 127 was
lightly penciled in Andrews 97.125 About the time James graduated from the
eighth grade a studio photograph showed him very well dressed, even with a watch
chain on his coat.126
122 C. A. C Rocky Mountain Collegian, vol. X, No. 8, p. 79.
123 Robert H. Pike, M.D., Home of the Champions, the History of the Fort Collins High School, 1889-
1989 (Fort Collins, Colorado: Lambkin Enterprises, 1994).
124 Joseph Ficklin, National Arithmetic, Oral and Written, For Common and Graded Schools,
Academies, Etc. (New York: Ameriean Book Company, 1881).
125 Edward Olney, The Complete Algebra, for High Schools, Preparatory Schools, cdso Academies
(New York: Sheldon & Company, 1881.)
126 Andrews Archives photographs.
FIGURE 22. JAMES H. ANDREWS ca. 1896.
In a small 4 V2 x 7 inch ornately covered autograph book, on the first page,
was "James Andrews Feb. 24th 1891. This was his earliest known signature, very
plain, but with an older style cursive capital F that he distinctively used throughout
his life. Some of his schoolmates signatures (plus one other by Norman Fry) were in
the autograph book:
Robert B. Rockwell, Highlands, Colo., May 2, 1891
Albert Franklin Emigh, Ft. Collins, Colo., Nov. 16, 1892
Julian Bernheim, Fort Collins, Colo. January 6, 1895.
May your cares all fly away
Like dew before the sun
And when youve nothing else to do
Just think of me for fun.
Katie Williams, Fort Collins, Colo. Feb. 8, 1894.
Charley Seland Murray, Ft. Collins, Colo. March 28, 1896.
Malcom [sic] Bates, Fort Colins [sic], Colorado
From the far blue heaven
Where the angels dwell
God looks down on children
Whom he loves so well
Ever your loving friend
Norman W. Fry, Fort Collins, Colo, or Great Bookham Surrey, England
[an adult friend on the Upper Poudre, not a schoolmate]127
Ted Sexton, Fort Collins, Colo., Feb. 7, 1894
Here on this page I claim a spot
To write the words Forget me not,
If these words you do regret
Just blot them out and me forget
Ethel Trimble April-26-1894.
Upon this page I claim a spot,
To write these words, Forget me not,
And if these words you do regret,
Just rub them out and me forget.
Feb. 27, 1894
Fort Collins, Colo. Remem. [sic]
James College Days
As previously mentioned, students finishing grammar school in Fort Collins,
if they wished to go to high school, at one time could only enroll either in the
preparatory class or the sub-freshman class at the Colorado Agricultural College.
James was included in the listing of the sub-freshman class in 1896-1897. James
transcript listed an entrance from High School and a preparatory year at Colorado
Agricultural College, 1896-97.129
127 Case, p. 6 and following.
128 State Agricultural College, Register of the Officers and Students of the State Agricultural College,
Fort Collins, Colorado, Courses of Study and General Information (Fort Collins, Colorado: Fort
Collins Express Printing).
129 Colorado State University archives.
Several years ago the author requested a copy of James college transcript
from Colorado State University, but the copy from the microfilm, after the original
records were probably destroyed, turned out to be a complete blank! Apparently the
film was not checked against the original records. But, in a detailed application
James made in 1942 as requested by the Federal Civil Service Commission of all
civil engineers at the beginning of World War II, James included a full two-page
certified copy of his transcript. He kept the original certified copy in his files.130
The 1886-1887 school catalogue for the first time listed a department of
irrigation engineering. The instruction in this department is designed to acquaint the
student with the theoretical and practical features of irrigation as applied to
agriculture of the arid region.131 132 Elwood Mead, L. G. Carpenter, and E. B. House
were preeminent in teaching civil and irrigation engineering at the college. '
The record of James first college year, sometimes designated as preparatory
year and sometimes designated as pre-freshman year, is given in Appendix G from a
badly faded and partly illegible copy.133 James fully legible transcript from his
certified copy listed entrance units for Colorado Agricultural College as one unit in
History, one unit in Algebra, and five Miscellaneous units. Although the transcript
said, preparatory year at Colo. Agric. College 1896-97, the eighteenth annual
catalog listed a Preparatory Year with no history and no algebra.1'4 The following
page in the same catalog listed a Sub-Freshman Year with three full terms
[quarters] of United States History, two full terms of algebra after a mental
arithmetic course, plus three additional courses, freehand drawing, and shop.135
Therefore, the term preparatory year in the transcript for James actually meant sub-
freshman year. Instructors listed for the sub-freshman year were:
Stoddard for one term of Mental Arithmetic
Montgomery for three terms of United States History
Wentworth for two terms of Algebra
Townsend for one term of Civil Government
130 Andrews Archives records.
131 A.T. Steinel, History of Agriculture in Colorado (Fort Collins, Colorado: The State Agricultural
College, 1926). 597.
132 Steinel, 598-599.
133 Andrews Archives records.
134 C. A. C. 18* Annual Catalog, p. 28.
135 C. A. C. 18* Annual Catalog, p. 29.
No instructors were listed for American or English Men of Letters, Freehand
Drawing, or Shop.136
Appendix H gives James fully legible transcript of his four years of college, that
includes classes, dates, and grades received, and is correlated with the professors
teaching those classes (as listed in the several catalogs of the college).137
Probably in the summer of either 1899 or 1900, James was involved in a
summer field course in advanced surveying although his official record does not
show it. When the author was taking a mine surveying summer course at the
Colorado School of Mines, on a weekend trip up to Fort Collins to visit his father,
the author commented about the difficulties he was having triangulating from the
hilltops in bad weather at Idaho Springs. His father looked at the author and asked if
he had ever told him about the summer field camp in surveying that he had done.
The author answered no but it turned out that he had previously seen the brass cap
elevation marker set in 1899. James and his fellow students had run differential
levels from the Estes Park Highway to the top of Longs Peak, some 5,000 feet
vertically. The author was so taken aback he unfortunately didnt ask the details.138 139
Most of the engineering textbooks that James used in college are still in the
Andrews Archives in possession of the author. A list is included in Appendix I.
The Colorado Territorial Legislature authorized the college in February 1870.
The state assumed control in 1876, and the cornerstone of Old Main was laid on
the 20th of July, 1878, with classes starting on September 1, 1879. (While James was
enrolled there the two college presidents were Dr. Alston Ellis from 1891 to 1899
and Dr. Barton O. Aylesworth from 1899 to 1909.) Because Colorado Agricultural
College was a land grant college, all women students were required to take a course
in domestic science and all men students were required to take a course in military
science (unless specially excused by vote of the faculty for good reason.) They
received no credit or grades for these required courses. In four years the men could
advance themselves through the cadet ranks and this was what James did. In 1881
the school organized a company of cadets with a roster of thirty-six. In 1884 Major
V. E. Stolbrand took over with regular drills as required of a land grant college under
the 1862 Morrill Act. In 1897-1899 Lieutenant William C. Davis was head of the
military department and commandant. In 1899 Major Richard A. Maxfield (a
graduate of the college) took over as commandant of the battalion and continued till
1906. The U.S. War Department established the formal Officers Training Corps at
136 C. A. C. 18th Annual Catalog, p. 29.
137 Andrews Archives records.
138 Personal communication by James H. Andrews.
139 Andrews Archives books.
the college during the First World War in 1916.140 When entering the college each
male freshman had to buy his own uniform for about $13 as a cadet private.141 142
FIGURE 23. JAMES ANDREWS AS A CADET PRIVATE.142
The cadet battalion was composed of three companies, A, B, and C. Each
company, besides privates, had five corporals, four sergeants, a first sergeant, two
lieutenants, and a captain. A chief trumpeter, quartermaster sergeant, sergeant major,
first lieutenant and quartermaster, first lieutenant and adjutant, and the commandant
made up the battalion staff. The commandant was also the professor of military
science and tactics and head of the department. As noted, in 1897-1898 the
commandant was William C. Davis, First Lieutenant Fifth Artillery, U. S. Army.143
140 Stcinel, 607.
141 C. A. C. 19th Annual Catalog, p. 72.
142 Andrews Archives photographs.
143 CAC 20th Annual Catalog, p. 73
The cadet privates were not listed, but James in his sophomore year of 1898-1899
was listed as one of the five corporals in Company B. In the school year of 1899-
1900, at the turn of the century, the commandant had changed and was Major
Richard A. Maxfield, U.S.A., and James was listed as first sergeant of Company B144 145
as shown in the picture.146
FIGURE 24. JAMES ANDREWS AS FIRST SERGEANT, COMPANY B.
In James senior year during 1900-1901, he was Captain of Company B.147 His
picture shows the crossed rifles and B on his collar and cadet captains epaulettes on
his shoulders. 148
144 C. A.C. 21st Annual Catalog, p. 77.
145 C. A. C. 22nd Annual Catalog, p. 78.
146 Andrews Archives photograph.
147 C. A. C. 23rd Annual Catalog, p. 84.
148 Andrews Archives photographs.
The following picture shows the full officers and non-commissioned officers of
Company B in 1900-1901 with Captain James H. Andrews in the center.149
149 Andrews Archives photographs.
FIGURE 26. OFFICERS AND NON-COMS. OF COMPANY B.
