El jardin de los años

Material Information

El jardin de los años (Garden of the ages)
Alternate title:
Garden of the Ages
Brooks, Betty
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
vi, 68 leaves : illustrations, maps ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Hispanic Americans -- Housing -- Planning -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Older people -- Dwellings -- Planning -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for thesis research and programming, Master of Urban and Regional Planning, College of Architecture and Planning.
General Note:
Department of Urban and Regional Planning
Statement of Responsibility:
by Betty "B.J." Brooks.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver Collections
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
25983375 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A78 1992m .B76 ( lcc )

Full Text
Betty "B.J." Brooks
B.A., Metropolitan State College, 1979
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Urban and Regional Planning
School of Architecture and Planning

This study investigates the development of housing for
the Hispanic elderly (Ancianos) in Colorado (Denver).
Nationally, as of 1985, nearly 673,000 Hispanics were over the
age of 65. Hispanic elderly are the fastest growing subgroup
of the aged. Nursing home care is often the last resort many
family members wish to turn to when searching for a more
secure home setting for their parents. Unfortunately, few
options are available to families wanting to relocate their
parents to a less stressful situation of living alone; when
an individual is living by himself, he is solely responsible
for the daily chores that home ownership brings.
This research also sought to provide housing
alternatives for the Hispanic elderly and their families if
they desired to live nearby or in the same family housing unit
as their elder(s). Hispanic elderly were surveyed at a
conference held in their behalf in 1984. Data collected at
the conference were used to describe the characteristics and
to analyze the housing needs of each participant. This
analysis enabled the research to identify the types of housing
that should be developed to accommodate these Hispanic elderly
with similar socio-economic characteristics.
Furthermore, several housing sites in Denver were
examined to assess the potentials for constructing new housing

for the Hispanic elderly. From this examination, two sites
were selected and tested for their site development potential.
The primary focus of this review and assessment was to measure
the site development potential to design and build housing
that would accommodate the special needs of the elderly
Hispanic as described in the survey.
The research pointed to the potential of constructing
housing for the Hispanic elderly and their families in the
locations surveyed. It also depicted the need to design
housing specific to the needs of the elderly Hispanics, which
included easy social service access and select sites to build
housing where Hispanic elderly can live with and/or be close
to family members.

I would like to thank the representatives of the
Colorado Anciano Association and the School of Architecture
and Planning for allowing me the opportunity to work on this
research project. The Anciano Housing Village "Garden of the
Ages" is a dream that can become reality.
I would also like to thank my family and friends who
gave me moral and technical support throughout the creation
of this document. I dedicate this thesis to a very special
Anciana for all the perspectives of life she has provided me.
AURELIA AVILA, "MOM", this is for you.


1 West Colfax and Denver Age Distribution 21
2 Ethnic Status 31
3 Sex 31
4 Mean Age 32
5 Marital Status 32
6 Monthly Income 33
7 Fixed Income 33
8 Income Type 34
9 Number in Household 35
10 Housing 35
11 Living Arrangements 36
12 Sleeping Accommodations 36

1 1980 Census Tracts 8
2 West Colfax Neighborhood Location Map 16
3 West Colfax Conceptual Analysis Map 45
4 Patio Homes Concept Map 52
5 Parcel Map 52
6 The Villas - Palermo Rendering 52
7 Palermo Floor Plan 52
8 The Villas - Capri Rendering 52
9 The Villas - Capri Floor Plan 52
10 The Villas - St. Tropez Rendering 52
11 The Villas - St. Tropez Floor Plan 52
12 The Villas - Malaga Rendering 52
13 , The Villas - Malaga Floor Plan 52
14 The Cascades Condominiums 53
15 The Cascades Parcel Map 53
16 The Cascades Floor Plan 53
17 The Cascades - Plan 53
*Note: Each figure follows the page number listed.

A. Purpose of Study
The purpose of this study is to document the potential
of constructing an Anciano* Housing Village in the City and
County of Denver. This study is an attempt to understand the
characteristics of Colorado Ancianos in an effort to
accommodate their need for affordable housing options. There
have been problems gathering data on Hispanics because of the
diversity of the different subgroups. In some studies, the
elderly Hispanic groups have been ignored altogether.* 1
Therefore, this study also serves to provide more data to the
limited Hispanic elderly collections.
Ironically, while possessing significant life and
professional experience, the Ancianos do not have a
commensurate level of social and economic influence in our
society. The Hispanic elderly constitute a "hidden"
population outside the mainstream of the traditional human
service delivery system.2 Many Ancianos live on fixed incomes
and are unable to keep up with the day-to-day expenses of
*Note: The term "Anciano" is used to identify Hispanic
1U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Report of
Black and Minority Health. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government
Printing Office. 1985.
2Lacayo, Carmela, "A National Study to Assess the Service
Needs of the Hispanic Elderly," Final Report, p. 27.

owning and maintaining a home and, therefore, are seeking
other housing alternatives.
Opportunities presented themselves, at the time of the
study, to possibly build a housing development that would be
suitable for elderly living and also to meet the growing need
for the tie-in of families wishing to live close to their
elderly parents. This, along with the potential for providing
social program access, recreational amenities, transportation,
medical, and services within close proximity to the selected
sites, opened up the door to possibly constructing the
Village. These factors were all considered as part of the
site selection. Background information is provided
documenting neighborhood character, site development
potential, housing programs, and financing feasibility.
Conclusions are summarized as is the relevant importance of
this study for the community of interest as a whole.
B. Rationale
According to the 1990 U.S. Bureau of the Census,
Hispanic Americans constitute the nation's second largest and
fastest growing minority group in the United States, with a
mainland population of 22.35 million.3 As of 1991, Ancianos
made up 5.1% of the elderly population and also represent the
fastest growing subgroup of the aged. Hispanics are usually
characterized as a youthful population with a median age of
3United States, Census of Population and Housing, 1990.

26.2 as of 1991 compared to 33.8 for non-Hispanics. Elderly
Hispanics are one of the nation's most poverty stricken
groups. In 1990, 17.0% of Hispanic families with a head-of-
household 65 or older were poor, compared to 5.9% of
comparable non-Hispanic families.4 Like all elderly, Hispanic
elderly encounter serious problems dealing with day-to-day
survival issues. Older Hispanics encounter barriers relative
to language, cultural differences, and lack of knowledge or
access regarding utilization of medical, political, social,
educational, and employment agencies.
Policy makers will be confronted with having to create
legislation to address the particular issues facing elderly
Hispanics as well as offering solutions to problems that are
faced by elderly in general. Problems of the final decade of
the twentieth century relative to the decreasing size of the
younger age group and the increasing size of older persons
will compound an already adverse situation faced by the
Shifts in the age structure of the population will
reflect the combined influences of: 1) the long-term decline
in the fertility rate and 2) the long-term decline in the
mortality rate. In large, it will measure the result of
improvements in health care of middle aged and older persons.
4State of Hispanic America 1991:____________An Overview.
Washington, D.C.: National Council of La Raza. 1991.

Together, the two factors are expected to bring about changes
in public priorities regarding Social Security and pension
coverage, educational investments, housing, transportation,
and health services, and will be expected to cause a shift in
public policy.
The aging of the total population will be accomplished
by a similar "graying" of the labor force in the years ahead.
At the end of the century, people 35-45 years of age will
represent slightly more than half the working-age population.
As the members of the postwar "baby boom" move into their
middle years, people 20-34 years of age will account for less
than 35 percent, in contrast to 45 percent in 1980.5 These
facts offer a better reason to focus on elderly concerns, in
particular, Anciano concerns.
The size, growth, age and particular problems facing the
elderly Hispanic support the need to conduct this research
project. Similar studies relative to the barriers described
earlier are appropriate as well as needed. The potential of
providing housing for the Ancianos was studied as a means of
offering background and analysis in support of making elderly
housing a priority for this decade.
5Colorado Congress of Senior Organizations and New Mexico
Senior Coalition. Reaching The Hidden Elderly: A Bi-State
Proposal on Aging. Denver: Health and Human Services on
Aging, 1981.

C. Problem Statement
Despite the fact that elderly Hispanics represent the
fastest growing subgroup of the aged, data concerning long-
term care of the minority elderly population has been limited
and was particularly lacking with respect to Ancianos.
Hispanics suffer from what is being termed Triple and
Quadruple" jeopardy, that is, they are suppressed on several
different types of social status: poverty, ethnic status, sex
status, and age.6 Many Ancianos have not been afforded the
opportunity to compete in the open market for homes because
of discrimination, economics, and appropriate information
access. Their "buying power" has been low, the interest rates
have been high, and their ability to purchase this commodity
has virtually been exacerbated by social conditions.
The Ancianos, in general, do not have the buying power
to purchase homes. Hispanic elderly are less likely than
other senior citizens to own their own homes.7 They are
usually on fixed incomes and unable to meet the criteria for
purchasing new homes. Retirement benefits do not keep pace
with the rate of inflation. Therefore, the cost of a new
home is not within the realm of possibilities for the Anciano,
6Houser, Gary R. A Minority Outreach Training Manual for
the Colorado Springs' Black and Hispanic Elderly. Medical
Care and Research Foundation. Denver, Colorado. 1983.
7Engleberg Associates, Inc. Anciano Housing Survey,
Denver, Colorado, 1987, p. 34.

