Citation
Complementary ornament

Material Information

Title:
Complementary ornament recording, producing, mixing, and authoring a stereo and high-definition surround sound recording
Creator:
Thompson, Erick Doane
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xvi, 259 leaves : illustrations ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sound -- Recording and reproducing -- Digital techniques ( lcsh )
Video recordings -- Production and direction ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 258-259).
General Note:
College of Arts and Media ; Recording Arts Program
Statement of Responsibility:
by Erick Doane Thompson.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
437259813 ( OCLC )
ocn437259813
Classification:
LD1193.A70 2009m T46 ( lcc )

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Full Text
COMPLEMENTARY ORNAMENT. RECORDING, PRODUCING, MIXING,
AND AUTHORING A STEREO AND HIGH-DEFINITION SURROUND
SOUND RECORDING.
by
Erick Doane Thompson
B.A. University of Northern Colorado 1999
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science
Recording Arts
2009


2009 Erick Doane Thompson
All rights reserved


This thesis for the Master of Science in Recording Arts
degree by
Erick Doane Thompson
has been approved by

Date


Thompson, Erick D. (Master of Science in the Recording Arts)
Complementary Ornament. Recording, producing, mixing, and authoring a stereo
and high-definition surround sound recording.
Thesis directed by Leslie M. Gaston, Assistant Professor of Recording Arts
ABSTRACT
This paper documents the processes taken to create a stereo CD and multi-format
DVD of Complementary Ornament by the band gogoLab. Issues discussed are the
preproduction process, tracking the music, adding overdubs, mixing in stereo and
5.1 surround sound, and mastering. The mixing process, and processor settings for
each song are discussed in detail.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I
recommend its publication
Signed
Leslie M. Gaston


DEDICATION
I would like to dedicate this thesis to my loving family. My mother and father have
shown me unwavering love and support in all of my artistic and professional
endeavors. Id like to thank my brother for his invaluably helpful proofreading
sessions. Id like to make a special dedication to my grandfather who died while I
was working on this thesis. Without him and my wonderful grandmother pushing
me to become the best person I can be, and encouraging me to always seek a good
education, I would never have reached this moment in my life.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Id like to thank my thesis advisor, Leslie Gaston, for her wisdom and support
through my years at the University of Colorado at Denver. Her golden ears have
pushed me to hear every click, pop, and thwip in the recordings. My gratitude for
her patience and advice can never be fully expressed.
Id also like to thank the members of gogoLab: it has been a great experience
knowing and working with Brian McRae over the past several years. Hes an
amazing musician and audio engineer. He brought wonderful insight and
suggestions to the project and helped bring the drum sounds alive. Eric Moons
ability to layer sounds and arrange music is truly an amazing gift. I am grateful for
his suggestions on the arrangements and his creative mixing ideas that helped tie
the songs together. Tim Hochman held down a solid groove and brought a great,
light attitude to the studio. Thank you all.
Thanks to David Glasser at Air Show Mastering for his help on this project, and for
also helping me out by giving me an internship there. Ive learned many great
things from him in past few years.
Thank you to Dolby Laboratories for awarding me a scholarship. I was honored to
be a part of the Audio Engineering Society project that allowed me to meet a few of
the great people that work for the company.
And last, but not least. Id like to thank the Achievement Rewards for College
Scientists scholarship committee. I was deeply honored to be the first recipient of
this fantastic scholarship dedicated to one of my former teachers, Dr. Roy Pritts.
Your generous gift came at just the right moment for me to finish this project to the
level that it deserved.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Figures................................................viii
Tables.................................................xv
CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION...................................... 1
2. PRE-PRODUCTION......................................6
3. TRACKING.......................................... 12
4. MIXING OVERVIEW....................................54
5. MIXING BRING A TORCH JEANETTE. ISABELLA..........64
Stereo Mixing..................................64
Surround Sound Mixing..........................89
6. MIXING DECK THE HALLS............................92
Stereo Mixing..................................92
Surround Sound Mixing........................ 118
7. MIXING THE FIRST1"NOEL......................... 120
Stereo Mixing................................ 120
Surround Sound Mixing........................ 140
8. MIXING DANCE OF THE SUGAR PLUM FAIRIES.......... 142
Stereo Mixing................................ 142
Surround Sound Mixing........................ 168
9. MIXING JINGLE BELLS............................ 170
Stereo Mixing................................ 170
Surround Sound Mixing........................ 196
10. MIXING GOOD KING WENCESLAS..................... 198
Stereo Mixing................................ 198
Surround Sound Mixing.........................222
11. MIXING AWAY IN A MANGER.........................223
Stereo Mixing.................................223
Surround Sound Mixing.........................244
12. MASTERING.........................................247
13. THE RELEASE.......................................253
14. CONCLUSION........................................256
15. BIBLIOGRAPHY......................................258
vii


LIST OF FIGURES
3.1. The outside of the bass drum showing the Subkick, and the
Neumann U47 FET The Shure Beta52 is inside the drum................ 17
3.2. The top of the snare drum showing the AKG C4I4...................... 18
3.3. The bottom of the snare drum showing the Shure SM57................. 19
3.4. The hi-hat showing the Neumann KM84..................................20
3.5. The rack tom showing the Sennheiser MD421 ...........................21
3.6. The timbale showing the Sennheiser MD421 ............................22
3.7. The top of the floor tom showing the Sennheiser MD421 ...............23
3.8. The bottom of the floor tom showing the Shure KSM32..................23
3.9. The piccolo snare drum showing the Shure SM57........................24
3.10. The conga showing the Neumann Ml47 Tube.............................25
3.11. The drum set. Note the AKG C451 microphones used
as the overheads...................................................26
3.12. The back of the tracking room showing one of the Royer
122's and the Royer 121 ...........................................27
3.13. The AMS ST250 placed above the back of the drum set...............28
3.14. Tim Hochmans pedal board...........................................29
3.15. The Leslie cabinet showing the pair of Shure SM81s in the
front and the AKG C414s in the back...............................31
3.16. The bottom of the Leslie speaker cabinet showing the Sennheiser
MD421 ............................................................ 31
3.17. The Fender Twin Reverb amplifier used for the Fender
Rhodes and Wulitzer keyboards. Showing the Shure SM57..............32
3.18. Moon at the keyboards showing the Flammond C3, his
synthesizer rig, and the Fender Rhodes.............................33
3.19. The API 512C Preamps, 560 EQs and 550A EQ's......................34
3.20. The Vintech X81 Preamps and EQs....................................34
3.21. The Euphonix CS2000P Console........................................34
3.22. O'Brien working out how to cross-patch the Euphonix
console to gain two more inputs....................................38
3.23. gogoLab tracking The First Noel...................................39
3.24. A gopichand on the left, and a bubul tarang on the right............43
3.25. Tracking toy piano. Three mics set up to test which one
worked the best. The Shure KSM32 was ultimately used...............44
3.26. Bass banjo. Five-string banjo with bass strings on it.
Showing Shure KSM32................................................44
viii


3.27. Tracking the bubul tarang. Both the Shure KSM32 and the
Neumann U87 were used................................................45
3.28. Moon playing his upright grand piano. Showing the Neumann
U87, Rode NT1A, and the Shure KSM32.......".........................45
3.29. The Native American wooden flute. Showing the Shure KSM32............46
3.30. Tracking the lap steel guitar. Showing the Shure SM57
on the Fender Vibro Champ. The gopichand is on the floor by
the toy piano........................................................46
3.31. Shure SM57 on the accordion...........................................47
3.32. Moon playing the electronic drums using his synthesizer rig...........47
3.33. The SansAmp Bass Driver direct injection box..........................48
3.34. The Fluxtone guitar cabinet showing the AKG C414 and
Royer R121"...................."....................................50
3.35. The Grace 801 and the Empirical Labs Distressor......................51
3.36. Eben Grace tracking Bring A Torch Jeanette, Isabella...............51
4.1. The mixing station in my house where most of the
stereo mixing took place.............................................55
4.2. The surround sound mixing studio in The King Center
at the University of Colorado at Denver.............................56
4.3. The Line 6 DL4 delay modeler pedal....................................59
5.1 dbx 160A compressor.....................................................66
5.2. The kick drum EQ.......................................................66
5.3 The kick drum multiband compressor.....................................67
5.4. The top snare mic EQ...................................................68
5.5. The top snare mic distortion...........................................68
5.6. The top snare mic compressor...........................................69
5.7. The gate for bottom snare mic..........................................70
5.8 The rack tom EQ.........................................................70
5.9. The EQ for the bottom floor tom mic...................................71
5.10. The overhead microphones EQ.........................................72
5.11. The compressor used on the auxiliary drum bus........................73
5.12. The tambourine EQ....................................................74
5.13. The Shaker EQ........................................................75
5.14. The cowbell EQ.......................................................76
5.15. The cowbell compression..............................................76
5.16. The bass distortion..................................................77
5.17. The first EQ used for the bass.......................................78
5.18. The second EQ used on the bass.......................................78
5.19. The third EQ used on the bass........................................79
IX


