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Ecological adaptation of Darfuri families in Colorado

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Title:
Ecological adaptation of Darfuri families in Colorado
Creator:
Dayeen, Omhagain Somi ( author )
Place of Publication:
Denver, Colo.
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 electronic file (64 pages) : ;

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of arts)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
School of Education and Human Development, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Education and human development

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sudanese -- United States ( lcsh )
Emigration and immigration ( fast )
Sudanese ( fast )
Darfur (Sudan) ( lcsh )
Emigration and immigration -- Sudan ( lcsh )
Sudan ( fast )
Sudan -- Darfur ( fast )
United States ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Review:
The Darfuri families have been a new population to Colorado. Most of the Darfuri families come to the USA as Genocide survivor and come from hardship life. The study looks at what factors impacts the Darfuri families' life, who are recent immigrant to the USA. Previse research has looked at how the Darfuri family adapted the their new life in Colorado. The study looked at the strengths and the difficulties the Darfuri families handle on a daily basis through several themes including life before the war and during war and after the war, life in the refugee camps and in their new life in Colorado. The primary data was used for the purpose of this thesis. For this study, families consisted of 6 participants who were interviewed. Then qualitative data was analyzed by finding factors that were exhibited through this study. Results provide four common themes throughout the research.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: Adobe Reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Omhagain Somi Dayeen.

Record Information

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University of Colorado Denver Collections
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
985117029 ( OCLC )
ocn985117029
Classification:
LD1193.E35 2016m D39 ( lcc )

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Full Text
ECOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF DARFURI FAMILIES IN COLORADO
by
OMHAGAIN SOMIDAYEEN B.A., Sudan University Science & Technology 1998 M.A., Sudan University Science & Technology 2001
A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Arts
Education and Human Development
2016


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This thesis for the Master of Arts Degree By
Omhagain Somi Dayeen Has been approved by
Ruben P. Viramontez Anguiano, Chair Rene Galindo Kim Young
Date: July/30/2016


Ill
Dayeen, Omhagain Somi (M. A. Education and Human Development)
Ecological Adaptation of Darfuri Families in Colorado Thesis directed by Professor Ruben P. Viramontez Anguiano
ABSTRACT
The Darfuri families have been a new population to Colorado. Most of the Darfiuri families come to the USA as Genocide survivor and come from hardship life. The study looks at what factors impacts the Darfuri families life, who are recent immigrant to the USA. Previse research has looked at how the Darfuri family adapted the their new life in Colorado. The study looked at the strengths and the difficulties the Darfuri families handle on a daily basis through several themes including life before the war and during war and after the war, life in the refugee camps and in their new life in Colorado. The primary data was used for the purpose of this thesis. For this study, families consisted of 6 participants who were interviewed. Then qualitative data was analyzed by finding factors that were exhibited through this study. Results provide four common themes throughout the research.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Ruben P. Viramontez Anguiano


IV
DEDICATION
I dedicate this thesis to all Darfuri people who were killed in the Genocide of Darfur, and who suffer from the displacements. I also dedicate it to the soil of my mother, my sister Eklass brother Hafeez, and my two brothers Adam, Ehahmer who were killed in the war zoon in south Sudan, and to my family. I also dedicate it to my friend Ms. Cruz, and Professor Ruben and Susan Tyler who provided for me the tool to succeed. I know with out them my life would be harder.


V
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Frist, I would like to Thank Allah, and I have been blessed to have many people who had direct impact on my life.
My family: I would like to thank my parents Asha and Somi. I would also like the thank my Husband for his support I am also blessed to have my kids surround me caring for me.I would also th thanks my sisters and brothers for their loving.
Dr. Ruben P Viramontez Anguiano: Dr. Ruben had a direct impact on my life. He has provided all of his time to toward my academic success. Allah blessed me to work with him. He is the role model for the professor in social justices.
My committee members: Thank you Rene Galindo, Kim Young for your support and the hard work the you offer for me.
Dr. Sarah Harrison: Thank you for reviewing my thesis and editing this information.
Susan Tyler: Thank you Susan for the support that you offed for me in the thesis and your support of my family.
Zoya Elhassen: Thank you Zoya for reviewing my thesis the Arabic part and editing this information.
My Friends: Tmen, and the all of my friends from the School of Education and Human Development, Ejlal, Houda, Zoya, Nawal, Enshrah, Cruz, Hidi, Rona, Asha, Doreeual cannot thank you enough for your friendship.
SEHD Technology Staff: I would like to thank the School of Education and Human Development Technology staff and students for their great help throughout my thesis.


VI
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION..............................................................1
Overview..................................................................1
Purpose and Significance of the Study.....................................2
Guiding Research Questions................................................2
Definitions and Terms.....................................................4
Personal Identification of the Topic......................................6
II. LITERATURE REVIEW..........................................................7
General Adaptation of Refugees............................................8
Life Before the War.......................................................9
Life During and After the War............................................12
Life in the Refugee Camp.................................................13
Life in Colorado.........................................................14
Theoretical Framework....................................................15
III METHODS.....................................................................16
Research Design..........................................................16
Participants.............................................................17
Interview Protocol.......................................................18


vii
Procedures...............................................................19
IV FINDINGS.................................................................20
Quantitative Thematic Finding............................................36
V DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH.................................37
Discussion...............................................................38
Limitations of this Study................................................38
Strengths of this Study..................................................38
Future Research..........................................................42
Implications and Conclusion..............................................43
REFERENCES....................................................................51
APPENDIX
A: University of Colorado Denver; Colorado Multiple institutional Review Board Approval ..........................................................................................................52
B: Interview Protocol....................................................................54
C: Interview Consent.....................................................................56
D: Darfurs Maps
57


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CHAPTERI INTRODUCTION
Overview
Darfur is a region in Sudan with a population of 6 million people and most of the population is Muslim (Mulaj, 2008). This country has experienced civil wars and domestic conflicts since Sudans independence in 1954. In 2003, the last war broke out and came to international attention in 2004. Despite attempts to resolve this situation, Darfurs conflict is best left continues unresolved (Jumbert, 2014).
The Sudanese government and the Janjaweed militias were partners in a campaign of ethnic cleansing against different tribes in Darfur. Nearly 2,700 villages have been destroyed, and as a result of the violence as well as starvation and disease 250,000 Sudanese people have died mostly in 2003 and 2004. An additional two million people fled to refugee camps for several years (Natsios, 2008).
Purpose and Significance of the Study
Few researchers have explored the adaptation of Darfuri families through an ecological perspective in the United States and how the war in Sudan has impacted adaptation. Thus, this study sought to explore ecological factors including familial, cultural, social, political and others that impacted the Darfuri families in Colorado. Specifically, Bronfenbrenners Ecological
Systems Theory (1989) was utilized to examine the adaption of the families within the microsystems, mesosystems, exosystems, macrosystems and the chronosystem. This study is significant to the family science research as it illustrated the rich descriptions of Darfuri families


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as they adapted to the United States and their suffrage during the war and life in the refugee camps.
Guiding Research Questions
1. How has the war in Darfur impacted Darfuri families in Colorado?
2. What social, cultural, political and other ecological factors impacted the Darfuri families?
3. How have Darfuri families adapted in the Colorado?
Definitions of Terms
There are several terms that will be used throughout this paper and are defined in this section. Immigrant: a person who moves to another country to permanently reside.
Migrant: a person who migrates and moves another country.
Refugee: person who has been forced to leave a country because of war or for religious or political reasons .A refugee is someone who "owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to, or owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country (Springfield, 1999).
Genocide: The definition of genocide, as accepted by the United Nations, is "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: (a) killing members of the group; (h) causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of group; (c) deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to cause its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (e) forcibly transferring children of the group to another


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group." Based on the reports of refugees and international observers, the situation in Darfur meets this definition of genocide without question (Elsea, 2004).
It must be noted that for the purpose of this paper, the terms immigrant and migrant are used
interchangeably and may describe persons of differing socio-economic status.
UN: is the United Nation founded in 1945 is an international organization. The UN works on economic and social development programs, reducing global conflicts and improving human rights.
AU: African Union an organization of African states founded in 2002 to promote peace and security and stability in African countries.
CARE: Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe. This organization founded in 1945 to help European people after the War War II, by helping and sending food and clothing. Now the same organization helps refugees and natural disasters survival all over the world.
JEM: Justice and Equality Movement, founded by Dr. Khalil Ibrahim and his group who are from Darfur, as Khalil was killed in December 2011 his brother Ibrahim has been leader the group.
NIF: National Islamic Front, is an Islamic organization founded in 1976. It is one of only two Islamic movements to help and secure political power in Sudan. This organization is led by Dr Hassan Al-Turabe.
NGO: A Non-Government Organization is a non-profit organization that performs different services which is organized around specific issues such as health, environment, or human rights. An organizations work are differs depending on its values, goals and mission.


SLA: Sudan Liberation Army, is a Sudanese rebel group it was founded by member of three Darfuri leaders.
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SMB: Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood is an Islamic organization, and is movement not apolitical party.
SPLA: leader John Garng founded The Sudan peoples Liberation Army in south Sudan.
UNOCHA: United Nation Office for the Coordination Humanitarian Affairs is an organization founded in 1991. It organization has a services in many countries. Their mission is to serve human needs.
United States: The United States of America is a North America Republic containing 50 states. Personal Identification of the Topic
To help develop a personal connection to this topic (The Ecological Adaptation of the Darfuri Families in Colorado) it is important to understand the history of the researcher. I am Omhagain Dayeen, a women from Sudan in African. I am an educator and artist, and I want to make a difference in the world. I am pursuing a PhD degree in Education and Human Development with a concentration in Family Science and Human Development. My long-term goals are to become a professor where my research and outreach will focus on Women Issues and childrens development, with African families in Colorado and the United States. Another major objective is to return to my home country of Sudan and work through research and practice to improve the educational system for all families.
I believe that the key to building peace in the world is through education. I am a person who comes from a developing country which lacks the necessary resources for significant change in the education system for its families and communities. With my degree I hope to conduct


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international research on the relationship between Sudanese families and the opportunity for a quality education. My hope is that my research will help inform family and educational policy in Sudan.
I am specifically from Darfur in Sudan, Africa. There I studied and earned bachelors and masters degrees in education and art at the University of Sudan in Khartoum. I also taught family relation based courses, Islamic culture and art education at the University of Juba University. When the Sudanese government began its war against the people of Darfur, and my family fled to Egypt. With the aid of the United Nations, we came to the United States as refugees. I am now a U.S. citizen and will be completing my Masters of Education and Human Development (Educational Psychology) this academic year.
In my community, I am active on many fronts, the head of the womens division of the Darfur Association of Colorado. When a fellow refugee is in the hospital, I provide translation between the patient and doctors. I also organize relief efforts to directly impact my people in refugee camps. As a member of the speakers bureau of the Colorado Coalition for Genocide Awareness and Action (ccgaa.org), I give presentations in schools, colleges and churches about the genocide in Darfur. Since 2007,1 have taught art throughout the Denver metro area and am a member of the 40 West Arts District in Lakewood. Within Jefferson County, I am a member of the Colorado Womens Lobby speaking on the impact of war on women and children through my art.
I am an accomplished artist, having shown my work since 2004 in Egypt, and Colorado. My art is a stylized expression representing life in Sudan before the war and its impact on families in particular women and children. I have used the proceeds from the sale of my art to help the people in refugee camps in Darfur, and. By regularly sending funds to buy blankets, rice, grain, and medicine, I feel I am making a difference from a long distance. In 2010,


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however, I was able to travel there to visit several camps for displaced families. I documented the conditions of my people in the camps and took much-needed clothing and health supplies.


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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW
General Refugee Adaptation
Globally, in the past few years the increasing number of people were forced to flee usually occurred due to conflicts, war, and disasters. The refugee numbers continued to rise by the end of 2012 about 45.2 million people were displaced from their home lands as a result of war persecution, violence, and human rights violation. In 2013 1.5 million people from Syria were forced to flee their homeland (Bloom, & Udahemuka, 2014). Other families from other countries including Central Africa, Congo, Somalia, Mali, and Sudan have also had to flee their homes. The United States received 83,430 refugee and asylum claims of people from all over the world. Australia has received 17,420 refugees and asylum claims (UNHCR2013). During 2012, 479,300 refugee and asylum claim were made across 44 countries (Bloom, & Udahemuka,
2014).
Refugee families struggled to find services being outside their home land they face many difficulties: language, lack of care, literacy, and cultural differences. Families facing all of this issues often struggle with trauma and mental health. (Cheng, Drillich & Schattner 2015). Refugee experience difficulty adapting to new countries often the struggle with accessing services, facing cultural differences,, and language barriers. (Cheng, Drillich & Schattner 2015). Ultimately refugees all over the world have high hopes to find a safe place to live, quality jobs, homes, and education for their families and their children. (Martini,Bieyer 2016). Adaptation for refugee has been defined as sense of success and complete participation in a new society (Owens-Manley & Coughlan, 2000).The adaptation process for refugee includes resettling in another country facing many challenges with the acculturation process through language and


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cultural barriers and social system adjustments in schools and the community. (Qin, Saltarelli Rana, Bates, Lee & Johnson, 2015).
Life Before the War
Darfur is a region in Sudan with a population of 6 million people, most of whom are Muslims.
Darfur is Sudans largest region. Darfur is named for the dar of the fur, translation (the land of the fur tribe). The Fur are a large group that inhabit the central part of Darfur. Darfur also has two main groups that are located in West Darfur and North Darfur known as the Masalit and the Zagawa. More than 40 other ethnic groups live in the same region. Darfur is divided in two major ethnic blocks, the Arabs and non-Arabs, also known as the Blacks (Mulaj, 2008). The struggles between the Arab and Black populations in Darfur have continued for a hundreds of years.
In order for people to live in peaceful coexistence they must respect the customs and laws of the area. Coexistence is vital for the future of all people, not only in Darfur, but also in Sudan. Various tribes of Darfur have lived together and resolved their problems with outside interference (Nurain, 2008).
Before its annexation to the Anglo-Egyptian in 1916, Darfur was an independent state known as the Fur Sultanate. Darfur has continued to maintain its cohesion despite the struggles with intertribal conflicts. If any major conflict between the tribes they would council with the elders. Jabal Marra is recognized as the center of Darfur. This area is rich in natural resources such as oil, forests, gold, water, fertile and soil. This area is made up of different tribes, however, most of the population the fur tribe. A small percentage of the population includes tribes such as