let alone the cost of maintaining a new home with the high
costs of gas, electricity, and other needed expenditures.
Ancianos who do own their own homes still suffer from similar
maintenance issues. The elderly are sometimes viewed as "a
high risk group. When one considers the social factors
attached to the plight of the Hispanic elderly, one can easily
come to the conclusion that the chances of purchasing new
homes diminishes greatly unless housing alternatives and
finance options are explored.
Due to the "graying" of America, the 21st century is
likely to bring major changes in public priorities regarding
housing for the elderly. Ancianos, in particular, will be
faced with making hard decisions relative to their current
life styles. Housing choices for the Ancianos are limited
when measured against the need for family ties, cultural
sharing, social program access, recreational amenities,
transportation availability, and medical and service
proximity. Private comprehensive housing options that meet
the needs of the Hispanic elderly are scarce. This is a
social reality that must change if the Ancianos are to live
in peace, comfort and dignity.
D. Scope of Research
The Colorado Anciano Association is a non-profit
organization assigned to identify senior Citizen related
issues and concerns in Colorado. The Association seeks to

increase the participation of elderly minorities, particularly
Hispanic elderly, in the formation of pertinent state and
national policies focusing on strategies to improve the
elderly's guality of life. This organization is also engaged
in activities for ensuring self-sufficiency. The members
specifically want to establish a new beginning to become the
possessor rather than the possessed, creating their own
destiny rather than being its victim, and shaping themselves
rather than being shaped.
One approach to positively impact the Ancianos' life is
to develop alternative forms of affordable housing for
seniors. This thesis specifically analyzes the possibility
of constructing "El Jardin de los Anos" (Garden of the Ages)
housing as a means of creating elderly self-sufficiency. El
Jardin de los Anos is a housing village concept encompassing
the construction of single-family patio homes to be purchased
by Anciano family members and condominiums to be purchased by
the private sector with subsidies for Ancianos as a first
phase of development. The second phase of development, which
goes beyond this study, will include townhomes and walk up
apartments to help diversify the area and strengthen the
village concept.
The subject sites that were reviewed were located in the
City and County of Denver. The sites include both public and
privately owned land along the Lakewood Dry Gulch within

census tract 7.01 bounded by West Colfax Avenue to the north,
13th Avenue to the south, Perry Street on the east and
Sheridan Boulevard to the west. (Census tract map on next
E. Project Goal and Objectives
To assess the development potential and design
programming guidelines for creating single-family patio homes
and condominiums on private and public sites, the following
objectives were undertaken:
1. Conduct a market research of the proposed housing
2. Inspect and appraise the property.
3. Prepare a housing unit cost summary.
4. Sketch out housing renderings.
F. Planning Process
1. Develop two housing concepts.
2. Set up a technical research team.
3. Define the project scope.
4. Sort out roles and responsibilities of the
technical team.
5. Conduct surveys and analyze the data.
6. Evaluate sites and market potential.
7. Develop housing options for Ancianos.
8. Prepare financial feasible plan for construction
of housing units.


This thesis was designed to express a perspective on
elderly Hispanic housing needs and development of appropriate
housing alternatives. This perspective was arrived at by
doing an in-depth analysis of the historical, social, economic
and cultural characteristics of the elderly Hispanic. Housing
options and site development potentials were also studied for
construction feasibility.
Chapter one of this document introduces the need for
constructing housing for elderly Hispanics in the City and
County of Denver. Rationale for conducting this study was
derived from various forms of data including U.S. Census
information, research on social service needs for elderly
persons in general and particularly elderly Hispanics as a
community of interest. The thesis project, goals, objects and
process were developed as a framework and guided this study.
They were included in this first section.
Chapter two describes the methodology used for
collecting empirical data to help better understand the
characteristics of elderly Hispanics. This information was
gathered by using a questionnaire as a research instrument.
Additional data was gathered from the Colorado Congress of
Senior Organizations and the New Mexico Senior Coalition.
Chapters three and four describe the area and its
significant physical, historical, and demographic profile

which supports the suitability and feasibility of constructing
housing for the elderly, in particular, for elderly Hispanics.
Included in these chapters are general concepts for housing
design considerations to be further addressed in the following
chapter on site analysis. Also, included in chapters three
and four is a historical discussion of the elderly Hispanic.
This section is written to offer background on the importance
of their contributions to society and to create a "sense of
responsibility" on the part of housing providers and
developers to return some of the financial resources they have
received from direct investments made on the part of elderly
Chapters five and six give an overview of the site
development and market potential. Also addressed in these
chapters is the issue of social service proximity and access,
housing program options and financial feasibility. Finally,
site appraisals and housing prototypes are described and shown
graphically for single family-elderly shared living and single
elderly condominium units. In chapter seven a summary is
presented as are recommendations and conclusions of the
overall research.

A. Research Focus
This chapter describes the research method used to
collect information regarding socio-economic characteristics
of the Ancianos. Included in this chapter is description of
elderly Hispanic unmet needs. This information was gathered
as part of a national study to assess the service needs of the
During the Colorado Anciano Association's Conference
held in Denver, Colorado, 1984, several workshops were held
throughout the day covering a variety of topics that were of
interest to the participants. Close to the termination of
each workshop, a questionnaire was handed out to the
participants. The Ancianos were also given explicit
instructions and assistance on how to fill out the
questionnaire. Although participants may have attended more
than one workshop, they were asked to fill out only one
questionnaire. The facilitators of the respective workshops
were available to answer any questions the participants may
have had, to help fill out questionnaires, and to collect the
forms once they were finished. The questionnaires were
available both in English and Spanish. The intent was to
provide those who spoke English as a second language a means
to communicate.

Ample time was given to the participants to fill out the
questionnaire. Once the questionnaires were turned in, they
were checked over by the group facilitator. If there were
unanswered questions, the respondents were asked to complete
questionnaires and were offered assistance if needed. This
method was utilized in order to make sure all of the questions
were answered. Following this procedure, the questionnaires
were collected for tabulation and analysis. The questionnaire
contained questions regarding ethnicity, marital status,
residency, living arrangements, age, income and household
size. A team of volunteers from the Colorado Anciano
Association helped administer the survey. Ramon Del Castillo,
Sociologist, served as the team leader.
The Colorado Anciano Association wanted to begin
compiling empirical data on Ancianos because often times the
Hispanic elderly are reluctant to provide information to
agencies unknown to them, thus creating a situation of the
"hidden elderly" syndrome. The Colorado Congress of Senior
Organizations documented some serious socio-economic problems.
This organization noted unmet needs of the Ancianos for a
variety of reasons, including geographical and social
isolation, cultural differences, institutional insensitivity
(or outright discrimination) and a basic lack of information

about programs and benefits.8 These unmet needs are described
in detail, and are as follows:
(a) Geography: Despite the continuing urbanization of
America, many older persons of Hispanic and Native
American cultures remain in rural communities where
the service systems may be unable to adequately
reach them, but where they are able to pursue the
life style which they have known for many years.
In urban settings, many minority older persons live
in barrios, isolated by social, cultural and
economic differences.
(b) Social Isolation: Many minority seniors have
rarely experienced successful contacts with the
educational, political and economic institutions
of society. The introduction into their community
of a new program of any sort is generally viewed
with suspicion and without enthusiasm. The
powerlessness that they feel produces a defensive
response. They stay away rather than re-enact
painful experiences.
(c) Cultural Differences: Senior citizen services
offered through institutions are based on policies,
8Colorado Congress of Senior Organizations and New Mexico
Senior Coalition. Reaching the Hidden Elderly: A Bi-State
Proposal on Aging. Denver: Health and Human Services on
Aging, 1981.

needs and practices identified by decision makers
and implemented by practitioners of the dominant
Anglo-community. The Ancianos have had a long
tradition of community and family-based services
which met their needs. These services spring from
cultural values and beliefs differing in
significant ways from those of the dominant
society. The Ancianos are apt to continue to rely
on these non-institutional support systems where
they exist rather than on the formal ones.
Unfortunately, many such helping systems have
failed to be maintained as younger family members
adopt mobile and nuclear family patterns.
(d) Institutional Insensitivity; There is a
discrepancy between the ethnic make-up of the
clientele being served and the composition of most
program staffs. Language barriers can be
insurmountable obstacles to participation. Even
more destructive may be the message that the
failure to hire minority staff can be read as, "We
really don't want you here."9 The failure of many
programs to actively reach out to seniors who do
Colorado Congress of Senior Organizations and New Mexico
Senior Coalition. Reaching the Hidden Elderly: A Bi-State
Proposal on Aging. Denver: Health and Human Services on
Aging, 1981.

not voluntarily participate reinforces this
(e) Lack of Information; Another reason many Ancianos
do not avail themselves of services in their
communities is that they may be unaware of such
services or how to get involved with them. Funds
for services have grown tighter over the past
several years. One of the areas cut-back has been
outreach designed to increase program
participation. Providers seem content to utilize
their budgets to serve only the most aggressive and
easily reached or only those who speak and
understand English.10
10Colorado Congress of Senior Organizations and New Mexico
Senior Coalition. Reaching the Hidden Elderly: A Bi-State
Proposal on Aging. Denver: Health and Human Services on
Aging, 1981.

Place: The Westside" Denver
A. Neighborhood Fabric Physical Condition
The West Colfax neighborhood is located west of the
Platte River. The neighborhood is bounded by Federal
Boulevard on the east, Sheridan Boulevard on the west and by
19th Avenue and the Lakewood Dry Gulch on the north and south.
(See map on next page.) This particular neighborhood was
selected as a prime study area, as were the housing sites,
because of its character, ethnic diversity, proximity to
services and site availability. Two additional sites were
surveyed for their development potential but both were
secondary and tertiary options because of the land and
development costs and topography constraints. This chapter
offers background information about the areas' physical,
historical and demographic profile. Detailed site analysis
can be found in chapter five.
West Colfax is a neighborhood that has minor to moderate
redevelopment potential according to the July 1984
Neighborhood Classification Report of the Denver Planning
Office.11 The information used to classify the neighborhoods
included data on housing trends, compatibility between land
use and zoning, and general neighborhood conditions.
11Denver, Colorado, Neighborhood Classifications Report,
(1984). Denver Planning Office.


According to the Denver Planning Office 1985 Housing
Detail Report, the West Colfax neighborhood had 3,713 housing
units of which 1,141 were single family units, 2,311
multi-family units, 236 public housing units, and 25
condominiums and mixed use residential units. Of the total
housing units in West Colfax, approximately 31% are
single-family and 62% are multi-family. Many of the
single-family and multi-family units (duplexes) are relatively
old, dating back to the period between 1900-1939.12 Owner
occupancy, often a sign of neighborhood stability, is
extremely low for the West Colfax neighborhood at 25% compared
to Denver's average of 48%. When comparing only single
family owner occupancy, West Colfax neighborhood's 73% is more
comparable to Denver's 74% single family owner occupancy.
The Denver Planning Office Land Use file indicates that
the average selling price for a single-family home in the West
Colfax neighborhood has been lower than the city's average
selling price. Figures from 1983 show an average selling
price for a single-family home in the West Colfax neighborhood
at $65,400, compared to a Denver average of $79,798. During
1983, 50 homes were sold in the neighborhood.13
12Denver, Colorado, Housing Detail Report, (1985). Denver
Planning Office.
13Denver, Colorado, Land Use File, (1983). Denver
Planning Office.

