Citation
Alcohol consumption, sexual activity and condom use

Material Information

Title:
Alcohol consumption, sexual activity and condom use understanding the connections
Creator:
Denning, Stephanie Pierson
Place of Publication:
Denver, Colo.
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
vii, 262 leaves : illustrations ; 29 cm

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of Public Administration)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
School of Public Affairs
Degree Disciplines:
Public Administration
Committee Chair:
Crawford, Catherine M.
Committee Members:
Corbett, Kitty

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
College students -- Alcohol use ( lcsh )
College students -- Sexual behavior ( lcsh )
College students -- Alcohol use ( fast )
College students -- Sexual behavior ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 251-262).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Public Administration, Department of Public Administration
Statement of Responsibility:
by Stephanie Pierson Denning.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver Collections
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
32480688 ( OCLC )
ocm32480688
Classification:
LD1190.P86 1994m .D56 ( lcc )

Full Text
ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, SEXUAL ACTIVITY AND CONDOM USE:
UNDERSTANDING THE CONNECTIONS
by
Stephanie Pierson Denning
B.S., University of Colorado at Boulder, 1986
A thesis presented to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Public Administration
1994


This thesis for the Master of Public Administration
degree by
Stephanie Pierson Denning
has been approved for the
Graduate School
by
/O 3'tf*/
Date


Denning, Stephanie Pierson (MPA)
Alcohol Consumption, Sexual Activity and Condom Use:
Understanding the Connections
Thesis directed by Associate Professor Catherine M. Crawford
ABSTRACT
This study examines the relationship between alcohol consumption
and sexual activity among college undergraduates. It is based on data
regarding alcohol consumption and sexual activity gathered from a 1988
survey at Cornell University on social and sexual patterns of undergraduates
and explores 1) whether or not sexually active students were more likely to
consume alcohol than students who were not sexually active, 2) whether or
not there was a relationship between various socio-demographic factors and
students' alcohol consumption/sexual activity, and 3) whether or not students
who engaged in vaginal or anal sex and consumed alcohol were more likely
than those who did not consume alcohol and engaged in these sexual
activities to use condoms.
The study found that a greater proportion of students who were
sexually active consumed alcohol than did students who were not sexually
active. Among students who consumed alcohol, there were significant
differences in the relationships between men's and women's sexual behavior
iii


patterns among juniors, Protestants and students with family incomes of
$50,000 to $74,999; as class-status increased so did sexual activity among
women, on-campus students, White students, Roman Catholic students, and
students with family incomes of $75,000 to $99,999; and women, Roman
Catholic students, and students in the $25,000 to $74,999 levels who lived
off-campus were more likely to be sexually active than those in similar groups
living on-campus.
There were no statistically significant results demonstrated in the
analyses regarding condom use, although a greater proportion of students
who consumed alcohol used condoms than did not use condoms. This is the
opposite of what was expected.
This study provides further evidence that the relationship between
drinking and sexual activity among women is more likely to be influenced by
alcohol than it is among men; that older students who drink are more likely to
be sexually active than younger students who drink; and that residence plays
a role in influencing sexual activity among those students who drink. It also
intimates that, for this population, there is a possible positive relationship
between alcohol consumption and condom use.
This abstract accurately represents the
recommend its publication.
Signed
IV


CONTENTS
CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION AND JUSTIFICATION 1
Introduction 1
Justification 4
Summary of Thesis 5
2. LITERATURE REVIEW 6
AIDS and Young Adults: Alcohol Consumption Patterns 6
Which Students Consumed Alcohol 6
Alcohol Consumption and Condom Use 8
Role of Alcohol as a Social Icebreaker and Perceived
Sexual Enhancer 11
AIDS and Young Adults: Risky Sexual Behaviors 14
Engaging in Sexual Intercourse without Using Condoms 14
Summary 21
3. RESEARCH METHODS 24
Objectives and Hypotheses 24
Research Methodology 25
Survey Design 25
Research Design 28
4. RESULTS 33
Description of Data 33
Socio-demographic breakdown 33
Socio-demographics by alcohol consumption 46
Socio-demographics by sexual activity 59
Socio-demographics by condom use 74
v


Summary description of data set 85
Test of Hypotheses 90
Hypothesis I 90
Hypothesis II 92
Hypothesis III 135
Hypothesis IV 136
Summary of Analyses Results 151
5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 158
What Is the Relationship Between Sex and Alcohol? 158
Research Limitations 159
Implicaitons for Literature 161
Implications for Policymakers and Educators 163
APPENDIXES
A. ORIGINAL SURVEY INSTRUMENT 167
B. SEXUAL ACTIVITY TABLES WITH VALUES TOO SMALL
TO BE INCLUDED IN REGULAR ANALYSIS 194
C. CONDOM USE TABLES WITH VALUES TOO SMALL
TO BE INCLUDED IN REGULAR ANALYSIS 220
BIBLIOGRAPHY 251
VI


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This thesis would not have been possible without the assistance,
persistence, patience, and encouragement of Dr. Catherine M. Crawford,
Director of Health Policy at the Graduate School of Public Affairs. She
provided the data set, the guidance and the vision for me in undertaking this
project.
Special thanks are due Roger Carver, for his patient tutelage in SPSS
and in using the University's VAX/VMS mainframe computer system. I also
would like to thank my other committee members: Dr. Steve Schwager of
Cornell University's Department of Biostatistics, for his input and advice; and
Dr. Kitty Corbett of the University of Colorado at Denver's Anthropology
Department, for her ideas and suggestions.
I also owe a debt of gratitude to my husband, Brad, for his forbearance
and confidence in me throughout the research, analysis, and writing of this
thesis. It would have been much more difficult without his constant love and
support.
Finally, thanks to my mother and father for their lifelong motivation to
strive to always grow and learn.
VII


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION AND JUSTIFICATION
Introduction
The increasing incidence of HIV/AIDS among heterosexual young
adults is of grave importance. The AIDS virus is spreading rapidly through
adolescent communities. Gayle and others (1990) found that two percent of
the students they tested in a blind sero-prevalence study at 19 universities
were positive. In 1992, one of every five reported AIDS cases was a
teenager (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1993c). Yet many
young people do not realize the dangers they face because the disease can
stay dormant for up to ten years. A 1993 report by the Los Angeles County
Adolescent HIV Consortium found that sexual relationships with older
partners, internalized homophobia, low self-esteem, unequal male-female
power dynamics and other factors pose likely obstacles to addressing
HIV/AIDS risk among teens, and that "they have the concept of invincibility,
that it [HIV/AIDS] is not going to happen to them" (Los Angeles County
Adolescent HIV Consortium, 1993, p. 9). Among one group of California
teens, 70 percent of 18-year-olds were sexually active and only 15 to 31
percent of youths ages 15 to 24 regularly used condoms during sex (Los
1


Angeles County Adolescent HIV Consortium, 1993). The report further noted
that AIDS had become the seventh leading cause of death among U.S. 15 to
24-year-olds and that incidences of AIDS grew in that age group by 62
percent from 1989 to 1991.
Since the beginning of the epidemic, more than 5,000 children and
young adults have died from the virus. Surgeon General Antonia Novello
reported that women now comprise 11 percent of all AIDS cases and that
almost half of those have been reported in the last two years (as of year-end,
1992) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1993c). Her report also
noted that among adolescents with AIDS, the proportion of women had
increased from 18 percent in 1987 to 29 percent in 1992 (Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention, 1993c). Some 11,000 new AIDS cases
were reported among 20 to 29-year-olds alone between March 1991 and
March 1993 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1993b).
The primary ways in which AIDS is contracted and spread are well
documented: through unprotected sexual intercourse or oral sex and through
sharing contaminated needles. Sex and drugs are an undeniable part of
many young people's lives. Although college students have a high level of
knowledge about the AIDS virus, many still do not consider themselves at
risk, in spite of the clear potential for the further rapid spread of the disease
because of their tendency to engage in risky behaviors such as the use of
2


alcohol and drugs and indiscriminate sexual activity (Friemuth etal., 1987;
Baldwin and Baldwin, 1988; Seltzer, 1989; Katzman etal., 1988; Winslow,
1988). Among those who do see the dangers, only a few seem willing to
change their risk-taking sexual and alcohol use behaviors (Friemuth et a!.,
1987; Baldwin and Baldwin, 1988; Ishii-Kuntz, 1988; DiClemente etal., 1990;
Butcher etal., 1991).
As the virus continues to spread among the young adult population,
however, public health officials, educators and policy makers must develop
strategies to inform young people accurately and effectively about the facts
of HIV/AIDS, dispel the myths that persist regarding how it is transmitted, and
change awareness, attitudes and behaviors about safe sex practices. This is
not an easy task, as the very nature of the disease (i.e., the primary
development of the disease within gay and bisexual and IV-drug using
communities, its transmission largely through sexual contact or other body
fluids contact) has become severely distorted by strong negative social
stigmas (Herdt, 1992).
We must look beyond the social stigmas, however, and provide young
people with complete and factual information about this disease. We must
also teach them how to use that information constructively to protect their life
and health, as well as the life and health of others.
3


