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Early educators as agents of social change for inclusive practices

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Title:
Early educators as agents of social change for inclusive practices An action research study
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Action research study
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Rausch, Alissa ( author )
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English
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1 electronic resource (152 pages) : ;

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Multicultural education ( lcsh )
Early childhood education ( lcsh )
Early childhood education ( fast )
Multicultural education ( fast )
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theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Review:
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new course developed for students in the early childhood education (ECE) graduate and/or licensure in early childhood special education (ECSE)—a Colorado teacher licensure program—in the School of Education and Human Development at CU Denver. The study explored graduate students' learning in a course on social change agency in order to understand the extent to which personal and professional experiences coupled with course experiences impact the learning and perceived competence of students to act as agents of social change and the ways teacher educators can better support students’ learning of the content. The problem of practice—the lack of quality inclusion for children with special rights—is discussed in the introduction. It is followed by an extensive review of the literature that informs (1) the components of the course, (2) the reasons why social change agency is important for early educators, and (3) a discussion of the proposed theoretical framework. The methodology for the study is also shared. Results, discussion, and recommendations for future work are also discussed.
Thesis:
Thesis (D.E.)-University of Colorado Denver.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references
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System requirements: Adobe Reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Alissa Rausch.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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954168765 ( OCLC )
ocn954168765
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LD1193.E3 2016d R39 ( lcc )

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Full Text
EARLY EDUCATORS AS AGENTS OF SOCIAL CHANGE FOR INCLUSIVE PRACTICES:
AN ACTION RESEARCH STUDY
by
ALISSA RAUSCH
B.S., Colorado State University, 1998
M.A., University of Colorado Denver, 2001
A theses submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Education
Educational Leadership and Equity
2016


2016
ALISSA RAUSCH
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


This thesis for the Doctor of Education degree by
Alissa Rausch
has been approved for the
Educational Leadership and Equity Program
by
Elizabeth Steed, Chair
Phil Strain
Alyssa Dunn
Erin Barton


Rausch, Alissa Louise (EdD, Leadership for Educational Equity)
Early Educators as Agents of Social Change for Inclusive Practices: An Action
Research Study
Thesis directed by Associate Professor Elizabeth Steed
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new course developed for students in the early
childhood education (ECE) graduate and/or licensure in early childhood special education (ECSE)a
Colorado teacher licensure programin the School of Education and Human Development at CU
Denver. The study explored graduate students' learning in a course on social change agency in order
to understand the extent to which personal and professional experiences coupled with course
experiences impact the learning and perceived competence of students to act as agents of social
change and the ways teacher educators can better support students learning of the content. The
problem of practicethe lack of quality inclusion for children with special rightsis discussed in the
introduction. It is followed by an extensive review of the literature that informs (1) the components of
the course, (2) the reasons why social change agency is important for early educators, and (3) a
discussion of the proposed theoretical framework. The methodology for the study is also shared.
Results, discussion, and recommendations for future work are also discussed.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Elizabeth Steed
IV


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. LEADERSHIP CONTEXT, SUPPORTING LITERATURE, AND PROBLEM OF
LEADERSHIP PRACTICES............................................................1
Understanding the Problem of Practice: Inclusion Today..........................1
Background to the Action Research Study.........................................4
Introduction to the Study.......................................................6
Literature Review...............................................................7
Components of a Course on Inclusion and Social Change.......................7
Inclusion................................................................8
Law and Policy..........................................................10
Leadership and Collaboration............................................11
Advocacy Practices......................................................12
Understanding Social Change Processes...................................14
Working with Parents and Families.......................................15
Importance of Educators as Social Change Agents............................15
Social Justice..........................................................16
Professional Organizations..............................................17
Personnel Preparation...................................................18
Developing the Mindset for Social Change...................................20
Transformative Learning Theory..........................................21
Perspective Transformation..............................................22
Moral Courage...........................................................23
Conclusion.....................................................................24
II. METHODOLOGY...................................................................25
Conceptual Framework...........................................................25
Research Perspective...........................................................26
Population and Course Description..............................................28
v


Course Topics and Readings..................................................30
On Campus Course Activities.................................................33
Online Learning Format......................................................37
Course Assignments..........................................................41
Community Engagement and Reflection......................................42
Inclusive Practices Leadership Essay.....................................42
Advocacy Reflection Journal..............................................42
Advocacy Start Up Project................................................42
The Learning Activities Survey and Follow-Up Interview..........................43
Instrument Development......................................................43
Data Analysis of the LAS and Follow-Up Interview............................44
Pre and Post Competency Checklists..............................................47
Checklists..................................................................49
Advocacy Journals...............................................................50
Identification of Codes.....................................................51
Identification of Themes....................................................55
Ethical Considerations..........................................................57
Management Plan.................................................................58
III. RESULTS, DISCUSSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS......................................60
Results.........................................................................60
Learning Activities Survey (LAS) and Follow-Up Interview....................60
Perspective Transformation...............................................61
Summary..................................................................69
Pre and Post Competency Checklists..........................................69
Advocacy Journals...........................................................72
Extension to Social and Cultural Themes..................................73
Qualities of Leaders.....................................................75
vi


Building Confidence and Empowerment.....................................
Collaboration...........................................................
Exposure to Resources, Materials, and Experiences That Promote Knowledge
Discussion.....................................................................
Study Indications..........................................................
Transformative Change...................................................
Knowledge Development...................................................
Assignments and Experiences.............................................
The Influence of Family.................................................
Relationships Matter....................................................
Social Justice, Power, Privilege........................................
The Power of Agency.....................................................
Recommendations................................................................
Course Structure within the ECE Program....................................
Course Structure within SEHD...............................................
Intentionality in Relationships............................................
Class Experiences..........................................................
Inclusion and Issues of Social Justice..................................
Law and Policy..........................................................
Leadership and Collaboration............................................
Advocacy and Social Change Processes....................................
Working with Parents and Families.......................................
Assessment Practices and Assignments....................................
Fidelity...................................................................
Limitations................................................................
Ongoing Work...............................................................
..77
..78
..80
..81
..82
..82
..83
..85
..86
..87
..88
..90
..91
..92
..94
..94
..95
..96
..96
..97
..97
..97
..98
..99
..99
100
Conclusion
101


REFERENCES
102
APPENDIX
A.............................................................................112
B.............................................................................115
C.............................................................................116
D.............................................................................119
E.............................................................................121
F.............................................................................125
G.............................................................................128
viii


LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
2.1 Demographics of Participating Graduate/Licensure Students
2.2 Required Readings for On-Campus Sessions by Module
2.3 Required Readings for Online Learning by Module
2.4 On-Campus Session Lectures, Discussions, Activities, and Guest Speakers by Module
2.5 Online Discussion Prompts by Online Module
2.6 Depiction of the Rationale for the Development of the Pre and Post Competency
2.7 Examples of Coding Process for Development of Final Codes
3.1 Pre and Post Competency Results by Item


LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
1.1. A visual representation of quality inclusive practices/quality inclusion as defined by the
DEC/NAEYC Joint Position Paper on Inclusion
1.2. Visual representation of advocacy as it is defined for this study
1.3. The Phases of Transformative Learning according to Mezirow
1.4. Visual representation of the action research helix according to Mills
2.1. Visual representation of barriers to inclusion
2.2. Visual representation of breaking down barriers to inclusion
2.3. Brainstorming barriers and solutions to inclusion
2.4. IDEA and special education law timeline activity
2.5. Malala live speaking engagement at Bellco Theatre in Denver
2.6. Understanding needs Design Thinking group project
2.7. Design Thinking large group discussion
2.8. Brainstorming advocacy solutions using Design Thinking
2.9. Coding process for advocacy reflection journals
2.10. Depiction of process from raw data to final codes and final themes
2.11. Timeline for the project
2.12. Budget for the project
3.1. Percentage of students impacted by various course assignments and activities
3.2. Syllabus explanation of the advocacy start up project
3.3. Syllabus explanation of the inclusive practices leadership essay
3.4. Syllabus explanation of the community engagement and reflection activity
3.5. Syllabus explanation of the advocacy journal activity
3.6. Potential effect of early educators as agents of social change
3.7. Recommendations for new course structure
x


CHAPTERI
LEADERSHIP CONTEXT, SUPPORTING LITERATURE,
AND PROBLEM OF LEADERSHIP PRACTICES
This action research study focused on a graduate level course for early childhood educators.
In particular, this course sought to build the capacity of early childhood educators to act as agents of
social change for quality inclusive practices. This dissertation is organized into three chapters. The
first chapter explains the problem of practice addressed by the action research study and a review of
the literature. The second chapter outlines the methodology used. The third chapter presents the
results, discussion of the project outcomes, and future recommendations for the project.
Understanding the Problem of Practice: Inclusion Today
Since the inception of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), parents,
educators, administrators, and policymakers have fought for the inclusive rights of young children
with special rights1 birth to age eight in the United States. The primary drivers behind this
movement are the long-term positive outcomes for young children with disabilities who receive
education in quality inclusive settings (Camilli, Vargas, Ryan, & Barnett, 2010; Espinosa, 2002;
Pianta, Barnett, Burchinal, & Thornburg, 2009). The widely accepted definition of inclusion for
young children with special rights birth to age eight includes the following:
Early childhood inclusion embodies the values, policies, and practices that support the right
of every infant and young child and his or her family, regardless of ability to participate in a
broad range of activities and context as full members of families, communities, and society.
The desired results of inclusive experiences for children with and without disabilities and
their families include a sense of belonging and membership, positive social relationships and
friendships, and development and learning to reach their full potential.
The defining features of inclusion that can be used to identify high quality early childhood
programs and services are access, participation, and supports. (National Association for the
Education of Young Children & The Division for Early Childhood, 2009).
1 For the purpose of this study, the term young children with special rights will refer to young children who are diagnosed with
developmental disabilities/delays or receive services based on need with an individualized education program or individualized family
service plan. The term special rights comes from the literature from the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education that
constructs learning opportunities directly from the image of the child, close collaboration with families, and ongoing documentation of
project-based learning for children who, in the United States, are referred to typically as children with special needs. Able-bodied
children will be synonymous with typically-developing children.
I


In 2009, the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) and the National Association for the
Education of Young Children (NAEYC) produced a joint statement on inclusion, highlighting quality
inclusion or quality inclusive practices as the demonstration of (1) access, (2) participation, and
(3) supports for young children with special rights. The position statement further describes quality
inclusion as having multiple components, including (1) specialized individualized supports,
(2) intentional, sufficient, and supported interactions between peers with and without disabilities,
(3) ongoing program evaluation, (4) effective ongoing professional development, (5) integrated
interdisciplinary services and collaborative teaming, and (6) family involvement. This is visually
represented in Figure 1.1.
Figure 1.1. A
visual representation of
quality inclusive practices/quality inclusion
defined by the DEC/NAEYC Joint Position Paper on Inclusion.
The description of special rights is directly attributed to the laws that have been developed
to protect and support the human rights of young children who are diagnosed with disabilities. Since
its inception in 1986, PL 99- 457, now called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
(2004) has clearly identified the legal requirements for programs that serve young children with
special rights and their families in implementing and maintaining the highest quality services.
Primarily, the law identifies five separate areas that support quality inclusion, including (1) least
2


restrictive environment (LRE) (§300.114), (2) supplementary aids and services (§300.42),
(3) placements (§300.116) and the continuum of alternative placements (§300.115), (4) technical
assistance and training activities (§300.119), and (5) permissive use of funds (§300.206). Regulations
regarding the least restrictive environment state, each public agency must ensure that to the
maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities in public or private institutions or other care
facilities, are educated with children who are nondisabled (20 U.S.C. § 1400 §300.114(a)(2)(i)). This
definition does not imply LRE as suggestion, but rather, a requirement of services for young children
with special rights.
On top of the requirement for LRE are supplementary aids and services and placement
decisions. PL 99-457 indicates instructional decisions should be made from the standpoint of how
children with special rights are learning, developing, and living in the natural environments with their
able-bodied peers (20 U.S.C. § 1400 300.42). Additionally, PL 99-457 has developed technical
assistance centers and structures for use of funding that directly support how inclusive practices are
delivered to young children. Local and state educational agencies are provided with these supports in
order to be certain that LRE decisions are made in the best interest of the child (20 U.S.C. § 1400
300.119(b)). Based on a review of the 1994 IDEA regulations, it is clear that the authors of PL 99-457
foresaw the need to protect the rights of children to remain in the settings that are natural and
appropriate for them despite a diagnosis of developmental disability or educational label.
Regrettably, however, national progress toward quality inclusion has been virtually stagnant.
Since the passage of PL 99-457 in 1986, preschool inclusion has increased only 5.7%, from 36.8% to
42.5% for children ages three to five years old who have been identified to receive special education
services (Smith & Barton, 2015; U.S. Department of Education, 2014). Given the legal obligations of
early childhood education and early childhood special education, this result can be considered
unconscionable and indicative of a significant need for further training of administrators (Smith &
Barton, 2015) and educators in understanding and advocating for quality inclusive practices.
3


There are a number of reasons for this deplorable phenomenon. First of all, although shared
and marketed by DEC and NAEYC (both highly reputable early childhood organizations), the
positions statement on inclusion is not embedded into accountability systems at the state level. As of
2014, the Colorado Department of Education (CDE) has adopted this definition of inclusion.
However, at this point, the CDE has no policies in place that hold school districts and preschools
accountable for adopting this definition or for providing this level of support for inclusion. Limited
accountability has resulted in poor implementation of inclusive practices by educators, administrators,
and policymakers who fail to understand the efficacy of inclusion, why it should be supported, or
what it looks like in the classroom.
Another contributing factor to the lack of progress is how inclusion is taught in the personnel
preparation, higher education, and professional development arenas. The National Council for
Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) standards for institutions of higher education are
centered on the 2012 preparation standards from NAEYC as well as the Council for Exceptional
Children (CEC) standards established in 2012. Both NAEYC and CEC educator preparation standards
speak to the importance of teaching educators about their role as advocates or agents of social change
(CEC, 2014; NAEYC, 2014). For many institutions, the social change focus receives attention as part
of a course on leadership or administration (Allday, Neilsen-Gatti, & Hudson, 2013) but rarely is the
primary focus of an entire class (Stegelin & Hartle, 2003). This reality results in early educators
leaving their pre-service or in-service training with knowledge of the efficacy of inclusion, but with
limited tools with which to communicate with colleagues, administrators, parents, and policy-makers
on the importance of inclusion for young children with special rights and how to implement it.
Background to the Action Research Study
At the University of Colorado Denver (CU Denver), there is a very strong commitment to
young children with special rights and the inclusive practices that are designed to support them. CU
Denver School of Education and Human Development has a proud and robust history of inclusion
with premier researchers and programs in the field of early childhood special education and inclusive
4


practices and a high-quality early childhood special education graduate and licensure program. The
School of Education and Human Development at CU Denver is supported by a number of clinical
teaching faculty (Drs. Suzanne Adams, Lori Ryan, and myself), tenure track faculty (Drs. Phil Strain,
Elizabeth Steed, and Cristina Gillanders), and research professor (Drs. Barbara Smith and Ritu
Chopra) with special focus on the inclusion of young children with special rights and those from
marginalized settings. It also houses several grant-funded centers focused on the inclusion of young
children with special rights, including the Pyramid Plus Center (principal investigator Geneva Hallett
and research faculty Dr. Barbara Smith). It also houses the Positive Early Learning Experiences
(PELE) Center, directed by Dr. Phil Strain, which maintains two projects associated with inclusion,
including the Learning Experiences: An Alternative Program for Preschoolers and Parents (LEAP)
Project as well as Prevent-Teach-Reinforce for Young Children (PTR-YC). Most recently, the Office
of Special Education Programs in the United States Department of Education issued a grant (Early
Childhood Special Education Leadership Specialists or ECSELS) for 11 Doctorate of Education
students over four years to complete a doctorate in Educational Leadership and Equity with a focus
on inclusion of young children with special rights, children of color, and children of diverse socio-
economic status.
It is important to note that as a program, the CU Denver Early Childhood Education/Early
Childhood Special Education (ECE/ECSE) graduate program educates almost half of the early
childhood special educators in the state of Colorado that serve children with disabilities birth through
age eight. Based on the NCATE standards, the ECE/ECSE graduate program is responsible for
educating practitioners on the evidence-based practices that support young children with special
rights and on how the practices should be implemented in programs and communities (NCATE,
2015). It is crucial that students emerge from this program with an understanding of their role as an
agent of social change for inclusive practices (Fisher, 2007; Mayhew & Fernandez, 2007; Picower,
2012).
5


The study was situated within my role at CU Denver as both a recipient of the ECSELS grant
for a Doctorate in Education as well as a clinical faculty in the ECE/ECSE graduate program. In
addition to teaching courses on approaches to early childhood education, administration, intervention,
curriculum, and medical and physiological aspects of disabilities, I have worked as both the co-
coordinator and coordinator of the practicum experiences for ECE and ECSE students at the end of
their coursework. This work afforded me experiences with ECE/ECSE students in the field, as well as
experiences in early childhood educational settings that serve children with special rights.
Partnerships such as these allow me to see first hand the struggles of programs and educators to
support quality inclusive practices in early childhood settings.
Based on these interactions with programs and students, I developed an elective course for
graduate students focused on the role of early educators as agents of social change for inclusive
practices (ECED 5091). The desired knowledge and skills for this course are presented in
Appendix A. These competencies are supported in the literature highlighted later in this chapter.
Targeted areas of instruction for the course included (1) the social construction of disability, (2) the
efficacy of inclusion, (3) IDEA and special education law, (4) a personal pedagogy for inclusion and
social change, (5) leadership dispositions, (6) the role of government and policy in social change,
(7) social change model framework, (8) types of advocacy, and (9) advocacy action planning.
Introduction to the Study
This study was designed using action research methodology. Mills (2011) defines action
research as any systematic inquiry conducted by teachers, administrators, counselors, or others with
a vested interest in the teaching and learning process, for the purpose of gathering data how their
particular schools operate, how they teach, and how students learn (p. 5). The methodology is a
cyclical process that emphasizes the role of the researcher as a participant who is often both the
subject and object of the research (McNiff, Lomax, & Whitehead, 2009). Using practitioner enquiry,
the researcher carefully examines and builds an understanding of the participants, experiences, and
data as their fundamental pedagogy (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2009).
6


