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Increasing cultural competence in historically illiterate college students enrolled in global family science courses

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Title:
Increasing cultural competence in historically illiterate college students enrolled in global family science courses
Creator:
Greiving, Jennifer Elizabeth ( author )
Place of Publication:
Denver, Colo.
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
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Language:
English
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1 electronic file (76 pages) : ;

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of arts)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
School of Education and Human Development, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Education and human development

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Cultural competence -- United States ( lcsh )
Cultural competence ( fast )
United States ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Review:
Recent educational reforms tend to focus on reading and math, possibly to the detriment of history education. As university students enroll in global family perspective courses, their lack of historical knowledge may cause barriers to learning for students and difficulties for professors who reference global events that have affected the course of global families and human development. This study examines students' self-reported historical knowledge and cultural competence and also explores how professors, if necessary, compensate for the lack of historical knowledge when teaching global family science and human development.
Review:
For this study, self-reported measures of historical literacy and cultural competency were collected from 123 students at the University of Colorado Denver using a quantitative questionnaire. Three professors who teach global family courses were interviewed using a qualitative protocol. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS to determine scales for cultural competence and historical knowledge while the qualitative data were evaluated using various thematic analysis techniques. Results show that historical literacy plays a small but statistically significant role in cultural competence and suggestions are made for future research and curriculum direction.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: Adobe Reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jennifer Elizabeth Greiving.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver Collections
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
982958812 ( OCLC )
ocn982958812
Classification:
LD1193.E35 2016m G74 ( lcc )

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Full Text
INCREASING CULTURAL COMPETENCE IN HISTORICALLY ILLITERATE
COLLEGE STUDENTS ENROLLED IN GLOBAL FAMILY SCIENCE COURSES
by
JENNIFER ELIZABETH GREIVING B.A., Florida College, 2005
A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Arts
Education and Human Development
2016


1
This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by
Jennifer Elizabeth Greiving has been approved for the Education and Human Development program by
Ruben P. Viramontez Anguiano, Chair Caron Westland Alan Davis
Date: April 29, 2016


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Greiving, Jennifer Elizabeth (M. A. Education and Human Development)
Increasing Cultural Competence of Historically Illiterate College Students Enrolled in Global Family Perspectives Courses
Thesis directed by Professor Ruben P. Viramontez Anguiano
ABSTRACT
Recent educational reforms tend to focus on reading and math, possibly to the detriment of history education. As university students enroll in global family perspective courses, their lack of historical knowledge may cause barriers to learning for students and difficulties for professors who reference global events that have affected the course of global families and human development. This study examines students self-reported historical knowledge and cultural competence and also explores how professors, if necessary, compensate for the lack of historical knowledge when teaching global family science and human development.
For this study, self-reported measures of historical literacy and cultural competency were collected from 123 students at the University of Colorado Denver using a quantitative questionnaire. Three professors who teach global family courses were interviewed using a qualitative protocol. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS to determine scales for cultural competence and historical knowledge while the qualitative data were evaluated using various thematic analysis techniques. Results show that historical literacy plays a small but statistically significant role in cultural competence and suggestions are made for future research and curriculum direction.
This form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Ruben P. Viramontez Anguiano


Ill
DEDICATION
I dedicate this thesis to the hundreds of students I had the privilege of teaching over a ten-year period, spanning schools from Tallahassee to Denver, from high school to undergraduate. You are the ones who have shaped me as an educator and as a human being. Together we struggled, hoped, dreamed, and influenced each other -1 hope in ways that have led you to serve others courageously and selflessly.
I also dedicate this work to my husband, Benjamin, and my two sons, William and Jonathan. Your support, love, and patience over the last two years have led me to accomplish more than I ever imagined.
ad astra per aspera


IV
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Benjamin, you are yet the butter to my bread and the breath to my life. Your unwavering support over the past 12 years shows me more clearly every day that I want you for my traveling partner for life. Thank you for all the extra meals youve cooked and for the extra hours of daddy daycare over the past two years so I could stretch my brain a bit. I love you. Lets go to London someday.
My sons William and Jonathan, who enjoyed manipulating an endless stream of babysitters and who patiently waited while Mama had to do some school, I hope that my example will show you that you can achieve your goals through hard work, ambition, and neglecting housework for a few minutes to play Legos or bowling and make PBJs. I am proud of this thesis, but I am ever so much more proud of you, two of my greatest accomplishments.
Mom and Pop, I apologize for suddenly finding my work ethic after leaving the house. Your love, support, and even the starter-up-and-motivator made and makes all the difference.
Chase, thank you for learning to change diapers so you could watch the boys. We look forward to returning the favor!
To my family, (the grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, in-laws, and those additional mothers who helped me along the way), thank you and I love you! As I raise my own children I realize how valuable all of you are and I pray for good influences like you in the lives of my boys and my students. Thank you for putting up with all my shenanigans over the years.
To my CU Denver faculty members:
Dr. Ruben, Im so glad I spoke up in that Latino Families class about my desire to be a professor.
How could I have imagined that a year and a half later, Id be realizing my dreams of teaching at the university? Gracias, profe, for all the opportunities youve sent my way, for all the additional time you took to help me meet and exceed my goals, and for teaching me how to show grace as an instructor. I also appreciate so very much the respect you showed for my motherwork and my need to take care of my family. Its like youre a family scientist or something. May God bless you and your family. I look forward to working with you.
My thesis committee: Dr. Davis, I appreciate your help with the quantitative data analysis. If my 8th grade math teacher could see me now, shed never believe it! Dr. Westland, thank you for including cross-cultural research in your human development courses those readings helped inspire my topic.
I appreciate the guidance given and the time taken to help me as a student. I hope to pay that forward. Additional thanks: Dr. Rene Galindo provided a member check of qualitative data as well as water kefir grains that I was determined to kill.
To my undergraduate professors at Florida College:
Dr. Dickey, thank you for sparking my interest in the behavioral sciences. I also appreciate your help with my thesis topic. I am so thankful for the opportunities I had in the liberal studies program.
Dr. Johnson, thank you for coaching me as a performer and as a speaker. It is because of your guidance and patience that I find teaching and speaking so enjoyable.
Dr. Roberts, through your example, I learned how to be a great teacher. I also learned how to both live and die like one who wraps the drapery of his couch about him / and lies down to pleasant dreams. Your legacy lives on in your students. Psalm 1:1-3.
The faculty, staff and administration at Florida College put up with my antics for four years and in return, made a lasting impact on who I am today. Thanks for the BA and the MRS degrees.
My friends, an enormous, all-encompassing thank you for all the babysitting help, moral support, for listening to me spout off interesting facts based on whatever research I was reading, & for offering meals. You make an awesome tribe and there is no way this would have happened without you all.
Hebrews 12:1-2: Let us run.


V
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION............................................................1
Overview..........................................................1
Purpose of the Study..............................................3
Guiding Research Questions........................................3
Significance of the Study.........................................4
Definitions and Terms.............................................4
Personal Identification of the Topic..............................5
II. LITERATURE REVIEW......................................................6
Introduction......................................................6
Need for Globalized Family Science Curriculum.....................7
How to Globalize Family Science Curricula.........................9
Historical Illiteracy in the United States.......................12
Theoretical Framework............................................16
III. METHODS................................................................21
Research Design..................................................21
Participants.....................................................23
Instrumentation..................................................25
Analysis.........................................................26
IV. FINDINGS...............................................................29
Mixed-Methods Research Findings..................................29
Quantitative Findings............................................31


VI
Qualitative Thematic Findings.............................33
V. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH........................44
Discussion................................................44
Limitations of this Study.................................45
Strengths of this Study...................................46
Interpretation of Results.................................47
For Future Theoretical and Practical Research.............53
Implications and Conclusion...............................54
REFERENCES............................................................57
APPENDIX
A: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO DENVER COLORADO MULTI
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD (COMIRB) APPROVAL....................62
B: SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE.........................................63
C: QUESTIONNAIRE CONSENT........................................65
D: INTERVIEW PROTOCOL...........................................66
E: INTERVIEW CONSENT............................................67
F: ECOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL COMPETENCY FRAMEWORK.................68


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LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
1. Table of Student Demographic Information, In Chapter 3 and referenced to in
Chapter 4................................................................23
2. Table of Quantitative Findings, In Chapter 4.............................30
3. Table of Open-Ended Student Responses, In Chapter 4......................35
4. Table of Faculty Responses Categorized Within Cultural Competence Framework, In
Chapter 4................................................................41
5. Table of Strategies for Teaching Global Family Science Courses...........46


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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
Overview
In 2002 President George W. Bush signed into law the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Education Act, requiring schools in the United States to post measurable gains in the areas of reading and math in order to continue to receive funding. Some educational experts, however, suggest that the emphasis on these two subject areas causes other subjects, such as history, to be neglected in American public schools (Rabb, 2004). In fact, the National Council for the Social Studies was so alarmed by the potential impact of NCLB that it released a statement calling for the federal government to rewrite the legislation so that student performance data may be disaggregated in such a manner that all states can be compared to one another and to a national profile in the vital disciplines of history, civics, geography, and economics (National Council for the Social Studies, 2007).
NCLB fell out of favor after it became clear that schools were not meeting performance standards in reading and math. Recently, the new Common Core State Standards (CCSS) introduced the trend of STEM education: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. While as part of the CCSS, every state in the United States has social studies standards, it is unclear whether there will be much of a shift toward emphasis on the teaching of these subjects due to the lack of high-stakes testing (Kenna & Russell, 2014).
Much attention is paid to how students from the United States perform on international standardized testing in order to compare educational systems in the United States to those in other countries, a sort of continuation of the Cold War-era Sputnik race (Kenna & Russell, 2014). Currently, selected 15-year-old students across the globe


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participate in a standardized test known as the Programme for International Student Assessment, or PISA, which purports to measure student academic achievement. PISA is administered in a three-year cycle and measures reading, mathematics, and science skills (Perry and Ercikan, 2015). Once again, history as a subject is excluded from the examination.
Because of the high-stakes emphasis on both international testing and, in some states, domestic monetary disbursement to those schools that perform well, schools may direct attention and time towards the disciplines of math and reading because they are the most commonly tested educational domains (Rabb, 2004). The introduction of Common Core State Standards is an attempt to course-correct by providing clear-cut standards for history. However, schools are still under pressure to post measurable gains in math and reading (Kenna & Russell, 2014).
The National Assessment for Education Progress (NAEP) is an ongoing assessment administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) that uses representative samples of students in the United States to determine academic progress. Currently, progress is measured in math, reading, science, U.S. history, and writing. No measure or evaluation of world history is offered, though there is some effort underway to offer a standardized world history test. According to NCES, The NAEP intended to offer world history testing in 2012, however, the evaluation is currently under development with the goal of using it in the next testing cycle in 2018. This information was last updated in March of 2009 and no more recent updates were available (National Center for Education Statistics, 2009). Bain (2004) discusses some of the issues with developing a world history evaluation, including how schools distribute world history knowledge throughout the high school curriculum, differing high school graduation requirements, and unique state content standards. According to the


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most recent NAEP Transcript Study, which analyzes a representative sample of high school graduation transcripts, more students are taking world history courses, including Advanced Placement world history, but not all states have a world history course requirement for graduation (Institute of Education Sciences, 2009). It is clear that much of the current emphasis in education is directed towards mathematics, reading, and science.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to examine if, due to the lack of emphasis on historical instruction in American high schools, college instructors in global human development and family science face a unique challenge in teaching diverse cultural concepts to students who typically have little knowledge of world history. As these professors attempt to convey complex cultural issues taking place in a rapidly shrinking world, what difficulties do they face in teaching and what methods or strategies can they use in order to facilitate cultural competency?
Guiding Research Questions
For this thesis, four research questions are presented:
1. What levels of confidence in historical literacy do college students enrolled in human development courses at University of Colorado Denver report?
2. What is the relationship between students historical literacy and cultural competency?
3. When teaching classes about global families, what difficulties do professors face with students who have limited knowledge of world history?
4. What strategies do teachers use in order to overcome the historical knowledge deficits of American college students?


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Significance of the Study
The University of Colorado Denver requires students to matriculate in at least one multicultural perspectives course in order to graduate. As the Human Development and Family Relations (HDFR) program at University of Colorado Denver grows and more students begin to enroll in the global family perspectives courses, it is important that instructors understand whether they need to make modifications to courses in order to compensate for a lack of world history knowledge.
Definitions and Terms
Aversive racism: a form of racism in which people believe themselves to be unbiased yet still hold unconscious negative views of other groups. The tendency to put people into groups or categories may cause an ambiguous type of discrimination. The individual may not even be aware of engaging in aversive racism (Rodenborg & Boisen, 2013).
Cultural competence: a framework used to teach about professional interaction with diverse cultures.
Historical illiteracy. A general lack of history awareness and knowledge. Students who are historically illiterate may have memorized historical dates but are unable to apply that knowledge to their general understanding of the world (Blevins, 2015).
Internationalization'. Also known as globalization, the process of diversifying curriculum in order to present information that is not from a European-American male point of view.
Social studies', an umbrella term for the discipline which covers civics, government, economics, geography, and history (Kenna & Russell, 2014).


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Personal Identification of the Topic
In order to appreciate the reason for this research topic, it is important to understand the authors connection to the subject. As a graduate student at the University of Colorado Denver, I (Jennifer Greiving) served as a teaching assistant for two semesters and the graduate instructor for two semesters. The course selected for me to teach was HDFR 3250, or Families in Global Perspectives. According to the University of Colorado Denver course catalog (2016), students enrolled in this course are expected to learn about families all over the globe, using ecological systems theory to understand families in a global context.
When I taught the class, I noticed that when I gave lectures specifically about families from different countries, students were often unaware of how the history of that country had shaped and influenced families there. For example, in post-World War II Japan, the Allies reconfigured the traditional Japanese family system because some attributed the fervent nationalism of the Japanese to the values fostered within the family (Murray & Kimura, 2006). In order to help students understand why family structure in Japan changed so dramatically, it was necessary to provide a historical context. This lack of historical knowledge sparked my own interest in discovering how historical illiteracy might impact
students cultural awareness.


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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW
Introduction
Historically, higher education in the United States began as a means to educate men
from wealthy European-American families. (Lee, 2002). Benjamin Franklin, when founding
what would later become the University of Pennsylvania, cited a different vision: one that
placed less emphasis on classical education, such as Latin and Greek, and more on an
egalitarian institution where diverse thoughts and ideas could be discussed. In fact,
What set Franklins notion of education apart was his insistence that a college draw students of ability from all social strata and actively and purposefully cultivate civic values in these students and provide them with the practical skills necessary to address the pressing problems of the day. In short, a central purpose of higher education was service to society and to the commonwealth (Harkavy & Hartley, 2008, p. 13).
Diversity on American college campuses more or less began when less economically-advantaged men entered university in order to pursue careers in the clergy. Now, diversity in higher education refers to a broad swath of descriptors, including race, gender, class, and more (Lee, 2002). Many students in the university classroom today do not fit the traditional (European-American, economically privileged) profile of the American college student (Muraco, Totenhagen, Corkery, & Curran, 2014). As more and more diverse students pursue an education, universities have the unique ability to produce students who will be ready to serve the needs of the growing diverse population of the United States. However, instead of sharing Benjamin Franklins ideals, much of the public views college education as a means to higher-paying jobs, not as a way to develop civic leaders (Harkavy & Hartley, 2008).
Universities must initiate a strong investment in culture in order to pave the way towards a diverse population in the university setting, and a diverse academia is paramount in


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order to produce a population that is both educated and self-sustaining (Lee, 2002). As part of that investment in culture, the impact of globalization on higher education must not be ignored. In a world where communication with the other side of the globe is a mere click, text message, or phone call away, universities must consider the need to educate students with a global focus.
It is important to understand why universities must provide an internationalized family science curriculum, how to implement global concepts in family science, and finally, what benefits or difficulties universities may experience when diversifying family science curriculum.
Need for Globalized Family Science Curriculum
Global family science curriculum is necessary in todays rapidly changing global climate. It is imperative that students who graduate from human development and family science programs understand the importance of multicultural viewpoints, how to work with global families, and how to initiate and conduct research with diverse populations. Importance of Multicultural Viewpoints
Family science graduates, more than ever before, will be called upon to work with international families. Despite this shift, few family science programs incorporate international viewpoints into family science courses (Goen, 2015). Trask and Viramontez Anguiano (2012) note that while universities and businesses have made increased efforts and spent a great deal of money to promote the platform of diversity, these institutions must also contend with the opposing viewpoint that suggests that the United States is a place for diverse people to assimilate instead of acculturate.


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Family science as a discipline is no stranger to the idea of diversity. In fact, much of
todays family science can trace its roots to the beginning of the 20th century with pioneers
such as Ellen Swallow Richards. During that time period, diversity in the United States was
increasing at a similar rate as today. This booming population growth and the needs of
families of that time contributed to the development of fields such as family science, social
work, and public administration. Despite these beginnings, family science as a profession has
weathered criticism for the lack of males in the field, for its late endorsement of the civil
rights movement, and for a resistance to change (Nickols et al., 2009). As more and more
international organizations are calling for the inclusion of global concepts in higher
education, family science must take a proactive stance in order to produce graduates who are
ready to interact with diverse populations (Goen, 2015).
Hamon and Smith (2014) propose that family science as a discipline is in a new stage,
that of evaluation and innovation in which family science departments must make the case
for relevance in a time when universities are making budget cuts. The current higher
education climate necessitates that family science program administrators must
...be able to articulate the distinctiveness of the discipline, the worth of the unique skills and perspectives offered by family science programs, the challenges affecting the field, and the adaptations and resources necessary to propel family science to new levels of relevance and application in todays economic and sociocultural climate (p. 312).
If family science programs must internationalize, this begs the question: what is internationalization of curriculum? There is a variety of ideologies and strategies surrounding the internationalization of curriculum, however, Knight and de Wit (as cited in Stier & Borjesson, 2010) propose that internationalization consists of


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a wide range of activities, policies, and services intended to integrate international and intercultural dimensions into an institutions teaching, research, and service functions (p. 336).
This definition seems to best fit family science because of the disciplines traditional tendency towards producing helping professionals as well as the inclusion of service in the curriculum.
How to Globalize Family Science Curricula
Research
One of the means by which to introduce global concepts into the family science classroom is through the reading of international research, training students how to conduct diverse and cross-cultural research, and finally, encouraging students to engage in this type of research. The inclusion of cross-national or cross-cultural research (non-Western) is an efficient and cost-effective way to add diversity to family science programs and there are many new resources dedicated to methods of integrating these types of research (Takooshian, Gielen, Pious, Rich, & Velayo, 2016). Family scientists (and those who teach future family scientists) must stay informed about the fluid nature of modem families, and must also guarantee that research reflects family strengths, resiliency, and effective interventions in addition to problem identification by ensuring that there is a knowledge base that can enhance cultural competence (Nickols et al., 2009, p. 277).
Nagayama Hall, Yip, and Zarate (2015) suggest that researchers in the field often fail to understand how ethnic diversity fits into their research, and whether or not different approaches must be used in order to accommodate diverse populations. Students must learn how to conduct effective multicultural research, and in some cases, may be able to do so through participation. Takooshian et al. (2016) describe a study in which a researcher trained


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students who were traveling overseas as tourists to participate in an experiment to compare prosocial behaviors.
Campus and Other Resources
Another method of introducing global concepts into the family science classroom is through the use of university provided services. Many universities have either an office of multicultural affairs or an office of international affairs, which often provide programs and experiences for students and can assist faculty with developing internationalized curricula (Goen, 2015; Takooshian et al., 2016). The University of Colorado Denver has recently introduced a program for students called the Intercultural Engagement Certificate as a joint collaboration between the Office of Student Affairs, the Office of International Affairs, Educational Opportunities Programs, and the Department of Ethnic Studies. Students must attend at least five international events on campus and write a short reflection in order to receive the certificate and recognition at graduation (International Engagement Certificate, 2016).
Another resource for students and faculty to internationalize curricula is the inclusion of a study abroad program. Students who plan to work with families may find it helpful to engage in study abroad programs in which they do not understand the dominant language -this experience may assist them in understanding families whose reality is living in a culture in which they do not understand (Goen, 2015). Study abroad programs or even international internships may also offer students the opportunity to conduct research and gain cross-cultural research experience (Takooshian et al., 2016). Goen (2015) provides an excellent list of resources at the local, state, and national level for instructors who need information regarding the internationalization of family science curricula.