The following picture shows the cadets in a skirmish line firing a volley of rifles.150
FIGURE 27. PRONE CADETS FIRING A VOLLEY.
James was also involved in other activities in college. In the Collegian it said
he was class president and a member of the P. A. E. Society and when a junior he
was class orator for the Washington Birthday celebration.151 His parchment Diploma
in the Philo-Aesthesian Literary Society dated June 6, 1901, still exists.152 Also he
150 Andrews Archives photographs.
151 Collegian, 79.
152 Andrews Archives documents.
was involved in both gymnastics and boxing and boxed in the 130-pound, or less,
FIGURE 28. JAMES ANDREWS COLLEGE GYM CLASS.
Inference from later articles and his letters to Lydia in 1926-1928 suggest that James
was also an accomplished dancer.
James college speech notes, plus others, have survived. There were eleven
sets of hand written notes with the following titles: "Rhetoricals" (Sophomore Class
President's Address), "The Juniors" (class toast reply), "Education", "England in
India", "Two Heroes" (Napoleon and Washington) (draft and copy), "Development
of Our Navy" (draft and copy), "Booker T. Washington", "Toast to the Faculty of C.
A. C., Evening of June 4, 1903" (draft and copy), "(talk to Larimer County Road and
Bridge Department employees)", and "Irrigation for a Pioneer Society" (a talk given
years later to an engineering society).154
At graduation from C. A. C. the 1901 commencement booklet was labeled
the Twentieth Century Class. The Senior Class put on a program at 11 a.m.
Tuesday June 4, 1901, in the college chapel. Tuesday evening at 8 oclock at the
Opera House they performed Shakespeares As You Like It. The Fort Collins
153 Andrews Archives photographs.
154 Andrews Archives records.
Methodist Episcopal Church was the venue for the commencement day exercises at
10:30 a.m., Thursday, June 6, 1901; Mrs. Helen L. Grenfell of Denver gave the
address. There were twenty-three graduates listed plus six in the Commercial Course
but only twenty-two graduates (twenty men and two women) are shown in the
different class photographs; Ella Avery Mead of Greeley was the exception.155
FIGURE 29. GRADUATING CLASS OF 1901, C.A.C.
After James attended the 1901-1902 C.A.C graduate school, he enrolled at
Columbia University in New York City and was there in the School of Engineering
from October to December, 1902. Their record stated that he only registered for one
class in Civil Engineering and did not earn a degree from Columbia although later he
provided information to the Alumni Office of the date of his marriage, the birth dates
of his three children, and his occupation as County Surveyor, plus there is a notation
of Deceased stamped on the card.156
155 Andrews Archives photographs.
156 Jocelyn K. Wilk, Public Services Archivist, Columbia University of the City of New York, letter
and document copies, Feb. 4, 2010.
In the 1962 Register of Alumni, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, of
Columbia University, James H. Andrews was listed in the Class of 1904. One small
ring-bound 6x9 inch notebook labeled Columbia Note Book, had James penciled
notes for a Mining I class, a Mechanics I class and a few notes on Metallurgy and on
Civil Engineering. Another 8 x 10 inch string-bound book had half-page notes on
the Mining I class apparently copied from the smaller notebook. It also had the
Metallurgy I notes copied and added on in much greater detail with a heading of
Notes taken at Columbia University beginning Oct. 7, 1902. Given by Mr.
Stoughton. In the back of the notebook were several pages of notes and diagrams
headed Civil Engineering 14a. for the location of curves. Obviously, James took
more than one class at Columbia University.157
James told a story about one class at Columbia that was a large lecture class
of some three hundred students. About two weeks after class started he was walking
across the campus and the professor who taught the class met him and called him by
name. James was astonished that the professor knew his name. He found out the
professor was noted for learning the name of every student in his classes soon after
the classes began.158
A small 4x6 inch red-leather-bound account book had some of James
expenditures before, during, and after he was at Columbia. For example; on Oct. 5,
1901, 50 cents for supper; on Sept. 1902, meal 20 cents; then, suit clothes $41.50;
ticket from Pitsburg, [sic] $10.50; gymnasium fee $10.00; tuition fee, $100.00; ticket
opera, $1.00; ticket to Alleghany, $13.00; ticket to Denver, $40.25; berth to Chicago,
$2.50; berth to Denver, $6.00; and the last entry, ticket to F.C. [Ft. Collins], $2.75.159
In a large oversize manila envelope James had an outline and then started
several chapters of a Western Story. One set of notes bears the penciled date of
Oct. 18, 1903, and a second set has the notation "The Mountains, Grand River Ditch,
July 23, 1904." James was a reader of Western novels and particularly liked Zane
Gray and Owen Wister. In his copy of Wisters The Virginian he said he intended to
annotate the various real-life people in the story who he knew personally from
southern Wyoming (the hero and the heroine were the only fictitious characters) but
unfortunately he never got around to it during his lifetime.160 He also liked Edgar
Rice Burroughs; his set of Tarzan is still in the authors library.161
157 Andrews Archives records
158 Personal communication by James H. Andrews.
159 Andrews Arehives records.
160 James personal recollection.
161 Andrews Archives books.
In the same red-leather-bound account book mentioned above, James started
his expense account with the Fort Collins Sugar Company. The first entry was Dec.
11, 1903, by cash dinner Windsor 2 50 cents, and the second entry, same date, was
livery bill Windsor 25 cents. At the bottom of the page James noted sometime in
Oct. ticket to Windsor & return 90 cents ticket to Longmont & return $2.25 This was
to see about purification tanks His total expense account to the company was
$18.95. Bill as above was handed in and dated Jan 25, 1904 J.H.A.162
James Grand River Ditch Survey
Before 1921, the Colorado River was named the Grand River upriver from its
junction with the Green River. The old names, such as Grand Junction (junction
with the Gunnison River), Grand Valley, Grand Lake, and Grand River Ditch, still
persist. The Grand River Ditch was the first transcontinental divide water diversion
project in the United States and continues today to provide water to cities and farms
in northeastern Colorado. The Water Supply and Storage Company of Fort Collins
takes some of the Colorado River water and diverts it through the low Poudre Pass to
the eastward-flowing Cache La Poudre River (original name Cache de la Poudre
River) to irrigate a large part of Larimer and Weld Counties. The Ditch was a vital
part of Colorado agriculture and is on the National Register.
In between his work on the Fort Collins Sugar Company factory construction,
during the summer of 1904, The Water Supply and Storage Company hired James as
an engineer to survey the final six and one-half miles of the Grand River Ditch to its
terminus at Baker Creek. At twenty-two years old, he was engineer-in-charge of the
survey. A November 1935 newspaper clipping out of a Fort Collins newspaper (the
heading was cut off but probably it was a pink weekend edition of the Fort Collins
Express Courier) listed some of the members of James crew:164
Among members of Andrews crew at that time were E. J. Gregory
and J. C. Ulrich, engineers; A. B. Collins, instrument man, now state
highway engineer in this district; Oliver Pennock, who was just out
of school; J. J. Vandemore, head chainman, now district engineer for
the state highway department in the Grand Junction district; and
Merle Dilts, brother of Ira Dilts of the Colorado Portland Cement
162 Andrews Archives records.
163 Thomas J. Noel, Paul F. Mahoney, and Richard E. Stevens. Historical Atlas of Colorado (Norman,
Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994) 2.
164 Andrews Archives records.
The small 4x6 inch red-leather-bound account book was also a daily log kept by
James during the summer of 1904. According to James daughter, Julia, he was
proudest of the Grand River Ditch survey of all his surveying and engineering
jobs.165 The Water Supply and Storage Company office in Fort Collins currently has
all of the original field books of both the original survey and the finished survey, in
1904 and in 1935-36. In the back of the account book was a list (not in James hand)
of the supplies packed in to the ditch camp for the summer of 1904. This list is given
in Appendix J.166
James Grand River Ditch survey during the summer of 1904 was under
extremely difficult conditions. At the time he was only a twenty-two year-old civil
engineer but he was in full charge of the advance survey camp. His full written
record from his log book follows:
June 4, 1904 Saturday
Started to work for the Water Supply and Storage Co. Left
Collins at 1:30 P.M. Horse on one wagon played out at
Forks. Walked over to Livermore reached there at 7 P.M.
June 5, Sunday
Left Livermore at 9 A.M. having to wait for new team.
Reached Zimmermans at 7: PM.
June 6, 1904, Monday
Reached Chambers Lake at 12:30 P.M. Ulrich asked for
some one to go ahead and see what road was like. Found
outfit of about 30 men shoveling through snow 6 feet deep.
Got back to lake at 7:30 P.M.
June 7, 1904 Tuesday
Slept outside last night as there was not room for all inside.
Men at work on road came back today Went over to Barnes
June 8, 1904, Wednesday
In morning went up with Ulrich to road camp on new road.