The action research results were examined using Kings (2009) Learning Activities Survey
(LAS) that was given at the end of the course, a follow-up interview administered in December, and
review of archived documentation, specifically advocacy journals, collected throughout the semester.
The LAS served two purposes. The first purpose was to identify whether or not a participant has
experienced a perspective transformation experience and what type of perspective transformation
occurred. The second purpose was to ascertain which learning activities best supported the
perspective transformation shift (King, 1997). Archived documentation from ECED 5091 was also
used to assess the effect that ECED 5091 had on the students perceived competencies and
dispositions in acting as agents of social change. The short-term result of the action research study
includes (1) redesign of the ECED 5091 course, (2) recommendations to the early childhood
education graduate program based on how graduate students within their programs viewed social
change course experiences, and (3) recommendations made to the School of Education and Human
Development at CU Denver on perspective transformation for social change agency in their graduate
students. The long-term outcome of an improved course on early educators as agents of social change
was aimed at increasing the number of children with special rights who are in quality inclusive
service settings
Literature Review
The primary areas addressed within this literature review are: (1) the literature base behind
the components of the ECED 5091 course, (2) the literature supporting the importance of educators
acting as agents of social change, and (3) the literature behind developing a mindset for social change
in educators.
Components of a Course on Inclusion and Social Change
The first section of this literature review describes the literature base that surrounds the
proposed knowledge and behaviors demonstrated by the students associated with course ECED 5091:
Early Educators as Agents of Social Change. After a thorough examination of the literature on early
educators and special educators building capacity for social change agency for quality inclusion, the
7


following competency areas emerged as the most critical areas: (1) inclusion, (2) law and policy,
(3) leadership and collaboration, (4) advocacy practices, (5) understanding social change processes,
and (6) working with parents and families. This section of the literature review is important in
describing why these competencies were selected for this project and grounding them in the literature
base of early childhood, leadership, and advocacy. A chart with the competencies and associated
literature is listed in Appendix A.
Inclusion
There is a substantial amount of literature that describes the efficacy of inclusion. Buysse and
Hollingsworth (2009), Odom (2000), and Odom, Buysse, and Soukakou (2011) highlight the major
pieces of research associated with the effectiveness of inclusion for young children with special
rights. A synthesis of this literature indicates that a common and shared definition of inclusion,
collaboration between professionals and families, specialized and targeted instruction, and ongoing
professional development offer benefits to able-bodied children as well as children with special
rights.
Benefits of inclusion for children with and without special rights, programs, and communities
are well described in these texts and reinforced in other literature. Simply put, children with special
rights birth to age eight who are included in early childhood educational settings with their able-
bodied peers have more positive outcomes than children who are not (Holahan & Costenbader, 2000;
Odom, Zercher, Marquart, Sandall, & Brown, 2006). For example, greater success for children with
special rights has been noted in social-emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and language development
(Buysse, Goldman, & Skinner, 2002; Strain & Bovey, 2011; Strain & Hoyson, 2000). Additionally,
research on the benefits of inclusion for able-bodied children has shown positive attitudinal outcomes
from being engaged in inclusive educational settings (Buysse, Wesley, Bryant, & Gardner, 1999;
Diamond & Huang, 2005; Odom, Zercher, Li, Marquart, Sandall, & Brown, 2006; Okagaki,
Diamond, Kontos, & Hestenes, 1998). In these cases, able-bodied children demonstrated helpfulness,
8


compassion, and empathy when they are educated in quality inclusive settings (Cross, Traub, Hutter-
Pishgahi, & Shelton, 2004).
Research is indicative of a trend that inclusive programs deliver higher quality intervention
for all children (both able-bodied and children with special rights) (Bricker, 1995; Daugherty,
Grisham-Brown, & Hemmeter, 2001; Grisham-Brown, Schuster, Hemmeter, & Collins, 2000). This
trend is primarily attributed to the use of specialized instruction, ongoing assessment, and progress
monitoring systems, as well as increased parental engagement in the inclusive classrooms that support
all young children within that setting (Buysse et al., 1999). Grisham-Brown, Pretti-Frontczak,
Hawkins, and Winchell (2009) also determined that intensive instruction that is embedded throughout
the day benefits the learning of children with special rights as well as their able-bodied peers.
Multiple studies have also found that quality inclusion is not more expensive in service
delivery than segregated programs demonstrating benefit to the program and community at large
(Odom, Hanson, Lieber, Marquart, Sandall, Wolery, Horn, Schwartz, Beckman, Hikido, & Chambers,
2001; Odom, Parrish, & Hikido, 2001). Specifically, Strain and Bovey (2011) found the cost of a
specialized inclusive model for children with autism was estimated to be half or two-thirds the cost of
a one-on-one teaching model and produced the same or better quality developmental outcomes.
Recent literature highlights the barriers to the implementation of inclusion in a variety of
early care and education settings that serve young children with special rights, including public and
private school settings, child care centers, and Head Start programs (Liber, Hanson, Beckman, Odom,
Sandall, Schwartz, & Wolery, 2000). Based on a national follow-up survey distributed to
administrators in early childhood education, Smith and Barton (2015) identified the following
attitudinal and belief barriers to the widespread use of inclusion: (1) lack of communication/
collaboration, (2) someone will lose beliefs, (3) staff preparedness beliefs, (4) lack of awareness
and understanding beliefs, (5) turf issues, and (6) lack of respect. While other identified barriers
centered on fiscal policies and funding, established policies between agencies or programs and
9


personnel training, qualifications, and supervision, a majority of the identified challenges were
reported as attitudinal in nature.
It is significant to note the attitudinal barriers to inclusion were established despite the
existing literature base about the effectiveness of inclusive settings for all young children and a
consistent definition of quality inclusion. These findings are also consistent with literature that
examined the perceptions of practitioners in high-quality settings. Similar barriers were found in
regard to common philosophical beliefs about inclusion, time constraints, and collaborative efforts
(LaMontagne, Johnson, Kilgo, Stayton, Carr, Bauer, & Carpenter, 2002). The described barriers to
inclusion are consistent with the theory that providing educators with the skills necessary to
strengthen communication, collaboration, and resolve are effective strategies to consider in
addressing the current challenges to quality inclusion.
Law and Policy
A review of the timelines that recognize the history of social change in early childhood
special education can provide an understanding of how advocacy and social change are
contextualized in ECSE (Blase, 2009; Smith & Rous, 2011) and should therefore be included in the
course. The law and policies have in fact given the name young children with special rights to
young children who were previously labeled as mentally retarded, developmentally disabled,
children with disabilities, or children with special needs (Edwards, Gandini, & Forman, 2011).
The laws and policies over the last 50 years demonstrate support for quality inclusive practices as
well as the provision of the structures that ensure quality implementation (Smith & McKenna, 1994;
Smith & Rous, 2011).
Alterations and expansions made to existing legislation led to the 1986 passage of
P.L. 99-457, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA), which mandated a state-wide
support system for children with special rights ages three through five. Eventually, these programs
were expanded for infants and toddlers with special rights and their families. P.L. 99-457 was signed
as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) or (P.L. 101-476) in 1990 (Smith &
10


McKenna, 1994). IDEA was then revised and reauthorized in 2004. Each iteration of legislation has
moved mandates closer to the current definition of inclusion established in the (DEC/NAEYC) j oint
position statement on inclusion and has supported attempts at transforming the system to provide
evidence-based and quality-inclusive services for young children with special rights (DEC/NAEYC,
2009). At the center of law and policy past and future work, parents, educators, researchers, and
policymakers have recognized the importance of the social change necessary to improve educational
systems and thereby outcomes for children with special rights (Smith, 2000).
Leadership and Collaboration
Engaging educators as leaders in the advocacy process becomes more important than ever as
they hold an important key to mindsets about inclusion as well as its successful implementation
(LaRocco & Bruns, 2013; Soodak, Erwin, Winton, Brotherson, Turnbull, Hanson, & Brault, 2002).
Generally, the literature supports the notion that building leadership capacity in educators to act as
social change agents can support positive outcomes for young children with disabilities (Blank, 1997;
Davey, 2000; Kazepides, 2012; LaRocco, Sopko, Bruns, & Gupta, 2014). Kagan and Bowman (1997)
describe the ineffectiveness of named educational leaders or administrators as the explicit advocacy
drivers with policy-makers and decision-makers. Leadership distributed (also referred to as
distributed leadership) to teachers considers individual capacity to create change, as well as collective
learning that constructs new visions, values, and purpose. This leadership style builds service delivery
collaborations at the state and community level, which support implementation, scale-up, and
sustainability of quality inclusive practices (Fixsen, Blase, Metz, & Van Dyke, 2010).
It is noted that when educators exert advocacy influence at the local level, legislators, policy-
makers, and school administrators are held to higher standards of accountability to shift values and
practice (Blank, 1997; Dana & Yendol-Hoppey, 2005; Smith, 2000). Implications of increasing
leadership capacity also include educator ability to use leadership and policy skills taught in pre-
service as well as in-service training and professional development throughout their career (LaRocco
et al., 2014; Taba, Castle, Vermeer, Hanchett, Flores, & Caulfield, 1999). Additionally, teacher
11


preparation programs are becoming increasingly aware that leadership capacities that foster building
individual strengths support educators in social change and advocacy (Woodrow & Busch, 2008).
One way leadership capacity can be fostered is through information sharing (Smith & Rous, 2011).
Smith (2000) suggests that a common voice and ongoing technical assistance established across the
field can change the face of early childhood education with the promotion of teachers as leaders in
classroom and policy practice.
This engagement can be accomplished with collaboration. In this case, collaboration is
defined as a varied team of professionals with the same values who can execute a plan that achieves
higher results than if they were to work alone (Morgan, 1997). The establishment of leadership
capacity and collaboration as pivotal ideology in educator practice allows promotion and
sustainability of inclusion to occur (Bryant, 2014; Fisher, 2007; Gallagher, LaMontange, & Johnson,
1994; Kagan & Bowman, 1997). The literature describes distributed leadership as one important
concept in building collaborative relationships (Knapp, Copland, Hoing, Plecki, & Portin, 2010).
Distributed leadership requires common vision, mission, goals, and plan for accountability. It also
solicits meaningful relationships between the leader and the followers in a specific context, and it is
necessary to have knowledge and creativity shared among a diverse group of participants to
implement transformational change (Seashore-Louis, Leithwood, Wahlstom, & Anderson, 2010).
These efforts support collaboration and the essential tenets behind educators acting as agents of social
change.
Advocacy Practices
For the purposes of this project, a definition of social change agency and advocacy (used
interchangeably) was determined based on the literature from child and family advocacy training,
disability advocacy, social justice education, and social change literature. Within the context of the
problem of inclusion, social change agency has included (1) seeking systemic change and the
correction of an identified problem, (2) collaboration with and for others, (3) planning and
implementation of grass roots organization or legislative influence, and (4) bringing together people
12


for a dialogue on forward progress for an underserved population (Bishop-Josef & Dodgen, 2013;
Fiedler & Clark, 2009; Nash, Johnson, & Murray, 2012; Smith, 2000). Figure 1.2 provides a visual
representation of the definition of advocacy for the purposes of this course.
Figure 1.2. Visual representation of advocacy as it is defined for this study.
The principles of social change agency and advocacy for inclusive practices are consistent
with the competencies laid out in the ECED 5091 course in Appendix A and are based in a wide
variety of literature from professional organizations, think tanks, and academic writing. The literature
outlines the ethical and legal support for advocacy, as well as the positive impacts on the lives of
children with and without special rights, families, and communities (National Association for the
Education of Young Children, 2014; Ostrosky & Cheatham, 2005; Smith, 2000). A significant
number of the identified practices in advocacy include building capacity for and skills around
legislative advocacy (Bishop-Josef & Dodgen, 2013; CEC, 2014; Kilmer, 1983; Nash et al., 2012).
This includes writing policy briefs, personally connecting with legislators, and staying informed
about the policy processes at the local, state, and federal levels (Fiedler & Clark, 2009; LaRocco &
Bruns, 2005; Mitchell & Philibert, 1997; The Ounce, 2014). Professional toolkits such as The Ounce:
13


Early Childhood Advocacy Toolkit (2014) and the Council for Exceptional Children Grassroots
Advocacy Toolkit also outline legislative processes that are effective for early educators, including the
use of modules on how to frame the messages for legislators and to understand how to work with the
media to publicly share the message.
Outside of the legislative advocacy arena, Castle and Ethridge (2003) argue for the ability of
early childhood educators to act autonomously. This process uses momentum from the early
childhood community to expand awareness and knowledge of quality and inclusive practices.
According to Royea and Apple (2009), educators should develop an understanding of the efficacy of
inclusion and the barriers to it and the willingness to share knowledge, passion, and beliefs about
inclusion with others. Furthermore, it supports educators in actively reaching out to desired audiences
with a clear message, thereby making meaningful change for young children with special rights and
their families (Fiedler & Clark, 2009; Royea & Apple, 2009).
Understanding Social Change Processes
Multiple models exist that support the design and implementation of a social change plan. For
the purposes of this study, Design Thinking has been selected for its open problem-solving process
to complex, real-world problems that use action-based approaches to make innovative decisions
and discoveries (Melles, Howard, & Thompson-Whiteside, 2011). Design Thinking is centered on a
multi-step process that includes (1) problem definition, (2) information gathering/literature review,
(3) action planning, (4) identification of leverage point and advocacy strategy, (5) creation of an
evaluation plan, and (6) presenting the plan to a group of educators, administrators, and families.
Design Thinking has been researched and used in a variety of contexts, but it is not governed
by one single theorist (Koh, Chai, Wong, & Hong, 2015). Rather, the primary Design Thinking
scholars support a process of inquiry that encourages the questioning of existing professional
knowledge and builds a bridge to common problems of practice (Adams, Daly, Mann, & Alba, 2011;
Cross, 2011; Schon, 1983). Additionally, the Design Thinking process is noted for a systematic
methodology sometimes considered to be incongruent with creative design. With an eye on both
14


deductive reasoning (scientific method-type thinking) as well as on creative processes such as
intuition, Design Thinking constructs opportunities for inspired action within efficient and effective
processes (Cross, 2011; Schon, 1983; Simon, 1996).
Design Thinking is appropriate for the ECED 5091 course because the planning process stems
from an established theory of change, an established and understood problem, and a desired outcome
or change. Additionally, the enjoyable and creative processes associated with Design Thinking do not
feel laborious or cumbersome to grassroots advocates whose expertise is in education rather than in
advocacy (350.org Workshops, 2014; Mind Tools, 2014).
Working with Parents and Families
Research and recommendations on family-centered practice is rich in the fields of early
childhood and early childhood special education. There is no exception when examining the literature
on how educators can work with parents and families for social change regarding inclusion. The
literature base in establishing collaborative relationships necessary to build comprehensive services
should also include strong relationships with parents and families (Burke, 2013; Fenech, 2013;
Murray & Mandell, 2006). Families can serve as strong advocates for inclusion (Bruder, 2000;
Gallimore, 1996; Taylor & Wright, 2014). Parents can be educated to understand their childs rights,
discern quality practices, enforce norms of discourse, and ultimately influence the way in which
children participate in inclusive early childhood settings (Strain, McGee, & Kohler, 2001). The
collaborative relationship between families, policy makers, administrators, educational reformists,
and teachers is essential to the advocacy efforts intended to make systemic-level change for young
children with special rights (Bruder, 2000; Turnbull & Turnbull, 2015).
Importance of Educators as Social Change Agents
The current landscape of education, law and policy, economics, and politics requires teachers
to possess a unique skill set in social change. This section of the literature review examines the
importance of teachers as agents of social change, including the needs for social justice, the desired
15


role of professional organizations, and the integration of social justice concepts and social change
agency in personnel preparation of pre-service and in-service teachers.
Social Justice
Over the last 30 years alongside the rise of the inclusion movement, social justice education
has risen as a need in education. This has been particularly relevant given the educational trends in
academic achievement along the lines of race, socio-economics, and dis-/ability (Ayers, Quinn, &
Stovall, 2009). The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965 was designed to
provide assistance to children in need. Now called No Child Left Behind (NCLB), it is the primary
source of federal funding for kindergarten through twelfth grade education (as cited in Mathison,
2009, p. 5-9). This legislation and the continued recognition of achievement gaps for young children
with special rights and other marginalized populations have pushed the need for social justice
education to the forefront. As stated by CECs ESEA Reauthorization Recommendations (2010), the
reauthorization of ESEA as NCLB confronts many critical issues that impact millions of children,
families, and educators, including policies that focus on teacher/school personnel quality; evidence-
based teaching and learning; assessments of children; issues of disproportionality and diversity;
establishing a viable accountability system; and systemic supports (p.l). However, the underlying
implications of these recommendations assert the past and continued need for social justice work in
transforming an unjust system of special education for the benefit of young children with special
rights (Ayers et al., 2009; Ferri, 2009; Wendell, 1996).
Given the historical and present landscape, the argument can be made that the lack of
inclusion is an issue of inequity and social justice. Therefore, educators need to leam the attitudes and
beliefs as well as the knowledge and skills associated with inclusive practices (Abeson & Ballard,
1976; Lim & Able-Boone, 2005; Weintraub & Abeson, 1974). This necessitates an understanding of
oppressed groups, such as individuals with special rights, and requires that educators build an
underlying intentionality of social justice (Lim & Able-Boone, 2005; Smith & Lau, 2013). Literature
in the fields of social justice, advocacy, and early childhood education recognizes that social change
16