5.20. The bass compression.................................................79
5.21. The first organ EQ...................................................80
5.22. The second organ EQ..................................................80
5.23. The organ compression................................................81
5.24. The first lead guitar EQ.............................................82
5.25. The second lead guitar EQ............................................82
5.26. The lead guitar compression..........................................83
5.27. The rhythm guitar EQ.................................................84
5.28. The rhythm guitar delay..............................................85
5.29. The organ spring reverb..............................................86
5.30. The lead guitar spring reverb........................................87
5.31. The delay track compression..........................................88
5.32. Mixer window for the stereo mix of Bring A Torch Jeanette,
Isabella............................"..............................88
5.33. The first EQ added to the back organ microphones.....................89
5.34. The second EQ added to the back organ mics...........90
5.35. The compressor used on the back organ mics...........90
5.36. The delay added to the rhythm guitar in the surround sound mix..91
5.37. The surround sound mix window for Bring A Torch
Jeanette, Isabella..................................................91
6.1. The DigiTech Turbo Flange pedal.......................................94
6.2. The AudioSuite version of X-Noise.....................................95
6.3. The kick drum EQ......................................................96
6.4. The multiband compressor used on the kick drum........................97
6.5. The snare EQ..........................................................98
6.6. The primary overhead drum mics EQ....................................99
6.7. The secondary overhead drum mics EQ..................................99
6.8. The compressor used on the drum buss................................ 100
6.9. The EQ on the bass amp track........................................ 101
6.10. The first clean bass EQ........................................... 102
6.11. The second clean bass EQ.......................................... 102
6.12. The bass with flanger EQ............................................ 103
6.13. The First Wurlitzer EQ.............................................. 103
6.14. The second Wurlitzer EQ............................................. 104
6.15. The Wurlitzer compressor............................................ 104
6.16. The EQ used on the Wurlitzer delay track............................ 105
6.17. The first organ EQ.................................................. 106
6.18. The second organ EQ................................................. 106
6.19. The organ compression............................................... 107
x


6.20. The synthesizer EQ................................................. 108
6.21. The EQ used on Synthesizer 2....................................... 108
6.22. The first EQ used on the lap steel guitar.......................... 109
6.23. The second lap steel EQ............................................ 109
6.24. Lap steel compressor............................................... 110
6.24. The delay used for the lap steel guitar............................ 110
6.25. The snare drum plate reverb........................................ 111
6.26. The hall reverb used for the drum set.............................. 112
6.27. The organ's hall reverb............................................ 1 13
6.28. The Acoustic Fill reverb used for the Wurlitzer.................. 114
6.29. The plate reverb used for the lap steel guitar..................... 115
6.30. The EQ for the lap steel reverb.................................... 117
6.31. The mixer window for the stereo mix of Deck The Halls............ 117
6.32. The delay added to the organ for the surround sound mix............ 118
6.33. The mixer window for the surround sound version of Deck
The Halls......................................................... 119
7.1. The first kick drum EQ............................................... 122
7.2. The second kick EQ................................................... 122
7.3. The top snare mic EQ................................................. 123
7.4. The snare EQ......................................................... 123
7.5. The snare compressor................................................. 124
7.6. The piccolo snare EQ................................................ 125
7.7. The piccolo snare distortion........................................ 125
7.8. The piccolo snare compressor........................................ 126
7.9. The overhead microphones EQ........................................ 126
7.10. The drum bus compressor............................................. 127
7.11. The pandeiro EQ..................................................... 128
7.12. The first bass EQ................................................... 129
7.13. The second bass EQ.................................................. 129
7.14. The bass compressor................................................. 130
7.15. The Rhodes EQ....................................................... 131
7.16 The Rhodes compressor................................................ 131
7.17. The organ compressor................................................ 132
7.18. The synthesizer EQ.................................................. 132
7.19. The synthesizer distortion.......................................... 133
7.20. The synthesizer compressor.......................................... 133
7.21. The snare plate reverb.............................................. 134
7.22. The toms' hall reverb............................................... 135
7.23. The pandeiro Acoustic Fill reverb................................. 136
xi


7.24. The Rhodes plate reverb............................................ 137
7.25. The EQ for the Rhodes reverb...................................... 138
7.26. The organ DC Live Room" reverb.................................... 139
7.27. The mixer window for the stereo mix of The First Noel............ 139
7.28. The delay added to the delayed synthesizer track................... 140
7.29. The mixer window showing the surround sound version of
The First Noel.......1........................................... 141
8.1. The MondoMod plugin used on the Rhodes............................... 143
8.2. The first kick drum EQ............................................... 144
8.3. The multiband compressor for the kick drum........................... 145
8.4. The high-pass EQ used on the kick drum............................... 145
8.5. The snare drum EQ.................................................... 146
8.6. The timbale EQ....................................................... 147
8 S. The drum overhead mics EQ........................................... 148
8.7. The drum bus compressor.............................................. 149
8.8. The udu multiband compressor......................................... 150
8.9. The udu EQ........................................................... 150
8.10. The giiiro EQ....................................................... 151
8.11 The cymbal EQ........................................................ 152
8.12. The cymbal compressor.............................................. 152
8.13. The bass amp EQ.................................................... 153
8.14. The dry bass EQ.................................................... 154
8.15. The compressed bass EQ............................................. 155
8.16. The final bass EQ.................................................. 155
8.17. The compressor used on the bass.................................... 156
8.18. The Rhodes compressor.............................................. 156
8.19. The organ EQ....................................................... 157
8.20. The organ compressor............................................... 158
8.21. The bass banjo delay............................................... 159
8.22. The accordion EQ................................................... 160
8.23. The accordion compressor........................................... 160
8.24. The spring reverb for the snare drum............................... 161
8.25. The plate reverb for the snare drum................................ 162
8.26. The hall reverb for the drum set................................... 163
8.27. The organ and synthesizer reverb................................... 164
8.28. The toy piano reverb............................................... 165
8.29. The toy piano reverb's EQ.......................................... 165
8.30. The bass banjo Acoustic Fill reverb.............................. 166
8.31. The accordion chamber reverb....................................... 167
xii


8.32. The EQ for the accordion reverb...................................... 167
8.33. The stereo tracks for Dance Of The Sugar Plum Fairies.............. 168
8.34. The surround sound tracks for Dance Of The Sugar Plum
Fairies............................................................ 169
9.1. The kick drum multiband compressor................................... 173
9.2. The kick drum equalizer.............................................. 173
9.3. The piccolo snare drum EQ............................................ 174
9.4. The piccolo snare drum distortion.................................... 174
9.5. The piccolo snare compressor......................................... 175
9.6. The snare gate....................................................... 176
9.8. The Snare EQ......................................................... 177
9.9. The sleigh bell EQ................................................... 178
9.10. The timbale EQ...................................................... 179
9.11. The floor tom compressor............................................ 180
9.12. The overhead drum mics' EQ.......................................... 180
9.13. The drum room mics compressor...................................... 181
9.14. The drum bus compressor............................................. 182
9.15. Synthesizer drum EQ................................................. 182
9.16. The Synthesized drums compressor.................................... 183
9.17. The sleigh bells number 2 EQ........................................ 184
9.18. The tambourine EQ................................................... 185
9.19. Bass amp microphone EQ.............................................. 186
9.20. The bass signal from the pedal board EQ............................. 187
9.21. Combined bass compressor............................................ 188
9.22. The Rhodes EQ....................................................... 189
9.23. The Rhodes compressor............................................... 189
9.24. The piano compressor................................................ 190
9.25. The snares Digital Warm Plate reverb............................. 191
9.26. The hall reverb used for the percussion elements.................... 192
9.27. The synthesized drums plate reverb................................. 193
9.28. The Rhodes Space Echoreverb...................................... 194
9.29. The piano reverb.................................................... 195
9.30. Piano reverb EQ..................................................... 196
9.31. The stereo tracks for Jingle Bells................................ 196
9.32. The surround sound tracks for Jingle Bells"........................ 197
10.1. The X-Noise plugin used for the Wurlitzer........................... 199
10.2. The kick EQ.."......................................................200
10.3. The snare gate......................................................201
10.4. The EQ used on the timbale..........................................202
xiii


10.5. The bottom floor mic EQ.................................................203
10.6. The EQ for the conga head...............................................204
10.7. The EQ used on the drum overhead mics...................................205
10.8. The EQ used on the drum room mics.......................................205
10.9. The compressor used on the drum bus.....................................206
10.10. The shakers EQ.......................................................207
10.11. The Pitch Shift plugin used to change the tone of the
wood block.............................................................208
10.12. The first EQ used on the bass.........................................209
10.13. The second EQ used on the bass........................................209
10.14. The Wurlitzer EQ......................................................210
10.15. The compressor used for the Wurlitzer.................................210
10.16. The first EQ used on the organ........................................211
10.17. The second EQ used on the organ.......................................212
10.18. The compressor used on the organ......................................212
10.19. The compressor used for the piano.....................................213
10.20. The first EQ used on the piano........................................213
10.21. The second EQ used on the piano.......................................214
10.22. The delay used for the piano..........................................214
10.23. The snare plate reverb................................................215
10.24. The room reverb used for the conga....................................216
10.25. The EQ used on the conga reverb.......................................216
10.26. The room reverb used to match the wood block to the
rest of the drum set...................................................217
10.27. The spring reverb used on the Wurlitzer...............................218
10.28. The spring reverb used on the organ...................................219
10.29. The Acoustic Fill" reverb used on the organ..........................220
10.30. The piano hall reverb.................................................221
10.31. The mix window showing the tracks of the Good
King Wenceslas stereo mix.............................................221
10.32. The surround sound track for Good King Wenceslas....................222
11.1. The kick EQ............................1..............................223
11.2. The EQ used for the top snare mic.......................................225
11.3. The gate used on the bottom snare mic...................................226
11.4. The combined snare EQ...................................................227
11.5. The EQ for the overhead drum mics.......................................228
11.6. The drum bus compressor.................................................229
11.7. The EQ for snare 2......................................................230
11.8. The EQ for rack tom 2...................................................230
xiv


11.9. The EQ for floor tom 2...............................................231
1 1.10. The compressor for drum set 2......................................232
11.11. The first EQ used for bass 1 .......................................233
I 1.12. The second EQ used for bass 1 ......................................233
11.13. The compressor used on bass 1 .......................................234
11.14. The first EQ used on bass 2..........................................235
11.15. The second EQ used on bass 2........................................235
11.16. The delay used on bass 2.............................................236
11.17. The compressor used on bass 2........................................236
11.18. The EQ used on the organ.............................................237
11.19. The distortion for guitar 1 .........................................238
11.20. The delay used on guitar 1 ..........................................238
11.21. The plate reverb used on the snare drum..............................239
11.22. The reverb used for the second drum set..............................240
11.23. The bubal tarang Ballet School Studio C reverb.....................241
11.24. The organ reverb.....................................................242
11.25. The Space Echo spring reverb used for the guitars..................243
11.26. The EQ for the guitar reverb.........................................243
11.27. The mix window for the stereo mix of Away In A Manger..............244
11.28. The reverb added to the organ's rear-channel microphones.............245
11.29. The EQ used for both organ reverbs..................................245
11.30. The surround sound tracks for Away In A Manger.....................246
12.1. Erick Thompson, and David Glasser at Air Show Mastering...............252
13.1. The front cover of Complementary Ornament............................254
13.2. The back cover to Complementary Ornament.............................254
xv