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the Zagawa and the Masalit. The Fur tribe developed agreements with other tribes to share land and resources. Marriage amongst the tribes was not uncommon throughout the region.
Darfur is comprised of three environmental and ethnic zones. There is the northern zone which includes Arabs, Zayyadiyya and the Northern Rizayqat. There is the central zone which includes both sides of the Jabal Marra Mountains, inhabited by non-Arabs tribes by Fur, Masalit, Tama, Qimr, Mima and other farmers. Finally, the south zone contains Arabic-speaking cattle herding nomads such as the Baqqara, the Bani Halba, Habbaniyya, Rizayqat, and the Taaisha. In Darfur, language is not a marker for ethnicity because language can be lost. Many speak Arabic but do not claim to be Arab (OFahey, 2006). Specifically, Arab world is defined by language (Arabic) rather than ethnicity. The countries in which (a dialect of) Arabic is spoken are considered Arab. Black African families speak Arabic when living in Egypt, Libya Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, large parts of Sudan, Somalia, parts of Nigeria, and Mali (Rizzo, Del-Latif, & Meyer 2007).
Life in Darfur During and After the War
Since 2003 a civil war has taken over Darfur. The center of the conflict was to target non-Arab civilians. By doing so it has left more than 200,000 people dead, two million displaced and that number continues to grow (Straus, 2008). The civil war in Darfur is not clear cut, as the government often has been on both sides of the conflict (de Waal, 2005).
In early 2003, the Darfur government began to attack its own villages. The government has not only killed and injured a significant amount of innocent people but also destroyed homes, buildings, roads, power resources, property and farmlands. Although the total numbers of victims is uncertain, millions have been reported killed and approximately 2.74 million remain within Darfur. Those that were fortunate to escape the violence migrated to Chad and other nearby


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areas. So many Darfuri people left their home because of violence and conflict (Budabin, 2014; Genoways, 2007; Straus, 2008).
The government's way of destroying everyone's way of life was to burn, loot, and eliminated farms, crops, and livestock. This resulted in causing poverty and different tribal conflicts. One negative consequence was that people were confused by the ownership right thus, destroying people's hard earned property and land (Badri, Van den, & Crutzen, 2013).
The Darfuri government ordered their militia to commit adultery against the Black Africans of Darfur, which resulted in physical harm, terror, physical and mental trauma, and sexually transmitted diseases. One of the highest percentage of the sexually transmitted diseases has been HIV, resulting in sickness and death. Women endured unwanted pregnancy and feelings of helplessness and humiliation as the result of the war. Sexual violence and female genital cutting was very common which has resulted in victims physically being traumatized, shamed, and ostracized. Often rape was viewed as a means of controlling reproduction and as a powerful weapon for the end of social groups (Hagan, Rymond-Richmond, & Palloni, 2009; Watson, 2007).
Furthermore, Darfuri people have continued to struggle with genocide. Men of war are not the only people affected by genocide. It can also be defined as with a purpose to destroy an entire people, through thorough planning. Major groups are set to be eliminated, while others face different circumstances, which ultimately aim for death (Kaiser & Hagan, 2015). The rebellion of the African peoples of Darfur arose in early 2003 and surprised Khartoum by their numbers. The government of Sudan was quite ruthless in cleansing the Darfurians from their region (Reyna, 2010).


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In Darfur the war continued between African and non-African. The non-African tribes were empowered by the governments of Sudan. Specifically the Janjaweed attacked and removed people based on their ethnicity. Darfurs largest Arab tribes decided to stay out this war, and so did many Africans as well (Calabresi, Dealey, Paris, 2004). Janjaweed came into communities and surprise attacked people in the villages. It was not uncommon that children and women were taken by the numbers and used for wrong acts, and sometimes the men were killed or arrested for slavery (Mulaj, 2008).
By May 2006, as many as two million civilians were forced out of their homes and nearly
200.000 were killed by bombing to prevent people from staying on their land. Therefore the government comes in and takes the land from the Darfuri people without any difficulties (Mulaj, 2008; Adam 2008). The government has been sending over a million people to camps, and
230.000 people have fled to Chad (Mulaj, 2008; Adam 2008).
As a result of the attacks, the Sudanese Liberation Army/Movement (SLA/M) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) were formed to defend against the government and Arab partnerships in order to save the people of Darfur. However, these organizations have given the government an excuse to take action against these people. The results have concluded with over
350.00 civilian casualties.
Another aspect of life during and after the war has been the formation of the Arab group Rezeigat. The Rezeigat respect the history of Darfur and understood that their land was given to them by the Fur tribe. For many years the government worked to divide the two groups. Arabs were used by the government to create differences in Darfur in hope to cause conflict (Nurain, 2008).


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Displacement and conflict (war) has had a major impact on the Darfuri people, old and young. The elder have a higher impact on displacement and conflicts, because they remember the homeland and their beloved region Darfur before it became a war zone. They are the ones who both embody the culture that has been lost throughout the war and serve as Darfurs historians for the next generation. As time moves on the elderly will no longer be with the people to pass down the culture and to pass on the way of life they have known. Although for children, displacement is a way of moving on. Many will not remember a time before they lived in camps because they are young. Since the Darfuri children lived their entire life in refugee camps they consider it their home but dont seem to notice the lack of opportunity for them to get an education, to follow their dreams and to have an opportunity to have a positive lifestyle (Ondiak & Ismail, 2009; Attaelmanan, Hengkun, & Ahmed, 2014).
Life in the Refugee Camps
Approximately 2.8 million Darfurian women and children have been displaced in refugee camps (Morgos, Worden, & Gupta, 2007). The conditions of the refugee camps are very difficult. Poor sanitation, low food supply, toxic water and overcrowded, disease-infested space leave the refugees uncomfortable. In risk of getting caught, Darfurian girls would run off to get supplies that they need and are vulnerable and subjected to rape by members of the Janjaweed (Schneider, 2007). There have been reporting of raping of girls as young as 3 years old. Often times young girls cannot defend themselves in these situations, and because of their culture, their voices were not heard. Human rights groups have tried effortlessly to help these young women by providing safe places for them to stay.
Camps of 2.5 million displaced persons are uninviting. Food rations were often split in half. Often the rations were not restored due to the UN World Food Program convoy trucks


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being normally attacked by the Janjaweed and other regime based parties. For example, the Government in Khartoum refused to give the food convoys the correct protection needed to deliver the rations to Kordofan Province then to Darfur. Water tables were often running very low, which resulted in a high risk because there is an extreme risk of portable water during rain. Often pools of mud create condition that easily allows multiple diseases to thrive and spread. (Reeves, 2008)
Life in Colorado and United States
The United States has continued to receive large groups of incoming immigrants, along with those that are oppressed for political and religious reasons. Fleeing their homeland and coming to the U.S. often causes different living experiences. Between the yeas of 1980 and 2011 there have been 2.6 million refugees who have immigrated to the U.S. (Department of Human Services, 2011).
The United Nations defines a person known as a refugee as a person being afraid of being persecuted because of race or one who is outside their race and is incapable of availing himself of the protection.
Specifically, about 1,100 refugees resettled in Colorado with 10 percent legal migration in Colorado in 1975 to the modem era the United States accepted around 2 millon refugee, and around 40,000 of them resettle in Colorado (reference). For example, the Front Range region of Colorado has received about 900 refugees yearly. Refugees must have service immediately, by law. The Colorado Refugee Services and the refugee Family Center have worked together since January of 1997 The Colorado Refugee Services Program is funded by a federal agency called the US Office of Refugee Resettlement to control health screenings in Colorado. Refugees also receive cash assistance and free housing for up to eight month. Another organization is the AF


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William Family Medicine Center at the University of Colorado, which often serves refugee families.
Theoretical Framework
For this thesis, Bronfenbrenner's (1989) Ecological Systems Model was utilized to help ground the experiences of Darfuri family systems through the examination of five interconnecting system levels. Bronfenbrenner (1979) has identified the idea that social human development has multiple factors to it. The center of the model contains the individual or genetic factors. Then theres the microsystem, where a developing child is influenced by family, school, peers, and his/hers neighborhood. The second level is the mesosystem is made up of two or more microsystems that have direct contact with a child for example the for example the family and school or the family and community organizations. The third level that Bronfenbrenner (1989) introduced was the exosystem as indirect relationship with the child or individual and other social systems. For example a parents place experiences in this system will indirectly impact the child or individual. The exosystem can be also policies and services that may impact the family. The larger overarching level is the macrosystems that impacts all the system as it is a the societal level. For example cultural factors, social economic factors, political factors and other factors that impact the family. The Final level which Bronfenbrenner is the chronosystem, which describes life changing, shifts through the concept of time.
Specific to this thesis, Bronfenbrenners Ecological System Theory was used to ground the realities of the Darfuri families. At the microsystem level the Darfuri families lost their family unity as a result of displacement because of the factors related to the war. Central to the microsystem was the concept of El Nefeer which focused on collectivism in the family and community. At the mesosystem level the Darfuri families interconnections were developed


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through new neighbors school and religious centers such as the mosaic in their new life in Colorado. During the war and after the war the mesosystem was the interconnections between the Darfuri families and their new experience inside the refugee camp. The families felt fear because of the disconnection them from their homes as a result of the war. After the war, Darfuri families were involved with other mesosystems such as developing relationships with other African groups, which created a stronger link between them inside the refugee camp. For the families during and after the war, it was a struggle to survive, as all services no longer existed as the government eliminated services. The government also removed any access to natural resources. This changed in Colorado, as the exosystem through refugee and human services there was a positive shift to help the family survive and thrive in the United States. At the societal macrosystem there have been tremendous shifts as the Darfuri families had to adapt to life in refugee camps and their new culture in the United States as the result of the war. At the chronosystem level before the war during and after the war there was displacement, rape and the killing of family members. Life in Colorado has been more peaceful filled with freedom and safety.


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CHAPTER III METHODS
This chapter details the research design used in this thesis. The research study examined the impact of ecological factors on Darfuri families and their adaptation in Colorado. It is important to restates that the primary researcher collected all data. This chapter details primary data collection through a qualitative interview process. It includes the participant, roles of the researcher, interview protocol, procedures, and data analysis.
Research Design
This study utilized qualitative methods to explore the ecological adaptation of Darfuri families in Colorado. Specifically, life histories were used to understand the families past and present life experiences through narratives. Qualitative methods through life histories can be a powerful research tool in brings meaning to the Darfuri families ecological adaption in Colorado. (Johnson, & Christensen, 2014). Life history has been defined as historical research also known as narratives research called the text of history. In this study understanding the family history of Darfuri was critical. Thus, a life history method was utilized to comprehend the narratives before the war, being a refugee and adaptation to Colorado
Once all of the interviews were completed, transcribed and translated the transcripts were analyzed by an appropriate method when reviewing qualitative data (Miles & Huberman, 1994). In order to check for saturation of the data, when a theme was identified in one transcript, the other transcripts were reviewed in order to determine the presence or absence of that theme. To increase the trustworthiness of the data, a member check was performed by a member in the community that was fluent in Arabic and English and was experienced with Darfuri families.


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Participants
Participants included three Dafuri families, specifically parents. The parents educational level from ranged elementary school to graduate school. The participant ages ranged between 28 years to 55 years old. The participants in this the study migrated to the USA as refugees from Darfur. After communicating on the phone to each candidate, an interview was scheduled. A cover letter about the study that was approved by the University of Colorado Denver COMIRB was provided and explained to each participant. For more demographic details please see Table 1.
Table 1 Demographi cs
Gender Ag e Countr y of origin Ethnic backgroun d Year s in the U.S Years in Colorad 0 Job in Sudan Job in the U.S Educatio n Kid s Yea rs in refu ge cam P
Male 55 Sudan Fur 2 2 Profess or Postal work PHD 2 3
Female 28 Sudan Fur 2 2 Student Home maker Bachelor 2 3
Male 42 Sudan Zegawa 2 2 Busines s owner Servic e work None 1 5
Female 38 Sudan Zegawa 2 2 Home maker Home maker None 1 5
Female 49 Sudan Masalete 9 4 Home maker Airpor t wheelc -hair Med school 5 4
Role of the researcher
Researchers own life experiences as a Darfuri refugee influenced the guiding research questions for this study, along with the interviewing, data analysis, and data presentation final analysis.


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Interview Protocol
Protocol for this study was based on a multistep process including an interview followed by additional interactions with participants. Interviews with Darfuri families for this study were done in a manner to create a safe environment free from external societal pressures. Research was done in the Dafuri familys native language of Arabic on an individual basis. All Darfuri participants were instructed that they could withdraw from the study at any time. Also all Darfuri family member were given consent forms and were instructed to fill it out. After the interviews were completed, the researcher continued to follow up with the participants about what had been learned in the initial interview. The interview lasted approximately one hour and consisted of open ended questions to gain the participant; trust and to encourage them to discuss their refugee experience. Participants received a list of questions related to the given topic. All the same procedures were used with all of the participants.
Data Analysis
A thematic analysis was used to analyze the Darfuri families were studied specifically focusing on Bronfenbrenners ecological system theory. Since this was a qualitative study, narrative data was gathered. Each participant received a copy of their transcript for feedback.
As a result of using life histories, interpretive conclusions were important based on the transcripts (Atkinson, 1989). The Darfuri families also received their written and printed versions of the transcripts for improved data accuracy. The importance of this study was finding the recurring themes by the Darfuri family members. The rich data in this thesis are based on each family members personal history and Bronfenbrenners ecological system theory serving as a


19
foundation. This rigorous process ensured that the researcher represented the findings properly (Glesne, 1999).
Procedures
The data was collected using open ended interview questions. Data was collected over many hours through interactions with Darfuri population. The goal of this study was achieved through interviewing three Darfuri families who migrated to the USA and settled in Colorado. Each participant completed a consent form to show his or her interest and contribution to the study. Once approved an appointment was scheduled for the interview. The COMIRB application from University of Colorado Denver was completed and approved for this thesis.