Justification
Although college students exhibit a fairly high level of knowledge
about HIV/AIDS, such knowledge has not automatically resulted in a
decrease of risky sexual behaviors. This is witnessed in the dramatic growth
of HIV-infected young adults. Many students still do not understand the
additional risks they are taking when they combine alcohol with sexual
activity. And while there exist many studies about the medical issues of this
always-fatal disease, there is a lack of research on the many sociological
factors that it concurrently generates. For example, relatively little is known
about the relationship between alcohol consumption and the sexual activity
of young adults. Nor do we understand the relationship between alcohol
consumption and condom use.
This study focuses on these sociological issues and specifically seeks
to provide information about distinctive socializing and alcohol consumption
patterns of undergraduates, as well as how such behaviors may affect
students' condom use. It examines whether any relationships exist between
1) students' alcohol consumption and their sexual activity, and 2) students'
alcohol consumption and their use of condoms during sex. It is expected that
these data will add to the literature and will provide further relevant
information to help develop effective education programs for specific groups
of students at heightened risk for contracting and spreading HIV/AIDS.
4


Summary of Thesis
Chapter Two consists of a comprehensive literature review. It
examines previous research on AIDS and young adults and their various
behaviors often associated with increased risk for HIV/AIDS. It further
evaluates studies regarding the relationship between alcohol and young
adults' socializing/sexual behaviors. Chapter Three presents the
hypotheses, research design and methodology used for this study. It
includes a description of the data set and an explanation of the process of
the analyses. Further, it outlines the restrictions and limitations of the study.
Chapter Four presents the results of the analyses. It starts with a basic
demographic picture of the respondent population and then provides a
detailed review of the analyses. The chapter ends with a summary of the
analyses and the limitations of the research. Chapter Five consists of the
conclusions drawn from the study and recommendations based on the
findings. Appendix A provides a copy of the original data survey, and
Appendix B provides tables from analysis results not included in Chapter
Four.
5


CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
This literature review consists of three sections. Because this study
falls within the larger context of AIDS, the first section reviews current
research and information on behaviors of young adults that are generally
associated with increased risk for HIV/AIDS. Data concerning the
relationship between alcohol consumption and socializing and sexual
behaviors are explored in the second section. The final section summarizes
the literature and provides a picture of what information is still needed to
further understand this important issue.
AIDS and Young Adults: Alcohol Consumption Patterns
Which Students Consume Alcohol
Studies on the alcohol consumption patterns of college students
indicate that anywhere from 70 to 95 percent of college students drink at
least occasionally (Straus and Bacon, 1953; Engs, 1977; Kaplan, 1979;
Wechslerand Rohman, 1981; Harford, Wechslerand Rohman, 1983; Engs
and Hanson, 1985; Butler, 1991; Crawford, 1992). Generally, it has been
shown that as age and class year increase, students are more likely to drink
(Straus and Bacon, 1953; Engs, 1977; Hanson, 1972; Kaplan, 1979;
6


Greenfield etal., 1980; Crawford, 1992), and as family income increases,
students become more likely to drink (Straus and Bacon, 1953; Altoff and
Nussel, 1971; Stokes, 1974; Kaplan, 1979; Crawford, 1992). Several studies
have reported a relationship between religious affiliation and alcohol
consumption, with Jews, Roman Catholics and Protestants variously drinking
more than students with no or other religious affiliations (Straus and Bacon,
1953; Wechsler and McFadden, 1979; Beckman and Bardsely, 1981; Engs
and Hanson, 1985; Crawford, 1992). The literature demonstrates that White
students are more likely to consume alcohol than students of all other ethnic
backgrounds (Marden and Kolodner, 1977; Gonzales, 1978, 1990; Wechsler
and McFadden, 1979; Walfish etal., 1981; Trotter, 1982; Engs and Hanson,
1985; Crawford, 1992).
Numerous studies also have examined the relationships between
gender and drinking. Generally, they have found that men are more likely to
consume alcohol than women (Straus and Bacon, 1953; Becker and Kronus,
1977; Rosenbluth etal., 1978; Banks and Smith, 1980; Wechsler and
Rohman, 1981; Cooper, 1981; Engs, 1982; Fillmore, 1984; Clark and Hilton,
1986) , although some studies have reported an apparent convergence in the
drinking patterns of collegiate men and women (Biber et a!., 1980; Temple,
1987) .
Crawford and Denning (1993) found no significant differences
7


between the alcohol consumption of male and female students, but they did
find significant differences in collegiate men's and women's drinking patterns
based on family income. Men in the two lowest income categories of less
than $25,000 and $25,000 to $49,999 were more likely to drink and drink in
more places than women in those categories; while women in the two highest
income categories of $75,000 to $99,999 and $100,000 or more were more
likely to drink and drink in more places than men at those income levels. In
the middle income level, $50,000 to $74,999, equal proportions of men and
women drank, and drank in an equal number of different social settings.
Alcohol Consumption and Condom Use
There is still relatively little literature regarding the relationship
between sex and alcohol/drug use for adolescents and young adults. Leigh
(1990) examined the relationship between substance use during sex and
high risk sexual behaviors among the adult population of San Francisco.
She showed a strong relationship between frequency of using alcohol or
other drugs in conjunction with sexual activity and the frequency of risky
sexual behaviors. However, she cautioned that such risky practices among
heterosexuals were related largely to the total frequency of sex. Some
variance was contributed by frequency of sex with a partner who drank or
used illicit drugs during sex.
Stall and others (1986) also reported that although gay men in the San
8


Francisco area had a high level of HIV/AIDS knowledge and howto prevent
the spread of the virus, a significant proportion of the men studied reported
continued risky sexual practices when surveyed at two points in time. They
found that men who currently used drugs (including alcohol) with sex were
most likely to have a history of high-risk sexual activity during the previous
year. Men whose risky behaviors increased at the second measurement
point were more likely to have used drugs than those men who had no risk at
both measurement points. Men whose risky behaviors decreased from the
previous year's measurement were currently less likely to combine drugs
(including alcohol) with sexual activity. Stall suggests this study indicates a
strong relationship between failure to practice safe sex and the use of
recreational drugs (including alcohol).
In a recent study, however, Weatherburn and colleagues (1993) found
no connection between alcohol use and unsafe sex among gay and bisexual
men in England and Wales. For example, while alcohol was an important
factor in the sexual lifestyles of more than one-fifth of the study participants, it
was used in a premeditated way to facilitate their social and sexual lifestyles,
enhance sexual desire, overcome sexual inhibitions, and to give them
"courage" to engage in sexual negotiations they might otherwise be too shy
to undertake. They argue that methodological inadequacies (such as the use
of gross measures of alcohol consumption and sexual behavior, and the
9


conflation of alcohol and other drugs in one global measure) in many studies
examining the relationship between alcohol and unsafe sexual practices have
contributed to alcohol being seen as of central importance to HIV/AIDS
prevention campaigns, and that such campaigns may in fact provide
individuals with an easy self-justification for engaging in unsafe sex. Several
factors warrant caution to generalizing Weatherburn's findings to the young
adult population: the social and lifestyle differences between gay and
bisexual men and heterosexual college students, as well as cultural
differences between Americans and the English.
What the research tells so far is that we really do not know much
about why young people engage in risky behaviors or what motivates them to
modify those risky behaviors. Even among the research included in this
study there are conflicting findings of which students are more or less likely
to use condoms, and whether and how alcohol and drugs during sexual
activity affect condom use. For example, Baldwin and Baldwin (1988) found
that Hispanics reported using condoms more often than Whites or Blacks; yet
other studies (Windle, 1989; Stall etal., 1990) found that non-Whites were
less likely to use condoms than Whites. Similarly, Ward and Ault (1990)
showed women were more cautious sexually than men, while MacDonald and
others (1990) reported that a greater proportion of women were sexually
active than men, and that a smaller proportion of sexually active women than
10


men used condoms during sex. Additionally, some studies relied on
convenience samples; this could have skewed the results, and may not have
provided a representative picture of young adults or the population as a
whole in the areas studied. Those studies which focused on samples of gay
and/or bisexual men also are difficult to generalize to the young adult
population as a whole. For instance, studies of gay men represent only men.
Such studies also often utilize social settings such as bath houses,
environments not frequented by anyone else but gay men. HIV/AIDS has
also had a much more devastating effect on the gay community, and
therefore members of that community are likely to have a different
perspective of the disease and the need for caution.
Role of Alcohol as a Social Icebreaker and Perceived Sexual Enhancer
Many studies add credence to the belief that drinking situations
provide a common context for scouting opportunities for heterosexual
"mixing." They have also found that alcohol acts as a social icebreaker,
helping students socialize more easily -- especially with those of the opposite
sex. They have further reported that alcohol is used to help the drinker relax,
forget emotional difficulties, and act more freely (Kaplan, 1979; Wechsler and
Rohman, 1981; Hughes and Dodder, 1984; Critchlow, 1986; Hirschorn, 1987;
Butcher et al., 1991; Goldman and Roehrich, 1991; Weatherburn etal.,
1993).
11