LIST OF TABLES
3.1. The API560 EQ settings for the Beta52 kick drum mic...................34
3.2. The API560 EQ Settings for the U47 FET kick drum mic..................35
3.3. The API 560 EQ settings for the top floor tom mic...................35
3.4. The settings for the Distressor.....................................50
5.1. The dbx 160A compressor settings for the kick drum..................66
6.1. The settings for the Distressor.......................................93
6.2. The settings for the 160A used on the kick drum.......................95
6.3. The 160A compressor settings for the bass.......................... 101
7.1. The 160A compressor settings for the kick drum..................... 121
7.2. The 160A compressor settings for the bass.......................... 128
8.1. The 160A compressor setting for the kick drum...................... 144
8.2. The 160A compressor settings for the snare drum.................... 145
8.3. The 160A compressor settings for the bass.......................... 154
9.1. The 160A compressor setting for the kick drum...................... 172
9.2. The 160A compressor setting for the snare drum..................... 176
10.1. The compressor settings for the kick drum..........................200
10.2. The snare compressor settings......................................201
10.3. The bass compressor settings.......................................208
11.1. The 160A setting for the kick drum.................................224
11.2. The 160A compressor settings for the snare drum....................226
xvi


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
During my time at the University of Colorado at Denver I have found that
my talents as an audio engineer lay mostly in the music production field. And, since
taking a class that focused on the surround sound format, I have been fascinated by
the possibilities that six channels of audio can present to a creative mixing engineer.
One of the recordings that got me interested in audio engineering was The
Dark Side Of The Moon by Pink Floyd. In my early attempts at recording, long
before attending UCD. I tried to recreate the album. I felt fairly confident that I
knew every note, every sound, every nuance of the album. Then I purchased the 5.1
Surround Sound mix. I booked a session at one of the schools surround studios and
listened to it in the new format. As the music came out of the speakers I heard the
songs as never before. I heard new things I never knew were in the recording. It
was then I decided that my thesis would be exploring what surround sound could
do.
I began to collect surround sound recordings. As I listened to them I took
mental notes on the production and mixing techniques. The best examples 1 found
of creative surround mixing were Dark Side Of The Moon, Deadwing by Porcupine
Tree, and Speaking In Tongues by Talking Heads. All three of these recordings
1


managed to make the mixes interesting while not overusing the panning capabilities
of the surround medium. In other words, the drums, bass, and vocals were grounded
in the front of the mix, while panning instruments and sounds across all the
speakers were kept to a tasteful minimum.
As I began to think about how the project would take shape, 1 looked to
these albums to see how the recordings were delivered. Dark Side of the Moon was
authored to a Super Audio Compact Disk (SACD). For a time 1 thought that would
be a great medium to work in. But after doing some research to see how much the
machines would cost to rent, 1 realized that the Direct Stream Digital format (the
type of digital audio that SACD's use) would be an impractical expense. Not only
that, but its a format that hasnt succeeded in the consumer market and therefore
would not be a good choice for a commercial release. In that format, the band I
would ultimately record would not be able to use the recordings.
Deadwing and Speaking In Tongues were recorded in high definition Linear
Pulse-Code Modulation (LPCM) audio. LPCM is the standardized process used to
encode digital audio. It works by encoding the amplitude of a signal (as bits) at
specific intervals of time (as sample rate, or kilohertz). An Analog to Digital (AD)
converter is used to convert the signal into LPCM. When the Digital to Analog
(DA) converter (often contained in the same software or hardware as the AD
->


converter) converts the amplitude information back into an analog signal at the
specified sample rate, the frequency information is revealed in the signal by
connecting the dots" between amplitude samples.
Standard Red Book audio (the industry guideline) uses 16 bit/44.1kHz
LPCM. All standard stereo audio CDs use the Red Book standard. Speaking In
Tongues was authored with a stereo bit stream at 24 bit/96kHz uncompressed
LPCM as well as a 5.1 surround sound bit stream at 24 bit/96kHz compressed
LPCM using the Dolby Digital compression scheme. Dolby Digital uses a data
reduction system called Audio Coding-3 (AC-3). It is capable of reducing data by
3:1 without significant loss of fidelity. Deadwing had a stereo bit stream at 24
bit/48kHz uncompressed LPCM, a surround sound bit stream at 24 bit/48kHz
compressed LPCM using the Digital Theatre Systems (DTS) compression scheme,
as well as compression using Dolby Digital.
DTS compression uses what is called Adaptive Differential Pulse-Code
Modulation (ADPCM) to nominally encode five or six channels of full-bandwidth
audio, in addition to a subwoofer channel. DTS compression reduces the amount of
data stored on a DVD without significant loss in sound quality. Its bit rate can be
either 1,536 kilobits per second or 768 kilobits per second.
3


Both Speaking In Tongues, and Deadwing were authored to DVD and both
had videos on them as well. Speaking In Tongues was printed onto a DualDisc
DVD. which had a CD layer on one side and a DVD layer on the other side. The
album had a regular Red Book CD quality 16 bit/44.1kHz stereo mix on it as well.
Again, like SACD, the DualDisc is a format that has not succeeded in the consumer
market.
Later, 1 purchased Fear Of A Blank Planet by Porcupine Tree, which had a
24 bit/48kHz stereo bit stream, a 24 bit/48kHz 5.1 surround bit stream in DTS, and
an Meridian Lossless Packaging (MLP) DVD-Audio bit stream as well. MLP is an
audio encoder used to achieve lossless data compression. It is capable of preserving
the exact bit-for-bit content of the original data, while still reducing the data size on
the storage medium.
There are several ways to deliver surround sound recordings with multiple
options for including a stereo mix as well. I have found that some DVD players will
not play DVD-Audio discs, and some DVD players or amplifiers dont have DTS
decoders. And with the introduction of Blu-Ray (which is a relatively new medium
at the writing of this paper) there are even more possibilities for delivering high-
quality audio.
4


Since I wasn't sure how Id deliver the final surround mixes at the onset of
the project, my plan for starting was to record the band using 24 bit/96kHz LPCM
audio and then deciding on the delivery method later, depending on what the band
wanted to do with the recordings.
5


CHAPTER 2
PRE-PRODUCTION
It is often said in many texts and by audio professionals, and has therefore
become accepted knowledge, that the first step to any good recording is to use good
source material. To that end, my first priority for this recording was to find a good
band, with good musicians, good instruments, and good songs.
The band needed to fulfill a few key criteria. First, they needed to be good
musicians. No matter how technically sound the recording may be, if the musicians
lack the skill to get a good tone from their equipment, find a solid groove, or relax
in the studio, the final product will suffer. The second criterion was to find a band
who were experienced and well rehearsed to the point where a good performance
could be achieved in a matter of a few takes. Finally, the band must own equipment
that is of a professional level. For example, if a drum head is bad and will not hold
its tuning, then not even the most expensive, boutique microphone can make it
sound good. It will simply record how bad the drum sounds in an accurate way.
6


In anticipation of how hard it is to find a band that fulfills the above criteria,
and yet is willing to record for free, I began my search the summer before my thesis
project was to begin. I anticipated having to look at and, and talk to several bands to
find the one that would be the best match. It is fortunate that I gave myself this
extra time because, surprisingly, it seems that bands that achieve a certain level of
skill are wary of people offering free studio time.
The first band I tried to recruit was called The Dales. I knew their drummer
because, at the time, I was playing in another band with him. After a few
conversations with the guitar player it was obvious that he wanted control over the
recordings and would micro-manage the project. I told him that since I was paying
for the studio time, and that it was for a Masters Thesis, that I would need to retain
the rights to the recordings and be allowed to control the final outcome of the
music. He reluctantly agreed. A few months later The Dales broke up.
I talked, once again, to my drummer friend about his new band called Foma.
He was excited to record this new group in the studio. I went to one of their shows
to see what their music was like, and was a bit disappointed to see that Foma had
the same guitar player as The Dales. He was still apprehensive towards allowing me
to control the masters and the final mixes. So, I took it as a sign to move on and
began my search for another band.
7