20
CHAPTER IV FINDINGS
Thematic Finding
After reviewing the data, it was determined that there were many factors that affected the Darfuri family in Colorado. Four different themes were identified that impacted Darfuri families including life before the war, life during and after the war, life in the refugee camps, and life in Colorado. Bronfenbrenners Ecological System Theory (1989) that was discussed in Chapter 3 will be utilized to help explain the findings in this chapter.
The objective of this chapter was to present the finding from the primary data through the use of a thematic style to understand Darfuri families adaptation. Another objective of this chapter was to contextually ground the finding through the use the Bronfenbrenner Ecological Systems Model.
Theme 1: Life in Darfur Before the War
The first theme was life in Darfur before the War. This theme looked at the interaction between macrosystem cultural ideals for Darfuri life and microsystem Darfuri family interactions. Important aspects about this theme include the value of Elnafeer. Elnafeer in Arabic cooperation. That is what distinguishes Elnafeer from other collective actions in which may be paid (Dayeen 2016) Elnafeer is a social institution that provides in most rural regions of Sudan but differs in terms of organization, the type and number of participants by custom and regional traditions. Elnafeer in Darfur is a useful habits in that help the community, whether for the group, the country, or the individual or an act of charity. Elnafeer in Darfur was passed on by the ancestors in the past generations. It is a value that helps lead people to the coherence,


21
human liberation and strength; from the bondage of poverty and destruction. Darfuri people use Elnafeer in the farming activities, building water resources, pastoral life, to combat looting to help in natural disasters, and to help the needy (Dayeen, 2016). What follows are the interpretations of this theme through the rich data. One participant stated:
a27 ,.1' /j \ o'n ^3 jj/.'.ixj 33 j Ajllill 4-a-uiII I j 4-laJ-uiJ dljl_£ aLiadl ^jl
^ I j a3jje_u2l (."1 1,.'1 ^3 ^jl <11 j ^ ^ 3 j 4-ui3j ^jl t- al 3.j ^3 t /jI 1 /j j^ o'ij j
-,^j3 UV\ ^3 Lol Aj-LuLLall 03A ^3 ^Lo
J33jll 11a 4 U L .1 o-0 ch-^] 33-0 ^3 J&J (j_£ jjjlll J33j]lj) ^ 4j*-ulall is^-J iS^-J ^3 \\\ \ * o3C.l_Lib(l (J^l O-0
- Participant Family 001
Life was good. People lived in peace, harmony and assurance, especially in the villages, where people shared the happiness and sorrows. Security was not the dominant concern. We did not fear for ourselves and property honor or our money. We found that people in happy occasions such as marriage, for example, help each other, where everyone works and contribute on this occasion. In the rain and autumn season, agricultural work is done by cooperation through the so-called (Elnafeer). Elnafeer is the style of development of society, especially the traditional methods for the success of development in Darfur; it is a system that works from one generation to another. By this horn we gather in order to help each other in agriculture and construction and in the joys and sorrows and facing natural disaster
- Participant Family 001
From this family the wife also discussed the first theme.


22
ClLLc. ^ AjC-lddl ^aJ3j ^Ld3j ALoI^ 4j^J lj£ tQ^asull 1 ^^ JlC-Luij £ya\ ^3 ^ Clljl^ SLi^Jl
aIia^.
Life was simple, we lived in safety and security helped each other, were able to movie freely, were not afraid of any need we were socially cohesive and valued our beauty and habits .
- Participant Family 001-wife
Another family shared their reflections on life before the war.
t^alj ^3 -^3 L_fl^ia {ja t-"'t Qjl A (jLalj tdljA (jl^3 ALa^. dul^ Sl_I=dl
SlaJla
Life was beautiful. There was peace and security. We were safe from harassment by the government. We lived a very simple life. We spent our time between farms and cattle, and there were fewer responsibilities.
- Participant Family 002
The wife of this family provided her experiences:
4b^7* dljl^ JJu1\A lj£
Before the war, we were pretty happy with life in Darfur.
Another family also provided their understanding of life before the war.
-Participant Family 002-wife


23
In summary, the current research contributes to the literature through the finding in that Darfur has been rarely investigated using of qualitative methods and ecological theories of Bronfenbrenners ecological system. This theme provided rich description of the life in Darfur before the war. More specifically it provided a window in to understanding how Darfuri family life existed before the war.
Theme 2: Life During and After the War
This theme is about the life in Darfur during and after the war. Darfuri families are still displaced inside Darfur as well as they have been forced to flee their home to make shift refugee camps in Darfur, Chad, and Egypt run by international aid organization. This theme looked at the interaction between macrosystem cultural model on Darfuri life and microsystem Darfuri family interactions. It reviews the impact of the war in Darfur and the realities of loss of home and family. In this theme, major factors that were found through the data included (1) death and injuries caused by Sudanese government to women and children (2) were killed, punished, raped and abused. The exosystem in this system the Darfuri family after the war has minimal active role, Because of the war, the families have no income of fulfilling the needs of the families.
One family stated:
Sjjjllj dlljjllll Ajic. JjSjb 4jL3ala3 4 (_£ VI did lillliAj
l \\ SdLullI jLxllI ^ j j 4il_daVl_J cAjiLg j Ac. I j ^ t ^ ^ ^' j' j 1_£J j 4_ljl jlldl
4-alainlli (jLaAj dlljLo ^1 1a^ ^1 V] 4-alainll olA ^ic.
jjSjb (Jjialial yli
Darfur is rich in natural resources from, metals, livestock and also by the good climate, and arable land and water resources, in addition to the prevailing spirit of cooperation among the


population. Despite the richness of this region the state did not provide human services of education, health and others did not meet the needs of citizens. In general, there are a total neglect of the region and its inhabitants; there is no development areas of Darfur
24
-Participant Family 002- husband
Another participant stated the following about life during and after the war.
tilljA (JllLdl A-LaJJ dll^ Lajlj
4-ulall 4jlj*Jl La£ ^-3 (jLilaYfj ^Luall dlLlSj ^3
4-1aJJ AjlLla>all ^Lijl £3J 4 (jLuijj 4-1a33j 1 ^ a! aIa \ ^^LlluYI (JaL^J q\ (Jilallj
Cy* L" Ajj-ill (jj V] dlLllLlayall dllljJj £.Lall^ dlLa^dSlj 4^-L-allj (j£
4_ia33j L-illJaJ (j£ (j?-tl)t^3 4dyU 4 a Qjj ^_La c_Ajjuj1I Ju4xJl C1lg1_3 (Jj t4_Lajjll
Lo 4 al-> ia\1 ^jLlC. I^ cd^Lol .i^Jl IllA dc. 1 QQJ ^1 j-gV^J 4 al-> \a\\
Sudan is always seeking to benefit from the bounties of the region without providing development for Musbandt social change. For example, there is a rise in deaths of women and children, particularly women dying during childbirth. There is no sufficient numbers of midwives and medical care to women and children is almost nonexistent. The state ignores these necessary medical and educational requirements for this region. They emphasize instead the development of such services as water, electricity and other needs. The government of Sudan is not concerned for the needs of people. They are arresting young people and imprisoning and killing them and are pushing them to leave the land. The main goal of the government of Sudan is to take the land from people so they can become rich from the natural resources. It is known as (hawakeer).


25
-Participant Family 001- husband
Yet another family continued:
l_£j 03^3 (jc- (Ja^. tgAjljb ^aAslI 3ia j^jb (JaIj (jbcd Lj^ ^ ul^jl ^jc- S^bc. ^Aj
oIa L_id*jj\ a\\i ,v a j a y' |j> ^ L^j^Laj i yyj ^ ^^~ aI^aII ciiAs 333 a^-I^^II a ^ \t. ^^
aI^aII cdLo ^ ^'jV' oIa ^jb ciilj aI^aII Vj ^ ^^ -^V S3lx.b aI^aII a *\t u^ ^^^b ^Lbl dix33 4jLudl
t^^ (Jj tAalaLall ^bjl oA^Lla-o ^3 41^311 l ' (Jlx_bj ^1] j_£3l bm bAj cIa^LgJJjj) ^3 Aj^j^Jl (d-al£
(J3J Ajj3 dii3i.l Jljlbj ^



) Ai ^^9^b (JjIj3 ^j4J (Ja A3J^dl JJC- j A3J^dl (Jjbdl
The land owned by some elders and the people of Darfur were inherited from generation to generation. This hawakeer (land and home owners) owned their rights to the mineral resources and lands values. The State of Darfur has many natural resources that some foreign companies want to plunder its resources for their own wealth and profit. This process has pushed the people of Darfur to demand that the state return hawakeer to their owners, but the State considers that this land belongs to the state. The state believes that they have full freedom to invest in and profit from the land. This disagreement between the people and the state ignited war. The state used weapons in the hunt for the people of the region, forcing them to leave their lands. The government has given armed weapons to the Arab tribes to kill non-Arab tribes in Darfur.
- Participant Family 002-wife
Another family stated:
4-^LuloII Y: *q\Wa ^ ^ \1 dllaC.1 cA3J^dl (Jjbdb bib ^3 AjjxILuLa A qUiaU A ^ S. ^' l"\* m 33
^3 A*-lla3 Jbstb A-^-LuLall (Jjbdl blli ^al_l3 ^1] j_£3l La^i (JjJalbdl blli 3*J ^bbill oAlili-uVI ^3 Aj^j^Jl
(Jj3j J^3^b cl)^0 LH3*^ ^ja3j ,'.''ij ^b abt \a /jll \\ I bl^J bill! A-abijj 6^jl£-uill


26
The Government has sought to displace the inhabitants of the region by force of arms with the assistance of the Arab tribes, where the government has given full freedom to the armed tribes to take advantage of the spoils after the displacement of the inhabitants of those areas and as a result left most of the population to become homeless in some major cities of Darfur and neighboring countries
- Participant Family 003-single mother To support this claim Participant Family 001 husband stated:
(jc. ^ L ^ ^ 1$1aI (J-As ^4 U'S 433
(Jj tLlLdl ^ ^ ^ i_C,\ ^ i U jll -La j/'1 jl t4_l2>aL^-ll ._ajLLa^ll ^3 jl t^a^-La ^1] dl*_LU
4UU-n. a 4jaV1 ^3 AataALuLtdl i a ^a ^ ^3 (Jacudl 4 qU*a\1 ^l_Ul 433 t ^1 Ual l .'V1 4-lLtuU L_3^)*J La l4Aj
^al_l3 dl4l ^lll V ll nnVl Q^axJ 4j42u jl -1-L o4A 4 aU'^ll ^J44 (3^- is^ ^aLlajll ^^4 cdlLjj
This war has destroyed villages and some cities, where they burned villages and killed private people. On the other hand the war has deliberately not recruited educated people in the region especially those with higher qualifications, but sought to get rid of them, or absorbed them into the some marginal jobs. The government wanted the educated people to affiliate themselves with the National Conference the ruling party. This created a polarization of the people of the region to work in the ranks of the ruling party to contribute to the implementation of the governments plans. The system has succeeded in creating animosities between the people of the region. These are briefly some of the reasons which led to the war in Darfur.
-Participant Family 001-husband


27
To support this claim a Participant Family 1 husband stated:
1 y;KV;^ (j£ 1 undl ^Ic. ^-ic- 6tjji3 A 1 ^
After the war families struggled psychologically and were depressed. We've become homeless and insecure. Our property and ourselves has been lost and we left our country. We lost our families and our loved ones.
- Participant Family 001-husband
The wife of the same family also stated.
J j ^ 1 Vil (Iua (j£ 1 ij. j ^ ^Ic. I-gj L)J^ ^ l-lij L)J^^ A W
People during and after the war became psychologically depressed and we lost all our property and we became homeless.
- Participant Family 001-wife
One participant stated
.(j-d 2)1^ clLiixaj diLiLtudl oIa dl tdiLull

Of course some of the girls were assaulted, sexually harassmed, some of them were raped some. These operations led us to escape, trying to search for a safe place. We went to the big cities and we lived in random neighborhoods on the periphery.
-Participant Family 001-wife


28
Sexual harassment has been documented in this thesis and in the research. According to Hagan, Rymond-Richmond & Palloni (2009) this factor documented that the violence against women and girls had a huge impact on family life. Often women and girls were facing homelessness, oppression, fear, lack of trust and security. This was very common during and after the war as it was related to sexual harassment. One participant shared their perspective on these terrible acts.
A final example of the struggles during and after war are stressed in the following statement by one of the mothers.
^3 (Jj3 43j 4 4£-G^ll V^Uh 4JC. ^)-gYI 1 QQJ ^lj to^)_LuVI l-i33 433 klj ljulGI ^3 jjl d4l_^Jl |4A 4^2002 4 ^ S. I' 4^4^ 4^.1 (Jj3 (ja Ijl^Ld
d£^43 SLdllj L-lj^^ll dlj^)3 111 dt ajl Uall jj'^ll lil dm-LUj 4 ^ 11 4jl_AV 433 4^11 |4A
^l_ill 444*11 dlLo 43j 4 l^3^)3Jj ^Ijll G_4^)^Jl 4*43 ^jh^jjlll (j-G tljjj3 ^Lal 4*Jj (jLg^4 ^al ^1] duA4j ^_lu
^4^. 4^^3j|4 ^Ijjl (j£ (Jdl4 dGLoj 4-^.jill i">."Vl'd ^Vl 4j_)^ll dLa4*jjj ^j-luYI dlC-ldaj 4L_l^^Jl 04A (j-G
l_^da*J Jg J (jl^LuVI dliikl j dltddl dl£4jl 43 j 4(dl3^)^ JI jdI j duLo J jdall j ^jl^jll
I'm from the Masalit tribel have lived all my life in Darfur with my husband, who had been employed by the government in charge of the Ministry of Agriculture. Government soldiers killed him in our house in 2002. This incident impacted my family financially, psychologically and physically. We suffered severe insult from the government and were caused a lot of harassment so I decided to escape and survive with my family. I left everything and went to Omdurman, and after days decided to get out of Sudan.
-Participant Family 003-single mother


29
In summary, this theme is about the life in Darfur during and after the war. Darfuri families were displaced in Darfur. They have been forced to flee their home to makeshift refugee camps run by international aid organizations in Darfur, Chad, Egypt. This theme looked at the interaction between macrosystem cultural model on Darfuri life and microsystem Darfuri family interactions. Major factors In this theme found through the data included death and injury caused by the Sudanese government. Women and children were killed, punished, raped and abused.
Theme 3: The life in the Refugee Camps
This theme came about when Darfuri families provided their response to their new life in refugee camps. Life in refugee camps presented many challenges for the families. In Darfur, families they live in separate houses. However, in the refugee camp they lived as a group which impacted their family dynamics on a daily basis. Often in the refugee camps there was not adequate food and water access to different environments. Women were victims of rape and faced mental health challenges because of these extreme conditions. In addition, the Sudanese military treated Darfuri families unfairly. For the families, the refugee camps presented an unsafe space, which impacted every ecological level from the micro to the marcosystem. Also the changes and move to the refugee camp served as a chronosystem level crisis for the families.
One participant reported:
.jjU4 Uni 4-pl /.'ill LlLdl 4-lutia^Ldl A-llc. (jj
Can be summed up in difficulty eating and drinking, sleeping and diseases, the refugee camps in the border of Chad- and Sudan are supervised by the UNHCR,(United Nations High