Strouse (1974) found that during the mid-1970s, young people "mixed"
in environments in which they consumed alcohol, such as bars or parties. He
noted the proliferation of bars which cater to college students and the alcohol
advertisement suggestions that drinking facilitates getting together with
someone of the opposite sex. His study reported that 35 percent of students
in a sexuality class said they would go first to a bar to meet people of the
opposite sex; 24 percent said they would go to a party or "keggar." As a
second choice, 29 percent chose a bar and 32 percent chose a party or
keggar. More than half of the students indicated that they went to bars,
parties or keggars to socialize with friends, while 7 percent went to meet
sexual partners. Bar patrons Strouse surveyed concurred, saying that they
went to meet friends and socialize, to meet a sexual partner, to meet people,
for a pickup, to drink, and to get drunk. More men than women said they
went to bars to find sexual partners. Strouse noted that college students
frequent bars and parties or keggars to escape boredom and loneliness, to
relax and have fun, to socialize with friends, and possibly to meet a
heterosexual partner. Alcohol appeared to be a catalyst to help make these
things happen. Klein (1992) studied college students' attitudes about using
alcohol and showed that on-campus residents were significantly more likely
than students living in fraternity houses or residence halls to think that
drinking made sex more enjoyable.
12


Athanasiou and others (1970) surveyed more than 20,000 people
about sexual attitudes and practices and found that 45 percent of men and
68 percent of women reported that alcohol consumption greatly or somewhat
enhanced their sexual pleasure. Similar findings have been reported more
recently (Klassen and Wilsnack, 1986; Leigh etal., 1989). Wilsnack (1991)
studied the sexual expectancies of women and reported that 60 percent
stated drinking reduced their sexual inhibitions, 62 percent said drinking
helped them feel closer to a person with whom they drink, and 69 percent
said drinking made it easier to be open with other people. Eighty percent of
the women who reported drinking six or more times a week said drinking
made them feel less sexually inhibited. George and Norris (1991) stated that
subjective sexual arousal was affected not only by the chemical effects of
alcohol in the blood, but also by an individual's beliefs about the effects of
alcohol. They noted that expectancies about the relationship between
alcohol and sex generated and influenced by culture affected how a person
believed he or she would respond to sexual stimuli when drinking.
Miller and Gold (1988) reported that men and women who frequently
consumed alcohol or used drugs experienced decreased desire (libido).
However, alcohol and drug use often induced uninhibited, even aggressive or
violent sexual behavior. Acute and chronic use of alcohol and drugs
produced measurable sexual dysfunction in both men and women.
13


Additionally, they reported that drugs and alcohol could dull emotional
responses and impair persons' ability to experience the intimacy required for
mutual satisfaction and adequacy in sexual performance.
Although this last evidence suggests alcohol can have a negative
effect on physical sexual performance, there remains a strong belief in its
role in helping people overcome their sexual inhibitions and enhancing their
sexual pleasure. The research presented here strongly suggests that alcohol
is frequently used by both male and female students as a social icebreaker;
they go to places where alcohol is available and use it to help meet people of
the opposite sex. Yet we still know relatively little about the relationship
between students' use of alcohol during sexual activity and whether or not
there are significant differences when their sexual activity and alcohol
consumption are examined controlling for various socio-demographic factors
such as age, gender, race, income, etc.
AIDS and Young Adults: Risky Sexual Behaviors
Engaging in Sexual Intercourse without Using Condoms
Research has also shown that college students engage in risky sexual
behaviors regardless of their alcohol consumption or knowledge about the
health dangers. Ishii-Kuntz (1988) showed that even when students acquired
more accurate knowledge about transmission of the AIDS virus, they did not
seem to actually carry through with changes in their behavior. Although
14


students he surveyed said they were more likely to date longer before
engaging in sex, and women were also more likely to ask sexual partners
about their sexual history, knowledge about AIDS did not increase the
likelihood of condom use or decrease other high-risk sexual behaviors such
as oral or anal sex. Melton (1988) argued that one major barrier to condom
use by adolescents is their lack of knowledge and information about being
sexually active. He cites a survey of San Francisco youths, many of whom
thought AIDS could be transmitted through kissing. Few of them knew that
there was (and is) no vaccine available for AIDS, or that it could not (cannot)
be cured through early treatment (DiClemente etai, 1987).
Higson and others (1990) found that among Massachusetts 16 to 19-
year-olds, 31 percent of sexually active participants said they always used a
condom during sexual intercourse. Those who believed that condoms were
an effective means for preventing HIV/AIDS and were worried that they
themselves could contract AIDS were 3.1 and 1.8 times, respectively, more
likely to use condoms all the time. Those who carried condoms with them
were 2.7 times more likely to use them during sex, and those who had
discussed AIDS with a physician were 1.7 times more likely to use condoms.
Teens who believed condoms did not adversely affect sexual pleasure and
were not embarrassed to ask a partner to use a condom were 3.1 and 2.4
times, respectively, more likely to use them.
15


Similarly, only about one-third of the students Anderson and others
(1990) surveyed who had ever had sex said they always used condoms.
Seventeen percent said they sometimes did, 8 percent said they rarely did,
and 13 percent said they never did. Baldwin and Baldwin (1988)
demonstrated that condom use was quite low 66 percent of the students
they surveyed reported that they never used a condom during vaginal
intercourse during the previous three months. Only 13 percent said they
always used a condom. Condom use was affected by students' parents'
education and income (as each increased, so did students' condom use).
Hispanics were more likely to use condoms than Whites or Blacks, as were
students who waited later to have sex Worry about contracting the AIDS
virus was also a strong predictor of condom use. However, condom use was
not affected by the number of sexual partners a student had.
Ward and Ault (1990) studied AIDS knowledge among college
students and found that females were more likely to report cautious sexual
behavior and safe sex practices than males. They also found that Greek
members were less likely to practice safe sex than "independents." Further,
they noted that fraternity men were the least likely to report practicing safe
sex. A study by DiClemente (1992) found that 37 percent of the students
who engaged in sexual intercourse during the past year reported never using
a condom. Almost two thirds used condoms less than 50 percent of the time
16


they had sexual intercourse, and only 8 percent said they always used a
condom. While many students did report changing their sexual behaviors
(increased condom use and fewer sexual partners), a large proportion of
students did not modify their risky behaviors, and, alarmingly, a small
proportion actually increased their risk-taking practices.
MacDonald and others (1990) studied high-risk STD/HIV behaviors
among college students and found that students knew more about HIV/AIDS
than other STDs, yet only 24.8 percent of the men and 15.6 percent of the
women who were coitally active always used a condom during sex. Some
26.9 percent of the men and 34.8 percent of the women practiced anal
intercourse and 10.6 percent of men and 24.2 percent of women reported
previous STDs. Factors associated with not using a condom included
number of sexual partners, embarrassment about purchasing condom
purchase, difficulty discussing condom use with partner, use of oral
contraceptives, insufficient knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and the belief that
condoms interfere with sexual pleasure.
Butcher and others (1991) reported that in a study of 243 self-
identified heterosexual male and female college students, 60 percent said
they had changed their sexual behaviors to avoid HIV infection. Eighty-
seven percent said they believed condoms were effective in preventing the
spread of HIV; however, of those students sexually active, 29 percent said
17


they had never used a condom and 32 percent said they only sometimes
used condoms. Twenty-three percent said they almost always used condoms
and 15 percent claimed to always use condoms. Younger students tended to
use condoms more than older students.
However, one study among college students did find significant
increases in condom use. When asked about behavior changes within the
previous six months as a result of HIV/AIDS, Friemuth and others (1987)
reported that a stratified random sample of students claimed a 30 percent
increase in use of condoms, a 27 percent decrease in anal sex, and a 9
percent decrease in oral sex.
Students' condom use seems to parallel that of the general population
and the gay male community. Kanouse and others (1991) found that 78
percent of Los Angeles County residents who said they did not use condoms
regularly also reported little worry about their risk or their partner's risk for
contracting AIDS. Among those not married or in an exclusive relationship,
two-thirds said neither they nor their partner was at risk, so they did not use
condoms.
Stall and others (1990) studied sexual risk for HIV transmission among
patrons of singles bars in San Francisco and found that homosexual men,
heterosexual men and heterosexual women who frequent such environments
are at high risk of contracting and spreading HIV, even though they
18


demonstrated a high level of knowledge of AIDS and the risks of unsafe sex.
They found that within mutually monogamous relationships, a greater
proportion of gay men (52%) used condoms during penetrative sex than
either heterosexual men (17%) or heterosexual women (18%). The same
held true for those not in mutually monogamous relationships -- 72 percent of
gay men used condoms during penetrative sex, while only 29 percent of both
heterosexual males and females used condoms during sex.
Stall and his colleagues found that high-risk heterosexuals (both men
and women) were characterized by higher AIDS concern, higher perceived
social support for reducing AIDS risk, lower social efficacy for reducing AIDS
risk, a longer history of STDs, and a greater tendency to have sex under the
influence of alcohol or drugs. Additionally, high risk heterosexual males were
more likely to be ethnic minorities and to have formal religious affiliations.
Reasons study participants gave for using condoms during sex varied
between the gay men and the heterosexual men and women. Homosexual
men were more likely to give reasons of less worry, improved sex, less mess,
and improved relationship than heterosexual men or women. Both groups of
heterosexuals were more likely to give contraception as a reason for condom
use. Prevention of disease was the most common reason given for condom
use among all three groups. When asked for reasons they did not use a
condom during sex, all three groups mentioned the detrimental effects of
19


