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The effects of selected computer programs and a computer interaction on the self-esteem of elderly individuals

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The effects of selected computer programs and a computer interaction on the self-esteem of elderly individuals
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Chiavacci, James Peter
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English
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viii, 120 leaves : ; 29 cm

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Older people -- Psychology ( lcsh )
Computer literacy -- Psychological aspects ( lcsh )
Self-esteem ( lcsh )
Computer literacy -- Psychological aspects ( fast )
Older people -- Psychology ( fast )
Self-esteem ( fast )
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non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 84-90).
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Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Education.
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by James Peter Chiavacci.

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University of Florida
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ocm18004014
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Full Text
THE EFFECTS OF SELECTED COMPUTER PROGRAMS
AND A COMPUTER INTERACTION ON THE SELF-ESTEEM
OF ELDERLY INDIVIDUALS
by
James Peter Chiavacci
B.A., University of Scranton, 1972
M. Ed., Bloomsburg State University, 1977
A dissertation submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Department of Education
1987


This dissertation for the Doctor of Philosophy degree by
James Peter Chiavacci
has been approved for the
Department of
Education
by
Minaruth Galey
Laura Goodwin
Martin Tessmer
Date % 11^2


1988
James Peter Chiavacci
All Rights Reserved


Ill
Chiavacci, James Peter (Ph.D., Education)
The Effects of Selected Computer Programs and a
Computer Interaction on the Self-Esteem of the
Elderly Individuals
Dissertation directed by William F. Grady, Dean,
Graduate School of Education
Self-esteem is fundamental to the elderly
person's experience of life. Intervention techniques
for affecting self-esteem are not often researched. To
examine if a computer interaction is a viable
intervention technique, 44 men and women age sixty-five
and older participated in a study. There were no
differences in scores on a measure of self-esteem for
those individuals who interacted with the computer (n =
23) compared to those who did not interact (n = 21).
However, differences were noted on measures of computer
anxiety and attitude toward the computer.


CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION................................... 1
Importance of Self-esteem................. . 4
Statement of the Problem.................. 5
Purpose....................................... 6
Hypotheses.................................... 7
Limitations of the Study...................... 9
Definition of Terms....................... 10
Summary..................................... 11
II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE...................... 12
Self-Esteem.................................. 12
Conceptualization of Self-Esteem........... 13
Variables that Affect Self-Esteem.......... 15
Age...................................... 16
Society's View........................ 18'
Effects of Role Change................... 20
Summary.................................... 21
Rationale for Utilizing Computers.......... 21
Computers and Attitudes.................... 21
Computers and Anxiety...................... 23
Computers and the Elderly.................. 24
Computers and Self-Esteem.................. 27
Summary..................................... 29


V
III. PROCEDURES...................................... 30
Preliminary Procedures...................... 30
Population................................. 30
Selection of Independent Living Unit.... 32
Research Design........................... 33
Subjects................................. 33
Instrumentation............................ 35
Self-Esteem Scale........................ 35
Computer Attitude Scale.................. 37
Computer Anxiety Scale................... 38
Participant Profile Sheet................ 39
Experimental Procedures...................... 40
Facilities and Equipment................... 40
Experimental Activities.................... 41
Computer Programs.......................... 45
Introductory Program.................... 47
Leisure Activities.................... . 48
Word Processing.......................... 51
Data Analysis............................ 52
Summary...................................... 33
IV. RESULTS........................................ 54
Statistical Analyses..................... .. 54
Reliability Estimation..................... 54
Pre-treatment Group Differences............ 54
Demographic Data........................... 57
Analysis of Covariance.................... 58
Additional Analyses........................ 60


v i
Assumptions................................... 62
Chi-Square.................................. 63
Summary...................... ............. 64
V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECEOMMENDATIONS............. 65
Summary................................... 65
Findings.................................... 67
Conclusions................................ 70
Discussion................................. 71
Implications............................... 78
Recommendations............................... 81
BIBLIOGRAPHY............................... ........ 84
APPENDIX.........................................i.. 91
A. LETTER OF INVITATION........................... 91
B. PERSONAL PROFILE SHEET.......................... 93
C. CONSENT FORM................................... 96
D. DIRECTIONS FOR LOADING WRITING ASSISTANT..... 98
E. GUIDE SHEETS FOR WRITING ASSISTANT FUNCTIONS. 100
F. SAMPLE OF PARTICIPANT RESPONSE................ 119


VI 1
TABLES
Table
1. Age, gender, educational level by group......... 36
2. Schedule of study activities.................... 45
3. Summary statistics.............................. 55
4. ANOVA on pretest data........................... 56
5. ANCOVA on posttest self-esteem data............. 58
6. ANCOVA on posttest computer attitude data.... 59
7. ANCOVA on posttest computer anxiety data...... 60


FIGURES
v i i i
FIGURES
Figure
1. Diagram of experimental treatment room........ 42
2. Computer anxiety group by time interaction... 61


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Demographic data show that elderly people in the
United States are living longer than at any time in U.S.
history. At the beginning of this century, the average
American could expect to live 49 years. By 1954, life
expectancy had jumped to 70 years and in 1981, it
reached almost 74 years. For the remainder of this
century, it is expected that the population age 55 and
over will remain at just over one-fifth of the total
population. By the year 2010, the proportion of
Americans 55 and over will dramatically increase to 25
percent of the population or 74.1 million people. By
2050, nearly 33 percent of the population (104.3
million) is expected to be at least 55 years old. By
2030, 20 percent of all Americans (64.3 million persons)
will be 65 years or older and almost 3 percent (8.8
million) will be 85 and older (U.S. Bureau of the
Census, 1983) .
This growth of the elderly population will have
a profound impact on American society. Society will be
affected because it must strive toward finding,
maintaining, and promoting quality programs for the


2
elderly. The wise politician will be required to pay
increasingly more attention to the needs of the elderly
population. Economically, the increase in the elderly
population will mean change in consumption sales
patterns which will have a direct effect on industry.
The elderly themselves will be directly affected by
increases in their population. Adequate health, housing
and transportation needs, for example, will become
increasingly important.
One of the major concerns most people have about
growing old is the fear of an increasing limitation in
physical activities caused by a general deterioration in
health. There can be.no denying that the aging process
includes changes in physiology that affect all age
groups. For the elderly, physiological changes, such
as reduced visual and auditory acuity, reduced
sensitivity of taste and smell, graying hair or balding,
and wrinkled skin, may result in altered behavior or
attitudes among this group.
In addition to changes in physiology, changes in
work status and social status also affect the elderly.
In our work oriented society, an individuals identity
is often related to how he or she earns a living. Loss
of work often involves loss of personal and social
contacts. These losses can very easily lead to feelings
of uselessness and low self-esteem (Butler, 1975). An
increase in depression and lack of motivation may also


3
result. With the high correlation between mental and
physical health (Foster, Siegel, & Jacobs, 1984), the
loss of self-esteem and resultant depression may lead to
increased physical problems.
The self-esteem of the elderly population is
also affected by stereotypes. Stereotypes have an
influence on the self view and behavior of its victims.
These stereotypes may cause the elderly to perceive the
process of growing old as something negative (Schmall,
1982; Kogan & Shelton, 1962; Tuckman & Lorge, 1956).
Butler (1975) states that the elderly tend to adopt the
negative definitions, or stereotypes, of themselves
which reinforces society's stereotypic beliefs about
them. This is a continuous cycle which may lead to
depression and feelings of incompetence in the elderly
(see Zusman, 1966).
Although stereotypes can be explained by a lack
of knowledge and insufficient contact with the elderly,
Butler (1975) suggested that a more powerful factor
explaining stereotypes is operating: a prejudice against
the elderly which he calls "ageism", a process of
systematic stereotyping of and discrimination against
people because they are old. According to Butler,
ageism makes it easier for society to ignore the
frequently poor social and economic plight of the
elderly.


4
Importance of Self-esteem
A variety of factors ie. physiological, social,
economical, psychological, have significant impact on
the elderly population. This study focused on the
psychological construct of self-esteem.
The importance of self-esteem has been
acknowledged by gerontologists, psychologists,
sociologists, psychiatrists, health and welfare
agencies, managers and activity directors of elderly
housing facilities, and educators who work with the
elderly. Self-esteem has been recognized to play a
crucial role in old age adjustment (Coleman, 1984).
Carp (1974) and Lieberman (1971) suggested that high
self-esteem is predictive of survival and successful
adaptation. Busse and Reckless (1961) and Zung (1967)
suggested that low self-esteem is closely related to the
onset of late-life depression. Elderly individuals with
high self-esteem have been found to be happier, more
emotionally mature, and more self-controlled while those
with low self-esteem are likely to be unhappy,
discouraged, and discontented (Leung, 1972). Hunter,
Linn, and Harris (1981-1982) concluded that elderly with
low self-esteem may be in need of intervention designed
to alleviate the threat of depression, anxiety, or
bodily symptomatology. They stated that self-esteem is
fundamental to a person's experience of life; it is an


5
underlying component which affects interpersonal
relationships, mood states, and the ability to function.
Schwartz (1975) described self-esteem as "the linchpin
of quality of life for elderly people" (p. 471).
Is self-esteem related to age? The literature
suggests that there is a negative correlation between
age and self-esteem for the elderly. Research on
attitudes toward self has indicated that low self-esteem
increases as a function of age (Bennett & Eckman, 1984;
Kogan & Wallach, 1961; Lieberman & Lakin, 1963; Mason,
1954; Pollack, et. al., 1962; Tuckman & Lorge, 1954).
This apparent negative relationship between age and
self-esteem can become a societal priority given the
increase in the elderly population. There is the
potential for a future society composed of elderly with
a limited ability to function within that society due to
the effects of low self-esteem.
Statement of the Problem
The literature available extolling the
importance of self-esteem and its relationship to age
would lead one to believe that numerous attempts to
affect positive changes in self-esteem have been
undertaken. However, herein lies a problem. Despite
the role self-esteem appears to play in the life
adjustment of the elderly, more research has been


6
designed to define and measure self-esteem than to
affect changes in it.. The problem of this study is that
gerontologists and other groups who work with the
elderly are still not certain of the best method(s) for
affecting the self-esteem of this population.
In examining this problem, a consideration of
the last two decades of gerontological research shows
little research that actually attempted to affect change
in self-esteem. Coleman (1984) argues that more
research on techniques to increase self-esteem are
needed.
A few researchers (Dalton & Hannafin, 1984;
Weisman, 1984) have suggested that self-esteem was
increased after successful interaction with a computer.
However, outside of the Weisman study, there has been
little experimental effort made to determine what
effects a computer interaction would have on the
self-esteem of the elderly.
Purpose
The primary purpose of this study was
investigate the effect of a computer interaction on the
self-esteem of the elderly. The following questions
were addressed in the course of this study:
1. How does interacting with a computer
affect the self-esteem of elderly people?


7
2. How does interacting with a computer
affect elderly individuals' attitudes
toward computers?
3. How does interacting with a computer
affect elderly individuals' computer
anxiety?
4. Is there a significant relationship
between the educational level of elderly
people and self-esteem?
Hypotheses
The research hypotheses tested in this study
were as follows:
Hypothesis 1: Elderly individuals who are aware that
they will interact with the computer
will have higher computer anxiety than
those elderly individuals who know they
will not interact with the computer.
Hypothesis 2: After the introductory computer program,
the elderly individuals who have
interacted with the computer will have a
higher self-esteem than those individuals
who did not interact with the computer.
(Post 1 self-esteem)
Hypothesis 3: After the introductory computer program,


Hypothesis 4
Hypothesis 5
Hypothesis 6
Hypothesis 7
8
elderly individuals who interacted with
the computer will have a more favorable
attitude toward computers than elderly
individuals who did not interact with
the computer. (Post 1 computer attitude)
After the introductory computer program,
computer anxiety will be lower for those
elderly who have interacted with the
computer compared to those who did not
interact with the computer.
(Post 1 computer anxiety)
At the completion of the study,
elderly individuals who have
interacted with the computer will
have a higher self-esteem than
those individuals who did not
interact with the computer..
(Post 2 self-esteem)
At the completion of the study,
elderly individuals who have
1 interacted with the computer will
have more favorable attitudes toward
computers than elderly individuals
who did not interact with the computer.
(Post 2 computer attitude)
At the completion of the study, computer
anxiety will be lower for those elderly


9
who interact with the computer compared
to those who do not interact with the
computer.(Post 2 computer anxiety)
Hypothesis 8: The self-esteem of the elderly in the
investigation will be positively
related to their educational level.
(Self-esteem and education)
Limitations of the Study
The limitations of this study are as follows:
1. The population chosen was required to
be at least 65 years of age.
2. All participants chosen were free of
dibilitating conditions such as
blindness, total loss of hearing,
and paralysis.
3. All participants chosen were required
to possess good mental health as defiaed
by the ILU.
4. All participants were required to be
socially competent as determined by the
ILU.
5. All participants volunteered for the
program.


10
Definition of Terras
Attitude toward computers
Attitude toward computers was defined as likes
and dislikes concerning computers. Attitude toward
computers in this study was measured using the Computer
Appreciator-Critic Attitude Scale (Mathews, 1983).
Computer Anxiety
Computer anxiety in this study was defined as
the fear and apprehension felt by an individual when
considering utilization of a computer or actually using
a computer. Computer anxiety was measured by the
Computer Anxiety Index (Maurer, 1983).
Computer Interaction
The computer interaction was defined as three
types of computer programs: (1) introduction to the
computer, (2) computer games and (3) word processing.
Elderly
For the purpose of this study, an elderly
individual was age 65 and older, in good health and
socially competent.
Self-Esteem
Self-esteem was defined as self-acceptance, a


11
basic feeling of self-worth (Rosenberg, 1965).
Self-Esteem was measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem
scale (Rosenberg, 1965).
Educational Level
Educational level was defined as the highest
grade attained. Educational level was measured by
questionnaire items that allowed this variable to be
divided into four levels: pre high school, high school
diploma, high school diploma with some college, and
college degree.
Summary
The numbers of elderly people in the United
States is rising. It is recognized that self-esteem
plays an important role in old age adjustment. Although
an abundance of information is available concerning the
measurement of self-esteem, there is little information
regarding techniques for enhancing self-esteem.
Research findings suggest that an interaction with a
computer may be an effective tool for enhancing
self-esteem. This study attempted to ascertain the
effectiveness of a computer interaction on improving
self-esteem.


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
How to combat low self-esteem has been a topic
of interest to gerontologists, health and welfare
professionals, managers and activity directors of
independent living arrangements, and educators who deal
with the elderly. This investigation dealt primarily
with the question of whether a computer interaction is
an effective technique for increasing self-esteem.
Appropriate literature and research findings were
reviewed to provide background for the study and to help
design the study.
Self-Esteem
Wylie (1961) suggested that the results of
clinical and experimental studies of self-esteem had
pervasive and significant effects on the individual.
Although the findings themselves have not always been
specific and the evidence has often been an inference
derived from the study of other topics, it has generally
been found that persons with high self-esteem are
happier and more effective in dealing with their


13
environment than persons with low self-esteem. This
evidence of the importance of self-esteem has formed the
basis of this study.
Conceptualization of Self-esteem .
William James defined self-esteem with the
following formula:
self-esteem = Success
Pretensions
This formula, according to James, meant that "our
self-feeling in this world depends entirely on what we
back ourselves to be and do. It is determined by the
ratio of our actualities to our supposed potentialities"
(James, 1910, p. 310). Thus, the greater a persons
success in achieving a desire, the higher the
self-esteem.
This finding appeared to correspond to the
definition of self-esteem proposed by psychologist
Arthur Cohen. Self-esteem, according to Cohen (19-68),
was defined as the degree of correspondence between an
individual's actual and ideal concepts of himself.
Cohen's "actual concept of himself" corresponded to
James' "successes" and the "ideal concept of himself"
corresponded to "pretensions". Both definitions
indicated levels of self-esteem which suggested that
self-esteem could be raised or lowered depending on a
persons experiences.


14
Coopersmith (1967), author of the Coopersmith
Self-Esteem Scale, saw self-esteem as a personal
judgment of worth that is expressed in the attitudes the
individual holds toward the self. This definition
coincided with the previous definitions in that a person
judges worth by the degree to which ideal self-image is
attained.
Rosenberg (1965) defined self-esteem as
self-acceptance, a basic feeling of self-worth.
Rosenbergs definition adopts the generalized, global
dimension of self-esteem: How the individual feels about
the self. Rosenberg designed a unidimensional scale to
measure the general level of self-esteem as opposed to
other self-esteem scales ( ie. Coopersmiths Self-esteem
Scale) which report to measure more dimensions than just
self-esteem. This unidimensional aspect of the
Rosenberg, scale and the brevity of the instrument (10
items) made it the choice for this investigation for
this population.
Rosenberg's Scale centers on the dynamic quality
of self-esteem rather than on self-esteem as an enduring
personality trait. This dynamic characteristic of
self-esteem asserts that at any moment the individuals
may be confronted with evidence bearing on their views
of self and they must react accordingly. These views of
self may vary across different areas of experience and
according to age, gender, and other role-defining


15
conditions. The individuals will make an overall
appraisal of their abilities and will come up with a
general level of self-esteem. To maintain a certain
view of self over a long period, they must be able to
call on sources which confirm that view. These sources
may be in the individual's present environment. They
may also be in the future, in which new possibilities
are envisioned, or in the past, for which remembered
achievements continue to provide definitions for the
self. Horrocks and Jackson (1972) pointed out that
investigators of self-esteem have been insufficiently
sensitive to this dynamic characteristic of self-esteem.
Rosenberg, in his definition and self-esteem scale, has
made an attempt to address this dynamic characteristic
of self-esteem.
Variables that Affect Self-Esteem
The self-esteem literature (e.g., Butler, 1975;
e.g., Wylie, 1961) revealed three categories of
variables that affected self-esteem. These categories
were: (a) age, (b) society's views, and (c) role
changes.


16
Age Existing theories relevant to the study
of global self-esteem and age were sparse. Most studies
used the age range from 8 years to 50 years and produced
mixed results (Attenborough & Zdep, 1973; Carpenter &
Busse, 1969; Dales & Keller, 1958; Gurin, Veroff & Feld,
1960).
Attenborough and Zdep (1973) tested a national
probability sample of 1,684 girls aged 9-17. They found
no relationship between age and self-esteem scores.
Dales and Keller (1972) found no age differences on
Bills' Index of Adjustment and Values (IAV) self-esteem
scale for their study of eighth grade through twelfth
grade white students.
Carpenter and Busse (1969) administered the
"Where Are You Game" self-concept scale to 40 first
grade classes and 40 fifth grade classes. This scale
was composed of 7 bi-polar dimensions (smart, happy,
well-liked, to name a few) thought to be important in
self-concept. They found that, for all subjects, fifth
grade mean self-concept scores were lower than first
grade scores.
Gurin, et.al. grouped their subjects into three
age groups (21-34, 35-54, 55 and over). Subjects were
required to answer 3 questions concerning self-esteem.
The questions were coded for positive or negative
self-esteem. They found that the middle age groups had
more positive scores. In short, there was no clear


17
evidence for the relationship between chronological age
(within the age range from 8 to 50) and scores on
measures of self-esteem when relevant variables, such as
gender and academic level, were properly controlled.
However, in studies of individuals over 50,
results suggested that self-esteem decreased as age
increased (Bennett and Eckman, 1973; Tuckman & Lorge,
1956; Ziller & Grossman, 1967). The main, point of each
of these studies was that self-esteem changed with age
but it was unclear that age alone had an affect on
self-esteem. Other conditions such as self-conceptions
of age, society's views, health, and role changes may
have interacted in conjunction with age to affect
self-esteem. For example, Linn and Hunter (1979) found
that elderly who saw themselves the same or older than
others their age had lower self-esteem and less
favorable psychological functioning than elderly who
perceived themselves as younger than others their own
chronological age.
Related to the question of age changes and
self-esteem is the state-trait debate. This debate has
played an important role in self-esteem research.
To the degree that self-esteem is an enduring
trait of the individual, or, put another way, is a
completely stable individual characteristic, then
self-esteem should be impervious to intervention and
change. If, on the other hand, self-esteem is


18
responsive to situational changes in the external
environment then intervention techniques can be
developed and evaluated. Changes in self-esteem are
then possible. This is the state side of the debate.
For the purpose of this study, self-esteem was viewed as
following somewhere on the continuum between state and
trait.
Societys Views There was evidence in the
literature to suggest that members of society hold
negative stereotypes of the elderly (Butler, 1975;
Schmall, 1982). These stereotypes can have a negative
affect on the elderly. For example, Butler stated that
the elderly may adopt the stereotypes of themselves
which, in turn, reinforces societys stereotypic beliefs
about them. This can be a continuous cycle which may
lead to depression and feelings of incompetence. Zusraan
(1966) called this cycle the social breakdown syndrome.
Stereotypes may also play a part in the way
young and old people view the process of growing old.
Studies by sociologists and psychologists exploring
attitudes toward aging found that the process of growing
old is viewed negatively by young and old alike (Butler
& Lewis, 1977; Kogan & Shelton, 1962; Tuckraan & Lorge,
1956; Wigdor, 1980).
Tuckman and Lorge (1954) attempted to measure


19
appraisal of adjustment over a persons life span. Life
span was divided arbitrarily into 8 periods from the
youngest period (up to 12 years) to the oldest period
(70 years and up). A questionnaire consisting of 21
aspects of life adjustment (for example, happiness,
freedom from worry, and health) was given to graduate
students with the average age of 31 years and to older
adults ranging in age from 60 to 88 years with an
average age of 74 years. The subjects were required to
(1) rank the life span in which they thought people
would be the most happy, (2) rank the period which took
second place, and (3) rank th period when they thought
people were the least happy. Results showed that both
groups regarded the older years as the most negative.
Wigdor (1980), in a critical review of the
literature on attitudes toward the elderly, suggested
that our social value system offers little in the way of
positive rewards and incentives for behavior which is
adaptive or appropriate to the changing life situations
associated with advancing age. She suggested that this
was due to stereotypes and the lack of appropriate
behavior norms for the elderly. As a result,
unfavorable comparisons may be made between older
individuals and other age groups for whom normative
behavior is described in terms of achievement,
competitiveness, and social and economic productivity.
Wigdor goes on to suggest that without positive feedback


20
to signify personal worth and effectiveness, behavior
options which serve to enhance self-esteem become
limited. Thus, if the elderlys self-esteem is a
function of societys views, self-esteem might be lower
than that of other age groups.
Effects of Role Change Sociologists such as
Cavan (1962) and Rosow (1967) have stressed the fact
that certain role changes occur as a function of age and
that these changes may have important consequences for
the self-esteem of the elderly person. For example,
Neuhaus and Neuhaus (1982) suggest that the loss of the
job role can very easily lead to feelings of uselessness
and lowered self-esteem. This sense of worthlessness,
if not replaced with something meaningful to the
individual, may lead to depression, lowered body
resistance to diseases, and infirmities. They further
suggest that work has a social aspect. The loss of work
often involves the loss of human contact. Co-workers
are friends with whom to talk and share intimacies.
This loss of human contact may leave the elderly
psychologically weakened. This weakened state may be
detrimental to self-esteem.
Summary
The literature suggests that self-esteem tends
to decrease as age increases. Reasons suggested for


21
this decrease may be related to self-conceptions of age,
societys views and role changes. More attention in the
literature has been given to measures of self-esteem
than to ways to affect it. Therefore, whatever the
cause of low self-esteem, the need to positively affect
it is evident. This investigation was designed to look
at a specific technique, a computer interaction, and its
potential to positively affect self-esteem.
Rationale for Utilizing Computers
There have been few studies analyzing the
effects of the computer on self-esteem with the elderly.
However, there have been a number of related articles
and studies concerning computer use and the relationship
between computers and achievement, attitudes, and
anxiety.
Computers and Attitudes
There has been evidence to suggest that
computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is effective for
improving learner attitudes. Kulik (1983) did a
meta-analysis on 51 objective, comparative studies of
CBI. The studies described education outcomes in four
different areas: learning, academic attitude, attitude
toward computer, and instructional time. Forty eight of
the fifty one studies described effects of CBI on


22
achievement test scores. In more than 80% of these
studies, students from the CBI class received better
scores than did students from the control class.
Average effect size was .32. Ten of the 51 studies
reported results on students' attitudes toward the
subject matter being taught. In 8 of these studies,
attitudes were more positive in the classroom using CBI.
The average effect size was .19. Four of the 51 studies
reported effects of CBI on attitude toward the computer.
In each, students' attitudes toward the computer were
more positive in te CBI class. The average effect size
was .61.
Research has suggested that the attitude one
brings to a situation is important to the success of the
situation (Clement, 1981).. Similarly, attitudes about
using computers in a learning environment can be
critical to the success of a computer based project. It
has been observed that students resistant to CAI at the
beginning of a course learned less compared to those who
were not resistant to computer assisted instruction
(Knapper, 1978). It has also been reported that
individuals over 65 show less use and less favorable
attitudes toward computers (Kerschner & Hart, 1984). In
the present study, attitudes toward the computer were
examined as they related to the treatment.