A housing conditions survey conducted in August 1984
identified a number of units in need of rehabilitation. A
great majority of these units were located east of Perry and
are absentee owned properties in need of moderate to extensive
rehabilitation.14 There were 15 vacant and abandoned
buildings in the West Colfax neighborhood, as reported by the
Building Department on February 1986.15
B. West Colfax Neighborhood History and Demographic Profile
1. History
Colfax, across the Platte River in the western part of
the city was known to residents of Denver in the early 20th
century as, "No Man's Land", and "Jim Town." This area was
sparsely settled but contained several mansions of wealthy
families as well as the scattered shacks of squatters. To
this area the large wave of Jewish immigrants from Eastern
Europe came in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Attracted by others with similar language, cultural and
religious backgrounds, the immigrants made "No Man's Land"
into Denver's version of a European neighborhood.
As the neighborhood grew, so did the interest in
incorporating. Two factions appeared: Those who favored
incorporation of the whole community under the name "Colfax"
14Denver, Colorado, West Colfax Neighborhood Plan, (1986).
Denver Planning Office.
15Denver, Colorado, Denver Building Department, (1986).
Denver Building Department.

and those who would have the business section (a strip along
Golden Avenue just west of the river) remain separate under
the name "Brooklyn." Colfax did incorporate in 1891, Brooklyn
seceded, then returned the following year. This area, nine
and a half blocks in length and two and a half blocks in
width, numbered three hundred inhabitants. The town of Colfax
was annexed to Denver in 1897. The name "Golden Avenue" was
officially changed to "West Colfax Avenue" and was the main
street of this small town. It was lined with two-story brick
commercial buildings, stores, saloons, a restaurant, a meeting
hall and even a hotel. West Colfax had a constant flow of hay
wagons and peddlers, since all traffic enroute to Denver from
the agricultural communities of Golden and Morrison converged
In the 1920's West Colfax neighborhood opened two public
schools, Colfax Elementary and Lake Junior High School, to
meet the challenges of a progressive neighborhood. The
Depression years saw little or no development in the West
Colfax neighborhood. In the 1940's and mid 50's a housing
boom occurred, characteristic of the "Filling In" era. Most
vacant land west of Utica Street was purchased for home
building. West Colfax, along with the Barnum and Sloan Lake
neighborhoods, experienced this housing boom simultaneously.
The mayoral administration of the 1950's promoted bond
issues that saw the construction of public housing in and near

West Colfax Avenue. A strong ethnic transition in the West
Colfax neighborhood began with Hispanic immigrants moving into
the area during the 1960's. The 1970's brought young Anglo
families into the neighborhood, and in the mid '70s the first
wave of Indochinese families settled in the West Colfax
neighborhood.16 According to the 1990 U.S. Census, the area
today is of varied racial make-up of Anglo, Jewish,
African-American, Hispanic, Native American, and
2. Demographic Profile
The 1990 U.S. Census revealed 8,910 persons residing in
the West Colfax neighborhood compared to 9,707 in 1980.
Population has decreased over the past three decades,
reversing the trend of population increases during 1960 and
1970. The total number of households increased from 3,559 in
1970 to 3,709 in 1980, and decreased to 3,191 in 1990.
West Colfax's neighborhood children aged 0-19 years of
age increased from 31% in 1980 to 34% in 1990. The
neighborhood still has a high percentage of elderly with 16%
of its population at 65 years or older in 1980 and 15% in
1990. The two groups make up 49% of West Colfax's total
population as of 1990. Table 1 compares the West Colfax
16Denver, Colorado. West Colfax Neighborhood Plan.
(1986). Denver Planning Office.
17United States. Census of Population and Housing. 1990.

neighborhood and Denver's age distribution of the
neighborhood1s population.
The West Colfax neighborhood has maintained a mixed
neighborhood composition. The non-white racial mix includes
Mexican-American, African-American, Native American, and
Indochinese-Chinese populations. Hispanics comprise the
largest ethnic group in the neighborhood reflecting 48% of the
total population.
Total Population for Denver: 1980 1990
492,365 467,610
West Colfax
Neighborhood Denver
1980 1990 1980 1990
Less than 5 years 10% 10% 7% 8%
5-9 years 8% 8% 6% 6%
10-14 years 6% 8% 6% 5%
15-19 years 7% 8% 7% 6%
20-24 years 12% 8% 11% 7%
25-34 years 18% 17% 22% 20%
35-44 years 8% 13% 10% 17%
45-54 years 7% 7% 4% 9%
55-66 years 8% 6% 10% 8%
65-74 years 9% 7% 7% 8%
75 years and over 7% 8% 5% 6%
Total Percent: 100% 100% 100% 100%
Source: U.S. Census of population , 1980 and 1990.

U.S. Census data for 1990 was not available for median
household income, education, and employment. Therefore, 1980
data is used to describe these items of the demographic
profile of the neighborhood. The 1980 median household income
for West Colfax neighborhood was $11,173, which was
significantly lower than the city's $15,500 median income
figure. This figure reflected a drop of 12.3 percent from
1970-1980 median household income which was $12,736.
The 1980 median education level reveals the number of
school years completed by residents of West Colfax was 11.9,
slightly lower than the city's average of 12.8 years. Median
education level figures from 1970-1980 did increase by 6.7%.
Roughly 48% of the population 16 years and older in West
Colfax were employed in 1980 with the majority (76%) employed
in either industry and/or service related occupations.

La Casa (The House)
A. Introduction
This chapter offers some general design concepts that
are further described in chapter five but are important to
mention as part of the historical overview of the Anciano.
The thrust of this chapter is on the history and struggle of
the Anciano. This information is presented so as to develop
a greater appreciation of the plight of the elderly Hispanic.
When service providers and housing developers create spaces
for elderly living; hopefully, they will consider the
importance of design and develop sensitive living areas to
accommodate Hispanic families and their extended family needs.
To give the reader a better understanding of the
Anciano and to put the issue of housing need into perspective,
it is first important to lay out the history of the Hispanic
elderly. Detailed empirical data included in this chapter was
gathered at the Regional Multi-Cultural Conference for
Hispanics and Elderly Minorities sponsored by the Colorado
Anciano Association. The purpose of gathering this data was
to enhance the knowledge of general characteristics of
Ancianos and their living arrangements. This data will serve
as a guide for tailoring housing to meet the specific needs
of Ancianos. The importance of the house to the Anciano is
the same as it is for Frank Lloyd Wright when he writes:

The house is sanctified, in whole or part, by
a cosmological symbolism or ritual. This is
why somewhere building a village or merely
a house represents a serious decision, for
the very existence of man is involved; he must
in that, create his own world and assume the
responsibility of maintaining and renewing
it. "18
Frank Lloyd Wright further states that the way of achieving
mans admittance to his surrounding is through the use of
architectural form and space.
"Dwelling primarily consists in the
appropriation of a world of things, not in a
material sense, but as an ability to interpret
the meaning the things gather." The
architectural means which are employed to make
mans being-in-the-world an accomplished fact,
are in general embodiment and admittance, or,
in architectural terms, built form and
organized space."19
Although some Ancianos will be living in units not
homes, space for living is still extremely important. The
18Frank Lloyd Wright, The Natural House, New York:
Horizon Press, 1954.

large extended Ancianos family members often visit and stay
over night, socialization with friends, dining area and
recreation are all features to be considered in designing
appropriate living space. What are the activities of spaces?
What are the moods? What is the relationship of the
contrasting moods? What spaces are most relevant to which
member of the family? For example, the child is interested
in his/her room, the dining area, and the television area.
Because of the differentiated functions of daily life,
the paths and goals of the house produce more complex patterns
than those of the public building. "The courtyard, the hall,
the passage, and the veranda are distinct figures which
transform the domestic space into a place where life may take
place. Private dwelling, thus, does not consist in a
withdrawal into a formless nowhere, but demands a defined and
imageable stage."20
B. History of Hispanic Elderly
As documented in the Report of Nuestros Ancianos21, the
history of the Hispanic in the Southwest can be traced into
the time when Mayan and Aztec culture flourished. If one were
to travel through the region's many rural and urban
20Christian Norberg-Schulz, The Concept of Dwelling, New
York: Rizzoli, 1985.
21Del Castillo, Ramon. Nuestro Ancianos A Statistical
Report of the Regional Multi-Cultural Conference for Hispanics
and Elderly Minorities. Denver, Colorado. 1984. pp. 5-8.

communities, one would feel the cultural influence which
permeates them. Probably two historical facts have changed
the course of history for the Hispanic as it relates to
control over his destiny the Conquest and the
Mexican-American War of 1848.
The Conquest, if it can really be called that, brought
with it the concept of acculturation, the process which we
struggle with today. It meant the loss of a land and a
culture so beautiful that the Spanish Conquistadors could not
comprehend its significance and value. Out of fear and greed,
they destroyed it. This psychological catastrophe still
remains in the subconscious of our people and will probably
remain there forever.
The Mexican-American War of 1848, per se, did not
necessarily tarnish the dreams of our people, but its
ramifications were overt and devastating. It meant the loss
of the Southwest to the United States of America. Although
the subsequent development of the Treaty of Guadalupe
supposedly guaranteed the human rights of the Hispanic, in
reality, it forfeited the land to a country intent on
practicing Imperialism. It left the Hispanic a "Stranger" in
His Own Land.22
22Del Castillo, Ramon. Nuestro Ancianos A Statistical
Report of the Regional Multi-Cultural Conference for Hispanics
and Elderly Minorities. Denver, Colorado. 1984. pp. 5-8.

As a result of the aforementioned facts, immigration
became a significant issue in America. It was, in actuality,
psychological in nature. Immigration, which took place
between 1900 and 1930, was an important factor because those
who migrated into the Southwest are today1s Ancianos.23 No
one knows precisely how many Mexican immigrants came to the
United States between those years. It is estimated that the
number was in excess of 1,000,000.24 Of interest, is the idea
that Mexican labor was of paramount value to the construction
of economic development in the Southwest.25.
The Hispanic elderly were the builders of the
Southwest. Their labor has been a vital force in several
economic endeavors: railroads, packing houses, and aircraft
plants. They labored in the fields picking the crops which
were sent to big industries for canning and sale in America's
vast markets. These contract laborers suffered inhumane
treatment at the expense of human dignity and cultural
genocide. Their place on the social ladder of economics has
always been on the lower echelons. Many were never able to
build security for retirement.
23Servin, Manual P. The Mexican-American: An Awakening
Minority. Glencoe Press, A Division of McMillan Company.