Stormed. Bedding got a trifle wet as it rained last night. Sent
65 Japs to road camp.
165 Personal communication by Julia Andrews-Jones.
166 Andrews Archives records.
June 9, 1904, Thursday
Slept inside last night. Took hunt with Giller but saw
June 10, 1904. Friday
Took tramp along sky line ditch.
June 11, 1904. Saturday
Were on the road from Chambers Lake at 6:15 A.M. Roads
were very bad. Had as many as five mules down in the mud
at a time Wagons upset four times and night caught them
about 6 miles from the first camp on the Grand with their
stock played out Walked on in to camp but had no bed Found
a tent and a comfort apiece but were very cold so one had to
keep fire all night. Pennock, Phillips, Bennet and myself slept
together Mud and water and snow far over shoe tops.
June 12,1904. Sunday
Went back down road to meet wagons. They tipped over three
times. One wagon got stuck in the mud so far that nothing was in
sight but the box and teams were both down. Lost my mackintosh.
Got back to camp about 2:00 P.M.
June 13, 1904. Monday
Took an eleven mile walk with Mr. Ulrich Got dinner at
camp 3 After dinner commenced to feel sick. Did not eat any
supper. Was sick all night. Several other of the boys have
June 14, 1904 Tuesday
Did not eat any breakfast In morning packed stuff to other
camp 4 miles further. Got dinner there but I ate very little. In
afternoon walked 8 miles Ate very little supper.
June 15, 1904. Wednesday
In morning walked to camp 1 with Mr. Ulrich, eight miles. In
afternoon unpacked instruments, etc. After supper walked
over to camp 1 to telephone to Lake about transit, found
telephone out of order. Sent word by Edwin Bennet.
June 16, 1904. Thursday
Went on cross-section work with Pennock. Were in swamps
and snow and mud all day. Did not sleep well on act [sic] of
cold last night.
June 17, 1904. Friday
Ran instrument for Pennock on cross section again. Got very
cold from five oclock [sic] on. Was keeping duplicate notes
with Pennock got very tiresome by evening Cold is not much
June 18, 1904. Saturday.
All had a day off but John Phillips and myself. We went
along proposed line that I am to run. It was all down timber
and very hard walking Took our lunch with us Saw game
June 19, 1904. Sunday
Pennock was sick so I went out with Mr. Ulrich to cross
section. Spent all day at this. Received my rubber cover for
level today, and sent Paul Weiss check for same.
June 20, 1904. Monday
Went to Camp I to see about supplies for my camp. Went
again after supper to take note to driver to bring my transit
from lake on return from taking Black to Zimmermans.
Black cut his foot with axe.
June 24, 1904. Thursday.
Got six head of mules and horses and started to pack
provisions from No. I to my camp. Had all kinds of trouble
mules bucking, lying down getting down in the mud. Had to
cut out our trail. Took us all day to get from No. I to my
camp and back to No.3. Got one tent put up and left Neil
Vandermore [sic] and John Blunk at camp. Was most all in.
June 22, 1904, Wednesday
Went back to No. I and got remainder of stuff; got back to
No. 3 for early dinner. In afternoon got to my camp,
unpacked, got up another tent and left Adams also at camp.
Carried a load on my shoulders as I did the day before.
Rained and snowed hard but happened to have our slickers.
Got some wet though. Was very tired again but got back to
Camp 3 before 5 oclock.
June 23, 1904, Thursday.
In morning packed our beds over with stock Got our first
dinner at camp. John and I packed over My stationary [sic]
box in morning. In afternoon left all boys to fix camp but
John, Giller, Brown and myself who went back to bring
remainder of stuff on foot.
June 24, 1904, Friday
Have not slept well yet, last night especially on account of
water leaking through tent and my bed being very cold and
slanting Left camp immediately after breakfast with John and
walked over to No. I in rain and snow. John and I packed a
75 pound box from no. I to No. 3, then packed two
instruments, a boiler and tripod to camp, getting in just in
time for supper. Rained and snowed all day. Other boys were
at camp. Was nearly all in.
June 25, 1904, Saturday
John and I went on an exploring trip to find where Bakers
Gulch is. Left other boys to fix camp while we were gone.
Left just after breakfast and as there was so much down
timber we decided to go around above timber line. Walked
about 20 miles before getting home, most of the time up and
down over the highest peaks. From one place could see the
most of both North and Middle Parks. About 5 miles we were
on snow drifts as deep as 50 feet Some places were so steep
we had to sit down and slide. Had my barometer along and
in one place registered a descent of 450 feet vertically which
we made in Vi minute Highest point we reached was 12600
feet. Were traveling all day and reached camp at 6:30
June 26, 1904, Sunday.
Fixed up my tent, table, rack for clothes, etc. in Morning. In
afternoon washed a big washing which had collected in three
weeks time, took a bath. Helped the boys saw up some wood
and at 4:00 P.M. helped the boys start to make a few stakes
Blunk had a fine supper. The dutch oven we Built for him
June 27, 1904, Monday
Went out on Preliminary Line for first time Ulrich Was out to
help me get started. He and Pennock Were here for dinner.
Got about Vi mile of line Run in by evening While Mr. Ulrich
was here I got all the boys to understand their part of The
work. Also I assigned each boy their tools to look after.
June 28, 1904 Tuesday
The cook, Blunk and myself packed a cast iron stove 2 miles
besides each of us packing a sack full of dishes, kettles,
frying pans, etc. The boys all worked on trail in morning. In
afternoon sent Brown, Dilts and Neil Vandemoer [sic] to
bring stove rest of way to camp. Rest of us worked on trail.
They got back by half past three.
June 29, 1904, Wednesday
In morning went on line and got Â¥2 mile In afternoon went to
work on trail.
June 30, 1904, Thursday
Went out and worked on trail all day. Strained my ankle. Eat
out lunch out on work. Blunk brought it out. Fellows were all
tired. Slept better last night.
July 1, 1904, Friday.
In morning worked on line. In afternoon sent all the boys out
to make stakes but John Phillips, he and myself went to No, I
got the commissary bill against all boys and we got axe at
July 2, 1904, Saturday.
Took lunch out with us and were on line all day. Got caught
on root of tree and fell hurting my knee cap on rock also
hurting other leg. Didnt know which leg to limp on. Giller
not feeling A1.
July 3, 1904, Sunday.
Worked around camp.
July 4, 1904 Monday
All of us went over to help Ulrich on cross section work. Saw
six mountain sheep.
July 5, 1904, Tuesday
Worked on line all day
July 6, 1904, Wednesday
Helped Ulrich. Rained off and on all day.
July 7, 1904, Thursday
Worked on trail all day Strained my ankle again. Got wet.
July 8, 1904, Friday
Was to have helped Ulrich but found some queer doings. Mr.
Ulrich quit and had started for town. A man sent up to
superintend construction. Had the boys work on trail while I
went to No. 3 to find out how things stood. Ankle still
July 9, 1904, Saturday
All worked on trail all day. Ankle hurting considerable.
July 10, 1904 Sunday
Giller and I got up at 4:00 and took a walk incidentally I took
my gun along By sunrise we were on top of the range. We
saw six X. [sic] Broke ones leg but could not get him.
Coming home slid down on some snow drifts. Two boys
from the other camp came over. They had been out hunting
and one got hurt and broke his gun sliding down on snow
drifts. Got word today that Mr. Argo was appointed chief
temporarily Ankle better by far
July 11, 1904, Monday.
Finished trail to next camping ground and cleared place for
camp. Felt a little weak in afternoon and my nose bled some.
John hurt his ankle.
July 12, 1904, Tuesday.
Moved camp. Got four horses and packed all day. Trail bad.
One horse went over bank nearly perpendicular rolled down
hill nearly 75 ft. Wonder it did not kill him. Very tired at
night. Shared my bed with Brown. Mosquitoes bad all night.
Did not sleep much.
July 13, 1904, Wednesday
Went over to old camp first thing to finish packing. Got in to
camp about 12:20 and found scarcely anything to eat. Cook
had quit without any warning. Packed all afternoon and then I
got supper for all about 7:00 oclock.
July 14, 1904 Thursday
Got up at 4:30 and got breakfast for eight of us, also dinner
and supper. Was in cook tent all day. Mr. Argo was here for
dinner. Sent John over to No. 3 to see about cook. Pretty
discouraging. Pennock quit today.
July 15, 1904, Friday
Got up at 4:30 and got breakfast then went to No. 5 and met
new cook coming. Came home with him. Sent Brown to No,
3 to sharpen hatchets. Fixed up cook tent and got cook
July 16, 1904, Saturday
Had boys make stakes and build trail while I went to No. 3 to
see about things as Mr. Edwards was there. Was over the
ditch with him and Mr. Amos, then brought two pick-handles
back also one pair of blankets and some handkerchiefs and
socks, also some mosquito netting.
July 17, 1904, Sunday
Went up on top of mountain to see where line was to go. Had
some splendid views and some great slides down on snow.
Brown went with me. We saw a big buck sheep. Got home
for dinner after two o clock.