agency is a critical component in supporting the rights of children who are marginalized, including
children with special rights (Fisher, 2007; Mayhew & Fernandez, 2007; Picower, 2012). Additionally,
literature has determined that 44% of teachers who engage in learning about social justice, including
social change agency, perceive they are more competent in supporting equity practices (Torres-
Harding, Steele, Schulz, Taha & Pico, 2014). Given this perspective, it becomes imperative that early
educators have the opportunity to build experience with social justice-based educational principles.
Professional Organizations
The practices of social change agency described in this project are demonstrated in the
literature from guiding professional organizations, including the Division for Early Childhood (DEC),
the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC), and the National Association for the Education of
Young Children (NAEYC). As noted previously, one of the cornerstones of this work is the
DEC/NAEYC joint position statement on inclusion, which can be used to address the need to
increase the number of children with disabilities who receive inclusive services and improve the
quality and outcomes associated with inclusion (DEC/NAEYC, 2009, p. 1). The DEC also
developed a new set of recommended practices that were released in 2014. These evidence-based
practices are consistent with the concept of building educators as agents of social change. The DEC
Recommended Practices encourages practitioners to assume a role of practitioner-based leader and
advocate for continued implementation of best practices, such as inclusion, as well as to demonstrate
commitment to the moral and ethical standards associated with young children with special rights
(DEC, 2014). DEC Recommended Practices also encourages teaming and collaboration between
professionals, families, community members, and policy-makers to ensure access to and quality of
services that have been suggested for young children with special rights (DEC, 2014).
Evidence to support educators as social change agents is also found in the 2009 DEC Code of
Ethics and the 2011 NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct and State of Commitment. The DEC Code of
Ethics calls for early childhood educators to work as advocates for children with special rights and
their families at the individual, program, and policy levels (DEC, 2009). Similarly, the NAEYC Code
17


of Ethical Conduct and Statement of Commitment identify ideals that encourage educators of young
children to advocate for the rights of all children to receive an education that supports their highest
potential, especially children with special rights (NAEYC, 2011). The messages of the guiding
professional organizations are reliably recognized in the field, and the encouragement for educators to
connect with and use documents from professional organizations to build their collective voice about
the state of special education for young children is evident throughout the literature (Mitchell &
Philibert, 1997; Whitby & Wienke, 2012).
Personnel Preparation
With increased understanding of the efficacy of inclusion, a common definition of social
change agency, the evidence base for inclusive practices, and the law and policy that supports social
change agency for inclusion, it becomes important to examine how early childhood educators and
early childhood special educators build the knowledge and skills associated with social change
agency for inclusion. Many early childhood and early childhood special education teacher preparation
programs are blended programs (Piper, 2007). Blended programs are defined as programs in which
general early childhood educators are prepared for practice alongside early childhood special
education candidates (NAEYC, 2009). These programs took center stage in teacher preparation
following the passage of EAHCA in 1986, with a more pointed focus on quality inclusion and the
establishment of the NAEYC and DEC (Piper, 2007). Blended programs use personnel preparation
standards from both NAEYC and CEC/DEC to address teacher candidates understanding of dis-
ability, interventions supported in evidence-based practices, inclusion, and advocacy (NAEYC,
2009; Chandler, Cochran, Christensen, Dinnebeil, Gallagher, Lifter, Stayon & Spino, 2012; Cochran,
Gallagher, Stayton, Dinnebeil, Lifter, Chandler, & Christensen, 2012; Lifter, Chandler, Cochran,
Dinnebeil, Gallagher, Christensen, & Stayton, 2011).
Pre-service curricula offered in blended programs have a significant research base that
demonstrates broad benefits to curricula, faculty, students, and society by adequately addressing
developmentally appropriate practices from NAEYC and the recommended practices from DEC
18


(Piper, 2007). Fundamentally, blended programs are meant to support all early educators in their
ability to build knowledge, pedagogy, and skills for young children with and without special rights
(Piper, 2007). Blended program curricular standards primarily focus in the areas of (1) curriculum
development and implementation, (2) assessment and evaluation, and (3) family and community
relationships (LaMontange et al., 2002). Perceptual data from faculty and students have demonstrated
positive feelings about the use of blended programs across the United States and believe the
knowledge that is articulated between NAEYC and DEC standards are appropriate for developing
quality teacher candidates who enter the field to work with able-bodied and children with special
rights (Cochran et al., 2012; LaMontange et al., 2002).
Where perceptual data is less clear is in the literature around the preparation of teacher
candidates for social change agency or advocacy practices for quality inclusive practices. In 2013,
Allday et al., found that while teachers were theoretically prepared to work and manage fully
inclusive classrooms based on the knowledge and skills gained in blended programs, the needs in the
field did not align with their preparation. For example, upon entering the field, teacher candidates
understood the value of inclusion and what was required to implement it. However, they reported
feeling unsupported and unable to ask for the necessary supports to properly implement quality
inclusive practices. Hanline (2010) conducted a qualitative study that yielded similar results based on
teacher perception of preparation for implementation of quality inclusive practices. Specifically, the
results indicated that teachers were more comfortable implementing instructional and assessment
strategies than they were working collaboratively, building administrative support, and working
alongside parents for social change.
A 1998 study by Alber indicated that early educators had the desire and passion for advocacy
efforts. This was especially true when the determined need was directly connected to their personal or
professional lives. Additionally, Alber (1998) found that students who were intentional about logging
their advocacy efforts in journals were able to continue or expand those efforts more consistently.
This preliminary sketch served as an initial understanding of advocacy or social change agency in
19


early educators, but it did not examine how social change efforts can be nurtured in early educator
teacher candidates. Further studies on professional empowerment have determined that intentional
pre-service education is critical to supporting teachers as advocates at the individual, program, and
community levels to enhance quality inclusion (Soodak et al., 2002).
The incomplete personnel preparation work can be somewhat attributed to the lack of
consistency between individual state certification for ECSE as well as the incorporation of national
standards into ECSE requirements for states. Stayton, Smith, Dietrich, and Bruder (2012)
demonstrated the CEC Common Core Standards most likely to be incorporated into state certification
for ECSE were assessment, development, and learner characteristics; whereas, professional and
ethical practices were one of the least likely CEC Common Core Standards to appear in state
standards. The standards around professional and ethical practices are where collaboration, advocacy,
and social change are most likely to appear in the content given to teacher candidates. A similar study
by Harvey, Yssel, Bauserman, and Merbler (2010) found that only 10% of faculty reported actively
teaching social change content in their courses. Despite the small number of courses taught directly
related to advocacy and policy, educators indicate they are helpful in supporting teachers as agents of
social change (Stegelin & Hartle, 2003; Woodrow & Busch, 2008).
Developing the Mindset for Social Change
This study attempted to understand how participants in the ECED 5091 built capacity for
social change agency. The best way to explore this phenomenon is to examine the transformative
learning of the participants in ECED 5091. Therefore, the third and final section of this literature
review synthesizes the literature regarding transformative learning theory as it applies to educators.
The literature base is critical to providing a theoretical lens through which the research questions for
this study can be explored and data can be collected and analyzed.
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Transformative Learning Theory
Mezirows theory of transformative learning, published in 1991, discusses the theory behind
how learning experiences and individual passion evolve into the competencies necessary to execute
social change. Mezirow (1991) defines transformational learning as:
The process of becoming critically aware of how and why our assumptions have come to
constrain the way we perceive, understand, and feel about our world; changing these
structures of habitual expectation to make possible a more inclusive, discriminating, and
integrative perspective (p. 167).
Transformative learning theory by Mezirow is outlined in Figure 1.3.
Phase 1 A disorienting dilemma as a result of an experience
Phase 2 Self-examination
Phase 3 A critical assessment of assumptions
Phase 4 Recognition that ones discontent and the process of transformation are shared
Phase 5 Exploration of options for new roles, relationships and actions
Phase 6 Planning a course of action
Phase 7 Acquiring knowledge and skills for implementing ones plans
Phase 8 Provisional trying on of new roles
Phase 9 Building competences and self-confidence in new roles and relationships
Phase 10 A reintegration into ones life on the basis of conditions dictated by ones new perspective
Figure 1.3. The Phases of Transformative Learning according to Mezirow (1991, p. 19).
Transformative learning theory identifies that adult learners can assimilate or integrate past
experiences with new perspectives gained from interaction with the social world. Before
transformative learning, adults experience and grapple with a disorienting dilemma (Mezirow,
1991) that leads them to deeply examine previously known or assumed perceptions. In
Transformative Learning in Practice: Insights from Community, Workplace, and Higher Education,
Taylor (2008) describes the essential elements of transformative learning in teaching. The core
elements described include (1) individual experience, (2) promoting critical reflection, (3) dialogue,
(4) holistic orientation, (5) awareness of context, and (6) authentic relationships. Taylor (2008)
describes the interdependence of these elements within and throughout the teaching and learning
cycle as imperative for students to construct new knowledge, alter existing perceptions, and
21


ultimately participate in social change. Within these experiences, Mezirow (2000) encourages a
dynamic learner-centered teaching process with multiple opportunities for learning that transforms
problematic frames of reference to make them more inclusive, discriminating, reflective, open, and
emotionally able to change (p. 22). While research in the field of transformative learning theory
continues, Taylor (2008) cites recent research that identifies particular practices such as reflective
journaling, storytelling, and group inquiry as paramount to encouraging transformative learning and
limiting barriers to transformation.
For the purposes of this study, the disorienting dilemma was the participants
acknowledgement of and experiences about the inequities of quality inclusive education for young
children with special rights and the passion they feel for righting these inequities coupled with the
lack of competency in acting effectively as an agent of social change. The learner-centered
experiences provided in ECED 5091 were intended to scaffold knowledge and behaviors for
participants as well as create spaces for educators to nurture professional practices that result in
positive social change for young children with special rights. ECED 5091 sought to draw on the
transformative learning theoretical framework and its development by intentionally designing course
experiences that serve as a catalyst for alterations in participants frames of reference and
assumptions about their role as educators acting as agents of social change.
Perspective Transformation
The literature behind transformative learning was important for this study because it provided
the lens through which data was collected and analyzed. The selected tool for this study, the Learning
Activities Survey by King (2009) (described in the following section), used transformative learning
theory to measure potential perspective transformation in the participants. Consistent with theorists in
transformative learning, King (2009) states:
Transformative learning describes experiences as adult experiences that adult learners may
have as they examine (1) previously unquestioned assumptions, (2) new strategies, (3) views
and approaches, and (4) begin to ultimately transition to a significantly new place in their
understanding of values, beliefs, assumptions, themselves, and their world (p.4).
22


Furthermore, King (2009) indicates that perspective transformation (via transformative
learning experiences) supports classroom practitioners in gaining insights that can be helpful in
understanding the needs of the young children within their classes as well as creating the changes
required in the system to better support them. Perspective transformation, according to King (2009),
is identifiable as personal, qualitative change (p. 15). While transformational learning as a theory is
powerful, King (2009) indicates that a voice needs to be given to students about their
transformative experiences. Gaining a clear picture of the knowledge of and about the perspective
transformation of students is both ethical and essential to meaningful work in the field (King, 2009).
The student voice also supports educators understanding about how to build meaningful learning
experiences for their students (King, 2009). This continual feedback loop is key to growing the body
of knowledge within the contexts studied. For this particular study, the measured perspective
transformation will inform potential new approaches to supporting early educators to act as agents of
social change for inclusion. This information was nestled in the specific context of ECED 5091 where
the learning research occurred.
Moral Courage
Many long-standing, contributing members of the early childhood education field also view the
moral imperative toward inclusion as significant for developing a mindset geared to social change.
Snow (2007) suggests a major reason for challenges with inclusion is that, even with legal
imperatives... segregation and isolation continue. So, it seems that until we go beyond the law and
make inclusion a moral imperative, the status quo will continue (p. 1). Additionally, research on
public participation and civic engagement in social issues indicates morality and values are the single
greatest drivers behind individual and collective capacity for change (Gudowsky & Bechtold, 2013).
Therefore, given this information, it is important for educators to understand and learn the
role of moral courage in their professional work and to use leadership practices that build advocacy
and engagement for issues such as quality inclusive practices (Fisher, 2007). Moral courage also
23


requires educators to view themselves with the leadership capacity discussed previously and with the
general ability to build relationships and influence higher order change in paradigms (Lambert, 1998).
Conclusion
Several consistent themes emerge from the literature that demonstrate a gap in knowledge
and practices. While the literature demonstrates the effectiveness in providing children with quality
inclusive settings and the field of early childhood possesses the necessary knowledge and research to
employ inclusive practices on a wide scale, barriers to inclusion persist in attitudes and beliefs that
prevent wide-spread implementation of quality inclusion. Additionally, the literature presents both the
needs and the evidence behind educators working as agents of social change for equity. Existing laws
and policies, literature from professional organizations, and academic literature demonstrate the value
of advocacy. Consistent with this are the laws and policies that mandate inclusive practices for young
children. The literature also highlights the effectiveness of parents, educators, researchers, and policy-
makers who advocate strongly for the rights of young children with special rights.
More importantly, however, while teachers are generally excited to work as agents of social
change (Alber, 1998), the literature also demonstrates that teacher preparation training does not
adequately equip teachers to act as agents of social change (Hanline, 2010). Content within blended
programs, including advocacy and professional interdisciplinary collaboration are not taught with
enough intention to elicit a strong perception of competence in early educators (LaMontagne et al.,
2002; Stayton et al., 2012). These realities were addressed within this project.
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CHAPTER II
METHODOLOGY
This chapter of the dissertation provides a description of the methods used in this study. This
includes a description of the conceptual framework, discussion of the research perspectives used in
this study, a description of the course and its implementation, an overview of the Learning Activities
Survey (King, 2009) including validity and reliability of the measure, data collection and data
analysis methods, the management plan, and the budget for this study.
Conceptual Framework
The conceptual framework developed for this study is depicted in Appendix B. The
conceptual framework was based on the problem of practice that since the inception of IDEA in 1986,
the national inclusion rate has only risen by 5.7%. The specific causes for the lack of inclusion are
listed. The conceptual framework also depicts the competencies necessary to support early childhood
educators acting as agents of social change. It highlights the course experiences, informed by the
results of the Learning Activities Survey (LAS) administered in August 2015 (after grades were
submitted) with a follow-up interview administered in November 2015. The results of the LAS and
the follow-up interviews are intended to advise a course redesign for ECED 5091, as well as provide
possible recommendations to the ECE/ECSE graduate program and the CU Denver School of
Education and Human Development. Based on this conceptual framework, the following research
questions were identified:
(1) In regard to the ability to act as agents of social change, based on the results of the
LAS and follow-up interviews, did students in ECED 5091 demonstrate perspective
transformation and, if so, what type?
(2) What learning experiences in ECED 5091, if any, contributed to student perspective
transformation ?
(3) To what extent, if any, are the perceived self-competencies of students in ECED 5091
affected by their participation in the course?
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Research Perspective
The research perspective selected for this study was practitioner inquiry completed in an
action research style. Mills (2011) defines action research methodology as a systematic inquiry within
a teaching environment to gather information about teaching and learning. The intention behind this
work and the associated action research methodology was to build insight into meaningful course
experiences, develop reflective faculty practice, effect positive changes on student learning, and
improve student outcomes in acting as agents of social change for inclusion. Most action research is
composed of a four-step process beginning with (1) intervention or action in an area of focus,
(2) data collection on that intervention, (3) analysis of the data associated with the intervention, and
(4) developing a plan for future action or recommendations. The action research helix is pictured in
Figure 1.4.
Identify the problem
Adjust the theory
and
begin again
\
Report the
results
Develop a plan
of action
Analyze data
and
form conclusions
Collect data
Figure 1.4. Visual representation of the action research helix according to Mills (2011).
A key feature of action research is the practitioner as the researcher. Practitioner research is
designed to build community and collaboration between the educator and the students (Mills, 2011).
The study of professional practice blurs the lines between inquiry and practice and also produces
valid results that can lead to recommendations for improved course design and recommendations for
the higher education experience (Bogdan & Biklen, 1998). These results are grounded in the literature
26


and formulated by systematic, research-based knowledge development (Cochran-Smith & Lytle,
2009).
Practitioner inquiry action research was selected for this study because it identifies potential
changes to enhance practice (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2009, p. 41). Specifically, for the purposes of
this study, I was looking to improve my practice as higher education faculty to support students to act
as agents of social change for inclusion. Practitioner inquiry methodology is often criticized because
of its lack of generalizability (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2009, p. 43-44). However, practitioner inquiry
scholars assert that, while it breaks from traditional research in that the generation of new knowledge
intended to be widely disseminated is not its purpose, practitioner inquiry action research supports the
specific context being studied, the community in which the transformation is desired, and the ability
to support the participants construction of knowledge necessary to act as agents of social change
(Mills, 2011). This study, including the research questions, data collection, and the scope of the
desired results, are directly aligned with practitioner inquiry action research.
Further supporting the use of action research for this particular study, Cochran-Smith and
Lytle (2009) describe many benefits of action research for the higher education environment. First of
all, action research is socially responsive, allowing the participants and context of the research to act
as the drivers for the research. Additionally, the participants in the action research project
demonstrate a shared interest in a deeper understanding of the problem, action, or recommendations
(Mills, 2011; Nolen & Putten, 2007). Action research also demonstrates my commitment to student
participatory reformation in coursework development and implementation (Cochran-Smith & Lytle,
2009). The nature of the action research perspective associated with this project allows close
examination of the specific teaching practices that could be enhanced to better prepare graduate
students to act as agents of social change.
As stated in the literature review, while advocacy is valued by the field and taught within
many blended ECE/ECSE programs, they are rarely the topic of an entire course (Chandler et al.,
2012; Cochran et al., 2012; Lifter et al., 2011). Therefore, students in many blended programs do not
27


have the opportunity to learn to implement social change agency or advocacy practices in the same
capacity they may be driven to do if they had the knowledge and skills to do so. The use of
practitioner inquiry action research in this project worked to build students and teachers capabilities
in the learning, teaching, and policy processes. The nature of the relationships constructed within the
action research process may lead to stronger and ongoing relationships between teachers and their
students (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2009). Additionally, the relationships between faculty and students
may encourage sustained professional relationships and collaboration toward advocacy or social
change projects (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2009).
Finally, because it was important to know and understand the participants, a two-phase
approach was selected to understanding the participants. First, the students were studied during the
course activities (discussions, lectures, small and large group work) as well as through their
assignments and advocacy journals. This was primarily done through the LAS and pre and post
competency checklists. Furthermore, eight students who demonstrated a perspective transformation
were interviewed in a follow up. Additionally, I chose to follow one student after the course in her
continued advocacy work. Ultimately, this was done to help me understand how the course directly
addressed the research questions, but also to begin to understand how the course and perspective
transformation of one student manifested beyond the constraints of the course.
Population and Course Description
The targeted population for this study was CU Denver students in the ECE/ECSE graduate
program. The participants in this study were students enrolled in ECED 5091 in the eight week
summer 2015 semester. ECED 5091 was a newly developed course. It was offered in a hybrid format
with three face-to-face Saturday classes (9 a.m-4 p.m.) at Ed University (EdU) associated with CU
Denver School of Education and Human Development, as well as five online structured learning
opportunities via Canvas. Thirteen students enrolled in the course, and 12 students signed consent for
the study. Students received three credits for an elective course in their program of study. All students
in the course were ECE/ECSE graduate students in the ECE program that offers a Masters degree in
28