condom use on sex and spontaneity. Other reasons included partner didn't
want to use a condom, it was not perceived as necessary, the use of alcohol
or drugs during sex, difficulty in using, and no planning.
In a study of variables influencing condom use among gay and
bisexual men, Valdiserri and others (1988) reported that 23 percent of the
men surveyed said they always use a condom for insertive anal intercourse
(IAI), 21 percent for receptive anal intercourse (RAI) sex. Thirty-two percent
sometimes used condoms for IAI sex, while 28 percent sometimes did for RAI
sex; 45 percent never used condoms for IAI sex, and 50 percent never did for
RAI sex. Lack of condom use was found to be related to condom
acceptability, the person's history of multiple and/or anonymous sexual
partners within the past six months, and the number of partners with whom
one consumed alcohol or drugs during sex.
The cultural context within which sex is practiced certainly influences
the use of condoms and safe sex habits. Several studies suggest that
people's general habits of caution and sexual conservativeness may be
important precursors to their practicing safe sex. For example, Baldwin and
Baldwin's study (1988), which found that students who wore seatbelts while
driving were significantly more likely to wear condoms than students who did
not wear seatbelts while driving, seems to support this implication. However,
Valdiserri and his colleagues (1988) showed that knowledge of the risks of
20


unprotected receptive anal intercourse did not necessarily influence sexual
behaviors of homosexual men and suggested that programs focusing solely
on the dangers of unprotected intercourse may not be adequate to diminish
such risky behavior among other groups. Thus, while it may appear that
perceptions of risk play a role in whether or not someone will engage in
unprotected sexual intercourse, there are conflicting reports in the literature
and it remains impossible to predict with any degree of certainty which
students are going to put themselves at increased risk.
Each of these findings further points to the conclusion that many
variables influence caution in sexual activities, including condom use. Such
variables probably incorporate personality and socio-demographic
characteristics (e.g., age, gender, race, religious affiliation, level of
education, income), the personal comfort and social skills necessary to
broach the subject of safe sex with a partner, and having condoms readily
available.
Summary
A careful review of the literature suggests that we know relatively little
about the young people who engage in risky sexual behaviors and why, or
what, motivates them to maintain or modify those risky behaviors. As noted
earlier, there is conflicting evidence on factors which influence students' use
of condoms during sexual activity, and whether or not there exists a
21


significant relationship between alcohol consumption and condom use. Also,
there are opposing data regarding whether or not college students even
consider themselves at high risk for contracting HIV/AIDS, although most
studies agree that students have a relatively high level of knowledge of the
disease.
The evidence that alcohol does play an important role for students as
a social icebreaker, that they socialize in places where alcohol is readily
available, and that they use it to help meet people of the opposite sex is
much stronger. Yet this area of research is still lacking in terms of defining
more precisely the relationship between students' use of alcohol during
sexual activity and whether or not there are significant differences when
socio-demographic variables such as age, class, gender, race, income, and
religion are considered.
Further, many studies on alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors
provide data that are useful, but should be regarded with an appropriate air
of caution. For example, studies of such sensitive issues as these are often
subject to response bias. This may be particularly true for those studies
which relied on convenience samples rather than random samples
representative of the larger population of interest. Also, studies which
focused on non-student adults or on cohorts of gay men can offer valuable
data, but cannot and should not be generalized to the college student
22


population, which has its own unique social constructs.
There is still a great need for reliable information about college
students' alcohol consumption as it relates to their sexual behaviors, and
whether or not there are significant relationships between alcohol
consumption and risky behaviors such as not using condoms during sex in
order to prevent them from contracting and/or spreading HIV/AIDS. We must
answer these questions adequately if we are to understand how best to help
college students and other young people make positive changes in both their
attitudes and actions regarding safe sexual activity.
23


CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODS
Objectives and Hypotheses
The primary goal of this study is to gain information about the
relationship between students' alcohol consumption and sexual behavior;
specifically, whether or not a relationship exists between the use of condoms
and a student's drinking patterns. The research hypotheses were developed
based on previous studies by Crawford (1992) and Crawford and Denning
(1993) of the same data set, which found significant results when controlling
for various socio-demographic factors such as gender, class-status, and
ethnic background. Those same socio-demographic variables were therefore
used for this study.
There are two primary research questions. The first research question
is: Are students who consume alcohol more likely to engage in sexual
activity than students who do not consume alcohol? The second question is:
Of those students who engaged in sexual activity, are those who consumed
alcohol less likely to use condoms than those who did not consume alcohol?
Thus the four hypotheses developed for testing are:
H.,: Among Cornell undergraduates, there is a significant
24


relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual activity.
H2: Among Cornell undergraduates who consume alcohol, there is
a significant relationship between sexual activity (1) and
gender, (2) and class-status, (3) and residence, (4) and ethnic
background, (5) and religious affiliation, (6) and family income.
H3: Among sexually active Cornell undergraduates, there is a
relationship between alcohol consumption and condom use.
H4: Among sexually active Cornell undergraduates who consume
alcohol, there is a significant relationship between condom use
(1) and gender, (2) and class-status, (3) and residence, (4) and
ethnic background, (5) and religious affiliation, (6) and family
income.
Research Methodology
Survey Design
The data set used for this study came from the Cornell University
Social and Sexual Patterns (CUSSP) research project, for which a survey
was conducted in the fall of 1988. The survey sample was an adjusted
random stratified sample of 1,878 names drawn from the Registrar's list at
Cornell University. The total number of respondents was 995, for a 53
percent response rate. Using contingency tables and chi-square analysis,
25


the sample was found to be proportional to the original sample population of
11,750 undergraduates for 16 separate strata, based on students' sex
(49.5% females, 50.5% males), class-status (29.5% freshmen, 24.6%
sophomores, 21.4% juniors, and 24.4%seniors), and residence (53.5%on-
campus, 46.5% off-campus) (See Crawford etal., 1990). The sample used
for this survey was similar in its makeup, although with slightly more females
(50.4%) than males (49.6%), a continuous decrease in the proportion of
students from freshmen (29.3%), to sophomores (25.5%), to juniors (24.7%)
to seniors (20.5%), and almost exactly the same proportions of on-campus
(53.4%) and off-campus (46.6%) students.
The survey was tested for response bias. Two survey instruments
were designed: one, the direct, asked very explicit questions about sexual
activity, defined as "penetrating vaginal or anal intercourse," and condom
use during sexual intercourse, and the other questionnaire, the indirect,
asked generic questions about "intimate behavior," which was defined as
anything from kissing, to petting, to sexual intercourse. Both questionnaires
were identical in appearance, and differed only in the section of questions
about sexual behavior patterns. They also included sections on students'
socializing patterns, alcohol and drug consumption, and basic demographic
information. Because the indirect questionnaire did not include explicit
questions about students' sexual activity and condom use, only responses
26


from students who answered the direct questionnaire are included in this
analysis, for a total sample size of 502.
Respondents were guaranteed anonymity because no one could be
matched with the questionnaire he or she filled out. All respondents reported
to a survey site and took the survey questionnaire of their choice from a large
pile. When a respondent had completed the questionnaire, he or she placed
the survey anywhere -- top, bottom, middle -- in the drop-off pile. No
identification codes were used on any of the surveys.
Each survey question used for this study followed the same pattern:
the respondent was asked whether or not he/she had engaged in a particular
activity (e.g., consuming alcohol, engaging in sexual intercourse/intimate
behavior, or using condoms). If yes, he/she was asked about engaging in
said behavior before, during, or after a series of locations or gatherings.
These consisted of 13 various social environments or events in which
students typically participate. There was also a space for students to specify
any environment or events not listed (See Appendix A). The environments
included:
Regularly scheduled classes;
Guest lectures and seminars;
Movies and concerts;
Eating meals out;
Sports activities;
Study group sessions;
Fraternity parties;
Sorority parties;
27


Dorm parties;
Other parties;
Going to a bar or nightclub;
Camping, weekend travel, and vacation trips;
Hanging out with friends.1
Research Design
This study focuses first on whether or not there were differences in
alcohol consumption patterns between students who reported they engaged
in sexual activity (i.e., oral sex and/or penetrating vaginal or anal intercourse)
during September and October, 1989, and those who reported they did not.
Second, the relationships between alcohol consumption and condom use
among those students who engaged in sexual intercourse (penetrating
vaginal or anal) during the same two-months are examined. Specific
variables used are:
Using the survey data on which this report is based, Wouters (1991) analyzed the
socializing patterns of Cornell University undergraduates students and found that students
socialized more frequently in Educational environments (regularly scheduled classes,
guest lectures and seminars, study group sessions), Relaxing environments (hanging out
with friends, eating meals out), and Entertaining environments (all types of parties, bars
and nightclubs) than in Cultural environments (movies and concerts) and Recreational
environments (sports activities, camping or weekend trips). She also found that those
places where the most students socialized were also the places attended most frequently,
and that the more different environments in which students socialized, the more frequently
they socialized in those environments. Additionally, she reported that socializing was
significantly related to age, class-status, sex, family income, race/ethnicity, religious
affiliation and student residence (on- or off-campus).
It was hoped that the information from this current study on the alcohol
consumption and sexual behaviors of Cornell University undergraduates could also be
categorized in terms of the five various social environments (educational, relaxing,
entertaining, cultural, recreational). However, there proved to be too few cases in the
sample to provide adequate numbers for the crosstabulations.
28