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Benefits of Globalized Family Science Curricula
Why should universities and family science programs work to internationalize curricula? One benefit has already been mentioned: that of providing helping professionals with the requisite skills of working with a growing population of diverse families. Another benefit is providing the opportunity for students to work in the community alongside experts in the field. Completing community service learning projects helps to develop and strengthen the relationship between the school and the surrounding community (Goen, 2015). Internationalizing curriculum by including resources from other countries and other cultural paradigms helps students to develop an understanding and appreciation for other cultures, and may encourage more students to participate in and initiate research that focuses on diverse issues and peoples. In this same vein, as more family science courses integrate global concepts, textbooks and other resources should begin to reflect this trend (Viramontez Anguiano & Trask, 2009). While there are many benefits to globalization, family science departments must consider carefully how to add global concepts to coursework.
Potential Difficulties of Globalized Family Science Curricula
Haclicek and Pelikan (2013) observed several possible pitfalls for universities who look to internationalize their programs, noting the paradox that despite the fact that the university is a learning organization, it can be difficult for universities to learn new information and procedures. First, the university must implement some sort of program in order to communicate the new concepts and expectations. Second, the university must evaluate its criteria for selecting program leaders, ensuring that leaders are chosen for abilities, not because of an archaic promotion structure. Finally, the university must make a long-term investment in internationalization. The temptation for the university can be to


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implement global concepts quickly in order to present a favorable view to potential students, donors, and others, however, it is imperative that the choice to internationalize be made thoughtfully and carefully. Another possible difficulty, one explored in this research, is the possible connection between historical literacy and cultural competency, meaning, does a lack of historical knowledge affect students abilities to understand and benefit from a global curriculum?
Historical Illiteracy in the United States
As discussed previously, history education has, in some ways, taken a back seat to reading and mathematics education. The term historical illiteracy can be somewhat off-putting and ambiguous because of the connotations of the word illiteracy; however, that is the general term used in research literature. There is some disagreement in the literature over the appropriate term for students who demonstrate a lack of historical knowledge, and the use of the term literacy is controversial because it is unclear. At times in the literature historical literacy refers to the use of historical documents in literacy instruction, at other times it refers to the ability to engage in historical processes to not simply possess knowledge, but to know how to build it (Nokes, 2013, p. 20). In order to understand the conflicting ideas of historical literacy, it is important to look at history and social studies as a discipline and how the introduction of high-stakes standardized testing and state benchmark standards have affected how history is taught in schools.
A History of History
In 1981, A Nation at Risk, a ground-breaking and eye-opening report about the academic performance (or lack thereof) from American students was published, spurring academic reforms across the nation. Since this report, no research has been published in the


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disciplines of history or social studies that details any sort of dramatic reversal of the
information contained in A Nation at Risk, suggesting that there
has been a prolonged, precipitous decline in knowledge of history among American students and, by extension, the general public.... [It is] not simply a matter of ignorance of schoolbookish facts.. .but a lack of awareness of historys intellectual and moral contours, as reflected in misunderstandings of epochal events like the civil rights marches, in the rise of Holocaust deniers, and in the proposed (and thankfully cancelled) Disneyland Civil War theme park in Northern Virginia (Rice, 1995, p. 603).
After the publication of A Nation at Risk, most educational reforms focused on the introduction of testing. Different forms of standards testing were attempted and then rejected. During the early 1990s, the paradigm of accountability was added to evaluations: for the first time, student test scores were tied to all of the individuals who were part of the learning process: school administrators, teachers, and students. For teachers and administrators, school funding, pay, and even job retention were based on how students performed on examinations. Students faced the possibility of retention, advancement, or even denial of graduation after their scores were reported. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 introduced an even more stringent era of testing, at least for reading, mathematics, and science. Social studies, often referred to as the fourth core subject, was not included in this legislation (Vogler & Virtue, 2007). Because of the testing emphasis on reading, suddenly literacy instruction crossed the disciplinary barrier. Social studies teachers were expected to include test-centered literacy instruction in their lessons. This development led to some of the confusion over the definition of historical literacy in the research literature: instead of the ability to engage in historical processes, historical literacy also became the buzzword for literacy instruction in the social studies classroom (Nokes, 2013).


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Today, while all states have Common Core State Standards for social studies, the opinion of many educational experts remains that little will change in social studies education because of the lack of high-stakes testing in conjunction with those standards. Twenty-one out of the fifty states in the U.S. currently evaluate students with a statewide social studies test. At least 8 states mandate passing grades on a high school social studies evaluation in order to graduate (Kenna & Russell, 2014). However, preliminary research about high school exit exams suggests that teachers spend more time engaging in preparing for the test than using critical thinking or current events. These teachers are tom between their desire to instill a love of the social studies in their students, their interest in helping students graduate, and a personal stake in seeing results from their students which validate the teachers teaching abilities (Vogler, 2005).
Social Studies Methods
One of the major effects of the lack of accountability testing in social studies is a lack of innovation in teaching methods. In some cases, as described above, the lack of innovation is not due to a resistance to change but because teachers must spend valuable class time preparing students for the content of standardized tests, not cultivating the skills needed for historical literacy (Vogler, 2005; Blevins, 2015). Research shows that teaching methods in history classrooms have not changed much within the past twenty years. Teachers tend to use passive instruction practices, such as lecture, seatwork, or answering textbook questions for homework, instead of more engaged and active learning. This is remarkable because emerging research shows that student-centered activities and teaching students how to ask questions can lead to a much deeper understanding of history and social studies. While state standards typically emphasize student-centered learning, many instructors find it difficult to


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implement all the different requirements and so engage in the traditional pedagogy of passive instruction (Kenna & Russell, 2014).
The newly-published Common Core State Standards emphasize higher-level thinking skills. Teachers will need to adapt their instruction practices in order to conform to these standards, as students will need to learn not only facts but how to use these facts within a skill set of literacy and interpretation. School districts and school administrators must be prepared to initiate professional development programs that inform teachers about the new standards and introduce non-traditional methods of instruction, including the use of technology. However, despite any and all interventions in social studies instructional methods, the fact remains that the greatest effect on teachers and students may well be the existence of high-stakes testing tied to standards (Kenna & Russell, 2014).
Difficulty of Evaluation
There is some difficulty in developing and administering a standardized test for history and social studies. The NAEP history test, which would be given to representative sample groups all over the United States, has been delayed for a variety of reasons, including the types of history courses available to students, the differing graduation requirements between states, and the difference in course administration. Bain (2004) notes that based on a review of state standards, curriculum guides, and Advanced Placement materials, there seem to be at least four different patterns of world history education: Western Civilization Plus, Social Studies World History, Geographic/Regional World History, and Global World History (p. 6).
Besides the different models of world history education, complicating the matter is the fact that not all states require a world history course for high school students to graduate,


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and the order in which history courses are administered differs from one state to the next.
One school may offer a world history course to freshmen, another school may not require world history, and still another might not introduce world history until the final year of high school. It would be impractical and unproductive to evaluate students from different districts if some students have not had access to the information covered on the examination. Furthermore, the broad variation in world history instruction means that there is virtually no national information about what students understand about the history of the world, a data void that hampers attempts to improve education (Bain, 2004, p. 12). Therefore, the state of global history education in the United States remains that until there is a standardized history test with some sort of stakes tied to it, education will not improve yet there are tremendous difficulties in developing such an assessment. Because social studies instruction seems unlikely to improve in the near future (based on the criteria in the research), historical illiteracy is a valid concern for college professors to consider when planning their instruction and curriculum.
Theoretical Framework
Two theories are useful as appropriate frameworks to examine the concepts of historical illiteracy and teaching global family science courses. First, cultural competence, introduced in the 1980s in social work literature and expanded upon by other theorists, explains the lifelong process of becoming culturally aware (Campinha-Bacote, 2001). Second, Urie Bronfenbrenners ecological theory provides a lens through which to view cultural competence: explaining how different experiences within a students developmental systems will enhance their cultural awareness.


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Cultural Competence Framework
Traditionally, the cultural competence framework has been used more in the realm of social work and medicine as a way to teach service providers who interact with diverse clientele how to deal with cultural differences appropriately and with respect. Family science is an ideal candidate for the application of cultural competence, especially because of the wide range of careers and opportunities available to family science majors. While the roots of cultural competence lie in social work, more research has been conducted to further the base of knowledge in helping professional fields, including education, psychology, and medicine (Gallegos, Tyndall, & Gallegos, 2008). As more diverse families enter the United States, it is logical that helping professionals who are trained in helping these families will be needed.
There are different versions of cultural competence theory because of the variety of fields in which it is used. However, there are two generally agreed-upon frameworks: one for social work and one for healthcare. For the purpose of this research, the systems-theory approach first proposed by Cross and Lum was selected, originally for use in social work.
The four stages of cultural competence under the systems-theory approach are cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, cultural skills, and inductive learning. These four stages constitute a continuum (Gallegos, Tyndall, & Gallegos, 2008).
The first stage of cultural competence is cultural awareness. This stage involves developing an understanding of not only other cultural groups, but also ones own culture.
The underlying assumption is that by understanding ones roots and origins and the struggles of past generations, one can develop a greater appreciation for the trials and triumphs of those from other cultures. Helping professionals who practice self-awareness in conjunction with understanding of others will begin to show legitimate cultural sensitivity (Dean, 2010).


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Once a general understanding and appreciation of other cultures exists, the next step in developing cultural competence is cultural knowledge. In this stage, one must work to understand specific facts and concepts about a culture. In the context of providing care, a helping professional might wish to learn about specifics relative to practice: for example, a doctor might focus on learning about health concerns and cultural practices of a group in order to determine the best way to achieve proper treatment while maintaining proper respect for cultural boundaries. A family scientist might be interested in learning family practices and beliefs in order to better conduct research or administer legitimately helpful social policy (Bogenschneider, 2006).
The third step in cultural competence is attainment of cultural skills. This stage is the combination of the two previous stages: cultural awareness and cultural knowledge. By this time, one has established ones own culture, developed a respect for the culture of others, and amassed facts and knowledge about other cultures. The practice of using cultural skills entails the process of combining those forms of knowledge in a practical manner. For example, family scientists conducting research will make sure to respect cultural beliefs and practices and will avoid imposing their own biases or judgments when interacting with a family from a different culture (Capinha-Bacote, 2001).
The final stage of cultural competence is inductive learning, also called cultural desire. At this point, cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills combine to create in an individual the desire to work and interact with diverse people. These frequent interactions strengthen the abilities of the first three levels of cultural competence and lead to an even greater understanding of the culture (Chong, 2002). People who reach this level of cultural competence understand that cultural competency is a continuum rather than a ladder: the


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culturally competent person is a lifelong learner committed to self-evaluation about ones level of cultural awareness (Campinha-Bacote, 2001).
Bronfenbrenners Ecological Theory
Family ecology theory was first introduced in the 1890s as the science of oekology by Ellen Swallow Richards. Richards, a pioneer in social reform, proposed a science that studied the environment: more specifically, the environment in the context of home and family. As years passed and the science evolved, the name oekology was replaced by domestic science and then by the phrase family ecology. Family ecology is a more comprehensive term, referring to the study of the interactions between humans and the environments they share (Bubolz & Sontag, 1993).
Urie Bronfenbrenner first introduced the ecological systems model with four systems: the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem. Later, Brofenbrenner modified his theory by adding a fifth system: the chronosystem (See Appendix F). Each system consists of different environments and agencies that affect the development of an individual (Berns, 2012). Smith, Hamon, Ingoldsby, and Miller (2009) describe the microsystem of an individual as the immediate environment, which may be composed of people and places such as the family, peer groups, schools, day-cares, or churches. The mesosystem is the interaction of the microsystems or the links between them. When there is a strong relationship between microsystems, the mesosystem delivers support for the activities in those microsystems.
The exosystem consists of other environments outside of the individual. When other people from the microsystem or mesosystem participate in these environments, their subsequent actions or emotions may affect the individual. The exosystem has an indirect affect on the microsystem (Berns, 2012).


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The macrosystem is made up of the laws, social norms, customs, and values of the society or culture in which the individual lives (Smith et al., 2009). According to Gardiner and Kosmitski (2002), there is a fifth system: the chronosystem, or the effect of time on the environments and the individual. The passage of time introduces new circumstances that affect an individuals development. All four of the previous systems should be viewed through the lens of the chronosystem.


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CHAPTER III METHODS
Research Design
For this research, a non-experimental mixed-methods approach was used. According to the fundamental principle of mixed research, quantitative and qualitative methods can be thoughtfully blended together in research, especially when the researcher takes into account the various strengths and weaknesses of each method and uses them to produce complementary strengths and nonoverlapping weaknesses (Johnson & Christensen,
2014, p. 490). Mixed-methods research is gaining popularity in family science research, and it is recommended that those interested in studying families should demonstrate an understanding of both quantitative and qualitative methodology (Plano-Clark, Huddleston-Casas, Churchill, Green, & Garrett, 2008). Because this research was part of a masters thesis, it seemed appropriate to demonstrate knowledge and mastery of both methodological domains.
Mixed-methods is a relative newcomer to the world of research (especially in the realm of family science), partly due to the tradition of methodological purity in research: the argument that research should either be qualitative or quantitative, never both (Johnson & Christensen, 2014). In most family science programs, there is emphasis on either qualitative or quantitative research, but rarely both. In addition, there is a lack of literature within the family science realm that uses mixed-methods research in the methodology. Mixed-methods research can also be somewhat intimidating to family researchers because of the additional resources needed to use both qualitative and quantitative methods. Despite these challenges, it is important that family science researchers understand mixed-methods research: when it is


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appropriate to use, what challenges might arise, and how to evaluate its implementation (Plano-Clark et al., 2008).
When planning the research for this topic, it was important to consider the types of data available. At first, the plan was to use only the quantitative data: a self-reporting questionnaire from students enrolled at the university. However, there has been some criticism in research literature due to the over-surveying of American college students (Takooshian et al., 2016). In addition, when using self-reporting techniques, surveys are subject to contamination: students might answer according to mood or whim, or they may not have a full understanding of the question being asked (Johnson & Christensen, 2014). In order to counteract both the potentially homogeneity and contamination of the data, it was determined that a qualitative component should be added.
Because the premise of the topic was based on the experience of one researcher at one university, it seemed prudent to ascertain whether this issue, lack of historical knowledge, was a factor at other universities. In order to further investigate this issue, a qualitative interview protocol was developed for use in speaking with professors at different universities all over the United States. The quantitative data would serve to provide a baseline of college student behavior while the professor interviews would give insight as to whether this issue was typical at other universities.
This research was submitted to and approved by the Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board (COMIRB) for exempt research, submission ID APP001-1, protocol approval number 16-0021 (see Appendix A).


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Participants
Students
All 123 student participants were 18 years of age or older and matriculated at University of Colorado Denver at the time of the survey questionnaire. Students who were enrolled in two courses, HDFR 2200 (Love, Family, and Human Development) and HDFR 3250 (Families in Global Perspective) were asked to participate in the research study. Students were able to decline the survey by merely turning over their papers. There was only one student enrolled in both courses, in which case only one survey response was used for that student. In order to protect students, no identifying details were collected. Because the researcher (Jennifer Greiving) was involved in teaching one of the courses, an alternate faculty member was asked to administer the survey in Ms. Greivings class in order to avoid possible coercion.
These two courses were selected because they are considered core curriculum (general education) classes by the University of Colorado Denver. Any student may enroll in these classes in order to meet a social science or international perspective course requirement. By selecting these two classes to take the survey, it was conjectured that a more accurate picture of the typical college student might be found, as opposed to restricting the questionnaire to students enrolled in the Human Development and Family Relations (HDFR) undergraduate program.
Of the 123 students surveyed, 27.6% declared themselves to be HDFR majors or minors. 83.7% of students reported being in the age bracket of 18-22 years, while 16.2% reported being 23 years or older (see Table 1). Around half of the students (53%) reported taking 2 or more history courses in high school. 28% of students reported that they had not


taken any college courses in either history, sociology, geography, or global perspectives, while 35.8% of students had taken 2 or more of these courses.
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Table 1
Student Demographic Data
Age in years: Number: Percentage
18-22 103 83.7%
23-30 19 15.4%
31-35 1 0.8%
36+ years 0 0%
Total: 123 100%
Professors
As part of the research, a qualitative interview was conducted with three different professors. These professors must have been teaching a course on global families or human development from a global perspective or must have taught such a course within the past five years. These professors were recruited through various e-mail listservs: the Ethnic Minorities and Advancing Family Science sections of the National Council on Family Relations. Professors who were contacted via e-mail received a copy of the interview protocol as well as a postcard form of consent (as directed by the COMIRB at the University of Colorado Denver).
While two professors chose to complete the interview entirely over the phone, one elected to complete a few of the more basic items via an email response and then scheduled a phone interview to address the remaining questions. All of the interviews were recorded but no identifying details were retained in the recordings in order to protect the identities of the participants. Participation in the interview process was strictly voluntary. Interviews lasted for approximately 25-30 minutes. All of the interviews were transcribed after completion.


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Instrumentation
Quantitative Instrumentation
The survey began with basic demographic data in order to establish the type of students taking the survey. The survey questionnaire then asked students to provide some background about their academic experience: mainly, what types of history or international perspectives courses they had taken in high school or college. After providing their academic history, students were given the definitions of four terms: cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, cultural skills, and inductive learning; that is, the four levels of cultural competence (Chong, 2002). Students then ranked their knowledge level on a scale from 1 to 5, with 1 signifying not knowledgeable at all and 5 designated as very knowledgeable.
Students were then asked to read a series of statements about world history knowledge, their attitudes toward history, and their value of history and rank their agreement or disagreement using a Likert scale. Finally, three open-ended questions were used to ask students if they had traveled, if they had had any experiences that might have contributed to their understanding of the world, and to provide any additional information that might be beneficial to the study. These qualitative questions were provided in order to address any other possible causes for cultural competence.
Qualitative Instrumentation
The interview protocol began by gathering basic demographic information: where the professors were affiliated, what title they held at the university, and what courses they were currently teaching. Next, participants were asked to describe the types of courses that they taught as well as any other global family or international perspectives courses they had taught. Then the questions shifted in focus to obtain more information about the students in


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the classes. When describing their students, the professors were asked if their classes were composed of traditional (18-22 year old) or non-traditional (older) students. This question was also asked on the survey questionnaire as it was hypothesized that non-traditional students may have been exposed to other factors or experiences that might have affected their degree of cultural competence.
Professors were then asked to evaluate their students historical literacy and cultural competency. A definition of cultural competency was provided on the interview protocol while a verbal explanation of the concept of historical literacy was provided during the interview.
Finally, the professors were asked to provide insight into the strategies they use in their own classrooms to help students who do not demonstrate high levels of cultural competency and historical literacy. The professors were also asked to provide examples of the most effective and least effective interventions they had used in the classroom to promote or increase cultural competence and historical literacy.
Analysis
Quantitative: Evaluation and Psychometric Evaluation of Scales
A scale was developed to measure historical literacy, or students level of comfort with applying historical knowledge in a global sense. The scale initially consisted of 14 items, questions 7A-7N, with some items positively worded and some negatively worded. An example of a positively worded item is I am comfortable reading historical documents and an example of a negatively worded item is I am not interested in learning about world history.


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In order to refine the scale for historical literacy and determine the internal consistency reliability, a reliability analysis was conducted with questions 7A-7N with questions 7D, 7F, 7G, 7H, and 7M reverse-scored. After this reliability analysis was conducted, there were three questions (7D*, 7H*, 7L*) that were excluded from the scale in order to improve reliability. Questions 7A, 7B, 7C, 7E, 7F*, 7G*, 71, 7J, 7K, 7M*1 and 7N were the questions remaining. These 11 questions comprised the historical literacy scale, which measured the extent to which students were familiar with interacting with historical data and concepts. Internal consistency reliability measured by Cronbachs coefficient alpha for the scale was .790.
The other scale, cultural competence, consisted of 4 questions which measured the extent to which students believed they were culturally competent. For the four questions in this scale, students were provided with a definition of each domain of cultural competence, for example, Cultural awareness: Understanding of both your own culture and that of other cultural groups Students then ranked their knowledge of these domains using a Likert scale, with 1 signifying not knowledgeable at all and 5 denoting very knowledgeable. Internal consistency reliability measured by Cronbachs coefficient alpha for this scale was .644. Further correlational analysis was done to make sure that excluding one of the questions would not improve Cronbachs alpha. After further analysis, all four items were retained with the disclaimer that the Cronbachs alpha would be noted to show level of reliability.
Questions 8, 9, and 10 were open-ended response questions. These questions were entered into SPSS. Once all responses were recorded, coding techniques were used to search for similar responses. Saturation of the data showed three similar themes in these responses:
1 Starred items were reverse-coded during analysis.


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travel, interaction with diverse friends or diverse students, and personal diversity. In order to analyze this, three additional variables were created: travel, interaction, and diversity.
For the travel variable, students who reported any type of foreign travel were coded as a 1, while students who reported no travel or only domestic travel within the United States were coded as a 0. For the interaction variable, students who reported interaction either with their own diverse friend group or diverse students in college classes were coded as 1. Students who did not report interaction were coded as 0. For the personal diversity variable, students who reported that their own diverse background contributed to their cultural competence were coded as a 1. This included students who reported that they were bi- or multi-lingual, students who reported that they came from multicultural families, and students who reported that they had a diverse ethnicity. Students who did not report this or who mentioned that they did not have a diverse background were coded as 0.
Qualitative Analysis: Saturation and Member Check
Once all of the interviews were completed and transcribed, the transcripts were analyzed by using coding, an appropriate method when reviewing qualitative data (Miles & Huberman, 1994). Transcripts were reviewed and similar themes were highlighted with colors corresponding to each possible theme. In order to check for saturation of the data, when a theme was identified in one transcript, the other transcripts were reviewed in order to determine the presence or absence of that theme. To increase the trustworthiness of the data, a member check was performed by a faculty member who is well-experienced in the field and well-versed in qualitative research.


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CHAPTER IV FINDINGS
Mixed-Methods Research Findings
The purpose of this chapter is to present the mixed-methods findings from this research: quantitative and qualitative data from the student questionnaire and qualitative findings from the professor interviews. In considering the research findings, it is appropriate to revisit the idea of mixed-methods research and its place in the research paradigm. The goal of using both quantitative and qualitative data in this research was to reveal some intricacies of the data that might not otherwise be discovered. In this case, allowing students to respond to the questionnaire both by answering quantitative questions and open-ended response questions permitted students to express sentiments about the research project.
An additional objective of this chapter is to address the three research questions through the use of mixed-methods research. The quantitative research answered the first two research questions: the self-reported student levels of confidence in historical literacy and the correlations between historical literacy and cultural competency. The qualitative portion of the research dealt with the final two research questions, detailing the difficulties that professors face with students who are limited in world history knowledge and the strategies that those same professors use to overcome these historical knowledge deficits (See Tables 4 and 5).
When using mixed-methods research, it is important to consider as part of the research design how the data will be analyzed. More publications are focusing on appropriate techniques and concepts for mixed-methods research analysis as this type of research design becomes more popular. For this research, several techniques were used, including data


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reduction, data display, data transformation, data correlation, data comparison, and data integration (Johnson & Christensen, 2014). Qualitative data from both the student questionnaire and the professor interview were processed using thematic analysis to condense the dimensions of the data. Both qualitative and quantitative data were converted into visual displays (See Tables 1-4). Qualitative variables from the student questionnaire were quantified for coding purposes and compared with other quantitative variables.
The data from the student questionnaires are grounded in Bronfenbrenners theory of ecological systems, which shows the impact that different systems have on an individuals development. For the purpose of this research, most of the focus, based on the findings, was on the microsystem, mesosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem.
As the surveys were logged into SPSS, a more complete picture emerged of possible correlations between life experiences, historical literacy, and cultural competence. This was supported by the qualitative data received from professors, in which similar themes emerged when discussing what makes students more culturally competent. The themes that were detected through saturation in the student data helped to inform probing questions for the professors who participated in the interview, such as asking about the level of diversity at their schools and the strategies they use to help students who do not have day-to-day interaction with people of other cultures.
Another objective of this chapter is to contextually ground the qualitative findings in the theory of cultural competence. When evaluating the qualitative data from the professors, four themes emerged which paralleled the four dimensions of cultural competence used in the quantitative cultural competence scale (Table 3). Using mixed methods research allowed


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for a richer mining of the data in order to provide a more complete picture of the state of historical literacy and cultural competency in global family science courses.
Quantitative Findings
The cultural scale had a lowest possible score of 4 and a highest possible score of 20. Student scores ranged from 11 to 20, with an average of 15 (SD = 2.45). The historical literacy scale had a lowest possible score of 11 and highest possible score of 55. Student scores ranged from 23 to 50, with an average score of 37 (SD=6.6). The scores on the historical literacy scale were normally distributed. The neutral score for the historical literacy scale was a 33, meaning students responded to all the questions with the Likert Scale ranking of 3, which, for this instrument meant Neither not knowledeagble or knowledgeable. With an average score of 37, it appeared that most students considered themselves just slightly knowledgeable in historical literacy.
The historical literacy scale and the culture competence scale were evaluated for correlation using a Pearson two-tailed test. SPSS showed that there was a .274 degree of correlation between the two scales (p < 0.01). Students who scored high on the historical literacy scale on average scored higher on the cultural competence scale (see Table 2).
Other variables were tested for correlation. The qualitative responses on questions 9-10 were quantified into three variables: travel, measuring the number of students who reported having engaged in international travel, diverse friends, measuring the number of students who reported having diverse friends or diverse classmates, and personal diversity, measuring the number of students who reported that their own cultural heritage affected their cultural awareness (see Table 2).


