Citation
Reminiscences of frontier days

Material Information

Title:
Reminiscences of frontier days including an authentic account of the Thornburg and Meeker massacre
Creator:
Rankin, M. Wilson
Place of Publication:
Denver
Publisher:
Photo-lithographed by Smith-Brooks
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
140 pages : illustrations, map, portraits ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Frontier and pioneer life -- Wyoming ( lcsh )
Frontier and pioneer life -- Colorado ( lcsh )
Ute Indians ( lcsh )
Frontier and pioneer life ( fast )
Ute Indians ( fast )
Colorado ( fast )
Wyoming ( fast )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
"Accounts of the settlement of northwestern Colorado, and the Snake river valley of southwestern Wyoming, which occurred from 1868 until 1883"--Preface.
Statement of Responsibility:
by M. Wilson Rankin (from his private diary).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
08255620 ( OCLC )
ocm08255620
Classification:
F761 .R26 1938 ( lcc )
978.702 R211, R, 1938 ( ddc )

Auraria Membership

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Literature Collections

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THE RIDER"1938


REMINISCENCES
of FRONTIER DAYS
Including
An Authentic Account
of the
THORNBURG
and MEEKER
MASSACRE
By M. WILSON RANKIN
(From His Private Diary)
This narrative is respectfully dedicated
to the pioneers of Northwestern Colorado
and of the Snake River Valley
in Southwestern Wyoming.
I'hoto-I.itliourniilied by
Smith-Brooks, Deliver.
lT. S. A.
|.t


Copyright 1938
By M.Wilson Rankin,
Boulder, Colorado,
U.S.A.


PREFACE
Throughout this book, the author is designated as "The
Rider," (having served as a rider and not as a -writer) who
endeavors to give accurate accounts of the settlement of North-
western Colorado, and the Snake River Valley of Southwestern
Wyoming, which occurred from 1868 until 1883, together with
numerous incidents, and especially those relating to the
Thornburg and Meeker Massacre.
He gives a brief description of the location of the dif-
ferent tribes of the Ute Indians and the Ute reservations, as
a background for describing the White River Ute trouble.
Incidents leading to the creation of Wyoming Territory
are given with no thought of quoting published history.
At the time of this narrative, Rawlins, Wyoming, was an
important supply and distributing point.
This book contains 39 illustrations, and most of these
were outlined by "The Rider" as experienced at the time in-
dicated. All were pen sketched by J.C.Smith, and are fair
representations of the characters and the landscape. Cameras
were little known on the outskirts of civilization during
the time covered in thi3 narrative.


CONTENTS
Page
I - Historic Background.....................................1
II - Discovery of Gold and .first Mining at Hahn's Peak . . 7
III - Jin Briuger and Jirn Baker ............................10
IV - Brown's Bole Historic Spot......................16
V - The Hew Territory in the Rough.........................19
VI - Incidents and first Settlement of Snake River . . . .24
VII - First Settlement of Grand and Routt Cnratie3, Colo. .32
VIII - Hoted Events v/ithin the Area, and Settlement of 1876.36
IX - Settlement of Snake River and Incidents in 1877 . . .44
X - Incidents and Settlement in 1878 ..................... 53
XI - Activity and Audi Grievance at the Agency.........63
XII - The Way It Turned Out.............................66
XII t - A Pre-!..edit .ted Tragedy............................76
XIV - Relief crces.......................................80
XV - Rescue of the ',7omen and Children.....................88
XVI - The Military Situation; Comments and Episodes . . . .97
XVII - First Settlement of North Fark, and Incidents-
within the Area from 1879 to 1884 ................105
XVIII - "The Rider" On the Way South......................Ill
XIX - Frontier Incidents and Cowboy Life................122


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Page
"The Rider" Delivering a Message, Wyoming, 1878 (Frontispiece)
Chief Ouray......................................................2
Discovery of Gold and First Mining at Hahn's Peak..............8
Jim Baker During His Early Trapping Days.......................11
A Friendly Meeting of Jim Bridger and Chief Washakie .......... 13
Baggs' Ranch, Built in 1875 ....................................26
Jim Baker On a Hunt for Fresh Meat, 1875 ...................... 30
Ute Jack, While Scout for General Crook, 1876 and 1877 .... 35
Sitting Bull, Chief Medicine-man, In British Territory .... 37
Jim Baker's Horae, Built in 1873 ..............................40
A Monster Grizzly.............................................. 50
First White River Ute Indian Agency.............................55
The Meekers, when Employed at the White River Agency...........62
Milk Creek Battlegrounds ...................................... 74
White River Agency, Built in 1878 and 1879 .................... 77
Tom lies' Ranch, (Bachelor's Hall) 1879 .......................84
General Merritt's Camp On White River, 1879 ...................86
Hostile Ute Camp On Grand River, 1879 .........................88
Map of Trails Between Rawlins, Wyoming and Los Pinos Agency. 90
Los Pinos Agency, 1880 ........................................ 92
Wagon and Pack Train On the Road...............................100
Rustic Hotel, in Poudre Canyon Built in 1880 ................107
Crossing the Columbia River, 1881 ............................ 123
Beef Herd, and Half-breed Cree Procession On the Trail .127
Beef Herd Swimming the Yellowstone River.......................128
Inspecting Sioux Remains ..................................... 129
A Bear Scare...................................................130
Cowboys Lassoing 3uffalo Calves .............................. 131
Chinese Quarters, Rock Springs, Wyoming, 1884 ................. 132
Roundup Crew Camped for the Night..............................135
Simon Snares Bruin.............................................136
Shorty's Spill.................................................136
Bernard Makes His Bow, Greeting Bruin ........................ 137
Holding Fast...................................................137
Arrival of a Long-horn Herd; Buffalo "Vamos" to the North 139
Other Illustrations:
Civil War Generals On a Tour of Inspection......................21
Boney ErneBt....................................................3
Freighting On the Frontier......................................52
Chief Ignatio and Buckskin Charley ............................ 95


INTRODUCTION
The Rider arrived at Rawlins, Wyoming, from the family
farm home in Pennsylvania, March 1st, 1875, at the age of
nineteen years. He found employment at various occupations,
hut largely in the saddle. Leaving aside politics and society,
he became familiar with early-day incidents covering a wide
area of the mountain country by information garnered from
pioneer trappers, military officers and government scouts,
and by personal experiences.
The majority of the miners and ranch settlers living within
the area on the dates given are recalled by the names they were
familiarly known by, and conditions are described as they were
at that time; not imaginary, heroip deeds of the brave, nor
exaggerated tales of bad men, which sensational writers would
have the reader believe.
Incidents and names of settlers have been recalled in turn
as they appeared each season, and the narrative is, therefore,
not a connected story.
The mere naming of miners, settlers and trivial local occur-
rences may be of little or no interest to readers, other than
those familiar with the settlements within the territory covered.
This book is produced from my diary, which was originally
written and illustrated only for private use, with no anticipation
of future publication.
Because of requests for copies of the diary, a limited number
of these books have been printed -- with expectations neither of
fume nor profit.
-- The Author.
i i i
The author's introductory references to himself are so
brief that a few words from an old friend, who rode the plains
with The Rider when he was foreman of a large cattle ranch,
should not be amiss.
"V.ils," said this friend (now 80 years old), "was sure a
hard worker, and straight as a string. No matter what the job
was, '.tils.Rankin took the lead. With him it was never 'Go on,
boys,' but rather 'Come on, boys,' and while some of the boys
used to grumble a bit about the long, hard trails or the too
strenuous days, they were loyal to this tireless range boss,
who seldom sat down for lack of something to do. He was ex-
tremely conscientious, and lived a clean, busy life, to win the
respect of all who came in contact with him."
Said another friend: "He was never much of a showman, but
faced the grim realities of frontier life, the hard and often
dangerous tasks of that day, with a quiet,- cool courage that
helped to make the new country a safer place to live in for the
incoming settlers of that period." ___A.S.H.


SECTION I.
Historic Background.
Location of the Ute Indians.
At the advent of civilization in Colorado, which began about 1857 and '58,
all territory west of the continental divide extending to Utah Lake Valley in
Utah, and also San Luis Park on the east slope of the divide, was in possession
of the Ute Indians. The Indians, of their own accord, were divided and lived in
separate tribes, although intermingling to some extent each tribe under the
guidance of a head chief. Three of these tribes were within the boundaries of
Colorado.
In 1861 the Colorado superintendent of Indian affairs appointed Lafayette
Head as agent at Conejos, in San Luis Park, in charge of the Tabequache tribe,
where Ouray was chief. Agent Head distributed supplies and presents to the dif-
ferent tribes in order to gain their confidence.
The Government, in a treaty with Colorado Ute Indians in Middle Park on
October 7,1863, in exchange for part of the territory claimed by them, was to
furnish the Indians with provisions and blankets annually. Reservation boundaries
were established, covering approximately one-third of Colorado territory in the
southwest. The land accepted by the government was a strip, nine townships (54
miles wide) adjoining the northern Colorado line. Major Simeon Whitely was ap-
pointed agent to take charge of distributing supplies in Middle Park to the
Northern Colorado Utes.
Treaty of 1868.
In 1868 a new treaty was made by the government with the Gapote, Wiminuche
and Moache, consolidated tribes known as the Southern Utes, occupying the south-
western part of the reservation with Ignatio as their chief. The government
acquired a strip of their land on the southern border of their reservation (sep-
arating their land from Apache and Navajo lands, which formerly connected
when under Mexican rule) by cash payments for a number of years, and made allott-
ments of 160 acres of land, provisions, sheep and cattle to heads of families who
would farm and become self-supporting. Many were allotted farm lands in the Pine
River Valley. Their agency is known as Ignatio. The larger number, who depended
principally upon the government for support, were allotted reservation lands on
the Lancos River in the southwest corner of Colorado, which later came within the
bounds of Montezuma County. Their agency is known as Toawoc.
The government made a treaty with the Tabequache tribe under Chief Ouray, at
Conejos Agency in 1863. Their lands in the San Luis Valley were ceded to the
government in exchange for a large reservation in the Uncompahgre River Valley
west of the continental divide. They were furnished with sheep, cattle, and annual
supplies. Their agency was known as Los Pinos.
In 1868, at Middle Park, the government made a treaty with the Northern Colo-
rado Utes (later known as the White River Utes,) resulting in the placing of this
tribe in the White River Valley, on a large reservation.
About 1865, their Chief Navuva died. The tribe was divided in its selection
of the new chief. Numerous councils were held during a period of several months.
Finally, Juinkent, after many eloquent speeches, proclaimed himself chief. To add
to his prestige, he assumed the English name of Douglas. Douglas did not prove
satisfactory as chief with many of the tribesmen. As a result, a number of sub-
chiefs emerged from the fracas, each with a following. The names of some of these
were Washington, Yarmor.y, Cup-Ears, Colorow, Uncle Sam and others.
They were dissatisfied with the government allottments, claiming their supplies
were short and that they were not treated as well as other Ute tribes. They con-
tinued to rove and hunt over the entire territory they had agreed to vacate in
their former treaty (which included North and Middle Parks, Bear and Snake Rivers
and their tributaries), and to make their annual buffalo hunt on the plains east


OURAY
Head Chief of the Ute Tribes
and White Mans Friend.


3
of the mountains, although, as history goes, all territory for 100 miles east
of the continental divide, and from the Arkansas River on the south to the North
Platte River on the north, was awarded to the Southern Cheyenne and the Arapahoe
Indians as a hunting ground in a treaty with the government at Port Niobrara in
1857. The Cheyennes occupied the southern portion and the Arapahoes the northern
portion.
The Ute and Arapahoe Indians were bitter enemies. Many battles were fought
when they met on disputed hunting grounds. One of these hunting grounds was North
Park, situated on the northeast slope of the continental divide, with close access
to the Laramie Plains, in the center of Arapahoe territory. Another disputed
hunting ground was Little Snake River and its tributaries.
Ouray Head Chief of All Colorado Ute Tribes.
Ouray, when telling the story of his life, said he was born in the Taos Valley
in 1833. His tribe lived in the San Luis Valley and spent much time in the Sangre-
de-Cristo Mountains and about Taos, where they mingled with the Mexicans and whites.
He learned to speak both the English and the Spanish languages. He was an excep-
tionally shrewd and intelligent Indian. When yet a very young man he was employed
at the Conejos Agency by the government as interpreter at $500 per year. He be-
came influential and a great favorite with all Ute tribes.
During the treaty at Conejos Agency in 1863, the government insisted, as a
business policy, that there should be a head chief over all Colorado Ute tribes,
through whom business could be transacted with confederate tribes. The White River
Utes wanted their chief Nevava to be made head chief. Thi3 was not agreeable with
the government Nevava being an old Indian at the time. The government, knowing
of the intelligence and ability of Ouray, and his friendliness to the whites,
and preferring a younger man, employed him at a salary of $1000 a year. He assisted
in the distribution of cattle, sheep and goats to the different Ute tribes, from the
Conejos Agency. All business transacted by the government with the Utes was done
through him. He was peace-maker and advisor. In 1859 he took unto himself a
wife, Chipeta, a beautiful maiden of the Tabequache tribe, she being ten years
younger than Ouray. Tne government built him a home on the Uncompahgre reservation,
where he lived like the whites. When signing government treaties in 1863 and 1868,
he wrote his name Ure.
A fourth and large tribe known as the Uintah Utes were in possession of the
Duschesne and Uintah Rivers country in eastern Utah, the largest group of the
tribe being established near the mouth of the Provo River in the Utah Lake Valley.
South of them, in Utah, were the Pavant and various Paiute tribes with whom they
mingled. The Uintahs were in frequent clashes with Mormon settlers because of the
latter encroaching upon their lands.
Brigham Young was appointed governor and Indian agent for Utah by the Presi-
dent in 1850, but no definite treaty was made with the Indians at that time.
Bushwhacking and thieving by the Indians continued. In some cases Mormon posses
inflicted severe losses upon the Indians; at other time compromises were made by
the Mormons paying for encroachment with provisions or a horse. In 1854, Brigham
Young, applying his vested authority, succeeded in making treaty with Sowiette,
the wise counselor of the tribe, and Walkara, the younger warrior chief, by liberal
distribution of blankets, provisions and other supplies, which were produced by
the Mormons and paid for by the government. Indian claim to the Utah Lake Valley
was relinquished to the Mormons.
In 1868, Brigham Young, at the head of an Indian commission, made final treaty
with Goshute Indians who were at constant war with Mormon settlers in Skull Valley,
west of Salt Lake. With the Pavant and Uintah tribes, they were consolidated on
one large reservation in the Uintah and Duchesne River Valley. Their agency
is known as White Rocks.
Treaties by the government with the different tribes were later made from time
to time in regard to reservation land3.
The lands ceded to the Indians by the government for reservations were the choice
of each tribe. This privilege was accorded them in order that they would be satisfi-
ed with their lot.
Author's Notes The above description of the Ute tribes and location of their
reservations is verified by records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs at Washington,
D.C.


4
Summit County, Colorado.
This was the first county to be organized on the west slope. The lure of gold
led prospectors to venture west of the continental divide, where rich discoveries
were made on the headwaters of the Blue and Eagle Rivers in 1860. Mining prospered
while settlers from the east slope located in the valleys round about.
The county seat was Parkville but was later moved to Breckenridge, the center of
mining activity. The county government had jurisdiction over the entire north half
of Colorado west of the divide, including North Park, except the Ute Indian lands.
The White River Reservation was in the west part of this territory.
A New Territory Created.
Progress in colonization of northwest territory began when Union Pacific Rail-
road construction was completed and which took place in 1868, sponsored by the gov-
ernment, which protected the builders from hostile Indians with soldiers from mili-
tary posts 'established along the route. By act of congress, Wyoming Territory was
created in 1868 from that part of the original Dakota Territory in which Laramie,
Albany and Carbon Counties had been organized by the Dakota legislature in 1867,
and from territory which included Green River County, Utah, and a small strip from
Idaho. Prom this west portion, Carter County, Wyoming, was established with county
seat at South Pass City. Woman suffrage was inaugurated in Wyoming in 1869.
Gold was discovered at the headwaters of Big Sandy Creek and Sweetwater River
near South Pass in 1842, but little mining was done until new discoveries were made
in the late sixties. Thousands of whites were engaged in the district and two hun-
dred Chinamen mined there.
Camp Stambaugh was established at Pacific Springs near South Pass and garrisoned
with soldiers for the protection from hostile Indians of miners and immigrants
traveling on the overland trail. This trail passed through Wyoming by way of Port
Laramie on the North Platte and Sweetwater Rivers, South Pass and Bridger's Port.
The California extension of the trail separated from the original Oregon Trail
at Ham's Fork a few miles west of Green River.
A branch leaving the main trail near Port Laramie was established by way of
Clear Pork of the Powder River, the east base of the Big Horn Mountains, the upper
Yellowstone River and' to Bozeman. This branch was known as the Bozeman Trail.
The main trail was first traveled by trappers and fur traders, immigrants to
Oregon, miners to California, Mormons to Salt'Lake in 1847; military expeditions,
Colonel Sidney Johnston in command of U.S.troops moving against outlaw Mormons in
1857; numerous immigrant trains, Pony Express stage coaches and herds of cattle
from Texas to stock the ranges of the northwest.
The first military expedition to travel the route was in command of Colonel
John C.Fremont in 1842. He introduced a bill in congress for the establishment
of military posts along the route in 1845.
Rawlins, Wyoming
A Distributing and Supply Point.
When construction of the Union Pacific Railroad was completed through Wyoming
in 1868, Rawlins was located at Rawlings Springs, named in honor of John A.Rawlings,
who was in command of a military expedition of exploration that camped at the
springs for some time in 1857. From 1868 supplies were shipped to Rawlins annually
by the government for delivery to the White River Ute Indian Agency, Shoshone, and
Arapahoe Agency and the military post of Fort Washakie. All of these except the
White River Agency were located in the Popo-agie and Wind River Valley 150 miles
northwest of Rawlins. Mail was delivered to these agencies by horseback; semi-
monthly in winter and weekly in summer.
A description of the route from Rawlins to the White River Agency is included as
a background to assist in the description of later activities along the route.
Thirty miles south of Rawlins the road crossed Muddy Creek and the Denver, Salt Lake,
and Overland stage road, and frequently referred to as the Bitter Creek route.


5
By 1862, mining had come into prominence in Colorado. Denver was growing;
Indians had become more troublesome to stage and immigrant travel on the North
Platte route. The stage line and practically all traffic between Missouri River
points, Salt Lake and northwest territory, was shifted to the Bitter Creek route.
Fort Morgan was established on the line at the crossing of the South Platte
River and the junction of the Denver branch. Fort Halleck was also established on
the line at the foot of Elk Mountain on the same date. The stage line was operated
by Ben Holaday.
At Muddy Creek crossing was Sulphur Springs Stage Station, with a history of
Indian depredations such as attacks on stage coaches traveling on the route within
its radius. On the hillside a few hundred yards from the station were eight markers
representing fatalities From information passed along, five persons were killed by
Indians, one was killed during a drunken carousel, and two immigrants died from
natural causes.
# # #
The following information was obtained from Herman Hass who was a long-time
resident of Cheyenne. He had been a private soldier at Fort Laramie in 1862, and one
of an escort of soldiers when stage coaches and other stage equipment was being
transferred from the North Platte route for service on the Bitter Creek route by
way of Independence Rock, Devils Gap on the Sweetwater River, and through a gap
in the Feris Mountains. At this point the escort found two soldiers who had dropped
out of an escoit of soldiers who had preceded them on a similar mission. They were
lying by the roadside In a stupor from liquor. The officer In charge poured out
their supply of liquors from bottles, got them on their horses, and started them
on the way to overtake their troop. From this occurance, the pass received the
name of Whiskey Gap.
Five miles farther south the escort found another soldier of the same party
as the other two. He had fallen by the wayside at a spring branch. At his awaken-
ing from a stupor, with a befuddled brain, he was bewildered and lost, not knowing
in w .ich direction to go to find his comrades. lie was directed on his way by the
officer in charge. From this incident, the spring branch was given the name of
Lost Soldier.
The Holaday stage line was abandoned shortly after the completion of building
of the Union Pacific Railroad which paralleled the stage route. Immigrant travel
continued, but gradually dwindled to a mere dribble by 1885.
Sixteen miles south of Sulphur Springs, the agency road crossed the old Cher-
okee trail. From history we learn the Cherokee Indians disposed of their lands in
southern Georgia in 1853, and with horse and ox teams, herds of cattle and other
belongings trekked their way across plains and mountains without road or trail to
guide them on their way to California in search of gold and a country where they
could make homes for their people. The trail at this point, and for many miles,
is plainly visible and can be traced in many places across southern Wyoming at the
present time, although it is three-quarters of a century since it was traveled.
Judging from their zigzag trail which passed through rough mountain country,
the Cherokees were poor guides. Their trail at several points within Wyoming being
six to ten miles south of the more feasible and later-established Denver and Salt
Lake route. They possibly selected the mountainous route with a view to prospecting
for gold where conditions seemed favorable.
Continuing south fifteen miles, Muddy Creek forms a junction with Little Snake
River. The latter stream derived its name from the Snake Indians (one of the Sho-
shone trii es), who, because of a tribal custom, were noted for their weird snake
dance, and who inhabited this valley until driven out by Arapahoe and Ute Indians.
Besides the Arapahoe and Ute Indians claiming the Snake River country for their
hunting ground, the Sioux and other Indian tribes drifted, at times, to these parts
for a hunt.
Two miles south of the above-mentioned junction the road crossed the Colorado-
Wyoming line and followed the course of Four Mile Creek to the divide, thence along
the course of Fortification Creek to the mouth of Little Bear Creek where the road
bore to the east across the mesa to Bear River at the junction of Elkhead Creek.
From Bear River Crossing the route was in a southwesterly direction over a high
divide to Williams Fork (a tributary of Bear River), thence crossing near the head


G
of Deer and Morapos Creek to Stinking Gulch, so named because of sloughs where
black muck with bad-smelling odors arose. At this point the road was joined by a
trail from Bear River Road Crossing. It was a short-cut on the route by way of lower
Morapos Creek, and was known as the Morapos trail. It was first traveled by Indians,
and later all horseback travel, including the U.S.ma.il, went over this trail. Many
years later the "lies Oil Dome" was discovered in the Stinking Gulch district.
The agency road continued over a low divide and along the north side of Milk
creek to where the Creek turned north through a canyon in the Danfort); Hills. This
string of hills was named after Ute Indian Agent JI.E.Danforth who had become lost
during a snow storm, spending one night out while on a bunt for deer. From Milk
Creek Crossing the route followed Beaver Creek, which is a narrow ravine. At Milk
Creek Crossing a short-cut trail led straight ahead over hills, joining the road on
Beaver Creek, thence over a low divide following the downward course of Coal Creek.
This creek took the name after a coal vein had been opened to supply fuel for the first
White River Agency, which was six miles east of the mouth of Coal Creek and situated
near the foot of the mountains at the east end of White River Valley, where the his-
tory-making trail ended 165 miles from Rawlins.
During the life of the White River Ute Indian Agency, a number of men had been
assigned to the position of agent, but owing to the roving and unruly disposition
shown by the Utes and isolated location of the agency, each became dissatisfied or
was removed for cause, leaving the job after a short term of years. Names of these
agents were A.J.Beck, Charles N.Adams, J.S.Littlefield and H.E.Danforth, who was
succeeded by Natnan Cook Meeker.
The names of some of the first to carry the mail by horseback from Rawlins to the
White River Agency were Jerry Huff, Charlie Lowry, Joe Rankin and Joe Collom.


SECTION II.
Discovery of Gold and First Mining at Kahn's Peak.
Gold was discovered by Joseph Hahn and Captain George R.Way, who had come from
Illinois in 1860. They spent part of that seas in prospecting on the eastern slope.
Leaving Empire with pack burros late in the season to prospect on the western slope,
they arrived at the peak late in the fall, where they found gold in gulches at the
foot of the peak. Heavy snows came before much prospecting could be done. They had
but a small supply of provisions, so they returned to Empire and to the states for
the winter, expecting to return to the peak in the spring. During the winter, they
entered into an agreement with William Doyle, a friend and neighbor, to join them
and renew the search for gold.
In 1861 the civil war began. Way and Doyle enlisted and served three years in
the army. After their discharge from the army, Hahn and Way renewed their former
agreement with Doyleto return to the peak and begin mining on their discovery. Late
in the summer of 1864 they again outfitted at Empire for their journey to the peak.
They arrived again too late to prospect or to build a cabin and prepare for winter.
Having but a small supply of provisions for three men, Captain Way returned to
Empire with the burros, expecting to return with supplies.
Deep snows came and he could not return. The snowfall was heavy about the peak.
Deer and elk that were in the vicinity when they first came and of which they ex-
pected to get the greater part of their food supply for the winter, had drifted to
the lower altitude during the first snows.
Early in Marcn, after much privation (their provisions being exhausted and star-
vation threatening them), Hahn and Doyle started to Empire on foot over crusted
snow which broke through part of the time. They got as far as the head of Muddy
Creek, a few miles below Rabbit Ear peak, when Hahn became exhausted and sick.
Lying down in the snow, he could go no farther. Doyle stayed with him for some
time, but Hahn became worse. Doyle, in fear of losing his own life by further
delay, left Hahn to die and made his way toward Empire, stopping at Gus Reader's
trapping camp in upper Middle Park. He stipnbled in, completely exhausted from cold
and hunger.
After a rest and recovery of strength, he made his way to Empire. At the break
of spring, Doyle and Way returned to look after Hahn's remains. They never returned
to the peak. Later, when mining began at the peak, it was named Hahn's Peak, and the
gulch in which gold was first discovered was named Way's Gulch.
First Mining at Hahn's Peak
as told by Bill Slater and Bibleback Brown.
The first mining done at Hahn's Peak was in 1869 by William (Bill) Slater and
partner, known to pioneers of Snake River by no other name than Bibleback Brown.
Slater had lived in Denver. He joined the third Colorado Cavalry in 1863. He was
with Colonel John M.Chivington in the battle of Sand Creek against a band of 300
southern Cheyenne Indians, forty miles north of Fort Lyon, in November, 1864.
During the thick of the fight, Slater followed one of the tribe, a considerable dis-
tance along a deep wash-away from the battle-ground before getting a chance to kill.
When returning by the same route, he found a small Indian boy who had wandered away
from the camp during the fight. He took the boy on his horse, thinking to save the
youngster's life. Before he got to where the slaughter was going on, he thought of
the instructions given by the stern commander Chivington, that "nits become lice" --
that young and old must be exterminated. He left the boy alive by a cottonwood tree,
never knowing what became of him afterwards.
In 1868 Slater was employed on construction work of the Union Pacific Railroad
in Wyoming. During the -winter months he was employed at U.P. construction at Rawlins.
Brown at that time was camping twelve miles north of Rawlins in the brakes of a
spring branch which later was named Brown's Canyon (by the citizenry). He had been
furnishing game meat for the Union Pacific Railroad construction crews. He had
been trapping in the Snake River and Hahn's Peak country two years before, where he
found mining tools and other indications of prospecting that had been done by Hahn
and Way.
Slater was about 40 years of age; Brown five years older. (According to frontier
custom, when meeting in a saloon they became pals by joining socially with many
drinks). When tuned to the point, Brown confided his secret of gold discovery to


First Mining at Hahn's Peak was Done by Bibleback Brown
and Bill Slater in 1869.


Slater. In the spring of 1869, they joined in outfitting with saddle and pack-
horses, provisions and necessary prospecting equipment, and went to work on the
prospect. The greater part of the season was spent prospecting. They found gold in
other places about the peak. They collected some gold by panning. They built a
cabin and made preparations for mining, the next season. When deep snow came,
they moved to Snake River valley, and built a cabin near the mouth of Savery Creek.
Brown went to Rawlins for winter provisions and his traps, which he had left at
Rawlins. They did some trapping that winter.
In the spring of 1870 they returned to their claims and began mining by sluicing
over riffles and flume of crude construction. They were joined later in the season
by Dave Miller and George Howe, who wandered in while on a prospecting trip from east
of the range. They located claims on Poverty Hill, a short distance from Way's
Gulch. The only other changes in the mon.otony of their isolated job was when they
were visited by bands of Ute Indians while on their customary ramblings when hunting
each season. In their clean-up of the season, Slater and Brown had enough of the
yellow metal to pay them well for their season's labor. Miller and Howe joined them
in going to the valley for winter quarters.
During the mining season of 1871 the four miners were joined in search for gold
by I.C.Miller and W.R.Cogswe11. They had come from Rawlins. They also located
claims on Poverty Hill. At the close of the mining season, Miller and Cogswell re-
turned to Rawlins for the winter while the other four went to their winter cabins
in the valley, and Brown went to Rawlins for winter provisions. While at Rawlins,
Brown met Noah Reader who was camped at Rawlings Springs. He was on his way west
from Missouri with his family of wife and three sons, George, William and Albert.
They were traveling by ox team and covered wagon with a small herd of cattle. During
their conversation Reader told Brown he was looking for a country in which to make a
home for himself and family. Brown told him that Snake River Valley was a good place
to winter his stock, and if he wished to go, that he himself was going out next day
and would be glad to show him the way. Reader's stock being footsore and tired, he
decided to go with Brown. He located by a wall-rock ledge near where Brown and
Slater spent their winters.
Reader set about at once to erect a cabin of cottonwood logs for a home. Brown
and Slater assisted him to build. The Reader family were permanent settlers and the
first to build a home in Snake River Valley. Slater later homesteaded on a creek
south of Snake River, which was given the name of Slater Creek. Brown was the scout
and first to travel the short-cut route from Snake River by way of Five Buttes and
Pine Grove, to Rawlins. A steep hill on the route between Snake River and Five Butter
was named Brown's Hill.
In 1872, Will G.Reader (second son of Noah Reader) was employed at mining at
Hahn's Peak by Brown and Slater. After a busy season of panning and sluicing, the
seven miners felt well paid for their labor. Other prospectors joined in the hunt
for gold about the peak during the season.
Brown and Slater were good pals; honest whole-souled, and fond of drink from the
cup that cheers. The little brown jug of tonic was often included in their stock
when purchasing provisions for their camp. The gold pan served the prospector to
mix his bread; as wash pan, and many other camp conveniences.


SECTION III.
Jim Bridger and Jim Baker.
In May 1872, Jim Baker, with his family of wife, three daughters and one son
Joe, located in the Snake River Valley one mile from the Reader home. Jim moved
from Clear Creek near Denver, where he had lived for three years following his resi-
dence in Denver where, in season, he had operated a ferry on the South Platte River
near the mouth of Cherry Creek. Before that he had spent twenty-five years in the
mountains trapping and mingling with the Indians. While living on Clear Creek, he
accumulated a small herd of white-faced cattle which he branded J B, and moved them
to the Snake River range. Jim had two saddle horses he kept for his private use at
the Snake River ranch; and from his own vocabulary of speech, they were named
"Brownie" and "Yaller".
A few months later, his oldest son William and his wife, moved to Snake River
from Denver and located near. About the same time a fourth daughter with her hus-
band, John Reynolds, and three children moved to the river and also settled near
Jim. Reynolds did freighting to Hahn's Peak.
In order to relate' here some of Jim Baker's movements during the time he spent
in the mountain country, a brief account of the activities of Jim Bridger will be
necessary. Since they had been associated in trapping, fur trading and other
mountain pursuits, the same is recalled from stories told by Jim Baker, his
brother John, Louie Simmons, Bibleback Brown, Military officers and Bob Uarkness
(alias Cherokee Bob), who was a teamster with a survey expedition escorted by a
troop of cavalry under command of General Anson Mills, and piloted by Jim Bridger.
The expedition was in charge of General Grenville M.Dodge, who was chief engineer,
mapping the route in 1866 for which to build the Union Pacific Railroad.
General Anson Mills was later in command at Fort Bridger.
Jim Baker was bornin Illinois in 1818. At the age of twenty he went to St.
Louis where he met Jim Bridger. Bridger had returned to St. Louis from the mount-
ains where he had been employed at trapping. He was in charge of a consignment of
furs for Bonneville, Fitzpatrick and Henry Frapp, and which he was interested in.
St. Louis was the only market of note in the west for furs at that time.
Bridger, accompanied by Baker, returned to the mountains in the spring of
1839 by way of the Laramie Plains and Sweetwater River to Bonneville and Frapp
Headquarters on Green River above the mouth of New Fork. Here white trappers
traded furs for cash and provisions and Indians traded buckskin for ammunition and
tobacco. From this point Jim Baker had his first experience of trapping in the
mountain country. In the fall of 1839 Bridger established a trading camp on
Henry's Fork, where he traded with the Indians and white trappers. By 1840,
Bridger, in order to expand his business, organized a company which included Jack
Robinson, Henry Frapp and Jim Baker. Bridger, with his many years experience of
trapping and trading with the Indians (he had trapped over the entire Rocky
Mountain country from British territory on the north and as far south as New Mex-
ico and Arizona), was made manager.
In August 1841, Bridger was told by Tim Goodale and a party of trappers that
arrived from the head of Sweetwater River for supplies^ that a large band of In-
dians thought to be Cheyennes, had slaughtered a small party of immigrants
traveling on the Sweetwater trail, and the redskins were moving south towards
Snake River. At the time a party of Bridger's men in charge of Henry Frapp were
in the Snake River country prospecting for later season trapping and establishing
winter quarters. Bridger, in fear of their safety, sent Jim Baker, accompanied by
Tim Goodale and Bonito Vasquez, to inform the party of their danger. The party
had arrived at the Frapp camp only a short time before two of Frapp's men rushed in
and reported they had been attacked by Indians. The same evening the camp was
besieged by a large band of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians. The trappers succeeded in
driving them off without loss to themselves. Two Indians were killed. The trap-
pers were not molested for several days. They set about to build protection for
men and stock by erecting quaken asp logs and rock on the side of a small mountain,
should further attack be attempted.


JIM BAKER DURING HIS EARLY TRAPPING DAYS.


n
They had well-nigh completed their fort when they were again attacked by a
large band of Indians who kept up the fight for two days. When they withdrew,
four Indians were found dead. Frapp and two of hie party were killed. The dead
trappers were buried in haste. The trappers left their fort and returned to the
company's headquarters on Henry's Fork late in August. From this incident,
Battle Mountain, Battle Creek and Battle Lake were named.
While Jim Baker was associated with Jim Bridger for a number of years in
trapping and trading in furs, he at times was trapping on his own account. He
trapped on Green River and Wind River and their tributaries and Little Snake
River. He mingled with different tribes of Indians. He had taken to himself a
wife of the Shoshone tribe. He met and associated with Kit Carson when Carson
was on expeditions to the northwest from hi3 headquarters at Taos. He called at
Bridger's quarters and the American Fur Co.'srendezvous on Big Snake River in
the Blackfeet Indian country, and Peries Hole (now Teton Basin), In the mean-
time, Jim's Shoshone wife died, leaving one child, a girl aged one year. Baker
lived with the Arapahoe Indians for a considerable length of time while doing
some trapping. He took to himself a second wife, one of the Arapahoe tribe. Jim
was with the Arapahoes on two or more of their many battles wit/i the Ute Indians,
when they met on disputed hunting grounds. During one of these scraps in the
Snake River country, Jim had a close call for his life. Because he lived with the
Arapahoes, the Utes considered him their enemy.
About 1843, the Bridger, Robinson and Baker Fur Company dissolved. Immigrant
travel and military expeditions had increased on the overland trail. Bridger, in
view of continuing in the trading business, built a trading post on Black's Fork,
twenty-five miles north of the Henry's Fork headquarters and near the junction of
the Oregon and California trails. The headwaters of each of these Green River
branches arise in the Wasatch range. Bridger acquired a tract of land from the
Mexican government upon which to build the trading post. It was built for pro-
tection in the form of a stockade about 125 feet square, used as a corral, with
cabins for living and trading quarters within the enclosure.
Besides immigrants and numerous mountain men that came to the fort to trade,
Indians of several different tribes came to the fort with furs to trade for rifles,
ammunition, tobacco and knickknacks.. These Indians Included Blackfeet, Nez Perce,
Utes, Bannock, Shoshone and Arapahoe tribes. The Shoshones, fearing the Ute,
Blackfeet and Arapahoes, who had fought and robbed them at every opportunity for
years, made their camp near Bridger's Fort.
Chief Washakie, like Chief Ouray, was friendly with the whites. He relied on
the white mountaineers for assistance in case of an attack by hostile tribes.
Maidens of the Shoshones were fair of complexion and attractive and the tribe
furnished wives for many mountain men.
Bridger prospered in the trading business, and since his location was on the
overland trails, he held the key to the Immigrant trade. He became associated with
Louis Vasquez, who took care of the trade when Jim piloted immigrant trains and
military expeditions.
Bridger had been on friendly terms with the Mormons from their first occupa-
tion of the Salt Lake Valley until about 1854, when jealousy arose among the
Mormons because Bridger was getting the larger portion of the overland trade.
They started trouble by claiming Bridger had conspired with the Indians to steal
their stock and commit other depredations; they even threatened Bridger's life.
When an armed posse of Mormons, sent by Brigham Young from Salt Lake, appeared at
his fort in a threatening manner, Bridger realized he was in real danger. He left
his fort with his family and went to his farm (purchased on a former trip) at
West Port, Missouri, where his family remained and his children were in school.
His squaw was a Uintah Ute. Bridger returned to Fort Kearney, where he was em-
ployed as scout for the government. At times he wa3 guide for immigrant trains.
During high water he operated a ferry on the North Platte River, twenty-eight
miles west of Fort Laramie. He was scout for Colonel Sidney Johnston's army, sent
by the government in 1357 to invade the Salt Lake Valley where Brigham Young ruled
and defied United States Laws.
The army, delayed at Fort Laramie because of a change in commanders, started
late in the season with heavily-loaded wagons, and moved in sections, the first of
which was accompanied by Bridger. The second section, when nearing Green River,


Jim Bridger and Chief Washakie in a Friendly Meeting
at Washakies Camp on Ham's Fork.


was harrassed by Brigham Young's destructive forces, sent from Salt Lake and lead
by Bill Hickman, who formerly kept a saloon and trading store at the trail cross-
ing of Green River. The outlaws stole their mule teams and beef cattle, burned
many of their supply wagons and delayed the outfit to the extent that the army got
no farther than Bridger's Fort by November.
The Mormons in 1854, after bluffing Bridger into leaving his fort, took posses-
sion. They handled the overland trade and many of the brethren settled in adjoin-
ing valleys. Green River County, Utah, was organized by the Mormons about that
time. When they learned Uncle Sam's army was advancing on them, they burned the
fort and went to Join their people in the Salt Lake Valley. The army made camp at
this point for the winter. Snow had fallen; the weather was severe; their stock
thin and weary, and they had but a small supply of provisions for the men and feed
for their stock during the coming winter.
Jim Baker Was Scout.
In order to enlarge their food supply, the officer in charge of food supplies
for the army employed Jim Baker as guide for the expedition Baker was living
at the trail crossing of Green River where he operated a ferry in season, and at
times was scout for immigrants and military expeditions. On one of these he lead
General Harney on a reconnoitering trip in the headwaters of Wind River.
Captain Marcy, with Baker, Tim Goodale and two other mountaineers located on
Green River, together with twenty soldiers as an escort, twelve packers, sixty
pack mules and their saddle stock, left the camp late in November for Fort Mass-
achusetts, 320 miles south. They traveled by way of Brown's Hole and Cross
Mountain, crossing Grand River at the junction of the Gunnison River.
Baker followed the course of Gunnison River to Cochetopa Pass. Snow was deep
at the pass, and their stock became almost exhausted from starvation and travel.
After considerable delay, a party of three trappers with saddle and pack horses
was sighted coming from the south, breaking a trail. They arrived at Fort Massa-
chusetts after a fifteen-day trip. More snow had fallen and they could not return
until spring. (Fort Massachusetts was established in the west foothills of the
Sangre-de-Cristo Range in 1852. It was abandoned when Fort Garland was built eight
miles to the southwest in 1858). During the winter Baker called on his old friend
Kit Carson, at Taos.
Stock of the expedition had recuperated during the winter. One hundred and
fifty horses and mules were bought in Missouri and Texas by the government and
delivered to the Fort in the early spring, for the expedition to take with them to
Bridger's old fort to re-enforce Johnston's army. On account of the deep snow on
the mountain ranges, the expedition returned by way of the plains east of the
mountains; the Laramie Plains and Bitter Creek route. They arrived at the old fort
early in June 1858. The army was also recruited with men and supplies from Fort
Laramie, and was ready to start for Salt Lake. Baker, with his family, moved to
Denver about 1862.
The government leased Bridger's Fort property; rebuilt and garrisoned the post
with soldieri in 1858. The post was named Fort Bridger. W.A.(Judge) Carter was
appointed post trader.
According to compliments expressed by military officers for services received,
and by Jim Baker and other mountaineers of note who. associated with Bridger, he was
an authority and leader among mountain men, doing more than any other of the trail
blazers to serve the people. His headquarters seemed like an oasis on a desert for
most mountain traffic and news. He knew the location and nature of the different
tribes of Indians, besides being scout for military expeditions in pursuit of hos-
tile Indians and government expeditions of exploration, survey and biological work.
He was scout for the first wagon train from Fort Laramie by way of the Yellowstone
River to Montana; establishing the Bozeman Trail. He piloted immigrant trains
through hostile Indian country, directing them to where they could make homes for
their families.
Bridger had the satisfaction of piloting Uncle Sam's army on a mission that
restored his property from the Mormon menace. He led the army to Salt Lake.
Officers of the army were expecting strong resistance from Brigham Young's forces.
The army entered the settlement without a shot being fired. Brigham Young and
his lieutenants accepted the Washington credentials with contempt, but a govern-
ment representative was Installed in connection with the troops to see that U.S.
laws were respected.


charge of a party of topographic engineers of the U.S.army who were on an expe
dition to explore territory acquired by the government from Mexico. Bridger
was scout for Stansberry while exploring the Salt Lake and Ogden valleys in 1849.
(The expedition returned to the states in 1850). With a view to locating a more
direct route between Salt Lake and St.Louis than was the South Pass route, Bridger
led the expedition by way of Bitter Creek, Muddy Creek, and through the low gap
on the continental divide, crossing the North Platte river, thence by the north
base of Elk Mountain to the Laramie Plains, and to the plains east of the moun-
tains. The gap passed over on the route was later named Bridger Pass in honor of
Jim Bridger, the scout. Other landmarks were named in his honor, such as mountain
peaks, lakes, trails and creeks.
According to Jim Baker, Bridger came to the mountains by way of the Missouri
River route with fur traders from St.Louis, when a boy of seventeen years. After
forty-nine years of adventurous life, he retired in 1871. He passed away at his
farm home at West Port, Mo., in 1881, and which later came within the Kansas City
limits, and his remains were removed to Washington Cemetery of Kansas City.
Those sturdy Mountaineers in the west,
Who blazed trails beyond the Rockies' crest
That remained a tribute to the rest;
No doubt Jim Bridger was the best.
Judge Carter, besides being a post trader at Port Bridger, was associated with
W.E.Coe in the tie business, contracting with the Union Pacific Railroad Company.
The tie company operated on Bear, Green, North Platte and Laramie Rivers, and Rock
and Medicine Bow Creeks. Ties were floated and driven down these streams during
high water from melting snows.
About 1873 their tie boom on the river,at Green River City, broke. Many newly-
made ties were lost. Many of them lodged on islands and on points and bars where
debris accumulated. In Browft's Hole many were gathered from drift lodgements and
were used by settlers in constructing ranch buildings. It was said that many
reached the Gulf of California.
Carter Station on the Union Pacific Railroad, and Carter County, Wyoming, were
named in honor of Carter, who passed away in 1881.
John Baker arrived at Port Bridger about 1858, where he met his brother Jim on
Green River. John was shorter of stature than Jim. Because of an injury to his
right leg when a boy, making it somewhat shorter than the left, he walked with a
limp. John was a person of ^ sporting turn. Besides gambling with the soldiers
and mountaineers about Port Bridger, he raised horses on the Henry's Pork range.
Lige Driscol Was First Cattleman of Henry's Pork.
Lige Driscol came to Fort Bridger with California Volunteers in 1863, as a
private soldier. At the expiration of his three-year inlistment, he settled on
Henry's Fork, and engaged in the cattle business, getting his start by trading
with the Mormons for a small bunch. By 1884 he was shipping beef cattle to east-
ern markets by the trainload.
Driscol, Jack Robinson and John Baker were close friends. Each had a Shoshone
wife. Phil Mass was a neighboring stockman at that time. Robinson left St. Louis
as teamster with freight wagons going to Taos. There he joined Kit Carson, who was
going on a fur trading expedition in the northwest. At the American Pur Company's
headquarters on Big Snake River in the Blackfeet Indian country Robinson was given
employment in 1834. After several years with the American Pur Company, and three
years as partner with Jim Bridger, he settled on Smith's Pork, a tributary of
Black's Pork, where he became a .large stock owner. Because of his being unable to
solve mathematical problems, his business was done through Judge Carter. He died
in 1884. His remains lie in an unmarked grave at the site of Bridger's Port.


SECTION IV.
Brown's Hole Historic Spot.
One of the first white men to inhabit Brown's Hole as a trapper was Baptistie
Brown, according to reminiscences told by Jack Robinson, a reliable man, who in
his declining years was known as "Uncle Jack."
Brown, a French Canadian, had been employed by the Hudson Bay Company, which
at that time had headquarters on the headwaters of the Missouri River. After a
disagreement with officials of the company, "Baptistie" with a squaw companion,
drifted to the Green River in 1827. Moving down the river, he located in a small
valley which, because of his early occupation, was named Brown's Hole.
William H.Ashley, a fur trader from St. Louis, held rendezvous on Henry's
Fork for trading with Indians. Ashley had been in the mountains several years.
With a companion he attempted to explore the Green River canyons in 1822. In a
boat of crude construction they drifted down Green River through the "Hole,"
entering Ladore Canyon, At a distance of 18 mile3 and near the lower end of the
canyon, the boat was wrecked by striking against large boulders in the rapids.
They made their way through the canyon on foot and followed up a tributary which
entered Green River from the west, which was later named Ashley's Fork. They met
friendly Uintah Ute Indians, from whom they procured food and assistance back to
Ashley's quarters. A Mormon settlement, established on the fork some years later,
was named Ashley, and later changed to Vernal. (In Dale's report of Ashley's
biography, he mentions Brown's Hole, but does not mention how the valley came to
be named Brown's Hole). Ashley abandoned his trading camp on Henry's Fork in 1836.
Because of the mild winter climate in the Hole, Indians (including the Uintah
Utes) and white trappers, spent the severest winter months in the valley.
Baptistie had a fondness for drink. When accumulated furs had been disposed
of for cash, he imbibed freely in "trapper's delight." During one of his jambor-
ees at Jim Bridger's rendezvous on Henry's Fork in 1842, he met a young man of
twenty years who had recently come to Bridger's Fort and who longed to be a trap-
per. This young man- had left the Missouri River driving a team and wagon loaded
with supplies for Fort Laramie. From there he joined an immigrant party that was
on the way to Oregon. At the crossing of Green River he met and joined Jack Rob-
inson and a party of trappers who were on their way to Bridger's trading post with
furs. During the several days of Baptistie's celebrating, he became interested in
the young man. Bridger interceded with friendly advice; he also furnished the
young man with a pony so he could go with Baptistie to his tepee in the Hole, where
he made his home for three years. Through Baptistie's directions he became a suc-
cessful trapper. Baptistie, with his "Cannuck" accent, could not speak the young
man's name intelligently nor did it matter. The many trappers with whom he
mingled at Bridger's trading post soon applied a name. Because of his pious or
quiet disposition, his stooping shoulders and his living at Baptistie's camp, he
was named "Bibleback Brown."
The Fur Business On the 7(ane.
By 1843 the fur business had declined on account of scarcity of fur-bearing
animals. Baptistie and hi3 squaw, a Piegan from one of the British border tribes
of Indians, went forth to join their people. Bibleback Brown continued to make
Brown's Hole his headquarters for several years, doing most of his trapping in
the Snake and Bear River country.
The Cherokee Indians, on their way to California, with their caravan of large
proportions, entered Brown's Hole by an extremely hazardous route over Cold Spring
Mountain. The Rider, when engaged in range work many years later, passed over the
Cherokee 's old trail at this point, and was forced to lead his saddle horse over
many rocky ledges for safety. The Cherokees made camp in the Hole for several
months to rest and recuperate their stock.
In 1864 the Hole had become a haven for outlaws, including civil war slackers,
horse and cattle thieves, who drifted in by way of the overland trails and later


by the Union Pacific Railroad to where they might evade the clutches of the law.
Mexican Joe, a leader in outlaw depredations with his partner Judge Conway, had
rendezvous at the confluence of Vermilion Creek with Green River at the lower end
of the valley where the above named class congregated.
During the late 1860s and early 1870s,the Denver and Salt Lake and overland
route was infested with organized bands of horse and cattle thieves. Tip Gault
and Terresa, a Mexican, in conjunction with Mexican Joe, were leaders operating
on the route mainly between Fort Halleck and Fort Bridger, a distance of 180 miles.
They had rendezvous at Charcoal Bottom and other points on Green River and Powder
Springs. Their plan of operation was to scout in pairs, spotting immigrants (who
usually traveled in parties as a protection from Indians) with herds of cattle and
horses, keeping out of view themselves. The object was to size up each party as
to their number and quality of stock. When a seemingly favorable prospect was se-
lected and had made camp for the night, they waited for the favorable dark hours
and moved quietly among the grazing stock, selecting their choice, but leaving the
immigrants enough stock to move their wagons on their way. At other times they ~"
would dash through and cut off a bunch from a large herd. In either case, the
stock was moved many miles during the night to water and fresh grazing. The stock,
being tired, would locate in the vicinity. Snake River, 30 miles distant, was one
of the locations where stolen stock was dropped.
The thieves, usually equipped with pack horses and provisions, held in the
background, would hie to some secluded spot for camp or to their headquarters for
fresh mounts, in the meantime keeping tab on their loot. Immigrants, not accus-
tomed to the great distances of the mountain country, usually became tired out
and gave up the hunt, be-lieving -that Indians had run off their stock. When the
stock had recuperated in flesh after weeks or months on fresh pasture, the thieves
found a ready market for work stock and beef in construction camps of the Union
Pacific Railroad and by trading with immigrants for rundown stock.
# # #
Jessie Ewing was an old time stock-tender on the Salt Lake and Overland
route. When the stage line was abandoned in 1869, he located a mining prospect
near the north end of Brown's Hole and near the corner of the territories of Utah,
Wyoming and Colorado in a small canyon which later took the name of Jessie Ewing
Canyon. He ended his days there, being murdered by his partner in mining, Frank
Duncan. Jessie tended stock at several different stations on this route. Pine
Grove station, three miles east of Bridger Pass was one, and a station the scene
of many attacks by hostile Indians. He was a frontiersman hardened by many years
of rough life at prospecting and stage stock-tending. He was cook and whole force
about stage stations where he often had to fight hostile Indians, and there were
other tough characters to deal with.
The majority of stage stations on the Bitter Creek route were built of rock,
which was the most convenient building material at that time. Others were built
of cottonwood logs. All were bullet proof.
In Major Powell's report of his explorations of the Green and Colorado Rivers
in 1871, he describes the Hole as having been named for an old trapper named
^rown. Making record, he named the valley Brown's Park. From Powell's report
the name Brown's Park appears on the maps of Colorado. Powell shipped his boats
from the east by the Union Pacific Railroad. They were launched on the river at
Green River City.
Stockmen Moving In.
The first to locate in Brown's Hole in the cattle business were Crawford and
Thompson of Evanston, Wyoming. In 1872, J.S.Hoy was in charge. Three years later,
Hoy, with financial assistance from his uncle, who was living in Fremont, Nebraska,
bought cattle from the Mormons in Southern Utah; yearlings at five dollars per
head; grown cattle at eight and ten dolla.rs per head. He located and came in pos-
session of a large tract of land. Later he had trouble with the cattle rustling
element. In a short period of years his losses in cattle were heavy from theft
and from court procedure in numerous attempts to get justice or revenge by con-
viction of the thieves.
George Spicer, with his brother Sam, from Virginia, engaged in the cattle bus-
iness on the South Platte River near Greeley in 1871. They, with a neighbor,


i8
J.V.S.Hoy (brother of J.S.Hoy, who was also engaged in the cattle business on the
South Platte), joined in moving their herds to Brown's Holein 1073, because of the
South Platte range being over-stocked with large herds of which that of Jonn ft.
llif (rated as cattle king of Colorado) with an estimate of fifty thousand head
ranging over the entire Colorado plains east of Denver, was the largest.
J.V.S.Hoy was fatally shot several years later by the notorious outlaw and
murderer, Harry Tracy, when assisting Sheriff Neiman and posse to make Tracy's
arrest where he was hiding among the rock ledges at the lower end of Brown's Hole.
Others who located in the Hole in the 1870s used the valley as a winter range
and the mountains around about for a summer range. They were Doc.Paroons, Joe
Davenport, W.G.Tittsworth, Angus McDougal, Jack Gun, and Charlie Crouse, who built
a bridge over Green River at the north end of the valley during the winter for his
ranch conveniences. When the ice went out of the river in the spring the bridge
was swept away.
Antone Prestopitz, an Italian miner from Rock Springs, engaged in ranching on
North Vermilion Creek.
Timothy (Tim) Kinney, who was the first Union Pacific Railroad agent at Raw-
lins for four years, was transfered to Rock Springs as agent, later he engaged in
merchandising, and also in the cattle business, with brand Circle K @, ranging
on the headwaters of Bitter Creek.
A.M.Jarvis operated a store hear where the Crouse bridge was built. A mail
route was established between Green River City and Ashley, Utah by way of the
Jarvis store where a postoffice was located and named Bridgeport. Jarvis also
operated a ferry on Green River. The first wool taken to market from Uintah
County, Utah, passed over this route to Rock Springs, Wyoming, for shipment in
1884.
A two-roomed log shack was located a short distance below Red or Flaming
Gorge on Green River, two miles west of the Jarvis store, and used as a rendez-
vous by outlaws. It was reported to have been built by Phil Thompson, one of
Ashley's men, as a fur -trading post and was named Fort Davy Crockett. It was
abandoned as a trading post when the fur business was declining about 1838. Later
Ur. Jarvis was murdered and his store robbed by desperadoes making headquarters at
this robber's roost.
By 1874, the Mexican Joe rendezvous was abandoned. Civilization in the form of
law-abiding settlers was invading the outlaw territory. Mexican Joe left the
Hole, supposedly for his native land, Mexico. Judge Conway, a Civil War slacker,
found retreat in resorts in Cheyenne. Yet, outlawry was not to be outdone. Cattle
rustling took on a more widespread form. The Bassett family had moved into the
neighborhood from Missouri. Old hands and new recruits drifted in from other
parts and made headquarters here. While following their nefarious business,
hanging and lead played their parts in the extermination of a number of thieves.
Others were given notice by cattlemen to get out. A number of killings took place
among the thieves themselves because of jealousy and division of loot. Altogether,
the extermination of a number helped some toward establishing civilized order
and to bring some peace to that particular neck of the woods.


SECTION V.
The New Territory In the Rough.
During the construction of the Union Pacific Railroad, and for some years
later, a considerable number of seasoned mountaineers had drifted to Rawlins.
These were hunters who had furnished game meats for construction workers, trap-
pers and prospectors from the mountains, and others who had been scouts and guides
for military expeditions. A number of them became residents of Carbon County.
James France had followed up construction of the Union Pacific Railroad by
operating a store. When Rawlins was established, he engaged in general merchan-
dising and was postmaster at Rawlins for many years. France was a man small in
stature, but large in business ideas. His whiskers reached below his knees.
During his active business hours he kept his whiskers tucked beneath his shirt.
For several years from date of building the Union Pacific Rajlroad, ranch set-
tlement, with but few exceptions near military posts, was confined to 'the south
side of the railroad. The north side was considered hostile Indian country.
John Dunton, who had been doing contract work and moving supplies with bull
teams for the government in the sixties, engaged in the store and cattle business
at Bordeaux in the early seventies, and later at Fort Laramie.
J.K.Moore, post trader at Fort Washakie; Amoratti, Jule Lameraux, and C.H.
Nickerson (who was first Indian agent of the Shoshone reservation), all had cattle
interests about Fort Washakie.
Judge Carter, post trader at Fort Bridger, was extensively engaged in the
cattle business, with range brand C.
Joseph M.Carey, governor and later U.S.senator for Wyoming, was engaged in the
cattle business near Fort Fetterman in the early 70s, with range brand S 0 and C Y.
T.B.Ryan, George Ferris, and A.J.Savage were first to engage in the cattle
busir.ess on the North Platte River near Fort Steele.
Charlie Hutton was one of the first to engage in the cattle business on the
Laramie River, near Fort Saunders.
Sioux Indians Attacked Miners at Seminole.
During July, 1874, a large band of Sioux Indians, estimated at two hundred,
attacked miners at Seminole camp thirty miles north of Rawlins. Twenty men were in
camp. One prospector, "Russian George," was killed; others sought safety in an
improvised fort which had previously been erected near by the camp as a precaution-
ary measure. The attack was reported in Rawlins during the night by Frank Harring-
ton, who had formerly been scout for Major Bradley when on an expedition against
the Sioux in 1872. Major Bradley, in command of Fort Steele, was notified, and went
with two companies of cavalry to the relief of the miners. He was joined by Gener-
al An3on Mills, who, with two companies of cavalry had shipped to Rawlins from
Fort Russell. Millfe expedition was piloted by Boney Ernest, an experienced scout.
"Boney" had previously been employed in the quarter-masters department at Fort
Halleck. Before the soldiers arrived at the Seminole camp, the Sioux had gone
north. The troops followed their trail to the Sweetwater country but failed to
overtake them to engage in battle.
Gold Discovered In the Seminole Mountains.
The Seminole mines were discovered in 1871. A number of pioneers of Rawlins
and Camp Benton staked mining claims at Seminole. The names of these were Frank
Harrington, Perry L.Smith, John Cannon, Boney Ernest, Isaac Fieldhouse, Tom Sun,
Joe Hurt, George Ferris, W.N.Hunt, Frank Ernest, John Landon, Al.Hueston, Billy
Byers, Pat.Anderson and a few others.
Pioneering Experiences of the Rankin Brothers.
J'.G.and J.P. Rankin (brothers) and cousins of The Rider, were born on the
farm in Pennsylvania. They enlisted in the Civil War in 1862 at the age of 18
and 20; serving two and one-half years. After the close of the war they were


20
employed in the lumber woods in Clarion County, Pa,, and later were employed in
the oil fields of Butler County, Pa. In 1868 they went to Yankton, Dakota where
they were employed in freighting supplies to the different Indian agencies.
Becoming infected with the gold fever they attempted, with a party from Yankton,
to prospect in the Black Hills country in 1870. They were driven out by hostile
Sioux. They prospected in Boulder and Clear Creek counties, Colorado, and at
Halm's Peak in 1870 and 1871, without success. They located in Rawlins in 1872,
and later engaged in the feed and livery business and freighting.
Wyoming Trails.
Besides four historic trails across Wyoming, the practically unsettled terri-
tory north of the Union Pacific Railroad was, by 1876, marked by a veritable net-
work of wagon trails, a number of them extending into adjoining territories. Part
of these trails were made by military expeditions in pursuit of hostile Indians.
Others were made by government exploration and biological expeditions, immigrants,
private hunting ano prospecting parties.
Along these trails many empty flasks and bottles had been cast aside.
A remark often heard from cowboys when riding the range years later, when seeing
one of these bottles, would be, "There's another dead Boldier." This applied to
the many dissipated privates and officers in Uncle Sam's army who occupied frontier
posts. Those addicted to the liquor habit who had cash to pay, or an overcoat,
shirt or blanket to trade, carried their supply in canteens and bottles when per-
forming escort duty on various expeditions.
It was July first, 1875 when J.S.Li'.tlefield was succeeded as agent at White
River Ute Indian Agency by H.E.Danforth.
Arapaiioe Indians Run Off Horses from Rawlins, Wyo.
The "town herd," composed largely of saddle and pack horses of miners, hunters,
and trappers, was held under herd during the day and corraled for the night, be-
cause the territory was infested by white and Indian horse thieves. Al.Farley was
in charge of forty head, one mile from town. He left them a short time while he
went to town for lunch. When he returned to where he had left the herd no horses
were to be found. Taking up their trail, Farley soon discovered evidence of their
having been driven away. He gave the alarm in Rawlins. A posse was soon organized,
composed of Sheriff Dave Ranney, Billy Byers, George Ferris, Tip Vincent, Bill
Smith, Mike Murphy, Joe Hurt, Deputy Sheriff Jim Rankin, and Farley. Following the
trail, they were joined on the way by Black Gus, a hermit hunter and trapper, lo-
cated in the Bridger Pass section. They discovered the Indians at dusk, camped for
the night among the willows and aspens at Pine Grove meadows, sixteen miles south.
Keeping out of view of the Indians, they waited until daybreak next morning;
then the posse charged their camp, killing nine Indians with no injury to them-
selves; recovering their own stock and eleven Indian ponies. Six or eight Indians
escaped in the undergrowth of willows and aspens, with several of their ponies.
They, being headed south, were thought to be Ute Indians. Some members of the
posse became alarmed for the safety of miners scattered about the Hahn's Peak
country, believing the Utes, for reprisal, might gather in force and slaughter
isolated miners. Joe Hurt and George Ferris, who had been game hunters for con-
struction camps of the Union Pacific Railroad and were familiar with the entire
surrounding country, volunteered to notify the miners.
Continuing from the scene of slaughter after the recovery of their horses, they
arrived late in the night at the three forks of Snake River. Ferris and both
horses were so tired they could go no farther. Joe Hurt, a man of extraordinary
energy and endurance, continued ten miles to the peak on foot during the night and
warned the miners. Men from the isolated camps gathered in a body and fortified
themselves in case of an attack. The sheriff's posse had returned to Rawlins.
J.S.Littlefield, the retiring White River Indian agent, arrived in Rawlins the
next day. He was informed of the Indian affair and was surprised, declaring they
were not White River Ute Indians; that he could account for all Indians that were
in his charge when he left the agency. Thus, he convinced Sheriff Ranney, leader
of the posse, that they were mistaken, and by blankets and trinkets gathered on
the scene of the slaughter, they were identified as Arapahoe Indians.


FORT SAUNDERS, 1868,
This picture represents a commission of Civil War generals on a tour of inspection of
Wyoming and other western army posts. Names of officials from left to right are: (1)
General Phil Sheridan. (2) General Gibbons. (3) General Grant. (4) General Sher-
man. (5) General J. H. Hunt. (6) General Harney. (7) Dr. Durant of the Union Pa-
cific Railroad Staff. (8) General Potter, commander of Fort Saunders. (9) General
Bissell.
This photograph reproduced by permission of
Mrs. C. F. Schaale, a descendant of General Hunt.


22
A treaty was made with Chief Black Cole of the Arapahoes, hy the government
about 1867, and the tribe was located within the boundaries of the large reser-
Tation on Wind River which was formerly allotted the Shoshone tribe an act by
the government to which Chief Washakie sorely objected, until a stipulated price
in cash was promised him. (Prom recent 1934 press report, a Shoshone representa-
tive has demanded of congress a settlement of their claims).
Renegade bands of Arapahoes (on unfriendly terms with the Shoshones), led by
Little Bear, Friday and other leaders, continued to rove and harrass the whites
for several years.
Forty head of horses were stolen from B.F.Kelly, on the Laramie Plains in
1874, by the Arapahoe Indians. A claim for their loss was presented to the gov-
ernment. After sixteen years' delay, a provision was made by congress for pay-
ment at thirty per cent, of their value.
Herds of range horses from California were driven east over the overland trails
as early as 1874, finding a market in the middle states.
The first large herds of beef cattle to be driven east over the Wyoming trails
were owned by Conrad Kohr and his son-in-law, Dave Bielenberg, of Deer Lodge,
Montana, and John Barney Hunter of Buffalo, Illinois. From Bitter Root and Deer
Lodge valleys in 1875, they continued to drive steer cattle from Montana each
season until 1879, shipping their herds from Iaramie or Cheyenne to the Chicago
market and to feed lots in Illinois. Pondexter and Orr, of Deer Lodge, also drove
large herds from Montana to stock Wyoming ranges. Building of the Union Pacific
Railroad, and military protection, made possible the first outlet for Northwestern
stockmen to market their surplus stock, from herds established following the
Lewis and Clark Expedition and settlement of the Northwest.
A supply of rifles and ammunition being part of trail crew equipment, riders
were selected from their respective herds to scout miles in advance as a precau-
tion against surprise by hostile Indian bands when moving over Wyoming trails in
the early 70s.
The early day trapper, prospector and mountaineers in general carried rifles,
when horseback, slung to the pommels of their saddles. Later, when stockmen with
trail herds appeared, they, for convenience, carried the cavalry or carbine rifle
in a scabbard slung from the saddle under their right leg.
Tip Gault and His Band of Thieves Passing Out.
It was in August, 1875, when Tip Gault and his band of outlaws, Joe Pease,
Fred Huddleson, a swarthy negro, and Jack Leath, left their retreat on Green
River and followed a horse herd they had spotted moving east on the overland trail
from California to the middle states where Anderson, in charge of the herd, ex-
pected to find a market. Awaiting a favorable opportunity to make a large haul in
horses, after four days of traveling and spotting, they made camp at a spring,
hidden among clusters of willows and aspens on the west side of Elk Mountain. The
chuck wagon, with camp equipment for the trail crew, had made camp for the night
at the trail crossing of Pass Creek, which was in view two miles from the spring.
Bill Hawley,a veteran of southern stock ranges, had driven his herd of cattle
from the pan-handle of Texas and located on a small tributary of Pass Creek a few
weeks before. His stock brand was "Hat." The creek had not been named, and be-
cause of the "Hat" ranch and the "Hat" brand the name "Hat" was given to the creek.
Hawley had previously been warned of the Green River thieves by Sheriff Rainey and
settlers of Carbon County. The members of the band had gone .near the horse camp
and were off their mounts back of a ridge, before dusk, where they waited for a
later hour of night to stampede the horse herd.
The trail wranglers, while lassoing their mounts for the night guard, acci-
dently lassoed a green bronco which broke out from the saddle band dragging the
lariat and was soon lost sight of in the darkness. The bronco, in his desperate
dash to free himself of the rope, ran in the direction of the thieves, where he
stopped with the riderless horses. The thief band seized the opportunity to cap-
ture a prize, hooked onto the dragging lariat and held the bronc,believing he
would be a safe bomb to cause the stampede. When all was in slumber at the horse
camp, the rustlers led the bronc near, yet not within hearing distance of the camp.
Then, in order to give him a more exciting send-off than he would have had in
dragging the lone rope, Joe Pease started to tie a sage brush to the bronc's tail.
The bronc landed a double solar plexus knock-out blow and Pease was fatally injured.
He was moved some distance toward their camp. Then, instead of the brush being


23
tied to the bronc's tail, it was tied to the dragging end of the rope, which served
to make the scattering of the herd a success* Pease, too seriously injured to be
moved to camp, was taken part way and left with Leath in charge while Gault and
Huddleson went to their camp for refreshments. Huddleson was delegated to take
care of Pease for the night, and with a blanket, food and water, he went to re-
lieve Leath. Then, at daybreak, Gault and Leath, astride fresh mounts, and
equipped with field glasses, viewed the range from high points, looking for dis-
tant bands of the scattered herd. At the same time they kept an eye on the
horsemen, who, at break of day, were gathering in all bands in sight, not ventur-
ing beyond the bounds of safety, for the country was infested with renegade bands
of Arapahoe and Sioux Indians.
After a hurried count of the 800 horse herd had been made, they moved out on
the trail with all riders on the job. Then Gault and Leath made a short recon-
noiter of the range and gathered in a band of sixteen head which they had spotted
grazing among the willow growth along the creek and drove them to a temporary
corral they had previously built when they had camped at the spring.
Seven head of the Hat brand saddle stock that had strayed a short distance
from their home range were included in the "pick-up." When they, with running
iron, had disfigured the most noticeable brands on the animals and taken their
customary feed of coffee, flapjacks and jerked meat, Leath went with fresh water
and provisions to supply Huddleson, who was attending Pease in their distant
shakedown. Gault and Leath, on fresh mounts, scouted from distant peaks the low-
lands of the range for possible chance of raking in from the outskirts others of
the scattered horse herd. In the meantime, while the Hat brand cowboys were on a
hunt for their horses, they discovered fresh trail which led them to the outlaw
camp. There they saw the Hat horses, with others, in the corral. They realized
at once just what it was all about. They inspected the camp for arms, and as to
how it was situated. Leaving all horses in the corral, they moved away cautiously.
Gault and Leath returned late in the evening with their loot. Huddleson re-
turned to camp late in the night and reported Pease had succumbed to his injury.
Huddleson was detailed to bury the body, and, with a small camp shovel to make the
interment, he went on foot in the dark hours of the morning, while Gault and Leath
were partaking of an early morning snack in preparation for a quick get-a-wa>. At
daybreak a volley of shots from ambush rang out, and two more of the Green River
thieves went to answer the judgment call with their boots on.
Huddleson escaped with his life, the party in ambush not knowing his whereabouts.
The dead bodies and the camp equipment were not molested, the sharp-shooters taking
all horses. Huddleson scented trouble when he heard the distant shots. He return-
ed to camp with caution, through clusters of willows and aspens on the mountain
side. He saw the dead bodies of his comrades from beneath a thick growth. Knowing
Gault and Leath had well-filled money belts on their persons, he waited until the
dark hours of night. Then, with the stealth of a burglar, he took their money and
valuables. With a small 3ack of provisions, blanket and six-shooter, he made his
way back on foot to the Green River rendezvous by way of the overland trail, trav-
eling by night and camping in groves and gulleys during the day. Keeping shy of
his acquaintances, he left Green River by train. After spending a few years in
the south, he returned to his old haunts, under the name of Isom Dart, and a few
years later, while engaged in his former occupation, he met a similar fate for
cattle rustling near Brown's Hole. The bodies of Gault and Leath were buried by
Coroner J.Poster and Deputy Sheriff Rankin of Carbon County.


SECTION VI.
Incidents and Settlement of the Snake River Section
Over a Four-Year Period from 1872.
Snake Hirer, in 1872, was not considered hostile Indian country, yet Jim
Baker built his ranch home in the form of a fort with lower floor for living
quarters and the second and third stories of smaller dimensions with port holes
in all four sides and lookout conveniences on the roof. When Jim was asked by
his friend Bill Slater why he built a fort, he made no direct answer, but said,
"The Utes don't like me."
A small mountain peak south of Snake River, a few miles from his home, was
named Baker's Peak.
New settlers were locating in the valley and a number of prospectors joined
in the hunt for gold about Hahn's Peak, of which the majority will be named.
William Nelson and J.W.Darr located claims and mined on Poverty Flat. After
three years of successful mining they located in the Snake River Valley and en-
gaged in the cattle business with Noah Reader. Their range brand on cattle was
Dog Iron.
In 1898, Nelson joined the gold rush to the Klondike. He was engaged in min-
ing there when he lost his life by accident.
Vincent Roubideaux engaged in mining at Hahn's Peak and later became a stock
ranchman in the Snake River Valley.
Charles F.Perkins Establishes a Trading Store.
In the summer of 1873 Charley Perkins built a one-room cottonwood log cabin
on the north bank of-Snake River opposite the mouth of Willow Creek and estab-
lished a trading store. His customers were settlers, miners and Utes. Perkins
kept an attractive stock of goods and offered other inducements to get the buck-
skin trade of the Utes from his competitor Joe Morgan. Raw hides and tanned buck-
skin were staples in trade. Perkins did a thriving business with the Utes who
visited the valley to trade during their hunts and ramblings off the reservation.
There was no law in the territories prohibiting the killing of game for hides.
Elk, deer and antelope were plentiful. Deer hides being valuable, the Indians
and a few white hunters slaughtered them ruthlessly. The squaws tanned the buck-
skin from all hides slaughtered by the Indians.
R.M. (Bob) Dixon, the First Postmaster on Snake River.
Bob Dixon came from Missouri in 1873. He located his ranch at the Snake
River crossing of the agency road. July first, a weekly mail was established
between Rawlins and the White River Agency. Mail had previously been delivered
semi-monthly. The first postoffice' to be established on Snake River was at
Dixon's ranch. The office was named Dixon. At the same time a weekly mail was
established between Dixon and Hahn's Peak, the route being by way of Perkin's
store and Noah Reader's ranch at the crossing of Savery Creek. Faithful Milton
Busby carried the mail by horseback in summer. His mount was named "Push-an' -
Digger" because of the animal's elow, shufflinb gait. The Rider, during a con-
versation with Milt, made inquiry as to why the odd name. He replied that, in
order to make the mail trip on time, he was obliged to push on the reins, and,
while applying the quirt freely, he kept digging with his spurs. He oarried
the mail on snow-shoes during the winter. John Eastman carried the Hahn's Peak
mail in the late 1870s.
John Irons located in the Snake River Valley in 1873, during the operations of
the Rawlin3 Mineral Paint mines, owned and operated by eastern capital, with Thos,
H.Ogshaw as manager. John was employed at the mines during 1874 and '75. The
mines and mill were closed by the end of 1875. John was employed to guard the
property. In 1878 the machinery was removed and the buildings abandoned. Being


25
out of employment, he went to Leadville during the boom days of 1879. In 1881
he returned to Baggs and later moved to Dixon, where he engaged in the saloon
business.
A Government Report.
From a report filed of a biological reconnoiter along the Union Pacific Rail-
road in Wyoming by the government in 1873, the company advertized extensively their
land and country tributary to their railroad, setting forth the opportunities for
settlement, agriculture, stock raising and mining. Through this means and other
sources of communication, the Snake River Valley became more widely known.
The season of 1874 showed a decided increase in settlement and mining devel-
opment.
I.M.Card and family; J.R.Davidson and family from Ora Grande, California;
Newton Ferris and family; A.L.McCarger and family; Joe Crothers and family, all
made ranch locations in the valley.
The Collom Boys Arrive On Snake River.
In 1867, Joe Collom, at the age of sixteen; two younger brothers, John and
3dward (all orphans), arrived in Colorado, where they joined their uncle John
Collom, who had come to Colorado some years before and was employed in the mines
near Idaho Springs. John and Edward made their home with their uncle and found
employment with miners' families. Joe was employed at driving ox teams, moving
pordwood to the different mills, and soon earrted enough to buy a four-ox team
and wagon with which he freighted supplies and quartz to and from the railroad
and mines. He continued in that business for seven years.
In May 1874 Joe and the two younger brothers left Clear Creek County with two
four-ox teams and two wagons to find location in the new settlements on the west-
ern slope, going by way of Fort Collins, Laramie and Rawlins. Several miles south
from Rawlins they overtook Newton Ferris, who had a load of freight to deliver at
the White River Ute Indian Agency. His wagon had broken down. Joe, with only a
small part of a load for his ox teams, arranged with Ferris to deliver the freight
to the agency. The two brothers stopped at Snake River to locate and build a home.
Upon Joe's return from the agency, he had a consignment of buckskin and beaver
hides from Agent Littlefield, to be delivered at Fort Steele. Joe returned to
Snake River to join his brothers who were making a home two miles east of Bob
Dixon's. They found employment with Sam Reid, George Baggs, and at the Hahn's
Peak mines.
George Baggs Moves His Herd of Cattle
to the Snake River Country.
George Baggs, with a companion, traveling by saddle horses and a pack, looked
the Snake River country over in 1872 with a view to locating a new range for his
herd of cattle, at that time ranging in New Mexico. During the following season
of 1873, Baggs moved his large herd of cattle from central New Mexico to the lower
Snake River range, where he established his ranch thirty-five miles below the
crossing of the agency road. His cattle were thoroughly range marked. The brand
was known as double eleven; 11 on the point of each shoulder, double dulap, and
half-crop of each ear.
This was the first large herd of cattle to be located on the Snake River
range. Baggs drove his herd by way of the San Luis Valley and over the continent-
al divide by the Mormon road. By permission of C.N.Adams, Ute Indian agent at Los
Pinos, and the consent of Chief Ouray, he was permitted to drive his herd across
the Unco.mpahgre reservation. The Rider, in conversation wit.n Baggs three years
later, was told how he moved his cattle from a drought-stricken range near Vaughn,
and the difficulties of moving a large herd of weak cattle through the mountains.
The Mormon road was first traveled by Mexicans from Taos and Santa Fe, traffic-
ing with the Mormons in the Salt Lake Valley; Escalante; and Lieutenant Gunnison,
when on expeditions of exploration; and Kit Carson, when on tour3 for fur trading in
the northwest; and later by Mormons moving to the San Luis Valley.


26
In 1875, George Baggs, after living at his lower ranch near his cattle range
for two years, and with a view to living nearer to civilization, built his home
ranch near the Dixon postoffice and the Snake River crossing of the agency road.
Hereafter the crossing was known as the Baggs Crossing.
Mrs. George Baggs was a noted character, and was known to the pioneers of
northwestern Colorado and southern Wyoming as "Maggie" Baggs. When moving the
Baggs herd of cattle from New Mexico in 1873, "Maggie" played the role of cowboy.
Dressed in men's attire, with her overalls in her bootlegs; with spurs cn her
boots, and chaperajos, she rode the lower Snake River cattle range for several
years, assisting in gathering the Baggs cattle and branding calves. At the same
time she bossed the job.
If anyond of the hired men gave her "back talk," he was in for accepting
a string of profanity; in other words, a gentle cuscing. On one occasion when
the crew was branding calves in the corral, an employe, Jack Farrell, did not do
his work to suit her. After some words had passed between them she proceeded to
give him a lashing with her riding quirt. Only George Baggs' presence averted
a tragedy. On this occasion, real enmity on the part of Maggie had begun a few
days before when she learned that Farrell (while riding with John Curtis, who
was representing the neighboring 33 brand) named a small roundtop butte, four
miles north of the Baggs ranch and directly on the Colorado-Wyoming line,
Maggie's Nipple." The butte has been a prominent landmark for stockmen in the
Vermilion and Powder Springs country since that time.
George Baggs was a stalwart, pleasant, quiet-mannered fellow; a good neighbor
and a factor in the community. Yet Maggie ruled the ranch, and being hospitable
to a high degree, the Baggs ranch was a stopping place for ranchers and travelers
A familiar remark, often heard from ranchers and travelers going that way was,
"We will make it to the Baggs ranch tonight."
Baggs' Ranch, Built in 1875. Indicated Here as in 1879.