Alcohol Consumption: don't drink/do drink (consumed at least one
alcoholic drink during September-October 1989).
Sexual Activity: no sex/yes sex (engaged in oral sex, penetrating
vaginal sex or anal sex at least once during September-October 1989).
Condom Use: no condom/yes condom (used a condom at least once
during penetrating vaginal or anal intercourse during September-October
1989).
Socio-demographic variables: gender (male, female), class-status
(freshmen, sophomore, junior, senior), residence (on-campus, off-
campus), ethnic background (White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, other),
religious affiliation (no religion, Protestant, Roman Catholic, Jewish,
other), and family income (less than $25,000, $25,000 $49,999,
$50,000- $74,999, $75,000 $99,999, $100,000 or more).
Respondents to the direct survey provided information about whether or
not they had consumed any alcohol during the two months prior to the
reporting period (September and October). This created the dichotomous
drinking variable: alcohol consumption, yes or no, which was used for each
of the four hypotheses.2 Two respondents left this question completely
unanswered, so were dropped from the analysis, leaving a total of 500 in the
sample.
The survey also contained a question that listed several types of sexual
2
Students also were ranked into four quantity-frequency alcohol consumption categories
based on the number of times a student attended an environment and the number of
drinks a student had while in an environment during the two-month reporting period,
creating four alcohol consumption quantity-frequency levels: Abstainers zero drinks;
Light Drinkers one to two drinks at one to 10 sittings; Moderate Drinkers one to two
drinks at 11 to 20 sittings, or three to four drinks at one to 10 sittings; and Heavy Drinkers -
three to four drinks at 11 to 20 sittings; or five or more drinks at one-to-20 sittings during
two-month period. Substantial literature exists and was consulted on the development of
quantity-frequency measures (Straus and Bacon, 1953; Maxwell, 1952; Mulford and Miller,
1960; Cahalan, Cisin, and Crossley, 1969; Engs, 1977; Kaplan, 1979; Engs 1977,1978,
1982; Hanson, 1972,1974,1977; Engs and Hanson, 1985; Corbett et at., 1991).
However, the sample size proved too small to generate any valid data using these
variables so they were not incorporated into this study.
29


activity and asked respondents to circle the numbers of those they had
engaged in during the reporting period or if they had not engaged in any of
the activities listed.
During the last two months, which of the following activities have you
engaged in? (Please refer back to the definitions on Page 9 and circle all
of the numbers that apply.)
1 Penetrating vaginal sex
2 Oral sex with a woman
3 Oral sex with a man
4 Penetrating anal intercourse with a male
5 Penetrating anal intercourse with a female
6 Receptive anal intercourse with a male
7 Did not engage in any of the above in the last two months
The final piece of this question, "Did not engage in any of the above in the
last two months," was used to create the dichotomous sexual activity
variable. Students either engaged in some type of sexual activity -- defined
as penetrating vaginal sex, oral sex, or anal intercourse -- or they did not
engage in any type of sexual activity. Four students left this question
completely unanswered and so were excluded from the analysis, dropping
the total sample size to 496.
The measure for the condom variable was derived from three survey
questions which followed a similar format but asked about condom use
during penetrating vaginal sex with a female, penetrating vaginal sex with a
male, and penetrating anal sex. The first condom question was:
30


Of the times you engaged in penetrating vaginal sex with a woman, how
many of those times did you and/or your female partner USE A
CONDOM? (Please circle the appropriate letter on each line OR check
the box if you never used a condom in the past two months.)
___ Did not ever use a condom in September or October
If you checked this box, turn to the next page.
If the student checked the box indicating that he/she had never used a
condom during penetrating vaginal (PVS) or anal sex (PAS), then the
remainder of the question, which asked for specific information about condom
use in the 13 various environments listed (as noted above) was skipped.
These three questions were combined to create one dichotomous condom
variable: no condom (students who never used a condom during vaginal or
anal intercourse during the two-month reporting period), and yes condom
(students who used a condom at least once during vaginal or anal sex during
the reporting period) (See Appendix A for a full copy of the survey and all
questions). Figure 3.1, on page 32, displays how the three questions were
combined.
One hundred and eighty-two students responded that they used a
condom at least once during penetrating vaginal or anal intercourse during
the two months prior to the survey. Thus, the sample size fell to 182 for the
third and fourth hypotheses.
The chi-square statistic was used to test whether or not alcohol
consumption variables were statistically independent of the sexual activity
31


and condom use variables. This was accomplished by comparing observed
and expected frequencies of alcohol consumption variables with observed
and expected frequencies of sexual activity and condom use variables and
socio-demographic variables in crosstabulations. Because the data were
categorical and because this was an exploratory study, the chi-square
statistic was used rather than a more powerful statistic such as regression
analysis.3 The statistical package SPSSX on a VAXA/MS computer system
was used to perform all the multivariate analyses on these variables, which
included frequency distributions, cross-tabulations, and chi-square measures
of association.
Figure 3.1 Howthree condom questions
were combined into one
Individual Sexual Activity All Sexual Activity
PVS with a woman
PVS with a man
PAS
Yes Condom
No Condom
(PVS = Penetrating Vaginal Sex, PAS=Pentetrating Anal Sex)
3
The chi-square statistic, while a good measure of general relationships between variables,
does not indicate the degree to which variables are associated and cannot account for the
possible influence of other variables (Welch and Comer, 1988; Nachmias and Nachmias,
1987).
32


CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS
Description of Data
The initial population, which consists of all students who answered the
direct questionnaire as described in the previous chapter, is comprised of 502
individuals.
Socio-demographic breakdown
Graph 4.1.1 shows that the respondents consisted of a fairly even
balance of males (49.6%) and females (50.4%).
100
80
f 60
I 40
20
0
Respondent Gender
33


Graph 4.1.2 displays how the proportion of students representing each
class year declines as class year increases: 29.3 percent were freshmen, 25.5
percent were sophomores, 24.7 percent were juniors, and 20.5 percent were
seniors. Students' ages extended from 16 to 44, with the majority (87%) falling
in the 18 to 21-year-old range. In this and a previous analysis of these data,
class status and age were found to be significantly positively correlated, as
shown in Graph 4.1.3 (Chi-square: 1020.89161, P: .00000). Consequently,
only class status is used in this analysis (See Crawford, 1992; Crawford and
Denning, 1993).
34


Respondent Age by Class-Status
100
80
f 60
I 40
20
0
Chi: 1020.89161
4.1.3
About half the students lived off-campus (46.6%) and half on-campus
(53.4%), as seen in Graph 4.1.4. Graph 4.1.5 shows 77.5 percent of students
were White, 2.8 percent Black, 4.2 percent Hispanic, while 14.1 percent were
Asian, and 1.2 percent were "other."
Respondent Residence
100
80
f 60
I 40
20
0
4.1.4
35


Respondent Ethnic Background
Graph 4.1.6 shows that almost a third (28.9%) of the students claimed no
religious affiliation, about one quarter said they were Roman Catholic, slightly
fewer stated they were Jewish, almost 15 percent declared themselves
Protestants, and nearly nine percent listed themselves as "other." Graph 4.1.7
shows that the smallest proportion (7.0%) of students is among those in the
lowest family income category of less than $25,000, while the majority of
students (28.1%) fall into the $50,000 $74,999 family income range. There
are nearly equal proportions of students among the other three income
categories of $25,000 to $49,999, $75,000 to $99,999, and $100,000 or more.
36


Respondent Family Income
100
80
f 60
I 40
20
0
4.1.7
When a chi-square analysis was done controlling for gender and class-
status, Graph 4.1.8 shows that there were slightly more men than women in the
freshmen but more women than men among sophomores and seniors. There
was an almost equal number of men and women among juniors.
37


Gender by Class-Status
Graph 4.1.9 displays that significantly more men lived on-campus than
did women and significantly more women lived off-campus than did men (Chi-
square: 5.46816; P: .01937).1 Graph 4.1.10 shows students'breakdown by
gender and race, but the cell sizes are too small to allow any valid inferences to
be made for this study.
i
All two-way graphs are added front to back to equal 100 percent.
38


Gender by Residence
Gender by Ethnic Background
Graph 4.1.11 demonstrates a fairly even male/female ratio among
various religions, except for those in the "other" category, whre women
substantially outnumber men, and among Jews, where men substantially
outnumber women. Graph 4.1.12 shows that there were more women than men
in the lower income categories of less than $25,000 to $74,999 and more men
39


than women from families with higher incomes of $75,000 or more.
Gender by Religious Affiliations
Gender by Family Income
When class-status and residence were examined, Graph 4.1.13 displays
that significantly more lowerclassmen than upperclassmen lived on-campus,
while significantly more upperclassmen than underclassmen lived off-campus
40


(Chi-square: 120.82138; P: .00000). This is probably because freshmen and
sophomores are younger than juniors and seniors and younger students are
more likely to live on-campus than older students.
Graph 4.1.14 shows class-status by ethnic background, but the cell sizes
for the analsysis were too small to provide data valid for this study. Graph
4.1.15 demonstrates that greater proportions of students among freshmen were
Jewish, among sophomores and juniors had no religion, and among seniors
were Roman Catholic. Analysis of class-status by family income shows that
greater proportions of students from all classes fall into the middle income level,
as seen in Graph 4.1.16.
41