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Table 2
Quantitative Findings
VARIABLE 1 VARIABLE 2 CORRELATION
Historical Literacy Scale Cultural Competence Scale .274*
Travel Cultural Competence Scale .260*
Diverse Friends/Classmates Cultural Competence Scale Not significant
Diverse Background Cultural Competence Scale Not Significant
Historical Literacy Scale Number of history courses taken in high school .280*
Historical Literacy Scale Number of college history courses taken Not significant
* signifies p < 0.01
There was a significant correlation between travel and cultural competence. (r=.260, p < 0.01). Students who reported having travelled internationally on average scored higher on the cultural competence scale than students who reported either no travel or only domestic travel. No significant correlations were found between cultural competence and having diverse friends in class or having a diverse background. There was a significant correlation (r=.280, p < 0.01) between historical literacy and the number of history courses taken at the high school level. Students who had taken more high school history courses on average scored higher on historical literacy. No significant correlation was found between historical literacy and the number of college history/intemational perspectives courses taken.
In the survey questionnaire, age demographic data was collected in order to investigate possible correlations between age and historical literacy or cultural competence. It was conjectured that students who were older might have had more life experiences leading


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to historical literacy or cultural competence. However, no significant correlations were found between age and historical literacy or age and cultural competence. These results could be due to the skew in the age of respondents (see Table 1), as more than 80% of respondents were in the traditional college student age bracket of 18-22 years.
Qualitative Thematic Findings Students
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between historical literacy and cultural competence within the paradigm of global family science courses. The open-ended questions from the student questionnaires were analyzed as both quantitative (as discussed in the previous section) and qualitative data. Saturation of the qualitative data showed three distinct themes that students reported as having impacted their cultural competence (see Table 3). The three themes included international travel and experiences, having diverse friends or classmates, and personal multicultural background. These themes fell outside of the realm of historical literacy (Zander, 2007), however, since there is little research in this area, it was important to explore the possibility of additional factors leading to cultural competency in college students who are enrolled in global family science courses.
Travel
According to Bronfenbrenner, an individual is shaped by the various systems in which they interact. When students travel outside of their traditional systems, they interact with a completely different macrosystem, experiencing for the first time different cultural expectations. Berns (2012) notes that people interacting with a new macrosystem may encounter different perceptions, beliefs, behaviors, and value judgments, as well as new cultural beliefs about concepts of time and interactions with other people. A majority of


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students reported that travel was critical to the formation of their cultural competency. What follows are responses of student participants and their connections between travel and cultural competency:
Visiting other countries has helped me to understand how people live and interact
with others that differs from the U.S..
- Student 010
Going to India and seeing the poverty that is present there has opened my eyes to the
many luxuries that are present.. .in my own life.
- Student 035
These students, through their participation in a new macrosystem, were able to connect their experiences back to their lives: viewing their own lives through a new, culturally competent lens. Because many of these students come from a European-American background, often they are more accustomed to a low-context, or individualistic, macrosystem. Collectivistic, or high-context, macrosystems have different styles of communication, social patterns, behaviors, and relationships with nature (Bems, 2012).
Furthermore, the travel can also be grouped under the heading of the chronosystem. The chronosystem includes significant events in an individuals life which affect the microsystems, mesosystems, and exosystems (Bems, 2012).
Diverse friends or classes
The University of Colorado Denver has a diverse campus. Students who attend classes on campus have the opportunity to introduce new people, cultures, and ideas into their microsystems and mesosystems. Schools can have a great impact on development because they are considered a place of formal education about society (Berns, 2012). Rodenborg and Boisen (2013) noted that according to Allports theory of intergroup contact, when certain conditions are met, interaction with people can reduce aversive racism. As students interact with diverse classmates, they are adding new elements of culture to their


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microsystems. People, ideas, and concepts that once were alien and strange to them become
normal and accepted. After introducing new ideas and people into their microsystem,
students can then form linkages between beliefs at school and attitudes at home; these links
comprise the mesosystem (Bems, 2012). These links translate to a more comprehensive
understanding of the world. In the following testimonials, student participants stated that
their interactions with diverse friends or students shaped their understanding of both their
family culture and the world in general.
Having an ethnically diverse group of friends has helped me understand the differences and similarities of my families [sic] culture versus another.
- Student 093
I think my daily interactions with people on a diverse campus contribute to my understanding of the world through learning their stories.
- Student 087
Students who may not have had the experience to travel to places outside of the United States can still interact with a variety of diverse cultures. At the University of Colorado Denver, students may choose to participate in the Intercultural Engagement Certificate program in order to increase their knowledge of other cultures. Throughout the year, various programs are offered on campus in order to facilitate student interaction with a broad range of groups. One such event, the Intercultural Diversity Fair, featured student organizations, craft activities, and food. In order to earn the certificate, students must attend at least five approved campus events and then submit a reflection paper about their experiences (International Engagement Certificate, 2016). According to Allports intergroup contact theory, low-pressure events such as these are ideal for helping students to interact positively with each other in a neutral environment, leading to a reduction in students aversive racism (Rodenborg and Boisen, 2013).


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Multicultural Background
Students who have grown up with a diverse or multicultural background may have already experienced the difficulties of navigating systems based on European-American cultural values. Delgado-Gaitan (1992) explains that there is documented research that shows students in the United States who are from different cultural backgrounds often have to make choices between their home culture and their European-American school culture. Often these students struggle because the interaction between school and home, classified as part of the individuals mesosystem, can encourage or discourage academic performance (Berns, 2012). Students who experience this clash of cultures are daily made aware of the differences between a European-American low-context macrosystem and the cultural values of their microsystem.
Because these students have had the experience of having cultural values that differ from those of the macrosystem in which they reside, they have a multicultural view of the world and an understanding that European-American culture is not the only culture that exists. Students reported different backgrounds some were bom and raised in other countries while others were raised in the United States by families that preserved their cultural values. Student responses ranged from merely identifying their background to connecting their experiences with those of others.
Coming from a country with history of war and chaos helps me understand other
people and their struggles.
- Student 005
Em Puerto-Rican and Mexican, growing up in a Latin household.
Student 054


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These students, through their own family experiences and multicultural background, have already developed at least the first stage of cultural competence (Zander, 2007). These students are aware of their own cultural identity. Because their diverse microsystem may hold values that are different from the prevailing European-American macrosystem, these individuals appreciate differences and cultural nuances.
Table 3
Student Qualitative Data
Respondents Other Influences Qualitative Quotations
Students Travel Visiting other countries has helped me to understand how people live and interact with others that differs from the U.S.. Going to India and seeing the poverty that is present there has opened my eyes to the many luxuries that are present.. .in my own life.
Diverse friends or classes Having an ethnically diverse group of friends has helped me understand the differences and similarities of my families [sic] culture versus another. I think my daily interactions with people on a diverse campus contribute to my understanding of the world through learning their stories.
Multicultural background Coming from a country with history of war and chaos helps me understand other people and their struggles. Im Puerto-Rican and Mexican, growing up in a Latin household.
Professors
In analyzing the transcripts of qualitative interviews, saturation of the data showed four recurring themes (see Table 4). The themes that emerged paralleled the four domains of


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cultural competence: cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, cultural skills, and inductive learning (Chong, 2002).
Theme 1: Cultural Awareness
The first theme is cultural awareness, or the development of the understanding of
ones own culture in order to appreciate other cultures (Chong, 2002). All of the professors
expressed the need to provide a global context for students in their classes. Two of the
professors noted that they teach on campuses where approximately 10-12% of
undergraduates self-identify as people of color. These two professors acknowledged that it is
especially difficult for them to teach diversity in an environment where students do not
interact with diverse people and where often, students microsystems and macrosystems have
influenced students towards aversive racism. Cultural awareness involves self-examination,
both of ones own personal biases and also ones own history. Students who have been raised
in an ethnocentric macrosystem or microsystem may need a sort of bridge education in order
to inform them about diverse cultures. One professor noted that in teaching students about
diverse cultures, she found that many of them embraced the new knowledge.
... When they realize how much background there is in terms of this cultural group, they almost feel like they, and they have said this actually, that theyve been cheated in school, theyve not been given the real history or given the extent of history that there is. Theyve gotten the American version of it and its not necessarily the truth -which makes them feel betrayed in a way.
- Professor 003
In a world in which students are exposed to news stories, Facebook posts, and an influx of various sources of information, it is difficult for them not to hear about other cultures. It is up to professors to direct the conversation and help students develop mechanisms to filter the information they take in.
Theme 2: Cultural Knowledge


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The second theme that appeared in the qualitative data was cultural knowledge, or
learning specific facts about a culture in order to understand it better. This area can be
difficult to navigate as instructor. Many of the textbooks and resources available for global
family science courses group families from certain areas together, with such chapter titles as
Asian families or African families. While these can be helpful in a general sense, the
instructor must emphasize to students the idea that even within cultures there are a myriad of
factors that make each family unique. It is important to create the expectation that not all
families in an area will conform to a pattern: the influences of the various ecological systems
make each family and individual therein slightly different. One method to address this issue
is to include primary sources from each country, possibly even from multiple viewpoints in
order to show diversity of opinion and thought.
All three professors who were interviewed expressed the need to include in course
readings diverse research written by authors from other countries. One professor noted that in
order to help students with historical literacy, she has them engage in these three activities:
Reading the work of critical thinkers of color, conducting] historical and herstorical analyses of the countries they are interested in and the interaction of those countries with the United States, and searching the popular presses of several countries outside of the U.S..
- Professor 001
Providing students with research written from a different perspective forces them to look at the differences in their home macrosystem and those of other cultures.
Theme 3: Cultural Skills
The third theme is cultural skills, or the practical application of cultural awareness and cultural knowledge. All of the professors interviewed emphasized the necessity of not only learning about different cultures, but interacting with them and evaluating previously


40
formed knowledge. It is possible to have both cultural awareness and cultural knowledge
without the ability to apply them in practical situations. For example, one professor described
her experiences with taking students to Ghana for a practicum experience she saw a big
difference between students who were tourists and students who had cultural competence:
Tourists thought they could ignore [cultural norms of the situation]. Despite a semester-long preparatory course... tourists could be expected to, despite my admonitions.. .go swimming in contaminated bodies of water and contract waterborne diseases. A second fairly routine experience occurred among the tourists who insisted upon carrying conspicuous purses and bags and having them stolen from them... Why did you carry the Gucci bag? I would ask. I didnt think it would matter, theyd reply!
- Professor 001
One of the professors described an on-campus activity she uses to help students apply
their cultural awareness and cultural knowledge. In this situation, students interact in a low-
pressure environment which, according to Allports theory of intergroup contact theory,
helps to eliminate some of the biases students may unwittingly hold.
We have a program at [the university] called International Coffee Hour. Its a chance for students from all over and gives them a chance to be together. Its effective, but its not really enough.
- Professor 002
Cultural skills can exist on a continuum, from learning a new language in order to interact with diverse individuals or merely learning how to effectively use an interpreter (Zander, 2007). Students who participate in the International Coffee Hour are using their cultural competency on the lower end of the scale. Interacting with students at school also builds linkages between two microsystems, home and school. When these links grow stronger, it provides support for activities within the microsystem students may be more willing to engage with diverse friends and diverse classmates, one of the domains that students from UC Denver reported as contributing to their cultural competence.


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Another professor described one of the projects she assigns her students in order to help
them practically apply their new-found cultural awareness and cultural knowledge.
One of the things that they have to do which is probably the centerpiece of the class is to identify a culturally diverse family and then go and interview and observe them.
We create a set of questions as a class that everyone asks, then they have to go to their home if possible and actually interview them, watch them, interact with them. Then [the students] have to connect that to five additional resources about that culture, to see Is this like what Im reading? Is this different from what Im reading? .. It gives them a chance to be able to actually see theyre not maybe as scary as they thought they were.
- Professor 003
By requiring students to not only observe but also apply those observations to previous research, this professor is combining cultural awareness and cultural knowledge and asking students to combine them in a new way. This experience provides students with a chance to experience the higher end of the cultural skills scale.
Theme 4: Inductive Learning
The final stage of cultural competence is inductive learning or cultural desire. In this stage, students find that due to their acquisitions of cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills, they have the desire to interact with people of other diverse cultures. These students seek to acquire more knowledge through travel, interaction, and more education. International study or travel are means by which students can engage in inductive learning. At this stage, students may bypass some of the culture shock associated with being outside of their typical macrosystem, which allows them to observe and even participate in the new culture. The act of travel is categorized under the chronosystem, because it is an even that produces change in the individuals development (Berns, 2012).
All three professors consistently emphasized the need to have students who interact with diverse people. All three of the professors described their experiences with students


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traveling abroad as part of a school course or trip. They noted that their students who had taken international perspectives courses to prepare for the trips for the most part seemed much more culturally aware. One professor spoke of how imperative it is for students to travel outside of the United States:
We need increased opportunities for students to engage with different cultural groups, for students to study abroad. They need to leave the country; they need to have a passport. So often students who have more limited views of diverse cultures have those because they dont know anyone from those areas of the world, they just read an article or saw something on TV. Id love to think that my teaching and the literature is making a big difference, but I really think that personal interaction is the key.
- Professor 002
Helping students to find ways to interact with the new culture provides an active learning situation for them to absorb more history knowledge. Instead of the passive instruction they may have received in schools, travel and interaction allow students to develop cultural competence and historical literacy in a dynamic setting in which they can truly see the benefit of having the knowledge and ability to work with people from other
cultures.


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Table 4
Faculty responses categorized within cultural competence framework
DOMAIN
DESCRIPTION
QUOTATIONS
Cultural Gaining self-awareness
awareness and recognition of the
existence of other cultures
Cultural Learning specific facts
knowledge and information about
other cultures
Cultural skills Applying both cultural
awareness and cultural knowledge in practice
Inductive Frequent interaction with
learning those of other cultures
reinforces awareness, knowledge and skills and leads to greater competency
I have students engage in a historical genogram of three past generations of their ancestors so that they have an idea of their origins.
A lot of times youll hear students say, Well, I had a girl on my dorm floor from X country and I never talked to her. Its just very common that they didnt ever interact or think that that would be important at all.
I try to find provide literature about how we are different and why we are different -how our families are formed in the culture in which they exist.
.. .probably the centerpiece of the class is to identify a culturally diverse family and then go and interview and observe them. We create a set of questions as a class that everyone asks.. .then they have to connect [the interview] with five additional resources about that culture, to see Is this like what Im reading? Are they different from what Im reading?
I try to encourage students to do lots of cross-cultural research and I try to bring it up to them, to make it feel real. These people arent in a storybook, theyre really in the world. Personal experience has to be the catalyst.
We gathered some research on the kind of stages students go through when theyre traveling abroad.. .its kind of a spiral. The next time they [travel] they probably dont start right at the bottom, they start at the middle and spiral up even farther.
People must seek out opportunities to learn from others. I believe that this best occurs when people are in proximity to those they wish to interact with.


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CHAPTER V
DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH
Discussion
Investigating the relationship between historical literacy and cultural competence is important to those instructors who either currently teach a global family science course or who want to add global concepts to their curriculum. This study used a mixed-methods approach: a quantitative questionnaire was used to assess students reported levels of historical literacy and cultural competence and whether these values were correlated. Qualitative responses from students as well as an interview protocol for professors were used in order to corroborate the self-reporting student data and explore other potential explanations for cultural competence. The objective of this study was to find whether or not it is important for instructors to include historical context when teaching global family science courses and how these instructors can support students development of cultural competence.
The quantitative data showed a significant correlation between historical literacy and cultural competency. Urie Bronfenbrenners ecological systems model and cultural competency frameworks provided lenses through which to view the results of the qualitative data. The student responses gave insight into how the different levels of ecological systems shape students perceptions of the world around them. The thematic results showed relationships between the professors qualitative responses and the four levels of cultural competency. By understanding the involvement of different systems and the four levels of cultural competency, students and professors can work together to develop global course content that reflects both history and culture.


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Limitations of this Study
The quantitative data for this study was obtained from students enrolled in two courses at the University of Colorado Denver. The nature of the survey questionnaire, a self-reporting quantitative instrument, lends itself to some scrutiny during the analytical process. Using student data can also be difficult and misleading depending on the attitudes of the students taking the survey (Johnson & Christensen, 2014).
If time had allowed, it would have been interesting to administer the survey to students in HDFR 3250, Families in Global Perspective, as a pre- and post- style evaluation in order to determine if the course itself helped students to develop cultural competency and increase historical literacy. Another possible modification would entail giving a lecture about cultural competency and historical literacy before students took the survey. During the survey administration, despite the fact that definitions for the domains of cultural competence were provided, some students expressed that they would have liked more clarification on these questions.
The data from the survey questionnaire were limited to students enrolled at the University of Colorado Denver. The scope of this research did not allow for the possibility of surveying students from other schools as a comparison.
Another difficulty with this study was the use of cultural competence as a framework. While cultural competence is a generally accepted idea, there are multiple opinions about whether it is a framework or a theory. Because cultural competence is used in many fields, different forms of the ideas have been developed that are appropriate to each field, even to the point of each field using different terms to describe similar ideas. In education literature, popular terms include multi-culturalism, diversity, poverty, and social justice (Gallegos,


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Tindall, & Gallegos, 2008, p. 52). Because of the vast spectrum of literature about cultural competence, it was difficult to narrow down one framework or construct to use for analysis. While generally most research agrees that there are 4-5 domains (Chong, 2002), there are different names and slightly different characteristics of each depending on the author or discipline. There is some disagreement as to whether the framework of cultural competence would hold up in international schools, where differing micro- and macrosystems involve daily interaction with multiple cultures (Mills, 2014). More research is needed to refine the framework for cultural competence in order to make it a more universal construct.
Strengths of this Study
This study was designed as a mixed-research study in order to counteract some of the possible weaknesses in data collection as well as to provide a richer data field. By collecting this data from both students and professors, both sides of the classroom were able to contribute their perceptions about the current state of global family science curriculum.
All of the professors who were interviewed in this study have extensive backgrounds in working with diverse cultures and were able to provide expert advice from their own experience. These professors are well-published and well-respected in their field.
This study was conducted at University of Colorado Denver, which is a culturally, religiously, and economically diverse university. The Human Development and Family Relations (HDFR) department is housed in the School of Education and Human Development, which has a rich tradition of promoting diversity and social justice. Classes in this department use cross-cultural research and textbooks in order to provide students with a broad worldview of the discipline. The students who come out of the HDFR program have taken classes which incorporate service learning and even bilingual coursework. Students


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who choose not to major or minor in HDFR are still required by the university to take an international perspectives course in order to help them broaden their views of the world. Interpretation of Results
Quantitative
The results of the quantitative data point towards a significant relationship between historical literacy and cultural competency, suggesting that students who are more comfortable interacting with historical concepts may also be more likely to also be more aware and respectful of other cultures. Students who had taken more history courses in high school were more likely to score higher on the historical literacy scale, while college courses were not significantly correlated to historical literacy. This finding is important because in many high schools, social studies as a discipline has been marginalized to make way for more reading and mathematics instruction (Kenna & Russell, 2014). More research should be done to show the importance of a solid historical foundation laid in high school in order to provide students with the necessary context for the concepts they will encounter in their university coursework.
Qualitative
The qualitative responses from the student questionnaire show that there are some additional factors besides historical literacy that affect students cultural competence. The responses from the professors corroborated the qualitative findings from the students. The findings were organized under four different themes corresponding to the four dimensions of cultural competence. Bronfenbrenners ecological systems theory and cultural competency theory together provide a unique framework to view historical literacy and cultural competency through the context of student development.