Knowing that the project would be in surround sound, I tried to think of
anyone I knew who had a band whose music would lend itself to a surround mix,
could meet the criteria outlined above, and would also understand my need to
control the masters and the mixes.
For several years 1 played bass with one of the Denver areas most popular
singer/songwriters. She was able to hire great players for her backing band. One of
the drummers that she employed was named Brian McRae. He played in a band
called gogoLab. I figured theyd be the perfect band to record because all the
members had years of professional experience and gogoLab wrote and played
complex instrumental songs that would lend themselves to an interesting surround
mix. So I called up McRae and we began to discuss recording. He was immediately
interested. Most importantly, he was willing to work out who controlled the masters
once the project was over, and would let me mix everything. After all, having
worked with him before, we'd established a level of trust that can only be gained by
years of sharing a stage, a hotel room, and a stinky van thats making its way across
the country to the next gig.
It took several months to get the other two members of gogoLab to agree to
participate in the recording (again, people are wary of free studio time). But once
8


they all agreed the next step was to find a studio and arrange a day or two to track
the music.
Part of the band members initial reluctance was that they had no new
material written that they could record. At first I tried my best to persuade them to
just improvise in the studio. I'd seen them play live a few times and knew they were
great at improvising a tune. Ultimately, they decided that theyd record a Christmas
album. This eliminated the need to write new music and also eliminated the worry
of paying mechanical rights for the songs since many Christmas tunes are
considered public domain.
Finally, I needed to find a studio that could fulfill my needs. I came up with
a list of criteria that I could use as a guide for finding a tracking studio. First, I
needed a studio with good acoustics. The drums are the key to any good rock
record, so putting the drums in a good acoustic space is essential. Secondly, I
needed a studio capable of tracking all the band members at once, with good
isolation between the instruments. Third, I needed a studio that was capable of
recording LPCM audio at 96kHz and 24 bits.
The University of Colorado at Denvers studios are fine for student projects,
and Ive had success using them before. However, I knew Id need to find a
professional-quality studio if I wanted these recordings to achieve the sonic clarity I
9


required for my project. Also, the Universitys studios are only capable of recording
16 channels at a time and I knew Id need to record at least 24 channels. I contacted
a few studios in the Metro Denver area and took a couple of tours of their facilities.
Finally I decided that Colorado Sound was the studio that fulfilled all of my
requirements. They had a great room for tracking drums, a few other isolated rooms
for the other instruments, and a Pro Tools HD system that would record at the
resolution needed. They also had several high-quality microphones, preamplifiers,
compressors and other outboard gear that would be essential to getting a great
recording.
Scheduling time to get together is always the challenge when dealing with
bands, especially when the band members have several bands they play in and a day
job. It took several weeks to get the members of gogoLab, Colorado Sound, and
myself to settle on a date that worked best for everybody. The tracking day was
February' 21st, 2008.
Several weeks before the session I contacted Brian McRae requesting an
input list so I could plan out what microphones Id like to use. McRae said he
planned on using a basic five-piece drum set (snare, kick drum, tom, floor tom, hi-
hat) in addition to a trashy snare, a couple of cowbells, and some other percussion
toys". Eric Moon, the keyboard player, uses a laptop computer to run his sounds
10


and McRae recommended using a direct stereo output from his synthesizer. The
Wurlitzer and Rhodes keyboards would share an amp (plugging in one or the other
depending on the song). For bass McRae told me that Tim Hochman uses many
effects pedals, and recommended splitting the dry signal from the bass and a signal
from the effects pedals, and also placing a mic on the bass amp. Ultimately, I
decided that specific mic selection would have to wait until the recording date,
because I wasnt sure what kind of surprises Id have in store.


CHAPTER 3
TRACKING
Initial tracking took place at Colorado Sound Recording Studios on
February 21st, 2008. Colorado Sound had a large selection of nice microphones,
preamps, and compressors, as well as a large format Euphonix console.
The following equipment was used for the initial tracking session:
Digital Audio Workstation:
o Digidesign Pro Tools 7.3 HD Accel System
o Macintosh G5 computer
o Avastor HDX firewire hard drive
Mixing Console
o Euphonix CS2000P
Preamps
o API 512C
o Vintech X81
o Euphonix CS2000P
Equalizers
o API 550
o API 560
o Vintech X81
Direct Injection Boxes
o Avalon
o Countryman 85
Microphones
o AKGC414
o A KG C451
o AMSST250
o Neumann U47 Tube
12


o Neumann U47 FET
o Neumann KM84
o Neumann M147 Tube
o Royer R-122
o Royer R-121
o Sennheiser MD421
o Shure Beta 52A
o Shure SM57
o Shure SM81
o Shure KSM32
Monitors
o Genelec 1031A
o Yamaha NS-10M
Drums
o Rogers Holiday 66 14x20 bass drum
o Rogers Holiday 66 8x 12 tom
o Rogers Holiday 66 16x16 floor tom
o Slingerland Radio King 1940s 7x14 snare drum
o Tribes 10 piccolo snare drum
o Toca timbale snare drum
o LP Conga Top
o LP djembe
o LP clave
o LP cowbell
o Pearl Eliminator double bass drum pedal
o Sabian Jack Dejonette 14 hi-hats
o Sabian Alien Disc cymbal
o Sabian A AX 16 dark crash cymbal
o Sabian 21 vintage ride cymbal
o Sabian 20 Vault crash cymbal
o Sabian 20 Duo Ride with rivets cymbal
o Sabian 12" white noise crasher cymbal mounted on a Roto Tom
rim
o Attack drum heads
o Remo drum heads
Bass
o Ampeg V4BH amplifier
o Aguliar 4x 10 speaker cabinet
13


o Boss OC-3 Super Octave
o Fender Custom Shop 5-String Precision Bass
o Fulltone Bass-Drive distortion
o Line 6 DL4 digital delay
o Moog Moogerfooger low pass filter
Keyboards
o Hammond C3 organ
o Leslie speaker cabinet
o Wurlitzer keyboard
o Fender Rhodes keyboard
o Fender Twin Reverb amplifier
o Synthesizer software
Absynth
B4
Pro53
Kontakt
Steampipe
Mr. Ray
o Customized mixer and MIDI controlled GUI run from a touch
screen. It was programmed using Reaktor. Includes a custom echo
with an LFO-sweepable resonant "Moog-type' ladder filter, as well
as a brickwall limiter in the feedback chain,
o M-Audio Axiom MIDI controller
o Casio Privia digital piano MIDI controller
o Yamaha MCS2 MIDI controller
o Hammerfall Multiface interface
o Sony VAIO VGN-A270 laptop computer
Subsequent overdub tracking utilized the following equipment:
Digital Audio Workstation:
o Pro Tools LE 7.2
o Macintosh G5 computer
o Digidesign 002R interface
Preamps:
o API 7600 channel strip
o Digidesign 002R
o Digidesign 002R with Black Lion Audio upgrade
14


o Grace 801
Compression:
o API 7600 channel strip
o Empirical Labs Distressor
EQ:
o API 550A
Direct Injection:
o SansAmp Bass Driver
Microphones:
o AKG C414
o Neumann U87
o Rode NT1A
o Royer R121
o Shure KSM32
o Shure SM57
o Studio Engineering SEZ5600A
Percussion:
o Shaker
o Rain stick
o Tambourine
o Clave
o Udu
o Bongos
o Pandeiro
o Cowbell
o Giiiro stick
o Wood block
Keyboards:
o Upright grand piano
o Toy piano
o Accordion
Other instruments:
o Ibanez SR500 bass guitar
o Fender Stratocaster
o Fender Jazzmaster
o Wooden Native American flute
o Bubul tarang
o Bass banjo
15


o Lap steel guitar
o Gopichand
Jesse O'Brien, a Colorado Sound engineer, was acting as my second
engineer at the initial recording session. He was invaluable in his suggestions, his
knowledge, his wonderful attitude, and above all his ability to help me run the
session without taking over. Without his ability to crosspatch the Euphonix console,
the session would have been in dire straits.
What made gogoLab a great band to listen to was the interaction between
the players. They requested that they all be in the same room when they tracked so
that they could make eye contact when they played. This presented a challenge as to
how I could get them in the same room and still get the isolation of the instruments
I needed for a clean recording. The solution we came up with was to put them all in
the drum room and to isolate the amps in different rooms of the studio. The bass
amp was placed in the noise trap between the main tracking room and the drum
tracking room. The Leslie speaker was placed in the middle of the main tracking
room, and the guitar amp (amplifying the Rhodes and Wurlitzer) was placed in the
vocal booth. Fortunately Colorado Sound had plenty of female-to-female 1/4 inch
adapters to make the long cable runs possible. Any fidelity loss that may have
occurred from the long nins wasn't significant enough to be noticeable.
16


Microphone selection and placement for the drum set was based upon
OBrien's past experience working in that tracking room, from my own preference
for mics and placement, and from McRae, who knew his drum set well enough to
tell me where the best tones would be. I placed a Shure Beta 52A three inches from
the beater inside the bass drum shell to capture the sound of the beater. OBrien
recommended using a Neumann U47 FET placed one and a half inches from the
resonant head of the bass drum as well, to get the tone of the drum. Initially, a
Yamaha Subkick, which is essentially a ten inch speaker mounted inside a drum
shell used to capture frequencies below 100Hz, was also placed in front of the
drum, but it was disconnected once we realized we needed to make room for more
inputs later in the session.
Figure 3.1. The outside of the bass drum showing the Subkick, and the Neumann U47 FET. The Shure
BctaSlA is inside the drum.
17


On the snare drum an AKG C414 was aimed at the center of the top head,
just off the rim and one inch from the drum. I've found, in the past, that the C414
captures the tone and attack of the top head of a snare drum beautifully.
A Shure SM57 was aimed at the center of the bottom head, two inches from
the rim of the drum and four inches below the drum. The SM57 does a great job of
picking up the sound of snares.
18


For the hi-hat I used a Neumann KM84 aimed four and a half inches from
the edge of the top cymbal. It was OBriens suggestion to point the mic straight
down to get a cleaner attack.
19


Figure 3.4. The hi-lial showing the Neumann KMH4.
I placed a Sennheiser MD421 on the rack tom and aimed it at the center of
the drum one inch from the rim. MD421s have a nice low-mid bump in their
frequency response that works great on toms.
20


Figure .?.5. The rack tom showing the Sennheiser MD421.
I wasn't sure at first what to use for the timbale, but McRae assured me that
a Sennheiser MD421 would work just fine. 1 aimed one at the center of the drum
one inch from the rim.
21


Ive had luck in the past with placing a mic on both the top and bottom
heads of the floor tom. On the top head I placed a Sennheiser MD421 one inch off
the rim.
22


Figure i.7. The top of the floor torn showing the Sennheiser MD42I.
For the bottom head of the floor tom I used a Shure KSM32 two inches
from the rim.
23


For the piccolo snare, at OBrien's suggestion, I used a Shure SM57 aimed
at the center of the drum one and a half inches from the rim.
Figure 3.9. The piccolo snare drum showing the Shure SM57.
OBrien suggested we use a Neumann M147 Tube for the conga. It was
aimed directly at the rim two inches from the drum. The same microphone was used
when McRae played a djembe while tracking Dance Of The Sugar Plum Fairies.
24