The paradox is that while Mexican immigrant labor
built the Southwest, they suffered from abject poverty, racial
discrimination, and the worst forms of cultural denigration.
Many of today's Hispanic elderly face historical oppressive
forces which have kept them from interacting with society on
an equal basis. These forces have been fundamental causes
which have restricted their growth on a social, economic, and
political level. Our Ancianos are the products of
industrialization, immigration, the bracero program, the Zoot
Suit Riots, World War I and II, and the Korean Conflict. They
endured overt and covert forms of institutionalized racism,
intense educational discrimination, and prejudicial attitudes
which still exist today. These historical forces have been
the barriers which have caused fear, anger, suspicion, and
long-term deprivation yet to be resolved.26
Related to this perpetual state of powerlessness are
health problems, transportation issues, and mental health
stress. Furthermore, housing is now in the forefront of
Anciano concerns. Today Ancianos are plagued with yet another
set of issues created by technological advancement which
remains alien to them.
26Servin, Manual P. The Mexican-American: An Awakening
Minority. Glencoe Press, A Division of McMillan Company.

survived poor health conditions and have suffered from
extremely difficult working conditions which has caused their
aging to accelerate.27 For this reason the term elderly is
defined by Anciano service providers as age 55 and older
instead of the traditional 60-65 age. Therefore, one can
argue the need for financial benefits to begin at an earlier
age for the Ancianos.
Educational attainment does not begin to compare with
Anglo Americans. According to Smith, five out of eight
Hispanics might be considered functionally illiterate. This
low educational level, along with other factors, has
contributed to their lower paid job status.28 Although these
serious concerns exist, Hispanics hold very strong family
values and work ethics. The Ancianos have a lot of pride,
dignity, and respect for their culture and language because
of their struggles in society.
C. Demographics/Housing Data and Conclusions
The following is a summary of comparative survey
responses of conference participants from the Denver area and
those outside the Denver area. The survey consists of
questions regarding ethnicity, sex, age, marital status,
income, number in household and housing status. Also, the
27Smith, Bert Kruger. Aging in America. Beacon Press.
28Kuhlen, Ramond G. New York: Appleton Crafts. 1952.

combined total is depicted in each table. Table 2 through 12
data were gathered from the Regional Multi-Cultural Conference
for Hispanics and Elderly Minorities, Denver, Colorado,
The Colorado Anciano Association serves all elderly
with particular emphasis on the Hispanic elderly. This is
reflected in the ethnic breakdown of the individuals who
participated in the conference. Over one-half (55.5%) of the
participants came from Denver and 44.5% came from out of
Denver with an equal balance of men and women.
Table 2 below indicates that 84.5% of the respondents
were Hispanic, 9% were Anglo, 4.5% were Native American and
2% were Black. Although a survey category of "Black" was not
provided, one individual disclosed their ethnic background,
thus this category was included. There were no responses to
categories Asia American and Other.
29Reqional Multi-Cultural Conference for Hispanics and
Elderly Minorities, Denver, Colorado, 1984.

Hispanic 21 84% 17 85% 38 84.5%
Anglo 2 8% 2 10% 4 9.0%
Native American 1 4% 1 5% 2 4.5%
Black 1 4% 0 0% 1 2.0%
Asian American 0 0% 0 0% 0 0.0%
Other 0 0% 0 0% 0 00%
25 100% 20 100% 45 100%
The statistics in Tables 3 and 4 referring to sex and
age indicate that nearly two-thirds of the respondents were
female and one third were male. In general, the men were
older than the women with the total age ranging from 47-85
years. A total of four respondents were below the age of 55.
SEX: 1984
SEX # % # % # %
Female 17 68% 13 65% 30 66.7%
Male 8 32% 7 35% 15 33.3%
25 100% 20 100% 45 100%

MEAN AGE: 1984
58.05 63.4 60.7
68.1 66.2 67.1
Table 5 below shows 49% of the respondents were
married and 29% widowed. The remaining 22% were either single
or divorced. When combining widowed with single and divorced,
assuming the absence of mingling, the data reveal a
significantly high number of loners.
Widow(er) 5 20%
Married 11 44%
Single 4 16%
Divorced 5 20%
25 100%
# % # %

8 40% 13 29%
11 55% 22 49%
0 0% 4 9%
1 5% 6 13%
20 100% 45 100%
The survey results indicate that nearly 44% of the
respondents were living on $201 $400 per month (Table 6).
A shocking 20% live on less than $200 per month. The annual
range of $0 to $4,800 put these individuals extremely below

poverty levels. Only 7% received $601-$800 dollars per month
with another 7% having incomes beyond $800.
As shown in Table 7, 80% of the respondents live on
various fixed incomes. The primary source of income, as
indicated in Table 8, was Social Security, followed by some
type of pension and/or a combination of Social Security and
pension. Of those responding, 9% were employed, with an equal
percent receiving employment disability and welfare combined.
Respondents were living on savings alone were 4%.
0-200 4 16% 5 25% 9 20%
201-400 13 52% 7 35% 20 44%
401-600 7 28% 3 15% 10 22%
601-800 0 0% 3 15% 3 7%
800+ 1 4% 2 10% 3 7%
25 100% 20 100% 45 100%
Yes 21 84% 15 75% 36 80%
No 4 16% 5 25% 9 20%
25 100% 20 100% 45 100%

SOURCE OF INCOME Soc Security DENVER # % 13 52% OUT # 4 OF DENVER % # 20% 17 TOTAL % 37.8%
Pension 4 16% 4 20% 8 17.8%
Welfare 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Employ/Disab 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Employed 3 12% 1 5% 4 9%
CompDis&SocSec 1 4% 0 0% 1 2.2%
Emp Dis&Welfare 1 4% 0 0% 1 2.2%
SSI & Pension 2 8% 1 5% 4 9%
Other 1 25 4% 100%
S.S. & Welfare 1 5% 1 2.2%
Soc. & Pension 6 30% 6 13.2%
Savings 2 10% 2 4.4%
20 100% 45 100%
Ancianos either living alone or with one other
individual constituted 58%, while 31% live with three or four
individuals in the household (Table 9). Less than 12% have
five to six in the household. Ancianos owning their own home
were 58%, with 28% living in apartments or some other form of
rental unit, and 15% live in elderly housing units. A small
percent (6%) live in public housing projects (Table 10). A

large percent (46.7%) live alone (Table 11). Most Ancianos
live in one or two bedroom units and/or homes with 17.7%
living in three bedroom facilities, as shown in Table 12.
NUMBER # % # % # %
1-2 19 76% 7 35% 26 58%
3-4 5 20% 9 45% 14 31%
VO 1 in 1 4% 4 20% 5 11%
7-8 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
8+ 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
25 100% 20 100% 451 100%
OCCUPANCY # % # % # %
Own 11 44% 12 60% 23 51%
Rent 3 12% 3 15% 6 14%
Apartment 4 16% 2 10% 6 14%
Elderly Housing 4 16% 3 15% 7 15%
Nursing Home 0 0% 0 0% 0 0%
Proj(PublicHsg) 3 12% 0 0% 3 6%
25 100% 20 100% 45 100%

Live alone 11 44% 10 50% 21 46.7%
Live w/spouse & family 7 28% 6 30% 13 28.9%
Live w/friends 1 4% 1 5% 2 4.4%
Live w/family only 4 16% 1 5% 5 11.1%
Live w/spouse only 2 8% 1 5% 1 2.2%
Other 0 0% 1 5% 3 6.7%
25 100% 20 100% 45 100%
S 12
0 2 8% 0 0% 2 4.4%
1 3 12% 4 20% 7 15.5%
2 13 52% 8 40% 21 47%
3 2 8% 5 25% 8 17.7%
4 2 8% 3 15% 5 11%
5 2 8% 0 0% 2 4.4%
25 100% 20 100% 45 100%
The results from this informal survey can provide a
"profile" of Ancianos in the Denver area. The information

gathered from the conference participants indicate strong home
ownership. A significant 46.7% of Ancianos living alone
indicates possible social isolation and lack of mainstream
Extremely low-income levels depict severe poverty.
While owning your own home is often times an indicator of
self-sufficiency, the ability to maintain and improve housing
conditions is a deterrent because of financial constraints
living on fixed incomes. These conditions combined with
living expenses may put the Anciano at a crossroad, either
they continue living with these constraints and poor living
conditions or they explore housing alternatives.
Developing an Anciano housing village would be a
viable option that can provide for a more productive
environment different than living alone in continued social
isolation. The fact that elderly can still work and
contribute in a self-help way, if offsetting measures for
housing financing were provided, strengthens the idea of
developing a housing alternative like the Anciano village
The notion of selling and reinvesting into a socially
and culturally active environment supported by access to
services and transportation becomes more real when a
comprehensive housing approach and housing alternative are
made available. The last conclusion that can be made

regarding the housing needs of the respondents is that while
46.7% do live alone, 28.9% live with spouse and family which
leads one to believe that if housing diversity were an option
the "familia concept" (family concept) can be applied. Family
members can purchase homes near or with Ancianos if
appropriate units are built. The following chapter on site
development potentials and housing options offers housing
design alternatives that may meet the needs described above.