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Student Qualitative Data Interpretation:
Theme #1: Cultural Awareness:
Cultural awareness, or the process by which a person first becomes aware of their own culture and the presence of other cultures (Chong, 2002), is where many students begin their journey of cultural competency. For some students with multicultural backgrounds, in their microsystem the existence of other cultures was established early on. For others, their main experience may be with the dominant low-context European-American macrosystem (Berns, 2012).
The University of Colorado Denver (UCD) is located on a vast urban campus that houses two other schools: Metropolitan State University and Community College of Denver. Students who attend UCD have the opportunity to interact with diverse populations all over campus, both in classes and through various campus organizations and activities. Students noted that their ability to interact with diverse people in classrooms which encourage global thinking contributed to their own cultural awareness. As students make connections between school, home, and other components of their microsystem, they form a unique mesosystem that supports or hinders their activities in the microsystem. Students cognitive and developmental maturation as they encounter new ideas and information can be viewed through the lens of the chronosystem (Berns, 2012).
Theme #2: Cultural Knowledge:
Once the foundation has been laid which establishes in students microsystems and mesosystems the existence of other cultures, students can begin to build on their knowledge. This amassing of information, known as cultural knowledge in the cultural competency framework, gives students specific points of reference that they can compare with their own


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experience. In this stage, students compare and either accept or reject information in order to strengthen or weaken connections between components of the microsystem. For example, a student learns a new concept about a culture that conflicts with what they learned about that culture at home. The student then must make a choice between the new information and the old, causing them to evaluate and make judgments about the new information. Once students begin to make judgments, they are using awareness and knowledge in combination, bringing them to the third stage of cultural competency: cultural skills.
Theme #3: Cultural Skills:
Students who plan to serve as helping professionals must have both cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, and the ability to practically apply both of those to a professional environment. In the medical version of the cultural competency framework, the cultural skill level consists of the ability to use cultural awareness and cultural knowledge while completing medical assessments (Campinha-Bacote, 2001). For students, cultural skills include the ability to interact directly or indirectly with diverse people, viewing them through the lens of obtained cultural awareness and cultural knowledge.
By this point in the cultural competency spectrum, students are able to put aside their own personal biases and aversive racism in order to learn more about a new diverse group. They may have rejected or accepted different ideas proposed by various facets of the microsystem, they may have weaker or stronger linkages in the mesosystem, and they may find themselves feeling frustrated with the beliefs, cultural expectations, and unwritten laws of the dominant Western macrosystem. Some students expressed that they felt they had received an inadequate education about world history and that their interactions with others (through travel or through classes) helped them to form their own opinions and impressions


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about world events. These students felt that by learning about and interacting with other cultures, they in turn learned more about their own socio-cultural development. In fact, when students begin to desire and seek out interaction with diverse people, they have progressed to the fourth stage of cultural competency, inductive learning.
Theme #4: Inductive Learning:
As students gain cultural awareness and cultural knowledge, and begin to practice cultural skills, they may find that they enjoy working and interacting with diverse people. Their development and maturation can be attributed to events in the chronosystem: the passing of time, an individuals physical and social maturation, and events which contribute to changes in the individual. Students who are at the inductive learning stage may wish to travel more and may make career choices which allow them to continue working with diverse people. Once students reach this level, they may choose to move up and down the cultural competency continuum, whether learning more about themselves, amassing additional knowledge about other cultures not previously studied, and continuing to practice the skills necessary to apply both self-knowledge and world knowledge.
Professor Qualitative Data Interpretation:
Theme #1: Cultural Awareness:
The professors noted that their students occupy various levels of the cultural competency framework. However, many of their responses emphasized the need to provide context when teaching about global cultures. Providing context for students ranged from assigning research literature written from a non-Western lens to requiring students to interact with families from other cultures. It is important for professors to consider their student audience and adjust course material accordingly in order to offer students additional


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contextual support for understanding diverse families. It is also important for professors to consider that many of their students may be completely assimilated into American culture: they have no concept of their own cultural history due to the homogenization of the American melting pot (Kawamoto & Viramontez-Anguiano, 2006). The professors who were interviewed noted that they find it important to help students discover their own cultural heritage in order for them to appreciate the struggles of other diverse groups.
Theme #2: Cultural Knowledge:
Once professors help students to understand their own cultural legacy and the existence of other cultures, they can then proceed to introduce new ideas and concepts. The professors who were interviewed found that there were positive and negative aspects about presenting specific cultural knowledge. First, when introducing information about specific cultural groups, there is the possibility of oversimplification, or making blanket statements about cultures and groups instead of detailing cultural nuances between groups. Cultural competency theory has suffered criticism for this very reason: some believe that distilling cultural beliefs and ideas into brief introductions does a disservice to the rich variety of beliefs, ideas, and practices within a single group (Johnson & Munch, 2009). Professors must take care to provide both context and caveats when introducing students to new cultures in order to help them understand that generalizations exist in research. One professor protested the use of certain global family science textbooks because of chapter titles such as Asian Families or Middle Eastern Families because she felt she could better introduce these subjects through assigning multiple research articles that demonstrated the variety of viewpoints and cultural beliefs within those groups.


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Theme #3: Cultural Skills:
Once professors have laid contextual groundwork and built up students cultural knowledge, the next step is teaching students how to use those skills in conjunction with interaction with diverse people. One of the professors, who teaches in a racially homogenous area, discussed the positive feedback she gets from students who complete an interview assignment with a diverse family. These students have the chance to use the cultural awareness and knowledge gained in class as they interact with a cultural group that may be new to them. It is important to equip students with the ability to apply both awareness and knowledge, especially those students who plan to serve as helping professionals.
Theme #4: Inductive Learning:
All three professors emphasized that prolonged personal contact is the most effective way for students to continue developing their cultural competency. Two out of the three professors mentioned that the universities where they teach are not very diverse, and that they believed that a more diverse campus would help students to better understand cultural diversity. Another professor mentioned that recruiting techniques for her university have changed: where once she had non-traditional students from different races, cultures, and religions, now most of her students are affluent European-Americans. A professor did mention that her non-diverse campus is full of students who are first-generation college students. It is important for professors to understand the backgrounds of students who are enrolled in their courses in order to provide these students with opportunities to interact with diverse cultures. As students come to campus, professors can help them to broaden their microsystem and understand the possible limitations of the dominant macrosystem. One professor summed up her interview with the conclusion


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If I could just introduce everybody to everybody, we would all get along.
- Professor 002
All three professors who were interviewed engage in some sort of study abroad program with their respective universities, and all three noted that the students who had taken some sort of global family science or diversity course were more likely to participate in the study abroad program and were more culturally competent at the outset of travel.
For Future Theoretical and Practical Research
During the research and the subsequent analysis of the data, other factors were uncovered that might impact students self-reported cultural competence levels. 71% of students surveyed reported that travel had impacted their view of the world and a significant correlation was found between international travel and higher scores on the cultural competence scale. In future research, more study should be done on the impact of travel on student attitudes towards other cultures. Many universities encourage students to travel abroad, yet funds for these programs are being cut (Goen, 2015). More studies are needed that look at the impact of travel on global family science. Should family science programs make more of an effort to include international study abroad trips in the curriculum? How could service learning and experiential education be integrated effectively into these trips in order to produce culturally competent helping professionals?
The University of Colorado Denver has a diverse student body and 33% of students surveyed remarked in the open-ended survey questions that attending and participating in classes with people from other cultures had impacted their awareness of culture and diversity. More research on the effect of campus diversity on cultural competence needs to be
conducted.


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At the time of this study, data showing the exact social studies course requirements of American high schools were unavailable. More research is needed into the types of courses students are taking in high schools and how these courses address social history, as opposed to addressing mostly political and military history. It is also important for researchers to consider how to incentivize high school social studies instructors to modernize their teaching methods without the use of an accountability associated social studies test.
Implications and Conclusion
All of the professors interviewed in this study acknowledged that they have found that students in their global family science courses arrive in these courses with a lack of global history knowledge. They also noted that this lack of educational exposure means that professors will need to provide historical context when introducing global family concepts. The quantitative data showed a positive correlation between scores on the historical literacy scale and scores on the cultural competency scale, meaning that students who are more well-versed in history and its interpretation are more likely to self-report as culturally competent.
Research shows that teaching methods for history and social studies instruction in public high schools have stayed similar in the last few decades with little innovation (Kenna & Russell, 2014). As the world grows more and more connected through social media and internet communication, there will be an increase in demand for college graduates who are familiar with global concepts and able to serve a multitude of diverse clients. More study should be conducted on the relationship between historical literacy and cultural competence in order to establish the importance of an education which includes a strong historical foundation. High school teachers must be aware of the need to teach beyond the test, instilling in students a curiosity and desire to learn more about the world around them, as


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most of these students will interact with more cultures than previous generations of students (Trask, 2010). College instructors must understand that, first, it is important to introduce global concepts in curricula, and second, it is important to make sure students have a contextualizing foundation of information in order to appreciate those global concepts.
The professors who were interviewed had several suggestions about which strategies were effective and ineffective when teaching global family science courses (see Table 5). First, it was important for the professors to understand the delivery and the dynamic of the course. One professor who teaches a global family course in an online format to a homogenous European-American group of students noted that she takes great care when selecting online discussion questions in order to avoid potential inflammatory topics. She makes sure to direct the discussion in a way that allows students to share without perpetuating false beliefs about cultures. All of the professors emphasized the need for contextualization, providing access to research written by non-European-American scholars, and interaction with diverse cultures. Some preliminary research suggests that online interactions may be as effective as in-person interactions, but more cross-cultural research in this area is needed (Rodenborg & Boisen, 2013).
There is little research linking historical literacy with cultural competence. This study provides an initial look at how the lack of innovative history education in middle and high schools may impact students ability to understand global family science. By using the framework of Bronfenbrenners ecological systems theory and cultural competency, this study has demonstrated that historical literacy affects how students view the world around them. This study contributes to the body of family science literature by providing an example of how to use mixed-methods research and by establishing a link between high school


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coursework and collegiate family science education. Learning more about the relationship between these two variables should assist family science in evolving as a global discipline by helping instructors understand how to provide support for historically illiterate students in the classroom.
George Santayana, a Spanish philosopher, once noted that those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it (1905). In order to avoid repeating mistakes in human history, teachers and professors must engender in their students an understanding of history that consists of more than just dates of wars or names of battles; instead, the focus must shift to telling the story of humankind, explaining how major events shape the growth and development of people all over the world, and finally, providing students with the tools to apply past historical concepts to present and future global events.
Table 5
Strategies for teaching global family science courses
RESPONDENT EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES
Professors Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the class (online vs. in-person classes, large vs. small classes, diverse vs. mostly European-American student body) Providing context for discussions Assigning readings from global sources (research, current events, etc.) Study abroad programs Interaction with diverse people
INEFFECTIVE STRATEGIES
Professors Sharing information about cultures without context Failing to direct discussions in a positive manner (allowing inflammatory remarks) Using textbooks that fail to communicate cultural nuances


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APPENDIX A: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO DENVER COLORADO MULTI INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD (COMIRB) APPROVAL
University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus
Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board, CB F490 University of Colorado, Anscnutz Medical Campus 13001 E. 17th Place, Building 500, Room N3214 Aurora, Colorado 80045
303.724.1055 [Phone] 303.724.0990 [Fax] COMIRB Home Page [Web] comirb@ucdenver.edu [E-Mail] FWA00005070 [FWA]
University of Colorado Hospital Denver Health Medical Center Veteran's Administration Medical Center Children's Hospital Colorado University of Colorado Denver Colorado Prevention Center
Certificate of Exemption
02-Feb-2016
Investigator: Jennifer Greiving
Subject: COMIRB Protocol 16-0021 Initial Application
Review Date: 1/26/2016
Effective Date: 26-Jan-2016
Anticipated Completion Date: 25-Jan-2019 Sponsor(s): No Sponsor-
I Increasing cultural competence in historically illiterate college students enrolled in global
perspective family courses Exempt Category: 2
Submission ID: APP001-1
SUBMISSION DESCRIPTION:
Initial application for exempt (category #2) review.
Your COMIRB Initial submission APP001-1 has been APPROVED FOR EXEMPTION. Periodic continuing review is not required. For the duration of your protocol, any change in the experimental design/content/personnel of this study must be approved by COMIRB before implementation of the changes.
The anticipated completion date of this protocol is 25-Jan-2019. COMIRB will administratively close this project on this date unless otherwise instructed by e-mail to COMIRB@ucdenver.edu. If the project is completed prior to this date, please notify the COMIRB office in writing or by e-mail once the project has been closed.


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APPENDIX B: SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
1. Are you currently enrolled a student at CU Denver? Y/N
2. Are you majoring or minoring in human development and family relations (HDFR)?
Y/N
3. What is your age range? Circle One:
a. 18-22
b. 23-30
c. 31-35
d. 36-45
e. 46-50
f. over 50 years of age
4. In high school, did you take take any of the following courses (circle all that apply)
a. World History
b. Geography and/or World Geography
c. Advanced Placement World History
5. Have you already taken a college course in one of the following areas:
a. World History
b. Global Perspectives/HDFR 3250 (Families in Global Perspective)
c. Sociology
d. Geography
e. An international perspectives course (please provide the name of the course):
6. After reading the definition of areas of cultural competence, on a scale from 1-5 (1 means not knowledgeable at all, 2 means less knowledgeable, 3 means neither not knowledgeable or knowledgeable, 4 means somewhat knowledgeable, 5 means very knowledgeable) please rank your personal knowledgeable in the following areas:
a. Cultural awareness: Understanding of both your own culture and that of other cultural groups.
1 2 3 4 5
b. Cultural knowledge: Knowledge of key facts about cultures that are different from yours (cultural beliefs and ideas)
1 2 3 4 5
c. Cultural skills: Practical application of cultural knowledge (using cultural knowledge to make decisions and judgments).
1 2 3 4 5
d. Inductive learning: Familiarity and comfort with interacting with people of other cultures based on your cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills).
1 2 3 4 5
7. On a scale from 1-5 (1 is Strongly Disagree, 3 is Neither Agree Nor Disagree, and 5 is Strongly Agree) please answer the following questions:


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a. I am comfortable reading historical documents.
1 2 3 4 5
b. I believe that I have a strong grasp of world history.
1 2 3 4 5
c. I read the news and I am familiar with current events outside the United States.
1 2 3 4 5
d. I feel more comfortable with American history than world history.
1 2 3 4 5
e. I am knowledgeable about historical events outside of the United States.
1 2 3 4 5
f. I remember very little from my high school history classes.
1 2 3 4 5
g. It is more important to learn United States history than global history.
1 2 3 4 5
h. My history teachers rarely taught historical events later than World War II.
1 2 3 4 5
i. I understand world cultures because I know world history.
1 2 3 4 5
j. I enjoy history and I study it on my own outside of classes.
1 2 3 4 5
k. My knowledge of history helps me to understand cultures that are different from my own.
1 2 3 4 5
l. I do not know much about world history but I would like to learn more.
1 2 3 4 5
m. I am not interested in learning about world history.
1 2 3 4 5
n. By learning and understanding world history, we can avoid problems that people faced in the past.
1 2 3 4 5
8. Have you had the opportunity to travel to other parts of the world? If so, where?
9. Have you had any experiences that you believe have contributed to your understanding of the world? If so, please describe.
10. Do you have any other comments that might be pertinent to this study?


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APPENDIX C: QUESTIONNAIRE CONSENT
Study Title: Increasing cultural competence in historically illiterate college students enrolled
in global perspective family courses
Principal Investigator: Jennifer Greiving
COMIRB No: 16-0021
Version Date: 01/07/2016
You are being asked to be in this research study because you are enrolled as a student at the University of Colorado Denver and you are currently taking either HDFR 2200 (Love, Family, and Human Development) or HDFR 3250 (Families in Global Perspective).
If you join the study, you will complete a short survey regarding your level of confidence and comfort with certain historical or cultural concepts.
This study is designed to learn more about teaching global family courses.
Possible discomforts or risks include inability to complete the survey due to time constraints. There may be risks the researchers have not thought of.
Every effort will be made to protect your privacy and confidentiality by not collecting your names on the survey and using age ranges instead of birthdates.
You have a choice about being in this study. You do not have to be in this study if you do not want to be.
If you have questions, you can call Jennifer Greiving at 720-891-3575. You can call and ask questions at any time.
You may have questions about your rights as someone in this study. If you have questions, you can call the COMIRB (the responsible Institutional Review Board). Their number is (303) 724-1055.
By completing this survey, you are agreeing to participate in this research study.


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APPENDIX D: INTERVIEW PROTOCOL
Interview Protocol for Thesis
1. Are you currently affiliated with a university? Which one?
2. What is your title at the university?
3. What courses do you currently teach?
4. Please describe the courses that you teach.
5. What other global family or international perspectives courses have you taught?
6. How many years have you been teaching?
7. Describe the makeup of the students in your classes: are they typically composed of traditional or non-traditional students?
8. Do you find your students to be, for the most part, historically literate in a global context?
a. Why or why not? Please give examples.
9. Do you find your students to be culturally aware?
a. Cultural awareness includes the following: Cultural awareness (understanding of both your own culture and that of other cultural groups), cultural knowledge (knowledge of key facts about cultures that are different from yours) (cultural beliefs and ideas), cultural skills (practical application of cultural knowledge (using cultural knowledge to make decisions and judgments), and inductive learning (familiarity and comfort with interacting with people of other cultures based on your cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills).
10. What strategies do you use in your classroom to provide support to students who are not culturally competent?
11. What strategies do you use in your classroom to provide support to students who are not historically literate?
12. What have you found to be most effective in increasing cultural awareness among college students?
13. What have you found to be ineffective in increasing cultural awareness and historical literacy among college students?


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APPENDIX E: INTERVIEW CONSENT
Study Title:
Increasing cultural competence in historically illiterate college students enrolled in global perspective family courses
Principal Investigator: Jennifer Greiving
COMIRB No: Version Date:
16-0021
01/07/2016
You are being asked to be in this research study because you are a professor who teaches (or has taught within the past 2 years) a college course on families from a global perspective.
If you join the study, you will participate in a phone interview to discuss how you work with students who may be historically illiterate or do not possess cultural competency.
This study is designed to learn more about teaching global family courses.
Possible discomforts or risks include speaking for an extended period of time, having your answers recorded digitally, or difficulty answering questions. There may be risks the researchers have not thought of.
Every effort will be made to protect your privacy and confidentiality. We will record your answers to the interview questions but names will not be retained on the recordings. Recordings will be stored in a locked environment on a password-protected computer. The recordings will be used to transcribe your responses and then the recordings will be destroyed in a manner accordant with IRB procedures. The transcripts will be used for coding purposes. No names will be released with the final data or used in the final publication. You are welcome to request a copy of the recording or the transcript.
You have a choice about being in this study. You do not have to be in this study if you do not want to be.
If you have questions, you can call Jennifer Greiving at 720-891-3575. You can call and ask questions at any time.
You may have questions about your rights as someone in this study. If you have questions, you can call the COMIRB (the responsible Institutional Review Board). Their number is (303) 724-1055.


Full Text

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INCREASING CULTURAL COMPETENCE IN HISTORICALLY ILLITERATE COLLEGE STUDENTS ENROLLED IN GLOBAL FAMIL Y SCIENCE COURSES b y JENNIFER ELIZABETH GREIVING B.A. Florida College 2005 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Arts Education and Human Development 2016

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i This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by Jennifer Elizabeth Greiving has been approved for the Education and Human Development program by Ruben P. Viramontez Anguiano, Chair Caron Westland Alan Davis Date: April 29, 2016

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ii Greiving, Jennifer Elizabeth (M.A. Education and Human Development) Increasing Cultural Competence of Historically Illiterate College Students Enrolled in Global Family Perspectives Courses Thesis directed by Professor Ruben P. Viramontez Anguiano ABSTRA CT Recent educational reforms tend to focus on reading and math possibly to the detriment of history education. As university students enroll in global family perspective courses, their lack of historical knowledge may cause barriers to learning for students and difficulties for professors who reference global events that have affected the course of global families and human development. This study examines students self report ed historical knowledge and cultural competence a nd also explores how professors, if necessary, compensate for the lack of historical knowledge when teaching global family science and human development. For this study, self reported measures of historical literacy and cultural competency were collected from 123 students at the University of Colorado Denver using a quantitative questionnaire Three professors who teach global family courses were interviewed using a qualitative protocol. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS to determine scales fo r cultural competence and historical knowledge while the qualitative data were evaluated using various thematic analysis techniques. Results show that historical literacy plays a small but statistically significant role in cultural competence and suggestio ns are made for future research and curriculum direction This form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Approv ed: Ruben P. Viramontez Anguiano

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iii DEDICATION I dedicate this thesis to the hundreds of students I had the privilege of teaching over a ten year period, spanning schools from Tallahassee to Denver, from high school to undergraduate. You are the ones who have shaped me as an educator and as a human being. Together we struggled, hoped, dreamed, and influenced e ach other I hope in ways that have led you to serve others courageously and selflessly. I also dedicate this work to my husband, Benjamin, and my two sons, William and Jonathan. Your support, love, and patience over the last two years have led me to acc omplish more than I ever imagined. ad astra per aspera

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iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Benjamin you are yet the butter to my bread and the breath to my life. Your unwavering suppo rt over the past 12 years shows me more clearly every day that I want you for my traveling partner for life Thank you for all the extra meals you've cooked and for the extra hours of "daddy daycare" over the past two years so I could stretch my brain a bit. I love you. Let's go to London someday My sons William and Jonathan who enjoyed manipulating an endless stream of babysitters and who patiently waited while Mama had to "do some school," I hope that my example will show you that you can achieve your goals through hard work, ambition, and neglecting housework for a few minu tes to play Legos or bowling and make PBJs. I am proud of this thesis, but I am ever so much more proud of you, two of my greatest accomplishments. Mom and Pop I apologize for suddenly finding my work ethic after leaving the house. Your love, support, an d even the starter up and motivator made and m akes all the difference. Chase thank you for learning to change diapers so you could watch the boys. We look forward to returning the favor! To my family (the grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, in laws, and those ad ditional "mothers" who helped me along the way), thank you and I love you! As I raise my own children I realize how valuable all of you are and I pray for good influences like you in the lives of my boys and my students. Thank you for putting up with all my shenanigans over the years. To my CU Denver faculty members: Dr. Ruben I'm so glad I spoke up in that Latino Families class about my desire to be a professor. How could I have imagined that a year and a half later, I'd be realizing my dreams of teaching at the university? Gracias, profe, for all the opportunities you've sent my way, for all the additional time you took to help me meet and exceed my goals, and for teaching me how to show grace as an instructor. I also appreciate so very much the respect you showed for my "motherwork" and my need to take care of my family. It's like you're a family scientist or something. May God bless you and your family. I look forward to working with you. My thesis committee : Dr. D avis, I appreciate your help with the quantitative data analysis. If my 8 th grade math teacher could see me now, she'd never believe it! Dr. Westland, thank you for including cross cultural research in your human development courses those readings helped inspire my topic. I appreciate the guidance given and the time taken to help me as a student. I hope to pay that forward. Additional thanks : Dr. Rene Galindo provided a member check of qualitative data as well as water kefir grains that I was determined t o kill. To my undergraduate professors at Florida College : Dr. Dicke y thank you for sparking my interest in the behavioral sciences. I also appreciate your help with my thesis topic. I am so thankful for the opportunities I had in the liberal studies program. Dr. Johnson thank you for coaching me as a performer and as a speaker. It is because of your guidance and patience that I find teaching and speaking so enjoyable. Dr. Roberts t hrough your example, I learned how to be a great teacher. I also learned how to both live and die "like one who wraps the drapery of his couch about him / and lies down to pleasant dreams Your legacy lives on in your students. Psalm 1:1 3. The faculty, staff, and ad ministration at Florida Colleg e put up with my antics for four years and in return, made a lasting impact on who I am today. Thanks for the BA and the MRS degrees M y friends a n enormous, all encompassing thank you for all the babysitting help, moral support, for listening to me spout off "interesting facts" based on whatever research I was reading, & for offering me als. You make an awesome tribe and there is no way this would h ave happened without you all. Hebrews 12:1 2: Let us run.