27
Notice in the illustration on the preceding page, the quarter of venison at
the top end of a thirty-five foot pole, raised and lowered by rope and pulley.
In this way fresh meat, protected within a sack from flies, would keep fresh at
least ten days during the warm season. The method was customary with many of tne
ranchers.
Sam Reid and Family.
Sam had been somewhat of a floater. He arrived in the Snake River Valley from
California, Nevada and Montana. With his family, he located four miles from Bob
Dixon's. He engaged in raising vegetables. finding a market with settlers and
Kahn's Peak miners.
Joe Betts was generally known to the pioneers of the Snake River Valley as
Dutch Joe. He settled on a small creek near Savery. The creek, since 1874, has
been known as Dutch Joe Creek. Savery Creek derived its name from A.J.Savery,
who discovered gold near the head of the creek in 1870.
R.W.(Billy) Aylesworth and Family.
Billy Aylesworth came from Iowa and settled on the Snake River five miles
above the Dixon postoffice. He engaged in the cattle business. Five years later,
while riding on the range in pursuit of his cattle, his horse stepped in a badger
hole and fell on him. He was fatally injured.
William E.Timberlake and Paul Fuhr from Lewiston, Idaho, bought a large herd
of cattle which had been driven from Texas. The herd ranged between Snake River
and Bear River. The range brand was 33. Timberlake and wife made their home four
miles below Dixon. Fuhr, with his wife, son George, and two daughters, came
into possession of the Bill Slater homestead in Slater Basin, where they made
their home. Dutch Bill, he was called, and few there were, if any, in the
Snake River Valley who knew his proper name. Bill, originally from Germany,
drifted in by saddle and pack horses from the mountains. Having prospected for
several years without success, he located a homestead on Willow Creek, one mile
south of the Perkins store. He engaged in ranching and Carrying mail.
John V.Farwell Buys Mining Claims at Hahn's Peak in 1874.
John V.Farwell, of department store fame, a Chicago capitalist, learned of
gold discovery at Hahn's Peak. He ventured forth to investigate. After looking
the situation over, he bought the claims of I.C.Miller, W.R.Cogswell, Dave Miller,
George Howe, and other adjoining claims all on Poverty Hill. He employed men to
enlarge the Pioneer Ditch leading from the headwaters of Snake River. He installed
hydraulic pressure for sluicing and made other improvements that would enlarge
the capacity for mining. Lem Pollard was employed as manager.
Among the new arrivals at the Peak were Ed. and Dave Lambert, W.E.(Bill)
Humphrey, Ed.and John Eastman and Dan Clay. All were employed by the Farwell
Mining Company. The Beeler brothers and Bill Leahe were among the new settlers.
Bill, later, was an official of Routt County.
Reader's Ranch, a Horae for Travelers and Miners.
By 1874, travel had increased between Hahn's Peak, Snake River Valley and
Rawlins. Reader's ranch was known for hospitality. Noah Reader, wi^out solic-
itation, kept "open house" for all who came his way from the time he jrst settled
in the valley. Mrs.Reader, a kindly lady, served splendid meal3. Miners, freight-
ers, and others made the Reader ranch their stopping place for meals and lodging.
They were made to feel at home. Miners who came to the valley to spend the winter,
after doing their own cooking during the season, stopped at the Reader ranch for
days or weeks to fill up under the belt, while others made the Reader ranch their
home for the winter.
The Salted Diamond Mine.
Some excitement was caused in the Snake River Valley in July, 1874, when a
party of mounted men came to Noah Reader's ranch from Rawlins with pack horses,
camp and prospecting equipment. They confided secretly to certain persons that


they were on their way to a rich diamond field that had been discovered in the
country to the west.
The names of the men in the party were Al.Farley, Mike Murphy, Tip Vincent,
J.G.and J.P.Rankin, Bill Smith, Billy Byers, Al.IIueston, and Frank Harrington.
The party was joined by some Hahn's Peak miners who were in the valley, which
included Bill Slater, Dave Miller, Bibleback Brown, Joe Crothers, George Howe
and Bill Baker.
When they arrived in the neighborhood of the discovery, with the idea that
their party would be some of the first to stake claims in the new Eldorado, they
found many others who had fallen for the quiet tip that had been passed along in
Rock Sorings, Rawlins and Laramie, already on the grounds. Many had traveled in
the night. Men were turning over stones, examining ant hills and milling about
in the vicinity of the discovery claim, which was staked with the notice, "Gol-
conda Diamond Diggins" and was guarded by an employee.
The location of the Bonanza was directly on the territorial line of Colorado
and Wyoming on the northeast slope of Diamond Peak, which was later given this
name because of the great excitement created.
Phil Arnold.
The principal in the scheme had moved about quietly with saddle and pack horse,
appearing occasionally at one of the above mentioned towns on the U.P.Railroad for
camp supplies. He had the appearance of a person commonly known at that time as a
prospector. His movements indicated that he was prospecting in the country several
miles to the south. Appearing late in the season at one or more of the railroad
towns with a story of disappointment, and stating that he was in need of funds to
continue development work on a prospect he had discovered, he would produce a
sparkling pocket piece. His request for a loan on the article was refused. Later,
he appeared at Lou Miller's jewelry store in Laramie. He produced a stone from a
purse he carried, and requested a |150 loan stating it was a 3tone he found when
formerly prospecting in the diamond fields of South Africa. The jeweler a3ked to
examine the stone. It was found to be a genuine diamond worth more than f500.
Upon receiving the loan, he disappeared, as before. He later redeemed his pocket
piece through the mail. It later became known that he was stopping at first-class
hotels in Salt Lake, San Francisco, Chicago, and New York, offering diamond-mine
stock for sale to capitalists. A banker and associates from Chicago went to Rock
Springs,where they employed a guide, cook and obtained camp equipment for a sup-
posed hunting trip, but in reality to examine the diamond mine. About the same
time a mining expert was sent by San Francisco capitalists for an inspection of
the mine, and he pronounced it salted. Arnold, who attempted the coup single-
handed, and also to exclude the local and common prospector, had disappeared as
mysteriously as before.
This get-rich-quick deal was one of the first bunco mining schemes attempted
iot-ie Rocky Mountain area. Since that time hundreds of similar rackets in mining
and other lines nave been put over, and the old game is still in voguethough
in later years, operations were conducted from the swivel chair.
Education.
Noah Reader, while on a trip to Rawlins for supplies for his ranch, in 1873,
and with a view to arranging for the education of his sons, enquired of Bill
Granger (a pioneer and one of the first to keep a store and saloon in Rawlins),
if he knew of a man he could get for the job. "Yes," said Bill, "there is a fel-
low lying outside the back door, I believe would be all right for the job if you
can get him sobered up. He is well educated. His name is Sam Fesis." Reader
gathered up the human wreck and took him to his ranch. He tutored Reader's boys
for two years. He taught the first school at Savery.
Settlers Locating In the Valley About 1875.
Kirk Calvert came to the Snake River Valley from Iowa. He engaged in stock
raising. A year later he bought the Sam Reed homestead. His range brand was
figure 2.


29
Bill Ike came to Snake River from parts unknown. He made his headquarters at
Perkin's saloon. He was well dressed for a mountaineer. He had a saddle and pack
horse. His occupation was unknown. He was suspected by some of the settlers of
being engaged in the stock rustling game.
August Res dike moved to Snake River with his family. He located on Dutch Joe
Creek, and engaged in ranching and freighting .
John W. Mathews came to Snake River from California with his wife, son and
two daughters. He engaged in cattle ranching. A few years later he was elected
as a member of the Wyoming legislature from Carbon county. He sponsored the
Gopher Bill which placed a bounty on gophers. He was an enthusiastic booster for
having the bill become a law. Because of his great interest in the matter, he was
named and known throughout Wyoming as Gopher Johnny.
J.R.Austin moved to Snake River with a herd of cattle from the Arkansas Valley.
He located his ranch opposite the mouth of Sand Creek, His range brand was circle Y
Charley Slinkard and Tom Duffy came to Snake River and were employed by George
Baggs.
John Curtis came to the river from Texas. He was employed as a cowboy by Tim-
berlake and Fuhr. Mike Sweet was also employed on the Fuhr ranch.
Grafton (Charley) Lowry made his home with Bibleback Brown. He was engaged in
hunting and trapping. He was employed at the White River Agency in 1873. While
there, he often spent the evenings in the Ute camp. He entertained the reds with
the harmonica and song. He became a great favorite with them.
Albert Fly, with his family, which included two grown daughters, moved to the
upper Snake River. It was not long until two "Flys" flew over the matrimonial
route by the names of Cantlin, and Clay.
Look Where You Are "Gwine."
J.H.(Fatty) Harris, with a large family, located on Savery Creek. Dave Lam-
bert, a miner at the peak, spent his winters in the valley. It seemed to be a con-
test between Lambert and Kirk Calvert, the stockman, as to which would win "Fatty's
oldest daughter Sophie, for a wife. An argument between Fatty and his wife was
overheard, in which Mrs. Harris said, "Mr.Lambert is a miner. He digs gold right
out of the ground." "Yes," said Fatty, "but Mr.Calvert is an educated man. He can
read signs and tell just where he is gwine." Lambert won the prize, however. Cal-
vert married a daughter of Mr.Davidson. Fatty was a floater. After securing a
large amount of provisions and clothing "on time" at the France store in Rawlins,
he left for parts unknown.
Jim Baker Ute Shy.
This is one on Jim, coming from a reliable source, and tallies with Jim's
formerly admitted fear of Ute treachery. W.G.Reader, in a conversation with The
Rider, telling of an incident that occured in 1875, said that he and Jim were on
their way to Rawlins for ranch supplies, each driving a team and wagon, and going
by way of the Brown's Hill cut-off road. A large band of White River Ute Indians
were in camp on the head of the Muddy Creek one-half mile from the road. Jim was
driving in the rear, and. being much alarmed, carried his Marlin rifle across
his knee, held by the trigger hand. In his excitement, while urging his team
to keep close to Reader's wagon by slapping them with the reins, and watching
the hills and country about for Utes, his wagon tongue jammed the end gate from
Reader's wagon bed. Jim was very proud of his long, wavy hair, brown in color,
with a sandy and reddish tinge. He groomed it carefully. Jim lived with his
family in a tepee the first year of his residence in the Snake River Valley.
Settlers and Miners Dressed In Buckskin.
By the fall of 1875 at least a score of settlers and miners were dressed in
buckskin. They admired the serviceable qualities of Bibleback Brown's and Jim
Baker's Arapahoe-tanned and Arapahoe-made buckskin suits, which they had worn for
several years. As an economy measure, they decided to try buckskin. These suits
were all made to measure by Noth Reader in regulation Btyle, with tassel fringe on
the back from shoulder to shoulder and along the outside of jumper sleeves, pants,


Jim Baker, Riding "Yaller, on a Hunt for Fresh Meat, 1875.


31
legs and pocket lapels. Reader had been a tailor while living in Missouri. Skins
for these suits were selected by each owner from a large stock of buckskin at the
Perkin's store or by dealing directly with the Ute Indians. All buckskin in stock
at the Perkin's store was tanned by Ute squaws. With some of these men the buck-
skin suit was the only suit they had. The names of the majority of them were :
Dave Miller, George Howe, Bill Humphrey, Charley Lowry, John Reynolds, Dave Lam-
bert, Bill Slater, Tom Duffy, August Reschke, Bill Baker, Dutch Bill, Bill Nelson,
John Baker, and Dutch Joe. Because of the serviceable qualities of buckskin, many
pioneers had their pants foxed (patched) with buckskin on the seat, front opening,
pocket rims, knee and leg bottoms. When a fancy job was desired, each patch was
scolloped all around.
The Settlement On Snake River Was In Wyoming.
Although the headwaters of Snake River were in Colorado, the settlementin the
valley was one-half to two miles on the Wyoming side of the Colorado line. The
lower Baggs ranch was in Colorado.
Ute Indians Visit the Snake River Valley.
Ute Indians, when on their customary rambling hunts, made many visits to the
valley each season to trade at the Perkins store, and generally called on new
settlers to look them over, hoping for a possible chance of being given food.
Utes heap hungry. The Indian boys played and hunted rabbits with the Reader boys,
Joe Baker, and others.
The first public school in the Snake River Valley was in 1875, one mile east
of the Dixon postoffice. It was attended by children of the following heads of
families: Sam Reid, Newton Perris, J.I.Card, Billy Aylesworth, Noah Reader, and
Jim Baker.


SECTION VII.
First Settlement of Grand and Routt Counties.
Slowly, after mining had become an established asset in Summit County, a
gradual flow of stockmen from overstocked southern and eastern slope ranges
settled over a wide area, where an abundance of grass was available.
John S.Jones moved his large herd of thin cattle from southern ranges to
Middle Park in the fall of 1865. The following winter was severe. He lost his
entire herd.
Following is a partial list of prominent settlers in Middle Park at the time
of Grand County organization5 the majority being engaged in stock ranching:
Eugene Markham, Tracy Tyler, John Stokes, Peter Engle, J.S.Snook, Mark Bessy,
Frank McQ,ueary and others.
Gus Reader was a pioneer trapper in the North and Kiddle Park country.
J.W.Call and old man Elliot, and their families, were ranching on the lower
Blue River.
Mr. King located at the mouth of Troublesome Creek, on the Grand River.
William Cousins and family located on Frazier Creek near the present town of
Frazier. He operated a road ranch for the accommodation of travelers.
Grand County Organized.
New settlers were moving in. Grand County was organized in 1874 from that
part of Summit County which included North and Kiddle Fark, wit; the County seat
at Sulphur Springs.
Information of settlement by Frank Byers, a resident, and whose father, W.N.
Byers, of the Rocky Mountain News, located the Sulphur Springs in 1865.
Jack Summer, an uncle of Frank Byers, engaged in the general store business at
Sulphur Springs in 1874. Jack made the trip through the Colorado Canyon with. Major
Powell in 1870. Being a mechanic, he repaired damaged boats and made other needed
repairs. In 1876 he disposed of his store and engaged in the blacksmith trade at
Rawlins, Wyoming.
J.H.Ganson was engaged in the hotel business at Sulphur Springs.
Charley Royer was a pioneer settler and was sheriff of Grand County in 1882 and
1883.
W.G.(Sandy) Mellen made his home in Middle Park. He was employed at odd jobs
by stockmen, and carried accumulated and urgent mail at an agreed price per trip
to distant settlements from Sulphur Springs, such as Blue River, Steamboat Springs
and Ilahn's Peak.
Bernard Sproul and Frank Marshall were settlers in Egeria Park at that time.
Ute Indians Commit Depredations.
The White River Ute Indians, in their accustomed ramblings, hunting and camp-
ing in Middle Park and Egeria Park, became very bold. They harrassed new and iso-
lated settlers by camping and grazing their ponies on settler's meadows, and,
being "heap hungry," by begging food. Some settlers complied with their wants.
When refused by others, they left grumbling. When told to move off settlers'
meadows, the Utes would say that was Ute country, and would camp where they saw
fit, or issue mumblings to that effect.
Colorow, Cup-Ears, Washington, Mussisco, Peair and other sub-chiefs, each with
their bands of followers, spent much time in these parts during the summer. In 1875,


33
in revenge for being refused food, camping privileges, and because of other minor
grievances, they burned grass and timber in the Blue River country, Marshall's
stable and corral in Egeria Park, and they buried over a large section of the
Bear River country.
Protests were made against the Ute outrages by the settlers to the Washington
government, but nothing directly was done.
Uriah M.Curtis, a young man of German descent, arrived in Denver from the East
in 1862. 'Then not actively engaged, he spent much time in Ute Indian camps in the
vicinity of Denver, where he learned to cleverly interpret the Ute tongue. Major
Oaks, who was Indian Commissioner for Colorado at that time, realized his need of
an interpreter. He employed Curtis when on tours of inspection at Ute agencies.
Curtis was employed for some time at the southern Ute agency. He assisted Major
Whitely, when distributing supplies in Middle Park to the northern tribe, and later,
when they were located on the White River reservation, he assisted the different
agents in keeping the Indians on the reservation. Through interpretation, it was
expected of him to bring about a better understanding and harmony between the
Indians and the agent.
The Utes regarded Curtis as a friend. Curtis spent his entire time in their
camps. He took part in their sports and camp customs as one of the tribe.
Settlement of the Bear River Valley.
Because of the ^reat distance from outside communication and source of supplies,
and of fear of roaming bands of uncivilized Ute Indians, settlement of the beautiful
valleys of Bear River and Sgeria Park was being held back.
In 1872, Joe Morgan, oldest son in a large family living on Clear Creek, near
the present North Denver city limits, moved with supplies and a stock of Indian
trading goods to where the Elkhead Creek joins Bear River at the crossing of the
White River Agency road, where he established a trading store. The White River
Indians and an occasional trapper and prospector were his only customers. Joe and
the Utes became quite friendly. He was the first white man to locate in the Bear
River Valley.
Dave Morgan left the Morgan home on Clear Creek in 1873. He joined his brother
Joe on Bear River. Later he engaged in mining at Kahn's Peak and located a large
tract of coal land near the head of Morgan Creek. Later he engaged in the stock
business with his brothers Charlie and Billy, whose winter camp was at the junction
of Snake and Bear Rivers, at that time known as Morgan's Hole.
James H.Crawford and W.G.Mellen made homestead filing on land at Steamboat
Springs in 1874. A short time later Mellen relinquished his filing in favor of
J.P.Maxwell and associates of Boulder, who represented the Steamboat Springs
Townsite Company. Crawford built his home on the land filing in 1875. He and
his family were the first permanent settlers in the Bear River Valley.
J.H.Smart, with his family and his brother, Gordon, located in the Hayden
Valley in the fall of 1875. He engaged in trading with the Ute Indians and later
was postmaster of Hayden. Gordon engaged in ranching.
T.F.Iles located in the Bear River Valley about 1874. He was in the cattle
business in a small way.
Colonel James P.Thompson built his cabin in the Hayden Valley in 1876. One
year later he was appointed an official of Routt County.
S.D.N.Bennett, with his family, located in the Elk River Valley about 1876.
He was employed at ranching and at the Hahn's Peak mines.
Asa Ply built his cabin near the mouth of Elk River, in 1877.
Horris Brock came to the Hayden Valley about 1877. He was employed by the
Smart brothers. Later he located a ranch four miles below Hayden and also car-
ried mail between Windsor, Hayden, and Haim's Peak.
James E.Pollack and his brother ',7.F. Pollack, Frank Mann, Charley Strong and
George Shloer, formed a party that trapped in the Hayden Valley during the winter


34
of 1875 and 1876. Making a large catch in furs, they disposed of them at Perkin's
Trading Store. Jim Pollack was employed by Perkins for the season, while others of
the party were employed at the Hahn's Peak mines.
Morgan brothers, with a view to experimenting in farming in Bear River Valley,
brought in 3000 lbs. of seed wheat from their home ranch on Clear Creek and stored
it at the trappers' camp for the winter in October, 1875. They turned out their
four pair of oxen to winter on the tall grass of the valley, going themselves to
the lower country for winter quarters. It was a severely cold winter with three
to four feet of snow. Their cattle all died.
J.R.(Jake) Harding came to the Bear River country for his health in 1877. He
built his cabin near the mouth of Fortification Creek. After two years of a health-
ful life, trapping for the pastime it afforded, he engaged in practice of law at
Steamboat Springs.
Jimmy Dunn located in the Elk River Valley in 1877. He was a near neighbor to
S.D.N.Bennett.
Routt County Organized.
By an act of the Colorado legislature, Routt County was created from the
northwest corner of Summit County, and named in honor of Governor John L.Routt,
who approved the act January 9, 1877. The first county officers were named by him.
The commissioners were as follows: Gordon H.Smart, A.J.Bell, and T.II.lies.
Colonel James Thompson was appointed county clerk. The first meeting of the board
was held at Thompson's cabin in May, 1877.


UTE JACK
When Employed as Scout for Genera) Crook, During the
Stoux Campaign of 1876 and 1877.


SECTION VIII.
Noted Events, Episodes and Development of 1876.
Ute Jack, Scout for General George Crook.
Crook, in command of the U.S.army in the department of the Platte, with head-
quarters at Port Omaha, was personally in the field of operations during the spring
of 1876. He made preparations for a vigorous campaign against the several tribes
of Dakota Indians known as the Sioux, who were allied with the Northern Cheyenne
tribe in war with the whites under the guidance of Sitting Bull of the Hunk-Papa
tribe. All were roaming over northern Wyoming, eastern Montana and the Black Hills
of Dakota.
A treaty had formerly been made by them with the government, consolidating
various Sioux tribes on a reservation of their choice at Standing Rock Agency.
The Ogalalla and Brule Sioux tribes and Northern Cheyennes, having the same priv-
ilege, were located at Pine Ridge. A large territory which included the Black
Hills, their cherished hunting grounds, was embodied in the treaty. Owing to en-
croachment of prospectors into their hunting territory in 1874 and 1875, they be-
became enraged and were making a desperate attempt to stop the invasion. An attempt
was made by the government to compromise, that safety for miners might be assured.
No terms were acceptable with the redmen except, "stay out."
General Crook, operating from Port Laramie and Port Fetterman, and General
George Armstrong Custer, operating from Port Lincoln, Dakota, made a strenuous
campaign against the Sioux and Cheyenne Indians in 1875, with a small measure of
success. The reds, with large reserves of serviceable ponies, were able to keep a
safe distance from the soldiers. Crook was engaging friendly Indians as scouts for
the 1876 campaign. In a request for daring scouts from the White River Ute Indians,
a number proclaimed their willingness to serve, but because of lack of serviceable
mounts at that time (it being in the early spring), they were prevented from
rallying to the call.
U.M.Curtis, interpreter, realizing the eagerness of Ute Jack, whose Indian
name was "Acagat," arranged for his transportation. Jack, an active, adventurous
Indian, was about thirty-five years of age. When a small boy he was adopted or
possibly traded for, as were other Indian children. There were unscrupulous Mex-
icans trading with the Mormons, who would deal in Indian children during the first
years of Mormon settlement in the Salt Lake Valley. The Mormon family, by the
name of Norton, called the boy John. He learned to understand and speak English.
He also learned the Mexican language, along with Mormon children who were apt in
learning the language from Mexican traders. It was 3aid that Jack was born of the
Southern Utes, and had a taint of Mexican blood in his veins. When in mature years
and longing for the female companionship of his own people, he left his Mormon
home to visit the White Hiver tribe, where he betook to himself a squaw and
lived a life of leisure.
Jack, dressed in native garb and mounted on a Ute pony, accompanied t.ne mail-
carrier from the Agency to Snake River, thence by buckboard to Rawlins, where he
was met by Lieutenant Eckner, Crook's representative, who furnished him with a com-
plete new outfit, including a buckskin jumper, sombrero hat, pants, and cowboy
boots purchased at the Jim Prance store. An eagle feather was furnished him to
decorate his new hat, by a feed stable attendant, before he left for Port Laramie.
He was the only Ute Indian employed by Crook, and was known to Crook's men by the
name of Ute John.
Early in June, 1876, Crook's army was camoed on upper Tongue River. His army,
assisted by "Old Coyote" and other Crow warriors and a number of Shoshone Indians,
were driven back and defeated with minor losses, by a large force of Sioux, in the
rough country and timber near the head of Rosebud Creek. Crook's army withdrew
to Goose Creek, near the site of Port Phil.Sheridan, where he was joined by Chief
Washakie with 87 picked scouts from the Shoshone reservation, and Chief Medicine
Crow with 117 of his warriors from the Rosebud Agency. Prank Gouard was chief
scout for Crook.
General Merritt, with Buffalo Bill as chief scout, Baptistie Garner (Little Bat)
assistant scout, and seven companies of the 5th Cavalry, were camped on Hat Creek


SITTING BULL
Chief Medicineman of Sioux Tribes, in Seclusion
in British Territory.


38
a branch of Lance Creek and Cheyenne River. They were engaged in holding back
Chief Long Chin's band and other Cheyenne Indians from joining Sitting Bull's
warriors. It was while Merritt's forces were at this camp that Chief Yellow Hand
of the Cheyennes met his doom in a single-handed combat with Buffalo Bill, near
two buttes just over the line in Nebraska. Each used a rifle at several hundred
yards distant.
Crook was in frequent communication with army headquarters at Washington, by
courier to Fort Laramie and wire to the east. Curley, the Crow scout, carried
messages for Crook.
In the meantime, General Custer and six troops of cavalry of the Seventh
Cavalry, were in the field west of lower Tongue River in pursuit of the Sioux.
Hence the Custer Massacre on the lower Little Bighorn River, June 25th, 1876, an
account of which much has been written in history.
Sitting Bull, chief medicine man and advisor.of Sioux tribes, who rallied
his braves to hostile action, never led his warriors in battle. He was always at
a safe distance in the background.
At the close of the Custer incident where 212 cavalrymen, Custer and his entire
force were slaughtered, Sitting Bull, fearing the retaliating forces of Uncle Sam,
fled north with a small band of his tribe into unsettled territory designated on
maps at that time as British Possessions. The remaining Sioux warriors, led by
Crazy Horse, Rain-In-the-Face, and Spotted Tail of the Ogalallas, after being
routed in a series of engagements with Crook's army, separated in small bands and
continued depredations against the whites. At the same time they played a hide-and-
go-seek game with the soldiers.
Black Hills or Bust.
Conditions on the Wyoming frontier during 1876 may be partially described
by recounting the experiences of a Rawlins prospecting party.
May 1st, 1876, Mike Murphy, Al.Farley, Joe Rankin and Frank Harrington com-
posed a party of Rawlins mountaineers bound for the Black Hills with saddle and
pack-horses. They took a round- about way by Laramie, Cheyenne and Black Hill
stage road, to avoid hostile Indian country in traveling a more direct route on
the north. The stage line was established at the time of the big stampede to the
Hills in 1875 and was operated by Gilmore, Salisberry, and Luke Voorhese, and later
Russell Thorpe was interested in the company.
The party was attacked by a band of Cheyenne Indians near Jennie's Stockade in
the Cheyenne River country. One of their pack-horses was killed. For reprisal,
the party succeeded in making one of the Cheyennes a "good Indian" before they
were driven off.
The party continued to prospect in the Black Hills country for the season of
1876, without success. Rich placer gold discoveries were made in Deadwood Gulch
in 1874 and 1875, and all claims of promise had been staked by throngs that pre-
ceded them. Rumors that a rich gold strike had been made in the Big Horn mountains
reached the ears of unsuccessful prospectors in the hills and other mountain areas.
Before snow was entirely cleared in the foothills in the spring of 1877, many pros-
pecting parties were on their way to the new Eldorado.
The Rawlins party joined in the stampede, and in a wide ramble of prospecting
on the several tributaries of Powder River, arising in the Big Horn range, they had
a number of scraps with Sioux Indians during the season. Each man was equipped with
a Sharps 45-70 rifle, which had longer range than most rifles in use by the Sioux.
Many prospectors outfitted at Rawlins, the nearest railroad point to the new dis-
covery, and which, after a thorough investigation by prospecting, proved to be but
little or no value as a mining venture.
The majority of prospectors of the early 70s were only interested in free gold
placer mining, which meant "cash in hand." There were but few who had discovered
and were interested in lode and quartz mining.
Settlement of Snake River Continued In 1876.
Joe Morgan, on account of the slump in Ute trade, quit the store business on
Bear River and moved to the settlement on Snake River where he made a permanent
home and engaged in stock raising.


39
A1.McCarger, with his family, moved to Harm's Peak and took charge of the
boarding house for Farwell's miners, and for a time had charge of mining opera-
tions .
Sam Reid, with his family, moved from the Snake River Valley to Elk River
where he was engaged in raising vegetables for Hahn's Peak miners. Each fall he
moved to the valley for the winter.
Miss Sarah Morgan arrived on Snake River from the Morgan home on Clear Creek,
near Denver, making her home with her brother Joe.
J.W.Salisberry and family moved to the Snake River Valley. He was engaged
in the horse business.
Platt Hindman was a resident of the valley at this time. He was engaged in
freighting.
John Signor arrived on Snake River, and was employed for a time by Perkins.
His brother Bob joined him in locating land at Three Crossings of the Sweetwater
River in Wyoming. Other settlers located in the vicinity, and a postoffice was
established at the Signor ranch. The office was given the name Rongis, being the
name Signor spelled backwards.
On July 1st, 1876, Joe Collom and Dutch Bill secured a government contract to
carry the weekly mail horseback between Dixon and the White River Agency. Former-
ly, during heavy snow, the mail was carried from Dixon by way of the lower route,
Cross Mountain and Crooked Wash.
Eugene Taylor, formerly from Minnesota, and employed about Fort Collins, for a
time, was employed at the 'White River Agency by Agent Danforth, and later by Perkins.
John V.Farwell Enlarges His Mining Operations at Hahn's Peak.
On July 2!3t.o, 1876, The Rider was one of three drivers, each with team and
wagon furnished by Rankin Brother's livery stable, for transportation of John V.
Farwell and party of two (A.J.Bell and J.H.Henderson, civil" engineer) going from
Rawlins to Hahn's Peak. On the way, at Farwell's request, the party made a short
stop to converse with Jim Baker, whom he had met on a former trip. Baker was en-
gaged in framing out a large cottonwood tree he had felled at the side of the road
near his ranch, into a canoe. The canoe was to be used for his ranch convenience
in crossing Snake River. The party had accommodations for one night at Reader's
ranch. Farwell spent ten days at the Peak with his party inspecting his mines and
planning a route for construction of a ditch from Elk River to Poverty Hill to
increase the water supply for a longer season of hydraulic sluicing. A.J.Bell,
who had become associated with Farwell, took charge of operations. Farwell spent
some time in trout fishing. One incident of interest to him was the arrival of
Chief Piah, Sowawic, and eight others of their band of White River Utes in camp,
wi t.-i the usual "How," their word of greeting when meeting whites. When asked by
one of the miners where they were camped, the chief answered with the word,
"Siyah," pointing in the direction of Elk River, and added, "Heap killum snas."
Piah sized up the city man as the owner of the mine. As the band rode away, he
remarked "Heap big chief."
The Utes rode a short distance to where mining was being done. The soil and
gravel was being washed away and large boulders turned over by the stream from
hydraulic pressure in the process of separating the gold. The Utes seemed to
enjoy the sight for a short time, and then rode away into the hills.
Saloons were banned at Hahn's Peak when A.J.Bell took charge of the Farwell
Mining holdings.
Colorado Celebrated Admission to Statehood.
It was about August 5, 1876, that mail came to Hahn's Peak, with news head-
lines reading, "Colorado Admitted to the Union of States." A dozen prospectors,
freighters and miners who had congregated at Charley Miller's salOon (the only one
in camp), received the news with pleasure. Bill Leahe suggested three cheers for
the new-born state of Colorado, which was readily complied with, thus showing their
hearty approval. Charley Miller seized the opportunity to make some business and
said, "All hands have a drink on the house to the success of the new-born state."
This also was quite acceptable. A number of the party treated with drinks. By this
time celebration of the new state of Colorado was in full blast with card games,
drinks, and much hilarity, continuing until late morning hours.
Robert Macintosh came to the Peak about 1876 from Illinois. He associated
himself in mining with the Farwell Company. In 1883, Mack engaged in the horse


JIM BAKER IN OLD AGE
JIM BAKER S HOME, BUILT IN 1873. LOOKING NORTH.
On the right, Jim framing out a cottonwood log into a canoe for
his use and convenience in crossing Snake River
during high water.


business, establishing his ranch in the Snake River Valley opnosite the mouth of
Slater Creek. He was also engaged in the store business. W.W. (Wif) Wilson was
employed as foreman of the Macintosh horse herd, located on the Slater Creek range
where a prominent rock and land-mark was situated and which "Mac" named Gibralter
Rock.
Green River Thieves Still In the Game.
In August,1876, Dave Stewart was moving 800 horses on the trail from California
to Nebraska, where he expected to find a market for them. During a night camp at
the crossing of Green River, his herd was stampeded and scattered by members of the
Green River band of thieves. When a round-up and count was made next morning, 83
horses were missing. Stuart and his men scouted the country for the missing horses.
On the second day 72 head were found in the New Fork country, 35 miles from their
camp, where they had been dropped by the thieves. The remaining eleven were not
recovered.
Sheriff Barrett of Sweetwater county was notified. He, with Stuart and Dep-
uty Johnson, rounded up three suspected thieves at their rendezvous on Green
River. At their court trial at Green River City, Hank Golden and Mexican Chavez
were convicted. The other suspect, Joe Gallegos, proved an alibi.
Wyoming, at that time, had no territorial prison. Golden and the Mexican were
taken care of and served three years in the Illinois state prison at Joliet. At
the expiration of their terms, Golden returned to 'Wyoming. He was employed by
George Baggs as cowboy.
U.M.Curtis Not Successful In Keeping
the Utes On the Reservation.
During the summer of 1876, game was scarce about the White River reservation.
Piah and his band of followers were on their usual romp in their favorite hunting
grounds in the upper Bear and Elk River country. Chief Washington, Cup-Ears and
Musisco, with bands of their followers, were in Middle Park. Curtis, knowing that
Colorow was suspected of being the leader in starting fires in the upper country
the year before, made special effort to keep him from leaving the reservation.
When he found his persuasion of no avail, Curtis joined Colorow and band on a short
camping and hunting trip in Twenty Mile Park. He succeeded in having the band re-
turn to the reservation in four weeks.
Some letter mail had accumulated for Curtis while on the trip. The Utes,
observing this, suspected Curtis might have some news from Jack. (Curtis had pre-
viously informed them in regard to Jack, and the Sioux campaign in which the
soldiers were unable to conquer them). In mingling with the Indians, Curtis heard
some of the braves remark at different times, "Sioux no fight; Utes heap fight,"
and he thought they would be glad for a chance to fight the Sioux.
Curtis, realizing their eagerness to fight because of Jack being in the Sioux
country, and of General Crook's need of a strong force, conferred with Agent Dan-
forth. They agreed that it might be a good way of keeping the Utes from molesting
settlers.
In the meantime, Piah and Washington, with their bands, had returned to the
reservation. Other bands were called in.
Permission Granted the Braves to Join General Crook's Army.
Agent Danforth applied to the Secretary of the Interior for a permit to allow
the Indians to leave the reservation on a mission of this kind, (since all move-
ments of this nature at Indian agencies were directed by the Interior and War de-
partments). In due time a reply was received that it would be permissible, provided
Curtis took charge of the Indians. This was made known to the leading chiefs.
They readily accepted and were jubilant at having the opportunity to join Crook's
army in a campaign against the Sioux.
Chiefs Washington, Colorow, Cup-Ears and Musisco selected their warriors,
seventy-three in all, with picked mounts and with extra ponies for change and
pack. With Curtis in charge, they left White River Agency the last week in
August to join Crook's army at Fort Fetterman. They arrived at Rawlins and camped


at Rawlings Springs for a days rest and to obtain supplies.
A number of the warriors did not have rifles. They had left their muzzle-
loading and Henry rifles at the agency. Curtis outfitted them with rifles, ammu-
nition and provisions purchased at the Jim France store.
Curtis was joined at Rawlins by Tommy Hanlcs, a cowboy, and one of the first
pioneers at Rawlins, who had in mind he might enrich himself by getting away with a
band of Sioux ponies should the Ute forces engage in battle with the Sioux.
Leaving Rawlins, they traveled northeast ninety-five miles to old Fort Casper
where they rested their ponies for a day. (Fort Casper was abandoned in 1867, and
the equipment moved to the newly-established Fort Steele). At this point they
learned from soldiers who were on scout duty from Fort Fetterman that Crook's army
had left for the junction of the north and south forks of Powder River five days
before.
Up to this time there was no evidence of Sioux Indians. The braves were happy
and seemed- eager for an engagement with the Sioux. Curtis decided to overtake
Crook's army. They traveled north toward Powder River and camped at a water hole
for the night. Here they found plenty of sign that the Sioux had been there a few
days before. The next morning complaints were heard by Curtis, such as "Ponies
heap tired" and other excuses. Honko and four other warriors took the back trail.
The rest of the army, when several miles farther on toward Powder River, came
across the head and bones of a freshly-slaughtered buffalo, stripped of all
flesh. Fresh pony and moccasin tracks were in evidence.
The Utes stopped to hold council} more complaints were heard, "Pony heap
tired; no can go." Pannitto and five more braves turned back; they could not be
induced by Curtis and the chiefs to continue farther. The rest of the party
reached Powder River the same evening. They found the grass eaten and tramped
out and fresh sign of a large band of Sioux having camped there a short time before,
but no evidence of Crook's army.
The warriors were mum. They camped among the cottonwood timber and did not
start a fire. They tied their ponies close to camp. The next morning the chiefs
complained to CurtiB, "Ponies no grass; heap tired, no can go, you go; me, Utes
heap tired; one Ute heap bellie sick, no can go." and other excuses. All Utes
started on the back trail.
Curtis and Hanks, discouraged because of being deserted by their warriors and
their failure to find Crook's army,(which had gone by another route to the north-
west by the foot of the Big Horn Mountains) returned with the Utes. On the home-
ward journey that day, they came across a small band of buffalo. Hanks and Ute
Charley, each killed one, and taking what choice meat they could pack with them,
they camped for the night at Poison Spider Creek. The braves were feeling better
and no complaints were heard. They celebrated their Sioux campaign with a big feed
of buffalo meat late that evening. There being no wood for campfire, some of the
Indians ate their meat raw, while others gathered buffalo chips to heat rocks on
which to cook their meat and coffee. They traveled leasurely in straggling bands
to Rawlins and the Agency.
The Rider viewed the Curtis-Ute expedition in Rawlins on their way north, and
again on their way to the Agency. Being well acquainted with Curtis and Hanks, he
heard their story of the trip. In short, it was that the Utes saw fresh evidence
of large Sioux forces and no sign of Crook's army for their protection, so they got
cold feet and could not be persuaded to make further effort to join Crook's army.
CurtiB spent the fall at the agency, returning to Rawlins in December, 1876,
where he spent the winter with his wife, two sons and one daughter all small
children. He returned to the Agency in the spring of 1877. In a short time dis-
satisfaction arose between him and the agent, so he returned to Rawlins and thence
to his home in Denver.
It was in June, 1877 when John West and The Rider were on a wide search for
ranch locations in the Sweetwater country, traveling by saddle and pack ponies. A
two-night's camp was made at Devil's Gap, a choice camping place on the overland
trail. Eight grave markers were in view. Those interred there were immigrants,
some of whom had been killed by Indians, and others died from natural causes.
'When making a survey of the Independence Rock area, twelve burial markers were in
place, fifty yards north of the trail bridge spanning Sweetwater River and eight


U3
hundred yards from Independence Rock. Eight soldiers of Colonel Gibbon's expedi-
tion, while camped at the Rock, were reported to have died from ptomain poison.
Four immigrants had died from other causes while on the trek over the trail.
Independence Rock was a noted landmark and camping place on the Overland
Trail. Hundreds of names and dates had been scrolled on the rock with chisels
and crude tools. Many names had been applied with paint. On our return to camp
in the evening, we found our camp bed had been carelessly left spread in the open
during the day. Upon retiring for the night, West was the first to turn in, when
his feet came m contact with a cold, clammy object. With a shriek and bound he
threw the covers back. A large twelve-button rattler that had been prowling during
the day, had helped himself to a comfortable bed for the night. He, like hundreds
of others of the rattlesnake family where no rocks or clubs were available, was
given the knockout blow with a riding quirt, and the head stomped with the boot
heel. Later, cowboys who carried a hip gun, would clip the head off with their
Smith & Wesson six-shot or Colts forty-five, as a practice stunt.
Poles of the old telegraph line, some of which were in place, others fallen,
were stripped of the wire, which was used again for construction of the new tel-
egraph line on the Bitter Creek route. Four of the fallen poles were drawn to
camp with the saddle horse and placed in a square, and a stake notice announcing
homestead location nailed thereon. Later, before improvements were begun, a job
appeared to the locaters to be more desirable than a homestead on the Sweetwater.
Tom Sun built his ranch on the same spot in 1881.
It was close in the vicinity of Independence Rock that the noted lynching of
Jin Averil and Ella Watson, for alleged cattle rustling, took place in the middle
eighties, and of which sensational articles have been published, flouting the name
Ella Watson as "Cattle Kate."
On July 4th, 1876, John Leaf and his brother Will, composed a freight engine
crew running on the Union Pacific Railroad between Rawlins and Green River. When
east-bound on their return trip, the engine and ten loaded cars piled up in a
washout at Point of Rocks. Will, the fireman, was fatally crushed and burned in
the wreck. John, the engineer, escaped injury. His life spared, he decided to give
up the railroad job and turnedhis attention to mining.
At that time fifteen loaded cars twenty-eight to thirty-two feet in length
made an average freight train on the Union Pacific Railroad.
In December, 1876, J.H.Belford, who became a representative by appointment when
Colorado was admitted as a state, introduced a bill in congress for the removal of
the Ute Indians from Colorado.


SECTION IX.
Settlement of Snake River, and Incidents in 1877.
Charles Perkins Builds a New Store Building.
In 1877, Charley Perkins, to take care of his ever-increasing business, built
a large store building and hotel across the road from his old one-room log cabin
on the bank of Snake River. The old cabin was retained as a saloon.
John Beagle moved his herd of cattle from the Picketwire Creek to Snake River
range in 1877.
Charles (Black) Wilson and John Porter arrived on Snake River in 1877. They
were employed by Perkins.
Tom Morgan came to the river from the Morgan home on Clear Creek and made his
home with his brother Joe. Sometime later he engaged in stock-raising with his
brothers, Dave, Charley and Billy.
Romance.
Charley Slinkard and Miss Sarah Morgan, traveling by team and buckboard fifty
miles from Snake to Bear River, were united in marriage by Tom H.Iles, a Justice
of the Peace.
John Baker, after the death of his Shoshone wife on Henry's Fork in 1877, spent,
with an only daughter, most of his time on Snake River. The daughter was employed
at the Perkins Hotel, while John played high stakes at draw poker at the Perkins
saloon.
W.H.Atkins, a lumberman of Evanston, Wyoming, financed and was associated with
B.F.(Ben) Majors. They engaged in the cattle business on the Lower Snake River in
1877. Joe Sinsberry was also engaged with Majors in the cattle business.
A New Town Established at Hahn's Peak.
By July 1877, mining operations were progressing at Hah,n's Peak. The Elk
River Ditch was completed. A store, company offices, hotel, and other necessary
buildings were established by the Farwell Mining Company between Way's Gulch and
Poverty Hill Mining claims. It was christened "Bug Town." Sometime later, when
the town had taken on a sort of metropolitan air, the name Bug Town was changed to
International Camp. A road was established from the peak by way of Hog Park, at
the head of Encampment Creek, to the Union Pacific Railroad and to Laramie. John
A.Gordon did freighting for the Farwell Company. The Farwell mines were later
leased to, and operated by Cody and Hindman.
Hahn's Peak mines were of low production in placer gold. No one interested
in mining there ever became burdened with wealth from their production.
Trappers of 1850 and 1860s.
Gus Lankin and Louie Simmons were the last of the pioneer trappers of the
fifties and sixties who trapped in the Snake and Bear River countries as late as
1877. Dressed in buckskin of their own tanning, each from their respective camps,
they moved about from camp to camp with saddle and pack horses. When a collection
of furs had accumulated they disposed of them at trading posts.
Gus Lankin, when returning to his camp on Elk Head Creek in 1873, from attend-
ing his traps, realized from empty food vessels that his camp had been visited by
bear or other marauders who had eaten all prepared food, including a pot of fer-
mented beans that had stood aside for several days. Lamkin chuckled to himself,
believing whoever ate the beans would give his camp a wide berth in the future.


45
When on hie regular tour of tending traps next day, he came across two "Heap bellie
sick" Ute Indians, two miles from his camp. Lankin realized at once they were the
moochers who had devoured his sour beans, and without sympathy, was content to
know of their not too serious illness.
The Utes, after partaking of the luxurious feed, had started on their way to
their camp on Bear River, when they had become too ill to continue the journey.
Each tucked into his blankets in a shallow gulley for protection from a severe,
cold wind, awaiting their recovery to normalcy, while their ponies grazed near by.
Louie Simmons, trapping on the Rattlesnake range north of the Three Crossings
of Sweetwater,(and near the oil springs where Jake Ervey and John Landon located
the first oil claims in Wyoming near the headwaters of the South Pork of Powder
River in 1877) gathered several burlap sacks full of moss-agates. After sorting
them at Rawlins, he shipped two sacks of the choicest stones to dealers in Chicago,
for which he received satisfactory prices.
Otto Prank, a New York capitalist, bought and moved 3000 cattle from Idaho to
Wyoming in 1877. He located his ranch on the Gray-Bull River. Rawlins, 200 miles
distant, was his railroad point for ranch supplies. He and M.L.Lovett were the first
settlers in the Gray-Bull country.
Sitting Bull, when ordered by border police to get out of British territory
returned to Standing Rock Sioux Agency, and Fort Gates, where he surrendered to*
authorities in August, 1877. The Brule Sioux were the most turbulent of all the
Sioux tribes. Because of the chief's surrender, roving scattered bands of
Sioux warriors, led by Chief Crazy Horse, Spotted Tail, Rain-In-the-Pace, and
Young-Uan-Afraid-of-His Horse, returned to their reservations to make treaty.
Chief Red Cloud, the aged and wise counselor of the Northern Cheyenne tribes,
realized the struggle to defend their rights to the Black Hills country would
be a losing fight against Uncle Sam's army. Calling in his sub-chiefs, White Horse,
Big Foot, Dull Knife, Wild Hog, and the bands of his tribe, he surrendered to
General Coe at the Red Cloud Agency, November 18, 1876.
The bands of Chiefs Dull Knife and Big Foot, because of their many vicious
attacks on whites during the Sioux campaign, and including a band of renegade
Arapahoes, were assigned by the government to be moved to the Indian Territory
where some of their tribe had been moved at the time their treaty with the
Government was made in 1868. The Cheyennes were bitterly opposed to being
moved into a new country where the water was bad and the climate unhealthy, but
after a few months of parleying and coaxing by government officials, they con-
sented to go. They left Red Cloud Agency May 28,1877, in charge of Captain
Lawton, with four troops of the Fourth Cavalry. They became much dissatisfied
in their new home, and made several attempts to return to their native country,
Dakota, but were frustrated in their efforts by soldiers on guard from Fort Reno,
where a large garrison was stationed for guard duty to prevent Indians that were
moved to the territory from other parts of the country from leaving. After years
of restlessness, with much sickness, and watchful waiting for an opportunity to
get away without interference, eight-six members of the Cheyenne tribe fled
north across Kansas and Nebraska. They were engaged in a running fight near
Smoky Hill, Kansas, by a troop of soldiers and a small force of settlers. They
made their escape with the loss of one of their number, and reached the border
of their cherished homeland, where they were joined by Chief Wild Hog and others
of the Cheyenne tribe. They were in camp on Wounded Knee Creek, December 26,
1890. The district was within the border of what is now Shannon County, South
Dakota. Colonel Foresythe, with seven troops of cavalry from Fort McPhearson,
undertook to arrest the leading chiefs, Big Foot, Dull Knife, and Wild Hog.
Making these arrests started trouble, and a free-for-all fight took place, in
which thirty officers and private soldiers were killed and about two-hundred of
the Cheyennes, of all ages, were slaughtered. The above meagre description recalls
the deplorable battle of Wounded Knee.
With the territory cleared of hostile Indians, cattlemen, eager for choice
ranges, were alert in contracting cattle in Texas, Utah, Idaho, and Oregon, to be
moved to Wyoming. Many large herds were driven from Texas, some of which were
driven by white cowboys. Others were driven by negro crews with a white foreman,
and one white wrangler. Still other ganado (cattle herd) were driven by Mexican
vaqueros, a cocinero (cook) with a white mejordomo (boss).


Many white and Mexican yaqueros from Texas, after being relieved from Senda
Ganado (trail cattle herds) would indulge in "ch-ingaro, paseo caballo," (drunkeness,
mounted on their ponies). They drank at the bar and amused themselves by shooting
out the lights of the saloon, 'and shooting about the feet of some innocent on-
looker, shouting to him to dance for his life.
"That was tame 3port," declared Mac Stuart, (who was a veteran Texas trail boss)
"compared to cattle days of the Chisholm Trail at Dodge City, Kansas? Mac, himself
a gun-toter and shooter, frequently indulged in "chingaro" (making rough house).
Because of his having killed a Mexican at Hidalgo, Chihuahua, during a drunken
spree, he spent three years, and died, in a Mexican prison.
Cowboy natives of Oregon, with trail herds, were known as "web-feet," because
of the rainy seasons of western Oregon.
Mormon-raised cowboys from Utah were known as "carrot eaters."
The California and Nevada cowboys, with their center-fire saddle, sixty-foot
rawhide lariat, tapaderos reaching below the knee, were the "waddies" who rode
the bad ones to a finish.
As Wyoming ranges were occupied with cattle and cowboys, the buffalo, following
their regular custom when crowded from southern territory, drifted north to where
more peaceful conditions prevailed.
A Noted Cattle Herd.
The first herd of cattle to be located on the Sand Creek and Sweetwater range
in Carbon County, Wyoming, was in September, 1876. The exact location of the head-
quarters ranch i3 now in the depths of the Pathfinder Reservoir. The herd was owned
and driven by Nathan (Nat) Ireland of Raft River, Idaho. The cattle were branded
"76" as a range brand. Seventy-six indicated the year they were driven over the
trail. The cattle and horses were for sale. No buyer for tine herd was available
during the season.
The Rider, accompanied Ora Haley of Laramie, in March 1877, to Ireland's ranch
where Haley bought 30 head, the choice of 60 saddle-horses. Froin Rawlins he re-
turned with them to his "Heart Brand" ranch on Rock Creek.
During April, Ireland sold his herd to Tim Foley, a stock dealer of Omaha. He
employed Nat James as foreman and Jack Donahue was added to the crew. Both were Texas
cowboys.
In June, 1877, Foley sold out the "76" herd to Morton Frewen and brother of
New York. Their contract called for delivery of the cattle on Clear Fork of Powder
River, where the cattle were counted out by Frewen Brothers. Later, reports were
circulated that while Foley and Frewen Brothers were busily engaged in counting the
cattle near a small, craggy butte, Nat James moved 150 head of counted cattle
around back of the butte, where they became mixed with the uncounted cattle and
were passed through the count a second time, unknown to Frewen Brothers. Other
reports were circulated that the herd was bought on book account, at a much larger
number than there actually were.
From these reports, many spurious articles have been published in the local
press depicting the range cattle owner as being dishonest, and in in keeping with
similar articles which have been published, that all range cattl owners paid an
extra fee to their cowboys for each maverick branded for their employer.
It is a truthful statement, that during forty years employed in all angles of
the range cattle business, The Rider has never known of an extra fee being paid by
owners to their cowboys for the branding of mavericks. Mavericks were stolen by
rustlers, and the stock-growers association demanded that all mavericks collected
on general roundups be sold to the highest bidder each day they were found. The
uncollected few were a small item in the cattle business.
Fort McKinney and the town of Buffalo were established at the crossing of the
Bozeman Trail on Clear Fork of Powder River in 1877. Johnson County, Wyoming, was
also organized, with county seat at Buffalo, about that time.


Bobby Foote, with a negro wife, kept a small store where the overland trail
crossed a small creek, which was later named Foote Creek, four miles west of Rock
Creek. When Fort Halleck was abandoned in 1869, he moved to the old fort quarters,
where he operated a store and road ranch, taking care of the immigrant trade. He
was one of the first commissioners of Carbon County. He moved to Buffalo in 1878,
and engaged in the store business.
Dr. William Harris, resident physician of Laramie, and surgeon for the mountain
division of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, during the 1870s, engaged in the
cattle business in 1876, ranging his cattle with Jack Connor's herd on Medicine
Bow Creek. In 1878 he moved his herd to the Clear Fork of Powder River, where he
established the A H ranch near Buffalo.
The A H ranch later became notorious because of sharp-shooters from the south
making headquarters there while employed by cattle owners to eradicate the rustling
element from the Powder River range. These rustlers were gradually depleting the
large herds.
The movement was known as the Johnson County cattlemen and rustlers war, of
which facts and much twaddle bearing on the matter have been published in the press
of the country.
John Massingale (Missouri John), a native of the Ozarks, who was noted for his
droll and humorous comments on the general topics of t.-;e day, and his partner, Jim
Ross, also W.H.Austin, George Saylor, and John Bennett, were engaged in the cattle
business on Medicine Bow Creek, a few miles north of Carbon Coal town, in 1876.
Hides, Heads, and Horns.
Sir John Ray Reid and his cousin, the reverend John Eaton from Florence, Eng-
land, came to Rawlins in 1877, as a starting point on a hunt for big game.
Tom Sun, experienced French-Canadian hunter, formerly scout and guide for mil-
itary expeditions, operating -from Fort Lincoln, Dakota, was employed by Reid to
furnish the equipment and pilot the hunting expedition Charley Benton as cook;
three packers, Will Hunt, Jack Roberts, and Charley Cummins (alise South Paw), made
up the crew. The Britons were each equipped with two rifles, shot-gun and field
glasses.
The Reverend Eaton, while waiting the start for the hunt, decided on having a
practice ride. When applying at the Rankin Brothers stable for a mount, he re-
quested one a bit active, which was immediately furnished him. Topping his mount
at the stable door, he headed down the street, applying the spur to get a bit of
action. The pony responded with more action than was expected. The reverend gentle-
man landed in the street with a thud, receiving a severe shock but otherwise unin-
jured. As he was assisted to his feet by onlookers, they heard him remark, "Blast
the bugger."
With their saddle stock and eighteen pack ponies loaded with camp equipment,
the party spent six or eight weeks in the Ferris and Rattlesnake mountains col-
lecting choice specimens of heads and horns of elk, bighorn sheep, deer, antelope,
buffalo, and hides of bear, at their headquarters camp on Pete's Creek. It required
three four-horse teams to move their trophies to Rawlins for shipment to England.
Nutritious Grasses Responsible.
H.M.Good, also a native of England, and a friend of the Reid party, who was
also employed as bookkeeper at the First National Bank of Laramie, came to Raw-
lins to visit his friends on their return from the hunt. While waiting for a day
or two for the party's arrival in Rawlins, he decided to have a horseback ride.
Like most blue-bloods of his native land, he prided himself on being a good horse-
man. Calling at the stable he ordered what he termed a charger (a spirited horse)
and with an English saddle he attempted to mount in a way that was not agreeable
with the horse. He landed on his head and shoulders in the street. Picking him-
self up, uninjured but in a somewhat ruffled state of mind, he was heard to re-
mark, in his decided British accent, "Ah, the spalpene!" Turning to Jesse
Wallace, a nearby observer, and speaking with emphasis, he said, "The nutritious
grasses of the bloomin' country cause the bugger to lope 'igh."


Sir John and a friend, H.Hertei, returned for a hunt in 1878, and later assist-
ed in financing Tom Sun to engage in the cattle business at his ranch at Devil's
Gap on the Sweetwater River. He became interested with O.P.Johnson, who had driven
a herd from Idaho. His range brand was the Pawnbroker Sign. .*. described by the
owner in Canuck accent as "tree ball." A second herd was bought and branded "hub
and tree spoke."
Utes On the Romp.
U.U.Curtis, having left the White River Agency, the Utes were free to roam at
will, since Agent Danforth had no control over them.
Ute Jack had returned to the White River Agency after fifteen months employed
in scouting with General Crook's army. He had gained some knowledge of military
tactics; he was being idolized by young bucks who aspired to be warriors. These
included renegades Antelope, Bennett, Chineman and others, wno were well mounted
and ready for action should trouble arise.
North Park, where several bands of buffalo ranged, was Jack's and Colorow's
favorite hunting grounds. Other bands led by Sowav/ic, Washington, Cup-:.ars and
Piaii, favored the Elk River, Egeria and Middle Park sections.
Chief Douglas' Camp.
Chief Douglas, at the age of three score years (an age that lessened the appeal
of continual roving) led a more retired life. With a band of one hundred or more
of his tribe, largely the older squaws and children, he had gone north to his fav-
orite hunting grounds on the headwaters of Muddy and Savery Creeks in Wyoming, 130
miles from the Agency.
Some of the older sub-chiefs, who had l03t their following because of old age
and caring more for the quiet life, cast their lot in the Douglas Camp. Some of
these were Woretz, Unkumgood, Jacknuck, Uncle Sam* Yarmony, Yellowstone, and others.
The Utes usually took with them to this camp from 200 to 250 ponies. Most of
these were used in moving, and all grazed on fresh grasses adjacent to their camp.
The head of the Muddy and Savery Creeks country was a paradise, not only for
Indians, but for whites as well. There were many springs of sparkling pure water.
Native trout were abundant. Deer, antelope and elk were plentiful near this camp.
Numerous buckskins were tanned by the older squaws, while parties of bucks, between
hunts, might visit Rawlins to see the railroad and other sights, and perhaps do
some trading. They made frequent visits and spent a lot of time at the Perkins
store. The bucks traded buckskin for ammunition and tobacco. If some particular
Ute had "heap buckskin" he would trade for a late model rifle or for a field glass,
two articles they were constantly striving to acquire. The squaws traded for beads,
red bandanas and knicknacks for the children. The articles purchased were not
furnished them by the government.
They were sports, and would stake a pony against a white man's pony, or two
for one as the case demanded, in pony or foot race contests or rifle practice with
settlers who gathered at the store and postoffice for mail. On many occasions,
bootleg "firewater" played its part in making the sports more exciting. Johnson,
medicine man of the tribe, was declared the best shot, carrying away all prizes.
If the bucks saw a white man with a late model rifle, they were persistent in
wanting to examine it closely. They were at that time using some of the old model
magazine rifles the Spencer, Henry and others. A few were using cap-and-ball
squirrel rifles. The Ute boys used bows and arrows. A few of the more important
Utes had later model rifles. Johnson had a Sharps rifle. It was known to be the
only one owned by the tribe.
Special Ute Sport.
Often, when a band of sporty young bucks, romping in the hills near their
reservation, would spy a newcomer in the country (possibly a settler away from
his cabin gathering in his firewood supply or looking after his stock, unarmed),
they would keep out of view until within a convenient distance; then, when the op-
portunity presented itself, they would make a grand rush toward the stranger with


45
shrieking yells and war whoops, expecting him to stampede and run, which was great
sport for them.
On one occasion, in 1875, when Joe Collom was making one of his first trips
to the Agency with mail, on the way down Coal Creek Canyon, he was surprised by a
band of Utes rushing from the mountain side toward him, with terrifying shrieks,
yells and v/hoops. Joe did not stampede. He had not yet learned the Utes' sport
tricks. He drew his revolver. At the same time Chief Johnson came near, calling
out, "White man no scare." Joe realized it was a jest and said to Johnson, "Some
white man will kill you if you make a practice of that kind of joking."
On another occasion, when a band of young bucks had gone over the Uanforth
hills from the agency to the Morgan Canyon, they spied two Morgan boys down in the
draw. They had just recently moved i,nto the vicinity. They were loading their wagon
with firewood. The Utes, a quarter of a mile away on the hillside, swooped down
toward them with yips and fierce yells. The boys, not yet familiar with Ute customs,
and believing them to be on the warpath, unhitched their team, mounted and went at
breakneck speed two miles down the valley, with*the Utes a few hundred yards in
the rear keeping up a continuous tirade of shrieks and yells. When they met face to
face at the Morgan cabin, the Utes said, "White man heap scare; heap run," and
laughed and joked among themselves.
A Job On the Cattle Trail.
It was in August, 1877. The Rider, after delivering a four-horse load of trad-
ing store supplies from Rawlins to J.K.Moore (post-trader at Fort Washakie), was
employed by J.A.Underwood as cowboy to assist in moving a herd of cattle from Raft
River, Idaho, to Wyoming. While going by way of the Oregon trail, he learned at
Montpelier, a Mormon settlement in the Bear Lake Valley, that settlers throughout
all Idaho were much alarmed because of an Indian outbreak. Chief Joseph, of the
Nez Perce tr.be, with a bad case of agency grievances, left his reservation on
Clear Water River, Idaho, with 250 warriors, and continued on a flight of carnage
in the Salmon River Valley and Camas Prairie, passing over the continental divide
by way of the Salmon River trail and later named Gibbon Pass, to Big Hole Basin.
Chief Joseph's band, although great warriors, were routed in a fierce engagement
with two companies of soldiers under General Gibbons, aided by settlers of the Big
Hole Valley. The reds then fled along the Montana side of the main range to Yellow-
stone Park.
General 0.0.Howard, with three companies of cavalry from Fort Lapwai, near
Lewiston, were in pursuit. Colonel Gilbert with two companies of cavalry, shipped
from Fort Russell to Rawlins. Boney Ernest, was scout for the Gilbert expedition,
and joined General Howard at Yellowstone Park.
Troops at Fort Ellis had been notified and were also in pursuit of the hostile
reds. Three companies of cavalry engaged Chief Joseph's band near the north end of
the Park. After two hours of desperate fighting, with much loss on both sides,
Chief Joseph, realizing he would be out-numbered, as Howard's army was advancing
near to join in the fight, fled north toward the British line. He was intercepted
and defeated by a strong military force from northern Montana forts, at the foot
of Beartooth Mountains. General Miles, commander at Fort Keogh, with three troops
of cavalry, thirty well-trained Cheyenne Indian scouts, and Ben Clark as chief of
scouts, led the main forces in the fight. A large number of Nez Perces were killed,
one hundred and eight ponies captured, and most of their tepees and other camp
supplies taken. The Indians, in spite of their heavy losses in ponies, still pos-
sessed their best mounts, and, defeated in battle, they fled south toward their
reservation, with General Miles' force in hot pursuit. The Indians finally surrend-
ered to Miles near Fort Hall, Idaho. They were escorted by cavalry troops to their
reservation at Clear Water, in Western Idaho. (Boney Ernest, one of the few frontier
scouts living at this time, 1938, has his home at Alcova, Wyoming.)
The Rider, while on the trek, was passing through a small parx on top of Bear
River Mountain between Bear Lake and Gentile Valleys, on the way to Raft River with
teams, camp wagon and two saddle horses. All horses became alarmed, pricked up
their ears and stopped short. Urging the team to move faster was little heeded.


50
A MONSTER.
BONEY ERNEST1934.
One horse following in the rear, snorted as he
stampeded through the timber. Presently a monster
grizzly came lumbering in view on the road from the
west side of the mountain. Leaving the road by a
trail on his right, he meandered along as would
a large, fat porker.
The team surged from the road in an effort to get
away. Because of large trees ahead and on the right,
there was danger of a wreck. Stopping opposite the
surging team thirty feet distant, bruin sniffed the
air for a short time (critical moments for the team
and driver). Lowering his head, he moved down the
trail with no concern, but bringing great relief to
the much-frightened outfit. His weight was estimated
to be 1500 pounds.
The herd was gathered from the Reft River range.
They were raised by Mormon settlers who located in
the various valleys of Southern Idaho shortly after
Mormon occupation of Salt River Velley. The herd was
shipped from Carter station on the Union Pacific Rail-
road in Wyoming, to the Chicago market and to feed lots
in Illinois.
Samuel Clemens, formerly Mississippi River steamboat pilot, and nationally
known as Mark Twain, the humorist, visited Laramie, Wyoming, in 1877. There was
an exciting antelope hunt on the Laramie Plains with his friends Jim Ingersol,
stableman; Tom Dayton, Bob Marsh and Doc.Hayford, postmaster of Laramie, during


5f
which he witnessed a large band of antelope attempt to cross the Union Pacific
track in front of a fast-moving train near Hutton Section, now Bosler Station.
Many antelope were killed. Not unlike domestic sheep in following a leader,
antelope go sheep one better in their determination to follow a leader. From
this experience, Twain wrote humorous articles for the press, on frontier lore.
In 1877, J.M.Pattee, from Chicago, a crafty shark and promoter of questionable
enterprises, engaged in a lottery business in Laramie. In order to present himself
to the citizenry as one engaged in a legitimate business and in good standing with
the clergy of Laramie, he donated liberally to the different churches. He passed
a liberal bribe to ti;e Fifth Territorial Legislature Assembly of Wyoming. At that
time he organized the Seminole Mining and Milling Company. He financed the building
of a six-stamp quartz mill in the Seminole district.
He advertised extensively throughout the country, reaping a harvest in the sale
of lottery tickets. At each monthly drawing, the few investors holding numbers
drawing cash prizes, who would accept mining stocks, were paid in kind. The build-
ing of the stamp mill was superintended by Capt.W.T.Casey, an associate of Pattee.
The Rider, while carrying mail by horseback fifty miles north of Rawlins to
the first established postoffice at Jim Cantlin's ranch on Sand Creek, delivered
mail to the employees at the mill, which was on the route. The mill was never oper-
ated. Before the next Wyoming legislature convened, the lottery and mining scheme
suddenly stopped. Pattee had business in Canada.
Edgar Wilson arrived in Laramie from Wisconsin in May, 1876. He was employed
as writer on the Laramie Sentinel. He also wrote articles for the New York World
and other eastern papers, and the publishers were so much impressed with his clev-
erness, and especially with his humorous descriptions, that he became famous as a
humorist, known the country over as Bill Nye. In 1879 he became editor of the
Laramie Daily Boomerang, which became popular because of his humorous writings.
He served for a time as postmaster under the Garfield and Arthur administrations.
Agency Supplies.
Ed.W.Bennett, of Rawlins, had the government contract for delivering annual
supplies for the Indians at White River Agency, from 1872 to 1877. Bennett moved
the freight with a string of bull teams. In 1872, Bennett, when delivering freight
at the Agency, in checking out his load, was short two cases of Gail Borden Eagle
Brand condensed milk, a special order for agent Littlefield. The milk had been
lost from his freight wagons while on the move. A band of White River Utes, re-
turning to the Agency from a hunting trip, found the milk, which they immediately
consumed near a then un-named creek. From this incident, the creek was named Milk
Creek. Bennett, with Frank Ernest, was engaged in operating a ferry at the immi-
grant road crossing of the North Platte River, six miles below Saratoga Springs,
during the late 70s and 80s.


)
4,

w.

o-A


U y
U'^ ^
V

FREIGHTING ON THE FRONTIER
With an occasional bomb-like report from his 16-foot whip lash, as
a wake-up warning, and a few; words of the bullwhacker vocabulary,
"Wo-a, Brigham; hey, Jerry; step up, Spot; yea. Bill; gee, Larry,"
and so forth, the driver controlled a ten, twelve or more yoke team,
drawing several tons of freight over the plains and rough mountain
roads.


SECTION X.
Incidents and Settlement In 1878.
H.E.Danforth, Ute Indian Agent at White River, sent in his resignation to the
Secretsry of the Interior at Washington, due to take effect at the regular trans-
fer of government officials July 1, 1878.
A New Mail Contract Was Let.
On July 1, 1878, a new mail contract was awarded E.E.Bennett, on the route
between Rawlins, Dixon, Hahn's Peak and the White River Agency, under postal reg-
ulations known as the Star Route Mail Service.
Charley Perkins sub-contracted the route from Bennett. Bob Dixon had passed
away during the spring and no postmaster had bee> appointed. Perkins, without
complying with postal regulations required by the department in moving of post-
offices, gathered up the contents of the Dixon office and moved them six miles up
the river to his new store building. The office still retained the name of Dixon.
Perkins, operating a saloon, was not eligible to bid on mail contracts, and under
government regulations a postoffice could not be operated in the same building in
which liquor was sold. A few months later a postoffice was established at the
Baggs ranch.
In 1878 Prank Harrah drove a large herd of steer cattle from Walla Walla,
Washington territory; they were located on the lower Snake and Bear River range.
His brand was "H" on the left hip. Prank bought the Bob Dixon ranch at Bagg's
Crossing, where he lived with his family.
In September, 1878, during a drunken brawl in the Perkins saloon, in which a
number of frequenters were involved, Perkins threw a beer bottle which killed Bill
Ike. Perkins gave himself up to a deputy-sheriff, Billy Aylesworth. At the trial,
he was acquitted on a plea of self defense.
W.H.Peck and family from Denver, established a store on Bear River for trading
with the Indians, one mile below the crossing of the agency road.
Bill Lisco and family, moved into the Bear River Valley from Pueblo, where he
had been engaged in team contract work.
Total Eclipse of the Sun.
It was in September, 1878, when Thomas A.Edison, electrical wizard, Marshall
Pox, reporter for the New York Herald, and two eastern scientists with a large
telescope, arrived in Rawlins to view the total eclipse of the sun, which took
place at four p.m. about September 10th. During the thirty minutes of eclipse, it
was twilight. If there were any chickens in Wyoming, they went to roost.
The next day after the eclipse, the Edison party was joined by Ed.Dickason,
superintendent of the mountain division of the Union Pacific Railroad, and R.M.Gal-
braith, superintendent of the Union Pacific Railroad shops at Rawlins, on a fishing
trip to Battle Lake. Transportation and camp equipment were furnished from Rankin's
livery stable. On arrival at the lake the second day out, a successful catch of
native trout was made and devoured at the evening meal. The city men, not being
accustomed to sleeping in the open, Ed.Dickason inquired of Mr.Edison next morning
how he had rested during the night. He replied, "The night was glorious. I did
not sleep; I just gazed at the stars, but feel much encouraged that I have con-
ceived the invention of an incandescent lamp."
New Ranges Were Being Stocked.
It was in September, 1878, that A.M.Jackson & Co., of Chicago, engaged in the
cattle business, buying a trail herd of three thousand cattle at Cheyenne. They
were branded "boot", and were moving west on the Shirley Trail when The Rider de-
livered a message to W.H.V'eaver, foreman of the herd, at Bad Medicine Creek,ninety
miles from Rawlins, at the time of the total eclipse of the sun. The herd was lo-


54
cated on the Sand Creek range. (Weaver, some years
ming state legislature from Carbon County).
later,
was elected to the Wyo-
Many bands of large game were seen on the trip, when passing over Seminole and
Freeze-out Mountains and in Shirley Basin, accompanied by the sound of breaking
branches, the bleating of the young calf, and moo of the mother elk, when, each
day, bands emerged at dusk from the timbered mountains near by, to drink and play
at a fresh water lake. Yearlings and two-year-olds were the most active in cavort-
ing about in the lake in a playful manner, splashing water on each other, and rear-
ing on their hind legs, at the same time boxing with their front feet. Their
actions and appearance were similar to young mules at play. The Shirley Basin area
was just one of the many large game haunts in the Rocky Mountain country.
Many pairs of bull elk have been found alive within large game haunts of the
mountain country, with antlers locked; also skeleton pairs in which the combatants,
in fierce head-on collision for supremacy had their antlers locked in a way they
could not separate. Each had died from exhaustion and starvation. One skeleton
pair which The Rider discovered in the Freeze-out Mountain district, defied thirty-
minute effort of maneuvering and prying. He failed to separate them without damage.
One prong of an antler had to be removed before the lock was released.
Bates Hole, a few miles north of the basin, harbored bear and herds of large
game during the severe winter weather.
J.O.Loomis moved his herd of cattle from Fort Collins to the Hole in 1877. His
range brand was 0 L.
The Shirley Trail was a branch leaving the South Pass route at Independence
Rock, and crossing the North Platte River where now is the Pathfinder reservoir,
and by Indian Grove, Freeze-out Mountain to the Laramie Plains where it connected
with Cheyenne and the Denver and Overland Route.
W.F.Cody (Buffalo Bill).
In November, 1878, The Rider attended a show staged at Rawlins by a theatrical
burlesque road troupe, with Buffalo Bill shooting glass balls as a side act, and
this was Bill's first engagement in the show business. The name Buffalo Bill be-
came famous because of his expert marksmanship in killing Buffalo on the plains of
Kansas, where his parents were homesteading when he was a boy of 12 to 15 years.
Later, he became a scout for military expeditions on the plains, and finally chief
scout for cavalry troops during the Sioux campaign of 1875 and 1877. While serving
in that capacity he was credited with bravery in a number of scout dashes through
hostile Indian territory. On one occasion, he met with and slew the daring
Cheyenne Chief Yellow Hand. At the close of the Sioux campaign he returned to his
ranch situated two miles north of North Platte City, Nebraska. From here he was
called to Chicago by a theatrical company because of his daring feats on western
frontiers and because of his entertaining personality. He was employed to give
exhibitions of his skill and to describe on the stage his notable achievements.
The theatrical company toured the states by rail. Later, Bill returned to his
ranch and organized his own Indian and Wild-West Cowboy show, with which he toured
the United States and principal countries of Europe.
Trading stores along the White River route competing for business, Perkins,
in order to fill up his large, new store building, put in a large supply of gen-
eral merchandise, which included late model Winchester rifles.
Peck, on Bear River, enlarged his stock of trading supplies, including rifles.
It was said that he accommodated his customers, including the Ute Indians, when re-
quested, with a bottle of "fire-water." It was a fact that no trading store stock
was complete without a supply of liquor to help bring trade.
In order to grab the lion's share of the Ute trade, Perkins established a branch
store in Spring Gulch. This was between Peck's store and the Ute reservation line
with Black Wilson in charge. Eugene Taylor, not to be outdone in the scramble for
Ute trade, established a tent store at the road crossing of Milk Creek, near the
reservation line.
A New Deal and the Way It Was Accepted.
Nathan Cook Meeker Succeeds H.E.Danforth as Agent at the White River Agency.
The Secretary of the Interior, after receiving the resignation of H.E.Danforth,
when casting around about to find a man for the job, learned of Meeker and of his
success in establishing the Union Colony; his interest in Indian affairs, and his
ideals for civilization and education of the Indians. He was appointed agent. He
was a dreamer of higher ideals. He visioned the Indians could be civilized and
become self-supporting by teaching them how to farm.


55
Meeker was sixty-four years old. He had been one of the editorial staff of the
New York Tribune for several years. With advice and financial assistance from
Horace Greeley, he organized the Union Colony, which was incorporated in the name
of Greeley.
First White River Ute Indian Agency, Built in the Upper Pictur-
esque White River Valley in 1868: Indicated Here. 1875.
Weekly Mail Arriving. (Looking East).


56
He moved with his family to Colorado in 1870. He established and was editor of
The Greeley Tribune.
Meeker arrived at the White River Agency from Greeley in the latter part of
June, 1878, to take the job of agent. He traveled by rail to Rawlins, and south
to the agency by buckboard mail stage.
Meeker Decides to Move the Agency.
The Agency was situated near the mountains where the snowfall was heavy. Meeker
inspected the lands adjacent to the agency, as to whether suitable for agriculture.
A few tons of wild hay had been cut each season for winter use, but no farming had
been done.
He looked 'over the entire White River Valley within the reservation. He select-
ed the Powell Bottom, twelve miles down the river from the old agency, as the most
suitable place for the agency to farm. He made his decision known to Chief Douglas,
who, with his several sub-chiefs,, held council and made strong protest, declaring
that the Powell Bottom furnished the best winter grazing for their ponies, and if
the agency was moved there, the grass would all be used in the summer, and they
would not adhere to the idea. Regardless of the chief's objections, Meeker went
ahead with his plan. He started employees at moving the buildings which were com-
posed of rough cottonwood and pine logs.
Powell Bottom derived its name from Major J.W.Powell, who, with a party of
scientists, camped on the bottom for several months during 1869. They were en-
gaged in exploring the rims of the Colorado, Green, and Bear River canyons and
other sections for minerals. Since it was a government expedition, they were per-
mitted to camp within the reservation lands.
Activities at the White River Agency in 1878; Confirmed by Joe Collom.
A New-Mail Contract Was Let.
Meeker applied to the postoffice department for an increase in mail service to
the Agency, and the weekly mail between Dixon and the Agency was increased to semi-
weekly, July 1st, 1878.
Meeker's Family Moved to the Agency.
When Joe Collom arrived at the Agency with the last mail of the Collom-Dutch
Bill weekly mail contract between Dixon and the Agency, he was open for a new job.
He was introduced and recommended to Mr. Meeker as a reliable man, by Mrs. F.E.
Danforth, postmistress at the Agency, and wife of the retiring agent.
He was employed by Meeker. His first job was to drive an Agency mule team
with camp equipment to Rawlins and bring back Mrs.Teresa Meeker, aged sixty-seven,
and daughter Josephine, aged twenty, and Windfield Fullerton, a young man of
Greeley, who was a visitor.
The second night from Rawlins on their way to the Agency, they camped at Cold
Springs near Fortification Rocks, the noted rattlesnake den. They found a number
of rattlers coiled under sage brush near the spring. They all joined in extermin-
ating all that could be found near camp. Although not having the protection of a
tent, they were not molested during the night.
They arrived at Powell Bottom the following day, and joined Mr. Meeker in camp
where the buildings of the old Agency were being erected for the t.-W Agency.
Ute Customs.
It was a custom of the roving Ute bands (Colorow, Washington, Sowawic, Cup-
Ears, Jack and others), while hunting each season in the Bear and Elk Rivers, North
and Middle Park country, to join in camping in Upper Middle Park, where they en-
gaged in sports such as horse-racing and foot-racing among themselves. At times
they were joined in their sports by the whites.