Site Analysis
A. Overview
Two sites were analyzed for suitability and fitness
for the purpose of creating a small community for elderly
living. Both sites are described in this chapter in regard
to their topography and design features, access to the site
and utilities, and site proximity to services. The sites are
located at 1201 Vrain Street and 1200 Xavier Street. They are
somewhat unique in character because of their locations.
The neighborhood and surrounding community has changed
since 1970. It offers a stronger Hispanic population, better
service access, and new open space development. In 1984, a
neighborhood plan was developed for the area which encompasses
both sites. There was no community opposition to the concept
of developing housing at these locations if sensitive design
approaches were used.
Lawton and Hoffman (1984) observed that "community
response to the announcement of plans to construct elderly
housing in the neighborhood is frequently hostile, sometimes
to the point of local group1s taking legal action to bar the
construction.30 Whereas Regnier (1983) has claimed that, in
30Lawton, M. P., and Hoffman, C. "Neighborhood Reactions
to Elderly Housing." Journal of Housing for the Elderly.
1984. pp. 41-53.

contrast with low-income family housing, elderly projects have
not met strong community resistance.31
The words "site" and "locality" should convey the same
sense that the word "person" does: complexity so closely knit
as to have a distinct character, worthy of interest, concern,
and often of affection. These interrelationships and this
essential character must be understood by the site designer.
Understanding will indicate the practical limitations imposed
on him/her, as well as the damage that he/she may inflict by
careless interference.
More importantly, it will reveal the hidden
potentialities of the place, the points where design can
clarify its character, build new connections or develop deeper
meanings.32 Both sites are located on a greenbelt south of
12th Avenue which runs from Sheridan Boulevard east to Federal
Boulevard. This feature makes the patio homes attractive to
families, especially those with younger children and elderly
A public playground will be located along the
greenbelt as well as a bike-pedestrian path and special water
features. The park will appeal to the elderly and families
who are the target market for the condominiums and patio
31Regnier, V., and Pynoos, Jon. Housing and Environment.
Monterey, California. 1983.
32Lynch, Kevin, Site Planning, Massachusetts Institute of
Technology. 2nd ed. 1971. p. 10.

homes. Southern exposure will lend itself to a unique and
economical design for both the patio homes and the
condominiums. Because sunny interiors sell homes, passive
solar design should be incorporated in both products and
marketed. Surveys have shown that all buyers, and especially
the elderly are interested in heating efficiency.33 The sites
offer convenient access to the downtown Denver area, services
and amenities. This aspect should make the homes desirable
to professionals and their families as well as the Ancianos.
B. Topography and Design Features
The sites' proximity to the Lakewood Dry Gulch creates
excellent views of Downtown Denver and the Rocky Mountains.
The topographic surface and the boundary between earth and
air, adds to the riches in living things.34 With this
knowledge at hand the architect-designer must have great
clarity of the land formation and features to capture the
project's essence. In this case, the topography determines
the plan. It has particular implications for site
development. Understanding the relationships between the
physical surroundings and domestic living will offer guidance
on design decisions that can positively impact the type of
housing to be made available for the elderly. Victor Regnier
33HOH Associates, Market and Housing Programs for Saint
Enterprises, Inc., 1985.
34Lynch, Kevin. Site Planning. Massachusetts Institute
of Technology Press. 2nd ed. 1971. p. 14.

and Jon Pynoos (1987) clearly state that, "housing the aged
is a smashing success in terms of organization of
presentation, significance of content, and translation of
research for practitioners who make decisions concerning
living arrangements for older adults."35
Slopes can be classified according to their potential
use: the flat ground usable for intensive activity; the easy
grades suitable for movement and informal activity; and the
steep land, difficult to use or to move over. When this site
is developed, topography views and design features must be
further analyzed. The goal is to create an integrity of
meaning through the action of building as stated by Eliade
Mircen. Eliade elaborates further on how to combine concepts
of built form with feeling. Concepts or ideas of design are
often platitudes and sophisms painfully and idiotically
simple. Critical thinking is easier because you can look at
art over and over without boredom and it brings more meaning
than it physically represents; knowledge and feeling of the
world is shared. How do you find form adequate to feeling?
The home is where you meet others, where you trade
feelings and exchange ideas, where you experience life:
"Naturally should you want to really live in a way and in a
place which is true to this deeper thing in you, which you
35Regnier, V., and Pynoos, Jon. Housing and Environment.
Monterey, California. 1987.

honor, the house you build to live in as a home should be (so
far as it is possible to make it so) integral in every sense.
Integral to site, to purpose, and to you. The house would then
be a home in the best sense of the word. This we seem to have
forgotten if we ever learned it. Houses have become a series
of anonymous boxes that go into a row on row upon row of
bigger boxes either merely negative or a mass nuisance. But
now the house in this interior or deeper organic sense may
come alive as organic architecture.1,36
C. Access and Utilities
Before any property can be offered for sale, there
must be a major investment in the infrastructure. The
infrastructure includes all essential facilities such as
water, sewers, streets and highways, public utilities,
schools, libraries, parks, police and fire services and many
other facilities related to the protection of health, safety,
and general welfare.37
Access to the sites is of extreme importance yet road
construction is extremely expensive. Access to the north,
west and east is available from west 13th and 14th Avenues and
Sheridan Boulevard. The only undeveloped street is Wells
Place along the southern boundary of the sites. With the
36Mircen Eliade, The Sacred and Profane, New York:
Harcourt Brace, 1959.
37Gallion, Arthur, B., and Eisner, Simon, The Urban
Pattern, Lilton Educational Publishing, Inc., 1980 / P- 350.

exception of Wells Place all major transportation routes can
be easily accessed.
The Regional Transportation District has proposed an
east-west guideway connection to run alongside the Lakewood
Dry Gulch. This will be an important amenity which can
increase access and also open up economic development
opportunities. During the interim, the Associate Railroad
line is used for a delightful trolley.
Utility powerlines are located near the site as are
drainage and flood controls. Future plans of Public Service
Company of Colorado do not call for burying these power lines.
The prevalent ugliness of much of our utilities pushes us
toward undergrounding where possible. The site at 1200 Xavier
must be carefully constructed not to penetrate the flood plain
which runs along side the greenbelt. There are various design
options that can be adhered to that would eliminate any
development disadvantages. These housing design alternatives
are graphically displayed in Chapter 6 of this document.
D. Site Proximity to Services
The proposed project will be located within close
proximity to support services. Easy access is available by
bus, walking and more recently by "trolley." Future
transportation services for the area are being discussed by
the Regional Transportation District (RTD). The current
transit proposal calls for installing a fixed guideway system

along the Lakewood gulch (greenbelt) existing railroad
right-of-way. This right-of-way is located adjacent (south)
of the proposed project site.
The map on next page shows a more graphic depiction of
the proposed sites for the Anciano village. The strongest
feature tying both sites together is the abutting greenbelt.
The land uses surrounding both sites to the north are
primarily single family homes with two multi-units near by.
If several strong design features were built along the edges
of the proposed sites it would link not just the sites but the
other amenities along the Gulch.
Within a two block walking radius to the north along
Vrain Street and along 14th Avenue there are several
transportation and pedestrian corridors leading to major
shopping areas and leisure getaways. Hospitals are located
within a one mile radius as are health services to the north
and to the east of the sites. The Mulroy Senior Center is less
than a mile east of the sites. The center offers a multitude
of recreational and social activities for the elderly.

0 250* 500

Site Development Potential and Housing Programs
A. Introduction
The need for special needs housing exists in Denver, in
particular on the Westside based upon arguments presented
earlier. Existing land uses and proposed site development
should be taken seriously enough to capture the essence of the
community and its socio-economic benefits. A beautiful
housing vision can be created and attained through integration
of the natural environmental features and creative planning
and design. The chapter that follows appraises both sites,
analyzes the market potential and housing programs and
summarizes their financial feasibility.
B. Appraisals
1. Introduction
Appraisals were done for the properties located
at 1201 Vrain Street and 1200 Xavier for the purpose
of this study. Engleberg Associates, Inc., Denver,
Colorado, provided the following inspections:
The subject properties are located in West
Denver. This is an older well developed area, with a
mixture of single-family and multi-family residences.
There are a few scattered vacant sites in the area.
Homes in this area show visible signs of good exterior
maintenance. The subject area is located five miles

west of the Central Business District. West Colfax
Avenue, a major east-west through street is located
three blocks north of the subject site. West 6th
Avenue, another major east-west through street is
located six blocks south of the subject site. Public
transportation is available along Sheridan Boulevard
and West Colfax. During the past several years, some
new construction has taken place in the area, and has
been well received by the community. Utility
availability is sufficient to handle new homes in the
The parcel located at 1201 Vrain Street is
approximately two acres. The parcel is bounded by 13th
Avenue on the north, the Lakewood Gulch on the south,
the alley between Vrain and Utica on the east, and
Winona on the west. Single-family units surround the
property on the north, east, and west sides with the
exception of a multi-family unit located on the
northeastern property line. It is zoned R-2 and has
the potential to accommodate 29 single-family units.
Its estimated value is $400,925. (See map on next
These homes would be marketed to families of
Ancianos wishing to live near by their parent(s). The
units can also accommodate a family whose desire would

be to have their parent (s) live with them in an
assisted living situation. Assisted living should not
be interpreted as the elderly in need but in fact the
reverse. Growing evidence has suggested that many
older individuals have been thrust back into a
parenting role to help children cope with life
stresses.38 In the past decade, researchers have all
but ignored the role of aging parents as family
resources who enhance rather than detract from family
life.39 The tendency instead has been to view the
elderly from a deficit model of behavior, a trend that
has contributed to the emergence of a modern myth that
views aging parents as burdens to their adult
The parcel located at 1200 Xavier is
approximately 41,533 square feet. It is bounded by
single family and multi-family units on the north and
the west sides. The east boundary is adjacent to
vacant land and the south boundary abuts the Lakewood
Dry Gulch. It is zoned R-2-A and has the potential to
accommodate 23 units. Its estimated value is
38Aldous, J. "Family Life of the Elderly and Near
Elderly." Journal of Marriage and the Family 49 (1987), 227-
39Hagestad, G. O. "Able Elderly in the Family Context:
Changes and Challenges." The Gerontologist 27 (1987), 417-

$300,000. (See map on next page.) These units would
be located within a condominium structure and be
marketed to Ancianos.
Financing would be done by use of eguity earned
from the sale of the Ancianos' home. For those who
are not homeowners, their tenancy can be offset by
support offered from corporations sponsoring an
Anciano housing unit.
Arthur E. Gimmy states, "Government financing for
elderly facilities has all but dried up and
conventional financing is frequently difficult to
arrange. But there are hundreds of private full care
facilities making profits, why not independent care
or partial care facilities? The demand is there, and
growing at a rapid rate. All of the elderly are not
indigent and the needs of the elderly indicate that
they can spend a greater proportion of their income on
housing than can the general population."40 Creative
private financing mechanisms are discussed in the
latter part of this chapter.
C. Market Potential and Housing Programs
The market potential and housing programs are based on
specific analysis of the two sites that were appraised. The
40Arthur E. Gimmy, Elderly Housing: A Guide To Appraisal,
Market Analysis, Development and Financing, Chicago, Illinois,
1988, p. 77.