Class-Status by Ethnic Background
Class-Status by Religious Affiliations
42


Graph 4.1.17 shows the chi-square analysis results for residence by
ethnic background but cell sizes were too small to provide useable information
for this research. Graph 4.1.18 shows that most on-campus students were
Catholic, Protestant or had no religious affiliations, while most off-campus
students were Jewish or of "other" religious affiliations.
Residence by Ethnic Background
Residence by Religious Affiliations
43


Further, Graph 4.1.19 demonstrates that a significantly greater proportion
of on-campus students than off-campus students had incomes of less than
$25,000 to $99,000, while there was a significantly greater proportion of off-
campus students than on-campus students in the $100,000 or more income
level. Although more students in all but the wealthiest income category lived
on-campus, the proportions of on-campus students decrease as the level of
income increases (i.e., 71.4% of students with family incomes of under $25,000
lived on-campus, 51.4% of students with family incomes of $75,000 to $99,999
lived on-campus). This is not surprising because wealthier students can afford
to live off-campus, which is usually more expensive than on-campus housing.
Residence by Family Income
Graph 4.1.20 shows the breakdown of race by religion, Graph 4.1.21
shows race by family income, and Graph 4.1.22 shows religion by family
44


income, but the cell sizes from the chi-square analysis of each of these three
graphs were too small to produce data from which can be drawn any useful
inferences for this study.
Ethnic Background by Religion
Ethnic Background by Family Income
45


Religion by Family Income
As mentioned in the previous chapter, the basic demographics of this
sample are similar to those of the Cornell University student population as a
whole. There are no results that stand out as unusual or that differed
substantially from what was expected.
Socio-demographics by alcohol consumption
In addition to inspecting the basic socio-demographic characteristics of
the initial respondent population, their alcohol consumption patterns were
also reviewed. The vast majority of all sample students (86.3%) consumed
alcohol at some time during the two-month reporting period, as can be seen in
Graph 4.1.23.
46


Respondents' Alcohol Consumption
100
80
f 60
I 40
20
0
4.1.23
Graph 4.1.24 shows that among students who consumed alcohol, there
was almost an equal number of men (49.0%) and women (51.0%). Graph
4.1.25 displays that freshmen comprised the greatest proportion of drinkers with
28.2 percent, while sophomores had 24.7 percent, juniors 25.9 percent and
seniors 21.2 percent.
Gender
Among students who consumed alcohol
100
80
f 60
I 40
20
0
4.1.24
47


Class-Status
Among students who consumed alcohol
100
80
? 60
0
I 40
20
0
4.1.25
Students who consumed alcohol were also almost equally matched in
terms of whether they lived on-campus (49.7%) or off-campus (50.3%), as
shown in Graph 4.1.26. The ethnic background of drinkers, shown in Graph
4.1.27, was predominantly White (80.6%) with Blacks making up 2.1 percent,
Hispanics 4.2 percent, Asians 11.8 percent and students in the "other" category
1.4 percent. Graph 4.1.28 displays that students with no religious affiliations
comprised 27.3 percent of drinkers, Protestants 12.7 percent, Roman Catholics
27.3 percent, Jews 24.5 percent and students with "other" religious affiliations
7.9 percent.
48


Residence
Among students who consumed alcohol
100
80
f 60
I 40
20
0
4.1.26
Ethnic Background
Among students who consumed alcohol
100
80
f 60
I 40
20
0
4.1.27
Religious Affiliations
Among students who consumed alcohol
100
80
f 60
l 40
20
0
4.1.28
49


And Graph 4.1.29 shows that students with less than $25,000 incomes
made up the smallest proportion of drinkers (4.8%), while 21.2 percent were
those with $25,000 to $49,999, 28.6 percent had incomes of $50,000 to
$74,999, 21.9 percent were in the $75,000 to $99,999 income level, and 22.6
percent had family incomes of $100,000 or more. In each of these frequency
categories of students who consumed alcohol, the proportions were very similar
to those for the respondent population as a whole.
Family Income
Among students who consumed alcohol
Chi-square analyses of the socio-demographic variables among students
who consumed alcohol showed that there were greater proportions of freshmen
males than females, greater proportions of sophomore and senior females than
males, and an equal proportion of females and males in the junior class, as
seen in Graph 4.1.30. These are almost exactly the same proportions of men
50


and women as those found in the group as a whole. Graph 4.1.31 shows that,
as was the case for the initial population, a significantly greater proportion of
women who drank lived off-campus than drinking men, and a significantly
greater proportion of men who drank lived on-campus students than women
who drank (Chi-square: 4.25988; P: .03902).
Gender by Class-Status
Among students who consumed alcohol
Chi: 1.79096 P: .61690 4.1.30
Gender by Residence
Among students who consumed alcohol
51


Graph 4.1.32 shows gender by race, although the cell sizes are too small
to make the data useful for inferring anything here. Graph 4.1.33 shows again
that when examined by religious affiliations students who consumed alcohol
have similar demographics as the initial respondent group, with fairly even
proportions of men and women among the religions.
Gender by Ethnic Background
Among students who consumed alcohol
Gender by Religious Affiliations
Among students who consumed alcohol
100
80
f 60
I 40
~ 20
0
a: 2.37814 P 66658
4.1.33
52


Graph 4.1.34 demonstrates that among students who consumed alcohol,
there were more women than men in the under $25,000 to $74,999 family
income categories and more men than women in the $75,000 to over $100,000
family income groups. As was expected, Graph 4.1.35 shows that a
significantly greater proportion of underclassmen who drank lived on-campus
than off-campus, and that a significantly greater proportion of upperclassmen
who consumed alcohol lived off-campus than on-campus (Chi-square:
102.88834; P: .00000).
Gender by Family Income
Among students who consumed alcohol
f 60
I 40
20
100
80
0
^^*0-*25K
*25 H9K
Ch: 4 11073 P: 39123
4.1.34
53


Class-Status by Residence
Among students who consumed alcohol
The cell sizes for Graph 4.1.36, which shows a chi-square analysis of
class-status by ethnic background, are too small to provide data which could be
used to draw any usable inferences for this research. Graph 4.1.37 shows that
among sophomores, juniors and seniors, the greatest proportions of students
had no religious affiliations or were Roman Catholic, while the greatest
proportion of freshmen were Jewish. This again is similar to the initial
respondent population.
54


Class-Status by Ethnic Background
Among students who consumed alcohol
"some cdls lev thai 5
Class-Status by Religious Affiliations
Among students who consumed alcohol
Graph 4.1.38 shows class-status by family income, and Graph 4.1.39
demonstrates the chi-square analysis of residence by ethnic background but the
cell sizes for both are too small to be useful for this report. Graph 4.1.40 shows
that there were greater proportions of on-campus than off-campus students
among Protestants and Roman Catholics, while there were greater proportions
55


of off-campus than on-campus students among Jews and those with "other"
religious affiliations and there was an almost equal proportion of on- and off-
campus students among those with no religious affiliations.
Class-Status by Family Income
Among students who consumed alcohol
Residence by Ethnic Background
Among students who consumed alcohol
56


Residence by Religious Affiliations
Among students who consumed alcohol
Graph 4.1.41 displays that, similarly to the initial group as a whole,
greater proportions of students with lower family incomes lived on-campus,
about half of those with family incomes in the middle level lived on-campus and
half lived off-campus, and the majority of students with higher family incomes
lived off-campus. Again, this is no surprise, since students with greater means
have greater flexibility in choosing where they want to live.
57


Graphs 4.1.42, 4.1.43 and 4.1.44 show ethnic background by religion,
ethnic background by family income, and religion by family income,
respectively; however, the cell sizes are too small to be useful for this report.
What this does show is that among drinkers, both gender and class
status categories are similar to those for the entire sample.
Ethnic Background by Religion
Among students who consumed alcohol
Ethnic Background by Family Income
Among students who consumed alcohol
58


Religion by Family Income
Among students who consumed alcohol
Socio-demographics by sexual activity
Graph 4.1.45 shows that among all sample respondents, 51.2 percent
engaged in sexual activity and 48.0 percent abstained (0.8% missing).
Among students who consumed alcohol, a slightly higher 54.3 percent said
they were sexually active, while 44.8 percent said they were not, (0.9%
missing) as seen in Graph 4.1.46.
59


Sexual Activity
Among students who consumed alcohol
100
80
f 60
I 40
20
0
4.1.46
Graph 4.1.47 displays that 91.4 percent of students who were sexually
active consumed alcohol and 8.6 percent of sexually active students did not.
Graph 4.1.48 shows that a greater proportion of sexually active students
were women, 53.3 percent, an increase from the proportion of women who
were drinkers.
Alcohol Consumption
Among sexually active students
100
80
f 60
I 40
20
0
4.1.47
60


Gender
Among sexually active students
Graph 4.1.49 reveals that a greater proportion of juniors (28.0%) were
sexually active than seniors (26.1%), sophomores (24.1%) or freshmen
(21.8%). This also represents a shift from the group with the largest
proportion of drinkers, which were freshmen (then juniors, sophomores and
seniors).
Class-Status
Among sexually active students
61