Figure 3.10. The conga showing the Neumann Ml47 Tube.
Ive found that I like the sound of small diaphragm condensers for capturing
crisp cymbal sounds for use as drum overheads. I also like them in a spaced pair
configuration. Granted, there is some comb-filtering when spaced drum overheads
are summed to mono, but I feel the benefits of a spaced pair mic configuration
outweigh the mono compatibility problem. I used a pair of AKG C451's for the
overheads spaced equidistant from the snare drum. O'Brien held a mic cable to the
center of the snare drum while I placed the left and right microphones, using the
cable as a measuring tape. This way I could be sure that they were the same
distance apart and the snare could be placed in the center of the mix with no phase
problems. The left mic was four feet five inches from the snare and six feet seven
25


inches from the floor and the right mic was four feet six inches from the snare and
six feet three inches from the floor.
Figure 3.11. The drum set. Note the AKG C451 microphones used as the overheads.
When choosing mics to capture the sound of the drum room, I've always
used large diaphragm condensers either in a spaced pair configuration, or a left,
center, right configuration. I wanted to try something a little differently this time
because, when using large diaphragm condensers, I tend to get a low frequency
buildup in the room mics. So, remembering what I had once seen an engineer do in
a studio in Brooklyn, New York, I chose to use ribbon mics. I also wanted to try
placing a mic in the back of the drum room to be used for the rear channels when
mixing in surround sound. A pair of Royer 122 ribbon mics were used for the left
and right drum room, and a Royer 121 was used for the center mic. I would have
26


preferred to use microphones that were all the same model but they didn't have
three 122s. The differences in the microphones turned out to not be an issue
because they blended perfectly. They were placed equidistant from the bass drum
using the same mic cable measuring technique where OBrien held it to the drum
while I placed the niics. The left mic was ten feet six inches from the bass drum and
four feet five inches from the floor. The center mic was ten feet five inches from the
bass drum and four feet seven inches from the floor. The right mic was ten feet five
inches from the bass drum and four feet four inches from the floor. The difference
in height is due the fact that initial placement of the mics was eyeballed.
Figure 3.12. The back of the tracking room showing one of the Royer I22's and the Royer 121.
27


For the microphone behind the drum set, O'Brien suggested we us an AMS
ST250 stereo mic. It was placed seven feet two inches from the floor and aimed at
the drum set.
As mentioned above, the members of gogoLab had luck in the past
recording three bass tracks. They suggested I record a track taken directly from the
bass, a track taken from the effects pedal board, and also a track from a mic placed
on the bass amp. OBrien helped me figure out how to do this. What we came up
with was to plug the bass into an Avalon Dl. The Avalon was then plugged into the
board. Then, a cable was taken from the thru plug of the Avalon into the bass
Figure 3.13. The AMS ST250 placed above the back of the drum set.
28


effects pedal board. The output of Hochmans pedal board was plugged into a
Countryman DI, and the Countryman was then plugged into the board. The thru
send of the Countryman was then plugged into the bass amp. That gave us a clean
signal directly from the bass and also a direct signal from the pedal board. Next, a
Neumann U47 Tube was aimed at the center of the bass amp at one of the speakers,
four inches from the speaker grill. This afforded me the luxury of being able to
choose which signal or combination of signals was best suited for each song.
29


When mixing surround sound I wanted to take advantage of the rotating
horn and drum in the Leslie speaker cabinet that the Hammond organ was played
through. 1 thought that a Leslie speaker would be the perfect thing to mic
specifically for surround sound since sound emanates from 360 degrees. So I used a
pair of Shure SM81 s for the front of the cabinet, placed five inches from the edge
on the right side, and two inches from the edge of the cabinet on the left side. The
difference in distance between the mics was because the horn is not centered in the
speaker cabinet. Both mics were aimed down and off-axis to minimize the wind
noise generated when the horn spins quickly. A pair of AKG C414s were placed
on the back side of the cabinet so that they were directly parallel to the SM81s in
the front. I would have liked to use mics that were all the same but I didn't have
that option. The C414s were, like the front mics, placed slightly off-axis to
minimize wind noise. Finally, a Sennheiser MD421 was aimed directly at the
bottom rotating drum four inches from the cabinet.
30


Figure J. 15. The Ixslie cabinet showing the pair oj Shure SMtil's in the front and the AKG C414's in
the back.
Figure J. 16. The bottom of the Leslie speaker cabinet showing the Sennheiser MD421.
31


A Fender Rhodes always sounds best and most natural when plugged into
an amplifier. Colorado Sound had a Fender Twin Reverb amp that we plugged the
Rhodes (and also the Wurlitzer) into. An SM57 was placed half an inch from the
speaker grill, on-axis, between the center and the edge of the speaker cone.
Figure 3.17. The Fender Twin Reverb amplifier used for the Fender Rhodes and Wuhtzer keyboards.
Showing the Share SM57.
The synthesizer was plugged directly into the console using the direct
injection boxes in Moons synthesizer rig.
32


Figure 3.18. Moon at the keyboards showing the Hammond C3 (left), his synthesizer rig (top right),
and the Fender Rhodes (bottom right).
The mic preamps were chosen at OBriens suggestions. Both bass drum
mics were patched into the API 512C preamps. The APIs added a nice dean
snap" to the attack of the drum while bringing out the tone. The snare was patched
into a Vintech X81. Vintechs are based upon the Neve design for preamps and. like
a Neve, it was able to handle the fast transients of the snare while adding some
roundness to the tone. The rack tom, the floor tom and the timbale were patched
into the API 512C preamps as well. The APIs brought out the tone of each of those
drums quite nicely. The hi-hat. overhead mics, piccolo snare, and conga mics were
patched directly to the Euphonix console preamps. The Euphonix preamps were
clean and accurate and brought out the high frequencies of the cymbals beautifully.
33


Figure 3.20. The Vintech XB! Preamps and EQs.
I equalized the bass drum using API560's. The Beta 52 had the following
graphic EQ layout:
Table 3.1. The API560 EQ sellings for the Bela52 kick drum mic.
Freq. 31 Hz 63Hz 125 Hz 250Hz 500Hz 1kHz 2kHz 4kHz 8kHz 16kHz
Boost/cul OdB OdB OdB -6dB -12dB -OdB OdB +6dB +3dB OdB
34


The result was a controlling the boomy frequencies while accentuating the
attack of the beater.
The U47 FET mic that was in front of the bass drum had the following
graphic EQ layout:
table 3.2. The API560 EQ Sellings for the U47 FET kick drum mic.
Freq. 31 Hz 63Hz 123 Hz 230Hz 300Hz IkHz 2kHz 4kHz 8kHz 16kHz
Boost/cut OdB OdB -6dB -6dB -8dB -8dB OdB +3dB +6dB OdB
This, once again, controlled the boomy frequencies while enhancing the
fundamental frequencies of the drum.
The toms were equalized using API 550A's. For the rack tom I cut 400Hz
by 2dB, to eliminate some boxy sounding frequencies. I boosted 100Hz by 5dB
and boosted 5kHz by 2dB to bring out some snap" in the drum.
The timbale was cut at 2.2kHz 3.5dB to tame a ringing tone. Then I boosted
15kHz 3.5dB to bring out the sound of the tambourine cymbals.
The top floor tom mic was equalized using an API 560 with the following
graphic EQ layouts:
Table 3.3. The API 560 EQ settings for the top floor tom mic.
Freq. 31 Hz 63 Hz. 123 Hz 230Hz. 300Hz 1kHz 2kHz 4kHz. 8kHz 16kHz
Boost/cut OdB +3dB +2dB -4dB -12dB -3dB OdB +3dB +3dB +2dB
35


The result was taming the lows and boxy sounding frequencies while
retaining the attack of the drum.
The snare drum inics were equalized using the Vintech EQs built into the
preamps. The top mic was cut 2dB at 500Hz, and boosted ldB at 200Hz. This
eliminated some boxy frequencies and enhanced the crack of the drumhead.
The bottom snare drum mic was cut 3.5dB at 2.2kHz, and boosted 3.5dB at 15kHz.
This tamed the boxy" frequencies and brightened up the snares.
The rest of the drum mics were equalized using the Euphonix consoles
EQs. The hi-hat had a dramatic lOdB cut at 2kHz to tame the harsh mid
frequencies that seemed to be accentuated by putting a mic close to that cymbal. To
further bring out the high frequencies, a -15dB high-pass filter centered at 4kHz
was used as well.
The piccolo snare was equalized using the Euphonix parametric EQ with a
3.5dB boost at 4.7kHz and a cut of 3.5dB at 440Hz. This smoothed out the mids
and brought out the crack of the drum.
The overhead mics were equalized using the Euphonix EQ with a cut of 6dB
at 1.5kHz. and a boost of 3dB at 10.5 kH. This tamed some of the harsh frequencies
of the cymbals while bringing some air into the sound. The rest of the tracks were
recorded using no equalization.
36


I set up a session template in Pro Tools with all the track names labeled so
that 1 could set up new songs quickly while tracking. One challenge we faced while
setting up the microphones was that we needed more inputs but had already used all
available inputs on the studios wall panel. O'Briens solution was to run XLR
cables from the synthesizer DI into the control room and then patch them into the
secondary preamps of the Euphonix console. He then used a bus to send the signal
to the computer, thereby eliminating the wall panel and creating two more inputs.
A room mic was needed for communication between the musicians and the
control room, so another mic was placed in the tracking room and patched into a
remaining input bus. At that point we had two remaining busses left on the board.
We had to send Moon the same mix to his headphones as OBrien and 1 had in the
control room. As a consequence, if I didn't remember to turn off the room mic
when the drums played, it would hurt Moons ears. Another drawback to running
out of inputs was that I had to make the decision not to use the Subkick that we had
set up so that we could free up space for another mic.
37


Figure 3.22. O Brien working out turn to crosspatch the Euphonix console to gain two more inputs.
Tracking went smoothly. Constantly adjusting the preamps and the cue
mixes, and finding and fixing buzzes from the vintage keyboards was a common
task during the session. But those are normal activities during any tracking session.
The songs were usually done in two or three takes, with only a few overdubs to fix
a few groove issues, or to add a part here and there. The guys in gogoLab are
efficient and great at their craft, so the evening was easygoing and the music they
played was superb. We spent approximately three hours setting up and getting the
sounds, and another seven hours tracking seven tunes.
38