following market and housing programs were prepared by HOH
Associates which reveal the projects potential. Comparable
housing unit sale prices may fluctuate based on the economy,
but for the most part will probably remain within the price
1. Comparables
Comparable resales of single family homes near the
subject property show that square footage prices of $70
to $80 are reasonable for new product, especially if one
considers the age of the resale units.
Address Sales Price Sq. Ft. Bed/Bath $/Sa.Ft. Age
1325 Utica $69,000 1,200 2/2 57.50 1941
1551 Utica $61,359 900 2/1 76.70 1941
1371 Utica $74,900 1,100 2/2 68.09 1941
Townhome and condominiums resales within the study
area show that square footage prices ranging between $80
and $90 are reasonable for a new product located on a
Address Sales Price Sa.Ft. Bed/Bath $/Sq.Ft. Age
Plaza del Lago One bedroom
#100 $53,842 538 1/1 100.08 1982
#317 $46,765 508 1/1 92.06 1982
#215 $58,671 746 1/1 78.65 1982
Plaza del Lago Two Bedroom
#211 $73,350 906 2/2 80.96 1982
#220 $63,900 788 2/1 81 .09 1982
#201 $65,912 788 2/1 83.65 1982

Patio Homes
Twenty-nine single-family units would be built to
accommodate families wishing to live near their parents
and/or families wanting to have their elderly parents
live with them. Figure 4 depicts the patio homes as
configured on the site. Figure 5 illustrates a parcel
map detail of how the homes would be situated on the
vacant land.
Figures 6, 7, 8, and 9 display two housing
renderings that may accommodate the family whose elderly
parents live with them. Both designs offer three (3)
bedrooms, multi-bath, den, and library or family room.
Each design is of Spanish architecture, which makes a
character statement to add to the neighborhoods changing
ethnic character. Each rendering has a single-level
floor plan for easy handicapped access and circulation.
Figures 10, 11, 12, and 13 are smaller, single-
level housing types to accommodate married elderly
couples whose choice would be to relocate near family
members who move into the village. Financing of these
units is described in the last section of this chapter.
These units can also accommodate a family who choose to
to live near an Anciano who purchases a condominium in
the village. Condominium designs are described in this

LA ROCK A!.:Jjt-T.Vi Uii

I 'I


3 bedroom, 2Vi bath, den!library
Artist > LJicertU'*

3 bedroom, 2Vi bath, den!library


. . FIGURE 9 _ *
3 bedroom, 2 bath, den, family room

2 bedroom, 2 bath, ingrf

St. Tfopez
2 bedroom, 2 bath, inglenook


2 bedroom, 2 bath, den/retreat
Artm'i lia*

2 bedroom. 2 bath. *

Total Units:
Average Lot Size:
Unit Style:
Unit Mix:
Price Range:
CascadesPatio Homes
1201 Vrain Street
3,000 sq. ft.
Single-family detached, patio
10-2 bedroom, 2 bath, 1,000 sq
ft. finished
19-3 bedroom, 3 bath, 1,300
sq. ft. finished
Unit Size:
1,000 square feet
1,300 square feet
Price Per Sq. Ft.: $75.08 to $84.40
NOTE: Housing prototypes prepared by La Rock
Target Market:
Age Range: 70% 25 to 45 and 30% 55 and over
Marital Status: 90% Married and 10% Single
Children: 70% will have children. Generally,
one or two children will be under ten
years of age.
Occupation: 50% White Collar and 50% Blue Collar
Location of Work: 50% central and West Denver
metropolitan area and 50% CBD.
Average Household Income: $30,000 to $45,000 per

Figures 14 and 15 depict a housing rendering of a
multi-unit condominium with a parcel map sketch of where
the building would be located. These units are located
just two blocks west of the patio home site. The
Lakewood Gulch ties them both together along the south
end of both properties. Figures 16 and 17 show a
single-level floor plan in a three-story building. The
units vary from one bedroom, two bedroom one bath and
two bedroom two bath units. Each unit is handicapped
accessible. The lower level offers communal,
recreational, and leisure space,
a. Project:
Name: Cascades Condominiums
Location: 1200 Xavier Street
Total Units: 23
Unit Mix: 7-1 bedroom
8-2 bedroom, 1 bath
8-2 bedroom, 2 bath
Unit Style: Condominiums
Price Range: $55,000
Unit Size: 650 sguare feet
750 square feet



p ^ A r* a crAHPQ 1 i m .iin
wMO wM U L- w A CONDOMINIUM COMMUNITY 1 1 1 m*4r mji
1 sssrs. not WOUM fTHfCT DtNVfA. COUOfcAOO 1


850 square feet
Price per Sq. Ft.: $81.76 to $84.40
b. Target Market:
Age Range: 55 and over
Marital Status: 30% Married and 70% Single
(including divorcees)
Occupation: retired
Average Household Income: $10,000 to $20,000 per
Previous Residence: The majority of persons will
be relocating from single family homes.
4. Conclusions
HOH Associates recommends:
o Patio homes are priced between $82,500 and
$96,200. These prices can rise if the interest
rate is subsidized. HOH Associates estimates
these homes should sell at an average pace of
three units per month.
o Condominiums priced from the mid-$50's for a
one-bedroom unit to just under $70,000 for a
large, two bedroom, two-bath unit. The market for
these units would be elderly persons seeking lower
maintenance and more secure home. Again, these
prices can be higher providing the interest rates
are subsidized. Absorption for condominiums is
estimated to range from three to four sales per
month. Greater market research on each point

covered would be to the implementors benefit when
the actual product is developed.
D. Financing Mechanisms for Project Development
Various types of funding resources can be used to help
implement the Anciano Village. For example: The City of
Denver has dedicated over fifty million dollars of federal
Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) funds to help
stabilize the city's older neighborhoods. This stabilization
effort is designed to improve the housing and provide special
services to assist low-moderate income people faced with
various housing related problems.
The Denver Housing Initiatives (DHI) is a process set
up to allow developers to apply for housing development funds
from four separate entities by using one application. All
projects accessing the DHI process must meet the requirements
of each funding source that chooses to fund a project. Funds
can be used for land acquisition and new construction among
other uses. The interest rates are below market rate and the
loan terms are tailored to meet the needs of the project.
Projects that are designed to meet the needs of a special
population such as the Ancianos are given special
consideration. The DHI process appears to be a possible
source of funding for acquisition of both parcels of land and
construction financing.

Beyond the city assisted programs there are various
other ways to make a project like this work. Some of these
approaches are more creative than others. The notion of tax
benefit sale was explored with the current owner of both
parcels. This approach basically gives the owner the ability
to deduct from taxes the difference between the land costs and
the market price. An actual contract for this type of
transaction was prepared for signature by the Anciano
Association and St. Enterprise (property owner). The deal was
never consummated because the seller had mixed reservations
about his tax benefit. As the DHI process and tax benefit
sale were being explored, several corporations were asked to
become partners in this endeavor.
The Coors Corporation and U.S. West offered financial
support to help the Anciano Association to better position
itself for requesting funds from the City, Piton Foundation,
the Colorado Housing Finance Authority and the Colorado
Division of Housing. Both Coors and U.S. West began
roundtable discussions about the possibility of adopting an
Anciano vis a vis purchasing a condo as a long term investment
and to help offset development costs. This mechanism would
serve to promote the corporation and help the Anciano.
The last option relative to project development and
lower land cost centers around the idea of increasing the
density by adding five units. This alternative would require

a rezoning of the R-2 land to a possible Planned Building
Group or Planned United Development and would increase
After having a think tank regarding the options for
financing, with the Technical Resource Team and project
consultants (See appendix for list of consultants), it was
determined that any one of the aforementioned programs and
resources could be used along with fast tracking the review
process to realize cost savings. There are many other
possibilities for project construction, site acguisition and
financing but the most realistic and achievable way for the
Anciano Village to be built is to use one of the options
described in this section. An example of a housing proforma
can be found in the appendix.

Summary and Conclusions
A. Summary
There was a considerable amount of research and
technical evaluation done as part of this study. Chapter one
defined the purpose of this study, which investigated the
development of housing for the Hispanic elderly (Ancianos).
Statistics about elderly Hispanics were put forth as rationale
for the study and do support the need to develop housing
alternatives for the Ancianos.
Chapter two described the method in which the data on
socioeconomic characteristics were gathered. The instrument
used to collect the data about the Ancianos was a
questionnaire. The questionnaire, given to participants of
the Regional Multi-Cultural Conference for Hispanics and
Elderly Minorities in 1984, gave very valuable information
about the characteristics of the Anciano requiring affordable
housing opportunities. These characteristics can be used as
background in developing housing alternatives for this
subgroup of the aged.
Chapter three described a demographic profile of a
Denver neighborhood and its history as a place where a housing
development could be constructed. A description of the two
unique sites was discussed as having strong potential for
meeting the housing characteristics described by the Ancianos

in the questionnaires. The location of this neighborhood and
the sites' proximity to services proved to be ideal areas for
housing construction for this population.
Chapter four defined in detail the history of Ancianos,
their plight and struggle as builders of the Southwestern
United States. This insight into the lives of the Ancianos
described the unique cultural and political aspects of this
group; knowing these aspects will provide individuals with a
greater understanding and sensitivity toward building suitable
housing for Ancianos. This chapter also described the results
of the data collected at the regional conference, summarized
participant responses to questions regarding ethnicity, sex,
age, marital status, income, household, and housing status.
These statistics, provided from the survey, are certainly
valuable when making assumptions about Anciano housing needs
for future studies.
Chapter five described the two sites' strengths and
weaknesses, that is, their proximity to services, the
infrastructure, unique topography and natural design features.
A market housing analysis was done to describe the potential
for construction, for the sale of condominiums and single
family units in the area where the two sites are located.
Given the tough economic situation Ancianos are often forced
to face, and knowing the difficulties of housing maintenance,

two alternatives were devised: living in condominium units
and/or living in single family units with family members.
These housing alternatives for the Ancianos would call
on support from public sector financing to help offset
development cost and lower the sale price. The other
financing alternative is to secure support from the private
sector corporations, which was described earlier in chapter
five. These two financing options, along with the sale of
homes owned by Ancianos, would offer a strong incentive for
the Ancianos to relocate, especially if they were able to live
near a friend or family member who shared similar cultural,
language, and historic values.
B. Conclusions
The purpose of the study was to explore the potential
for constructing a housing village for Hispanic elderly. It
also analyzed the site development and financial feasibility
of project implementation. The study enhanced the
understanding of the Ancianos' background and housing
characteristics critical to the creation of alternative forms
of affordable housing. The demographic profile and
neighborhood physical conditions offered insight into housing
and population compatibility. This study gave clarity on
socioeconomic issues as well as cultural values and history
of the Hispanic elderly. The site analysis described the
potential for developing housing on the two proposed

locations, providing that architectural sensitivity to design
and building placement are taken into consideration.
The market and site appraisals proved to be
implementable because the proposed development would
compliment the existing neighborhood's diversity. Financing
the project and coordinating private and public sector support
is highly achievable. Developing housing for this unigue
population of elderly is very realistic given the data and
information provided in this study. It is conceivable that
the housing village concept of living near family members or
of living near people with similar lifestyles is a reasonable
alternative to offer the Anciano. This housing village can
be a place to share culture, language, respect, pride, and
This study was designed to address the housing needs of
Ancianos living in Denver. Characteristics of Ancianos living
in other parts of Colorado or in the Southwest may be similar,
therefore, parts of this study may be applicable. Further
research might include an indepth survey to determine the
desire of Ancianos to relocate and a study on housing design
specific to their needs, i.e., wheelchair accessible.
Overall, the study raised interesting questions regarding the
comprehensive housing needs of the elderly Hispanic.