30
Commission for Refugees) for the high number of refugees, there is a lack of drinking water and food and lack of space.
-Participant Family 001-husband
Another participant stated:
^ U i ^ 4y il'ill aIV*a\1 > 4-Ltajk^Jl ^JC. CLlLtdaltill La£ WFP
CjUU^VI olA AjjIj dlLajaLall olA V ^.ic. ^liUV 4jun
non-governmental organizations and some UN organizations, Particularly WFP (World Food Program) is providing the camp with food, water and medicines, but there is a problem facing these organizations. The large number of refugees in this camp a large number of which are difficult to feed everyone process, but sometimes fail to these organizations can not meet the needs of the camp for food and water and medical treatment. In the refugee camps Adult and childrens with disabilities ended up, in the refugee campe in part because of their particularly destitute status, in what can loosely be termed a segregated Camp, alongside other extremely vulnerable people, including older adults and persons with leprosy. However, they were not included in any of the formal registration programs and thus were excluded from programers that specifically target extremely vulnerable individuals (EVIs), despite being clearly in need of extra support
-Family Participant 001
These conditions in the refugee camps have been supported in previous research (Kett, & Trani, 2010).
One husband stated:


31
~^ 4^.j3 Y ^Ic. t-i^j)c' tiA Cy^j ^)^-ui*-a1I (J^.k liLi^J dij£ l_jl
Us^ll^l 3 j,'.'11^ 4_aj^ldl i"^s j' 6 Usdl^ Iajj ^.3i->j SLdll (JaI ^1] 3 j,'.'t ia ^4&dlj ^jj IjIaI 2;ljj
I sometimes teach inside the camp and here I met my wife, of course we do not have intimate relations outside marriage. For most marriages in our culture the person must ask the womens father for her hand in marriage. I got married in this way and asked in advancedirectly to her father and requested that he agree and we had a traditional marriage with a small ceremony.
- Participant Family 002 -husband
Another participant father stated:
^ Jjill ^Ldl 4kj 4j^*-dl dlY^bj ^IjVl dll ji,.11 4_^al_i.j ^ r ;121l
4jic-Vl klij
We have suffered a lot in the early years, from diseases such as malaria, dysentery and gastroenteritis and the lack of healthy food, and, and healthy water.
- Participant Family 001-wife
This same participant further stated.
Al*. a\\ jIjlj V J 4 i jludl 4 i, i (J j2l (jll Sljljt-dl dul£ Jld ;(J jYI
Ls*
3111

My two children have suffered illiteracy, malnutrition and lack of clothes the and the many diseases that led to the death of a large number of refugees. Transportation procedures


32
between countries was very difficult because we did not have documents, but when the people in the other countries discovered we are refugees they helped us. They explained for us how we can pass the border. We reached the camp and found everything is perfect in the camp
-Participant Family 001-wife
A single mother stated:

Js u\l j
I traveled from Omdurman to Haifa and from there to Cairo and made a request for political asylum from the Cairo offices of the United Nations.
- Participant Family 003-single mother
In summary, the factors that influenced this theme are (1) lack of space, (2) lack of security, (3) lack of nutrition, (4) diseases, (5) sexual harassment, and (6) lack of clean water. The third theme was life in the refugee camp, according to the Bronfenbrenner Ecological Systems Theory the Darfuri families were exposed to very harsh environmental conditions.
Often the families microsystem was confronted with the realities of the refugee camps and struggle to maintain a balance was difficult. Families encountered the loss of their space and home and were forced to flee from their land. The forced traumatic move was an indicator of the chronosystem and life would change forever for these families as discussed in Roberta Berns description of chronosystems and family life changes and crisis (Bems, 2013).
Theme 4: Life in Colorado


33
In summary, the fourth theme life in Colorado focused on the Darfuri families adaptation to their new life in Colorado. What emerged from the data was there was no clear cut way to best adapt to American society. It was challenging as most Darfuri families did not understand the culture and did not speak English. On the same note Darfuri families discussed the opportunity for more family resources to help their community. This shift in macrosystems from Darfur to the United States is illustrated in the Bronfenbrenners Ecological Systems Theory as discussed by Berns (2013). Moreover, this theme illustrates how their new life shifted their policies and practices a clear indicator of the exosystem. The data demonstrated that there has been an increase in acceptance to new family life in Colorado. Now more than ever, there was an understanding that Darfuri families needed additional services. Darfuri families began the process of applying for federal assistance such as social services, food stamps and medical services. What follows are examples of the families striving for a positive well-being.
One husband stated:
^9 41a1 9C-1_li11j A ..Vi £jlaluLl lilx. Jj£l Ikl^-ol (5^ (^J-ra^ill ;(JjYl
4il]l -diHj j . >tl ^ dll jLiLaj l_i9^.j 99 j
The opportunities available in America are better than Ghana and Sudan. Here one can learn and develop himself to serve his family. We have found many privileges such as housing, medical treatment, and schools for students for me to learn the English language. It has helped me to find work and generally things are easier.
- Participant Family 002-Husband


34
This participant continued to state.
The only problem here in Colorado is I feel lonely.
Another husband stated:
A-iljLa 3 Sljljt-o (Jal JULY I I AjlUI j ^21 a j ,! A' a K .'.'4' :cJjV^
Aiiii
The problem for me is the strong sense of alienation. The fundamental problem of not speaking English and the cold weather. However, children suffer less than us in this alienation and have a quick ability to acquire language.
- Participant Family 001-husband
Another wife provided her perspective:
filial dr. Ij dr. IJ (_S-Lilij JJjlaJ ^ AjC-jll (_g^l Ijl
a ^'. .-.I ^jlj sjjjI <_5J^ A tic. jl Ajjl
I need to develop myself and learn through education and my children. Because education here is easier to access compared to Africa.
- Participant Family 002-wife
A single mother provided a descriptive and well-detailed statement about her life in Colorado.
^>* t J (Jxlu JS filial .1^.^ 333 4-Luiajllj 4-i^-^all ASi
^aUajll ^3 A \ . <\\ \ j-. ^ i' j £ja a Ul ^hLl 33j


35
Life is beautiful and we found in Colorado health and psychological care for my children. We have found all means of comfort, education and social services. Here we found that Darfuri families, and my children have adapted to American society and easily integrated into the school system.
The same participant continued to illustrate her experience.
AiLuaVtj .2004 Ai>a (jLLla5Ll a M. (J-oc.1 lil ^jV 1 j \ ^ vtl yi I Ail!I aK ^
I found it difficult to reconcile the parenting, employment and a sense of the weight of responsibility in raising children, initially faced a problem with English. However, I learned and now I'm working in the nursery since 2004 in addition to the intense feeling of adaptation and longing for the people of Sudan.
- Participant Family 003-single mother
In summary, the factors that influenced this theme were adapting to new life in Colorado. Specifically, it brought challenge cold weather, language barrier, a sense of loneliness and longing for life in Darfur. However, the participants shared that life Colorado also brought an ecological shift for their families. Often the children adapted more than parents through language, school environment, neighborhood connections and their peers. According to Bronfenbrenner mesosystems the Darfuri families had a new experience that related to their school, and their work experience in Colorado. The Darfuri families microsystem served as a positive environment for their childrens development. In this theme the chronosystem for the


36
Darfuri families had shifted from war, fear and genocide to freedom and opportunities in Colorado.
Along with the new found freedom and peace in Colorado it is important to understand the extended familial value of fictive kin in this case Elnafeer and it role in Darfur families lives in Colorado. Although the value may have decreased during the migration period after the war and during life in the refugee camps value has resurfaced in the Darfuri community in Colorado For families in Colorado this value is apparent through a high context macrosystem. That is Elnafeer is visible through the social capital that Darfuri families provide each other through their social networks. For example when a new Darfuri family arrives often already settle families provide mentoring and outreach through meeting the families at the airport, helping with groceries, helping cook, helping with identifying a rental apartment, helping find English teacher. Also helping identify second -hand goods clothing furniture, bicycles house hold goods. More importantly Elnafeer manifest itself through the Darfuri families through helping new families adapt to life in Colorado as a refugee. The goal of Elnafeer is to collaborate to bring community members together in one group for support. Moreover, often families provide each other support with other systems including schools and community agencies through English translation and helping each other in the navigation of these social systems. In essences Elnafers serves as a resiliency mechanism for families as they develop their new lives in Colorado.
CHAPTER V
DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH
Discussion


37
This thesis focused on factors that served as challenges for the Darfuri families and their children before the war, during and after the war life in the refugee camp and life in Colorado.
The goal of this study was to find which themes affected the adaptation between the Darfuri families and their new life. It seemed that the life experiences of the Darfuri families was very hard.
Specifically, the data in this study showed the interactions between the Darfuri families and their new environment. These interactions played an important part in the Darfuri families environments. In this way it became important to note that the theoretical framework of Bronfenbrenners Ecological Systems Theory (1989) helped explain the ethnographic experiences within Darfuri families and their environments. Thematic results in this study showed that the relationships with the interactions between different levels of the Ecological Systems Theory. It became apparent that Darfuri families life was related to each of the five levels associated with the Ecological Systems Theory.
This study contributes to previous literature through finding key themes, which can be associated with the adaptation of Darfuri refugees in their new environment. This data came from a Darfuri community who live in Colorado. From this study, four key themes emerged as a way to demonstrated the relation between ecological factors and adaptation. Each of these themes were based on cultural relevancy and were specific to the life experiences of the Darfuri families. These themes are important in this study because there is a lack of knowledge in understanding the Darfuri population.
Limitations of the Study


38
This study has several limitations; the small number of participants reduced the ability to examine other potentially important factors such as gender. This sample was not generalizable to the Darfuri families resettled in Colorado. Another limitation of the study was that Islamic Darfuri cultures do not always allow women to totally share their experiences.
Strengths of this Study
A major strength of this study is the ethnographic methods that were used to gather the data. The data lead to deep rich understanding of Darfuri families and their experience in new environments. A major strength in this study is that Darfuri families have rarely been studied through an ecological perspective. Another strength in this study was the researchs role as this person was of Darfuri background and had an insiders-cultural capital perspective of the participants experiences.
Interpretation of Results
Theme 1: Life Before the War
Qualitative responses from the participants show how Darfuri families before the war in their land of Darf ur were stable. The finding in this theme explained how life before the war was positive for the families and their communities. The previous literature has documented that life of the Darfuri families before the war was positive and safe.
These themes illustrated the life in Darfuri before the war. Data from this study demonstrated how the life in Darfur before the war was more positive. What came from the data was that their microsystem is their home environment where they lived with hope and peace. Before the war, Darfuri families were not struggling, and they lived in freedom and peace. The mesosystem consists of the interactions between the family and the community. Other


39
community systems including the village families and communities worked in a collective manner.
From this theme it was evident how the ecological theory grounded the findings. At the microsystem it was demonstrated in the activities of the Darfuri people collaborative efforts in their villages. The social fabric of the family and community is bound by these efforts. At the mesosystem there is a great link between the Darfuri families and their community through cooking, bring drinking water singing and dancing to support the group, These activities often impacted the empowerment process in the neighborhood the social networks, Another example is seen Darfuri families unity Elnafer at the macrosystem level which impacted cultural traditions, lifestyle and customs. Life before the war truly in this theme demonstrate the role of the chronosystems on the Darfuri families and their environment where respect, cooperation, shared responsibility and effective communication where critical to the Elnafer value system.
Theme 2: Life During and After the War
This theme demonstrated that the life for Darfuri families changed in many ways during and after the war. For example families faced displacement, killing, raping and losing land. Life was now at a different pace and was unsafe. This finding was consistent with previous research that demonstrated the horrific conditions during the war.
There was a major impact on the family unity during the war and after the war due to displacement and homelessness. This essentially began to destroy family life (microsystem) because families began to lose their unity and connection. The families lived without hope. Family was totally different peace to unsafe and unsure during and after the war. Also human life was destroyed as people were unsatisfied because it did not meet the standard of living.


40
Theme 3: Life in the Refugee Camp
The data from this studied showed that Darfuri families were fearful and felt and unsafe in the refugee camps because of the fear of other governments and the Janjaweed groups who could still rape and kill family members in the camps. However, based on this theme the majority of the Darfuri refugees believed that the organizations helped the Darfuri families in the acculturation process, which impacted their new macrosystem. Even though the international organizations were attempting to serve the families there was still the feeling of the loss of Darfuri family life.
The continuing influences on the impact of the war on Darfuri families was trauma, depression, and losing the unity. From this theme it is critical to understand these continuing influences through an ecological perspective. At the microsystem the separation of family members due to the war served as a trauma. At the mesosystem the families lost the aspects of unity in the community which resulted in trauma and depression. For the families this created negative attitude towards their new society in their adaptation and life experience. Sometimes family violence and mistreatment of family members resulted from the trauma of the war and the refugee camps. At the societal level the macrosystem the aspects of social isolation often impacted the culture, patterns and value. For Darfuri families visiting mental health specialist can bring shame to their culture and beliefs. As a result of all the changes over time the chronosystem was marked with tremendous change that caused trauma during the war and after the war and during life in the refugee camps. This result in mental scars for the families. This has also been documented in the literature by Natalie and Omer (2009).
Theme 4 Life in Colorado


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This theme demonstrated that Darfuri families in their adaptation to Colorado struggled with language and cultural barriers in their new home. It also showed that the families aimed to better their life in their adaptation. The finding showed that in Colorado Darfuri families received more services to help them with as refugees. This finding contributed to the literature by demonstrating the new micro, meso, exo, macro and chronosystem environments for the Darfur families in Colorado and that impacted their life.
For example, the micro and mesosystems systems shifted from Darfur as the school systems in Colorado have provided the families and their children a higher standard and more educational services for each student. Another example would include the exosystem as the Darfuri families based on the participants in this studied documented that they were better received and were provided with comprehensive familial services in the community and by the local government. For example human services, refugee services, services directed towards church and other nonprofit organizations including the food banked had a positive impact on the Darfuri families adaption in Colorado. In the case of the families new microsystem the participants reported finding peace in their new home and their culture being accepted.
Future Research
Future research should explore Darfuri families, schools and communities in the United States and the educational success of Darfuri youth. There should be more research on the acculturation process of Darfuri families in Colorado. Conduct more research with the five Bronfenbrenners ecological systems levels and with Darfuri families in Colorado. Future research should explore Darfuri families and trauma, war, and mental health as it has impacted refugees in the United States and Colorado. Understanding the gender differences and how Darfuri families deal with trauma would be important for future research. Other research should


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examine how ecological systems including micro and mesosystems such as the interrelationship between families and schools has impacted Darfuri families and their children and youth in Colorado. Moreover, chronosystem generational research should also explore the adaptation of Darfuri children and youth who migrated to the United States as refugees and Darfuri children and youth who were born in Colorado and the United to better understand their acculturation process.
Implications and Conclusion
This study contributed to the literature by understanding the Darfuri families life before and after the war through an ecological perspective. The study confirmed through the utilization of Bronfenbrenners theory that Darfuri families were facing many difficulties in their family systems. A critical aspect of this study was that family participants overcame major barriers while seeking safety, freedom and peace after the war. From this they demonstrated resiliency to begin a new life in Colorado. Implications from this study show that community leaders can use these ecological based findings to provide information on better serving and understand Darfuri families in Colorado. An implication of this study was the importance of understanding how to serve and research Darfuri families and understanding the cultural and linguistic realities.
In summary, an instrumental aspect of this study was that Darfuri families demonstrated ecological resiliency despite the horrific conditions they endured during the war, after the war and in the refugee camps. Understanding the migration and immigration patterns of the Darfuri families from the war zone to safe zone in Colorado provides was critical insights. Another implication of this study to the family science literature is understanding how often Darfuri families in Colorado under-utilized mental and social services that pertained to the trauma that they might have experienced in Darfur during and after the war and in the refugee camps.