ECE and licensure in ECSE. Of the 13 students enrolled, 12 of the students were on a graduate track
for the ECSE Specialist licensure. The ECSE Specialist license offered through CU Denver is a state-
approved licensure program from the Colorado Department of Education that allows individuals to
teach young children with disabilities from birth to age 8. The ECSE Specialist license is an initial
license or an endorsement to an existing license. One student was in the Masters only program in
ECE. Students who completed the pre and post competency checklists, the LAS, and the follow-up
interview were all given a $15 gift card to The Market on Larimer Street in Denver.
While the sample size of this population was small at 12 students, the function of qualitative
action research is not to generalize the information learned but rather to elucidate the particular, the
specific information (Creswell, 2013). The typology of sampling for this project is best aligned with
confirming and disconfirming cases as described by Creswell (2013). The purpose of this sampling
was to elaborate on the initial analysis that students in ECED 5091 self-selected because of their
interest in advocacy and social change agency. The results from this sample were used to examine the
expectations that all students are able to achieve a perspective transformation. The study was intended
to find variation among the sample in this hypothesis and suggest which experiences supported
students in achieving a perspective transformation. Table 2.1 below describes the participant
demographics.
Table 2.1
Demographics of Participating Graduate/Licensure Students (n =12)
Characteristic % n
Gender
Male 0 0
Female 100 12
Race
White/Caucasian 99 11
Native American 1 1
Age
22-29 years 36 4
30-39 years 36 4
40-59 years 36 4
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Table 2.1 contd
Characteristic % n
Profession
Lead Teacher 54 6
Teacher Assistant 27 3
Director 9 1
Private Contractor .9 1
Full Time Student 9 1
Marital Status
Single 45 5
Married 45 5
Divorced/Separated 18 2
Program Enrollment
ECE MA+ Licensure 99 11
ECE MA only 1 1
Course Topics and Readings
Required texts for the course included Making a difference: Advocacy competencies for
special education professionals by Fielder and Clark (2009), lam Malala: How one girl stood up for
education and changed the worldby Malala Yousafazi (2014), and Understanding IDEA: What it
means for preschoolers with disabilities and their families by the Division for Early Childhood.
Course topics covered during the on-campus session included (1) the social construction of disability,
(2) the current status of inclusion for young children with special needs, (3) the research behind
inclusion, (4) IDEA and special education law, (5) discourse and communication, (6) legislative
advocacy, (7) building advocacy processes, and (8) working with parents and families in advocacy.
Online sessions focused on content surrounding (1) a personal pedagogy of advocacy for inclusion,
(2) reflection on power and privilege, (3) advocacy and leadership dispositions for educators, (4) the
role of government in education policy, (5) the Social Change Framework, and (6) understanding the
advocacy processes.
Ethical implications of the course were considered from the initial development of the course
through the implementation of the course. Advocacy can often be confused with activism. Based on
the definition of advocacy provided in Chapter 1, the course imparted content to students that
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contributed to advocacy efforts in their classrooms, programs and, organizations. This course did not
encourage activism defined as the vigorous action associated with meeting a political goal, including
demonstrations, protests, sit-ins, etc. Students were informed on the differences between (1) advocacy
and activism, (2) ethical responsibilities within their work setting when working legislatively and,
(3) the ethical role of the educator as an advocate and the environments in which advocacy is
possible, legal, and recommended.
Assigned readings included readings from the required textbooks as well as additional
readings supplied in Canvas in the corresponding module. In the Fielder and Clark (2009) book,
students read chapters 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 12. The students were asked to read the entire Yousafazi
(2014) book in two sections: chapters 1-19 and then chapters 20-39. A compilation of the readings to
support the on-campus topic modules are featured in Table 2.2.
Table 2.2
Required Readings for On-Campus Sessions by Module
On-Campus Learning Module Readings, Videos, and Website Resources
The Social Construction of Disability Wendell, S. The Rejected Body, 1996 (Chapter 3) Ferri, B.A. The Handbook of Social Justice Education: Doing a (dis) Service: Reimagining special education from a disability studies perspective TED Talk: The Opportunity of Adversity http://www.ted.com/talks/aimee_mullins_the_opportunity_of_adversity
Current Status of Inclusion for Young Children with Special Needs and The Research Behind Inclusion Fact Sheet of Research on Preschool Inclusion, Smith and Barton, 2014 Smith, Barton & Rausch. Preschool Inclusion Tool Box, 2015 (Chapter 2) Gupta & Vinh. First Steps to Preschool Inclusion, 2014 (Chapter 7)
IDEA and Special Education Law IDEA Rules and Regulations http://idea.ed.gov/ Fiedler & Clark (Chapter 5) Understanding IDEA (DEC Bookstore)
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Table 2.2 contd
On-Campus Learning Module Readings, Videos, and Website Resources
Discourse/ Communication Read: IAm Malala Chapters 20-35
Nash, Johnson & Murray, 2012 (Chapter 2)
Legislative Advocacy NAEYC Advocacy Resources http://www.naeyc.org/policy/advocacy
CEC/DEC Advocacy Resources http://www.cec.sped.org/Policy-and- Advocacy
Getting Advocacy Going in Systems Fiedler and Clark (Chapter 7 and Chapter 8)
Blank, El. K. (1997). Advocacy leadership. In S. L. Kagan & B. 1. Bowman (Eds.), Leadership in early care and education (pp. 39-47). Washington, DC: NAEYC.
Supporting Parents and Families in Advocacy Fiedler and Clark (Chapter 3)
Readings were also a required component for the online modules. Readings to support the
online topic modules are featured in Table 2.3
Table 2.3
Required Readings for Online Learning by Module
Online Learning Module Readings, Videos, and Website Resources
Personal Pedagogy of Advocacy for Inclusion: Read: I Am Malala Chapters 1-19
Reflection on Power and Privilege Nash, Johnson & Murray. Child and Lamily Advocacy: Bridging the Gaps Between Research, Practice, and Policy, 2012 (Chapter 1)
http://www.ted.com/talks/vema_myers_how_to_overcome_our_biases_ walkboldlytowardthem
Advocacy and Leadership Dispositions for Educators Fiedler & Clark (Chapter 4)
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Table 2.3 contd
Online Learning Module Readings, Videos, and Website Resources
The Role of the Government in Educational Policy Fowler, F.C. Policy Studies for Educational Leaders, 2013 (Chapter 6) Vote Smart.org https://votesmart.org/education/how-a-bill-becomes- law#. VuYEKXOrLak http://www.tolerance.org/activity/activism-and-legislation
Social Change Model Framework Komives, Wagner, et al. Leadership for a Better World: Understanding the Social Change Model of Leadership Development, 2009 (pages 43- 75)
The Advocacy Process Fiedler and Clark (Chapter 12) http: //workshops.3 5 0 .org/toolkit/campaign/ http: //www .mindtools. com/page s/article/newPPM_8 3 .htm
On Campus Course Activities
On-campus lectures occurred in a large group setting with the faculty and the 13 students at
the EdU center in conference rooms A, B, and C. These rooms were equipped with projectors,
screens, audio, an Internet connection, and dry erase walls. Students were required to complete the
assigned readings before the on-campus session. Each of the full-day campus sessions included a
combination of large group presentation, small group exercises, guest speakers, and videos. Specific
large and small group activities for each on-campus module are featured in Table 2.4. Photographs
taken of large and small group activities for the course are featured in Figures 2.1 through 2.8.
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Table 2.4
On-Campus Session Lectures, Discussions, Activities, and Guest Speakers by Module
On-Campus Learning Module Small and Large Group Discussions, Group Activities, and Guest Speakers
The Social Construction of Disability Large group lecture and presentation Video: TED Talk by Amy Mullins
Current Status of Inclusion for Young Children with Special Needs The Research Behind Inclusion Large group lecture and presentation Small group exercise: Barriers, Challenges, and Leverage points to inclusion Individual exercise: Effective components of inclusion worksheet Guest Speaker: Rosemarie Allen (Faculty at Metropolitan State University)Preschool Expulsion: What went wrong and what is the lesson for advocacy
IDEA and Special Education Law Large group lecture and presentation Small group Exercise: IDEA Ten Commandments
Discourse/ Communication Large group lecture and presentation Small group exercise: Role playDaring to Dance with Dialogue Individual exercise: Develop an elevator speech for advocacy
Legislative Advocacy Large group lecture and presentation Guest Speaker: Tonette Salazar (Education Commission of the State (ECS) State Liaison)Identifying legislative advocacy leverage points for individual advocacy start up projects
Getting Advocacy Going in Systems Large group lecture and presentation Large group exercise: Design Thinking to get us started in advocacy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cTlwewfAno Guest Speaker: John Nash (Director of dLab at University of Kentucky)How can Design Thinking get the advocacy process started?
Supporting Parents and Families in Advocacy Large group lecture and presentation Guest Speaker: Talina Jones (Parent, Educator and Advocate) Educators walking alongside parents and families in the advocacy walk
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Figure 2.1. Visual representation of barriers to inclusion, June 13, 2015.
Figure 2.2. Visual representation of breaking down barriers to inclusion, June 13, 2015.
Figure 2.3. Brainstorming barriers and solutions to inclusion, June 13, 2015.
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Figure 2.5. Malala live speaking engagement at Bellco Theatre in Denver, June 27, 2015.
Figure 2.6. Understanding needs Design Thinking group project, July 11, 2015.
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Figure 2.7. Design Thinking large group discussion, July 11, 2015.
Figure 2.8. Brainstorming advocacy solutions using Design Thinking, July 11, 2015.
Online Learning Format
Online sessions were conducted via Canvas. Learning modules were developed to provide
cohesive content throughout the course. Each online learning module was set up with a readings and
lecture content page, as well as a discussion page. On the readings and lecture content page, the
readings, videos, and Web resources were identified. Additionally, important information was also
provided via text or via a posted video of faculty discussing important points. After completing the
readings and lecture notes or video, the participants were asked to participate in an online discussion
group. Participation in the online discussion was focused on particular content areas and questions
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guided by the faculty. Participants were asked to participate in the online discussions with one initial
post that addressed the question directly and referred to resources from the readings. They were also
asked to respond to at least two of their peers initial posts by offering clarifying information, asking
a question that deepens the conversation, or provide an additional resource. Participants were also
asked to answer any questions raised by their peers about their initial posts. The discussion questions
are listed by online module in Table 2.5.
Table 2.5
Online Discussion Prompts by Online Module
Online Learning Module Discussion Prompt
Personal Pedagogy of Advocacy for Inclusion: Reflection on Power and Privilege This week you have had an opportunity to explore three very different resources about how to develop a personal pedagogy for advocacy. Vema Myers encourages you to "walk boldly toward your biases" and bring your biases and discomforts about those who are different than you. She charges us to build new relationships that challenge and grow our humanity. Nash offers a theoretical approach to how to develop a foundation in advocacy. Malala's experience guides you to unequivocally know what you believe to be right and bravely see to find ways to achieve "rightness." Articulate your personal pedagogy for advocacy by considering the following questions: 1. Why are you passionate about advocacy for young children? 2. What experiences have brought you to this work? 3. Which pieces of Nash's theory will help guide your work? 4. How do you anticipate that these pieces will guide your ongoing work?
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Table 2.5 contd
Online Learning Module Discussion Prompt
Advocacy and Leadership Dispositions for Educators The Fielder and Clark chapter highlights the reasons why advocacy is important for early childhood educators. With burnout, attrition, and frustration rampant in the field of education, advocacy becomes an important way in which educators can ensure a healthy professional career in the field of early childhood. 1. Identify your most significant sources of stress in your professional work. 2. Take the Burnout Self-Test at http://www.mindtools.com/stress/BRN/BumoutSellTest.htm (links to an external site) 3. Report your results in a discussion. 4. Describe some possible resilience strategies either from the book or from outside sources that you can employ and/or share with your team that will support resilience and limit attrition and burnout.
The Role of the Government in Educational Policy Your advocacy experience, in one way or another, will be related to other educational actors. These actors may include fundraisers, organizations, policymakers, the media, interest groups, and administrators. It is important to understand the interactions and processes of these actors to engage in a variety of advocacy efforts. After you complete the readings and required searches, complete the following: 1. Write a few sentences explaining your potential advocacy project. This will provide an opportunity for you to articulate your desired project as well as allow your peers to offer some ideas and suggestions. 2. Describe the educational actors that you will be needing to work with on your project. Which ones did you choose? Why did you choose them? 3. Discuss how you might begin to build a relationship with these actors to support your work now or in the future.
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Table 2.5 contd
Online Learning Module Discussion Prompt
Social Change Model Framework During this module, you will begin to grow the nuts and bolts of your advocacy start up project. We will have some experiences with Design Thinking on July 11, but I want you to start thinking about the strategies that might be the most effective. For this module, we will be completing portions of the module provided to you in the reading. Part of deciding a course of action is coming up with your Theory of Change. This is an if/then statement that describes your expected outcomes if you take a particular course of action. Questions to consider when developing your theory of change: What change do we want? Who has the resources to create that change we want? What do they want? What resources do we have that they want or need? Here is an example of a theory of change: If people organize in their communities across the world, then over time we will generate the political will necessary to overpower our opposition, and pass strong international and national climate policies. We run a lot of different projects, but they all lead to the common goal of local and national inclusion policies commensurate with what science and justice demand. Please provide a visual of your theory of change in the discussion post.
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Table 2.5 contd
Online Learning Module Discussion Prompt
The Advocacy Process Please create a goal for your project and post it in the discussion. Please also create a power map. Heres an example of a power map. Step 1: Choose your target. Its best if you choose a person, rather than an institution, as it easier to understand what specifically might influence him or her. Step 2: Map the influences on your target. Now with your team, begin placing people and institutions in your community on the map. Youll see that there are two axes on the map one indicates how influential that person is to your target, and the other shows whether that person is for or against your position (or neutral). Be sure to think really broadly about who is connected to your target think work, political, family, religious, and neighborhood ties. For elected officials, be sure to look at their major donors and key constituencies. Step 3: Take a step back. Discuss with your team what do you notice? Where do you see opportunities to get to your target? Highlight the people or institutions on the map in one color with whom you have good relationships. Highlight in another color the people or institutions who you believe you could influence. Step 4: Make a plan. What opportunities exist to influence your target? Discuss how your strategy could shift to take advantage of those opportunities. Please provide a visual or description of your power map in the discussion.
Course Assignments
In addition to attendance and participation in the on-campus and online sessions, students
were asked to create and submit a variety of assignments that demonstrated their learning and
understanding of the content. Additionally, the assignments allowed the faculty to understand
important points of reflection and continued questions on behalf of the participants. All assignments
had corresponding rubrics for grading and were uploaded to Canvas for submission. Descriptions of
the required assignments for the course are as follows.
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Community Engagement and Reflection
This project served as an opportunity for the participants to engage with a community or local
group of their choice for 10 hours this semester. The power of this assignment lies in experiencing/
joining in community advocacy engagement as a participant, observer, and future leader. The
participant wrote a thorough and complete reflection based on a series of questions provided about
this experience, what it meant to them, what they learned as a participant, and what implications they
found as a future community leader.
Inclusive Practices Leadership Essay
This course required participants to recognize the dispositions of an advocacy leader as well
as reflect on their own beliefs about collaboration with and for others. This essay included a reflection
on both disability and inclusion as well as their reflection on the discourses they use and encourage
with others.
Advocacy Reflection Journal
During the course of this semester, participants kept a journal with at least two entries per
week in which they reflected on their progress as a participant in advocacy, as an observer, and as an
emerging leader. Guiding questions for the advocacy journal entries included: What advocacy
activities are you involved with this week? What are common harriers to advocacy that you come
across? What do you see as opportunities or leverage points to overcome these harriers? Have you
been successful?
Advocacy Start Up Project
This project was the culmination of the participants learning in this course. Participants
created a detailed start up advocacy plan and accompanying documentation for how they will carry
out their project. Steps to this project include: (1) identify the issue or problem, (2) gather information
and data about the issue, (3) create a design thinking plan of action, (4) select a leverage point and
advocacy strategy, (5) determine potential barriers, and (6) evaluate the plan. At three points
throughout the semester, the participants provided updates on the progress of their advocacy start up
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project. For this project, participants were told they could work in groups or individually based on
what they decided to focus on.
Some possible advocacy strategies for this project included the following: testify in a
legislative session, make public comments at a board meeting, write an op-ed for a local paper, write
a policy brief, meet with local officials or legislators, create a blog, lead a parent advocacy group in
your program or district, or start a collective. On the final day of the course, the participants presented
their project to the class.
It is important to reiterate that students were asked to select advocacy projects that were
advocacy-focused rather than activism-based. This required the selection of projects that were in
ethical alignment with their roles as educators in public, private, and community systems.
Additionally, the advocacy projects were approved by the faculty to assure there was not conflict of
interest or ethical breaches between the student and the organization for which they were working.
The Learning Activities Survey and Follow-Up Interview
As discussed, the Learning Activities Survey (LAS) by King was used with students enrolled
in ECED 5091 to inform the redesign of the course and the recommendations to the ECE/ECSE
program and SEHD at large. The LAS includes demographic data and short answers about the student
experience in a course, education program, or institution. The instrument yields two specific results.
First, the instrument demonstrates whether or not the participant experienced perspective
transformation. Second, if the participant had a perspective transformation, the LAS indicates which
course experiences contributed most to the perspective transformation. Follow-up interviews help to
corroborate the results of the initial LAS.
Instrument Development
According to her book, The Handbook of the Evolving Research of Transformative Learning
(2009), King describes the validation process of the LAS through multiple pilot studies, including the
use of interviewing and short-answer questions. These pilot studies utilized repeated sampling,
formative adaptation of the instrument, and successive member-checking across three educational
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institutions. Additionally, a panel of experts was brought in to critique the instrument before a final
piloting session. The findings from this validation process determined broad and consistent
characterizations within the participant responses. Internal validity continued to improve with
structured interviews to compliment the quantitative data. Triangulation, an essential component in
supporting validity (Bogdan & Biklen, 1998; Creswell, 2013; Maxwell, 2013), occurred with a report
of the perspective transformation experienced by both the participant and the researcher.
King used a hermeneutical perspective to determine reliability of the instrument across
different periods of time. In this system, individual question items were evaluated separately and then
were compared to determine the perspective transformation (PT) index. The PT Index, designed to
determine the perspective transformation of the adult learner based on the educational experience,
was constructed through the use of multiple responses that were compared to determine a perspective
transformation.
Data Analysis of the LAS and Follow-Up Interview
The LAS has an itemized data collection protocol designed with the ability to measure
individual items and to provide specific information about the influence of course experiences on the
participants (King, 2009). The LAS and associated follow-up interview asked participants to rate
specific course experiences and activities, including: (1) specific learning module topics, (2) guest
speakers, (3) faculty support and lectures, (4) the advocacy start up project, (5) the inclusive practices
leadership essay, (6) the community engagement and reflection activity, (7) advocacy reflection
journals, (8) readings for the course, (9) small group work, (10) large group work, and
(11) opportunities for deep concentrated thought. In total, the LAS included 23 questions, of which
17 were multiple choice and six were open-ended, short answer.
The PT Index is compiled from one set of data that indicates whether or not students have had
a perspective transformation experience. Students are rated on a score of one to three to determine the
attributions of transformative experience. A PT1 score indicates a student did not have perspective
transformation. A PT2 indicates a perspective transformation occurred outside of the students
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educational experience. A PT3 demonstrates the student experienced perspective transformation as a
result of the educational experience. The LAS manual includes a data collection entry form, and each
response for the LAS has a variable code that corresponds with the entry form. This allows for all the
completed LAS data to be recorded onto one form developed consistently with the LAS. Other data
sets were collected to determine which activities were most beneficial. The data are coded by activity,
and analysis of this coding examines correlations between activities that were determined to be
helpful in the perspective transformation process (King, 2009, p. 37-38).
The initial LAS was proctored on the final day of the courseJuly 18, 2015by the
graduate assistant via paper copies and pencils. The researcher/course faculty was not present for the
proctoring. Upon the researcher/course faculty leaving the building, the graduate assistant passed out
the paper copies and pencils and read the instructions at the top of the LAS verbatim. Upon
participant completion, the graduate student collected the LAS forms and placed them in a locked
cabinet in her home. They were not accessed until August 21, 2015, after the end of the summer
semester and grades for the course had been finalized and submitted.
On August 21, 2015, the graduate assistant deindentified all of the LAS and mailed them via
U.S. Postal Service to Diardra Gascon (EdD Candidate) for translation to an Excel spreadsheet. The
spreadsheet with the deidentified compilation of scores from the LAS was emailed to the researcher
on September 8, 2015. The deindentified LAS were then mailed via U.S. Postal Service to the
researcher and kept in a locked cabinet. The LAS is listed in Appendix C.
On the initial LAS administered on July 18, 2015 (the final day of the course), items 1, 2, 3,
and 5 were used to establish the PT Index and determine a perspective transformation among the
12 students who completed the LAS. Lrequencies for the PT Index were calculated. The data entry
form was used as support for descriptive statistics, including demographic data. Correlations from this
information were determined based on descriptive statistical analysis of the individual items. Short-
answer questions were coded for elaboration by the researcher to examine the effectiveness of the
individual learning activities and ranked for effectiveness and descriptively coded for themes.
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The LAS follow-up interviews were also administered by the graduate assistant. Follow-up
interviews were conducted between Friday, November 6, and Saturday, November 7, 2015, and were
conducted to clarify findings from the LAS. The graduate student for the course emailed the
12 participants and offered a schedule of potential interview times between Thursday evening,
November 5, and Saturday evening, November 7, 2015. Participants responded directly to the
graduate assistant with times that would work for them for the interview. Eight students responded,
and all participated in the interviews during that time span. Four students did not respond to the
graduate assistants email about the interviews. A second and third email was sent by the graduate
assistant requesting the participant indicate a time that would work for them to participate in an
interview. The four students did not respond, and therefore interviews were not completed with them.
All eight of the follow-up interviews were conducted via Zoom (videoconferencing software). The
graduate assistant was provided a Zoom account for this purpose.
The graduate assistant set up and conducted all the interviews. The interviews lasted between
21 and 37 minutes and were recorded via the Zoom software. The graduate assistant followed the
interview protocol exactly and began each interview by reading the instructions verbatim at the top of
the interview form. The graduate assistant then transcribed the interviews directly from the recorded
Zoom session by pausing the recorded interviews and typing the exact language into a Word
document. The recorded interviews were stored on a USB drive in a locked cabinet. The LAS follow-
up interview is presented in Appendix D. Protocol for confidentiality is listed in Appendix E.
The follow-up interviews were used to formulate conclusions about perspective
transformative experiences and gain deeper insights into the course experiences that were most
impactful in perspective transformation. The responses to the follow-up interviews were coded for