July 18, 1904, Monday.
Went out on line in morning. In afternoon worked On line
until half past three then went in to camp and started for No.
3 with Giller at 3:40 we were back at 6:40. having stopped at
No. 3 for some little time. Got the line through the big rock
July 19, 1904, Tuesday
Worked on line in morning. In afternoon went with Davidson
over part of line.
July 20, 1904, Wednesday
Worked on line all day Were in sight of Baker Creek by
evening. Saw some men going down from mines. For the last
two weeks the mosquitoes have been very bad.
July 21, 1904, Thursday.
Sent boys out to make stakes in morning while John and I
adjusted transit. In afternoon was Rainy, stayed in.
July 22, 1904, Friday.
Worked on line all day. Reached Opposition Creek.
July 23, 1904, Saturday.
Boys made stakes while John and I went to hunt for Baker
Creek. Had a long old tramp.
July 24 Sunday 1904.
Washed all morning In afternoon replaced hob nails in shoes
and hob nailed another pair also greased shoes.
July 25, 1904, Monday
Worked on line all day only made about 1700 feet. Very
hard on account of perpendicular cliffs.
July 26, 1904, Tuesday.
Worked on line all day. Put in hard day Tramp back and forth
pretty long. Left instrument Out both last night and this
evening on Mr. Argos advice
July 27, 1904, Wednesday.
Boys made stakes. John and I put up grindstone and
sharpened axes in morning and in afternoon went to No. 3.
Rained quite hard.
July 28, Thursday, 1904
Worked on line all day. Started to work at half past six a. m.
and got home at half past six P.M. Spent nearly half the time
to and from work.. Rained enough to bother us considerable.
Put in a hard day as did all. Was nearly all in.
July 29, Friday 1904.
Sawed wood and got things in shape about camp.
July 30, Saturday 1904
Worked on line all day. Worked around cliffs.
July 31, Sunday 1904
Most of boys went fishing Giller has sore ankle. I am not
feeling first rate.
Aug. 1, 1904, Monday.
Boys made stakes Had Giller stay in on act. Of ankle. Am
not feeling O.K.
Aug. 2, 1904, Tuesday.
Worked on line all day. It is now so far that it takes us over
half the day walking back and forth Was not feeling first rate
and when it came time to walk home I felt as if I couldnt do
it. We think there is a chance of finishing it in one day by
putting in extra hard day. Will try and get started in morning
before six o clock. Hurt my ankle slightly.
Aug. 3, 1904, Wednesday.
Got early breakfast and left by six oclock Got to end of line
by half past nine. Cut time short at noon and then saw that we
could not finish so got home twenty minutes of seven. Ankle
bothered me considerable. I certainly was tired. In the first
place on our way out to work in morning Jay Vandermoer
[sic] slipped on log and cut a gash in his arm with axe, had to
send him to Dr. to get six stitches taken. Adams also strained
his leg some. Brown lost his hat. Not feeling best today.
Aug. 4, 1904, Thursday.
Sawed up firewood all day. Giller and myself went to No. 3.
We both telephoned to Collins.
Aug. 5, 1904, Friday.
Got early breakfast Took only 15 minutes for noon. Finished
to Baker Creek and carried instrument home. Giller played
out, but showed grit. Brown was nearly played out also
Aug. 6, 1904, Saturday
Scarcely any of the boys have heads above water So gave
them day off In afternoon Brown and Myself went to 3 after
mail Bailey spoke to Brown about commissary.
Aug. 7, 1904, Sunday
Walked, mended, etc.
Aug. 8, 1904, Monday
Started to work with transit on angle line
Aug. 9, 1904, Tuesday
Worked on angle line.
Aug. 10, 1904, Wednesday
Aug. 11, 1904 Thursday
On line in morning. Stormed in afternoon and we Stayed in.
Aug. 12, 1904, Friday
Looked at trail some men are making. Then took John and
Giller and ran the levels up to where We left off with transit
in morning. In afternoon took out whole party on transit line.
Rained. Not feeling well.
Aug. 13, 1904, Saturday.
Divided up party into two parts. Not feeling well.
Aug. 14, 1904, Sunday.
Stayed in camp all day. Not feeling well.
Aug. 15, 1904, Monday
Worked on line all day Got pay checks today Bailey and
Davidson came up and went over line to look for camping
place. Not feeling O.K. yet.
Aug. 16, 1904, Tuesday
Boys made stakes so I went to see men making trail. Took
revolver and got grouse. Am feeling weak.
Aug. 17, 1904, Wednesday
Worked until 11:00 a.m. when it soaked us so that rain drove
Aug. 18, 1904, Thursday.
Rained most all day. About 3:00 P.M. I went to No. 3 to see
about going down. After I had been over a while John came.
On way home about 7:30 P.M. we ran onto a bear within 15
or 20 feet. Men did not work.
Aug. 19, 1904, Friday.
Worked on angle line all day. Accomplished a good deal.
Aug. 20, 1904, Saturday
Worked on line all day. Worked around cliffs. Stormed a
Aug. 21, 1904, Sunday
Worked up notes most of day.
Aug. 22, 1904, Monday
Worked on angle line all day.
End of daily log.
James Fort Collins Sugar Factory Engineering
When James came back to Fort Collins after working on the Grand River
Ditch in the fall of 1904, the Fort Collins Sugar Company again employed him as a
design and construction civil engineer. Historically, the production of sugar from
sugar beets was considered very early in the area that later became New Mexico and
Colorado. In the Maxwell Land Grant petition of January 8, 1841, Guadalupe
Miranda and Carlos Beaubien proposed sugar beet production to New Mexico
Governor Manuel Armiljo. Beaubien was familiar with French sugar beet production
prior to 1841 in Europe. 67 Subsequent to 1860 Peter Magnes grew sugar beets in the
Denver area.168 In his History of Larimer County, Colorado, Ansel Watrous wrote
that The most notable event in the history of Fort Collins, in a material way, since
the completion of the Colorado Central Railroad in 1877, was the building of the
beet sugar factory in 1903.169 Candy Hamilton quotes the above in her book,
Footprints in the Sugar, her new book about the history of the Great Western Sugar
Company.170 According to Hamilton, Loveland, Greeley, and Eaton already had
sugar factories so the proposed Fort Collins factory was certainly not
167 Steinel, 282.
168 Steinel, 283.
169 Watrous, 252.
170 Candy Hamilton. Footprints in the Sugar (Ontario, Oregon: Hamilton Bates Publishers, 2009) 104.
experimental.171 In fact it became a major industry for Larimer County and Fort
Collins between 1900 and World War II. The Kilby Manufacturing Co., a well
known Cleveland, Ohio, builder of sugar factories, constructed the factory during
1902-1904 for the Fort Collins Sugar Manufacturing Company.
Records in the Colorado State Archives stated that there were three sugar
companies incorporated in Fort Collins; The Fort Collins Sugar Company with
Articles of Incorporation dated March 8, 1902 (defunct and inoperative 9/16/13),
The Fort Collins Sugar Manufacturing Company with Articles of Incorporation
dated July 31, 1902 [Hamilton says August 6, 1902] (defunct and inoperative
4/16/13), and the Fort Collins Colorado Sugar Company incorporated October 16,
1902 (dissolved April 29, 1907) that Hamilton said was a re-incorporation of The
Fort Collins Sugar Manufacturing Company.
The Annual Report of the Fort Collins Colorado Sugar Company dated Jan.
15, 1904, stated that it was operated, since about Jan. 4th, 1904:
The company owns a site and factory for the manufacture of beet
sugar, located near Fort Collins in Larimer County, Colorado. The
factory is now being operated by the contractor and builder thereof
for the purpose of testing. There is a considerable quantity of beets
and a small amount of manufactured sugar on hand the value and
amount of which cannot be exactly stated.
C.S. Morey was the president and Charles Boettcher was the first vice-president. '
According to Hamilton, Henry O. Havemeyer of the American Sugar
Refining Company, (by corporate chicanery to monopolize American sugar
production) in the summer of 1904, bought up 100% of the stock of the Fort Collins
Company. Havemeyers subsidiary, called the Great Western Sugar Company, then
continued in Fort Collins until the factory was torn down in 1968.174
James design calculations for the supports, both for the horse-drawn beet
wagons and for the railroad trains bringing in the beets, were in an oversize 6 x 13
heavy manila expandable folder labeled Elevated Railroad and Storage Bins for
172 Hamilton, 107.
173 Colorado State Archives records of incorporation and corporate annual reports.
174 Hamilton, 109.
175 Andrews Archives record folders.
FIGURE 30. FORT COLLINS SUGAR COMPANY BEET DUMP.