23
Computers and Anxiety
Many kinds of anxiety were described in the
literature. Cattell and Scherer (1958) identified two
general types of anxiety: trait anxiety and state
anxiety. Trait anxiety is a general proneness to be
anxious and is dispositional or personality related.
State or situational anxiety is a direct function of a
particular stressful condition and is located in a
particular point in time. For this investigation, a
kind of state anxiety called computer anxiety was
studied.
Powers (1973) defined computer anxiety as
changes on four established physiological measures: (a)
systolic blood pressure, (b) diastolic blood pressure,
(c) heart rate, and (d) electrodermal response during
interaction with a computer. Other researchers have
defined computer anxiety in non-physiological terms.
For example, Maurer (1983) defined computer anxiety as
the fear and apprehension felt by an individual when
considering the implications of utilizing computer
technology or when actually using computer technology.
In this investigation, the anxiety one felt toward the
computer, as defined by Maurer, was examined as it
related to the treatment.


24
Computers and the Elderly
The literature has suggested that computers are
widely used by all age groups (Fleit, 1987; Furlong,
1986). The literature also specifically suggested that
this technology has altered the lives of many elderly
individuals (Ryan & Heaven, 1986). For example, for the
speech impaired elderly who retain reading and writing
skills, a portable computer and a word processing
program allows for advanced preparation of messages, for
storage of frequently used messages, and for a variety
of additional uses. Speech therapy exercises can be
done with a computer to complement those done with a
therapist (Vaughn, Faucett, & Lightfoot, 1984).
Synthesized speech can enable stroke patients to
communicate understandably with those around them.
For the hearing impaired elderly, computer
monitored hearing devices which change their settings
according to the current situational needs of the user
promise to be of great assistance to elderly persons
with some hearing loss. Devices for telephones to
enhance the signal are widely available now and deaf
individuals use computer terminals with printouts to
communicate by telephone (Popelka, 1984).
For the visually impaired, computer translation
of text into Braille and Braille keyboards and printers
can expand their access to information and opportunities
for communication. Also, voice entry computer systems


25
which recognize oral commands are available for limited
tasks at the present time. Expansion of this area can
safely be expected in the near future.
For the elderly, the use of computers for word
processing and electronic mail services open
possibilities that are just becoming apparent. Word
processing and electronic mail can substantially
facilitate the sending of personal correspondence. Once
the typing skills and a few word processing commands are
learned, the elderly individual can communicate in
writing much more easily than was traditionally the
case.
The gerontological literature suggested that
older adults were both interested in and capable of this
continued.learning (Baltes, Reese, & Lipsitt, 1980;
Knox, 1977). Yet, much of the effort on the part of
computer companies has not been directed toward the
elderly. These companies have directed their attention
to the younger generation. Research demonstrated that
even pre-school children were capable of learning
computer literacy skills (Hines, 1983; Papert, 1980).
Computers have a number of features which make
them particularly conducive for use by older adults.
Computers, being inanimate objects, allow for an
unlimited response time. Learners do not have to be
afraid to make a mistake. They may also rehearse an
action over and over again if they choose. This can be


26
especially useful for the elderly. Self-paced learning
has been demonstrated to be equal to, or even superior
to, other forms of learning for older persons
(Botwinick, 1978; Kausler, 1982).
Because learning takes place between the user
and the computer, an inanimate object unable to punish,
the learner may be less intimidated. This feature, plus
the very limited training needed in order to run
available computer programs, could help the elderly
successfully interact with the computer.
Mastering such a skill as using the computer
could promote the same sense of self-efficacy in the
elderly user as it does in younger users (Dalton &
Hannafin, 1984). This mastery may also have a positive
effect on self-esteem because mastery of the computer is
a form of control-relevant intervention.
It has been demonstrated that control-relevant
interventions have had positive effects on the
self-esteem of the elderly (Banziger & Raush, 1983;
Beck, 1982; Langer & Rodin, 1976). Eilers (1986)
suggested that mastery of computers encouraged and
reinforced feelings of accomplishment and control over
the environment. Schwartz, Snyder, and Peterson (1984)
suggested that self-esteem was developed in the
individual through events, significant and
insignificant, that provided emotional support and


27
psychological reward. Accompanying these were the
signals that denoted mastery and control over oneself
and the environment. Sherman (1985) stated that, for
many elderly people, the feelings of accomplishment and
control come less and less frequently.
Computers and Self-Esteem
As was stated earlier, very little literature is
available that showed the relationship between computer
interaction and self-esteem. One of the few studies
available reported the effects of judgmental and
non-judgmental CAI on the self-esteem of high school
students (Dalton & Hannafin, 1984). The results of this
study indicated that self-esteem was improved by
non-judgmental CAI. The authors also indicated that the
computer was an ideal delivery system with which to
enhance self-esteem.
In another study, Weisman (1983) used computer
games with nursing home residents. It was the author's
intention to see if this population would benefit from
this kind of activity. The results demonstrated that
nursing home residents could play computer games. Also,
the games may have played a role in meeting the
residents' needs for fun and mental stimulation and in
enhancing self-esteem.
A major drawback to these investigations was


28
that no direct measure of self-esteem was employed. Data
pertaining t.o self-esteem were collected via interviews
with the participants rather than through the use of a
formal measure.
In a similar project, Furlong (1986) introduced
computers to senior citizens. The project, called
Computers for Kids over Sixty was designed to discover
the kinds of computer applications in which seniors were
most interested and the best ways to teach them about
computers. Participants learned how to use data bases,
word processing programs, and the LOGO computer
language. Results showed that seniors preferred
programs that had immediate utility, such as word
processing. The participants were overwhelmingly
positive about their experiences. It was suggested that
self-esteem was increased, although no instrument to
measure self-esteem was used.
Summary
A review of the literature on self-esteem
reveals its importance to the well being of all
individuals, including the elderly. Numerous studies
concerning the development of instruments for measuring
the construct of self-esteem have been conducted.
However, there have been very few studies on the


29
effectiveness of various techniques to enhance
self-esteem.
The computer, often considered the tool of the
post-industrial revolution, has affected the lives of
many Americans. The elderly have also become affected
by this growing technology. Studies have suggested that
the computer may enhance self-esteem by having
individuals successfully interact with it.


CHAPTER III
PROCEDURE
The primary purpose of this study was to
investigate the effects of a computer interaction on the
self-esteem of the eld.erly. In addition, the effects of
this computer interaction on computer anxiety and
attitudes toward the computer were studied.
This chapter will explain the procedures
followed in the conduct of this investigation. Included
will be preliminary procedures and experimental
procedures.
Preliminary Procedures
Population
The participants in this study were chosen from
a population of senior citizens, 65 years and older, in
the Denver metropolitan area. The population selected
was required to have good mental and physical health.
Individuals in the population were also required to
maintain an active social life. The population meeting


31
these requirements was found in a specific type of
senior housing facility called an Independent Living
Unit (ILU).
An independent living unit (ILU) is a kind of
housing option available to senior citizens. It is
architecturally designed to meet the needs and
preferences of older residents. An ILU usually features
good security, a convenient location, and elevators.
Monthly rents vary, depending on the size of the unit,
the services offered, and the income group the building
is designed to serve. Government subsidies allow some
ILUs to offer lower rental rates to seniors who qualify
according to income. ILUs differ from other kinds of
housing such as residential care facilities, sheltered
housing, and continuing-care retirement communities
(CCRC). These latter residential options provide
additional services to seniors who need assistance with
personal and medical care on a 24 hour basis. The type
of individuals who reside in these residential
facilities generally do not enjoy good mental and
physical health and often are not very socially active.
Thus, this population was excluded from the study in the
selection process.
The individuals who reside in the ILU are
required to be physically and mentally capable of
maintaining themselves and their apartment. These
individuals must also be socially active as the ILUs


32
employ activity directors to insure the active social
involvement of the residents. For the reasons cited,
ILUs were selected as the residential setting from which
to solicit subjects for the study.
Selection of Independent Living Unit
The selection of the ILU for this study was a
multi-step process. First, the Colorado Association of
Homes and Services for the Aging was contacted for a
list of ILUs within the Denver metropolitan area.
Second, from this list, five ILUs were targeted as
possible study sites. These five were chosen because of
their close proximity to the University of Colorado at
Denver campus. During the third step of this process,
the administrators of the five ILUs were contacted
regarding the possible use of their facility for the
study.
At the meetings with the administrators, major
aspects of the study were discussed. These topics-
included the length of the study, the provision for
adequate space for eight IBM personal computers,
security for the computers, an approximation of the
numbers and kinds of participants sought, and the need
for permission to collect demographic data and to
administer tests related to the purpose of the study.
Three of the five administrators declined the use of
their residences due to the length of time required to


33
conduct the study. All three of the declining
administrators stated that they were unable to make a
two month commitment of the space necessary for the use
and storage of the computer equipment. The two
remaining administrators expressed an interest and were
able to assure the availability of facilities for the
required time. Finally, Metro Manor was chosen as the
study site because it was the most accessible for the
investigator and could provide the best security for the
equipment.
Research Design
A true experimental, pretest-posttest, control
group design was employed (Campbell & Stanley, 1965).
Two groups (experimental and control) were established.
Subjects
Once the ILU was selected, the investigator made
an appointment with the ILU manager to discuss the' best
way to identify subjects for the study. The manager
suggested that the investigator draft a letter
requesting volunteers for a program to learn about
computers. The letter is in Appendix A. A copy of the
letter was placed in each residents mail box. Two
hundred letters were distributed. Those interested were
to sign their names on a sign-up sheet which was located
at the front desk along with sign-up sheets for other


34
activities. The residents had two weeks to respond to
the request. A copy of the letter was posted on the
central bulletin board in the event that someone
misplaced their letter.
Two weeks prior to the study, the investigator
collected the sign-up sheet. Seventy-five residents had
signed up for the study. This was a 37.5% response
rate. There were no reasons available for the other 125
residents not agreeing to participate. The
experimenter, using a table of random numbers, selected
60 subjects to participate in the study.
The volunteer participants were randomly
assigned to experimental and control groups by use of a
table of random numbers. The age range of the
participants was from 65 years to 91 years of age. The
mean age of the participants was 73 years for the
experimental group and 74.5 years for the control group.
The mean educational level of the participants was 12.6
years of school for the experimental group and 11.9
years of school for the control group. Two subjects (1
male, 1 female) were Hispanic. The remainder of the
participants were Caucasian.
A total of sixteen subjects did not participate
in the study. Seven subjects failed to appear for the
pretest administration. There were no reasons given.
Two subjects failed to appear for the experimental
treatment. Again, no reasons were given. Five subjects


35
had to withdraw from the study because of illness. Two
subjects were unable to complete the final posttest
because of family emergencies. Data previously obtained
from these subjects was excluded from consideration and
analysis for the study. A total of 23 subjects in the
experimental group completed all treatment and testing
components of the study. A total of 21 subjects in the
control group completed the pre and post tests. A total
of 9 males and 35 females participated in the study.
Table 1 provides demographic data on the subjects' age,
gender, and educational level, by treatment group.
Instrumentation
Self-Esteem Scale. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem
Scale (RSE) was chosen as one of the criterion measure
for this study. It was chosen because of its ease of
administration, brevity (10 items) and reasonably good
reliability and validity.
The RSE (1965) is a unidimensional scale which
measures the self-acceptance aspect of self-esteem. The
scale consists of ten items rated on a four point
Likert-type scale (strongly agree to strongly disagree).
The possible range of scores is from 10 to 40 with a
higher score indicating more positive self-esteem.


36
TABLE 1
Number of Participants by
Age, Gender, Educational Level
and Group
Age
Educ. Level 65 69 70 74 75 - 79 80 - 84 85 89 90 94
Experimental Group
<12 years
Male 0 1 0 0 0 0
Female 1 2 0 0 0 0
12 years
Male 2 0 1 0 0 0
Female 2 0 1 2 0 0
13-15 years Male 0 0 0 1 0 0
Female 4 0 1 3 0 0
>15 years Male 1 0 0 0 0 0
Female 0 1 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 10 4 3 6 0 0
Control Group
<12 years
Male 0 1 0 0 0 0
Female 1 1 0 0 0 1
12 years
Male 0 1 0 0 0 0
Female 5 2 0 3 0 0
13-15 years
Male 0 0 0 1 0 0
Female 0 0 3 0 1 0
>15 years
Male 0 0 0 0 0 0
Female 1 0 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 7 5 3 4 1 1


37
Rosenberg reported a reproductibility coefficient of .92
and a scalability coefficient of .72. Ward (1974),
using 323 individuals age 60 to 92, reported an internal
consistency coefficient (alpha) of .74. In terms of
test-retest reliability, Seibert and Tippett (1965)
reported a correlation of .85 between measures
administered to college students at two-week intervals.
Concurrent validity of the RSE was investigated.
Robinson and Shaver (1973) reported a correlation of .59
with Coopersmiths Self-Esteem Inventory.
Computer Attitude Scale. The Computer
Appreciator-Critic Attitude Scale (Mathews & Wolf, 1983)
was chosen as the second criterion measure for this
investigation. It was chosen because of its reliability
as a measure of attitudes toward the computer.
The test is composed of 40 items on a
Likert-type scale. It assigns numerical scores based on
the subjects appreciative attitudes and critical
attitudes toward computers. The possible range of
scores was from 40 to 200 with a higher score indicating
more critical attitude.
Mathews and Wolf (1983) report that internal
consistency reliability of the two factor scale was
assessed by means of split-half correlation and
coefficient alpha. The correlation between split halves


38
of the first factor (appreciative attitude), corrected
by the Spearman-Brown formula, was .85. Coefficient
alpha for the first factor was .88. Split-half
correlation on the second factor (critical attitude),
corrected by the Spearman-Brown formula, was .87.
Coefficient alpha was .89 for the second factor. The
validity of the instrument is unknown, since no
validation studies have been conducted.
Computer Anxiety Scale. The Computer Anxiety
Index (CAIN) (Maurer & Simonson, 1984) was chosen as the
third criterion measure for this investigation. It was
chosen because it had some evidence of reliability and
validity as a measure of computer anxiety. The possible
range of scores was from 26 to 156 with higher scores
indicating more anxiety.
Maurer and Simonson developed the CAIN in order
to diagnose students who had high levels of computer
anxiety so they could then receive remediation during
computer literacy training. The CAIN consists of 26
items rated on a six-point Likert-type scale (strongly
agree to strongly disagree). The authors reported an
internal consistency reliability estimate of .94 using
coefficient alpha. Test-retest reliability was
determined by administering the CAIN to college students
in a teacher education course. Test-retest reliability


39
was found to be .90. The time interval between
test-retest was 4 months.
Concurrent validity of the CAIN was also
evaluated. The authors administered a portion of the
State-Trait Anxiety Index (Spielberger, 1970). Students
were also observed and rated on a three-point scale
ranging from computer anxious to computer comfortable.
Two raters were used. The inter-rater reliability was
found to be .85. The scores of the three tests (CAIN,
STAI, & Observation) were calculated. Maurer and
Simonson (1984) reported correlations of the CAIN to the
STAI and the Observation of .32 and .36, respectively.
These validity coefficients are very low, hence, there
is really, no good empirical validity evidence for the
CAIN.
In summary, there was generally adequate
reliability data for the criterion measures used in this
study. However, the validity evidence was very limited
and, in the case of the computer attitude scale,
nonexistent.
Participant Profile Sheet. The participant
profile sheet was designed by the investigator to
collect demographic data necessary for analyzing
research hypothesis 8 (education/self-esteem). Data
obtained were also used to check for pre-study
differences between groups and to describe the


40
characteristics of the sample. Demographic data
collected were age, years retired, years at metro manor,
years of education, gender, race, marital status,
previous computer experience, type of computer
experience, and computer ownership. The participant
profile sheet is in Appendix B.
Experimental Procedures
Facilities and Equipment
The study took place at Metro Manor, an ILU
approximately one and one-half miles west of the
University of Colorado-Denver campus. The following
equipment was utilized to conduct this study:
8 IBM Personal Computers with dual
disk drives
8 IBM color monitors
4 IBM dot-matrix printers
This equipment was loaned to the investigator by
the IBM corporation, Boca Raton, Florida, for a two
month period. This loan was approved after a verbal
explanation of the proposed study and request for
computers was made to the IBM representative assigned to
the University of Colorado-Denver.
The arts and crafts room at Metro Manor was the
site chosen to accommodate the computers. This room was
chosen for its security, size, and central location in
the building.
The 8 computers, 4 tables and 8 chairs were


41
delivered to Metro Manor and arranged around the
periphery of the arts and crafts room by the
investigator. Each table held 2 computers. This
arrangement allowed each subject ample work space. This
set-up allowed the investigator freedom to move about
each computer area as needed. Diagram of the arts and
crafts room appears in Figure 1.
Experimental Activities
Two weeks prior to the initiation of the study,
the investigator met with all of the participants to
give them a brief overview of the upcoming activities.
The participants were informed that they would be
filling out consent forms, a profile sheet, and a
pretest instrument the following week. They were also
informed that they would be taking posttest 1 and
posttest 2 during the course of the investigation.
One week before the initiation of the treatment,
the investigator issued consent forms required and
designed by the University of Colorado-Denver Human
Rights Committee. The consent form is in Appendix C.
The investigator also informed the participants of their
group assignment. This information was provided to the
participants in order to collect data to test research
hypothesis 1 (pre-computer anxiety). The investigator
then administered the participant profile form and the
pretest questionnaire to all the participants in the


"Door
Computer 1
Printer 1
Computer 2
9 jajnduioj
£ J3}UlJ,j
S ja;nduio9
FIGURE 1
DIAGRAM OF COMPUTER TREATMENT ROOM
Computer 3 Printer Z I Computer 4


43
study. Subjects were told they would be filling out a
questionnaire regarding how they felt about themselves
and computers.
The directions, which appeared on the top of the
pretest questionnaire, were read orally by the
investigator in an attempt to minimize any confusion
about the pretest. The subjects were instructed to
answer all of the items. There was no time limit set
for the completion of the pretest although all
participants were able to complete the questionnaire
within 35 minutes.
All participants were given the dates for
posttest 1 and posttest 2. Posttest 1 was to be
administered two weeks after the beginning of the
experimental treatment. Posttest 2 was to be
administered at the completion of the study, 6 weeks
after posttest 1. The control group subjects were asked
to be present on the dates of the two posttests. They
were also informed that they would receive computer
time, if requested, after the study had ended. The
control group subjects were required to participate only
in the testing aspect of the investigation (pretest,
posttest 1 & posttest 2).
One week following the pretest, the participants
in the experimental group began the experimental
treatment. This first meeting of the experimental group
lasted approximately 35 minutes. At this meeting, the


44
participants were informed that the study would run five
days a week for two months; and that they would be
interacting with the computer at two one-hour sessions
per week, for 8 weeks. They were asked to select a
one-hour section to be held on two consecutive evenings.
Their choices were:
Section 1 Tuesday & Wednesday 7 p.m. - 8 p.m.
Section 2 Tuesday & Wednesday 8 p.m. - 9 p.m.
Section 3 Thursday & Friday 7 p.m. - 8 p.m.
Monday evenings from 6 p.m.to 7 p.m. were
reserved for experimental group meetings. The purpose
of these meetings was to discuss upcoming computer
sessions and review and answer general questions
concerning the previous week's work. For example, if
the participants were unclear about the meaning of
certain computer jargon (Disk Operating System), the
meaning was explained to the entire experimental group
at the Monday night session.
The experimental activities ran for eight
consecutive weeks beginning September 15, 1986 and
ending November 8, 1986. Each weeks' activities was
introduced at the Monday group meeting. Table 2 is a
schedule of the study activities.


45
TABLE 2
Schedule of Study Activities
GROUP DAYS ACTIVITY
Week 1 All
Subjects M Pretest
Week 2 Sec. 1 T & W Exploring the IBM
(Sept Sec. 2 T & W Exploring the IBM
15) Sec. 3 Th & F Exploring the IBM
Week 3 Sec. 1 T & W Exploring the IBM
Sec. 2 T & W Exploring the IBM
Sec. 3 Th & F Exploring the IBM
Week 4 All
Subjects M Posttest 1
Sec. 1 T & W Leisure Activity
Sec. 2 T & W Leisure Activity
Sec. 3 Th & F Leisure Activity
Week 5 Sec. 1 T & W Leisure Activity
Sec. 2 T & W Leisure Activity
Sec. 3 Th & F Leisure Activity
Week 6 Sec. 1 T & W Word Processing
Sec. 2 T & W Word processing
Sec. 3 Th & F Word Processing
Week 7 Sec. 1 T & W Word Processing
Sec. 2 T & W Word Processing
Sec. 3 Th & F Word Processing
Week 8 Sec. 1 T & W Word Processing
Sec. 2 T & W Word Processing
Sec. 3 Th & F Word Processing
Week 9 Sec. 1 T & W Word Processing
(Nov 8) Sec. 2 T & W Word Processing
Sec. 3 Th & F Word Processing
Week 10 All M Posttest 2
Subjects


46
Computer Programs
The computer programs chosen for use, in order
of presentation, were Exploring the IBM, Hangman,
Blackjack, Checkers, Ellusion, Concentrate, 3-K Trivia,
and the Writing Assistant Word Processing Program.
Other programs (Chess, Bridge, Adventure Games) were
considered but were excluded because of level of
difficulty.
Ease of learning, age and interest
appropriateness, and in the case of leisure activities
(games) popularity, were the primary selection
criterion for the programs chosen for use in this study.
The word processing program was chosen for its practical
aspects. This kind of program allows the user to write
letters, revise work without difficult erasures, and
easily produce letter-quality printed manuscripts.
Prior to the introductory program, Exploring the
IBM, the experimenter introduced the participants to the
computer. Topics discussed included the processor,
memory, input/output devices, disk storage, how to
insert a program diskette, and how to turn on the
computer. A handout was used for this discussion. This
handout was a chapter from the book titled Inside the
IBM by Peter Norton. The title of the chapter is
Fundamentals: What a Computer is.