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APPENDIX
APPENDIX A: University of Colorado Denver; Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board Approval
University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus
Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board, CB F490 University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus 13001 E. 17th Place, Building 500, Room N3214 Aurora, Colorado 80045
303.724.1055 [Phone] 303.724.0990 [Fax] COMIRB Home Page [Web] cgmlrt? University of Colorado Hospital Denver Health Medical Center Veteran's Administration Medical Center Children's Hospital Colorado University of Colorado Denver Colorado Prevention Center
Certificate off Exemption
19-May-2015
Investigator: Omhagain Dayeen
Subject: COMIRB Protocol 14-2272 Initial Application
Review Date: 5/15/2015
Effective Date: 15-May-2015
Anticipated Completion Date: 14-May-2018 Sponsor(s): No Sponsor
Title: The Ecological Adaptation of Darfuri Families in Colorado
Exempt Category: 2
Submission ID:APP001-1
SUBMISSION DESCRIPTION:
Initial exempt application
Your COMIRB Initial submission APP001-1 has been APPROVED FOR EXEMPTION. Periodic continuing review is not required. For the duration of your protocol, any change in the experimental design/content/personnel of this study must be approved by COMIRB before implementation of the changes.
The anticipated completion date of this protocol is 14-May-2018. COMIRB will administratively close this project on this date unless otherwise instructed by e-mail to COMIRB@ucdenver.edu. If the project is completed prior to this date, please notify the COMIRB office in writing or by e-mail once the project has been closed.
Study personnel are approved to conduct the research as described in the documents approved by COMIRB, which are listed below the REVIEW DETAILS section. Please carefully review the REVIEW DETAILS section because COMIRB may have made red-line changes (i.e. revisions) to the submitted documents prior to approving them. The investigator can submit an amendment to revise the documents if the investigator does not agree with the red-line changes. The REVIEW DETAILS section may also include important information from the reviewer(s) and COMIRB staff.
COMIRB stamps the approved versions of documents in the top right hand corner. Stamped copies of documents are


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APPENDIX B: Darfuri Family Interview Protocol
Darfuri Family Protocol
Demographic Information
1. Male /female
2. Years of education completed : Degree/Diploma
3. Age
4. Occupation
5. How many children do you have
6. What is your ethnic background? Darfuri, please be specific Zagawa, Fur, Masaleet,
Bargo,Tongor, or other.
7. Please describe your life in Darfur before and after the war?
8. How has your family and children adapted to their new life in Colorado?
9. What community resources have been important to Darfuri family in Colorado?
10. How have Darfuri family and their children adapted to their new life in Colorado?
11. What kind of experienced health problems facing women in Colorado?
12. What are the educational, social and health needs that are specific preserved differently by non-formal and formal educator who work with the Darfuri migrant in Colorado?
13. How did parents and children deal with their anew life in Colorado?


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14. How did the family deal with change after a migratory move?
15. What community resources were important to Darfuri families?
16. How did school, family, and community impact Darfuri children who grew up in the migrant?
17. Who women and girls talk to if they experience violence and what else can be done to help women and girls.
What kind of experienced, health problems facing women and girls, places girls and women go for health care and medical assistance, and obstacles faced when seeking health care.
18. What is problems relating to safety and security, ways the community is trying to solve these problems, and suggestions for other ways these problems might be solved.
19. What is information about the living condition of the IDPs focusing on?
20. How the groups spend their time, economic activity before the conflict and now; girls education, information collection and sharing; who women and girls are most likely to talk to when they face problems; identification of the head of household and decision making processes.


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APPENDIX C: Darfuri Family Consent Form
General Darfuri families Informed Consent Letter
Hello my name is Omhagain Somi Dayeen and I am student at University of Colorado Denver School of education and Human development. I am in the masters program educational psychology/ Human Development Emphasis. I am conducting a study on Ecological effaces of the war in Darfur on children, and their families in Colorado Denver. Specifically, this study will focus on understanding how different ecological factors including but not limited to family-cultural values, family involvement, community involvement and, educational, educational and social policies, migration and immigration realities and economic factors impact the Darfuri childrens ,and their family in Colorado. This study will benefit the scholarly research by extending the Darfuri childrens, and their families and educational research in the USA. Moreover, another benefit of the study is that the findings could aid helping professionals in the community and student services professionals who serve Darfuri childrens, and their families in Colorado. This research will be conducted through sound culturally sensitive research. We hope that you will participate in our study. Your participation in the study is voluntary and at any time during the study you may withdraw. The risks of this study are no greater than those normally encountered in everyday life.
Thus, individuals who identify themselves as Darfuri, community members and/or leaders who serve the Darfuri childrens and their families who are come to Colorado as are refugees are eligible for the study. You will be asked to participate potentially in one or more of the following interviews depending on your availability and if the interview or observation pertains to you. Those interviews include one hour open-ended interviews, focus groups or an observation. We would also appreciate it if we could audio record your interview. Interviews


56
will be conducted in Arabic or English depending on your preference. The interviews will be conducted in a convietent and safe location for both the respondent and the researcher. The audiotapes will be transcribed and translated so that the data can be used to write research manuscripts, research reports, create presentations and for other work related to the research.
I will make every effort to preserve your confidentiality. Your interview and the audiotape from your interview will be kept in a locked filing cabinet in my office. Only my research team and I will see the collected data. Information from this research will be used solely for the purpose of this study, publications, and any presentation or work that may result from it. All research material will be destroyed at the end of the study. Your name will not be used in the research or at any time during the study or any other work related to the research.
If you have any questions about the research, please contact me at (omziryab@hotmail.com). (omhagain.dayeen@ucdenver.edu) If you have questions about the conduct of this study or rights as a research participant you may contact the Director/Research Compliance Officer at University of Colorado Denver
Thank you for your time and if you agree to participate in the study please print and sign your name.
Participants Printed Name
Date
Participants Signature
Date


57
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ECOLOGICAL ADAPTATION OF DARFURI FAMILIES IN COLORADO by OMHAGAIN SOMI DAYEEN B.A., Sudan University Science & Technology 1998 M.A. Sudan Univ ersity Science & Technology 2001 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Art s Education and Human Development 2016

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ii This thesis for the Master of Arts Degree By Omhagain Somi Dayeen Has been approved by Ruben P. Viramontez Anguiano, Chair Rene Galindo Kim Young Date: July/30/2016

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iii Dayeen, Omhagain Somi (M.A. Education and Human Development) Ecological Adaptation of Darfuri Families in Colorado Thesis directed by P rofessor Ruben P. Viram ontez Anguiano ABSTRACT The Darfuri families have been a new population to Colorado. Most of the Darfiuri families come to the USA as Genocide survivor and come from hardship life. The study looks at what factors impacts the Darfuri life, who are recent immigrant to the USA Previse research has looked at how the Darfuri family adapted the their new life in Colorado. The study looked at the strengths and the difficulties the Darfuri families handle on a daily basis through several themes including life before the war and during war and after the war, life in the refugee camp s and in their new life in Colorado. The primary data was used for the purpose of this thesis. For this study families consisted of 6 participants who were interviewed. Then q u alitative data was analyzed by finding factors that were exhibited through this study. Results provide four common themes throughout the research. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Approved: Ruben P. Viramontez Anguiano

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iv DEDICATION I dedicate this thesi s to all Darfuri people who were killed in the Genocide of Darfur and who suffer from th e displacements. I also dedicate it to the soil of my mother, my sister E klass brother Hafeez, and my two brother s Adam Ehahmer who were killed in the war zoon in south Sudan, and to my family. I al so dedicate it to my friend Ms. Cruz, and P rofessor Ruben and Susan Tyler who provided for me the tool to succeed. I know with out them my life would be harder.

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v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Frist, I would like to Thank Allah, and I have been blessed to have many people who had direct impa ct on my life. My family : I would like to thank my parents Asha and Somi. I would also like the thank my Husband for his support I am also blessed to have my kids surround me caring for me.I would also th thanks my sisters and brothers for their loving. Dr Ruben P Viramontez Anguiano: Dr Ruben had a direct impact on my life. He has pro vided all of his time to toward my ac ademic success. Allah blessed me to work with him. He is the role model for the professor in social justices. My committee members: Thank you Rene Galindo Kim Young for your support and the hard work the you offer for me. Dr Sarah Harrison: Thank you for reviewing my thesis and editing this information. Susan Tyler: Thank you Susan for the support that you offed for me in the thesis and your support of my family. Zoya Elhassen: T hank you Zoya for reviewing my thesis the Arabic part and editing this information. My Friends: Tmen, and the all of my friends from the School of Education and Human Development Ejlal, Houda Zoya, Nawal Enshrah, Cruz, Hidi, Rona, Asha, DoreeuaI cannot thank you enough for your friendship SEHD Technology Staff: I would l ike to thank the School of Education and Human Development Technology staff and students for their great help through out my thesis.

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vi TABLE OF CONT E N T S CHAPTER 1. INTRO DUCTION .. 1 1 Purpose and Significance of the S tudy 2 Guiding Research Q u 2 Definitions and Personal Identification of t II. LITERATURE R General Adaptation of Refugees Life B efore the W 9 Life During and A fte ... 12 Life in the R efuge e .. 13 Life in Color ad Theoretical Frame 15 III METHOD S Research Des ig Participants Interview P ro ..

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vii Procedures 19 20 Quantitative Thematic Fi 36 V DISCUSS ION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR .. 37 Limitations of this S Strengths of this S 38 Implications and C onclusion ..51 APPENDIX A: University of Colorado Denver ; Colorado Multiple institutional Review Board Approval 52 B : Interview Protocol C : Interview Consent D

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1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Overview Darfur is a region in Sudan with a population of 6 million people and mos t of the population is Muslim (Mulaj, 2008). Thi s country has experienced civil wars and domestic conflicts since l attention in 2004. Despite attempts to resolve this situation, D continues unresolved (Jumbert, 2014). The Sudanese government and the Janjaweed militias were partners in a campaign of ethnic cleansing against different tribes in Darfur Nearly 2,700 villages have been destroyed, and as a result of t he violence as well as starvation and disease 250, 000 Sudanese people have died mostly in 2003 and 2004. An additional two million people fled to refugee camps for several years (Natsios, 2008). Purpose and Significance of the Study Few researchers have explored the adaptation of Darfuri families through an ecological perspective in the United States and how the war in Sudan has impacted adaptation. Thus, this study sought to explore ecological factors including familial, cul tural, social, political and others that impacted the Darfuri families in Colorado. Specifically, Bronfenbrenner Ecological Systems Theory (1989) was utilized to exam ine the adaption of the families within the microsystems, mesosystems, exosystems, ma crosystems and the chronosystem. This study is significant to the family science research as it illustrated the rich descriptions of Darfuri families

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2 as they adapted to the United States a ar and life in the refugee camps. G uiding Research Questions 1. How has the war in Darfur impacted Darfuri families in Colorado? 2. What social, cultura l political and other ecological factors impacted the Darfuri families ? 3. How have Darfuri families adapted in the Colorado? Definitions of Terms There are several terms that will be used throughout this paper and are defined in this section. Immigrant: a person who moves to another country to permanently reside. Migrant: a person who migrates and moves another country Refugee: person wh o has been forced to leave a country because of war or for religious or political reasons A refugee is someone who "owing to a well founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or pol itical opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to, or owing to such fear, is Genocide : The definition of genocide, as accepted by the United Nation s, is "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: (a) killing members of the group; (h) causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of group ; (c) deliber ately inflicting on the group conditi ons of life calculated to cause its physical destruction i n whole or in part; (d) imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (e) forcibly transferring children of the group to another

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3 group." Bas ed on the reports of refugees and international observers, the s ituation in Darfur meets this It must be noted that for the purpose of this paper, the terms immigrant and migrant are used i nterchang eably and may describe persons of d iffering socio economic status UN: is the United Nation founded in 1945 is an international organization. The UN work s on economic and social development programs, reducing global confl icts and improving human rights AU: African Union an organization of African states founded in 2002 to promote peace and security and stability in African countries. CARE: Cooperative for American R emittances to Europe. This organization founded in 1945 to help European people after the War War II, by helping and sending food and clothing. Now the same organization helps refugees and natural disasters survival all over the world. JEM: Justice and Equality Movement, founded by Dr Khal il Ibrahim and his group who are from Darfur, as Khali l was killed in December 2011 his brother Ibrahim has been leader the group. NIF: National Islamic Front, is an Islamic organization founded in 1976. It is one of only two Islamic movements to help and secure political power in Sudan. This organization is led by Dr Hassan Al Turabe. NGO: A Non Government Organization is a non profit organization that performs different services which is organized around specific issues such as health, environment, or human rights. An organizations work are differs dependin g on its values, goals and mission

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4 SLA: Sudan L iberation Army, is a Sudanese rebel group it was founded by member of three Darfuri leaders. SMB: Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood is an Islamic organization, and is movement not apolitical party. SPLA: UNOCHA: United Nation Office for the Coordination H umanitarian Affair s is an organization founded in 1991. It o rganization has a services in many countries. Their mission is to serve human needs. United States: The United States of America is a North America Republic containing 50 states. Personal Identification of the Topic To help develop a personal connection to this t opic (The Ecological Adaptation of the Darfuri Families in Colorado) it is important to understand the his tory of the r esearcher I am Omhagain Dayeen a women from Sudan in African I am an educator and artist, and I want to make a difference in the wor ld. I am pursuing a PhD degree in Education and Human Development with a concentration in Family Science and Human Development. My long term goals are to become a professor where my research and outreach will focus on Women Iss developme nt, with African families in Colorado and t he United States. Another major objective is to return to my home country of Sudan and work through research and practice to improve the educational system for all families. I believe that the key to building pe ace in the world is through education. I am a person who comes from a developing country which lacks the necessary resources for significant change in the education system for its families and communities. With my degree I hope to conduct

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5 international re search on the relationship between Sudanese families and the opportunity for a quality education. My hope is that my research will help inform family and educational policy in Sudan. I am specifically from Darfur in Sudan, Afric a. There I studied and ear ned bachelors and s in education and art at the University of Sudan in Khartoum. I also taught family relation based courses, Islamic culture and art education at the University of Juba University. When the Sudanese government began its war against the peopl e of Darfur, and my family fled to Egypt. With the aid of the United Nations, we came to the United States as refugees. I am now a U.S. citizen and will be completing my Masters of Education and Human Development (Educational Psychology) t his academic year. In my community, I am active on many fronts the Association of Colorado. When a fellow refugee is in the hospital, I provide translation between the patient and doctors. I also organize relief efforts to directly impact my people in refugee ss and Action (ccgaa.org), I giv e presentations in schools, colleges and churches about the genoci de in Darfur. Since 2007, I have taught art throughout the Denver metro area and am a member of the 40 W est Arts District in Lakewood. Within Jefferson County, I am a member of the Colorado I am an accomplished artist, having shown my work since 2004 in Egypt, and Colorado. My art is a stylized expression representing life in Sudan before the war and its impact on families in particular women and children. I have used the proceeds from the sale of my art to help the people in refugee cam ps in Darfur, and. By regularly sending funds to buy blankets, rice, grain, and medicine, I feel I am making a difference from a long distance. In 2010,

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6 however, I was able to travel there to visit several c amps for displaced families. I documented the conditions of my people in the camps and took much needed clothing and health supplies.