One design sheet showed bents for the wagon dumps eighteen feet apart
probably of twelve by twelve inch horizontal and vertical timbers. The railroad
dumps show bents fifteen feet apart with three eight by sixteen inch lengthwise
timbers on each side on top of the bent crosspiece supporting the ties that in turn
supported the rails. A note on the sheet may indicate this was also the Idaho Falls,
Idaho, sugar beet factory design.176 Three additional sheets showed design
calculations on support spans with a twenty-five ton loading under each railroad
Also detailed calculations were on four large sheets of lined paper that
showed the calculus for the trusses (upside down Vs supporting the beets) after they
were dumped from the wagons or rail cars into the storage piles before sluicing into
the factory. James assumed design criteria of a twelve foot span at base, a six foot
vertical height, and a one-to-one slope on the side members. His other design criteria
were that the beets weighed forty-five pounds per cubic foot and they would be piled
sixteen feet high from the ground.
176 Andrews Archives record folders.
177 Andrews Archives record folders.
It appears the results of his calculations were that if the trusses of twelve foot span
and six foot height were spaced four feet apart then the planks covering the sides of
the trusses holding up a full pile of beets needed to be four by twelve inch planks. A
copy of the construction contract was also hand copied in the file.178
The second large manila folder was simply labeled Boiler Tests. Inside in a
five by twelve inch bound journal book, lined, were a forty-three item list of
variables to be measured, followed by six resulting conclusions. These items are in a
different hand and it is suspected that James went to his professor at C.A.C. to be
sure he wasnt missing something from his college texts on steam boilers, steam
engines, steam engine indicator practice, and fuels (previously listed in Appendix I.)
The overall general categories were:
Description of the Test No. 1-5
Dimensions and Proportions of the Boilers 6-8
Average Pressures 9-12
Average Temperatures 13-16
Economic Evaporation 29-33
Rate of Combustion 34-35
Horse Power 36-37
178 Andrews Archives documents.
Cost of Coal 38-39
The first test was Oct. 29, 1904, on B & W [Babcock & Wilcox] No. 1 [boiler] with
Henry Baird and James Cosigny assisting and with C. M. Steel as fireman for ten
hours with Northern Colorado lump coal.
There were fifteen additional tests documented on different boilers using
different coal and different firemen up through Dec. 27, 1904. Following, there were
two similar tests on boilers at the Longmont Sugar Factory on Dec. 29 and 30, 1904,
using the same boiler but two different coals. The last test was back at the Fort
Collins Factory on Aug. 9, 1905, using a Johnson boiler. Efficiencies range from
forty-eight to sixty-three percent except on the Johnson boiler which calculated to be
sixty-six point seven percent apparently using forced draft under the grates. A
smaller envelope within the larger one contained a ledger sheet detailing some of the
categories mentioned above with four tests made earlier on Boiler 11 at the Fort
Collins Factory on Feb. 10, 11, & 12, and Mar. 24, 1904.179 180
In the sugar making process itself, as detailed in the Encyclopaedia
Britannica article on Sugar, precipitation of the impurities with lime accomplished
the purification of the juice. Of the two methods mentioned in the article, the
carbonation process was probably the one used at the Fort Collins Factory. But that
process involved large quantities of water and dissolved lime so a pond was
constructed to settle out the lime before it was discharged into the city sewer system.
A small top-fold notebook of James gave his notes on the construction and costs of
this pond. It appears he was the engineer-in-charge of this construction.
James said the pond was built near silo and the amount of earthwork was
29,904.5 cu. ft. (1107.5 cu. yds.) It was contracted with Kowlton [sic] & Bollen at
15 Â¥z cents per yd. for a total cost of $180.46 (including $8.80 for putting in an
outlet pipe.) James compared the cost with his Trautwines Civil Engineers Pocket
Book cost-of-earthwork tables and showed a very favorable comparison to the
contractor. He went on to state that:
Bid made by Knowlton & Bollen on the digging of Flume Trenches
for outside storage of beets. 10 cents per yd. with the understanding
that they were to have contract for fill between flumes also; and that
this dirt was to be paid for again as part of their fill. This was
accepted Oct. 1, 1903 ....
179 Andrews Archives documents.
180 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1966 ed., s.v. Sugar by. B.F. Lynip, Jr. and John Kerr Rose
Knowlton & Bollen took the contract to finish bank of upper settling
pond at 15 Vi cents per cu. yd. and started first work on Nov. 6
James Other Engineering Notes
James continued with other ditch contracts such as filling in the Larimer Co.
Ditch through Julius Papkes farm where change of ditch was made by John
Johnson at eight cents per yard and the work was done in May 1907. He also gave
data and calculations on the Larimer Co. Ditch from C. Farrars place to Reservoir
in Black Hollow with E. E. Baker as Engineer. He noted the depth of the ditch as
eight feet, the width of the bottom as twenty-six feet, the grade as 0.025 [ft,] per/100
feet, and the carrying capacity as 450 cu. ft. per sec. He said the Old ditch had grade
of approx 2.64 ft. per mile or .05 ft. per 100 ft. This was so much that ditch washed
bad (in clay soil). James noted on a later page Data on Black Hollow Reservoir
Built by Water Supply and Storage Co. Contract was let to J. A. Osner of Denver,
Earthwork was @ 16 V2 cents per cu. yd., Concrete was @ $8.00 per cu. yd.,
Concrete was mixed 1 to 7."
James had a page headed Data on Grand River Ditch. Water Supply and
Storage Co. probably noted after the work was done. J. C. Ulrich Engineer, First
part of ditch up to about Dutch Town Creek had grade of 0.10 to the 100 ft. From
Dutch Town Creek I ran preliminary line giving grade of .20 per 100 ft.
James also copied, in pencil, not ink, a page of cross section notes by J. C.
Ulrich [probably to use as a pattern for himself]. Also James continued in pencil
with a copy of field book notes by Mr. H. S. Hooker, Asst. Eng. Colo. & So. Ry.
Co. Located Line Spiraled.183
Houses Connected With James H. Andrews
Before and during the time James was working in Larimer County as an
engineer, he lived in several different houses. After the first house already mentioned
and pictured, where James was born, there was possibly a house on either
Remington or Mathews Street that would be in the Grantee Grantor list of property
ownership but would take very extensive research to determine. Of course, there was
the ranch house at Kinikinik up the Poudre in the 1880 1890 period but the family
actually lived in Fort Collins. The house at 202 Remington Street on the southeast
181 Andrews Archives documents.
182 Andrews Archives record books.
183 Andrews Archives record books.
corner of East Oak and Remington Streets, sometimes known as the Dr. McHugh
House, is now (2011) occupied by the St. Peters Fly Shop. C. B. Andrews
purchased the house in 1889 as it was being constructed with Montezuma Fuller as
architect.184 185 186
C. B. Andrews hid th hnusa finished
& lived in it: The thxise of the Mayor*
202 Remington CS- 1889-W
Charles B. Andrews hired Montezuma
Fuller in 1889 to complete the large stone
house and burn. After residing there for 5
years. C. U. sold to Jesse Harris in 1894.
Dr. P. J. McHugh purchased the property
in 1XW. Roth Harris and McHugh served as
mayor of Ft. Collins.
CWfinite house behind 202 Remington
built by Andrews, later converted into
hospital by Or. H.J. McHugh
' A_l. I 4ruuno
FIGURE 32. HOUSE AT 202 REMINGTON STREET.
The family lived there till 1894 when Jesse Harris purchased it. ~ At one
time President Ellis of C.A.C. lived there. James told one story about Dr.
McHugh, who purchased the house in 1899, and the Doctor's first car. While passing
the alley James noticed Dr. McHugh driving through. Soon after, Dr. McHugh came
184 Lance R. Williams. An Overview of the C. B. Andrews Family in the Poudre River Region, Larimer
County, Colorado, February, 2010.
185 Williams, An Overview.
186 C. A. C. Collegian, vol. X, No. 8, p. 34.
round again through the alley. And he came round again. James realized the Dr. had
no idea how to stop the vehicle.187
The next residence and farm that C. B. Andrews bought for his family was
sometimes called the College Farm (because Charles later sold it to the College for
their agricultural experiments) and sometimes called Shadelands for the mature trees
around the house that provided shade. The original deeds and abstract of title are
currently in a heavy manila envelope labeled South Half of Southeast Quarter of
Section 13, Township 7 North, Range 69 West, Lake Park Farm (the deeds are also
noted in the Grantee Grantor Tables in Appendix E and F.)188 A Memorandum of
Agreement (basically a ten year note at 6%) to sell to the College was dated August
2, 1904.189 The house still stands today.190
> /Cf*- /f??
FIGURE 33. SHADELANDS OR COLLEGE FARM HOUSE.
187 Personal communication by James H. Andrews.
188 Andrews Archives deeds.
189 Andrews Archives documents.
190 Williams, An Overview.
A large and impressive town home, the house that C. B. Andrews then built,
was at 211 Canyon Avenue where West Oak Street, Howes Street, and Canyon
Avenue join. Charles did not live long to enjoy it; he died on November 17, 1905.
His will is quite short and succinct and is given verbatim:
I Charles B. Andrews do hereby make this my last will and testament
1st-1 desire that all my just debts and funeral expenses be paid out of
the proceeds of my Life Insurance Policy in New York Life Co. that
the remainder of said proceeds from said policy go to my wife Julia.
2nd- All my remaining interest as one of the heirs in the estate of my
Father James Andrews deceased go to my son James.