47
Introductory Computer Program. Exploring the
IBM was the introductory program used. It was chosen
for the following reasons: (1) this program was designed
to teach the user the basic steps necessary to operate
the IBM computer; (2) this program was intended to give
the user a working understanding of the IBM computer;
(3) the program assumed no previous computer knowledge
on the part of the user; and (4) all directions were
given by the computer. The investigator was available
for any questions and/or assistance.
Each experimental group section (section 1,
section 2, and section 3) used the Exploring the IBM
program diskette for two weeks (weeks 2 & 3).
Participants used the program for a total of 4 hours.
During this period the investigator answered any
questions and clarified any misunderstandings.
At the end of the two week period each
participant had the ability to turn on the computer, get
the program running, and had a basic understanding' of
the IBM disk operating system (DOS) which consisted of
the DIRectory command, COPY command, FORMAT command, and
DISKCOPY command.
On the Monday following the completion of the
first two weeks of the study, the first posttest
(Posttest 1) was administered at the Monday night group
meeting. Both experimental and control groups were
present at this meeting.


48
Posttest 1 was administered at this time to
determine if the two week time period and the basic
understanding of the computer gained from the Exploring
the IBM program were enough to affect a significant
difference in computer anxiety, attitude toward the
computer, and self-esteem.
Leisure Activities. The next two weeks (study
weeks 4 & 5) were devoted to the use of the computer for
the purpose of leisure time activities. Two program
diskettes were utilized. The investigator created the
two game disks by copying each program, located on its
own disk, to a blank disk. Disks for each computer (8)
were then created by making copies of each game disk.
There were a total of 16 game disks.
The first diskette contained the games Hangman,
Blackjack, and Checkers. The games were all public
domain software which presented no copyright problems.
Each game was compatible with the IBM PC. Each game had
on screen introductions and directions. Subjects were
able to access the directions for each game at any time
during the game by pressing control keys specific to
each game. Two games were introduced at the first
session and one game was introduced at the following
session.
The first game utilized was Hangman. Hangman is
a word game where the player has to guess the word,


49
generated by the computer, by choosing one letter at a
time to fill the blanks on the computer screen. If an
incorrect guess is given, the computer begins the
process of building a gallows and after each incorrect
guess proceeds to add parts of the body to the gallows
until the entire man is hung. A correct guess postpones
the hanging. The object of the game is to guess the
word before hanging the man. Each participant played
against the computer.
Blackjack was the next game introduced. This is
a card game where the object of the game is to get as
close to 21 or exactly 21 by adding the face value of
the cards before going over a total numerical value of
21. The betting minimum, established by the computer,
was five dollars. Subjects were required to place a bet
at the beginning of each hand. The computer kept track
of the the subjects' winnings. Subjects specifically
enjoyed winning and watching their earnings add up on
the screen. Comments such as "I've got to go to Vegas",
"I'm so lucky", were common. They also did not mind
losing as no real money was involved.
The third computer game used was Checkers. This
appeared to be the most popular leisure activity. Once
familiar with how to move the computer pieces via the
keyboard, all subjects readily played this game against
the computer.
The second diskette of leisure activities


50
contained the games Ellusion, Concentrate, and 3-K
trivia. Ellusion and 3-K Trivia were public domain
software. Concentrate was purchased from PC Software
and permission was given to make six copies of the
program. These copies were then erased after the study
was completed. These three games were introduced and
used during week 5 of the study. Directions for the
games were presented on the computer screen. Subjects
were able to see the directions at any time during a
game by pressing control keys specific to each game.
The first game used was Ellusion. Ellusion is a
game played on a 5x5 matrix board seen on the computer
screen. The object of the game is to place your pieces
on the squares, one move at a time, with the intent to
trap the opponent (i.e, the computer).
The fifth leisure activity introduced was called
Concentrate. This game is the computer version of the
popular memory game, Concentration. Players must
correctly match pictures and/or words in order to clear
the screen. Beneath the matched pictures lies a puzzle
to be solved before time runs out.
The final game utilized was 3-K Trivia. This is
a version of the popular board game, Trivial Pursuit, in
which players choose a subject category and the computer
generates a question. The player is required to type in
the answer. Points are awarded for correct answers.


51
Word Processing. The following three weeks
(weeks 6, 7, 8) were devoted to word processing using
IBMs Writing Assistant word processing program. The
first session was an introduction to Writing Assistant
and word processing in general. Directions on how to
load Writing Assistant were presented using a handout
(see Appendix D). Each session thereafter focused on a
special function found in Writing Assistant. The
functions taught were as follows: (a) making simple
corrections using the cursor movement keys, (b) deleting
using the DEL key, (c) inserting using the INS key, (d)
moving text using the Function Keys, (e) adjusting text
using the Function Keys, and (f) printing text. Each
function was introduced and a guide sheet was presented.
The guide sheets appear in Appendix E.
During week 9 of the study, no new information
was introduced. Subjects were asked to bring original
documents to enter, edit, and print using their
cumulative Writing Assistant skills.
The total amount of classroom computer time
possible for this investigation was 16 hours. The
average class time of the participants was 15.26 hours.
The average extra time on computer per participant was
9.1 hours. The average total time on computer per
participant was 24.45 hours.
On the Monday evening (week 10) following the
last week of experimental group sessions both the


52
experimental and control groups met in the recreation
hall, adjacent to the arts and crafts room which housed
the computers, for the final posttest (posttest 2).
Following the completion of the posttest, the
instruments were collected and all were thanked by the
investigator.
Data Analysis
Internal consistency reliabilities for the
pretest data were computed. Pretest, posttest 1 and
posttest 2 scores for subjects in both groups were
analyzed with ANOVA, ANCOVA, and chi-square tests.
Additional follow-up analyses, two-way repeated measures
ANOVAs, were also used to analyze the data.
Summary
Forty-four elderly volunteers participated in
this investigation to determine the effects of selected
computer programs and a computer interaction on their
self-esteem. This investigation was conducted at Metro
Manor in Denver, Colorado. The experiment was conducted
in the evenings during the weeks between September 15
and November 8, 1986.
Experimental activities included randomly
assigning subjects to groups, administering the pretest
instrument, performing experimental treatment, posttest


53
1, and posttest 2. On completion of the testing and
treatment, data were analyzed to determine the
effectiveness of the treatment. The results of the data
analyses are presented in Chapter IV.


CHAPTER IV
RESULTS
This chapter includes the presentation of the
results of this investigation.. It also contains the
assumptions of the specific statistical analyses
regarding each of the hypotheses tested in the course of
this investigation.
Statistical Analyses
Reliability Estimation
Internal consistency reliability for the pretest
data was estimated. Three scales (Seif-Esteem, Computer
Attitudes, Computer Anxiety) were used and coefficient
Alphas were obtained on each. Alphas for the scales
were .88, .96, and .95 respectively.
Pre-Treatment Group Differences
Separate ANOVAs were conducted on the three
pretests (Self-Esteem, Computer Attitude, Computer
Anxiety) to investigate possible initial differences
between the experimental and control groups.


55
Summary statistics (means and standard deviations)
appear in Table 3.
TABLE 3
SUMMARY STATISTICS
EXPERIMENTAL
GROUP
CONTROL
GROUP
VARIABLES
(n = 23).
v
(n=21) _
S X' *
Pre Self-Esteem
33.17
4.86
Post 1 Self-Esteem 32.71 5.54
Post 2 Self-Esteem 33.52 4.99
Pre Computer Attitude 101.47 23.22
Post 1 Attitude 97.04 27.24
Post 2 Attitude 91.73 24.15
Pre Computer
Anxiety 78.19 23.27
Post 1 Anxiety 71.23 20.15
31.59 3.95
32.21 30.28 4.25 30.85
33.06 31.78 3.73 32.28
107.85 27.81
99.40 111.04 22.62 108.47
94.43 104.71 26.52 101.76
96.58 23.58
78.46 98.42 27.30 90.53
70.58 94.28 27.34 86.16
Post 2 Anxiety 63.17 21.70
'* X' = adjusted means from analysis of covariance
The results of the pre-treatment analysis
indicated that the groups (experimental and control)
were not different on the variables of self-esteem and
computer attitude (F[l,42} = 1.38, p = .25; F[l,42] =
.67, p = .41). However, the groups were different on


56
the computer anxiety variable (F[l,42] = 6.03, p = .02);
the control group had higher computer anxiety than the
experimental group. The results of ANOVAs conducted on
pretest data appear in Table 4.
TABLE 4
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON PRETEST DATA
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR PRETEST SELF-ESTEEM
SOURCE SS DF MS F P
BETWEEN GROUPS 27.36 1 27.36 1.378 .24
WITHIN GROUPS 834.11 42 19.86
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR PRETEST COMPUTER ATTITUDES
SOURCE SS DF MS F P
BETWEEN GROUPS 446.67 1 446.67 . 686 .41
WITHIN GROUPS 27340.31 42 650.96
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR PRETEST COMPUTER ANXIETY
SOURCE SS DF MS F P
BETWEEN GROUPS 3592.32 1 3592.32 6.03 .02
WITHIN GROUPS 25004.16 42 595.34


57
Demographic Data
Chi-squares and ANOVAs were also conducted with
the experimental and control groups' demographic data to
investigate other initial group differences.
Demographic data used in the analyses were age, years
retired, years at Metro Manor, years of education,
gender, race, marital status, previous computer
experience, type of computer experience,and computer
ownership. The statistical tests indicated no
significant differences for the two groups on any of the
demographic variables. The results of the group
comparisons that used ANOVA to test for significance
were as follows:
Age: F[l,42] = .47, p = .50
Years Retired: F[l,42] = 1.56, p = .22
Years at Metro Manor: F[l,42] = .28, p = .60
Years of Education: F[l,42] = 1.50, p = .23
The results of the group comparisons that used the
Chi-square test of independence were as follows:
Gender: X2 = 9.4, df = 1, p = 33
2
Race: X = 1.22, df = 2, p = .48
Marital Status: x = 1.48, df = 3, p = = .69
2
Previous Computer Experience: X = .01, df = 1, p = .90
2
Type of Computer Experienced = 6.56, df = 3, p = .09
2
Computer Ownership: X = .93, df = 1, p = .33


58
Analyses of Covariance
Separate analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were
conducted for each dependent variable comparing the
experimental and control groups on self-esteem, computer
attitude and computer anxiety on both Posttest 1 and
Posttest 2 using the pretest as covariates. The summary
statistics for the analyses of covariance appear in
Table 3.
The results of the ANCOVA conducted on posttest
1 self-esteem and posttest 2 self-esteem were (F[l,41] =
1.23, p = .27) and (F[l,41] = .51, p = .48) (see Table
5).
TABLE 5
ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE ON POSTTEST SELF-ESTEEM DATA
ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR POST 1 SELF-ESTEEM
SOURCE SS DF MS F P
COVARIATE 429.38 1 429.38 26.90
GROUP 19.67 1 19.67 1.23 .27
RESIDUAL 654.55 41 15.97
ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR POST 2 SELF-ESTEEM

SOURCE SS DF MS F P
COVARIATE 330.30 1 330.30 25.88
GROUP 6.52 1 6.52 .51 .47
RESIDUAL 523.29 41 12.76


59
The results of the ANCOVA conducted on posttest
1 attitude and posttest 2 attitude were (F[l,41] = 3.56,
p = .06) and (F[l,41] = 4.31, p = .04) (see Table 6).
TABLE 6
ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR POSTTEST COMPUTER ATTITUDES
DATA
ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR POST 1 COMPUTER ATTITUDES
SOURCE SS DF MS F P
COVARIATE 17658.59 1 17658.59 71.17
GROUP 887.50 1 887.50 3.58 .06
RESIDUAL 10172.64 41 248.13
ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR POST 2 COMPUTER ATTITUDES

SOURCE SS DF MS F P
COVARIATE 22639.56 1 22639.56 167.91
GROUP 581.15 1 581.15 4.31 .04
RESIDUAL 5528.08 41 134.83
The results of the ANCOVA conducted on posttest
1 anxiety and posttest 2 anxiety were (F[l,41] = 8.97, p
= .005) and (F[1,41] = 13.88, p = .
001) (see table 7).


60
TABLE 7
ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR POSTTEST COMPUTER ANXIETY
DATA
ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR POST 1 COMPUTER ANXIETY
SOURCE SS DF MS F P
COVARIATE 24175.75 1 24175.75 155.05
GROUP 1399.01 1 1399.01 8.97 .005
RESIDUAL 6392.94 41 155.93
ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR POST 2 COMPUTER ANXIETY
SOURCE SS DF MS F P
COVARIATE 26730.35 1 16730.35 159.24
GROUP 2329.56 1 2329.56 13.88 .001
RESIDUAL 6882.07 41 167,86
Additional Analyses on Dependent Variables
Since the three dependent variables were all
measured three times in this study (pretest, posttest 1,
and posttest 2), an additional type of analysis was
conducted on each dependent variable: a two-way repeated
measures ANOVA. The primary reason for conducting these
additional ANOVAswhich can be viewed as follow-up
analyses to the ANC0VAs--was to determine if there were
significant group-by-time interactions on any of the
dependent variables. If significant interactions


61
emerged, it might have implications for the
generalizability of the findings.
The group by time interaction for self-esteem
and for attitudes towards the computer were not
significant. On self-esteem, the F-ratio for the
interaction was .34 (df = 2.41; p = .71); on attitudes,
the F-ratio was 1.86 (df = 2,41; p = .17). However, the
group-by-time interaction for computer anxiety was
significant (F = 5.65, df = 2,41, P=.007). The group by
time interaction for computer anxiety appears in Figure
2.
100-
95-
90-
_ 85-
X 80-
75-
70-
65-
60-
55-
Pre Post 1 Post 2
TIME
FIGURE 2
COMPUTER ANXIETY
GROUP BY TIME INTERACTION
C A
0 N
M X
P I
U E
T T
E Y
R


62
Assumptions of ANOVA AND ANCOVA
The ANOVA and ANCOVA procedures require that
certain assumptions be met prior to the use of the
statistical tests. The assumptions underlying the use
of ANOVA are as follows:
1. The populations from which the samples
are randomly drawn are assumed to be
normally distributed.
2. An individual's score is independent of
any other score and not influenced by the
scores of other subjects.
3. . The population variance within each
treatment group is assumed to be equal to
the population variance of each of the
other treatment groups in the study
2 2
(i.e. ,CTi =cf2 ) .
The assumption of normality was not tested for
because ANOVA is robust to violations of that assumption
(Glass & Hopkins, 1984).
The assumption of independence was not tested
for statistically. This was controlled in the study
design and procedure. The experimental group was asked
not to divulge any information concerning the computer
sessions to anyone until the study was completed. They


63
were reminded of this after each session. Each subject
in the experimental group acknowledged that they would
comply. No one other than the experimental group
subjects was allowed into the computer room during the
duration of the study. This room was locked after the
last session each evening. Each subject in the
experimental group was issued a key to the room so they
had access to it at any time.
To determine homogeneity of variance, Hartley's
F-Max tests were run on all nine sets of data. None
were statistically significant (a = .05) which indicates
that this assumption was not violated.
In addition to the ANOVA assumptions, ANCOVA has
its own special assumptions. They are the assumptions
of linearity, and of homogeneity of regression
coefficients. Given the type of design and analysis
used in this study (ie. true experimental design,
one-factor fixed-effects ANCOVA), concerns about
violations of these assumptions are minimal (Glass &
Hopkins, 1984; Glass, Peckham, and Sanders, 1972).
Nevertheless, a test was run for homogeneity of
regression and it was determined that there was no
violation of the assumption (F = [1,42] = 2.14, p >
.05).
Chi-Square
A chi-square test was conducted to investigate


64
the relationship between educational level and
self-esteem. The educational levels were categorized as
follows:
1 = lowest grade completed through 11th grade.
2 = twelfth grade (H.S. Diploma).
3 = thirteen years of school through fifteen
years.
4 = sixteen years of school through highest.
Self-esteem was categorized as high and low
self-esteem. Subjects whose self-esteem score on the
pretest was <31 were placed in the low group and
subjects with scores 31 were placed in the high
self-esteem group. Thirty-one was chosen because it was
the median score on the self-esteem, pretest. The
results indicated that these two variables were
2
independent (X = .547, df = 3, p = .90).
Summary
To analyze data collected during the course of
this investigation, one-way ANOVAs and ANCOVAs, two-way
repeated measures, and chi-squares were employed. The
conclusions of the aforementioned results, their
implications, and their contributions to recommendations
for further research are discussed in Chapter V.


CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter summarizes this investigation to
assess the effects of selected computer programs and a
computer interaction on the self-esteem of the elderly.
Additionally, hypotheses and findings are reviewed,
implications are addressed and recommendations for
future investigations are stated.
Summary
The primary purpose of this study was to
investigate the effects of selected computer programs
and a computer interaction on the self-esteem of the
elderly. Sixty elderly subjects were randomly assigned-
to experimental (computer group) and control groups. A
total of 23 subjects completed all treatment and testing
aspects of this investigation (experimental group) and a
total of 21 subjects completed the testing aspect of the
this investigation (control group), for a total of 44
participants. A personal profile sheet was administered
to each participant in order to obtain demographic data.
Pretest data were gathered using three instruments: the


66
Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965), the
Computer-Appreciator-Critic Attitude Scale (Mathews &
Wolf, 1983), and the Computer Anxiety Index (Maurer &
Simonson, 1984). The treatment consisted of subjects
interacting with the computer in three areas; (a)
introduction to the use of the IBM computer, (b) leisure
activities for use with the computer, and (c) word
processing.
The treatment phase of this investigation took
place over an 8 week period. Subjects in the
experimental group were divided into three sections with
eight subjects in each group. Each treatment section
met on two consecutive nights for one hour during the
eight weeks of the study. They received the treatment
(computer interaction and selected computer programs) at
these one hour meetings. Immediately following the
first two weeks of the treatment, which consisted of the
subjects in the experimental group using the computer
introduction program (Exploring the IBM), posttest 1 was
administered to all participants (experimental and
control). Posttest 1 consisted of the same three
instruments used in the pretest. Immediately following
the completion of the treatment, posttest 2 was
administered to all participants (experimental and
control) using the same three instruments. Data were
analyzed using ANOVA, ANCOVA, chi-square tests, and
two-way repeated measures ANOVAs.


67
Findings
Following each research hypothesis is a
statement of the findings of this investigation.
Hypothesis 1: : Elderly individuals who are aware that they will interact with the computer will have higher computer anxiety than those elderly individuals who know they will not interact with the computer.
The results of the ANOVA test conducted on the
pretest computer anxiety data showed that the control
group had higher computer anxiety than the experimental
group. Therefore, research hypothesis 1 was not
supported.
Hypothesis 2: : After the introductory computer program, the elderly individuals who have interacted with the computer will have a higher self-esteem than those individuals who did not interact with the computer.
The results of the ANCOVA test run on the
posttest 1 self-esteem data were not significant.
Therefore, research hypothesis 2 was not supported.


68
Hypothesis 3: After the introductory computer program,
elderly individuals who interacted with
the computer will have a more favorable
attitude toward computers than elderly
individuals who did not interact with
the computer.
Computer attitudes for the experimental group
were significantly different (p = .06) on posttest 1.
Therefore, research hypothesis 3 was supported.
Hypothesis 4: After the introductory computer program,
computer anxiety will be lower for those
elderly who have interacted with the
computer compared to those who did not
interact with the computer.
The results of the ANCOVA test on computer
anxiety posttest 1 data were significant (p = .005).
Therefore, research hypothesis 4 was strongly supported.
Hypothesis 5: At the completion of the study,
elderly individuals who have
interacted with the computer will
have a higher self-esteem than


69
those individuals who did not
interact with the computer.
The results of the ANCOVA test of the posttest
2 data were not significant. Therefore, research
hypothesis 5 was not supported.
Hypothesis 6: At the completion of the study,
elderly individuals who have
interacted with the computer will
have a more favorable attitude toward
computers than elderly individuals
who did not interact with the computer.
The results of the ANCOVA test on, posttest 2
computer attitude data were significant (p = .04).
Therefore, research hypothesis 6 was strongly supported.
Hypothesis 7: At the completion of the study, computer
anxiety will be lower for those elderly
who interact with the computer compared
to those who do not interact with the
computer.
The results of the ANCOVA test on the computer
anxiety posttest 2 data were significant (p = .001).
Therefore, research hypothesis 7 was strongly supported.


70
Hypothesis 8: The self-esteem of the elderly in the
investigation will be positively
related to their educational level.
The results of the chi-square test of
significance showed no significant relationship between
educational level and self-esteem. Therefore, research
hypothesis 8 was not supported.
Conclusions
Based upon the results of the analyses employed
in this investigation, the following are conclusions
drawn from this study:
1. Computer interaction and the computer
programs selected for this study are
not effective in raising the level of
self-esteem of the elderly.
2. Use of the Exploring the IBM introductory
program on the computer for a two week
period has a mild positive affect on
attitude toward the computer for the
elderly and further use of the computer
has a strong positive affect on attitude
toward the computer for the elderly.