57
From this camp, leading chiefs with small parties would visit at mining towns
and at Denver, to view the sights, tramp the streets, and sit on the curb for a few
days.
If they had a grievance at the Agency, they would seek a conference with the
Big Chief (governor), relating their troubles and asking his aid in securing relief
for them through the Washington government.
Tabashie Killed.
In August, 1878, the several Ute bands had congregated in camp on Frazer Creek
below the Cousin's ranch, and near the Junction ranch which received the name be-
cause of being located at the junction of the Empire and Blackhawk roads. The
ranch was owned by Wm.Hamil of Georgetown. John Turner was in charge.
Chief Washington and Piah, with a band, had been on a roving and foraging trip
on the South Platte and plains east of Denver, where they harrassed settlers, shot
and wounded one, McLane.
They had returned to Frazer Creek, locating their tepees on the Junction ranch
meadow. Turner was mowing hay. He was angered by their trespassing, and ordered
them to move. He was greeted by a tirade of abuse in the Ute tongue. Advancing in
a threatening manner, a band of eight Utes, led by a young buck named Tabashie
Nee-Tab-cht, (grandson of old Chief Yarmony) and known to the whites by the name of
Sugarlip, literally cut the harness from the team with their hunting knives. The
Utes, being armed, Turner was powerless to make resistance.
With a view to complying by law for protection of his property, Turner sent a
courier post-haste to notify sheriff Hark Bessy, at Sulphur Springs, who organized
a posse of eight special deputies to accompany him. The names of some of these were
Frank Anderson, George Clark, Frank Byers, John Turner, Charley Royer, and Frank
MeQuery.
When the posse arrived at the Junction ranch and Ute camp, the Utes were horse-
racing a quarter of a mile away. They had left their rifles in their tepees. The
posse seized the rifles and held them under guard at the Junction ranch. Since
the race-track was out of view of the camp, the bucks were notified by one of their
tribe. A band of bucks appeared at the Junction ranch and demanded the rifles, which
were refused them by the sheriff. Sugarlip, who was leader in the harness cutting,
made a break to seize the rifles. He was shot dead by Frank Anderson. With the
leader dead, Sheriff Bessy decided it was not good policy to make arrests at that
time. After the sheriff had talked with some of the older chiefs, the affair
quieted down and the rifles were returned.
Junction ranch is now the towr.site of Tabernash, from the above mentioned inci-
dent. It was given the name by E.A.Meredith, chief engineer of the Moffat Rail-
road when it was built in 1902.
The Utes Kill Old Man Elliot.
The same band of Utes, when on their way to the Agency, killed old man Elliot,
living on the Blue River. They held a grievance against Elliot from the year be-
fore when he refused them food. Some settlers thought the murder was to avenge
the killing of Tabashie. Elliot was killed while chopping wood by the side of his
cabin. When the news reached Sulphur Springs, Sheriff Bessy, with a posse, went
to the Blue River in search of the murderers, but failed to find them. They had
fled toward the Agency. A few days later, Sheriff Bessy, with three special
deputies, went to the White River Agency to arrest the guilty Utes. Agent Meeker
was not at headquarters when they arrived. He was at work a few miles out on the
reservation. The Sheriff made it known to Mrs. Meeker that he wished to sec Mr.
Meeker on important business. Pah-viets, a trusty Indian, was sent to call Meeker.
When he arrived the sheriff told him his mission and asked his assistance in find-
ing the criminals. Meeker called Chief Douglas, and they conferred with him in
the matter. Douglas said that no Utes could be arrested on the reservation by
civil authorities. Nothing was done at that time to avenge the murder of Elliot,
Pah-viets and Jane.
In September, 1878, work was progressing at the Agency. Living quarters had


58
been completed. The agent and family had moved in. Pah-viets and his squaw, Jane,
were helpful with the work. Jane, when a small girl of six years, was adopted by
Judge Carter, post-trader at Port Bridger, from the Uintah tribe. The Carter family
bestowed on her the name Jane. While living with the Carter family, Jane learned
to talk and understand English and to do house-work. When at a marriageable age,
Pah-viets of the White River tribe won her for his squaw. Jane acted as interpre-
ter and reporter for the Utes at the White River Agency.
Meeker, in order to encourage the Indians in gardening and raising vegetables
for their own use, had his men prepare the ground and help Jane plant vegetable
seeds. She took care of the plants by the advice of the agent and raised a fair
crop.
Roving Bands Return to the Agency.
In September, 1878, roving bands were drifting to the Agency and setting up
their tepees in the form of a village near the 'new Agency, and near the river bank.
Chief Johnson had spent the greater part of the summer at the Agency, he being
chief medicine man, with some influence in the tribe. He was about fifty-five
years old, of stocky build, with slovenly and greasy make-up. He had two wives.
The older one was named Susan, and she was a sis<,er of Chief Ouray. The younger
squaw was named Cooz.
Meeker made known to the chiefs his plans for farming and requested the assis-
tance of all Utes with the work. The chiefs did not take kindly to his advice and
discouraged it with others of the tribe. Meeker, in order to demonstrate his good
intentions for their welfare, had a house built for Johnson, near the Agency. He
told others of the tribe that they could all be living in a house like Johnson's
if they would assist with the work and learn to farm. (To live in a house was no
inducement for an Indian to work).
John Collom, a brother of Joe Collom, was employed by Meeker at the Agency.
Being a young man of twenty years, he was apt in learning the Ute tongue. Besides
general agency work, he acted as interpreter between Agent Meeker and the Utes.
Josephine, Meeker's daughter, had won the good graces of the Indian children
and was teaching them in school and Sunday school as well.
Meeker Contracts Building of Ditch.
In September, 1878, Ed.E.Clark, civil engineer of Greeley, was employed by
Meeker to survey a ditch from White River to furnish water for irrigation of
Powell Bottom lands. About the same time, Meeker contracted witn Bill Lisco of
Bear River to build the ditch early in the spring of 1879.
Clark, while employed at the Agency during the survey, spent evenings in the
Indian camp. He sang songs and performed antics which pleased the Indians, and
was much in demand for his entertainment.
Ukatats Killed by Jenkins.
Jenkin's squaw had been sick for some time. Ukatats had administered to her
needs as medicine man. The squaw died. Jenkins placed the cause of her death on
Ukatats. Joe Collom was at work a short distance from their tepees. T!e heard a
shot. Looking up, he saw Jenkins mount his pony at a fast pace, and head down the
river. Chief Douglas sent Pah-viets and two other trusty Utes to follow and bring
Jenkins back. The chiefs of the tribe held council to affix a penalty on Jenkins
for the killing of Ukatats. The verdict of the council was that Jenkins should
kil1 ten of his ponies at the grave of Ukatats, thus squaring accounts.
The Agency Cattle.
There were about five hundred government cattle on the White River reservation
from which the beef sunply for the agency, including the Indians, was drawn. They
ranged principally on Strawberry and Piceance Creeks. The range brand was I D,
indicating Interior Department. The tribe privately owned about four hundred and
fifty small horses, and one small band of Mexican sheep.


5.9
Several of the sub-chiefs were much interested in horse-racing, and had added
several speedy ponies to their racing string by trading six, eight or ten of their
common stock to the whites for one of speed, when the opportunity presented itself.
The contract for the delivery of supplies to the White River Agency in 1878
was not fulfilled. The contractor, located in Laramie, failed to meet his obliga-
tions. Only a small part of the supplies were delivered by local freighters from
Rawlins before the roads became blocked with snow, thus causing much dissatisfac-
tion among the Indians.
October 25th, new settlers had located in the Bear River Valley during 1878.
Hulett Brothers (Charley and Dyer) and Hugh Torrence, moved their herd of cattle
from the Huerfano. They were branded H L, and their headquarters was located four
miles below the agency road crossing.
George lies made homestead location near his brother Tom.
Jerry Huff, after several years trapping and carrying mail, was raising horses
on Slkhead Creek. The dirt floor of his cabin, like many of the pioneer cabin
floors, was covered with dry elk, deer and antelope hides, used as rugs.
During the general election in Routt County in November, 1878, a ballot was
taken in contest between Hayden and Hahn's Peak in which each aspired for the
prize, Hahn's Peak being the winner. The Peak, being snow-bound for the winter,
the county records were moved from Hayden to the Peak in May, 1879 by John Reynolds
and Jimmy Dunn.
Some Incidents of Note Within the Area In 1879.
Maggie Baggs Shows Motherly Traits.
February, 1879, Maggie Baggs, with a view to surrounding herself with help
and a family, went to New York, where she secured three children from an orphans'
home, ages running from three to seven years. Two were boys, Tom and Isaac Jones;
the other a girl, Una Ryan. They were given a home on the Baggs ranch.
George Baggs, with the first large herd of cattle in the Snake River country,
gathered the cream off the range when I.R.Alter, a beef buyer for the Denver mar-
ket came to the Baggs ranch during March and bought several hundred head, gathered
from the Snake River range each season from 1875 to 1879.
They were shipped from Rawlins to Denver. There were no packing houses west of
Chicago; grain-fed beef was a luxury in the mountain country. The Baggs cattle
furnished juicy steaks for Denver tables.
April, 1879, The Rider, with team and buckboard, moved Jack Edwards, his saddle,
bed and personal effects from Rawlins to the Baggs ranch. Jack had been employed by
Baggs as foreman of his cattle ranch. He did not remain long on the job, having
his own ideas of handling the work outlined by Mrs. Baggs. Because of Maggie's
continual butting in, which was not agreeable with Jack, he quit the job. A few
years later he became a prominent sheepman of the Powder Springs and lower Snake
River countries. This was several years before Butch Cassidy and his band of out-
laws made rendezvous at Powder Springs. Some years later, Jack undertook to graze
his sheep on the upper Snake River cattle range. He was met on Willow Creek by a
delegation of cattlemen. Big Perkins, the spokesman, advised him to go back. He
was allowed three days to move his sheep north of Snake River. Jack became hard
boiled and declared he would graze his herds where he saw fit. When the three days
were up, however, his sheep were north of Snake River.
After disposing of his herds in the Snake River country, he became owner of a
large herd of blooded sheep at Pendleton, Oregon.
Jack and his brothers, Griffin and Bob, migrated from England, and were employed
at Rock Springs for some time. Griff, engaged in the sheep business in the Vermilion
Creek and Douglas Springs country in 1877. He became a large owner. He passed
away at Rock Springs in 1884 from tick fever.
Bob, during his few years employment at odd jobs abGUt Rock Springs, joined
with miners in a desperate attempt to devour all the "miner's delight" booze enter-


60
ing town. There was still some left when he passed out.
A.L.Durham, who was related to the Noah Reader family, arrived on Snake River,
and was employed by Perkins, in 1879.
April, 1879, when delivering an official message, which was wired to Rawlins,
addressed, "Sam Reid, Routt County, Colorado," The Rider found Sam living in the
Hayden Valley. The message had to do with forest service. Sam had been employed
by the government authorities to report any cutting of timber in Routt County for
commercial purposes by parties without a permit from the government.
Forest service of the 1870s was a small item compared with the forest service
of today. No attempt was made to put either timber or prairie fires out unless
they threatened destruction of private interests.
The Fate of Nels Iverson.
Nels Iverson, a stalwart Dane of twenty-four years, left his native country in
1878, going to New York. After spending several months there, he ventured west in
search of employment. He stopped at Rawlins. He had been a sailor in the northern
waters of his homeland, with some experience as a butcher. He was employed by Fred
Palmer as a butcher and meat cutter.
A few months had passed when he learned of an expedition which was being financ-
ed by James Gordon Bennett, for exploration and scientific research in the arctic
regions. The expedition was sponsored and organized by Lieutenant George W.Delong
of the U.S.Navy. Nels applied by mail to the headquarters of the organization for
a job as seaman and butcher. He furnished the necessary references. His physical
requirements were perfect. He was employed. Being a genial fellow, he made many
friends during his 3hort time in Rawlins, many of whom bid him farewell as he
boarded the Union Pacific train, "No.3" on April 27th, 1879 to join the personnel
of thirty-two men of the expedition by May 1st, at Mare Island, where the ship
"Jeanette" was undergoing improvements and being equipped for the arctic trip.
The Jeanette left San Francisco in command of Lieutenant Delong, July 8th. During
September, while in arctic waters, the ship was storm-beaten and disabled, being
jammed by ice floes which caused a leak. The ship was kept afloat by means of
pumps for two years, while among icebergs, and freezing in 30lid ice for eight
months of the year, over one thousand miles from land.
When the ships fuel was exhausted and the ship sinking, the crew took off in
three boats with a small quantity of provisions and several dogs, two hundred miles
from land. During a storm, the boats became separated. The largest boat, which
contained fifteen men, landed, after twenty-one days, on the delta of the Lena
River in northwestern Siberia, an uninhabited country. While waiting and hunting
many days for their lost comrades, their food supply became exhausted. Facing
starvation, they had about givenup the hunt in despair when two native trappers
appeared, who assisted and directed them to an inhabited Russian section, two
hundred miles distant. The first report of the lost ship Jeanette was given to
the world October, 1881.
The next largest boat, with Commander Delong and ten men, including Nels Iver-
son, and with the dogs, landed on the coast several miles from Lena River. They
found a vacated hut which had been occupied by native trappers in the short sum-
mer season. There was no game from which to obtain food. While hunting weeks for
others of the ship's crew, their provisions became exhausted. As a last resort,
they cooked dog meat and raw walrus hide; soles from the shoes they wore. They were
found by two native trappers in a starving condition, and too weak to make further
effort to find food or to travel. The trappers reported them to Russian authorities
at a great distance. The U.S.representative at St.Petersburg was notified. A re-
lief party, headed by Lieutenant Guiles B.Harber of the U.S.Navy, was sent to res-
cue the starving men. On account of delay and deep snow, the rescue party arrived
too late. Nine men were found dead under the snow. Four of these were identified.
In the hut they had occupied, a note was found which stated that Hans Sricson, one
of +he party, had died October 7, 1881, and the body had been sewed up in an old
tent, and dropped into the Lena River. The note stated t.iat four of the party were
yet alive but the ground was frozen and they were too weak to bury their dead.
Two of the eleven men were unaccounted for. The nine bodies of the unfortunate men
were returned to the United States. The five unclaimed bodies, which included
that of Nels Iverson, were buried by the side of Captain Delong, by his wife, Em-
ma Delong, in Woodlawn cemetery at New Market, N.J. The other four bodies were
taken care of by relatives and friends.


The third and smallest boat in which six of the crew had embarked from the sink-
ing ship, was lost at sea, supposedly capsized during the storm and never heard
of again.
This meagre description of the Delong expedition has been mentioned merely to
relate the fate of the genial and faithful Dane, Nels Iverson. (Note: A detailed
description of the ill-fated Jeanette, Delong Arctic Expedition, as reported by
Lieutenant Guiles B.Harbor, of the U.S.Navy, who was in command of the relief ex-
pedition which recovered the bodies of Delong and eight of his party, can be found
in most libraries.
May 1st, 1879, The Rider was one of Frank Harrah's crew of cowboys who were
leaving the Hurrah ranch for the general roundup. Snake River was at flood stage
from melting snow in the mountains. There was no bridge; the horse cavy swam the
stream; logs were lashed together for a raft, on which the wagon and camp equip-
ment were paddled across. Bill Slater, who had imbibed rather freely of Perkin's
best, had spent the last of his mining stake. He was employed as cook, and Bob
McCarger was horse wrangler.
During August, 1879, while the cattle roundup in the neighborhood of Timber-
lake Springs was going on, billions of grasshoppers were encountered migrating
from t.ie west to the east, covering a strip of country one mile wide. While bil-
lions of them were on the ground, cleaning up vegetation, billions were moving in
the air from the rear of the procession, obscuring the sun and alighting in the
lead on new pastures. The country they passed over was completely stripped of
grass and leaf vegetation. (They possibly were on their way to join their kin who
were in possession of western Kansas at that time).
July 1st, 1879, George Gordon, freighter of Rawlins, was awarded the government
contract to deliver Indian supplies for 1879, to the White River Agency. The freight
was due to arrive at Rawlins on or before September 1st.
It was on July 1st, 1979, that a weekly mail route was established between
Sulphur Springs and Steamboat Springs, and connected with the Rawlins and White
River line at Peck's store on Bear River, where a postoffice was established named
Windsor. Burgess and Lee, of Sulphur Springs, had the contract.
Ellis Clark, at the age of 17, carried mail on this route. He later became
a prominent stockman of Routt County.
There were no settlers north of the White River reservation line in 1879 closer
than Snake River, which was 75 miles, except the Morgan Brothers and Joe Collom.
The few settlers on Bear River were from forty to sixty miles east of the reserva-
tion line.


AS THEY APPEARED IN 1879.


SECTION XI.
Activity and Much Grievance.
At the Agency, April, 1879, Bill Lisco, with a crew of men, was at work moving
dirt on the Powell Bottom ditch survey. Eugene Taylor left the Agency for a job
with Charley Perkins. Joe Collom and brother Jonri had left the Agency job to live
on their homesteads on Collom Creek.
Agent Meeker employed an entire crew of farmers, young men from Greeley, to
help at the Agency. Their names were:W.H.Post, bookkeeper; Ed.L.Mansfield, Frank
Dresser, Harry Dresser, Fred Shepherd, George Eaton, Arthur Thompson, E.W.Esk-
ridge; S.Jasper Price, as blacksmith and handy man, and his wife Flora; Ellen
Price, to assist Mrs. Meeker with the housework, and Price's two children Mae,
of two years, and John, less than one year.
The party came from Greeley by railroad, and by Agency wagon conveyance from
Rawlins to the Agency. The men were employed in the regular routine of ranch
work, such as farming, ditch work, building fence, Agency out-buildings, and rid-
ing to care for the Agency cattle.
June, 1879, the Indians, seeing their pasture lands being plowed and fenced,
were aggravated to the point of near hostility. The chiefs held councils; they
protested to Meeker and told him where he should not plow and fence. One tract of
land in particular, which was very desirable for farming, on which the Utes had a
corral and race-track, should positively not be plowed or fenced.
Chief Douglas, Pah-viets and Jane, who formerly were agreeable and helpful
about the Agency, joined the sub-chiefs in protesting to Meeker against farming,
saying, "Utes no like work. Ponies get cut on wire. No grass," and many other
complaints. Ute children, whom Josephine had taught in school and others whom
Mrs. Meeker had treated when they were sick and at times given meals and sweets,
all had been taught to disrespect Josephine and Mrs. Meeker by spitting at them,
making ugly faces and doing mean things.
On one occasion, when a plowman had turned a few furrows on the tract of land
in which the race-track and corral were situated, a ball from a Ute rifle whizzed
close by the plowman's head. No more plowing was done. The shot was intended by
the Utes as a warning to intimidate the employees and the agent, so no more plowing
would be done on that particular tract of land.
In June, 1879, the sub-chiefs, each with his band of followers, were leaving
the reservation in separate bands for Elk River, Egeria, North and Middle Park, on
their customary rambles of hunting and camping. Chief Douglas, with his horde of
older bucks, squaws and children, went north to his favorite hunting grounds on
Muddy and Savery Creeks in Wyoming.
Johnson remained at the Agency to protest Meeker's farm policy, and to see
that no plowing was done on the race-track lands.
Meeker, in fear for the safetjr of himself, his family and employes, wrote
Secretary of the Interior Carl Schurz, for soldiers for their protection.
Settlers of Bear River and Middle Park Become Alarmed.
About July 18, 1879, the Utes, agitated and resenting their grievances at the
Agency, were committing depredations. They burned hay belonging to S.D.N.Bennett
on Elk River. They burned Tyler's corral in Egeria Park, and camped on settlers'
meadows in the Blue River and Middle Park country.
3ecause of the marauding disposition shown by the Indians, the settlers be-
came alarmed, and thought they were in danger of losing their lives. Complaints
were made by a number of settlers; a protest was formulated and forwarded to
Washington, setting forth a serious situation. An officer was sent out to invest-
igate. The result was that General Pope, commanding the army in the department of


Missouri, with headquarters at Port Leavenworth, was notified. He instructed
General McKenzie, in command of Port Garland,to dispatch troops for the pro-
tection of settlers.
Captain Clarence Dodge (Company C, 9th Cavalry), Lieutenant Hughes, White and
a troop of forty-four negro cavalry with four supply wagons, left Fort Garland for
Middle Park, arriving at Sulphur Springs, August 14,1879. They made camp twelve
miles below Sulphur Springs at Long Riffles on the Grand River, one hundred and
fifty miles from the White River Agency. Captain Dodge's assignment was to pro-
tect settlers and keep in touch with developments at the Agency, should his ser-
vices be required there.
Ute Sub-Chiefs Seek a Conference With the Governor.
About August 28,1879, Colorow, Jack, Piah, Sowawic and other less influential
Indians of the Ute tribe, composed a party from their camps where they had congre-
gated in upper Middle Park, visited Denver to seek a conference with the governor
and put before him their grievance at the White River Agency, asking his assistance
in getting a new agent. The conference was of short duration. Nothing was accomp-
lished, and no satisfaction given the Utes.
Ute Jack had a sly way of getting information. If he saw two or more whites in
conversation on the street or other convenient place, he would stick around, pre-
tending not to be interested. If he were spoken to, he would shake his head u.nd
grunt, pretending to "no savvy."
Utes Burning Grass and Timoer.
When the Ute delegation returned to camp in Middle Park from Denver with no
encouragement from the governor about getting a new agent, they started for the
agency, giving vent to their feelings by setting fire to the grass and timber in
the Blue River, Egeria Park and Elk River country, where a large acreage of timber
was burned, and hay belonging to Sam Reid. The most damage was done in the timber
near the head of White River. This was directly on the route to the agency. They
knew the presence of the negro soldiers in Middle Park, and named them "Buffalo
Soldiers." They arrived at the agency several weeks earlier than was their custom.
Their annuity supplies were not due for distribution until October 15th.
Chief Douglas' band had not yet arrived at the agency. They had slaughtered and
tanned "heap buckskin" at their camp on the head of the Muddy Creek in Wyoming.
The Rider, in his daily pursuit as cowboy, had talked with Douglas at his camp,
and frequently met small bands when riding the cattle range. When meeting, the
Ute word "How" was passed; "Where come, where go?" If the white man was a stranger
to them, they were persistent in finding out where he was from, and what his busi-
ness was.
Jack, Colorow and Piah met the Douglas party at Snake River when Douglas was
moving toward the Agency. After Jack and Colorow had counciled with Douglas,
"some trading" was done with buckskin, for rifles and ammunition, by Jack and
Douglas at the Perkins store.
Trouble Brewing.
Trouble had been brewing at the agency more or less all summer. Johnson had
frequent clashes with the agent, and at other times, Jane spoke her mind to Meeker.
During one of these rows, Johnson administered a severe beating to Meeker. By this
time, Meeker had come to realize his danger, and again wrote government authorities
for his need of soldiers for protection. His communications of this nature were
passed to Governor Pitkin, who, by wiring the contents to Yashi.ngton, and through
his influence, prompt action was expected.
About September 15th,1879, roving bands, after returning to the agency, were
making life miserable for the agent, opposing him on every turn. Meeker attempted
to send out a courier to meet Captain Dodge and his negro soldiers, to have them
come to the agency. He was prevented from doing so by the Utes. He attempted to
take his family out by wagon, but was prevented in this move.


Jack asked Keeker when the soldiers 7/ere coming. Keeker renlied that he did
not know, but said of they did come, they would do no harm.
The Utes were active, going to the different stores to trade for rifles and
ammunition. At the same time, they were adding to their grievances by tuning up
with liquor. Perkins had more than the usual Ute trade for the season. Feck
traded his last rifle to the Utes. Peck realized from the Ute attitude that trouble
was near, and with his family moved to Rawlins. Perkins' branch stores had a fair
share of the Ute trade. Trading for rifles was limited. The roving bands had but
a small amount of buckskin or cash to make large purchases, and the stores would
not accept ponies in trade.
Uncompahgre renegade Indians had been incited to join the White River Utes in
war should the soldiers come to White River.
There were nine rough-neck Utes, from the Uintah reservation. They had come to
visit and horse-race with the White River Utes. Their stay was longer than expect-
ed. It was making inroads on the chief's food supply. Jack asked Mr.Post, who
was in charge of annuity supplies, to issue the Unintah Utes provisions. Post re-
plied that he could not issue supplies to other than the White River Indians, and
to them only on regular dates of issue. Prom this answer, Jack and other chiefs
became enraged, which added to their already fancied grievances. It later became
known that Jack was holding the Uintah Utes until the soldiers came.
Captain Dodge's Pirst Move.
Captain Dodge, camped at Long Riffles, received his mail at Sulphur Springs,
advising him of a serious situation at the White River Agency. Dodge engaged
Sandy Mellen, the cowboy mail carrier of Kiddle Park, to bring his mail to him a
few days later, and left with his troop of negro cavalry to go near the agency
where he could learn the situation there.
He traveled over the Gore Range and through Egeria Park. He camped one night
at Steamboat Springs. (John Crawford, at that time a small boy, and now clerk of
Routt County, recalls the colored troops and the sound of the bugle call). They
arrived at the Bear River crossing of the agency road at noon the next day after
leaving Steamboat Springs.
Ed.Collom, the mail carrier, was on the way from Dixon to the agency. Dodge
waited at Windsor for the carrier's return from the agency, and learned from him
that, although there had been trouble, all seemed peaceful during his night's
stay. Then Dodge returned to Middle Park, where he expected teams with supplies
from Port Garland.
Horse-Racing at the Agency.
September 24, Prank Byers of Sulphur Springs, accompanied by Charles Royer,
had gone to the White River Agency to horse-race with the Indians-. During their
three days racing, Byers and Royer won ten ponies and a number of beaver hides.
Byers rode and won a race for Chief Cup-Ears, riding against Chief Sowawic's pony.
Byers realized from complaints he heard and from the attitude of t^e Utes, that
they were much opposed to Agent Meeker. Byers, in a conversation with Meeker,
stated what he had heard. Meeker replied that the Indians always had more or less
complaints and grievances.
Tom and Billy Morgan came over the Danforth hills from their ranch the same
day that Byers and Royer left the agency, September 27th, to see the new agency,
and to horse-race with the Utes. Meeker chastised them for coming there to race
with the Indians.
Josephine, with Ute children, sat on the corral fence watching the races.
Since there was much agitation and dissatisfaction among the Indians, the Morgan
boys did not stay long. They returned to their home.
An official of the postoffice department arrived at the agency the same day
the Morgans left, going by horseback from Perkins'. He was challenged by the Utes
on the road near Milk Creek. He was thoroughly questioned as to his business,
when the Utes learned he was from Washington, he was allowed to proceed. After a
one-night stay he returned to Rawlins and Denver.


SECTION XII.
The Way It Turned Out.
Thornburg With Troops to Protect Employes at the Agency.
September 19th, 1879, Itajor Thomas T.Thornburg, commanding the military post
of Fort Steele, fifteen miles east of Rawlins, was notified by General Crook, com-
manding the U.S.Army in the department of the Platte, to proceed to White River
Agency with a detachment of troops for protection of employes at the agency.
Thornburg was on a fishing trip at Battle Lake when the message arrived. A
courier was sent to notify him of the message. The fort had a small garrison of
soldiers; one company rf cavalry and two of infantry.
Thornburg left Fort Steele September 22nd, with Company E of the 3rd Cavalry
with Captain Joseph Lawson in command; and Company I of the 4th Infantry, with
Lieutenant Price in charge Thornburg's own, as he was an infantryman and not a
cavalryman.
He was accompanied by Lieutenant C.A.Cherry, infantryman of the officer's
staff, a volunteer. Thornburg, expecting to be in the field for an indefinite
time, took a supply train of twenty-eight wagons and one ambulance.
J.W.Hugus, post-trader at Fort Steele, sent John C.Davis and F.E.Blake, em-
ployes,with a wagon load of goods for a "suttler store" along with the expedition.
At Rawlins, Thornburg was joined by Companies F, and D, 5th Cavalry, sent from
Fort D.A.Russell, with Captain Scott Payne in command of Company F and Lieutenant
J.V.S.Paddock in command of Company D. Neither of the Thornburg units were full
companies, each troop having from forty to forty-five men. Troop D had only twen-
ty-seven men.
The U.S.Army at .that time was equipped with Springfield rifles, which replaced
the needle-gun rifle used by the army prior to 1877.
Neither Thornburg nor any of his men were familiar with the road to the agency.
Joe Rankin, stableman of Rawlins, who formerly carried mail to the agency by horse-
back, was employed by Thornburg as scout.
September 24th, 1879, Thornburg left Rawlins, traveling leisurely. On the way
south, Rankin advised him of Charley Lowry (living on Snake River) as being a
man who was friendly with the White River Utes. When the expedition arrived at
Snake River, Lowry was employed. Dressed in buckskin, he traveled with the command
as far as the mouth of Little Bear Creek, where Thornburg sent him ahead to the
agency (September 28th) to learn conditions there, and the sentiment of the Indians,
with instructions to return and report to him next day on the road.
Thornburg left Company I, 4th Infantry at the mouth of Little Bear Creek, as a
reserve and guard for supplies. At Bear River crossing, the expedition was met by
Colorow, Jack, Piah, Johnson and four others of the tribe. They appeared friendly
and wanted to talk. Jack, as spokesman, readily recognized Thornburg as the big
chief, and said, "Where you go?" Thornburg replied they were going to White
River. Jack asked, "What you do there?" To this question Thornburg replied, "Just
to see the country." When Jack was asked where he was going, he replied, "Utes
hunt deer." The band rode away in the hills.
This call was for the purpose of sizing up the strength of Thornburg's army.
When the troops reached William's Fork, where they camped for the night, the
same eight Indians appeared. The evening meal was being served, and the Utes were
invited to eat. After cleaning up all prepared food in sight, Jack approached
Thornburg and said, "Utes no want soldiers go to White River." He made a propo-
sition that Thornburg take five of his men as an escort, and he, Jack, would take
five Utes, and together they would go to the agency and talk with the agent. Thorn-
burg discussed the matter with his officers. Scout Rankin, who was strong in oppo-
sition to Jack's request, said the Utes might be laying a trap for them.


67
The same evening, Black Wilson was going from his store on Spring Gulch, six
miles to Thornburg's camp on William's Pork, expecting to sell him some hay for
his stock. When two miles from his place, he was met by five Utes, and told to go
back home. "Utes fight soldiers; no wanna kill oo."
The Utes Were Active.
On September 28th, the Utes were busily engaged in securing ammunition. They
deliberately took possession of what ammunition was at the Peck store, which con-
sisted of one case of cartridges.
The Utes told Eugene Taylor to move out from Milk Creek with his store, as
there was going to be trouble when the soldiers came.
On September 27th, a party of Utes demanded of Black Wilson all rifles and
ammunition he had in stock at the Perkins store on SpringGulch without remuner-
ation. Wilson and Mike Sweet talked them out of their demand. After the Utes
left, Wilson talked the matter over with Joe Collom, as to what was best to do
with the rifles and ammunition so that the Utes would not get them. They decided
to bury the stock where there was loose dirt from an excavation of a cellar, and a
brush heap was placed over the cache.
Jack headed a band of reckless Utes that came on September 28th with the in-
tention of taking rifles and ammunition by force. Jack demanded the stock. Wilson
replied that he had sent the stock to Perkins' store on Snake River. Jack looked
around for wagon tracks which he did not find; then said to Wilson, "Heap d--d lie,"
but decided to give up the hunt. After the Utes had gone some time, all the trading
store stock was loaded on Joe Collom's wagon and taken to Perkins' store at Snake
River during the night.
On September 28th, the mail carrier, on the way from Perkins' to the agency,
was stopped a few miles north of Bear River by a small band of Utes and told to
go back; that no more mail should go to the agency.
On September 28th, the Utes made temporary base on the mountain one and one-
half miles 8outh from Milk Creek Canyon, where supplies and pony reserves were
held. There were Ute scouts on the high peaks between Milk Creek and Bear River,
with field glasses, to watch the movements of the soldiers and others on the road
and on Morapos trail. Keeping out of view themselves, Lowry, being a particular
friend, was allowed to go to the agency unmolested. By his buckskin suit and his
horse, they could recognize him at a considerable distance.
Main Ute Camp Moved.
At the agency, September 28th, the squaws and children were moved with their
tepees from their camp at the agency to the head of the east branch of Pice-ance
Creek, twelve miles south of the agency, where they made camp, which was known as
"Squaw Camp." Pour tepees were left standing at the agency where ninety-four had
been. One of these was Douglas' tepee.
At dusk, September 28th, Meeker succeeded in starting out Ed. Mansfield, an
employe, to find Captain Dodge and his soldiers to have them come to the agency.
Watching his chance while the Utes were guarding the road toward Milk Creek, Mans-
field slipped away in the opposite direction, going west and then by way of Straw-
berry trail and Coyote basin.
Lowry at Agency.
Lowry arrived at the agency a short time after Mansfield left. Peace had pre-
vailed during the day, although he found agent Meeker in a nervous state, suffer-
ing from the effects of a beating administered by Johnson.
Later in the evening, a band of eight Utes came to the agency from Milk Creek.
They reported to a small number of Utes at the agency, the approach of the soldiers.
After holding council, they all joined in a wild demonstration of war whoops, fierce
yells and danced around Meeker's quarters. Meeker attempted to quiet them, but was
jeered at by the Utes. Finally, Lowry intervened, and succeeded in quieting them
after a half hour.


68
The Utes were astir in the early morning. Lowry was ready to return to meet
Tnoiriburg. E.W.Eskridge, agency employe, was to accompany Lowry. They were de-
tained a short time while council was held by the Utes as to whether they would
let Eskridge go. He was allowed to go with an escort of Utes. '.Then one mile from
the agency the Utes turned him back, while Lowry was allowed to continue on to meet
Thornburg. Eskridge had gone but a short distance toward the agency when he was
killed, and left nude in the road near the agency coal mine.
Government Supplies ;.Vere Nearing the Agency.
George Gordon, freignt contractor, in order to move the greater part of the
annual supplies for the agency at the first trip, engaged private teams to assist
in moving the freight, and were nearing the agency the evening of the 28th.
Carl Goldstein, known at Rawlins and to settlers along the route, as the "Jew
freighter," and his teamster Julius Moore, made camp by the road along Coal Creek,
five miles from White River. John Gordon, in charge of ox teams, camped near the
road crossing of Milk Creek. George Gordon, in charge of horse and mule teams,
camped on Stinking Gulch near the Milk Creek divide. Al.McCarger and son made
camp at the road crossing of Deer Creek three miles west of Williams Fork.
The Trap Was Set.
Thornburg's troops left William's Fork for the agency on the morning of Sep-
tember 29tn. All freighters were alarmed at the actions of the Indians the day
before, and were waiting in camp until the soldiers came, so they might have the
assurance of moving to the agency in safety. As the troops were nearing the cross-
ing of Milk Creek, they met Charley Lowry. He reported to Thornburg the situation
at the agency.
After crossing Milk Creek where the trail left the road, Rankin led the troops
by way of the short-cut trail. There were two low ridges in the rough country be-
tween the trail and Beaver ravine road with a scattering growth of cedar, sarvis-
berry bush and aspens. Rankin and Frank Secrist, a private soldier, were one and
a half miles from the crossing, and a quarter-mile in the lead of Thornburg, who
was riding along with Capt. Lawson at the head of Troop E; and Capt.Payne, leading
Troop F in the rear. Lieutenant Paddock, with Troop D was escort for the wagon
train, which was two miles back on the road.
When nearing the head of sarvisberry draw, which the trail followed, Rankin
and Secrist saw about twenty-five mounted Indians leave other Indians on the
second ridge which bordered on the Beaver ravine one thousand yards on the right,
and make a dash as though to head them off on the trail a short distance ahead.
They turned back and met the command.
Rankin said, "Boys, we are going to have a fight right here."
A halt was called, and a short conference took place. (It was a standing order
of the war department to officers who were called to quash riots, Indian or other
outbreaks, not to fire a shot unless attacked by the enemy). Thornburg himself,
was without firearms of any kind and was attempting to go to the agency peaceably,
if possible.
Rankin said to Thornburg, "Fire on the redskins. It is our only show, as the
trail and road ahead for several miles leads through thickets, and in places scat-
tered growt is of sarvis bush and aspens along the narrow Beaver and Goal Creek
draw."
To this request, Thornburg replied, "My God! I dare not, Joe. My orders are
positive."
Lieutenant Cherry's Peace Move.
It was about ten-thirty a.m. when Thornburg ordered Lieutenant
men of Captain Lawson's troop to go within hailing distance of the
peace measure, and if possible to learn their strength back of t.ne
Lavscn was ordered, with the rest of his men, to follow six hundred
rear of the first ridge and await developments.
Cherry with ten
Indians as a
ridge. Captain
yards in the


69
As Cherry approached within hailing distance, he waved his cap over his head,
indicating friendliness. The Indians moved back and greeted him with a volley of
shots over the brow of the ridge. The Utes, at a much higher elevation, overshot.
No one was injured. Cherry moved back. Lawson, taking in the situation, advanced,
picking up his men who were with Cherry and followed up the attack, gaining the ridge
five hundred yards to the right and overlooking the Beaver ravine. A large number
of Indians were waiting back of the rocks and thickets back of the ridge. They had
expected the soldiers to travel by the road and had selected an ideal spot for an
ambush to annihilate the troops, and were surprised when they discovered the soldiers
on the trail. Lawson's men advanced along the ridge on foot, driving the Indians
under cover of bush and rocks, and holding the ridge.
In the meantime, Thornburg sent Scout Kankin back to have the wagons stop and
corral. Thornburg had also ordered Captain Payne with his troop to advance along
the trail. At 1000 yards, they were fired upon by Utes in ambush from bush and rock.
The>dismounted and left their horses back where protected. They exchanged shots for
twenty minutes. Private Michael Fireton was killed and Private Oscar Cass was
slightly wounded.
Payne and men withdrew, leading their horses until they met Thornburg. Lawson,
who had been holding the ridge for some time, fighting Indian style, with their
horses held back in protected places, withdrew to where they met Thornburg and
Payne, and where new orders were given by Thornburg.
Lawson was ordered to gradually withdraw. Being short of ammunition, he sent
John Donovan, one of his men, to the wagons for ammunition. About twenty Indians
were seen dismounted, sitting on a ridge, one thousand yards to the south. They
had not been taking part in the fight. They were .merely waiting for an opportunity
of 'vantage. Thornburg ordered Payne, with his men, to approach them to learn
their attitude, and if not challenged to fight, to fall back and assist Lawson to
withdraw toward Milk Creek. When Payne advanced within rifle range, the Indians
mounted their ponies and fled under cover of the ridge, and began shooting. Payne,
no doubt fearing a repetition of his previous attack, and being in view of the wagon
train which was being corraled three-quarters of a mile distant, and where a fierce
attack was being launched by the Utes, he rushed to join the fight there.
Rankin met the wagon train a distance of eight hundred yards from the crossing
on the north side of Milk Creek. He assisted wagonmaster McKinstrey in parking the
wagons in a three-quarter circle, with the tongues on the inside, and with the open
space bordering on the banks of Milk Creek, at an elevation of twelve feet above
the creek bed.
Thornburg Killed.
Thornburg, who was waiting at the end of the ridge, observing Payne's move-
ments, started for the wagons, riding fast. Shots from the same band of Indians
that fired on Payne's men, apparently wounded Thornburg and his horse, which slack-
ened speed. The Indians, seeing he had no firearms, swooped down from the hill and
surrounded him. Private Tom Nolan, one of Lawson's men, who was holding horses
while the troops were fighting, at a considerable distance, saw the Indians drag
Thornburg from his horse and beat him. His horse was fatally wounded and died a
few hours after. It was about one thousand yards from the wagons. (Apparently,
it had been Thornburg's idea to withdraw all his men to the wagons, where he could
attempt a treaty, or make a strong fight. This opinion was expressed later by
Dillon, of Company E). John Donovan, on his way from the wagons with ammunition
for Lawson, saw Thornburg, dead.
In the meantime, shooting from the Indians under fire of Lawson's men had
slowed down, except for the occasional shot which no doubt was intended to keep
him interested at that point, while the main force had slipped away through thick-
ets to attack at other points. Lawson, when told by Donovan of Thornburg's death,
and Payne's flight to the wagons, speeded up his withdrawal.
Fight at the Wagons.
While the wagons were being corraled, a large number of Indians gathered and
were shooting from points where protection was available, a large number firing
over the brow of a knoll on the north side of the creek and road, five hundred
yards distant and at an elevation of 125 feet. Others were shooting from behind
the creek bank, the soldiers directing their shots at the point designated by the
smoke.


70
Lieutenant Paddock, with his twenty-seven men wagon escort, attempted to
chnrge the Indians on the hill. The hill, being very steep, he was driven back.
One horse was killed and two horses and himself slightly wounded. Indians that
disappeared in the thickets at Lawson's attack, and left him in doubt, had fled
down the deep beaver ravine and joined in the fight at the wagons. Then a cu tinu-
ous volley of shots poured in. Mules were being unhitched; some were tied to the
wagons; others, with harness on, and horses with saddles on, broke loose from the
wagons when wounded. Some of them drank at the creek and others milled around
from excitement or from pain.
While arranging the wagon corral, Wagonmaster McKinstrey was killed, and Cap-
tain Payne's force rushed in, under a strong barrage. Two of his men were wounded
and one horse killed near the entrance to the corral. All was in a turmoil within
the enclosure.
During Lawson's withdrawal, all horses were led, while moving from the rough
country near Beaver Creek, and small bands of Indians were attempting to cut him
off from the wagons. At the end of the ridge near Milk Creek, one of his men,
SexgeantJames Montgomery, was severely wounded. With assistance, he was mounted
on his horse and brought to the wagons.
Lawson reached Milk Creek, where some protection was afforded by cottonwoods
and the creek bank. Indians were shooting from the bluffs and gulleys on the
north side of the creek. Lawson and his men were held back for a short time at the
bend of the creek, because of heavy shooting at the wagons. They routed the Indians
from beneath the benches along the creek, and made their way inside the enclosure,
after almost two hours of continuous fighting. Paynelearned from Donovan of Thorn-
burg's death, Donovan being the only man up to that time who saw him dead.
Donovan was later awarded a medal by the war department for bravery for carry-
ing ammunition to Lawson under fire.
John Gordon and his three men, "3ullwhacker Jack',! Hamilton and Uornbeck, camped
near the crossing of Milk Creek. Realizing their danger, they left their freight
wagons for protection with the soldiers.
Captain Payne In Command.
The next officer in rank to take command was Captain Fayne. The most effective
shooting was done from beneath the bench along the creek. Because of heavy firing,
the men were unable to get tools from the wagons to dig trenches. The greater number
of men huddled beneath the wagons while others dropped behind dead horses and mules,
which in some instances had fallen on top of others. With dead and wounded men, it
presented a horrible sight. Sergeant John Dolan, of Payne's troop, was killed
while ordering his men from beneath the wagons to assist in getting rolls of bedd-
ing and sacks of corn from the wagons to build protection. When the men were slow
to respond, Dolan said, "If you don't get out and help, I will kill you myself."
About 3 p.m., the Indians, in order to rout the soldiers from their position,
set fire to the grass and growth of short sagebrush three hundred yards below on
the bench, which burned and spread toward the wagons and to the northwest, fanned
by a light wind. The men fought the fire with blouses, burlap sacks, and with
their scabbard knives dug and spread dirt on the flames. A wagon sheet caught fire.
Private James Hickman, on the outside of the corrals, while under fire of the In-
dians, pulled off the sheet, which p-evented destruction of the wagons. For this
act he was later awarded a medal by the war department, for bravery. While putting
out the fire, Captain Payne was slightly wounded, and Private Evershell was twice
wounded. A third shot pierced his clothing under the arm pit.
The same fire burned over the entire east end of Danforth Hills, an area of
twenty square miles. During the excitement caused by the fire, the Utes kept up
a fierce bombardment. Scout Charley Lowry was fatally wounded. When assistance
was offered him, he said, "Never mind me; I am done for."
At dusk, a band of eight or ten mounted Indians dashed from behind the ambush
ridge on the north. They stampeded and gathered about thirty head of horses and
mules on the creek bottom, running them toward White Paver, the soldiers shooting
at them at long range with apparently no effect. Continuous shooting was kept up
by the Utes until after dark, when heavy shooting ceased. Signal lights were seen
on the surrounding mountain sides. Groans from the wounded indicated they were suf-
fering severely.


71
Surgeon R.M.Grimes, who was slightly wounded, gave some assistance to the
other wounded. Liquor was obtained from the suttler stock, which helped to stim-
ulate and relieve their suffering.
The soldiers got picks and shovels from the wagons and were hustling to make
trenches and remove dead horses and mules. Dead men were wrapped in canvas or
blankets and covered with the dirt from the trendies. Trenches of eight or ten
feet in length, four feet deep and four to five feet wide, were made around the
circle near the wagons. Three large trenches were made in the center for the wounded.
Captain Payne, in consultation with Captain lawson, asked Lawson to take com-
mand. Since Lawson thought Paynes wound of little concern, he refused. Payne
then remarked he would move camp toward Rawlins. "How will you do that with our
horses and mules killed?" asked Lawson. "I will stay right here with my wounded
men," said Lawson.
The Couriers Ride for Relief.
A short council was held between the officers, Scout Rankin and John Gordon,
about 10:30 p.m. Rankin mounted a strawberry roan cavalry horse (his own horse
having been killed during the first seige at the wagons), and with John Gordon
and a private soldier from Company D, they slipped from the enclosure and made
their way along the bed of Milk Creek until well past the Ute guard signals.
They were not molested, and when they came near where George Gordon was camped,
they saw the wagons with agency supplies, largely machinery (a binder and thresher),
had been fired and were still burning. John Gordon and the soldier stopped to in-
vestigate and found Gordon's brother George and two teamsters lying dead about the
wreck.
Rankin did not stop. From this point he went by way of the Morapos trail,
riding as fast as possible for safety over the rough trail in the night. He reach-
ed the Hulett and Torrence cattle camp on Bear River in the early morning, where he
procured a fresh mount by going out on the range for a mile or more and driving
the ranch saddle-horse band to the corral. Crossing Bear River at this point, he
went by way of Fortification Creek, reaching the road near the Thornburg reserve
camp, where he advised Lieutenant Price of the disaster.
He arrived at Frank Harrah's ranch at the Bagg's Crossing of Snake River. While
eating a lunch, the saddle-horse band was driven to the corral from the pasture.
Harrah furnished him with a horde of staying qualities named Joe Busch (one used
in The Rider's string while in Harrah's employ).
The courier arrived in Rawlins at two a.m., October first. The distance is
approximately one hundred and fifty miles. The time, including stops, was twenty-
seven and one-half hours.
News of the disaster was immediately wired General George Crook at Fort Omaha.
Army officials at Washington were also notified. Crook instructed General Wesley
Merritt, in command of Fort D.A.Russell, Wyoming, to go to the relief of Thornburg's
men.
The Settlers Given Warning.
John Gordon and the soldier, after investigating the wreck at George Gordon's
camp, wept by way of the road. At Deer Creek, they routed McCarger and son from
bed. They had two horses on stake, and six others of their teams hobbled on the
range. Each McCarger mounted a bareback horse. They looked for the hobbled horses
a short time but did not find them.
All four men rode to Tom lies' ranch on Bear River, at daybreak. Soon after
their arrival, the soldier's horse fell dead from exhaustion. McCarger borrowed
the soldier's saddle. He and his son continued to Snake River, while Gordon and
the soldier stopped at lies'.
Mansfield, the courier sent out from the agency by Meeker to bring Captain
Dodge and his colored soldiers to the agency, lost his way during the night ride
(being a gardener and not a rider). He arrived at lies' ranch late the evening of
the 29th. He related a description of Meeker's troubles with the Utes up to the
time he left the agency.


72
Sam Reid, living on Elk River, learning of the Indian trouble, came to lies'
place the evening of the 29th to learn if the settlers were in danger. Upon learn-
ing from Gordon of the Thornburg fight, Sam gave the alarm to settlers along Bear
River as far as Hayden; then went on to Elk River to protect his family.
Jimmy Dunn volunteered to carry the news to Crawford, at Steamboat Springs.
Dunn was also instructed to notify Captain Dodge. Dunn, on his way to Steamboat,
met Ed.Clark on horseback (surveyor from Greeley). He had stopped at Crawford's
for the night. He was on his way to the agency to do more surveying for Meeker.
Since Clark had not seen or heard of the negro troops on the way, Dunn decided
the troops were coming by way of Twenty-Mile Park, as they were expected any hour
on their way to the agency. Clark agreed with Dunn to meet Dodge on the Twenty-
Mile Park road. Being much alarmed because of the Indian scare, Clark failed to
venture far from the Hayden settlement. Going a short distance on the Twenty-Mile
road, he wrote a note and left it tied, dangling from a tall sage brush which
leaned over the side of the road. Clark continued to lies' place, where he met
Mansfield and settlers gathered there.
Four families, settlers of the Hayden Valley, went to Steamboat, where they
fortified themselves at Crawford's ranch.
George Fuhr, of Slater Basin, was at Frank Harrah's ranch when Rankin, the
courier was on the way to Rawlins. He gave the alarm to the settlers in the Snake
River Valley. (A Paul Revere, as it were). The horse he rode collapsed from the
strenuous ordeal. Six families moved up the Muddy Creek fifteen miles, where they
made camp. Others went to Rawlins. Others, not much alarmed, held the fort at
Perkins' store.
At the Corral and Trenches, September 30th.
Men had worked steadily during the night completing trenches for protection,
with only an occasional shot from the Utes on guard on the ridge. When the sol-
diers started fire to make coffee, there was a volley of shots, and the fire was
put out.
Gordons freight wagons with agency supplies, one thousand yards distant, were
burned during the night.
Captain Dodge's Movements Partly Governed by Letter Mail.
On September 26th, Captain Dodge, on his way from Windsor postoffice to Middle
Park, as previously mentioned, met Sandy Mellen at Hayden,.bringing his mail as
pre-arranged. Sandy returned with Dodge's troop by way of Twenty-Mile Park. On
their way through Egeria Park, they met Zene B.Maudlin, Adrian R.Marshall and family,
and Fred Hodges, moving in to settle on Bear River.
Dodge moved to the east side of the Gore range where he met teams with supplies,
sent to him from Fort Garland. The supply train consisted of three, six-mule teams
in charge of Henry Meder. They had come by way of Poncha Pass and Fairplay. (Henry
Meder is now living on his ranch near Fort Garland).
Making camp, Dodge sent Sandy Mellen to Sulphur Springs for his mail. Near
Dodge's camp, James P.Maxwell, of Boulder, Colorado, civil engineer, had S.E.Bivens
and other surveyors in the field, sub-dividing unsurveyed lands in Grand County.
His two sons, Clinton and Mark, were assisting in the survey.
When Sandy Mellen returned with the mail, which indicated their services were
needed at the agency, Dodge again started for the agency, on September 29th, by way
of Twenty-Mile Park.
When nearing Hayden, October 1st, Ssndy Mellen, riding with Dodge in advance of
the troop, discovered a slip of paper tied to a sage brush at the side of the road.
It was addressed to Captain Dodge, and read, "Thornburg killed. His men in peril;
rush to their assistance."
The troop moved with speed to Tom lies' place at the crossing of Bear River,
where a short stop was made for lunch.


73
Dodge knew from John Gordon's condition that he had got liquor at Peck's store
which was one mile down and across the riYer. He sent Sandy Mellen and three negro
soldiers to destroy any liquor that might he there.
Leaving his seven wagons for the teamsters to move to Thornburg's reserve camp
on Fortification Creek, Dodge took one pack mule. The troop was joined by Gordon.
They left by way of Horapos trail late in the evening.
They arrived to within five hundred yards of the trenches a short time before
daybreak, October 2nd, where a halt was made. Sandy Mellen and Gordon advanced,
with shouts from Gordon, whose voice was recognized. There were loud shouts of re-
joicing from the men in the trenches. They climbed out of the pits and greeted
Dodge and his negro soldiers with a glad hand. They were especially glad to learn
that the couriers had got out safely and that more relief troops would soon reach
them. Dodge's horses were tied within the enclosure. Stillness had prevailed dur-
ing the night. Most of the Indians had gone to their emergency camp one mile south,
for rest, food and change of mounts. Dodge and his troop had slipped into the
trenches at a time least expected by the Utes, as they were not seen by the Ute
scouts with field glasses, as they were coming on the river route the day before.
Captain Dodge Proposes an Attack.
Shouts of the men had aroused the Indians. They were soon in position on the
ridge and creek bank. At daylight, a rain of shots began. Dodge proposed to charge
the Indians on the ridge, but was persuaded that it would merely terminate in the
loss of more men, for the steep hill was all to the advantage of the Indians, and
the men were fairly well protected in the trenches.
Dodge, by this time, realized he was in a trap with Thornburg's men. From the
open 'space in the enclosure, it was about ninety feet to water in the creek. Horses
and mules that were severely wounded within the enclosure were shot to end their
sufferings. Each night dead horses and mules were dragged to and dumped over the
creek bank. Some horses, when shot by the Indians, but not fatally, would lunge
back, break their tie ropes and stagger about the trenches. One horsey when lung-
ing back, broke his tie rope and fell into the trench with wounded men. Quick
action by men in close-by trenches soon dragged him out with ropes, without ser-
ious injury to the wounded.
During the night, men ventured outside the enclosure to gather sagebrush to
make fire in the trenches to make coffee.
The first night after Dodge arrived, more shooting was done than on any other
one night. It was thought this outburst of shooting was done to kill horses, and
to intimidate the newcomers so that no attempt to escape the trap or to build pro-
tection would be made. The same night, when Private Esser went to the creek for
water, he was shot in the side of the face.
Ute Jeers.
There were several Indians who could talk understandable English. Some of these
were Piah, Cojo, Henry Jim (an interpreter), Jack, Charlie (an Uncompahgre Ute),
and Johnson. At times during the day, it was sport for the Indians to jeer the sol-
diers. Jeers from the ridge, because of great distance, were not always clearly
understood. Others from the creek bank at closer range called, "Come out, you
sons of bs and fight like men." Others yelled, "Utes kill oor 'orse and mool,
and kill oo." One Ute beneath the creek bank, togged in a red shirt, was thought
to have done most of the sharp-shooting, killing the largest number of horses and
mules. Although "Red Shirt" was seen at times at close range by a few, his name
was not known by the soldiers. It was their first time in the Ute country. After
relief came, two hundred 45-70 shells were found where "Red Shirt" had done most
of his shooting. Later, it was learned, Chief Johnson was given credit for most of
the horse and mule killing with his Sharps rifle. When a hat was raised on a stick
above the trenches, it became a target and was riddled by volleys of shot.
Negro Soldiers Intruding.
Captain Dodge, a short time after his arrival, feeling his negro soldiers might
be intruding on the white soldiers in the already crowded trenches, during a lull
in Ute shooting, started some of his men to digging trenches for themselves, in



The Entire Milk Creek Basin Where the Thornburg Fight SANDY MELLEN, Age 23.
Took Place. Looking North. Mail Carrier Who Accompanied
Captain Dodge to the Trenches.


75
daylight, within the enclosure. They had just started to dig, when a rair. of shots
hit the ground and wagons about them. Dropping their tools, a soldier of Troop 3,
3rd Cavalry, describing their movements, said, "They made ten feet every jump and
leaped head first into the trenches like frogs." Looking on the humorous side,
amusing incidents occur even in battle. A private soldier of Troop D, described
a burly negro soldier climbing from a trench during a lull in the shooting, with
rifle in hand, and sayingin bravado style, "Show me a Ute." Since there was none
in sight, of course, he sat down on a wagon-tongue. About the same instant, a ball
hit the corner of the wagon bed, one foot from his head. He jumped into the trench
and "mum" was the word, while others about him who saw the incident had a laugh.
The Indians were seldom seen within rifle range since they did their shooting
from protected points at all times. The soldiers learned to know when the Indians
were coming in the morning by crows and magpies that came at first break of day to
feast on dead horses and mules. When the crows and magpies began to caw and fly
away about sunrise, the Utes were getting into position for shooting.
By noon of the second day after Dodge arrived, but seven of his cavalry horses
remained alive. One hundred and forty-eight horses and mules, within and near the
trenches, were killed. Five horses and two mules, within the corral, missed the
rain of Ute lead. Several head of Gordon's oxen were slaughtered by the Utes for
food at their emergency camp one mile and one-half south of the battlegrounds.
The men in the trenches knew nothing of what wa3 going on at the agency, twenty-
five miles away. The Utes were in communication with their separate camps at all
times. Runners were moving back and forth between Milk Creek, the agency, and the
squaw cam.p. Douglas, "Big Chief," and too old to take part in the strenuous ordeal
of the fight at Kilk Creek, with a few other of the older Indians, were on guard at
the agency.
McCarger's two freight wagons, abandoned on Deer Creek the first night of the
fight, were ransacked, presumably the next day. Flour, soap, sugar; and there were
several cases of small hatchets supposed to have been ordered by Meeker as a play
tool for Ute children -- all were scattered around. An attempt was made to fire
the wagons and contents. There being but little inflamable material, the damage
was not great.


SECTION XIII.
A Pre-Meditated Tragedy
The Massacre at the Agency.
Description of the scene of slaughter at the agency in detail will depend on
the story told by Mrs.Price and Josephine to General Adams and reporter, at the
time of their rescue; and the personal conversations of The Rider with Mrs. Price,
several months later.
On the morning of September 30th, the second day of the Milk Creek fight, fif-
teen or more Indians left the Milk Creek area for the agency, taking with them the
government horses and mules they had captured the evening before. On their way
down Coal Creek where Carl Goldstein and teamster Julius Moore were in camp at their
freight wagons, they killed the two men. Moore was later found lying nude in the
road. Goldstein was thirty feet from the wagons, where he had fallen in the sage-
brush. The Indians robbed the wagons of blankets and such articles as they could
pack with them, and set fire to other supplies, such as flour, salt pork, etc. They
drove Goldstein's teams along with the government loot.
"The band arrived at Douglas' camp a short time before the noon hour," said
Mrs. Price. The herd of stolen horses was not brought into view of the agency
employes, who were working on new buildings and at other odd jobs near by. No sus-
picion of immediate treachery was anticipated by the employes, who had not yet
learned of the fight with the soldiers nor heard from the two courier employes,
Mansfield and Sskridge, who had been sent out from the agency.
While the agency help were partaking of their noon meal, Chief Douglascame to
the door of the dining room and talked with the women and men. Mrs. Meeker, with
her customary hospitality, invited him to eat, since Douglas, Johnson, Jane, and
many others of the tribe had many meals at the agency table. While sitting at the
table, Douglas talked and joked with the men and seemed in an unusually jovial
mood. After his meal, he-went outside, looked around the buildings; then went to
his tepee, three hundred yards away, near the river. The men were again at work
on and about the buildings, and the women were washing dishes in the kitchen. A
few minutes later 3hooting began.
The Utes had planned their attack after Douglas reached the tepees. They had
stolen the employes' rifles from the bunkhouse during the forenoon, when the men
were busily engaged on the opposite 3ide of the buildings. The shooting came fur-
iously from about twenty Indians. Mrs. Price looked outside and said, "My God, the
Indians are killing everybody. What, shall we do?"
About that time Prank Dresser staggered in at the kitchen door, wounded in the
side of the head. Josephine handed Frank Mr.Price's rifle, which was in the kitch-
en. He shot and killed Johnson's brother, Ita. Mr. Post, the bookkeeper, ran out
fifty yards from the office building where he was shot down. Meeker was shot down
at his living quarters, but was found fifty yards from there near the store build-
ing. A trail of blood indicated he had been dragged with a heavy rope which was
left tied around his neck. An iron tent stake was driven through his mouth and
neck into the ground. Meeker and Post were stripped of clothing. The other men
lay about the building where they had been working.
In the meantime, the women and two children and Frank Dresser ran from the
kitchen to the milk house tnirty yards north. The Indians, who were busily en-
gaged in looting the living quarters and setting fire to buildings, saw the women
run to the milk house. Though not intending to murder them, and knowingFrank
Dresser had a rifle, they got wood from a pile near by and set fire to the side of
the milk house. It was composed of large cottonwood logs chinked and 'dobed, and
was slow to burn. The Indians then turned their attention tr the storeroom, a
large, one-room log building fifty yards south of the living quarters. At the same
time they kept an eye on the progress of the fire at the milk house. They carried
blankets and other loot from the storeroom to their tepees, where others were en-
gaged in packing the loot on government mules and Ute ponies.


White River Agency, Built by N. C. Meeker on Powell Bottom
in 1878 and 1879. Looking North.
Ii


When the fire at the milk house was raking headway, and smoke coming in; and
while the Indians were busily engaged in carrying out supplies, the women and
Dresser decided it was their ooportunit to escape to the tall sagebrush, a short
distance from the milk house and north of the irrigating ditch. Before reaching
the brush, the Indians spied them. Dropping their loot, they ran with their rifles,
shooting close about the women and children and calling, "Heap good squaw. Utes
no kill good squaw." They were shooting to kill Frank Dresser as he disappeared in
the tall sagebrush with Price's rifle. The shots fired about the women were intend-
ed by the Utes to intimidate, so they would submit to their demands. The women,
when being jostled back through the irrigating ditch, got very wet.
At least two of the Utes taking part in this act were Persune and Cojo, young
renegades (both Uncampahgre Utes). Persune was dressed in a U.S.officer's uniform,
cap and all, which was later identified as Thornburg's outfit. The women were taken
to where the loot was being packed on mules and ponies.
By this time it was sundown. It had been a warm day and the women and children
were thinly dressed. The nights were cool, so Mrs. Heeker insisted to Douglas that
they must have more clothing. She was allowed to go back to the smouldering build-
ings where she found some of their clothing which had not yet burned, and got coats
and wraps for the women and children. In the meantime, there was a quarrel between
Douglas and Persune, as to which should take charge of Josephine. They, with others,
had been drinking. Persune had taken charge of Josephine and assisted her to mount
his pony which wa3 prepared with a saddle, but Douglas insisted she should be his
"squaw." With an outburst of the Ute tongue, they came near to blows.
Night Ride to the Squaw Camp.
Mrs.Meeker, at the age of sixty-eight, was not a strong woman, and the night
ride to the squaw camp taxed her endurance to the limit. She was taken in charge
by Douglas and mounted on a pony, with blankets for a saddle. When too weak to
ride alone, she was tied on with a rope, and at times rode behind Douglas. Mrs.
Price was taken in charge by Cojo, and mounted on a pony with blankets for a
saddle, with her baby boy in her arms. Josephine was the only one furnished with
a saddle. It was a government saddle, taken from the horse that Thornburg rode.
Mrs. Price'sthree-year-old girl rode behind Josephine, tied on with a blanket.
With their caravan of pack ponies and government pack mules, they crossed White
River to the south, going by the rough mountain trail to the squaw camp.
During the night ride, the Utes were hilarious, and drinking from bottles of
liquor. One greasy and uncouth-looking Indian rode alongside Josephine and said,
"Good squaw. You my squaw."
From the loot, the captives were furnished with sufficient blankets for bedding.
Some of the squaws assisted them to be comfortable. Susan wept, and felt sorry for
them. The next day Jane and Douglas' squaw, "Quana," went back to the agency
garden to get vegetables.
Ouray Learns of the Fight.
Johnson's squaw, Susan, who was a sister of Ouray and who had been opposed to
the Utesfighting the soldiers, quietly sent a. Ute boy from the squaw camp, the next
day after the fight began, to notify Ouray that the White River Utes were fighting
the soldiers. Ouray was on a hunt in the mountains when the message arrived and
was not expected home for several days. Chipeta, like Ouray, ever mindful of her
loyalty to the government and of keeping peace within the Ute tribe, mounted her
pony and rode to the mountains, where she found Ouray, who, with two others of his
tribal friends, were at their hunting camp on a branch of the San Miguel River,
twelve miles from Los Pinos. She informed him of the situation at White River.
Ouray, angered by the hostility of the White River tribe.which he had at all
times hoped to prevent, at once returned to Los Pinos, and arranged, October 3rd,
with the agent, Major W.M.Stanley, to send an employe, Joe Brady, with a note
from Chief Ouray to Douglas and other hostile chiefs of the White River tribe, to
stop fighting.
As an escort for Brady, Ouray selected his most trusted sub-chief, Sapavanero,
who was a brother of Chipeta, and who, like Ouray and others of the older southern
Utes, could talk and understand both English and Mexican languages- Shaveno,
Aguila, and two other trusted Indians of the Uncompahgre reservation, were in the


7.9
party.
The distance from Los Pinos to liilk Greek by 'he Ute trail was approximately one
hundred and forty-five miles.
First Report of the Massacre at the Agency.
October 2nd, two men by the names of 3ill Meadows and J.A.WarefieId, prospectors
with wagon and saddle horse, who had been prospecting for some time in the Blue
Mountain country during the season, were on their way back to Clear Creek County,
prospecting at times on the way. They crossed the divide from Bear River by way
of Coyote Basin and Strawberry Trail to White River, not knowing they were within
the limits of the White River reservation. They had not heard of the Indian trouble
(They were merely passing through an unfamiliar country).
About three o'clock p.m., when within half a mile of the agency, they saw smoke
arising from the smouldering buildings. They stopped the wagon, while Meadows, with
saddle horse, went to investigate. He saw the dead men lying about the ruins. Real
izing it was the White River Agency, he made ha3te to the wagon to inform his part-
ner of the horrible sight.
They turned on the back trail to Bear River, where they made camp late in the
night. Knowing of the settlement on Snake River, Meadows, the next day, reported
at tine Baggs ranch what he had seen. The news was not carried further, as Rankin,
the courier, had gone to Rawlins three days before with the report of the Thorn-
burg disaster, and troops were expected any hour on their way to the relief of the
entrenched men, and would look after conditions at the agency.
Range Cattle Moved In.
October 3rd, 1879, George Hangs and Denny Gaff, who had driven a herd of
cattle from the Arkansas valley to the Bear River country, one week before, made
their camp at a spring in Big Gulch, which later was known as Brazzle Spring.
Leaving a young man, FreemanRay, in charge of the camp, Ilangs and Gaff went to the
lower country to look for winter range for their stock.
When they returned late in the evening, they found Ray in the wagon. He had
been shot in the side of the face. A horse which was on stake near camp, had be-
come excited. Fearing he might break away, Ray went to quiet him, and was shot,
supposedly by a renegade Ute in ambush back of a ridge. Ten head of their work
and saddle stock on the range, near camp, were stolen. Ray, suffering severely
from his wounds, was taken to Tom lies' cabin on Bear River. He was treated by
Surgeon Kimmel of Merritt's command, when they were on their way to relieve Thorn-
burg's men.


SECTION XIV.
Relief Forces.
General Merritt received his orders at eight o'clock on the morning of October
1st. The message was wired to Cheyenne and rushed by courier to Merritt at Fort
D.A.Russell, two miles distant. Merritt at once summoned his orderly to sound the
assembly bugle call. When all officers and privates gathered at his quarters, he
informed them of the Thornburg disaster, and gave orders to make ready to move as
soon as possible.
Horses and mules and the larger part of their field equipment were at Camp
Carlin, ane mile away. (Camp Carlin was established in 1867, as a temporary mili-
tary post for the protection of the Union Pacific Railroad construction while Fort
D.A.Russell was being built. It was later used as a supply base for military posts.
The site is now in the resident district of Cheyenne).
Merritt'8 forces were shipped to Rawlins in two special trains. The Union Pac-
ific officials and trainmen cooperated in every way to speed the troops on their
mission. Tom Moore, chief packer, was in charge of loading. The first train left
Cheyenne at two p.m. The second train followed three hours later. The specials
were given the right of way on the main line with double header and pusher over the
Sherman hill. To keep the stock in condition for the strenuous ordeal, a stop was
made at Laramie for food and water. The trains arrived at Rawlins in the early
morning of October 2nd.
All troops were active in preparation for the long march. Merritt's command
was made up of Companies I, A, B and M, of the 5th Cavalry. Each company composed
a troop of about forty-five men. The names of his staff officers were Captain J.A.
Auger, Troop A; Captain Kellogg, Troop I; Captain Montgomery, Troop B; Captain
Babcock, Troop M; First Lieutenant William B.Weir, an ordinance officer in charge
of government rifle repair works at Camp Carlin, a volunteer; Captain Hall, an
ordinance officer.
Paul Humme, rifle tester at the repair works (a volunteer), was appointed chief
scout by Merritt, and Colonel Compton (a volunteer), and Surgeon A.J.Kimmell, made
up the official staff.
The equipment for the march was composed of fifty pack mules, each with a light
pack of provisions to allow speedy movement, and in charge' of Tom Moore. While
packing the mules at Rawlins, Moore was approached by a young lad of nineteen, with
a six-shooter hanging from his belt. He had smuggled in on the same train with the
soldiers from Laramie during the night. He asked to be taken along with the expe-
dition. Moore scrutinized him carefully and decided he might be useful in assist-
ing the cooks and packers. He was furnished a mule to ride and allowed to go along
with the expedition.
Each cavalryman was dressed, and equipped in regulation style, as formerly in
use during the Civil War, with blanket, cavalry rifle, small knapsack containing
hard tack (similar in size and appearanoe to the commercial dog biscuit) and with
canteen of water or coffee slung to their saddles or back.
While the men were preparing for the march, General Merritt was in conference
with Joe Rankin, to learn the particulars of the situation at Milk Creek. Rankin
advised Merritt to employ Jim Baker, and with Colonel Compton, he left Rawlins
by way of Brown's Hole cut-off trail, one hour in advance of Merritt, to engage
Baker who lived twelve miles up Snake River from the road crossing, to go as
scout for the expedition.
Rankin accompanied the expedition from Baggs Crossing to the trenches; then
returned to Rawlins to take care of his 3table business. He was later appointed
U.S.Marshall of Wyoming, by President Harrison.
Merritt was accompanied from Rawlins by John Casson Dyer, who was sent out
from Denver by Colorado state officials as reporter for the Hew York World and
the Chicago Tribune, the two leading dailies for news of the nation at that time.
Merritt's forces, with pack train, left Rawlins at ten-thirty a.m., October 2nd


81
A train of fifteen wagons with supplies followed several hours later with John
McAndrews as wagonmaster.
Dyer the reporter, was mounted on a spirited horse engaged from Rankin's
livery stable. On the my, his mount forged ahead of the cavalrymen. He was called
to hold up, more than once, by the officer in command during the trip.
At Bagg's Crossing, Merritt was joined by Jim Baker, who was dressed in buck-
skin, with his Marlin rifle slung to the pommel of his saddle. He was riding
"Brownie". Tom Duffy, one of George Baggs1 cowboys, volunteered to go. Fleeing
settlers, who camped on the Muddy Creek at the first alarm, moved to their homes,
feeling safe as Merritt's troops went south.
When Merritt arrived at the Thornburg reserve camp on Fortification Creek,
Lieutenant Price with Troop I, of the 4th Infantry, and Captain Dodges mule teams
with supply wagons, were taken along. At Bear River, Merritt's command was joined
by Bill Lisco and a small party from the lies' ranch. Arriving at William's Fork
the evening of October 4th, they made camp until two a.m., when they moved to the
trenches.
An advance guard of eight men, with Chris Madsen in charge, was one-half mils
in the lead. When they came near the trenches, a bugle call was given. It was re-
ceived with shouts of joy from the men in the trenches, and the cry, "Old Wesley is
here." It was five o'clock a.m., about one hour before daylight on the morning of
October 5th, when General Merritt came up with the command. They advanced to the
trenches. There had been no shooting by the Indians during the night. The men in
the trenches were expecting Merritt for relief, Fort Russell being the nearest mil-
itary post where a strong garrison of cavalrymen was available.
Although it was dark, men from the trenches rushed to meet their rescuers with
a hearty greeting. No time was lost. A short consultation between General Merritt
and officers, Payne, Dodge and Lawson took place. Preparations for action were
quickly made. Surgeon Kimmel was engaged in treating the wounded. Lieutenant
Price, Sandy Mellon and a small party were sent to bring in Thornburg's body. He
had been scalped and left entirely nude.
Merritt Arranges His Men for Battle.
At daybreak, Merritt was shown the stronghold of the Indian ambush. He at once
arranged his men for a charge in case of an attack. One troop of the 5th Cavalry
was ordered to the south side of Milk Creek to scout cautiously the foothills on the
southwest. A large troop, composed of the 4th Infantry and of the relieved, en-
trenched men, was ordered to advance along the ridge that had been held by the Utes
as a stronghold, and along the bluffs on the north side of Milk Creek. Merritt
held the main body of his men in reserve a short distance from the trenches.
It was clear daylight when Indians were seen to concentrate in a body by small
bands on the bench where the fight started. Utes were coming from different direc-
tions. Merritt waited and watched their movements. The infantry on the north side
fired several, shots from the bluffs at a small band which was moving toward the
group. The Utes retaliated with a few shots. This shooting was done at long range
and neither party was in real danger. Apparently, the main body of the Utes' fight-
ing force was gathered for council. Their number was estimated to be from one hun-
dred seventy-five to two hundred Indians.
After waiting a few minutes, a lone rider was seen to leave the group and move
toward Merritt's men, on the gallop. As the rider came closer, he was seen to
carry a small white flag. Approaching Merritt, he told his mission and passed him
a note. A stranger to all he was Joe Brady, from Los Pinos Agency. The note was
from Ouray to the leading chiefs telling them to stop fighting the soldiers. Brady
had arrived at the hostile camp late the evening before. The chiefs had seized the
opportunity to have Brady present their note to Merritt; to show their good inten-
tions to quit the fight, and also to advise Merritt they wanted a new agent, and
wishing to live in peace on their reservation. Merritt advised Brady to go back
to Los Pinos; that he, Merritt, would look after the Indians.
When Brady returned to the group of Indians from whicli he had emerged, with no
encouragement for them as a result of the conference with Merritt, other than the
delivery of Ouray's note, the Indians, accompanied by Brady, left the Milk Creek
country for the squaw camp.


82
Merritt Orders the Trench Camp Moved.
Because of the Indians quitting the fight and the stench about the trenches
being unbearable, Merritt ordered the camp with the wounded men moved up Milk
Creek, one mile to the east, where there was grass for the stock. Details of
troops scouted the surrounding hills during the day.
From this camp, Captain Auger, with an excort of his cavalrymen and a detail
of workers, was ordered to bury the dead. A list of wounded had been taken by
Officers Payne and Lawson. The names of those killed were as follows: Major Thomas
T,Thornburg, 4th Infantry; Michael Fireton, Company F, 5tli Cavalry; John Burns,
Company F, 5th Cavalry; Sergeant John Dolan, Company F, 5th Cavalry; Amos D. Miller,
Company F, 5th Cavalry; Samuel McKee, Company F, 5th Cavalry; Charles Wright, Com-
pany D, 5th Cavalry; Dominic Caff, Company E, 5th Cavalry; Teamster Thomas McGuire;
Wm.McKinstrey, wagonmaster; Scout Charles Grafton Lowry. Of these, all were buried
near the trenches except Major Thornburg.
Scout Lowry, who was fatally wounded at the time of the fire, was thought to
have been dead when trenches were being dug in haste during the night. He was cov-
ered with a part of a tent canvas and dirt from a trench. After five and one-half
days, the bodies were being removed for burial, and he was found to be alive. With
assistance, he sat up, although not being able to speak. As later reported by
LI. W.Dillon, Lowry sipped some coffee when a cup was held to his lips. Surgeon
Kimrnel was called, and while he was probing for the ball, Lowry Dassed away.
A small party of infantry, with M.W.Dillon in charge, and Chris Madsen in charge
of a troop of 5th Cavalry as an escort, was sent to bury George Gordon and his two
teamsters, J.H.Brigham and son, at the ruins of their freight camp on Stinking
Gulch.
The number of wounded men, in all, was thirty-eight. The larger number of these
were slightly wounded. Some of those most painfully, but not seriously wounded,
were: Sergeant James Montgomery, Troop E, 3rd Cavalry, wounded in the ankle; Pri-
vate John Mahoney, Troop E, 3rd Cavalry, wounded in the thigh; Private F.Simmons,
Troop F, 5th Cavalry, wounded in the arm; John C.Davis, in charge of suttler sup-
plies for J.W.Hugus, wounded in the heel; Private J.H.Nicholas, Troop D, 5th Cav-
alry, wounded in the side; and Captain Payne, a skin abrasion over the abdomen.
Rescued Men On the Way to Fort Steele.
Wagons and other preparations for moving were made ready, and on the morning
of October 7th the wounded and all entrenched men, with Captain Dodge in charge,
were on their way to Fort Steele. Thornburg's body, after being treated by Sur-
geon Kimrnel, was sewed in canvas. From Rawlins it was shipped east for burial.
All settlers who volunteered tneir services with Merritt returned home from this
camp. Merritt rested his stock for two days and awaited arrival of his supply
train.
Official Expressions Regarding Ute Precaution.
During their restful hours in camp, Jim Baker, General Merritt and some of
his official staff expressed their opinions as to why the Utes had quit the fight.
The first and most logical one was that the Ute sicouts (with field glasses), had
seen Merritt's troops on the road the evening before, and had decided to keep out
of their way. The next opinion was that Ouray's note held some weight. The third
opinion expressed was that the Utes were short of ammunition.
Merritt's Record March.
General Merritt's time from Rawlins to the trenches, including stops to feed,
two-hour stop at Thornburg's reserve camp, and eight hours at Williams Fork, was
sixty-six and one-half hours, breaking all records filed by the war department for
distance and time in a forced march of cavalry troops.
Colorado and Wyoming legislatures passed resolutions of thanks, complimenting
Merritt and his men for their prompt relief of the entrenched men.