A Portrait of Older Minorities. Washington, D.C.: American
Association of Retired Persons. 1986.
A Profile of Older Americans. Washington, D.C.: American
Association of Retired Persons. 1985a.
"Able Elderly in the Family Context: Changes, Chances and
Challenges." The Gerontologist. Vol. 28. No. 6. 1987.
pp. 417-422.
Aldous, J. "Family Life of the Elderly and Near Elderly."
Journal of Marriage and the Family 49 (1987), 227-234.
Applewhite, S. R. "Hispanic Elderly in Transition: Theory,
Research, Policy and Practice." Social Work 36 (July,
1991) .
Atchley, R. C. Social Forces and Aging: An Introduction to
Social Gerontology. 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth
Publishing. 1985.
Baca-Zinn, M. "Chicano Family Research: Conceptual Distortions
and Alternative Directions." Journal of Ethnic Studies 7
(1979), 59-71.
Bastida, E. (1979). "Family Integration and Adjustment to Aging
Among Hispanic American Elderly." Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, University of Kansas.
Becerra, R. M. and Shaw, D. The Hispanic Elderly: A Research
Reference Guide. Lanham, MD: University Press of
American. 1984.
Bengtson, V. L. "Ethnicity & Aging: Problems in Current Social
Science Inquiry." In Gelfand, D. E. and Kutzik, A. J.,
eds. Ethnicity & Aging: Theory, Research & Policy. New
York: Springer Publishing. 1979.
Bonrestom, N., and Pastalan, L. "The Effects of Relocation on
the Elderly: A Reply to Borup, J. H., Gallegos, D. T., and
Hefferman, P. G." The Gerontologist 21, #1: 4-7.
Brubaker, T. Family Relationships in Later Life. Beverly Hills:
Sage Publications. 1983.
Cicirelli, V. G. Helping Elderly Parents: The Role of Adult
Children. Boston: Auburn House. 1981.

Colorado Congress of Senior Organizations and New Mexico Senior
Coalition. Reaching the Hidden Elderly: A Bi-State
Proposal on Aging. Denver: Health and Human Services on
Aging. 1981.
Colorado Interstate Research Associates. Church Views of the
Mexican-American. New York: Arno Press. 1974.
Cubillos, H. L. The Hispanic Elderly: A Demographic Profile.
Washington, D.C.: National Council of La Raza. 1987.
Del Castillo, Ramon. Nuestro Ancianos A Statistical Report of
the Regional Multi-Cultural Conference for Hispanics and
Elderly Minorities. Denver, Colorado. 1984. pp. 5-8.
Delgado, M., and Finley, G. E. "The Spanish-speaking Elderly:
A Bibliography." The Gerontologist 18 (1978), 387-394.
Denver, Colorado. Denver Building Department, (1986).
Denver, Colorado. Land Use File, (1983). Denver Planning
Denver, Colorado. Neighborhood Classifications Report, (1984).
Denver Planning Office.
Denver, Colorado. Housing Detail Report, (1985). Denver
Planning Office.
Denver, Colorado. West Colfax Neighborhood Plan, (1986).
Denver Planning Office.
"Design Directives and Policy Considerations." The
Gerontologist. Vol. 28. No. 6. 1988. p.849.
Development Associates, Inc. (1983). Projections of the
Hispanic Population in the United States: 1990-2000.
Report submitted to the U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services. Arlington, Virginia.
Dillman, D. A. "Mail and Other Self-administered
Questionnaires." In Rossi, P. H., Wright, J. D., and
Anderson, A. B., eds. Handbook of Survey Research. New
York: Academic Press. 1983.
Dowd, J. J., and Bengtson, V. L. "Aging in Minority
Populations: An Examination of the Double Jeopardy
Hypothesis." Journal of Gerontology 33 (1978), 427-436.

"Elderly Housing: A Guide to Appraisal, Market Analysis,
Development and Financing." The Real Estate Appraiser and
Analyst. 1988. p. 77.
Engleberg Associates, Inc. "Anciano Housing Survey." 1987. p.
Gallion, Arthur B., and Eisner, Simon. The Urban Pattern.
Litton Educational Publishing, Inc. 1980. p. 350.
Gann, L. H., and Duignan, P. J. The Hispanics in the United
States. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 1986.
Gelfand, D. E. Aging: The Ethnic Factor. Boston, MA: Little,
Brown. 1982.
George, L. K., and Bearon, L. B. Quality of Life in Older
Persons. New York: Human Sciences Press. 1980.
Gimmy, Arthur E. Elderly Housing: A Guide to Appraisal, Market
Analysis, Development and Financing. Chicago, Illinois.
Grebler, L. Moore, J., and Guzman, R. The Mexican-American
People, The Nation's Second Largest Minority. New York:
The Free Press. 1970.
Hagestad, G. O. "Able Elderly in the Family Context: Changes
and Challenges." The Gerontologist 27 (1987), 417-422.
Harris, L., and Associates. The Myths and Reality of Aging in
America. Washington, D.C.: The National Council on Aging,
Inc. 1975.
Houser, Gary R. A Minority Outreach Training Manual for the
Colorado Springs1 Black and Hispanic Elderly. Medical Care
and Research Foundation. Denver, Colorado. 1983.
Housing Requirements of the Aged: A Study of Design Criteria.
The Center for Urban Development Research, Cornell
University, Ithaca, New York.
Korte, A. O. (1978). "Social Interaction and Morale of Spanish-
speaking Elderly." Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
University of Denver, Denver, Colorado.
Lacayo, C. G. A National Study to Assess the Service Needs of
the Hispanic Elderly: Final Report. Asociacion Nacional
Pro Personas Mayores, Los Angeles, California. 1980.

Lawton, M. P. "Housing and Living Environments of Older
People." In Binstock, R. H., and Shanas, E., eds.
Handbooks of Aging and The Social Sciences. 2nd ed. New
York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 1985.
Lawton, M. P., and Hoffman, C. "Neighborhood Reactions to
Elderly Housing." Journal of Housing for the Elderly.
1984. pp. 41-53.
Litwak, E. "Extended Kin Relations in an Industrial Democratic
Society." In Shanas, E., and Streib, G. eds., Social
Structures and the Family:_________Generational Relations.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. 1965. pp. 290-320.
Lopez-Aqueres, W., Kemp, B., Plopper, M. Staples, F. R., and
Brummel-Smith, K. "Health Needs of the Hispanic Elderly."
Journal for the American Geriatrics Society 32 (1984), 191-
Lynch, Kevin. Site Planning. Massachusetts Institute of
Technology Press. 2nd ed. 1971. p. 10 and p. 14.
Markides, H. S., and Mindel, C. H. (1987). "Aging and
Ethnicity." Newburg Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Markides K. S., Martin, H. W., and G6mez, E. Older Mexican-
Americans: A study in an urban barrio. The Mexican-
American Monograph Series, Center for Mexican-American
Studies. Austin, TX: The University of Texas Press.
Micren, Eliade. The Sacred and Profane. New York: Harcourt-
Brace. 1959.
Montiel, M. "Chicanos in the United States: An Overview of
Socio-historical Context and Emerging Perspectives." In
Montiel, M., ed., Hispanic Families. Washington, D.C.:
National Coalition of Hispanic Mental Health and Human
Service Organizations. 1978.
Newcomer, R. J., Lawton, M. P., and Byerts, T. O. Housing an
Aging Society: Issues Alternatives, and Policy. New York:
Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. 1986.
Norberg-Schulz, Christian. The Concept of Dwelling. New York:
Rizzoli International Publishing. 1985.
Regnier, V., and Pynoos, Jon. Housing and Environment.
Monterey, California. 1983.

Schaefer, R. Racial and Ethnic Groups. 2nd ed. Boston, MA:
Little, Brown. 1984.
Schulz, J. The Economics of Aging. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth
Publishing. 1976.
Servin, Manual P. The Mexican-American: An Awakening Minority.
Glencoe Press, A Division of McMillan Company. 1970.
Shanas, E. "Older People and Their Families: The New
Pioneers." Journal of Marriage and the Family 42 (1980),
Shanas, E. "The Family as a Social Support System in Old Age."
The Gerontologist 19 (1979), 169-174.
Smith, Bert Kruger. Aging in America. Beacon Press. 1973.
Sotomayor, M. (1973). "A Study of Chicano Grandparents in an
Urban Barrio." Unpublished doctoral dissertation. School
of Social Work, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado.
Sotomayor, M. "Hispanic Elderly: A Cultural Signature." Vol.
36. Social Work 36 (July, 1991).
Struyk, R. J. "The Changing Housing and Neighborhood
Environment of the Elderly." In March Keisler, Morgan and
Oppenheimer, eds., Aging: Social Change. New York:
Academic. 1981.
State of Hispanic America: An Overview. Washington, D.C.:
National Council of La Raza. 1991.
United States. Census of Population. 1980.
United States. Census of Population and Housing. 1990.
United States Department of Health and Human Services. Report
of Black and Minority Health. Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Government Printing Office. 1985.
United States Department of Housing and Urban Development,
Office of Policy Development and Research. Housing
Discrimination Study, Synthesis. 1991.
Valle, R., and Mendoza, L. The Elderly Latino. San Diego, CA:
Center on Aging, California State University at San Diego.