3rd- All promissory notes and debts payable to me and all money on
deposit in any Bank in my name to my wife Julia.
4th-1 name and appoint mu(sic) wife Julia and my son James as my
executors without bond. Charles B. Andrews (July 1, 1905)
The house was rented for many years but James reserved a room in the basement
where he could stay when in Fort Collins. When James sold the property in the
1960s, to prevent the house being totally destroyed, he sold the structure to a
building contractor for $1. The contractor cut the house in two and moved it to its
present location at 725 East Elizabeth Street. Lance Williams took a 2009 picture of
<* H Aadtwjnmxkm. rwovedfrten
Canyon Avc. m 735 L Elizabeth
lance 8/3 009
FIGURE 34. 211 CANYON AVENUE ANDREWS HOUSE.
The author took the next three pictures and Lance Williams took the picture of 322
East Oak Street in Fort Collins.
FIGURE 36. ZIMMERMAN PLACE HOUSE.
FIGURE 37. 428 ELIZABETH STREET., FORT COLLINS.
No Picture is known of the Cooley house
. RJ. & Katherine Andrea. IV07 4X
UukMM j James H l.ydia & Stiirfey Andrews
---------------------J ca 1948-1970*
FIGURE 38. 322 EAST. OAK STREET, FORT COLLINS.
James As Head of Family
In the summer of 1906 James worked for the Colorado and Southern
Railway Company (C & S). A letter dated February 13, 1942, from R. C. Smith,
General Auditor of the Company, responding to James request for employment data
for the previously mentioned U. S. Civil Service Commission form, stated that
James worked eleven days in May 1906 for $35.10 and in June and July for $100
each month, as Assistant Engineer for the company.191 In reminiscing, James said he
was involved with the regrading of the tracks from Longmont north.1 2 An additional
letter from M. C. Ward dated February 12, 1942, stated, "I do remember when
you were working with Mr. Hooker and we would let you off in the mornings and
pick you up in the evenings." Apparently Mr. Ward was the conductor on the C & S
daily passenger tram. '
In the spring of 1907 James taught the sophomore class in surveying at
C.A.C. He used Johnson's Theory and Practice of Surveying, listed in James'
191 Andrews Archives letters.
192 Personal communication from James H. Andrews.
193 Andrews Archives letters.
technical books in Appendix I, and he kept a log of the Saturday field sessions in a
small red 3 Vi x 6 Vi inch bound record book (following his notes for material for the
Sugar Factory construction.) He listed the class as being: Bice, Barnes, Lamb,
McPherson, Moury, Potts, Pesman, Ramsey, Stuver, Steinmetz, Wood, Cotton,
Ripple, and Sopp and rotated the survey crew positions morning and afternoon. The
first field class was dated March 9, 1907, and the last class was May 25. In addition
in the records, there was an Affidavit signed and notarized by James R. Miller,
Secretary, "that James H. Andrews was employed at this institution [C.A.C.] during
the year 1907 as an instructor in Civil Engineering."194
Andrews Archives letters.
Stonewall And Rockdale Ranches
James started his purchase of land which would become the Stonewall or S6
(that was James cattle brand) Ranch at Livermore on December 20, 1906, from
Andrew and Charles H. Miller. James recorded the deed December 26th in Book 227
at Page 449 of the Larimer County records; it comprised most of Section 21,
Township 10 North, Range 70 West of the 6th Principal Meridian, excepting two
In the early history of the Stonewall Ranch George Barlow homesteaded
before the land was surveyed. When his location proved to be actually on land given
by the U. S. Government to the Union Pacific Railroad as part of the grant of
alternate sections for 20 miles on either side of the railroad right-of-way, Mr. Barlow
had to move over a section, to Section 20, Township 10 North, Range 70 West of the
Sixth Principal Meridian, onto government ground for his homestead. His first house
and blacksmith shop straddled the main road from Fort Collins to Laramie near
where the North Poudre Irrigation Company Ditch flume later crossed Stonewall
Creek and his wagon repair, blacksmithing, and farrier business was quite in
demand. The sign on his blacksmith shop read "J. C. Barlow, 1871.[?]" "He was too
late to have shod the stage coach horses as the Indians burnt the Ten Mile stage
station and the last stage went through in 1867 and was taken off at Virginia
Dale."196 The old ruts of the Cherokee Trail stage road are on the Stonewall Ranch
today just east of the corrals along the east side of U.S. Highway 287 before it
crosses Stonewall Creek heading north towards Virginia Dale. (Lee Whiteley in his
illustrated book on the Cherokee Trail showed many pictures of the Trail between
Bent's Fort and Fort Bridger.)197
On August 24, 1891, George W. Barlow, the son of James Barlow, obtained a
patent for 160 acres where the present ranch buildings are today. His house was
originally in the orchard of apples and pears south of the ranch buildings and he
planted some of the fruit trees. He planted many cottonwood trees and also had a
195 Larimer County Clerk and Recorder's records.
196 Livermore Women's Club, Ranch Histories of Livermore and Vicinity 1884 1956, A Reprinting
of the Larimer County Stockgrowers Association (LaPorte, Colorado: Ink & Scribe, 2003), 25.
197 Lee Whiteley, The Cherokee Trail, Bents old Fort to Fort Bridger, (Boulder, Colorado: Johnson
greenhouse near Stonewall Creek.198 In August 1897 the Barlows sold the ranch to
Mrs. Harriet Martin who in turn sold it to A. J. Johnson in November 1900. In 1910
James H. Andrews bought parts of Sections 20 and 21 from Johnson to add to his
prior purchase; this is recorded in Book 276 at Page 409 of the Larimer County
records.199 James H. Andrews land transactions, similar to his father's, are given in
the two tables compiled from the Larimer County Clerk and Recorder's office
records shown in Appendix K and Appendix L.
In between acquiring the parts of Stonewall Ranch, James acquired the
Rockdale-on-the-Pine Ranch at Log Cabin as noted in his Grantee Table, No. 7 and
No. 9. The description in the first deed is:
The East Half of the South West Quarter and the South West Quarter of the
South West Quarter of Section 5 and the South East Quarter of the South East
Quarter of Section Six (6) all in Township Nine (9) North of Range Seventy Two
(72) West of the Sixth (6) Principal Meridian. James bought this property from his
uncle, Joseph S. Henderson, on March 23, 1911.
On May 3, 1912, James bought an additional piece of land as noted in No. 9
of the Grantee Table from Mr. and Mrs. John W. Rutledge described as:
The West half (W Vi) of the Northeast Quarter (NE Vi) and the
Southeast Quarter (SE Vi) of the Northeast Quarter (NE Vi) and the
Southeast Quarter (SE Vi) of the Northwest Quarter (NW Vi) of
Section Thirty-one (31), Township ten (10) North of Range seventy-
two (72) West [of the 6th P.M.] in the County of Larimer and State of
The theoretical acreage of the first described parcel was 160 acres and theoretical
acreage of the second described parcel was also 160 acres but the two parcels were
not contiguous, being separated by more than a mile.200 201 The ranch buildings are
shown in the picture.
198 Livermore Woman's Club, Among These Hills, A History of Livermore, Colorado, rev. 2nd ed.
(LaPorte, Colorado: Ink & Scribe, 2009), 243-244.
199 Larimer County Clerk and Recorder's records.
200 Larimer County Clerk and Recorder's records.
201 Andrews Archives photographs.
FIGURE 39. ROCKDALE ON THE PINE RANCH.
To finance James land and cattle acquisitions and his other expenses he
borrowed extensively. In a small 8 V2 x 5 Vi inch "Records" book was an index by
James to 133 different notes payable followed by a handwritten copy of the notes
with dates the interest and principal were paid. Many of the earlier notes (the first,
dated January 7, 1902, was for $225 from Tobias R. Hardinger to Charles B.
Andrews for three years at 7% interest), are loans from James or members of his
family to others. The largest note was from the State Board of Agriculture to C. B.
Andrews, and then taken over by Mrs. C. B. Andrews, for $22,000 at 6 % starting
August 2, 1904, on the sale of the College Farm (Shadelands) to the State College.
The smallest note was $10 from the Y.M.C.A. to James. Most of the latter notes
following 1910 were James borrowing at 8% from the Poudre Valley National Bank,
probably to finance the purchase of the Stonewall Ranch. The last note recorded,
dated December 30, 1916, was from James H. Andrews to the Poudre Valley
National Bank for $1,000 at 8 % due in six months (the notes were all meticulously
copied in full in longhand.)'
Another slightly larger 6x9 inch bound book with dry adhesive in horizontal
strips on the pages, which when slightly moistened would adhere to whatever was
pressed on them, in this case newspaper clippings, contained cattle prices for 1909.