83
Merritt's Forces Move to White River.
On October 8th, Merritt moved his forces to White River. On their way down
Coal Creek Canyon, a teamster from Fort Union named Brown, one of Dodge's men,
when passing the old agency coal mine, discovered the body of a man in the mouth
of the mine. A halt and investigation was made. From the note found in his
pocket, he was identified as Frank Dresser, who had escaped wounded, during the
slaughter at the agency. It was later determined he had'walked and ran the fif-
teen miles during the night and had lost a great quantity of blood, and become
exhausted. Kis coat was folded and placed under his head for a pillow. Frice's
rifle, which he had when last seen at the agency, was not found. It was presumed
to have been taken by the Utes when on the way to the squaw camp.
A few miles farther down Coal Creek, Merritt's men passed the dead odies of
Carl Goldstein and Julius Moore, and the ruins of their*freight wagons. One mile
farther on, the troops met Joe Morgan. Joe, after hearing of the Thornburg dis-
aster while at his home on Snake River, started with his brother, Dave, to go to
Morgan Canyon, where three younger brothers were living. He found them gathering
their horse band to move them north of Snake River, as their horse range had been
burned over by the "ire started at the trenches. Since Joe had been quite friend-
ly with tne 'White River Utes, he had no fear of them. He, being curious to know,
had gone to the agency to see for himself the conditions there, and was returning
by way of Coal and Milk Creeks.
Merritt, not knowing Morgan, and believing he might be a renegade spying for
the Indians, ordered him disarmed and held under arrest. At White River, Merritt
made camp one mile below the mouth of Coal Creek and within four miles of the
agency. When Jim Bak r, who was on scout duty during the march, came to camp, he
identified Morgan as his near neighbor on Snake River, and Morgan was released.
Merritt spent three days at this camp. A supply of I.D.beef was gathered in
from the range. A party was sent to bury Dresser, Goldstein, and Moore. Lieuten-
ant Weir, with an escort, was in charge of a detail of soldiers to bury the men
at the agency, including Eskridge, who was killed and left nude in the road.
Scouting parties were sent out each day, mainly on the White and Grand River
divide, to watch the movements of skulking Indians, who, with field glasses, were
spying on soldiers, and to view a route over the divide to the south on which to
move their wagon stock and pack train, as there was no wagon road leading south
from White River.
Additional Troops Had Been Ordered.
Following the ordering of General Merritt to the relief of the Thornburg men,
additional troops were ordered by General Crook, as a precautionary measure, to
be in readiness at Rawlins should their services be needed.
Of these there were two troops of infantry from Fort Snelling, Minnesota, in
command of Colonel Gilbert, and one troop of infantry from Fort Douglas, Utah.
On their arrival, they made camp at Rawlings Springs, awaiting further orders to
move south. Two troops of cavalry were ordered from Fort McPherson. The order
was countermanded before the troops reached Rawlins.
One trocp of the 3rd Cavalry left Fort Laramie in command of Major Henry, trav-
eling overland. At the same time, First Lieutenant C.A.H.McCauley was sent from
Fort Omaha to Rawlins to take charge of transportation in forwarding supplies to
Merritt's headquarters, and also to establish a courier line to convey war depart-
ment messages between Rawlins and General Merritt.
Joe Brady arrived at Los Pinos Agency by way of the Ute sauaw camp, where he
learned of the killing at the agency, and saw the captive women and children.
Chief Douglas told Brady that if the white men came to him who were friends of
the Utes, they would surrender the women and children to them unharmed. This mes-
sage was wired October 8th, from Los Pinos to Denver and 7/ashington Carl Schurz,
Secretary of the Interior, communicated by wire with Charles M.Adams, special
agent of the postoffice department, located in Denver. Adams previously served as
agent at White River and at Los Pinos. Schurz, knowing of his faithful and effi-
cient service to the government and of his experience in dealing with the Ute
Indians, appointed him to look after special work, with instiuctions to proceea
at once to plan the rescue of the captive women and children.


Squaw Camp Moved to Grand River
On the same day Brady left the squaw camp, the camp was moved; the first day
to Parachute Creek, and the next day to Grand River, near the mouth of Roan Creek.
Courier Line Established.
The Rider arrived in Rawlins one day in advance of Lieutenant McCauley, after
the close of the cowboy job with Prank Harrah and with two cowboys who arrived
in Rawlins from a job on the trail with cattle herds driven from Oregon to Wyoming
(owned by George Lang and Matthew Ryan of Fort Leavenworth), and with Hy Armstrong
of Rawlins, the four cowboys were employed by McCauley as couriers, each assigned
to a station on the line.
A carload of cavalry horses was shipped from Camp Carlin to Rawlins, from which
the couriers selected their mounts. Besides being branded U.S. on the left shoulder
they were branded I.C. under the overhanging mane (which indicated "inspected and
condemned.")
Lang & Ryan drove eight herds, 16,000 stock cattle, from the Owyhee, John Day
and Malheur Rivers, Oregon, in 1879. They were classed, sold and distributed in
small herds to ranch settlers in the Laramie and Cheyenne districts who were en-
gaging in the cattle business.
About the same time, General Adams received instructions to proceed with the
rescue of the captive women. General Merritt was wired a message from the war
department. On the morning of October 9th, three couriers left Rawlins for the
south, each leading their extra mount. Armstrong was assigned the Rawlins to
Sulphur Springs ride. With an occasional change of mounts, the three arrived the
same evening at Perkins' quarters on Snake River, the station to which Billy Thomas
was assigned.
Jack Davis had just arrived from the trenches. The main body of men from the
trenches had gone by way of Baggs Crossing. Davis was moving about with the aid
of crutches, nursing his wounded heel. Davis ordered a new stock of suttler's
Courier Arriving from the North.


85
supplies at Perkins' store to be sent to Merritt's headquarters. He later was
manager for J.W.Hugus & Co. chain stores.
On the arrival at Tom lies' cabin on Bear River (bachelors hall), arrangements
were made for the third courier station to which Alex.Hasson was assigned. Norris
Brock, a neighbor homesteader, had congregated with others at the lies ranch during
the Ute scare. He was impressed as a cook. During conversations at this station
it was noted that Jerry Huff, Bill Lisco and lies had joined Merritt's troops,
going as far as the trenches. Clark, the surveyor, and Mansfield, the agency em-
ployee, left lies' for Greeley. The Rider, continuing with the Merritt message at
two o'clock a.m. by way of Morapos Trail, saw, when passing the scene of slaughter
at the trenches, that bears, coyotes and magpies were having the feast of their
lives on dead horses and mules.
At the crossing of Milk Creek, Sergeant Thomas, of Company E, 3rd Cavalry, a
survivor of the trenches, was met. He had gone with Merritt's forces from Milk
Creek to White River, for the purpose of carrying out to Rawlins, Merritt's mes-
sage reporting conditions found at the agency and to be wired to Washington. He
was leading an extra horse, which appeared to be a good one. The courier's mount,
being of condemned stock, was weary, and he requested an exchange for the fresh
mount. This was agreeable with Thomas, who remarked that the horse's name was
"Humdinger." He also stated that Merritt's command was starting to move south
from White River when he left.
After a few strenuous jaunts over the courier route, it was evident that "Hum-
dinger" made good for that which the slang term applies "the best." Prom Mer-
ritt's abandoned camp on White River, the trail was followed, and the expedition
overtaken at the head of Flag Creek. The caravan had stopped. Passing by the
long line of wagons and pack mules, soldiers in the lead were found working like
beaver, clearing a road through the quakenasp, through which to move their supply
train. General Merritt was at the head directing road work. An advance guard of
two cavalry troops was doing scout duty on the divide, one-half mile in the lead.
After reading the message, Merritt was grieved, showing great disappointment
because of being halted in his effort to engage the Indians in battle. His first
remark was, "Oh hell, here we are, tied hand and foot." The message read, "Stop
further efforts to engage the Indians; an effort to rescue the captives is being
made from the south. Camp in the vicinity of the agency "Until further orders."
Road work was stopped. A short time was taken for lunch, which consisted of coffee,
hardtack and a liberal "help-yourself" to I.D.beef, roasted on a stick held over
campfire coals. The Rider joined in the feed. The army returned to White River
the same afternoon, making camp on the same grounds they had left in the morning,
and awaited developments. Merritt's men showed as much disappointment as Merritt
himself.
Chris Madsen, of the 5th Cavalry (one of Merritt's men who was an eye witness
to the struggle between Buffalo Bill and Chief Yellow Hand, and years later U.S.
Marshall of Oklahoma), in a conversation with The Rider, remarked that if Merritt
and his men had known the contents ofthe message before it was delivered, they
would have paid to have the courier hog-tied or killed before the delivery of the
message could have been made. Chris Madsen, at the present time, is living at his
home in Guthrie, Oklahoma.
The Rider Views the Ruins of the Agency.
Accompanied by Lieutenant William B.Weir, the ruins of the recently built
agency were viewed. Weir, who was in charge of a detail of soldiers that buried
the unfortunate men four days before, described the scene. Of the nine men whose
names have already been mentioned herein, and whose bodies were laid to rest be-
neath a grove of cottonwood trees between the river and the agency, Mansfield was
the only male employe who escaped with his life. All buildings were burned except
a wagon shed and the large store building which had been fired. It had recently
been built of green, hewed cottonwood logs which did not burn. Three tons of
flour that was stored therein had been dumped on the floor and the sacks taken by
the Indians. The flour was burned to a crisp over the top. The agency flag pole,
from which the stars and stripes floated, representing a government institution,
was not molested. Soldiers, freighters and agency employes, in all, 27 men, were
killed.


GENERAL WESLEY MERRITT PAUL HUME, Chief Scout.
JOHN C DYER CHRIS MADSEN, Private Company A.
Reporter for New York World 5th CavallY A9e 27'
and Chicago Tribune.
Position of General Merritt's Camp on White River, from
October 14, 1879, to May 5, 1880. Looking South.


87
Through the courtesy of General Merritt, a special tent was provided alongside
his official tent, with bedding for the accommodation of the reporter, scout Jim
Baker and couriers, who were assigned to "mess" with Caotain Kellogg's troop. The
"mess" was composed of choice viands and other delicacies, from salt pork, hard-
tack, snitts (dried apples) and coffee. The regular morning mess was sowbelly,
chopped fine, fried in the dutch oven, then crumpled hardtack and water was added,
and the whole allowed to simmer a few minutes. It was named s-of-a-b by the
soldiers. Some of the burned agency flour was used by soldier cocks, but after a
consultation was held by General Merritt, and Surgeon Kimmel, (whose decision was
that the flour might contain poison) its use was forbidden.
The wagonload of suttler store supplies from Perkins' store arrived at Merritt's
camp with Al.Durham as teamster, and Wilber Hugus in charge of supplies.
The young man, Bill Marston, picked up at Rawlins by Tom Moore, was having the
time of his life. He had taken on the appearance of a full-fledged frontiersman.
Seeking further adventure, he begged to be allowed to join cavalry troops detailed
for scout duty. Moore nicknamed him "Colorow Bill."
Major Henry Arrives.
Major Henry, with one troop of 3rd Cavalry, arrived at Merritt's camp, making
the trip overland from Fort Laramie. He made camp for one night at Mountain
Meadows. Joe Collom, (who was living in the vicinity of the Meadows and who,
during the hay season, had put "in stack" one hundred tons of native hay which he
later sold to Kirk Calvert and Billy Aylesworth) was on the hunt for one of his
oxen, strayed from his camp. He happened to stop at Svan's camp.
Major Henry, not knowing him, suspected he was spying for the Indians. He said
to his sergeant, "Hold this man under guard." After a considerable length of time
and much explanation, Joe convinced Svans he wa3 a settler living one mile away
in the canyon. Joe wa3 released. He became a prominent stockman of that section,
and was the original locater and owner of the Mount Streeter Coal Mine.
Major Henry's troop was mounted on a "gray horse" cavalry, forty-3even, all
dapple grays. To horse lovers, they were a beautiful lot.


SECTION XV.
The Rescue.
General Adams to the Rescue of the Captive Women and Children.
General Adams arrived at Los Pinos October 18th. He was accompanied by Count
Von Doenhoff, a special reporter. Adams was soon in conference with Chief Ouray.
Assisted by Agent Stanley, they at once made preparations for the ninety-mile
trip. A wagon with provisions and camp equipment, and a light wagon were taken
along so that the women and children could ride with more comfort than to travel
by horseback. For an assistant, Adams engaged his old-time friend and frontiers-
man, Captain Iff.M.Cline, wno was keeping a small trading store on the Cimarron
Creek fifteen miles away, and near the east line of the Uncompahgre reserva-
tion. He knew the Indians well. George P.Sherman, bookkeeper at the agency,
volunteered to go. Ouray selected his sub-chiefs Sapaverano, Shavano and eight
other trusted Indians of the Uncompahgre reservation.
The route traveled was by way of the old Mormon road to a point on the Gunni-
son River. The party was unable to proceed farther with their wagons. Sapavanero
sent two of his Indians ahead to the hostile camp on Grand River to notify the
chiefs of the coming of the party, and their mission.
Main Hostile Ute Camp on Grand River, 1879 and 1880. Leaders
of the White River Tribe Responsible for the Massacre.
Looking North.


89
In the meantime, Colorow, Jack, Johnson, Piah, and Presune had moved their
tepees and the captive women and children sixteen miles south of Grand River, on
the mesa of Plateau Creek after the Ute scouts had seen Merritt's forces moving
south from White River, Adams and escort were traveling by horseback some dis-
tance in the rear. Douglas, at the Grand River camp, sent Henry Jim, Lavero, and
Cojo to meet the Adams party, and to tell them where to find the hostile chief's
camp, which they reached the same day, October 19th.
The hostile chiefs had been notified of the party's approach and had closed
up the tepees occupied by the women and they, themselves, kept under cover.
With the help of the good scout Sapavanero, who took the lead with Captain Cline
and Adams, they looked into each tepee. They found Mrs. Meeker in Johnsons tepee,
but she had previously been kept in Douglas' tepee. Mrs. Price and her baby boy
were found in Johnson's tepee, but she had previously been kept in Jack's tepee,
most of the time. Josephine and Mae Price,the three-year-old girl, were found in
Persune's tepee, where they had been held during the twenty-three days. They had
all been kept in widely-separated tepees.
When the women had been located, they were very much elated, saying, "We are
glad you have come for us," General Adams; and Sapavanero found and consulted
with Jack, Colorow, Johnson, and Persune, who were not inclined to give up the
women. Piah was scouting on the divide. Chief Douglas, when informed of the
presence of the Adams party, left for the warring chief's camp, arriving late in
the evening.
A stormy council was held, which lasted the greater part of the night. Be-
cause of Merritt's attempt to move south from White River, the chiefs had become
alarmed, and moved south as far as they dared go. Ouray had previously forbidden
the White River Utes to hunt or camp on the Uncompahgre reservation. Adams, Sapa-
vanero and Shavano took part in the council. Several hours' conference followed,
the chiefs at time making hostile threats, and Sapavanero using harsh words and
threats in a persuasive argument for the release of the captives. Johnson's
squaw, Susan, who had been taking part in the "pow-wow," became enraged. She
burst out with a strong plea, demanding that the women be set free, as it was
Ouray's orders that they must be released. After this demand, the chiefs grad-
ually began to weaken. Chief Douglas made a proposition to Adams, that if he would
go to White River and stop the soldiers from coming farther south, they would give
up the women. As Adams had no authority to interfere with Merritt's plans, he
at first declined the proposition, but later decided it would be a quicker and
easier way out, to have the women released. He accepted Douglas' terms. The women
were told of their release, and to make ready for the journey to Los Pinos. With
Captain Cline, in charge of the party, George Sherman and eight of Sapavanero's
Indians, they started in the early morning by horseback to the wagons on the
Gunnison River.
General Adams Accompanied by the Reporter, Doenhoff.
Douglas, Sapavanero, and Shavano went to the main camp on Grand River in the
early morning to have a short rest and feed. It was October 20th when Adams, with
Chiefs Sowawic, Savinah, Pah-viets, Worzets, Charlie, and eight other of the
White River Indians, selected by Douglas for the escort, went to Merritt's camp
on White River to advise him of Chief Douglas' message. Adams had remembered
Sowawic from the time he was agent at White River, and felt safe with him in
charge of the escort. They went by way of the Roan and Yellow Creek trail.
At Merritt's Camp, October 20th.
A detail scout troop, composed of Captain Hall, Chief Scout Paul Humme, Lieu-
tenant Weir, Jim Baker, Colorow Bill, and eightprivate soldiers, was scouting
near the divide and in the brakes of Pice-ance and Yellow Creeks. Scout Humme
and Lieutenant Weir had left the main party, following and killing a deer several
hundred yards away, back of the ridge. Weir was killed near the deer carcass.
Humme was killed three hundred yards away in the aspens. On hearing the snots,
Hall and his men appeared on the ridge overlooking the scene. Hummes' mount was
severely wounded. Weir's mount was recovered, uninjured.
Jim Baker and Colorow Bill, who were traveling separately from the party on
a ridge six hundred yards to the south, fired several shots at three Utes they
had seen making their get-a-way over a ridge to the south. The incident occurred
about 3 p.m. The party was late getting to Merritt's headquarters to report the
calamity.


Distance from Rawlins to Los Pinos, by Ute Trails, is Approximately 293 Miles.


91
Jim Baker reported to General Merritt that Colorow Bill killed the Indian
who shot Lieutenant Weir. This report could not be confirmed, as the party left
the scene without investigating among the aspens, for fear of being ambushed by
the Utes.
Three troops of cavalry left Merritt's camp the same evening to recover the
bodies. When ten miles down the river, on the YellowCreek trail, at dusk, they
suddenly came in view of what they thought to be a band of hostile Indians coming
on the trail. The soldiers halted and prepared for an attack. The supposed hos-
tile Indians seemed to be alarmed and were seen to scatter. Presently two of the
party advanced showing a white flag. They were General Adams and Sowawic. The
Ute escort had stopped and was greatly excited, some of them fleeing under cover
of a nearby ridge, until Adams and Sowawic, with difficulty, persuaded them there
was no danger.
The cavalry troops recovered the body of Lieutenant Weir after dark, but did
not find Scout Hurame's body until a cavalry troop returned the next day.
When the Adams party arrived at Merritt's camp, Adams and the reporter were
received at Merritt's headquarters. Merritt would not allow the Ute escort in
Camp. They were given provisions, and made camp for the night among the cotton-
woods near by. From Adams and the reporter, Merritt and his men, including The
Courier, had first direct information from the hostile Ute camp. Jim Baker talked
with Chief Sowawic, leader of the escort, getting some information in regard to
their movements and camp.
A Second Party to the Rescue of the Women and Children.
When the women were yet in the Grand River camp, Josephine wrote a note and
sent it by a grandson of the old warrior chief, "Black Hawk." This grandson was
one of the Uintah Utes who were leaving the hostile camp for their home reserva-
tion. The note was addressed to agent S.B.Crichlow at White Rocks Agency, re-
questing his assistance in the release of the captive women. The Indians also
told the agent that Chief Douglas had said that if white men came who were friends
of the Utes, the Utes would give up the women, but would murder them rather than
release them to the soldiers.
Two young men employes of the agency, named P.S.(Pete) Dillman, and Clint
McLane, volunteered to go with Black Hawk's grandson and five other Uintah Utes
as an escort. They went to the hostile camp on Grand River, after a two-days
delay in getting a sufficient number of horses for the occasion. When they arriv-
ed at the Grand River camp, they learned that General Adams had been there, and
had sent the women and children to Los Pinos, and that A.dams had gone to Merritt's
camp on White River.
When Adams returned to Grand River from Merritt's camp, he met Dillman and
McLane. At first sight, he mistook them to be renegade whites assisting the
Indians. They convinced him who they were by a note carried from Agent Crichlow.
Adams said, "You're lucky if you get out of here alive."
After Adams left the camp for Los Pinos, Douglas insisted on Dillman and Mc-
Lan? going to Merritt's camp to tell him, "Utes heap sorry," and ask Merritt to
help them get a new agent, as they wanted to go back to their reservation.
'When Dillman and McLane appeared at Merritts camp, wit.n an escort of Indians,
Merritt (showing the same disregard for their welfare as the Adams escort), would
not allow the Indians in camp for fear of cooties. The men reported their mission,
which, like Adams' mission, had no significance other than to satisfy Douglas.
Merritt could promise them nothing.
In the meantime, Captain Cline of the rescue party, and the captive women and
children, arrived at the Los Pinos Agency. They were affectionately received by
Ralph Meeker, son of Agent and Mrs. Meeker, Majcr Pollock, and Agent Stanley.
The women were taken to the home of Chief Ouray where they remained for two days.
Ouray treated them with great kindness. Chiueta wept, and was much grieved for
them. They were given all the comforts of a well-furnisned ranc.n home. Ralph
Meeker had been in school in the East when he heard of the 'White River Agency
disaster. He joined Major Pollock, who was sent out from Washington as special
investigator of the White River Indian trouble.


CHIEF OURAY AND HIS WIFE. CHIPETA. IN 1880.
GENERAL ADAMS
JOE BRADY.
LOS PINOS AGENCY. IN 1880.
Looking South.


Full Text

PAGE 2

""THE RIDER"1938 ------------I 'I r. I I" --,, .t "'. __ 1 ... '''' ', ., "THE RIDER DELIVERING A MESSAGE ON THE OUT SKIRTS 1878. / / / -----<.. ----....______

PAGE 3

REMINISCENCES of FRONTIER DAYS Including An Authentic Account of the THORNBURG and MEEKER MASSACRE By M. WILSON RANKIN ( From His Pri vate Diar y) This narrative is respectfully dedicated to the pioneers of Northwestern Colorado and of the Snake River Valley in Southwestern Wyoming. l'hotoLitliol-(rnphed by :-
PAGE 4

Copyright 1938 By M.Wilson Rankin, Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A.

PAGE 5

PREFACE Throughout this book, the author is designated as The Rider," (having served as a rider and not as a writer) who endeavors to give accurate accounts of the settlement of Northwestern Colorado, and the Snake River Valley of Wyoming, w hich occurred fro m 1868 until 1883, together with numer ous incidents, and especially those relating to the T hornb u r g and Meeker Massacre. He gives a brief description of the location of the different tribes of the Ute Indians and the Ute reservations, as a background for describing the White River Ute trouble. Incidents leading to the creation of Wyoming Territory are -with no thought of quoting published history. At the time of this Rawlins, Wyoming, was an important supply and distributing point. This book contains 39 illustrations, and most of these were outlined b y The Rider" as experienced at the time in dic:..ted. All wer e pen s ketched by J.C.Smith, ana are fair representation s of t h e c haracters and the landscape. Cameras were l ittle known on the outskirts of civilization during the tim e covered in this narrative.

PAGE 6

I Histori c l a c lccround IT Discovery of Gol d and Min inc; u t H ahn' s ? e a k 7 lli 3riJger uni Jim 3 a ker 10 lV :Srown s 'iole Histori c Spot 16 v -Tlle li ew Tenitory i n t ll e Rough .... 19 VI I ncidents and First of Riv e r .24 VII Fi::-st o r Grund and Ro utt C rmtie3, C olo 3 2 Vlll Events wit hin t h e Area, anJ. Settlement of 1 876.36 1Z: S ettl.e:nent of 3nJke '1lver uwl Incidents i n l P ,77 .. 44 -Incidents and S eLtl e m e n t in 1 8 7 8 ... 53 XI -Activity :,_uclJ Griev: m c e at the Agenc y XIJ -The Way i t Turned Out X l l f A t ted Trae;cdy XIV XV Rescue of the ',Yomen and Chil dren XVI T h e ;.;ill tary Situation; Co mment G and Episodes :zv 1 1 -Firs t G ettlement of North F ark, and. Incidents ,i tIin t !le Area from l87'J to lf:'.84 XVlll -"The Rider" On the Way 3outh XIX -FrJntier Incidents and Cowboy Life 63 66 76 80 88 97 .105 .111 122

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS P a e e "The Rider" Delivering a Message, Wyoming, 1 8 78 (Frontispiece) Chief Ourc.y . . . . . . 2 Liecovery of Gold and Firat Mining at Hahn's Peak ....... 8 Jim Baker During His Early Trapping Days . . 11 A Friendly Meeting of Jim Bridger and Chief Washakie . 13 Baggs' Ranch, Built in 1 875 ............. .... 26 Jim Baker On a Hunt for Fresh Meat, 1875 . 30 Ute Jack, While Scout :for General Crook, 1 876 and 1 877 .... 35 Sitting Bull, Chief Med\cine-man I n British Territory ... 37 Jim Baker's Horne, Built in 1 873. . . 40 A Monster Grizzly . . . . .50 First White River Ute Indian Ac;ency ............. 5 5 The Meekers, when Employed at the White River Agency ...... 62 Milk Creek Battlegrounds ................... 74 White River Age ncy, Built in 1878 and 1879 .......... 77 Tom Iles' Ranch, (Bachelor's Hall) 1 879 ...... ..... 84 General Merritt's Camp On White River, 1879 ......... 86 Hostile Ute Camp On Grand River, 1879 ............. 88 Map of Trails Between Rawlins, Wyoming and Los Pinos Agency, 90 Los Pinos Agency, 1880 . . . 92 Wagon and Pack Train On the Road .............. 100 Rustic Hotel, in Poudre Canyon -Built in 1880 ...... 107 Crossing the Columbia River, 1 8 81 . . . 123 Beef Herd, and Half-breed Cree Procession On the Trail .. 127 Beef Herd SWimming the Yellowstone River ..... .... 128 Inspecting Sioux Remains . 129 A Bear Scare . . . . 130 Cowboys Lassoing Buffalo Calves . . 131 Chinese Rock Springs, Wyoming, 1884 132 Roundup Crew Camped for the Night . . . 135 Simon Snares Bruin . . . . . 136 Shorty' a Spill . . . .136 Bernard Makes His Bow, Greeting Bruin ........... 137 Holding Fast . . . . . .137 Arriv
PAGE 8

INTRODUCTION The Rider arrived at Rawlins, Wyoming, fro m tr.e family farm home in Pennsylvania, March lst, 18?5, a t the a ge of nineteen years. He found employment at various occupations, but largely in the saddle. Leaving aside politics and society, he became familiar early-day incidents covering a wide area of the mountain c ountry -by information garnered from pioneer trappers, military officers and government scouts, and by personal experiences. The maJority of t h e mi ners and ranch settlers living within the area on the dates given are recalled by the names they were familiarly known by, and conditione are described a e they were at that time; not imaginary, heroiQ deeds of the brave, nor exaggerated tales of bad men, which sensational writers would have the reader believe. Incidents and names of settlers have been recalled in turn as they appeared each season, and the nurrative is, therefore, not a connected story. The mere naming of miners, sett l ers c.nd trivial local occurrences may be of little or no int erest t o readers, other than thoae f umilic.r wi ti1 the settlem e nts wi t h.in t h e terri tory covered. This book is produced fro m my d i a ry, which was originally wr1 tLen and llluetrated only for private usa, with no anticipation of future publicution. Because of requests for co pies of t h e diary, ::. limited number of t hese books have been printed --with expectations neither of fume nor l ;rol' i t. --The A.uthor. fff The a uthor's introductory references to himself are so brief that a few words from an old friend, who rode the plains with The Rider when he was foreman of a larg e cattle ranch, sho1'ld not b e amiss. 11\'.'ils," said this friend (now 80 years old), "was sure a hard worker, anC. straight as a string. N o matter what t h e job v 1as, Wils.Rankin took the l ead. With him it was never 1Go on, boys,' but rather 'Come on, boys, 1 --and while some of the boys used to g rum ble a bit abou t the long hard trails or the too strenuous days, they were loyal to this tireless rang e boss, who seldom sat down for lack o f s omething to do. He was extremely conscientious, an d lived a clean, busy life, to win the respect of all who came in c ontact with him." Said another friend: "He was n ever much of a showman, but facedthe srim realitie s o f frontier life, the hard and o ften dangerous tasks of that day, with a quiet, cool courag e that helped to make the new country a safer place to live irt for the incoming settlers of tha t period." ---A.S.H

PAGE 9

SECTION I. Historic Location of the Ute Indians. At t h e advent of civ ilization in Colorado, whic h began about 1 857 and '58, all territory west of the continental divide extending to Utah Lak e Valley in Utah, and also San Lu i s Park on the east slope of the divide, was in possession of the Ute Indians. The Indians, of their own accord 'Here divided and lived in separate tribes, although intermingling to som e extent -each tribe under the guidance of a head chief. Three of these tribes were within the boundaries of Colorado. In 1 861 the Colorado superintendent of Indian affairs appointed Lafayette Head as a gent at Conejos, in San Luis Park in charge of the Tabequache tribe, w here Oura y was chi e f Agent Head distributed supplies and presents to the dif ferent tribes in order t o t h eir confidence. The Goverrunent, in a treaty with Co lorado Ute Indians in Middle Par k on October 7,1 853, in exchange for part of the territory claimed by them, was to furnish I ndian s with provi sions and b l ankets annually, Reservation boundaries were estdblis h e d covering approximately one-third of Colorado territory i n the southwest, The land accepted b y t h e governm e n t was a strip, nine townships (54 miles wide) adjoining t h e northern C olorado line. Major Simeon Whitely was appointed agent to take charge of distributing supplies in Middle Park to the Northern Color::.d o Utes. Treaty of 1868. In 1868 a new treaty was made by the government with the Gapote, Wiminuche and Moache, conso lidated tribes known a s the Southern Utes, occupying the southwestern part of the reservation with IgnatJ.o as their chief. The government acquired a strip of their l a n d on the southern border of their reservation (sep ar::. ting their land from Apache and Navajo lands, which formerly connected when under Eexican rule) by cash payments for a number of years, and made allot tments of 160 acres oi land, provisions, sheep and cattle to heads of f amilies who would f arm and become self-supporting. Many were allotted farm lands in t h e Pine River V alley. T heir agency is known a s Ignatia. The larger number, who depended principally upon the for support, were allotted reservation lands on the River in the southwest corner of Colorado, which later came within the bounds of Montezuma County. Their agency is known as Toawoc. The government made a treaty with the Tabequache tribe under Chief Ouray, at Conejos Agency in 1 863. Their land s in the San Luis Valley were ceded to the government in exchange for a l a rge reservation in the Uncompahgre River Valley west of the continenta l divide. They were furnished with sheep, cattle, and annual supplies. Their agency was l;now n as Los Pinos. In 1868, at Middle Park the government nade a treaty with the Northern Color ude Utes (later :mown as the White River Utes,) resulting in the placing of this trib e i n the 'Nhite River Valley, on a large reservation. About 1865, tneir Chief Navava died. The tribe was divided in its selection of the new chief. Numerous councils were held during a period of several months. Finally, 6uinkent, after many eloquent speeches, proclaimed himself chief. T o add to his prestige, he assumed the English name of Douglas. Douglas did not prove as chief with many of the tribesmen. As a result, a number of subchiefs emerged from t h e frac''s, each with a following. The names of some of these were Washington, Yarmony, Cu p-Ears, Colorow, Uncle Sam and others. They were dissati s fied with the government allottments, cluiming their w ere short and that t h e y were not treated as well as other Ute tribes. They continued to rove and hunt over t!1e entire terri tory they had agreed to vacate in their former treaty (whic h included Korth and Middle Parks, Bear and Snake Rivers and t 'J eir tribut:..ries), and to l!Ji;lke their annual buffalo hunt on the plains east

PAGE 10

OURAY H ead Chief of the Ute Tribes and White Man's Fri end.

PAGE 11

3 of the mountains, although, as history goes, all territory for 1 0 0 miles east of the continental divide, and from the Arkansas River on the south to the North Platte River on the north, was awarded to the Southern Cheye n ne and the Arapahoe Indians as a hunting gro und in a treaty with the government at Fort Niobrara in 1857. The Cheyennes occupied the southern portion and the Arapahoes the northern portion. The Ute and Arapahoe Indians were bitter enemies. Many battles were fought when they met on disputed hunting grounds. One of these hunting grounds was North Park, situated on the northeast slope of the continental divide, with close access to the Plains, in the center of Arapahoe territory. Another disputed hunting ground was Little Snake River and its tributaries. Ouray Head Chief of All Colorado Ute Tribes. Ouray, when telling the story of his life, said he was born in the Taos Valley in 1833. His tribe lived in the San Luis Valley and spent much time in the Sangre de-Cristo Mountains and about Taos, where they mingled with the Mexicans and whites. He learned to speak both the English and the Spanish languages. He was an exceptionally shrewd and intelligent Indian. When yet a very young man he was employed at the Conejos Agency by the government as interpreter at $500 per year. He became influential and a great favorite with all Ute tribes. During the at Conejos Agency in 1863, the government insisted, as a business policy, that there should be a head chief over all Colorado Ute tribes, through who m business could be transacted with confederate tribes. The White River Utes their chief Nevava to be made head chief. This was not agreeable with the government Nevava being an old Indian at the time. The government, of t h e intelligence and ability of .ouray, and his friendliness to the whites, and preferring a yo unger man, employed him at a salary of $1000 a year. He assisted in the distribution of cattle, sheep and goats to the different Ute tribes, from Conejos Agency. All business transacted by the government with the Utes was done through him, He was peace-maker and advisor. In 1859 he took unto himself a wife, Chipeta, a beautiful maiden of the Tabequache tribe, she being ten years younger than Ouray. 1'ne government built him a home on the Uncompahgre reservation, where he lived like the whites. When signing government treaties in 1863 and 1868, he wrote his name Ure, A fourth and large tribe known as the Uintah Utes were in possession of the Duschesne and Uintah Rivera country in eastern Utah, the largest group of the tribe being established near the mouth of the Provo River in the Utah Lake Valley. South of them, in Utah, were the Pavant an. d v arious Paiute tribes with whom they mingled, The Uintahs were in frequent clashes with Kormon settlers because of the latter encroaching upon their lands. Brigham Young was appointed and Indian agent for Utah by the President in 1850, but no definite treaty was made with the Indians at that time. Bushwhack i ng and thieving by the Indians continued, In some cases Mormon posses inflicted severe losses upon the I ndians; at other time compr omises were made by the Mormon s paying f o r encroach ment with provisions or a horse. In 1854, Brigham Young, applying his vested authority, succeeded in making treaty with Sowiette, the wise counselor of the tribe, and Walkara, the younger warrior chief, by liberal distribution of blankets, provisions and other supplies, w hich were produced by the Mormons and paid for by the government. Indian claim to the Utah Lake Valley was relinquishe d to the Mormons. In 1868, Brigham Young, at the head of an Indian commission, made final treaty with Goshute Indian s who were at constant war with Mormon settlers in Skull Valley, west of Salt Lake. With the Pavant and Uintah tribes, they were consolidated on one large reservatio n in the Uintah and Duchesne River Valley. Their agency is known as White Rocks. Treaties by the government with the different tribes were later made from time to time in to reservation lands. The land s ceded to t h e I ndians by the government for reservations were the choice o f each tribe, This privilege was accorded them in order that they would be satisfied with their lot. Author's Note: The above description of the Ute tribes and location of their reservations is verified by records of the Bureau of I ndian Affairs at Washington, D C

PAGE 12

4 Summit County, Colorado. This was the first county to be orga-1ized on the west slope, The lure of gold led prospectors to venture west of t he continental divide, where rich discoveries were made o n the headwaters of the Blue and Eagle Rivers in 1860. Mining prospered while settlers from the east slope locate d in the valleys round about. The county seat was Parkville but was later moved to B reckenridge, the cen ter of mining activity. The county government had jurisdiction over the entire north half of Colorado west of the divide, including North Park, except the Ute Indian lands. The White River Reservation was in the west p art of this territory. A New Territory Created, Progress in colonization of northwest territory began when Uni on Pacific Railroad construction was completed and which took place in 1868, sponsored by the government, which protected the builders fro m hostile I ndians with soldiers from military posts established along the route, B y act of congress, Wyoming Territo r y was created in 1868 from that part of the original Dakota Territory in which Laramie, Albany and Carbon Counties had been organized by the Dak ota in 1867, and from territory which included Green River County, Utah, and a small strip fro m Idaho, From this west portion, Carter County, Wyomin g was established with county seat at South Pass City. Woman suffrage was inaugurated in Wyoming in 1869. Gold was d i scovered at the headwaters of B i g Sandy Creek and Sweetwater River near South Pass in 1842, but little mining was done until new discoveries were made in the l ate sixties. Thousands of whites were engaged in the d i strict and two hundred Chinamen mined there. Camp Stambaugh was established at Pacific Spring s near S outh Pass and garrisoned with soldiers for the protection from hostile Indian s of miners and immi grants traveling on the ov erland trail. This trail passed through Wyoming by way of Fort Laramie on the North Platte and Sweetwater Rivers, South Pass and Bridger's Fort. The California extension of the trail separated from the ori ginal Oregon Trail at H am' s Fork a few miles west of Green River. A branch lea .ving the main trail near Fort Laramie was establislie d by way of Clear Fork of the Powder River, the east base of tlJe Big Horn Mounta.ins, tl.e upper Yellowston e River and" to Bozeman. This branch was known as the :Bozeman Trail. The main trail was first traveled by trappers and fur traders, immigrants to Oregon, miners to California, Mormons to Salt.Lake in 1847; military expeditions, Colonel Sidney Johnston in command of u.s.troops moving ae;ainst outla w Mor mons i n 1857; numerous immigrant trains, Pony Express stage coaches and herds of cattle from Texas to stock the ranges of the nortbwest. The first military expedition to travel the route was in comman d of Colonel John C.Fremon t in 1842 He introduced a bill i n congress for the establishment of military posts along the route i n 1845. Rawlins, Wyoming A Distributing and Supply When c onstruction of the Union Pacific Railro a d was completed through Wyoming in 1868, Rawlins was located at Rawlings Springs, named i n honor of John A ,Rawlinc;s who was in command of a military expedition of exploration that camped at the springs for some time in 1857. From 1868 supplies were shipped to Rawlin s annually by tbe government for delivery to t he White R iYer Ute Indian P.gency, Shoshone, and Arapahoe Agency and the military post of Fort W a s hakie. All of these except the White River Agency were located i n the Popo-agie and Wind R iver Valley 150 miles northwest of Rawlins. Mail was delivered to these ae;encies by horseback; semimonthl y in winter and weekly in summer. A description of the route from Rawlins t o the White River Age ncy is included as a backgroun d to assist in the description of l ater activities along the route, Thirty miles sout h of Rawlins the road crossed Muddy C reek and the :::Jenver, S:;.lt Lake, and Overland stage road, and frequently referred to as the Creek route.

PAGE 13

5 By 1862, minipg had come into prominence in Colorado, Denver was erowing; Indians had become more troublesome to stage and iuunic:;rant travel on the North Platte route. The line and prRctically all traffic between Missouri River poi11ts, Salt Lake and northwest territory, was shifted to the Bitter Creek route. Fort Morgan was establisbed on tbe line at the crossing of the South Platte River and the junction of the Denver branch. Fort Halleck was also established on the line at the foot of Elk Mountain on the same date. The stage line was operated by Ben Holaday. At Muddy Creek crossing was Sulphur Springs Stage Station, witb a histor y of Indian depredations such as attacks on stage coaches traveling on the route within its radius. On the hillside a few hundred yards from the station were eight m nrkers representing fatalities From informatio11 passe d along, five persons were killed by Indians, one was killed during a drunken carousel, and two illlffiigra11ts died from natural causes. # # # The following information was obtained from Herman Hass who was a long-time resident of Cheyenne. He had been a private soldier at Fort L aramie in 1862 and one of an escort of soldiers when stage coaches and other stcge equipment was being transferred from the North Platte route for service on the Bitter Creek route by way of Independence Rock, Devils Gap on the Sweetwater River, and through a gap in the Feria Mountains. At this point the escort found two soldiers who had dropped out of an esco1t of soldiers who had preceded them on a simila r mission. They were lying by the roadside in a stupor from liquor. The officer in charge poured out their supply of liquors from bottles, got them on their horses, and started them on the way to overtake their troop. From this occurance, the pass received the name of Whiskey Gap. Five miles fa1 ther s outh the escort found another soldier of the s ame party as the other two. He had fallen by the wayside at a sprir: g hranch. At his awakening from a stupor, wi u, a befuddled brain, he was l ;ewildered and lost, not knowing in w ,ich direction to go to find his comrades. He was directC>d on his way by t h e officer in charge. From this incident, the spring branch was given the name of Lost Soldier. The Holaday stage line was abandoned shortly after t h e completion of building of the Union Pacific Railroad which paralleled thP stage route, Immigrant trnvel contir.ued, but E;radually dwindled to a mere dribble by 1885. Sixteen miles sou tb of Sulphur Springs, the ager' cy road crossed the old Cher okee truil. From hintory we learn the Cherokee Indians disposed of their lands in southern Georcia in 1853, and with horse and ox teams, herds of cattle and othe::belonging s trekked their way across plains and mountains wi tl1out road or trail to guide them on their way to California in search of gold and a country where they could make homes for their people. The trail at this point; and for many miles, is pla.inly visible and can be traced in many places across southern Wyomin g at tbe present time, it is three-quarters of a century since it was traveled, Judging from their zigzag trail which passed through roup;l1 mountain country, the Cherokees were poor guides. Their trail at sever;,l points within Wyoming being six to ten miles south of the more feasible and later-established Denver and Salt Lake route. Tl1ey possibly selected the m ountainous route with a view to prospecting for gold where conditions seemed favorable. Continuing south fifteen miles, Muddy Creek forms a junction with Little Snake ;uver. The lr.tte r stream derived its name from the Snake Indians (one of tl-: e Sho shone triles), who, because of a tribal custom, were noted for their we1rd snake danc:e, and w h o inhabited this valley until driven out by Ara-pahoe and Ute Indians. Besides tlte Arapahoe and Ute Indians claiming the Snake River country for their hunting ground, the Sioux and other Indian tribes drifted, a t times, to these parts for a hunt. Two miles south of the above-mentioned junction the road crossed the Colorado ::yom i 11g line and fo 11 owed the course of Four Mile Creek to the divide, thenc e along the course o f Fortification Creek to the mouth o f Li ttJ e Eear C reek where the road bore to the east across the mesa to Bear River at the junction of Elkhead Creek, From Dear River Crossine; the route was -in a southwesterly direction over a high divide to Williams Fork (a tributary of Bear River), ti1 e nce crossing near the head

PAGE 14

G of Deer and Morapos Creek to Stinkine; Gulch, so named because of sloughs wbere black muck with bad-smelling odors arose. At this point the road was joined by a trail from Bear River Road Crossine. It was a sl1ort-cut on the route by way of lower Morapos Creek, and was known as the Mora pos trail. It was traveled by Indians, and l nter all horseback travel, including the U.S.majJ, went o ver this trail. Many years l ater the "Iles Oil Dome" was discovered in the Stin} c i.nr; Gulcl 1 district. The agenc y road continued over a low divide and a l o n g the north side of Milk creek to where the Creek turned north through a cau.\ on in the Danforth Hills. This strint.; of hills was named after Ute I ndian Agent l!. E .Danforth who l1ad become lost during a snow storm, spending one n ie;l!t out while on a hunt for deer. From Milk Creek Crossing the route followed Beaver Creek, which is a narrow ravine. At Milk Creek CrossinG a short-cut trail led strai(0Jt ahead over hills, joining the road on Beaver Creek, thence over a low divide following the downward course of Coal Creek. This creek t ook the name afte r a coal vein had been opened to supply fuel for the first White River Agency, whict1 was six miles east of the of Coal Creek and situated near the foot of the mountains at tbe east end of White River Valley, wbere t h e his tory-m<>.king trail ended 165 miles from Rawlins. During tbe life of the White Rive r Ute Indian Agency, a nurnber of men had been assigned to the position of agent, but owi ng to the roving and unruly disposition show o by the Utes and isolated location of the agency, each became dissatisfied or was r emoved for cause, leaving the job after a short term of years. Names of agents were A.J.Beck, Charles N.Adams, J.S.Littlefield a nd ll.E.Dnnforth, who was succeeded by Natnan Cook Meeker. The names of some of the first to carry the mail by horseback from Rawlins to the nJJite River Agency were Jerry Huff, Charlie Lowry, Joe Rankin and Joe Collom.

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SECTION II. Discov:e_ry _o_:t: _Gold and First at !iaf!n' s Peak. Gold was discovered by Joseph and C aptain Georg e R.Way, who had come from Illinois in 1860. They s pent part of that seas) n prospecting on the eastern slope. Leaving Empire with pack burros late in the season to prospect on the slope, they arrived at the peak late in the fall, where they found gold in gulches at the foot of the peak. Heavy snows came befure much prospecting could be done. They had but a small supply of provisions, so they returned to Empire and to the states for the winter, expecting to return to the peak in the spring. During the winter, they entered into an agreement with William Doyle, a frien d and neighbor, to join them and renew the search for gold. In 1861 the civil war began. Way and Doyle e nlisted and served t hree years in the army. After their discharge from the army, Hahn and Way renewed their former agree1aen t with Doyleto return to the peak and begin mining on their discovery. Late in the summer of 1864 they again outfitted at Empire for their journey to the peak. They arrived again too late to prospect or to build a cabin and prepare for winter. Having but a small supply of provisions for three men, Captain Way returned to Empire with the burros, expecting to return with supplies. Deep snows oame and he could not return. The snowfall was heavy about the peak. Deer and elk that were in the vicinity when they first came and of which they expected to get the greater part of their food supply for the winter, had drifted to the lowe r altitude during the first snows. Early in March, after much privation (their prov1s1ons being exhaus ted and starvation threatening them), Hahn and Doyle started to Empire on foot over crusted snow which broke through part of the time. They got as far as the head of Muddy Creek, a few miles below Rabbit Ear peak, when Hahn became exhausted and sick. Lying down in the snow, he could g o no farther. Doyle stayed with him for some time, but Hahn became worse. Doyle, in fear of losing his own life by furth e r delay, left Hahn to die and made his way toward Empire, stopping at Gus Reader's trapping camp in upper Middle Park. H e in, com pletely exhausted from cold and hunger. After a rest and recovery of strength, he ma d e his way to Empire. At the break of spring, Doyle and Way r eturned to look after Hahn's remains. They never returned to the peak. Later, when mining began a t the peak, it was named Hahn's Peak, and the gulch in which gold was first discovered was named Way's Gulch. First Mining a t H a hn's Peak as t old by Bill Slater and Bibleback Brown. The first mining done at Hahn's Peak was in 1869 by William (Bill) Slate r and part:1er, known to pioneers of Snake River by no other name than Biblehack BrO'Im. Slater had lived in Denver. He joined the third Colorado Cavalry i n 1863. H e was with Colone] John M.Chivington in the battle of Sand Cree k a gainst a band of 300 southern Cheyenne Indians, forty miles north of Fort Lyon, in November, 1864. During the thick of the fight, Slater followed one of the trib e a considerable distance along a deep wash-away from the battle-ground before getting a chance to kill. When returning by the same route, he found a small Indian boy who had wandered away from the camp during the fight. He took the boy on his horse, thinking to save the youngster's life. Before he got to where the slaughter was g o ing on, h e thought of the instructions g iven by the stern commander Chivington, that "nits become lice" that young and o l d must be exterminated. He left t n e boy alive by a cotto nwo o d tree, never knowi:1g what became of him afterwards. In 1868 Slater was employed on construction work of the Union Pacific R ailroad in Wyoming. Durine; the .winter month s he was employ e d at U.P. c onstructio n at Rawlins. Brown a t that time was c a m p ing twelve miles north of R a w li!1S in the brakes of a spring branch which later was named Brown's Canyo n (by the citizenry). He had been furnis!l ir1e; game meat for the Unio n P aci::'ic R ailroad coYJstructio n crews. H e had beeYJ trapping in the Snake River and Hahn's Peak c o u ntry two years before, w here he found minin g t ools and other indications of prospecting that had been don e by Hahn and Way Slater was about 40 years of a ge; B r o w n five years o l der. (Ac cording to frontier custom1 when meeting in a saloon they became pals by joining socially with many drinks,. When tuYJed to the p oint, B rom1 c o nfided his secret of gold discovery to

PAGE 16

BIBLEBACK BROWN. BILL SLATER. First Mining at Hahns Peak was Done by Bibl e b ac k Brown a nd Bill Slater in I 869.

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9 Slatero In the spring of 1869, they joined in outfitting with saddle and packhorses, provisions and necessary prospecting equipment, and went to work on the p rospect. The g reater part of the season was spent prospecting. They found gold i n other p laces about the peak. They collected s ome gold by panning. They built a cabin and made preparations for mining, the next season. When deep snow came, they moved to Snake River v alley, and built a cabin near the mouth of Savery C reek. Brown went to Rawlin s for winter provisions and his traps, w hich h e left at Rawlins. They did some trapping that winter. In the spring of 1870 they returned to their claims and began mining by sluicing over riffles and flume of crude construction. They were joined later in the season by Dave Miller and George H owe who wandered in while on a prospecting trip from east of t h e range. They located claims on Poverty Hill, a short from Way's Gulch. The only other changes in the mon .otony of their isolated job was whe n they were visited by bands of Ute Indians while on their customary ramblings when hunting each season. In t heir clean-up of the season, Slater and B r own had enough of the yellow metal to pay them w ell for their season's labor. Miller a n d Howe joined them in going to the v alley for w i nter quarters. During the mining season of 1871 the four miners were joined in search for gold by I.C.Miller and W .R.Cogswell. They had come from Rawlins. They also loca te( claims on Poverty Hill. At the clos e of the mining season, Miller and Cogswell returned to Rawlins for the winte r while the other four we n t to their winter c abins in the valley, and Brown went to Rawlins for winter provisions. While a t Rawlins, Brown met Noah Reader who was camped Rawlings Springs. H e was o n his way west from Missouri with his family of wife and three sons, George, William and A lbert. They were traveling by ox team and covered wagon with a small herd of cattle. During their conversation Reader told Brow n he was looking for a country i n w hich t o make a home for himself and family. Brown told him t hat Snake River Valley \1aS a good place to winter his stock, and if he wished to go, that he himself was going out next day and would be glad to show him t h e way. Reader's stock being footsore and tired, he decided to go with Brown. H e located by a wall-rock ledge near where Brown and Slater spent their winters. Reader set about at once to erect a cabin of cottonwood logs for a home. Brown and assisted him to build. The Reader family were permanent settlers and the firs t to build a home in Snake River Valley. Slater later homesteaded on a creek south of Snake River, which was given the name of Slater Creek. B r own was t h e scout and first to travel the short-cut route from Snake River by way of Five Buttes and Pine Grove, to Rawlins. A steep hill on the route b etween Snake River and Five was named Brown's Hill. In 1872, Will G.Reader (second son of Noah Reader) was employed at mining at Hahn's Peak by Brown and Slater. After a busy season of panning and sluicing, t h e seven miners felt well paid for t heir labor. Other prospectors joined i n the hunt for gold about the peak during the season. Brown and Slater were good pals; honest w hole-souled, and fond of drink from the cup that cheers. The little brown jug of tonic was often included in their stock whe n purchasing provisions for their crunp The gold pan served the prospector to his bread; as wash pan, and many other camp conveniences.

PAGE 18

SECTION III. In May 1872, Jim Baker, with his family of wife, three daughters and one son Joe, located in the Snake River Valley one mile from the Reader home. Jim moved from Clear Creek near Denver, where he had lived for three years following his r esidence in Denver where, in season, he had operated a ferry on the South Platte River near the mouth of Cherry Creek. Before that he had spent twenty-five years in the mountains trapping and mingling with the Indians. While living on Clear Creek, he accumulated a small herd of white-faced cattle which he branded J B, and moved them to the Snake River range. Jim had two saddle horses he kept for his private use at the Snake River ranch; and from his own vocabulary of speech, they were named "Brownie" and "Yaller". A few month s later, his oldest son William and his wife, moved to Snake River from Denver and locR.ted near. About the sar:Je time a fourth daughter with her husband, John Reynolds, and three childre n moved to the river and also settled near Jim. Reynolds did freighting to Peak. In order to relat& here some of Jim Baker's movements during the time he spent in the country, a brief account of the activities of Jim Bridger will be necessary, Since they had been associated in trapping, fur trading and other mountain pursuits, the same is recalled from stories told by Jim Baker, his brother John, Louie Simmons, Bibleback Brown, Military officers and Bob 'f a rkness (alias Cherokee Bob), who was a teamster with a survey expedition escorted by a troop of cavalry under command of General Anson Mills, and piloted by Jim Bridger. The expedition was in charge of General Grenville M.Dodge, who w a s chief engineer, mapping the route in 1866 for which to build the UPion Pacific Railroad. Anson Mills was later i n at Fort Bridger. Jim Baker was bornin Illinois in 1818. At the age of twenty he went to St. Louis where he met Jim Bridger. Bridger had returned to St. Louis from t h e mountains where he had been employed at trapping. H e was in charg e of a consignment of furs for Bonneville, Fitzpatrick and Henry Frapp, and which he was interested in. St. Louis was the only market of note in the west for furs at that time, Bridger, accompanied by Baker, returned to the mountains in the spring of 1839 by way of the Laramie Plains and Sweetwater River t o Bonneville and Frapp HeadqUarters on Green River above the mouth of New Pork. Here w hite trappers traded furs for cash and provisions and Indians traded buckskin for ammunition and tobacco. From t his p oint Jim Baker had his first experience of trapping in t h e mountain country. In the fall of 1839 Bridger established a trading camp on Henry's Fork, where he traded with the Indians and white trappers. By 1840, Bridger, i n order to expand his business, organized a company which included Jack Robinson, Henry Frapp and Jim Baker. Bridger, with his many years experience of trapping and trading with the Indians (he had trapped over the entire Rocky Mountain country from British territory on the north and as f a r south as New Mex ico and Arizona), was made manager. In August 1841, Bridger was told by Tim Goodale and a party of trappers tha t arrived from the head of Sweetwater River for that a large band of Indians thought to be Cheyennes, had slaughtered a small party of immigrants traveling on the SweetNater trail, and the redskins were moving south towa r d s Snake RiveT, At the time a party of Bridger's men in cha rge of !'enry Frapp were in the Snake River country prospecting for later season trapping and establishing winter quarters. Bridger, in fear of their safety, sent Jim Baker, by Tim Goodale and Bonito Vasquez, to inform the party of their danger, The party arrived at the Frapp camp only a short time before two of Frapp's men rushed in and reported they had been attacke d by Indi
PAGE 19

.. JIM BAKER DURING HIS EARLY TRAPPING DAYS.

PAGE 20

They had well-nigh completed their fort when they were again attacked by a large band of Indians who kept up the fight for two days. When they withdrew, four Indians were found dead. Frapp and two of hie party were killed. The dead trappers were buried in haste. The trappers left their fort and returned to the company's headquarters on Henry's Fork late in August. From this incident, Battle Mountain, Battle Creek and Battle Lake were named. While Jim Baker was associated with Jim Bridger for a number of years in trapping and trading in furs, he at times was trapping on his own account. He trapped on Green River and Wind River and their tributaries and Little Snake River. lie mingled with different tribes of India ns. He had taken to himself a wife of the Shoshone tribe. lie met and associated with Kit Carson when Carson was on expeditions to the northwest from his headquarters at Taos. H e called at Bridger's quarter s and the American Fur Co.'erenoezvoueon B i g Snake River in the Blackfeet Indian country, and Peries Hole (now Teton Basin)0 In the meantime, Jim's Shoshone wife died, leaving one child, a girl aged one year. Baker lived with the Arapahoe Indians for a considerhble length of time while d oing some lie took to himself a second wife, one of the Arapahoe tribe. Jim was with the Arapahoes on two or more of their man y battle s witn the Ute Indians, when they met on dispute d hunting grounds. During one of these scraps in the Snake River cortntry, Jim had a close call for hie life. Because he live d with the Arapahoes, the Utes considered him their enemy. About 1843, the Bridger, Robinson and Baker Fur dissolved. Immigrant travel and military expeditions had increase d on the overland trail. Bridger, in view of continuing in the trading business, built a trading poet on Black's Fork, twenty-five miles north of the Henry's Fork headquarters and near the junction of the Oregon and California trails. The headwaters of each of these Green River branches arise in the Wasatch range. Bridger acquired a tract of land from the Mexican goverrment upon which to build the trading poet. It was built for protection in the form of a stockade about 125 feet square, used as a corral, with cabins fpr living and trading quarters within the enclosure. Besides immigrants and numerous mountain men that came to the fort to trade, Indiana of several different tribes came to the fort with furs to trade for rifles, ammunition, tobacco and knickknacks These Indiana included Blackfeet, Nez Perce, Utes, Bannock, Shoshone arid Arapahoe tribes. The Shoshones, fearing the Ute, Blackfeet and Arapahoes, who had fought and robbed them at every opportunity for years, made their camp near Bridger's Fort. Chief Washakie, like Chief Ouray, was friendly with the whites. He relied on the white mountaineers for aesistanoe in case of an attack by hostile tribes. Maiden s of the Shoshones were fair of complexion and attractive and the tribe furnished wives for many mountain men. Bridger prospered in the trading business, and since hie location was on the overland trails, he held the key to the immigrant trade. He became associated with Louie Vasquez, who took care of the trade when Jim piloted immigrant trains and military expeditions. Bridger had been on friendly terms with the Mormons from their first occupation of the Salt Valley until about 1854, when jealousy arose among the Mormons because Bridger was gettiHg the larger portion of the overland trade. They started trouble o y claiming Bridger had conspired with the Indians to steal their stock and commit other depredations; they even threatened Bridger's life. When an armed posse of Mormons, sent by Brigham Young from Salt Lake, at his fort in a threatening manner, Bridger realized he was in real danger. He left his fort with his family and went to his farm (purchased 0n a former trip) at West Port, Missouri, where his family remained and his children were in school. His squaw was a Uintah Ute. Bridger returned to Fort Kearney, where he was em ployad as scout for the government. At times he was guide for immigrant trains. During high water he operated a ferry on the North Platte River, twenty-eight miles west of Fort Laramie. He was scout for Colonel Sidney Johnston's army, sent by the government in 1 357 to invade the Salt Lake VP.lley where Brigham Young ruled and defied United States Laws. The army, at Fort Laramie because of a change in commanders, started late in the season with heavily-loaded wagons, and moved in sections, the first of which was accompanied b y Bridger. The second section, when nearing Green River,

PAGE 21

\ '' \, v /( 16. Jim Bridger and C hiel Wash akie in a Friendly Meeting at Washakie's Camp o n Ham' s Fork. '1 'It/ f" :I \I :\ 1\ ,,, 1\ :I 1\ \1. "' ., 1\

PAGE 22

14 was harraseed by Brigham Young s destructive forces, sent from Salt Lake and lead by Bill Hickman, who formerly kept a saloon and trading store at the trail crossing of Green River. The outlaws stole their mule teams and beef cattle, burned many of their supply wagons and delayed the outfit to the extent that the army got no farther than Bridger's Fort by November. The Mormons in 1854, after bluffing Bridger into leavi: .p, his fort, took possession. They handled the overland trade and many of the brethren s ettled in ing valleys. Green River County, Utah, was organized by the Mormons about that time. When they learned Uncle Sam's army was advancing on them, they burned the fort and went to join their people in the Salt Lake Valley. The army made camp at this point for the winter. Snow had fallen; the weather was severe; their stock thin and weary, and they had but a small supply of provisions for the men and feed for their stock durin g the coming winter. Jim Baker Was Scout. In order to enlarge their food supply, the officer in charge of food supplies for the army employed Jim Baker as guide for the expedition Baker was living at the trail crossing of Green River where he operated a ferry in season, and at times was scout for immigrants and military expeditions. On one of these he lead General Harney on a reconnoitering trip in the headwaters of Wind River. Captain Marcy, with Baker, Tim Goodale and two other mountaineers located on Green River, together with twenty soldiers as an escort, twelve packers, sixty pack mules and their saddle stock, left the camp late in November for Fort Mass achusetts, 320 miles south. They traveled by way of Brown's Hole and Cross Mountain, crossing Grand River at the junction of the Gunnison River. Baker followed the course of Gunnison River to Cochetopa Pass. Snow was deep at the pass, and their stock became almost exhausted from starvation and travel. After considerable delay, a party of three trappers with saddle and pack horses was sighted coming from the south, breaking a trail. They arrived at Fort Massa chusetts after a fifteen-day trip. More snow had fallen and they could not return until spring. (Fort Massabhusette was established in the west foothills of the Sangre-de-Cristo Ran ge in 1852. It was abandoned when Fort Garland was built eight miles to the southwest in 1858). During the winter Bake r called on his old friend Kit Carson, at Taos. Stock of the expedition had recuperated during the winter. One hundred and fifty horses and mules were bought in Missouri and Texas by the government and delivered to the Fort in the early spring, for the expedition to take with them to Bridger's old fort to re-enforce Johnston's army. On account of the deep snow on the mountain ranges, the expedition returned by way of the plains east of the mountains; the Plain s and Bitter Creek route. They arrived at the old fort early in June 1858. The army was also recruited with men and supplies from Fort Laramie, and was ready to start for Salt Lake. Baker, with his family, moved to Denver about 1862. The government leased Bridger's Fort property; rebuilt and garrisoned the poet with soldier! in 1858. The post was named Fort Bridger. W.A.(Judge) Carter was appointed poet trader. According to compliments expressed by military officere for services received, and by Jim and other mountaineers of note associated with Bridger, he was an authority and leader among mountain men, doin g more than any other of the trail blazers to serve the people. Hie headquarters seemed like an oasis on a desert for most mountain traffic and news. He knew the location and nature of the different tribes of Indians, besides being scout for military expeditions in pursuit of hoetile Indians and goverrment expeditions of exploration, survey and biological work. He was scout for the first wagon train from Fort Laramie by way of the Yellowsto ne River to Montana; establishing the Bozeman Trail. He piloted immigrant trains through hostile Indian country, directing t hem to where they could make homes for their families. Bridger had the satisfaction of oiloting Uncle Sam's army on a mission that restored his property from the Mormon menace. He led the army to Salt Lake. Officers of the army were expecting strong r esistance from Brigham Young's forces. The army entered the settlement without a shot being fired. Brigham Young and his lieutenants accepted the Washington credentials with contempt, but a government representative was installed in connection with the troops to see that u.s. laws were respected.

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15 charge of a party of topographic engineers of the U.S.army who were on an expe dition to explore territory acquired by the government from Mexico, Bridger was scout for Stansberry while exploring the Salt Lake and Ogden valleys in 1849, (The expedition returned to the states in 1850), With a v iew to locating a more direct route between Salt Lake and St.Louis than was the South P ass route Bridger led the expedition by way of Bitter Creek, Muddy Creek, and through the gap on the continental divide, crossing the North Platte river, thence by the north base of Elk Mountain to the Laramie Plains, and to the plains east of the mountains. The gap passed over on the route was later named Bridger Pass in honor of Jim Bridger, the scout. Other landmarks were named in his ho nor, such as mountain peaks, lakes, trails and creeks. According to Jim Baker, Bridger came to the mountains by way of the Missouri River route with fur traders from St.Louis, when a boy of seventeen years. After forty-nine years of adventurous life, he retire d in 1871. He passed away at his farm home at West Port, Mo., in 1881, a nd which later came within the Kansas City limits, and his remains were remove d t o Washington Cemetery of Kansas City. Those sturdy Mountaineers in the west Who blazed trails beyond the Rockies' 'crest That remained a tribute to the rest; lw doubt Jim Bridger was the best. Judge Carter, besides being a post trader at Fort Bridger, was associated with W.E.Coe in the tie business, contracting with the Unio n Pacific Railroad Company, The tie company operated on Bear, Green, North Platte and Laramie Rivers, and Rock and Medicine Bow Creeks. Ties were floated and driven down these streams during high water from melting SYJows. About 1873 their tie boom on the river,at Green River City, broke. Many newlymade ties were lost. Many of them lodged on islands and on points and bars where debris accumulated. In Brown's Hole many were gathered from drift lodgements and were used by settlers in constructing ranch buildings, It was said that many reached the Gulf of California. Carter Station on the Union Pacific Railroad, and Carter County, Wyoming, were named in honor of Carter, who passed away in 1881. John Baker arrived at Fort Bridger about 1858, where he met his brother Jim on Green River. John was shorter of stature than Jim. Because of an injury to his right leg when a boy, making it somewhat shorter than the left, he walked with a limp. John was a person sporting turn. Besides gambling with the soldiers and mountaineers about Fort Bridger, he raised horses on the Henry's Fork range. Lige Driscol Was First Cattleman of Henry's Fork. Lige Driscol came to Fort Bridger with California Volunteers in 1863, as a private soldier. At the expiration of his three-year inlistment, he settled on Henry's Fork, and engaged in the cattle business, getting his start by trading with the Mormons for a small bunch. By 1884 he was shipping beef cattle to eastern markets by the trainload. Driscol, Jack Robinson and John Baker were close friends. Each had a Shoshone wife, Phil Mass was a neighboring stockman at that time. Robinson left St. Louis as teamster with freight wagons going to Taos. There he joined Kit carson, who was going on a fur trading expedition in the northwest. A t the American Fur Company's headquarters on Big Snake River in the Blackfeet Indian country Robinson was given employment in 1834. After several years with Ameri can Fur Company, and three years as partner with Jim Bridger, he settled on Smith's Fork, a tributary of Black's Fork, where h e became a large stock o w ner. Because of his being unable to solve mathematical problems, his business was done through Judge Carter, He died in 1884, His remains lie in an unmarked grave at the site of Bridger's Fort. ,,, 'I q ,,

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SECTION IV. Hole Spot, One of the first white men to inhabit Brown's Hole as a trapper was Baptistie Brown, according to reminiscences t old by Jack Robinson, a reliable man, who in his declining years was known as "Uncle Jack," Brown, a French Canadian, had been employed by the Hudson Bay Company, which at that time had headquarters on t h e headwaters of the Missouri River. After a disagreement with officials of the c o m p any, "Baptistie" with a squaw companion, drifted to the Green River in 1827, Moving down the river, he located in a small valley which, because of his early occupation, was named Brown's Hole. William H.Ashley, a fur trader from St. Louis, held rendezvous on Henry's Fork for trading with Indians. Ashley had been in the mountains several years. With a companion he ttempted to explore the Green Rive r canyons in 1822. In a boat of crude constructio n they drifted down Green Rive r thro ugh t h e "Hole," entering Ladore Canyon. At a distance of 18 miles and near the lower end of the canyon, the boat was wrecked by striking a gainst larg e b oulders in the rapids. They made their way through the canyon on foot and followe d u p a tributary which entered Green River from the west, which was later named Ashley's Fork. They met friendly Uintah Ute Indians, from whom they procured food and assistance back to Ashley's quarters. A Mormon settlement, established on the fork some years later, was named Ashley, and later changed to Vernal. (In Dale's report of Ashley's biography, he mention s Brown's Hole, but does not mention how the valley came to be named Brown's Hole). Ashley abandoned his trading camp on Henry's Fork in 1836, Because of the mild winter climate in the Hole, Indian s (including the Uintah Utes) and white trappers, spent the severest winter months in the valley. Baptistie had a fondnes for drink, When a ccumulated furs had been disposed of for cash, he imbibed freely in "trapper's delight." During one of his jamborees at Jim Bridger's rendezvous on 'l e nry' s Fork in 1842, he met a young man of twenty years who had recently come to Bridger's Fort and w h o longed t o be a trapper. This young man had left the Missouri River driving a t eam and wagon loaded with supplies for Fort Laramie. From there he j o i ned an immi grant party that was on the way to Oregon. At the c r ossing of Green River he met and joined Jack Rob inson and a party of trappers who were on their way to Bridger's post with During the several days of Raptistie's celebrating, h e became interested in the young man, Bridger interceded with friendly advice; he also furnished the young ma n with a pony so he could g o with Baptistie to his lepee in the !!ole, where he ma d e his home for three years. Throuet Baptistie's dire c t i ons he b e c ame a successful trapper. Baptistie, with his "Cannuck" accent, could not speak the y oung man's name intelligently-nor did it matter, The many trappers with wh o m h e ming l e d at Bridge r's trading post soon applie d a name, Because of l'lis pious or quie t disposition, his stooping shoulders and his living at Baptistie's camp, he was named Bibleback Brown." The Fur Business On the '1ane, B y 1843 fur business had declined on a ccount of scarcity of fur-bearing animals, Baptistie and his squaw, a Piegan from one of the British border tribes of I ndians, went f orth to join their people. B i bleback Brown co"ltinued to make Brown's Hol e l1i s headquarters for several years, d oing most o f his trapping in t h e Snake a n d B e a r River country. The C herokee I ndians, on t heir way to California, with t heir caravan of larg e proportions, entere d Brown's Hole by an extremely hazardous route over Cold Spring Mountain, T h e Rider, when e n gae: e d in rang e work ma n y y ears later, passed over t h e Cherokee 's old trail at this point, and was force d to lead his saddle horse over many rocky led g e s for safety. The Cherokees made camp in the llole for several months t o r est and recuperat e t heir stock. In 1864 t h e Hole h a d become a haven for outlaws, includin g civil war slackers, horse and c a t tle thieves, who drifte d in b y way of the overland trails and later

PAGE 25

17 by the Union Pacific Railroad to where they might evade the clutches of the law. Mexican Joe, a leader in outlaw depredations with his partner Judge Conway, had rendezvous at the confluence of Vermilion Creek with Green River at the lower end of the valley where the above named class congregated. During the late 1860s and early 18'70s,the Denver and Salt Lake and overland route was infest e d with organized banas of horse and cattle thieves. Tip Gault and Terresa, a Mexican, in conjunction with Mexican Joe, were leaders operating on the route mainly between Fort Halleck and Fort Bridger, a distance of 180 miles. They had rendezvous at Charcoal Bottom and other points on Green River and Powder Sprin,;s. Their plan of operation was to scout in pairs, spotting immigrants (who usually traveled in parties as a protection from Indians) with herds of cattle and horses, keeping out of view themselves. The object was to size up each party as to their n u mber and quality of stock. When a seemingly favorable prospect was lected and had made camp for the night, they waited for the favorable dark hours and moved quietly among the grazing stock, selecting their choice, but leaving the immigrant s eno ugh stock to move their wagons on their way. At other times they would dash through and cut off a bunch from a large herd. In either case, the stock was moved many miles during the night to water and fresh grazing. The stock. being tired, would locate in the vi-cinity. Snake River, 30 miles distant, was one of the locations where stolen stock was dropped. The thieves, usually equipped with pack horses and provisions, held in the background, would hie to some secluded spot for camp or to their headquarters for fresh mounts, in the meantime keeping tab on their loot. Immigrants, not accustomed to the great distances of the mountain country, usually became tired out and gave up the hunt, that Indians had run off their stock. When the stock had recuperated in flesh after weeks or months on fresh pasture, the thieves found a ready market for work stock and beef in construction camps of the Union Pacific Railroad and by trading with immigrants for rundown stock. # # # Jessie Ewing was an old time stock-tender on the Salt Lake and Overland route When the stage line was abandoned in 1869, he located a mining prospect near the north end of Brown's Hole and near the corner of the territories of Utah, Wyoming and Colorado in a small canyon which later took the name of Jessie Ewing Canyon. He ended his days there, being murdered by his partner in mining, Frank Duncan. Jessie tended stock at several different stations on this route. Pine Grove station, t hree miles east of Bridger Pass was one, and a station the scene of many attacks by hostile Indians. He was a frontiersman hardened by many years of rough life at prospecting and stage stock-tending. H e was cook and whole force about stage stations where he often had to fight hostile Indians, and there were o ther tough characters to deal with. The majority of stag e stations on the Bitter Creek route were built of rock, which was the most convenient building material at that time. Others were built of cottonwood logs. All were bullet proof. In Major Powell's report of his explorations of the Green and Colorado Rivers in 1871, he describes the Hole as having been named for an old trapper named ;:,rovm. Making record, he named the valley Brown's Park. From Powell' s report tbe n ame Brown's Park appears o n the maps of Colorado. Powell shipped his boats from the e ast by the Union Pacific Railroad. T h e y were launched on the river at Green River City. Stoclanen Moving In. The first to locate in Brown's Hole in the cattle business were Crawford and Thompson of Evanston, Wyoming. In 1872, J.S.Hoy v;as in charge. Three years later, itoy, with financial assistance from his uncle, who was living in Fremont, Nebraska, bought cattle from the Mormons in Southern Utah ; yearling s at five dollars per head; grown cattle at eigh t and ten dolla.rs per head. Ile located and came in pos sension of a large tract of land. Later he had trouble with tbe cattle rustling element. I n a s hort period of years his losses in cattle were heavy from theft and from court procedure in numerous attempts to get justice or revenge by conviction of the thieves. George Spicer, with his brother Sam, from Virp;inia, engaged in the cattle bus dness on t h e South Platte River near Greeley i n 1871. They, with a neighbor,

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18 J.V.S.Hoy (brother of J.S.Hoy, who was also engage d in the cattle business on t h e South Platte), joined in movi ng their herds to Brown's Holein 1S73, because of the South Platte range being over-stocked with large herds of which that of !lif (rated as cattle king of Colorado) with an estimate of fifty thousand head ranging over the entire Colorado plains east of De wer, v1as the largest. J.V.S.Hoy was fatally shot several years later by the notoriou s outlaw and murderer, Harry Tracy, when assisting Sheriff Neiman and posse to make Tracy's arrest where he was hiding among the rock ledges at the lower end of Brown's Hole. Others who located in the Hole in the 18'/0s used the valley as a winter range and the mountains around about for a summer range. They were Doc.Paroons, Joe Davenport, W.G.Tittsworth, Angus McDougal, Jack Gun, and Charlie Crouse, who built a bridge over Green River at the north end of the valley during the winter for his ranch conveniences. When the ice went out of the river in the spring the bridge was swept away. Antone Prestopitz, an Italian miner from Rock Springs, engaged in ranching on North Verm1lion Creek. Timothy (Tim) Kinney, who 'lias the first Union Pacific Railroad agent at Rawlins for four years, was transfered to Rock Springs as agent. Later in merchRndising, and also in the cattle business, with brand Circle K ranging on the headwaters of Bitter Creek. A.M.Jarvis operated a store hea r where the Crouse bridge was built. A mail route was established between Green River City and Ashley, Utah by way of the Jarvis store where a postoffice was located and named Bridgeport. Jarvis also operated a ferry on Green River. The first wool taken to market from Uintah County, Utah, passed over t his route to Rock Springs, Wyoming, for shipment in 1884. A two-roomed log shack was located a short distance below Red or Flaming Gorge on Green River, miles west of the Jarvis store, and used as a rendez Tous by outlaws. It was reported to have been bui.lt by Phil Thompson, one of Ashley's men, as a fur -trading post and was named Fort Davy Crockett. It was abandoned as a trading post when the fur business was declining about 1838. Later Ur. Jarvis was murdered and his store robbed by desperadoes making headquarters at this robber's roost. By 1874, the Mexican Joe rendezvous was abandoned. C i vilization in t h e fonn of law-abiding settlers was invading the outlaw territory. Mexica n Joe left the Hole, supposedly for his native land, M e xico. Judg e Conw-ay a Civil War slacker, found retreat in resorts in Cheyenne. Yet, outlawry was not to b e o utdone. Cattle rustling took on a more widespread form. The Bassett family had moved into the neighborhood from Missouri. Ol d hands and new recruits drifted in from other parts and made headquarters here. While following their nefarious business, hanging and lead played their parts in the exterminatio n of a number of thieves. Others were given notice by cattlemen to get out. A num ber of took place among the thieves themselves because of jealousy and division of loot. Altogether, the extermination of a num ber helped some toward establishing civilized order and to bring some peace to that particular neck of the woods.