The songs we tracked were Bring A Torch Jeanette, Isabella, Deck The
Halls, The First Noel, Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairies, Jingle Bells, Good
King Wenceslas and Away In A Manger.
Figure 3.23. gogolxtb tracking "The First Noel".
I spent the next two weeks editing out a few mistakes the band members had
made, and making rough mixes of all the songs. I emailed the rough mixes to all the
band members as MP3s so that theyd have some ideas for what to do when we
added overdubs. I arranged an overdub session with the drummer, McRae, on
March 2nd, to add some percussion to the tracks.
At his studio we set up two microphones. I brought my Neumann U87 with
me and McRae had a Sound Engineering SEZ5600A II tube mic. The SE mic had a
39


clear, distinct high frequency response that made it better suited to recording
shakers, tambourines, or other high-pitched instruments. The U87, on the other
hand, had a midrange response that was much better for instruments like bongos,
and udu.
Both of the microphones were plugged into API 7600 preamps that McRae
had at his studio. We made an attempt to use an Appogee Rosetta as the A/D
converter but we were unable to make it work at a 96kHz sample rate. We decided
instead to use his Digidesign 002R (with a clock and preamp modification from
Black Lion Audio) as the A/D converter. The only other minor problem we ran into
was that the Macintosh G5 computer that McRae had in his studio was having some
trouble processing some of the plugins that I'd put on a few tracks while making the
rough mixes. It was also having trouble playing many of the tracks at 96kHz. It
turned out that McRaes G5 had a single 1 GHz CPU, while the G5 I use at home
had a dual 2 GHz CPU. Since I had added the plugins on my G5 at home I hadnt
anticipated having problems with them during the overdubbing session. For many
of the songs I just bypassed the plugins to solve the problem. For one session I had
to open the original, unedited Colorado Sound Session because the session of the
rough mix contained several edits that had not been consolidated into a single new
40


audio region and the computer couldnt process the edits and record at the same
time.
We tracked for several hours. Most songs needed some percussion that
helped the groove settle in. For Dance Of The Sugar Plum Fairies we layered a
shaker, bongos, an udu, a clave, a giiiro, a rain stick, and cymbals (swelled) over the
top of the rhythms McRae had already set up with the djembe and conga that were
part of his drum set at Colorado Sound.
We added sleigh bells, tambourine, and shaker to Jingle Bells. Bring A
Torch Jeanette, Isabella only needed some shaker, cowbell, and tambourine.
Shaker was the only element overdubbed on Good King Wenceslas.
Because they were part of his drum set, McRae played the cowbell, wood block,
and conga during the initial tracking session.
Initially, The First Noel had such a busy drum set part that we were hard
pressed to Find anything that would help the groove. Eventually, after some
experimentation. McRae had the idea to use pandeiro in the solo section. The very
end of the song needed some high frequency content when the darker ride cymbal
took over for the bright crash cymbal, so McRae played a tambourine over that
section to add brightness back to the track.
41


When listening back to Deck The Halls", we found that the Alien Disc
cymbal and hi-hat took up all of the high frequency content, thus no overdubs were
added. A double drum set part was recorded at Colorado Sound for Away In A
Manger" so McRae and 1 thought that adding more percussion would make the mix
too cluttered, so no overdubs were recorded to that song.
On March 14th, 2008 I went over to Eric Moons house to record overdubs. 1
brought my Macintosh G5 computer, Digidesign 002R interface, Neumann U87
microphone, Shure KSM32 microphone, Shure SM57 microphone, and a case full
of miscellaneous cables. To Dance Of The Sugar Plum Fairies" we added toy
piano, bass banjo (a regular five-string banjo with three bass strings on it), and
accordion. An instrument called a bubul tarang (an Indian string instrument that is
played much like an autoharp, where keys are used to stop the strings in order to
make pitches) was added to Away In A Manger". See figure 3.24 for a picture of
the bubul tarang. Upright grand piano was played over Good King Wenceslas,
and Jingle Bells. Native American flute and gopichand (an Indian instrument
with a string attached to a drumhead that, when plucked, the string tension can be
adjusted by pushing on a wooden bar) was also added to Jingle Bells. See figure
3.24 for a picture of a gopichand. Moon played lap steel guitar on Deck The
42


Halls. And we ended the day by having Moon play sampled drums on The First
Noel.
Figure 3.24. .1 gopichand on the left, and a babul larang on the right.
Moon had a Rode NT1A condenser microphone, which I set up and
compared to the U87 and KSM32. The KSM32 seemed the best choice for the toy
piano, flute, and bass banjo. It also worked well in combination with the U87
when recording the bubul tarang. I lifted the piano lid and placed the U87 on the
bass side, the KSM32 in the middle of the piano, and the NT1A on the treble side.
All three mics worked well together in capturing a natural piano sound. The SM57
was the best choice for the accordion and the Vibro Champ amplifier that the lap
43


steel was plugged into. Any condenser mic 1 tried made the accordion sound reedy
and hollow, but the SM57 captured the midrange tone of the accordion perfectly.
Figure 3.26. "Bass banjo. l ive-string banjo with bass strings on it. Showing Share KSM32.
44


45


Figure 3.29. The Native American wooden flute. Showing the Shure KSM32.
46


Figure 3.32. Moon playing the electronic drums using his synthesizer rig.
As I began mixing the songs, it became clear that more overdubs would be
needed. The first obvious problem was that Tim had not performed his part well
47


while tracking Away In The Manger. It was the last song we tracked that night,
and Hochman had to go to a gig, so w'e never had a chance to redo his part at
Colorado Sound.
I emailed Hochman several times, attempting to set up a time to meet up
with him to re-record his part. His work schedule and my work schedule never
matched up. Finally Hochman said, Youre a bass player, why dont you play it?
1 agreed, and plugged my Ibanez SR500 bass into a SansAmp Bass Driver DI,
dialed in a generous amount of distortion, then plugged the DI into the 002R and
recorded two bass parts. One was strummed octaves, and the other palm mutes. The
two parts together created a big bass tone. See figure 3.33 for a picture of the
SansAmp Bass Driver.
Figure 3.33. The SansAmp Bass Driver direel injection box.
48


Later, McRae and I decided a guitar would help the end of Away In A
Manger" as well, since McRae switched cymbals from a bright sounding one to a
duller sounding one near the end of the song. We both felt the high end dropped
away, so we hoped that the guitar would maintain the momentum delivered by the
cymbal through to the end of the heavy section of the song.
In order to track the guitar part we needed, I borrowed a friends Fender
Stratocaster and plugged it directly into the 002R. I used the SansAmp PSA-1
plugin to get an amplifier sound, since I dont own a real guitar amp. I tracked two
guitar parts, one with a wah pedal and one without. I combined the two together for
a single guitar part. The overdub not only helped maintain the high frequencies, but
also added a new element to the track that pushed the song into a climatic ending.
Once an initial mix of Bring A Torch Jeanette, Isabella" was complete, it
was obvious that the track lacked energy and an interesting counterpart to the organ
melody. McRae recommended that his friend and neighbor, Eben Grace, play surf
guitar on the track. I drove up to Graces house to record him. He used his Fender
Jazzmaster to get that surf sound. Grace had an AKG C414 and Royer R121,
which I placed on a guitar cabinet so that the C414 was aimed at the center of the
speaker cone and the R121 was aimed at the edge of the speaker cone. He played
49


through a Fender Princeton Reverb amplifier that was plugged into a Fluxtone
cabinet that had a power drain on it. The power drain allows the tubes on the
amplifier to distort without having to turn the amplifier up too loudly.
Figure 3.34. The Fluxtone guitar cabinet showing the AKG C4I4 and Royer RI2L
The mics were plugged into a Grace 801 preamp (Grace's brother, Michael,
makes them). We used his Empirical Labs Distressor compressor to add a little
more crunch to the signal. I used the following settings:
Table 3.4. The settings for the Distressor.
Setting Input Attack Release Output Ratio
Optical 5 10 0 7.5 10:1
50


Figure 3.35. The Grace 801 (middle) and the Empirical Labs Distressor (bottom).
Tracking was fast. Grace had a great ear and had both a rhythm and lead
guitar part done within an hour. It was exactly what the song needed to bring
excitement back into it.
Figure 3.36. Ebert Grace tracking Bring A Torch Jeanette. Isabella".
51


Lastly, as I began cleaning up the drum tracks, by editing out the parts of the
regions where the toms and hi-hat werent being played, 1 ran into a unique problem
with Good King Wenceslas. During the initial tracking session, McRae set up a
wood block on a stand and played it with a wooden beater attached to a bass drum
pedal. There was no mic set up next to the wood block, so it could only be heard as
bleed from the other mics.
As I deleted the parts of the regions that weren't needed on the drum
set, the wood block got louder or quieter depending on which mic was being used.
This, of course, sounded unnatural. 1 knew I needed to come up with a solution.
I borrowed a woodblock from the music store where 1 work. I set up my
U87 in my living room and plugged it into the 002R. I then played the woodblock
with a drumstick onto a new track. Unfortunately, the pitch of the new woodblock
was higher than the pitch of the old one. Not only that, but it was impossible to
match every hit of the original when playing the new part.
1 used the Pitch Shift plugin in the Pro Tools AudioSuite to drop the pitch of
the woodblock down approximately 4 semitones and 43 cents (see chapter 10 for
specific settings). Once the pitches matched up, I looked at the hi-hat track to find
the woodblock that had bled into that mic. Then, using that track as a visual guide I
fond the transient of each of the original woodblock hits and then moved pieces of
52


the new woodblock region with the nudge tool to line up the new woodblock with
the old one. Finally, I set up an auxiliary send for a TL Space reverb and used the
DC Live Room preset to make the woodblock sound as if it were in the same room
as the rest of the drum set. It solved the problem perfectly.
53