71
3. The knowledge that elderly individuals
will have an interaction with a computer
does not significantly increase their
computer anxiety.
4. Use of the exploring the IBM introductory
program on the computer for a two week
period is effective in reducing computer
anxiety in the elderly. Further use
further reduces computer anxiety.
5. The self-esteem of the elderly is not
related to their educational level.
Discussion
Based upon the results of the analyses employed
in this investigation, the conclusions, with respect to
the hypotheses, are discussed:
1. Does interacting with a computer increase the
level of self-esteem of the elderly?
Existing research concerning computers, the
elderly, and self-esteem suggests that a computer
interaction has been instrumental in bringing about
positive changes in self-esteem. Weisman (1983)
demonstrated that nursing home residents did interact in
a positive manner with a computer and suggested that


72
this interaction may have played a role in enhancing
self-esteem. These results were based on hypotheses put
forth by Butler and Lewis (1973) and Solomon (1982).
Both researchers hypothesized that enhancement of
self-esteem may occur by mastering new material.
However, no formal measure of self-esteem was mentioned
by Weisman, Butler, or Solomon. All made use of
participant interviews to determine if changes in
self-esteem took place. Perhaps these authors were not
addressing self-esteem but attitude toward the new
material being introduced. In the Weisman paper, the
new material was the computer.
This investigator also used informal post study
interviews. Questions, such as "How do you feel about
the computer?'; "How do you feel about what you
learned?"; "How do you feel about yourself?"; were
asked. A sample participant response is presented in
Appendix F. The informal interviews with participants
revealed an excitement about the technology and pleasure
about newly developed skills. This pleasure about the
computer could be interpreted as a general increase in
positive self-feelings which can appear to be an
increase in self-esteem but then, the same mistake of
confusing self-esteem and attitude would be made.
This study differed from previous research in
that a formal statistical method, the Rosenberg
Self-Esteem Scale, was employed to determine if there


73
were significant differences in self-esteem. This
investigation found no significant difference in
self-esteem of the elderly at the two week interval
(posttest 1) or at the completion of the study (posttest
2) as a result of the computer interaction. Therefore,
it is concluded that the computer interaction and
selected computer programs used in this study were
ineffective in enhancing self-esteem.
The lack of support for research hypothesis 2 and
research hypothesis 5 may be attributable to a variety
of other factors, among these may be sample size and
instrumentation.
Sample Size
A test's power varies as a function of sample
size (Glass & Hopkins, 1984). That is, the larger the
sample, the smaller the sampling error. Twenty-three
subjects were in the experimental group and 21 subjects
were in the control group. With a larger sample, the
power of the statistical test would be increased.
Instrumentation
The subjects' limited opportunity to become
more realistic about their feelings of self may be
attributable to the insensitivity of the instrument used
to measure self-esteem. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale
measures global self-esteem. Perhaps this computer


74
interaction affects a small component of self-esteem,
1. e, how one feels about oneself in relation to
computers.
Also, self-esteem is generally regarded as a
construct that is difficult to change (e.g., Bengston,
Reed, & Gordon, 1985). The lack of significant change
in self-esteem in this study supports these research
findings. In this study, the mean self-esteem score for
the experimental group was a 33 out of a possible 40
(pretest self-esteem). With self-esteem levels starting
out relatively high, there is less opportunity for
changes to occur. In addition, Wylie (1968) points out
that we have no way of knowing whether responses given
on a measure of self-esteem reflect conscious or
unconscious feelings if the subjects are not told ahead
of time of the intent of the investigation. The
subjects in this study were not informed of its exact
nature.
2. Does interacting with a computer increase
positive attitudes about the computer?
Past research (Gressard & Loyd, 1985; Linbeck &
Dambrot, 1986) suggested that attitudes toward computers
do change in a positive way as a result of hands-on
computer experiences. This investigation found a
moderate difference in attitude toward the computer at


75
the two week interval (posttest 1). These results may
be related to the amount of actual computer time each
participant had with the computer. At the end of two
weeks, a total of four hours of computer time was
accrued. This was enough time to see a mild positive
difference but not enough time for a strong positive
difference in attitude to occur.
A strong difference in attitude at the
completion of the study (posttest 2) was noted. These
results supported the research hypotheses concerning
computer attitude. Therefore, it was concluded that
hands-on experience with the computer in this study was
effective in increasing positive attitude toward the
computer.
Furlong (1984) demonstrated that the elderly
participants in her computer activities were
overwhelmingly positive about their interaction with the
computer. She suggested that self-esteem may have been
increased. However, again, there may have been some
confusion; what was interpreted as change in self-esteem
may have been change in computer attitude. If so, these
results would lend support to the results of this
investigation concerning effects on computer attitude.
3. Does the knowledge that one is to interact
with a computer have an affect on computer
anxiety ?


76
According to the literature (Clement, 1981;
Maurer, 1983), computer anxiety increases when the
individual considers utilizing the computer or when the
individual actually uses the computer. However, this
study found the control group having higher pretest
anxiety than the experimental group. It is therefore
suggested, for this study, that elderly individuals'
prior knowledge of an upcoming computer interaction does
not increase their level of computer anxiety.
The lack of significant findings for research
hypothesis 1 may be attributable to a variety of other
factors, among these are retirement time differences and
investigator bias. These factors are explained below.
Retirement Time Differences
As a group, the control group was retired
longer than the experimental group (3 years). Due to
this earlier retirement, the control group may have felt
a greater impact of technology having been out of the
work force before the on-set of computers in the work
place. This limited exposure, coupled with a general
lack of understanding of computer technology, may have
caused these individuals to have negative attitudes
about computers. Negative attitudes can take the form
of resistance to thinking about computers or could
appear as computerphobia (anxiety) (Jay, 1981).


77
Investigator Bias
Another plausible explanation for the pre-study
anxiety results may be linked to the investigator's
introduction to the study. It was the investigator's
intention to make all of the participants as relaxed as
possible prior to the commencement of the study.
Explanations of the procedures to be used in the
treatment were given to both groups prior to pretesting.
The investigator's easy manner, encouraging remarks and
explanation of the treatment may have alleviated some of
the anxiety in the experimental group, with the anxiety
levels of the control group remaining unchanged.
4. Does interacting with a computer have an
effect on computer anxiety?
Prior research (Jay, 1981) stated that a slow
paced introduction, hands-on experience, and a
recognition that computer anxiety exists are ways to
reduce computer anxiety. This study included a verbal
introduction of each step in the treatment. Also, a
step-by-step, hands-on computer introduction and typed
directions for each computer procedure were utilized.
The results of the study showed that, at the two week
interval (posttest 1), and at the completion of the
study (posttest 2), computer anxiety for the


78
experimental group was significantly less than for the
control group. Computer anxiety for the control group
started higher but remained high. Therefore, it is
concluded that an interaction with a computer in a
positive, easy manner was effective in reducing the
computer anxiety of the elderly in this study.
5. Is one's educational level predictive of
one's self-esteem?
The chi-square test did not produce significant
results. It was, therefore, concluded that the
variables of self-esteem and educational level are
independent of each other.
Implications
The pervasiveness of computers demands the
study of societal attitudes toward computers to better
understand and correct the misconceptions and often
irrational attitudes toward this technology. A purpose
of this investigation was to determine if interacting
with the computer would reduce negative attitudes toward
it. From the findings, there was evidence that hands-on
interaction with the computer reduced the negative
attitudes and promoted positive feelings about
computers.
The impact of computer technology, either


79
directly or indirectly, on the elderly is increasing.
Promoting a positive attitude toward this technology
would be an important factor for the elderly and for
those who work with this population. The elderly must
live in this technological society and knowing that the
computer can be a useful tool rather than something to
fear will help to achieve this end.
Computers offer tremendous educational
possibilities for the elderly. Through the use of
commercially available programs, they can increase their
knowledge about a wide variety of subject matter.
Moreover, acquired skills could be applied to other
situations involving basic computer skills such as
computer assisted banking. Mastery of such skills and
using them on a daily basis could promote a sense of
self-efficacy and help these individuals require less
dependence on others.
The continued use of computers is likely to
change the workforce. Increasing numbers of employees
may no longer find it necessary to go to the workplace.
With the combination of computer, modem, and phone
lines, work can be phoned into any given location.
Physical presence may no longer be required in a number
of jobs. This work at home feature could put many
competent older adults back into the work force.
Computer literate elderly persons may have a
substantial impact on areas of concern to


80
gerontologists. One such concern, for example, is the
negative societal attitudes toward the elderly due to a
lack of meaningful intergenerational contacts (Ansello,
1978; Atchley, 1977). If these negative images are to
be overcome, ways to demonstrate that the elderly have a
wealth of experience and knowledge need to be developed.
Interacting with the younger generation via computer
classes may help reverse this negative image of the
elderly held by younger people.
Interacting with computers also seemed to
encourage the elderly to concentrate and focus their
attention. This could be of interest to psychologists
who work with elderly individuals with memory problems.
The computer may be used to exercise and sharpen memory,
improve eye-hand coordination and increase the ability
to concentrate on a task. These ideas can also be used
by managers and activity directors of ILU's and/or
similar living arrangements to accomplish the same
goals.


81
Recommendations for Research
This study was concerned with the effects of a
computer interaction on the self-esteem, attitudes
toward the computer and computer anxiety of the elderly.
Based on. the findings of this study, it is recommended
that this investigation be replicated in light of the
following considerations:
* Replicate the study with as large a
sample as possible.
* Use a self-esteem instrument that would
be more sensitive to factors that may be
working to affect self-esteem, or develop
a new instrument to measure "computer
self-esteem."
* Increase the length of treatment time
and extend the length of time that the
computer is accessible so that
computer activities become more
meaningful. Also, increase the number
and types of computer activities.
* Investigate the relationship between
computer literacy and attitudes toward
continued learning among the elderly.
* Investigate the relationship
between fear of computers and different
age groups.


82
* Investigate intergenerational computer
classes on attitudes toward the elderly.
* Investigate the relationship between
socio-economic-status and self-esteem
by gender.
Investigations incorporating these
recommendations would provide individuals working with
the elderly additional information to aid in making
decisions relevant to the use of computers with the
elderly.
Recommendations for Utilization
Following are some recommendations for further
study concerning the utilization of the computer. These
uses vary from recreation to rehabilitation. With the
costs of microcomputers on the decline, the potential to
utilize the computer in the following ways is within the
financial reach of the elderly and those who work with
this population.
* Use of the computer and educational
programs to support life long learning.
* Use of the computer as means of putting
competent older adults back into the work
force.


83
*
*
Use of the computer and its on-line
telecommunication capabilities to expand
the opportunity for older adults to
communicate with others.
Use of the computer as therapy for
perceptual disorders and speech/language
difficulties.
Use of the computer to help increase
concentration and stimulate memory.
Use of the computer as a tool for
physical therapy.
Use of the computer for monitoring health
problems.
Use of the computer for record keeping.
Use of the computer as a recreational tool.
The computer appears to have a great deal of
potential for improving the lives of. older adults. Yet,
what this technology is capable of doing and what it is
doing are different viewpoints. More research into the
capabilities of this technology is needed, particularly
as it becomes more and more integrated with daily
living.


84
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APPENDIX A
LETTER OF INVITATION


Full Text

PAGE 1

THE EFFECTS OF SELECTED COMPUTER PROGRAMS AND A COMPUTER INTERACTION ON THE SELF-ESTEEM OF ELDERLY INDIVIDUALS by James Peter Chiavacci B.A., University of Scranton, 1972 M. Ed., Bloomsburg State University, 1977 A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Education 1987

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This dissertation for the Doctor of Philosophy degree by James Peter Chiavacci has been approved for the Department of Laura Goodwin Martin Tessmer

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James Peter Chiavacci All Rights Reserved

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iii Chiavacci, James Peter (Ph.D., Education) The Effects of Selected Computer Programs and a Computer Interaction on the Self-Esteem of the Elderly Individuals Dissertation directed by William F. Grady, Dean, Graduate School of Education Self-esteem is fundamental to the elderly person's experience of life. Intervention techniques for affecting self-esteem are not often researched. To examine if a computer interaction is a viable intervention technique, 44 men and women age sixty-five and older participated in a study. There were no differences in scores on a measure of self-esteem for those individuals who interacted with computer (n = 23) compared to those wh6 did not interact (n = 21). However, differences were noted on measures of computer anxiety and attitude toward the computer.

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CHAPTER I. II. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION. ............................... Importance of Self-esteem. . . . . Statement of the Problem ................ Purpose . . . Hypotheses ... ............... 1 4 5 6 7 Limitations of the 9 Definition of Terms ....... ........ 10 Summary ................ .............. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. ................... Self-Esteem .... Conceptualization of Self-Esteem Variables that Affect Self-Esteem. .. Age .... . . . . . Society's View. ............. Effects of Role Change. ............... Summary .. . . . . . Rationale for Utilizing Computers. Computers Computers Computers Computers and and and and Attitudes . . . . Anxiety .. . . . the Elderly. .............. Self-Esteem. Summary ......... 11 12 12 13 15 16 18 20 21 21 21 23 24 27 29 iv

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III. IV. PROCEDURES ................... Preliminary Procedures. . . . ...... Population ........................ Selection of Independent Living Unit. Research Design . . . . . Subjects .. .................. Instrtimentation. .................... Self-Esteem Scale . . . . . Computer Computer Attitude Scale. Anxiety Scale .......... Participant Profile Sheet. ............ Experimental Facilities Procedures and Equipment. . . . ............... Experimental Activities . . . . Computer Programs Introductory Program. .. Leisure Activities. ...... ... Word Processing. ...................... Data Analysis. .............. Summary . . . . . . . . RESULTS ................... Statistical Analyses. ............. ... Reliability Estimation Pre-treatment Group Differences. Demographic Data ...... ................. Analysis of Covariance. . . . . Additional Analyses ................. v 30 30 30 32 33 33 35 35 37 38 39 40 40 41 45 47 48 51 52 53 54 54 54 54 57 58 60

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Assumptions .. It Chi-Square . . . . . Summary ..... . . . . . v. CONCLUSIONS AND RECEOMMENDATIONS. Summary .. . . . . ............... Findings .. . . . . Conclusions . . . ............... Discussion .. .. . . .. . . . . vi 62 63 64 65 65 67 70 71 Imp 1 i c a t i n s . . . . 7 8 Recommendations . . . . BIBLIOGRAPHY. ...................... APPENDIX ..... ... . . . A. B. c. D. E. F. LETTER OF INVITATION. PERSONAL PROFILE SHEET. ...................... CONSENT FORM .......... . . . . DIRECTIONS FOR LOADING WRITING ASSISTANT. GUIDE SHEETS FOR WRITING ASSISTANT FUNCTIONS. SAMPLE OF PARTICIPANT RESPONSE .......... .. 81 84 91 91 93 96 98 100 119

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v i i TABLES Table 1. Age, gender, educational level by group...... 36 2. Schedule of study activities ........... 45 3. Summary 55 4. ANOVA on pretest data........................ 56 5. ANCOVA on posttest self-esteem data.......... 58 6. ANCOVA on posttest computer attitude data.... 59 7. ANCOVA on posttest computer anxieti data..... 60

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vi i i FIGURES Figure 1. Diagram of experimental treatment room....... 42 2. Computer anxiety group by time interaction... 61

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Demographic data show that elderly people in the United States are living longer than at any time in U.S. history. At the beginning of this century, the average American could expect to live 49 By 1954, life expectancy had jumped to 70 years and in it reached almost 74 years. For the remainder of this century, it is expected that the population age 55 and over will remain at just over one-fifth of the total population. By the year 2010, the proportion of Americans 55 and over will dramatically increase to 25 percent of the population or 74.1 million people. By 2050, nearly 33 percent of population (104.3 million) is expected to be at least 55 years old. By 2030, 20 percent of all Americans (64.3 million persons) will be 65 years or older and almost 3 percent (8.8 million) will be 85 and older (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1983). This growth of the elderly population will have a profound impact on American society. Society will be affected because it must strive toward finding, maintaining, and promoting quality programs for the

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elderly. The wise politician will be required to pay increasingly more attention to the needs of the elderly population. Economically, the increase in the elderly population will mean change in consumption sales patterns which will have a direct effect on industry. The elderly themselves will be directly affected by 2 increases in their population. Adequate health, housing and transportation needs, for example, will become increasingly important. One of the major concerns most people have about growing old is the fear of an increasing limitation in physical activities caused by a general deterioration in health. There can be. no denying that the aging process includes changes in physiology that affect all age groups. For the elderly, physiological changes, such as reduced visual and auditory acuity, reduced sensitivity of taste and smell, graying hair or balding, and wrinkled skin, may result in altered behavior or attitudes among this group. In addition to changes in physiology, changes in work status and social status also affect the elderly. In our work oriented society, an individual's identity is often related to how he or she earns a living. Loss of work often involves loss of personal and social contacts. These losses can very easily lead to feelings of uselessness and low self-esteem (Butler, 1975). An increase in depression and lack of motivation may also

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result. With the high correlation between mental and physical health (Foster, Siegel, & Jacobs, 1984), the 3 loss of self-esteem and resultant depression may lead to increased physical problems. The self-esteem of the elderly population is also affected by stereotypes. Stereotypes have an influence on the self view and behavior of its victims. These stereotypes may cause the elderly to perceive the process of growing old as something negative (Schmall, 1982; Kogan & Shelton, 1962; Tuckman & Lorge, 1956). Butler (1975) states that the elderly tend to adopt the negative definitions, or stereotypes, of themselves which reinforces society's stereotypic beliefs about them. This is a continuous cycle which may lead to depression and feelings of incompetence in the elderly (see Zusman, 1966). Although stereotypes can be explained by a lack of knowledge and insufficient contact with the elderly, Butler (1975) suggested that a more powerful explaining stereotypes is operating: a prejudice against the elderly which he calls ''ageism", a process of systematic stereotyping of and discrimination against people because they are old. According to Butler, ageism makes it easier for society to ignore the frequently poor social and economic plight of the elderly.

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Importance of Self-esteem A variety of factors ie. physiological, social, economical, psychological, have significant impact on the elderly population. This study focused on the psychological construct of self-esteem. The importance of self-esteem has been acknowledged by gerontologists, psychologists, sociologists, psychiatrists, health and welfare agencies, managers and activity directors of elderly housing facilities, and educators who work with the elderly. Self-esteem has been recognized to play a crucial role in old age adjustment (Coleman, 1984). 4 Carp (1974) and Lieberman (1971) suggested that high self-esteem is predictive of survival and successful adaptation. Busse and Reckless (1961) and Zung (1967) suggested that low is closely related to the onset of late-life depression. Elderly individuals with high self-esteem have been found to be happier, more emotionally mature, and more self-controlled while those with low self-esteem are likely to be unhappy, discouraged, and discontented (Leung, 1972). Hunter, Linn, and Harris (1981-1982) concluded that elderly with low self-esteem may be in need of intervention designed to alleviate the threat of depression, anxiety, or bodily symptomatology. They stated that self-esteem is fundamental to a person's experience of life; it is an

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5 underlying component which affects interpersonal relationships, states, and the ability to function. Schwartz (1975) described self-esteem as "the linchpin of quality of life for elderly people" (p. 471). Is self-esteem related to age? The literature suggests that there is a negative correlation between age and self-esteem for the elderly. Research on attitudes toward self has indicated that low self-esteem increases as a function of age (Bennett & Eckman, 1984; Kogan & Wallach, 1961; Lieberman & Lakin, 1963; Mason, 1954; Pollack, et. al., 1962; Tuckman & Lorge, 1954). This apparent negative relationship between age and self-esteem can become a societal priority given the increase in the elderly population There is the potential for a future society composed of elderly with a limited ability to function within that society due to the effects of low self-esteem. Statement of the Problem The literature available extolling the importance of self-esteem and its relationship to age would lead one to believe that numerous attempts to affect positive changes in self-esteem have been undertaken. However, herein lies a problem. Despite the role self-esteem appears to play in the life adjustment of the elderly, more research has been

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6 designed to define and measure self-esteem than to affect changes in it. The problem of this study is that gerontologists and other groups who work with the elderly are still not certain of the best method(s) for affecting the self-esteem of this population. In examining this problem, a consideration of the last two decades of gerontological research shows little research that actually attempted to affect change in self-esteem. Coleman (1984) argues that more research on techniques to increase self-esteem are needed. A few researchers (Dalton & Hannafin, 1984; Weisman, 1984) have suggested that self-esteem was increased after successful with a computer. However, outside of the Weisman study, there has been little experimental effort made to determine what effects a computer interaction would have on the self-esteem of the elderly. Purpose The primary purpose of this study was investigate the effect of a computer interaction on the self-esteem of the elderly. The following questions were addressed in the course of this study: 1. How does interacting with a computer affect the self-esteem of elderly people?

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2. How does interacting with a computer affect elderly .individuals' attitudes toward computers? 3. How does interacting with a computer affect elderly individuals' computer anxiety? 4. Is there a significant relationship between the educational level of elderly people and self-esteem? Hypotheses The research hypotheses tested in this study were as follows: Hypothesis 1: Elderly individuals who are aware that they will interact with the computer will have higher computer anxiety than those elderly individuals who know they will not interact with the computer. 7 Hypothesis 2: After the introductory computer program, the elderly individuals who have interacted with the computer will have a higher self-esteem than those individuals who did not interact with the computer. (Post 1 self-esteem) Hypothesis 3: After the introductory computer program,

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elderly individuals who interacted with the computer will have a more favorable attitude toward computers than elderly individuals who did not interact with the computer. (Post 1 computer attitude) Hypothesis 4: After the introductory computer program, computer anxiety will be lower for those elderly who have interacted with the computer compared to those who did not interact with the computer. (Post 1 computer anxiety) Hypothesis 5: At the completion of the study, elderly individuals who have interacted with the computer will have a higher self-esteem than those individuals who did not interact with the computer. (Post 2 self-esteem) Hypothesis 6: At the completion of the study, elderly individuals who have interacted with the computer will have more favorable attitudes toward computers than elderly individuals who did not interact with the computer. (Post 2 computer attitude) 8 Hypothesis 7: At the completion of the study, computer anxiety will be lower for those elderly

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who interact with the computer compared to those who do not interact with the computer.(Post 2 computer anxiety) Hypothesis 8: The self-esteem of the elderly in the investigation will be positively related to their educational level. (Self-esteem and education) Limitations of the Study The limitations of this study are as follows: 1. The population chosen was required to be at least 65 years of age. 2. All participants chosen were free of dibilitating conditions such as blindness, total loss of hearing, and paralysis. 3. All participants chosen were required to possess good mental health as defined by the ILU. 4. All participants were required to be socially competent as determined by the ILU. 5. All participants volunteered for the program. 9

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10 Definition of Terms Attitude toward computers Attitude toward computers was defined as likes and dislikes concerning computers. Attitude toward computers in this study was measured using the Computer Appreciator-Critic Attitude Scale (Mathews, 1983). Computer Anxiety Computer anxiety in this study was defined as the fear and apprehension felt by an individual when considering utilization of a computer or actually using a computer. Computer anxiety was measured by the Computer Anxiety Index (Maurer, 1983). Computer Interaction The computer interaction was defined as three types of computer programs: (1) introduction to the computer, (2) computer games and (3) word processing. Elderly For the purpose of this study, an elderly individual was age 65 and older, in good health and socially competent. Self-Esteem Self-esteem was defined as self-acceptance, a

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basic feeling of self-worth (Rosenberg, 1965). Self-Esteem was measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Educational Level Educational level was defined as the highest grade attained. Educational level was measured by questionnaire items that allowed this variable to be divided into four levels: pre high school, high school diploma, high school diploma with some college, and college degree. Summary 11 The numbers of elderly people in the United States is rising. It is recognized that self-esteem plays an important role in old age adjustment. Although an abundance of information is available the measurement of self-esteem, there is little information regarding techniques for enhancing self-esteem. Research findings suggest that an interaction .with a computer may be an effective tool for enhancing self-esteem. This study attempted to ascertain the effectiveness of a computer interaction on improving self-esteem.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE How to combat low self-esteem has been a topic of interest to gerontologists, health and welfare professionals, managers and activity directors of independent living arrangements, and educators who deal with the elderly. This investigation dealt primarily with the question of whether a computer interaction is an effective technique increasing self-esteem. Appropriate literature and research findings were reviewed to provide background for the study and to help design the study. Wylie (1961) suggested that the results of clinical and experimental studies of self-esteem had pervasive and significant effects on the individual. Although the findings themselves have not always been specific and the evidence has often been an inference derived from the study of other topics, it has generally been found that persons with high self-esteem are happier and more effective in dealing with their

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13 environment than persons with low self-esteem. This evidence of the importance of self-esteem has formed the basis of this study. Conceptualization of Self-esteem William James defined self-esteem with the following formula: self-esteem = Success Pretensions This formula, according to James, meant that "our self-feeling in this world depends entirely on what we back ourselves to be and do. It is determined by the ratio of our actualities to our supposed potentialities" (James, 1910, p. 310). Thus, the greater a person's success in achieving a desire, the higher the self-esteem. This finding appeared to correspond to the definition of self-esteem proposed by psychologist Arthur Cohen. S e 1 f-est e em a c c or d in g to Cohen ( 1 9-6 8 ) was defined as the degree of correspondence between an individual's actual and ideal concepts of himself. Cohen's "actual concept of himself" corresponded to James' "successes" and the "ideal concept of himself" corresponded to "pretensions". Both definitions indicated levels of self-esteem which suggested that self-esteem could be raised or lowered depending on a persons experiences.