Graph 4.1.50 shows that slightly more sexually active students lived
off-campus (52.9%) than on-campus (47.1%), which was expected because
they are usually older and have more privacy.
Residence
Among sexually active students
100
80
I 60
I 40
20
0
4.1.50
Whites comprised the greatest proportion of sexually active students
with 79.4 percent, while Blacks were only 3.5 percent, Hispanics 3.9 percent,
Asians 12.1 percent and students with "other" ethnic backgrounds made up
1.2 percent, as seen in Graph 4.1.51. Graph 4.1.52 shows that the greatest
proportion of sexually active students claimed no religious affiliations
(33.5%), 14.0 percent said they were Protestant, 26.8 percent were Roman
Catholic, 16.3 percent Jewish, and 8.6 percent of "other" religions.
62


Ethnic Background
Among sexually active students
100
80
? 60
l 40
20
0
4.1.51
Religious Affiliations
Among sexually active students
In terms of family income of sexually active students, Graph 4.1.53
displays that only 7.0 percent were in the lowest income category of less than
$25,000, while 21.8 percent were in the $25,000 to $49,999 category, 27.2
percent were in the $50,000 to $74,999 level, 19.8 percent were in the
$75,000 to $99,000 level, and 23.7 percent fell in the $100,000 or more
63


category. Again, almost all of these data for sexually active students are
similar to those for respondents who drank and for the entire sample.
Family Income
Among sexually active students
Graph 4.1.54 displays the results of a chi-square analysis of sexually
active students by gender and class-status; there are greater proportions of
females than males among juniors and seniors, equal proportions among
sophomores, and greater proportions of males to females among freshmen.
This is very similar to drinkers, where there were more sophomore males and
fewer junior males. For gender and residence, Graph 4.1.55 shows that a
significantly greater proportion of men than women lived on-campus, while a
significantly greater proportion of women than men lived off-campus (Chi-
square: 4.53534; P: .03320). This is a continuation of a trend noted so far
in the data where more women than men lived off-campus.
64


Gender by Class-Status
Among sexually active students
100
80
f 60
I 40
~ 20
0
Chi: 2.33127 P:
.50656 4.1.54
Gender by Residence
Among sexually active students
Graph 4.1.56 shows gender by ethnic background, but the cell sizes of
the chi-square analysis were too small to provide useful statistical information
here. There were greater proportions of females among Protestants, Roman
Catholics and students with "other" religious affiliations and greater
proportions of males among students with no religion and Jews, as seen in
65


Graph 4.1.57, which changed slightly from among drinkers, where there were
more women than men among Protestants and Roman Catholics.
Gender by Ethnic Background
Among sexually active students
Chi: 7.1303
P: .12917 4.1.56
"some ceils less than 5
Gender by Religious Affiliations
Among sexually active students
Graph 4.1.58 shows a significantly greater proportion of females in the
three lower income categories and a significantly greater proportion of males
66


in the two highest income categories (Chi-square: 11.29802; P: .02341).
This was analogous to the drinkers group, but the chi-square analysis results
among sexually active students were statistically significant, whereas among
drinkers they were not. And Graph 4.1.59 demonstrates, again as expected,
that significantly greater proportions of underclassmen who were sexually
activelived on-campus, while significantly greater proportions of sexually
active upperclassmen lived off-campus (Chi-square: 51.53655; P: .00000).
Gender by Family Income
Among sexually active students
| 60
I 40
~ 20
100
80
0
Chi: 11.29802 P: 02341
4.1.58
67


Class-Status by Residence
Among sexually active students
Graph 4.1.60 displays class-status by ethnic background, although the
chi-square cells were too small for data useful to this study. Graph 4.1.61
shows that among sexually active students, the greatest proportion of each of
the four classes were students with no religious affiliations, followed by
Roman Catholics among sophomores, juniors and seniors, and Jews among
freshmen. This, again, is similar to the religious affiliations breakout among
students who consumed alcohol.
68


Class-Status by Ethnic Background
Among sexually active students
Class-Status by Religious Affiliations
Among sexually active students
Graph 4.1.62 shows class-status by family income; however, the
results from the chi-square analysis were not useable for inferring anything
for this report because the cell sizes were too small. Cell sizes also were too
small for the chi-square analysis of residence and ethnic background by
sexual activity, as shown in Graph 4.1.63.
69


Class-Status by Family Income
Among sexually active students
Residence by Ethnic Background
Among sexually active students
When broken down by residence and religion, Graph 4.1.64
demonstrates that greater proportions of sexually active students who lived
on-campus were students with no religious affiliations and Protestants, while
greater proportions of sexually active off-campus students were Roman
Catholics and Jews. An equal proportion of students living on- and off-
70


campus had "other" religious affiliations. This differed from among drinkers,
where there were more Roman Catholics among lived on-campus students
and more students with "other" religious affiliations among those living off-
campus.
Residence by Religious Affiliations
Among sexually active students
Once again, Graph 4.1.65 shows the continuing trend that greater
proportions of on-campus students were found in the lowest income and
next-to-highest income categories, while among off-campus students, greater
proportions were found in the $25,000 to $74,999 categories and the
$100,000 or more category, although the distributions weren't as pronounced
as among drinkers.
71


Residence by Family Income
Among sexually active students
Graphs 4.1.66, 4.1.67 and 4.1.68 show ethnic background by religious
affiliations, ethnic background by family income, and religion by family
income, respectively, but cell sizes for each of these chi-square analyses are
too small for the data to be useful here.
Ethnic Background by Religion
Among sexually active students
72


Ethnic Background by Family Income
Among sexually active students
Religion by Family Income
Among sexually active students
Finally, the majority of sexually active students also used condoms
(46.0%), while 26.8 percent did not use condoms, as shown in Graph 4.1.69.
73


Condom Use
Among sexually active students
100
80
f 60
I 40
20
0
Socio-demoqrahics by condom use
Graph 4.1.70 shows that among the 182 students who used condoms,
95.4 percent also consumed alcohol. This proportion is slightly higher than
among students who were sexually active.
Alcohol Consumption
Among students who used condoms
74


Graph 4.1.71 displays that more females (53.1%) than males (46.9%)
used condoms, and Graph 4.1.72 shows that juniors comprised 31.9 percent,
the largest proportion, of students who used condoms, while 18.6 percent
were freshmen, 26.5 percent were sophomores, and 23.0 percent were
seniors. This is probably because greater proportions of women were
sexually active, and greater proportions of juniors were sexually active.
Among students who used condoms, Graph 4.1.73 reveals that almost equal
proportions of students lived on- (50.4%) and off-campus (49.6%), whereas
among all sexually active students, a greater majority lived off-campus than
on-campus.
Gender
Among students who used condoms
f 60
I 40
100
80
20
0
4.1.71
75


Class-Status
Among students who used condoms
Residence
Among students who used condoms
When ethnic background of students who used condoms is examined,
Graph 4.1.74 shows results among students who used condoms are similar
to those for sexually active students.
76


Ethnic Background
Among students who used condoms
100
80
? 60
4>
1 40
20
0
4.1.74
Whites make up the majority at 79.6 percent, with Blacks making up
3.5 percent, Hispanics 5.3 percent, Asians 10.6 percent and students with
"other" ethnic backgrounds 0.9 percent. Students with no religion comprised
33.6 percent of students who used condoms, Protestants 16.9 percent,
Roman Catholics 31.0 percent, Jews 11.5 percent, and students with "other"
religions 7.1 percent, as seen in Graph 4.1.75. This is again similar to the
data from among drinkers. Finally, Graph 4.1.76 shows that the majority
(27.4%) of students who used condoms fell into the middle income category
of $50,000 to $74,999, and 8.0 percent had family incomes of less than
$25,000, 22.1 percent were at the $25,000 to $49,999 income level, 17.7
percent at the $75,000 to $99,999 level, and 24.8 percent fell into the
$100,000 or more category. Once again, the frequency proportions of
students in various categories were similar to those for sexually active
77


students and students who drank.
Religious Affiliations
Among students who used condoms
Family Income
Among students who used condoms
When a chi-square analysis was done of students who used condoms
by gender and class-status, Graph 4.1.77 shows that, opposite of among
sexually active students, females were the majority among all classes but
78


seniors. A greater proportion of condom-using men lived on-campus, while
a greater proportion of condom-using women lived off-campus, as Graph
4.1.78 displays.
Gender by Class-Status
Among students who used condoms
Gender by Residence
Among students who used condoms
79


Graphs 4.1.79 through 4.1.91 are included here, but the chi-square
analysis cells are too small to provide useful data, so they are not discussed.
Gender by Ethnic Background
Among students who used condoms
Gender by Religious Affiliations
Among students who used condoms
80


Gender by Family Income
Among students who used condoms
Class-Status by Residence
Among students who used condoms
Class-Status by Ethnic Background
Among students who used condoms
81


Class-Status by Religious Affiliations
Among students who used condoms
Class-Status by Family Income
Among students who used condoms
Chi: 13.17321 P 35658 4.1.85
Residence by Ethnic Background
Among students who used condoms
82


Residence by Religious Affiliations
Among students who used condoms
Residence by Family Income
Among students who used condoms
Ethnic Background by Religion
Among students who used condoms
83


Ethnic Background by Family Income
Among students who used condoms
Religion by Family Income
Among students who used condoms
The basic demographic information for students who used condoms
remains similar to those among sexually active students and shows that there
is a consistency to the groups' socio-demographics.
84