CHAPTER 4
MIXING OVERVIEW
This section will discuss general issues concerning the mixing process. The
subsequent chapters will cover specifics for each song.
What follows is a complete list of equipment and signal processors that were used
while mixing:
- DAW
o Pro Tools LE 7.2
o Pro Tools HD 7.1
Speakers
o Mackie HR824 (stereo)
o Yamaha MSP10 for the main monitors and an SW10 for the
subwoofer (surround sound)
Computer
o Macintosh G5
DA/AD Converters
o Digidesign 192
Outboard Processors
o dbx 160A compressor
o DigiTech Turbo Flange
o Empirical Labs Distressor compressor
o Line 6 DL4 delay modeler
Plugins
o Bomb Factory
54


Moogerfooger Analog Delay
o Digidesign
1 Band EQ 3
4 Band EQ 3
7 Band EQ 3
Gate
Pitch Shift
Short Delay II
Smack! compressor
o Focusrite
d3 compressor
o SansAmp
PSA-1 distortion
o Trillium Lane Labs
TL Space convolution reverb
o Waves
C4 Multiband Parametric Compressor
MondoMod modulation
X-Noise noise reducer
55


Figure 4.2. The surround sound mixing studio in The King Center at the University oj Colorado at Denver.
I knew Id have to please the members of gogoLab with my mixes and edits,
since they wanted to use this project for commercial release. I figured 1 should edit
and mix the stereo portion of the project at home as much as possible since
scheduling the University's studios would not hinder me. 1 am also much more
familiar with my own speakers and listening environment, and am able to make EQ
and balance decisions with greater accuracy than can be achieved when mixing at
school.
While mixing, I would often reference the remastered version of the song
Girlfriend Is Better by The Talking Heads for its clarity in the bass frequencies,
and overall sonic balance.
I began by mixing all the tracks to about 90% of where I thought they
should be. I then made MP3 files of each of the songs and emailed them to the
56


members of gogoLab to see if they thought I was on the right track. Moon and
McRae wrote me back (Hochman never had anything to say) with suggestions for
edits, balance, or mix changes. McRaes biggest critique was to lower the volume
of drum overheads and room mics by about 207c. It was a brilliant suggestion,
because it got the cymbals out of the way of the drums. This balanced the drum set
much better, and made the set sound much bigger and tighter than where I
originally had mixed it.
Moons suggestions were sonic ones, such as adding Henry Mancini-type
spring reverb to the organ in Good King Wenceslas. They also wanted Dance Of
The Sugar Plum Fairies to sound more like a dub reggae than where I originally
had it mixed. That meant adding delays and huge reverbs, and an occasional analog
delay feedback loop to the drums.
Leslie Gaston, my thesis advisor, also had great suggestions for me. First
and foremost she said I should turn up the bass. When I did, I found I had to bring
the bass drum up as well but the mixes felt more solid and the groove intensified.
She also had small suggestions, such as smoothing out the volume of the toms,
making some of the reverbs mono and panning them away from the center, and
small EQ changes here and there. Gaston also had an amazing ability to hear the
slightest pop or click of a bad edit or digital glitch. Once she pointed them out
57


to me, I could hear them, and I have since achieved a greater awareness of what a
had edit sounds like. During the mixing of this project, her ears were invaluable in
helping me clean up the tracks.
Since I was using Pro Tools LE at home I was forced to use the CPU pow'er
of the computer instead of PCI card like Pro Tools HD has. Therefore, mixing
96kHz audio with many plugins, auxiliary busses and audio tracks was sometimes
too much for my dual 2 gHz CPU, 2.1 gigabyte RAM computer to handle. 1 had to
set the buffers to their maximum, and the computer would still often get glitchy
and would often give me an error message that I was running out of CPU power. I
would periodically have to make duplicates of the tracks and use the AudioSuite
versions of the plugins to write them directly to the track. This eliminated RTAS
versions of plugins and freed some CPU power.
Another challenge I faced while using Pro Tools LE was finding that several
plugins I had didn't work at a 96kHz sample rate. The Waves Multitap delay
wouldnt work at all. The MoogerFooger delay worked, but would not reload when
opening the session, so all the settings would be lost. In order to get the delays I
needed, 1 used a Line 6 DL4 digital delay modeler instead. The DL4 was designed
as an effects pedal on stage, but it had a very low noise floor and a great variety of
58


stereo delays. I plugged the DL4 into the 002R and recorded the wet delay signal to
a separate track. The result was a clean, synchronized delay that took up far less
CPU power to process than a plugin would have. The delay had a nice amount of
imperfection built into it. Many settings on the DL4 are modeled after vintage
analog and tape delays, so the timing on them is always a little off. Another feature
that was nice was the tap tempo feature; I could physically tap my hand on a
button to get the tempo of the delay to match the song. And, since a human tapping
the tempo is never as accurate as a computer, it gave the delays a nice organic feel.
See figure 4.3 for a picture of the Line 6 DL4 delay modeler.
1 took the final stereo mixes to the University's studio to bounce them to
disk using the Pro Tools HDs delay compensation option. Pro Tools HD utilizes
PCI cards for processing instead of the computers internal CPU. The HD software
Figure 4.3. The Line 6 DL4 delay modeler pedal.
59


can compensate for the amount of latency inherent in digital signal processing and
is able to automatically put them back in the correct time. The result is a cleaner,
deeper sounding mix. 1 ran into a problem, however, when I discovered that the
schools HD system was missing many of the plugins 1 used while mixing at home.
The ones 1 missed the most were the Smack! Compressor and the TL Space
convolution reverb. The solution was to bring in my installation disks for the
plugins and install them on the schools computer. I had to remember to bring my
Pro Tools USB iLok dongle to access them during each session since the plugins
were registered to my account. Despite concerns that I might encounter some
problems with the RTAS versions of these plugins, it didnt seem to matter. TDM
plugins, unlike RTAS, are able to utilize the PCI processors of Pro Tools HD. With
TDM plugins the computers CPU has much less to process since the plugins and
audio tracks are dedicated to the PCI cards. Since Pro Tools automatically switched
many of my EQ and other plugins to TDM when opening up the LE sessions, it
freed up enough processing power for the computer to handle the RTAS plugins
efficiently with the delay compensation.
Another plugin that I used at home that the school's computer didnt have
was the Waves C4 Multiband compressor. I used it several times on the kick drum
60


to help bring out the attack of the beater and also to bring out the tone of the drum. I
was forced to write the C4 plugin to the kick drum tracks using AudioSuite.
There were several times, while mixing the stereo versions of the songs on
Pro Tools LE, when 1 had to defragment the drive I was using because the
computers CPU wasnt able to process the audio and pull the information from the
drive fast enough. I was forced to purchase a program called iDefrag, since the
OSX Macintosh operating system does not come with a defragmenting program.
Once 1 had the project backed up to another hard drive, and the main hard drive was
defragmented, I had no more problems from then on.
Several songs required some precise editing, moving a bass note or snare hit
to get it back into the groove. This type of editing was impossible on my LE system
because, at 96kHz, I was forced to set the processing buffer as high as it would go. I
couldnt tell if the groove was off because it was played wrong, or because the
processing latency was shifting the track. I was forced to use the schools HD
system to make critical editing choices.
61


Once Gaston, McRae, Moon, and myself approved the stereo tracks, the
final mixes were bounced down using Pro Tools HD. I then turned my attention to
the surround sound mixes.
The surround sound mixes came together quickly compared to the stereo
mixes. 1 found that since the equalization, compression, and volume settings had
already been set that only small changes were needed to make the surround sound
mixes work. Generally, once the instruments had been panned around the speakers
the only alteration needed was a small change in level.
1 experimented with placing reverbs and delays in speakers other than the
one used by the original dry" track, which usually worked very well in adding
another dimension to the mix. 1 found that the drums and bass should be kept in the
left and right front speakers in order to keep the rhythm section grounded in the
mix. Moving the drums or bass around felt unnatural and disorienting.
1 found it tricky to strike a balance when finding the proper setting for the
divergence when panning instruments around the five main speakers. Divergence
adds a percentage of the sound into every speaker in order to aid the ear in locating
sounds. Without a small amount of sound in every speaker, the ear cant
differentiate where that sound is coming from when it is placed between the front
62


speakers and back speakers. By adding a little bit of sound in each speaker the ear
can then tell which speaker is louder, and therefore can locate the sound. Finding
the amount of divergence to use could be difficult because using too much made it
appear as if the sound w'ere all around you with little or no directional information.
Too little divergence resulted in the sound snapping from one speaker to the next
without a smooth transition in between. 1 found that a divergence of 75% to 80%
was a good starting point (20% to 25% of the sound in each speaker).
When mixing Good King Wenceslas, 1 had to adjust the piano's overall
compression ratio to be far less intrusive. In the stereo mix the compressor was set
to a 4:1 ratio. Then it w'as automated to move to a 2:1 ratio during the solos. When
mixing in surround I found that I could leave the compression ratio set to 2:1
throughout the duration of the song. This w'as because I now had the ability to pan
the piano into the back speakers and, since it was no longer competing for space
with the organ, it no longer required the same amount of compression that it needed
before.
I found myself needing to resist the temptation to use the mics 1 had placed
on the back of the Leslie for every organ part. Instead I had to use them as an effect
when the organ played a more supportive role, and not when it had the main
melody.
63