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7 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW General Refugee Adaptation Globally, in the past few years the incre asing number of people were forced to flee usually occurred due to conflicts war, and disasters The r efugee numbers continue d to rise by the end of 2012 about 45.2 million people were displaced from their home land s as a result of war persecution, violence, and human rights violation In 2013 1.5 million people from Syria were forced to flee their homeland ( Bloom, & Udahemuka, 2014). Other families from other countries including Central Africa, Congo, Somalia, Mali, and Sudan have also had to flee their homes. The United States received 83,430 refugee and asylum claims of people from all over the world Australia has received 17,420 refugees and asylum claims (UNHCR2013). During 2012, 479,300 refugee and asylum claim were made across 44 countries (Bloom, & Udahemuka, 2014). Refugee families struggle d to find services being outside their home land they face many difficulties : language, lack of care literacy, and cultural differences. Families facing all of this issues often struggle with trauma and mental health (Cheng, Drillich & Schattner 2015). Refugee experience difficulty adapting to new countries often the struggle with accessing services, facing cul tural differences and langu age b arrier s (Cheng, Drillich & Schattner 2015) Ultimately r efugees all over the world h ave high hopes to find a safe place to live, quality jobs, homes, and education for their families and their children (Martini ,Bieyer 2016) Adaptation for refugee has been defined as sense of su ccess and complete participation in a new society ( Ow ens Manley & Coughlan, 2000). The adaptation process for r efugee includes resettling in another country fac ing many challenges with the acculturation process through language and

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8 cultural barriers and social system adjustments in schools and the community ( Qin, Saltarelli Rana, Bates, Lee & Johnson, 2015). Life Before the War Darfur is a region in Sudan with a population of 6 million people, most of whom are Muslims land of the fur tribe).The Fur are a large group that inhabit the central part of Darfur. Darfur also has two main groups that are located in West Darfur and North Darfur known as the Masalit and the Zagawa. More than 40 other ethnic groups live in the same region. D arfur is divided in two major e thnic blocks, the Arabs and non Ara struggles between the Arab and Black populations in Darfur have continued for a hundreds of years. In order for people to live in peaceful coexistence they must respect the customs and laws of the area. Coexistence is vital for the future of all people, not only in Darfur, but also in Sudan. Various tribes of Darfur have lived together and resolved their problems with outside interference (Nurain, 2008). Before its annexation to the Anglo Egyptian in 191 6, Darfur was an independent state known as the Fur Sultanate. Darfur has continued to maintain its cohesion despite the struggles with intertribal conflicts. If any major conflict between the tribes they would council with the elders. Jabal Marra is reco gnized as t he center of Darfur. This area is rich in natural resources such as oil, forests, gold, water, fertile and soil. This area is made up of different tribes, h owever, most of the population the fur tribe. A small percentage of the population inclu des tribes such as

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9 the Zagawa and the Masalit. The Fur tribe developed agreements with other tribes to share land and resources. Marriage amongst the tribes was not uncommon throughout the region. Darfur is comprised of three environmental and ethnic z ones. There is the northern zone includes both sides of the Jabal Marra Mountains inhabited by non Arabs tribes by Fur, Masalit, Tama, Qimr, Mima and other farme rs. Finally, the south zone contains Arabic speaking cattle herding nomads such as the Baqqara, the Bani Halba, Habbaniyya, Rizayqat, and the Taaisha. In Darfur language is not a marker for ethnicity because language can be lost. Many speak Arabic but do ). Specifically, Arab world is defined by language (Arabic) rather than ethnicity. The countries in which (a dialect of) Arabic is spoken are considered Arab. Black African families speak Arabic when living in Egypt, Libya Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, large parts of Sudan, Somali a, parts of Nigeria, and Mali (Rizzo, Del Latif, & Meyer 2007). Life in Darfur During and After the War Since 2003 a civil war has taken over Darfur. The ce nter of the conflict was to ta rget non Arab civilians. By doing so it has left more than 200,000 people dead, two million displaced and that number continues to grow (Straus, 2008). The civil war in Darfur is not clear cut, as the government often has been on both sides of the confli ct (de Waal, 2005). In early 2003, the Darfur government began to attack its own villages. The government has not only killed and injured a significant amount of innocent people but also destroyed homes, buildings, roads, power resources, property and far mlands. Although the total numbers of victims is uncertain, millions have been reported killed and approximately 2.74 million remain within Darfur. Those that were fortunate to escape the violence migrated to Chad and other nearby

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10 areas. So many Darfuri p eople left their home because of violence and conflict (Budabin, 2014; Genoways, 2007; Straus, 2008). The government's way of destroying everyone's way of life was to burn, loot, and eliminated farms, crops, and livestock. This resulted in causing pov erty and different tribal conflicts. One negative consequence was that people were confused by the ownership right thus, destroying people's hard earned property and land (Badri, Van den, & Crutzen, 2013). The Darfuri government ordered their militia to c ommit adultery against the Black Africans of Darfur, which resulted in physical harm, terror, physical and mental trauma, and sexually transmitted diseases. One of the highest percentage of the sexually transmitted diseases has been HIV, resulting in sickn ess and death. Women endured unwanted pregnancy and feelings of helplessness and humiliation as the result of the war. Sexual violence and female genital cutting was very common which has resulted in victims physically being traumatized, shamed, and ostra cized. Often rape was viewed as a means of controlling reproduction and as a powerful weapon for the end of social groups (Hagan, Rymond Richmond, & Palloni, 2009; Watson, 2007). Furthermore, Darfuri people have continued to struggle with genocide. Men o f war are not the only people affected by genocide. It can also be defined as with a purpose to destroy an entire people, through thorough planning. Major groups are set to be eliminated, while others face different circumstances, which ultimately aim for death (Kaiser & Hagan, 2015). The rebellion of the African peoples of Darfur arose in early 2003 and surprised Khartoum by their numbers. The government of Sudan was quite ruthless in cleansing the Darfurians from their region (Reyna, 2010).

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11 In Darfur the war continued between African and non African. The non African tribes were empowered by the governments of Sudan. Specifically the Janjaweed attacked and war, and so did many Africans as well (Calabresi, Dealey, Paris, 2004). Janjaweed came into communities and surprise attacked people in the villages. It was not uncommon that children and women were taken by the numbers and used for wrong acts, and sometimes t he men were killed or arrested for slavery (Mulaj, 2008). By May 2006, as many as two million civilians were forced out of their homes and nearly 20 0,000 were killed by bombing to preven t people from staying on their land. Therefore the government comes in and takes the land from the Darfuri people without any difficulties (Mulaj, 2008; Adam 2008). The government has been sending over a million people to camps, and 230,000 people have fled to Chad (Mulaj, 2008; Adam 2008). As a result of the attacks the S udanese Liberation Army/Movement (SLA/M) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) were formed to defend against the government and Arab partnerships in order to save the people of Darfur. However, these organizations have given the government an excuse to t ake action against these people. The results have concluded with over 350,00 civilian casualties. Another aspect of life during and after the war has been the formation of the Arab group Rezeigat The Rezeigat respect the history of Darfur and understood that their land was given to them by the Fur tribe. For many years the government worked to divide the two groups. Arabs were used by the government to create differences in Darfur in hope to cause conflict (Nurain, 2008).

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12 Displacement and conflict ( war) has had a major impact on the Darfuri people, old and young. The elder have a higher impact on displacement and conflicts, because they remember the homeland and their beloved region Darfur before it became a war zone. They are the ones who both embod for the next generation. As time moves on the elderly will no longer be with the people to pass down the culture and to pass on the way of life they have known. Although f or children, displacement is a way of moving on. Many will not remember a time before they lived in camps because they are young. Since the Darfuri children lived their entire life in refugee camps they ack of opportunity for them to get an education, to follow their dreams and to have an opportunity to have a positive lifestyle (Ondiak & Ismail, 2009; Attaelmanan, Hengkun, & Ahmed, 2014). Life in the Refugee Camps Approximately 2.8 million Darfurian women and children have been displaced in refugee camps (Morgos, Worden, & Gupta, 2007). The conditions of the refugee camps are very difficult. Poor sanitation, low food supply, toxic water and overcrowded, disease infested space leave the refugees unco mfortable. In risk of getting caught, Darfurian girls would run off to get supplies that they need and are vulnerable and subjected to rape by members of the Janjaweed (Schneider, 2007). There have been reporting of raping of girls as young as 3 years old. Often times young girls cannot defend themselves in these situations, and because of their culture, their voices were not heard. Human rights groups have tried effortlessly to help these young women by providing safe places for them to stay. Camps of 2. 5 million displaced persons are uninviting. Food rations were often split in half. Often the rations were not restored due to the UN World Food Program convoy trucks

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13 being normally attacked by the Janjaweed and other regime based parties. For example, the Government in Khartoum refused to give the food convoys the correct protection needed to deliver the rations to Kordofan Province then to Darfur. Water tables were often runni ng very low, which resulted in a high risk because there is an extreme risk of portable water during rain. Often pools of mud create condition that easily allows multiple diseases to thrive and spread. (Reeves, 2008) Life in Colorado and United States The United States has continued to receive large groups of incoming immigrants, al ong with those that are oppressed for political and religious reasons. Fleeing their homeland and coming to the U.S. often causes different living experiences. Between the yeas of 1980 and 2011 there have been 2.6 million refugees who have immigrated to th e U.S. (Department of Human Services, 2011). being persecuted because of race or one who is outside their race and is incapable of availing Spe cifically, about 1,100 refugees resettled in Colorado with 10 percent legal migration in Colorado in 1975 to the modern era the United States accepted around 2 millon refugee, and around 40,000 of them resettle in Colo rado (reference). For example, the Fro nt Range region of Colorado has received about 900 refugees yearly. Refugees must have service immediately, by law. The Colorado Refugee Services and the refugee Family Center have worked together since January of 1997 The Colorado Refugee Services Program is funded by a federal agency called the US Office of Refugee Resettlement to control health screenings in Colorado. Refugees also receive cash assistance and free housing for up to eight month. Another organization is the AF

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14 William Family Medicine Cente r at the University of Colorado, which often ser ves refugee families. Theoretical Framework For this thesis, Bronfenbrenner's (1989) Ecological Systems Model was utilized to help ground the experiences of Darfuri family systems through the examination of five interconnecting system levels. Bronfenbrenner (1979) has identified the idea that social human developme nt has multiple factors to it. The center of the model contains the individual or genetic developing child is influenced by family, school, peers, and his/hers neighborhood. The second level is the mesosy s tem is made up of two or more microsystems that have direct contact with a child for example the for example the family and school or the family and community organizations. The third level that Bronfenbrenner (1989) introduced was the exosystem as indirect re lationship with the child or individual and other social systems For example a parents place experiences in this system will indirectly impact the child or individual. The exosystem can be also policies and services that may impact the family. The larger overarching level is the macrosystems that im pacts all the system as it is a the societal level. For example cultural factors, social economic factors, political factors and other factors that impact the family. The Final level which Bronfenbrenner is th e chronosystem, which describes life changing, shifts through the concept of time. the realities of the Darfuri families. At the microsystem level the Darfuri families lo st their family unity as a result of displacement because of the factors related to the war. Central to the microsystem was the concept of El Nefeer which focused on collectivism in the family and community. interconnections were developed

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15 through new neighbors school and religious centers such as the mosaic in their new life in Colorado. During the war and after the war the mesosystem was the interconnections between the Darfuri families and their new experience inside the refugee camp. The families felt fear because of the disconnection them from their homes as a result of the war. After the war, Darfuri families were involved with other mesosystems such as developing relationships with other African groups, which created a stronger link between them inside the refugee camp. For the families during and after the war, it was a struggle to survive, as all services no longer existed as the government eliminated services. The government also remo ved any access to natural resources. This changed in Colorado, as the exosystem through refugee and human services there was a positive shift to help the family survive and thrive in the United States. At the societal macrosystem there have been tremendou s shifts as the Darfuri families had to adapt to life in refugee camps and their new culture in the United States as the result of the war. At the chronosystem level befor e the war during and after the war there was displacement, rape and the killing of f amily members. Life in Colorado has been more peaceful filled with freedom and safety.

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16 CHAPTER III METHODS This chapter details the research desig n used in this thesis. The research study examined the impact of ecological factors on Darfuri families and their adaptation in Colorado. It is important to restates that the primary researcher collected all data This chapter details primary data collect ion through a qualitative interview process. It includes the participant, roles of the researcher, interview protocol, procedures, and data analysi s. Research Design This study utilized qualitative methods to explore the ecological adaptation of Darfu ri families in Colorado. Specifically, life histories were used to understand the families past and present life experiences through narratives. Qualitative methods through life histories can be a powerful research tool in brings meaning to the Darfuri fam Colorado. ( Johnson, & Christensen, 2014). Life history has been defined as historical research he family history of Darfuri was crit ical. Thus, a life history method was utilized to comprehend the narratives before the war, being a refugee and adaptation to Colorado Once all of the interviews were completed, transcribed and translated the transcripts were analyzed by an appropriate m ethod when reviewing qualitative data (Miles & Huberman, 1994). In order to check for saturation of the data, when a theme was identified in one transcript, the other transcripts were reviewed in order to determine the presence or absence of that theme. To increase the trustworthin ess of the data, a member check was performed by a member in the community that was fluent in Arabic and English and was experienced with Darfuri families.