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SECTION V During the c onstruction of the Union Paciflc R ailroad, and for some years later, a co nsiderable n umber of seas oned m ountaineers had drifted to Rawlins. These were hunters who had furnisbe d game meats for c onstruction wor kers, trappers and prospectors from the mountains, and others who had been scouts and guides for military expeditions. A number of t hem b ecame r esidents of Carbon County. James Franc e had foll owed up c onstruction of the Uni o n Pacific Railroad by operating a store. When Rawlins was csta1Jlished, he enp;aged in general merchandising and was postmaster at Rawlin s for many years. France was a man small in stature, but large in business ideas. His w hiskers reached below his knees. During his active business hou r s he kept his w hiskers tucked beneath his shirt. For several years from date of building the Uni on Pacific Rallroad,ranch settlement, with but few exceptions near military posts, was c onfined to the south side of the railroad. The north side was considered hostile Indian country. John Dunton, w h o had been contract work and moving supplies with bull teams for the eovernment in the sixties, engaged in the store and cattle business at Bordeaux in the e arly seventies, and later at Fort Laramie. J.K.Moore, post trader at Fort Washakie; Amoratti, Jule Lameraux, and C. H Nickerson (who was first Indi.an agent of the Shoshon e reservation), all 'had cattle interests about Fort Washakie. Judr ; e Carter, post trade r at Fort Bridger, was extensively engaeed ir. t h e cattle business, with range brand c. Joseph M.Carey, governor and later u.s.senato r I'or Wyoming, was engaged in the cattle business near Fort Fetterman in the early 70s, with range brand S 0 and C Y. T.R.Ryan, George Fe rris, and A.J.Savage were first to eng a g e in the cattle busir.ess on the Nortlt Platte River near Fort Steele. Charlie Ilutton was one of the first to engage in the cattle business on the Laramie River, near Fort Saunders. Sioux I ndians Attacked Miners at Seminole. During July, 1874, a large band of Sioux Indians, estimated at two hundred, attacke d miners at Seminole cam p thirty miles north of Rawlins. Twenty men were in camp. One prospector, "Russian George," was killed; others sought safety in an improvised fort which had previously been erected near by the camp as a precautionary measure. The attack was reported in Rawlins during the night by Frank Harrington, who had formerly been scout for Major Bradley when on an expedition against the Sioux in 18?2. Major Bradley, in of Fort Steele, was notified, and went with two companies of cavalry to the relief of the miners. He was joined by Gener al Anson Mills, who, with two companies of cavalry had shipped to Rawlins from Fort Russell. Millb expedition was piloted by Boney Ernest, an experienced scout. "Boney" had previously been employed in the quarter-master's de partment at Fort Halleck. Before the soldiers arrived at the Seminole c amp, t h e Sioux had gone north. The troops followed t heir trail to the Sweetwater co untry but failed to overtake them to engage in battle. Gold Discovered In the Seminole Mountains. The Seminole mines were discovered in 18?1. A number of pioneers of Rawlins and Camp Benton staked mining claims at Seminole. The names of these were Fran k Ilurrint:ton, Perry L.Smi th, John Cannon, Boney Ernest, Isaac Fieldhouse, Tom Sun, Joe Jlu:::-t, Georg e Ferris, W.N.Hunt, Fran k Ernest, John Landon, Al.Hueston, Billy Byers, Pat.Anderson and a f e w others. Pioneering Ex periences of the Ranki n Bro t hers. J.G.an d J.P. Ra nkin (brothers) and c ousin s of The Rider, were born on the far1n in Pe nnsylvania. They e nliste d in t h e Civil War in 1862 at the age of 18 and 20; serving two and one-half years. After the close of the war they were .,, ol

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20 employed in the lumber woods in Clarion County, Pa., and later were employed in the oil fields of Butler County, Pa. In 1868 they went to Yankton, Dakota where they were employed in supplies to the different Indian agencies. Becoming infected with the gold f ever they attempted, with a party from Yankton, to prospect in the Black Hills country in 1870. They were driven out by hostile Sioux. They prospected in Boulder and Clear Creek c ounties, Colorado, and at Hahn's Peak in 1870 and 1871, without success. They located in Rawlins in 1872, and later engaged in the feed and livery business and freighting. Wyoming Trails. Besides four historic trails across Wyoming, the practically unsettled territory north of the Union Pacific Railroad was, by 1876, marked by a veritable network of wagon trails, a number of them extending into ad, j oininr: territories. Part of t!Jese trails were mad e by military expeditions in pursuit of hostile Indians. Others were made by governmen t exploration and biological expeditions, immigrants, private hunting and prospecting parties. Along these trails many empty flasks and bottles han been cast aside. A remark often heard fro111 cowboys when riding the years later, whe n seeing one of these bottles, would be, "There's ano t her dead soldier." This applied to the matty dissipated priva.tes and officers in Uncle S am's army who occupied frontier posts. Those addicte d to the liquor h abit who had ca.s11 to -pay, or an overcoat, shirt or blanket to trade, c arried t heir supply in canteens and bottles when performing escort duty on various expeditions. It was July first, 1875 when J. S. Lit. tlefie ld was succeeded as agent at White River Ute Indian Agency by H.E.Danforth. Arapah oe Indians Run Off Horses from Rawlins, Wyo. The "town herd," composed largely of saddle and pack horses of mi ners, hunters, and trappers, was held under herd during the day and corraled for the night, because the territory was infestedby white and Indian horse thieves. Al.Farley was in charge of forty head, one mile fro m town. He left them a short time while he went to town for lunch. When he returned to whe r e he had left the herd no horses were to be found. Taking up their trail, Farley soon discovere d evidence of their having been driven' away. He gave the alarm in Rawlins. A posse was soon organized, composed of Sheriff Dave Ranney, Billy Byers, Georr.e Ferris, Tip Vincent, Bill Smith, Mike Murphy, Joe Hurt, Deputy Sheriff Jim Rankin, and F::trley. Following the trail, they were joined on the way byBlack Gus, a hermit hunter and trapper, located in the Bridger Pass section. They discovered t!Je Indians at d u s k camped for the night among the willows and aspens at Pine Grove m eadows, sixteen miles south. Keeping out of view of the Indians, they waited until daybreak next morning; then the posse charged their camp, killing nine Indians with no injury to themselves; recovering their own stock and eleven Indian ponies. Six or eie!Jt Indians escaped in the undergrowth of willows and aspens, with several of their ponies. They, being headed south, were thought to be Ute Indians. Some memhers of the posse became alarmed for the safety of miners scattered about the Hahn's Peak country, believing the Utes, for reprisal, might gather in force and slaughter isolated miners. Joe Hurt and George Ferris, who had been game hunters for construction camps of the Union Pacific Railroad and were familiar with the entire surrounding country, volunteered to notify miners. Continuing from the scene of slaughter after the recovery of their horses, they late in the night at the three forks of Snake River. Ferris and both horses were so tired they could go no farther. Joe Hurt, a man of extraordinary energy and endurance, c ontinued ten miles to the peak on foot during the night and warned the mi ners. M e n from the isolated camps gathered in a body and fortified themselves in case of an attack. The sheriff's posse had returned to Rawlins. J.S.Littlefielct, the retiring White River Indian agent, arrived.in Rawlins the next day. H e was informed of the Indian affair and was surprised, declaring they were not White River Ute Indians; that he could account for all Indian s tha t were in his charee when he left the agency. Thus, he convince d Sheriff Ranney, leader of the posse, that t h e y were mistaken, and by blankets and trinkets gathered on the scene of the slaughter, they were identified as Arapahoe India.ns.

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This picture represents a commission of Civil War generals on a tour of inspection of Wyoming and other western army posts. Names of officials from left to right are: (I) General Phil Sheridan. ( 2) General Gibbons. ( 3) General Grant. ( 4) General Sherman. (5) General J H Hunt. (6) General Harney. (7) Dr. Durant of the Union Pacific Railroad Staff ( 8) General Potter, commander of Fort Saunders. ( 9) General Bissell. This photograph reproduced by permission of Mrs. C. F Schaale, a descenda nt of Hunt.

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22 A treaty was made with Chief Black Cole of .the Arapahoes, by the p,overnment about 1867, and the tribe was located within the boundaries of the large reser ;yoa.tion on Wind River which was formerly allotted the Shoshone tribe -an act by the government to which Chief Washakie sorely objected, until a stipulated price in cash was promised him. (From recent 1934 press report, a Shoshone representative has demanded of congress a settlement of their claims). Renegade bands of Arapahoes (on unfriendly terms with the Shosl1ones), led by Little Bear, Friday and other leaders, continued to rove and harrass t!Je whites for several years. Forty head of horses were stolen from B.F.Kelly, on the Laramie Plains in 1874, by the Arapahoe Indians. A claim for their loss was presented to the government. After sixteen years' delay, a provision was made by congress for payment at thirty per cent. of their value. Herds of range horses from California were driven east over the overland trails as early as 1874, finding a market in the middle states. The first large herds of beef cattle to be driven east over the Wyoming trails were owned by Conrad Kohr and his son-in-law, Dave Bielenberg, of Deer Lodge, Montana, and John Barney Hunter of Buffalo, Illinois. From Bitter Root and Deer Lodge valleys in 1875 they continued to drive steer cattle from Montana each season until 1879, shipping their herds from Laramie or Cheyenne to the Chicago market and to feed lots in Illinois. Pondexter and Orr, of Deer Lodge, also drove large herds from Montana to stock Wyoming ranges. Building of the Union Pacific Railroad, and military protection, made possible the first outlet for Northwestern stockmen to market their surplus stock, from herds established following the Lewis and Clark Expedition and settlement of the Northwest. A supply of rifles and ammunition being part of trail crew equipment, riders were selected fron their respective herds to scout miles in advance as a precaution against surprise by hostile Indian bands when moving over Wyominp, trails in the early 70s. The early day trapper, prospector and mountaineers in general carried rifles, when horseback, slung to the pommels of their saddles. Later, when stockmen with trail herds appeared, they, for convenience, carried tbe cavalry or carbine rifle in a scabbard slung from the saddle under their right leg. Gault and His Band of Thieves Passing Out. It was in August, 1875, when Tip Gault and his band of outlaws, Joe Pease, Fred Huddleson, a swarthy negro, and Jack Leath, left their retreat 011 Green River and followed a horse herd they had spotted moving east on the overland trail from California to the middle states where Anderson, in charge of the herd, expected to find a market. Awaiting a favorable opportunity tb make a large haul in horses, after four days of traveling and spotting, they made camp at a spring, hidden among clusters of willows and aspens on the west aide of Elk Mountain. The chuck wagon, with camp equipment for the trail crew, had made camp for the night at the trail crossing of Pass Creek, which was in view two miles from the spring. Bill Hawley,a veteran of southern stock ranges, had driven his herd of cattle from the pan-handle of Texas and located on a small tributary of Pass Creek a few weeks before. His stock brand was "Hat." The creek had not been named, and because of the "Hat" ranch and the "Hat" brand the name "Hat" was given to the creek. Hawley had previously been of the Green River thieves by Sheriff Rainey and settlers of Carbon County. The members of the band had gone _near the horse camp and were off their mounts back of a ridge, before dusk, where they waited for a later hour of night to stampede the horse herd. The trail wranglers, while lassoing their mounts for the night guard, accidently lassoed a green bronco which broke out from the saddle band dragp;ing the lariat and was soon lost sight of in the darkness. The bronco, in his desperate dash to free himself of the rope, ran in the direction of the thieves, where he stopped with the riderless horses. The thief band seized the opportunity to capture a prize, hooked onto the dragging lariat and held the bronc,believing he would be a safe bomb to cause the stampede. When all was in slumber at the horse camp, the rustlers led the bronc near, yet not within hearing distance of the carnp. Then, in order to give him a more exciting send-off than he would have had in dragging the lone rope, Joe Pease started to tie a sage brush to the brouc's tail. The bronc landed a double solar plexus knock-out blow and Pease w:.1s fatally injured. He was moved some distance toward their camp. Then, instead of the brush being

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23 tied to the bronc's.tail, it was tied to t h e dragging end of the rope, which served to make the scatter1ng of t !1e herd a success. Pease, t o o seriously injured to be moved t o camp, was taken part way and left with Leath in charg e while Gault and Huddleson went t o camp for refreshments, Huddleson was delegated to take care of Pease for t!1e night, and with a blanket, food and water, he went t o relieve Leath. Then, at daybreak, Gault and Leath, astride fresh mounts, and equipped with field glasses, viewed t h e range from high pointe, looking for distant bands of the scattered herd. At the same time they kept an eye on the horsemen, who, at break of day, were gathering in all bands in sight, not venturing beyond the bounds of safety, for the country w a s infested with renegade bands of Arapahoe and Sioux Indians. After a hurried count of the 800 horse herd had been made, they moved out on the trail all riders on the job. Then Gault and Leath made a short r econnoiter of the range and gathered i n a ban d of sixteen head which t h e y had spotted grazing among the willow growth along the creek and drove them t o a temporary corral they had previously built when t hey had camped at t h e spring. Seven head of the Ha t brand saddle stock that had strayed a short distance from their home rang e were included in t h e "pick-up." When they, with running iron, had disfigured t h e most noticeable brands on the anima l s and taken their customar y feed of coffee, flapjacks and jerked meat, Leath went with fresh water and provisions t o supply Huddleson, who was attending Pease in their distant shakedown. Gault and Leath, on fresh mou nts, scouted from distant peaks the lowlands of t h e range for possible chance of raking in from t h e outskirts others of the scattere d horse herd. In the meantime, while the Hat brand cowboys were on a hunt for t heir horses, they discovered fresh trail w hich led them to t h e outlaw camp. There t hey saw the Hat horses, with others, in the corral. They realized at once just what it was all about. They inspected the camp for arms, and as to how it was situated. Leaving all horse s in the corral, t h e y moved away cautiously. Gault and Leath returned late in the evening with t heir loot. Huddleaon returned to camp late in the night and reported Pease had succumbed to his injury. Huddleson was detailed to bury the body, and, with a small camp shovel to make the interment, he went on foot in the dark hours of the morning while Gault and Leath were partaking of an early morning snack in preparation for a quick At daybreak a v olley of shots from am bush rang out, and two more of the Green River t hieves went to answer the judgment call with t heir boots on. Huddleson escaped with his life, the party in ambush not knowing his The dead bodies and the camp equipment were not molested, the sharp-shooters taking all horses. Huddleson scented trouble when h e heard t h e distan t shots. He returned to camp with caution, through clusters of willows and aspens on t h e mountain side. H e saw the dead bodies of his comrades from beneath a t hick g rowth Knowing Gault and Leath had well-filled money belts on t heir persons, he waited until the dark hours of night, Then, with t h e stealth of a burglar, he took their money and valuables. With a small sack of provisions, blanket and six-shooter, h e made his way back on foot to the Green River rendezvous by way of the overland trail, eling by n ight and camping in grove s and gulley s during the day, Keeping shy of his acquaintances, he left Green River by train. After spending a few years in the south, he returned to his old haunts, under t h e name of Isom Dart, and a few years later, while engaged in his former occupation, h e met a similar fate for cattle rustling near Brown's Hole. The bodies of Gault and Leath were buried by Coroner J.Foste r and Deputy Sheriff Rankin of Ca rbon C ounty.

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SECTION VI. and of the Snake River Over Period 1872. Snake River, in 1872, was not considered hostile Indian country, yet Jim Baker built his ranch home the form of a fort with lower floor for living quarters and the second and third stories of smaller dimensions with port holes in all four sides and lookout conve n ie!'lces on t:1e roof. When Jim was asked by his friend Bill Slater why he built a fort, he made no direct answer, but said, "The Utes don't like me." A small mountain peak south of Snake River, a few miles from his home, was named Baker's Peak. New settlers were locating in the valley and a nur1ber of prospectors jo-ined in tile hunt for gold about Hahn's Peak, of which the majority will be named. William Nelson and J.W.Darr locate d claims and mined on Poverty Flat. After three years of successful mining they located in the Snake River Valley and engaged in the cattle business with Noah Reader. Their range brand on cattle was Dog Iron. In 1898, Nelson joined the gold rush to the Klondike. He was engaged in mining there when he lost his life by accident. Vincent Roubideaux engaged in mining at Hahn's Peak and later a stock ranchman in the Snake River Valley. Charles F,Perkins Establishes a Trading Store. In the summer of 1873 Charley Perkins built a one-room cottonwood log cabin on the north bank of-Snake River opposite the mouth of Willow Creek and established a trading store. His customers were settlers, miners and Utes. Perkins kept an attractive stock of goods and offered other inducements to get the buckskin trade of the Utes from his competitor Joe Morgan. Raw hides and tanned buckskin were staples trade. Perkins did a thriving business with the Utes who visitP.d the valley to trade during their hunts and ramblings off the reservation. There was no law in the territories prohibiting the killing of game for hides, Elk, deer and antelope were plentiful. Deer hides being valuable, the Indians and a few white hunters slaughtered them ruthlessly. The souaws tanned the buck skin from all hides slaughtered by the Indians. R.M. (Bob) Dixon, the First Postmaster on Snake River. Bob Dixon came from Missouri in 1873. He locate d his ranch at the Snake River crossing of the agency road. July first, a mail was established between Rawlins and the White River Agency. Mail had previously been delivered semi-moothly. The first postoffice to be established on Snake River was at Dixon's ranch. The office was named Dixon. At the same time a weekly mail was established between Dixon and Hahn's Peak, the route being by way of Perkin's store and Noah Reader's ranch at the crossing of Savery Creek. Faithful Milton Busby carried the mail by horseback in swnmer. His mount was named "Push-an' -Digger" because of the animal's slow, shufflinb gait. The Rider during a conversation with inquiry as to why the odd name. He replied that, in to make the mall trip on time, he was obliged to push on the reins, and, wh1le applywg the quirt freely, he kept digging wi t h his spurs. He carried the mail on snow-shoes during the winter. John Eastman carried the Hahn's Peak mail in the late 1870s. John Iro:r1s located in the Snake River Valley in 1873, during the operations of the Rawlins Mineral Paint mines, owned and operated by eastern capital, with Thos. H.Ogshaw as manager. John was employed at the mines during 18'74 and '75. The mines and mill were closed by the end of 1875. John was employed to guard the property. In 1878 t he mach i nery was removed and the buildines abandoned. Being

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25 out of employme nt, he went to Leadville during the boom days of 1879. In 1881 h e returned to B aggs and later m0ved to Dixon, where he engaged in the saloon business. A Goverrunent Report. From a report filed of a biological reconnoiter along t he Union Pacific Railroad in Wyoming by the government in 1873, the compa ny advertized extensively their land and country tributary to t heir railroad, setting the opportunities for settlement, agriculture, stock raising and mining. Through this means and other sources of conununication, the Snake River Valley became more widely known .. The season of 1874 showe d a decided increase in settle:nen t and mining development. I M.Card and family; J .R.Davidson and family from Ora Grande-, California; Newton Ferris and family; and family; Joe Crothers and family, all made ranch locations in the valley. The Collom Boy s Arrive On Snake River. In 1867, Joe Collom, at the age of sixteen; two younger brothers, John and ::<::dward (all orpharis), arrived i n Colorado, where they joined their uncle John Collom, w h o had come to Colorad o some years before and was employed in the mines near Idaho Springs. John and Edward made t heir home with their uncle and found employme:1t wit:!:l miners' families. Joe was employed at driving ox teams, moving oordwood to the difTerent mills, and soon earned enough to buy a four-ox team and wagon with which he freighted supplies and Quartz to and from the railroad and mines. He continued in that business for seven years. In May 1874 Joe and the two younger brothers left Clear Creek County wit:!:l two four-ox teams and two wagons to find location in the new settlements on the western slope, going by way of Fort Collins, Laramie and Rawlins. Several miles south from Rawlins they overtook Newton Ferris, who had a load of freight to deliver at the White River Ute I ndian Agency. His wagon had broken down. Joe, with only a small part of a load for his ox teams, arranged wit!J Ferris to deliver the freight to the a gency. The two brothers stopped at Snake River to locate and build a home. Upon Joe's return from the agency, he had a consignment of buckskin and beaver hides from Agent Littlefield, to be delivered at.Fort Steele. Joe returned to Snake River to join his brothers who were making a home two miles east of Bob Dixon's. They found empl o yment with Sam Reid, George Baggs, and at the Hahn's Peak mines. George Baggs Moves His Herd of Cattle to the Snake River Country. Geor ge Baggs, with a companion, traveling by saddle horses and a pack, looked the Snake River country over in 1872 with a view to locating a new range for his herd of cattle, at that time rangirJg in New Mexico. During the following season of 1873, Baggs moved his large herd of cattle from central New Mexico to the lower Snake River range, where he established his ranch thirty-five miles below the crossing of the agency road. His cattle were thoroughly range marked. The brand was known as double eleven; 11 on the point of each shoulder, double dulap, and half-crop of each ear. This was the first larg e herd of cattle to be located on the Snake River range Baggs drove his herd by way of the San Luis Valley a nd over the continental divide by the Mormon road. By permission of C.N.Adams, Ute Indian agent at Los Pinos, and the c onsent of Chief Ouray, he was permitted to drive his herd across t h e Unco mpahGre reservation. The Rider, in conversation B a gg s three years later, was told how he moved his cattle from a drought-stricken range near Vaughn, and t h e difficultie s of movi ng a large l1erd of weak cattle through the mountains. The Mormon road was first by Mexicans from Taos and Santa Fe, traffic inc; with t he M ormo n s in the Salt Lake Valley; Escalan te; and Lieutenant Gunnison, when o n expeditions of exploration; and Kit Carson, when on tour s forfur trading in t he northwest; and later b y M ormons moving to t he San Luis Valley.

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26 In 1875, George Baggs, after living at his lower ranch near his c attle range for two years, and with a view to living nearer to civilization, built his home ranch near the Dixon and the Snake River crossing of the agency road, Hereafter the crossing was known as the Baggs Crossing. Mrs. George Baggs was a noted character, and was known t o the pioneers of northwestern Colorado and Wyoming as "Maggie" When moving the Baggs herd of cattle from New Mexico in 1873, "Maggie" played the role of cowboy, Dressed in men's attire, with her overalls in her bootlegs; with spurs en her boots, and chaperajoe, ehe rode the lower Snake River cattle range for several years, assisting in gathering the Baggs cattle and branding calves. At the same time she bossed the job, If of the hired men gave her "back talk," he was in for accepting a string of profanity; in other words, a gentle cusotng. On one occasion when the crew was branding calves in the corral, an employe, Jack Farrell, did not do his work to suit her, After some words had passP.n between them she proceeded to give him a l ashing with her riding quirt. Only George Baggs presence averted a trBgedy. On this occasion, real enmity on the part of Maggie had begun a few days before when she learned that Farrell (while riding with John Curtis, who was representing the neighboring 33 brand) named a small roundtop butte, four miles north of the Baggs ranch and directly on the Colorado-Wyoming line, Maggie's Nipple. The butte has been a prominent landmark for stockmen in the Vermilion and Powder Springs country since that time. George Baggs was a s -talwart, pleasant, quiet-mannered fellow; a good neighbor and a factor in the community. Yet Maggie ruled the ranch, and being hospitable to a high degree, the Baggs ranch was a stopping place for ranchers and travelers. A familiar remark, often heard from ranchers and travelers going that way was, we will make it to the Baggs ranch tonight." Looking North. Baggs Ranch. Built in 1875 Indicated Here as.in 1879

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27 Notice in the illustration on the preceding page, the quarter of veniso n at t h e t o p end of a thirty-five foot pole, raised and lowered by rope and pulley. In this way fresh protected within a sack from flies, would keep fresh at least ten days dur1ng the warm season. The method was customary with many of tile ranchers. Sam Reid and Famil y Sam had been somewhat of a floater. He arrived in the Snake River Valley from California, Nevada and Montana. With his family, he located four miles from Bob Dixon's. H e engaged in raising vegetables, finding a market with settlers and H ahn's Peak miners. Joe Betts was generally known to the p ioneers of t h e Snake River Valley as Dutch Joe. He settled on a small creek near S avery. The creek, since 1874, has been known as Dutch Joe Creek. Savery Greek derived its name from A.J.Savery, who discovered gold near the head of the creek in 1870. R.W.(Billy) Aylesworth and Family Billy Aylesworth came from Iowa and settled on the Snake River five miles above t n e Dixon postoffice. He engaged in the cattle business. Five years later, while riding on the range in pursuit of his cattle, his horse stepped in a badger hole and fell on him. He was fatally injured. William E.Timberlake and Paul Fuhr from Lewiston, Idaho, bought a large herd of cattle which had been driven fro m Texas. The herd ranged between Snake River and Bear River. The range brand was 33. Timberlake and wife made their home four miles below Dixon. Fuhr, with his wife, son George, and two daughters, came into possession of the B ill Slater homestead in Slater Basin, where they made their home. Dutch Bill, he was called, and few there were, if any, in the Snake River Valley who knew his proper name. Bill, originally Germany, drifted in by saddle and pack horses from t h e mountains. Having prospected for eevera 1 years without success, he located a homestead on Wil.low Creek, one mile south of the Perkins store. He engaged in ranching and c arrying mail. John V.Farwell Buys Mining Claims at Hahn's Peak in 1874. John V.Farwell, of department store fame, a Chicago capitalist, learned of gold discovery at H ahn's Peak. H e ventured forth to investigate. After looking the situation over, he bought the claims of I.C.Miller, W.R.Cogswell, Dave Miller, George Howe, and other adjoining claims -all on Poverty Hill. H e em ployed men to enlarg e the Pioneer Ditch leading from the headwaters of Snake River. He installed hydraulic pressure for sluicing and made other improvements t hat would enlarge the capacity for mining. Lem Pollard was employed as manar,er. Among the new arrivals at the Peak were Ed. and Dave Lambert, W.E.(Bill) Humphrey, Ed.and John Eastman and Dan Clay. All were employed by the Farwell Mining Company. The Beeler brothers and Bill Leahe were among the n ew settlers. Bill, later, was an official of Routt County. Reader's Ranch, a Home for Travelers and Miners. By 1874, had increased between Hahn's Peak, Snake River Valley and Rawlins. Reader's ranch was known for hospitality. Noah Reader, wi'-lout solicitation, kept "open house" for all who came his way fro m the time he jrst settled in the valley. Mrs.Reader, a kindly lady, served splendid meals. Miners, freighters, and others made the Reader ranch their stopring place for meals and lodging. They were made to feel at home. Miners who came to the valley to spend the winter, after doing their own cooking during the season, stopped at the Reader ranch for days or weeks to fill up under the belt, while others made the Reader ranch their home for the winter. The Salted Diamond Mine. Some excitement was caused in the Snake River Valley in July, 1874, when a party of mounted men came to Noah Reader's ran c h from Rawlins with pack horses camp and prospecting equipment. They c onfided secretly to certain persons that

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28 they were on their way to a rich dia m o nd field t hat had been discovered in the conntry to t he w est. The name s of the men in the party were Al.Farley, Mike Murphy, Tip Vincent, J.G.and J.P Ranl
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29 Bill Ike came to Snake River from parts unkn own. H e mad e his headquarters at Perkin's saloon. He was well dressed for a mount aineer. He had a saddle and pac k horse. His occupation was unknown. He was suspected by some o f the settlers of being engaged in the stock rustling game. August Reschke moved to Snake River with his family He located on Dutch Joe Creek, and engaged in ranching and freighting John w. Mathews came to Snake River from California with his wife, son a n d two daughters. He engaged in cattle ranching. A few y e ars later he was elected as a member of the Wyoming legislature from Carbon county H e sponsored t h e Gopher Bill whicl1 placed a bounty on gophers. He was a n enthusiastic booster for having the bill become a law. Because of his great interest in the matter, he was named and known throughout Wyoming as Gopher Johnny. J.R.Austin moved to Snake River with a herd of cattle from the Arkansas Valley. He located his ranch opposite the mouth of Sand Creek. His range brand was circle Y. Charley Slinkard and Tom Duffy came to Snake River and were employed by George Baggs. John Curtis came to the river from Texas. He was employed as a cowboy by Timberlake and Fuhr. Mike Sweet was also employed on the Fuhr ranch. Grafton (Charley) Lowry made his home with Bibleback Brown. He was engaged in hunting and trapping. He was employed at the White River Agency in 1873. While there, he often spent the evenings in the Ute camp. He entertained the reds with the harmonica and song. He became a great favorite with them. Albert Fly, with his family, which included two grown daughters, moved to the upper Snake River. It was not long until two "Flys" flew over the matrimonial route -by the names of Cantlin, and Clay. Look Where You Are 1Gwine." J.H.(Fatty) Harris, with a large family, located on Savery Creek. Dave Lambert, a miner at the peak, spent his winters in the valley. It seemed to be a contest between Lambert and Kirk Calvert, the stockman, as to which w ould win "Fatty's" oldest daughter Sophie, for a wife. An argument between Fatty and his wife was overheard, in which Mrs. Harris said, "Mr.Lambert is a miner. He digs gold right out of the r ;round." "Yes," said Fatty, "but Mr.Calvert is an educated man. He can read signs and tell just where he is gwine." Lambert won the pr_ize, however. Calvert married a daughter of Mr.Davidson. Fatty was a floater. After securing a large amount of provisions and clothing "on time" at the France store in Rawlins, he left for parts unknown. Jim Baker Ute Shy. This is one on Jim, cominG from a reliable source, and tall:ies with Jim's formerly admitted fear of Ute treachery. W.G.Reader, in a conversation with The Rider, telling of an incident that occured i n 1875, said that he and Jim were on their way to Rawlins for ranch supplies, eacb driving a team and wagon, and going by way of the Brown's Hill cut-off road. A large band of White River Ute Indians were in camp on the head of the Muddy Creek o ne-half mile from the road. Jim was driving in the rear, and1 being much alarmed, carried his rifle across his knee, held by the trlgger hand. In his excitement, while urging his team to keep close to Reader's wagon by slapping them with the reins, and watching the hills and country about for Utes, his wagon tongue jammed the end gate from Reader's wagon bed. Jim was very proud of his long, wavy hair, brown in color, with a sandy and reddish tinge. He groomed it carefully. Jim lived with his family in a tepee the first year of his residence in the Snake River Valley. Settlers and Miners Dressed In Euckskin. By the fall of 1875 at least a 9core of settlere and miners were dressed i n buckskin. They admired the serviceable qualities of :Bible back Bro v m 1 s and Jim Baker's Arapahoe-tanned and Arapahoe-made buckskin S1.<1ts, w hich they had worn for several years. As an economy measure, they decided to try buckskin. These suits were all made to measure by Nolh Reader in regulation style, with tassel fringe on the back from shoulder to shoulder and along the outsiie of jumper sleeves, pants,

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-----ui/11 Jim Bak R -er. 1din "Y 9 aller, on a H unt for Fresh M eat, 1 875.

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31 legs and pocket lapels. Reader had been a tailor while living in Missouri. Skins for these suits were selected by each owner from a large stock of buckskin at the Perkin's store or by dealing directly with the Ute Indians. All buckskin in stock at the Perkin's store was tanned by Ute squaws. With some of these men the buckskin suit was the only suit they had. The names of the majority of them were : Dave Miller, George Howe, Bill Humphrey, Charley Lowry, John Reynolds, Dave Lambert, Bill Slater, Tom Duffy, August Reschke, Bill Baker, Dutch Bill, Bill Nelson, John Baker, and Dutch Joe. Because of the serviceable qualities of buckskin, many pioneers had their pants foxed (patched) with buckskin on the seat, front opening, pocket rims, knee and leg bottoms. When a fancy job was desired, each patch was scolloped all around. The Settlement On Snake River Was In Wyomin g Although the headwaters of Snake River were in Colorado, the settlementin the valley was one-half to two miles on the Wyoming side of the Colorado line. The lower Baggs ranch was in Colorado. Ute Indians Visit the Snake River Valley. Ute Indians, when on their customary rambling hunts, made many visits to the valley each season to trade at the Perkins store, and generally called on new settlers to look them over, hoping for a possible chance of being given food. Utes heap hungry. The Indian boys played and hunted rabbits with the Reader boys, Joe Baker, and others. The first public school i n the Snake River Valley was in 1875, one mile east of the Dixon postoffice. It was attended by children of the following heads of families: Sam Reid, Newton Ferris, J.I.Card, Billy Ay lesworth, Noah Reader, and Jim Bq.ker.

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SECTION VII. First Sett:J,_e_l!l_ent of Grand and_ Rout-t;_ Slowly, after minine had become an establish ed asset in Summit County, a gradual flow of stockmen from overstocked soutl1ern and eastern slo pe range s settled over a wide area, where an abundance of grass was available. John S,Jones moved his large herd of thin cattle from s ou t!,ern range s to Middle Park in the fall of 1865, The following winter was severe. He lost his entire herd. Following is a partial list of prominent in Middle Park at the time of Grand County organization; the majority being engaged i n stock ranching: Eugene Markham, Tracy Tyler, John Stokes, Peter Enele, J.S.Snook, Mark Bessy, Frank McQueary and others. Gus Reader was a pioneer trapper in the North and M iddle Park c ountry. J,W,Call and old man Elliot, and their families, were ranching on the lower Blue River. Mr. King located at the mouth of Troublesome Creek, on the Grand River. William Coul:'ins and family located on Frazier Creek near the present town of Frazier. He operated a road ranch for the accommodation of travelers. Grand County Organized. New settlers were moving in. Grand County was organized i n 18?4 from that part of Summit County which included North a n d l.Iiddle Park, vri t; the County seat at Sulphur Springs. Information of settlement by Frank Byers, a resident, and whose father, W.N Byers, of the Rocky Mountain News, located the Sulphur Springs i n 1865. Jack SUITuner, an uncle of Frank Byers, engaged i n t he Genero.l store busir:ess at Sulphur Springs in 1874, Jack made the trip through the Colorado Cany on wit! ; Major Powell i n 1870, Being a mechanic, h e repaire d damaged boats and made o ther needed repairs. In 1876 he disposed of his store and engaged in tHe blacksmith trade at Rawlins, Wyoming, J,H,Ganson was engaged in the hotel business at Sulphur Springs. Charley Royer was a pioneer settler and was sheriff of Grand County i n 1882 and 1883. W.G.(Sandy) Mellen made his home in Middle Park. H e was employed at odd jobs by stockmen, and carried accumulated and urgent mail at an agreed price pe r trip to distant settlements from Sulphur Springs, sucll as Blue River, Steamboat Springs and Hahn's Peak. Bernard Sproul and Frank MarsbaJl were settlers in Egeria Park at that time. Ute Indian s Commit Depredations. The White River Ute I ndians, in their accustomed hunting and camping in Middle Park and Egeria Park, became very bold. They harrassed new and isolated settlers by camping and grazing their ponies o n settler's meadows, and, being "heap hungry," by begging food. Some settlers compliP.d witt their wants. When refused by others, they left g rum bling When told to move off settlers' meadows, the Utes would say tha t was Ute country, and would cam p where they saw fit, o r issue mumblings to that effect. Colorow, Cup-Ears, Washington, Mussisco, Peair and otl;cr su1) -c!:iefs, each with their bands of followers, spent much time in these parts during the su!':mer. I n 1875,

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33 in revenge for being refused food, cantpine; privileges, and because of ot!ler minor grievan c es, they burned grass and timber in the Blue !hver country, .Marshall' s stabl e and corral i n Egeria Park, and they bur.1ed over a larg e s ection of the Bea r R iver country. Pro tests were made the Ute outrages by the settlers t o the government, b u t nothing directly was done. Uriah i.r..Curtis, a youne man of German descent, arrived in Denvet' f rom t:ne E a s t i n 1862, rner not activel}' engaeed, he spent l'!'!Uch time in U t e India n cal'!'lps i n the vicinity o f ::lenver, '.'l'!'lere he leat'ned to cleverly interpret the Ute tongu e Major O a ks, who w a s I!1dia!1 Commissio:1er fo::Colorado at t hat time, realized his need o f an interpreter. H e employed Curtis when on t ours of inspecti on at U t e agen c i es. Curtis w a s emp loyed for some time at the sonthe::-n U t e agency. He assisted Y.ajor 'Nhitely when distri'tmtinG supplies in ,.:idd l e Park to the nort!Je r n tribe, and l a t er, when t?J.ey wer e loc a ted on the :/hite River reservation, he assisted tl-Je different agents i n keeping the Indians on the reservation. Through interpretati on i t w a s expected of him t o b rine about a better understanding and har mony bet ween the Indian s and the a g e nt. The U tes regarded Curtis as a f riend. Curtis spent his ent i r e t i m e i n their camps. '{e took part iYJ their sport s a n d c amp customs a s one of the tribe. o f the Bear R iver Valley. B ecause o f t 'Je c-reat distance from outside comrounicatio'l and source of suPplies, a n d of f ear of r oam ing b ands o f uncivilized Ute I ndians, set t leme n t o f t h e bea u t i ful valley s o f B ear River and Egeria Par k was being held back I n 1 8 7 2 Joe !-.!organ, oldest son in a large f ami l y living on Cle a r C reek, n e a r the p r esen t North D e n ver city limits, m oved with supplies a nd a stock o f I 'ldian trad ig goods to w h e r e the E lkhea d Creek j oins Bear River at the crossing o f the W hite R i ver Agency r oad, wher e h e e s t a blished a tradin g sto r e T h e White R iver Indians and a n occasional trapper and p r o s pe ctor were his on l y cus t omers J o e and t h e Utes 'becam e qu ite friendly H e was t h e firs t w hite man t o l ocate i n the Bear River Valley Dav e Uor g a n l eft the Mor g a n home on C l ear C r eek in 1 873. H e joined his brother Joe o n Bear River. Later he e ngaged i n m i ning at H ahn's Peak and l o c ated a larg e tract o f coal land near the head of Morgan C reek. Late r h e e n g aged i n t h e sto c k business with his bro t hers Charlie a nd Billy whose winter cam p was at the junction of Snak e and Bear Rivers, at t hat time k nown as Mor g a n's Hole Jam e s H.Crawford and W G Mellen made home stea d filing o n lan d at Steamboat Springs in 1 874. A s hort time later Mell e n reli n quished his filing i n f avor o f J.P M axwell and associates of Boulder, w h o reP resented the Steamboat Springs Townsite Company. Craw ford built h i s home on the l a n d filing i n 1875 H e and his family were the firs t permanent s ettlers in the Bear Rive r Valley. J.H .Smart, with his f amily and his b r o t her, Gordon, located in the Hayden Valle y ir. the f all of 1 8 7 5 H e engaged i n trad ing with the Ute I ndian s and later was post m aster of Hayden Gord o n engaged i n ranching. T.F.Ile s located i n the Bear Rive r Valley about 1 8 74 H e w a s in t h e cattl e business i n a small w a y Colone l Jar:Jes P.Th omps on buil t !lis co.bin i n the Hayden Valley i n 1876. One year later he was appointed a n official o f Routt County. S.D N B e n n ett, with his faPiily located i n the E l k R iver Vapey about 1876, H e was e rHpl oy e d at ra:1c h ing a nd at t h e H ahn's Peak m i nes. Asa F l y b u i l t !Jis cabin near the mouth of E l k River, in 1877. Norris Brock came t o t h e H ayde1 1 Valley about 1877. H e w a s employed by the Smart b r o tliers. Later h e loca.ted a ranch four mi l e s below H ayden and also c arried mail between W i:1dsor, H ayden, aml H ahn' s Peak. James E.Pollack a nd h i s o rother w .:r.Pollack, F rank Cha rley S t rong a n d Geo r r:e Sh loer, formed a party that tranped i n the Valle y durir.g the wint e r

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34 of 1875 and 1B76. Making a large catch in furs, tl' 1e:v disposed of t hem at Perkin's Trading Store. Jim Pollack was employed by Perkins for t h e seaso n, w hile others of the party were employed at the Hahn's Peak mi nes. Morgan brothers, with a view to experimenting in farming i n Bear River Valley, brought in 300 0 lbs. of seed wheat from t beir home ranch on Clear Creek and stored it at the trappers' camp for the winter in October, 1875. They turne d out their four pair of oxen to winter on the tall grass of the valley, going themselves to the lower country for winter quarters. It was a severely cold winter with t bree to four feet of snow. Their cattle all died. J.R.(Jake) Harding came to the Bear River country for l 1is health in 1877. li e built his cabin near the mouth of Fortification Creek. After two years of a healthful life, trapping for the pastime it afforded, he engaged in pra c tice of law at Steamboat Springs. Jimmy Dunn located in the Elk River Valley in 1877. He was a near neighbor to S,D.N.Bennett, Routt County Or ganized. By an act of the Colorado legislature, Routt County was created from the northwest corner of Summit County, and named in honor of Governor John L.Routt, who approved the act January 9, 1877. The first county officers were named by him. The commissioners were as follows: Gordon H.Smart, A.J.Bell, and T.H.Iles. Colonel James Thompson was appointed county clerk. The first meeting of the board was held at Thompson's cabin in May, 1877.

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UTE JACK When Employed as Scout for General Crook, During the Sioux Campaign of 1876 and 1 877.

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SECTION VIII. Ute Jack, Scout for General George Crook. Crook, in command of the U.S.army in the department of the Platte, with headquarters at Fort Omaha, was personally in the field of operations during tne spring of 1876. He made preparations for a vigorous campaign again s t the several tribes of Dakota Indian s known as the Sioux, who were allied with the Northern Cheyenne tribe in war with the whites under the guidance of Sitting Bull of the Hunk-Papa tribe. All were roaming over northern Wyominp;, eastern Hon tana and t h e Black Hills of Dakota. A treaty had formerly been made by them with the government, consolidating various Sioux tribes on a reservation of their choice at Standi.ng Rock Agency. The Ogalalla and Brule Sioux tribes and Northern Cheyennes, having the same privilege, were located at Pine Ridge. A large territory which included the Black Hills, their cherished hunting grounds, was embodied in the treaty. Owing to encroachment of prospectors into their hunting territory in 1874 and 1875, they bebecame enraged and were making a desperate attempt to 8top the invasion. An attempt was made by the government to compromise, that safety for miners might be assured. No terms were acceptable with the redmen except, "stay out." General Crook, from Fort Laramie and Fort Fetterman, and General George Armstrong Custer, operating from Fort Lincoln, Dakota, made a strenuous campaign against the Sioux and Cheyenne Indians in 1875, with a small measure of success. The reds, with large reserves of serviceable ponies, were able to keep a safe distance from the soldiers. Crook was engaging friendly Indians as scouts for the 1876 campaign. In a request for daring scouts from the White River Ute Indians, a number proclaimed their willingmess to serve, but because of lack of serviceable mounts at that time (it being in the early spring), they were from rallying to the call. U.M.Curtis, interpreter, realizing the eagerness of Ute Jack, whose Indian name was "Acagat," arranged for his transportation. Jack, an active, adventurous Indian, was about thirty-five years of age. When a small boy he was adopted or possiply traded for, as were other Indian children. There were unscrupulous Mex icans trading with the Mormons, who would deal in Indian children during the first years of Mormon settlement in the Salt Lake Valley. The Mormon family, by the name of Norton, called the boy John. He learned to understand and speak English. He also learned the Mexican language, along 1'ormon childre n w !1o were apt in learning the language from Mexican traders. It was said that Jack "as born of the Southern Utes, and had a taint of Mexican blood in his veins. When in mature years and longing for the female companionship of his own people, he left his Mormon home to visit the White River tribe, where he betook to himself a squaw and lived a life of leisure. Jack, dressed in native garb and mounted on a Ute pony, accompa:1ied mailcarrier from the Agency to Snake River, thence by buckboard to 1orhere he was met by Lieutenant Eckner, Crook's representative, who furnished him wi t : 1 a complete new outfit, including a buckskin jumper, sombrero hat, pants, and cowboy boots purchased at the Jim France store. An eagle feather was furnished him to decorate his new hat, by a feed stable attendant, before he left for Fort Laramie. He was the only Ute Indian employed by Crook, and was known to Crook's men by the name of Ute John. Early in June, 1876, Crook's army was camned on upper Tongue River. His army, assisted by "Old Coyote" and other Crow warriors and a number of Shoshone Indians, were driven back and defeated with minor losses, by a large force of Sioux, in the rough country and timber near the head of Rosebud Creek. Crook's army wi t?1drew to Goose Creek, near the site of Fort Phil.Sheridan, where he was joined by Chief Washakie with 87 picked scouts from the Shoshone reservation, and Chief }!edicine Crow with 117 of his warriors from the Rosebud Agency. Frank Gouard was chief scout for Crook. General Merritt, with Buffalo Bill as c hief scout, Baptistie Garner (Little Bat) assistant scout, and seven companies of the 5th Cavalry, were camped on Rat Creek

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'\\/1 I;, \I I fp SITTING BULL Chief Medicineman of Sioux Tribes, in Seclu s ion in British T er rit ory.

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38 a branch of Lance Creek and Cheyenne River. They were engagen in holding back Chief Long Chin's band and otf!er Cheyenne Indians from joining Sitting Bull's warriors. It was w!'lile Merritt's forces were at this camp t;1at Chief Yellow Rand of t h e Che y e nnes met his doom in a single-handed combat Buffalo Bill, near two buttes just over the line in Nebraska. Each used a rifle at severa l hundred yard s distant. Croo k 1vas in frequent communication with army headquarters at Washington, by c ourier to Fort Laramie and wire to the east. Curley, the Crow scout, carried messages for Crook. In the meantime, General Custer and six troops of cavalry o f t h e Seventh Cav alry, w e r e in the field west of lower Tongue River in pursuit of the Sioux. H e nce t h e Custer Massacre on the lower Little B i ghorn River, Jun e 25th 1876, an account of w;1ich much has been written in history. Sitting Bull, chief medicine man and advisor. of Sioux tribes, wi1 o rallied his braves to hostile action, never led his warriors in bat.tle. He was alway s at a safe distance in the background. At the close of the Custer incident where 212 cavalrymen, Custer and his entire force were slaughtered, Sitting Bull, fearing_ the retaliating forces of U:1cle Sam, fled north with a small band of his tribe into unsettled territory designated on maps at that time as Rritisli Possessions. The remaining Sioux warriors, led b y Crazy Horse, Rain-In-the-Face, and Spotted Tail of the Ogalallas, after being routed in a series of engagements with Crook's army, separated in small bands and continued depredations against the whites. At the same time they played a hide-andgo-seek game witll the soldiers. Black Hills or Bust. Conditions on the Wyoming frontier during 1876 may be partially described by recounting the experiences of a Rawlins prospecting party. May lst, 1876, Mike Murphy, Al.Farley, Joe Rankin and Frank Harrington composed a party of Rawlins mountaineers bound for the Black Hills with saddle and pack-horses. They took -a round-about way by Laramie, Cheyenne and Black Hill stage road, to avoid hostile Indian country in traveling a more direct route on the north. The stage line was established at the time of the big stampede to the Hills in 1875 and was operated by Gilmore, Salisberry, and Luke Voorhese, and later Russell Thorpe was in the company. The party was attacked by a band of Cheyenne Indians near Jennie's Stockade in the Cheyeune River country. One of their pack-horses was killed. For reprisal, the party succeeded in making one of the Cheyennes a "good Indian" before they were off. The party continued to prospect in the Black Hills count'ry for the season of 1876, without success. Rich placer gold discoveries were made in Deadwood Gulch 'in 1874 and 1875, and all claims of promise had been staked by throng s that preceded them. Rumors that a rich gold strike had been made in the Big ;rorn mountains reached the ears of unsuccessful prospectors in the hills and ot:1er mountain areas. Before snow was entirely cleared in the foothills in the spring of 1877, many prospecting parties were on their way to the new Eldorado. The Rawlins party joined in the stampede, and in a wide ramble of prospecting on the several tributaries of Powder River, arising in the Big Horn range, they had a number of scraps with Sioux Indians during the season. Each man was with a Sharps 45-70 rifle, which had longer range than most rifles in use by the Sioux. Many prospectors outfitted at Rawlins, the nearest railroad _point to the new discovery, and which, after a thorough investfgation by prospecting, proved to be but little or no value as a mining venture. The majority of prospectors of the early 70s were only interested in free gold placer mining, which meant "cash in hand." There were but few who had discovered and were interested in lode and quartz mining. of Snake River Continued In 1876. Joe on account of the slump in Ute trade, quit the business on Bear RiTer and moved to the settlement on Snake River where he made a permanent home and engaged in stock raising.

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39 wit!:! his family, moved to Hann's Peak and took charg e of the board1ng house for Farwell's miners, and fbr a time had charge of mining operations, Sam Reid, with his family, moved from the Snake River Valley to Elk River where he was engaged in raising vegetables for Hahn's Peak miners, Each fall he moved to the valley for the winter. Miss Sarah Morgan arrived on Snake River from the Morgan home on Clear Creek, near Denver, making her home with her brother Joe. J.W.Salisberry and family moved to the Snake River Valley. He was engaged in the horse business, Platt Hindman was a resident of the valley at this time. He was engage d in freighting. John Signor arrived on Snake and was employed for a time by Perkins. His brother Bob joiner him in locating land at Three Crossing s of the Sweetwater River in Wyoming. Other settlers located in the vicinity, and a postoffice was established at the Signor ranch. The office was given the name Rongis, being the name Signor spelled backwards. On July lst, 1876, Joe Collom and Dutch Bill secured a government contract to carry the weekly mail horseback between Dixon and the White River Agency. Formerly, during heavy snow, the mail was carried from Dixon by way of the lower route, Cross Mountain and Crooked Wash. Eugene Taylor, formerly from Minnesota, and employed about Fort Collins, for a time, was employed at the White River Agency by Agent Danforth, and later by Perkins. John V .Farwell Enlarges His Mining Operations at Halm' s Peak. On July 2ot:l, 1876, The Rider was one of thre e drivers, each with team and waeon furnished by Rankin Brother's livery stable, for transportation of John v, P'arwell and party of two (A.J.Bell and J.Il. H enderson civil enp:ineer) going from Rawlins to Hahn's Peak. On the way, at Farwell's r equest, t h e party made a short stop to converse with Jim 3aker, "Nhom he had met on a former trip, Baker was en gaged in framing out a large cottonwood tree he had felled at the side of t h e road near his ranch, into a canoe. The canoe was to be used for his ranch convenience in crossing Snake River, The party had accommodations for one rtigbt at Reader's ranch. Farwell spent ten days at the Peak with his party inspecting his mines and planning a route for construction of a ditch from Elk River to Poverty Hill to increase the wate r supply for a longer season of hydraulic sluicing, A .. T .Bell, who had become associated with Farwell, took charge of operations, Farwell spent some time in trout fishing. One incident of interest to him was the arrival of Chief Piah, Sowa;vic, and eight others of their band of White River Utes in camp, '"!i t : 1 the usual "How," their word of greeting when meeting whites. When asked by one of the miners where they were camped, the chief answered with the word, "Siyah," pointing in the direction of Elk River, and added, "Heap killum snas." Piah sized up the city man as the owner of the mine. As the band rode away, he remarked "Heap big chief," The Utes rode a short distance to where mining was being done. The soil and gravel was being washed away and large boulders turned over by the stream from hydraulic pressure in the process of separating the gold. The Utes seemed to enjoy the sight for a short time, and then rode away into the !}ills. Saloons were banned at Hahn's Peak when A.J.Bell took charge of the Farwell Mining holdings. Colorado Celebrated Admission to Statehood. It was about August 5, 1876, tha t mail came to Hahn's Peak, with news headlines reading, "Colorado Admitted to the Union of States." A dozen prospectors, and miners who had congregated at Charley Miller's saloon (the only one in camp), receied the news with pleasure. Bill Leahe suggested three cheers for the new-bor' 1 state of Colorado, which was readily complied with thus showing their nearty approval, Charley Miller seized the opportunity to make some business and said "All hands have a drink on the h ouse to the success of the new-born state." was quite acceptable. A number of the party treated with drinks. By this time celebration of the new state of Colorado was in full blast with card games, drinks, and much hilarity, continuing until late morning h ours, Robert Macintosh came to the Peak about 1876 from Illinois. He associated himself in mining with the Farwell Company. In 1883, Mack engaged in the horse

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JIM BAKER IN OLD AGE -JIM BAKER'S HOME. BUILT IN 1873. LOOKING NORTH. On the right. Jim framing out a cottonwood log into a canoe for his use and convenience in crossing Snake River during high water.

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41 business, establishing his ranch i n the Snake River Valley tne mouth of Slater C reek. H e was also engaged in the store business. II. W .(Wif) Wilson was employed as foremart of the Macintosh hors e herd, located on the Slater Creek range where a prominen t rock and land -mark was situated and which "Mac" named G i bralter Rock. Green River Thieves Still In Game. In Au g u st,l876, Dave Stewart was moving 800 horses o n the trail from California to Nebraska, where he expected to find a market for them. During a night camp at the crossing of Green River, his herd was stampeded and s cattered by members o f t h e G reen River b and of thieves. When a r ound-up and count was made next morning, 8 3 horses were missing. Stuart and his men scou-ted the country for t h e m issing horses. On the second day 72 head were found in t h e New Fork country, 3 5 miles from their camp, where they had been dropped by the thieves. The remaining eleven were not recovered. Sheriff Barrett of Sweetwater county was notified. He, with Stuart and Deputy Johnson, rounded up three suspected t hieve s at thei r rendezvous on Green River. A t t neir court trial at G reen River City, Hank Golden and Mex ican Chavez were convicted. The other suspect, Joe Gallegos, proved a n alibi. Wyomin g at that time, had no territorial prison. Golden and the Mexican were taken care of and served three years in the Illinois sta t e prison at Joliet A t the expiration of t heir terms, Golden retu rned to Wyoming. H e was emplo yed by George Baggs as cowb o y U.M.Curtis Not Successful In Keeping the Utes On the Reservation During the summer of 1876, g ame was scarce about the White Rive r reservation. Piah and his band of followers were on their usual romp in t heir favorite hunting gro1tnds in the upper Bear and Elk River c o u ntry. Chief Washington, Cup-Ears a n d Musisco, with bands of their followers, were in Middle Park. Curtis, knowing that Colorow was suspected of being the leade r in starting fires i n the upper country the year before, made special effort to keep him from leaving the reservation. When he found his persuasion of no avail, Curtis joined Colorow and band on a s hort camping and hunting trip in Twe nty Mile Park. He succeeded in having the band return to the reservation in four weeks. Some lette r mail had accumulated for Curtis while on the trip The Utes, observing this, suspected Curtis might have some news from Jack. (Curtis had pre viously informed t h em in-regard to Jack, and the Sioux campaign in which the soldiers were unable to conquer them). In mingling with the Indians, Curtis heard some of the brave s remark at different times, "Sioux n o fight; Utes hea p fight," and he thought they w ould be glad for a chance to fight the Sioux. Curtis, realizing their eagerness to fight because o f Jack being in the Sioux country, and of General Crook's need of a strong force, conferre d with Agen t Danforth They a greed that it might be a good way of the Utes from molesting settlers. In the meantime, Piah and Washington, with t heir bands, had returned to the reservation. Other bands were called in. Permission Granted the Brave s to Join G eneral C rook' s A rmy. Agen t Danforth applied to t h e Secretary of the Interio r for a permit t o allow t h e Indian s to leave the reservatio n on a mission of this kind, (since all move ments of t his nature at Indian agencies were directed by the Interior and War departments). I n due time a rep l y was r eceived that it w ould be permissible, p rovided Curtis took charge of the I ndians. T his was made known to the l eading cri efs. T hey r eadily accepted and were jubilant at having the opportunity t o join Crook's a rmy in a campait;n against the Sioux. Chiefs Wasllington, Colorow, C u p E a r s and Musisco selected their warrjors, sev enty-th r e e in all, witlt picked mount s and with extra ponies for chanc e and p a c k With Curtis in char g e t h e y left White R iver Agency the last week in A u gust t o join Crook's army at Fort Fetterman. They arrived at Rawlin s and camped

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lt2 at Rawlings Springs for a day's rest and to obtain suppliP.s A number of the warriors did not have rifles. They had left their muzzleloading and Henry riflefl at tbc ar;cncy. Curtis outfitted t hem with rifles, ammunition and provisions purchased at the Jim France store. Curtis was joined at Rawlins b y Tommy Hanks, a cowb oy, and o ne o f the firs t p ioneer s at Rawlins, w ho had in mi!'ld he m ic;ht enrich him:;elf by c;ett. inc; a\vay with a band of Sioux ponies should the Ute forces encagc in hattle wi tlt tlte Sioux. Leavine; Rawlins tley traveled northeast ninety-five miles to old l'ort Ca:; per where they rested their ponies for a day. (Fort Cnspe r was abandoned in 186?, and the equipment moved to the newlyesto.l>lisbed Fort Steele) At this po int they learned from soldiers who were on scout duty fro m Fort Fetterman that Crook's army had left for the junction of the north and soutll forks of Powder River five days before Up to this time there was no evidence of Sioux Indians. The braves were happy and seemed. eager for an engagemen t witlt the Sioux. Curtis decided to overtake Crook's army. They traveled north toward Powder River and at a water hole for the night. Here they found plenty of sign that the Sioux had been there a few days before. The next morning c omplaints were heard by Curtis, such as "Ponies heap tired" and other exc.uses. Honko and four other warriors took the back trail. The rest of the army, when severul miles farther on toward Powder River, came across the head and bones of a freshly-sluughtered buffalo, stripped of all flesh. Fresh pony and moccasin track s were in evidence. The Utes stopped to hold council; more complaints were heard, "Pony heap tired; no can go. Pannitto and five more braves turne d back; they could not be induced by Curtis and the chiefs to continue farther. The rest of tl!e party reached Powder River the same evening. They found the grass eaten and tramped out and fresh sign of a large band of Sioux havine camped there a short time before, but no evidence of Crook's army. The warriors were mum. They camped amon g the cottonwood timber and did not start a fire. They tied their ponies close to camp. The next morning the chiefs complained to Curtis, "Ponies no grass; heap tired, no can c;o, you go; me, Utes heap tired; one Ute heap bellie sick, no can go." and o t lie r excuses. All Utes started on the back trail. Curtis and Hanke, discourage d because of being deoerted by their warriors and their failure to find Crook's army,(which had gone by another route to the northwest by the foot of the Big !lorn Mountains) returned with the Utes. On the homeward j ourney that day, they came across a small band of buffalo. Hanks and Ute Charley, each killed one, and taking what choice meat they qould pack with them, they camped for the night at Poison Spider Creek. The 1naves were feeling better and no complaints were heard. They celebrated their Sioux campaign with a big feed of buffalo meat late that eve!Jing. There beine; no wood for campfire, some of the Indian!! ate their meat raw, while others gathered buffalo chips to heat rocks on whicb to cook their meat and coffee. They traveled leasurely in banda to Rawlins and the Agency. The Rider viewed tbe Curtis-Ute expedition in Rawlins on their way north, and again on their way to the Agency. Being well acquainted witr1 Curtis and Hanks, he heard their story of tl'le trip. In short, it was ,th a t the Utes saw fresh evidence of large Sioux forcea and no sign of Crook's for their protection, so they got cold feet and could not be persuaded to make furtt1er effort to join Crook's army. Curtis spent the fall at the ager1cy, returning to Rawlins in Decer, :ber, 1876, w here he spent the winter with his wife, two sons and one dauc;l 1ter -all small children. H e returned to the Agency in the sprine; of 1877. In a s!tort time dissatisfaction arose between him and the agent, so h e returned to Hawlins and thence to his home in Denver. It was in JWle 1877 when John West and Tlle R i uer were on a wide search for ranch location s in 'the Sweetwater country travelint: by saddle and pack ponies. A two-n itlt1s was made at Devil's Gap, a ch o ice campinp; place on the overland trail. Eig!tt e;rave r11arl:ers were in view. Those interred there were inunie;rants, som e of whom had been killed by I ndians, and others died from natura l causes. When makinc; a survey of t he Indeuendence Rock area, twelve burial markers were in place, fifty yarJ s north of the trail spannine Sweetwater River and eight

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43 hundred yards from I n de pen dence Rock. Eieht soldiers of Colonel G il>i:Jo n's expedition, wbile camped at t b e Rock, WE're reported to have died from ptomain poison. Four had died from othe r causes while on the trek over the trail. Independence Rock was a noted landmark and camping place on the Overland Trail. Hundrerts of names and date s had been scrolled on the rock witfl chisels and crude tools. Many names had been applied with paint. On our return to camp in the evening. we found our c amp bed had been carelessly left spread in the open during the day. Upon retiring for the night, West was the first to turn in, when his feet came in contact with a cold, cla.ramy object. With a shriek and bo 1 md he threw tfle covers back. A large twelve-button rattler that had heen prowling during the day, had helped himself to a comfortable bed for t he night. He, like hundreds of others of the rattlesnake family where no rocks or clubs were available, was given the knockout blow with a riding quirt, and the head stomped with the boot heel. Later, cowboys who carried a hip gun, would clip the head off with their Smith & Wesson six-shot or Colts forty-five, as a practice stunt. Poles of the old telegraph line, some of which were in place, others fallen, were stripped of wire, which was used again for construction of the new telegraph line on the Bitter Creek route. Four of the fallen poles were drawn to camp with t h e saddle horse and place d in a square, and a stake notice announcing homestead location nailed thereon. Later, before improvements were begun, a job appeared to the locaters to be more desirable t ; Jan a ho mestead on the Sweetwater. Tom Su!l built his ranch on the same spot in 1881. It was close in the vicinity of Independence Rock that the noted lynching of Jic Averil and Ella Watson, for alleged cattle rustling, took place in the middle eighties, and of which sensational articles have been published, flouting the name Ella Watson as "Cattle Kate." On July 4th, 18?6, John Leaf and his brotl1er Will, composed a freight engine crew running on the Union Pacific Railroad between Rawlins and Green River. When east-bound on their return trip, the engine and ten loaded cars piled up in a washout at Point of Rocks. Will, the fireman, was fatally crushed and burned in the wreck. John, the engineer, escaped injury. His life spared, he decided to give up the railroad job and turned-his attention to mining. At that time fifteen loaded cars twenty-eight to thirty-two feet in length made an average freight train on the Union Pacific Railroad. In December, 18?6, J.H.Belford, who became a representative by appointment when Colorado was admitted as a state, introduced a bill in congress for tne removal of the Ute Indians from Colorado.

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SECTION IX Charles Perkins Builds a N ew Store Building In 1 877, C harley Perkins, to take care of his ever-increasing business, built a larg e store building and hotel across t h e road from his old one-room log cabin on the bank of Snake River. The old cab i n was retained as a saloon. Joh n Beagle moved his herd of cattle from the Picketvdre Cree k to Snake River range i n 1877. Charle's ( Black) Wilson and John Porter arrived on Snake River in 1877. They were employed by Perkins. Tom Morgan came to the river from the More;an h ome on Clear Creek and made his home with his brother Joe. Sometime later he ene;a ged in stock-raising with his brothers, Dave, Charley and Billy. Romance. Charley Slinkard and Miss Sarah Morgan, traveline; b y team and buckboard fifty miles from Snake to Bear River, were united in marriage by Tom H.Iles, a Justice of t h e Peace. John Baker, after the death of his Shoshone wife on Henry's Fork in 1877, spent, with an only daughter, most of his time on Snake River. The daughter was employed at the Perkins Hotel, while John played high stakes at draw poker at t h e Perkine saloon. W.H.Atkins, a lumberman of Evanston, Wyomin g financed and was associated with B.F. (Be n ) Majors. They engaged in the cattle business on the Lower Snake River in 1877. Joe Sinsberry was also engaged with Majors in the cattle business. A New Town Established at Hahn's Peak. By July 1877, mining operations were progressing at Peak. The Elk River Ditch was completed. A store, company offices, hotel, and other necessary buildings were established by the Farwell Mining Company between Way's Gulch and Poverty Hill Mining claims. It was christened "Bug Town." Sometime later, when the town had taken on a sort of metropolitan air, the name Bug Town was changed to International Camp. A road was established from peak by way of Hog Park, at the head of Encampment Creek, to the Union Pacific Railroad and to Laramie. John A.Gordon did freighting for the Farwell Company. The Farwell mines were later leased to, and operated by Cody and Hindman. Hahn's Peak mines were of low production in placer gold. No one interested in mining there ever became burdened with wealth from their production. Trappers of 1850 and 1860s. Gus Lankin and Louie Simmons were the last of the pioneer trappers of the fifties and sixties trapped in the Snake and Bear River countries as late as 1877. Dressed in buckskin of their own tanning, each frora their respective camps, they moved about frora camp to camp with saddle and pack horses. When a collection of furs had accurnula.ted t hey disposed of t hem at tradine; posts. Gus Lankin, when returning to his camp on Elk Head Creek in 1873, from attending his traps, realized from empty food vessels t hat his camp had been visited by bear or other marauders who had eaten all prepared food, including a pot of fermented bean s that had stood aside for several days. Lamki n chuckled t o himself, believine; w hoever ate t h e would :;ive his camp a wide berth in t :Je future.

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45 When on his regular tour of tending traps next day, he came across two "Heap bellie sick" Ute Indians, two miles from his camp. Lankin realized at once they were the moochers who had devoured his sour beans, and without sympathy, was content to know of their not too serious illness. The Utes, after partaking of the luxurious feed, had started on their way to their camp on Bear River, when they had become too ill to continue the journey, Each tucked into his blankets in a shallow gulley for protection from a severe, cold wind, awaiting their recovery to normalcy, while their ponies grazed near by. Louie Simmons, trapping on the Rattlesnake range north of the Three Crossings of Sweetwater,(and near the oil springs where Jake Ervey and John Landon located the first oil claims in Wyoming near the headwaters of the South Fork of Powder River in 1877) gathered several burlap sacks full of moss-agates, After sorting them at Rawlins, he shipped tw o sacks of the choicest stones to dealers in Chicago, for which he received satisfactory prices. Otto Frank, a New York capitalist, bought and moved 3000 cattle from Idaho to Wyoming in 1877. He located his ranch on the Gray-Bull River. Rawlin!!', 200 miles distant, was his railroad point for ranch supplies. He and M.L.Lovett were the first settlers in the Gray-Bull country, Sitting Bull, when ordered by border police to bet ou t of British territory returned to Standing Rock Sioux Agency, and Fort Gates, where he surrendered to' authorities in August, 1877, The Brule Sioux were the most t u r bulent of all the Sioux tribes. Because of the chief's surrender, roving scattered bands of Sioux warriors, led by Chief Crazy Horse, Spotted Tail, Rain-In-the-Face, and Young-Uan-Afraid-of-His Horse, returned to their reservations to make treaty. Chief Red Cloud, the aged and wise counselor of the Northern Cheyenne tribes, realized the struggle to defend their rights to the Black Hills country would be a losing fight against Uncle Sam's army. Calling in his sub-chiefs, White Horse, Big Foot, Dull Knife, Wild Hog, and the bands of his tribe, he surrendered to General Coe at the Red Cloud A gency, November 18, 1876, The bands of Chiefs Dull Knife and Big Foot, because of their many vicious attacks on whites during tlle Sioux campaign, and including a band of renegade Arapahoes, were assigned by the government to be moved to the Indian Territory where some of their tribe had been moved at the time their treaty with the Government was made in 1868, The Cheyennes were bitterly opposed to being moved into a new country where the water was bad and the climate unhealthy, but after a few months of parleying and coaxing by government officials, they consented to go. They left Red Cloud Agency May 28,1877, in charg e of Captain Lawton, with four troops of the Fourth Cavalry. They became much dissatisfied in their new home, and made several attempts to return to their nativ e country, Dakota, but were frustrated in their efforts by soldiers on guard from Fort Reno, where a large garrison was stationed for guard duty to prevent Indians that were moved to the territory from other parts of the country from leaving. After years of restlessness, with much sickness, and watchful waiting for an opportunity to get away without interference, eight-six members of the Cheyenne tribe fled north across Kansas and Nebraska. They were engaged in a running fight near Smoky Hill, Kansas, by a troop of soldiers and a small force of settlers. They made their escape with the loss of one of their number, and reached the border of their cherished homeland, where they were joined by Chief Wild H o g and others of the Cheyenne tribe, They were in camp on Wounded Knee Creek, Decem ber 26, 1890, The district was within the border of what is now Shannon County, South Dakota. Colonel Foresythe, with seven troops of cavalry from Fort McPhearson, undertook to arrest the l eading chiefs, Big Foo t Dull Knife, and Wild Hog. Making these arrests started trouble, and a free-for-all fight took place, in which thirty officers and private soldiers were killed and about two-hundred of the Cheyennes, of all a ges, were slaughtered, The above meagre description recalls the deplorable battle of Wounded Knee, With the territory cleared of hostile Indians, cattlemen, eager for choice ranges, were alert in contracting cattle in Texas, Utah, Idaho, and Oregon, to be moved to Wyoming. Many large herds were driven from Texas, some of which were driven by white cowboys. Others were driven by negro crews with a white foreman, and one white wrangler. Still other ganado (cattle herd) were by Mexican vaqueros, a cocinero (cook) with a white mejordomo (boss),

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Kany white and Mexican from Texas, after being relieved from Senda Ganado (trail cattle herds) would indulge in "choingaro, paseo caballo," (drunkeness, mounted on their ponies). They drank at the bar and amused themselves by shooting out the lights of the saloon, 'and shooting about the feet of some innocent onlooker, shouting to him to dance for his life. "That was tame sport," declared Mac Stuart, (who was a veteran Texas trail boss) compared to cattle days of the Chisholm Trail at Dodge City, Mac, himself a gun-toter and shooter, frequently indulged in chingaro" (making rough house). Because of his haTing killed a Mexican at Hidalgo, Chihuahua, during a drunken spree, he spent three years, and died, in a Mexican prison. Cowboy natives of Oregon, with trail herds, were known as "web-feet," because of the rainy seasons of western Oregon. Kormon-raised cowboys from Utah were known as "carrot eaters." The California and Nevada cowboys, with their center-fire saddle, sixty-foot rawhide lariat, tapaderos reaching below the knee, were the "waddies" who roue the bad ones to a finish. As Wyoming ranges were occupied with cattle and cowboys, the buffalo, following their regular custom when crowded from southern terri tory. drifted north to where more peaceful conditions prevailed. A Noted Cattle Herd. The first herd of cattle to be located on the Sand Creek and Sweetwater range in Carbon County, Wyoming, was in September, 1876. The exact location of the headquarters ranch is now in the depths of tile Pathfinder Reservoir. The herd was owned and .driven by Nathan (Nat) Ireland of Raft River, Idaho. The cattle were branded "76" as a range brand. Seventy-six indicated t h e year they were driven over the trail. The cattle and h orses were for sale. No buyer for t01 e herd was available durin g the season. The Rider, accompanied Ora !Ialey of Laramie, in Marc h 1877, to Ireland's ranch where !!aley bough t 30 head, the choice of 60 saddle-horses. From Rawlins he returned with them to his "Heart Brand" ranch on Rock Creek. During April, Ireland sold his herd to Tim Foley a stock dealer of Omaha. He employed Nat James as foreman and Jack Donahue was added to the crew. Both were Texas cowboys. In 1877, Foley sold out the "76" herd to Morton Frewen and brother of New York. Their contract called for delivery of t h e cattle on Clear Fork of Powder River, where the cattle were counted out Y Frew.en Brot:ners. Later, reports were circulated that while Foley and Frewen Brothers were busily engaged in counting the cattle near a small, craggy butte, Nat James moved 150 head of counted cattle around back of the butte, where they became mixed with the uncounted cattle and were passed through the count a second time, unknown to Frewen Brothers. Other rep.orts were circulated that the herd was bought on book account, at a much larger number than there actually were. From t hese reports, many spurious articles have bee1 pu"lished in the locBl press depicting the range cattle owner as bei:1g dishonest, and in keeping with similar articles which have been published, that all ranc:e cattJ. owners paid an extra fee to their cowboys for each maverick branded for their It is a truthful statement, that duri'lg forty years employed in all angles of the range cattle business, The Rider has never known of an extra fee being paid by owners to their cowboys for the branding of mavericks. Mavericks were stolen by rustlers, and the stock-growers association demanded that all mavericks collected on general roundups be sold to the highest bidder each day they were found. The uncollected few were a small item in the cattle business. Fort McKinney and the town of Buffalo were established at the crossing of the Bozeman Trail on Clear Fork of Powder River in 1877. Johnson County, Wyoming, was also organized, with county seat at Buffalo, about that time.

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!,7 Bobby Foote, with a negro wife, kept a small store where t he overland trail crossed a small creek, which was later named Foote Creek, four miles west of Rock Creek. When Fort Halleck was abandoned in 1869, h e moved to the old fort qu arters, where he operated a store and road ranch, taking care of the irmnigrant trade. H e was one of the first commissioners of Carbon County. He moved t o Buffalo in 187 8 and engaged in the store business. Dr. William Harris, resident ph ysicia,1 of Laramie, and surg e on fo!" t he mountain division of the Union Pacific Railroad during the 1870s, engaged i n t h e cattle business in 1876, ranging his cattle with Jack Connor's herd on Medicine Bow Creek. In 1878 he moved his herd to the Clear Fork o f Powder River, w here he established the A H ranch near Buffalo. The A H ranch later became notorious because of sharp-shooters from t h e south making headquarters there while employed by cattle owners to eradicate t ne r ustling element from the Powder River range. These rustlers were gradually depleting the large herds. The movement was known as the Johnson County cattlemen and rustlers war o f facts and much twaddle bearing o n the matter have been published i n t he press of the country. John Massingale (Missouri John), a native of t he Ozarks, 1vho VIas noted for his droll and humorous comments on the general topics of t :;e day, and his partner, Jim Ross, also W.H.Austin, George Saylor, and John Bennett, were engaged in the cattle business on Medicine Bow Creek, a few miles north of Carbon Coal tovm, in 1876. Hides, Heads, and Horns. Sir John Ray Reid and his cousin, the reverend John from Florence, England, came to Rawlins in 1877, as a starting point on a hunt for big game. Tom Sun, experienced French-Canadian hunter, formerly scout and guide for military expeditions, operating Fort Lincoln, Dakota, was employed b y Reid to furnish the equipment and pilot the hunting expedition Charley Benton as cook; three packers, Will Hunt, Jack Rcberts, and Charley Cumrnhs (ali$ South Paw), made up the crew. The Britons were each equipped with t w o rifles, si1ot-gun and field glasses. The Reverend Eaton, while waiting t he start for tile h u nt, decided on having a practice ride. When applying at the Rankin Brothers stable for a mount, he requested one a bit active, which was immediately furnished him. Topping his mount at the stable door, he headed dow,1 the street, applyi11g the spur to get a bit of action. The pony res9onded with more action than was expected. The reverend gentleman landed in the street with a thud, receiving a severe shock but otherwise uninjured. As he was assisted to his feet by onlookers, t hey heard him remark, Blast the bugger. With t :1eir saddle stock and eighteen pack ponies loaded with cam p equipment, the party spe'lt six or eight weeks in the Ferris and Rattlesnake mountains collecting choice specirnens of heads and horns of elk, biGhorn sheep, deer, antelope, buffalo, and hides of bear, at their headquarters cam p on Pete s Creek. It required three four-horse teams to move their trophie s to Ravrl i n s for sl1ipment t o England. Nutritious Grasses Responsible. H.M.Good, also a native of England, and a friend of t he Reid party w ho was also employed as bookkeeper at the First National Ba nk of Laramie, came t o Rawlins to visit his friends on their return from the hunt. While waiting for? day or two for t h e party's arrival in Rawlins, he decided to have a horsebac k ride. Like most blue-bloods of his native land, he prided himself on being a eood horseman. Calling at the stable he ordered what he termed a ch a r ger (a spirited horse) and with an English saddle he attempted to mount in a way that was not a greeable with the horse. He landed on his head and shoulders i n t h e street. Picking h imself up, uninjured but in a somewhat ruffled state of mind, he was heard to remArk, in his d ecided British accent, 11 Ah, the spalpenel" Turning to Jesse Wallace, a nearby observer, and speaking with emphasis, he said, "The nutritious grasses of the bloomin' country cause the bugger to lope 1igh."