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14 Coopersmith (1967), author of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale, saw self-esteem as a personal judgment of worth that is expressed in the attitudes the individual holds toward the self. This definition coincided with the previous definitions in that a person judges worth by the degree to which ideal self-image is attained. Rosenberg (1965) defined self-esteem as self-acceptance, a basic feeling of self-worth. Rosenberg's definition adopts the generalized, global dimension of self-esteem: How the individual feels about the self. Rosenberg designed a unidimensional scale to measure the general level of self-esteem as opposed to other self-esteem .scales ( ie. Coopersmith's Self-esteem Scale) which report to measure more dimensions than just self-esteem. This unidimensional aspect of the Rosenberg. scale and the brevity of the instrument (10 items) made it the choice for this investigation for this population. Rosenberg's Scale centers on the dynamic quality of self-esteem rather than on self-esteem as an enduring personality trait. This dynamic characteristic of self-esteem asserts that at any moment the individuals may be confronted with evidence bearing on their views of self and they must react accordingly. These views of self may vary across different areas of experience and according to age, gender, and other role-defining

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15 conditions. The individuals will make an overall appraisal of their abilities and will come up with a general level of self-esteem. To maintain a certain view of self over a long period, they must be able to call on souices which confirm that view. These sources may be in the individual's present environment. They may also be in the future, in which new possibilities are envisioned, or in the past, for which remembered achievements continue to provide definitions for the self. Horrocks and Jackson (1972) pointed out that investigators of self-esteem have been insufficiently sensitive to this dynamic characteristic of self-esteem. Rosenberg, in his definition and self-esteem scale, has made an attempt to address this dynamic characteristic of self-esteem. Variables that Affect Self-Esteem The self-esteem literature (e.g., Butler, 1975; e.g., Wylie, 1961) revealed three categories of variables that affected self-esteem. These categories were: (a) age, (b) society's views, and (c) role changes.

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16 Existing theories relevant to the study of global self-esteem and age were sparse. Most studies used the age range from 8 years to 50 years and produced mixed results (Attenborough & Zdep, 1973; Carpenter & Busse, 1969; Dales & Keller, 1958; Gurin, Veroff & Feld, 1960). Attenborough and Zdep (1973) tested a national probability sample of 1,684 girls aged 9-17. They found no relationship between age and self-esteem scores. Dales and Keller (1972) found no age differences on Bills' Index of Adjustment and Values (IAV) self-esteem scale for their study of eighth grade through twelfth grade white students. Carpenter and Busse (1969) administered the "Where Are You Game" self-concept scale to 40 first grade classes and 40 fifth grade classes. This scale was composed of 7 bi-polar dimensions (smart, happy, well-liked, to name a few) thought to be important in self-concept. They found that, for all subjects, fifth. grade mean self-concept scores were lower than first grade scores. Gurin, .et.al. grouped their subjects into three age groups (21-34, 35-54, 55 and Qver). Subjects were required to answer 3 questions concerning self-esteem. The questions were coded for positive or negative self-esteem. They found that the middle age groups had more positive scores. In short, there was no clear

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17 evidence for the relationship between chronological age (within the age range/from 8 to 50) and scores on measures of self-esteem when relevant variables, such as gender and academic level, were properly controlled. However, in studies of individuals over 50, results suggested that self-esteem decreased as age increased (Bennett and Eckman, 1973; Tuckman & Lorge, 1956; Ziller & Grossman, 1967). The main. point of each of these studies was that self-esteem changed with age but it was unclear that age alone had an affect on self-esteem. Other conditions such as self-conceptions of age, society's views, health, and role changes may have interacted in conjunction with age to affect self-esteem. For example, Linn and Hunter (1979) found that elderly who saw themselves the same or older than others their age had lower self-esteem and less favorable psychological functioning .than elderly who perceived themselves as younger than others their own chronological age. Related to the question of age changes and self-esteem is the state-trait debate. This debate has played an important role in self-esteem research. To the degree that self-esteem is an enduring trait of the individual, or, put another way, is a completely stable individual characteristic, then self-esteem should be impervious to intervention and change. If, on the other hand, self-esteem is

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18 responsive to situational changes in the external environment then intervention techniques can developed and evaluated. Changes in self-esteem are then possible. This is the state side of the debate. For the purpose of this study, self-esteem was viewed as following somewhere on the continuum between state and trait. Society's Views There was evidence in the literature to suggest that members of society hold negative stereotypes of the elderly (Butler, 1975; Schmall, 1982). These stereotypes can have a negative affect on the elderly. For example, Butler stated that the elderly may adopt the stereotypes of themselves which, in turn, reinforces society's stereotypic beliefs about them. This can be a continuous cycle which may lead to depression and feelings of incompetence. Zusman (1966) called this cycle the social breakdown syndrome. Stereotypes may also play a part in the way young and old people view the process of growing old. Studies by sociologists and psychologists exploring attitudes toward aging found that the process of growing old is viewed negatively by young and old alike (Butler & Lewis, 1977; Kogan & Shelton, 1962; Tuckman & Lorge, 1956; Wigdor, 1980). Tuckman and Lorge (1954) attempted to measure

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19 appraisal of adjustment over a person's life span. Life span was divided arbitrarily into 8 periods from the youngest period (up to 12 years) to the oldest period (70 years and up). A questionnaire consisting of 21 aspects of life adjustment (for example, happiness, freedom from worry, and health) was given to graduate students with the average age of 31 years and to older adults ranging in age from 60 to 88 years with an average age of 74 years. The subjects were required to (1) rank the life span in which they thought people would be the most happy, (2) rank the period which took second place, and (3) rank th period when they thought people were the least happy. Results showed that both groups regarded the older years as the most negative. Wigdor (1980), in a critical review of the literature on attitudes toward the suggested that our social value system offers little in the way of positive rewards and incentives for behavior which is adaptive or appropriate to the changing life situations associated with advancing age. She suggested that this was due to stereotypes and the lack of appropriate behavior norms for the elderly. As a result, unfavorable comparisons may be made between older individuals and other age groups for whom normative behavior is described in terms of achievement, competitiveness, and social and economic productivity. Wigdor goes on to suggest that without positive feedback

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20 to signify personal worth and effectiveness, behavior options which serve to enhance self-esteem become limited. Thus, if the elderly's self-esteem is a function of society's views, self-esteem might be lower than that of other age groups. Effects of Role Change Sociologists such as Cavan (1962) and Rosow (1967) have stressed the fact that certain role changes occur as a function of and that these changes may have important consequences for the self-esteem of the elderly person. For example, Neuhaus and Neuhaus (1982) suggest that the loss of the job role can very easily lead to feelings of uselessness and lowered self-esteem. This sense of worthlessness, if not replaced with something meaningful to the individual, may lead to depression, body resistance to diseases, and infirmities. They further suggest that work has a social aspect. The loss of work often involves the loss of human contact. Co-workers are friends with whom to talk and share intimacies. This loss of human contact may leave the elderly psychologically weakened. This weakened state may be detrimental to self-esteem. Summary The literatuie suggests that self-esteem tends to decrease as age increases. Reasons suggested for

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21 this decrease may be related to self-conceptions of age, society's views and role changes. More attention in the literature has been given to measures of self-esteem than to ways to affect it. Therefore, whatever the cause of low self-esteem, the need to positively affect it is evident. This investigation was designed to look at a specific technique, a computer interaction, and its potential to positively affect self-esteem. Rationale for Utilizing Computers There have been few studies analyzing the effects of the computer on self-esteem with the elderly. However, there have been a number of related articles and studies concerning computer use and the relationship between computers and achievement, attitudes, and anxiety. Computers and Attitudes There has been evidence to suggest that computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is effective for improving learner attitudes. Kulik '(1983) did a meta-analysis on 51 objective, comparative studies of CBI. The studies described education outcomes in four different areas: learning, academic attitude, attitude toward computer, and instructional time. Forty eight of the fifty one studies described effects of CBI on

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achievement test scores. In more than 80% of these studies, students from the CBI class received better scores than did students from the control class. Average effect size was .32. Ten of the 51 studies reported results on students' attitudes toward the subject matter being taught. In 8 of these studies, 22 attitudes were more positive in the classroom using CBI. The average effect size was .19. Four of the 51 studies reported effects of CBI on attitude toward the computer. In each, students' attitudes toward the computer were more positive in te CBI class. The average effect size was .61. Research has suggested that the attitude one brings to a situation is important to the success of the situation (Clement, 1981). Similarly, attitudes about using computers in a learning environment can be critical to the success of a computer based project. It has been observed that students resistant to CAI at the beginning of a course learned less compared to who were not resistant to computer assisted instruction (Knapper, 1978). It has also been reported that individuals over 65 show less use and less favorable attitudes toward computers (Kerschner & Hart, 1984). In the present study, attitudes toward the computer were examined as they related to the treatment.

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Computers and Anxiety Many kinds of anxiety were described in the literature. Cattell and Scherer (1958) identified two general types of anxiety: trait anxiety and state anxiety. Trait anxiety is a general proneness to be .anxious and is dispositional or personality related. State or situational anxiety is a direct function of a particular stressful condition and is located in a particular point in time. For this investigation, a kind of state anxiety .called computer anxiety was studied. 23 Powers (1973) defined computer anxiety as changes on four established physiological measures: (a) systolic blood pressure, (b) diastolic blood pressure, (c) heart rate, and (d) electrodermal response during interaction with a computer. Other researchers have defined computer anxiety in non-physiological terms. For example, Maurer (1983) defined computer anxiety as the fear and apprehension felt by an individual when considering the implications of utilizing computer technology or when actually using computer technology. In this investigation, the anxiety one felt toward the computer, as defined by Maurer, was examined as it related to the treatment.

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24 Computers and the Elderly The literature has suggested that computers are widely used by all age groups (Fleit, 1987; Furlong, 1986). The literature also specifically suggested that this technology has altered the lives of many elderly individuals (Ryan & Heaven, 1986). For example, for the speech impaired elderly who retain reading and writing skills, a portable computer and a word processing program allows for advanced preparation of messages, for storage of frequently used messages, and for a variety of additional uses. Speech therapy exercises can be done with a computer to complement those done with a therapist (Vaughn, Faucett, & Lightfoot, 1984). Synthesized speech can enable stroke patients to communicate understandably with those around them. For the hearing impaired elderly, computer monitored hearing devices which change their settings according to the current situational needs of the user promise to be of great assistance to elderly persons with some hearing loss. Devices for telephones to enhance the signal are widely available now and deaf individuals use computer terminals with printouts to communicate by telephone (Popelka, 1984). For the visually impaired, computer translation of text into Braille and Braille keyboards and printers can expand their access to information and opportunities for communication. Also, voice entry computer systems

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25 which recognize oral commands are available for limited tasks at the present time. Expansion of this area can safely be expected in the near future. For the elderly, the use of computers for word processing and electronic mail services.open possibilities that are just becoming apparent. Word processing and electronic mail can substantially facilitate the sending of personal correspondence. Once the typing skills and a few word processing commands are learned, the elderly individual can communicate in writing much more easily than was traditionally the case. The gerontological literature suggested that older adults were both interested in and capable of this continued. learning (Baltes, Reese, & Lipsitt, 1980; Knox, 1977). Yet, much of the effort on the part of computer companies has not been directed toward the elderly. These companies have directed their attention to the younger generation. Reieatch demonstrated that even children were capable of learning computer literacy skills (Hines, 1983; Papert, 1980). Computers have a number of features which make them particularly conducive for use by older adults. Computers, being inanimate objects, allow for an unlimited response time. Learners do not have to be afraid to make a mistake. They may also rehearse an action over and over again if they choose. This can be

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26 especially useful for the elderly. Self-paced learning has been demonstrated to be equal to, or even superior to, other forms of learning for older persons (Botwinick, 1978; Kausler, 1982). Because learning .takes place between the user and the computer, an inanimate object unable to punish, the learner may be less intimidated. This feature, plus the very limited training needed in order to run available computer programs, could help the elderly successfully interact with the computer. Mastering such a skill as using the computer could promote the same sense of self-efficacy in the elderly user as it does in younger users (Dalton & Hannafin, 1984). This mastery may also have a positive effect on self-esteem because mastery of the computer is a form of control-relevant intervention. It has been demonstrated that control-relevant interventions have had positive effects on the self-esteem of the elderly (Banziger & Raush, 1983; Beck, 1982; Langer & Rodin, 1976). Eilers (1986) suggested that mastery of computers encouraged and reinforced feelings of accomplishment and control over the environment. Schwartz, Snyder, and Peterson (1984) suggested that self-esteem was developed in the individual through events, significant and insignificant, that provided emotional support and

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27 psychological reward. Accompanying these were the signals that denoted mastery and control over oneself and the environment. Sherman (1985) stated that, for many elderly people, the feelings of accomplishment and control come less and less frequently. Computers and Self-Esteem As was stated earlier, very little literature is available that showed the relationship between computer interaction and self-esteem. One of the few studies available reported the effects of judgmental and non-judgmental CAI on the self-esteem of high school students (Dalton & Hannafin, 1984). The results of this study indicated that self-esteem was improved by non-judgmental CAI. The authors also indicated that the was an ideal delivery system with which to enhance self-esteem. In another study, Weisman (1983) used computer games with nursing home residents. It was the author's intention to see if this population would benefit from this kind of activity. The results demonstrated that nursing home residents could play computer games. Also, the games may have played a role in meeting the residents' needs for fun and mental stimulation and in enhancing self-esteem. A major drawback to these investigations was

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28 that no direct measure of self-esteem was employed. Data pertaining to self-esteem were collected via interviews with the participants rather than through the use of a formal measure. In a similar project, Furlong (1986) introduced computers to senior citizens. The project, called Computers for Kids over Sixty was designed to discover the kinds of computer applications in which seniors were most interested and the best ways to teach them about computers. Participants learned how to use data bases, word processing programs, and the LOGO computer language. Results showed that seniors preferred programs that had immediate utility, such as word processing. The participants were overwhelmingly positive about their experiences. It was suggested that self-esteem was increased, although no instrument to measure self-esteem was used. Summary A review of the literature on self-esteem reveals its importance to the well being of all individuals, including the elderly. Numerous studies concerning the development of instruments for measuring the construct of self-esteem have been conducted. However, there have been very few studies on the

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effectiveness of various techniques to enhance self-esteem. 29 The computer, often considered the tool of the post-industrial revolution, has affected the lives of many Americans. The elderly have also become affected by this growing technology. Studies have suggested that the computer may enhance self-esteem by having individuals successfully interact with it.

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CHAPTER III PROCEDURE The primary purpose 6f this study was to investigate the effects of a computer interaction on the self-esteem of the In addition, the effects of this computer interaction on anxiety and attitudes toward the computer were studied. This chapter will explain the procedures followed in the conduct of this investigation. Included will be preliminary procedures and experimental procedures. Preliminary Procedures Population The participants in this study were chosen from a population of senior citizens, 65 years and older, in the Denver metropolitan area. The population selected was required to have mental and physical health. Individuals in the population were also required to maintain an active social life. The population meeting

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these requirements was found in a specific type of senior housing facility called an Independent Living Unit (ILU). 31 An independent living unit (ILU) is a kind of housing option available to senior citizens. It is architecturally designed to meet the needs and preferences of older residents. An ILU usually features good security, a convenient location, and elevators. Monthly rents vary, depending on the size of the unit, the services offered, and the income group the building is designed to serve. Government subsidies allow some ILUs to offer lower rental rates to seniors who qualify according to income. ILUs differ from other kinds of housing such as residential care facilities, sheltered housing, and continuing-care retirement communities (CCRC). These latter residential options provide additional services to seniors who need assistance with personal and medical care on a 24 hour basis. The type of individuals who reside in these residential facilities generally do not enjoy good mental and physical health and often are not very socially active. Thus, this population was excluded from the study in the selection process. The individuals who reside in the ILU are required to be physically and mentally capable of maintaining themselves and their apartment. These individuals must also be socially active as the ILUs

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32 employ activity to insure the active social involvement of the residents. For the reasons cited, ILUs were selected as the residential setting from which to solicit subjects for the study. Selection of Independent Living Unit The selection of the ILU for this study was a multi-step process. First, the Colorado Association of Homes and Services for the Aging was contacted for a list of ILUs within the Denver metropolitan area. Second, from this list, five ILUs were targeted as possible study sites. These five were chosen because of their close proximity to the University of Colorado at Denver campus. During the third step of this process, the administrators of the five ILUs were contacted regarding the possible use of their facility for the study. At the meetings with the administrators, major aspects of the study were discussed. These topic& included the length of the study, the provision for adequate space for eight IBM personal computers, security for the computers, an approximation of the numbers and kinds of participants sought, and the need for permission to collect demographic data and to administer tests related to the purpose of the study. Three of the five administrators declined the use of their residences due to the length of time required to

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33 conduct the study. three of the declining administrators stated that they were unable to make a two month commitment of the space necessary for the use and storage of the computer equipment. The two remaining administrators expressed an interest and were able to assure the availability of facilities for the required time. Finally, Metro Manor was chosen as the study site because it was the most accessible for the investigator and could provide the best security for the equipment. Research Design A true experimental, pretest-posttest, control group design was employed (Campbell & Stanley, 1965). Two groups (experimental and control) were-established. Subjects Once the ILU was selected, the investigator made an appointment with the ILU manager to discuss best way to identify subjects for the study. The manager suggested that the investigator draft a letter requesting volunteers for a program to learn about computers. The letter is in Appendix A. A copy of the letter was placed in each resident's mail box. Two hundred letters were distributed. Those interested were to sign their names on a sign-up sheet which was located at the front desk along with sign-up sheets for other

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activities. The. residents had two weeks to respond to the request. A copy of the letter was posted on the central bulletin board in the event that someone misplaced their letter. 34 Two weeks prior to the study, the investigator collected the sign-up sheet. Seventy-five residents had signed up for the study. This was a 37.5% response rate. There were no reasons available for the other 125 residents not agreeing to participate. The experimenter, using a table of random numbers, selected 60 subjects to participate in the The volunteer participants were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups by use of a table of random numbers. The age range of the participants was from 65 years to 91 years of age. The mean age of the participants was 73 years for the experimental group and 74.5 years for the control group. The mean educational level of the participants was 12.6 years of school for the experimental group and 11. years of school for the control group. Two subjects (1 male, 1 female) were Hispanic. participants were caucasian. The remainder of the A total of sixteen subjects did not participate in the study. Seven subjects failed to appear for the pretest administration. There were no reasons given. Two subjects failed to appear for the experimental treatment. Again, no reasons were given. Five subjects

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35 had to withdraw from the study because of illness. Two subjects were unable to complete the final posttest because of family emergencies. Data previously obtained from these subjects was excluded from consideration and analysis for the study. A total of 23 subjects in the experimental group completed all treatment and testing components of the study. A total of 21 subjects in the control group completed the pre and post tests. A total of 9 males and 35 females participated in the study. Table 1 provides demographic data on the subjects' age, gender, and educational level, by treatment group. Instrumentation Self-Esteem Scale. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) was chosen as one of the criterion measure for this study. It was chosen because of its ease of administration, brevity (10 items) and reasonably good reliability and validity. The RSE (1965) is a unidimensional scale which measures the self-acceptance aspect of self-esteem. The scale consists of ten items rated on a four point Likert-type scale (strongly agree to strongly disagree). The possible range of scores is from 10 to 40 with a higher score indicating more positive self-esteem.

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36 TABLE 1 Number of Participants by Age, Gender, Educational Level and Group Age Educ. Level 65 -69 70 -74 75 -79 80 -84 85 -89 90 -94 Experimental Group <12 years Male 0 1 0 0 0 0 Female 1 2 0 0 0 0 12 years Male 2 0 1 0 0 0 Female 2 0 1 2 0 0 13-15 years Male 0 0 0 1 0 0 Female 4 0 1 3 0 0 >15 years Male 1 0 0 0 0 0 Female 0 1 0 0 0 0 TOTAL 10 4 3 6 0 0 Control Group <12 years Male 0 1 0 0 0 0 Female 1 1 0 0 0 1 12 years Male 0 1 0 0 0 0 Female 5 2 0 3 0 0 13-15 years Male 0 0 0 1 0 0 Female 0 0 3 0 1 0 >IS years Male 0 0 0 0 0 0 Female 1 0 0 0 0 0 TOTAL 7 5 3 4 1 1

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37 Rosenberg reported a reproductibility coefficient of .92 and a scalability coefficient of .72. Ward (1974), using 323 individuals age 60 to 92, reported an internal consistency coefficient (alpha) of .74. In terms of test-retest reliability, Selbert and Tippett (1965) reported a correlation of .85 between measures administered to college students at two-week intervals. Concurrent validity of the RSE was investigated. Robinson and Shaver (1973) reported a correlation of .59 with Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory. Computer Attitude Scale. The Computer Appreciator-Critic Attitude Scale (Mathews & Wolf, 1983) was chosen as the second criterion measure for this investigation. It was chosen because of its reliability as a measure of attitudes toward the computer. The test is composed of 40 items on a Likert-type scale. It assigns numerical scores on the subjects' appreciative attitudes and critical attitudes toward computers. The possible range of scores was from 40 to 200 with a higher score indicating more critical attitude. Mathews and Wolf (1983) report that internal consistency reliability of the two factor scale was assessed by means of split-half correlation and coefficient alpha. The correlation between split halves

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of the first factor (appreciative attitude), corrected by the Spearman-Brown formula, was .85. Coefficient alpha for the first factor was .88. Split-half correlation on the second factor (critical attitude), corrected by the Spearman-Brown formula, was .87. Coefficient alpha was .89 for the second factor. The validity of the instrument is unknown, since no validation studies have been conducted. 38 Computer Anxiety Scale. The Computer Anxiety Index (CAIN) (Maurer & Simonson, 1984) was chosen as the third criterion measure for this investigation. It was chosen because it had some evidence of reliability and validity as a measure of computer anxiety. The possible range of scores was from 26 to 156 with higher scores indicating more anxiety: Maurer and Simonson developed the CAIN in order to diagnose students who had high levels of computer anxiety so they could then receive remediation during computer literacy training. The CAIN consists of 26 items rated on a six-point Likert-type scale (strongly agree to strongly disagree). The authors reported an internal consistency reliability estimate of .94 using coefficient alpha. Test-retest reliability was determined by administering the CAIN to college students in a teacher education course. Test-retest reliability

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was found to be .90. The time interval between test-retest was 4 months. 39 Concurrent validity of the CAIN was also evaluated. The authors administered a portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Index (Spielberger, 1970). Students were also observed and rated on a three-point scale ranging from computer anxious to computer comfortable. Two raters were used. The inter-rater reliability was found to be .85. The scores of the three tests (CAIN, STAI, & Observation) were calculated. Maurer and Simonson (1984) reported correlations of the CAIN to the STAI and the Observation of .32 and .36, respectively. These validity coefficients are very low, hence, there is really no good empirical validity evidence for the CAIN. In summary, there was generally adequate reliability data for the criterion measures used in this study. However, the validity evidence was very limited and, in the case of the computer attitude scale, nonexistent. Participant Profile Sheet. The participant profile was designed by the investigator to collect. demographic data necessary for analyzing research hypothesis 8 (education/self-esteem). Data obtained were also used to check for pre-study differences between groups and to describe the