elaboration of the questions on the LAS and integrated into the findings of the initial LAS. For the
purposes of this study, simple modifications were made to the original LAS by King (2009) but were
made using the adaptation information from King (2009) in order to maintain the integrity of the
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instrument. Modifications to the original LAS were limited to changes to the faculty name and
changes to assignments and course activities specific to ECED 5091.
Pre and Post Competency Checklists
The pre and post competency tests were designed to examine how the coursework associated
with ECED 5091 offered participants the basic skills and understandings about quality inclusion for
young children with special needs, legislation and judicial cases that have supported young children
with special rights, as well as the necessary skills associated with the design, implementation, and
evaluation of advocacy processes. The pre and post competency lists were created based on the
knowledge and subsequent change agent behaviors associated with students who act as agents of
social change, as well as the literature base. Table 2.6 features these connections.
Table 2.6
Depiction of the Rationale for the Development of the Pre and Post Competency
Knowledge Change Agent Behavior Literature Base
Understand a high-quality inclusive setting for young children birth to age eight. Explain the characteristics of high- quality inclusive settings, including (1) access, (2) participation, and (3) supports for young children birth to age eight to someone who is not part of the early childhood education community. Buysse, 2011; Cross et al., 2004; CONNECT Modules, 2005; DEC/NAEYC, 2009; Odom & Bailey, 2001; Odom et al., 2004; Smith & Barton, 2015
Understand the evidence base behind positive outcomes quality inclusive practices for young children. Explain the research/evidence base behind positive outcomes of quality inclusive practices for (1) young children with special needs birth to age eight, (2) typically developing children, and (3) the community to someone who is not part of the early childhood education community. Buysse & Hollingsworth, 2009; Daugherty et al., 2001; Holahan & Costenbader, 2000; Odom, 2000; Odom et al., 2011; Odom etal., 1984; Odom et al., 2001; Smith & Barton, 2015; Strain & Bovey, 2011
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Table 2.6 contd
Knowledge Change Agent Behavior Literature Base
Understand IDEA as it relates to inclusion for young children with special needs. Describe how the following IDEA regulations support the overall inclusion of young children with special needs, including (1) least restrictive environment (§300.114), (2) supplementary aids and services (§300.42), (3) placements (§300.116) and the continuum of alternative placements (§300.115), (4) technical assistance and training activities (§300.119), and (5) permissive use of funds (§300.206). Brown, 2003; Hebbeler, Smith, & Black, 1991; IDEA, 2004; Silverstein, 1988
Understand the historical role of government in educational policy and the associated leverage points that an educator may use to influence policy. Use knowledge of the seminal historical cases surrounding rights for individuals with disabilities to advocate for quality inclusion. Blase, 2009; Fowler, 2013; Hebbeler et al., 1991; Silverstein, 1998; Smith, 2000; Smith & McKenna, 1994; Smith & Rous, 2011; Whitby & Wienke, 2012
Understand the law and policy process at the local, state, and federal level. Describe the role of an educator as an advocate in the law and policy process at the local, state, and federal level. Abeson & Ballard, 1976; Bishop-Josef & Dodgen, 2013; CEC Grassroots Advocacy Toolkit, 1999; Forgione, 1980; Fowler, 2013; Kilmer, 1983; Smith, 2000
Understand the role of the educator as a leader. Describe the action of a teacher who exhibits leadership in social change agency for inclusion. Davey, 2000; DEC Code of Ethics, 2009; Delpit, 2003; Fisher, 2007; Gallagher et al., 1994; Kagan & Bowman, 1997; LaRocco & Bruns, 2013; LaRocco et al., 2014; Smith, 2000; Soodak et al., 2002; Taba et al., 1999
Understand advocacy processes including persuasion, legislative advocacy, and systems advocacy. Engage in local advocacy efforts that include (1) legislative advocacy and (2) systems advocacy. Bishop-Josef & Dodgen, 2013; Castle & Ethridge, 2009; Council for Exceptional Children, 2014; Fiedler & Clark, 2013; Rapaport et al., 2006; Sarmiento Mellinger, 2013
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Table 2.6 contd
Knowledge___________________ Change Agent Behavior______________ Literature Base
Understand the critical steps in a social change plan. Design an effective social change plan consisting of critical steps, including (1) problem definition, (2) information gathering/ literature review, (3) action planning (design thinking or power mapping), (4) identify leverage point and advocacy strategy (5) create a potential evaluation plan, and (6) present the plan to a group of educators, administrators, and families. 350.org Workshops, 2014; Council for Exceptional Children, 2014; Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund, Inc., 2014; Fiedler & Clark, 2014; Fowler, 2013; Mind Tools, 2014; NAEYC, 2014; The Ounce, 2014
Understand the role of educator as advocate alongside families. Engage in advocacy efforts alongside families to increase inclusion for children with special needs in high- quality early childhood settings. Byington & Whitby, 2011; LaRocco & Bruns, 2005; Parent Advocacy Coalition for Educational Rights (PACER), 2014; Trainor, 2010; Turnbull & Turnbull, 2015; Wright & Taylor, 2014
Checklists
The pre and post competency tests for the course were administered by the graduate assistant
using paper and pen on the first day of the course (June 13, 2015) and on the last day of the course
(July 18, 2015). The checklists contained 19 items on a 5-point Likert scale, organized from strongly
disagree, disagree, undecided, agree, and strongly agree. In addition to the Likert scale, students were
asked to provide short-answer examples clarifying their knowledge about the item. For example, if
the students were asked to rate how comfortable they were explaining what supports for high quality
look like, they were also asked to give an examples of characteristics of a support for high quality
inclusion. The checklists are in Appendix E of this document. Statistical data compilation, including
paired sample /-tests and effect sizes (cf). were used to evaluate the pre and post competency checklist
by item.
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Advocacy Journals
The methodological choice to use qualitative analysis was made to help unpack the complex
learning, knowing, understanding, and acting that is an integral piece of successful personnel
preparation and educators acting as agents of social change. During the eight-week course,
participants were asked to keep advocacy journals with at least two entries per week. Within those
entries, they were asked to reflect on their progress as a participant in advocacy, as an observer, and
as an emerging leader. Prompted questions included, but were not limited to: What advocacy
activities are you involved in this week? What are common barriers to advocacy that you come
across? What do you see as opportunities or leverage points to overcome these barriers? Have
you been successful?
At the end of the semester, after grades were submitted, the graduate assistant for the course
retrieved the advocacy reflection journals from Canvas, the online course shell. They were printed,
de-identified, and labeled with the unique identifiers. Journals were then copied and given to three
coders. All three coders were EdD candidates or had completed EdD coursework in action research.
Coding processes were developed in collaboration with Dr. Alyssa Dunn, who guided the coders
through the first iteration of the coding process in order to develop a consistent process for future
iterations. This collaboration occurred via Zoom one time for two hours. Open coding techniques
were used to code and analyze the advocacy reflection journal for trends and patterns among the data
collected (Bogdan & Biklen, 1998; Creswell, 2013; Saldana, 2013). The open-coding process
facilitated by Dr. Dunn and supported by Creswell (2013) and Saldana (2013) is featured in
Figure 2.9.
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Phase 1 Each coder independently codes three transcripts.
Phase 2 Coders meet to examine coded texts and identify major codes. Major codes are defined and identified with example text segments.
Phase 3 Given these major codes, each coder then independently codes three additional transcripts.
Phase 4 These codes are compared to the determine agreement assigned to a passage in the text. This does not mean all coded passages were identical, as this is difficult to achieve. But the important piece is the coded passages were consistent with the major codes.
Phase 5 When coding is complete, the percentage of agreement is calculated on the passages coded. Eighty percent agreement on coding is the goal for this phase.
Phase 6 Once the codes are established, the same process occurs with themes.
Figure 2.9. Coding process for advocacy reflection journals.
Identification of Codes
In phase 1 of coding, the researcher provided the open coding methods to be used in the first
iteration of coding to three coders. The selected coding methods included descriptive and values
coding. Specific instructions from Saldana (2013) concerning the coding methods were provided to
the coders, including descriptions of the method, applications of the method, examples, and analysis
of the coding method. Then, each coder independently coded four transcripts with the coding
methods. During this phase, individual coders looked for preliminary codes that emerged from the
writings and provided examples throughout the journal texts and writing in the margins. Coders then
met with the researcher in person to examine coded texts and identify major codes. At this point,
significant discrepancy occurred between the coders and the examples that were identified for each
code. Less than 40% agreement on the coding was found at this point. Coding of this nature could not
continue based on this result.
Phase 2 began with a meeting in which all four journals were examined by the three coders
and the researcher with collaboration from Dr. Dunn via phone. At this point, it was established that a
sentence would be established as the unit of measure for the coders in order to support inter-rater
reliability. Together, inter-rater reliability was built around the codes and consensus was reached
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about how the codes were portrayed within the journals. Inter-rater reliability was used in the open
coding for the advocacy reflection journals. Inter-rater reliability between the coders increased the
accuracy and quality of results (Creswell, 2013; Saldana, 2013). In qualitative research, reliability
refers to the stability of responses to multiple coders of data sets (Creswell, 2013, p. 253). The use of
intercoder agreements, facilitated by Dr. Alyssa Dunn, determined what exactly the coders are
agreeing on, whether they seek agreement on code names, the coded passages, or the same passages
coded in the same way (Creswell, 2013, p.253). Also considered was Creswells (2013) suggestion
that coders need to seek agreement based on codes, themes, or both codes and themes (p. 254).
Table 2.7 shows an example of this process for the codes.
Table 2.7
Examples of Coding Process for Development of Final Codes
Raw Data Preliminary Codes Final Code
The book I Am Malala is really starting to inspire me, especially in terms of my last post ... the Reading and classes are inspiring and Im so thankful I took this course. I feel inspired, motivated, encouraged, empowered, and more competent than ever. Inspiration Enjoyment Commitment Involvement Passion
The activity of taking the burnout and stress test was interesting. But in reality, I know I am stressed and getting burnt out. But the chapter in the Fielder & Clark book was helpful to identify things that stress us out. I like that it ended with teaching us about resilience and ways to break through some of the burnout. Finding Purpose Burnout Stress Unsettled Overwhelmed Frustrated Daunting Not Effective Lack of Knowledge
. Made me look inside myself and understand more not only about myself, but all of the world and state of education in general. The readings and classes ... it taught us more than just laws and education and how to teach in classroom. It taught us about ourselves and who we are both as leaders and educators and where we stand on many different issues of injustice. Malala Guest Speakers In Class Time Relationships Lectures Course Experiences
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Table 2.7 contd
Raw Data Preliminary Codes Final Code
I can think of a situation with a coworker where things were being said about him in the staff lounge. Out of Class Job Professional Experiences (Job-related)
... to constantly correct him on person-first language. Ive done it before with friends, but never with strangers. Family Home Children Neighborhood Personal Experience (Outside the course)
I worry about the campaign because we have not heard from anyone in regards to setting up some sort of campaign of the importance of inclusion. I have a parent who works at the Denver Zoo and we wanted to use this connection to set up a booth to inform parents of their voice in choosing what is best for their childs educational experience. Advocacy Project Advocacy Project
Looking back through my journal, I see a common theme. It is education. So thats what I want to do. I want to educate people. I want people to not be afraid of people with special rights. I want people especially those I know to have an understanding of people with special rights. Reflective Self-Awareness Reflection
Inclusion in schools is just one small part of the biggest picture of how societal norms are set up. Its actually really upsetting to me how much needs to be done to support students with disabilities. Diversity Acceptance Inclusion Inclusivity Race Bias Guilt Inclusion
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Table 2.7 contd
Raw Data Preliminary Codes Final Code
I can still be a leader and activist without having to be a force. Maybe, I can get there one day when Ive gained the courage and momentum to propel me forward in something. I dont have to start out initially as the powerful leader, but can work myself up to it. However, until something happens, I think I can really see myself taking on small tasks for the greater good. I really think that thats a good start for me as it is something I feel like I can accomplish, and something that can really make a difference. The small tasks just might give me enough feeling of power and gratification that I will feel more courageous and confident to voice more of my opinion. Im starting to realize that with me, it all about stepping stone to get me to where I eventually would like to be. Leader Activist Social Change Model Barriers Challenges Confidence Leadership Capacity
Advocacy is not an individual endeavor; it is the collaboration and work of a group. Advocacy efforts are most effective and impactful when they involve data combined with powerful stories to make the issues more understandable to a larger audience. Advocacy Collaboration Advocacy
Listening to families and asking questions to get to the heart of what their concerns are would help me, as the teacher know what the needs are for their child. Understanding their emotional struggles and needs will help me to be a more effective teacher. Knowing the problem is the first step for advocating for them and their child. I think this an invaluable skill to foster. Lamilies Family Involvement
Once the final codes were established, two of the three coders recoded all 12 of the journals
with the final codes using full sentences as the unit of analysis. One coder could not complete the
final coding due to a personal conflict. The final codes for all 12 journals, from two coders, were
submitted to the researcher for final interpretation and discussion. The percentage of agreement was
calculated on the passages coded. Eighty-five percent agreement on coding was reached for this
phase.
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Identification of Themes
Themes from the advocacy journals were generated using an inductive approach involving
open coding, creating categories, data coding, and revising categories. Themes developed for the
qualitative analysis done on the advocacy journals attempted to address the research questions from a
slightly different lens than the LAS or pre and post competency checklists. Additionally, the themes
were developed to answer the research questions in this project based on the patterns that emerged
from qualitative analysis consistent with qualitative methodology with the intention to retell the
stories of the participants in the course and offer recommendations from these stories moving
forward.
In the first research question, the researcher sought to understand the nature of the perspective
transformation, specifically, how the perspective transformation manifested in individual students and
what connections the perspective transformation allowed them to make within their knowledge and
daily experiences. The focus of the second research question in qualitative analysis was in which
experiences supported the perspective transformation of the participants. It was hypothesized that the
course activities most impactful for students would be those experiences that: extended their
knowledge, applied to professional and personal experiences, excited a passion, empowered their
abilities, propelled self-examination, self-reflection, and personal change, and offered ongoing
resources. Coding processes and theme development helped to confirm or disconfirm this hypothesis.
The third research question was addressed in qualitative analysis because the researcher wanted to
understand how the perceived self-competencies of students were affected by the course.
Furthermore, the researcher hoped to gain an understanding of how the course activities supported
empowerment, confidence, knowledge, and skill for the participants.
The coded texts were read and reviewed on three separate occasions using the techniques
from Ryan & Bernard (2000) to braid the codes of passion, lack of knowledge, course experiences,
professional experiences, personal experiences, advocacy project, reflection, inclusion, leadership
capacity, advocacy, and family involvement into broader themes that expressed the stories of the
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participants in the study. Frequency counts of specific words within the coded texts were used to
identify word repetition throughout the coded excerpts of the advocacy journals. According to Ryan
and Bernard (2000), word frequencies are a strong sign of saliency in the participants minds. In this
study, the words advocacy, inclusion, special rights, and social justice appeared frequently in the
coded sentences. Examination of those individual words in context of the advocacy quotes supported
theme generation. Connectors were also identified to the relationship between ideas presented
throughout the journals. For example, in journaling about advocacy, students identified connections to
marginalized populations outside of young children with special rights and their families by
identifying the need for advocacy in current events such as the Charleston shootings. Connectors were
used to define possible temporal relationships and contingencies. In this case, topics within students
entries were matched with the course content on the syllabus. For example, after having completed
the readings on advocacy with families, students described their experiences with families that had
led to their interest in working with families in advocacy processes. Finally, queries were used to
detect possible connections to broader social and cultural issues. The query intended to examine
whether ECED 5091 initiated participant consideration of broader questions of social justice, equity,
and privilege in addition to their recognition of the challenges of young children with special rights
and the barriers to quality inclusion.
Once initial categories were developed with these techniques and revised over the three
readings, sorting and categorizing of coded text was used to bring the initial categories into themes.
The sentences that were identified by both coders with the same final codes were transcribed on paper
and then cut out individually. The individual sentences were then grouped by word frequencies,
connections, temporal relationships, and queries. In the following weeks, this categorization process
was repeated twice more to generate the final themes. The final themes developed from the inter-rater
reliable coded sentences. As each theme was developed after each iteration of the categorization
process, the researcher looked for evidence from within the journals to disconfirm the possible
themes. Any time a theme was disconfirmed by other sentences from the journals, the sentences/data
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points from that theme were eliminated or re-organized. After the three iterations of the categorization
processes, the sentences and themes were found to be redundant. This assumes saturation of the
sentences/data points into the identified themes (Ryan & Bernard, 2000).
The use of the three aforementioned techniques uncovered the following themes from the
coded texts: (1) extension of social/cultural themes, (2) qualities of leaders, (3) building confidence
and empowerment, (4) collaboration, and (5) exposure to resources, materials, and experiences that
promote knowledge and understanding. This process is illustrated in the following Figure 2.10.
Figure 2.10. Depiction of process from raw data to final codes and final themes.
Ethical Considerations
As noted previously, I have described my positionality in this research as a teacher and
inquirer who is committed to inclusion and social change agency in educators, and who is deeply
situated in the literature and existing data about these topics (Bogdan & Biklen, 1998; Cochran-Smith
& Lytle, 2009). Insider positionality is sometimes questioned for reducing rigor and the ability to
develop results that are not biased. One strategy useful in mitigating bias in the instances of insider
positionality is the use of multiple methods to analyze and explain the results (Creswell, 2013; King,
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2009). This was addressed with the triangulation of three measures as well as the use of outside data
collectors, data compilers, and coders.
To mitigate additional threats to the validity of this project, a full picture of the participants
and the contexts in which they operated was developed in order to complete this research (Bogdan &
Biklen, 1998), and all possible attempts were made to gain a solid understanding of the knowledge,
interests, and contexts with which participants entered the course (Creswell, 2013; Saldana, 2013).
For example, given the insider nature of this research, individual relationships were constructed with
the students enrolled in the course to support advocacy or social change projects that might best fit the
context of their work and that were consistent with their leadership style and personal and
professional interests. This strategy supports valid results by the complete immersion of the
researcher into the research itself (Creswell, 2013).
It is also important to note the LAS does not have any specific psychometrics around
reliability and validity in terms of correlation coefficients. But, rather, reliability, as discussed earlier,
was based upon a consensus process described by King (2009).
Management Plan
The timeline and budget for the project were as follows in Figure 2.11 and Figure 2.12.
Timeline
May 11,2015 Meet with IRB coordinator
May 14, 2015 IRB submission
May 20, 2015 Proposal defense
May 21-June 13,2015 Continued preparation for ECED 5091
June 13-July 26, 2015 ECED 5091 course
June 13, 2015 Participant consent signed
July 26, 2015 LAS distributed and collected by graduate assistant
August 6, 2015 Grades for ECED 5091 submitted
August 10, 2015 LAS and archived documentation gathered from Canvas available to researcher
September- November, 2015 Data analysis
November 2015 Follow-up interviews completed by graduate assistant
October 2015- January 2016 Data analysis
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January-March 2016 Manuscript preparation
April 1,2016 Manuscript submission to committee
April 11,2016 Dissertation defense
Figure 2.11. Timeline for the project.
Budget
June 2015- December 2015 Graduate assistantship80 hours at $15 per hour $1,200
June 2015 I Am Malala tickets $375
July 2015 DEC Inclusion Summit Sponsorship $500
July 2015 Copies of materials, including surveys, class materials $200
July 2015 $15 gift cards to the Market on Larimer Street for 8 participants $120
August 2015 Doctoral student/Doctoral candidate coders x2 30 hours at $40 per hour $2,400
August 2015 Statistician for PT Index, demographics, frequencies, descriptive statistics 6 hours at $40 per hour $200
Total: $4,995
Figure 2.12. Budget for the project.
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CHAPTER III
RESULTS, DISCUSSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter of the dissertation presents the key finding of the study based on the data
collected and analyzed. Included here are results from the measures (LAS and follow-up interviews,
pre and post competency checklists, and qualitative analysis of the advocacy journals), as well as
discussion of the results for each measure and recommendations for future personnel preparation
work.
Results
Learning Activities Survey (LAS) and Follow-Up Interview
In addition to 12 students who completed the LAS on the first day of class, 12 students
completed the LAS on the last day of the course. Eight of the 12 students completed the follow-up
interviews. From the information gathered from the LAS and the follow-up interviews, the following
results answered the first two research questions in this study:
(1) In regard to the ability to act as agents of social change, based on the results of the
LAS and follow-up interviews, did students in ECED 5091 demonstrate perspective
transformation, and if so, what type?
(2) What learning experiences in ECED 5091, if any, contributed to student perspective
transformation ?
The answers from questions 1, 2, 3, and 5 of the LAS were calculated to reveal which
students experienced a PT3 a perspective transformation as a result of the educational
experience in ECED 5091. These results were confirmed in the follow-up interviews. The results
presented below describe the data gathered from the LAS and the follow-up interviews. This
description includes the overall perspective transformation associated with the course as well as the
specific activities and assignments, engagement with others, and deep reflection and thought the LAS
and follow-up interviews found to be influential in the perspective transformation of students.
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Perspective Transformation
The 12 LAS collected on the last day of the course demonstrated that 83% of the students in
the study developed a perspective transformation or shift in thinking toward social change agency. In
the short answer reflections and the interviews, students indicated a self-reported change in
knowledge, dispositions, and skills that caused them to rethink their actions and experiences, try new
roles, adapt their role, and gather new information. Examples of perspective transformation provided
by the students in the short answer section of the LAS included, for example, I can promote change
at various levels of the system, My role as an educator is also a role as an advocate, and This
ended up influencing my thoughts in all aspects of my life.
The follow-up interview was conducted with eight of the 10 students who demonstrated a
perspective transformation. Two students who demonstrated a perspective transformation declined the
follow-up interviews. From the follow-up interviews conducted, student statements corroborated the
findings on the LAS. One student commented:
I think it was in thinking of myself as an advocate when I went to the transformation. I did
kind of step out of my comfort zone. I talked to more people. I reached out to more people. I
stayed there twice as long as I thought I would. And then I made a lasting connection that I
followed up with. In the past, I wouldnt have probably done that part.
Another student commented:
I guess the biggest way my attitudes have changed as a result of the class would be, kind of
the way I approach problem-solving around these issues. So, working together and having
conversations around these issues versus kind of my way or the highway sort of approach.
Plus, I am just better educated on the issues at hand and can have those conversations more
productively.
The results of the LAS also indicated that all of students who experienced a perspective
transformation attributed this to the course. This was the same 83% that indicated the perspective
transformation toward advocacy or social change agency. In the short answer responses on the LAS,
when asked to provide examples of how the activities or experiences in this course influenced