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48 Sir a friend, H.Hartel, returned for a h unt i n 1 8 7 8 a nd later assisted in financing Tom Sun to e n g a ge in the cattle bu siness a t his ranch at Devil's Gap on the Sweetwate r River. He became interested with o.P.Johnson, w h o had dr1ven a herd from Idaho. His range brand was the Pawnbroker Sign .described by the owner in Canuck accent as "tree ball." A second herd was bought a nd branded "hub and tree spoke." Utes On the Romp. U.M. Curtis, having left the White Rive r Agency, the Utes were fre e to roam at will, since Agent Danforth had no control over them. Ute Jack had returned to the White River Agency after fifteen months employed in with General Crook's army. H e had gained s ome knowledge of military tactics; was being idolized by young bucks w h o aspired to_ be warriors. These included reneeades Antelope, B e n n ett, Chineman and others, w n o were well mounted and ready for action should trouble arise. North Park, where severa l bands of buffalo ranged was Jack's and Colorow's favorite hunting grounds. Other bands led by Sowav;ic, Washington, Cup -::ars and Piah, favored the Elk iliver, Egeria and Middle Park sections. Chief Douclas' Camp. Chief Douglas, at the aee of t hree score years (an that lessened the appeal of continual roving) led a more retired life. With a band of one hundred or more of his tribe, largely the older squaws and children, he had gone north_ to favorite hunting grounds on the headwaters of M udd y and Savery Creeks 1 n .Vyom1ng, 130 miles from the Agency. Some of the older sub-chiefs, who had lost their following because of old age and caring more for the quiet life, cast their lot in the Douglas Camp. Some of these were Woretz, Unkumgood, Jacknuck, Uncle Samy Yarmony, Yellowstone, and others. The Utes usually took with them to thi s camp from 200 to 250 ponies. Most of these were used in moving, and all grazed on fresh grasses adjacent to their camp. The head of the Muddy and Savery Creeks country was a paradise, not only for Indians, but for whites as well. There were many springe of sparkling pure water. Native trout were abundant. Deer, antelope and elk were plentiful near this camp. Numerous buckskins were tanned by the older squaws, while parties of bucks, between hunts, might visit Rawlins to see the railroad and other sights, and perhaps do some trading. They made frequent visits and spent a lot of time at the Perkins store. The bucks traded buckskin for ammunition and tobacco. If some particular Ute had "heap buckskin" he would trade for a late model rifle or for a field glass, two articles they were constantly striving to acquire. The squaws traded for beads, red bandanas and knicknacke for the children. The articles purchased were not furnished them by the government. They were sports, and would stake a pony against a white man's pony, or two for one as the case demanded, in pony or foot race contests or rifle practice with settlers who gathered at the store and postoffice for mail. On many occasions, bootleg "firewater" played its part in making the sports more exciting. Johnson, medicine man of the tribe, was declared the beet shot, carrying away all prizes. If the bucks saw a white man with a late model rifle, they were persistent in wanting to examine it closely. They were at that time using some of the old model magazine rifles -the Spencer, Henry and others. A few were using cap-and-ball squirrel rifles. The Ute boys used bOws and arrows. A few of the more important Utes had later model rifles. Johnson had a Sharps rifle. It was known to be the only one owned by the tribe. Special Ute Sport. Often, when a band of sporty young bucks, romping in the hills near their reservation, would spy a newcomer in the country (possibly a settler away from his cabin'gathering in his firewood supply or lo0king after his stock, unarmed), they would keep out of view until within a convenient distance; then, when the opportunity presented itself, they would make a grand rush toward the stranger with

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49 shrieking yells and war whoops, expecting him to stampede and run, which was great sport for them, On one occasion, in 1875, when Joe Collom was making one of his first trips to the Agency with mail, on the way down Coal Creek Canyon, he was surprised by a band of Utes rushing from the mountain side toward him, with terrifying shrieks, yells and whoops. Joe did not stampede. He had not yet learned the Utes' sport tricks. He drew his revolver. At the same time Chief Johnson came near, calling out, "White man no scare." Joe realized it was a jest and said to Johnson, "Some white man will kill you if you make a practice of that kind of joking." On another occasion, when a band of young bucks had gone over t h e Danforth hills frorn t h e agency to the Morgan Canyon, they spied two Morg a!l b o y s down in the draw. The y had just recently moved the vicinity. They were loading their wagon with firewood, The Utes, a quarter of a mile away o n the hillside, swooped down toward them with yips and fierce yells, The boys, not yet familiar with Ute customs. and believing them to be on the warpath, unhitched their team, mounted and went at breakneck speed two miles down the .valley, withthe Utes a few hundred yards in the rear keeping up a continuous tirade of shrieks and yells. When t hey met face to face at the Morgan cabin, the Utes said, "White man heap scare; heap run," and laughed and joked among themselves. A Job On the Ca ttle Trail. It was in August, 1877, The Rider, after delivering a four-horse load of trading store supplies from Rawlins to J.K.Moore (post-trader at Fort Washakie), was employed by J.A .Under\7ood o.s cowboy to assist i n moving a herd of cattle from Raft River, Idaho, to Wyoming. While going by v1ay of the Oregon trail, he learned at Montpelier, a .Mormon settlement in the Bear Lake Valley, that settlers throughout all Idaho were much alarmed because of an Indian outbreak. Chief Joseph, of the Nez Perce tr-be, with a bad case of agency grievances, left his reservation on Clear Water River, Idaho, with 250 warriors, and continued on a fligh t of carnage in the Salmon River Valley and CamasPrairie, passing over t h e continental divide by way of the Salmon River trail and later named Gibbo n Pass, to Big Hole Basin. Chief Joseph's band, although great warriors, were routed in a fierce engagement with two companies of soldiers under General GibbJns, aided by settlers of the Big Hole Valley. The reds then fled along the Montana side of the main range to Yellowstone Park. General O,O.Howard, with three companies of cavalry from Fort Lapwai, near Lewiston, were in pursuit. Colonel Gilbert with two companies of cavalry, shipped from Fort Russell to Rawlins. Boney Ernest, was scout for the Gilbert expedition, and joined General F.oward at Yellowstone Park. Troops at Fort Ellis had been notifie d and were also in pursuit of the hostile reds. Three compa nies of cavalry engaged Chief Joseph's band near the north end of the Park. After two hours of fighting, with much loss on both sides, Chief Joseph, realizing he would be out-numbered, as Howard's army was advancing near to join in the fight, fled north toward the British line. He was intercepted and defeated by a strong military force from northern Montana forts, at the foot of Beartooth Mountains. General Miles, commande r at Fort Keogh, with three troops of cavalry, thirty well-trained Cheyenne Indian scouts, and B e n Clark as chief of scouts, led the main force s in the fight. A large number of Nez Perces were killed, one hundred and eight ponies captured, and most of their tepees and other camp supplies taken. The Indians, in spite of their heavy losses in ponies, still possessed t heir best mounts, and, defeated in battle, they fled south toward their reservation, with General Miles' force in hot pursuit. The Indians finally surrendered to Miles near Fort H Rll, Idaho. They were escorted by cavalry troops to their reservation at Clear Water, in Western Idaho. (Boney Ernest, one of the few frontier scouts at this time, 1938, has his home at Alcova, Wyoming.) The Rider, while on the trek, was passing through a small on top of Bear River Mountain between Bear Lake and Gentile Valleys, on the way to Raft River with teams, camp wagon and two saddle horses. All horses became alarmed! pricked up their ears and stopped short. the team to move fastPr was l1ttle heeded,

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BONEY ERNEST-1934. 5 0 A MONSTER. One horse following i n the rear, snorted as h e stampeded through the timber. Presently a monster grizzly came lumbering in view o n t h e road from the wes t s ide o f the mountE
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51 which he witnessed a large band of antelope attempt to cross the Union Pacific track in front of a fast-moving train near Hutton Section, now Bosler Station. Many antelope w ere killed. Not unlike domestic sheep in following a leader, antelope g o sheep one bette r in their determination to follow a leader. From this experience, Twain wrote humorous articles for the press, on frontier lore. In 1877, J.M.Pattee, from Chicago, a crafty shark and promocer of questionable enterprises, engaged in a lottery business in Laramie. In order to present himself to the citizenry as one engaged in a legitimate business and in eood standing with the clergy of Laramie, he donated liberally to the different churches. He passed a liberal bribe to tne Fifth Territorial Legislature Assembly of Wyoming. At that time he organized the Seminole Mining and Millinp, Company. He financed the building of a six-stamp quartz mill in the Seminole district. He advertised ex.tensively throughout the country, reaping a of tickets. At each monthly drawing, the few investors holding drawing cash prizes, who would accept mining stocks, were in kind. ing of the stamp mill was superintended by Capt.W.T.Casey, an associate in the sale numbers The buildof Pattee. The Rider, while carrying mail by horseback fifty miles of Rawlins to the first establisbed postoffir.e at Jim Cantlin's ranch on Sand Creek, delivered mail to the emp1.oyees at the mill, which was on the route. The mill was never operated. Before the next Wyoming legislature convened, the lottery and mining scheme suddenly stopped. Pattee had business in Canada. Edgar Wilson arrived in Laramie from Wisconsin in May, 18?6. He was emplo yed as writer on the Laramie Sentinel. He also wrote atticles for the New York World and other eastern papers, and the publisl1ers were so much impresse d with his cleverness, and especially with his humorous descriptions, that he became famous as a humorist, known the country over .as Bill Nye. In 18?9 he became editor of the Laramie Daily Boomerang, which became popular because of his bumorous writings. He served for a time as postmaster under the Garfield and Arthur administrations. Agency Supplies. Ed.W.Bennett, of Rawlins, had the government contract for deliverine annual supplies for the Indian s at White River Agency, from 18?2 to 18??. Bennett moved the freight with a string of bull teams. In 18?2, Bennett, when deliverin g freight at the Agency, in checking out his load, was short two cases of_ Gail F Jorden Eagle Brand condensed milk, a special order for agent Littlefield. The milk had been lost from his freight wagons while on the move. A band of White River Utes, returning to the Agency from a hunting trip, found the milk, w hich they immediately consumed near a then un-named creek. From this incident, the creek was named Milk Creek. Bennett, witb Frank Ernest, was engaged in opernting a ferry at the immigrant road crossing of the North Platte River, six miles below Saratoga Springs, during the late ?Os and 80s.

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FREIGHTING ON THE FRONTIER With an occasional bomb-like report from his 1 6-foot whip lash as a wake-up warning. and a few words of the bullwhacker vocabulary. "Wo-a. Brigham ; hey Jerry ; step up. Spot; yea, Bill; gee Larry." and so forth. the driver controlled a ten, twelve or more yoke team drawing several tons of freight over the plains and rough mountain roads.

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SECTION X. H.E.Danforth, Ute Indian Agent at White River, sent in his resignation to the Secretc:ry of the Interior at Washington due to take effect at the regular transfer of government officials July 1, 1878. A New Mail Contract Was Let. On July 1, 1878, a new mail contract was awarded E.E.Bennett, on the route between Rawlins, Dixon, Hahn's Peak and t h e White River Agency, under postal regulations known as the Star Route Mail Service. Charley Perkins sub-contracted the route from Bennett. B o b Di x on had passed away during the spring and no postmaster had appointed. Perkins, without with postal regulations required by the department in moving of postoffices, gathered up the contents of the Dixon office and moved them six miles up the river to his new store building. The office still retain ed t he name o f Dixon. Perkins, operating a saloon, was not eligible to bid on mail co ntracts, and under governme n t regulations a postoffice could not be operated in the same building i n w hich liquor was sold. A few months later a po stoffice was establisbed at the Baggs ranch. In 187 8 Frank Harrah drove a large herd of steer cattle from Walla Walla, Washington territory; they were located on the lower Snake and Bear River range His brand was "H" on the left hip. Frank bought the Bob Dixon ranch at Bagg's Crossing where he lived with his family In September, 1878, during a drunken brawl in t h e Perkin s saloon, in whicb a nwnber of were involved, Perkins threw a beer bottle which killfi Bill Ike. Pe!"ki n s gave himself up to a deputy-sl:eriff, Billy Aylesworth At t h e trial, he was acquitted on a plea of self defense. W.H.Peck and family from Denver, establislled a store on Bear P.iver for trading with the Indians, one mile below the crossing of the agency road, Bill Lisco and family, moved into the Bear River Valley from Pueblo, where he had been engaged in team contract work. Total Eclipse of the Sun. It was in September, 1878, when Thomas A.Edison, electrical wizard, Fox, reporter for the New York Herald, and two e astern scientis t s with a large telescope, arrived in Rawlins to view the total eclipse of the sun, which took place at four p.m. about September lOth. During the thirty minutes of eclipse, it was twilight. If there were any chickens in Wyoming, t hey went to roost. The next day after the eclipse, the 3dison party was joined by Ed.Dickason, superintendent of the mountain division of t h e Union Pacific Railroad, and R.M.Gal braith, superintenden t of t h e Union Pacific Railroad shops at Rawlins, on a fishing trip to Battle Lake. Transportation and camp equipme:1t were furnished from Rankin's livery stable. On arrival at the lake t h e second day out, a successful catch of native trout was made and devoured at the evening meal. The city men, not being accustomed to sleeping in the open, Ed.Dickason inquired of Mr.Edison next morning how he had rested during the night. H e replied, "The night was Glorious. I did not sleep; I just gazed at the stars, but feel much encouraged that I have co n ceived the i nvention of an incandescent lamp." New Ranees Were 3eine Stocked It was i n September, 1878, that A ;i .J?.cks o n & Co. of Chicac;o, engaged ir. the cattle businens, buyitlfS a trail herd o f three t housand cattle at Cheyelne. T h e y were branded "boot" and were moving west on the Shirley Trail whe!'l T h e Rider delivered a message f o r eman of t h e herd, at Bad Medicine Creek,ninety miles from Rawlins, at the time of the total eclipse of t h e sun. The herd was l o 1: 1: !: I I .,. :I c

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54 on the Sand Creek range. (Weaver, some years later, was elected t th w m1ng state legislature from Carbon County). 0 e yoMany bands of large game were seen on the trip, when passin g over Seminole and Freeze-out Mountains and in Shirley Basin, accompa nied by the sound of breaking branches, the bleating of the young calf, and moo of the mother elk, when, each day, bands emerged at dusk from the timbered mountains near by, to drink and play at a fresh water lake. Yearlings and two-year-olds were the most active in cavorting about in the lake in a playful manner, splashing water on each other, and rearing on their hind legs, at the same time boxing with their front feet. Their actions and appearance were similar to young mules at play. The Shirley Basin area was just one of the many large game haunts in the Rocky Mountain country. Many pairs of bull elk have been found alive within large gdme haunts of the mountain country, with antlers locked; also skeleton pairs in which the combatants, in fierce head-on collision for supremacy had their antlers locked in a way they could not separate. Each had died from exhaustion and starvation. One skeleton pair w hich The Rider discovered in the Freeze-out Mountain district, defied thirtyminute effort of maneuvering and prying. He failed to separate them without damage. One prong of an antler had to be removed before the lock was released. Bates Hole, a few miles north of the basin, harbored bear and herds of large game during the severe winter weather. J.O.Loomis moved his herd of cattle from Fort Collins to the Hole in 1877. His range brand was 0 L. The Shirley Trail was a branch leaving the South Pass route at Independence Rock and crossing the North Platte River where now is the Pathfinder reservoir, and by Indian Grove, Freeze-out Mountain to the Laramie Plains where it connected with Cheyenne and the Denver and Overland Route. W.F.Co4y (Buffalo Bill). In November, 1878, The Rider attended a show staged at Rawlins by a theatrical lrlesque road troupe, with Buffalo Bill shooting glass balls as a side act, and t his was Bill's first engagement in the show business. The name Buffalo Bill be came famous because of his expert marksmanship in killing Buffalo on the plains of Kansas, where his parents were homesteading when he was a boy of 12 to 15 years. LPter, he became a scout for military expeditions on the plains, and finally chief scout for cavalry troops during the Sioux campaign of 1875 and 1877. While serving in that capacity he was credited with bravery in a number of scout dashes through hostile Indian territory. On one oc casion, he met with and slew the daring Cheyenne Chief Yellow H 8nd. At the close of the Sioux campaign he returned to his ranch situated two miles north of North Platte City, Nebraska. From here he was called to Chicag o by a theatrical company because o f his daring feats on western frontiers and b ecause of his entertaining personality. He was employed to give exhibitions of his skill and to describe on the stage his notable achievements. The theatrical company toured the state s by rail. Later, Bill returned to his ranch and organized his own Indian and Wild-West Cowboy show, with which he toured the United States and principal countries of Europe. Trading stores along the White River route competing for business, Perkins, in order to fill up his large, new store building, put in a large supply of general merchandise, which included late model Winchester rifles. Peck, on Bear River, enlarged his stock of trading supPlies, rifles. It was said that he accommodated his customers, including the Ute Indians, when re quested, with a bottle of "fire-water. It was a fact that no tradir.g store stock was complete without a supply of liquor to help bring trade. In order to grab the lion's share of the Ute trade, Perkins established a branch store in Spring Gulch. This was between Peck's store and the Ute reservation line. with Black Wilson in charge. Euger.e Taylor, not to be outdone in the scramble for Ute trade, established a tent store at the road crossing of Milk Creek, near the reservation line. A New Deal and the Way It Was Accepted. Nathan Cook Meeker Succeeds H .E.Danforth as Agent at the White River Agency. The Secretary of the Interior, after receiving the resignation of H.E.Danforth, when casting around about to find a man for the job, learned of Meeker and of his success in establishing the Union Colony; his interest in Indian affairs, and his ideals for civilization and education of the Indians. He was appointed agent. He was a dreamer of higher ideals. He visioned the Indians could be civilized and become self-supporting by teaching them how to farm.

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55 Meeker was sixty-four years old. He had been one of the editorial staff of the New York Tribune for several years. With advice and financial assistance from Horace Greeley, he organized the Union Colony, which was incorporated in the name of Gree l ,ey. URIAH M CURTIS. Interpreter JOE COLLOM. Mail Carrier Age 25. H. E. DANFORTH. Agent MRS H E DANFORTH. Postmistress First White River Ute Indian Agency. Built in the Upper Pictur esque White River Valley in 1868 : Indicated Here. 1875 Weekly Mail Arriving (Looking East).

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56 H e moved with his family to Colorado i n 1870 H e estabJished and was editor of T h e G r eeley Tribune. Meeker arrived at the White River Agency fro m G reeley i n the latter part of June, 1 [ 7 8 to take the job o f agent. He traveled by rai l t o Rawlins, a n d s outh to the agency by b uckboard mail stage Meeker Decides to Move the Agency, The Agency situated near the mountains where the snowfall was heavy, Meeker inspected the lands adjacent to the agency, as to whether suitable for agriculture. A few tons of wild hay had been cut each seaso n for winter use, but no farming had been done. H e looked over the entire White River Valley within the reservation, H e selected the Powell Bottom, twelve miles down t h e river from the old agency, as the most suitable place for the agency to farm. H e made his decision known to Chief Douglas, who, wi-th his several sub-chiefs,, held council and made strong protest, declaring ttlat the Powell Bottom furnished the best winter grazing for their ponies, and if the was moved there, the grass would all be used in the summer, and t hey would not adhere to the idea, Regardless of the chief's objections, Meeker went ahea d with his plan. He started employees at moving the building s which were composed of rough cottonwood and pine logs. Powell Bottom derived its name fro m Major J.W.Powell, who, with a party of scientists, camped on the bottom for several months during 1869, They were engaged in exploring the rims of the Colorado, Green, and Bear River canyons and other sections for minerals, Since it was a government expedition, they were permitted to camp within the reservation lands. Activities at the White River Agency in 1878; Confirmed by Joe Collom. A Contract Was Let. Meeker applied t o t h e postoffice department for an increase in mail service to the Agency, and the weekly mail between Dixon and the Agency was increased to semiweekly, July lst, 1878, Meeker's Family Moved to t h e Agency. When Joe Collom arrived at t h e Agency with t h e last mail of the Collom-Dutch Bill weekly mail contract between Dixon and the Agency, he was open for a new job. He was introduced and reco!!1lllended to Mr. Meeker as a rel'iable man, by Mrs. H.E. Danforth postmistress at t h e Agency, and wife of t h e retiring agent. He was employed b y Meeker. His first job was to drive an Agency mule team witt: c am p equipment to Rawlins and bring back Mrs.Teresa Meeker, aged sixty-seven, and daughter Josephine, aged twenty, and Windfield Fullerton, a young man of Greeley, w h o was a visitor. The second n ight from Rawlins on their way to the Agency, they camped at Cold Springs near Fortification Rocks, the noted rattlesnake den. They found a number of rattlers coiled under sage brush near the spring. They all joined in exterminating all that could be found near camp. Although not havin g the protection of a tent, they were not molested during t h e n ight. T h e y arrived at Powell Bottom the following day, and joined Mr. Meeker in camp w here the buildings of t h e old Agency were being erected for the 1..w Agency. Ute Customs. It was a custom of the roving Ute bands (Col'"lrow, Washington, Sowawic, Cup Ears, Jack and others) w hile hunting each season in t h e Bear anct E l k North a n d Middle Park country, to join in camping in Upper 1\iddl e ; ;ark, w here t h e y engaged in sports such as horse-racing and foot-racing among themselves. At times they were joined in their sports by the whites.

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57 From this camp, leading chiefs with small parties would visit at mining towns and at :::>enver, t o view the sights, tramp the streets, and sit on t h e curb for a few days. If t h e y had a grievance at the Agency, t hey w ould seek a confere nce with t h e Big Chief (governor) relating their troubles and asking his aid in securi n g relief for them t b rough t h e Washington government. Tabashie Killed. In A u gust, 1878 the several Ute bands had congregated in camp on Frazer Creek below the Cousin's ran ch, and near the Junction ranch which received tile name because of being located at tr.e junction of the Empire and Blackhawk roads. The ran c h was owned b y Wm.Hamil of Georgetown John Turner was in charge. Chief Washington and Pia h with a b and, had been o n a roving and foraging trip on the South Platte and plains east of Denver, where t hey harrassed settlers, shot and wounded one, They had returned to Frazer Creek, locating their tepees o n the Junctio n ranch meadow. was mowing hay. H e was angered by t heir trespassing, and ordered them t o move. He was greeted by a tirade of abuse in tl1e Ute tongue. Advancing in a threate n ing manner, a band of eig!Jt Utes, led by a young buck named Tabas hie Nee-Tab-cht, ( g randson of o l d Chief Yarmony) and known to the whites by the name of Sugarlip, literally cut the harness from the team with their knives. The Utes, being armed, Turner was po")lerless t o m ake resif:tance. With a view to complying by law for p rotection of his property, Tur ner sent a courier post-haste to notify sheriff Mark n e s s y at Sulphur Sorings, who organized a p osse of eight spec i a l deputies to accompan y him. The names o f some of t Lesc were Frank Anderson, George Clark Frank Byers, John Turner, Charley Royer, and Frank M cQ.u e r y When the posse arrived at the Junction ranch and Ute camp, t h e Utes were horseracing a quarter of a mile away. T hey had left their rifle s i n tbeir tepees. The posse seized the rifles and held t h e m u nder guard at the Ju!1ctior: ranc!: Since the race-track was out of view of the camp, the b ucks were notifie d by o!1e o f their tribe. A band of bucks app eared at the Ju!1ction ran c h a nrl demaded t r.e rifles, which were refused t h e m by the s heriff Sugarlip, who w a s leader i n tl1 e harness cuttir.g, made a break to seize the rifles. H e was s lJOt dead by Fra k Anderson. With the leaderdead, S heriff Bessy decided it was not goo d policy to make arrests at that time. After t h e s heriff had talked with s ome o f the older chiefs, the affair quieted dow n and t h e rifle s were returned. Junction ran c h is n ow the towr.site of from the above men t ioned incide!1t. It was given t h e n ame by S A .]:eredith c;Jief engineer of the Y.offat Railroad v1hen it was built in 1902. The Utes Kill O l d M a n Elliot. The same b a!1d of Utes, when on t heir way to t h e Agency, killed old man living 0!1 t h e Blue River. T hey held a grievance agDinst Elliot from the y ear before w ben he refused t h em food. Some settlers thought the murder was to avenge the killing of T abasl :ie. Elliot was killed nbilP. c h oppi!1: woo d by t h e side o f his cabin. When t h e !1ews reached Sulphur Springs, S heriff Bessy with a posse, went to the Blue River i n search of the murderers, but failed to fin d them. T h e y had fled toward t h e Agenc y A few d a y s l ater, Sheriff Bessy, witb t hree specia l deputies, went to t h e White R iver to arrest the guilty Utes. Agent Meeker was not at headquarters w he!1 arrived. was at work a few miles out on t h e reservation. The S heriff m ade it k n own t o that h e wished t o see Mr. Meeker on important business. Pah-viets, a trus t y Indiar_, was sent to call Meeker. 'ilh e n he arrive d the si.eriff told him l1is mission and asked h i s assistance i n finding t h e crimir;als. Meeker called Chief ;)ouglas, and they conferred with him in the matter. Dougla s said that no Utes could b e arreste d on tlie reservation by civil aut!Jorities. was done at t h u t time t o avenge t h e r:1urder o f Elliot. Pah-viets and J ane. I n Sept ember, 1878 work was p rogressir.g at the Living quarters had

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58 been completed. The agent and family had moved i n Pah-viets and his squaw, Jane, were helpful with t h e work. Jane, when a small girl of six years, was adopted b y Judge Carter, post-trader at Fort Bridger, from the Uintah tribe. The Carter family bestowed on her the name Jane Whi l e living with the Carter family, Jan e learned to talk and understand English and t o do house-work. When at a marriageable age, Pah-viets of the White River tribe won her for his squaw Jane acted as interpreter and reporter for the Utes at the White River Agency. Meeker, in order to encourage the I ndian s in gardening and raising vegetables for their own use, had his men prepare the g round and help Jane p lant vegetable seeds. She took care of the plants by the advice of the agent and raised a f air crop. Roving Bands Return to t h e Agency. In September, 18?8, roving bands were drifting to the Agency and setting up their tepees in the form of a village near the new Agency and near the river bank. Chief Johnson had spent the greater part of the summer at the Agency he being chief medicine man, with some influence in the tribe. He was about fifty-five years old, of stocky build, with slovenly and greasy make-up. He had two wives. The older one was named Susan, and s h e was a of Chief Ouray. The y ounger squaw was named Cooz. Meeker made known to the c hiefs his plans for farming and requested the assis tance of all Utes with the work. The c hiefs did not take kindly to his advice and discouraged it with others of the tribe. Meeker, in order to demonstrate his good intentions for their welfare, had a house built for Johnson, near the Agency He told others of the tribe that they could all be living in a house like Johnson's if they would assist with the work and learn to farm. (To live in a house was no inducement for an Indian to work). John Collom, a brother of Joe Collom, was employed by Meeker at the Agency. Be ing a young man of twenty years, he was apt in learning the Ute tongue. Besides general agenc y work, he acted as interpreter between Agent Meeker and the Utes. Josephine, Meeker's daug!Jter, had won the good graces of the Indian children and was teaching them in s chool and Sunday school as well. Meeker Contracts Building of Ditch. In September, 18?8, Ed.E,Clark, civil eneineer of Greeley, was employed by Meeker to survey a ditch from White River t o furnish water for irrigation of Powell Bottom lands. About the same time, Meeker contracted wit: J Bill Lisco of Bear River t o build t h e ditch early in the spring of 18?9. Clark, while employed at the Agency during t h e survey, spent evenings in the Indian camp. He sang songs and performed antics which pleased the Indians, and was much i n demand for his entertainme nt. Ukatats Killed by Jenki ns. Jenkin's squaw had been sick for some time. Uke.tats had administered to her nee <\s as medicine man. The squaw died. Jenki n s placed t h e cause of her death on Ukatats. Joe Collom was at work a short distance from their tepees. Tie heard a shot. Looking up, h e saw Jenkins mount his pony at a fast pace, and head d own t:Oe river. Chief Douglas sent Pah-viets and two other trusty Utes t o f ollo w and bring Jenkins back, The chiefs of the trib e held council to affix a p e nalty on Jenkin s for the killing of Ukatats. T h e verdict of the council was that should kil1 ten of his ponies at the grave of Ukatats, thus squaring accounts. The Agenc y Cattle. There were about five hundred government c attle on the White River reservation from wnich the beef sunply for t!le agency, includiYlg t:'le Indians, was drawn. They ranged 9rincipally on Strawberry and Piceance Creeks. The range brand was I D indicating Interior Department. The trihe privately owned about four hundred and fifty small rwrses, and one small band of l':exica:-1 s heep

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59 Several of t h e sub-chiefs were much interested in hors e-racing, and had added several speedy ponies to t heir racing string by trading six eigh t or ten of their common stock to the whites for one of speed, when the opportunity presented itself. The for the delivery of supplies to t h e White River Agency in 1878 was not fulfllled. The c ontractor, located in Laramie, failed to mee t his obligations. Only a small part of the supplies were delivered by local freie;l!ters from Rawlins before t h e road s became blocked with s now thus causing much dissatisfaction amon g t h e Indians. October 25th, new settlers had located in the Bear River Valley during 1878. Hulett Brothers (Charley and Dyer) and Hugh Torrence, moved their herd o f cattle from t h e Huerfano The y were branded H L, and their headquarters was located four miles below the agency road crossing. George Iles made home stead location near his brother Tom. Jerry Huff, after several years trapping and c arrying mail, was raising horses o n Elkhead Creek. T h e dirt floor of his cabin, lik e many of the pioneer cabin floors, was covered with dry elk, deer and antelope hides, used as rugs. During the general election in Routt County in N ovember, 1878, a ballot was taken in contest between Hayden and Hahn's Peak in which each aspired for the prize, Hahn's Peak being the winner. The Peak, being snow-bound f o r the winter, the county record s were moved from H ayden to the Peak in M ay, 1879 by John R e ynolds and Jimmy Dunn. Some Incidents of Note Within t h e Area In 1879. Maggie Baggs Shows Traits. February, 1879, Maggie Baggs, with a view t o surrounding herself help and a family, went to New York, w here s h e secured three childre n from an orphans' home, ages running from three to seven ye ars. Two were boys, Tom a nd Isaac Jones; the other a girl, Una Ryan. The y were given a home on the B aggs ranch. George Baggs, with t h e first large herd of cattle in the Snake River c ountry, gathered the cream off the range w hen I.R.Alter, a beef b u yer for t h e Denver market came to the Bagg s ranch during March and bought several hundred head, gathered from the Snake River range each season 1 875 t o 1879. The y were shipped fro m Rawlins to Denver. There were no packing houses west of Chicago; grain-fed beef was a luxury in the mountain country T h e B aggs cattle furnished juicy steaks for Denver tables, April, 1879, The Rider, with team and buckboard, moved Jack Edwards, his saddle, bed a n d personal effects from Rawlins t o t h e B aggs ranch. Jack had bee n employed by Baggs as foreman of his cattle ranch. H e did :tot remain long on the job, having his own ideas of handling the work outlined by Mrs. R aggs, Because of M aggie's continual butting in, w hich was not a g reeable w i t h Jack, he quit t he job. A few years later he became a prominent s h eepman of t he Powder Spring s and lower Snake River countries. T his was several years before Butch Cassidy and his band of outlaws mad e rendezvous at P owder Springs. Some years later, Jack undertook to graze his s heep on the upper Snake River cattle rang e He was met on .'lillow C r eek h y a delegation of cattlemen. Bie; Perkins, t he spokes man, advised him t o go back. H e was allowed t hree days t o move his s heep north o f Snake :1iver. Jack b ecame hard boiled a nd declared h e would graze his herds w here h e saw fit. When t h e three days were up, h owever, his sheep were north of Snake River. After disposing of his herds in the Snake River country, h e became owner of a large herd of blooded sheep at P e :tdleton, Oregon Jack and his b r o t hers, and 3 ob mig rated from 3ngland, and were employed at Rock Spring s for some time. Griff. engaged in the sheep bu siness in t h e Vermilion Creek a nd Douglas Springs country in 1 877 H e became a larg e owner. H e passed awa y at Rec k Springs i n 1884 fro m tick fever. Bo"l:>, during his few years employment at odd jobs abou t Roc k Springs, joined with miners in a desperate attempt to devour all t he "miner's delight" booze 1: ii

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60 ing town. There was still some left when he passed out. A.L.Durham, who was related to the Noah Reader family, arrived on Snake River, and was employed by Perkins, in 1879. April, 1879, when delivering an official message, which wa s wired to Rawlins, addressed, "Sam Reid, Routt C ounty, Colorado, The Rider found Sam living in the Hayden Valley. The message had t o do with forest service. Sam had been employed by the government authorities to report any cutting of timber in Routt County for commercial purposes by parties without a permit from the government. Forest service of the 1870s was a small item compared with the forest service of today. No attempt was made t o put either timber or prairie fires out unless they destruction of private interests. Th e Fate of Nels Iverson. Nels Iverson, a stalwart Dane of twenty-four years, left his native country in 18?8, going to New York. After spending several months there, he ventured west in search of employment. He stopped at Rawlins. He had been a sailor in the northern waters of his homeland, with some experience as a butcher. He was employed by Fred Palmer as a butcher and meat cutter. A few months had passed when he learned of an expedition which was being financed by James Gordon Bennett, for exploration and scientific research in the arctic The expedition was sponsored and organized by Lieutenant George W.Delong of the U.S.Navy. Nels applied by mail to the headquarters of the organization for a job as seaman and butcher. He the necessary references. His physical requirements were perfect. He was employed. Being a genial fellow, he made many friends durin g his short time in Rawlins, many of whom bid him farewell as he boarded the Union Pacific train, "No.3" on April 27th, 1879 to join the personnel of thirty-two men of t h e expedition by May 1st, at Mare Island, where the ship "Jeanette" was undergoing improvements and being equipped for the arctic trip. The Jeanette left San Francisco in command of Lieutenant Delong, July 8th. During September, while in arctic waters, the ship was storm-beaten and
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61 The third and smallest boat in which six of the crew had embarked from t h e sinking ship, was lost at sea, supposedly capsized during the storm -and never heard of again. This meagre description of the Delong expedition has been mentioned merely to relate the fate of the genial and faithful Dane, Nels Iverson. ( Note: A detailed description of the ill-fated Jeanette, Delong Arctic Expedition, as repcrted by Lieutenant Guiles of the U.S.Navy, who was in command of the relief expedition which recovered the bodies of Delong and eight of his party, can be found in most libraries. Kay lst, 1879, The Rider was one of Frank Harrah's crew of cowboys who were leaving the Hurrah ranch for the general roundup. Snake River was at flood stage from melting snow in the mountains. There was no bridge; horse cavy swam the stream; logs were lashed together for a raft, on which the wagon and camp equipment were paddled across. Bill Slater, who had imbibed rather freely of Perkin's best, had spent the last of his mining stake. H e was employed as cook, and Bob McCarger was horse wrangler. During August, 1879, while the cattle roundup in the neighborhood of Timberlake Springs was going on, billions of grasshoppers were encountered migrating from t .1e west 1;o the east, covering a strip of country one mile wide. While billions of them were on the ground, cleaning up vegetation, billions were moving in the air from the rear of the procession, obscuring the sun and alighting in t h e lead on new pastures. The country they passed over was completely stripped of grass and leaf vegetation. (They possibly were on their way to join their kin who were in possession of western Kansas at that timel. July 1st, 1879, George Gordon, freighter of Rawlins, was awarded the government contract to deliver Indian supplies for 1879, to the White River Agency. The freight was due to arrive at Rawlins on or before September 1st. It was on July 1st, 1'379, that a weekly mail route was est3blished between Sulphur Springs and Steamboat Springs, and connected with the and White River line at Peck's store on Bear River, where a postoffice was established named Windsor. Burgess and Lee, of Sulphur Springs, had the contract. Ellis Clark, at the a.ge of 17, carried mail on this route. He later became a prominent stockman of Routt County. There were no settlers north of the White River reservation line in 1879 closer than Snake River, which was 75 miles, except the Morgan Brothers and Collom. The fev. settlers on Bear River were from forty to sixty miles east of the reservatior. line. :;: I

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N. C. MEEKER. MRS. N .C. MEEKER. JOSEPHINE MEEKER. AS THEY APPEARED IN 1 879.

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SECTION XI. At the Agency, April, 1879, Bill Lisco, wit:-1 a crew of men, was at work moving dirt on the Powell Bottom ditch survey. Eugen e Ta ylor left the Agency for a job with Charley Perkins. Joe Collom and brother Jonnhad left t h e Agency job to live on their homesteads on Collom Creek. Agent Meeker employed an entire crew of farmers, young men from Greeley, to help at the Agency. Their names were:W.H.Post, bookkeeper; Sd.L.Mansfield, Frank Dresser, Harry Dresser, Fred Shepherd, George Arthur Thompson, E.W.Esk ridge; E.Jasper Price, as blacksmith and handy man, and his wife Flora; Ellen Price, to assist Mrs. Meeker with t h e housework, and Price's two children Mae, of two years, and John, less than one year. The party came from Greeley by railroad, and by Agency wagon convey a nce from Rawlins to the Agency. The men were employed in the regula r routine of ranch work, such as farming, ditch work, building fence, Agency out-buildings, and riding to care for the Agency cattle. June, 1879, the Indians, seeing their pasture lands being plowed and fenced, were aggravated to the point of near hostility. The c hiefs held councils; they protested to Meeker and t old him where he should not plow and fence. One tract of land in particular, which was very desirable for farming, on which the Utes bad a corral and race-track, should positively not be plowed or fenced. Chief Douglas, Pah-viets and Jane, who formerly were agreeable and helpful about the Agency, joined the sub-chiefs in protesting to Meeker against farming, saying, "Utes no like work. Ponies get cut on wire. N o grass," and many other complaints. Ute children, whom Josephine had taught in school and others w ho m Mrs. Meeker had treated w h e n they were sick and at times given meals and sweets, all had been taugh t to disrespect Josephine and Mrs. Meeker by s pitting at them, makinr ugly faces and d oing mean things. O n one occasion, when a plowman had turned a few furrows on t h e tract of land in w hich the race-track and corral were situated, a ball from a Ute rifle whizzed close by t h e plowman's head. No more plowing was done. The s hot was intended by the Utes as a warning to intimidate the employees and the agent, so no more plowing would be done on that particular tract of land. In June, 1879, the sub-chiefs, each with his band of followers, were leaving t he reservation in separate band s f o r Elk River, Egeria, North and Middle Park, on t heir rambles o f hunting and camping. Chief D ouglas, with his horde of older bucks, squaws and children, went north to his favorite h unting grounds on Muddy and Savery Creeks in Wyomin g Johnson remained at the Agency to protest Meeker's farm policy, and t o see that no plowing was done on t h e race-track lands. Meeker, in fear for t h e safety of himself, his family and employes, wrote Secretary of the Carl Schurz, for soldiers for t heir protection. Settlers of Bear River and lliddle P ark Become Alarmed. About July 1 8 1879, t he Utes, agitated and resenting their grievances at t h e Agency were committing depredations. The y burned hay belonging to S.D.N.Bennett on Elk River. The y burned Tyler's corral in Ege r i a Park, and camped on settlers' mea dow s in t h e Blue River and Middle Park country. 3 ecause of the marauding disposition shown b y t he Indians, the settlers became alarmed, and thought they were in danger of losing their lives. Complaints were made by a nUP.Jber of settlers; a protest wa s formulated a nd forwarded to '.'.'ashing ton, setting forth a serious situation. An officer was sent out to investieate. The result was t hat G e neral Pope, t h e arm y in t h e department of I 'I 'I li !I

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64 Missouri, with headquarters at Fort Leavenworth, was notified, He instructed General McKenzie, in command of Fort Garland,to dispatch troops for the protection of settlers. Captain Clarence Dodge (Company c, 9th Cavalry) Lieutenant Hughes, White and a troop of forty-four negro cavalry with four supply wagons, left Fort Garland for Middle Park, arriving at Sulphur Springs, August 14,1879, They made camp twelve miles below Sulphur Springs at Long Riffles on the Grand River, one hundred and fifty miles from the White River Ag e n cy. Captain Dodge's assignment was to protect settlers and keep in touch with developments at the Agency, should his services be required there. Ute Sub-Chiefs Seek a Conference With the Governor. About August 28,1879, Colorow, Jack, Piah, Sowawic and other less influential Indians of the Ute tribe, composed a party from their camps where they had congregated in upper Middle Park, visited Denver to seek a conference with t h e and put before him their grievance at the White River Agency, asking his assistance in getting a new agent. The conference was of short duration. Nothing was accomplished, and no satisfaction given the Utes. Ute Jack had a sly way of getting information. If he saw twc or more whites in conversation on the street or other convenient place, he would stick around, pretending not to be interested, If he were spoken to, he would shake his head grunt, pretending to "no savvy." Utes Burning Grass and Timber. When the Ute delegation returned to camp in Middle Park from Denver with no encouragement from the governor about getting a new agent, they started for t h e agency, giving vent to their feelings by setting fire t o the grass a n d timber in the Blue River, Egeria Park and Elk River country, w here a acreage of timber was burned, and hay belonging to Sam Reid. The most damage was done in the timber near the head of \Vhite River. 'l'his was directly on the route to the agency. They knew the presence of the negro soldiers in Middle Park, and named them "Buffalo Soldiers." They arrived at the agency several weeks earlier was their custom. Their annuity supplies were not due for distribution until October 15th. Chief Douglas' band had not yet arrived at the agency, They had slaughtered and tanned "heap buckskin" at their camp on the head of the ruuddy Creek in Wyoming. The Rider, in his daily pursuit as cowboy, had talked with touglas at his camp, and frequently met small bands when riding the cattle range, When meeting, the Ute word "How" was passed; "Where come, where go4'" If the white man was a stranger to them, they were persistent in finding out where he was from, and what his business was. Jack, Colorow and Piah met the party at Snake River when Douglas was moving toward the Agency. After Jack and Colorow had counciled with Douglas, "some trading" was done with buckskin, for rifles and ammunition, by Jack and Douglas at the Perkins store. Trouble Brewi'1g. Trouble had been brewing at the agency more or less all summer. Johnson had frequent clashes with the agent, and at other times, Jane spoke her mind to i'"eeker. During one of these rows, Johnson administered a severe beating to By t his time, Meeker had come to realize his danger, and again wrote governnent authorities for his need of soldiers for protection. His communications of this nature were passed to Governor Pitkin, who, by wiring the contents to Nas h ingt on, and through his influence, prompt action was expected, About September 15th,l879, roving bands, after returning to the agenc y were making life miserable for the agent, opposing him on every turn. l.:eeker attempted to send out a courier to meet Captain Dodge and his negro soldiers, to have them co:ne to the agency. He was prevented from doing so by the Utes. c!e attempted to take his family out by wagon, but was prevented in this move.

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65 Jack asked when t h e soldiers coming. Meeker replied that h e did not know, but said of they did come, t hey would do no harm. The Utes w e r e active, going t o the different stores to trade for rifles and ammunition. A t t h e same time, they were adding t o their grievances by tuning up with liquor. Perk i n s had more than the usual Ute trade for the season. Peck traded his last rifle t o the Utes. Peck realized from Ute attitude that trouble was near, and with his family moved to R awlins. Perkins' branch stores had a fair share of the Ute trade, for rifles was limited, The rovin g bands had but a small amount of buckskin or cash to make larg e purchases, and t h e stores would not accep t ponies in trade. Uncompahgre renegade Indians had been incited to join the River Utes in war should the soldiers come to White River. There were nine rough-neck Utes, from the Uintah reservation. They had come to visit and horse-race with the White River U t es. Their stay was longer than expected. It was making inroads on the chief's food supply. Jack asked who was in charge of annuity supplies, to issue the Unintah Utes p rovisions. Post replied that he could not issue supplies to other than the W nite Indians, and to them only on regular dates of issue. From this answer, Jack and other c hiefs became enraged, which added to their already fancied grievances. It later beca.me known that Jack was holding the Uintah Utes until the s oldiers came. Captain Dodge's First Move. Captain Dodge, camped at Long Riffles, received his mail at Sulphur Springs, advising him of a serious situation at the White River Agency. Dodge engaged Sandy Mellen, the cowboy mail carrier of Middle Park, to bring his mail to him a few days later, and left with his troop of negro cavalry to go near the agency where he could learn the situation there. He traveled over the Gore Range and through Egeria Park. H e camped one night at Steamboat Springs. (John Crawford, at that time a small boy, and now clerk of Routt County, recalls the colored troops and the sound of the bugle call) They arrived at the Bear River crossing of the agency road at noon t h e next day after leaving Steamboat Springs. Ed,Collom, tl1 e mail carrier, was on the way fro m Dixon to the agency. Dodge waited at 'Nindsor for the carrier's return from the agenc y and learned from him that, although there had been trouble, all seemed peaceful during his night's stay. Then Dodge returned to Middle Park, w here he expected teams with supplies from Fort Garland. Horse-Racing at the Agency, September 24, Frank Byers of Sulphur Springs, accompanied by Charles Royer, had gone to the White River Agency to horse-race with the Indians. During t heir three days racing, Byers and Royer won ten ponies and a number of beaver hides. Byers rode and won a race for Chief Cup-Eo.rs, riding against Chief Sowawic's pony, Byers realized from complaints he heard and from the attitude of t'1e Utes, that they were much opposed to Agent Meeker. Byers, in a conversation witt Meeker, stated what he had heard. llieeker replied that the Indians always had more o r less complaints and grievances. Tom and Billy liorgan came over the ')anforth hills from their ran cl1 the same day that Byers and Royer left the agency, September 27th, to see the new a gency, and to horse-race with the Utes, chastised them for coming t here to race with t h e Indians. Josephine with Ute c hildren, sat on t h e corral fence watching the races, Since there much agitation and dissatisfaction among the Indians, boys did not stay long. They returned to their home. An official of t h e postoffi ce rle partment arrived at t h e agency t!: e same day tl1e ] .'organs left, going by horsebac k from Perkins'. H e w a s by t h e Utes on t h e road near Milk Creek. !l e was t horoughly quest 1 oned as to h1s bus1ness. 'llhen the Utes learned h e was from Wasilir,gton, h e was allowed to proceed. After a one-nigb t stay he returned to itawlins and Denver. '" I I

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SECTION XII. Thornburg Wit' b Troops to Protect Empl oye s at t h e Age n c y Septeuber 19th, 1 879, Major Thomas T.Thornbur g the military post of Fort Steele, fifteen miles east of Rawlins, was notified by General Crook, commanding the U.S.A rmy in the department of t h e Platte, to proceed to nhite River Agency with a detachment of troops for p r otection of employes at the agenc y Thornburg was on a fishing trip at Battle Lake w h e n t h e message arrived, A courier was sen t to notify h im of the message. T h e fort bad a small garriso n of soldiers; one company rf cavalry and two of infantry Thornburg left Fort Steele September 22nd, with Company E of the 3rd Cavalry with C aptain Joseph lawson in command; and C or.Jpar;y I of the 4th Infantry, with Lieutenant Price in c harge -Thornburg's own, as he was an i nfantryman and not a cavalryman, H e was a c compa nied by Lieutenant C A .Cherry, of t h e vfficers staff, a v olunteer. Thornburg expectine to be in t h e field f o r an indefinite time took a supply train of twenty-eigh t and one ambulance, J.W.Hugus, post-trader at Fort Steele, sent Joh n c.Davis a n d F.S Blake, employes,with a wagon load of goods for a "suttler store" along wit!: t h e expedition, At Rawlins, Thornburg was joined by Companies F, and D, 5t!; Cavalry sent from Fort D. A Russell, with Captain Scott Payne in collll!lanrl of C onpany F and Lieutenant J. V .S.Paddock in command of C ompa 1 y D, Neither of tbe Thornburg units were full compa nies, each troop having from forty to forty-five men. Troop D had only twenty-seven men. The U. S A rmy at .that time was equipped with Springfield rifles, w hicL replaced tbe needle-gun rifle used by t h e army prior to 1877, Neither Thornburg nor any of his men were familiar with t h e road to the agency, Joe Rankin, stableman of Rawlins, w h o formerly carried mail to t h e a gency by horseback, was employed by Thornburg as scout, September 24th, 1879, Thornburg left Rawlins, traveling leisurely. On the way south, Rankin advised him of Charley Lowry (living on Snake River) as being a man w h o was friendly with t h e White River Utes, When the expedition arrived at Snake River, Lowry was employed. Dressed in buckskin, he traveled with the command as far as the mouth of Little Bear Creek, where Thornburg sent him ahead to the agency (September 28th) to learn conditions there, and the sentiment of the Indians, with instructions to return and report to him next day on the road. Thornburg left Company I, 4th Infantry at t h e of Little Eear Creek, as a reserve and guard for supplies. At Bear River crossing, t h e expeditio n was met by Colorow, Jack, Piah Johnson and four others of the tribe, appeared friendly and wanted to talk, Jack, as spokesman, readily recognized T hornburg a s the big chief, and said, "Where you go? T hornburg replied they were going to White River, Jack asked, "What you do t here?" To this question Thornburg replied, "Just to s e e t h e country, When Jack was asked where he was going, he replied, "Utes hunt deer. The band rode awa y in t h e hills, This call was for the purpose of sizing up the strengt :, of T hornburg's army. Whe n t h e troop s reach e d W i lliarn ::; Fork, w here they camped for the n igr:t, the sam e eigbt Indian s appeared. The evening meal was being served, and t h e Utes were invited to eat, After cleaning up all prepared f ood i n sight, Jack a pproached Thornburg and said, "Utes no want soldiers g o t o Wni te River." He made a pro p o sition that 'i'hornburg take five of his men as an escort, and he, Jack, w o uld take fire Utes, a nd together they w ould go to t h e agency and t alk with t h e agent. T hornburg discussed the matter with his officers. Scout R ankin, who was strong in opposition to Jack's request, said the Utes might be laying a trap for t h em.

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67 The same evening, Black Wilson was going fro m his store on Spring Gulch, six miles to Thornburg's camp on William's Fork, to sell him some hay for his stock. When two miles from his place, he was met by five Utes and told to go back home. "Utes fight soldiers; no wanna kill oo." The Utes Were Active. On September 28th, the Utes were busily engaged in securing ammunition. They deliberately took possession of what ammunition was at the Peck store, which consisted of one case of cartridges. The Utes told Eugene Taylor to move out from Milk Creek with his store, as there was going to be trouble when the soldiers came. On September 27th, a party of Utes demanded of Black Wilson all rifles and ammunition he had in stock at the Perkins store on SpringGulch-without remuneration. Wilson and Mike Sweet talked them out of their demand. After the Utes left, Wilson talked the matter over with Joe Collom, as to what was best to do with the rifles and ammunition so that the Utes would not get them. They decided to bury the stock where there was loose dirt from an excavation of a cellar, and a brush heap was placed over the cache. Jack headed a band of reckless Utes that came on September 28th with the intention of taking rifles and ammunition by force. Jack demanded the stock, Wilson tha t he had sent the stock to Perkins' store on Snake River. Jack looked around for wagon tracks which he did not find; then said to Wilson, "Heap d--d lie, but decided to give up the hunt. After the Utes had gone some time, all the trading store stock was loaded on Joe Collom's wago n and taken to Perkins' store at Snake River during the night. On September 28th, the mail carrier, on the way from Perkins' to the agency, was stopped a few miles north of Bear River by a small band of Utes and told to go back; that no more mail should go to the agency. On September 28th, the Utes made temporary base on the mountain one and onehalf miles 8outh from Milk Creek Canyon, where supplies and pony reserves were held. There were Ute scouts on the high peaks between Milk Creek and Bear River, with field glasses, to watch the movements of the soldiers and others on the road and on Morapos trail. Keeping out of view themselves, Lowry, being a particular friend, was allowed to go to the agency unmolested. By his buckskin suit and his horse, they could recognize him at a considerable distance. At tepees Creek, "Squaw been. Main Ute Camp Moved. the agency, September 28th, the squaws and children were moved with their from their camp at the agency to the head of the east branch of Pice-ance twelve miles south of the agency, where they made camp, which was known as Camp." Four tepees were left standing at the agency where ninety-four had One of these was Douglas' tepee. At dusk, September 28th, Meeker succeeded in starting out Ed. Mansfield, an employe, to find Captain Dodge and his soldiers to have them come to the agency. Watching his chance while the Utes were guarding the road toward Milk Creek, Mansfield slipped away in the opposite direction, going west and then by way of Straw berry trail and Coyote basin. Lowry at Agency. Lowry arrived at the agency a short time after Mansfield left. Peace had prevailed during the day, although he found agent Meeker in a nervous state, suffer ing from the effects of a beating administered by Johnson. Later in the evening a band of eight Utes came to the agency Milk Creek. They reported to a small' number of Utes at t h e agency, t he approach of U J e soldiers. After holding council, they all joined in a wild demonstration of war whoops, fierce yells and danced around Meeker's quarters. 1!eeker attempted to quiet them, but was jeered at by the Utes. Finally, Lowry intervened, and succeeded in quieting them after a half hour. I I I 'I 'I I

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68 The Utes were astir in the early morning. Lowry was ready to return to meet Tno1nburg. E.W.Eskridge, agency employe, was to accompany Lowry. They were detained a short time while council was held by the Utes as to whether they would let Eskridge go. He was allowed to go with an escort of Utes. When one mile fro m the agency the Utes turned him back, while Lowry was allowed to continue on to meet Thornburg. Eskridge had gone but a s hort distance toward t h e agency when h e was killed, and left nude in the road near the agency coal mine. Government Supplies Were Ne aring the Agency George Gordon, freight contractor, in order to move the greater part of the annual supplies for the agency at the first trip, engaged private teams to assist in moving the freight, and were nearin g the agency the evening of the 28th. Carl Goldstein, known at Rawlins and to settlers along the route, as the "Jew freighter," and his teamster Julius Moore, made camp by the road along Coal Creek, five l!liles from White River. John Gordon, in charge of ox teams, camped near the road crossing of Milk Creek. George Gordon, in charge of horse and mule teams, camped on Stinking Gulch near the Milk Creek divide. Al.McCarger and son made camp at the road crossing of Deer Creek three miles west of Williams Fork. The Trap Was Set. Thornburg's troops left William's Fork for the agency on the morning of Sep tember 29t!l, All freighters were alarmed at the actions of the Indians the day before, and were waiting in camp until the soldiers came, so they might have the assurance of moving to the agency in safety. As the troops were nearing the crossing of Milk C reek, they met Charley Lowry. reported to Thornburg the situation at the agency. After crossing Milk Creek where the trail left the road, Rankin led the troops by wa y of the short-cut trail. There were two low ridges in t h e rough country between the trail and neaver ravine road with a scattering growth of cedar, sarvisberry bush and aspens. Rankin and Frank Secrist, a private soldier, were one and a half miles from the crossing, and a quarter-mile in the lead of Thornburg, who was riding along with Capt. Lawson at the head of Troop E; and Capt.Payne, leading Troop F in the rear. Lieutenant Paddock, with Troop D was escort for the wagon train, which was two miles back on the road. When nearing the head of sarvisberry draw, which the trail followed, Rankin and Secrist saw about twenty-five mounted Indians leave other Indians on the second ridge which bordered on the Beaver ravine one thousand yards on the right, and make a dash as though to head t h em off on the traiL a short distance ahead. They turned back and met the command. Rankin said, "Boys, we are going t o have a fight right here." A halt was called, and a short conference took place. (It was a order of t h e war department to officers who were called to quash riots, Indian or other outbreaks, not to fire a shot unless attacked by the enemy) Thornburg himself, was without firearms of any kind and was attempting to go to the a gency peaceably, if possible. R ankin said to Thornburg, "Fire on t h e redskins. It i s our only show, a s the trail and road ahead for severa l miles leads through thickets, and in places scattered growt_ J s of sarvis bush and aspens along the narrow Beaver and Coal Creek draw. u To this request, Thornburg replied, "My God: I dare not, Joe. My orders are positive." Lieutenant Cherry's Peace Move. It was about te a.m. '.';hen T hornburg ordered Lieu tenant Cherry with ten men of Captain Lawson's troop to go within hailing distance of t h e Indians as a peace measure, and if posoible to learn t heir strength back o f t h e ridge. Captain ;va s ordered, with t h e rest of his men, to follow six hundred yards in t h e rear of the first ridge and await developments.

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69 As Cherry approached within hailing distance, h e waved his cap over his head, indicating friendliness. The Indians moved back and greeted him with a volley of shots over the brow of the ridge. The Utes, at a much higher elevation, overshot. N o one was injured. Cherry moved back. Lawson, taking in the situation, advanced, picking up who were with Cherry and followed up the attack, gaining t h e ridge five hundred yards to the right and overlooking the Beaver ravine. A large number of Indians were waiting back of the rocks and thickets back of the ridge. They had expected the soldiers to travel by the road and had selected an ideal spot for an ambush to annihilate the troops, and were surprised when they discovered the soldiem on the trail. Lawson's men advanced along the ridge on foot, driving the Indians under cover of bush and rocks, and holding the ridge. In the meantime, Thornburg sent Scout Rankin back to have the wagons stop and corral. Thornburg had also ordered Captain Payne with his troop to advance along the trail. At 1000 yards, they were fired upon by Utes in ambush from bush and rock. The;,dismounted and left their horses back where protected, They exchanged shots for twenty minutes. Michael Fireton was killed and Private Oscar Cass was slightly wounded. Payne and men withdrew, leading their horses until they met Thornburg. Lawson, who had been holding the ridge for some time, fighting Indian style, with their horses held back in protected places, withdrew to where they met Thornburg and Payne, and where new orders were given by Thornburg. Lawson was ordered to gradually withdraw. Being short of ammunition, he sent John Donovan, one of his men, to the wagons for ammunition. About twenty Indians were seen dismounted, sitting on a ridge, one thousand yards to the south. They had not been taking part in the fight. They were waiting for an opportunity of 'vantage. Thornburg ordered Payne, with his men, to approach them to learn their attitude; and if not challenged to fight, to fall back and assist Lawson t o withdraw toward Milk Creek. When Payne advanced within rifle range, the Indians mounted their ponies and fled under cover of the ridge, and began shooting. Payne, no doubt fearing a repetition of his previous attack, and being in view of the wagon train which was being corraled t hree-quarters of a mile distant, and where a fierce attack was being launched by the Utes, he rushed to join the fight there. Rankin met the wagon train a distance of eight hundred yards from the crossing on the north side of Milk Creek. He assisted wagonmaster McKinstrey in parking the wagons in a three-quarter circle, with the tongues on the inside, and with the open space bordering on the banks of Milk Creek, at an elevation of twelve feet above the creek bed. Thornburg Killed. Thornburg, who was waiting at the end of the ridge, observing Payne's movements, started for the wagons, riding fast. Shots from the same band of Indians that fired on Payne's men, apparently wounded Thornburg and his horse, which slackened speed. The Indians, seeing he had no firearms, swooped down from the hill and surrounded him. Private Tom Nolan, one of Lawson's men, who was holding horses while the troops were fighting, at a considerable distance, saw the Indians drag Thornburg from his horse and beat him. His horse was fatally wounded and died a few hours after. It was about one thousand yards from the wagons. (Apparently, it had been Thornburg's idea to withdraw all his men to the wagons, where h e could attempt a treaty, or make a strong fight. This opinion was expressed later by Dillon, of Company E). John Donovan, on his way from the wagons with ammunition for Lawson, saw Thornburg, dead, In the meantime, shooting from the Indians under fire of Lawson's men had slowed down, except for the occasional shot which no doubt was intended to keep him intereste d at that point, while the main force had slipped away through thickets to attack at other points. Lawson, when told by Donovan of Thornburg's death, and Fayne's flight to the wagons, speeded up his withdrawal. Fight at the Wagons. While t he wag on s were being corraled, a large number of Indians gathered and were shooting from points where protection was available, a larg e number firing over the brow of a knoll on the north side of the creek and r oad, five hundred yards distant and at an elevation of 125 feet. Others were shooting from behind the creek bank, the soldiers directing their shots at the point designated by the smoke.

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70 Lieutenant Paddock, with his t wenty-seven men wagon escort, attempted to cllr,r g e the Indians on the hill. The hill, being very steep he was driven back. One horse was killed and two horses and himself slightly wounded. Indians that disappeared in the thickets at Lawson's attack, and left him in d oubt, had fled down tbe dee p beaver ravine and joine d in t ile figh t at t h e wagons. T h e n a cc,. tinuous volley of shots poured in. Mule s were being unhitched; s ome v:ere t ied to tl!e wagons; others, with harness on, and horses with saddles on, broke loose from t h e wagons w h e n w ounded. S ome of them drank at t h e creek and otliers milled around fro m e xcitement or from pain. While arranging the wagon c orral, Wagonmaster McKinstrey was killed, and Cap tain P ayne's f orce rushed in, under a stro n g barrage. Two of his m e n were wounded and one horse killed near the entrance to the corral. All was in a turmoil within t h e enclosure. During Lawson's withdrawal, all horses were led, w hile m oving fro m tbe rough countr y near Beaver C r eek, and s ma l l b a nds of Indians were attempting to cut him off from the wagons. At the end of the r1dg e near Milk Creek, o n e of his men SergeautJames Montgomery was severely wounded, With assistance, h e was mounted on his horse and b rOL!ght to the vrac;ons. Lawson reache d Milk Creek, where some protection was afforded b y c ottonwoods and t h e c reek b ank, Indians were shooting from t h e bluffs and gulley s o n tlle north sid e of the creek. Lawson and his men were held b ack for a short time at t h e bend of the creek, because of hea v y shooting at the wagons. T h e y routed the Indian s from b e neath the benches along t h e creek, a n d made their way inside t h e enclosure, afte r almost two h ours of continuous fighting. Paynelearned from D onovan of T horn hure:' s deat h Donovan being t h e only m a n up to thq.t time w h o saw him dead. Donovan was lat e r awarded a medal by the war department for bravery for carrying ammunition t o Lawson under fir e John Gordon a n d his three m e n Bullwhacker Hami l t o n and Fornbeck, camped near the cross ing of Milk Creek. Realiz ing t heir danger, they left their fre ight wag o n s for p r otection with soldiers. Captain P ayne I n Command. The next officer in rank to take cor.mmnd was Captain Fayne. Th e most effective shooting was done from beneath the bench along the creek. Because of heavy firing, t h e men v;ere unatle to g e t tools from t h e wa g o n s t o dig trenches. T h e g rec>.t e r number of men huddled beneath the wagons while others dropped Dehind dea d horses a n d mules, w hich i n some instances had fallen on top of others, '/lit:: dea d and wounded men, it p rese nted a horrible sight. Sergeant John Dolan, of Payne's troop, was killed w hile orc1ering his men fro m beneatll the wagons to assist in getting r olls of bedd inc and sacks of corn from t ile wagons to build protection. '//hen t h e m e n were slow to respond, Dolan said, "If you don't get out and help, I will kill y o u myself." About 3 p m., the Indians, in order to r out the soldiers from their position, set fire to t h e grass and growth of s hort sagebrush t hree hundred yards below on thebench, w hich burned and spread toward t h e wag ons and to t h e northwest, fanned by a light wind. The men fought the fire with blouses, burlap sacks, and with their scabbard knives dug and spread dirt on t h e flames. A wae:on s!Jeet caught fire. Private J<:1mes Hickman on the outside of t!Je col'rals, while under fire of t h e Indians, pulled off t h e s heet, which destruction of the wagons. For this act h e was later awarded a medal by the war department, for bravery. While putting out the fire, Captain Payne was slightly wounded, and Private Evershell was twice wounded, A t hird shot pierced his clothing under the arm pit. The same fire burned over t h e e ntire east end of Hills, a n area of twe: 1 t y square miles. Durint:: the excitemen t caused by t !Je fire, the Utes kept u p a fierce bombardment. Scout Charley L owry was fatally wounded. When was offered him, h e said, "Never mind me; I am done for." At dusk, a band of eight or ten mounted Indi a n s dasbed fro m b ehind the ambush ridge on the north, They stampeded and gat hered about thirty head of horses and mules on the creek bottom, running them toward White River, the soldiers s h ooting at them at long range with apparently no effect, Continuous s hooting was kept up by the Utes until after dark, when heavy shoot ing ceased. Signal ligtts were seen on the surrounding mountain sides. fro m tbe wounded indieated they were suffering severely.

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71 Surgeon R.M.Grimes, who was slightly wounded, gave some assistance to the other wounded. Liquor was obtained from the suttler stock, which helped to stimulate and relieve their suffering. The soldiers got picks and s hovels fro m the wag on s and were hustling to make trenches and remove dead horses and mules. Dead men were wrapped in canvas o r blankets and covered with the dirt fro m t h e trenches. Trenches of eight or ten feet in length, four feet deep and four to five feet wide were made aro und t h e circle near the wagons. Three large trenches were made in' the cente1 for the w ounded. Captain Payne, in consultation with Captain Lawson, asked Lawson to take com mand. Since Lawson thought Payne's wound of little concern, he refused. Payne then remarked he would move camp toward Rawlins. "How will you do that with our horses and mules killed?" asked Lawson. r will stay right here with my wounded men, said Lawson. The Couriers Ride for Relief. A short council was held betwee n the officers, Scou t Rankin and John Gordon, about 10:30 p.m. Rankin mounted a strawberry roan cavalry horse (his own horse having been killed during the first seig e at the wagon s), and with J ohn Gordon and a private soldier from Company D, they slipped from the enclosure and made their way along the bed of Milk Creek until well past the Ute guard signals. They were not molested, and when they came near where George Gordon was camped, they saw the wagons with agency supplies, largely machinery (a binder and thresher), had been fired and were still burning. John Gordon and the soldier stopped to investigate and found Gordon's brother George and two teamsters lying dead about the wreck. Rankin did not stop. From this point he went by way of the Morapos trail, riding as fast as possible for safety over the rough trail in the night. lie reached the Hulett and 7orrence cattle camp on Bear River in the early morning, where h e procured a fresh mount by going out on the range for a mile or more and driving the ranch saddle-horse band to the corral. Crossing Bear River at this point, he went by way of Fortification Creek, reaching the road near the Thornburg reserve camp, where he advised Lieutenant Price of the disaster. He arrived at Frank Harrah's ranch at the Bagg's Crossing of Snake River. While eating a lunch, the saddle-horse band was driven to the corral from the pasture. Harrah furnished him with a horlle of staying qualities named Joe Busch (one used in The Rider's string while in Harrah's employ). The courier arrived in Rawlins at two a.m., October first. The distance i s a pproximately one hundred and fifty miles. The time, including stops, was twentyseven and one-half hours. News of the disaster was immediately wired General George Crook at Fort Omaha. Army officials at Washington were also notified. Cr ook instructed General Wesley Merritt, in command of Fort D.A.Russell, Wyoming, to go to the relief of Thornburg's men. The Settlers Given Warning. John Gordon and the soldier, after investigating the wreck at George Gordon's camp, wept by way of the road. A t Deer Creek, they rout ed llcCarger a nd son from bed. They had tv1o horses on stake, and six others of their teams h ob bled on the range. Each McCarger mounted a bareback horse. They looked for t h e hobbled horses a short time but did not find them. All four men rode to Tom Iles' ranch on Bear River, at daybreak. S o on afte r their arrival the soldier's horse fell dead from exhaustion. McCarger borrowed the Holdiers'saddle. H e and his eon continued to Snake River, while Gord o n and the soldier stopped at Ilea'. Mansfield the courier sent out from t h e agency by Meeker to brin g Captain D odge and his' colored soldiers to the agency, lost his way during the night ride (being a gardener and not a rider) He arrived at Iles' ranch late the evening of the 29th. .e related a description of lO::eekers t r oubles witb t h e Utes up to t h e time he left the agency.

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72 Sam Reid, living on Elk River, learning of the Indian trouble, came to Ilea' place the evening of the 29th to learn if the settlers were in danger. Upon learning from Gordon of the Thornburg fight, Sam gave the alarm to settlers along Bear River as far as Hayden; then went on to Elk River to protect his family. Jimmy Dunn volunteered to carry the news to Crawford, at Steamboat Springs. Dunn was also instructed to notify Captain Dodge. Dunn, on his way to Steamboat, met Ed.Clark on horseback (surveyor from Greeley). He had stopped at Crawford1s for the night. He was on his way to the agency to do more surveying for Meeker. Since had not seen or heard of the negro troops on the way, Dunn decided the troops were coming by way of Twenty-Mile Park, as they were expected any hour on their way to the agency. Clark agreed with Dunn to mee t Dodge on the Twenty Mile Park road. Being much alarmed because of the Indian scare, Clark failed to venture far from the Hayden settlement. Going a short distance on the Twenty-Mile road, he wrote a note and left it tied, dangling from a tall sage brush which leaned over the side of the road. Clark c ontinued to Iles' place, where he met Mansfield and settlers gathered there. Four families, settlers of the Hayden Valley, went to Steamboat, where they fortified themselves at Crawford's ranch. George Fuhr, of Slater Basin, was at Frank Harrah's ranch when Rankin, the courier was on the way to Rawlins. H e gave the alarm to the settlers in the Snake River Valley. (A Paul Revere, as it were). The horse he rode collapsed from the strenuous ordeal. Six families moved up the Muddy Creek fifteen miles, where they made camp. Others went to Rawlins. Others, not much alarmed, held the fort at Perkins' store. At the Corral and Trenches, September 30th. Men had worked steadily during the night completing trenches for protection, with only an occasional shot from the Utes on guard on the ridge. When the soldiers started fire to make coffee, there was a volley of shots, and the fire was put out. Gordon's freight wagons with agency supplies, one t housand yards distant, were burned during the night. Captain Dodge's Movements Partly Governed by Letter Mail. On September 26th, Captain Dodge, on his way from Windsor postoffice to Middle Park, as previously mentioned, met Sandy Mellen at Hayden, .bringing his mail as pre-arranged. Sandy returned with Dodge's troop by way of Twenty-Mile Park. On their way through Egeria Park, they met Zene B.lmudlin, Adrian R.Marshall and family, and Fred Hodges, moving in to settle on Bear River. Dodge moved to the east side of the Gore range where he met teams with supplies, sent to him from Fort Garland. The supply train consisted of three, six-mule teams in charge of Henry Meder. They had come by way of Poncha Pass and Fairplay. (Henry Meder is now living on his ranch near Fort Garland) Making camp, Dodge sent Sandy Mellen to SulphUT Springs for his mail. Near Dodge's camp, James P.Maxwell, of Boulder, Colorado, civil engineer, had S.E.Bivens and other surveyors in the field, sub-dividing unsurveyed lands in Grand County. His two sons, Clinton and Mark, were assisting in the survey. When Sandy Mellen returned with the mail, which indicated their services were needed at the agency, Dodge again started for the agency, on September 29th, by way of Twenty-Mile Park. When nearing Hayden, October let, Sanoy Mellen, riding with Dodge in advance of the troop, discovered a slip of paper tied to a sage brush at the side of the road. It was addressed to Captain Dodge, and read, "Ti1ornburg killed. His men in peril; rush to their assistance." The troop moved with speed to Tom Ilea' place at the crossing of Bear River, where a short stop was made for lunch.

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73 Dodge knew from John Gordon's condition that be had got liquor at Peck's store which was one mile down and across the riTer. He sent Sandy Mellen and three negro soldiers to destroy any liquor that might be there. seven wagons for the teamsters to move t o Thornburg's reserve camp on Fort1ficat1on Creek, Dodge took one pack mule. The troop was joined by Gordon. They left by way of Uorapos trail late in the evening. They arrived to within five hundred yards of the trenches a short time before daybreak, October 2nd, where a halt was made. Sandy Mellen and Gordon advanced, with shouts from Gordon, whose voice was recognized. There were loud shouts of re joicing from the men in the trenches. They climbed out of the pits and greeted Dodge and his negro soldiers with a glad hand. They were especially glad to learn that the couriers had got out safely and that more relief troops would soon reach them. Dodge's horses were tied within the enclosure. Stillness had prevailed dur ing the night. Most of the Indians bad gone to their emergency camp one mile south, for rest, food and change of mounts. Dodge and his troop had slipped into the trenches at a time least expected by the Utes, as they were not seen by the Ute scouts with field glasses, as they were coming on the river route the day before. Captain Dodge Proposes an Attack. Shouts of the men had aroused the Indians. They were soon in position on the ridge and creek bank. At daylight, a rain of shots began. Dodge proposed to charge the Indians on the ridge, but was persuaded that it would merely terminate in the loss of more men, for the steep hill was all to the advantage of the Indians, and the men were fairly well protected in the trenches. Dodge, by this time, realized he was in a trap with Thornburg's men. From the open space in the enclosure, it was about ninety feet to water in the creek. Horses and mules that were severely wounded within the enclosure were shot to end their sufferings. Each night dead horses and mules were dragged to and dumped over the creek bank. Some horses, when shot by the Indians, but not fatally, would lunge back, break their tie ropes and stagger about the trenches. One when lung ing back, his tie rope and fell into the trench with wounded men. action by men in close-by trenches soon dragged him out with ropes, without ser ious injury to the wounded. During the night, men Tentured outside the enclosure to gather sagebrush to make fire in the trenches to make coffee. The first night after Dodge arrived, more shooting was done than on any other one night. It was thought this outburst of shooting was done to kill horses, and to intimidate the newcomers so that no attempt to escape the trap or to build pro tection would be made. The same night, when Private Esserwent to the creek for water, he was shot in the side of the face. Ute Jeers. There were several Indians who could talk understandable English. Some of these were Piah, Cojo, Henry Jim (an interpreter), Jack, Charlie {an Uncompahgre Ute), and Johnson. At times during the day, it was sport for the Indians to jeer the sol diers. Jeers from the ridge, because of great distance, were not always clearly understood. Others from the creek bank at closer range called, "Come out, you sons of b--s and fight like men." Others yelled, "Utes kill oor 'orse and mool, and kill oo." One Ute beneath the creek bank, togged in a red shirt, was thought to have done most of the sharp-shooting, killing the largest number of horses and mules. Although "Red Shirt was seen at times at close range by a few, his name was not known by the soldiers. It was their first time in the Ute country. After relief came, two hundred 45-70 shells were found where "Red Shirt" had done most of his shooting. Later, it was learned, Chief Johnson was given credit for most of the horse and mule killing with his Sharps rifle. When a hat was raised on a stick above the trenches, it became a target and was riddled by volleys of shot. Negro Soldiers Intruding. Captain Dodge, a short time after his arrival, feeling his negro soldiers might be intruding on the white soldiers in the already crowded trenches, during a lull in Ute shooting started some of his men to diggfng trenches for themselves, in

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CHARLEY LOWREY. Scout. E M "lk Creek Basin Where the Thornburg Fight The nttre I Took Place. Looking North.

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75 daylight, with i n the enclosure. They had just started to dig, when a rain o f shots hit the g round and wagons about t hem. Dropping their tools, a soldier o f Troop E 3rd Cavalry describing their movements, said, "They made ten feet ever y jul'lp and leaped head first into the trenches like frogs." Looking o n humorous s ide, amusin g incid e nts occur even in battle. A private s oldier of Troop D d escribed a burly negro s o l dier climbing from a trench during a lull in the shooting, with rifle i n hand, and sayine; i n bravado style, "Show me a Ute." S i nce there was none in sight, of course, h e sac down on a wagon-tongue. About the same instant, a ball hit the corner of the wagon bed, one foot from his head. H e j 1mped into t h e trench and "mum" was the word, while others about him who saw the incident had a laugh. T h e Indian s were seldom seen within rifle range since t h e y did their shooting from protected points at all times. The soldiers learned t o know w hen the Indian s were coming in the morning by crows and m agpies that cam e at first break o f day to feast on dead h orses and mules. When the crows and m agpi e s began to caw and fly away about sunrise, the Utes were getting into position for shooting. By noon of the second day after Dodge arrived, but seven o f his cavalry horses remained alive. One h undred and forty-eight horses a nd !'!ules, wit h i n and near t h e tre n c hes, were killed. Five horses and two mules, withir. t h e corral missed t h e rain of Ute lead Several head o f oxen were slaughtered by t h e Utes for food at t heir emergency camp one l'lile and one-half south of t h e battlegrounds. T h e men i n the tren c hes knew noth ine; of what was going on at t h e agenc y twenty five miles away. T h e Utes were i n communicatio!l witl'> t heir separate camps at all times. R unners we r e moving back and forth between Kilk C reek, the agency, and the squaw carr:p. Douglas, B i g Chief and too o l d to take part i n the stren uous ordeal of the figh t at Uilk Creek, with a few other o f t h e older Indians, were on guard at t h e agen c y McCa rger's two freight wagons, a b andoned on Deer C reek the first night of t h e were ransacked, p resumallly t h e next d a y Flour, soap, sugar; and there were seve r.:-1 cases of s m a l l hatchets sunnosed to have been orclered b y as a play tool for Ute children --all were scattered around. An attez:;pt was made to fire th wagons and contents. There being but little inflamable ma t erial, the damage was not e;reat.

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SECTION XIII. TragedYThe Massacre at the Agency, Description of the scene of slaughter at the agency in detail will depend on the story told by Mre.Price and Josephine to General Adame and reporter, at the time of t heir rescue; and the personal conversations of The Rider with Mrs. Price, several months later. On the morning of September 30th, the secorrd day of the Milk Creek fight, fifteen or more Indians left the Milk Creek area for the agency, taking with them the government horses and mules they had captured the evening before. On t heir way down Coal Creek where Carl Goldstein and teamster Julius Moore were in camp at their freight wagons, they killed the two men. Moore was later found lying nude in the road. Goldstein was thirty feet from the wagons, where he had fallen in the sagebrush. The Indians robbed the wagons of blankets and such articles as they could pack with them, and set fire to other supplies, such as flour, salt pork, etc. They drove Goldstein's teams along with the government loot. "The band arrived at Douglas' eamp a short time before the noon hour, said Mrs. Price. The herd of stolen horses was not brought into view of the agency employes, who were working on new buildings and at other odd jobs near by. suspicion of immediate treachery was anticipated by the employes, who had not yet learned of the fight with the soldiers nor heard from the two courier employes, Mansfield and Eskridge, who had been sent out from the agency. While t h e agency help were partaking of their noon meal, Chief Douglascame to the door of the dining room and talked with the women and men. Mrs. Meeker, with her customary hospitality, invited him to eat, since Douglas, Johnson, Jane, and many others of the tribe had many meals at the agency table. While sitting at t h e table, Douglas talked and joked with the men and seemed in an unusually jovial mood. After his meal, he outside, looked around the buildings; then went to his tepee, three hundred yards away, near the river. The men were again at work on and about the buildings, and the women were washing dishes in the kitchen. A few minutes later shooting began. The Utes had planned their attack after Douglas reached the tepees. They had stolen the employes' rifles from the bunkhouse during the forenoon, when the men were busily engaged on the opposite side of the buildings. The shooting came furiously from about twenty Indians. Mrs. Price looked outside and said, "My God, the Indians are killing everybody. What. shall we do?" About t hat time Frank Dresser staggered in at the kitchen door, wounded in the side of the head. Josephine handed Frank Mr.Price's rifle, which was in the kitchen. He shot and killed Johnson's brother, Ita. Mr. Post, the bookkeeper, ran out fifty yards frorn the office building wnere he was shot down. was shot down at his living quarters, but was found fifty yards from there near the store building. A trail of blood indicated he had been dragged with a heavy rope which was left tied around his neck. An iron tent stake was driven through his mouth and neck into the ground. Meeker and Post were stripped of clothing. The other men lay about the building where they had been working. In t he meantime, the women and two children and Frank Dresser ran from the kitchen to t h e milk house thirts yards The Indians, who were busily engaged in l ooting the living quarters and setting fire to buildings, saw the women run to t h e milk house. Though not intending to murder them, and knowing'Frank Dresne r had a rifle, they got wood fro m a pile near by and set fire to the side of t h e milk h ouse. It was composed of large cottonwood logs chinked and 'dobed, and was slow to burn. The Indians then turned their attention tr. the storeroom, a large, one-room log building fifty yards south of the living quarters. At the same time t hey kept an eye on the progress of the fire at the milk house. They carried blankets and other loot from the storeroom to their tepees, where others were engag ed in packing the loot on government mules and Ute ponies.

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White River Agency. Built by N C. Meeker on Powell Bottom in 1878 and 1879 Looking North.