CHAPTER 5
MIXING BRING A TORCH JEANETTE. ISABELLA
Stereo Mixing.
The surf style of music generally uses Fender guitars and amplifiers
which used spring reverbs and have a bright tone. Therefore, when mixing Bring
A Torch Jeanette, Isabella" I did my best to keep the Fender guitar sounding bright
and used spring reverbs to give the mix a surf style. Green Onions on The
Ventures The Ventures Play Telstar The Lonely Bull And Others is an example
of the kind of sound I was trying to achieve with this mix.
The main challenge in mixing Bring A Torch Jeanette, Isabella was
striking a balance between the guitar and the organ. Both instruments played the
melody throughout the song and were therefore playing in the same frequency
range. I experimented with EQ and compression to try to carve out a sonic space for
the instruments. However, I eventually found the main reason the guitar and organ
were fighting with each other was that there was little room for both instruments in
the stereo field. My solution was, when the organ had the melody, to pan the left
and right microphones on the Leslie cabinet to the middle, and then to pan them
64


hard left and right during the sections where the guitar took the melody. Also, when
the left and right mics were panned in full stereo, 1 muted the bottom Leslie mic so
that no sound from the organ would get to the center. The result was to give the
guitar and the organ each the space it needed to occupy the middle when it needed
to take the melody.
Another small problem I had was finding where the cowbell would fit in the
mix. I had a hard time finding a way to make the cowbell strong without being
annoying. I tried compression and distortion, but eventually Gaston suggested that 1
try a more aggressive EQ to bring out more of the tone of the cowbell. This allowed
me to place the cowbell in the mix so that the tone of it was audible without the
attack of the drumstick getting in the way.
I approached and processed each track in the following ways:
Kick drum:
The Beta52A and the U47 FET were sent, in equal amounts, to an external
dbx 160A analog compressor. I find the 160A does a great job at adding a deep tone
to a kick drum. See table 5.1 for the 160As settings.
65


Table 5.1. The dbx I60A compressor sellings for the kick drum.
Threshold Ratio Output Knee
-ldB 4:1 -l.ldB None
Figure 5. / dbx 160A compressor.
Then using equalization and a multiband compressor, 1 controlled the boomy
frequencies while enhancing the attack of the beater. Refer to figures 5.2 and 5.3 for
specific settings.
Figure 5.2. The kick drum EQ
66


j c
A.:eT !V~[ C4 ] ( byfrMj ~i At AS
11! | | j Q*j oof*t *r j auto 1 soft ] V*^
Figure 5.3 The kiek drum multihand eompressor.
Snare drum:
I wanted the snare to have a warm sound, similar to the kind of sound one
would get with tape saturation. Using distortion and equalization, I found the tone I
needed. Refer to figures 5.4, 5.5, and 5.6 for specific settings.
67


: 1$ j < fcK*y
4-gjfw>603 |-| bypw |HTA3
T-T [a] j f j **(*}
n
' f^ Sftar*4l402 "j ^T
||t| SwwyPSfr-1____j { feyp*ss HI AS
- l-tjai w'w'.. ||'H) Xlt i
MI.AMD BUZZ PUNCH CRUNCH
m V< .
DAIVt LOW HIOM L1VKL
M ## m
MODEL
PBA-1
SanbAmp
TECH 52 1 rsi Y"CS
Figure 5.5. The top snare mic distortion.
68


j j i^ar* 414.Q2 ^ jcjff | jVj j-|+Jl3/] c-vn&i- | j auf&|"safe*| j
Or* r*o ky input j
Figure 5.6. The top snare mic compressor.
I found that once the distortion was added it brought out the rattle of the snares on
the bottom drumhead. To clean this up I inserted a gate plugin on the bottom snare
mic. I set up the gate to trigger the bottom mic to open when the top snare mic went
above the gates threshold, which was accomplished by sending the top mic to a bus
and keying the gate to that bus. This cleaned up the ringing of the snares and
tightened up the overall sound of the drum set. Refer to figure 5.7 for specific
settings.
69


| SMr# 57.02 | i j Gat? jj bypass jRTAS 1

U! < factory default' l-j-la! <- ; | auto | saftj \£j j
O-wl Bus 3 j '
-60 -40-26 9 '

Threshold | -t9.t <[
Min* 1 .00 ms 1
Hold | 88 ms |
Decay | 820 ms | V
Ftercge | -80 dB|
w
}
i

External Key B Key listen Qj
Figure 5.7. The gate for bottom snare mic.
CjiTC 1$ j
Hi-hat:
No additional processing was needed.
Rack tom:
The only thing needed was a 1-band equalizer to tame a ringing frequency.
See figure 5.8.
11 Twn 42102 (i j j j byptts' j TAS
| rf&Gry j j i a 1 * i auto j safa i
i
Figure 5.8 The rack tom EQ.
70


Timbale:
No additional processing was needed.
Floor torn:
The top floor tom mic needed no additional processing, but the bottom mic
needed a small amount of equalization to tame a ringing frequency. See figure 5.9.
Fteor BHwri!o2"j a'| I-Band £03 ' byV ^ j ft? AS
((${ Figure 5.9. The EQ for the bottom floor tom mic.
Drum overhead mics:
I used a 1-band EQ to put a gentle high-pass filter on the overhead mics.
This allowed me to boost the cymbals without getting bleed from the kick drum.
See figure 5.10.
71


Figure 5.10. The overhead microphones' EQ.
Drum room mics:
No additional processing was needed.
I set up an auxiliary send and bussed each drum to it. The hi-hat. overheads,
and room mics were also bussed to the aux send, but in small amounts. Then I
inserted a Smack! compressor and adjusted the level of the auxiliary input, thereby
reinforcing the tone of the drums and adding a shimmer' to the cymbals. I didnt
want to overdo the compression ratio because I felt that too much compression
wouldnt fit the feel of the song. See figure 5.11 for specific settings.
72


i Drum* j ) Snwck! ii bypass jfcTAS

{* i < factory .1:1* l.a.l - 'rrt-r< ; j Auto ] Site |
0~n | no ky input j
Figure 5.1 /. The compressor used on the auxiliary drum bus.
Tambourine:
A small amount of EQ was needed to bring out the sizzle of the cymbals
and to cut out some unnaturally sounding high-middle frequencies. See figure 5.12.
73


! ________________________________________________
| iTfi^hSU46bOA2| j 4-B*nd £Q 3 | ( tryjMtff j f A S
Figure 5.12. The tambourine EQ.
Shaker:
The shaker needed equalization similar to the tambourines. The EQ added
some sizzle and helped tame some upper-mid frequencies. See figure 5.13.
74


Cowbell:
As mentioned above, the cowbell required aggressive equalization. By also
adding compression, I finally found the perfect tone. Refer to figures 5.14 and 5.15
for specific settings.
75


| "Cowteliue7 01 jbj SmaokT '1j byp*£g~*j R1AS
, }$}T < f*c f'-'] j Q | oompVfr | j auto | sa~fg]
I OH | no key input j
Hi
I
Figure 5.15. The cowbell compression.
Bass:
76


A fair amount of processing went into the bass sound. I wanted the bass to
growl. I started with the dry bass track so that 1 would have a clean slate to
work with. Then I added a PSA-1 distortion plugin, three separate equalizers, and
the Smack! compressor. The distortion added the growl while the EQs and
compressor helped smooth out the sound of the distortion. Refer to figures 5.16,
5.17, 5.18, 5.19 and 5.20 for specific settings.
11 Bass Dry EQ DtST jV']'' SansAmpreA-l 11 bypass _J KTA5
ORE AMP BUZZ PUNCH CRUNCH
I
DRIVE LOW MHBH LSVBi.
5/CUE
PSA
Sans Amp
Figure 5.16. The bass distortion.
11


f[ BmiOryEOOJST [b] 7-B*ndEQ3 | pbyp 1 r ~Uctory tkfmti*' j j + Qij ow.vnr; j j ] gf]

trmxmmrz
Hm3( h ,r->
tga
O sS2q
OfBBO /*7S Ff O
BBS (<)l
Figure 5.17. The first EQ used for the bass.
j B*J pry EQ DIET jej 7*9ati4 EQ 5 j | fttAS
Figure 5.18. The second EQ used on the bass.
78


! Bass DryEQ DIST J d ] 1-Br>dEQ5 ~j j ~bypm j RTAS
|$ j ^factory| j | q>j ] | auto ] sabTj
Figure 5.19. The third EQ used on the bass.
. A
| Bass Dry EQ DiST } | Struck! 1 j bypass j Rf AS

jij O-w j no key input }
\
Figure 5.20. The bass compression.
Organ:
The organ mics were bussed to an auxiliary input. All the processing for the
organ was inserted on the auxiliary input. Two equalizers were used to clean up the
organ and add some sparkle to the sound. Then a compressor was used to tie the
organ into the mix. Refer to figures 5.21, 5.22, and 5.23 for specific settings.
79



Figure 5.21. The first organ EQ.
Figure 5.22. The second organ EQ.
80


f Organ | c' 1' Smaok! | j bypass j RTAS
|$j ~< factory defiv/t* ]- | + |Q j. orn^T-'" j j wto j *af j
Ow j no k*y input |
t
Figure 5.23. The organ compression.
Lead Guitar:
I started by sending equal levels of the guitar mics to an auxiliary track.
Equalization and compression were added to tame some troublesome frequencies
and settle the guitar into the mix. See figures 5.24, 5.25, and 5.26 for specific
settings.
81


,r. ,, ... Ji £IZ i
l*L 'factory j-|t|Q f.|
Figure 5.24. The first lead guitar EQ.
| Gutter 2 1 t\ 4-9*nd EQ 3 j! byp*aj 1

'j: (factory defutX' j ) + j 0| v0^p4 n | J Mjt j f*{
82


o
] Guitar 2 j d 1 Sm*okf | j toyp ~] 111 AS
)$f < factory def*uif> ['-f *1 Qi] sore*'*'* | j auto j safe | &
O-w [_ no key input ;
Figure 5.26. The lead guitar compression.
Rhythm guitar:
The two rhythm guitar mics were sent, in equal amounts, to an auxiliary
input. A small amount of EQ was used to enhance a particular frequency that made
the guitar pop out of the mix a little more. Refer to figure 5.27 for specific
settings.
83


Figure 5.27. The rhythm guitar EQ.
Because the rhythm guitar was a supporting instrument, it needed to take up more
space without getting in the way of the other instruments, so I found it necessary to
use a short delay plugin. This spread the guitar across the speakers, while still
leaving room in the middle of the stereo image for other instruments. See figure
5.28 for specific settings.
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