perspective transformation, students noted, Broadened my thinking, Seeing simple changes that
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can be made, The course itself was inspirational and challenged you to deconstruct social norms,
and Knowledge and empowerment.
Broadly, within the scope of the Masters and licensure program, students identified this
course as more impactful than other courses in the program. Ninety-two percent of students suggested
this course made a greater impact on their transformation into social change agents. Students
statements about the course included, This is the first class that has had new ideas and led me to
think of new ideas and plans, Every student in the program should be required to take this course,
and This was a good complement to the whole program, as it has helped me to think about my
values, beliefs, etc. how education and the world is changing and I need to change too to become
an effective teacher.
Within the structure of the LAS, students elaborated on experiences in the course that
promoted their perspective transformation. The following section of this chapter discusses the
assignments and course activities, engagement with others, and deep reflection and thought that may
have contributed to the perspective transformation. See Figure 3.1 below.
Figure 3.1. Percentage of students impacted by various course assignments and activities.
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All (100%) of the students in the course valued the experiences and activities around the
work of Malala Yousafzai, including reading the book, attending her lecture, and participating in
group discussions around her model of advocacy. In the follow-up interview, 92% of the students
supported this finding. One student stated, . very, very impactful. That book was amazing and
inspiring, and it fit beautifully into the class. Two students indicated the I Am Malala readings,
activities, and experiences were the trigger for the perspective transformation. Two students stated
that, while the Malala readings and activities were meaningful as part of the course, the Malala
experiences were not as directly tied to the perspective transformation. One student noted about I Am
Malala, \ think it was definitely inspiring. I dont know that it directly affects what I was doing but I
think indirectly it resonated with me to do more.
Students in the course also indicated a strong response to the lectures and activities on the
social construction of disability. Faculty lectures, videos, and readings, including The Social
Construction of Disability by Susan Wendell from The Rejected Body and Beth Ferris work in The
Handbook of Social Justice Education titled Doing a (dis) Service: Reimagining special education
from a disability studies perspective, were noted by six students in the follow-up interviews as
influential assignments, and one student mentioned these readings predominantly influenced her
perspective transformation.
The advocacy start up project. The intent and requirements of the advocacy start up project
is featured in Figure 3.2.
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Advocacy Start Up Project: This project is the culmination of your learning in this course. You will
create a detailed start up advocacy plan and accompanying documentation for how you will carry
out this project. Steps to this project include: (1) identifying the issue or problem, (2) gather
information and data about the issue, (3) create a design thinking plan of action, (4) select a leverage
point and advocacy strategy, (5) determine potential barriers, and (6) evaluate the plan. At three
points throughout the semester, you will provide updates on the progress of your advocacy start up
project. For this project, you can work in groups or individually based on what you decide to focus
on.
Some advocacy strategies for this project include the following: testify in a legislative session, make
public comments at a board meeting, write an op-ed for a local paper, write policy brief, meet with
local officials or legislators, create a blog, lead a parent advocacy group in your program or district,
or start a collective.
On our final day together, you/your group will present your project to the class.
The advocacy start up project will be completed by teams of 2-3 students. Team members will be
self-selected based on areas of interest.
Use the Collaborations feature on Canvas to work collaboratively on shared documents with
your team members or you can use Google Docs. (This is a suggestion, not requiredyour
choice as a team.)
Written work is due July 25 (posted to Canvas shell). Ten points will be deducted from your
project point total for late projects.
Teams must submit project ideas to the instructor.
Combine all parts of project into one Microsoft Word file. Please compress all photographs and
graphics to reduce file size.
Figure 3.2. Syllabus explanation of the advocacy startup project.
The advocacy start up project was rated by 67% of the students as impactful on their
perspective transformation. While this was a small majority of the sample size, compared to the other
graded assignments in the course, this project rated relatively high, as none of the graded assignments
for the course were rated as impactful by more than 75% of the participants. All eight of the
participants who participated in the follow-up interviews indicated the advocacy start up activity was
influential toward their perspective transformation. Comments about the advocacy start up project
recorded from the follow-up interviews included:
[Hjaving the assignment made me aware because I had to look at what system I was going to
attempt to impact, how that system worked. I had to leam about that. I didnt realize how
important it was until I visited with Tonette about it. She was like, This is why this is so
important. I thought, Oh, I am not just taking the easy way out. This is something that is
relevant.
Other students said, That was interesting and Being assigned the project made me aware,
more aware of what things are actually like in my area of the work that I can actually influence, I can
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actually change. In the follow-up interviews, four of the eight students reported they wished they had
had more time to work on the project and implement it. One of the eight students reported she had
implemented her start up project. Two of the eight students indicated, doing the presentation wasnt
just another presentation and it was great to hear what other people were doing.
Inclusive practices leadership essay. The inclusive practices leadership essay is presented in
Figure 3.3.
Inclusive Practices Leadership Essay: This course requires that you recognize the dispositions of an
advocacy leader as well as reflect on your own beliefs about collaboration with and for others. This
essay will include a reflection on both disability and inclusion, as well as your reflection on the
discourses you use and encourage with others.
Figure 3.3. Syllabus explanation of the inclusive practices leadership essay.
Similar to the advocacy start up project, on the LAS, 67% of the students rated the inclusive
practices essay as influential on their perspective transformation. However, this was not confirmed in
the follow-up interviews. Four of the eight students indicated this activity was beneficial with
comments such as one students, Yeah, I liked that essay. That was probably the best assignment I
did. That was really cool because I asked some people to talk about my leadership. Three students
stated they did not remember the assignment at the point of the follow-up interview. One student
indicated the essay was not helpful in their perspective transformation.
The community engagement and reflection activity. The community engagement activity
and reflection paper assignment is described in Figure 3.4 below.
Community Engagement and Reflection: This project serves as an opportunity for you to engage
with a community or local group of your choice for 10 hours this semester. The power of this
assignment lies in experiencing/joining in community advocacy engagement as a participant, observer,
and future leader. You will write a thorough and complete reflection based on a series of questions
provided about this experience, what it meant to you, what you learned as a participant, and what
implications you found as a future community leader.
Figure 3.4. Syllabus explanation of the community engagement and reflection activity.
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This assignment was noted as a positive experience by 67% of the students on the LAS. All
eight of the students interviewed in the follow-up interview indicated it was valuable in their
perspective transformation toward advocacy. One student indicated:
This opportunity to volunteer in the community was really, really valuable for me. The gal
that I worked with, I was working in Englewood. They have a free program for kids under 18.
The woman who was kind of the instigator of the program in Englewood, had started a food
bank in the community. I really felt like I learned a lot from her. She just had this idea of
providing food supplies for the community, making sure that everybody is getting fed. Here
again, it was just one person and she has taken this on. It was growing ... It was a great thing
to be involved with that and just to see how one person with the time and heart to do it just
stepped forward and was doing it.
Other students described the experience as interesting, amazing how well-meaning people can be
together in one place and still not get anything accomplished, and being a part of the community
getting out there and doing it not just talking about it. One student reported valuing the
experience but felt rushed in trying to get it accomplished in the time frame.
The advocacy reflection journal. Another required assignment for the ECED 5091 course is
described in Figure 3.5 below.
Advocacy Reflection Journal: During the course of this semester, you will keep a journal with at least
two entries per week in which you will reflect your progress as a participant in advocacy, as an
observer, and as an emerging leader. Questions include: What advocacy activities are you involved in
this week? What are common barriers to advocacy that you come across? What do you see as
opportunities or leverage points to overcome these barriers? Have you been successful?
Figure 3.5. Syllabus explanation of the advocacy journal activity.
From the LAS, 75% of the students expressed the positive influence of the advocacy
reflection journals. In the follow-up interviews, seven of the eight students interviewed expressed the
value of the advocacy journal in terms of the reflection and mindfulness associated with the biweekly
journal entries. One student stated:
I think it helped solidify the experience. You have all these ideas and stuff. We go to Malala
and hear her speak, and then there are all these thoughts. So to put it down on paper, I think
that helps solidify it.
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Another student reflected:
It was useful to kind of have that open-ended space for reflection about the things we were
learning and talking about. It wasnt necessarily, Write about your thoughts about this
reading, which would have felt forced to me, but it was open ended enough to let me take all
the pieces and put them together. Whether it was conversations with friends or something I
heard on the radio or whatever, it was nice to have a space for making those connections,
which I thought was really useful.
In contrast, in the follow-up interview, one student commented, It was fine. I dont think that really
impacted me either way, but I didnt mind doing it.
Engagement with others. Given all of the opportunities, experiences, topics, and guest
speakers, 83% of students indicated that an interaction with a person most influenced their
perspective transformation. Specifically acknowledged were faculty lectures that included group work
and videos, guest speakers, and collaborative learning. Opportunities to connect with various guest
lecturers over specific topics of interest or their advocacy start up project were noted by 83% of the
students. Tonette Salazaar (Director at The Education Commission of the States) was noted
specifically by two students in the LAS short answer and in six out of the eight follow-up interviews.
Bethy Leonardi (Advocate and Director of A Queer Endeavor, CU Boulder) was mentioned by three
of the eight students in the follow-up interviews. John Nash (University of Kentucky d- Lab (Design
Thinking Lab)) and Rosemarie Allen (Faculty and Researcher at Metropolitan State University
Colorado) were mentioned by two students in the follow-up interview as influential in their
perspective transformation.
Faculty support in the form of lectures and after-class discussions that offered challenges,
ideas, and information was noted by 83% of students as influential in their perspective transformation
on the LAS. These results were also consistent with the 58% of students responding positively to the
questions on the LAS about the effectiveness of the whole group instruction on their perspective
transformation. In the follow-up interviews, one student commented:
Any time I left class I just felt inspired and empowered to go out and do something. She (the
faculty) has a way of talking, just in general, but especially when it comes to advocacy and
inclusion, something she is really passionate about. She brings that into her lectures and into
you.
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Another student stated, She also supported me in helping me to see the amount of knowledge I
actually have and building me up in my capacity to be an advocate in that way. Another student
indicated:
Who she (the faculty) got to speak to us, the material, every book she had us read was
phenomenal. That textbook should be required for every group. It was incredible. Every
article, every discussion was so poignant and so purposefully done. That challenged
everything in terms of how I view things. That is the tangible thing that I for sure saw
happening.
Fifty percent of the students reported that small group work was supportive of their personal
transformation. In the interviews, six of the eight students suggested the small group work was
beneficial. Statements included:
I remember doing a debate. We put two teams against each other. I am not much of a talker in
class, but it was so very interesting. Any time that we could get into small groups and talk, it
was powerful.
And: We talked about so many things students of diverse backgrounds, students with special
rights, and looking to see exactly how that plays out through other peoples experience was very eye
opening to me. Another student commented about small group work, I think it is easy, and I am
guilty of it, to kind of get into the side banter.
Deep reflection and thought. From the FAS, 67% students linked the power of deep
reflection and thought to perspective transformation. As described on the FAS, deep reflection and
thought was not a structured activity. Rather, it refers to the intrinsic work of the individual student as
prompted by course experiences and activities. This was corroborated in the follow-up interview by
all eight of the interviewees. When asked about whether deep, concentrated thought contributed to the
students transformation, one student responded:
I thought about stuff deeper than I thought I would, if that makes sense. I thought, Oh, yeah,
sure, Ill get to read about IDEA and that will be really boring. But then, not only did I get
the reading, but I spoke to some families that we have as clients about it and it was very, very
impactful. It was giving me a lot to think about when they were telling me their stories and
the things that they had gone through, IEPS, different peoples perspectives and opinions.
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Another student indicated:
I think that was part of what made it enjoyable was that you really could get out of it what
you wanted. That made it so different from other classes we have taken. It was refreshing,
and yet you still had personal growth out of it, which you dont always have.
Additionally, three of the eight students interviewed elaborated on how the advocacy journal
catalyzed deep, concentrated thought. Statements included, Yes, that (deep concentrated thought)
definitely occurred during journaling for sure, and Yes, that (deep concentrated thought) was
useful. That kind of goes back to the journaling activity. Just kind of having that deep concentrated
thought about the issues at hand made a pretty big impact.
Summary
Overall, the results from the LAS and follow-up interviews indicated the course resulted in
perspective transformation for a majority of the students, especially as compared to other courses in
the program. Assignments and course activities were found to be supportive overall of the perspective
transformation. However, individual students varied in which elements of the class influenced their
transformation. Similarly, engagement with others in the course, including faculty, guest speakers,
and small and large group work, were determined to be influential by numerous students. Finally, the
deep reflection and thought from the students produced a powerful effect on several individual
students overall perspective transformation.
Pre and Post Competency Checklists
The pre and post competency checklists were used to answer research question 3: To what
extent, if any, are the perceived self-competencies of students in ECED 5091 affected by participation
in the course? Descriptive statistical analyses were completed in the form of paired sample /-test and
effect size (d) on each of the individual 19 test items to evaluate the null hypothesis the pre scores
were equal the post scores without the intervention of the course. All 12 students completed both the
pre and post competency checklists to yield the following results.
A paired samples /-test was computed to investigate whether the differences in the pre and
post competency checklists were statistically significant. The /-tests examined the differences in
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means between two groups, and the d family for effect size focused on the strength of that difference
between the groups. Assumptions were checked and met. The groups for the pre and post were of
equal size (n= 12). Table 3.1 shows pre and post results of the 19 individual items. As stated
previously, the checklists contained 19 items on a 5-point Likert scale, organized from strongly
disagree, disagree, undecided, agree, and strongly agree.
Table 3.1
Pre and Post Competency Results by Item (n = 12)
Item Test M SD t d P
Access to high- quality inclusion pre post 3.75 4.4167 .62158 .51493 2.602 .6540 .025
Participation in high-quality inclusion pre post 3.75 4.6667 .75378 .49237 3.527 .5842 .005
Supports for high-quality inclusion pre post 3.91 4.6667 .66856 .49237 4.180 .5382 .002
Benefits for children with special needs pre post 3.75 4.6667 .75378 .65134 2.727 .5453 .02
Benefits for typically developing children pre post 4.000 4.6667 .73855 .49237 2.345 .4690 .039
Benefits for community pre post 3.667 4.8333 .49237 .38925 5.631 .5842 .000 (< .001)
LRE pre post 3.5833 4.5000 .51493 .67420 3.527 .6844 .005
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Table 3.1 contd
Item Test M SD t d P
Supplementary aids and services pre post 3.0833 4.5000 .90034 .67420 3.559 .6650 .004
Placements and continuum of placements pre post 2.8333 3.8333 1.19342 .93744 2.569 .4223 .026
Technical assistance and training pre post 3.00 4.2500 .73855 .75378 3.563 .6421 .004
Permissive use of funds pre post 2.5833 3.500 .99620 1.0000 1.894 .4173 .085
Seminal historical cases pre post 3.1667 4.0000 .71744 .60302 3.458 .6786 .005
Role of the educator as advocate pre post 2.7500 4.4167 .62158 .51493 6.504 .8250 .000 (c.001)
Design an advocacy project pre post 2.6667 4.7500 .77850 .45227 6.660 .8532 .000 (c.001)
Implement an advocacy project pre post 2.5000 4.3333 1.08711 .60302 5.011 .7357 .000 (c.001)
Evaluate an advocacy project pre post 3.1667 4.5833 .93744 .51493 4.529 .6836 .001
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Table 3.1 contd
Item Test M SD t d R
Engage in local legislative advocacy 5.745 .8391 .000 (c.001) pre 2.5833 .66856 post 4.3333 .77850
Engage in local systems advocacy 6.665 .7732 .000 (<.001) pre 2.4167 .79296 post 4.333 .77850
Engage in advocacy with families 4.432 .6986 .001 pre 2.8333 1.02986 post 4.5000 .67420
Analysis of the pre and post competency checklists indicates the average of each item rose
between the pre and post tests. Additionally, 18 of the 19 items demonstrated a p value of less
than .05. The weakest item was related to explaining permissive use of funds in IDEA. This item did
not demonstrate statistical significance. On this item, the students did not indicate the course made a
difference in their understanding between the pre and post competency checklists.
The d values for all of the individual items ranged between .4173 and .8532. These indicate a
moderate to large effect size. Overall, results from the quantitative measures revealed the course was
effective in increasing students judgments of their knowledge in the competencies measured on the
checklists.
Advocacy Journals
As stated previously, during the eight weeks of the course, participants were asked to keep
advocacy journals with at least two entries per week. Within those entries, they were asked to reflect
on their progress as a participant in advocacy, as an observer, and as an emerging leader. Prompted
questions included, but were not limited to: What advocacy activities are you involved in this
week? What are common barriers to advocacy that you come across? What do you see as
opportunities or leverage points to overcome these barriers? Have you been successful?
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Within the qualitative analysis of the advocacy journals, the researcher attempted to address
the three research questions of the project:
(1) In regard to the ability to act as agents of social change, based on the results of the
LAS and follow-up interviews, did students in ECED 5091 demonstrate perspective
transformation, and if so, what type?
(2) What learning experiences in ECED 5091, if any, contributed to student perspective
transformation ?
(3) To what extent, if any, are the perceived self-competencies of students in ECED 5091
affected by participation in the course?
Regarding the first question, the researcher sought to understand the nature of the perspective
transformation, specifically, how the perspective transformation manifested in individual students and
what connections the perspective transformation allowed them to make within their knowledge and
daily experiences. The focus of the second research question in qualitative analysis was to discover
which experiences supported the perspective transformation of the participants given the hypothesis
that the course activities most impactful for students would be those experiences that: (1) extended
their knowledge, (2) applied to professional and personal experiences, (3) excited a passion,
(4) empowered their abilities, (5) propelled self-examination, self-reflection, and personal change,
and (6) offered ongoing resources. Qualitative analysis focused on the third research question
supported discovery of how the perceived self-competencies of students were affected. Furthermore,
the researcher hoped to gain an understanding about how the course activities supported participants
empowerment, confidence, knowledge, and skills.
Extension to Social and Cultural Themes
Within the journal entries, students made multiple connections to broader issues of social
justice beyond the inclusion of young children with special needs. Specifically, references were made
to current events in popular media, including police violence toward young men of color and the
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shooting at the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, South Carolina. One
student stated:
What happened with the Charleston shooting? What goes wrong? What needs to change in
how we think about the world and our children? Preschool is such an awesome place for this
to begin. How do we get this to spread beyond the walls of preschool into the rest of the
education system? As a teacher what can I do?
Students also reflected on constitutional rights and the perception of these rights in current society,
such as the U.S. Supreme Court decision on gay marriage:
Yesterday the Supreme Court ruled that gay marriage is a constitutional right. I think this is a
great step that is long over due for our nation. As I read the words on an online article, it
almost made me stop and think that this took way too long. Perhaps it is because I am from
New York and moved to Denver, both places where the LGBT community is large, that it
was shocking that this is only happening now. Nevertheless, it is a great positive step for the
country. This also opened my eyes to all the various ways to be an advocate, not only for my
students or in regards to education, but in all my beliefs.
Another student wrote about how the course helped her to reflect on her mistrust of government and
the democratic process. She stated, Most of the time it is hard to understand but also trust. I know it
is great that we have the freedom to get involved, vote and etc., but it is difficult for me.
The course also sparked student reflection on systemic topics such as power and privilege,
race, sexuality, ability, bias, and guilt. These views and ongoing reflections throughout the course are
presented in the following excerpts from the advocacy journals. One student stated, I really enjoyed
our first class. I was encouraged to see a professor in this program bring up the concepts of power and
privilege. Another student recorded the following story:
The men I am referring to are strong fathers and members of their communities. But, they are
routinely being singled out due to the color of their skin. The injustice of it frightens me and
makes me sick even though I have not had these experiences personally, I hear about these
injustices occurring far too often with my friends of color.
A different entry noted, As we passed one restaurant, surrounded by a steel fence with a steel gate, I
saw a man with a cane struggling to get the gate open.
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Several entries reflected on the implicit and explicit bias participants noticed in their
professional settings. One student recalled the following encounter in her workplace:
These early exposures to a diverse teacher community prove to children that regardless of
your background you can succeed and become an educator in the field. The Lead Teacher
within this classroom took the child from Tammy and said, She is crying because she is
afraid of you since you are black.
The course prompted other students to reflect on their own biases. Here is one example: I was
reflecting on my racial biases this week while working. I will admit I tend to be racist towards people
of color because they usually dont or choose not to tip 20%. I usually receive 5%-10%. Another
student indicated, Any educator working in the field should be required to examine their own biases
and work on becoming more self-aware in these areas.
Within the journals, participants indicated the course triggered personal and professional
change measured in new and different social justice based actions in their everyday lives. One
participant commented:
I am committed to volunteering at the Colorado Council of Churches, Gideons Promise or
the Colorado Childrens campaign once I am done with school. Volunteering in some
capacity and trying to show my children a better way are all that I know how to do to help
overcome all of this negativity.
Other students recognized how their learning in the course caused them to behave differently
with their own children. For example, Feeling proud of my son. ... I asked him to do a mini soccer
camp for my inclusive summer class of kindergarten grads. He talked two friends into helping him.
Another indicated:
My son and I had a long discussion that night on the way home about doing little things such
as standing up for someone who is being bullied, or speaking out when someone tells a racist
or sexist joke, etc. My son is already an advocate for equality but has stated that he
sometimes feels that he can never really make a difference.
Qualities of Leaders
Journal entries also indicated an improved ability to engage in leadership dispositions (Blank,
1997) and actions as result of the course. Several participants suggested the course impacted how they
felt about being a leader and the associated leadership dispositions, including excitement, empathy,
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compassion, respect, positivity, mindfulness, patience, and persistence. These notions are represented
in the following excerpts:
I think I am making progress with being more open-minded and discussion-based in my
approach. I am taking time to take a deep breath and remind myself that because someone
disagrees with me it doesnt make them a bad person (which, believe it or not, has been a
challenge for me). I am slowing down with my judgments and trying to be more patient.
Another student stated, One of my goals of taking this advocacy class is to leam to face my fears and
advocate for what I believe in.
Students also revealed increased thoughtfulness around how to engage as more purposeful