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78 When the fire at the house was raking headway, and smoke c o min g in; and while the Indians were busily engaged in carrying out supplies, the and Dresser decided it was their ooportunit, to escape to the tall sagebrush, a short distance from the milk house and nortt of the irrigating ditch. Before reaching the brush, the Indians spied them. Dropping their loot, they ran with t heir rifles, shooting close about the women and children and callins, good squaw. Utes no kill good squaw." The y were shooting to kill Frank Dresser as h e disappeared in the tall sagebrush with Price's rifle. The shots fired about t h e women were intended by the Utes to intimidate, so they would submit to their demands. The women, when being jostled back through the irrigating ditch, got very wet. At least two of the Utes taking part in this act were Persune and Cojo, young renegades (both Uncampahgre Utes). Persune was dressed in a U.S.officer's uniform, cap and all, which was later identified as Thornburg's outfit. The women were taken to where the loot was being packed on mules and ponies. By this time it was sundown. It had been a warm day and the women and children were thinly dressed. The nights were cool, so Mrs. lleeker insisted to Douglas that they must have more clothing. She was allowed to go back to the smouldering buildings where she found some of their clothing which had not yet burned, and got coats .and wraps for the women and children. In the meantime, there was a quarrel between Douglas and Persune, as to which should take charge of Josephine. They, with others, had been drinking. Persune had taken charge of Josephine and assisted her to mount his pony which was prepared with a saddle, but Douglas insisted she should be his squaw. With an outburst of the Ute tongue, they came near to blows. Night llide to the Squaw Camp. Yrs.Meeker, at the of sixty-eight, was not a strong woman, and the night ride to the squaw camp taxed her endurance to the limit. She was taken in charge by Douglas and mounted on a pony, with blankets for a saddle. When too weak to ride alone, she was tied on with a rope, and at times rode behind Mrs. Price was taken in charge by Cojo, and mounted on a pony with blankets for a saddle, with her baby boy in her arms. Josephine was the only one furnished with a saddle. It waa a government saddle, taken from the horse that Thornburg rode. Mrs. Price'sthreeyear-old girl rode behind Josephine, tied on with a blanket. With their caravan of pack ponies and government pack mules, they crossed White River to the south, going by the rough mountain trail to the squaw camp. During the night ride, the Utes were hilarious, and drinking from bottles ot liquor. One greasy and uncouth-looking Indian rode alongside Josephine and said, "Good squaw. You my squaw." From t h e loot, the captives were furnished with sufficient blankets for bedding. Some of the squaws assisted them to be comfortable. Susan wept, and felt sorry for them. The next day Jane and Douglas' squaw, went back to the agency garden to get vegetables. Ouray Learns of the Fight. Johnson's squaw, Susan, who was a sister of Ouray and who had been opposed to the the soldiers, quietly sent a.ute boy from the squaw camp, the next day after the fight began, to notify Ouray that the White River Utes were fighting the soldiers. Ouray was on a hunt in the mountains when the message arrived and was not expected home for several days. Chipeta, like Ouray, ever mindful of her loyalty to the government and of keeping peace within the Ute tribe, mounted her pony and rode to the mountains, where she found Ouray, who, with two others of his tribal friends, were at their hunting on a branch of the San M iguel twelve miles from Los Pinos. She informed him of the situation at White River. Ouray, angered by the hostility of theWhite River tribe,which he had at all times hoped to prevent, at once returned to Los Pinos, and arranged, October 3rd, with the agent, Major W.M.Stanley, to send an employe, Joe Brady, with a note from Chief Ouray to Douglas and other hostile chiefs of the White River tribe, to atop fighting. As an escort for Brady, Ouray selected his most trusted sub-chief, Sapavanero, who a brother of Chipeta, and who, like Ouray and others of the older southe-n Utes, could talk and understand both English and Mexican languages. Shaveno, Aguila, and two other trusted Indians of the Uncompahgre reservation, were in the

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7.9 party. The 'listance from Los Pinos t o : r.ilk C reek by 'he Ute trail was approximately one hundred and forty-five miles. First of the Massacre at the Agenc y October 2nd, two men by the names of 3ill and J.A.Warefield, prospectors with wagon and saddle horse, w h o had been prospecting for some time in the 3lue Mountain country during the season, were on t heir wa y back t o Clear Creek Count y prospecting at times on t h e way, They crossed the divide from Bear River by way of '::oyote Basin and Strawberry Trail t o 'NhitP. River, not knowing t h e y were within the limits of the White River reservation. They had not heard of t h e Indian trouble. (They were merely passing through an unfamiliar country) About t hree o'clock p.m., when within half a mile of the a gency they saw smoke arising fro m the smouldering buildings. They stopped the wagon, w!ti le vfi th saddle horse, went to investigate. He saw t h e dead men l y inr:; about the ruins. Real izinG it was the White River Agency, he made haste to t h e wagon to inform his partner of the horrible sight. They turned on the back trail to Bear River, where they made camp late in the night. Knowing of the settlement on Snake River, Meadows, t h e next day, reported at the Baggs ranch what he had seen. The news was not carried further, as Rankin, the courier, had gone to Rawlins t hree days before with t h e report of t h e Thornburg disaster, and troops were expected any hour on t heir wa y to the relief of the entrenched men, and would look after conditions at the agency, Range Cattle Moved In. October 3rd, 1879, George Hang s and Denny Gaff, had driven a herd of cattle fro m the Arkansas valley to the Bear River country one week before, made t heir camp at a spring in Big Gulch, which later was known as Brazzle Spring. Leaving a yocmg man, FreemanRay, in char g e of the camp, Hang s and Gaff went to the lower country to look for winter range for their stock. When they returned late in the evening, t h e y found llay in t h e wagon. He had been shot in the side of the face. A horse whic/1 was on stake near camp had become excited. Fearing he might break away, R a y went t o quiet him, and was shot, supposedly by a renegade Ute in a mbush back of a ridge. Ten head of t heir w ork and saddle stock on the range, near camp, were stolen. Ray, suffering severely from i1is wounds, was taken to Tom Iles' cabin on Bear River. :l e was treated by Surgeon Kimmel of Merritt's when t hey were on their way to relieve Thornburg's men.

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SECfiON XIV. General Merritt received his orders at eight o'clock on t h e morning of October lat. The message was wired to Cheyenne and rushed by courier t o Merritt at Fort D .A.Russell, two miles distant, Merritt at once summoned his orderly to sound the assembly b ugle When all officers and privates gathered at his quarters, he informe d them of the Thornburg disaste.r. and gave orders to make ready to move as soon as possible. Horses and mules and the larger part ot .their field equipment were at Camp Carlin, ene mile away. (Camp was established in 1 867, as a temporary military post for the protection of the Union Pacific Railroad construction while Fort D.A.Russell was being built. It was later used as a supply bas. e for m!litary posts The site is now in the resident district of Cheyenne). Merritt's forces were shipped to Rawlins in two special The Union Pacific officials and trainmen cooperated in every way to speed t h e troops on their mission. Tom Moore, chief packer, was in charge of loading T h e first train left Cheyenne at two p.m. The second train followed three ho urs later. The specials were given the right of way on the main line with double header and pusher over the Sherman hill, To keep the stock in condition for the strenuous ordeal, a stop was made at Laramie for food and water. The trains arrived at Rawlins in the early morning of October 2nd. All troops were active in preparation for the long march Merritt's command was made up of Companies I, A, B and M, of the 5th Cavalry. Each company composed a troop of about forty-five men. The names of his staff officers were Captain J.A. Auger, Troop A; Captain Troop I; Captain Montgomery, Troop B; Captain Babcock, Troop K; First Lieutenant William B.Weir, an ordinance officer in charge of government rifle repair works at Camp Carlin, a volunteer; Captain Hall, an ordinance officer. Paul Humme, rifle tester at the works (a volunteer) was appointed chief scout by Merritt, and Colonel Compton la volunteer), and Surgeon A,J.Kimmell, made up the official staff. The equipment for the march was composed of fifty pack mules, each with a light pack of provisions to allow speedy movement, and in charge of Tom Moore. While packing the mules at Rawlins, Moore was approached by a young lad of nineteen, with a six-shooter hanging from his belt. He had smuggled in on the same train with the soldiers from Laramie during the night. He asked to be taken along with the expedition. Koore scrutinized him carefully and decided he might be useful in assisting the cooks and packers. He was furnished a mule to ride and allowed to go along with the expedition. Each cavalryman was dressed and equipped in regulation style, as formerly in use during the Civil War, with blanket, cavalry rifle, small knapsack containing hard tack lsimilar in size and appearance to t h e commercial dog biscuit) and with canteen of water or coffee slung to t heir saddles or back. While the men were preparing for the march, General Merritt was in conference with Joe Rankin, to learn the particulars of the situation at Milk Creek. Rankin advised Merritt to employ Jim Baker, and with Compton, he left Rawlins by way of Brown's Hole cut-off trail, one hour 1n advance of Me:ritt, to engage Baker who lived twelve miles up Snake River from the road cross1ng, to g o as scout for the expedition. Rankin accompanied the expedition from Crossing to the trenches;_then returned to Rawlins to take care of his stable business. He was later appo1nted U.S.Karshall of Wyoming, by President Harrison. Merritt was accompanied from Rawlins by John Casson Dyer, who was sent out from by Colora do state officials as reporter for the NeVI York World and the Chicago Tribune, the two leading dailies for news of the nation at that time. Merritt's forces, with pack train, le.ft Rawlins at ten-thirty a.m., October 2nd.

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81 A train of fifteen wagons with supplies followed several hours later with John McAndrews as wagonmaster. Dyer, the reporter, was mounted on a spirited horse engaged from Rankin's livery stable. On the way, his mount forged ahead of the cavalrymen. He was called to hold up, more than once, by the officer in command during the trip. At Bag g's Crossing,_1iierrit t was j oined by Jim Baker, w h o was dressed in buckskin, with slung to t h e p ommel of his saddle. H e was riding "Brownie". Tow Duffy, o ne o f Georg e Baggs' cowb o ys, volunteered t o go. Fleeing settlers, w h o camped o n t h e M u ddy Creek at t h e firs t alarm move d to t heir homes feeling safe as Merritt's troops wen t south When Merritt arrived at the Thornburg reserve camp on Fortification Creek, Lieutenant Price with Troop I, of the 4th Infantry, and Captain Dodge's mule teama with supply wagons, were taken along. At Bear River, Merritt's command was joined by Bill Lisco and a small party from the Ilea' ranch. Arrivin g at William's Fork the evening of October 4th, they made camp until two a.m., when they moved to the trenches. An advance guard of eight men, with Chris Kadsen in charge, was one-half mile in the lead. When they came near the trenches, a bugle call was given. It was received with shouts of Joy from the men in the trenches, and the cry, old Wesley is It was five o'clock a.m., about one hour before daylight on the morning of October 5th, when General Merritt came up with the command. T hey advanced to the trenches. There had been no shooting by the Indians during the night. The men in the trenches were expecting Merritt for relief, Fort Russell being the nearest military post where a strong garrison of cavalrymen was available. Although it was dark, men from the trenches rushed to meet their rescuers with a hearty greeting. No time was lost. A short consultation between General Merritt and officers, Payne, Dodge and Lawson took place. Preparations for action were quickly made. Surgeon Kimmel was engaged in treating the wounded. Lieutenant Price, Sandy Mellen and a small party were sent to bring in Thornburg's body. He had been scalped and left entirely nude. Merritt Arranges His Men for Battle. At daybreak, Merritt was shown the stronghold of the Indian ambush. He at once arranged his men for a charge in case of an attack. One troop of the 5th Cavalry was ordered to the south side of Milk Creek to scout cautiously the foothills on the southwest. A large troop, composed of the 4th Infantry and of the relieved, entrenched men, was ordered to advance along the ridge that had been held by the Utea as a stronghold, and along th3 bluffs on the north side of Milk Creek. Merritt held the main body of his men in reserve a short distance from the trenches. It was clear daylight when Indians were seen to concentrate in a body by small bands on the bench where the fight started. Utes were coming from different directions. Merritt waited and watched their movements. The infantry on the north side fired several. shots from the bluffs at a small band which was moving toward the group. The Utes retaliated with a few shots. This shooting was done at long range and neither party was in real danger. Apparently, the main body of the Utes' fighting force was gathered for council. Their number was estimated to be from one hundred seventy-five to two hundred Indians. After waiting a few minutes, a lone rider was seen to leave the group and move toward Merritt's men, on the gallop. As the rider came closer, he was seen to carry a small white flag. Approaching Merritt, he told his mission and passed him a note, A stranger to all -he was Joe Brady, from Los Pinos Agency, The note was from Ouray to the leading chiefs telling them to stop fighting the soldiers. Brady had arrived at the hostile oamp late the evening before. The chiefs had seized the opportunity to have Brady present their note to Merritt; to show their good intentiohs to quit the fight, and also to advise Uerritt they wanted a new agent, and wishing to live in peace on their reservation. Merritt advised Brady to go back to Los Pinos; that he, Merritt, would look after the Indians. When Brady returned to the group of Indians from which he had emerged, with no encouragement for t hem as a result of the conference with Merritt, other than the delivery of Ouray's note, the Indians, accompanied by Brady, left the Milk Creek country for the squaw camp.

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82 Merritt Orders the Trench Camp Moved. Because of the Indians quitting the fight and the stench about t h e trenches being unbearable,. Merritt ordered the camp with the wounded men moved up Milk Creek, one mile to the east, where there was grass for the stock. Details of troops scouted the surrounding hills during the day. From this camp, Captain Auger, with an excort of his cavalrymen and a detail of workers, was ordered to bury the dead. A list of wounded had been taken by Officers Payne and Lawson. The names of those killed were as follows: Major Thomas T.Thornburg, 4th Infantry; Michael Fireton, C ompany F, 5th Cavalry; John Burns, Company F, 5th Cavalry; Sergeant John Dolan, Company F, 5th Cavalry; Amos D. Miller, Company F, 5th Cavalry; Samuel McKee, C ompany F, 5th Cavalry; Charles Wright, Com pany D, 5th Cavalry; Dominic Caff, Company E, 5th Cavalry; Teamster Thomas McGuire; Wm.McKinstrey, wagonmaster; Scout Charles Grafton Lowr y Of these, all were buried near the trenches except Major Thornburg. Scout Lowry, who was fatally wounded at the time of the fire, was thought to have been dead when trenches were being dug in haste during the night. He was covered with a part of a tent canvas and dirt from a trench. After five and one-half days, the bodies were being removed for burial, and he was found to be alive. With assistance, he sat up, although not being able to speak. As later reported by M.W.Dillon, Lowry sipped some coffee when a cup was held to his lips. Surgeon Kimmel was called, and while he was probing for the ball, Lowr y oassecl a\vay. A small party of infantry, with M.W.Dillon in charge, and Chris Madsen in charge of a troop of 5th Cavalry as an escort, was sent to bury George Gordon and his two teamsters, J.H.Brigham and son, at the ruins of their freight camp on Stinking Gulch. The number of wounded men, in all, was thirty-eight. The larger number of these were slightly wounded. Some of those most painfully, but not seriously wounded, were: Sergeant James Montgomery, Troop E, 3rd Cavalry, wounded in the ankle; Pri vate John Mahoney, Troop E, 3rd Cavalry, wounded in the thigh; Private Troop F, 5th Cavalry, wounded in the arm; John C.Davis, in charge of suttler sup plies for J .W.Hugus, wounded in the heel; Private J .E.Nic! Jolas, Troop D, 5th Cav alry, wounded in the and Captain Payne, a skin abrasion over the abdomen. Rescued Men On the Way to Fort Steele. Wagons and other preparations for moving were made ready, and on the morning of October 7th the wounded and all entrenched men, with Captain Dodge in charge, were on their way to Fort Steele. Thornburg's body, after being treated by Sur geon Kimmel, was sewed in canvas. From Rawlins it was shipped east for burial. All settlers who volunteered t heir services with llerritt returned home from this camp. Merritt rested his stock for two days and awaited arrival of his supply train. Official Expressions Regarding Ute Precaution. During their restful hours in camp, Jim Baker, General !':erritt and some of his official staff ex!Jressed their opinions as to why the Utes had quit the fight. The first and most logica l one was that the Ute acouts (with field glasses), had seen Merritt's troops on the road the evening before, and had decided to keep out of their way. The next opinion was that Ouray's note held some weight. The third opinion expressed was that the Utes were short of ammunition. Merritt's Record :lla.rch. General Merritt's time from Rawlins to the trenches, includin g stops to feed, two-hour stop at Thornburg's reserve camp, and eight hours at William's Fork, was sixty-six and one-half hours, breaking all records filed by the war department for distance and time in a forced march of cavalry troops. Colorado and Nyoming legislatures passed resolutions of thanks, complimenting Merritt and his men for their prompt relief of t h e entrenched men.

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83 IJerritt's Forces l::ove to White River. O n October 8 t h Merritt moved his forces to i'Thite River. On their way down Coal Creek Canyon, a teamster from Fort Union named Brown, one of men, w h e n passing the old agenc y coal mine, discovered the body of a ma n in the mouth of the mine. A halt and investie;a t iCln was made. From t h e note found in !1is pocket, he wa s identified as Frank D resser, who had escaped wounded, during t h e sla ughter at t h e agency. It was later determined he had walked and ran t il e fifteen miles during t h e night and had lost a great quantity of blood, and become exJ ;austed. H1s coat was folded and placed under his head for a pillow. Price's rifle, wh i c h he h a d w h e n last seen at the agency '.':as not found. It was presumed to have been taken by the Utes w hen on the way to t h e squaw camp. A few miles farther down Coal Creek Merritt's men passed t h e dead odies of Carl Goldstein and Julius Y.oore, and the ruins of their freight wagons. One mile farther on, the troops met Joe Morgan. Joe, after hearing of t h e Thornburg disaste r while at his home on Snake River, started with his brother, Dave, to go to ; :orp;an C anyon, w here t h ree younger bro t hers were living. l!e found them gathering t h ei::horse band to move them north of Snake River, as their horse range had been burned over by the started at t h e trenches. Since Joe had been quite friend l y witi ; t !Je ,'Thite River Utes, he had n o fear of t hem He, being curious to know, had e;one to the a gency t o see for l!imself t h e conditions t here, and was returning by wa y of Coal and rU l k Creeks hlerritt, not knowing Morgan, and believing he might be a renegade spying for the Indians, ordered him disarmed and held under arrest. A t White River, Merritt made camp o n e mile belo w the moutl! of Coal Creek and within four miles o f the agenc y .Vhe n Jim Bak r, who wa s on scClut duty during the marc b came to camp, h e Morgan as his near neighbor on Snake River, a n d .organ was released. Merrit t spent tbree days at t his camp. A supply of I. D beef was gathered i n f rom the ranee. A party was sent t o bury Dresser, Goldstein, and Moore. Lieutenant Weir, with a n escort, was in cha r g e of a detail of soldiers to bur y the m e n at t h e agency, including Eskridge, who v1as killed and left nude i n the road. Scouting parUes w ere sen t out eacl 1 day, mainly on the White and Grand River divide, to wat c h the movements of skulking Indians, who, with field glasses, were spy ing on soldiers, and to view a route over the divide to the south on which to move their wa g o n stock and pack train, as there was no wagon roa d leading so ... t h from White River. Additional Troo:os Had Been O r dered. Following the ordering of Gen eral Uerritt to the relief of the Thornburg men, additional troops were ordered by G eneral Crook, as a precautionary measure, to be in read iness at Rawlins should t heir service s be needed. O f these t here were two troops of infantry from Fort Snelling in cowr.and of Colonel Gilbert, and one troop of infantry from Fort Dou g l as, Utah. On their arrival, they made camp at Rawlings Surini':S, awaiting further orders to move south. Two troops of cavalry were ordered from Fort McPherson. The order was countermanded before the troops reacbed Rawlins. One trocp o f t h e 3 r d Cavalry left Fort Laramie in command of Major Henry, trav eline overland. At t h e same time, First Lieutenant C .A.H.McCauley was sent from Fort Omar.a to Rawlins to take charge o f transportation in forward ing supplies to l.lerritt's headquarters, and also to establish a courier line to convey war department message s between Rawlins and G ener a l Merritt. Joe Brady arrived at Los Pinos Agency by way of the Ute sauaw camp, w here h e learned of the k illjng at t h e agency, and s aw the captive wo men and children. Chief Dou glas told 3rady that if the w hite m e n came t o him who were friends of the Utes, t hey 1 o ulG. surrender the wo men and chilcl.ren to t h em unharmed. This mes sar;e was wired October 8th from Lo s Pinos to Denver and waslli!'".gton. Carl Schurz, Secretary o f the Interior communicated by wire with Cl1arles N.Adams, special agent of the postoffic.; located in pre:riously served. as age11t at White River and at L o s Pinos. Schurz, know1ne of h1s fa1thful and eff1-cie n t service t o the government and of his experien c e in dealing_with the Ute !ndi,r.<:, E-.}poi r .ted him to look after special work, with to proceeo at once to p lan the r escue of the captive w omen and ch1loren.

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84 Squaw Camp Moved to Gran d River. On the same day Brady left the squaw camp, the camp was moved; the first day to Parachute Creek, and the next day to Gran d River, near the mouth of Roan Creek. Courier Lin e Established. The Rider arrived in Rawlin s one day in advance of Lieutenant McCauley, after the close of the cowboy job with Frank Harrah -and with two cowboys who arrived in Rawlins from a job on the trail with cattle herds driven from Oregon to Wyoming (owned by George Lang and Matthew Ryan of Fort Leavenworth), and with Hy Armstrong of Rawl ins, the four cowboys were employed by McCauley as couriers, each assigned to a station on the line. A carload of cavalry horses was shipped from Camp Carlin to Rawlins, from which the couriers selected their mounts. Besides being branded u.s. on the left shoulder they were branded I.e. under the overhanging mane (which indicated "inspected and co ndemned.") Lang & Ryan drove eight herds, 16,000 stock cattle, from the Owyhee, John Day and Malheur Rivers, Oregon, in 1879. They were classed, sold and distributed in small herds to ranch settlers in the Laramie and Cheyenne districts who were engaging in the cattle business. About the same time, General Adams received instruction s to proceed with the rescue of the captive women. General Merritt was wired a message from the war department. On the morning of October 9th, three c ouriers left Rawlins for the south, each leading t heir extra mount. Armstrong was assigned the Rawlins to Sulphur Springs ride. With an occasional change of mounts, the three arrived the same eve!Jing at Perkins' quarters on Snake River, the station to which Billy Thomas was assigned. Jack Davie had just arriYed from the trenches. The main body of men from the trenches had gone by way of Baggs Crossing. Davie was moving about with the aid of Davis ordered a new stock of suttler' s TOM ILES' RANCH (Bachelor s Hall) IN 1879 Looking South from the Bench Courier Arriving from the North

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85 supplies at Perkins' store to be sent tu Merritt's headquarters. He later was manager .for J.W.Hugus & Co. c hain stores. On the arrival at Tom Ilea' cabin on Bear River (bachelors hall) arrang e m e nts were made for the third courier station to which Alex.Hasson was assigned. Norris Brock, a neighbor homesteader, had congregated with others at the Ilea ranch during the Ute scare. He was impressed as a cook. During conversations at this station it was noted that Jerry Huff, Bill Lisco and Ilea had joined Merritt's troops going as far as the trenche.s. Clark, the surveyor, and Mansfield, t h e agency' employee, left Ilea' for Greeley. The Rider, continuing with the Merritt message at two o'clock a.m. by way of Morapos Trail, saw, when passing the scene of slaughter. at the trenches, that bears, coyotes and magpies were having the feast of their lives on dead horses and mules. thP. crossing of Milk Creek, Sergeant Thomae, of Com'Pan y E, 3rd r.R.valry, a surv1vor 0 f the trenches, was met. H e had gone with Merritt's forces from Milk Creek to White River, for the purpose of carry i n g out to Rawlins, Merritt's message reporting conditions found a t the agency and to be wired to Washington. He was leading an extra horse, which appeared to be a good one. The courier's mount, being of condemned stock, was weary, and he requested an exchange for the fresh mount. This was agreeable with Thomas, who remarked that the horse's name was "Humdinger." He also stated that Merritt's command was starting to move south from White River when he left. After a few strenuous jaunts over the courier route, it was evident that H umdinger" made good for that which the slang term applies -"the best." From Merritt's abandoned camp on White River, the trail was followed, and the expedition overtaken at the head of Flag Creek. The caravan had stopped. Passing by the long line of wagons and pack mules, soldi.ers in the lead were found working like beaver, clearing a road through the quakenasp, through which to m ove their supply train. General Uerritt was at the head directing road work. An advance guard of two cavalry troops was doing scout duty on the divide, one-half mile in the lead. After reading the message, Merritt was grieved, showing great disappointment because of halted in his to engage the Indians in battle. His first remark was, ''Oh hell, here we are, tied hand and foot." The messu.ge read, "Stop further efforts to engage the Indians; an effort to rescue the captives is being made from the south. Camp in t h e vicinity of the agency until furt!:er orders." Road work was stopped. A short time was taken for lunch, which consisted of coffee, hardtack and a liberal "help-yourself" to I.D.beef, roasted on a stick held over campfire coals. The Rider joined in the feed. The army returned to White River the same afternoon, making camp on the same grounds they had left in the morning, and awaited developments. Merritt's men s howed as much disappointment as Merritt himself. Chris Madsen, of the 5th Cavalry (one of Merritt's men w h o was an eye witness to the struggle between Buffalo Bill and Chief Yellow Hand, and years later u.s. of Oklahoma ) in a conversation with The Rider, remarked that if Merritt and his men had known the contents ofthe message before it was delivered, they would have paid to have the courier hog-tied o r killed before the delivery of the message could have been made. Chris Madsen, at the present time, is living at his home in Guthrie, Oklahoma. The Rider Views the Ruins of the Agency. Accompanied by Lieutenant William B.Weir, the ruins cf t h e recently built agency were viewed. Weir, who was in charge of a detail of soldiers that buried the unfortunate men four days before, described the scene. Of the nine men whose names have already been mentioned herein, and whose bodies were laid t o rest beneath a grove of cottonwood trees between the river and the agency, Mansfield was the only male employe who escaped with his life. All buildings were burned except a wagon shed and the large store building which had been fired. It had recently been built of green, hewed cottonwood logs w hich did not burn. T hree tons of flour that was stored therein had been dumped on the floor a nd the sacks taken by the Indians. The flour was burned to a crisp over the top. The agency flag pole, from which the stars and stripes floated, representing a government institution, was not molested. Soldiers, freig!Jters and agency employes, in all, 27 men, were killed.

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WESLEY MERRITT GENERAL ME Chief Scout. PAULHU -C DYER JOHN Id ., C m any A. ADSEN. Priv ate o P CHRIS M I Age 27. York Wor 5th Cava ry. R epo rter for New e and Chicago Tnbun Whtte Rtver. from I Merntt' s Camp on Look mg South Pos ition of Gene;;79, to May 5. 1880 October 14.

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87 Through the courtesy of General Merritt, a special tent was p rcvided alongside h i s official tent, with bedding for t!Je accommodation of the reporter, scout Jim Baker and couriers, who were assigned to "mess" with C a utain Kellogg's troop. The "mess" was composed of choice viands and other delicacies, from salt pork, hardtack, snitts (dried apples) and coffee. The r P.gular morning mess was sowbelly, chopped fine, fried in the dutch oven, t hen crumpled hardtack and water was added, a n d the whole allowed to simmer a few minutes. It was n a med s-of-a-b by the soldiers. Some of t h e burned agency flour was used by soldier cocks, but after a consultation was held by General Merritt, and Surgeon Kim mel, (shose decision was that the flour migh t contain poison) its use was forbidden. The wagonload of suttler store supplies from Perkins' store arrived at Uerritt's camp with Al.Durham as teamster, and Wilber H ugus in c harg e of suppliei. The young man, Bill Marston, picked up at Rawlins b y Tom Moore, '/las having the time of his life. He had taken on the appearance of a full-fledged frontiersman. Seeking further a dventure, he begged to be allowe d to join cavalry t r oops detailed for scout duty. Moore nicknamed him "Colorow Bill." Major Eenry Arrives. Major Henry with one troop of 3rd C avalry, arrived at Merritt's camp, making the trip overland from Fort Laramie. H e made camp for one night at Mountain Meadows. Joe Collom, (who was living in the vicinity of t h e Meadows and who, during the hay season, had put "in stack" one hundred tons of native hay which he later sold to Kir k Calvert and Billy Aylesworth) was on the hunt for one o f his oxen, strayed from his camp. He happened to sto p at Evan's camp. Major Henry, not knowing him, suspected he was spying for the Indians. H e said to his sergeant, Hold this man under guard." After a considerable length of time and muc h explanation, Joe convinced Evans he was a settler living one mile away in the canyon. Joe was released. He became a prominent stockman of that section, and was the original locater and owner of the Mount Streeter Coal Mine. Major Henry's troop was mounted on a "gray horse" cavalry, forty-seven, all dapple grays. To horse lovers, they were a beautiful lot.

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SECTION XV. The Rescue. General Adams to t h e Rescue of the Captive Women and Children. General Adams arrived at Los Pinos October 18th. H e was acco m p a nied by Count Von Doenhoff, a special reporter. Adams was s oon in conference with Chief Ouray, Assisted by Agent Stanley, t h e y at once made preparations f o r t h e ninety-mile trip. A wagon with provisions and camp equipment, and a ligh t wagon were taken along so t hat the women a n d children could ride with more comfort than t o travel by horseback. For an assistant, Adams engaged his old-time friend and frontiersman, Captain W.LCline, w n o was keeping a sm;. l l trading store on t h e Cimarron Creek fifteen mile s away and near the east line of the Uncompahgre reservation. He knew t h e I n d ians well. George P,Sherman, bookkeeper at the agency, volunteered to go. Ouray selected his sub-chiefs Sapaverano, Shavano and eight other trusted Indians of the Uncompahgre reservation. The route traveled was by way of t h e old Mormo n road t o a poin t on the Gunnison River. The party was unable to proceed farther with their wagons. Sapavanero sent two of his Indians ahead to the hostile camp on Grand River to notify the chiefs of the coming of the party, and their mission. UTE JACK CHIEF DOUGLAS. COLOROW. Main Hostile Ute Camp on Grand River. 1879 and 1880 Leaders of the White River Tribe Responsible for the Massacre. Looking North.

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89 In the meantime, Colorow, Jack, Johnson, Piah, and Presune had move d t heir tepees and the captive women and children sixteen miles south of Grand River, on the mesa of Creek-after the Ute scout s had seen M erritt's forces moving south Win te R1ver Adams and escort were traveling by horseback some distance ln t h e rear. D ouglas, at the Grand River camp, sent Henrv Jim Lavere and Cojo to meet the Adams party, and to tell them where to find hostile camp, which t h e y reached the same day, Oct ober 19th. The hostile chiefs had been notified of t he party's a pproach and had closed up the tepees occupied by the women and they, themselves, kept under cover. With the help of the good scou t Sapavanero, who took t h e lead with Captain Cline and Adams, they looked into each tepee. They found Mrs. Meeker in Johnson's tepee, but she had previously been kept in Douglas' tepee. Mrs. Price and her baby bo y were found in Johnson's tepee, but she had previously been kept in Jack's tepee, most of the time. Josephine and Mae Price, tbe three year-old girl, were found in Persune's tepee, where they had been held during t h e twenty-three days. They had all been kept in widely-separated tepees. When the women had been located, they were very much elated, saying, "We are glad you have come for us," General Adams; and Sapavanero found and consulted with Jack, Colorow, Johnson, and Persune, who were not inclined to give up t he women. Piah was scouting on the divide. Chief Douglas, when informed of t he presence of t he Adams party, left for the warring chief's camp, arriving late in the evening. A stormy council was held, which lasted the greate r part o f the night. Because of Merritt's attempt to move south from White River, t he chiefs had become alarmed, and moved south as far as they dared go. Ouray had previously forbidden the White River Utes to hunt or camp on the Uncompahgre reservation Adams, Sapa vanero and Shavano took part in the council. Several hours' co n f erence followed, the chiefs at time making hostile threats, and Sapavanero using harsh words and threats in a persuasive argument for the release of the captives. Johnson's squaw, Susan, who had been taking part in. t h e "pow-wow became e nraged. She burst out with a strong plea, demanding that t h e women be set free, as it was Ouray's orders that they must be released. After demand, t h e chiefs gradually began to weaken. Chief Douglas made a proposition to Adams, that if be would go to White River and stop the soldiers from coming fart!1er t h e y would give up the women. A s Adams had no authority to interfere with Merritt's pl:ans, he at first declined the proposition, but later decided it would be a quicker and easier way out, to have the women released. He accepted Dou glas' terms. The women were told of their release, and to make ready for t h e journey to Los P i nos. With Captain Cline, in charg e of the party, Georg e Sherman and eight of Sapavane r o's Indians, they started in the early morning by horseback to t h e wago n s on the Gunnison River. General A dams Accompanied by the Reporter, Doenhoff. Douglas, Sapavanero, and Shavano went to the main camp on Grand River in t h e early morning to have a short rest and feed. It was October 2 0 t h when Adams, with Chiefs Sowawic, Savinah, Pah-viets, Worzets, Charlie, and eight other of t he White River Indians, selected by Douglas for t he escort, went to Merritt's cam p on W'hite .River to advise him of Chief Douglas' message. A dams had remembered Sowawic frora the time he was agent at White River, and felt safe with him in charg e of the escort. They went by way of the Roan and Yellow Creek trail. At Merritt's Camp, October 20th. A detail scout troop, composed of Captain Hall, Chief Scout Paul l!umme, Lieutenant Weir, Jim Colorow Bill, a nd eight'private soldiers, was scoutir.g near the divide and in the brakes of Pice-an c e and Yellow C reeks. Sco u t !Iumm e and Lieutenant Weir had left t h e mai n party following and killing a deer several hundred yards away, back of t he ridge. Weir was } :illed near the Humme was killed three hundre d yards awa y in the aspens. On hear1 n g t h e Hall and his men appeared on the ridge overlook i ng t he scene. Hwnmes' mount was severely wounded. W eir's mount was recovered, uninjured. Jim Baker and Colorow Bill, who were traveling separately from t h e party on a ridge six hundred yards to t he s ou th, fired several s hots at t hree Utes t h e y had see n making t heir get-a-way over a ridge to t he south The i ncid e n t occurred about 3 p.m. I'he party was late getting to Mer ritt' s headquarters t o report t h e c alamity

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Distance from Rawlins to Los Pinos, by Ute Trails, is Approximately 293 M il es.

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91 Jim B aker reported to General Merritt that Coloro w Bill killed t h e Indian who shot Lieutenant Weir. This report could not be confirmed as the party lef t t h e scene without investigating among the aspens for fear of'being ambushed by the U t es. Three troops of cavalry left 1':erritt's camp tbe same evening to recover the bodies. When ten down the river, on tbe YellowCree k trail, at dusk, they suddenly came in v1ew o f what they thought to b e a b and o f hostile Indians coming on the trail. The soldiers halted and prepared for an attack. The supposed hOs tile Indians seemed t o be alarmed and were s een to scatter. Presently two o f t h e party advanced showing a whit e flag. They were General Adams and Sow awic. Th e Ute escort had stopped and was greatly excited, some of fleein g under cover of a nearby ridge, until Adams and Sowawic, with difficulty, persuaded t h em there was no danger. The cavalry troops recovere d the bod y o f Lieutenant Weir after dark, but did not find Scout Humme's body until a cavalry troop returned the next day. When the Adams party arrived at Merritt's camp, Adam s and the reporter were received at Merritt's headquarters. Merritt would not allow the Ute escort in Camp. They were given provisions, and made camp for t h e night among the cottonwoods near by. From Adams and t h e reporter, Merritt and his men, including The Courier, had first direct information from the hostile Ute camp. Jim B aker talked with Chief Sowawic, leade r of the escort, getting some informatio n i n regard t o their movements and camp A Second Party t o t h e Rescue of the and Children. When the women were yet in t h e Grand River camp Josephine wrote a note and sent it by a grandson of t h e old warrio r c hief, "Black Hawk." This grandson was one of the Uintah Utes who were leaving the hostile camp for t heir home reservation T h e note was addressed to agent E.B. C r i clJlow at -:vhite Rocks Agenc y requesting his assistance in the release of the captive women The I ndians also told the agent that Chief Douglas had said that if white men cam e who were friends of the Utes, the Utes would give u p t h e women, but would murder t h em rather t han release them to the soldiers. Two young men employes of the agency named P S.(Pete) Dillman, and C lint McLane, volunteered to go with Black Hawk's grandson and five other U i n tah Utes as an escort. They went to the hostile car.: p on Grand River, after a two-days' delay i n getting a number of horses f o r the occasion. When they arrived at t h e Grand River camp t hey learned that G eneral had been t here, and had sen t the women and children to Los P inos, and that Adams had gone to Merritt's camp on White River. When Adams returned to Grand River from Merritt's c am p he met Dillman and McLane. At first sight, he mistook them t o be renegade wh ites assisting the Indians. They convinced him who they were by a note carried from Agent Crichlow. Adams said, "You're lucky if you get out of here alive." After Adam s left the camp for Los P inos, Douglas insisted on D illman and McLan:? going to Merritt's camp t o tell hirn, "Utes heap sorry," and ask Merritt to help them get a new agent, as they wanted to go back to t heir reservation, When Dillman aY'Jcl }fcLane a :Jpearect at cP.mp, wit.'l an escort of Indians, Merritt (showing t Je same disreGard for their welfare as t h e Adams esco:tl, .wol:lld not allow the Indians in camu for fear of cooties. The m e n reported the1r m1ss1on, which, like Adams' mission, had no significance other than to satisfy Douglas. Merritt could p romise t h em In the meantime, Captain Cline of the r escue party and the captive women and children, arrive < l at the Los ?inos Agency They were affectionately received by Ralph Meeker, son of Agent and Meeker, Pollock, and Agent Stanley. The women w e r e taken to t?Je h o m e of C hief Ouray w here they remained for two days. Ouray treated them witl1 g reat kindness. Chiueta wept, and was much grieve d for them. They were given all the comforts of a well-furnis'Je d rar_1c n Ralph Meeker had been i n school in the East when h e heard of the Wh1te n1ver Ae:ency disc..1JtP.r. H e joined Major Pollock, who was sent out from 7la s hin.::; ton as special investigato r of the 7lhite River Indian trouble.

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-= ---. ---I S GENERAL ADAM Ncy IN 188 0 AGE LOS South

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93 From Ouray's, t h e warne D were accompanied by Ralph Meeker. Th e y went by mail stag e to Alamosa, w here they rested two days with frjends. They t h e n went by train t o Denver, where they stopped with friends and w h ere they were interviewed a nd questioned by reporters. From there, they t o t heir home in Greeley, where they were received with g reat joy by their friends. Josephine was given a position in Washington as sec retary for Senator Teller, and at the ::equest of Secretary Schurz, she gave lectures in Washington and other eastern cit1es of her knowledge of the Ute Indians. She died early i n life because of pulmonary affliction Women Describe Treatment Received While In Captivity Mrs. Meeker, describing. treatment she received while in custo d y of the Indians, said Douglas was drinking. He treated her badly, taunting and t hreatening her with violence, and pointing a rifle at her. At one time, he stood over her with drawn butcher knife, when she was so weak and exhausted from l o ng rides o n t h e bare back of a pony. She said that Douglas' squaw treated her mean, tormenting her and at times not letting her hav e food for thirty-six hours. She admitted being repeatedly harrassed by their indecent proposals, but escaped assault. Mrs,Meeker and Josephine were each allowed a life pensio n from the government by Congress. She lived to a ripe old a ge, at her borne in Greeley. (The acconpan:>-ingmap s h ows roads and Ute trails traveled durin g tne Ute Cam paign of 1879, but is not authentic as to mileag e between points), Mrs. Price, with her baby boy in her arms, rode b e hind Cojo part of t h e tine, and behind Johnson the rest of the time, whe n moving camp In cam p she was com pelled to divide her time between Jack and Johnson's tepees, and to cook for them and others of t h e t::-ibe. She suffer e d all the indignities against w hich won:a.nhood revolts. Rifles were pointed at her; at times with t hreats to shoot. She gave credit to her children for not having been treated with more brutality The children romped and played with the Indian children, In a way t heir antics amused the older Indians. One Indian wanted to trade her three ponies for ber boy, a nd when she refused, they tried to steal the boy from her, Presune had s hown much courtesy and kind treatm ent toward J osephine, although he had a squaw of his own. He was in possession of stolen government blankets. H e gave certain squaws each a present of a blanket. The caPtive women were given blankets from which they made dresses for themselves and children. The women had not learned from t h e Indians coming from Milk Creek, about the fight with the soldiers, except they learned the soldiers were in holes in the ground. The women had nothing but praise for the good squaw, Susan. After the squaw camp had been moved to Grand River, t h e young bucks w h o had taken part in the Milk Creek fight celebrated their victory with a war dance. Dressed in paint, feathers and other war regalia, they danced around a large sagebrush fire they had made for the purpose, filling the air with fierce yells and war whoops, and went through imitations of killing soldiers. Political Propaganda. Se nsational rumors were afloat about Denver, which spread to other parts, including Washington, of Ute Indian depredations; that the Southern.Utes had mad e hostile demonstrations; that the entire Ute tribes were prepar1ng for war; t hat three hundred Arapahoe Indians were on t heir way to join Jack, and t h e White River Utes in t beir fight with the soldiers; and that many Indians and 25 0 horses and Bules had been killed in the Milk Creek fight. T hese rumors were carried to t h e extent that the Colorado State Militia was ordered to the northern border of the Southern Ute reservation Requests were nade to the war deJ,artmen t for additional troops f o r protectio n i n case of emerg ency General McKenzie, from Fort Garland, with t hree troops o f t t e 4th Cavalry, was on guard at Lake City, a newly-establis hed mining cam p O t he::troop s were stationed at Animas City, with a stro ng reserv e at Fort Garland, D ouglas, after learning that Chief Ouray had been appraised o f their figlit, sent a message to Ouray stating t hat t h e fight his trihe was havir:g with ti'1e soldiers was a figh t of own, and requested t hat t;1ere b e no i nterfer-

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94 ence by other tribes. So far as was known, no South e c n Utes narticipated in the Milk Creek fight. Ouray, when questioned by government officials as to the peaceful attitude of the Ut e Indians, replied that the Uncompahgre Utes were satisfied and peaceful, although minor depredations had been committed on the Southern Ute reservation by a small band of renegades led by Sapaverano, Osapaw, Red Jacket, and a few followers, against the miners and settlers of the San Juan basin area, during the season. But at that time all was peaceful, and that the White River tribe was dissatisfied with their agent -but a general hostile outbreak was not expected. Washington News. In spite of persistent efforts of Colorado Representatives Belford, Akins, and Teller, for t h ree years, the bill for removal of the Ute Indians from Colorado had not received recognition from congressmen, sin ce the majority of them were in sympathy with the I ndians. Governor Pitkin personally made a plea before Congress for passage of the bill. November, 1879. The Government's Peace Policy. The captive women being restored to their homes, the undertook to bring the chiefs responsible for the massacre to justice, through a peace policy, rather than attempt to arrest them by military authority, Carl Schurz, Secretary of the Interior, appointed a commission composed of General Edward Hatch, who was in command of the U.S.army in New Mexico, General Adams, and Chief Ouray, to investigate the recent trouble at White River. It was surmised by Secretary Schurz that, through the influence of Ouray, the guilty Indians could be persuaded to come in where they could be questioned by the commission, and the crime placed u p on those responsible for the murders. Ouray sent messengers to the hostile camp, ordering the leading chiefs to come to Los Pinos Agency. After several days' delay, Johnson, Douglas, Washington, Piah and four lees important Utes carne in, and were examined. All appeared in a sullen m9od. Douglas seldom answered questions, and when he did, spoke in an angry tone. All positively denied knowing anything of the killings. The meeting was held in an abandoned log store building, which at that time was being used as a stable. Billy Burns, white," an employe of the Ute Agency, served as interpreter of Ute, Mexican, and English. The hostile chiefs were armed, and at one time the commission seemed to be in danger of their lives because of the hostile disposition shown. The meeting continued two days. The decided that no conclusion could be reached as a result of the examination. Ouray suggested that the chiefs go to Washington and treat with the Secretary of the Interior, This seemed to be satisfactory to the hostile chiefs, and early in December, a party composed of Ouray, Chief Douglas, Johnson,Sowawic, Piah, the commission, and a small military escort, went to Washington, After several days of examination and parleying, the Utes dPn)ing all questions implicating them in the massacre, Secretary Schurz decided nothing could be accomplished without all of the hostile chiefs. The delegation was ordered to return to Los Pinos. Washington Conference. On January 20th,l880, a second attempt was made by the Secretary of the Interior, Carl Schurz, through the commission, to bring the guilty Indians to justice. Chief Duray went perBonally to the camp of the White River Utes on Grand River to persuade all of the hostile chiefs to come to Las Pinos, where the delegation would be taken to Washington for a conference with the secretary. The chiefs were sullen and caused several weeks' delay before Ouray finally succeeded in gathering them in. General Hatch arranged with Buckskin Charlie, Ignacio's leading, influential

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95 BUCKSKIN CHARLEY An Influ e nti a l Sub-Chief of the Southern Utes. 1879. CH IEF IGNATIO sub-chief of the Southern Utes, for him to bring in t h e leaders of t h e Uncompahgre renegades, w h o had taken part in the Milk Creek fight. General Hatch and Adams went to stop with Captain Cline on the Cimarron, while Ouray was gathering in the hostile Indians. Many messages passed between Adams, Hatch and Secretary Schurz, who had about lost all faith in getting the guilty chiefs to come in. Adams and Hatch complained to Secretary Schurz that Agent Stanley interfering with their plans to gather in the guilty Indians. Schurz wired Stanley to attend to his own business and to assist, rather than interfere with the work. As a consolation for the hostile Utes, &upplies were furnisl1ed them from Los Pinos, February 15th, 1880. Douglas, Jack, Johnson, Sowawic and Piah came in from the hostile camp. Colcrow, the old spalpeen, and a leader in making trouble, would not submit to an examination. Buckskin Charlie succeeded in bringing in Gueno, Ware, and Billy, of the Uncompahgre 7enegades who took part in the massacre. Presune, the dominant character who took charge of Thornburg's outfit, Jo2ephine and the stolen blankets,could not be found. Neither could Cojo be located. The commission, whicr. included Ouray, with seven of the principals who were leaders in the hostilities, started for Washington February 28th, 1880. Douglas was in the same sullen mood as before. The delegation went by way of Fort Leavenworth, where Douglas was placed in the federal prison until the case was decided, and the excitement of the White River tragedy "had quieted down. During the investigation, all the Indians were sullen, except Ouray. When questioned, they shook their heads and pretended they knew nothing about the matter. Jack, when questioned by Secretary Schurz as to whethe r or not he was implicated in the Thornburg fight, pretended he did not know what Schurz was talking about, When questioned in Spanish, he made no reply. After more questioning, he replied in plain English, saying that he had nothing to do with it. The investigation continued three weeks. The government insisted on two pointe: The relinquishment of the leaders responsible for the murders, and removal of the Indiana from Colorado. Ute Jack, when questioned by General Adams why the Utes murdered the men at the agency, replied that they were killed because twenty Utes h ad been killed during the Milk Creek fight. This reply was given little credit, and was in keeping with many other answers made by the Utes during the investigation and which were known to be false. The Utes being very sullen, several days were spent parleying. Even Ouray was loathe first to sign an agreement calling for their removal and exchange of reservation lands: Ouray was accompanied by Chipeta on this trip. She received many presents from Secretary Schurz and other admirers while in Washington.

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.96 Press news from W a s h ington, March 6th 1880, stated: "The Ute Indians sign bill today cedeing t heir lands to t h e government." The i nvestigation was a f arce so far as bringing the guilty Indians to justice was concern e d A few later, General Adams' death was caused by a explosic n in the Gomery P.otel, Denver. Chief Douglas Attempts Escape from Prison, Chief Douglas, a s hort time after h e was confined in the federal prison at Fort Leavenwortl : made an attempt to escape, when a prison guard took him out on a second floor porch of the prison quarters for an airing. The guard returned to the building to answer a call. Douglas, seizing the opportunity, climbed over the rail, slid down a post and disappeared, When the guard returned and found D o u glas gene, he notified two r:1ounted guards who took up the trail, and overtook Dougla s a few blocks away,

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SECTION XVI. Military Operations at a Standstill. December 5th, with t he Indian situation in tbe hands of the interior department, military operations were at a standstill, awaiting developments. C ommunica tion between General a nd army headquarters had slowed down. The Rider was making occasional trips with messages. On one of these trips he stopped at the trenches to count t h e dead horses and mules. About the only relief from the monotony at the camp were stories told by Jim Baker of his experiences about Bridger's Fort and among the different tribes of Indians while loafing at the suttler tent; pitching of horse s hoe s by the soldiers and the braying of pack mules for the bell mare. (A brief explanation). Since all government wag on and pack transportation moved by mule power, the white "bell" m are was a necessity with expeditions on the frontier. The peculiarities of the mule you perhaps know (especially the kick). Mules readily become attached to a white mare, along with the tinkling of the bell, which prevented straying when not hitched, grazing or moving on the trail; the actions being similar to a hen with a brood of young chicks. General Merritt was relieved of his command on White River about December 5th, to resume his duties as commander of Fort D.A.Russell. Merrit t was accompanied on the way by John Dyer, reporter. who was returning to his home in Denver, there being no news of interest to report. (Dyer later operated a saloon in Rawlins for many years). Mer:::i tt' s troops were left in charge of his official staff, and t h e cam p :ms thereafter known as the White River Military Camp. Major Henry, in command of Compan y H, 3rd (the gray horse) Cavalry, was ordered to Fort Laramie, his home post. Major Evans was sent out from Fort Omaha as commander of Fort Fred Steele to fill t r1e vacancy caused by death of Majo r Thornburg. Infantry reserve troops, camped at Rawlings Springs, were ordered to their home posts. The Transportation Problem. In the meantime, Lieutenant McCauley was solving the transportation problem. Tent stations were established at suitable points on the route, for the convenience and comfort of teamsters, packers and stock. One of t hese stations was Baggs' crossing of Snake River. It was used as a transfer station, with Captain Gillis in charge. From Baggs crossing, the old road by way of Fortification and Milk Creek was abandoned on accoun t of deep snow. A route with less snow must be found. Lieutenant McCauley employed the old time mountaineer, Bibleback Brown, to pilot him over a new route by way of Springs and Jack Rab bit Springs to junction of t he draw with Big Gulch, where a station was established. At the same time, Tom Emerson was building a house in the Jack Rabbit draw and was making preparation s to operate a saloon and road ranch. The route continued by way of Spring Gulch and Nine Mile divide to White River. A station was established at Spring Gulch with C.H.Hauser of 5th Cavalry in charge. At White River camp, December 20th, deep snow and severe cold made scouting on t h e divide unnecessary Some riding was done by cavalrymen looking after I.D. cattle. from which source the beef supply for the camp was obtained.

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98 Indians from the hostile camp stole fifty head of I.D.cattle from the White River range, moving t h em over the divide to Grand River; thus assuring t hem of their winter meat supply Deep snow prevente d t h em from drifting back. The camp was made as comfortable as possible with available material at hand. There was no hay o n White River. Snow was from twelve to twenty-four inches deep. The two hundred and fifty horses and mule s had to be provided for. Twenty-five per cent of the less serviceable stock was sent to Fort Steele for t h e win t er. Pack mules and wagon stock were in service, moving supplies. Cavalry horses at the camp were fed g round corn from a mill, operated by hand, twice daily. Cottonwood trees were cut down. T h e bark and branches were given t h e stoc k for browsing during the n ight. All horses not in service were taken out under each day, to forage on t h e hillsides. Father Meeker was an economist of the old school, with no former experiences in dealing with Indians, and no doubt was too deeply interested in his plan to civiliz e and educate the Indians to become self-supporting to realize the danger of their treachery His t hreat to call the soldiers was his doom. General Merritt and General Crook were men of cool judgment, with strong convictions, and were brave soldiers, with many years of experience in dealing with hostile Indians. Thornburg had the reputation of being a brave soldier. He was a crack pistol shot, the equal of Buffalo Bill i n breaking glass balls and hitting pieces of coin and other small objects when tossed into the air. Although men in the trenches were subjected to extreme danger and suffering, the facts did leak out, and resentment was shown when it became known that disobedience to Thornburg's orders left him exposed to the onslaugh t of the hostile Indians. Captain Lawson, having served with General Crook during the Apache war in Arizona in 18?3 and ?4, was lieutenant of Compan y E, 3rd Cavalry during Crook's campaign against the Sioux Indians in 18?5 and ?6. He was first officer in rank next to Captain Payne, eligible to take command. He was sixty years of age at that time. Foreign Born. It may be of interest to note that fify per cent. of the men of Company E, 3rd Cavalry, were foreign-born Irishmen. The other fifty per cent. were largely American, with a sprinkling of foreign-born Germans and Swedes, and under command of Captain Lawson, whom they respected, they made good soldiers. A number of them were honorably discharged from the army while garrisoned at Fort Steele, and became prominent citizens of Wyoming, engaging stock ranching and other pursuits. Charley Williams, Company E blacksmith, rounded out fifty years at the blacksmith trade in Rock Springs, Wyoming, after his discharge from military service at Fort Steele in 1881. The many foreign-born soldiers in the U.S.army at that time may be accounted for as f ollows: At the close of the civil war the U.S.Army was at a low ebb, because of a shortage of native American men as recruits. A larg e army was needed to cope with the Indian situation in the west. Treaties were to be made with the various Indian tribes, and negotiations completed to locate t h em on reservations. Military posts were to be established for the protection of railroad building, miners, and settlers. European men for enlistment, and laborers for railroad work, of which the Irish predominated, were solicited by the government. Courier Facts. Scout Joe Rankin, John Gordon, and MoRea, a soldier of Company D, 5th Cavalry, were the only men to leave the trenches during the six-day siege. (The foregoitig nate is intended to correct false statements that have been made and man) times published by the press of Colorado, since 18?9, stating that others had made strenu ous rides from the trenches to Fort Steele for relief. The truth of the statement made in the beginning of this paragraph may be verified by a num ber of men wh o 11ere soldiers in the trenches, and by pioneer settlers within the area w h o knew the facta. O t her articles have been published stating t hat Rankin ran the

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99 entire distance from the trenches to Fort Steele on foot. Dreams of personal fame by way of idle talk). Courier Line Abandoned. The C owb o y courier line was abandoned by order of Lieutena n t McCauley J a n uary 8tn,l880. The Rider, accompanied by Jim Baker ( who was also discharged fro m his scout job), left Merritt's camp b y way of t h e new r oute for Rawlins. Calvarymen carried the few messages and mail between Merritt's camp a n d B aggs,' where they connected with the Rawlins mail line. W.H.Peck, Indian trader at Bear R i ver, was haule d before the g overnor and federal officers in Denver in an investigation i n regard to his sale of rifles and liquor to the Indians. He escaped pro s e c u tion, however. Troop I, 4th Infantry, fro m Merritt's force, was assigned t o guard d u t y at the Bagg s ranch. furnished range beef f o r the B aggs c a m p H a y was scarce on Snake River. Captain Gillis, with diff iculty secured a few half -ton load s at $ 4 0 per l oad. Romance. N o story is comple t e without its hero, heroine or romance. I n t h i s cas e it's romance. After Merritt's forces had passed Snake Rive r on t heir way south to reli eve the entrenched men Al.McCarger (familiarly knovm as Old Mack) left his hom e and followed in t heir wake, feeling safe from hostile I ndians, to look for his teams, stolen from his freight camp on Deer Creek While Mack was gone, Bill Humphrey driver of the buckboard carrying mail to Rawlins, in a l ove arrangement with 1-:argaret l E c Carger (Mack's youngest daughter), persuaded her to go with him to Rawlin s and get married. The story was afterwards told by Captain Gillis, w h e n introducing M cCarge r to his acquaintances at the transfer station, where Mack was delivering freight. H e would say, "This i s Mr.McCarger. While he was hunting for his stolen horses, t h e mail carrier stole his daughter." On January 1, 1880, the newlyweds took charge of the road ranch a t Sulphur Springs, relieving the Dave Lambert family Carrie lCc Carger a s sisted her sister with the work. Government Supply Transportion Inadequate. Januar y lOth, 1880, the winter was exceptionally severe with snow and cold. The government was short of mules to move supplies to W hite R iver. Fifty large, sleek fat mules ?Tith close-sheared mane s and tails, were b o ught at the sales stables in a n d shipped direc t from comfortable stabl e s to Rawlins for seYvice in moving supplies to Merritt's headquarte r s B ecause of the change from the lower altitude to the h igher, and severe c ?ld i n the open, t h e majoYity of t h em w ere stricken with cold s and pneumon 1 a Wh1l e moving freight, one or more mules of the team m i e;h t become a ffected and die.on the road, or while tied to the wagon durine; t h e nie;ht carnp, o t hers, devel o p 1 n g pneumonia, chilled and froze to death. About twenty-five per cent. of them were save d by m o ving them to the men t stables at Fort Steele, w here t h e y were under t h e c a r e of the post v e terlnarian. Private teams v1er e enc;aged f o r moving supplies, and by shovel1ng through ma!J y snowdrift3 got a s far as B aggs' C r ossing, g overnment c amp w ith their freight. There it t o pack mules to b e moved t c ,,;:arritt' s c amp Th e "Aparajo" (a l eather, pocket apparatus hung to t h e pac k saddle ) was used i n all government pack tran s portation.

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TOM MOORE. Chief Packer COLOROW BILL JOHN McANDREWS. \Vagonmaster NIGHT CAMP AT THE WILLOWS. Government Teams on the way with s upplies for the White River Camp. Mules dying of pneumonia during the night Teamsters s hoveling through h e av y snow drifts

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101 Horses Stolen. The Ute Indian scare was yet in the air when eighty-five head of George Baggs' range horses were stolen from his corral where they were being held during the night to prevent theft, as suspiciou; characters had been seen in the neighborhood. Two mont h s later, sixty-eigh t head were recovered from the open range in the Green Rive r country, ninety-five miles distant. N o arrests were made as the thieves could not be found. Rawlins Was a Hot Town. Rawlins, with a population of about 800, largely railroad employes had six saloons. The town was filled to overflowing with the class of men who0drift to excitements of this nature; government mule skinners, soldiers, bull-whackers, gamblers of the better class down to the tinhorn type. Gambling and drunken brawls were a regular nightly occurrence. Lavin Brothers' saloon, on the south side, was the moat notorious dive in town. For seven successive mornings there was a dead man, (but not for breakfast.) Frank Kanuth and two teamsters were murdered by knife or pistol during drunken brawls in the Lavin saloon. One man was killed in the less notorious saloon of John Foote; one a suicide in a redlight dive. A teamster died of pneumonia after drinking during a carousal, when he spread hie shakedown in the stall of an old stable. There were others who passed out with their boots on in a similar manner in the Lavin saloon. A government mule -skinner named Clark, crazed by desperate liquor, held men in suspense in the business section of town in daylight, taking shots with a Winchester rifle at one and all who appeared on the street within his range. Finally, the sheriff dispatched the desperate lunatic with a rifle. Pat O'Grady, section bose at Filmore, twenty-two miles west, came to Rawlins (as was his custom after receiving his monthly pay check from the Union Pacific pay-car), to lay in another month's supply of provisions for hie family and section crew of five. While making the rounds for purchases, he had served his thirst with "Rawlin's Best" at the different saloons, and was toting a gallon jug of the beverage, for home emergency, and had about exhausted his pay-check roll. Calling at Perry Smith's meat market, where he had previously ordered a quarter of beef, he remarked,"Perry, I can't pay you-all for that beef until next pay-day." "Well, Pat," said Perry, "how much can you pay down." "D---d little, if any," said Pat. Perry, being one of the liberal sort, could not deny Pat., who was a regular customer. When a small payment was made, Pat.left with hie monthly meat supply. Distinguished Visitors. No lese a personality than "Calamity Jane," with a somewhat less notorious companion, cotton Tail," a "dizzy blonde," from Cheyenne, Sidney and the Black Hille area, made Rawlins a few days' business call during the height of the Ute excitement. "Little Van," with one eye directed at the ceiling, the other at the floor, presided at the bar of the Foote saloon; beloved by all, for he was just one of the boys. Paul Fuhr, with his family, moved from his ranch to Rawlins during t h e Indian scare. In order to recover losses in cattle caused by the hard winter, he took up his former occupation of dealing eards from the silver box. Joe B.Adams was Union Pacific agent at Rawlins. R.W.Baxter. w ho, at the age of fifteen, learned to manipulate the telegraph ke y s at t h e Rawlin s while employed as messenger boy was day-train dispatcher, and Henry E.Flav1n was night dispatcher. They took of messages and government freight shipments during the Ute trouhle. Baxter was later superintendent of t h e St.Louis and Southwestern R.R. As there was no bank in Rawlins, arrangements were made for havin g government vouchers and Union Pacific pay checks casbed at the Jim France store. Jim Baker secured cash for his government voucher and spent several day s in Rawlins (it being his custom when in town for ranch supplies) The livery stable

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102 office and saloons provided the only public loafing places in town. As a surprise for Jim, he met his old-time friend of trapping days, Jack Sheard, who had come to Rawlins from Laramie to look for a job moving freight. With an occasional dri nk while comparing notes, they recalled former experiences about Fort Laramie and Bridger's F ort. Each had a hearty laugh and many a trickle of tobacco juice spread over Jim's chin as their tales were greatly enjoyed b y all who congregated to hear them. Jim was not a blower or a chronic boozer, but would take a drink with the boys any old time, and it was possible for Jim to become "three sheets (or more) to the wind" occasionally, when going t h e r ounds with a jolly bunch having a night out. General Crook Directs 7ransportation. January, 1880, General Crook came to Fort Steele and Rawlins from Omaha, and personally assisted in directing transportation. A route with less snow was sought between Rawlins and Sulphur Springs. Second Lieutenant W.D.Beach, a tenderfoot recruit fro m West Point kilitary Acade my, was put in charge of a wagon and camp equipment drawn oy six white mules accompanied by a n escort of s oldiers with Bill Hawley, Hat Creek cattleman, as pilot. He was sent from Fort Steele to select a route by way of Bridger Pass. The mercury was forty below at the time. (Lieutenant B each now a retired Brigadier General. lives i n S a n Diego, California.) The g overru nent had a number of white mules in service at frontier posts. They were raised on the ranges of California, from white and pinto mares and from the original strain of Spanish Jacks. They were medium mule size with a make-up for extra service. T h ey were the favorite choice of arm y officers as a four and six ambulance team. Sandy who accompanied Captain Dodge to the was stable-boy, taking care of stock at Fort Steele during the winter. He later engaged in stock ranching on Buffalo Creek in North Park, the creek taking the name because of wild buffalo ranging there. Later, he, in conversation with The Rider, when addressed as Kr.Mellen, remarked, "Just call me Sandy." Conductor E.S.Peck Frozen to Death. On January 8th,l880, freight conductor Peck of the Rawlins -Green River division of the U.P.Railroad, and hie brakeman brother Will, and Tom Branson, vacationed from their regular run to hunt antelope. Going by train to Creston station, thirty miles west of Rawlins, they hunted for two miles south of the U.P.tracks. The conductor became separated from the brakemen. A severe snow blizzard cam along, which made hunting antelope impossible. The two brakemen found their way to Creston station The blizzard continued until late next day. Fourteen inches of snow, piled high in drifts, had fallen. As the conductor had not returned, the brakemen reported him lost. A dozen horsemen from Rawlins hunted the country over for two days, but failed to find him. The Union Pacific officials offered a reward for the finding of Peck's body. Mike Sweet and The Rider, who had just arrived from the courier line, undertook the job. The Union Pacific Company furnished a box car for transportation of saddle horses and camp equipment and delivered ttJe party to Creston station. The second day, January lli, the body was found within five hundred yards of the U.P. tracks, two miles east of the station. Peck had attempted to start a fire in a clump of sagebru&h by lighting a match to fire a letter taken from his pocket, but failed. His rifle was near the. body. His face had been eaten and dis figured by coyotes. "Rawlins' Best," of which he had a small supply left in a bottle, failed to overcome the icy attack of boreas. Merritt's forces, after spending the seven winter months at the White River camp, were relieved in April, 1880, by other cavalry troops. In April, 1880, tlle government, through a program of construction, built bridges over Snake and Bear River crossings. Contracts were let to a number of freighters. Bu.ilding material and supplies were on the way to 7fhi te River, where a temporary military post was established, and designated White River Camp. A telegraph line was built from Rawlins to the new post.

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10.1 End o f Ute Jack. April,l880, Jack r eturned fro m l'i'ash inston in t h e same frame of mind that had the Utes w hile at Was hing t o n c aused by fear of punishmen t and loss of thel.r c herl.shed home reservation. H e went north with t hree others of t h e tribe, to t h e ShosJ H ,neA r a p ahoe reservation on H ind River,'Nyoming I t was said by s ome (but not c onfirmed) that he had intended to persuade t h e Arapahoe Indians to join in war on t h e w hites. The sto r y of t!Je killing wa s told by John .Ourns, of Lander, Wyoming who was a n employe at the agency and a n eye witness t o the affair. Colonel Smitl; i n command o f Fort Was hakie, w hich adjoined t h e reservatio n l earned of Jack's presence. With Jack's r ecor d of hostilities fresh in mind, h e decided Jack was there to ma k e trouble. H e w i red t o Was hing ton about t h e situation, and received instructions t o arrest Jack. Sergeant Brady with a detachment of soldiers of t h e 7th Cavalry was o r dere d t o ma k e t h e arrest. The soldiers met Jack, with rifle i n han d near his tepee. surre nder o f his rifle was d e m a n ded, Jack shot a n d killed Sere;eant Brady; then immediately dodged into his tepee while others o f his trib e ran t o Arap ahoe tepees. The s oldiers witbdr ew to a safe distance from rifle s hot. Colonel Smith ord e r e d a mountain howitzer (a sm all c.:a.nnon) fro m t lt e fort, w h i c b was tra i ned on, and riddled, the t e p e.:!, thus endi n g the career o f Jack. Since that time, nur.:ter ous articJes have o e e n p u 1 1lisbe d in tl:e p ress of Co l orado lauding Ute Jack as captain; a compliment h e had not know n his life. (It was just t o o bad for Jack tha t he had been dead too long t o appreciate t h e h onor). Th e Ute Indian :t anna," captured w hen a small boy by a band o f Arapahoe Indians when eng aged in war with U tes ove r disputed h u nting g roun d s in the Snake River country, in 1865, died at the Agency A pril,l932. He had been ever loyal to the Arapahoe trib e Durin g his e ntire time with t h e Arapahoe s he never visited the Utes. A Short Career of the Youthful Adventurer. May 1st, 1880, Colorow Bill, after being d ischarged frorri Merritt' s camp on White River, s p e n t the latter part o f the winter in Raw l i ns. I n t !l e s p ring, he was em ployed b y the 71 Q,uarter-Circle Compa n y H e and c o wboys Nate Young, :Jan Haley and Lo n ] ,\iller (of the firm of 1.liller B r others, cattleme!1) were engar,ed in gathering saddle horses t hat had strayed from t heir home ranches on Sand Creek a n d Sweetwater, to Red Desert during the winter. The farty made camp at the pump h o use o f t h e U P Railrcad Co., at Was h akie section now Wamsutter Station) A trivial quarrel between Co loro w Bill and Lon Miller h a d previously caused bad blood on the part o f C oloro w B ill had t hreatened Lon During a stormy day the party remained in camp The old grudg e was renewed in a playful manner by Miller toss ing a rop e o v e r Colcrow' s neck. Co lorow reached for his Colts forty-five, which was his close companion and a t all times s wung from his belt. Miller, who was prepared w a s quicker on the draw. Color o w H ill was killed. Miller stood trial f o r murde::in Sweetwate r cou!'lty He was acquitted on plea of self defense. Several small b ands of buffalo were ranging in the Red Desert country in 1880. Small bands of wild horses had made their appearance on isolated ran g es, starting orit; inally from a few head that had been lost f rom immigrants, trail herds from California and settlers. They increased rapidly, and within a few years became a nuisance to domeaticated stock ranges. Mishap at Fort Steele. In 1 880, post-trader at Fort Steele, operated a ferryboat the Nort h Platte River. When the rive r was at flood stage from meltl.nl?: sno w s l.n the mountai ns, A.J.Frayer, with wife and two traveline; we s t by w a g o n being ferried overt h e river. When l.n ml.dstream, the c a rle b r o,;:e The capsized, and the ferryman, Joe Barger, Frayer' s wife children, a n d

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104 the team were drowned. Frayer drifted down stream half a mile, clinging to the upturned boat. Four soldiers who saw the mishap followed along the river bank and cast a rope to the imperiled man. He was dragged ashore. He was left entirely destitute, having lost his family and all t heir belongings. H ugus furnished him assistance to search for the bodies of his wife and children, but they were never found. Hugus, feeling somewhat responsible for Frayer's loss, furnished him with team, wagon, and a supply of provisions, that he might continue his journey. J.W.Crawford, who was employed by Hugus as clerk during the 70s, later established and was editor of the Saratoga Sun, at Saratoga, Wyoming. While government restrictions banned liquor from military reservations. Hugus operated a saloon adjoining his store for the patronage of military officers and civilians and from which private soldiers were barred. D.C.Majors and Taylor Pennock dispensed liquors at the Hugus saloon.

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SECTION XVII. First of North Park. North Park, which had formerly been a refuge for big game, was first settled by and family and W.H,Pinkham, who located in lower end of the park 1n 18??, They were engaged in prospecting, hunting and trapping. Pinkham later_kept the Pinkhampton Postoffice and Road Ranch, and was engaged in stock ranch1ng, J,A,Mendenhall, with a party, looked the park over for a cattle range in April 18?9, Two months later Mendenhall located in the east aide of the park, moving three thousand head of cattle and six hundred horses from his range at Virginia Dale. Mont) Blevins, a young man w h o later became Mendenhall's son-in-law, was in charge, Tom Wilson and Marsh Jones, from Fort Collins, also located in the park with eight hundred head of cattle in 18?9, Two small bands of buffalo were ranging in the south end of the park at that time, Eight longhorn Texas steers that were lost from a herd that was moving west on the overland trail several years before, had drifted into the park and located on the same range with the buffalo. They were from twelve to fifteen years old, and were just as wild as the buffalo, but with more speed. Six steers belonging to Charlie Hutton were found in the Park. They had strayed from the Fort Saunders range on the Laramie Plains several years before, and had become old and wild, During the summer of 18?9 much prospecting was done in the mountains surrounding the park. A rich ore strike was reported found in the east range by Halstead Lafever and Ben Towner,both of Laramie. Many prospectors congregated in the vicinity, During the Ute Indian scare the prospectors all left the park, Nhen the scare had blown over, six of them returned and camped near their claims for the winter. They, with six cattlemen, included all of the inhabitants of the park for the winter. Two of the prospectors who returned were W,E,Burlingame and Prentice E.Daw. They had joined in making camp together on a small creek which had not been named, During February,l880, Monty Blevins, one of the cattlemen, accompanied by Prentice Daw, joined a 150-mile snow-shoe hike over the continental divide to Sulphur Springs, county seat of Grand County, which included North Park. They registered homestead and mining claims, and returned from the four-day trip completely exhausted. Later, in conversation, Monty declared it was the hardest trip he had taken during his life, and his hard trips were many, About May lst,l880, Daw's oamp-mate Burlingame, appeared in Laramie and reported that Daw had been killed by a band of Indians led by Ute Jack, The report caused much alarm; the War Department was notified, Troop E, 3rd Cavalry, which had previously been ordered from Fort Steele for duty on White River, with Cap tain Caleb Carlton in command and assisted by Lieutenant W.D.Beach, was preparing to leave when the order was changed by Major Evans in command of Fort Steele for the troop to go by way of North Park to investigate the reported Indian depredations. Daw's body was found. The cavalry troop reported that no evidence was found of Indians having been in the Park at the stated time, Burlingame was suspected and later arrested and convicted of the Daw murder. From this incident the creek on which they were camped was named Indian Creek, By May 20th, the rush was on, The largest number of prospectors were from Cheyenne, yet Laramie shared in the excitement. By June 1st several hundred prospectors were in the vicinity of the new discovery. Laramie because of being the nearest railroad point, became the gateway and out-fitting'point; doing a rushing business. Laramie citizens fi?anced the building of a road to the park. A mail service was requested by the m1ners and stockmen.

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106 Fort Collins Vies for a Share of t ;1e North Park T rade. S B Stuart a v eteran tie contracto r of t h e Cach e La Poudre Riv e r with t h e v i ew t o developing a profitable business, was, during May, J u n e and July 1880, engaged in b uilding a t oll roadup t h e Poudre River, by way o f Chambers Lake t o North Park A t the same time h e built the Rustic Hotel at t h e f oot of Ping r e e Hill T r ail i n P oudr e Canyon. Pingree had enga g e d in stock ranc h ing in t h e canyon in 1877. The Rider, on his way fro m Denver t o Rawlin s afte r disposing of a num ber o f saddl e poni e s t o prospectors and tourists at t h e Elephant Corral in Denver, was traveling by saddle and pack-horse over t h e Park r oute, and was employe d f o r a time b y Stuart at buildi n g t h e Rustic :-!otel, which in later years was enlarged. In o r d e r to attract trave l and business t heir way Fort Collin s businessmen arranged with Luke Voorhese (stable, stage and all-around business man of Chey enne ) t o put on a stage line over t h e Poudre route to t h e new mining caop T h e Cheyenne-Black Hills Stage Line had been abandoned in 1878. Traffic had shifted t o a new stage line w hich had started from Sidney to the hills. Extra were available at Ch e y e nne. A bout August 5th Voorhese, with his driver, B e nnett and six-horse coach (th e one t hat Johnny Slaughter was driving on the Black :!ills Stag e line w hen he was killed at Hat Creek b y Sioux Indians in July, 1 876), left Fort Collins with a mail pouch said to contain five letters. Voorhese was accompanied by C.H.Sheldon, pre s iden t of the Poudre Valley Bank, and one other Fort Collin s businessman. The trial trip took two and one-half days from Collin s to t h e mining camp. B y this time; many pro s pectors were leaving the district, havin g failed t o find pro!Oising prospects. M any miners claimed the first prospect had been salted. V o o r hese a n d Collins men decided the stag e line could not be a success as t h e camp was on t h e decline, and t h e Poudre route was not practical at tha t time. A four, a n d at times, a six-horse coach for passe n gers and mail was operated between Laramie and t h e cam p When a p ostoffice .vas established at the car.1p, it was n a med T eller, in honor of Senator Teller o f Colorado. A ugust 25t h,l880. On t h e way from the Rustic Hotel to Rawlins, by wa y o f i l o r t h Park Th e Hider noticed several stockmen m o ving in with small herds of cattle. A m o n g t h e m were A M.Spicer, Hugh Griffith and oth ers whose names cannot now be r ecalled. Three years later, Barney Day and S.3 .Webber, e nrly settlers of e nc;aged i n t h e stock business. They, wit! 1 a third member who was one of t h e old boa r d o f c ommissioners, were elected as a new board of commissioners for Grand County in 1882. O f the old board, two members were settlers of North Park. A bittHr political c ontroversy had developed during t h e electio n between North and Park factions, in regard to the location o f the county seat. A t their first meeti n g of t h e old and n ew boards, which took :olace at G'rand Lake, July lst,l883 t h e quarrel was renewed, which terminated in the slaughter of t h e new b oard The North Park members, shooting with rifles fro m ambush ; and Sheriff wyer, w h o became i mplicated in the s hoot.ing t h r o ugh a misunderstanding durin g t h e conflict, fatally shot his friend, Barn e y Day. After b r ooding over his terrible mistake, he committed suicide a few days later. Thus, four lives o f promi nent Gran d County men were wiped out. Larg e herds o f cattle were being m oved on the North Platte R iver. O f ths ow ners of t hese were Tom H u nter, w ho, with his bro t!J.er, John Barn e y r, h a d f o r merly driven larg e herds of cattle fro m was building his ranch a t t h e lower end of North Park. G u y N i ckels had located on lower Encampm e n t Creek, i n 1 878. John M.Kuykendall, of Cheyenne, in charg e of a herd of cattle for the Wis consin and W y o m ing Cattle Comp a n y (financed b y J.I.Cace o f esta b lished t heir headquarters ranch on Spring C reek a few r1iles from Sara toga S p rin:; s i n 1880. Later, he was president and manager of t h e Denv e r O m nibu s and C a b Co., and a prominent society man of Denver.

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The Voorhese Stage Leaving the Rustic Hotel for the New Mining Camp in North Park, August. 1880 Looking North.