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v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 1 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 1 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ ......................... 3 Guiding Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............. 3 Significance of the Study ................................ ................................ .................. 4 Definitions and Terms ................................ ................................ ....................... 4 Personal Identification of the Topic ................................ ................................ .. 5 II. LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ............................. 6 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 6 Need for Globalized Family Science Curriculum ................................ ............. 7 How to Globalize Family Science Curricula ................................ .................... 9 Historical Illiteracy in the United States ................................ ......................... 12 Theoretical Framework ................................ ................................ ................... 16 III. METHODS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 21 Research Design ................................ ................................ .............................. 21 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 23 Instrumentation ................................ ................................ ............................... 25 Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 26 IV. FINDINGS ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 29 Mixed Methods Research Findings ................................ ................................ 29 Quantitative Findings ................................ ................................ ...................... 31

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vi Qualitative Thematic Findings ................................ ................................ ........ 33 V. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH ................................ ....... 44 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 44 Limitations of this Study ................................ ................................ ................. 45 Strengths of this Study ................................ ................................ .................... 46 Interpretation of Results ................................ ................................ .................. 47 For Future Theoretical and Practical Research ................................ ............... 53 Implications and Conclusion ................................ ................................ ........... 54 REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 57 APPENDIX A: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO DENVER COLORADO MULTI INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD (COMIRB) APPROVAL ............................. 62 B: SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE ................................ ................................ .............. 63 C: QUESTIONNAIRE CONSENT ................................ ................................ ............ 65 D: INTERVIEW PROTOCOL ................................ ................................ ................... 66 E: INTERVIEW CONSEN T ................................ ................................ ...................... 67 F: ECOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL COMPETENCY FRAMEWORK ............... 68

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vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. Table of Student Demographic Information I n Chapter 3 and referenced to in Chapter 4 23 2. Table of Quantitative Findings I n Chapter 4 .30 3. Table of Open Ended Student Responses In Chapter 4 ..35 4. Table of Faculty Responses Categorized Within Cultural Competence Framework In Chapter 4..41 5. Table of Strategies for Teaching Global Family Science Courses ..46

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1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Overview In 2002 President George W. Bush signed into law the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Education Act, requiring schools in the United States to post measurable gains in the areas of reading and math in order to continue to receive funding. Some educational experts, however, suggest that the emphasis on these two subject areas causes other subjects, such as history, to be neglected in American public schools (Rabb, 2004). In fact, the National Council for the Soc ial Studies was so alarmed by the potential impact of NCLB that it released a statement calling for the federal government to rewrite the legislation "so that student performance data may be disaggregated in such a manner that all states can be compared to one another and to a national profile in the vital disciplines of history, civics, geography, and economics" (National Council for the Social Studies, 2007). NCLB fell out of favor after it became clear that schools were not meeting performance standards in reading and math. Recently, the new Common Core State Standards (CCSS) introduced the trend of "STEM" education: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. While as part of the CCSS, every state in the United States has social studies standards, it is unclear whether there will be much of a shift toward emphasis on the teaching of these subjects du e to the lack of high stakes testing (Kenna & Russell, 2014). Much attention is paid to how students from the United States perform on international standardized testing in order to compa re educational systems in the United States to those in other countr ies, a sort of continuation of the Cold War era Sputnik race (Kenna & Russell, 2014). Currently, selected 15 year old students across the globe

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2 participate in a standardized test known as the Programme for International Student Assessment, or PISA, which p urports to measure student academic achievement PISA is administered in a three year cycle and measures reading, mathematics, and science skills (Perry and Ercikan, 2015). Once again, history as a subject is excluded from the examination. Because of the high stakes emphasis on both international testing and, in some states, domestic monetary disbursement to those schools that perform well, schools may direct attention and time towards the disciplines of math and reading because they are the most commonly tested educational domains (Rabb, 2004). The introduction of Common Core State Standards is an attempt to course correct by providing clear cut standards for history H owever, schools are still under pressure to post measurable gains in math and reading (K enna & Russell, 2014). The National Assessment for Education Progress (NAEP) is an ongoing assessment administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) that uses representative samples of students in the United States to determine academ ic progress. Currently, progress is measured in math, reading, science, U.S. history, and writing. No measure or evaluation of world history is offered, though t here is some effort underway to offer a standardized world history test According to NCES, The NAEP intended to offer world history testing in 2012, however, the evaluation is currently under development with the goal of using it in the next testing cycle in 2018 This information was last updated in March of 2009 and no more recent updates were av ailable ( National Center for Education Statistics, 2009 ). Bain (2004) discusses some of the issues with developing a world history evaluation, including how schools distribute world history knowledge throughout the high school curriculum, differing high sc hool graduation requirements, and unique state content standards. According to the

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3 most recent NAEP Transcript Study, which analyzes a representative sample of high school graduation transcripts, more students are taking world history courses, including Ad vanced Placement world history, but not all states have a world history course requirement for graduation ( Institute of Education Sciences 2009). It is clear that much of the current emphasis in education is directed towards mathematics, reading, and scie nce. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study wa s to examine if due to the lack of emphasis on historical instruction in American high schools, college instructors in global human development and family science face a unique challenge in teaching diverse cultural concepts to students who typically have little knowledge of world history. As these professors attempt to convey complex cultural issues taking place in a rapidly shrinking world, what difficulties do they face in teaching and wha t methods or strategies can they use in order to facilitate cultural competency? Guiding Research Questions For this thesis, four research questions are presented: 1. What levels of confidence in historical literacy do college students enrolled in human dev elopment courses at University of Colorado Denver report? 2. What is the relationship between students' historical literacy and cultural competency? 3. When teaching classes about global families, what difficulties do professors face with students who have limi ted knowledge of world history? 4. What strategies do teachers use in order to overcome the historical knowledge deficits of American college students?

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4 Significance of the Study The University of Colorado Denver requires students to matriculate in at least one multicultural perspectives course in order to graduate. As the Human Development and Family Relations (HDFR) program at University of Colorado Denver grows and more students begin to enroll in the g lobal family perspectives courses, it is important tha t instructors understand whether they need to make modifications to course s in order to compensate for a lack of world history knowledge. Definitions and Terms Aversive racism: a form of racism in which people believe themselves to be unbiased yet still hold unconscious negative views of other groups. The tendency to put people into groups or categories may cause an ambiguous type of discrimination. The individual may not even be aware of engaging in aversive racism (Rodenborg & Boisen, 2013). Cultural c o mpetence : a framework used to teach about professional interaction with diverse cultures. Historical illiteracy : A general lack of history awareness and knowledge. Students who are historically illiterate may have memorized historical dates but are unable to apply that knowledge to their general understanding of the world (Blevins, 2015) Internationalization : Also known as globalization the process of diversifying curriculum in order to present information that is not from a European American male point of view. Social studies : an umbrella term for the discipline which covers civics, government, economics, geography, and history (Kenna & Russell, 2014).

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5 Personal Identification of the Topic In order to appreciate the reason for this research topic, it is important to understand the author's connection to the subject. As a graduate student at the University of Colorado Denver, I (Jennifer Greiving) served as a teaching assistant for two semesters and the graduate instructor for two semesters The course selected for me to teach was HDFR 3250, or Families in Global Perspectives. According to the University of Colorado Denver course catalog (2016), students enrolled in this course are expected to learn about families all over the globe, using ecological sy stems theory to understand families in a global context. When I taught the class, I noticed that when I gave lectures specifically about families from different countries, students were often unaware of how the history of that country had shaped and influ enced familie s there. For example, in post World War II Japan, the Allies reconf igured the traditional Japanese family system because some attributed the fervent nationalism of the Japanese to the values fostered within the family ( Murray & Kimura, 2006 ). In order to help students understand why family structure in Japan changed so dramatically, it was necessary to provide a historical context. This lack of historical knowledge sparked my own interest in discovering how historical illiteracy might impact st udents' cultural awareness.

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6 C HAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Historically, higher education in the United States began as a means to educate men from wealthy European American families. (Lee, 2002). Benjamin Franklin, when founding what would later become the University of Pennsylvania, cited a different vision: one that placed less emphasis on classical education, such as Latin and Greek, and more on an egalitarian institution where dive rse thoughts and ideas could be discussed. In fact, "What set Franklin's notion of education apart was his insistence that a college draw students of ability from all social strata and actively and purposefully cultivate civic values in these students and provide them with the practical skills necessary to address the pressing problems of the day. In short, a central purpose of higher education was service to society and to the commonwealth" (Harkavy & Hartley, 2008, p. 13). Diversity on American college campuses more or less began when less economically advantaged men entered university in order to pursue careers in the clergy. Now, diversity in higher education refers to a broad swath of descriptors, including race, gender, class, and more (Lee, 2002). Many students in the university classroom today do not fit the "traditional" (European American economically privileged) profile of the American college student (Muraco, Totenhagen, Corkery, & Curran, 2014). As more and more diverse students pursue an edu cation, universities have the unique ability to produce students who will be ready to serve the needs of the growing diverse population of the United States. However, instead of sharing Benjamin Franklin's idea l s, much of the public views college education as a means to higher paying jobs, not as a way to develop civic leaders (Harkavy & Hartley, 2008). Universities must initiate a strong investment in culture in order to pave the way towards a diverse population in the university setting, and a diverse academia is paramount in

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7 order to produce a population that is both educated and self sustaining (Lee, 2002). As part of that investment in culture, the impact of globalization on higher education must not be ignored. In a world where communication with the other side of the globe is a mere click, text message, or phone call away, universities must consider the need to educate students with a global focus. It is important to understand why universities must provide an internationalized family scie nce curriculum, how to implement global concepts in family science, and finally, what benefits or difficulties universities may experience when diversifying family science curriculum. Need for Globalized Family Science Curriculum Global family science cur riculum is necessary in today's rapidly changing global climate. It is imperative that students who graduate from human development and family science programs understand the importance of multicultural viewpoints, how to work with global families, and how to initiate and conduct research with diverse populations. Importance of Multi cultural Viewpoints Family science graduates, more than ever before, will be called upon to work with international families. Despite this shift, few family science programs inc orporate international viewpoints into family science courses (Goen, 2015). Trask and Viramontez Anguiano (2012) note that while universities and businesses have made increased efforts and spent a great deal of money to promote the platform of diversity, t hese institutions must also contend with the opposing viewpoint that suggests that the United States is a place for diverse people to assimilate instead of acculturate.

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8 Family science as a discipline is no stranger to the idea of diversity. In fact, much of today's family science can trace its roots to the beginning of the 20 th century with pioneers such as Ellen Swallow Richards. During that time period, diversity in the United States was increasing at a similar rate as today. This booming population grow th and the needs of families of that time contributed to the development of fields such as family science, social work, and public administration. Despite these beginnings, family science as a profession has weathered criticism for the lack of males in the field, for its late endorsement of the civil rights movement, and for a resistance to change (Nickols et al., 2009). As more and more international organizations are calling for the inclusion of global concepts in higher education, family science must tak e a proactive stance in order to produce graduates who are ready to interact with diverse populations (Goen, 2015). Hamon and Smit h (2014) propose that family science as a discipline is in a new stage, that of evaluation and innovation in which family s cience departments must make the case for relevance in a time when universities are making budget cuts. The current higher education climate necessitates that family science program administrators must "...be able to articulate the distinctiveness of the discipline, the worth of the unique skills and perspectives offered by family science programs, the challenges affecting the field, and the adaptations and resources necessary to propel family science to new levels of relevance and application in today's e conomic and sociocultural climate" (p. 312). If family science programs must internationalize, this begs the question: what is internationalization of curriculum? There is a variety of ideologies and strategies surrounding the internationalization of cur riculum, however, Knight and de Wit (as cited in Stier & Bšrjesson, 2010) propose that internationalization consists of

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9 "a wide range of activities, policies, and services intended to integrate international and intercultural dimensions into an institutio n's teaching, research, and service functions" (p. 336). This definition seems to best fit family science because of the discipline's traditional tendency towards producing helping professionals as well as the inclusion of service in the curriculum. How to Globalize Family Science Curricula Research One of the means by which to introduce global concepts into the family science classroom is through the reading of international research, training students how to conduct diverse and cross cultural resea rch, and finally, encouraging students to engage in this type of research. The inclusion of cross national or cross cultural research (non Western) is an efficient and cost effective way to add diversity to family science programs and there are many new re sources dedicated to methods of integrating these types of research (Takooshian, Gielen, Plous, Rich, & Velayo, 2016) Family scientists (and those who teach future family scientists) must stay informed about the fluid nature of modern families, and must a lso guarantee that research reflects "family strengths, resiliency, and effective interventions in addition to problem identification" by ensuring that there is a "knowledge base that can enhance cultural competence" (Nickols et al., 2009, p. 277). Nagaya ma Hall, Yip, and Z‡rate (2015) suggest that researchers in the field often fail to understand how ethnic diversity fits into their research, and whether or not different approaches must be used in order to accommodate diverse populations. Students must le arn how to conduct effective multicultural research, and in some cases, may be able to do so through participation. Takooshian et al. (2016) describe a study in which a researcher trained

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10 students who were traveling overseas as tourists to participate in an experiment to compare prosocial behaviors. Campus and Other Resources Another method of introducing global concepts into the family science classroom is through the use of university p rovided services. Many universities have either an office of multicultural affairs or an office of international affairs, which often provide programs and experiences for students and can assist faculty with developing internationalized curricula (Goen, 20 15 ; Takooshian et al., 2016 ). The University of Colorado Denver has recently introduced a program for students called the Intercultural Engagement Certificate as a joint collaboration between the Office of Student Affairs, the Office of International Affai rs, Educational Opportunities Programs, and the Department of Ethnic Studies. Students must attend at least five international events on campus and write a short reflection in order to receive the certificate and recognition at graduation (International En gagement Certificate, 2016). Another resource for students and faculty to internationalize curricula is the inclusion of a study abroad program. Students who plan to work with families may find it helpful to engage in study abroad programs in which they do not understand the dominant language this experience may assist them in understanding families whose reality is living in a culture in which they do not understand (Goen, 2015). Study abroad programs or even international internships may also offer s tudents the opportunity to conduct research and gain cross cultural research experi ence (Takooshian et al., 2016). Goen (2015) provides an excellent list of resources at the local, state, and national level for instructors who need information regarding th e internationalization of family science curricula.

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11 Benefits of Globalized Family Science Curricula Why should universities and family science programs work to internationalize curricula? One benefit has already been mentioned: that of providing helping professionals with the requisite skills of working with a growing population of diverse families. Another benefit is providing the opportunity for students to work in the community alongside experts in the field. Completing community service learning proje cts helps to develop and strengthen the relationship between the school and the surrounding community (Goen, 2015). Internationalizing curriculum by including resources from other countries and other cultural paradigms helps students to develop an understa nding and appreciation for other cultures, and may encourage more students to participate in and initiate research that focuses on diverse issues and peoples In this same vein, as more family science courses integrate global concepts, textbooks and other resources should begin to reflect this trend (Viramontez Anguiano & Trask, 2009). While there are many benefits to globalization, fami ly science departments must consider carefully how to add global concepts to coursework. Potential Difficulties of Globali zed Family Science Curricula Haclicek and Pelikan (2013) observed several possible pitfalls for universities who look to internationalize their programs, noting the paradox that despite the fact that the university is a "learning organization," it can be difficult for universities to learn new information and procedures. First, the university must implement some sort of program in order to communicate the new concepts and expectations. Second, the university must evaluate its criteria for selecting program leaders, ensuring that leader s are chosen for abilities, not because of an archaic promotion structure. Finally, the university must make a long term investment in internationalization. The temptation for the university can be to

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12 implement global concepts quickly in order to present a favorable view to potential students, donors, and others, however, it is imperative that the choice to internationalize be mad e thoughtfully and carefully. Another possible difficulty, one explored in this research, is the possible connection between hist orical literacy and cultural competency, meaning, does a lack of historical knowledge affect students' abilities to understand and benefit from a global curriculum? Historical Illiteracy in the United States As discussed previously, history education has in some ways, taken a back seat to reading and mathematics education. The term "historical illiteracy" can be somewhat off putting and ambig uous because of the connotation s of the word illiteracy ; however, that is the general term used in research litera ture. There is some disagreement in the literature over the appropriate term for students who demonstrate a lack of historical knowledge, and the use of the term "literacy" is controversial because it is unclear. At times in the literature "historical lite racy" refers to the use of historical documents in literacy instruction, at other times it refers to "the ability to engage in historical processes to not simply possess knowledge, but to know how to build it" (Nokes, 2013, p. 20). In order to understand the conflicting ideas of historical literacy, it is important to look at history and social studies as a discipline and how the introduction of high stakes standardized testing and state benchmark standards have affected how history is taught in schools. A History of History In 1981, A Nation at Risk a ground breaking and eye opening report about the academic performance (or lack thereof) from American students was published, spurring academic reforms across the nation. Since this report, no research ha s been published in the

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13 disciplines of history or social studies that details any sort of dramatic reversal of the information contained in A Nation at Risk suggesting that there "has been a prolonged, precipitous decline in knowledge of history among Am erican students and, by extension, the general public .[It is] n ot simply a matter of ignorance of schoolbookish factsbut a lack of awareness of history's intellectual and moral contours, as reflected in misunderstandings of epochal events like the civil rights marches, in the rise of Holocaust deniers, and in the proposed (and thankfully cancelled) Disneyland Civil War "theme park" in Northern Virginia" (Rice, 1995, p. 603). After the publication of A Nation at Risk most educational reforms focused on the introduction of testing. Different forms of standards testing were attempted and then rejected. During the early 1990s, the paradigm of accountability was added to evaluations: for the first time, student test scores were tied to all of the individual s who were part of the learning process: school administrators, teachers, and students. For teachers and administrators, school funding, pay, and even job retention were based on how students performed on examinations. Students faced the possibility of ret ention, advancement, or even denial of graduation af ter their scores were reported. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 introduced an even more stringent era of testing, at least for reading, mathematics, and science. Social studies, often referred to as the "fourth core subject," was not included in this legislation (Vogler & Virtue, 2007). Because of the testing emphasis on reading, suddenly literacy instruction crossed the disciplinary barrier. Social studies teachers were expected to include test centered literacy instruction in their lessons. This development led to some of the confusion over the definition of historic al literacy in the research literature: instead of the ability to "engage in historical processes," historical literacy also became the buzzword for literacy instruction in the social studies classroom (Nokes, 2013)

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14 Today, w hile all states have Common Core State Standards for social studies, the opinion of many educational experts remains that little will change in social studies education because of the lack of high stakes testing in conjunction with those standards. Twenty one out of the fifty states in the U.S. currently evaluate students with a statewide social studies test. At least 8 states mandate passing grades on a high school social studies evaluation in order to graduate (Kenna & Russell, 2014). However, preliminary research about high school exit exams suggests that teachers spend more time engaging in preparing for the test than using critical thinking or current events. These teachers are torn between the ir desire to instill a love of the social studies in their students, their interest in h elping students graduate, and a personal stake in seeing results from their students which validate the teacher's teaching abilities (Vogler, 2005). Social Studies Methods One of the major effects of the lack of accountability testing in social studies is a lack of innovation in teaching methods. In some cases, as described above, the lack of innovation is not due to a resistance to change but because teachers must spend val uable class time preparing students for the content of standardized tests, not cultivating the skills needed for historical literacy (Vogler, 2005 ; Blevins, 2015 ). Research shows that teaching methods in history classrooms have not changed much within the past twenty years. Teachers tend to use passive instruction practices, such as lecture, seatwork, or answering textbook questions for homework, instead of more engaged and active learning. This is remarkable because emerging research shows that student cen tered activities and teaching students how to ask questions can lead to a much deeper understanding of history and social studies. While state standards typically emphasize student centered learning, many instructors find it difficult to

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15 implement all the different requirements and so engage in the traditional pedagogy of passive instruction (Kenna & Russell, 2014). The newly published Common Core State Standards emphasize higher level thinking skills. Teachers will need to adapt their instruction practic es in order to conform to these standards, as students will need to learn not only facts but how to use these facts within a skill set of literacy and interpretation. School districts and school administrators must be prepared to initiate professional deve lopment programs that inform teachers about the new standards and introduce non traditional methods of instruction, including the use of technology However, despite any and all interventions in social studies instructional methods, the fact remains that t he greatest effect on teachers and students may well be the existence of high stakes testing tied to standards (Kenna & Russell, 2014). Difficulty of Evaluation There is some difficulty in developing and administering a standardized test for history and social studies. The NAEP history test, which would be given to representative sample groups all over the United States, has been delayed for a variety of reasons, including the types of history courses available to stud ents, the differing graduation requirements between states, and the difference in course administration. Bain (2004) notes that based on a review of state standards, curriculum guides, and Advanced Pl acement materials, there seem to be at least four different patterns of world history education: "Western Civilization Plus, Social Studies World History, Geographic/Regional World History, and Global World History" (p. 6). Besides the different models of world history education, complicating the matter is the fact that not all states require a world history course for high school students to graduate,

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16 and the order in which history courses are administered differs from one state to the next. One school ma y offer a world history course to freshmen, another school may not require world history, and still another might not introduce world history until the final year of high school. It would be impractical and unproductive to evaluate students from different districts if some students have not had access to the information covered on the examination. Furthermore, the broad variation in world history instruction means that "there is virtually no national information about what students understand about the hist ory of the world, a data void that hampers attempts to improve education" (Bain, 2004, p. 12). Therefore, the state of global history education in the United States remains that until there is a standardized history test with some sort of stakes tied to it education will not improve yet there are tremendous difficulties in developing such an assessment. Because social studies instruction seems unlikely to improve in the near future (based on the criteria in the research) historical illiteracy is a valid concern for college professors to consider w hen planning their instruction and curriculum. Theoretical Framework T wo theories are useful as appropriate frameworks to examine the concepts of historical illiteracy and teaching global family science course s First, c ultural competence, introduced in the 1980s in social work literature and expanded upon by other theorists, explains the lifelong process of becoming culturally aware ( Campinha Bacote, 2001 ). Second Uri e Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory provides a lens through which to view cultural competence: explaining how different experiences within a student's developmental systems will enhance their cultural awareness.