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17 Participants Participants included three Dafuri families specifically parents. The educational level from age s ranged between 28 to 55 years old. The participant s in this the study migrated to the USA as refugee s from Darfur. After co mmunicating on the phone to each candidate an interview was scheduled. A cover letter about the study that was approved by the University of Colorado Denver COMIRB was provided and explained to each participant For more demographic details please see Table 1. Table 1 Demographi cs Gender Ag e Countr y of origin Ethnic backgroun d Year s in the U.S Years in Colorad o Job in Sudan Job in the U.S Educatio n Kid s Yea rs in refu ge cam p Male 55 Sudan Fur 2 2 Profess or Postal work PHD 2 3 Female 28 Sudan Fur 2 2 Student Home maker Bachelor 2 3 Male 42 Sudan Zegawa 2 2 Busines s owner Servic e work None 1 5 Female 38 Sudan Zegawa 2 2 Home maker Home maker None 1 5 Female 49 Sudan Masalete 9 4 Home maker Airpor t wheelc hair Med school 5 4 Role of the researcher Researchers own life experiences as a Darfuri refugee influenced the guiding research qu estions for this study, along with the interviewing, data a nalysis, and data presentation final analysis.

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18 Interview Protocol Protocol for this study was based on a multistep process inc luding an interview followed by additional interactions with participants. Interviews with Darfuri families for this study were done in a manner to create a safe environment free from external societal pre ssures. Research was participants were instructed that they could withdraw from the study at any time. Also all Darfuri family member were given consent forms and wer e instructed to fill it out. After the interviews were completed the researcher continued to follow up with the participants about what had been learned in the initial in terview. The interview lasted approximately one hour and consisted of open ended ques ti ons to gain the participant; trust and to encourage them to discuss their refugee experience. Participants received a list of questions related to the given topic. All the same procedures were used with all of the participants Data Analysis A thematic analysis was used to analyze the Darfuri families were studied specifically stu dy, narrative data was gathered Each participant received a copy of their transcript for fe edback. As a result of using life histories interpretive conclusion s were important based on the transcripts (Atkinson, 1989). The Darfuri families also received their written and printed versions of the transcripts for improved data accuracy. The im portance of this study was finding the recurring themes by the Darfuri family members. The rich data in this thesis are based on each fa

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19 foundation. This rigorous pr oces s ensured that the researcher represented the findings properly (Glesne, 1999). Procedures The data was collecte d using open ended interview questions. Data was collected over many hours through interaction s with Darfuri population. The goal of this study was achieved through interviewing three Darfuri families who migrated to the USA and settled in Colorado. Each participant completed a consent form to show his or her interest and contribu tion to the study. Once approved an appointment was scheduled for the interview. The COMIRB application from University of Colorado Denver was completed and approved for this thesis.

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20 CHAPTER IV FINDINGS Thematic Finding After reviewing the data, it was determined that there were many factors that affected the Darfuri family in Colorado. Four different themes were identified that impacted Darfuri families including life before the war, life during and after the war, life in the refugee cam ps, and lif e in Colorado. will be utilized to help explain the findings in this chapter. The objective of this chapter was to present the finding from the primary data through the use o chapter was to contextually ground the finding through the use the Bronfenbrenner Ecological Systems M odel. Theme 1: Life in Darfur Before the War The first theme wa s life in Darfur before the War. This theme looked at the interaction between macrosystem cultural ideals for Darfuri life and microsystem Darfuri family interactions. Important aspects about this theme include the value of Elnafeer. Elnafeer in Arabic cooperation. T hat is what distinguishes Elnafeer from other collective act ions in which may be paid (Dayeen 2016) Elnafeer is a social institution that provides in most rural regions of Sudan but differ s in terms of organization the type and number o f participant s by custom and regional traditions Elnafeer in Darfur is a useful habits in that help the community whether for the group, the count ry, or the individual or an act of charity. Elnafeer in Darfur was passed on by the ancestors in the pas t generations. I t is a value that helps lead people to the coherence

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21 human liberation and strength ; from the bondage of poverty and destruction. Darfuri people use Elnafe er in the farming activities building water resources, pa storal life, to combat looting to help in natural disasters, and to help the needy (Dayeen, 2016). What follows are the interpretations of this theme through the rich data. One participant stated: Participant Family 001 People lived in peace, harmony and assurance, especially in the villages, where people share d the happiness and sorrows. Se curity was n ot the dominant concern. We did not fear for ourselves and property honor or our money. We fou nd that people in happy occasions such as marriage, for example, help each other, where everyone works and contribute on this occasion. In the rain an d autumn season, agricultura l work is done by cooperation through the so called (Elnafeer). Elnafeer is the style of development of society, especially the traditional metho ds for the success of development in Darfur ; it is a system that works from one generation to another. B y this horn we gather in order to help each other in agriculture and construction and in the joys and sorrows and facing natural disaster Participant Family 001 From this family the wife also discussed the first theme.

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22 Life was simple, we lived in safety and security help ed each other. were able to movie freely were not afraid of any need we w ere socially cohesive and valued our beauty and habits Participant Family 001 w ife Another family shared their reflections on life before the war. Life was beautiful. There was peace and security We were safe from harassment by the government. We lived a very simple life W e spent our time between f arms and cattle, and there were fewer responsibilities. Participant Family 002 The wife of this family provided her experiences: Before the war, we were p retty happy with life in Darfur Another family also provided their under standing of life before the war Participant Family 00 2 w ife

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23 In summary, the current research contributes to the literature through the finding in that Darfur has been rarely investigated using of qualitative metho ds and ecological theories of ption of the life in Darfur before the war. More specifically it provided a window in to understanding how Darfuri family life existed before the war. Theme 2: Life During and After th e War This theme is about the life in Darfur during and after the war. Darfuri families are still displaced inside Darfur as well as they have been forced to flee their home to make shift refugee camps in Darfur, Chad, and Egypt run by international aid organization. This theme looked at the interaction between macrosystem cultural model on Darfuri life and microsystem Darfuri family interactions. It reviews the impac t of the war in Darfur and the realit ies of loss of home a nd family In this theme, major factors that were found through the data included (1) death and injuries c aused by Sudanese government to women and children (2) were killed, punished, raped and abused. The exosystem in this system the Darfuri family after th e war has minimal active role, B ecause of the war the families have no income of fulfilling the needs of the families. One family stated: Darfur is rich in natural resources from, metals, livestock and also by the good climate and arable land and water resources, in addition to the prevailing spirit of cooperation among the

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24 population. Despite the richness of this region the state did not provide human services of education, health and others did not meet the needs of citizens. In general, ther e are a total neglect of the regio n and its inhabitants; there is no development ar eas of Darfur Participant Family 00 2 husband Another participant stated the following about life during and after the war. Sudan is always seeking to benefit from the bou nties of the region without providing developm ent for Musbandt social change. For example, there is a rise in deaths of women and children, particularly women dying during childbirth. There is no sufficient numbers of midwives and medical care to women and children is almost nonexistent. The state ign ores these necessary medical and educational requirements for this region. They emphasize instead the development of such service s as water, electricity and other needs. The government of Suda n is not concerned for the needs of people. They are arresting y oung p eople and imprisoning and killing them and are pushing them to leave the land. The main goal of the government of Sudan is to t ake the land from people so they can become rich from the natural resources. It is known as (hawakeer)

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25 Participant Family 001 h usband Yet another family continued: The land owned by some elders and the people of Darfur were inherite d from generation to generation. T his hawakeer (land and home owners) owned their rights to the mineral resources and lands values. The State of Darfur has many natural resources that some foreign companies want to plunder its resources for their own wealth and prof it. This process has pushed the peop le of Darfur to demand that the state return hawakeer to their owners, but the State considers that this land belongs to the state. The state believes that they have full freedom to invest in and profit from the land. This disagree ment between the people a nd the state ignited war. The state used weapon s in the hunt for the people of the region, forcing them to leave their lands. The government has given armed weapons to the Arab tribes to kill non Arab tribes in Darfur. Participant Family 002 w ife Another family stated: z

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26 The Government has sought to displace the inhabitants of the region by force of arms with the assistance of the Arab tribes, where the government has given full freedom to the armed tribes to take advantage of the spoils after the displacement of the in habitants of thos e areas and as a result left most of the population to become homeless in some major cities of Darfur and neighboring countries Participant Family 003 single m ot her To support this claim Participant Family 001 husband stated: This war has destroyed villages and some cities, where they burned villages and killed private people. O n the other hand the war has deliberately not recruited educated people in the region especially those with higher qualifications, but sought to get rid of them, or absorbed them into the some marginal jobs. The government wanted the educated people to aff iliate themselves with the National Conference the ruling party. This created a polarization of the people of the region to work in the ranks of the ruling party to contribute to the implementation The system has succeeded in c reating animosities between the people of the region. These are briefly some of the reasons which led to the war in Darfur. Participant Family 001 husband

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27 To support this claim a Participant Family 1 husband stated: After the war families struggled psychologically and were depressed. We've b ecome homeless and insecure. Our property and ourselves has been lost and we left our country. We lost our families and our loved ones. Participant Family 001 h usband The wife of the same family also stated. People during and after the war became psychologica lly depressed and we lost all our property and we became homeless. Participant Family 001 w ife One participant stated Of course some of the girls were assaulted sexually harassmed some of them were raped some. T hese operations led us to escape, trying to search for a safe place W e went to the big cities and we lived in random neighborhoods on the periphery. Participant Family 001 w ife

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28 Sexual harassment has been documented in this thesis and in the research. According to Hagan, Rymond Richmond & Palloni (2009) this factor documented that the violence against women and girls had a huge impact on family life. Often women and girls were fac ing homelessness, oppression, fear, lack of trust and security T his was very common during and after the war as it was related to sexual harassment. One participant shared their per spective on these terrible acts. A final example of the struggles during and after war are stressed in the following statement by one of the mothers. 2002 I'm from the Masalit tribe I have lived all my life in Darfur with my husband, who had been employed by the government in charge of the Ministry of Agriculture. Government soldiers killed him in our house in 2002. This incident impacted my family financially, psychologically and physically. We su ffered severe insult from the government and were caused a lot of harassment so I decided to escape and survive with my family. I left everything and went to Omdurman, and after days decided to get out of Sudan. Participant Family 003 s ingle m other

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29 In summary, this theme is about the life in Darfur during and after the war. Darfuri families were displaced in Darfur T hey have been forced to flee their home to makeshift refugee camps run by international aid organization s in Darfur, Chad, Egypt. This theme looked at the interaction between macrosystem cultural model on Darfuri life and microsyste m Darfuri family interac tions. M ajor factors In this theme found through the data included death and injury caused by the Sudanese government. Women and children were killed, punished, raped and abused. Theme 3: The life in the Refugee Camps This theme came about when Darfuri families provided their response to their new life in refugee camps. Life in refugee camps pres ented many challenges for the families In Darfur familie s they live in separate houses. However, in the refuge e camp they lived as a group which impacted thei r family dynamics on a daily basis. Often in the refugee camps there was not ad equate food and water access to different environments. Women were victims of rape and faced mental health challenges beca use of these extreme conditions. In addition, the Suda nese military treated Darfuri families unfairly. For the families the refugee camps presented an unsafe space, which impacted every ecological level from the micro to the marcosystem. Also the changes and move to the refugee camp served as a chronosystem level crisis for the families. One participant reported: Can be summed up in difficulty eating and drinking, sleeping and diseases. the refugee camp s in the border of Chad and Su dan are supervised by the UNHCR,( United Nations High

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30 Commission for Refugees) for the high num ber of refugees, there is a lack of drinking water and food and lack of space. Participant Family 001 h usband Another participant stated: WFP non governmental organizations and some UN organizations, Particularly WFP (World Food Program) is providing the camp with food, water and medicines, but there is a problem facing these organizations. The large number of refugees in this camp a large number of which are difficult to feed everyone process, but sometimes fail to these organizations can not meet the needs with disabilities ended up, in the refugee campe in part b ecause of their particularly destitute status, including older adults and persons with leprosy. However, they were not included in any of the formal registratio n programs and thus were excluded from programers that specifically target Family Participant 001 These conditions in the refugee camps have been supported in previous research (Kett, & Trani, 2010) One husband stated:

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31 I sometimes teach inside the camp and here I met my wife, of course we do not have intimate relations outside marriage. For most marriages in our culture the person must ask the to her fat her and requested that he agr ee and we had a traditional marriage with a small ceremony. Participant Family 002 h usband Another participant father stated: We have suffere d a lot in the early years, f rom diseases such as malaria, dysentery and gastroenteritis and the lack o f healthy food, and, and healthy wa ter. Participant Family 001 w ife This same participant further stated. My two children have suffered illiteracy, malnutri tion and lack of clothes the and the many diseases that led to the death of a large numbe r of refugees. T ransportation procedures

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32 betw een countries was very difficult because we did not have documents, but when the people in the other countries discovered we are refugees they help ed us. T hey explain ed for us how we can pass the border. We reached the cam p and found everything is perfect in the camp Participant Family 001 w ife A single mother stated: I traveled from Omdurman to Halfa and from there to Cairo and made a request for political asylum from the Cairo offices of the United Nations. Participant Family 003 single m other In summary, the factors that influenced this theme are (1) lack of space, (2) lack of security, (3) la ck of nutrition, (4) d iseases, (5) sexual harassment, and (6) lack of clean water. The third theme was life in the refugee camp, according to the Bronfenbrenner Ecological Systems Theory the Darfuri families were exposed to very harsh environmental conditions. Often the struggle to maintain a balan ce was difficult. Families encountered the loss of their space and home and were forced to flee from their land. The forced traumatic move was a n indicator of the description of chronosystems and family life changes and crisis (Berns, 2013). Theme 4 : Life in Colorado

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33 In summary, the fourth theme life in C olorado focused on the to their new life in Colorado. What emerged from the data was there was no clear cut way to best adapt to American society. It was challenging as most Darfuri families did not understand the culture and did not speak English. On the same note Darfuri families discussed the opportunity for more family resources to help their community. This shift in macrosystems from eory as discussed by Berns (2013). Moreover, this theme illustrates how their new life shifted their policies and practices a clear indicator of the exosystem. The data demonstrated that there has been an increase in acceptance to new family life in Colo rado. Now more than ever, there was an understanding that Darfuri families needed additional services. Darfu ri families began the process of applying for federal assistance such as social services, food stamp s and medical services. What follows are exam for a positive well being. One husband stated: The opportunities available in America are better than Ghana and Sudan. Here one can learn and develop himself to serve his family. We have found many privileges such as housing, medical treatmen t, and schools for students for me to learn the English language. It has helped me to find work and generally things are easier. Participant Family 00 2 Husband

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34 This participant continued to state. The only problem here in Colorado is I feel lonely. Another husband stated: The problem for me is the strong sense of alienation. The fundamental problem of not speaking English and the cold weather. Ho wever, children suffer less than us in this alienation and have a quick ability to acquire language. Participant F amily 001 h usband Another wife provided her perspective : I need to develop myself and learn through education and my children. Because education here is easier to access compared to Africa. Participant F amily 00 2 wife A single mother provided a descriptive and well detailed statement about her life in Colorado.