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108 Blydenberg Brothers, Charley and Harry, engaged in the cattle business on Jack Creek, near Saratoga Springs, in 1879 with range brand Tc. Others who located in the Saratoga district in the seventies were Harry Mullison, Billy Brauer, Bill and Georg e Forney, Silas E r p George Cadwell, John B rewer and a few others. A L Hueston, formerly a game hunter for t h e Union Pacific Railroad construction workers, located his ranch on Calf Creek in the distric t where h e was engaged in cattle ranching in 1873, In 1 873, Bill Cadwell filed record of homestead rights on land w hich included a n d later became the noted Saratoga Hot Springs. Bill later operated a boarding house in connection with the Springs, to accommodate bathers a n d transient customers -supplying hie table with antelope and venison meats. Often, when the supply of game meats was exhausted, Bill as a treat to his guests, would take his trusty Remington rifle and bring d o wn one of t h e boss billy goats that would perhaps b e leading others of his herd on a hike on the top rail of the corral fence as a start to climb the side of a twenty-foot wall rock ledge that formed part of the corral. L.G.(Lew) Davis arrived in the Saratoga Valley in the early eighties. H e engaged in the cattle business. H e j oined Captain Torry's "Rough Riders" in 1898, and later was sheriff of Carbon C ounty; still later U.S.Marshall for Wyoming. N o native nor other trout were found in the North Platte River or its tributaries (including the Sweetwater River), except the South Platte, until 1877, when trout were'planted by the game and fish departments of Wyoming and Colorado. Attempted Train Robbery. It was in June,l880, when an organized band of outlaws attempted to wreck and rob the monthly pay-car of the Union Pacific Railroad, westbound near Percy section, fourteen miles west of Carbon, coal town in Carbon County, Wyoming. They drew the spikes on three lengths of rails, and built an obstruction of ties on t h e line. Ole Swanson, section boss at Percy, while track walking one hour before the special was due, "found the obstruction and loose rails. The train was flagged, and the sheriff notified. Tip Vincent, deputy sheriff at Rawlins, and Ed.W.Widowfield, .deputy sheriff at Carbon and six special deputies fro m Carbon, formed a posse to pursue the robbers. Vincent and Widowfield, who became separated from the posse, discovered the robbe .rs' trail. Following it, they came across what appeared to be a recentlyoccupied camp in a small cove in a dense grove of willows and aspens on Rattlesnake Creek, in the foothills of Elk Mountain. The campfire had burned low. They advanced to the cove to investigate. While examining the campfire ashes as a test of recent occupancy, they were both fatally shot from ambush, the bandits taking the deputies' horses. Others of the posse had returned to Carbon. After three days had passed, Nidowfield' s friends at Carbon and the sheriff at Rawlins became alarmed, as nothing had been heard from them. T h e sheriff and a posse of deputies from Rawlins and Carbonwent in search of the two men -finding t heir dead bodies. The bandits had flown. Their trails indicated t here were four of them. Upon investigation, it was found that they had been seen in Laramie a few days before the robbery. Sheriffs of adjoining territories were notified and descriptions given. Nothing was heard of them for four months. Sheriff Rankin received notice of the arrest of George Parrott (alias Big Nose George) at Miles City, Montana, September, 1880, on the murder and robbery charge. "Big Nose" was arrested by special deputies Fred Schmassel and Lem Wilson(packers from Fort Keough), in a saloon after he had disclosed his identity in connection with the robbery in Wyoming, while under the influence of liquor. Sheriff Irvine, of Custer County, had known Big Nose as a bad man and gunfighter. H e appointed the special deputies to make the arrest as a surprise to Georg e and as a precaution to prevent bloodshed. Bringing t h e prisoner from Miles City to Rawlins required twelve days. Sheriff Rankin went b y way of the Union Pacific to Ogden, Utah; then over the Utah Northern to Butte City; thence b y buckboard mail stage to Bozeman, and by horseback east and down t h e practically unsettled valley of the Yellowstone, one hundred and fifty miles to Miles City The Yellowstone River, not being navigable

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109 at that season of the year, the prisoner was moved by livery conveyance one hundred and seventy-five miles east to the terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad at Medora, thence by Sioux City and the Union Pacific to Rawlins. George was tried and convicted on the murder and robbery charg e in the district conrt of Carbon County. He was sentenced to hang in April,J881, by Judge Jesse Knight. Because of being a desperate character, his legs were kept shackled. He picked the lock and freed himself. He held the heavy shackles in his hand in an attempt to escape. H e stood by the wall near the door in the corridor of the Jail. As R.T.(Bob) Rankin, the jailor, entered carrying a tray with George's evening meal, George dealt him a heavy blow on the head with the shackles. Rankin staggered with the assistance of his wife, and slumped to the floor, severely injured. His wife, who had opened the door, and who, with presence of mind, had closed the door again, prevented George's escape. An alarm was given. The sheriff was out of town. A posse was organized late in the night. "Big Nose" was hanged to a telegraph pole in the center of the town. Dr.John E.Osborne, later G overnor of Wyoming, was called to examine the body, which was taken down t he following morning. Souvenir hunters, led by Bill Ford, invaded the mortuary which was a stall in Larry Hayes' cow stable, and ears, scalplocks, patches of hide to be tanned for purses, were taken from the body before burial. The jailor's wife was presented a gold watch by the county commissioners for her thoughtfulness in closing the door and preventing Big Nose's escape. In January, 1883, Charlie Burris (alias Dutch Charlie), formerly from Arcadia, Nebraska, and one of the robber band, was arrested in Laramie b y Sheriff Jack Brophy of Albany County. Charlie had just arrived in Laramie from a hideout of several months with the notorious gunman Jack Watkins, at his cabin on Rock Creek, two miles above the immigrant road. They had formerly been employed at the Coe and Carter tie camp at the head of Rock Creek. Watkins was later taken into custody on criminal charges, by Sheriff N.K.Boswell, of Albany County. While moving the prisoner by U.P.Train No.3, from Laramie to Rawlins, the train stopped for a few minutes at Carbon, at 10 o'clock p.m. Miners, and friends of Deputy Widowfield, entered the train and overpowered the sheriff. Charlie was hung to a nearby telegraph pole. Late the following morning the rope was cut; the body was placed on an open coal car on the westbound train. At Rawlins, the body was laid out on the station platform, the necktie of the rope by which he had been hanged, still around his neck. The Hider, when viewing the body along with other curiosity seekers, saw it placed in a rough board box, and it was ready for burial. The mercury stood at below all day. A grave had been dug in Potter's field in the early morning. Jim France's delivery team was the only one available. Hy Armstrong, the driver, moved the body to the open grave. As there was no one to assist in lowering the box, it dropped head-down into the pit, and because of the severe cold, it remained that way until next morning, when the grave-digger, George Shloer, straightened it out for covering. Late in 1883, a man named Carter was arrested in Ogden, Utah, as a suspect of the robber band. He proved an alibi and was released. Still later a suspect was arrested at Deadwood, Dakota, and subjected to much court procedure, without being convicted. A number of holdups of U.P.trains occured in the 18?0s and 1880s, one of which was the successful robbery of passenger train No.3 at Big Springs, Nebraska in April,l8?8. Joel Collins, leader, and Sam Bass, who came north with a herd of cattle from Texas, joined the outlaw band at Sidney. They fled to rendezvous in the Indian territory, but were later arrested and sentenced to prison terms. The Old Frontier Not So Wild, When Compared with Present-Day Outlawry. The old frontier had its h .orse and cattle thieves, and its bandits, too. Possibly there was one bandit to twenty of the modern type. Outlaw depredations on the frontier were a mere drop in the bucket, and Jesse James in his heyday of banditry was a gentleman of honor in comparison with the many bandit thugs of the present day.

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110 The great majority of pioneer and homesteaders were of the loyal and good neighbor type, ready to assist during sickness and with food. Although many eastern publications were loud in t heirdenunciationof westerners as outlaws; not until t h e influx o f homesteaders a ppeare d in the along with came a sprinkling of the moocher and gyps y type, was it necessary for settlers to lock their cabins when leaving for a day or for weeks.

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SECTION XVIII. South.!_ Incid e nts and :Jevelopments Within the Area, from 1879 to 1884. September 20t !l,l880, The rtider was on the way sou th, accompanying and in the employ of George Baggs, who had information that som e of his horses, stolen during t h e Ute India n excitement, had been seen in the lower Gunnison River country, in possession of suspicious characters. Seventeen head had not been recovered. Traveling by saddle and pack horses, we observed developments along t h e route, as follows: bridges, built by the government over Snake and 3ear Rivers, a postoffice was established at t h e government camp at the junction of Jack Rabbit and Big Gulches, July lst,l880. The extension of these two water courses had not been named. Freiehters, soldiers, and other travelers made camp at t h e road crossing of t his spring branch, with splendid grazing near camp for their stock. Many would lay over a day or two, to rest their teams. The place became noted as the "Lay Over" camp. The nane "Lay" was applied to the spring branch as Lay Creek, and the name "Lay" was also applied t o the postoffice. Sam Adair, a new arrival from Tennessee, with a view to in some of the soldiers' and engaged in the saloon business near the Lay station, cigars and drinks at twenty-five cents each, while at the railroad the same sold for fifteen cents each, or two for twenty-five cents. In 1882 Sam locate d in the Hayden Valley, where he engaged in cattle ranching. Range Cattle Moved In. It was in June, 1880, when Ora of Laramie City, moved his herd of cattle from the Laramie Plains t o Bear River and established his headquarters ranch near t h e gove rnment camp on Lay Creek. A.J.Gregor y was.in char ge. The range brand was "//two bar." Later, when the goverr,zr.ent cam p was abandoned, the Lay postoffice and telegraph office was moved to the Two-Bar ranch. At the White River miltary camp, soldiers' quarters were being built with pine and cottonwood logs and adobe. Eugene Taylor, because of his several years' experience and his friendliness with the White River Ute Indians, was employed by the commanding officer of the camp as interpreter. The hostile Utes, havi'ng become reconciled witb the soldiers, were making frequent visits to White River from their camp on Grand River, with ma : y pleas to be allowed the privilege of coming back to their reservation. Reminiscences of the Milk Creek Fight. With courier headquarters at Merritt's camp, The Rider was in a position to know all details of Ute and military activities during the Ute campaign of 1879 from White River north, while reliable information filtered in to Merritt's camp by couriers, of what took place on the Uncompahgre The same events were many times recalled to memory while living within the area. And fifty-two years later, he was accompanied by Malachi Dillon, who was a private soldier in the trenches with Company E. 3rd Cavalry, under Captain Lawson. He had also been with General Crook at the battle of Rosebud in 1876. The two drove to the battleground and found the trenches very much in evidence. They saw many of the cavalry horses and mule bones on the bank of Milk Creek, in an almost perfect state of preservation. Two hours were spent going over the battleGrounds on faot, while Dillon described the fight from all angles. He also related, as others of T hornburg's and Merritt's men had, that no evidence was found of Indian s having been killed during the fight or seige at the trenches. It w all later learned, through the most reliable Ute Indians, that three Utes had been killed.

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112 The Opportunity Had Arrived. Alarming reports of the Milk Creek incident, published in the eastern press, while Colorado papers were silent on the s ubject, had the desired effect. The bill authorizing the removal of Uncompahgre and White River Ute Indians from Colorado, which had previously been opposed by eastern representatives in Congress because of their belief the Indians were being imposed upon, was passed April 12,1880. The same bill was the most im portant legislation in removing the barrier to development of Western Colorado, and the incident should be of special interest to the citizens of this section. The Thornburg Uonument. A monument to the memory of Thornburg and his men who lost their lives in the Milk Creek fight was erected October 20th,l881, by order of the war department. A block of Indiana, gray colite granite, weighing nine tons, was carved in Chicago with a list of the names of the killed and wounded. It was shipped to Rawlin s in two sections, and freighted to Milk Creek by Sam with b1 teams. The monumen t stands one-half mile from the road and its view is obstructed by cottonwood trees. (This note is written as a plea, hoping that it may awaken public interest among the citizens of Colorado, that they petition proper authorities of the government to provide means whereby a public road may be opened by way of the pioneer and natural route on the north side of Milk Creek, placing the monument on the map, and in view of travelers who pass that White River Agency Cattle Disposed Of. During July, 1880, A.L.McCarger was appointed United States Marshall to take charge of the I.D.cattle. McCarger employed Joe Collom, John Porter, George Fuhr, Tom Duffy, and Bob McCarger as cowboys to gather the cattle. Many of them were found with the I.D. brand disfigured. Rustlers had been at work: The I.D.brand had been remodeled into cross box brand. The quartermaster at the military camp had been buying beef from the man, who later were found to be the rustlers. In otlier words, the government was paying the rustlers for government-owned beef. Warrants were out for Wesley Travis, leader of the rustlers, and John Gordon, who was arrested. There was no jail on White River, and Gordon was put under guard of John Baker. Travis disappeared, and was not apprehended. John Gordon made his escape while under guard of Baker. The manager of suttler store was arrested as an accomplice in the deal. He was taken to Denver for trial. After much delay, and through influential friends, he was acquitted. Joe B.Adams was in charge of the suttler store for a time. Later, D.C.Majors was placed in charge. During the summer of 1880, Agent Meeker's remains were removed from their resting place at the site of the burned agency, and interred at Lin Grove Cemetery at Greeley. A marker to the memory of the Dresser brothers, Frank and Harry, was placed in Lin Grove Cemetery, but their remians were not removed from White River. The remains of Lieutenant Weir and Paul Humme, scout, were removed to the government burial grounds at Fort Laramie, for interment. An Important Survey. It may be of interest to know that, during the time of the Ute suspense, a survey was being made extending the base line on the fortieth parallel. James P.Maxwell and George S.Oliver, civil engineers of Boulder, Colorado, were given the contract by the government. The line had been extended from the terminus of the old Kansas and Nebraska line (which is on the fortieth parallel at the east base of the Rocky Mountain slope) to Middle Park in 1874. The White River Ute reservation, which covered the route, preventing extension of the survey at that time, the survey was completed to the Utah line in 1880, under the supervision of Oliver. The reservation lands were in process of diversion to public lands by Congress, at the time. Boulder, Granby, Hydrate, and Vernal, Utah, are practically

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on the line. While the band of .vhi te manner, with been sent by apprehension continued to had not been 113 Meeker i s a few miles of the line. surve y was p 1gressing across the Vfuite River reservation lands, a River Indians, led by Piah, appeared on the scene in an exciteable a demand: "What you do here? When told by Olivert hat they had Father Washington to make a survey, t his s e emed to appease their of intrusion. Although in fear of encroachment by the w hites, they make later calls during t he survey, to satisfy themselves that a lie passed. Farther South: Two day s were spent in search for the Bag g s stolen horses in the lower Gunnison River country, with no direct information from and Indians met. Several small parties of w hites were scouting t n e countr y looking for homestead locations. The horse hunt was continued as far south as Los Pinos Agency. Government horses and mules, stolen by t h e Indians from t h e tren ches on Milk Creek, were recovered from the h ostile cam p t hrough the influence of Chief Ouray. General McKenzie, from Fort Garland, who had been temporari l y stationed at Lake City during the first Ute excitement, with t hree troops of t h e 4th Cavalry, was assigned to make cantunment on t he Uncompahgre River a few miles belo w the Los Pinos Agency, in June, 1880. Two months later, McKenzie was relieved by Major Joshua L.Fletcher, with five troops of the 23rd Infantry, and the camp was designat ed Fort Crawford, in honor of the late Captain Crawford o f the U.S.Cavalry. At Fort Crawford, temporary quarters for s oldiers were being built of logs. A t this point, Sapavanero, with two other Utes, from the Uncompahgre reservation, had called to see the new military post. When Baggs inquiren of Sapavanero in regard to stray horses, it was learned t hat, three days bef6re, a party of Indians from the Uncompahgre reservation, when returning from a hunt, had brought to the agency seven head of stray horses, and they were being held with a band of Indian ponies. Upon investigation the stray horses were indentified by Baggs, at some distance, as hie horses. They also bore the G B brand. With further hunt for horses and investigations, no clew was found of the parties who had brought them into that part of the country. It was decided the horses had been dropped by thieves who were in fear of being caught with them in their possession. Baggs notified George Yule, who had recently been appointed First S heriff at Gunnison County by Governor Pitkin, to look out for the G B brand on stolen horses, before he returned to Snake River. There were no settlers on the lower Grand and Gunnison Rivers between the White River and the Uncompahgre reservation. Mines had been discovered in t h e Gunnis o n River country, several miles east of the Uncompahgre reservation line, in 18?3. With a gradual development of mines, and settlement of the upper Gunnison valley Gunnison County was organized in July,l880. It was joined on the west by the Uncompahgre reservation. There was no railroad west of the continental divide. Presiden t F ayes granted the D.and R.G.Railroad a permit to build a railroad from Colorado to Utah in 1880. This line was extended from Mears Junction to Gunnison City, and branch to Pitkin, in 18 81. 250 negros and 20 0 Italian laborers were employed on construction work. During 1880, Agent Stanley was remov ed from his job at Los Pinos, and George P.Sherman, agency bookkeeper, was assigned t h e job as agent. Passing of Chief Ouray August, 1880, Chief Ouray left his home on the Uncompah gre reservation for a visit with his close friends, Chief Ignatio, Buckskin Charlie and others of the Southern Ut e tribe in the Pine River Valley. While there, Ouray died, August 2 4th, 1880, from natural causes, it was reported. His body was secretly buried i n a cave in the mountain s two miles away. All evidence of interme n t was obliterated. No w hites, and b u t few Indians knew

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114 the location of his grave, whicll remained a secret with a few of his friends. O n December 8th, 1913, Chief Ignatio, w hose English name was John Lyon, died of old age. Profound respect for the aged was entertained by boti1 white and red citizenry of the surrounding territory. Buckskin Charlie, whose Indian name is not available at this time, and w ho, because of his influence with the southern tribes, and for respect of him by t he citizenry, was declared chief of the Southern Utes, succeeding Ignatio At a ripe old age (1934) he i s living o n his ranch near Ignatio, Colorado. A short time after Ouray's death, the Uncompahgre U t e tribe held co uncil and declaredOuray's leading sub-chief, whose Indian name is not known, but w hose Spanish name was Sapavanero, head chief' of the Uncompahgre tribe. Press N ews -Washington, M ay,l 880. An outline of the proceedings by the Ute commission is as follows: Two new members were appo i nted to the commission; Otto hlears, who was leade r in the early development of soutwestern Colorado, and J.J.Russell, of the Interior Department, who was made chairman, Although tl;e bill for the r emoval of the Utes from had been passed by congress i n April, much parleying between the Interior department, the governmen t and the Indians caused considerable delay while preparations were being made for t heir removal. Thre e additional members of the Interio r departraent staff were appointed as emissaries to the commission, to adjust Ute affairs. The Southern Utes were not included in the removal bill. Many of them were established in private homes a nd they were largely self-sup porting. It was found inadvisable to m ove them. June 15, 1880, by an act of congress, a bill was passed to provide for a treaty with the Unitah Indians, ceding tile larger and s outnern portion of their reservation lands to the government, for which the tribe received cash payments. The Unc ompahgre and White River tribes also received cash payments in connec tion with the exchange of t heir reservation lands. Yet, much dissatisfaction prevailed with the li'hi te River Utes. September, 1880, the Ute commission inspected the lands ceded the government by the Uintah tribes, from which they selected lands for reservations, on the east end or lower Uintah and Duchesne River, for the Uncompahgre and White River tribe, where an agency was established and named Ouray The west portion of the land ceded the government by the Uintah tribes was later opened by the government for settlementby the whites, and includes the territory in which the towns of Myton and rtoosevelt are situated. Removal of the Uncompahgre and White River Ute Indians from Colorado. fu&y,l88l, while Colorado and Kansas comprised t h e department of the Missouri !or the U.S.Army, and under command of General John Pope, George Crook, in cornmand of the department of the Platte, was appointed to take charge of the Ute situation. He made all necessary arrancements f o r their removal. Chief Douglas, after serving more than one year in t h e federal prison at Fort Leavenworth, was returned to the White River tribe. U.M.Curtis was called to interpret, pacify and persuade t h e many I !1di a n s who were not inclined to leave their home lands nor to move pe::.ceably. August 25th, 1881, General Hatch of the Ute conunif' .sion, waited at I<'ort Crawford for General McKenzie, in conunand of three companies of the 4th Cavalry, to come from Fort Garland. They, with five troops of infantry at Fort Crawforu, were in readiness to escort the Uncornpahcre and 'Nhite River Indians, w h o m oved peaceably, September 4th,l88l, to their new reservation in t h e Uintah and 0uchesne River Valleys,,Utah. A military post was established near the Ouray Agency, and named Fort Thornburg. Later, because of the presence of soldiers, the Utes were dissatisfied and were brewing trouble. The fort was re-established several miles on the

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115 Uintah River, and was named Fort Duchesne. Supplies for the post and for Ouray Agency were first moved from Rawlins by a new route from Baggs' Crossing by way of Spring Creek and Big Hole Divide, and Elk Springs. A shorter route was tried out from Rock Springs by way of Brown's Hole and Diamond Mountain. Later, supplies were transported from Park City, Utah. Still later they were received from Price, when the Rio GrandA Western Railroad was built. The Uncompahgre and '.'lhite 'live!" reservatioT'! lands were opened for homestead entry, after they had been declared public lands by an act of congress, June 28th 1882. Then a rush for c hoice lands was on, and a steady flow of settlers to North Colorado continued. The River tribe, being much dissatisfied with their new home as there was little wild game in the vicinity of their reservation continued return to lower White and Bear River country to hunt and visit old reservation with a longing to return. At times they caused much uneasiness among the settlers; and many times were ordered to leave by soldiers and later b y g ame wardens. Chipeta Visits Cherished Lands. After several years had passed, with lack of full enjoyment of home life at thP. Ouray agency, because of disappointment in the promises made by the government agents that she would have as comfortable a home at Ouray as her old home on the Uncompahgre reservation, Chipeta found instead that her living quarters were an uncomfortable cabin; no water obtainable for garden irrigation; gloomy surroundings, and the loss of her loved one, Ouray and her happy home. Chipeta, with a longing to visit, returned to the Uncompahgre Valley, and was much surprised and also grieved because of the change that had taken place. The old reservation lands were dotted with homes of white settlers; towns with glaring bright lights had been built. Chipeta was royally entertained by prominent citizens of Montrose; with auto rides, meals and presents, which she greatly enjoye4. For information pertaining to the late years of Chipeta's life, an article on file in the and Uintah agency office at Fort Duchesne was furnished by the present agent, written jointly by Wallace Starke, agricultural agent at Ouray agency and B.Regan in charge of schools at Ouray agency during the yeats covered. The article is considered authentic. Chipeta, after returning from Montrose, spent a few more lonesome and sorrowful years at the Ouray agency. Then she lived a few short years in her tepee near some of her tri':lesmen who had been allotted land on lower 'Nhite River. Again she became dissatisfied. health and eyesight failing, she moved to Bitter Water Creek, to be near her brot!1er, McCook, '.'fho was given the English name when a boy, and was living on lands allotted by the government several miles west of the town of Dragon and the Utah-Colorado state line and 60 miles from Curay agency. While spending her last years there, living in her tepee, she became totally blind, and died August 17th, 1924, from chronic gastritis, at the age of 81 years. She was secretly but carelessly buried by her brother McCook and Yagah, a neighbor tribesman and friend of Chipeta, in a lonely, rugged gulch no great distance !rom McCoo:i{' s ranc!1. Six monti1s later her remains were partly exposed to the elements, by w l1ite riders who were passing that way, and who reported to Albert Ute agent at Fort Duchesne. He, representing t :1e government, its respect for Chipeta's loyalty and friendliness to the whites, and in fear the body might be destroyed by coyotes or washed away by floods, went to McCook's ranch to investigate. the body exposed as reported, he, in a lengthy conference with McCook, persuaded him the body should be removed to a better location, possibly to the Uncompahgre Valley. The agent 11ent to Montrose, Colorado, and looked over the Ouray Memorial Park, a small tract of land of the Ouray homestead on the old Uncomp ahgre reservation that had been set aside by the government, and where the state of Colorado erected a to the of Ouray and Chipeta near a magnificent spring t hat had been their favorite camping place, four miles south of llontrose. :Ce t : 1en conferred and arranged with the D.A.R. and other community organizations and prominent citizens of Montrose on the matter of burial. Through t h e efforts of C.E.Adams, of the Montrose )aily News, money was raised to build a mausoleum at t h e park.

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116 The agent returned t the Ouray agency where he sent Hugh Owens, as a representative, and the Rev.J.Hersy, rector at Ouray Agency, who were assisted by McCook, Yagah, and another Indian friend of Chipetas. The body was removed to a Montrose mortuary, when burial exercises were arranged. The remains were taken to the park and placed in the mausoleum. The Rev.Hersy conducted the services, which were read according to the Episcopal faith, to which church Chipeta belonged after moving to Utah. McCook and Yagah stood by the casket while the services were being held. They were asked by the rector to speak in tribute to the dead. A few words by each were spoken in the Ute tongue as they placed a few tokens of bead work and buckskin trinkets on the shroud. They then walked around the tomb ae a last farewell. McCook expressed his thanks and appreciation, through an interpreter, for the honor bestowed upon his sister. The last rites were spoken by Rev.Mark Warner, the Hon.John C.Bell, ex-congressman of Colorado, and other dignitaries of the Montrose country, who gave impressive addresses in honor of the noble Indian Chipeta. The Mausoleum was closed and sealed. C.E.Adams was chairman of the exercises, which took place March 15th, 1925 Hundreds of early-day miners and settlers and thousands of later-day settlers from the surrounding country and including Utah, attended the exercises. Ouray's Remains Interred at Ignatia. After forty-five years had passed, Buckskin Charlie and others of Ouray's friends who knew the location of his remains, were prevailed upon by citizens to reclaim them from the hidden grave. They were buried in the Indian cemetery at Ignatio, on Kay 24th, 1925, with due respect for the white man's friend, and with fitting ceremony, which attracted hundreds of whites and Ute Indians from the surrounding country. Lack of Respect Shown the Illustrious Ouray. There is no doubt that it appears to the majority of white citizens of Colo rado, and possibly to some of the Ute Indiana, that it is without honor and justice that the illustrious Ouray's remains were buried at Ignatia, instead of at Memorial Park, where his beloved wife, Chipeta had been buried only a few months before. It was learned from some of the older members of the Tabequah tribe that Ouray had had one boy by a former wife, and while camping in the Sangre-de-Cristo moun tains, his party was attacked by a band of hostile Kiowa Indians, and the boy of six years was stolen and never heard of again. It was generally understood by the whites who knew something of Ouray's tribe vt Utes, that Chipeta never had children of her own, but had raised at least three children of her tribe, one a girl, Sawah Rotance. Lo, the Poor Indian. From lack of full respect for the redmen's rights, The encroachment of white settlers caused them to fight; But they will no more be free to roam On hills and vales where they formerly made their home. With the advance of civilization, they have been forced to be calm; And for lack of self support, they are a vast charge to Uncle Sam. Wild game, which did their life sustain, Was slaughtered by whites, and but few remain. If all Indians had been blessed with intelli6ence As were Chief Washakie, Chipeta and Ouray, They could have been living with more comfort, Than those huddled in tepees until the present day.

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117 Josephine Basin. The small valley at the head of the east branch of Pice-ance Creek, the location of the squaw camp, was named Josephine Basin by s.R.Fleming, stockman, who, with A.J.Gregory, among the first to engage in the cattle business at the opening of the White River reservation lands for settlement. The ridge where Lieutenant William B.Wier and Scout Paul Rumme were killed is now designated on the maps of Colorado as Calamity Ridge. The White River military camp was abandoned by the soldiers August 6th, 1883. A council was held by civilian citizens, with E.J.Fleming as chairman, and the camp was named Meeker. The first cattle:man to locate on White River below the reservation line was Duncan He, his brother Archie, migrated from England. They engaged in t he store business at Point of Rocks stage station in 1865. They moved to Rock Springs when the Union Pacific Railroad was under construction. Archie later located coal lands and engaged in mining. Dunk" engaged in cattle ranching at Quakenasp Mountain. He took unto himself a wife of the Shoshone tribe of Indians, at that time located near South Paas. He moved his cattle to White River in 1880. A third brother, Jim, who came later, was employed at R ock Springs. He also was a squaw man, and for a time liTed in the Snake River Valley. Other cattlemen who located on lower White River in 1881 and 1882, were W.J. McFarland, Joe Luxon, and J.W.McDowell. Abe and Heat Hatch, Mormons of Heber City, Utah engaged in the horse and business on Blue Mountain in Colorado, in 1880, Their stock bra nd was A H. J.W.Powper, a New York capitalist, also engaged extensively in the cattle business in 1880. H e established the well-known Lazy-K ranch on Cottonwood Creek at the foot of Blue Mountain. Hiram Meeks was manager. September,l884, a band of White River Utes, led by Colorow, caused trouble while on a hunt in the lower Snake River country. A number of settlers undertook to drive them out. One Indian was killed during the fracas. The Utes fled toward tt!eir reservation. Soldiers fr'om Fort Duchesne were called t o gather in -scattered hunting bands. U.M. Curtis was again called from Denver to pacify and keep them on their reservation. Curtis, presumably because of his long contact with the Utes, became much attached to them. He neglected his family, and spent his last years on a small ranch near Fort Duchesne. He continued to draw a sala: .:y from the government as interpreter. While being treated for a chronic ailment at Castello Springs near Provo. Utah. he died July 2nd, 1894. His oldest son, U.M. Jr., is now an inmate of Denver's home for depe ndents. A second son, Martin R. Curtis, lives at Guyser, Utah. Colorow died of old age in 1908. The Rider, during a conversation with Dave Morgan, spoke of Colorow. "Yes, said Dave, "I have slept with that fellow." Chief Douglas Killed. In August 1884, occurred one of t h e many visits of t h e dissatisfied White River Utes to the Meeker trading post, where they camped for days and weeks, at times with the whites and among themselves. From the occasional sale of a pony, for which they received a small amount of mone y and much liquor in the deal, many of them were drinking during t h i s particular visit. Al.Ryan, who had settled in t he Bear River Valley near the mouti:J of Fortification Creek in 1883 and was engaged in raising and dealing in horses, had eone to Meeker where he met the Utes. H e entered into an agreement wi Chiefs Sowa vlic and Pi:h to go with them to their reservation on_the Ui n tah River, a_laree number of their ponies. Chief Douglas, who was 1n a stupor from dr1nk1ng l1quor, awoke to the realization he had been rollbed of ten dollars. He accused Gus Colorow, son of Chief Colorow, of having taken the money. Colo row denied the charge, and finally convinced Douglas it was Ryan, the white man, who had stolen the money. The next day, the entire band of Utes started for their home reservation, with the squaws and papooses some distance in the lead. Douglas was drinking

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118 heavily on the way; heaping abuse upon Ryan and certain others of his tribe. While moving on the trail within a few mil e s of Green River, taking his rifle from his saddle, remarked in an enraged tone that he would kill Ryan, Sober Indians of the band, realizing his condition, gat hered around him. All were mounted on their ponies, They engaged in a pow-wow to persua d e him that it was not Ryan who had stolen his money A t the same time, Ryan was advised to go a head with the squaw caravan, where he would be safe from Doug l as. R yan did not understand the Ute language, nor did he understand why he was being sent a head with t h e squaw caravan. During the pow-wow, Douglas, t h e advice o f the o thers, broke away at a fast pace, Keeping s ome distance from t h e tra i l back of t h e ridge, he expected to gain the lead ahead o f R y a n where he could shoot him fro m am bush At this instance, a young buck named Pont, who had been subje cted to muc h a buse from Douglas because of family troubles, forged ahead on the trail until h e was ahead of both Ryan and Douglas. He stopped and lay in wait back of a rock ledge which Douglas was expected to pass. H e killed Douglas just as he had dismounted to shoot Ryan. Influential Indians then parleyed with Ryan to dispose of the body, Ryan at first refused, One buck remarked he knew a "heap good plave", and so Ryan, with a rope from his saddle, dragged Douglas' body to a gulley, w here it was dumped in and covered with sagebrush and rocks by the Utes. Ryan was then told that Douglas was killed to prevent him from shooting him (Ryan). The Utes attempted to bribe Ryan not to tell that they had killed their 'own c hief, by offering him Douglas' ponies, which he refused to accept. At the same instance, Ryan became alarmed. By making excuses that he must stop behind for a short time, he managed to slip away in the rough country by the band, When the Indians realized Ryan had disappeared, the chiefs held council and decided Pont and his pony should be killed as a warning to Ute tribes that all differences were settled. Pont and his pony were, in turn, shot to death. His arms lashed to his body and legs lashed together, he, with his pony, was rolled into the river at the junction of Uintah and Green Rivers. The story of the killing of Douglas was told by Ryan, -a man, and the only white man to witness the affair. The story was also confirmed by John McAndrews, who had been in charge of General Merritt's supply train and who, at the time of Douglas' killing, was in charge of the I.D.cattle on the Uintah reservation. H e learned of the incident from the Indians who had participated in the act, Bound North. A New Postoffice Established. May, 1882, William S.Taylor arrived at the White River camp from Minnesota, and met his brother, Eugene. He engaged in the ranch business on Spring Gulch. Being situated on the Rawlins-White River mail line road, a postoffice was established at his ranch, and he became the first postmaster. Because of a low depression or basin in the country adjoining on the east which is described in Hayden's report of hie geological survey as "the axis of the upheaval," which raised t h e surrounding mountains, it was named Axial Basin. The name Axial was also applied to the postoffice. Taylor, when on his way out from Rawlins, had, as a fellow stage passenger, Ora Haley, who was on a business trip in connection with his c attle interests on Lay Creek. On the same trip, li.aley bought the "H.L." herd of cattle from Hulett and Torrence, who immediately established a new ranch and loceted cattle at Meadows in Axial Basin, with range brand 2 In May, 1882, A,C,Wallihan, Sam Wooley and T.R,(Tom) Higgins formed a party which located at t h e junction of Snake River and Bear River, with a view to engaging in the cattle business, with Dr. c.w:Higgins of Salt Lake as financial promoter of the enterprise. Dr, Higgins later joined associates, coming from Salt Lake by way of Rawlins, dressed with his pants legs tucked into c owboy b oots; cowboy hat, buckskin coat, and followed by a pack of hounds. (Hounds were a novelty in those parts at that time). He appeared the typical huntsman. A,G,\Vallihan was first to photograph deer, elk and other wild life within the stated mountain area, about 1888. In 1882, C.J.(Ctarlie) Duffy, w h o had come to the White River camp by saddle and pack horse, as a prospector and with a view to seeking a ranch location, learned of the n ew mining excitemen t which had sprung up in Jessie Ewing at the west end of Brown's Hole. Duffy j oined t h e rush. Not being successful in

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119 finding a prospect, he returned to Bear River, ano located his present ranch, one m1le from the government bridge, where h e e ngag ed in stock ranching. Romance 1882, J.L.(Jim) Norvel, w ho came fro m Tennessee, employed b y C harlie Perk1ns to.drive the buckboard mail stage between Dixon and White River camp. In 1883, J1m located a ranch on Bear River. In March 1884 Jim met his fiancee at Rawlins. She, having come fro m Tennessee, the meeting been pre-arranged by mail. After being united in marriage, they left Rawlins (accompanied by Jim's brother-in-law, A.L.McCaslin, also a newly-wed ) for Jim's homestead on Bear River. Traveling by wagon, they made their first night's stop at the H.& L.horse ranch, where The Rider, as chef, served the bridal parties bountifully with cl1oice elk and horse steaks, "Murphys" with the jackets on, sour-d ou gh biscuits and black coffee. Next morning a March snow blizzard was on; outside labors were suspended for the day; indoor amusement fo. r ranch crews was lacking. Four neighboring cow l'Joys seized the opportunity for sport and wi t h a quart of "hot stuff" procured for the occasion they tuned up and joined the H & L. crew. The bridegrooms were greatly surprised and the ladies were somewhat alarmed, but, with much forebearance, they thanked the chef for restoring order, that their lives might be spared, after they had been entertained with a "wild west" In 1882, J.A.Tony was employed by Perkins to drive the mail stage between Lay and White River camp. In 1881, W.H.Rose, civil engineer, located in the Bear River Valley near the mouth of Fortification Creek. His land later became an addition to Craig town site, which was established in 1890. Timberlake Springs. Kany settlers of the Snake and Bear River country, and travelers, wonder why the Springs were named Timberlake, as there is neither timber nor lake in the vicinity. W.E.Timberlake, pioneer cattleman of Snake River, built a cabin and corral at the Springs in 1875 for convenience in branding his stock driven in from the range. W.H.Wilson and brother, C.J.Wilson, had come to Rawlins in 1868. W.H. was employed by the Union Pacific Railroad Co. to operate a pump from the flow of Rawlings Springs, to "tank" this water for engine supply. W.H. was six feet, six inches tall, an odd character with a very long neck. He was known to the pioneers as crane Neck." By 1881, the water supply being inadequate for engine supply, he lost his job. His brother C.J., who was deaf and spee-chle-ss, was known as "Dummy." He was a jovial good fellow and a friend to all; a na.tural born mechanic and taxidermist. Both were bachelors. It was a very amusing thing t o see "Crane Neck" converse with "Dummy", explaining, with both his hands and his face working at the same time. In 1881, they located homesteads at Timberlake Springs, where "Crane Neck" operated a saloon, and was his own best customer. "Dummy" served meals to travelers and a pplied his spare time in the taxidermist trade. Later, plAcer mining was d one on Timb erlake Gulch b y Jim Gouldy, J.R .Law ano others. Passing of Real Pioneers. Jim Baker died at his ranch home on Snake River in 1898, at the age of eighty years. He was buried in his home burial grounds by the side of others of his family. His oldest son, Bill, had passed away in 1878. The Jim Baker heirs were each allotted one hundred and sixty acres of land on the Arapahoe Indian reservation on Wind River during the allottments of Indian lands by the government in 1882. It was through these allottments that Napoleon Bonepart Kinnear (Jim Baker's son-in-law bY the Shoshone daughter) came into possession of a large tract of ranch land on the Shoshone-Arapahoe reservation, and from lands which were later opened for homestead entry to whites. Bibleback Brown as he was known, spoke but little of himself, but frequently related tales of dolngs about Bridger's Fort, and of having mingled with the

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120 Uintah Ute Indians while making headquarters in Brown's Hole. He told of having traded with Antone Roubideaux at his trading post on Uintah River, while engaged in trapping. He passed from life at the ranch home of Will G.Reader (where he made hie home in hie declining years) at the age of seventy-nine. Letters and notes were found among his possessions which proved his name to be John Brockmeyer. A colorful character, in his day, Was Jack Sheard, by the way. John Sheard was teamster for the government when Jim Bridger was chief of scouts at Fort Laramie. In 1871 he moved to Rawlins with his wife (of part Indian blood) and their children. He was engaged in freighting to Atlantic City, Mine r s Delight, and Fort Washakie. He later moved to Laramie, where he did freighting, but again returned to Rawlins, where he freighted with a small, sixhorse team, with a eecono wagon in tow. Slow but sure, like most of the early day horse and ox teams, they did their work and subsisted on grazing only. With iaughter that could be heard for several blocks, Sheard entertained teamsters and others who congregated at feed stables and road camps, with frontier tales that featured Jim Bridger, the leading figure in the drama. Sheard passed away at Carbon County's farm for the poor at the age of one hundred and four years. The Rider has enjoyed by the hour and on many occasions, tales related by the above-mentioned old timers, telling of their experiences wtile employed in a haz ardous occupation among the Indians. He has partaken of their camp hospitality, and with respectful memories of t hese well-known pioneers, writes here: Goodbye to these old-time mountaineers Who have long since passed from view; They led the way for others, And to them all honor is due. Ready to share with their They were ever _s,taunch and true. There ways of,living were not of the beet, But in their crude w ay, they met every test. George Baggs Sells Out. It was in February, 1883, that George Bagge. sold his herd of cattle and ranches to the 17 (ell seven) Cattle Company. Maggie, having become infatuated with Mike Sweet, an employe of the Baggs ranch, brought suit for a division of the proceeds of the sale. No divorce suit had been filed and none was necessary, as no marriage certificate had been issued. At the March term of the Carbon County court, The Rider was one of twelve jurors to decide the case. Maggie was allowed one-third, which amounted to several thousand dolllare. The orphan children were given homes with settlers of Snake River, Una Ryan being fortunate in having a home with the Noah Reader family. George Bag g s returned to New Mexico, where he again engaged in the cattle business. Maggie, with her new lover (who had bulging, raw eyelids and a red, kinky beard) went to California for a continuation of their honeymoon. Later reports indicated that after several m onths of high life, funds ran low. Mageie discarded her new love and was operating rooming apartments, in single blessedness, at Galvest on Texas. The 17 Cattle Company was organized in 1881. They bought the Hat brand of cattle and ranch of Bill Hawley, at the foot of Elk Mountain. John Wilcox was foreman; Charley Ivy, top hand of the Creek outfit, was made foreman of the Bag g s herd. Frank Hadsel, from Iowa, located on the Medicine Bow Creek about 1882, where he engaged in horse and cattle ranching. Later, he was sheriff of Carbon County, and still later was U.S.Marshall of Wyoming. After that he engaged in the sheep business, and later was warden of .vyoming' s state prison.

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121 Desert Mirage. The Rider, having journeyed over many of the various flats and valleys in the mountain country, and noted that during the warm season, under certain atmospheric conditions, heat from the sand would create a mirage, so that, from one to two miles distant, objects like a small clump of sagebrush or greasewood would appear the size of a ten-ton haystack; a buffalo the size of a closeup view of jumbo the monster elephant, and a coyote the size of a mastiff dog. Few Are Left (1934) to Tell the Tale. Farewell to first settlers of the old frontier, Within mountain and plain they loved so dear. A homestead in the valley and a mountain stream from which to veer Sufficient water for domestic needs, and crops t o rear. On t h e nearby range was forage for horse, cow and steer. Cyclones were unknown; no crop peste within a vast sphere, And the coyote's howl from yonder hill was music to the ear. With Uncle Sam in control of the Redskin, there was little t o fear. From native trout, young sagehens and blacktail deer, Choice viands were to be had t hroughout each year. The latch-string hung out for all who from far and near, And, with the usual frontier custom, all were of good c heer. Church attendance at the log school house may have been in the arrears, But the greatest kick of all was when the weekly mail would appear. The Rider shared alike of such as there were, and at times there were hardships severe; And with pleasure have recalled names of old trails and of the early pioneer.

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SECI'ION XIX. New Regions to Explore. October 15,1880. With a view to learning more of the broad, open spaces of the northwest, The Rider left Rawlins, Wyoming v i a the Union Pacific Railroad, for San Francisco. Here, living costs were low, altn ough ten cents was the smallest money exchange in circulation on the Pacific coast. Fish was one of the staple fresh meat foods; mullet, in large schools; and shrimp was abundant near the shores of San Francisco Bay. Boiled shrimp was served as a side dish each meal by hotels and restaurants. You hulled and helped yourself while waiting your order. Chinese were the laboring force on the Pacifi c coast. There were Chinamen here to serve you; Chinamen there; Chinamen everywhere e mployed in all manner of labor such as mining, gardening, fishing and oystering for the market, laundering hotel' and r estaurant cooks and waiters, private home servants, and what not. On the Move -Northbound. The Rider shipped on the old coast line steamship, "State of California,' for Portland, Oregon. From there, river boats plied on the Williamette as far as Salem,the Capitol of Oregon. Continuing the journey by the river boat Umatilla, up the Columbia River; at the Cascades a transfer was made to a dinky railroad, the onl) railro ad in Oregon and Washington. After passing ten miles of rapids, a transfer was again made to a river boat, which proceeded to The Dalles, Oregon, where connections were made for Yakima, Washington. The boat line served Walla Walla, capitol of Washington territory, by celivering passengers and freight at Umatilla Landing. Indian supplies were also delivered to up-river points. Leaving The Dalles by ferry to the Washington side of the Columbia River, the conveyance was by buckboard, b y way of Klikitat Valley. Having a saddle as baggage, a pony was bough t and the journey was continued to old Yakima City, which had a population of about one hundred and fifty and was situated at the mouth of Top-nish Creek in the Yakima River Valley. This valley covered a vast scope of tillable land one hundred miles in length, and several miles in width, and was occupied by a few small cattle ranches and one larg e cattle ranch owned by Ben Snipes, who lived at The Dalles, Oregon. Here, employment was found with Tex Allen, a horse-buyer from Fremont, Nebraska, who was purchasing and collecting a large herd of ponies from the Yakima Indians on the Fort Simcoe reservation adjoining old Yakima, which was named Union Gap when new Yakima City was estLblished at the advent of the Northern Pacific Railroad in 1882. In dealing with the Indians, it was necessary to understand the Chinook jargon. "Niwitkie, nice kumtux Chinook wow wow, meaning "Yes, I understand Chinook talk, although not perfect." It was the preva.iling tongue between whites and Indians in the northwest. It was first introduced by French Canadian trappers and traders in their dealings with the Indians. While collecting ponies, which occupied about three weeks, the crew had meals, lodgir.gs and corral accommodations for ponies at the home of Chief Joseph, head of the Yakima tribe. H e had been a student at the Carlisle School. He was highly civilized; a devoted Christian. He returned thanks every meal; and offered prayers each morning and evening. All sales of ponies by his people, in regard to price, were subject to his approval. It was at Yakima that The Rider met Mrs.Price, who was a captive in the Meeker this being the first and only meeting after her rescue from the Ute Indians. During several conversations, she related her experiences while captive in the hostile camp, which was practically the same story told General Adams and reporters by Josephine and Mrs. Price at the time of their rescue.

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SIWASH .,, -----................ --------........... .... ...,. ........... "'':.::."::::. -----,, h,,( '" ,, ,,/ ,,,/ : ;/ :'r '' ,,If V" ,., I' ,:,_!' ), ,.,'/ 1 11 1 '\ .. ,;,, '.-::.P ..... .... ,,; ftl ; -. ----CROSSING THE COLUMBIA RIVER. JUNE, 1881. The old Siwash who operated his canoe as a ferry at White Bluffs. Looking North

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Mrs Price, with her children, after a short time in G reeley, j oined her parents (the Parkers), who were living in Kansas. B e c a use o f grasshopper invasion in that state, they traveled by covered wagon t o Y akima, i n search of a country where they could make a home. In a recent correspondence with Yakima parties, i t was noted that Mrs. Price had re-married, and her children, Mae and John h a d reared families within the fifty-three year period o f their residence i n the Yakima valley. During The Rider's sojourn in the Yakima country, a postoffice was established at a cattle ranch on 1/'enatch e C rP.ek, t went y -five :niles north o f old Y akima City. The office was named Wenatchee, and has developed into a p rosperous city in t h e midst of a bountiful fruit-g r o wing section. In the Sprin g of 1881. lleing employed for a time as c o wboy in t h e B e n Snipes outfit i'1 the Yaki ma valley, yet with a longing to view the Yellowstone country t h e Snipes job was abandoned, and with saddl e and pack horses, The Rider headed east. After a fifty mile jaunt across the country, he arrived at White Bluffs on the Columbia River, w hich was at flood stage, a q uarter of a mile wide because of melting snow in the mountains. A n old Siwash Indian, with a view to earning a few dollars, was camped on the river bank, anu with log canoe he conveyed the very few traTelers w h o came that way, across. Upon inquiring of the Siwash in Chinook, his price for passage overt he river, Conch a chik:mun,mika tikie, ccpa sous," his answer was, "Mox chikum," meaning two dollars. He, in a query as to where t h e traveler was going, said, "Caw mika klatawah." the rep l y was, "Nika klatawah copa Spokane. the saddle and pack in the canoe and leading the mounts swimming in t h e rear, the Siwash landed his canoe a quarter of a mile below on the east side of the river. The route was b y way of Crab Creek trail to Spokane Falls, a town of 250 in habitanta. It was a distributing point of supplies for Colville, Okanogan, Calispell, Coeur d'Alene, Kootnai, and Spokane Indian tribes, and for Fort Coeur d' Alene. The Indian tribes, in a treaty with the had been consolidated o n one large tract, known as the Okanoean -Colville reservation. Construction workers had moved in and were grading the roadbed for the Northern Pacific rails, the final destination being Puget Sound, where the lumber business was being developed and an outlet sough t by which to transport their product to the eastern markets. The name Spokane, applied to the river be low t h e falls, '.'I hi le the r .ame, Coeur d'Alene applied to the river above the falls. T h e route was by way of Fort and Lake Coeur d'Alene, a beautiful body of water formed by the Coeur d'Alene river. A government steamboat transported hay and other freight fro m the east end of the lake, thirty miles to the Fort at t h e west end. The north and south forks of the river entered t h e lake at t h e east end, where t h e two-story log building of tne Catholic ::!ission was located. It had been built w hen priests first invaded northwest territory. It had partly fallen down, but was inhabited by an old priest and a few Coeur d Alene Indians. The majority of their tribe had been located on the Colville reservation. The route was by way of the ?.Cullen road, w hich followed t h e course of t h e nort: 1 fork and over t h e tip of Jdaho's panhandle via St.Regis a n d Crew's nest on De Borgia Creek. In 1860, Lieutenan t John llullen, with a cavalry troop of forty s oldiers and fifty civilian laborers from Fort Wallawa, cleared t h e trail of timber and other obstructions, t o make it possible for the transporting of wheat raised in the Pileus River Valley near Walla Walla, to the River east of the Coeur d'Alene range. Here t h e wheat was milled into flour for distribution by the gov to the different Indian tribes located in the territory, w hich became tam in 1864. Because o f the high cost of tran s_rJorta t ion over ti1i s l1azardous route, the idea was abandoned after two seasons of experimentation. passing over the route i n 1881, muc h o f t h e trail was found strewn with fallen timber, because of not having been traveled f o r many years. In m any places, the road followed the

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19.5 rap i d stream bed for several hundred yards t hroue;h oox can y ons. Th ere were numerous c r ossines, a number of which t h e saddle stock swam -and in m any places were led to jump fallen timber. Several years later when t h e Coeur d Alene mines were discovered and in the process of development, the town of Wallac e was establis hed a few miles south of the Mullen route. The road was cleared and improved between Spokane and Missoula, by way of the mines. Continuing on the journey t o the riv e r ( w hich recalls many names, such as Clark's Fork of the Columbia; Pend Orille, Missoula, Deer Lodge, and S i l v e r Bow), The Rider was ferried to t h e north side at Frenchtown, which was owned b y a wealthy F renchman named T J DeMeres. T h e town was composed of a trading store, established in 1861; a blacksmith s h o p hotel, and flour m ill that had ground governmen t wheat for Indian supplies. His customers were largely the Flathead and B lood Indian tribes. DeMeres had many horses and cattle on the range. During a conv ersat ion, D e Meres rema r k e d that h e was sending f orty head of horses t o Butte City t o be s old by his man Bob a halfbreed Indian, who was at t h e time engaged in the horse s from the range. H e requested The Rider's help in m oving t hem. Leaving French town at two o'clock a.m., accompanied by an assistant with light wagon and camp equipment, we passed through Missoula City at t h r e e a.m. Upon inquiring of Irwin why the horses were on the road at that hour of night, h e replied that DeMeres was expecting the county assessor at any hour, and if the horses were moved from the county unknown to the assessor, tax money would be saved. On the route, a new town had recently sprung up like a mushroom. Because a colony from Chicago had settled in this valley of Flint Creek, the town was named Nev. Chicago. Continuing t h rough the city of D eer Lodge, home of liontana territorial prison, the next stop was at B utte City located on the crest of the continental divide, where copper mines had been discovered in 1874. The Utah and Northern Railroad was built from Ogden, Utah, t o Butte, in 1878, it being t h e first railroad for Montana. P revious t o its building, Montan a t o wns and settlements received supplies by the Missouri River r oute, t h e Bozeman trail r oute and later by way of t h e Cen tral Pacific rtailroad fro m Kelton, Utah T h e job at !lll e nd, the journey was continued by way o f Sheds Bridges, which crossed three bran c h e s f o r m ing t h e Tiiver; t h e Jefferson, Hadison, and Gallatin. T h e g reat basi n had but v e r y little vegetation excep t rabbit brush and p 1 ickly pear, and was inh a bited by n umerous horned t oads. By irrlgation it has becom e a prosperous agricultural section. A t Bozeman, stoc:kr.Je n o f Gallatin valle y and officers of Fort Ellis put on a horse -racing pro it being July 4th,l881. l.:ovine; over t h e divide from Bozeman to the Yellowstone valley it was noted that a f ew cattJ. e ranches were established b e low t h e Yellowstone C anyon, Shields River and Big Timber nort h tributaries. East of Living ston, the entire Yellowstone valley was u nsettled, excep t for the Crow India n reservation on t h e ?osebud River, Fort Keogh and Camp Eiles at the m o uth of Tongue River. Turning north a t this point b y wa y of Sweet Grass Creek and Judas Gap, settlers with small herds of cattle were found to be locating on Swimming Wom a n C r eek, and o n t h e west side o f Judas Basin Kings berry & Leply, businessmen of 2elena, were also establishing a herd in t h e 3 i g Coolie. The next stoo was a t Fort B e n ton at t h e head of navigation on t h e River. It was a-large distributing point of supplies f o r Fort Assinneboine, Fort Belknap, n l ackfeet and various Indian tribes near t h e Britis h line, and for t h e Flathead and Blood I ndian tribes consolidated on one reservation to the west. Besides t h e citize n s employed in various small businesses t here were many of t h e laboring class, a mixture of nationalities of the frontier t ype, including ;\merican Irish Swede, French C anadian Negro Mexican, half and full-b lood Indians, l'lir.ers, soldiers a n d Chinamen, all m ingling in saloons and g am blin g houses. These were largely teams t e r s bull w hackers and cooks em p loyed at freighting to t h e differe11t Indian agencies and militar y posts. Found employment with Asa Samples, beef dealer of B enton, to assist in g a t hering 1000 head of beef steers from earlyestablished her d s on t h e Sun River range,

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126 and which had been contracted by the government f o r beef supply t o at Fort Pier, and at Standing Rock Sioux Indian Agency in Dakota. cattle were wild and rollicky, bred originally from Texas cows and on isolated ranges. They were large, rangey and of fair quality. be delivered The Sun River Durham bulls During the round-up, the outfit canp f o r two days at a spot w here the city of Great Fall's was established several years l a ter. The cattle were ferried over the Missouri River at Fort Benton with one small ferry -bdat, which too k twenty hours. They were trailed by way of east Judith Basin and across the halfbreed Cree Indian reservation located on B i g Spring Creek. T h e breeds had been moved from near the northern b order in 1880, where they had been making trouble o n the British side of the line. The y were known as the Re d River half-breeds. An old w hite trapper and fur-trade r by the name of Reed had buil t a one-room log fort on Spring C reek in 1860. A postoffice was established at Reed's Fort, a .cquiring the name of Lewis in honor of Colonel William H.Lewis, who was i n command of two troops o f the 7th Infantry w hich made camp near Reed's Fort in 1874. When the breeds were moved north to Fort Peck, t h e c onsolidated Indian reservation, in 1883, the Spring Creek reservation lands were opened for settlement to the w hites. A town was started at Reed's Fort and the name Lewistown was given to it. Six miles to the east and near t h e trail was Fort M c Ginness, established in 1880, and garrisoned with soldiers as a guard over t h e half-breeds. The reversed UH S cattle ranch had recently bee n built near the fort, which served as a protection against marauding Indians. The ran c h was owned by Davis and Hauser, prominent businessmen of Helena, and Grenville Stuart, a pioneer o f Bitter Root Valley, was A t different times each were u.s.senators for Mon tana. Joe Doze was their foreman. Moving toward the Muscleshell River by w a y o f Flat Willow Creek trail along t h e east foot of t h e S n owy Range, we met a c aravan of two hundred o f the half-breed tribe returning to t heir reservation from a buffalo hunt in the Muscleshell River country. There were numerous carts (with wheels seven feet tall, bound with raw buffalo hid e for tires) and three ponies hitclJed, tandem style, to each cart; travois and. pack ponies, all loaded to the limit with "jerked" (dried buffalo meat) dry hides and pemmecan, whicn is similar to the w hite's balogna sausage, seasoned with native herbs and stuffed in the buffalo paunch and viscera. The steer herd, being of the spooky sort, was moved by the processio n several hundred yards from the trail. Numerous mongrel dogs, representing many colors, carne rushing toward the herd with a "bow-wow." The riders fired them back by a dash of t heir mounts and quirt demonstrations. The caravah was strewn on the trail for two miles. Three steers had become footsore and lame from stone bruises. The beef herd was allowed to rest for one day at the M uscleshell River. With an original idea, The Rider proposed shoeing the lame steers. N o metal ox shoes were available. Procuring from the. mess wagon the s kirts of an old saddle (leather that was as good as the best sole leather) shoes were formed. The steers were thrown and the leather tacked on with horse nails, the same as shoeing an ox. This protected the injured foot until soreness had gone. As they'had become too lame to c ontinue directly with the herd, to have left them behind to recuperate would have meant a total loss. Besides roving bands of Indians, t here was a rendezvous w hich harbored a large number of outlaws, horse and cattle thieves, a few miles up the Muscleshell River at Lavina, which had been a favorite hangout for B i g Nose" George While moving on the trail betv1een t h e Muscleshell and Yellowstone Rivers by way of Porcupine Creek, a distance of sixty miles, The Rider, being assigned t o the job of pointing t h e lead cattle on the trail, was at times a quarter to halfmile in advance of the herd, engaged in clearing the route along the trail of bands of grazing and sleeping buffalo, to prevent t h e steers from becoming excited, and possibly causing a stampede from close contact. When a supply of fresh meat was needed for tbe trail-crew, a buffalo was slaughtered Only steak was taken. The first choice was the hump of flesh o n t h e back of the neck. Next was the loin flesh and t h e hind-quarter r ound. When wood vms not available for campfires along t h e route, buffalo chips, being plentiful, were used instead. The "remonta" (saddle-horse band) was driven t o swim the Yellowstone River as a leader for the beef herd, twen t y miles below Buffa l o Rapids. H e re, construction crews were at work grading t h e road-bed for t h e Nar:thern Pacific R R from Glendive

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. .-----. ,_ Sho wmg Part f E T 0 ach p he Halfbreeds on rocession The B the Way t Th eef Herd 0 e1r R eservation.

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BEEF HERD SWIMMING THE Y EL LOWSTONE RIVER

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129 toward Miles City. Stock oen s were i n process of construction at Glendive, which was the terminus. One loading chute had just been completed. '1/hile t!1e catt l e were being load e d for shipment t o their destination, September 19th, the station agent came out to see how t h e job was p rogressing. He remarked that he had just heard over t h e wire t hat P r esident Garfield had died. (Garfield had bee n fatal l y shot in July, 1881, by Charles J.Guiteau, an anarcliist). This herd was t h e first cattle shipped from Montana by the Northern Pacific rlailroad, and this event occurred many years before Charles Russell, the artist, gathered frontier lore to compose his book entitled "Trails F l owed Under w hen on sojourn, riding the catt l e ranges of eastern Montana. The beef herd disposed of, t h e p a y check was ready, and the next mov e was, look after anotber job. O n the way t o Miles City he met Myers Brothers herd of four tbousand young steers from Shields River, Montan a and was employed by Ike 1\organ, foreman. The h erd wa s located on the Lower Powder River and O'Fallon Creek range. The headquarters ranch was established near tbe mouth of Mizpaw C reek, and these were the first cattle to be ran g e d i n that part o f the country Numerous bands of buffalo were ranging over the entire unsettled ter ritory of eastern Uontana south of the lliissouri River. The several Indian north of t h e river prevented most buffalo from drifting fartber north. Buffald were restless on t h e range occupied by domestic cattle, riders and game hunters. The cattle were also disturbed by the rambling buffalo. When riding range line it was help f u l to be a ble to distinguisll between cattl e and buffalo tracks and trails. Several camps o f buffalo hide hunters were scatt ere d over the various winter retreats o f t h e buffalo. One o r two hunters from each camp did the killing, with t h e 50 calibre Sharps buffalo rifle Six to e ie:;ht men did the skinning; two to t hree men took care of and staked the hides f o r drying, and a cook was provided for each c r ew A numbe: of Sioux Indians' remains were f o und wrapped in robes and blankets, and made secure in branches o f pine and cottonwood trees, and others were elevated by supporting posts. When inspecting one of them, t hrough curiosity, there were found many shiny trinkets used for decoration; beads, b ows and arrows, tomah awks, moccasins, pipes and riding lash ; a complete outfit, except t h e pony, for the use of the deceased in the next world; all wrapped in with the body. INSPECTING SIOUX INDIAN REMAINS.

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130 Once, on the regular range line ride, The Rider was mounted on a partly-broke bronco. It was a warm day, and he was going along the trail on a narrow ridge on the O'Fallon Creek range. When oppoEite a large fallen tree, resting on its branches three feet above the ground, fifteen feet from the trail, a large brown bear that had been snoozing underneath the log, was aroused from hie slumbers by the i ntruder. H e bounded out with a loud "whoof", and fled down the gulch on the left. Bruin was not the only one that was surprised. The bronco, in a fright stampede, bucked down the steep hill to the right through a thick growth of buck brush. The Rider, in a scramble to keep his seat, lost his hat while gripping saddle holds. A BEAR SCARE Great s port was enjoyed on the Powder River range by Myer Brothers cowboys in and tying down grown buffalo as a strenuous stunt. Heavyweights were not included. The calves furnished milder aport, and one of these, a fine bull calf, with "heap fight," was turned over to Murphy Brothers from Goose Creek, Wyoming, who were shipping beef cattle from Miles City to the Chicago market. The calf was penned in a corner of the cattle car while in transit, and was sold to park to be placed in Lincoln Park. It was in January, 1882, that the Northern Pacific H.R. ran its first train to Miles City. During May, buffalo hides were freighted from the hunting camps by bull teams to Terry and O'Fallon stations. Two, forty-car trains of hides were shipped to eastern markets, these being from the last buffalo to be slaughtered on a large scale for their hides. The price for bull hides (used for leather) at the railroad, was one dollar. For cow hides (used for robes), the price was one dollar and cents to three dollars. It was in January, 1882, when congress passed the bill prohibiting the killing of buffalo for their hides. Terry Station tuok the name from General Alfred H.Terry, who, with General Custer, made camp at this point (the mouth of Powder River), with a large army, for a short time, and just before the Custer Massacre.

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131 ..... ---------------.. r .. --------. ,_ COWBOYS IN ACTION. The Rider Returned by the Pony Method, -----,.,."\ /;:: ) \ ..., t:-. 1 \._ .. .... Old familiar trails and haunts calling, The Rider, having had his experiences in the northwest country, turned his horse homeward, and returned by way of Buffalo, Wyoming, to Colorado. Cowboy Amusement, It was late in May,l883, The general round-up was on in Carbon County, Wyoming. Several new herds had been located within the county in the past four years. Each large herd was represenced with a round-up wagon outfit from Sand Creek, Sweetwater, Saratoga, and Rock Springs districts, including cowboy representatives from distant ranges, on the lookout for their respective brands, Billy Weaver, foreman for the Boot outfit, was round-up foreman. Having gathered t h e southern portion o f the county westward, with a strenuous half-day's g ather from old Laclede stage rtation at the head of Bitter Creek, and separating the different brands and branding calves, the camp wagons had moved to Point of Rocks on Bitter Creek, w hicll was also a noted point on the Overland Trail and Union Pacific railroad. An afternoon lay-off for rest was declared by the foreman. Instead of a rest, a dozen or more of the riders decided on a visit to Rock Springs coal town, which was twelve miles west on Bitter Creek Some of t h e waddies wanted to replenish their smoke supply with a s ack of Bull :Jurh am and "shucks" to rOll 'em; others wante d a plug of Climax or Missouri Twist for c hewing; still others wanted this and that. Some of them had never seen the town.

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1.'12 The Hock Springs miners were of European nationalities; largely Italian Greek AusLrian, Slav, and FinlRrwers. Many of tbem were addicted to t h e liquor b a l 1 it, antl unreliable as mine workers. The Unio n Pacific Coa l Co., 'P.it h an ever-increas inG demand for their product, required dep e ndable labor. The y imported five hund red Chinamen to work in their mines. The w hite miners, seeing their jobs vanis h resented t h e Chinese encroachment with bitter hatred. Bock Springs saloon keepers, and s ome of t b e merclJants, j oined with the miners in degrading tlJe Chinese. As all Chinese sup p l i e s ; rice, tea, sandals and chop sticks, were imported fro m China t h rouel San Francisco Chinese im porters, and n o m one y was s pent by the Chinese at saloons o r with Rock businessmen, tbe cowboy s also regarded the Chinese as a menace to American ideals. The coal comp a ny being short of living quarters for t h e Chi!lese, trJe latter constructed their own abodes -small shacks and due;outs, in tbe bank s o.lcnc B itter Creek and adjoining bluffs. The Chinese rec eived their water supply f o r laundry and d omestic use fro m t h e Union Pacific eng ine supply tank, which was a c o n sidera ble distance from t heir quarters. The wate r was toted in two, five -gallon cans, o ne h unc: from each end of a crossbar on the back of t he neck and s h oulders of the C hink. The cowboys, having s pent a few h ours i n town making their purcl: ases, w h i l e some bad indule;ed ratl1er freely in whoopee booze, were a l l leaving for tile roundup cam p just as Hop Sing, Lee W ing and Sam C how were toting ten gallons of water each to their dugouts. Cal.Horton, who had come over the trail from California witi'! a !iOrse herd, and Chico, a half-breed white and Choctaw from tl1e Indian territory, and a veteran of t h e Texa s trail (botll live ones) joined forces for a little a musement. With an end of the same lariat fastened to the pommel of their respective saddles, and with t h e slack dragging, they separated at a fast pace, catching Sam C how near the heels. A backward somersault, e xecuted higb in the air by Sam, was the result. Chi n Gee, i!a n Kow and o thers viewed tbis outrageous attack on their kin. With h ands pawine; t h e air, they sang out in a lusty ch orus of N e we-mucca-hie-sin-guel:i-yi-yio-c-c," while the w'3.ddi e s were scampering up the road toward the roundu p camp. --------/ ( Ou: ll"tcr s :1t Rock Coal Town. l li83 C owlmv s o n thl' Way to 1he R oundup C::tmp.

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White Make R i o t with Chinese at Rock Springs,Wyo. It was on September 5th, 1885, when Rock Spring s ealoonmen and gamblers joined with the miners in a riot against the Chinese, murdering many, and beating others unmercifully. All Chinese were driven to the hills and their shacks and personal belongings burned. Thus came the end to Chinese labor in R ock Springe coal mines. Rou ndup Thrille. It was in June, 1 883. The Rider, as a representative of distant range brands, joined the north plains roundup, known as Rufe Rhodes' roundup, operating in the Medicine Bow, Laramie Plains, Little Medicin e Creek, Bates Hole, and Shirley Basin countries. One hundred and t1renty men and 90 0 head of saddle and wagon stock made up the roundup crew, which represente d the many, various brands. While operating from the "49" corral on Sheep Creek, three brown bears were drive!'l in with the morning roundup gather of four thousand cattle. Several of the waddies who had had previous experience, and others who wanted the sensation of roping a bear, joined in the excitemen t for practice, also to show their prowess with the lariat, and to later havP. the privilege of making the boast that they had lassoed a bear. Each bear was lassoed first by either the front or hind legs; a second cowboy's rope snared the yet free legs. They were stretched out, then killed with a Colts 45, by one of the riders. Attending this roundup were a number of Wyoming's notable cowboys. Each were topnotcbers in their special linesJ Al.Bouie, manager for the Swan Land & Cattle C o., range brand n= (horseshoe two-bar) ; Bill Hinds, known as "Old Missou," a veteran of the Chisholm trail, and foreman for the J.M.Carey Cattle Co.; Rufus Rhodes, roundup foreman in the employee of the Swan Land & Cattle Co.; Bill Cla;> ton, alias "Jerky Bill. Although with a bad case of St.Vitas Dance, Bill rode and trained all broncs as they came. George Scarbro, alias sure-shot Ladigo, a native of California in the employe of Trabing Brothers, who, with a 16-foot loop, snared his calf on the range at the end of a 60-foot rawhide lasso, and with ease. Charlie Wilson, alias Rooster," an all-around cowhand in the employe o f the 1 7 outfit, noted f o r his volume of v oice, which was equal to a steamboat f o gh orn. Sam Broman, alias Bronco Sam," tall, swarthy, and one of the very few n egro w addies who rode northern ranges -and all outlaw bronca as they came. He arrived on the Laramie plains while assisting in moving a trail herd from Texas. F r ank K elly, known for his Irish wit; and his top hand, J.J.(Shorty) Doyle, who w a s not unlike Kelly in mentality. Both of these native sons of Erin were in the employe of Jack Conners, whose range brand was J c. Stole Yankee, a top hand of the Swan Land & Cattle Co.; John M.Kuykendall, manager of the Wisconsin and Wyoming Cattle Co., with his roundup outfit from the Saratoga area. George Wrigh t and his top hand, "Chico," representing the "Pick" brand of Earnest Brothers (Bony and Frank); Pedro Garcia, of the Hub and Tree Spoke outfit; Rubie Revier, and others; Al.Carter, alias "Hookey," whose right hand had been severed by accid ent whe n a boy. He used, instead, a steel hook strapped to his wrist, in which he t angle d the reins when roping or riding broncos. The Virginian. It was about 1888 that Owen Wister arrived at Medicine Bow Station by way of the Union Pacific Railroad, from New York, to view first-hand the exploits of the frontier. I n the late-mentioned Medicine Bol" round-up terri tory he found the material from which to write his popular novel, "The Virginian." With (author's comment) rambling pen he proceeded north to the supposed cattle ranch of Judge Henry, where, in he had leisure to observe such incidents as a r anch hen cutting capers with a litter of playful puppies. He also became interested in Judge nenry's ranch foreman, a personality favoring the typical Virginian, who was entertaining a young lady recent arrival from the east, and who taught the neighborhood school. While the hero of the novel rambled over the unknown Broken Bow mountain country in search of a visionary herd of cattle, he was harrassed by cattle rustlers and other outlaws. At last, he managed to reach trails end with

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herds of cattle gathered from the wilds for shipment over the Northern Pacific Railroad from 1<1ontana to the Chicago market. this time, cattle rustlers, led by Scipio and frampas, were taking toll from cattle herds ranging on the outskirts. The principal characters of Wister's drama were The Vi=ginian, Judge Henry, the Schoolma'am Scipio and Trampas. All were unknown to stockmen of the Medicine Bow area. A0few later a hotel was built at Medicine Bow and named The Virginian, in reraembranoe of the author. The Arapahoe Farm Movement. When the Arapahoe Indians were allotted private homestead lands on the Wind River reservation by the government as a "civilizing" and self-supporting policy, in 1884, they were furnished farm implements a n d other farm equipment in addition to t heir annual agency supplies, Included in their farm equipment were several cars of three -inch spindle Bain wagons, the harness t o move them -coming to Rawlins direct from factories in the east. The Arapahoes, like most Indian tribes, were not accus t o med to domestic farm life. Likewise, their ponies, although quite docile for I ndian customs, had never been hitched to a wagon. As a first lesson, the Indians were i nstructed to move tileir farm supplies from Rawlins to their reservation (1!10 miles) which was done in two sections. Bill McCabe, a veteran of Mexican wars, and one of the first to be employed at the Shoshone -Arapahoe reservation as scout and assistant agency work, was assigned the job of managing the Arapahoe farm movement. The first section of about 100 of all ages (except the very old) was mounted on ponies. Wit! pack, trayios, and a large number of extra ponies to be employed in team w ork, a n d ac co!llpanied by a pack of mongrel dogs, they traveled in tlJeir ;;.ccnstoJned style, and made eamp at Rawlings Springs. At.ter removing from the cars and assembling a large number of wagons, tneir next job was to fit new harness on their wagon ponies, hitch and drive their teams to acquaint them with harness and wagon before witn supplies. Then the big show b e gan. McCabe was "master of ceremonies." Most readers have looked on at a three-ring circus, but failed to see the entire Such was the case during t:1e Arapahoe farm movement. A dozen or more of two and four-pony teams were in the process of being hitched to wagons at their camp, when a shrill blast of a nearby railroad engine caused a w ild stampede of partly-hitched teams, of which a number broke away in a furious dash over Greasewood flats. Dogs gave chase in a noisy frolic. Several Arapahoes were knocked down and run over. Strong-armed bucks and squaws hung onto each of severa l teams, mostly by one line. They circled in a mix-up, knocking down tepees; turning over wagons. Other teams had escaped from their trainers during the turmoil, and scampered to open spaces. Some were freed fro10 the terror, w hile others tangled in their harness to a stands ti 11. When an account was taken of the disaster, five bucks and two squaws were fou'ld to be severely injured; one papoose received a broken arm when a tepee was knocked down; one dog killed outright, and one incurred a broken leg. After the scattered ponies had been herded in by the squaws, several days were s pent training ponies to wagon labor. The d ; kffiaged wagons were repaired by Jim C andlish, the Rawlins blacksmith, before supplies could be loaded for t h e reservation. On the first n.rrival of the Arapahoes at Rawlings Springs, some of the older squaws scented the city slaughter pens, which were one-half mile down stream from their camp. A small party of them went to investigate for offal, which, eaten raw, was a choice morsel for an Arapahoe. The slaughtering was done at the break of day by Rawlins butchers. Each morning a bevy of squaws were on hand to strip intestines and clean up what refuse had been dumped out, before it would be devoured by a bunch of town porkers that made regular, early calls. The job was done in the accustomed Indian style of takiGB care of a buffalo carcass. There was nothine: left but the filth-smeared spot where the carcass r.ad been lying. McCa be, because of the Arapalioe disaster, and of his responsibility of keeping t hem ir. line, was discouraged and became involved in a drinking carousal at the John Foote saloon by shooting one of the participants. He was arrested by City Marshall "Little" Dick Daley. At his trial, he was acquitted of a criminal charge on a plea of

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135 When the second section of the Arapahoe expedition arrived at Rawlins for the remaining supplies, they preceeded in a more domesticated manner. McCabe had instructed them in training ponies to wagon before leaving the reservation -and where similar, exciting incidents occurred. Sam Fairfield, a pioneer freighter, with bull teams, did freighting to the Sio: : x agencies in Dakota in the sixties, and to Fort Washakie, ShoS :1C:Je Agency, South Pass City and Lander during the 18?0e and 1880s. H e was a staunch friend of McCabe and Jack Sheard. Because of a government regulation, five cents was tr.e lowest money medium in circulation in the mountain country, until the late eighties, when pennies appeared in circulation. Spills and Thrills. A bear story, described here, just the way it occurred in .the wilds of the Williams Fork Country, Routt (now Moffatt) County, Colorado, November 10th,l888, is one of several similar incidents in bear sports experienced while engaged in riding the cattle ranges. 'r.r, NIGHT CAMP AT PECK GULCH. Nwaes of the crew were: B.F.Shedden (alias Boston), horse George Snowden, negro cook; Elijah Simon; Frank (Fatty) Smith ; J J.(Shorty) Doyle; !!y H. B ernard; Billy McCune; W The Rider, range riders. When the six riders climbed the h i l l to the mesa in the morning, on their way for the day's roundup, a bear was sighted directly on our c ourse, and moving leisurely toward the fork on our right. A short halt for a decision, and the boss said, "Let's give him a whirl, boys." Getting their lariats ready as they went, they were soon within roping distance, Elijah Simon, on a speedy mount, was first to cast his rope, lassoing bruin on the brow of the hill bordering the next gulch. Simon Snares Jruin. When Simon ci1ecked his mount as bruin lunged to the end of the rope, t!le hondo loop broke. Dear reader, if you have never seen a scared bear run down a steep hill, his speed and movements may best be compared to t hat of a heavy barre l bounding down a steep hill.

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136 SIMON SNARES BRUIN T h e e ntire bunch of waddies lost out i n the down hill c hase. Bernard, a well k:-to"lm pioneer cowbo y and The Rider, were first to reach the foot of t h e hill. N e a r t h e foot of the hill Shorty D o y l e s mount stepped into a badger hole, fell, and skidded for twenty f eet. SHORTY'S SPILL. Bruin was one hundred and fifty yaros in the lead on a level stretch. ln a grand rush to snare him before he reached the aspens, Bernard, on t h e right, frantically urged his mount (named h bs) the horse being ra tr1er slow to re spend t o

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1.17 BERNARD MAKING HIS BOW. GREETING BRUIN. pt:rsuasive touches, and shy of bruin. Bernard, getting desperate and witn a final effort to land Nibs close eno u G h to make his cast, made a savage rake with his spurs. Nibs resented this abuse and decided he had enough of it. With two hard bucks he dumped his reckless rider, who landed on all fours. "Nibs" turned to the left and took the back trail. Bruin, forty feet in the lead, and hearing the co1runotion, turned about and faced his pursuers with a loud whoof and a defiant attitude, ready for an attack. Bernard uninjured, jumped to his feet. The Rider, being cl0se up, Bernard climbed up his saddle. Riders in the rear came up pell-mell, bringing Nib. In the meantime, bruin, not being crowded, and having gathered in a fresh supply of ozone and composure, fled among the aspens on the hillside. When the waddies gave chase, bruin sought safety in an aspen tree, HOLDING FAST.

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twenty-five feet up. Neither of tne riders had firearms. Two waddies attenpted, but failed to lasso bruin fro m their mounts. From t h e saddle, with a dry aspen pole, bruin w a s poked in the ribs and all around in an effort to dislodge him, with no effect. He wa.e there to stay. The cow waddiee had about decided the bear had made hie escape, when a man was sighted a half-mile down t h e e:ulc: 1 corning o u r way, with a rifle on his shoulder. The Rider rushed to meet him. He was Joe Tower, a preacher living two miles helow on Williams F ork. He was out on an early morning hunt for deer. One shot from his rifle and bruin came tumbling down. His weight was about four hundred pounds. An agreement was made with Reverend Tower to remeve and deliver the hide to the roundup camp. The cattle hunt was then continued. On arrival at camp in the the hide was there, and bear steaks were ready in the frying pan (as a side dish to roast beef in the dutr:h oven) for the h ungry crew. The hair Nas a filossy black, and the hide made a beautiful robe. With due respect for departed members, The Rider is the lone survivor of the shovedown crew, October, 1938.

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. ARRIVAL OF A LONGHORN HERD ON NEW PASTURES. Buffalo vamos" to the North.

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1'10 ECHOS FROM THE COWB O Y'S PAST. Thrills, spills, joys, privations and h a r dship s galore Are recalled from the life of frontier cowboys, riding no more. They gathered longhorns from thorny rang e s of the l ower Rio Grande; They drove them north on the Texas trail; They fought Redmen and protected their herd, And made location on fresh pastures in mountain vale. Buffaloe viewed the strangers from their domain wi t; They entered the herd; they snorted, pawed and cavorted about; Then decided the intruders had come there t o stay, And the only s ho w to have peace, was to get out of their way; And knowing full well their fate was near due, They fled north to take their chance with the wily Sioux. T"1e coyote, the cougar, and the lobo Fled to their distant lair When cowboys caring for herds on a thousand hills Often gave chase to the marauding bear. During an occasional wild ride, his mount being unaware, A spill was caused, because of the "bad.;er snare." Prairie dog chatter; rattlesnake buzz, And the squeak of their friend, the owl. Alonr with their silent partner, the horned toad, All mingled together, without even a scowl, As the lone cowboy passed by the prairie-dog town On his way to care for some of the herd; The sweet strains of their song were a joy to And even better than that, of the mocking bird. For the audacity of some eastern editors to be fair, And publish current news that was on the square, Cowboys were rated as road agents and desperados of the west, And should be s:1o t to eradicate a dangerous pest. When mounted on the hurricane decks of tough broncos, The y were some of their regular string; Old Gabriel knew, and said, "Some were the best;" Of these, the wovie cowboy would have failed in a test. Past related tales of frontier acts Have brought to the reader a fund of facts; Some may appear sensational, others untrue, "Believe it or not", as Ripley says, They have revealed doings of the past to you.