Weber, George (1985). Analysis of the Housing Needs of
Colorado's Low Income and Elderly. University of Colorado
at Denver, Denver, Colorado.
Wright, Frank Lloyd. The Natural House. New York: Horizon
Press. 1954.
Wright, R. Saleeby, D., Watts, T., and Lecca, P. Transcultural
Perspectives in the Human Services: Organizational Issues
and Trends. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. 1983.
Zuniga-Martinez, M. (1979). "Los Ancianos: A study of the
attitudes of Mexican-Americans regarding support of the
elderly." Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Brandeis
University, Waltham, Massachusetts.

Questionnaire Forms English and Spanish
Fiscal Analysis and Feasibility Sample
Consultants/Technical Resource Team

Demographic/Hous i ng Data on the Hispanic Elderly (A.ocianos). 1934 Colorado
Anciano Association. This information will be kept confidentia 1.
1. Name _____________________________ 2. Address_______________.________City ______
3. Telephone Number______________ -. Age______________ 3. s = x _______________
5. Ethnicity Hispanic_______ Anglo________ Native American (Indian)______
Asian American_______ Other (please specify)____________.
6. Marital Status Single_______ Divorced_______ Married_______ Widcw/er______
7. I have lived at this place of residence for _______years (Write In.)
3. I live in one of the following types of housing. Own Home__________ Rent Home___
Apt. Complex ______ Elderly Housing Project_______ Nursing Home_______ Projects
Other (please specify)_______.
3. I live alone________ with spouse and other family________ with friends_______
with family only______ Other (please specify)______.
0. I earn the following amount of money. SQ-2Q0_______ $201-400______ $401-500____
$601-S00_____ More than $300________.
1. I am on fixed income Yes______ No______.
2. I live on the following type of income. Social Security________ Pension________
Welfare______ Employment Disability_______ Social Security Ins._______
Other (please specify)___________.
3. The following number of people live in my place of residence. (1-2)_________
(3-4) (5-6) (7-8) More than 3
I have 1 2 3 4 5 bedrooms in my place of resi-
5. I have my own bedroom Yes_____ No______.
6. I and/or my spouse worked in the labor force for ______years (Please write in).
7. Do you receive good medical care? Good_______ Fair________ Poor______.
3. Do you eat nutritional meals? All the time________ Sometimes______ Never______
K Are you interested in Work? Paid_________ Volunteer______.
). What best describes your feelings about this year's conference. Very Informative
Good_________ No comment_______ Fair______ Poor______.
What other areas of interest would you like more information on? Health_________
Nutrition____ Stress_______ Transportation________ Housing______ Other
Was Transportation a problem? Yes________ No______
!. Are you satisfied with the conference site? Yes_________ No______.

Informacion demografico concerniente a los ^ncianos Hispanos. Associacion
Ancianos de Colorado 1 934. Esta informacion es confidencial no se impartiro
sin su permiso.
1. Nombre 2. Domici1io
3. Numero de Telfono 4. Edad B. Sexo
5. Grupo Etnico Hispano Angl o Americano Nativo (Indio)
Otro(especi fica)
6. Estado Matrimonial Soltero/a________ Divorciado/a_______ Casado/a_____
Vuido/a ______.
7. He radicado en esta domicilio por _______ anos. (Escriba por favor).
3. Radico en uno do los siguentes habitaciones. Propio Hogar__________ Casa de Rento_
Complijo de apartamento______ Proyecto habitacion de Anciano________
Casa de Anciano_____ Proyectos_______ Otra (especifica)______________.
9. Yo vivo solo_______Con Amigos_______ Con esposa/o_______Con familia extendida_
Con familia ______.
10. Mis ganancias son $0-200 mensuales_______ $201-400 mensuales______
4401-600 mensuales ______ $601-800 mensuales _______ Mas de $800 Mensuales ______ .
11. Mis entradas financiaras son fijas. Si________ No_______.
12. Cual es su financiera? Seguro Social_______ Pension________ Assistencia Bienestar
Social (Welfare)____ Disabilitacion de Empleo__________ Seguro Social Aseguransa
(SSI)______. Otra (Especifica)_______.
13. Cuantos personas radican donde vd. vive? (1-2) (3-4) (5-6)
(7-8)______ Mas de 8____.
14. Cuantos recamaras tiene su case.? 1 2______ 3______ 4 5 _____.
15. Tiene Vd. su propio recamara? Si________ No_____.
16. Yo y/o mi esposa/o hemos trabajado por _______ anos. (Escriba por favor).
17. Recibes cargo medico buena? Si_______ No______.
18. Comes bien? Todo el tiempo_______ A Veces_______Nunca_____.
19. Estas interesado en trabajo? Pagado________ Volutario_____

20. Que pienses de la conferencia? Mucho informacion_______ Estaba Bien_______ Nada
buena probablidad de exista_____ Pobre_______.
21. En que, areas intereses le gystaria mas informacion? Salud_______ Nutricion_____
tension____ transportacion________
22. Era transportacion una problema? Si________ No_____.
23. Estas satesfecho con el lugar escohido para la conferencia? Si_______ No________.

Fiscal Analysis and Feasibility Sample
1. Unit Cost Summary
The following unit cost summary was prepared by HOH
Associates and Miller-Ernotsen and Associates, Inc. It is
intended that profits made from the sale of the homes and
condominiums be used to develop phase II of the project via
the Colorado Anciano Association.
a. LAND COST; Patio Homes: $395,000 (R-2)
Condominiums: $295,000 (R-2-A)
Unit A Unit B Unit D Unit E Unit F
SALES PRICE $84,400 $97,600 $55,000 $62,500 $69,500
Sq. Ft./Unit 1,000 1,300 650 750 850
Price per Sq Ft $84.40 $75.08 $84.62 $83.33 $81.76
Improved Lot
Raw Lot Costs $13,621 $13,621 $12,826 $12,826 $12,826
Water & Sewer Taps 3,410 3,410 1,017 1,017 1,017
Unit Infrastructure 4,833 4,833 1,044 1,044 1,044
Offsite Improvements/Lot 4,448 4.448 3,015 3,015 3.015
TOTAL-Improved Lot* $26,312 $26,312 $17,902 $17,902 $17,902
*Lot improvement costs are included in the sales price for all
Direct Construction $35,000 $45,500 $20,800 $24,000 $27,200
(Cost per sq.ft.) 35 35 32 32 32
(See Schedule C.)

Construction $42,200 $48,800 $27,500 $31,250 $34,750
Loan Amount
(50% sales price)
Construction Loan Interest
Patios (12% 6 mos) $ 2,532 $ 2,928
Condos (12% 12 mos) $ 2,475 $ 2,813 $ 3,128
Points (1.0) 4 22 488 275 313 348
Escrow and Title 100 100 100 100 100
FHA Inspection 85 85 85 85 85
Real Estate Taxes 25 25 25 25 25
TOTAL-Closing Costs $ 3,164 $ 3,626 $ 2,960 $ 3,335 $ 3,685
Agent Fee (To be paid by seller) $ 3,818 $ 3,818 $ 3,818 $ 3,818 $ 3,818
(Sched. A)
Homeowner1s Association
(CCSR-Landscaping, Maintenance) $ 130 $ 130 $ 130 $ 130 $ 130
Warranty and Pick-Up-
$ 250 $ 250 $ 250 $ 250 $ 250
G&A Expenses-
(3% sales price) 2,532 2,928 1,650 1 ,875 2,085
TOTAL-Oevelopment $$$ $71,205 $82,563 $47,510 $51,310 $55,070
Estimates Profit/unit $13,195 $15,037 $7,490 $11,190 $14,430
Profit Total Patio Homes: Condominiums: Total:
$417, 645 $257,398 $675,043
Profit as a Percent
of sales Price 15.5% 17.9%

1) Commission (3.0% of sale price) $122,814 $2,362
2) Escrow, Title, etc. 14,500 279
3) Model Complex/Sales Office
a) Furniture ($12.50/sq ft.) 11, 500
b) Built-ins 850
c) Wallpaper (inc., labor) 650'
d) Plants and Misc. 750
e) Signs, Model ID 1,000
f) Miscellaneous 1,500
Subtotal Models 16,250
Less Recovery (45%) -6,250
TOTAL-Mode1s 10,000 192
4) Landscape & Sprinklers (1 Model) 10,000
Less Recovery (45%) -4,500
TOTAL-Landscape & Sprinklers 5, 500 108
5) Ad Agency-Start-up (GO Ad, Brochure, Logo) 2,500 48
6) Interest Carry-$325,000 (12%-22 months) 35,000 673
V) HOW Program 3,200 62
8) Monthly Maintenance Costs (Models, Advertising, Utilities Phone, Supplies, etc.-28 mos) r 000 96
TOTAL $198,764 $3,820

Conceptual Design Cost Breakdown Prepared by HOH Associates
PROJECT: Jardin de los Afios
PATIO HOME Sq.Ft./Unit No. of Units Total SF/Product
P-1, 2 Bed/2 Bath 1,000 10 10,000
P-2, 3 Bed/2 Bath 1,200 19 22,800
C-l, 2 Bed/1 Bath 650 7 4,550
C-2, 2 Bed/2 Bath 750 8 6,000
C-3, 2 Bed/1.75 Bath 850 8 6,800
Bldg. 90% Efficient 1,735
TOTAL 19,085
-ITEM- Unit Cost Total Cost Unit i Cost Total Cost
General Conditions $ 1.00 $ 32,800 $ 1.44 $27 ,482.40
Site Work 2.35 77,080 2.00 38,170
Concrete Fdntn. 2.85 93,480 1.85 35 ,307.25
Masonry 0.33 10,824 0.75 14 ,313.75
Metals 1.00 32,800 0.88 16 ,794.80
Lumber/Insul 12.13 397,864 8.25 157 ,451.25
Moisture Proof 0.50 16,400 0.95 18 ,130.75
Doors/Windows 0.95 31,160 0.88 16 ,794.80
Finishes 4.60 150,880 5.36 102 ,295.60
Hardware 0.35 11,480 1.86 35 ,498.10
Equipment 0.33 10,824 0.00 0.00
Carpet/Pad 1.00 32,800 1.00 19 ,085.00