The pages were headed, in print, "Denver, Colorado, Thursday, December 17, 1908,"
up to Denver, Colorado, Thursday, September 2, 1909." It appears the clippings
were all from the Denver Post newspaper and they gave three categories; namely,
"Cattle Comparative Receipts [numbers of cattle], Range of Prices, and Cattle 202
202 Andrews Archives records.
Representative Sales." It appeared the prices were in dollars per hundredweight; for
example, 16 steers av. wt. 1140 price 4.60. James kept very close notice of the
weekly record of prices with pages missing of April 22, April 29, May 6, 13, 20, 27;
July 8, 15, 22, 29; and August 5, 1909.203
While James had the Rockdale Ranch one of his near neighbors was the
famous Lady Moon. She was portrayed as the principal character in the world
premier Central City Opera production of The Lady From Colorado. This was
originally the title of the book that Homer Croy wrote about Lady Moon and James
Andrews was one of the people acknowledged by Homer Croy on page 275.
(Unfortunately, the acknowledgement says "Mr. and Mrs. James H. Anderson", not
Andrews.)204 The stories about Lady Moon that James told were not included in the
book. The book by Lafi Miller includes the same story that James told about the
priest from Fort Collins.205 Lady Moon (Catherine Gratton Lawder Gartman Moon)
was Irish and a member of the Roman Catholic Church. Apparently Lady Moon had
not been to St. Joseph's Church in Fort Collins for quite some time so the priest,
Father LaJeunesse, came up to the ranch to visit her. One of Lady Moon's parrots
responded to Father LaJeunesse's friendly greeting of "You're a nice bird" with
"You're a blankety blank old SOB." According to James the priest never came back
again.206 Another story that James told about the parrot was when Lady Moon's
ranch house burned. By the time James and Allyn Tedmon arrived to help, the
building was fully engulfed in flames but along with a few of her clothes and a few
of her guns the parrot had been saved and was hanging in its cage in a pine tree
screaming, "Oh Lord Help Us, Oh Lord Help Us."207 In Miller's book on page 137 he
writes, "Kate liked to visit on the telephone and would tell all of her troubles and
personal problems. One of her neighbors said With a twelve-party line, there were
very few secrets in the neighborhood. 208
James amplified this with one of his recollections of Lady Moon. One
evening at the Rockdale Ranch he was getting supper for himself and Allyn Tedmon
and the phone rang. It was Lady Moon on the phone about three sheets to the wind
as the saying goes going on about her troubles. James did not want to listen to this
so he made an excuse that something was burning on the stove and hung up on her.
203 Andrews Archives record book.
204 Homer Croy, The Lady From Colorado, (New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1957).
205 Lafi Miller, Those Crazy Pioneers, With the Life and Times of Lady Moon & Vignettes of History,
(Lafi Miller, 2000).
206 Personal communication from James H. Andrews.
207 Personal communication from James H. Andrews.
208 Lafi Miller, 137.
After supper and cleaning up about an hour later he lifted the phone to call down to
Fort Collins and Lady Moon was still talking to him!209 James future wife, Lydia
Warren, as Larimer County Home Demonstration Agent also knew Lady Moon and
told the story of the meeting at Log Cabin. The ladies of the Log Cabin and Red
Feather Lakes community had asked Lydia to come up and give them some quilting
techniques. She told them to bring their scraps of material and she would do so. Lady
Moon was also there with her scraps from London and Paris etc. and the other ladies
were oohing and aahing over Lady Moon's materials. Lydia noticed a smell of
kerosene in the room and talked to the hostess who became quite alarmed (an
overturned kerosene light in a log building was an invitation to disaster.) About that
time one of the ladies who was a late arrival came in and she was asked if she
noticed the smell of kerosene. With a sniff she said yes, that was Lady Moon, she
used the kerosene to keep the nits out of her hair. A picture of Lady Moon with Rob
and Kate Andrews (James' uncle and aunt) appeared on page 15 of Lafi Miller's
PICTURE 40. LADY MOON WITH ROB AND KATE ANDREWS.
While acquiring the ranch property, both Rockdale-on-the-Pine and
Stonewall Ranch, James needed a faster way to travel back and forth other than on
209 Personal communication from James H. Andrews.
210 Lafi Miller, 15.
horseback. To commute back and forth to Fort Collins he bought his first automobile
similar to that shown in Figure 41.211 In his log of 1912 on February 16th he says;
"Bought New Maxwell 30 Auto and went to John Pearce's Ranch." Floyd Clymer in
one of his auto books showed a 1912 Maxwell.212 This was James second Maxwell
before he bought his next car.
FIGURE 41. 1908 MAXWELL AUTOMOBILE.
FIGURE 42. 1912 MAX WELL AUTOMOBILE
211 Floyd Clymer, Floyd Clymer's Historical Motor Scrapbook, Number 1, (Los Angeles: Floyd
Clymer, 1944), 57.
212 Floyd Clymer, Floyd Clymers Historical Motor Scrapbook, Number 7, (Los Angeles: Floyd
Clymer, 1950), 95.
James Auto Mileage
James kept a list of his miles driven on each car he owned and drove
throughout his lifetime. Maxwell 26,000, Maxwell 22,000, Haynes, 18,000, Haynes
10,000, Wescott 66,500, Ford 75,500, Buick (co.) 40,000, Buick (co.), 70,000,
Dodge sedan 50,000, Dodge commercial 60,000, Dodge coupe 57,200, Ford V-8
pickup 60,000, Plymouth sedan 27,300, Frazer 22,000, Packard 36,000, Cadillac
10,000 estimated.2 3 213
213 Andrews Archives records
Instead of giving the diaries verbatim as was originally intended, but not
moving them completely to the Appendix, they will be summarized in the main body
of the text. Some details will be lost but these will still exist in the original books.
This change was recommended by Dr. Hunt.
James 1910 Diary
James diary started on Monday, January 3, 1910, and said Short course
through Saturday, January 8 [probably in engineering at the College.] On Tuesday,
January 11, was the Poudre Valley National Bank Election [where James voted his
shares of bank stock inherited from his father.] The following Monday, January 17,
was the Organization Directors of Arthur Ditch Co. which James was involved
with as successor with his fathers ditch stock. Then on Wednesday, January 19, he
surveyed, with James and Walter Edwards helping all day, on the Home Ranch
[Stonewall Ranch] for the Water Supply and Storage Co.
On Tuesday, March 8, 1910, the entry said; Took Mother to ranch with me
and made Johnson offer on ranch. Then two days later on Thursday James wrote;
Johnson down and closed deal with him for his ranch. This was the major
purchase of Stonewall Ranch at Livermore.
Most of the diary entries during the spring and summer involved plowing and
planting wheat, barley, and corn. On Monday, August 1, James noted; Started
cutting grain and on Monday, August 15; Started cutting native hay. Then from
the next day on through Saturday, September 17, was the notation, Haying with
one exception on Monday, September 12, when James recorded; Threshed grain.
[This was probably with one of the old time steam threshing machines belted to a
grain separator.] The final two entries are; Saturday, October 1 through Friday,
October 14 Gathering cattle and Saturday October 15 Brought cattle down from
James 1911 Diary
Most of James 1911 diary involved the ranch. For example, on Friday,
March 31, 1911, the entry said, Took cattle to Tedmon ranch 266 head 131 steers
135 cows & bulls (3). On Wednesday, April 12, 1911, James recorded, Took bulls
to Neeces Found two cows dead. Then on Monday, May 29, James wrote, Bred
mare Joe Williams Bred Collie Bob back with bull from Maxfields. Although the
price is not indicated, James said on Friday, July 14, that he Sold 30 head of cows
to B.P. Thompson and on Friday, December 22, Sold 3 bulls to Allie Christman.
Exceptions to the ranch operations occurred on Monday, April 10, when James
Surveyed at Country Club and on both Saturday, November 25, and Thursday,
November 30, when Surveying Extension of Upper Stonewall Ditch. The diary
ends with the December 22 entry noted above.
In the back pages of James 1911 diary about the ranch was a twenty-four
page listing headed Cattle Act. (account) from 3/14 to 7/14 giving debits and
credits that include the 3/14 entry To 82 cows @ 32 2636 and on 3/30 263 cattle
@33.00 8679 and even on 4/8 a minor note for salt at 55 cents. The following three
pages were a monthly cash account section where James kept an account with Bob
Later in the book James enumerated the Andrews and Tedmon cattle by kind
and by brand, such as forty cows branded TL and 39 cows branded S6 for a total of
352 cows, steers, and bulls. A page followed this page listed the cows (including
two steers) by brand and the date they died (totaling nineteen). Succeeding pages
included number of cows and steers shipped, numbers and dates of bulls, cows, and
steers taken to Batterson Ranch and one TL branded steer of Tedmons that died
August 1 at Batterson Ranch. In pencil James noted the cost of staples and three
wire fence for fencing pasture.
James 1912 Diary
The 1912 diary had much more detail about the weather and the effects on
Stonewall Ranch. On Sunday, January 7, 1912 James said Blizzard started about
4:00 P. M. Following that on Monday, January 8, through Saturday, January 13,
1912 James noted Weather extreme zero and below. James on the following day
(apparently because he couldnt or wouldnt drive his open 1908 Maxwell twenty-
three miles to Livermore) he wrote Horseback to Ranch. This situation could
possibly have precipitated the Friday, February 16 decision where the diary said
Bought New Maxwell 30 auto and went to John Pearces Ranch.