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40 characteristics of the sample. Demographic data collected were age, years retired, years at metro manor, years of education, gender, race, marital status, previous computer experience, type of computer experience, and computer ownership. The participant profile sheet is in Appendix B. Experimental Procedures Facilities and Equipment The study tobk place at Metro Manor, an ILU approximately one and one-half miles west of the University of Colorado-Denver campus. The following equipment was utilized to conduct this study: 8 IBM Personal Computers with dual disk drives 8 IBM color monitors 4 IBM dot-matrix printers This equipment was loaned to the investigator by the IBM corporation, Boca Raton, Floridi, for a two month period. This loan was approved after a verbal explanation of the proposed study and request for computers was made to the IBM representative assigned to the University of Colorado-Denver. The arts and crafts room at Metro Manor was the site chosen to accommodate the computers. This room was chosen for its security, size, and central location in the building. The 8 computers, 4 tables and 8 chairs were

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41 delivered to Metro Manor and arranged around the periphery of the arts and crafts room by the investigator. Each table held 2 computers. This arrangement allowed subject ample work space. This set-up allowed the investigator freedom to move about each computer area as needed. Diagram of the arts and crafts room appears in Figure 1. Experimental Activities Two weeks prior to the initiation of the study, the investigator met with all of the participants to give them a brief overview of the upcoming activities. The participants were informed that they would be filling out consent forms, a profile sheet, and a pretest instrument the following week. They were also informed that they would be taking posttest 1 and posttest 2 during the course of the investigation. One week before the initiation of the treatment, the investigator issued consent forms required and designed by the University of Colorado-Denver Human Rights Committee. The consent form is in Appendix C. The investigator also informed the participants of their group assignment. This information was provided to the participants in order to collect data to test research hypothesis 1 (pre-computer anxiety). The investigator then administered the participant profile form and the pretest questionnaire to all the participants in the

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Comput"r 1 Computer 2 oor Q) ... .. .. :::> Cl. E 0 u .... ... "' .. "' ... Q, .... ... .. .. :::> Cl. E 0 u FIGURE 1 DIAGRAM OF COMPUTER TREATMENT ROOM n o 3 't:l "' ,. ., ... ., J :::> .. ., N n "' .. ., ... 42

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study. Subjects were told they would be filling out a questionnaire regarding how they felt about themselves and computers. 43 The directions, which appeared on the top of the pretest questionnaire, were read orally by the investigator in an attempt to minimize any confusion about the pretest. The subjects were instructed to answer all of the items. There was no time limit set for the completion of the pretest although all participants were able to complete the questionnaire within 35 minutes. All participants were given the dates for posttest 1 and posttest 2. Posttest 1 was to be administered two weeks after the beginning of the experimental treatment. Posttest 2 was to be administered at the completion of the study, 6 weeks after posttest 1. The control group subjects were asked to be present on the dates of the two posttests. They were also informed that they would receive time, if requested, after the study had ended. The control group subjects were required to participate only in the testing aspect of the investigation (pretest, posttest 1 & 2). One week following the pretest, the participants in the experimental group began the experimental treatment. This first meeting of the experimental group lasted approximately 35 minutes. At this meeting, the

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I I I I 44 participants were informed that the study would run five days a week for two months; and that they would be interacting with the computer at two one-hour sessions per week, for 8 weeks. They were asked to select a one-hour section to be held on two consecutive evenings. Their choices were: Section 1 Tuesday & Wednesday 7 p.m. -8 p.m. Section 2 Tuesday & Wednesday 8 p.m. -9 p.m. Section 3 Thursday & Friday 7 p.m. -8 p.m. Monday evenings from 6 p.m.to 7 p.m. were reserved for experimental group meetings. The purpose of these meetings was to discuss upcoming computer sessions and review and answer general questions concerning the previous week's work. For example, if the participants were unclear about the meaning of certain computer jargon (Disk Operating System), the meaning was explained to the entire experimental group at the Monday night session. The experimental activities ran for eight consecutive weeks beginning September 15, 1986 and ending November 8, 1986. Each weeks' activities was introduced at the Monday group meeting. Table 2 is a schedule of the study activities.

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45 TABLE 2 Schedule of Study Activities GROUP DAYS ACTIVITY Week 1 All Subjects M Pretest Week 2 Sec. 1 T & W Exploring the IBM (Sept. Sec. 2 T & W Exploring the IBM 15) Sec. 3 Th & F Exploring the IBM Week 3 Sec. 1 T & W Exploring the IBM Sec. 2 T & W Exploring the IBM Sec. 3 Th & F Exploring the IBM Week 4 All Subjects M Post test 1 Sec. 1 T & W Leisure Activity Sec. 2 T & W Leisure Activity Sec. 3 Th & F Leisure Activity Week 5 Sec. 1 T & Leisure Activity Sec. 2 T & W Leisure Activity Sec. 3 Th & F Leisure Activity Week 6 Sec. 1 T & W Word Processing Sec. 2 T & W Word processing Sec. 3 Th & F Word Processing Week 7 Sec. 1 T & W Word Processing Sec. 2 T & W Word Processing Sec. 3 Th & F Word Processing Week 8 Sec 1 T & W Word Processing Sec. 2 T & W Word Processing Sec. 3 Th & F Word Processing Week 9 Sec. 1 T & W Word Processing (Nov 8) Sec. 2 T & W Word Processing Sec. 3 Th & F Word Processing Week 10 All M Posttest 2 Subjects

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46 Computer Programs The computer programs chosen for use, in order of presentation, were Exploring the IBM, Hangman, Blackjack, Checkers, Ellusion, Concentrate, 3-K Trivia, and the Writing Assistant Word Processing Program. Other programs (Chess, Bridge, Adventure Games) were considered but were excluded because of level of difficulty. Ease of learning, age and interest appropriateness, and in the case of leisure activities (games) -popularity, were the primary selection criterion for the programs chosen for use in this study. The word processing program was chosen for its practical aspects. This kind of program allows the user to write letters, revise work without difficult erasures, and easily produce letter-quality printed manuscripts. Prior to the introductory program, Exploring the IBM, the experimenter introduced the participants to the computer. Topics discussed included the processor, memory, input/output devices, disk storage, how to insert a program diskette, and how to turn on the computer. A handout was used for this discussion. This handout was a chapter from the book titled Inside the IBM by Peter Norton. The title of the chapter is Fundamentals: What a Computer is.

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47 Introductory Computer Program. Exploring the IBM was the introductory program used. It was chosen for the following reasons: (1) this program was designed to teach the user the basic steps necessary to operate the IBM computer; (2) this program was intended to give the user a working understanding of the IBM computer; (3) the program assumed no previous computer knowledge on the part of the user; and (4) all directions were given by the computer. The investigator was available for any questions and/or assistance. Each experimental group section (section 1, section 2, and section 3) used the Exploring the IBM program diskette for two weeks (weeks 2 & 3). Participants used the program for a total of 4 hours. During this period the investigator answered any questions and clarified any misunderstandings. At the end of the two week period each participant had the ability to turn on the computer, get the program running, and had a basic of the IBM disk operating system (DOS) which consisted of the DIRectory command, COPY command, FORMAT command, and DISKCOPY command. On the Monday following the completion of the first two weeks of the study, the first posttest (Posttest 1) was administered at the Monday night group meeting. Both experimental and control groups were present at this meeting.

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48 Posttest 1 was administered at this time to determine if the two week time period and the basic understanding of the computer gained from the Exploring the IBM program were enough to affect a significant difference in computer anxiety, attitude toward the computer, and self-esteem. Leisure Activities. The next two weeks (study weeks 4 & 5) were devoted to the use of the computer for the purpose of leisure time activities. Two program diskettes were utilized. The investigator created the two game disks by copying each program, located on its own disk, to a blank disk. Disks for each computer (8) were then created by making copies of each game disk. There were a total of 16 game disks. The first diskette contained the games Hangman, Blackjack, and Checkers. The games were all public domain software which presented no copyright problems. Each game was compatible with IBM PC. Each game had on screen introductions and directions. Subjects were able to access the directions for each game at any time during the game by pressing control keys specific to each game. Two games were introduced at the first session and one game was introduced at the following The first game utilized was Hangman. Hangman is a word game where the player has to guess the word,

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49 generated by the computer, by choosing one letter at a time to fill the blanks on the computer screen. If an incorrect guess is given, the computer begins the process of building a gallows and after each incorrect guess proceeds to add parts of the body to the gallows until the entire man is hung. A correct guess postpones the hanging. The object of the game is to guess the word before hanging the man. Each participant played against the computer. Blackjack was the next game introduced. This is a card game where the object of the game is to get as close to 21 or exactly 21 by adding the face value of the cards before going over a total numerical value of 21. The betting minimum, established by the computer, was five Subjects were required to place a bet at the beginning of each hand. The computer kept track of the the subjects' winnings. Subjects specificallyenjoyed winning and watching their earnings add up on the screen. Comments such as "I've got to go to Vegas"; "I'm so lucky'', were common. They also did not mind losing as no real money was involved. The third computer game used was Checkers. This appeared to be the most popular leisure activity. Once familiar with how to move the computer pieces via the keyboard, all subjects readily played this game against the computer. The second diskette of leisure activities

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50 contained the games Ellusion, Concentrate, and 3-K trivia. Ellusion and 3-K Trivia were public domain software. Concentrate was purchased from PC Software and permission was given to make six copies of the program. These copies were then erased after the study was completed. These three games were introduced and used during week 5 of the study. Directions for the games were presented on the computer screen. Subjects were able to see the directions at any time during a game by pressing control keys specific to each game. The first game used was Ellusion. Ellusion is a game played on a Sx5 matrix board seen on the computer screen. The object of the game is to place your pieces on the squares, one move at a time, with the intent to trap the opporient (i.e, computer). The fifth leisure activity introduced was called Concentrate. This game is the computer version of the popular memory game, Concentration. Players must correctly match pictures and/or words in order t6 clear the screen. Beneath the matched pictures lies a puzzle to be solved before time runs out. The final game utilized was 3-K Trivia. This is a version of the popular board game, Trivial Pursuit, in which players choose a subject category and the computer generates a question. The player is required to type in the answer. Points are awarded for correct answers.

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51 Word Processing. The following three weeks (weeks 6, 7, 8) were devoted to word processing using IBM's Writing Assistant word processing program. The first session was an introduction to Writing Assistant and word processing in general. on how to load Writing Assistant were presented using a handout (see Appendix D). Each session thereafter focused on a special function found in Writing Assistant. The functions taught were as follows: (a) making simple corrections using the cursor movement keys, (b) deleting using the DEL key, (c) inserting using the INS key, (d) moving text using the Function Keys, (e) adjusting text using the Function Keys, and (f) printing text. Each function was introduced and a guide sheet was presented. The guide sheets appear in Appendix E. During week 9 of the study, no new information was introduced. Subjects were asked to bring original documents to enter, edit, and print using their cumulative Writing Assistant skills. The total amount of classroom computer time possible for this investigation was 16 hours. The average class time of the participants was 15.26 hours. The average extra time on computer per participant was 9.1 hours. The average total time on computer per participant was 24.45 hours. On the Monday evening (week 10) following the last week of experimental group sessions both the

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52 experimental and control groups met in the recreation hall, adjacent to the arts and crafts room which housed the computers, for the final posttest (posttest 2). Following the completion of the posttest, the instruments were collected and all were thanked by the investigator. Data Analysis Internal consistency reliabilities for the pretest data were computed. Pretest, posttest 1 and posttest 2 scores for subjects in both groups were analyzed with ANOVA, ANCOVA, and chi-square tests. Additional follow-up analyses, two-way repeated measures ANOVAs, were also used to analyze the data. Summary Forty-four elderly volunteers participated in this investigation to determine the effects of computer programs and a computer interaction on their self-esteem. This investigation was conducted at Metro Manor in Denver, The experiment was conducted in the evenings during the weeks between September 15 and November 8, 1986. Experimental activities included randomly assigning subjects to groups, administering the pretest instrument, performing experimental treatment, posttest

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53 1, and posttest 2. On completion of the testing and treatment, data were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the treatment. The results of the data analyses are presented in Chapter IV.

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CHAPTER IV RESULTS This chapter includes the presentation of the results of this investigation. It also contains the assumptions of the specific statistical analyses regarding each of the hypotheses tested in the course of this investigation. Statistical Analyses Reliability Estimation Internai consistency reliability for the pretest data was estimated. Three scales (Seif-Esteem, Computer Attitudes, Computer Anxiety) were used and coefficient Alphas were obtained on each. Alphas for the scales were .88, .96, and .95 respectively. Pre-Treatment Group Differences Separate ANOVAs were conducted on the three pretests (Self-Esteem, Computer Attitude, Computer Anxiety) to investigate possible initial differences between the experimental and control groups.

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55 Summary statistics (means and standard deviations) appear in Table 3. TABLE 3 SUMMARY STATISTICS EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL GROUP GROUP VARIABLES I (n=23) s x (n=21) Pre Self-Esteem Post 1 Sel f.:...Esteem Post 2 Self-Esteem Pre Computer Attitude 33.17 4.86 32.71 5.54 33.52 4.99 101.47 23.22 X s x' 31.59 3.95 32.21 30.28 4.25 30.85 33.06 31.78 3.73 32.28 107.85 27.81 Post 1 Attitude Post 2 Attitude 97.04 27.24 99.40 91.73 24.15 94.43 111.04 22.62 108.47 104.71 26.52 101.76 Pre Computer Anxiety 78.19 23.27 96.58 23.58 Post 1 Anxiety 71.23 20.15 78.46 98.42 27-.30 90. 53 Post 2 Anxiety 63.17 21.70 70.58 94.28 27.34 86.16 X' = adjusted means from analysis of covariance The results of the pre-treatment analysis indicated that the groups (experimental and control) were not different on the variables of self-esteem and computer attitude (F[1,42} = 1.38, p = .25; F[1,42] = .67, p = .41). However, the groups were different on

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56 the computer anxiety variable (F[1,42] = 6.03, p = .02); the control group had higher computer anxiety than the experimental group. The results of ANOVAs conducted on pretest data appear in Table 4. TABLE 4 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON PRETEST DATA ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR PRETEST SELF-ESTEEM SOURCE SS DF BETWEEN GROUPS 27!36 1 WITHIN GROUPS 834.11 42 MS 27.36 19.86 F p 1.378 .24 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR PRETEST COMPUTER ATTITUDES SOURCE BETWEEN GROUPS WITHIN GROUPS SS DF 446.67 1 27340.31 42 MS 446.67 650.96 F .686 p .41 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR PRETEST COMPUTER ANXIETY SOURCE BETWEEN GROUPS WITHIN GROUPS ss 3592.32 25004.16 DF 1 42 MS F p 3592.32 6.03 .02 595.34

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57 Demographic Data Chi-squares and ANOVAs were also with the experimental and control groups' demographic data to investigate other initial group differences. Demographic data used in the analyses were age, years retired, years at Manor, years of education, gender, race, marital status, previous computer experience, type of computer experience,and computer ownership. The statistical tests indicated no significant differences for the two groups on any of the demographic variables. The results of the group comparisons that used ANOVA to test for significance were as follows: Age: F[1,42] = .47, p = .so Years Retired: F[1,42] = 1.56, p = .22 Years at Metro Manor: F[1,42] = .28, p = .60 Years of Education: F[1,42] = 1.50, p = .23 The results of the group comparisons that used Chi-square test of independence were as follows: 2 Gender: X = .94, df = 1, p = .33 2 Race: X = 1.22, df = 2, p = .48 2 1.48, .69 Marital Status: X = df = 3, p --2 Previous Computer Experience: X = 01 df = 1 2 Type of Computer Experience:X = 6.56, df = 3, 2 C "omputer Ownership: X = 93, df= 1, p = 33 p p = = .90 .09

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58 Analyses of Covariance Separate analyses were conducted for each dependent variable ctimparing the experimental and control groups on self-esteem, computer attitude and computer anxiety on both Posttest 1 and Posttest 2 using the pretest as covariates. The summary statistics for the analyses of covariance appear in Table 3. The results of the ANCOVA conducted on posttest 1 self-esteem and 2 self-esteem were (F[l,41] = 1.23, p = .27) and (F[1,41] = .51, p = .48) (see Table 5). TABLE 5 ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE ON POSTTEST SELF-ESTEEM DATA ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR POST 1 SELF-ESTEEM SOURCE ss DF MS F p COVARIATE 429.38 1 429.38 26.90 GROUP 19.67 1 19.67 1. 23 .27 RESIDUAL 654.55 41 15.97 ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR POST 2 SELF-ESTEEM SOURCE COVARIATE GROUP RESIDUAL ss 330.30 6.52 523.29 DF 1 1 41 MS 330.30 6.52 12.76 F p 25.88 .51 .47

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59 The results of the ANCOVA conducted on posttest 1 attitude and posttest 2 attitude were (F[l,41] = 3.56, p = .06) and (F[l,41] = 4.31, p = .04) (see Table 6). TABLE 6 ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR POSTTEST COMPUTER ATTITUDES DATA ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR POST 1 COMPUTER ATTITUDES SOURCE COVARIATE GROUP RESIDUAL ss 17658.59 887.50 10172.64 DF 1 1 41 MS F p 17658.59 71.17 887.50 3.58 .06 248.13 ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR POST 2 COMPUTER ATTITUDES SOURCE ss DF MS F p COVARIATE 22639.56 1 22639.56 167.91 GROUP 581.15 1 581.15 4.31 .04 RESIDUAL 5528.08 41 134.83 The results of the ANCOVA conducted on posttest 1 anxiety and posttest 2 anxiety were (F[l,41] = 8.97, p = .005) and (F[l,41] = 13.88, p = .001) (see table 7).

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TABLE 7 ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR POSTTEST COMPUTER ANXIETY DATA ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR POST 1 COMPUTER ANXIETY SOURCE ss DF MS F p COVARIATE 24175.75 1 24175.75 155.05 GROUP 1399.01 1 1399.01 8.97 RESIDUAL 6392.94 41 155.93 ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE FOR POST 2 COMPUTER ANXIETY SOURCE COVARIATE GROUP RESIDUAL ss 26730.35 2329.56 6882.07 DF 1 1 41 MS F p 16730.35 159.24 2329.56 167.86 13.88 .001 Additional Analyses on Dependent Variables Since the three dependent variables were all 60 measured three times in this study (pretest, posttest 1, and posttest 2), an additional type of analysis was conducted on each dependent variable: a two-way repeated measures ANOVA. The primary reason for conducting these additional ANOVAs--which can be viewed as follow-up analyses to the ANCOVAs--was to determine if there were significant group-by-time interactions on any of the dependent variables. If significant interactions

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61 emerged, it might have implications for the generalizability of the findings. The group by time interaction for self-esteem and for attitudes towards the computer were not significant. On self-esteem, the F-ratio for the interaction was .34 (df = 2.41; p = .71); on attitudes, the F-ratio was 1.86 (df = 2,41; p = .17). However, the group-by-time for computer anxiety was significant (F = 5.65, df = 2,41, P=.007). The group by time interaction for computer anxiety appears in Figure 2. 100c A 950 N 90c M X 85-p I X 80u E 75-T T 70E y 65-E R 60-55 -Pre Post 1 Post 2 TIME FIGURE 2 COMPUTER ANXIETY GROUP BY TIME INTERACTION

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62 Assumptions of ANOVA AND ANCOVA The ANOVA and ANCOVA procedures require that certain assumptions be met prior to the use of the statistical tests. The assumptions underlying the use of ANOVA are as follows: 1. The populations from which the samples are randomly drawh are assumed to be normally distributed. 2. An individual's score is independent of any.other score and not influenced by the sc6res of other subjects. 3. The population variance within each treatment group is assumed to be equal to the population variance of each of the other treatment groups in the study 2 2 (i.e. ,crl =O"z ) The assumption of normality was not tested for because ANOVA is robust to violations of that assumption (Glass & Hopkins, 1984). The assumption of independence was not tested for statistically. This was controlled in the study design and procedure. The experimental group was asked not to divulge any information concerning the computer sessions to anyone until the study was completed. They

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63 were reminded of this after each session. Each subject in the experimental group acknowledged that they would comply. No one other than the experimental group subjects was allowed into the computer room during the duration of the study. This room was locked after the last session each evening. Each subject in the experimental group was issued a key to the room so they had access to it at any time. To determine homogeneity of variance, Hartley's F-Max tests were run on all nine sets of data. None were statistically significant (a= .OS) which indicates that this assumption was not violated. In addition to the ANOVA assumptions, ANCOVA has its own special assumptions. They are the assumptions of linearity, and of homogeneity of regression coefficients. Given the type of design and analysis used in this study (ie. true experimental design, one-factor fixed-effects ANCOVA), concerns about violations of these assumptions are minimal (Glass & Hopkins, 1984; Glass, Peckham, and Sanders, 1972). Nevertheless, a test was run for homogeneity of regression and it was determined that there was no violation of the assumption (F = [1,42] = 2.14, p > .OS). Chi-Square A chi-square test was conducted to investigate

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64 the relationship between educational level and self-esteem. The educational levels were categorized as follows: 1 = lowest grade completed through 11th grade. 2 = twelfth grade (H.S. Diploma). 3 = thirteen years of school through fifteen years. 4 = sixteen years of school through highest. Self-esteem was categorized as high and low self-esteem. Subjects whose self-esteem score on the pretest was <31 were placed in the low group and subjects with scores L 31 were placed in the high self-esteem group. Thirty-one was chosen because it was the median score on the self-esteem pretest. The results indicated that these two variables were 2 independent (X = .547, df = 3, p = .90). Summary To analyze data collected during the course of this investigation, one-way ANOVAs and ANCOVAs; two-way repeated measures, and chi-squares were employed. The conclusions of the aforementioned results, their implications, and their contributions to recommendations for further research are discussed in Chapter V.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter Summarizes this investigation to assess the effects of selected computer programs and a computer on the self-esteem of the elderly. Additionally, hypotheses and findings are reviewed, implications are addressed and recommendations for future investigations are stated. Summary The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of selected computer programs and a computer interaction on the self-esteem 6f the elderly. Sixty elderly subjects were randomly assigned. to experimentai (computer group) and control groups. A total of 23 subjects completed all treatment and testing aspects of this investfgation (experimental group) and a total of 21 subjects completed the testing aspect of the this investigation (control group), for a total of 44 participants. A personal profile sheet was administered to each participant in order to obtain demographic data. Pretest data were gathered using three instruments: the

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66 Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965), the Computer-Appreciator-Critic Attitude Scale (Mathews & Wolf, 1983), and the Computer Anxiety Index (Maurer & Simonson, 1984). The treatment consisted of subjects interacting with the computer in three areas; (a) introduction to the use of the IBM computer, (b) leisure activities for use with the computer, and (c) word processing. The treatment phase of this investigation took place over an 8 week period. Subjects in the experimental group were divided into three sections with eight subjects in each group. Each treatment section met on two consecutive nights for one hour during the eight weeks of the study. They received the treatment (computer interaction and selected computer programs) at these one hour meetings. Immediately following the first two weeks of the treatment, consisted of the subjects in the experimental group using the computer introduction program (Exploring the IBM), posttest 1 administered to all participants (experimental and control). Posttest 1 consisted of the same three instruments used in the pretest. Immediately following the completion of the treatment, posttest 2 was administered to all participants (experimental and control) using the same three instruments. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, ANCOVA, chi-square tests, and two-way repeated measures ANOVAs.