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17 Cultural Competence Framework Traditional ly, the cultural competence framework has been used more in the realm of social work and medicine as a way to teach service providers who interact with diverse clientele how to deal with cultural differences appropriately and with respect. Family science i s an ideal candidate for the application of cultural competence, especially because of the wide range of careers and opportunities available to family science majors While the roots of cultural competence lie in social work, more research has been conduct ed to further the base of knowledge in helping professional fields, including education, psychology, and medicine ( Gallegos, Tyndall, & Gallegos, 2008 ). As more diverse families enter the United States, it is logical that helping professionals who are trai ned in helping these families will be needed There are different versions of cultural competence theory because of the variety of fields in which it is used. However, there are two generally agreed upon frameworks: one for social work and one for health care. For the purpose of this research, the systems theory approach first proposed by Cross and Lum was selected originally for use in social work The four stages of cultural competence under the systems theory approach are cultural awareness, cultural k nowledge, cultural skills, and inductive learning. These four stages constitute a continuum (Gallegos, Tyndall, & Gallegos, 2008). The first stage of cultural competence is cultural awareness. This stage involves developing an understanding of not only o ther cultural groups, but also one's own culture. The underlying assumption is that by understanding one's roots and origins and the struggles of past generations, one can develop a greater appreciation for the trials and triumphs of those from other cultu res. Helping professionals who practice self awareness in conjunction with understanding of others will begin to show legitimate cultural sensitivity (Dean, 2010).

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18 Once a general understanding and appreciation of other cultures exists, the next step in d eveloping cultural competence is cultural knowledge. In this stage, one must work to understand specific facts and concepts about a culture. In the context of providing care, a helping professional might wish to learn about specifics relative to practice: for example, a doctor might focus on learning about health concerns and cultural practices of a group in order to determine the best way to achieve proper treatment while maintaining proper respect for cultural boundaries. A family scientist might be inter ested in learning family practices and beliefs in order to better conduct research or administer legitimately helpful social policy ( Bogenschneider, 2006 ). The third step in cultural competence is attainment of cultural skills. This stage is the combination of the two previous stages: cultural awareness and cultural knowledge. By this time, one has established one's own culture, developed a respect for the culture of others, and amassed facts and knowledge about other cultures. The practice of usi ng cultural skills entails the process of combining those forms of knowledge in a pr actical manner. For example, family scientists conducting research will make sure to respect cultural beliefs and practices and will avoid imposing their own biases or judg ments when interacting with a family from a different culture ( Capinha Bacote, 2001 ). The final stage of cultural competence is inductive learning, also called cultural desire. At this point, cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills combine to create in an individual the desire to work and interact with diverse people. These frequent interactions strengthen the abilities of the first three levels of cultural competence and lead to an even greater understanding of the culture (Chong, 2002). People who rea ch this level of cultural competence understand that cultural competency is a continuum rather than a ladder: the

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19 culturally competent person is a lifelong learner committed to self evaluation about one's level of cultural awareness (Campinha Bacote, 2001) Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory Family ecology theory was first introduced in the 1890s as the science of oekology by Ellen Swallow Richards. Richards, a pioneer in social reform, proposed a science that studied the environment: more specifically, the environment in the context of home and family. As years passed and the science evolved, the name oekology was replaced by "domestic science" and then by the phrase "family ecology." "Family ecology" is a more comprehensive term, referring to the study of the interactions between humans and the environments they share (Bubolz & Sontag, 1993). Uri e Bronfenbrenner first introduced the ecological systems model with four systems: the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem. Later, Brofenbrenner modified his theory by adding a fifth system: the chronosystem (See Appendix F) Each system consists of different environments and agencies that affect the development of an individual (Berns, 2012) Smith, Hamon, Ingoldsby, and Miller (2009) describe the microsystem of an individual as the immediate environment, which may be composed of people and places such as the family, peer groups, schools, day cares, or churches. The mesosystem is the i nteraction of the microsystems or the links between them. When t here is a strong relationship between microsystems, the mesosystem delivers support for the activities in those microsystems. The exosystem consists of other environments outside of the individual. When other people from the microsystem or mesosystem participate in these environments, their subsequent actions or emotions may affect the individual. The exosystem has an indirect af fect on the microsystem (Berns, 2012).

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20 T he macrosystem is made up of the laws, social norms, customs, and values of the society or culture in which the individual lives (Smith et al., 2009). According to Gardiner and Kosmitski (2002), there is a fifth sys tem: the chronosystem, or the effect of time on the environments and the individual. The passage of time introduces new circumstances that affect an individual's development. All four of the previous systems should be viewed through the lens of the chronos ystem.

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21 CHAPTER III METHODS Research Design For this research, a non experimental mixed methods approach was used. According to the fundamental principle of mixed research quantitative and qualitative methods can be thoughtfully blended together in research especially when the researcher takes into account the various strengths and weaknesses of each method and uses them to produce "complementary strengths" and "nonoverlapping weaknesses" (Johnson & Christensen, 2014 p. 490 ). Mixed methods research is gaining popularity in family science research, and it is recommended that those interested in studying families should demonstrate an understanding of both quantitative and qualitative methodology (Plano Clark, Huddleston Casas, Churchill, Green, & Gar rett, 2008). Because this research was part of a master's thesis, it seemed appropriate to demonstrate knowledge and mastery of both methodological domains. Mixed methods is a relative ne wcomer to the world of research ( especially in the realm of family science ) partly due to the tradition of "methodological purity" in research: the argument that research should either be qualitative or quantitative never both (Johnson & Christensen, 2014) In most family science programs, there is emphasis on either qualitative or quantitative research, but rarely both. In addition, there is a lack of literature within the family science realm that uses mixed methods research in the methodology. Mixed methods research can also be somewhat intimidating to family resear chers because of the additional resources needed to use both qualit ative and quantitative methods. Despite these challenges, it is important that family sc ience researchers understand mixed methods research: when it is

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22 appropriate to use, what challenges m ight arise, and how to evaluate its implementation (Plano Clark et al., 2008). When planning the research for this topic, it was important to consider the types of data available. At first, the plan was to use only the quantitative data: a self reporting questionnaire from students enrolled at the university. However, there has been some criticism in research literature due to the over surveying of American college students ( Takooshian et al., 2016 ). In addition, when using self reporting techniques, surv eys are subject to contamination: students might answer according to mood or whim, or they may not have a full understanding of the question being asked (Johnson & Christensen, 2014). In order to counteract both the potentially homogeneity and contaminatio n of the data, it was determined that a qualitative component should be added. Because the premise of the topic was based on the experience of one researcher at one university, it seemed prudent to ascertain whether this issu e, lack of historical knowled ge, was a factor at other universities. In order to further investigate this issue, a qualitative interview protocol was developed for use in speaking with professors at different universities all over the United States. The quantitative data would serve t o provide a baseline of college student behavior while the professor interviews would give insight as to whether this issue was typical at other universities. This research was submitted to and approved by the Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board (COMIRB) for exempt research, submission ID APP001 1, protocol approval number 16 0021 (see Appendix A).

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23 Participants Studen ts All 123 student participants were 18 years of age or older and matriculat ed at University of Colorado Denver at the time of the survey questionnaire. Students who were enrolled in two courses, HDFR 2200 (Love, Family, and Human Development) and HDFR 3250 (Families in Global Perspective) were asked to participate in the research study. Students were able to decline the survey by merely turning over thei r papers. There was only one student enrolled in both courses, in which case only one survey response was used for that student. In order to protect students, no identifying details were collected. Because the researcher (Jennifer Greiving) was involved in teaching one of the courses, an alternate faculty member was asked to administer the survey in Ms. Greiving's class in order to avoid possible coercion. These two courses were selected because they are considered core curriculum (general education) clas ses by the University of Colorado Denver. Any student may enroll in these classes in order to meet a social science or international perspective course requirement. By selecting these two classes to take the survey, it was conjectured that a more accurate picture of the typical college student might be found, as opposed to restricting the questionnaire to students enrolled in the Human Development and Family Relations (HDFR) undergraduate program. Of the 123 students surveyed, 27.6% declared themselves to be HDFR majors or minors. 83.7% of students reported being in the age bracket of 18 22 years, while 16.2% reported being 23 years or older (see Table 1) Around half of the students (53%) reported taking 2 or more history courses in high school. 28% of st udents reported that they had not

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24 taken any college courses in either history, sociology, geography, or global perspectives, while 35.8% of students had taken 2 or more of these courses. Table 1 Student Demographic Data Age in years: Number: Percentage: 18 22 103 83.7% 23 30 19 15.4% 31 35 1 0.8% 36+ years 0 0% Total: 123 100% Professors As part of the research, a qualitative interview was conducted with three different professors. These professors must have been teaching a course on global families or human development from a global perspective or must have taught such a course within the past five years. These professors were recruited through various e mail listservs: the Ethnic Minorities and Advancing Family Science sections of the Natio nal Council on Family Relations. Professors who were contacted via e mail received a copy of the interview protocol as well as a postcard form of consent (as directed by the COMIRB at the University of Colorado Denver). While two professors chose to comp lete the interview entirely over the phone, o ne elected to complete a few of the more basic items via an email response and then scheduled a phone interview to address the remaining questions. All of the interviews were recorded but no identifying details were retained in the recordings in order to protect the identities of the participants. Participation in the interview process was strictly voluntary. Interviews lasted for approximately 25 30 minutes. All of the interviews were transcribed after completio n.

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25 I nstrumentation Quantitative Instrumentation The survey began with basic demographic data in order to establish the type of students taking the survey. The survey questionnaire then asked students to provide some background about their academic experie nce: mainly, what types of history or international perspectives courses they had taken in high school or college. After providing their academic history, students were given the definitions of four terms: cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, cultural skills, and inductive learning; that is, the four levels of cultural competence ( Chong, 2002 ). Students then rank ed their knowledge level on a scale from 1 to 5, with 1 signifying "not knowledgeable at all" and 5 designated as "very knowledgeable". Stude nts were then asked to read a series of statements about world history knowledge their attitudes toward history, and their value of history and rank their agreement or disagreement using a Likert scale. Finally, three open ended questions were used to ask students if they had traveled, if they had had any experiences that might have contributed to their understanding of the world, and to provide any additional information that might be beneficial to the study. These qualitative questions were provided in o rder to address any other possible causes for cultural competence. Qualitative Instrumentation The interview protocol began by gathering basic demographic information: where the professors were affiliated, what title they held at the university, and what courses they were currently teaching. Next, participants were asked to describe the types of cou rses that they taught as well as any other global family or international perspectives courses they had taught. Then the questions shifted in focus to obtain more information about the students in

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26 the classes. When describing their students, the professors were asked if their classes were composed of traditional (18 22 year old) or non traditional (older) students. This question was also asked on the survey questionnaire as it was hypothesized that non traditional students may have been exposed to other fac tors or experiences that might have affected their degree of cultural competence. Professors were then asked to evaluate their students' historical literacy and cultural competency. A definition of cultural competency was provided on the interview protoco l while a verbal explanation of the concept of historical literacy was provided during the interview. Finally, the professors were asked to provide insight into the strategies they use in their own classrooms to help students who do not demonstrate high levels of cultural competency and historical literacy. The professors were also asked to provide examples of the most effective and least effective interventions they had used in the classroom to promote or increase cultural competence and historical lite racy. Analysis Quantitative: Evaluation and Psychometric Evaluation of Scales A scale was developed to measure historical literacy, or students' level of comfort with applying historical knowledge in a global sense. The scale initially consisted of 14 items, questions 7A 7N, with some items positively worded and some negatively worded. An example of a positively worded item is "I am comfortable reading historical documents" and an exampl e of a negatively worded item is "I am not interested in learning a bout world history."

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27 In order to refine the scale for historical literacy and determine the internal consistency reliability a reliability analysis was conducted with questions 7A 7N with questions 7D, 7F, 7G, 7H, and 7M reverse scored After this reliab ility analysis was conducted, there were three questions (7D*, 7H*, 7L*) that were excluded from the scale in order to improve reliability. Questions 7A, 7B, 7C, 7E, 7F*, 7G*, 7I, 7J, 7K, 7M 1 and 7N were the questions remaining. These 11 questions compris ed the historical literacy scale, which measured the extent to which students were familiar with interacting with historical data and concepts. Internal consistency reliability measured by Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the scale was .790. The other sca le, cultural competence, consisted of 4 questions which measured the extent to which students believed they were culturally competent. For the four questions in this scale, students were provided with a definition of each domain of cultural competence, for example, "Cultural awareness: Understanding of both your own culture and that of other cultural groups" Students then ranked their knowledge of these domains using a Likert scale, with 1 signifying "not knowledgeable at all" and 5 denoting "very knowledge able." Internal consistency reliability measured by Cronbach's coefficient alpha for this scale was .644. Further correlational analysis was done to make sure that excluding one of the questions would not improve Cronbach's alpha. After further analysis, a ll four items were retained with the disclaimer that the Cronbach's alpha would be noted to show level of reliability. Questions 8, 9, and 10 were open ended response questions. These questions were entered into SPSS. Once all responses were recorded, co ding techniques were used to search for similar responses. Saturation of the data showed t hree similar themes in these responses : 1 Starred items were reverse coded during analysis.

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28 travel, interaction with diverse friends or diverse students, and personal diversity. In order to analyze this, three addition al variables were created: travel, interaction, and diversity. For the travel variable, students who reported any type of foreign travel were coded as a 1 while students who reported no travel or only domestic travel within the United States were coded a s a 0. For the interaction vari able, students who reported interaction either with their own diverse friend group or diverse students in college classes were coded as 1. Students who did not report interaction were coded as 0. For the personal diversity va riable, students who reported that their own diverse background contributed to their cultural competence were coded as a 1. This included students who reported that they were bi or multi lingual, students who reported that they came from multicultural fam ilies, and students who reported that they had a diverse ethnicity. Students who did not report this or who mentioned that they did not have a diverse background were coded as 0. Qualitative Analysis: Saturation and Member Check Once all of the interviews were completed and transcribed, the transcripts were analyzed by using coding, an appropriate method when reviewing qualitative data (Miles & Huberman, 1994). Transcripts were reviewed and similar themes were highlighted with col ors corresponding to each possible theme. In order to check for saturation of the data, w hen a theme was identified in one transcript, the other transcripts were reviewed in order to determine the presence or absence of that theme. T o increase the trustwor thiness of the data a member check was performed by a faculty member who is well experienced in the field and well versed in qualitative research.

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29 CHAPTER IV FINDINGS Mixed Methods Research Findings The purpose of this chapter is to present the mixed methods findings from this research: quantitative and qualitative data from t he student questionnaire and qualitative findings from the professor interviews. In considering the research findings, it is appropriate to revisit the idea of mixed methods resea rch and its place in the research paradigm. The goal of using both quantitative and qualitative data in this research was to reveal some intricacies of the data that might not otherwise be discovered. In this case, allowing students to respond to the quest ionnaire both by answering quantitative questions and open ended response questions permitted students to express sentiments about the research project. An additional objective of this chapter is to address the three research questions through the use of mixed methods research. The quantitative research answered the first two research questions: the self reported student levels of confidence in historical literacy and the correlations between historical literacy and cultural competency. The qualitative portion of the research dealt with the final two research questions, detailing the difficulties that professors face with students who are limited in world h istory knowledge and the strategies that those same professors use to overcome these historic al knowledge deficits (See Tables 4 and 5). When using mixed methods research, it is important to consider as part of the research design how the data will be analyzed. More publications are focusing on appropriate techniques and concepts for mixed methods research analysis as this type of research design becomes more popular. For this research, several techniques were used, including data

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30 reduction, data displa y, data transformation, data correlation, data comparison, and data integration (Johnson & Christensen, 2014) Qualitative data from both the student questionnaire and the professor interview were processed using thematic analysis to condense the dimension s of the data. Both qualitative and quantitative data were converted into visual displays (See Tables 1 4). Qualitative variables from the student questionnaire were quantified for coding purposes and compared with other quantitative variables. The data f rom the student questionnaires are grounded in Bronfenbrenner's theory of ecological systems, which shows the impact that different systems have on an individual's development. For the purpose of this research, most of the focus, based on the findings, was on the microsystem, mesosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem. As the surveys were logged into SPSS, a more complete picture emerged of possible correlations between life experiences, historical literacy, and cultural competence. This was supported by the qualitative data received from professors, in which similar themes emerged when discussing what makes students more culturally competent. The themes that were detected through saturation in the student data helped to inform probing questions for the pr ofessors who participated in the interview, such as asking about the level of diversity at their schools and the strategies they use to help students who do not have day to day interaction with people of other cultures Another objective of this chapter i s to contextually ground the qualitative findings in the theory of cultural competence. When evaluating the qualitative data from the professors, four themes emerge d which paralleled the four dimensions of cultural competence used in the quantitative cultu ral competence scale (Table 3) Using mixed methods research allowed

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31 for a richer mining of the data in order to provide a more complete picture of the state of historical literacy and cultural competency in global family science courses. Quantitative Fin dings The cultural scale had a lowest possible score of 4 and a highest possible score of 20. Student scores ranged from 11 to 20, with an average of 15 (SD = 2.45). The historical literacy scale had a lowest possible score of 11 and highest possible score of 55. Student scores ranged from 23 to 50, with an average score of 37 (SD=6.6). The scores on the historical literacy scale were normally distributed. The neutral score for the historical literacy scale was a 33, meaning students responded to all the qu estions with the Likert Scale ranking of 3, which, for this instrument meant "Neither not knowledeagble or knowledgeable". With an average score of 37, it appeared that most students consider ed themselves just slightly knowledgeable in historical literacy The historical literacy scale and the culture competence scale were evaluated for correlation using a Pearson two tailed test. SPSS showed that there was a .274 degree of correlation between the two scales (p < 0.01). Students who scored high on the his torical literacy scale on average scored higher on the cultural competence scale (see Table 2). Other variables were tested for correlation. The qualitative responses on questi ons 9 10 were quantified into three variables: travel, measuring the number of s tudents who reported having engaged in international travel, diverse friends, measuring the number of students who reported having diverse friends or diverse classmates, and personal diversity, measuring the number of students who reported that their own c ultural heritage affected their cultural awareness (see Table 2)

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32 Table 2 Quantitative Findings VARIABLE 1 VARIABLE 2 CORRELATION Historical Literacy Scale Cultural Competence Scale .274* Travel Cultural Competence Scale .260* Diverse Friends/Classmates Cultural Competence Scale Not significant Diverse Background Cultural Competence Scale Not Significant Historical Literacy Scale Number of history courses taken in high school .280* Historical Literacy Scale Number of college history courses taken Not significant signifies p < 0.01 There was a significant correlation between travel and cultural competence. (r=.260, p < 0.01). Students who reported having travelled international ly on average scored higher on the cultural competence scale than students who reported either no travel or only domestic travel. No significant correlations were found between cultural competence and having diverse friends in class or having a diverse backg round. There was a significant correlation (r=.280, p < 0.01) between historical literacy and the number of history courses taken at the high school level. Students who had taken more high school history courses on average scored higher on historical liter acy. No significant correlation was found between historical literacy and the number of college history/international perspectives courses taken. In the survey questionnaire, age demographic data was collected in order to investigate possible correlations between age and historical literacy or cultural competence. It was conjectured that students who were older might have had more life experiences leading

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33 to historical literacy or cultural competence. However, no significant correlations were found between age and historical literacy or age and cultural competence. These results could be due to the skew in the age of respondents (see Table 1), as more than 80% of respondents were in the traditional college student age bracket of 18 22 years. Qualitative Th ematic F indings Students The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between historical literacy and cultural competence within the paradigm of global family science courses. The open ended questions from the student questionnaires were analyze d as both quantitative (as discussed in the previous section) and qualitative data. Saturation of the qualitative data showed three distinct themes that students reported as having impacted their cultural competence ( see Table 3). The three themes included international travel and experiences having diverse friends or classmates, and personal multicultural background These themes fell outside of the realm of historical literacy ( Zand er, 2007 ) however, since there is little resear ch in this area, it was important to explore the possibility of additional factors leading to cultural competency in college students who are enrolled in global family science courses Travel According to Bronfenbrenner, an individual is shaped by the various systems in which they interact. When students travel outside of their traditional systems, they interact with a completely different macrosystem, experiencing for the first time different cultural expectations. Be rns ( 2012 ) notes that people interacting with a new macrosystem may encounter different perceptions, beliefs, behaviors, and value judgments, as well as new cultural beliefs about concepts of time and interactions with other people A majority of

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34 students reported that travel was critical to the formation of their cultural competency. What follows are responses of student participants and their connections between travel and cultural competency: Visiting other countries has helped me to understand how people live and interact with others that differs from the U.S.. Student 010 Going to India and seeing the poverty that is present there has opened my eyes to the many luxuries that are presentin my own life. Student 035 These students through their participation in a new macrosystem were able to connect their experiences back to their lives: viewing their own lives through a new, culturally competent lens. Because many of these students come from a European Americ an background, often they are more accustomed to a low context, or individualistic, macrosystem. Collectivistic, or high context, macrosystems have different styles of communication, social patterns, behaviors, and relationships with nature (Be rns 2012 ). Furthermore, the travel can also be grouped under the heading of the chronosystem. The chronosystem includes significant events in an individual's life which affect the microsystems, mesosystems, and exosystems (Berns, 2012). Diverse friends or classes The University of Colorado Denv er has a diverse campus. Students who attend classes on campus have the opportunity to introduce new people, cultures, and ideas into their microsystems and mesosystems. Schools can have a great impact on development because they are considered a place of form al education about society (Be rns, 2012 ). Rodenborg and Boisen (2013) noted that according to Allport's theory of intergroup contact, when certain conditions are met, interaction with people can reduce aversive racism. A s students interact with diverse classmates, they are adding new elements of culture to their

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35 microsystems. People, ideas, and concepts that once w ere al ien and strange to them become normal and accepted. After introducing new ideas and people into their m icrosystem, students can then form linkages between beliefs at school and attitudes at home; these l inks comprise the mesosystem (Be rns, 2012 ). These links translate to a more comprehensive understanding of the world. In the following testimonials, s tudent participants stated that their interactions with diverse friends or students shaped their understanding of both their family culture and the world in general. Having an ethnically diverse group of friends has helped me understand the differences and sim ilarities of my familie s [sic] culture versus another. Student 093 I think my daily interactions with people on a diverse campus contribute to my understanding of the world through learning their stories. Student 087 Students wh o may not have had the experience to travel to places outside of the United States can still interact with a variety of diverse cultures. At the University of Colorado Denver, students may choose to participate in the Intercultural Engagement Certificate p rogram in order to increase their knowledge of other cultures. Throughout the year, various programs are offered on campus in order to facilitate student interaction with a broad range of groups. One such event, the Intercultural Diversity Fair, featured s tudent organizations, craft activities, and food. In order to earn the certificate, students must attend at least five approved campus events and then submit a reflection paper about their experiences (International Engagement Certificate, 2016). According to Allport's intergroup contact theory, low pressure events such as these are ideal for helping students to interact positively with each other in a neutral environment, leading to a reduction in students' aversive racism (Rodenborg and Boisen, 2013).