James wrote on Saturday, February 24, that it was Snowing hard Phoned
Ranch Begin feeding all cattle. Gather cattle on range about 12 snow On the
following Tuesday James again records, Snowing again about 5 to 6. It must
have been quite a snowy winter and spring because James recorded the following:
Friday, March 8, Snowed last night about 21/2-3 inches
Monday, March 11, Snowed last night about 3 inches
Thursday, March 14, Snowed about 2 inches last night
Wednesday, March 27, Snowed slightly last night
Sunday, May 12, about 12 snow (new) at Sloans must have been 7 at
Haligan [sic] Dam.
Monday, May 13, Still snowing Sherman Williams started to work
(May 29, 1912, is the last entry for 1912.)
James Record 1913 To 1924
The big snow of 1913 was a memorable event in Fort Collins.214 215 The four
feet of snow on the level halted all vehicular traffic until the streets could be plowed
and James' put his Maxwell auto in the barn at 211 Canyon Avenue till it melted.
FIGURE 43. COLLEGE AVENUE, FORT COLLINS, 1913.
His means of transportation in town was on horseback. To get twenty-two miles up
to the ranch at Livermore took two days on snowshoes and skis for James and his
hired man. They slept overnight at Ingleside with many others on the floor but at the
ranch were able to get all the animals in, fed, and watered, without losing a single
animal. James commented that chasing pigs in the snow on snowshoes was one of
the more difficult ranch jobs!
In 1913 the North Poudre Irrigation Company was improving their system by
driving the North Poudre Tunnel to provide water to the storage reservoir behind
Halligan Dam. This part of the system was actually on James H. Andrews Stonewall
Ranch. The Tunnel was under construction when the chief engineer quit in the
middle of it. L. C. Moore, president of the Irrigation Company, asked James, well
known for his civil engineering and irrigation abilities, to take over the job as chief
engineer, which he did. He said he was not sure of the preceding work so he reran
214 Andrews Archives photographs.
215 Personal communication from James H. Andrews.
some of the surveys to be sure and finished the tunnel and ditch for the company.216
Two pictures show the celebration by the company at the two portals of the tunnel at
breakthrough. James is indicated by an arrow in both pictures.217
FIGURE 44. PORTALS OF N. POUDRE IRRIGATION TUNNEL.
Before 1919 engineers in Colorado were not required by state statute to be
registered. The law passed that year was poorly written and was rewritten and re-
passed in 1921 by the Colorado legislature Initially the registration numbers were
changed annually in the sequence of renewal but this was soon rescinded as
216 Personal communication from James H. Andrews.
217 North Poudre Irrigation Co. and Fort Collins Historical Society pictures.
unworkable.218 In the meeting minutes of the new Board of Registration for
Professional Engineers on February 11, 1922, the Board recorded that James H.
Andrews was registered as a Civil engineer No. 183. Later when the registration was
split into Professional Engineers and Land Surveyors in the 1940s, James had the
same number as Colorado P.E. and L.S. No. 183 for the rest of his life. His crimp
seal is still in the possession of the author.219 220
Sometime in the 1920s a photographer took a large picture of the ranch for
James; this is shown in Appendix M.22 James later diaries are somewhat sporadic
and like a good many diarists start out well on January 1st of the year and then
because of work pressure, tiredness, and being too busy to write, etc., then petered
out. The diaries start in 1925 in James handwriting and end in 1954 in Lydias
James 1925 Diary
The 1925 diary does not start until May 14 for the first entry and was
somewhat sparse for the full year. Most of the entries are about the ranch (with one
exception.) On Friday, may 15, James wrote, Planted wild currants in garden Dug
ditch to garden Sheared sheep. On Friday, May 22, James entry is, Branded 66
calves Started irrigating from headgates 2 & 3 Ed Parker irrigated all day. On
Thursday, September 5, James noted, Ewes commencing to breed. The exception
to entries about the ranch involved James surveying. On Friday, May 29, the entry
said, Surveying for Cement Co. Self Sackett and Jack Benton. Then on Monday,
June 1, Working notes for Cement Co. and on Wednesday, June 3, Finished
map for Cement Co. On Saturday August 1 James noted, Started to work by month
for Ideal Cement Co. The last entry for 1925 was Tuesday October 8.
James 1926 Diary
During January 1926 almost all of the diary entries were about James
working at the Cement Co. at Laporte. He mentioned Jack Benton, Farrell, and
Preston as assistants and even worked a half day on New Years Day. This continued
through Thursday, February 4, when the entry was Went to Denver for Cement Co.
Self. James was apparently a member of the Fort Collins Lions Club because on
Thursday, February 11, he wrote, Lions club Saw Westerdall & Little John steers
300 Priced at $40.00 for April 1. On Thursday, March 4, Saw steers 300 at
Calahan and on Monday, March 8, Town to see A. C. Kluver about steers ;
James was buying heavily to stock Stonewall Ranch with cattle but also was
218 Personal communication from James H. Andrews
219 Andrews Archives.
220 Andrews Archives photographs.
borrowing and mortgaging himself to A. C. Kluver for the cattle (with much later
severe consequences that will be explained!) The last diary entry was Wednesday,
March 10, 1926, when James wrote, Turned Ford over on Calloway Hill with Grant
an [sic] self. He said the Ruckstell axle on the Ford pickup somehow slipped out of
gear [it was supposedly mechanically impossible to do that] and he started going
backwards down the steep part of Calloway Hill. Since he probably couldnt stop
with just the two emergency rear brake drums of steel on steel he turned it into the
hill. The Ford rolled over and James said he almost broke his neck against the
steering wheel in slow motion but a carton of eggs under the seat were not even
In the back of the 1926 diary there were five insurance policies listed. Two
of the policies were with Maryland Motor Car Ins. Co.; one for $100 and another for
$250. There was also a policy with Dubuque Fire M. [and Marine] Ins. Co. for
$3000 on ranch buildings with a premium of $54 for three years.
James 1927 Diary
The 1927 diary is fairly complete up through May but only has two entries
beyond that for the rest of the year. This year James was writing many letters to his
future wife and he had started working for Larimer County. On Monday, January 3
the County Commissioners called me to meet them. Then the next day the diary
entry was Weather warm. Insurance adjuster Baker came to see burned cars.
Westcott 95 Ford 225 his idea settlement appointed Co. Eng. For Feb. 1 & $urveyor
starting immediately. But James was still involved with the ranch and Livermore
community. On Wednesday, January 12, the entry was at Meeting at Livermore of
Lar. Co. Stockgrowers Assn. Andrews Pres. Stouffer V. Pres. Sackett Secy Treas.
On Friday, January 14, the diary entry was Shipped calves ... [to Denver Stock
Show.] Then on Thursday, January 20, James wrote, Feeder sale Calves sold at
noon Drove home in P. M. [from Denver].
Starting on Monday, January 24, 1927, James noted the various roads and
bridges in the county that he was involved with as County Engineer. He apparently
designed several of the wooden bridge replacements in steel because on Wednesday,
April 20 the diary noted, Steel for Thompson River Bridges arrived Loveland Sent
4 men and truck to Loveland. Then the following three days James Said, Loaded
up trucks with steel 3 trucks. And next day Trucks took steel to Bridge sites and
returned and reloaded at Loveland, and on Saturday, Took 3 loads more steel to
Big Thompson bridges. Started moving rock crusher Loveland started driving piles.
The two roads in Larimer County that gave James the most difficulty with
snow removal were Trail Ridge Road over the Continental Divide above Estes Park
and Cameron Pass Road. Trail Ridge Road is now U. S. Highway 36 over Fall River
Pass and Milner Pass and changed from county maintenance to state and federal
221 James H. Andrews personal communication.
maintenance. Because of deep snow the highway is not open in the winter time.
Cameron Pass on the Upper Poudre River is on State Highway 14 on the Larimer and
Jackson County line divide. James notes in his diary on Saturday, April 30, 1927,
With Ray Stouffer Geo. Rose Reached Chambers Lake [east of Cameron Pass],
Snowed there 4 to 5 feet deep in places. Then on Friday, May 20, James writes,
Chambers Lake with [Commissioners] Akin, Johnson [and] Stamm & Higgins.
The diary entry for Saturday, May 21, was followed by Wednesday, June 15, and
that entry was followed by the last entry of 1927 on Monday, October, 31, Bob
Benton riding for me instead of Big South Co. [?]
James 1928 Diary
James 1928 diary was quite sparse probably because of a special reason. The
diary started on Monday, January 2, as a holiday and continued with
Commissioners meetings the rest of the week through Friday, January 6. On
Tuesday, April 3, James wrote, John McCann died from fall off bridge 741 but it
was crossed out for some unknown reason. What the number 741 might be can only
be conjectured. The last two entries after April 3 were on Monday, June 25, and
Wednesday, June 27, when Clammer got oil The special reason the diary was
probably so sparse was James was married on May 12, 1928. His courtship letters