leaders such as, How then, can I bring more passionate purpose to my own daily life? How often do
we just go through the routine, the motions of the day, without much thought? Others expressed
hesitancy as stated in the following, I am a little scared but excited to push myself and take this
uncomfortable step.
Furthermore, participants discussed the actionable changes they made as a growing leader.
Participants noted they demonstrated greater willingness to be challenged, take risks, and collaborate.
They also noticed a greater responsibility and accountability for advocacy regarding issues of social
justice:
This week I had to travel back to New York to complete a DAS A training, required by New
York state. DASA stands for Dignity for All Students Act and we talked about a few different
things regarding being an advocate for our students. From bullying to disabilities, we have a
responsibility to protect our students. We are responsible for more than their education, but
really their wellbeing.
Another participant acknowledged change in her behavior at her worksite, This week when I spoke
with the assistant teacher I work with in the toddler class about supporting and teaching her ideas to
add to her toolbox, I was exhibiting leadership qualities.
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Building Confidence and Empowerment
The journals revealed the course supported change in participant perspective of confidence,
knowledge building, and growing knowledge into action. Participants noted the course helped them to
understand the power of advocacy from one individual:
This semester has gone by so quickly! I am very glad that I chose to take this class because I
feel that I have become a more confident advocate and I also feel more prepared about the
process of advocating. The biggest take away from this course for me is that lean make a
difference. As a result of this course, I am a more confident person and I am also more aware
of what is going on in my community.
Another student stated the course increased her perceived sense of power in acting as an agent of
social change: I can benefit from knowing more about what is going on with education on a broader
scale to be able to advocate and fight for what is best for my students, and students everywhere.
Another student wrote, I am feeling empowered as a beginning advocate.
In reflection on the course content, students recognized their increasing knowledge of
advocacy compelled them to act differently in their personal and professional lives:
After this incident, I thought about all of the ways that I may handle the situation differently
in the future, such as meeting with the parents prior to the IEP meeting to ask them what
questions they had about their son, his education, etc.
Another student indicated, During this first day of meeting, we were asked to brainstorm an idea for
an advocacy project. I feel I went from a blank slate to two feasible ideas in a ten minute block of
time.
A number of students associated their increase in confidence, knowledge, and skills to the
start up advocacy project. One student stated, It is becoming more clear as I do the work for my
advocacy start-up that advocacy is a cycle. Another student revealed that her start up advocacy
project prompted deeper consideration of potential barriers to change. She acknowledged:
I am beginning to think more about obstacles that I may face when implementing it. Some
obstacles that I see in implementing this advocacy project is staff resistance. Another obstacle
that I may run into is lack of relevance, so I will need to work hard to make sure that the
information that I provide to the staff is relevant to them and that I use lots of real world
examples.
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Finally, students indicated a yearning for more of the course itself, I wish this class was
longer (for a full semester), it just seemed to fly by and I feel there was more we could have delved
deeper into advocacy. They were also concerned about the elective nature of the course and stated
the content and experiences offered in ECED 5091 should be mandatory for all early childhood
educators at CU Denver:
Instead of it being an elective, I feel like this should be a required course given during a
regular length semester. I feel that these topics are crucial for early childhood special
educators to be aware of and I am thinking of all of the other people in our program who are
missing out on this important information.
Collaboration
Resonating throughout the journals was the notion that ECED 5091 was most effective in
promoting social change agency during times that were collaborative. Of note, participants desired to
collaborate with parents and families of young children with special rights. Participants marveled at,
as well as empathized with, parents and their struggles to achieve inclusion for their young children.
One student stated, Our work always extends to the family. Look for ways to empower the family by
listening to them and making connections. Families need to know that they are the decision makers
for their children. Another student recognized:
By informing, educating, and empowering parents and families, they can help to improve and
increase all child outcomes. By providing parents with information, understandable data,
resources, and powerful stories through words and pictures, they will become aware of
inclusion and develop a better understanding for inclusion benefits all children regardless of
abilities. I would also like to provide parents with some powerful questions that they can take
back and ask their schools or districts about in a collaborative and partnering manner.
The course activities caused another student to reflect with empathy and decide to change her future
behavior:
I often find myself thinking about the parents during IEP meetings and about how
overwhelmed they look. One IEP in particular stands out in my mind because I remember the
ECSE going through the goals on the IEP and then asking the parents Okay, so does
everything sound okay to you? I remember the dads eyes getting really wide and him
saying I guess? in a very overwhelmed and questioning tone. He did not sound angry.
Rather, he sounded as if he was having a difficult time processing all of the things that he had
just heard over the last hour and trying to decide in a seconds worth of notice whether or not
he thought that everything would be best for his son. In a few minutes, he went on to tell us
that he did not know what was developmentally appropriate for children of his sons age and
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that because he didnt know what was normal, he was having a hard time figuring out what
his son did that was normal and what his son did that was not normal. As a result, he was
struggling to figure out what would be the best goals for his child. At that moment, I made a
mental note to never put a parent on the spot like that. I realized that these parents were still
coming to understand their son and that bombarding them with all that goes on in an IEP
meeting was probably very overwhelming.
While participants noted the power of one individual to make a difference discussed
previously, participants also acknowledged the power of collaboration in sharing of knowledge, In
class today we had such amazing speakers! Tonette Salazar brought such an amazing perspective to
advocating. Today we also met with Dr. John Nash. He provided us with an interesting new way to
brainstorm ideas. Specifically, students described collaboration in the context of being inspired by
one individual who energized their personal work. Another student stated, I have met a new role
model. Tonette Salazar, is AMAZING.
Furthermore, students found value in processing the information and activities with others on
a personal and professional level. Throughout the journals, students recorded times in which they
talked with others about their advocacy work to share their knowledge or frustration, rally support, or
gain new perspectives. This was noted in comments such as It was helpful to talk with my husband
and get an outsider perspective on the situation. He helped me to start thinking in terms of
collaboration and compromise, and:
Earlier tonight I met with Andrea to formulate our plan for our Advocacy Project. I am
excited to begin. I think we worked together to make a workable plan. It is freeing to know
this is only a plan, and we can reach for the stars.
and:
I found myself not being able to stop telling my boyfriend about things I had learned, things I
was appalled by, and how I was going to be a social agent for change for early childhood
special education, inclusion, and young children with special rights and their families.
Finally, students recognized that learning from others increased their ability not only to
advocate but also to teach others about advocacy and how they can be involved:
I saw a friend last night that I have not seen in a month or so, and she was happy to tell me
that she had gotten a job as an ABA therapist. This is a position that she knows very little
about and has no experience with but something that she is passionate about. She said that the
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last time we spoke and I told her about my work, my graduate program and my passion for
improving the field of early childhood special education, she became inspired.
Exposure to Resources. Materials, and Experiences That Promote Knowledge
Throughout the journal entries, participants indicated their growing knowledge and
willingness to act as an agent of social change was supported with the resources, materials, and
experiences presented. One student wrote, This weeks reading the article on Social Justice
Advocates really laid groundwork for how to create an open, safe environment that is respectful to all
dialogue from all views. Guest speakers were also noted as valuable resources, Class was fun.
Tonette was awesome with her ability to listen to an idea and/or project and be able to make it a plan
of action for next steps. After completing a required online module, one student noted:
I took a quiz from The Atlantic Magazine to gauge how much political power I have. It was
informative, and taught me that I should trust my own voice more. I have always been
hesitant to put my ideas out there unless Im sure that others generally agree. I think a good
goal would be to be a little bit more daring, maybe starting a blog and being a little more bold
with putting ideas out there.
The resources available to students and access to different types of resources and experiences
benefitted learners in different ways but ultimately contributed to growth in knowledge and skill.
Students noted across the journals that varied experiences of readings, lectures, outside experiences,
guest speakers, and projects supported their learning differently. About attending Malalas speaking
engagement, one student said:
I was fortunate to be one of the few students able to attend the Malala Yousafzai speaking
engagement at Denvers Bellco Theater. I enjoyed reading her book and became so excited
about listening to her speak, that I quickly finished reading her book the night before. It was a
great honor and treat to be able to listen to her speak live about her courageous journey.
Malala is an icon of what it means to be an advocate.
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Another student noted:
The book I Am Malala is really starting to inspire me, especially in terms of my last post.
She views leadership as something entirely different than Ive ever considered. I really took
her idea of even though Im just a small girl, I can still make a difference, even in a small
role [sic].
Another student stated about readings, I think a review of the laws pertaining to special education is
important for special educators to know. And the review of IDEA and some of the things it requires
was very helpful.
While different students found the readings on major policy actors challenging, they also
acknowledged that some videosspecifically the Vema Myers TED Talkwere interesting. Other
students appreciated that course activities were available for an extended period of time to be
revisited, On page 141 there were some awesome suggestions on time management that also helps to
ward off burnout. I need to read this chapter several more times! Finally, students appreciated how
the experiences and resources were integrated to support their overall learning as demonstrated by the
following, Class was a great way to find all the connections of why we read certain things, seeing
peoples projects, and summarizing all we did this semester.
In all, the advocacy journals offered information about how ECED 5091 (1) extended student
knowledge of social/cultural themes, (2) developed leadership dispositions, (3) built varying levels of
confidence/empowerment, (4) supported collaboration, and (5) offered experiences, activities, and
assignments that solidified their learning. The advocacy journals also raised questions about how
different experiences and activities impacted students differently.
Discussion
ECED 5091 was a preservice educator preparation course designed to affect a transformative
change in future early educators to lead them to act as agents of social change for inclusion. Course
development concentrated on inclusion, law and policy, leadership and collaboration, advocacy
practices, understanding social change processes, and working with parents and families. The course
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content focused on connecting teachers to inclusion as an issue of social justice for young children
with special rights and their families. I sought to answer the following questions:
(1) In regard to the ability to act as agents of social change, based on the results of the
LAS and follow-up interviews, did students in ECED 5091 demonstrate perspective
transformation, and if so, what type?
(2) What learning experiences in ECED 5091, if any, contributed to student perspective
transformation ?
(3) To what extent, if any, are the perceived self-competencies of students in ECED 5091
affected by participation in the course?
This section of the chapter discusses the results and general themes that emerged from the
data, as well as recommendations for future iterations of this course. In particular, the themes that
emerged include (1) transformative change, (2) knowledge development, (3) assignments and
experiences, (4) influence of family, (5) relationships matter, (6) and the power of agency.
Study Indications
Overall, the data across all three measures demonstrated the course mattered to the
participants. Participation in the ECED 5091 changed students knowledge, skills, and dispositions
regarding social change agency. For many of the students, the ECED 5091 course was indeed
transformative. However, this transformation was different for individual students based on their
experiences. Of equal importance, faculty and mentor expertise, knowledge, and support also strongly
influenced students transformative change. It is important to recognize the subtlety of the participant
reactions to the course in order to improve future iterations of the course, as well as appreciate why
educators acting as agents of social change is critical to the problem of practice.
Transformative Change
Consistent with Mezirows transformative theory (2000), the measures suggested that
learning experiences combined with passion for advocacy, change, or a cause support student
competencies and attitudes necessary to execute social change. Specifically, this was measured by the
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LAS and follow-up interviews. It was also demonstrated in the skill development measured on the pre
and post competency checklists and the coded passages of the advocacy journals.
While two students did not demonstrate a perspective transformation on the LAS, both these
students indicated in the short answer section that they did not demonstrate a perspective
transformation because they already strongly valued advocacy before entering the course. The
elective nature of the course and the specific interest area of students in advocacy and social change
agency likely contributed to these results. Despite the lack of transformative change, the students did
make gains in the pre and post competency checklists. The two students also demonstrated improved
understanding consistent with the themes found in the advocacy journals, including social justice,
leadership, confidence, collaboration, and extensions of the class assignments and activities.
The notion that all of the individuals within the course demonstrated transformative change is
a significant finding for the inclusion initiative in early childhood. Perhaps more importantly, it is
hugely significant to the young children with special rights and their families whose educational
experiences influence their development and future place in the educational system as well as in
society. The results of this study should have significant influence on the future of educator
preservice preparation and how preparation programs support transformation of students in this way
to do the important work of advocacy.
Knowledge Development
Due to the elective nature of the course, it was assumed students who enrolled in ECED 5091
had a vested interest in the content of the course or in activity as an agent of social change. Given the
varied personal and professional experiences of the students in the course, it was also believed the
students who chose to enroll in this course held previous interest or skill in advocacy and perhaps a
vision of the need within the program.
The 12 participants gained knowledge and skills from the assignments, lectures, and activities
on abroad scale. Based on the p values (statistical significance) and d values (effect size) associated
with this series of t tests, the course did influence student perception of learning associated with the
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specific competencies measured. A breakdown of the skills measured on the pre and post competency
checklists revealed the skills associated with advocacy were important for students and the overall
effectiveness of the course in their transformative change. Broad level understandings about the role
of the educator as advocate or the benefits of inclusion were well understood. Also well understood
were the specific local legislative and systems advocacy systems.
The knowledge associated with the ability to navigate the educational, legislative, and
systems of early care and learning through advocacy as an educator enhances opportunities for
children and creates positive outcomes for children with special rights who are otherwise
marginalized and excluded.
According to the pre and post competency checklists, ECED 5091 was less effective in
delivering specific knowledge about The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA),
including concepts such as permissive use of funds and supplementary aides. This is an important
point because IDEA is not the particular expertise of the faculty who taught ECED 5091 and was
potentially the weakest area of content (associated with the course) for students. On the LAS and in
the follow-up interviews, students indicated they would benefit from specific knowledge of the IDEA
tied to the advocacy start up project. It is possible that learning specific IDEA statutes and regulations
may not be appropriate for this course in addition to learning about advocacy and social change
agency. However, there should be a robust opportunity in the graduate program (or at some point in
personnel preparation) to gain this knowledge from an expert in the field of IDEA law. It may not be
ideally placed in this course or with faculty whose work resides in social change agency.
While the students did demonstrate change in perception of knowledge based on the Likert
scales on the pre and post checklist, many students could not offer short answer examples of what the
various competencies looked like in practice. Importantly, this may speak to the difference between
general student understanding of the skills versus applicable knowledge to their everyday work. For
some students, the follow-up interview served as an opportunity to demonstrate their applicable
knowledge, but it was not largely the case. Assignments and experiences in future courses should
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provide opportunities for students to integrate specific skills and knowledge. The data collected in this
study did not demonstrate these types of findings, but in examining how adult learning is translated to
social change agency, this should be considered in future iterations of the course, as knowledge
building and action toward advocacy are of equal importance for the problem of practice.
Assignments and Experiences
Assignments and measurable outcomes for students are a reality of higher education,
personnel preparation, and professional development. The study supported that effective assignments
provided inspiration, collaboration, reflective thought, and activities that ultimately supported a
transformative change in behavior.
Overall, it should be noted that spaces for deep reflection, thought, and conversation were
generally more influential than assignments. Specifically, assignments that encouraged deep
reflection, thought, and conversation were found more valuable than assignments that did not. The
LAS and the advocacy journals indicated students valued the opportunities to reflect on the content
and their experiences. Deep reflection on an individual basis as well as conversations with peers and
mentors who supported and challenged their thinking were noted as valuable experiences.
The assignments associated with Malala Yousafzai, including readings, reflection, and
writing were noted as inspirational for a number of students across the measures. The seven students
who were able to attend her live speaking engagement each noted this experience as powerful. The
unique opportunity for free tickets to this event during the course time likely attributed to the highly
rated impact of this course assignment and topic. While this opportunity served as inspirational for
the students, it also was defined as a time of collaboration and reflection for the learning community
outside of the classroom or online environment. Because this experience is not likely replicable in
future semesters, it is important to note the qualitative nature of the speaking engagement as both
unique and supportive. Therefore, similar opportunities for experiences that provide reflection and
collaboration outside of the classroom environment are important.
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The advocacy journals were noted in the LAS and the follow-up interviews as a valuable
assignment. The journals provided an avenue by which students could safely and consistently engage
in deep reflection throughout the semester and across topics and experiences. In the follow-up
interviews, the students noted the requirement for the journal entries encouraged them to take the time
to reflect on what supportive experiences were good for them as well as the concepts they were
struggling to understand and apply. Additionally, the journals provided ongoing feedback to the
faculty about student learning and engagement, and they ultimately informed future changes to the
course.
Across the three measures, students identified the advocacy start up project as a meaningful
experience that constructed an understanding of the content. The content specifically noted included
(1) an understanding of policy actors and systems, (2) types of advocacy and leadership, (3) advocacy
planning, and (4) collaboration. Additionally, some level of sharing (in the form of presentations or
discussions) was noted as important for the students.
However, while students appreciated the development of a plan, they acknowledged a strong
need for a longer period of time to grow out the advocacy project beyond start up into implementation
and evaluation. The time limitations of the course were identified in the follow-up interviews and
advocacy journals as barriers to deeply engaging in this process. Additionally, students indicated they
preferred opportunities to engage directly with the agencies or organizations in advocacy efforts.
Parents, families, and caregivers were also identified as individuals who should be more directly
involved with more elaborated advocacy plans, implementation, and evaluation (Mitchell & Hedge,
2007; Piper, 2007). Future iterations of the course should consider methods that increase time and
opportunities to build apprenticeship, mentorship, or coaching.
The Influence of Family
Family advocacy content was demonstrated to be effective on the LAS, but in the follow-up
interviews and journals was noted as an area that could be enhanced. In many cases, students
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identified passion for supporting families with children with special rights, and often, family stories
served as a spark for their advocacy work.
Additionally, participants requested more specific knowledge and skills around working with
families in advocacy efforts. This could be attributed to the fact that during the course, the parent
advocate with a child with special rights cancelled her guest speaking engagement with the class due
to a personal conflict. The class time was replaced with videos of her advocacy efforts, as well as
large and small group discussion about her work in advocacy based on her experiences in early
childhood education with her son with special needs. It is possible the change from a guest speaker to
discussion about the parental role in advocacy gave participants a taste of advocacy with families,
but did not fully satisfy their need for this information. Future iterations of the course should include
ample opportunities to gain perspectives of families of children with special rights, connect with
families in the area, and plan and work alongside them in advocacy projects.
Overall, participants noted an increase in their abilities to understand, empathize with, and
support families at a broader system level. These outcomes indicate the importance of the connection
with families in advocacy and social change efforts (Blasco, Falco & Munson, 2006; Murray &
Mandell, 2006). Given the political state of education and the responsibilities of educators in todays
system to embrace childrens academic, cognitive, social/emotional, and physical development, the
intention required to understand and support families is often neglected (Kennedy & Heineke, 2014).
This study substantiates the importance of families in the advocacy process. Early childhood
educators, specifically, have the power to set the stage for equality and justice and to inspire
children and families to claim their voice and their own rights.
Relationships Matter
Throughout the data, the importance of relationships emerged as a key in supporting the work
of students in the course. These relationships are a constant throughout all of the highly rated
activities and assignments, including deep, concentrated thought, lectures, and projects. Examples of
the influence of relationships included faculty support, guest speakers, collaboration, engagement
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with volunteers in local agencies, and parental engagement (as mentioned previously). The
relationships with peers, mentors, and families are key to establishing confidence in the advocacy and
social change work (Piper, 2007), and in most cases, the more closely engaged in the relationship, the
greater the impact. For example, several students acknowledged the value of the support from Tonette
Salazar when she took the time to help them individually examine the system in which their advocacy
start up project was most influential.
Students connected perspective transformations most often to those experiences that included
relationships with mentors or others. This could be attributed to the small class size and the ability to
access the faculty and guest speakers easily. Additionally, before this course, all of the students had
an existing relationship with the faculty from previous courses, supervision, and advising, making
faculty support easier. However, it likely supported the gateway to other mentors, guest speakers,
volunteers, and experts.
In considering the challenge of advocacy, it is important to recognize that within the
advocacy journals, students acknowledged the importance of having supportive relationships,
including coworkers, domestic partners, and classmates, to process their work and the associated
highs and lows of the social change process (Kennedy & Heineke, 2014; Lava, Recchia &
Giovacco-Johnson, 2004; Winton & Catlett, 2009). In future iterations of ECED 5091, these
relationships should be nurtured and more overtly recognized in the scope of the work as valuable and
necessary. Networks and communities should be developed and sustained in order to support students
outside the scope of the course and into the field.
Social Justice, Power, Privilege
In the advocacy journals and the LAS, students acknowledged that power and privilege,
connection to broader issues of social justice, and notions of guilt and bias were not fully addressed in
ECED 5091. It is important to note this content was not measured at all on the pre and post
competency checklists, and therefore no data was collected about student baseline or growth of
knowledge in these areas. Implicit and explicit bias, power, privilege, and issues of social justice
88