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36 Mul ticultural Background Students who have grown up with a diverse or multicultural background may have already experienced the difficulties of navigating systems based on European American cultural values. Delgado Gaitan ( 1992 ) explains that there is docume nted research that shows students in the United States who are from different cultural backgrounds often have to make choices between their home culture and their European American school culture. Often these students struggle because t he inte raction betwe en school and home, classified as part of the individual's mesosystem, can encourage or discourage academic performance (Be rns, 2012 ). Students who experience this clash of cultures are daily made aware of the differences between a European American low co ntext macrosystem and the cultural values of their microsystem. Because these students have had the experience of having cultural values that differ from those of the macrosystem in which they reside, they have a multicultural view of the world and an und erstanding that European American culture is not the only culture that exists. Students reported different backgrounds some were born and raised in other countries while others were raised in the United States by families that preserved their cultural va lues. Student responses ranged from merely identifying their background to connecting their experiences with those of others. Coming from a country with history of war and chaos helps me understand other people and their struggles Student 005 I'm Puerto Rican and Mexican, growing up in a Latin household. Student 054

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37 These students, through their own family experiences and multicultural background, have already developed at least the first stage of cultural competence ( Zander, 2007 ). These students are aware of their own cultural identity. Because their diverse microsystem may hold values that are different from the prevailing European American macrosystem, these individuals appreciate differences and cultural nuances. Table 3 Student Qualitative Data R espondents Other Influences Qualitative Quotations Students Travel Visiting other countries has helped me to understand how people live and interact with others that differs from the U.S "Going to India and seeing the poverty that is present there has opened my eyes to the many luxuries that are presentin my own life." Diverse friends or classes "Having an ethnically diverse group of friends has helped me understand the differences and similarities of my families [sic] culture versus another." "I think my daily interactions with people on a diverse campus contribute to my understanding of the world through learning their stories." Multicultural background Coming from a country with history of war and chaos helps me understand other people and their struggles ." "I'm Puerto Rican and Mexican, growing up in a Latin household." Professors In analyzing the transcripts of qualitative interviews, saturation of the data showed four recurring themes (see Table 4) The themes that emerged paralleled the four domains of

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38 cultural competence: cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, cultural skills, and inductive learning ( Chong, 2002 ) Theme 1: Cultura l Awareness The first theme is cultural awareness, or the development of the understanding of one's own culture in order to appreciate other cultures (Chong, 2002) All of the professors expressed the need to provide a global context for students in their classes Two of the professors noted that they teach on campuses where approximately 10 12% of undergraduates self identify as people of color. These two professors acknowledged that it is especially difficult for them to teach diversity in an en vironment where students do not interact with diverse people and where often, student's microsystems and macrosystems have influenced students towards aversive racism. Cultural awareness involves self examination, both of one's own personal biases and also one's own history. Students who have been raised in an ethnocentric macrosystem or microsystem may need a sort of bridge education in order to inform them about diverse cultures. One professor noted that in teaching students about diverse cultures, she fo und that many of them embraced the new knowledge. When they realize how much background there is in terms of this cultural group, they almost feel like they, and they have said this actually, that they've been cheated in school, they've not been given the real history or given the extent of history that there is. They've gotten the American version of it and it's not necessarily the truth which makes them feel betrayed in a way. Professor 003 In a world in which students are exposed to news stories, Facebook posts, and an influx of various sources of information, it is difficult for them not to hear about other cultures. It is up to professors to direct the conversation and help students develop mechanisms to filter the information th ey take in. Theme 2: Cultural Knowledge

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39 The second theme that appeared in the qualitative data was cultural knowledge, or learning specific facts about a culture in order to understand it better. This area can be difficult to navigate as instructor. Man y of the textbooks and resources available for global family science courses group families from certain areas together, with such chapter titles as "Asian families" or "African families." While these can be helpful in a general sense, the instructor must emphasize to students the idea that even within cultures there are a myriad of factors that make each family unique. It is important to create the expectation that not all families in an area will conform to a pattern: the influences of the various ecologi cal systems make each family and individual therein slightly different. One method to address this issue is to include primary sources from each country, possibly even from multiple viewpoints in order to show diversity of opinion and thought. All three p rofessors who were interviewed expressed the need to include in course readings diverse research written by authors from other countries. One professor noted that in order to help students with historical literacy, she has them engage in these three activi ties: Reading the work of critical thinkers of color, conduct[ing] historical and herstorical analyses of the countries they are interested in and the interaction of those countries with the United States, and searching the popular presses of several co untries outside of the U.S.. Professor 001 Providing students with research written from a different perspective forces them to look at the differences in their home macrosystem and those of other cultures. Theme 3: Cultural Skills The third theme is cultural skills, or the practical application of cultural awareness and cultural knowledge. All of the professors interviewed emphasized the necessity of not only learning about different cultures, but interacting with them and evaluating previously

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40 formed knowledge. It is possible to have both cultural awareness and cultural knowledge without the ability to apply them in practical situations. For example, one professor described her experiences with taking students to Ghana for a practicum experience she saw a big difference between students who were "tourists" and students who had cultural competence: "Tourists" thought they could ignore [cultural norm s of the situation]. Despite a semester long preparatory course "tourists" could be expected to, despite my admonitionsgo swimming in contaminated bodies of water and contract water borne diseases. A second fairly routine experience occurred among the "tourists" who insisted upon carrying conspicuous purses and bags and having them stolen from them "Why did you carry the Gucci bag?" I would ask. "I didn't think it would ma tter," they'd reply! Professor 001 One of the professors described an on campus activity she uses to help students apply their cultural awareness and cultural knowledge. In this situation, students interact in a low pressure environment which, according to Allport's theory of intergroup contact theory, helps to eliminate some of the biases students may unwittingly hold. We have a program at [the university] called International Coffee Hour. It's a chance for students from all over and gives them a chance to be together. It's effective, but it's not really enough. Professo r 00 2 Cultural skills can exist on a continuum, from learning a new language in order to interact with diverse individuals or merely learning how to effectively use an interpreter (Zander, 2007). Students who participate in the International Coffee Hour a re using their cultural competency on the lower end of the scale. Interacting with students at school also builds linkages between two microsystems, home and school. When these links grow stronger, it provides support for activities within the microsystem students may be more willing to engage with diverse friends and diverse classmates, one of the domains that students from UC Denver reported as contributing to their cultural competence

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41 Another professor described one of the projects she assigns her st udents in order to help them practically apply their new found cultural awareness and cultural knowledge. One of the things that they have to do which is probably the centerpiece of the class is to identify a culturally diverse family and then go and in terview and observe them. We create a set of questions as a class that everyone asks, then they have to go to their home if possible and actually interview them, watch them, interact with them. Then [the students] have to connect that to five additional resources about that culture, to see "Is this like what I'm reading? Is this different from what I'm reading?" It gives them a chance to be able to actually see they're not maybe as scary as they thought they were. Professor 003 By requiring studen ts to not only observe but also apply those observations to previous research, this professor is combining cultural awareness and cultural knowledge and asking students to combine them in a new way. This experience provides students with a chance to experi ence the higher end of the cultural skills scale. Theme 4: Inductive Learning The final stage of cultural competence is inductive learning or cultural desire. In this stage, students find that due to their acquisitions of cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills, they have the desire to interact with people of other diverse cultures. These students seek to acquire more knowledge through travel, interaction, and more education. Interna tional study or travel are means by which students can engage in inductive learning. At this stage, students may bypass some of the culture shock associated with being outside of their typical macrosystem, which allows them to observe and even participate in the new culture. The act of travel is categorized under the chronosystem, because it is an even that produces change in the individual's development (Berns, 2012). A ll three professors consistently emphasized the need to have students who interact wit h diverse people. All three of the professors described their experiences with students

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42 traveling abroad as part of a school course or trip. They noted that their students who had taken international perspectives courses to prepare for the trips for the mo st part seemed much more culturally aware. One professor spoke of how imperative it is for students to travel outside of the United States: We need increased opportunities for students to engage with different cultural groups, for students to study abro ad. They need to leave the country; they need to have a passport. So often students who have more "limited" views of diverse cultures have those because they don't know anyone from those areas of the world, they just read an article or saw something on TV. I'd love to think that my teaching and the literature is making a big difference, but I really think that personal interaction is the key. Professor 00 2 Helping students to find ways to interact with the new culture provides an active learning situation for them to absorb more history knowledge. Instead of the passive instruction they may have received in s chools, travel and interaction allow students to develop cultural competence and historical literacy in a dynamic setting in which they can truly see the benefit of having the knowledge and ability to work with people from other cultures.

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43 Table 4 Faculty responses categorized within cultural competence framework DOMAIN DESCRIPTION QUOTATIONS Cultural awareness Gaining self awareness and recognition of the existence of other cultures "I have students engage in a historical genogram of three past generations of their ancestors so that they have an idea of their origins." "A lot of times you'll hear stude nts say, Well, I had a girl on my dorm floor from X country and I never talked to her.' It's just very common that they didn't ever interact or think that that would be important at all." Cultural knowledge Learning specific facts and information about other cultures "I try to find provide literature about how we are different and why we are different how our families are formed in the culture in which they exist." Cultural skills Applying both cultural awareness and cultural knowledge in practice "probably the centerpiece of the class is to identify a culturally diverse family and then go and interview and observe them. We create a set of questions as a class that everyone asksthen they have to connect [the interview] with five additional resourc es about that culture, to see Is this like what I'm reading? Are they different from what I'm reading?'" "I try to encourage students to do lots of cross cultural research and I try to bring it up to them, to make it feel real. These people aren't in a st orybook, they're really in the world. Personal experience has to be the catalyst." Inductive learning Frequent interaction with those of other cultures reinforces awareness, knowledge and skills and leads to greater competency "We gathered some research o n the kind of stages students go through when they're traveling abroadit's kind of a spiral. The next time they [travel] they probably don't start right at the bottom, they start at the middle and spiral up even farther." "People must seek out opportuniti es to learn from others. I believe that this best occurs when people are in proximity to those they wish to interact with."

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44 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR RES EARCH Discussion Investigating the relationship between historical literacy and cultural competence is important to those instructors who either currently teach a global family science course or who want to add global concepts to their curriculum. This study used a mixed methods approach : a quantitative questionnaire was used to a ssess students' reported levels of historical literacy and cultural competence and whether t hese values were correlated. Qualitative responses from students as well as an interview protocol for professors were used in order to corroborate the self reportin g student data and explore other potential explanations for cultural competence. The objective of this study was to find whether or not it is important for instructors to include historical context when teaching global family science courses and how these instructors can support students' development of cultural competence The quantitative data showed a significant correlation between historical literacy and cultural com petency. Urie Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems m odel and cultural competency frame works provided lenses through which to view the results of the qualitative data. The student responses gave insight into how the different levels of ecological systems shape students' perceptions of the world around them. The thema tic results showed relati onships between the professors' qualitative responses and the four levels of cultural competency By understanding the involvement of different systems and the four levels of cultural competency, students and professors can work together to develop global course content that reflects both history and culture.

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45 Limitations of this Study The quantitative data for this study was obtained from students enrolled in two courses at the University of Colorado Denver. The nature of the survey questionnaire, a self reporting quantitative instrument, lends itself to some scrutiny during the analytical process. Using student data can also be difficult and misleading depending on the attitudes of the students taking the survey ( Johnson & Christensen, 2014 ) If time had allowed, it would have been interesting to administer the survey to students in HDFR 3250, Families in Global Perspective, as a pre and post style evaluation in order to determine if the course itself helped students to develop cultural competency and i ncrease historical literacy. Another possible modification would entail giving a lecture about cultural competency and historical literacy before students took the survey. During the survey administration, despite the fact that definitions for the domains of cultural competence were provided, some students expressed that they would have liked more clarification on these questions. The data from the survey questionnaire were limited to students enrolled at the University of Colorado Denver. The scope of th is research did not allow for the possibility of surveying students from other schools as a comparison. Another difficulty with this study was the use of cultural competence as a framework. While cultural competence is a generally accepted idea, there are multiple opinions about whether it is a framework or a theory. Because cultural competence is used in many fields, different forms of the ideas have been developed that are appropriate to each field even to the point of each field using different terms t o describe similar ideas. In education literature, popular terms include "multi culturalism, diversity, poverty, and social justice" (Gallegos,

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46 Tindall, & Gallegos, 2008, p. 52). Because of the vast spectrum of literature about cultural competence, it was difficult to narrow down one framework or construct to use for analysis. While generally most research agrees that there are 4 5 domains (Chong, 2002), there are different names and slightly different characteristics of each depending on the author or disc ipline. There is some disagreement as to whether the framework of cultural competence would hold up in international schools, where differing micro and macrosystems involve daily interaction with multiple cultures (Mills, 2014). More research is needed to refine the framework for cultural competence in order to make it a more universal construct. Strengths of this Study This study was designed as a mixed research study in order to counteract some of the possible weaknesses in data collectio n as well as to provide a richer data field. By collecting this data from both studen ts and professors, both sides of the classroom were able to contribute their perceptions about the current state of global family science curriculum. All of the professors who were interviewed in this study have extensive backgrounds in working with diverse cultures and were able to provide expert advice from their own experience These professors are well published and well respected in their field. This study was conducted at University of Colorado Denver, which is a culturally, religiously, and economically diverse university. The Human Development and Family Relations (HDFR) department is housed in the School of Education and Human Development, which has a rich tradition of promoting diversity and social justice. Classes in this department use cross cultural research and textbooks in order to provide students with a broad wor ldview of the discipline. The students who come out of the HDFR program have taken classes which incorporate service learning and even bilingual coursework. Students

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47 who choose not to major or minor in HDFR are still required by the university to take an international perspectives course in order to help them broaden their views of the world. Interpretation of Results Quantitative The results of the quantitative data point towards a significant relationship between historical literacy and cultural compet ency, suggesting that students who are more comfortable interacting with historical concepts may also be more likely to also be more aware and respectful of other cultures. Students who had taken more history courses in high school were more likely to scor e higher on the historical literacy scale, while college courses were not significantly correlated to historical literacy. This finding is important because in many high schools, social studies as a discipline has been marginalized to make way for more rea ding and mathematics instruction (Kenna & Russell, 2014). More research should be done to show the importance of a solid historical foundation laid in high school in order to provide students with the necessary context for the concepts they will encounter in their university coursework. Qualitative The qualitative responses from the student questionnaire show that there are some additional factors besides historical literacy that affect students' cultural competence. The responses from the professors corro borated the qualitative findings from the students. The findings were organized under four different themes corresponding to the four dimensions of cultural competence. Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory and cultural competency theory together provide a unique framework to view historical literacy and cultural competency through the context of student development.

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48 Student Qualitative Data Interpretation: Theme # 1: Cultural Awareness: Cultural awareness, or the process by which a person first becomes aware of their own culture and the presence of other cultures (Chong, 2002) is where many students begin their journey of cultural competency. For some students wi th multicultural backgrounds in their microsystem the existence of other cultures was established early on For others, their main experience may be with the dominant low context European American macrosystem (Berns, 2012). The University of Colorado De nver (UCD) is located on a vast urban campus that houses two other schools: Metropolitan State University and Community College of Denver. Students who attend UCD have the opportunity to interact with diverse populations all over campus, both in classes an d through various campus organizations and activities. Students noted that their ability to interact with diverse people in classrooms which encourage global thinking contributed to their own cultural awareness. As students make connections between school, home, and other components of their microsystem, they form a unique mesosystem that supports or hinders their activities in the microsystem. Students' cognitive and developmental maturation as they encounter new ideas and information can be viewed through the lens of the chrono system (Berns, 2012). Theme #2: Cultural Knowledge: Once the foundation has been laid which establishes in students' microsystems and mesosystems the existence of other cultures, students can begin to build on their knowledge. Thi s amassing of information, known as cultural knowledge in the cultural competency framework, gives students specific points of reference that they can compare with their own

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49 experience. In this stage, students compare and either accept or reject informatio n in order to strengthen or weaken connections between components of the microsystem. For example, a student learns a new concept about a culture that conflicts with what they learned about that culture at home. The student then must make a choice between the new information and the old, causing them to evaluate and make judgments about the new information. Once students begin to make judgments, they are using awareness and knowledge in combination, bringing them to the third stage of cultural competency: c ultural skills. Theme #3: Cultural Skills: Students who plan to serve as helping professionals must have both cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, and the ability to practically apply both of those to a professional environment. In the medical version of the cultural competency framework, the cultural skill level consists of the ability to use cultural awareness and cultural knowledge while completing medical assessments (Campinha Bacote, 2001). For students cultural skills include the ability to inte ract directly or indirectly with diverse people, viewing them through the lens of obtained cultural awareness and cultural knowledge. By this point in the cultural competency spectrum, students are able to put aside their own personal biases and aversive racism in order to learn more about a new diverse group. They may have rejected or accepted different ideas proposed by various facets of the microsystem, they may have weaker or stronger linkages in the mesosystem, and they may find themselves feeling fru strated with the beliefs, cultural expectations, and unwritten laws of the dominant Western macrosystem. Some students expressed that they felt they had received an inadequate education about world history and that their interactions with others (through t ravel or through classes) helped them to form their own opinions and impressions

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50 about world events. These students felt that by learning about and interacting with other cultures, they in turn learned more about their own socio cultural development. In fact, when students begin to desire and seek out interaction with diverse people, they have progressed to the fourth stage of cultural competency, inductive learning. Theme #4: Inductive Learning: As students gain cultural awareness and cultural know ledge, and begin to practice cultural skills, they may find that they enjoy working and interacting with diverse people. Their development and maturation can be attributed to events in the chronosystem: the passing of time, an individual's physical and soc ial maturation, and events which contribute to changes in the individual. Students who are at the inductive learning stage may wish to travel more and may make career choices which allow them to continue working with diverse people. Once students reach thi s level, they may choose to move up and down the cultural competency continuum, whether learning more about themselves, amassing additional knowledge about other cultures not previously studied, and continuing to practice the skills necessary to apply both self knowledge and world knowledge. Professor Qualitative Data Interpretation: Theme #1: Cultural Awareness: The professors noted that their students occupy various levels of th e cultural competency framework. H owever, many of their responses emphasized the need to provide context when teaching about global cultures. Providing context for students ranged from assigning research literature written from a non Western lens to requiring students to interact with fami lies from other cultures. It is important for professors to consider their student audience and adjust course material accordingly in order to offer students additional

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51 contextual support for understanding diverse families. It is also important for profess ors to co nsider that many of their students may be completely a ssimilated into American culture: they have no concept of their own cultural history due to the homogenization of the American melting pot ( Kawamoto & Viramontez Anguiano, 2006 ). The professors who were interviewed noted that they find it important to help students discover their own cultural heritage in order for them to appreciate the str uggles of other diverse groups. Theme #2: Cultural Knowledge: Once professors help students to understand their own cultural legacy and the existence of other cultures, they can then proceed to introduce new ideas and concepts The professors who were interviewed found that there were positive and negative aspects about presenting specific cultural knowledge. First, when introducing information about specific cultural groups, there is the possibility of oversimplification, or making blanket statements about cultures and groups instead of detailing cultural nuances between groups. Cultural competency theory has suffered criticism for this very reason: some believe that distilling cultural beliefs and ideas into brief introductions does a disservice to the rich variety of beliefs, ideas, and practices within a single group (Johnson & Munch, 2009) Professors must take care to provide both context and caveats when introducing students to new cultures in order to help them understand that generalizations exist in research. One professor protested the use of certain global family science textbooks because of chapter titles such as "Asian Families" or "Middle Eastern Families" because she felt she could better introduce these subjects through assigning multiple research articles that demonstrated the variety of viewpoints and cultural beliefs within those groups.