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Findings Following each research hypothesis is a statement of the findings of this investigation. Hypothesis 1: Elderly {ndividuals who are aware that they will interact with the computer will have higher computer anxiety than those elderly individuals who know they will not interact.with the computer. 67 The of the ANOVA test conducted on the pretest computer anxiety data showed that the control group had higher computer anxiety than experimental group. Therefore, hypothesis 1 was not supported. Hypothesis 2: After the introductory computer program, the elderly {ndividuals who have interacted with the computer will have a higher self-esteem than those individuals who did not interact with the computer. The results of the ANCOVA test run on the posttest 1 self-esteem data were not significant. Therefore, research hypothesis 2 was not supported.

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68 Hypothesis 3: After the introductory computer program, elderly individuals who interacted with the computer will have a more favorable attitude toward computers than elderly individuals who did not interact with the computer. Computer attitudes for the experimental group were significantly different (p = .06) on posttest 1. Therefore, iesearch hypothesis 3 was supported. Hypothesis 4: After the introductory computer program, computer anxiety will be lower those elderly who have interacted with the computer compared. to those who did not interact with the computer. The results of the ANCOVA test on computer anxiety posttest 1 data were sigrtificant (p = .005). Therefore, research hypothesis 4 was strongly supported. Hypothesis 5: At the completion of the study, elderly individuals who have interacted with the computer will have a higher self-esteem than

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those individuals who did not interact with the computer. 69 The results o the ANCOVA test 6f the posttest 2 data were not significant. research hypothesis 5 was. not Hypothesis 6: Ai the of the study, elderly who have interacted with the computer will have a more favorable atti.tude toward computers than elderly individuals who did not interact with the computer. The -of the ANCOVA test on 2 computer attitude data were significant (p = .04). Therefore, hypothesis 6 was strongly supported. Hypothesis 7: At the completion of the study, computer anxiety will be lower for those elderly who interact with the computer compared to those who do not interact with the computer. The results of the ANCOVA test on the computer posttest 2 data were sigrtificant (p = Therefore, research hypothesis 7 was strongly supported.

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Hypothesis 8: The self-esteem of the elderly in the investigation will be positively related to their educational level 70 The results of the chi-square test of significance showed no significant relationship between educational level and self-esteem. Therefore, research hypothesis 8 not suppprted. Conclusions Based the results of the analyses employed in this !nvestigation, the folldwing are conclusions drawn from this study: 1. Computer interaction and the computer programs selected for this study are not effective in raising the level of self-esteem of the elderly. 2. Use of the Exploring the. IBM introductory program on the computer for a two week period has a mild positive affect on attitude toward the computer for the elderly and further use of the compu-ter has a strong positive affect on attitude toward the computer for the elderly.

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3. The knowledge that elderly individuals will have an interaction with a computer does not significantly increase their computer anxiety. 4. Use of the exploring the IBM introductory program on the computer for a two week period is effective in reducing computer anxiety in the elderly. Further use further reduces computer anxiety. 5. The self-esteem of the elderly is not related to their educational level. Discussion 71 Based upon the results of the analyses employed in this investigation, the conclusions, with respect to the hypotheses, are discussed: 1 Does interacting with a computer the level of self-esteem of the elderly? Existing research concerning computers, the elderly, and self-esteem suggests that a computer interaction has been instrumental in bringing about positive changes in self-esteem. Weisman (1983) demonstrated that nursing home residents did interact in a positive manner with a computer and suggested that

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72 this interaction may have played a role in enhancing self-esteem. These results were based on hypotheses put forth by Butler and Lewis (1973) arid Solomon (1982). Both researchers hypothesized that enhancement of self-esteem may occur by mastering new material. However, no formal measure of self-esteem was mentioned by Weisman, Butler, Solomon. All made use of participant interviews to determine if changes in self-esteem took place. Perhaps these were not addressing self-esteem but attitude toward the new material being introduced. In the Weisman paper, the new material was the computer. This also used informal post study interviews. Questions, such as "How do you feel about the computer?'; "HDw do you feel about what you learned?''; "How do you feel about yourself?''; were asked. A sample participant response is presented in Appendix F. The informal interviews participants revealed an excitement about the technology and pleasure about newly developed skills. This pleasure about the computer could be interpreted as a general increase in positive self-feelings which can appear to be an increase in self-esteem but then, the same mistake of confusing self-esteem and attitude would be made. This study differed from previous research in that a formal statistical method, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, was employed to determine if there

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I I. I 73 were significant differences in self-esteem. This investigation found no significant difference in self-esteem of the elderly at the two week interval (posttest 1) or at the completion of the study (posttest 2) as a result of the computer interaction. Therefore, it is concluded that the computer interaction and selected computer programs used in this study were ineffective in enhancing self-esteem. The lack of support for research hypothesis 2 and research hypothesis 5 may be attributable to a variety of other factors, among may be sample size and instrumentation. Sample Size A test's power varies as a function of sample size (Glass & Hopkins, 1984). That is, the larger the sample, the smaller the sampling error. Twenty-three subjects were in the experimental group and 21 subjects were in the control group. With a larger sample, the power of the statistical test would be increased. Instrumentation The subjects' limited opportunity to become more realistic about their feelings of self may be attributable to the insensitivity of the instrument used to measure self-esteem. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale measures global self-esteem. Perhaps this computer

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74 interaction affects a small component of self-esteem, i.e, how one feels about oneself in relation to computers. Also, self-esteem is generally regarded as a construct that is difficult to change (e.g Bengston, Reed, & Gordon, 1985). The lack of significant change in self-esteem in this study supports these research I findings. In this study, the mean self-esteem score for I the experimental group was a 33 out of a possible 40 -I (pretest self-esteem). With self-esteem levels starting i out relatively high, there is less for changes to occur. In addition, (1968) points out that we have no way of knowing whether responses given on a measure of self-esteem reflect conscious or unconscious feelings if the subjects are not told ahead of time of the intent of the investigation. The subjects in this study were not informed of its exact nature. 2 Does interacting with a computer increase pusitive attitudes about the computer? Past research (Gressard & Loyd, 1985; Linbeck & Dambrot, 1986) suggested that attitudes toward computers do change in a positive way as a result of hands-on computer experiences. This investigation found a moderate difference in attitude toward the computer at

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I I I the two week interval (posttest 1). These results may be related to the amount of actual computer time each participant had with the computer. At the end of two weeks, a total of four hours of computer time was accrued. This was enough time to see a mild positive difference but not enough time for a strong positive difference in attitude to occur. A strong difference in attitude at the completion of the study (posttest 2) was noted. These results supported the research hypotheses concerning computer attitude. Therefore, it was concluded that 75 hands-on experience with the computer in this study was effective in increasing positive attitude toward the computer. Furlong (1984) demonstrated that the elderly participants in her computer activities were overwhelmingly positive about their interaction with the computer. She suggested that self-esteem may have been increased. However, again, there may have been same confusion; what was interpreted as change in self-esteem may have been change in computer attitude. If so, these results would lend support to the results of this investigation concerning effects on computer attitude. 3. Does the knowledge that one is to interact with a computer have an affect on computer anxiety?

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76 According to the literature (Clement, 1981; Maurer, 1983), computer anxiety increases when the individual considers utilizing the computer or when the individual actually uses the However, this study found the control group having higher pretest anxiety than the experimental group. It is therefore suggested, for this study, that elderly individuals' prior knowledge of an upcoming computer interaction does not increase their level of anxiety. The lack of significant findings for research hypothesis 1 may be attributable to a variety of other factors, among these are retirement time differences and investigator bias. These factors are explained below. Retirement Time Differences As a group, the control group was retired longer than the experimental group (3 years). Due to this earlier retirement, control group may have felt a greater impact of technology having been out of the work force before the on-set of computers in the work place. This limited exposure, coupled with a general lack of understanding of computer technology, may have caused these individuals to have negative attitudes about computers. Negative attitudes can take the form of resistance to thinking about computers or could appear as computerphobia (anxiety) (Jay, 1981).

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77 Investigator Bias Another plausible explanation for the pre-study anxiety results may be linked to the investigator's introduction to the study. It was the investigator's intention to make all of the participants as relaxed as possible prior to the commencement of the study. Explanations of procedures to be used in the treatment were given to both groups prior to pretesting. The investigator's easy manner, encouraging remarks and explanation of the treatment may have alleviated some of the anxiety in the experimental group, with the anxiety levels of the control group remaining unchanged. 4. Does interacting with a computer have an effect on computer anxiety? Prior research (Jay, 1981) stated that a slow paced introduction, hands-on experience, and a recognition that computer anxiety exists are ways to reduce computer anxiety. This study included a verbal introduction of each step in the treatment. Also, a hands-on computer introduction and typed directions for each computer procedure were utilized. The results of the study showed that, at the two week interval (posttest 1), and at the completion of the study (posttest 2), computer anxiety for the

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experimental group was significantly less than for the control group. Computer anxiety for the control group started higher but remained high. Therefore, it is concluded that an interaction with a computer in a positive, easy manner was effective in reducing the computer anxiety of the elderly in this study. s. Is one's educational level predictive of one's self-esteem? 78 The chi-square test did not produce significant results. It was, therefore, concluded that the variables of self-esteem and educational level are independent of each other. Implications The pervasiveness of computers demands the study of societal attitudes toward computers to better understand and correct the and often irrational attitudes toward this technology. A purpose of this investigation was to determine if interacting with the computer would negative attitudes toward it. From the findings, there was evidence that hands-on interaction with the computer reduced the negative attitudes and promoted positive feelings about computers. The impact of computer technology, either

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79 directly or indirectly, on the elderly is increasing. Promoting a positive attitude toward this technology would be an important factor for the elderly and for those who work with this population. The elderly must live in this technological society and knowing that the computer can be a useful tool rather than something to fear will help to achieve this end. Computers offer tremendous educational possibilities for the elderly. Through the use of commercially available programs, they can increase their knowledge about a wide variety of subject matter. Moreover, acquired skills could be applied to other situations involving basic computer skills such as computer assisted banking. Mastery of such skills and using them on a daily basis could promote a sense of self-efficacy and help these individuals require less dependence on others. The continued use of computers is likely to change the workforce. Increasing numbers of employees may no longer find it necessary to go to the workplace. With the combination of computer, modem, and phone lines, work can be phoned into any given location. Physical presence may no longer be in number of jobs. This work at home feature could put many competent older adults back into the work force. Computer literate elderly persons may have a substantial impact on areas of concern to

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80 gerontologists. One such concern, for example, is the negative societal attitudes toward the elderly due to a lack of meaningful intergenerational contacts (Ansello, 1978; Atchley, 1977). If these negative images are to be overcome, ways to demonstrate that the elderly have a wealth of experience and knowledge need to be developed. Interacting with the younger generation via computer classes may help reverse this negative image of the elderly held by younger people. Interacting with computers also seemed to encourage the elderly to concentrate and focus their attention. This could be of interest to psychologists who work with elderly individuals with memory problems. The computer may be used _to exercise and sharpen memory, improve eye-hand coordination and increase the ability to concentrate on a task. These ideas can also be used by managers and activity directors of ILU's and/or similar living arrangements to accomplish the same goals.

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81 Recommendations for Research This study was concerned with the effects of a interaction on the self-esteem, attitudes toward the computer and computer anxiety of the elderly. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that this investigation be replicated in light of the following considerations: Replicate the study with as large a sample as possible. Use a self-esteem instrument that would be more sensitive to factors that may be working to affect self-esteem, or develop a new instrument to measure "computer self-esteem." Increase the length of treatment time and extend the length of time that the computer is accessible so that computer activities become more meaningful. Also, increase the number and types of computer activities. Investigate the relationship between computer literacy and attitudes toward continued learning among the elderly. Investigate the relationship between fear of computers and different age groups.

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* Investigate intergenerational computer classes on attitudes toward the elderly. Investigate the relationship between socio-economic-status and self-esteem by gender. Investigations incorporating these recommendations would provide individuals working with the elderly additional information to aid in making decisions relevant to the use of computers with the elderly. Recommendations for Utilization 82 Following are some recommendations for further study concerning the utilization of the. computer. These uses vary from recreation to rehabilitation. With the costs of microcomputers on the decline, the potential to utilize the computer in the following ways is within financial reach of the elderly and those who work with this population. Use of the computer and educational programs to support life long learning. Use of the computer as means of putting competent older adults back into the work force.

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* Use of the computer and its on-line telecommunication capabilities to expand the opportunity for older adults to communicate with others. Use of the computer as therapy for perceptual disorders and speech/language difficulties. Use of the computer to help increase concentration and stimulate memory. Use of the computer as a tool for physical therapy. Use of the computer for monitoring health problems. Use of the computer for record keeping. 83 Use of the computer as a recreational tool. The computer appears to have a great deal of potential for improving the lives of older adults. Yet, what this technology is capable of doing and what "it is doing are different viewpoints. More research into the capabilities of this technology is needed, particularly as it becomes more and more integrated with daily living.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY America in transition: An aging society (1983). Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. Ansello, E.F. (1978). Ageism-The subtle stereotype. Childhood Education, 54, 118. Atchley, R.C. (1977). The social forces in later life (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. Attenborough, R. E. & Zdep, S. M. (1973). Self-image among a national probability sample of girls. Proceeding of the 81st annual convention of the American Psychological Association, 8, 237-238. Baltes, P., Resse, H., & Lippsitt, L. (1980). Life-span developmental psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 65-110. Banziger, G. & Roush, S. (1983). Nursing homes for the birds: A control-relevant intervention with bird feeders. The Gerontologist, 1} (5), 527-531. Beck, P. (1982). Two successful interventions in nursing homes: The therapeutic effects of cognitive activity. The Geron to 1 o g i s t 2 2 3 7 8-3 8 3 84 Bengtson, V.L., Reedy, M.N., & Gordon, C. (1985). Aging and self-conceptions:Personality processes and social context. In J. E. Birren & K. Warner Schaie, Handbook of The Psychology of Aging New.York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Bennett, R., & Eckman, J. (1973). Attitudes toward aging: A critical examination of recent literature and implications for future research. In The Psychology of Adult Development and Aging Carl Eisdorfer and M. Powell Lawton (eds). American Psychological Association, Washington, D. C. Bowman, D. 0. (1974). A longitudinal study of selected facets of children's self-concept as related to achievement and intelligence. The Citadel: Monograph Series: Number XII, 1-16. Botwinick, J. (1978). Aging and Behavior, New York: Springer. Bragger, L. (1976). Ageism in videoland. Bulletin of Interracial Books for Children, 7, 6-10.

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85 Breytspraak, L. M., & George, L. K. (1979). Measurement of self-concept and self-esteem in older people: State of the Experimental Aging Research, 5, 137-148. Busse, E., & Reckless, J. (1961). Psychiatric management of the aged. Journal of the American Medical Association, 175, 645-648. Butler, R. N. (1975). Why survive? Being old in america New York: Harper and Row. Butler, R. N., & Lewis, M. (1977). Aging and Mental Health St. Louis: C. V. Mosby. Caffarella, E. P., Cavert, C. E., Legum, S. E., Shtogren, J. H., & Wager, W. W. (1980). Factors affecting instructor/student ratios for self-paced instruction. Educational Technology, 20 (12), 5-9. Cambell, & Stanley, J.C. (1963). Experimental and quais-experimental designs for research Chicago: Rand McNally. Campbell, R. N. (1984). The New Science Boston: University Press. Carp, F. M. (1974). Short-term and long-term prediction of adjustment to a new environment. Journal of Gerontology, 29, 444-453. Carpenter, T. R., & Busse, T. V. (1969). Development of self-concept in negro and white welfare children. Child Development, 40, 935-939. Cattell, R. B., & Scherer, I. H. (1958). The nature of anxiety: A review of thirteen multivariate analyses comprising 814 variables. Psychological Reports, 4, 351-388. Cavan, R. S. (1962). Self and role in adjustment during old age. In A. Rose (ed), Human Behavior and Social Processes Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Charp, S. (1981). Effectiveness of computers in instruction. Viewpoints in Teaching and Learning, 2l (2), 13-22. Clement, F. J. (1981). Affective considerations in computer-based education. Educational Technology, 11 (4), 28-32.

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86 Cohen, A. R. (1968). Some implications of self-esteem for social influence. In The Self in Social Interaction Chad Gordon and Kenneth Green (eds). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Coleman, P. (1984). Assessing self-esteem and its sources in elderly people. Aging and Society, 4 (2), 117-135. Coopersmith, S. (1967). The Antecedents of Self-Esteem San Francisco: W. H. Freeman & Co. Dales, R. J., & Keller, J. F. (1972). Self-concept scores among black and white culturally deprived adolescent males. Journal of Negro Education, 41, 31-34. Dalton, D., & Hannafin, M. (1984, Dec.). The role of computer-assisted instruction in affecting learner self-esteem: A case study. Technology 42-44. Duby, P. B., & Giltrow, D. P. (1978). Predicting student withdrawl in open learning courses. Educational Technology, (2), 43-47. Eilers, M. L. (1986). Older adults and computer education. (Unpublished document). Fleit, L. (1987). Computerizing America's Campuses. Electronic Learning March. Furlong, M. (1986). Seniors and computing. Today's Catholic Teacher 105-106. Garraway, T. (1974). Computer-assisted instruction in the northwest territories, Alberta University, Edmonton, Division of Education Research Associates, (ERIC Document Service No. ED 1152285). George, L.K. & Bearon, L.B. (1980). Quality of life in older persons New York: Human Sciences Press. Glass, G.V. & Hopkins, K.D. (1984). Statistical methods in education and psychology Englewood-Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Glass, G.V., Peckham, P.D., & Sanders, J.R. (1972). Consequences of failure to meet assumptions underlying the fixed effects analysis of variance and covariance, Review of Educational Research, 42, 237-288.

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Gressard, C. & Loyd, B.H. (1985). Age and staff development experience with computers as factors affecting teacher attitudes toward computers. School Science and Mathematics, 85, 203-209. 87 Growing Old in America (1984). Carol Foster, Mark Siegel, and Nancy Jacobs (eds). Instructional Aides, Inc. Plano, Texas. Guilford, J. P. (1954). Psychometric Methods New York: McGraw Hill. Hines, S. N. (1983). Computer programming abilities of five-year-old children. Educational Computing, 3(4), 417-434. Horrocks, J. E., & Jackson, D. W. (1972). Self and role: A theory of self-process and role behaviour Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Hunter, K., Linn, M. W., & Harris, R. (1981-82). Characteristics of high and low self-esteem in the elderly. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 1 (2), 125-133. James, W. (1910). The Principles of Psychology Macmillian and Company, Ltd. Jay, T. (1981, January). Computerphobia: What to do about it. Educational Technology, 47-48. Kaplan, H. B., & Pokorny, A. D. (1964). Self-derogation and psychosocial adjustment. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 421-434. Kausler, D. (1982). Experimental Psychology and Human Aging New York: John Wiley and Sons. Kerschner, P.A., & Hart, K.C. (1984). The aged user and technology. In R.E. Dunkle, M.R. Haug, & M. Rosenberg (Eds), Communications technology and the elderly: Issues and forecasts New York: Springer. Kogan, N., & Shelton, F. (1962). Images of "old people" and "people in general" in an older sample. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 100, 3-21. Kogan, N, & Wallach, M. A. (1961). Age changes in values and attitudes. Journal of Gerontology, 16, 272-280. Knapper, C. K. (1978, April). Learning from COMIT: The education implications. Paper presented at the symposium on COMIT. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

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Knox, A. (1977). Adult development and learning San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Kulik, J. A. (1983). Synthesis of research on computer-based instruction. Educational Leadership, 41, 19-21. 88 Langer, E., & Rodin, J. (1976). The effects enhanced personal responsibility for the experiment in an institutional setting. Personality and Social Psychology, 34, of choice and aged: A field Journal of 191-198. Leung, Jup-chung. (1972). Self-esteem and emotional maturity Unpublished dissertation. San Diego State University. Lieberman, M. (1971). Some issues in studying psychological predictors of survival. In F. C. Jeffers and E. Palmore (eds). Prediction of Life-Span Lexington: Heath. Lieberman, M., & Lakin, M. (1963). On becoming an institutional person. In R. H. Williams, C. Tibbetts, and W. Donahue (eds). Processes of Aging. Vol. 1 New York: Atherton. Lindbeck, JoyS. & Dambrot, F. (1986). Measurement and reduction of math and computer anxiety. School Science and Mathematics, 86, (7), 567-577. Linn, M.W. & Hunter, K. (1979). Perception of age in the elderly. Journal of Gerontology, 24, 46-52. Mason, E. P. (1954). Some correlates of self-adjustment of the aged. Journal of Gerontology, 9, 324-337. Mathews, W. M. (1983). Measuring attitudes toward computers: The Computer appreciator-critic attitude scales. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Quebec: Canada. Maurer, M. M. (1983). Development and validation of a measure of computer anxiety. Unpublished Master's Thesis, Iowa State University. Neuhaus, R., & Neuhaus, R. (1982). Successful Aging New York: John Wiley and Sons. Papert, S. (1980). Mind-storms: Children, computers, and powerful ideas New York: Basic Books, Inc. Pollack, M., Karp, E., Kahn, R., & Goldfarb, A. (1962). Perception of self in institutional aged students. Journal of Gerontology, 17, 405-408.

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Popelka, G. R. (1984). Improving the hearing of the elderly. In R.E. Dunkle, M.R. Haug, and Rosenberg, M. (Eds). Communications technology and the elderly: Issues and forecasts. New York: Springer. Powers, W. G. (1973). The effects of prior computer exposure on man-machine computer anxiety Paper presented at the International Communication Association Convention, Montreal: Canada. (ERIC Document No. ED 089-763). Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image Princeton: Princeton University press. Rosow, I. (1967). Social integration of the aged New York: Free Press. Ryan, E. B. & Heaven, R.K. (1986). Promoting vitality. among older adults with computers. In Francis A. McGuire (Eds), Computer technology and the aged New York: Haworth Press. Solomon, K. (1982). Social antecedents of learned helplessness in the health care setting. The Gerontologist, 287-287. Schmall, V. L. (1982, Sept./Oct.). sensitivity. Illinois Teacher, Aging: A need for 25-28. Schwartz, A. N. (1975). An observation on self-esteem as the linchpin of quality of life for the aged. The j Gerontologist, 15, 470-472. I Schwartz, A., Snyder, C., & Peterson, J. (1984). Aging and life: An introduction to gerontology New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. Sherman, E. (1985). Social reconstruction variables and the morale of the aged. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 20 (2), 133-143. Smith, I. D. (1973). Impact of computer-assisted instruction on student attitudes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 64, 336-372. Stafford, J. L., & Bringle, R. (1960). The influence of task success on elderly women's interest in new activities. The Gerontologist, 20, 642-648. Tuckman, J., & Lorge, I. (1952). The best years of life: A study in ranking. Journal of Psychology, 34, 137-149. 89

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Tuckman, J., & Lorge, I. (1954). Old people's appraisal of adjustment over the life span. Journal of Personality, 22, 417-422. Tuckman, J., & Lorge, I. (1956). Perceptual stereotypes about life and adjustment. Journal of Social Psychology, 43, 239-245. Vaughn, G.R., Faucett, R.A. & Lightfoot, R.K. (1984). 90 Communication outreach: Delivery systems and devices. In R.E. Dunkle, M.R. Haug, & M. Rosenberg (eds.), Communications technology and the elderly: Issues and forecasts New York: Springer. Ward, R. H. (1977). The impact of subjective age and stigma on older persons. Journal of Gerontology, & 227-232. Weisman, S. (1983). Computer games for the frail elderly. The Gerontologist, 23 (4), 361-363. Widgor, B. T. (1980). Drives and motivations with aging. In J. E. Birren & R. B. Sloane (Eds)., Handbook of Mental Health and Aging Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hall. Wilker, L., & Centor, M. (1980, July). A casual model of psychological well-being applied to white, black, and spanish elderly men and women in the inner city U. S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Administration on Aging, Grant # AA470-089-02. Wylie, R. (1961). The self-concept Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Ziller, R. C., & study of the the neurotic Psychology, Grossman, S. H. (1967). A develop.mental self-social constructs of normals and personality. Journal of Clinical 23, 15-21. Zung, W. W. K. (1967). Depression in the normal aged. 287-292. Psychosomatics, 8, Zusman, T. (1966). Some explanations of the changing appearance of psychotic patients: Antecedents of the social breakdown syndrome concept. The Millbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 64, 363-394.