(including race, gender, and sexuality) that became a major theme of the advocacy journals were
touched on within the course but not developed in depth. This was likely due to the course focus on
advocacy, not on these specific issues.
Coded excerpts within the journals indicated the importance of topics such as implicit bias,
race, gender, culture, and sexuality be covered in some way through another course in the graduate
program. This course would need to be taught by an expert on issues of diversity, inclusion, social
justice, power, and privilege as it relates to early childhood education, early childhood special
education, and early care and learning.
Throughout the advocacy journals, participants indicated guilt around these topics as they
built understanding of points in which advocacy was necessary. Knowledge gained in the
aforementioned social justice, power, and privilege course could support their experience in
ECED 5091 and allow students in ECED 5091 to examine issues of power, privilege, and social
justice through the lens of advocacy. In this design, educators in ECED 5091 could be supported to
handle the potential guilt identified within the advocacy journals and associated with this work. In the
first iteration of the course, these notions of both bias and guilt went largely unaddressed.
Currently at CU Denver, there is no faculty with this particular skill set and knowledge to
teach this course. To overcome this challenge, the course be instructed by the ECE faculty with
significant support from guest lecturers and speakers from the ECE/ECSE community who share this
knowledge. It would also be important to collect and archive the experiences and activities in this
course for repetition. A future study, similar to this one, could be conducted to determine how best to
instruct this content to professionals in the early childhood fields.
Finally, it is important to recognize that the transformation of participants to agents of social
change was not limited to inclusion for children with special rights While this was a major focus of
the ECED 5091, participants who built knowledge, skills, and dispositions for advocacy developed a
critical lens with which they were able to now see the inequities and unmet needs of many
marginalized groups of children, families, and communities. This result speaks to the potential of the
89


course to build the capacity of early educators for advocacy and effect change for marginalized
students across the system of early care and learning.
The Power of Agency
This study is the first of its kind to look at how advocacy is taught to early childhood, early
care, and learning professionals. It is vital work for the early childhood field and the children,
families, and communities served by early childhood education because transformative system
change begins when educators experience transformative change toward advocacy and social justice.
When educators change their perception of their role and ability to influence a system and see
themselves as an advocate for ALL children, the system at large begins to change (Hall, 2015). A
visual representation of this potential process is illustrated in Figure 3.6.
Figure 3.6. Potential effect of early educators as agents of social change.
In short, the data indicate the project achieved its desired aims of educator transformation
toward social change agency. As a result of this agency, participants reported they were more able to
influence issues of social justice, especially quality inclusion for young children with special rights.
Additionally, participants influenced and were influenced by families in this process. Ultimately,
educator and family agency could have a transformative influence on large systems within programs
90


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