Summary description of data set
From these frequencies and chi-square analyses of the basic socio-
demographic information about this study's sample population, we can see
that there is not much difference between the proportions of women and men
for the initial respondent population and among those who consume alcohol.
However, there is an increase in the proportion of women who were sexually
active over the proportion of women in the entire sample. More women were
sexually active than men. This is unusual because it indicates a shift from
the traditional findings that men are more likely to be sexually active than
women. A greater proportion of sexually active women also used condoms
than did sexually active men. The chi-square analysis of sexual activity by
gender showed that more women than men were sexually active, and that
more women than men used condoms. Gender by class-status reveals more
freshmen and junior males than freshmen and junior females, except in the
sexually active group and among those who used condoms, where there are
more females in the junior class than males. Additionally, gender by
residence shows that more women lived off-campus than men among all
groups of students. This could have played a role in the greater number of
women who were sexually active than men because 1) more women lived-off
campus, and off-campus students have greater privacy than on-campus
students and so may be more likely to engage in sexual activity, and 2) off-
85


campus students are generally older and older students are generally more
likely to be sexully active. For gender by ethnic background, among students
in all groups, there were greater proportions of women among Whites, Blacks
and students of "other" ethnicities. There was also a sizeable jump in the
number of Hispanic males among sexually active students and those who
used condoms, although the numbers are not statistically significant. There
were greater proportions of women among Protestants and Roman Catholics
in each category of students, and finally, there were consistently more
women in the lower family income levels and more men in the higher family
income levels. This raises the questions of whether or not religion and family
income had any effect on sexual activity, since more women were sexually
active than men.
For class-status, freshmen comprise the largest proportion of the
respondent population, and the largest proportion of students who consumed
alcohol. Yet they are the smallest proportion of sexually active students and
students who use condoms. Upperclassmen had the greatest proportion of
sexually active students and students who used condoms. This makes sense
because students are more likely to have sex as they get older, and age
corresponds directly with class status. Class-status by residence shows
greater proportions of upperclassmen lived off-campus, while greater
proportions of underclassmen lived on-campus among all students, those
86


who consumed alcohol, those who were sexually active, and those who used
condoms. This was anticipated because, again, older students tend to live
off-campus, while it is more common for younger students to live on-campus.
Also as was anticipated, the constant majorities of students in each class
were White. In the analyses of class-status by religious affiliations, there
was a consistent pattern of more students with no religion, Roman Catholics
and Jews in each of the classes, although among sexually active students
the number of Jews dropped.
Overall, more students lived on-campus than off. Slightly more off-
campus students consumed alcohol than on-campus students, which was
anticipated. And although more off-campus students were sexually active, a
scarcely greater proportion of on-campus than off-campus students used
condoms. It was expected that more off-campus students would be sexually
active because they are generally older and probably have greater privacy
than on-campus students. Perhaps, however, more on-campus students
used condoms because there was a greater awareness on-campus of the
dangers of unsafe sex. Residence examined by ethnic background showed
that Whites were the majority of both on- and off-campus students and that
more White students lived off-campus than on-campus. Asians were the
second largest ethnic group, and more of them lived on-campus than off-
campus among all groups of students. A review of residence by religious
87


affiliations found that greater proportions of students living on-campus were
those with no religious affiliations, Protestants and Roman Catholics, except
among the sexually active group, where more off-campus students were
Roman Catholics and an equal number of on- and off-campus students
reported being in the "other" ethnic group. This also held for condom use: a
greater proportion of students living off-campus than those living on-campus
reported having "other" religions.
For residence and family income, it was found that consistently greater
proportions of students with lower incomes lived on-campus, while those with
higher family incomes lived off-campus. Again, this makes sense, because
wealthier students can afford to live in usually more costly off-campus
housing.
White students made up the majority of the overall respondent
population, an even greater majority of those who consumed alcohol, and
about the same proportions among those who were sexually active and those
who used condoms. Among students of other ethnic backgrounds, the
proportions of each for the overall respondent population, those who
consumed alcohol, those who were sexually active and those who used
condoms varied only slightly; however, the chi-square analyses of almost all
analyses of ethnic background were too small to provide valid data for this
research project.
88


The proportions of students with no religious affiliations remained
about the same for the overall respondent population and among those who
consumed alcohol, but increased among sexually active students and those
who used condoms. A sizable increase occurred between the overall
proportion of Jewish students and those Jewish students who used condoms.
Consistently for religious affiliations examined by family income, Jewish
students fell into the wealthier groups and the lowest income group most
often had the smallest proportion among all religious groups. Interestingly,
there was a jump in the proportions of lowest income students among those
with no religion, Roman Catholics and students with "other" religious
affiliations among students who used condoms.
Students in the middle income category of $50,000 to $74,000
comprised the largest proportion of overall respondents, as well as among
those who consumed alcohol, those who were sexually active, and those who
used condoms. Proportions of students in the other income categories also
remained fairly constant in each group of students examined.
Finally, the only chi-square analyses of socio-demographic information
that was statistically significant consistently for the sample population as a
whole, among drinkers, and among sexually active students were gender by
residence and class-status by residence. In each group, more women lived
off-campus than on-campus, and more upperclassmen lived off-campus than
89


on-campus, while more underclassmen lived on-campus than off-campus.
Additionally, among sexually active students, gender by family income
was also statistically significant, with greater proportions of sexually active
women than men in the first three income levels and greater proportions of
sexually active men than women in the two highest income levels. The cell
sizes became too small in the condom-use group to be useful here, except
for gender by class-status and gender by residence, neither of which showed
statistically significant chi-square analysis results. This certainly supports
what we know about residence and class-status: that underclassmen are
more likely to live on-campus and upperclassmen are more likely to live off-
campus. It also raises a question about gender and residence: why do more
women live off-campus than on-campus, and more men live on-campus than
off-campus? These descriptive data are important because they provide a
very detailed picture of the respondent population, which can be useful when
interpreting the analysis or for other studies.
Test of Hypotheses
Hypothesis I
The first hypothesis states that there would be a significant
relationship between students' alcohol consumption and sexual activity
(defined as penetrating vaginal or anal intercourse, or oral sex). Table 4.2.1.
shows the results of a chi-square analyses on the Sex (yes/no) variable by
90


the Consume Alcohol (yes/no) variable. Among students who did not
consume alcohol, more than two-thirds did not engage in sexual activity,
while 32.8 percent did. A greater proportion of students who consumed
alcohol engaged in sexual activity (54.8%) than those who did not (45.2%)
(Chi-square: 11.17543, P: .00083). These results imply that alcohol may
play a role in whether or not students are sexually active -- students who do
not consume alcohol are less likely to engage in sexual activity than students
who do. Thus the first hypothesis is supported.
Table 4.2.1 Sexual Activity by Alcohol Consumption
Among All Students
DONT DRINK DO DRINK
NO SEX (Count) 45 194
(Expected) 32.3 206.7
(Row Percent) 18.8% i 81.2%
(Column Percent) 67.2% i 45.2%
YES SEX (Count) 22 235
(Expected) 34.7 222.3
(Row Percent) 8.6% | 91.4%
(Column Percent) 32.8% 1 54.8%
Chi-square: 11.17543 P: .00083
91


Hypothesis II
The second hypothesis postulates that, among students who
consumed alcohol, there is a significant relationship between sexual activity
and several socio-demographic variables (gender, class-status, residence,
ethnicity, religion, family income).4 While the chi-square analysis results are
not statistically significant, Table 4.2.2 shows that a greater proportion of
women (57.5%) were sexually active than were men, although a slim majority
(51.9%) of men also engaged in sexual activity.
Table 4 2.2 Sexual Activity by Gender
Among Students Who Consumed Alcohol
FEMALE | MALE
NO SEX (Count) | 93 101
(Expected) 99.0 95.0
(Row Percent) i 47.9% 52.1%
(Column Percent) 42.5% 48.1% |
YES SEX (Count) 126 1091
(Expected) 120.0 115.0
(Row Percent) 53.6% 46.4%
(Column Percent) 57.5% 51.9%
Chi-square: 1.37148 P: .24156
Though students who did not consume alcohol also were analyzed in several categories
where it was thought to be useful, most of the resulting cell sizes were too small to provide
valid data for this study. However, the tables for these analyses are shown in Appendix B,
page 194.
92


Table 4.2.3 shows that much higher proportions of non-drinking men
(69.4%) and women (64.5%) did not engage in sexual activity than men and
women who drank and were not sexually active, although the chi-square
analysis results are not statistically significant. However, further analyses of
sexual activity among men and women who consumed alcohol (and
controlling variously for class-status, residence, race, religion, and family
income) revealed several interesting results.
Table 4 2 3 Sexual Activity by Gender
Among Students Who Did Not Consume .Alcohol
FEMALE MALE
NO SEX (Count) 20 25
(Expected) 20.8 24.2
(Row Percent) 44.4% 55.6%
(Column Percent) 64.5% 69 4%
YES SEX (Count) 11 11
(Expected) 10.2 11.8
(Row Percent) 50.0% 50.0%
(Column Percent) 35.5% 30.6%
Chi-square: .18344 P: .66843
Table 4.2.4 shows that among freshmen who consumed alcohol, a
greater proportion of males (43.8%) were sexually active than were females
(40.4%), although for both men and women, more drinking freshmen students
93