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91 APPENDIX A LETTER OF INVITATION I I I

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92 My name is Jim Chiavacci and I am a doctoral degree candidate at the University of Colorado-Denver working on a computer project. Residents of Metro Manor, I am requesting your assistance with the project. Because of the willingness shown by the residents and management and the amount of activities generated by your community, Metro Manor was chosen, from numerous Denver residences, as the ideal site for an introductory class designed to acquaint seniors with computers. This project will require willing participants to interact with computers in a fun and exciting atmosphere. If you are interested, please sign-up at the front desk. If you need further information, please contact Kristy. Your help will be deeply appreciated.

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APPENDIX B PERSONAL PROFILE SHEET

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PARTICIPANT PROFILE SHEET a me=-------------------------------------$ X: (circle one) M F I ACE: (circle one) CAUCASIAN HISPANIC I BLACK ASIAN OTHER (Explain) ________ ATE OF Mo./Day/Yr. ARIT AL STATUS: (circle one) MARRIED SINGLE DIVORCED WIDOWED 94 UMBER OF CHILDREN: NUMBER OF GRANDCHILDREN:. __ I UMBER OF GREAT GRANDCHILDREN:. __ I ELIGION: YEARS RETIRED:. __ I REVIOUS OCCUPATION($):. _________________ I EARS AT METRO MANOR: -IGHEST GRADE COMPLETED: (circle one) 6 7 8 9 I 0 II 12 YEARS OF COLLEGE (circle one) I 2 3 4 YEARS OF GRADUATE SCHOOL. __

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[J) GREES EARNED: (circle all that apply) HIGH SCHOOL DIPLOMA UNDERGRADUATE MASTER'S DOCTORATE OTHER (explain) ________ f? EVIOUS COMPUTER EXPERIENCE: (circle one) YES* NO i If YES, please explain) IDOES ANYONE IN YOUR FAMILY OWN A COMPUTER? I !DO YOU OWN A COMPUTER? YES NO I T PING EXPERIENCE: (circle one) NO EXPERIENCE AVERAGE SKILLS LITTLE EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCED TYPIST 95 YES NO

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APPENDIX C CONSENT FORM

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t 97 CONSENT agree to participate in the research which is being -n"'"'d,...u'"""c.,..te_d.,..b:-y--=J-a_m_e_s-::P::-..... C-.h.,..ia_v_a,_Jcci. I understand that this participation is entirely luntary; I can withdraw my consent at any time and have the results of the rticipation returned to me, removed from the experimental records, or destroyed. he following points have been explained to me: (I) The reason for the research is to study how interacting with a computer will affect the individual's attitudes toward computers. (2) The procedure will require me to interact with three computer programs. (3) There are no discomforts, stresses, or risks involved in this research. (4) The results of my participation will be anonymous. (5) The investigator will answer any further questions about the research either now or during the course of the project .!J mes P. Chiavacci Signature of Participant I I EASE SIGN BOTH COPIES. KEEP ONE AND RETURN THE OTHER TO THE I VESTIGATOR. I : esearch at the University of Colorado at Denver which involves human participants is c rried out under the oversight of the Human Research Committee. Questionsor oblems regarding these activities should be addressed to: Dr. Carolyn H. Simmons, hair, Human Research Committee, Box 173, University of Colorado at Denver, II 00 I th Street, (556-2663)

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APPENDIX D DIRECTIONS FOR LOADING WRITING ASSISTANT

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INSTRUCTIONS FOR LOADING WRITING ASSISTANT WITH TWO DISK DRIVES (DRIVE A AND B) A. If the computer-is switched off insert the DOS (Disk Operating System) Disk in Drive A and switch on the Enter the date and time when requested to do so and press the . When the DOS prompt ( A> ) appears, remove the DOS disk from Drive A and insert the Writing Assistant Diskette in Drive A. Next, type the letter G after the DOS PROMPT ( A> ). See the following: A>G and then press the KEY>. The Writing Assistant Menu should appear. B. If the computer is switched on you will need to exit from whatever you are using. To exit, do the following: 1. Remove the Disk from 2. Place the DOS Disk (Disk Operating System) in Drive A. 3. Press the CTRL, ALT and DEL keys all at once. 4. When asked to enter the date and time, press the twice to get the DOS PROMPT (A>). s. When the DOS prompt A> appears, remove the DOS disk from Drive A and insert the Writing Assistant Disk. Type the letter G after the DOS Prompt. See the following: A>G and press the . 6. The Writing Assistant Menu should appear. 99

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APPENDIX E GUIDE SHEETE FOR WRITING ASSISTANT FUNCTIONS

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SIMPLE CORRECTIONS You should have .the Writing Assistant Menu on the screen. This first activity will teach you to make simple corrections.If, at any time, you need help, press the F1 function key for a help menu. Complete the following activity: 1. Press the number 4 for the GET/SAVE/REMOVE function. The program menu that comes up asks for the function you want to perform. 2. Choose the GET DOCUMENT option by typing the number 1 and then presi the ( TAB KEY ). 3. At the prompt for a directory or filename, type B: press the . 4. Press the and Writing Assistant displays the list of files on the disk's directory, prompting you for the name of the file to. get. 5. Enter the filename . CURSOR and press the 6. You will see two the screen that have a few mistakes in them. Look at the handout for assistance in finding the mistakes. 7. To make the corrections, the Blinking Cursor to each mistake and type the letter. USE THE ARROW KEYS TO MOVE THE CURSOR!!!!!! 8. After all corrections have been made, press The ESC (ESCAPE KEY) to return to the main It is now time to SAVE the corrected document. 101 9. Choose the GET/SAVE/REMOVE Function by typing the number 4 at the selection number and press the . 10. Next, choose the SAVE function by typing the number 2 and press the ( TAB KEY ).

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11. At the prompt for directory or filename, type the following: B:CURSOR and press the . 12. The SAVE will be complete. 102

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103 TIME MANAGEMENT Do you feel you're spreed too thin? Do you spind more time worrring about all you havv to do rather than those things? Do you emd your day frastrated with a lot of unfunlshed business? ou may nead some help managimg your tine. LISTENING AND NOTETAKING Do you have difficalty following a lectare? Do you have problems deciding what is impurtant to get down when taking netes? Do you write too much? Do you wrote too little? This workshup wiil help you learn whit to llstln for and how to take notes effectivity using the CornelTMethod of Notetaktng. --

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DELETE This activity will teach you to make simple using the DELETE KEY (DEL). Do the following: 1. Follow instructions for loading Writing Assistant. 2. When you see the Writing Assistant Main Menu, place your practice disk in DRIVE B 3. Press number 4 for the GET/SAVE/REMOVE function. The program/menu that comes up asks for the function you want to perform. 4. Choose the GET DOCUMENT option by typing the number 1 and then press the ( TAB KEY ). 5. At the prompt for a directory or filename, type the letter B: and press the 6. Press the and Writing Assistant will display the list of files on the disk, prompting you foi the name of the file to get. 7. Enter the following: B:DELETE if you have two disk drives and press the 8. To make the corrections, move the cursor to the letter needs to be corrected and press the DEL key to delete the extra letter or space. REMEMBER: each time you press the DEL key, one letter or space to the right of the cursor will be erased. 9. Once all the have been made, you must SAVE the paragraph. Do the Following: A. Press the ESC key (ESCAPE KEY) to return to the main menu. B. Next, choose the GET/SAVE/REMOVE function by typing the number 4. Then press the . 104

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105 c. Next, choose the SAVE function by pressing the number 2. Then press the TAB key. At the prompt for directory or filename, type the following: B:DELETE and press the . D. The SAVE will be complete.

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106 MEMORY TECHNIQUES Do you have diffficulty rememberingg material at tesst time? Do you seem to unddderstand lecture and texxt material buttt can't reccall it later when you ndeed it? Thixs workshop may be foor you. Exj?i'Cj"'r'"e the differghenc'e in "understoanding" and "knowifng," and the use of mnemonic dievices to improve recall.

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INSERT This activity will teach you to make simple corrections using the INSERT Key (INS). 1. Follow instructions for loading Writing Assistant. 2. When you see the Writing Assistant Main Menu, place your practice disk in Drive B 3. Press number 4 for the GET/SAVE/REMOVE function. The program/menu that comes up asks for the function you want to perform. 4. Choose the GET DOCUMENT option by typing the number 1 and then press the ( TAB KEY ). 5. At the prompt for a or filename, type the letter B: and press the 107 6. Press the and Writing Assistant will display the list of files on the disk, prompting you for the name of the file to get. 7. Enter the following: B:INSERT if you have two disk drives and press the 8. To add the necessary letters or spaces, do the following: A. Move the cursor of where the new inserted. one space to the right letter or space is to be B. Press the ( INS ) Key once. C. Type the correct letter or press the space bar to insert a space. Move the cursor to the next mistake and make the necessary corrections.

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108 E. Do this until all inserts have been made. See insert handout or assistance. F. Once all the inserts have been added, press the ( ESC ) key to return to the main menu. It is time to SAVE the corrections. Choose the GET/SAVE/REMOVE function by pressing the number 4. Then press the . G. Next, choose the SAVE function by typing the riumber 2 and press the ( TAB KEY ). H. At the prompt for directory or filename, type the following: B:INSERT and press the . I. The SAVE will be complete.

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109 TEST ANXIETY have trouble sleeing the night before a tet? Do you enter the roomto take your test with a churning stomach, sweaty pams, and a feeling of dred?When you look at the exam, does your min go blank? You may be nedlessly suffering from test anxiet. There me things you can do to reduce your anxiety and make test-taking an easier experiece.

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MOVE This exercise will show you how to move a block of text from one location to another in a document Complete the following activity: 1. Follow instructions for loading Writing Assistant. 2. When the MAIN MENU appears, press the number 4 for the GET/SAVE/REMOVE function. The program menu that comes up asks for the function you want to perform. 3. Choose the the number GET DOCUMENT option by typing 1 and then press the TAB KEY. 4. At the prompt for Directory or File Name, type the following: B: then press the 5. Writing Assistant then lists the Directory of file names on your practice disk. Type the following file name: MOVE and then press the . 6. Writing Assistant should then go and get the file. 7. It is now time to move the block of text. Move the CURSOR to the. beginning of the block of text you want to move. In this case, move the CURSOR to the letter T in the word TIME MANAGEMENT. This heading can be found near the END of the text on your screen. 8. Press the F7 Function key (MOVE BLOCK). Writing Assistant prompts you to move the CURSOR to the end of the block you wish to move. (SEE BOTTOM LOWER LEFT SIDE OF YOUR SCREEN). 9. PRESS the 7 times or until the whole section of text becomes highlighted on screen. 110

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10. PRESS the FlO Function Key (CONTINUE) and Writing Assistant prompts you to move the cursor to the new location. (SEE BOTTOM OF SCREEN) 11. PRESS the CTRL and HOME keys together to move the CURSOR to the top left side of the screen (The home position of the cursor) 111 12. Press the FlO Function Key (CONTINUE) and the marked block is now inserted at the cursor position. 13. Next, move the CURSOR to the next heading, LISTENING AND NOTETAKING, by pressing the 7 times. The CURSOR should now be on the letter L in LISTENING. 14. Turn on the INSERT MODE by presseing the (INS) key. 15. Press the one time to insert a space between the paragraphs. 16. Turn off the INSERT MODE by pressing the (INS) key. 17. After the move has been made, press The ESC (ESCAPE KEY) to return to the main menu. It is now time to SAVE the document. 18. Choose the GET/SAVE/REMOVE Function by typing the number 4 at the selection number and the . 19. Next, choose the SAVE function by typing the number 2 and press the ( TAB KEY ). 20. At the prompt for directory or filename, type the following: B:MOVE and press the . 21. The SAVE will be complete.

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112 LISTENING AND NOTET A KING Do you have difficulty following a _lecture? Do you have problems deciding what is important to get down when taking notes? Do you write too much? Do you write too little? This workshop will help you learn what to listen for and how to take notes effectively using the Cornell Method of Notetaking. MEMORY TECHNIQUES Do you have difficulty remembering material at test time? Do you seem to understand lecture and text material but can't recall it leiter when you need it? This workshop may be for you. Explore the difference in "understanding" and "knowing," and the use of mnemonic devices to improve recall. TEST ANXIETY Do you have trouble sleeping the night before a test? Do you enter the room to take your test with a churning stomach, sweaty palms, and a feeling of dread? When you look at the exam, doe s your mind go blank? You may be needlessly suffering from test anxiety. There are things you can do to reduce your anxiety" and make test-taking an easier experience. TEST TAKING Do you spen.d the night before an exam "crammi ng"? Have you ever "gone blank" while taking a test? Did you know that knowing the course material is only part of being a good test-taker? This workshop will show you how to prepare for a test most effectively and will familiarize you with techniques for dealing with different kinds of exam questions (true/false, multiple choice, objective, essay). WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS Do you panic at the thought of having to write a research paper? Do you feel overwhelmed when you walk in the library --uncomfortable about where/how to start your research? Or, as you re""enter academic life, would you like a review of the research process? Are you familiar with the resources available on campus? This workshop will acquaint you with resources and strategies that will make reserch paper writing less formidable. TIME MANAGEMENT Do you feel you're spread too thin? Do you spend more time worrying about all you have to do rather than doing those things? Do you end your day frustrated with a lot of unfinished business? You may need some help managing your time.

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1 1 3 EMPHASIZE This exercise will show you how to emphaaize certain words or phrases in several ways. You can highlight and underline on the screen and in the output. 1. Follow instructions for loading Writing Assistant. 2. When the MAIN MENU appears, press the number 4 for the GET/SAVE/REMOVE function. The program that comes up asks for the function you want to perform. 3. the GET DOCUMENT option by typing the number 1 and then press the TAB KEY. 4. At the prompt for Directory or File Name, type the following: B: then press the 5. Writing Assistant then lists the Directory of file names on your practice disk. Type the following file name: EMPHASIS and then press the . 6. Writing Assistant should then go and get the file. It is now time to emphasize the document. 7. To EMPHASIZE, move the cursor to ther beginning of the word or words you want to emphasize. In this example, we will emphasize all the titles. 8. Begin by moving the T in TIME MANAGEMENT. This is the first title. 9. Press the FS FUNCTION KEY (EMPHASIZE). Writing Assistant then prompts you for the type of emphasis you want. (SEE BOTTOM OF SCREEN!!!) 10. Each letter in parentheses at the bottom corresponds to the choices to the left. For example; the letter U corresponds to the word underline.

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114 11. To emphasize an entire word or phrase, hold down the key that corresponds to the choice you want. Press the letter U for underline and hold itdown. until all the letters in the title, TIME MANAGEMENT, are underlined. Each letter will appear light blue. 12. Next, press the to move the Cursor to the next title, LISTENING AND NOTETAKING. This is the second paragraph heading. 13. Again, press the letter U to underline each letter in the title. Each time you press the letter U you will underline a letter. 14. Press the again to move the Cursor to the third title and use the Letter U to underline it. IS. Continue the procedure until all titles are underlined. 16. When you are finished, press the FlO FUNCTION KEY (CONTINUE) to stop. It is now time to save the emphasized document. 17. After the underlining has been completed, press The ESC (ESCAPE KEY) to return to the main menu. It is now time to SAVE the document. 18. Choose the GET/SAVE/REMOVE Function by typing the number 4 at the selection number and press the . 19. Next, choose the SAVE function by typing the number 2 and press the ( TAB KEY ). 20. At the prompt for directory or filename, type ihe following: B:EMPHASIS and press the . 21. The SAVE will be complete.

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115 TIME MANAGEMENT Do you feel you're spread too thin? Do you spend more time worrying about all you have to do rather than doing those things? Do you end your day frustrated with a lot of unfinished business? You may need some help managing your time. LISTENING AND NOTET AKING Do you have difficulty following a lecture? Do you have problems deciding what is important to get down when taking notes? Do you write too much? Do you write too little? This workshop will help you learn what to listen for and how to take notes effectively using the Cornell Method of Notetaking. MEMORY TECHNIQUES Do you have difficulty remembering material at test time? Do you seem to understand lecture and text material but can't recall it later when you need it? This workshop may be for you. Explore the difference in "understanding" and "knowing," and the use of mnemonic devices to improve recall. TEST ANXIETY Do you have trouble sleeping the night before a test? Do you enter the room to take your test with a churning stomach, sweaty palms, and a feeling of dread? When you look at the exam, does your mind go blank? You may be needlessly suffering from test anxiety. There are things you can do to reduce your anxiety and make test-taking an easier experience. TEST TAKING Do you spend the night before an exam "cramming"? Have you ever "gone blank" while taking a test? Did you know that knowing the course material is only part of being a good test-taker? This workshop will show you how to prepare for a test most effectively and will familiarize you with techniques for dealing wlth different kinds of exam questions (true/false, multiple choice, objective, essay). WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS Do you panic at the thought of having to write a research paper? Do you feel overwhelmed when you walk in the library --uncomfortable about where/how to start your research? Or, as you re-enter academic life, would you like a review of the research process? Are you familiar with the resources available on c ampus? This workshop will acquaint you with resources and strategies that will make reserch paper writing less formidable.

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I I I I I ADJUST This exercise will show you how to adjust the position of text in the document. 1. Follow instructions for loading Writing Assistant. 2. When the MAIN MENU appears, press the number 4 for the GET/SAVE/REMOVE function. The program menu that comes up asks for the function you want to perform. 3. Choose the GET DOCUMENT option by typing the number 1 and then press the TAB KEY. 4. At the prompt for Directory or File Name, type the following: B: then press the 5. Writing Assistant then lists the Directory of file names on your practice disk. Type the following file name: ADJUST and then press the . 6. Writing Assistant should then go and get the file. It is now time to ADJUST parts of the document. 7. To ADJUST, move the cursor to ther beginning of the word or words you want to emphasize. In this example, we will ADJUST all the titles. 8. As you see, each title is on the left side of the screen. We will place them in the center. 9. First, move the Cursor to the line you want to Adjust. Now, move the Cursor to the first title, TIME MANAGEMENT, and press the F3 FUNCTION KEY. (ADJUST). 10. Writing Assistant highlights the line and prompts you to adjust the line the way you want. (SEE THE BOTTOM LEFT SIDE OF THE SCREEN!!!) 11. Type one of the following choices; 116

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L to move the line so the first letter in the line is at the LEFT margin. C to CENTER the text between the left and right margins. R to move the line so the last letter in the line is at the RIGHT margin We want to CENTER the texti so press the letter C. 12. Next, move press the the Cursor to the next title and F3 FUNCTION KEY (ADJUST) 13. Press the letter C to CENTER the title. 14. Move the Cursor to each title and CENTER each one. 117 15. After all the titles have been CENTERED, it is time to Save the document. 16. Press the ESC (ESCAPE KEY) to return to the main menu. 17. Choose the GET/SAVE/REMOVE Function by typing the number 4 at the selection number and press the . 18. Next, choose the SAVE function by typing the number 2 and press the ( TAB KEY ). 19. At the prompt for directory or filename, type the following:. B:ADJUST and press the . 20. The SAVE will be complete.

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118 TIME MANAGEMENT Do you feel you're spread too thin? Do you spend more time worrying about all you have to do rather than doing those things? Do you end your day frustrated with a lot of unfinished business? You may need some help managing your time. LISTENING AND NOTETAKING Do you have difficulty following a lecture? Do you have problems deciding what is important to get down when taking notes? Do you write too much? Do you write too little? This workshop will help you learn what to listen for and how to take notes effectively using the Cornell Method of Notetaking. MEMORY TECHNIQUES Do you have difficulty remembering material at test time? Do you seem to understand lecture and text material but can't recall it later when you need it? This workshop may be for you. Explore the difference in "understanding" and "knowing," and the use of mnemonic devices to improve recall. TEST ANXIETY Do you have trouble sleeping the night before a test? Do you enter the room to take your test with a churning stomach, sweaty palms, and a feeling of dread? When you look at the exam, does your mind go blank? You may be needlessly suffering from test anxiety. There are things you can do to reduce your anxiety and make test-taking an easier experience. TEST TAKING Do you spend the night before an exam "cramming"? Have you ever "gone blank" while taking a test? Did you know that knowing the course material is only part of being a good test-taker? This workshop w!ll show you how to prepare for a test most effectively and will familiarize you with t_echniques for dealing with different kinds of exam questions (true/false, multiple choice, objective, essay). WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS Do you panic at the thought of having to write a research paper? Do you feel overwhelmed when you walk in the library --uncomfortable about where/how to start your research? Or, as you re.,.enter academic life, would you like a review of the research process? Are you familiar with the resources available on campus? This workshop will acquaint you with resources and strategies that will make reserch paper writing less formidable.

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APPENDIX F SAMPLE PARTICIPANT RESPONSE

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120 November 4, 1986 THE COMPUTER WITH JIM by Catherine J. Packer Into our lives came a fellow named Jim He asked if we'd like to learn computer from him How wonderful of you, Jim, to select us All of us "weighing-in" at age 60-Plus We could all respond to your voice, clear and hearty, Which explains very well why we deemed it a party How gratifying it's been not to work for a grade Causing worrisome thoughts, our minds to invade Personal computers are fascinating and fun While business computers make me wish for a gun Computers and I, in encounters we've had, Haven't been pleasant--in fact, rather sad Invasion, by phone, of a computer for sales Sends me up in a temper with plenty of wailes Of course, we all know it's humans who err But it is the computer that keeps you in lair When in English you've earned on eloquent B And it won't make the change from registering D Or when a childhood prank follows into the future And there's no way to change it, save knife and a suture They record it all--like your back has a wart The trial to delete it is like going to court So, it's good and it's bad, but it's here to stay And we might as well grant it--it's the American Way But this has been different and fun all the way--The magical short-cuts and the games that we'd play This course is now ending, as all things must do You've made many friends and we all will miss you So, we thank you, Jim, for a wonderful chance To hove a good time and our minds to enhance We wish you good luck as we bid you adieu And want you to know it was nice knowing you.