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52 Th eme #3: Cultural Skills: Once professors have laid contextual groundwork and built up students' cultural knowledge, the next step is teaching students how to use those skills in conjunction with interaction with diverse people. One of the professors, who teaches in a racially homogenous area, discussed the positive feedback she gets from students who complete an interview assignment with a diverse family. These students have the chance to use the cultural awareness and knowledge gained in class as they int eract with a cultural group that may be new to them. It is important to equip students with the ability to apply both awareness and knowledge, especially those students who plan to serve as helping professionals. Theme #4: Inductive Learning: All three p rofessors emphasized that prolonged personal contact is the most eff ective way for students to continue developing their cultural competency. Two out of the three professors mentioned that the universities where they teach are not very diverse, and that they believed that a more diverse campus would help students to better understand cultural diversity. Another professor mentioned that recruitin g techniques for her university have changed: where once she had non traditional students from different races, cultures, and religions, now most of her students are affluent European Americans. A professor did mention that her non diverse campus is full o f students who are first generation college students. It is important for professors to understand the backgrounds of students who are enrolled in their courses in order to provide these students with opportunities to interact with diverse cultures. As stu dents come to campus, professors can help them to broaden their microsystem and understand the possible limitations of the dominant macrosystem. One professor summed up her interview with the conclusion

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53 If I could just introduc e everybody to everybody, we would all get along. Professor 002 All three professors who were interviewed engage in some sort of study abroad program with their respective universities, and all three noted that the students who had taken some sort of global family science or diver sity course were more likely to participate in the study abroad program and were more culturally competent at the outset of travel. For Future Theoretical and Practical Research During the research and the subsequent analysis of the data, other factors we re uncovered that might impact students' self reported cultural competence levels. 71% of students surveyed reported that travel had impacted their view of the world and a significant correlation was found between international travel and higher scores on the cultural competence scale. In future research, more study should be done on the impact of travel on student attitudes towards other cultures. Many universities encourage students to travel abroad, yet funds for these programs are being cut (Goen, 2015) More studies are needed that look at the impact of travel on global family science. Should family science programs make more of an effort to include international study a broad trips in the curriculum? How c ould service learning and experiential education be integrated effectively into these trips in order to produce culturally competent helping professionals? The University of Colorado Denver has a diverse student body and 33% of students surveyed remarked in the open ended survey questions that attendin g and participating in classes with people from other cultures had impacted their awareness of culture and diversity. More research on the effect of campus diversity on cultural competence needs to be conducted

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54 At the time of this study, data showing the exact social studies course requirements of American high schools were unavailable. More research is needed into the types of courses students are taking in high schools and how these courses address social history, as opposed to addressing mostly politic al and military history. It is also important for researchers to consider how to incentivize high school social studies instructors to modernize their teaching methods without the use of an accountability associated social studies test. Implications and C onclusion All of the professors interviewed in this study acknowledged that they have found that students in their global family science courses arrive in these courses with a l ack of global history knowledge. They also noted that this lack of educational exposure means that professors will need to provide historical context when introducing global family concepts. The quantitative data showed a positive correlation between scores on the historical literacy scale and scores on the cultural competency scale meaning that students who are more well versed in history and its interpretation are more likely to self report as culturally competent. Research shows that teaching methods for history and social studies instruction in public high schools have stayed similar in the last few decades with little innovation (Kenna & Russell, 2014). As the world grows more and more connected through social media and internet communication there will be an increase in demand for college graduates who are familiar with global concepts and able to serve a multitude of diverse clients. More study should be conducted on the relationship between historical literacy and cultural competence in or der to establish the importance of an education which includes a strong historical foundation. High school teachers must be aware of the need to teach beyond the test, instilling in students a curiosity and desire to learn more about the world around them, as

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55 most of these students will interact with more cultures than previous generations of students (Trask 2010) College instructors must understand that, first, it is important to introduce global concepts in curricula and second, it is important to make sure students have a contextualizing foundation of information in order to appreciate those global concepts. The professors who were interviewed had several suggestions about which strategies were effective and ineffective when teaching global family sc ience courses (see Table 5) First, it was important for the professors to understand the delivery and the dynamic of the course. One professor who teaches a global family course in an online format to a homogenous European American group of students noted that she takes great care when selecting online discussion questions in order to avoid potential inflammatory topics. She makes sure to direct the discussion in a way that allows students to share without perpetuating false beliefs about cultures. All of the professors emphasized the need for contextualization providing access to research written by non European American scholars, and interaction with diverse cultures. Some preliminary research suggests that online interactions may be as effective as in p erson interactions, but more cross cultural research in this area is needed (Rodenborg & Boisen, 2013). T here is little research linking historical literacy with cultural competence. This study provides an initial look at how the lack of innovative histo ry education in middle and high schools may impact students' ability to understand global family science. By using the framework of Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory and cultural competency, this study has demonstrated that historical literacy aff ects how students view the world around them. This study contributes to the body of family science literature by providing an example of how to use mixed methods research and by establishing a link between high school

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56 coursework and collegiate family scien ce education. Learning more about the relationship between these two variables should assist family science in evolv ing as a global discipline by helping instructors understand how to provide support for historically illite rate students in the classroom. George Santayana, a Spanish philosopher, once noted that "those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" (1905). In order to avoid repeating mistakes in human history, teachers and professors must engender in their students an understand ing of history that consists of more than just dates of wars or names of battles; instead, the focus must shift to telling the story of humankind, explaining how major events shape the growth and development of people all over the world, and finally, provi ding students with the tools to apply past historical concepts to present and future global events. Table 5 Strategies for teaching global family science courses RESPONDENT EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES Professors Understanding the strengths and weaknesses o f the class (online vs. in person classes, large vs. small classes, diverse vs. mostly European American student body) Providing context for discussions Assigning readings from global sources (research, current events, etc.) Study abroad programs Interaction with diverse people INEFFECTIVE STRATEGIES Professors Sharing information about cultures without context Failing to direct discussions in a positive manner (allowing inflammatory remarks) Using textbooks that fail to communicate cultural n uances

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57 REFERENCES Bain, R. B. (2004). NAEP 12 th grade world history assessment: issues and options Retrieved from https://www.nagb.org/content/nagb/assets/documents/publications/reports papers/assessment design/world history assessment issues.pdf Berns, R. M. (2012). Child, Family, School, Community: Socialization and Support (9 th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Blevins, B. (2015). Developing students' historical literacies in the classroom. Theory and Research in Social Education, 43 (2), 275 283. doi: 10.1080/00933104.2015.1033822 Bogenschneider, K. (2006). Teaching family policy in undergraduate and graduate classrooms: why it's important and how to do it better. Family Relations, 55 (1), 16 28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741 3729.2006.00353.x Bubolz, M. & Sontag, M. S. (1993). Human ecology theory. In P. Boss, W. Doherty, R. LaRossa, W. Schumm, & S. Steinmetz (Eds.) Sourcebook of family theories and methods: A contextual approach (419 448). New York, NY: Plenum. Chong, N. (2002). The Latino patient: A cultural guide for health care providers Yarmouth, ME: Nicholas Brealey Publishing. Cross, T. L., Bazron, B. J., Dennis, K. W., & Isaacs, M. R. (1989). Towards a culturally competent system of care Vol. 1. Washington, DC: Georgetown Univers ity Child Development Center. Dean, R. K. (2010). Cultural competence: nursing in a multicultural society. Nursing for Women's Health, 14 (1), 50 59. doi: 10.1111/j.1751 486X.2010.01507.x Delgado Gaitan, C. (1992). School Matters in the Mexican American Home: Socializing Children to Education. American Educational Research Journal, 29 (3), 495 513.

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58 doi: 10.3102/00028312029003495 Goen, T. L. (2015). Advancing family science and family science programs through the internationalization of family science curricula. Family Science Review, 20 (1), 80 87. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics (2009). America's high school graduates: results of the NAEP high school transcript study Re trieved from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/hsts/ International Engagement Certificate (2016). https://orgsync.com/106259/chapter. Accessed on 6 March 2016. Hamon, R. R. & Smith, S. R. (2014). The discipline of family science and the continuing n eed for innovation. Family Relations, 63 (3), 309 322. doi:10.1111/fare.12068 Harkavy, I. & Hartley, M. Pursuing Franklin's democratic vision for higher education. Peer Review, 10 (2 3), 13 17. Havlicek, J. & Pelikan, M. (2013). The globalization of higher education be responsible and survive the changes. International Education Studies, 6 (4), 217 224. doi: 10.5539/ies.v6n4p217 Johnson, R. B. & Christensen, L. (2014). Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches (4 th Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Kawamoto, W. T. & Viramontez Anguiano, R. P. (2006) Asian and Latino Immigrant Families. In B. B. Ingoldsby & S. D. Smith (Eds.), Families in Global and Multicultural Perspective (209 230). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Kenna, J. L. and Russell, W. B. (2014). Implications of Common Core State Standards on the social studies. Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues, and Ideas, 87 (2), 75 82. doi:10.1080/00098655.2013.859559

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59 Lee, W. Y. (2002). Culture a nd institutional climate: influences on diversity in higher education. The Review of Higher Education, 25 (3), 359 368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/rhe.2002.0014 Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook (2 nd Ed) New York, NY: Sage. Mills, A. (2014). Whose cultural competence? Do the definitions apply beyond Western borders? The Journal of General Education: A Curricular Commons of the Humanities and Sciences, 63 (2 3), 231 236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/j ge.2014.0009 Muraco, J. A., Totenhagen, C. J., Corkery, S. A., & Curran, M. A. (2014). Reflections on family science education: the importance of technology, experience, and diversity in the classroom. Family Science Review, 19 (2), 40 49. Murray, C. I. & Kimura, N. (2004) Families in Japan. In B. B. Ingoldsby & S. D. Smith (Eds.), Families in Global and Multicultural Perspective (291 310). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Nagayama Hall, G. C., Yip, T., & Z‡rate, M. A. (2016). On becoming multicultural in a m onocultural research world: a conceptual approach to studying ethnocultural diversity. American Psychologist, 71 (1), 40 51. doi: 10.1037/a0039734 National Center for Education Statistics (2009). NAEP World History Assessment Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/worldhistory/ National Council for the Social Studies (2007). Social studies in the era of No Child Left Behind. Retrieved from http://www.socialstudies.org/positions/nclbera

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60 Nickols, S. Y., Ralston, P. A., Anderson, C., Browne, L., Schroeder, G., Thomas, S., & Wild, P. (2009). The family and consumer sciences body of knowledge and the cultural kaleidoscope: research opportunities and challenges. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 37 (3), 266 283. doi: 10 .1177/1077727X08329561 Nokes, J. (2013). Building Students' Historical Literacies: Learning to Read and Reason with Historical Texts and Evidence New York, NY: Routledge. Perry, N. and Ercikan, K. (2015). Moving beyond the country rankings in internatio nal assessments: the case of PISA. Teachers College Record, 117 (1), 1 10. Plano Clark, V. L., Huddleston Casas, C. A., Churchill, S. L., Green, D. O., Garrett, A. L. (2008). Mixed methods approaches in family science research. Journal of Family Issues, 29 (11), 1543 1566. doi: 10.1177/0192513X08318251 Rabb T. K. (2004) What has happened to historical literacy? Chronicle of Higher Education, 50 (39), 24 26. Rice, W. C. (1995). Who killed history? An academic autopsy. The Virginia Quarterly Review, 71 (4), 600 615. Rodenborg, N.A. & Boisen, L.A. (2013). Aversive racism and intergroup contact theories: cultural competence in a segregated world. Journal of Social Work Education, 49 (4), 564 579. doi: 10.1080/10437797.2013.812463 Santayana, G. (1905). The Life of Reason, or The Phases of Human Progress. New York, NY: Scribner's Sons. Smith, S., Hamon, R., Ingoldsby, B. & Miller, J. (2009). Family systems theory. In exploring family theories (pp. 123 140). New York: Oxford University Press.

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61 Stier, J. & Bšrjesson, M. (2010). The internationalized university as discourse: institutional self presentations, rhetoric, and benchmarking in a global market. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 20 (4), 335 353. doi: 10.1080/09620214.2010.530863 Takooshian, H., Gielen, U. P., Plous, S., Rich, G. J., & Velayo, R. S. (2016). Internationalizing undergraduate psychology education: trends, techniques, and technologies. American Psychologist, 71 (2), 136 147. doi: 10.1037/a0039977 Trask, B. S. (2010) G lobalization and Families: Accelerated Systemic Social Change New York, NY: Springer. University of Colorado Denver (2016). Course catalog. Retrieved from http://catalog.ucdenver.edu/content.php?catoid=19&navoid=4555 Viramontez Anguiano, R. P. & Trask B. S. (2009). Intersections: family and consumer sciences and cultural diversity. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 37 (3), 247 252. doi: 10.1177/1077727X08330688 Vogler, K. E. (2005) Impact of a high school graduation examination on social studies teachers' instructional practices. Journal of Social Studies Research, 29 (2), 19 33. http://dx.doi.org/10.3776/joci.2014.v8n2p36 67 Vogler, K. E. & Virtue, D. (2007). "Just the facts, ma'am": teaching social studies in the era of standards and high stakes testing. The Social Studies, 98 (2), 54 58. doi: 10/3200/TSSS.98.2.54 58 Zander, P.E. (2007). Cultural competence: analyzing the construct. The J ournal of Theory Construction and Testing, 11 (2), 50 54.

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62 APPENDIX A: UNIVERSI TY OF COLORADO DENVE R COLORADO MULTI INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD (COMIRB) APPRO VAL Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board, CB F490 University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus 13001 E. 17th Place, Building 500, Room N3214 Aurora, Colorado 80045 303.724.1055 303.724.0990 COMIRB Home Page comirb@ucdenver.edu FWA00005070 [ Phone] [Fax] [Web] [E-Mail] [FWA] University of Colorado Hospital Denver Health Medical Center Veteran's Administration Medical Center Children's Hospital Colorado University of Colorado Denver Colorado Prevention Center Certificate of Exemption 02-Feb-2016 Investigator: Jennifer Greiving Subject: COMIRB Protocol 16-0021 Initial Application Review Date: 1/26/2016 Effective Date: 26-Jan-2016 Anticipated Completion Date: 25-Jan-2019 Sponsor(s): No Sponsor~ Title: Increasing cultural competence in historically illiterate college students enrolled in global perspective family courses Exempt Category: 2 Submission ID: APP001-1 SUBMISSION DESCRIPTION: Initial application for exempt (category #2) review. Your COMIRB Initial submission APP001-1 has been APPROVED FOR EXEMPTION. Periodic continuing review is not required. For the duration of your protocol, any change in the experimental design/content/personnel of this study must be approved by COMIRB before implementation of the changes. The anticipated completion date of this protocol is 25-Jan-2019. COMIRB will administratively close this project on this date unless otherwise instructed by e-mail to COMIRB@ucdenver.edu. If the project is completed prior to this date, please notify the COMIRB office in writing or by e-mail once the project has been closed.

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63 APPENDIX B: SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Are you currently enrolled a student at CU Denver? Y/N 2. Ar e you majoring or minoring in human development and family relations (HDFR)? Y/N 3. What is your age range? Circle One: a. 18 22 b. 23 30 c. 31 35 d. 36 45 e. 46 50 f. over 50 years of age 4. In high school, did you take take any of the following courses (circle all that apply ) a. World History b. Geography and/or World Geography c. Advanced Placement World History 5. Have you already taken a college course in one of the following areas: a. World History b. Global Perspectives/HDFR 3250 (Families in Global Perspective) c. Sociology d. Geography e. An international perspectives course (please provide the name of the course): ________________________________ 6. After reading the definition of areas of cultural competence, on a scale from 1 5 ( 1 means not knowledgeable at all, 2 means less knowledgeable, 3 means neither not knowledgeable or knowledgeable, 4 means somewhat knowledgeable, 5 means very knowledgeable ) please rank your personal knowledgeable in the following areas: a. Cultural awareness: Understanding of both your own culture and that of other cul tural groups. 1 2 3 4 5 b. Cultural knowledge: Knowledge of key facts about cultures that are different from yours (cultural beliefs and ideas) 1 2 3 4 5 c. Cultural skills: Practical application of cultural knowledge (using cultural knowledge to make decision s and judgments). 1 2 3 4 5 d. Inductive learning: Familiarity and comfort with interacting with people of other cultures based on your cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills). 1 2 3 4 5 7. On a scale from 1 5 (1 is Strongly Disagree, 3 is Neither Agree No r Disagree, and 5 is Strongly Agree) please answer the following questions:

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64 a. I am comfortable reading historical documents. 1 2 3 4 5 b. I believe that I have a strong grasp of world history. 1 2 3 4 5 c. I read the news and I am familiar with current events outside the United States. 1 2 3 4 5 d. I feel more comfortable with American history than world history. 1 2 3 4 5 e. I am knowledgeable about historical events outside of the United States. 1 2 3 4 5 f. I remember very little from my high school history classes. 1 2 3 4 5 g. It is more important to learn United States history than global history. 1 2 3 4 5 h. My history teachers rarely taught historical events later than World War II. 1 2 3 4 5 i. I understand world cultures because I know world history. 1 2 3 4 5 j. I en joy history and I study it on my own outside of classes. 1 2 3 4 5 k. My knowledge of history helps me to understand cultures that are different from my own. 1 2 3 4 5 l. I do not know much about world history but I would like to learn more. 1 2 3 4 5 m. I am not interested in learning about world history. 1 2 3 4 5 n. By learning and understanding world history, we can avoid problems that people faced in the past. 1 2 3 4 5 8. Have you had the opportunity to travel to other parts of the world? If so, where? 9. Have you had any experiences that you believe have contributed to your understanding of the world? If so, please describe. 10. Do you have any other comments that might be pertinent to this study?

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65 APPENDIX C: QUESTION NAIRE CONSENT !"#$%&'(")*+& Increasi ng cultural competence in historically illiterate college students enrolled in global perspective family courses & & ,-(./(01)&2.3*4"(51"6-+ & 7*..(8*-&9-*(3(.5 & & :;<2=>&?6+ & @A B CCD@ & E*-4(6.&F1"*+ & C@GCHGDC@A & & & You are being asked to be in this research study because you are enrolled as a student at the University of Colorado Denver and you are currently taking either HDFR 2200 (Love, Family, and Human Development) or HDFR 3250 (Families in Global Perspective). If you join the study, you will complete a short survey regarding your level of confidence and comfort with certain historical or cultural concepts. This study is designed to learn more about teaching global family courses. Possible discomforts or r isks include inability to complete the survey due to time constraints. There may be risks the researchers have not thought of. Every effort will be made to protect your privacy and confidentiality by not collecting your names on the survey and using age r anges instead of birthdates. You have a choice about being in this study. You do not have to be in this study if you do not want to be. If you have questions, you can call Jennifer Greiving at 720 891 3575. You can call and ask questions at any time. You may have questions about your rights as someone in this study. If you have questions, you can call the COMIRB (the responsible Instit utional Review Board). Their number is (303) 724 1055. By completing this survey, you are agreeing to participate in this research study.

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66 APPENDIX D: INTERVIE W PROTOCOL Interview Protocol for Thesis 1. Are you currently affiliated with a university? W hich one? 2. What is your title at the university? 3. What courses do you currently teach? 4. Please describe the courses that you teach. 5. What other global family or international perspectives courses have you taught? 6. How many years have you been teaching ? 7. Describe the makeup of the students in your classes: are they typically composed of traditional or non traditional students? 8. Do you find your students to be, for the most part, historically literate in a global context? a. Why or why not? Please give examples. 9. Do you find your students to be culturally aware? a. Cultural awareness includes the following: Cultural awareness (understanding of both your own culture and that of other cultural groups), cultural knowledge (knowled ge of key facts about cultures that are different from yours) (cultural beliefs and ideas), cultural skills (practical application of cultural knowledge (using cultural knowledge to make decisions and judgments), and inductive learning (familiarity and com fort with interacting with people of other cultures based on your cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills). 10. What strategies do you use in your classroom to provide support to students who are not culturally competent? 11. What strategies do you use in yo ur classroom to provide support to students who are not historically literate? 12. What have you found to be most effective in increasing cultural awareness among college students? 13. What have you found to be ineffective in increasing cultural awareness and historical literacy among college students?

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67 APPENDIX E: INTERVIE W CONSENT !"#$%&'(")*+ & Increasing cultural competence in historically illiterate college students enrolled in global perspective family courses & ,-(./(01)&2.3*4"(51"6-+ & 7*..(8*-&9-*(3(.5 & & :;<2=>&?6+ & @A B CCD@ & E*-4(6.&F1"*+ & C@GCHGDC@A & & & You are being asked to be in this research study because you are a professor who teaches (or has taught within the past 2 years) a college course on families from a global perspective. If you join the study, you will participate in a phone interview to discuss how you work with students who may be historically illiterate or do not possess cultural competency. This study is designed to learn more about teaching global family courses. Possible discomforts or risks include speaking for an extended period of time, having your answers recorded digitally, or difficulty answering questions. There may be risks the researchers have not thought of. Every effort will be made to protect your p rivacy and confidentiality. We will record your answers to the interview questions but names will not be retained on the recordings. Recordings will be stored in a locked environment on a password protected computer. The recordings will be used to transcri be your responses and then the recordings will be destroyed in a manner accordant with IRB procedures. The transcripts will be used for coding purposes. No names will be released with the final data or used in the final publication. You are welcome to requ est a copy of the recording or the transcript. You have a choice about being in this study. You do not have to be in this study if you do not want to be. If you have questions, you can call Jennifer Greiving at 720 891 3575. You can call and ask que stions at any time. You may have questions about your rights as someone in this study. If you have questions, you can call the COMIRB (the responsible Institutional Review Board). Their number is (303) 724 1055.

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68 APPENDIX F: ECOLOGIC AL AND CULTURAL COMPETENCY FRAMEWORK Diagram of College Student Influences by Ecological System Chronosystem Macrosystem Exosystem Mesosystem Microsystem Student's personal maturation historical events, ongoing e vents in society as they relate to cultural competency and global issues Mainstream culture, political ideals, morals, high and low context, multicultural background (as relating to cultural competency and global issues) Students' indirect experiences with global issues and cultural competencies (not a focus of this study) Links between microsystems as they relate to cultural competency and global issues (education at school that causes re evaluation of family values) Family attitudes, diverse classmates and diverse campus, family culture