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35 Life is beautiful and we found in Colorado health and psychological care for my children. We have found all means of comfort, education and social services. Here we found that Darfuri families, and my children have adapted to American society and easily integrated into the school system. The same participant continued to illustrate her experience. 2004 I found it difficult to reconcile the parenting, employment and a sense of the weight of responsibility in raising children, initially faced a problem with English. However, I learned and now I'm workin g in the nursery since 2004 in addition to the intense feeling of adaptation and longing for the people of Sudan. Participant Family 003 s ingle mother In summary, the factors that influenced this theme were adapting to new life in Colorado. Spe cifically, it brought challenge cold weather, language barrier, a sense of loneliness and longing for life in Darfur. However, the participants shared that life Colorado also brought an ecological shift for their families. Often the children adapted more than parents through language, s chool environment, neighborhood connections and their peers. According to s a

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36 Darfuri families had shifted from wa r, fear and genocide to freedom and opportunities in Colorado. Along with the new found freedom and peace in Colorado i t is important to understand the extended familial value of fictive kin in this case Elnafeer and it role in Darfur families lives in Colorado. Although the value may have decreased during the migration period after the war and during life in the refugee camps value has resurfaced in the Darfuri community in Colorado For families in Colorado this value is apparent through a high context macrosystem. That is Elnafeer is visible through the social capital that Darfuri families provide each other through the ir social networks. F or example when a new Darfuri family arrives often already settle families provide mentoring and outreach through meeting the families at the a irport, helping with groceries, helping cook, helping with identifying a rent al apartment, helping find English teacher. Also helping identify second hand goods clothing furniture, bicycle s house hold goods. More importantly Elnafeer manifest itself through the Darfuri families through helping new families adapt to life in Colorado as a refugee. The goal of Elnafeer is to collaborate to bring community members together in one group for support. Moreover, often families provide each other support with other systems including schools and community agencies through English translation and helping each other in the navigation of these social systems. In essences Elnafers serves as a resiliency mechanism for families as they develop their new lives in Colorado. CHAPTER V DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH Discussion

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37 Thi s thesis focused on factors that served as challenges for the Darfuri families and their children before the war, during and after the war life in the refugee camp and life in Colorado. The goal of this study was to find which themes affected the adapt ation between the Darfuri families and their new life. It seemed that the life experiences of the Darfuri families was very hard. Specifically, the data in this study showed the interactions between the Darfuri families and their new environment. These int environments. In this way it became important to note that the theoretica l framework of experiences within Darfu ri families and their environments. Thematic results in this study showed that the relationships with the interactions between different levels of the Ecological furi families life was related to each of the fiv e This study contributes to previous literature through finding key themes, which can be associated with the adaptation of Darfuri refugees in their new environment. This data came from a Darfuri community who live in Colorado. From this study, four key the mes emerged as a way to demonstrated the relation between ecological factors and adaptation. Each of these themes were based on cultural relevancy and were specific to the life experiences of the Darfuri families. These themes are important in this study because there is a lack of knowledge in understanding the Darfuri population. Limitations of the Study

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38 This study has several limitations; the small number of participants reduced the ability to examine other potentially important factors such as gender. This sample was not generalizable to the Darfuri families resettled in Colorado. Another limitation of the study was that Islamic Darfuri cultures do not always allow women to totally share their experiences. Strengths of this Study A major strength of this study is the ethnographic methods that were used to gather the data. The data lead to deep rich understanding of Darfuri families and their experience in new environments. A major strength in this study is that Darfuri families have rarely been studi ed person was of Darfuri background and had an insiders cultural capital perspective of the experiences. Interpretation of Results Theme 1: Life Before the War Qualitative responses from the participants show how Darfuri families before the war in their land of Darf ur were stable. The finding in this theme explained how life before the war was positive for the families and their communities. The previous literature has documented that life of the Darfuri families befor e the war was positive and safe These themes illustrated the life in Darfuri before the war. Data from this study demonstrated how the life in Darfur before the war was more positive. What came from the data was that their microsystem is their home environment where they lived with hope and peace. Before the war, Darfuri families were not struggling, and they lived in freedom and peace. The mesosystem consists of the interactions between the family and the community. Other

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39 community systems including the village families and communities worked in a collective manner. From this theme it was evident how the ecological theory grounded th e findings. At the microsystem it was demonstrated in the activities of the Darfuri people collaborative efforts in the ir villages The social fabric of the family and community is bound by these efforts. At the mesosystem there is a great link between the Darfuri families and their community through cooking, bring drinking water sing ing and dancing to support the group These activities often impact ed the em power ment process in the neighborhood the social networks, Another example is seen Darfuri families unity Elnafer at the macrosystem level which impacted cultural traditions, lifestyle and customs. Life before the war truly in this theme demonstr ate the role of the chronosystems on the Darfuri families and their environment where respect, cooperation, shared responsibil ity and effective communication where critical to the Elnafer value system. Theme 2 : Life During and After the War This theme demonstrated that the life for Darfuri families changed in many ways during and after the war. For example families faced displacement, killing, raping and losing land. Life was now at a different pace and was unsafe. This finding was consistent with pr evious research that demonstrated the horri fic conditions during the war. There was a major impact on the family unity during the war and after the war due to displacement and homelessness. This essentially began to destroy family life (microsystem) becau se families began to lose their unity and connection. The families lived without hope. Family was totally different peace to unsafe and unsure during and after the war. Also human life was destroyed as people were unsatisfied because it did not meet the s tandard of living.

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40 Theme 3: Life in the Refugee C amp The data from this studied sho wed that Darfuri families were fearful and felt and unsafe in the refugee camps because of the fear of other governments and the Janjaweed groups who could still rape and kill family members in the camps. However, based on this theme the majority of the Darfuri refugees believed that the organizations helped the Darfuri families in the acculturation process, which impacted their new macrosystem. Even though the internationa l organizations were attempting to serve the families there was still the feeling of the loss of Darfuri family life. The continuing i nfluences on the impact of the war on Darfuri families was trauma, depression, and losing the unity From this theme it is critical to understand these continuing influences through an ecologica l perspective. At the microsystem the separation of family members due to the war served as a trauma At the m esosystem the families lost the aspects of uni ty in the community which resulted in trauma and depression. For the families this created negative attitude towards their new society in their adaptation and life experience. Sometimes family violence and mistreat ment of family members resulted from the trauma of the war and the refugee camps. At the societal level the macrosystem the aspects of social isolation often impacted the culture patterns and value. For Darfuri families visiting mental heal th specialist can bring shame to their culture and beliefs As a result of all the changes over time the chronosystem was marked with tremendous change that caused trauma during the war and after the war and during life in the refugee camps. This result in mental scars for the families. This has also been documented in the literature by Natalie and Omer (2009). Theme 4 Life in Colorado

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41 This theme demonstrated that Darfuri families in their adaptation to Colorado struggled with language and cultural barriers in their new home. It also showed that the families aimed to better their life in their adaptation. The finding showed that in Colorado Darfuri families received more services to help them with as refugees. This finding contributed to the literature by demonstrating the new micro, meso, exo, macro and chronosystem enviro nments for the Darfur families in Colorado and that impacted their life. For example, the micro and mesosystems systems shifted from Darfur as th e school systems in Colorado have provided the families and their children a higher standard and more educational services for each student. Another example would include the exosystem as the Darfuri families based on the participants in this studied documented that they were better received and were provided with comprehensive familial services in the com munity and by the local government. For example human services, refugee services, services directed towards church and other nonprofit organizations including the food banked had a positive impact on the Darfuri families adaption in Colorado. In the case of the families new microsystem the participants reported finding peace in their new home and their culture being accepted. Future Research Future research should explore Darfuri families, schools and communities in the United States and the educational success of Darfuri youth. There should be more research on the acculturation process of Darfuri families in Colorado. Conduct more research with the five Future research sho uld explore Darfuri families and trauma, war, and me ntal health as it has impacted refugees in the United States and Colorado. Understanding the gender differences and how Darfuri families deal with trauma would be important for future research. Other re search should

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42 examine how ecolog ical systems including micro and mesosystems such as the interrelationship between families and schools has impacted Darfuri families and their children and youth in Colorado. Moreover, chronosystem generational research should also explore the adaptation of Darfuri children and youth who migrated to the United States as refugees and Darfuri children and youth who were born in Colorado and the United to better underst and their acculturation process. Implications and Conclusion This study contributed to the literature by understanding the Darfuri families life before and after the war through an ecological perspective. The study confirmed through the utilization of Bronfenbrenner systems. A critical aspect of this study was that family participants overcame major barriers while seeking safety, freedom and peace after the war. From this they demonstrated r esiliency to begin a new life in Colorado. Implications from this study show that community leaders can use these ecological based findings to provide information on better serving and understand Darfuri families in Colorado. An implication of this study w as the importance of understan ding how to serve and research Darfuri families and understanding the cultural and linguistic realities. In summary, an instrumental aspect of this study was that Darfuri families demonstrated ecological resiliency despite the horrific conditions they endured during the war, after the war and in the refugee camps. Understanding the migration and immigration patterns of the Darfuri families from the war zone to safe zone in Colorado provides was critical in sights Another impli cation of this study to the family science literature is understanding how often Darfuri families in Colorado under utilized mental and social services that pertained to the trauma that they might have experienced in Darfur during and after the war and in the refugee camps.

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47 Haggar, A. (2007). The origins and organization of the Janjaweed in Darfur. War in Darfur and the Search for Peace, 113 139. Haggaz, A. D., Radi, E. A., & Adam, I. (2008). High perinatal mortality in Darfur, Sudan. Journal of Maternal Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 21(4), 277 277. Hagan, J., Rymond Richmond, W., & Palloni, A. (2009). Racial targeting of sexual violence in Darfur. American journal of public h ealth, 99(8), 1386. Hamilton, R., & Hazlett, C. (2007). Not on our watch: The emergence of the American movement for Darfur. War in Darfur and the Search for Peace, 337 366. Harvey, M. R. (2007). Towards an ecological understanding of resilience in trauma survivors: Implications for theory, research, and practice. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 14(1 2), 9 32. Hassan, S. M. (2010). Darfur and the crisis of governance in Sudan: A left perspective. South Atlantic Quarterly, 109(1), 95 116. Jack, G. (2000). Ecological influences on parenting and child development. British Journal of Social Work, 30(6), 703 720. Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2014). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. Sage. Johnston, P. (2007). Negotiated settlements and government strategy in civil war: evidence from Darfur. Civil Wars, 9(4), 359 377.

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48 Kimerling, R. (2009). What happens to youth removed from parental care? Health and economic outcomes for women with a history of out of home place ment. Children and Youth Services Review, 31(4), 440 444. Kothari, A. (2008). When rape victims become symbolic representations of war: A textual Media Journal: Medi terranean Edition, 3(2), 21 29. Martini, S., Bieyr, J.(2016). From DARING to Dispossessed. Spychology today, 49(4), 44. Marecha, K., & Chigora, P. (2011). The Sudanese Conflict: War Crimes and International Criminal Court. Alternatives: Turkish Journal Of International Relations, 10(4), 37 49. Merriam collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1999). Springfield, MA: Merriam Webster Incorporated. Morgos, D., Worden, J. W., & Gupta, L. (2007). Psychosocial effects of war experiences among displaced child ren in southern Darfur. OMEGA -Journal of Death and Dying, 56(3), 229 253. Mulaj, K. (2008). Forced Displacement in Darfur, Sudan: Dilemmas of Classifying the Crimes. International Migration, 46(2), 27 48. Murphy, D. (2007). Narrating Darfur: Darfur in the US Press, March September 2004. War in Darfur and the Search for Peace, 314 336. Nurain, M. B. M. (2008). The Decline of Darfur. Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice, 20(2), 192 199. O'Donnell, M., Scott, D., & Stanley, F. (2008). Child abuse and neg lect is it time for a public health approach? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 32(4), 325 330.

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49 23. Owens Manley, J., & Coughlan, R. (2000). Adap tation of refugees during cross cultural transitions: Bosnian refugees in upstate New York. Levitt Report 87 93. Paat, Y. (2013). Working with Immigrant Children and Their Families: An Application of Qin, D. B., Saltarelli, A., Rana, M., Bates, L., Lee, J. A., & Johnson, D. J. (2015). Journal of Adolescent Research, 30(2), 213 243. Rauch, J. E., & Kostyshak, S. (2009). The three Arab worlds. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 23 (3), 165 188. Roessler, P. (2011). Political Instability, Threat Displacement and Civil War: Darfur as a Theory Building Case. Threat Displacement and Civil War: Darfur as a Theory Building Case (August 1, 2011). Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. Oxford University Press. Rogoff, B., & Morelli, G. (1989). Perspectives on children's development from cultural psychology. American Psychologist, 44(2), 343. Reeves, E. (2008, Fall2008). Refusing to Save Darfur. Dissent (00123846). p. 22. Reyna, S. P. (2010). The Disasters of War in Darfur, 1950 2004. Third World Quarterly, 31(8), 1297. doi:10.1080/01436597.2010.541083

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50 Rizzo, H., Abdel Latif, A. H., & Meyer, K. (2007). The relationship between gender equality and democracy: A comparison of Arab versus non Arab Muslim societies. Sociology 41 (6), 1151 1170. Schabas, W. A. (2005). Genocide, Crimes against Humanity, and Darfur: The Commission of Inquiry's Findings on Genocide. Cardozo L. Rev., 27, 1703. Schneider, M. D (2007). About Women, War and Darfur: The Continuing Quest for Gender Violence Justice. NDL Rev., 83, 915. Schneider, R., Baumrind, N., Pavao, J., Stockdale, G., Castelli, P., Goodman, G. S Smith, S. W. (2011). Sudan: in a procrustean bed with crisis. International Negotiation, 16(1), 169 189. Straus, S. (2008). MW Daly. Darfur's Sorrow: A History of Destruction and Genocide. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2007. Pp. xix, 368. $22.99. The American Historical Review, 113(5), 1632 16 33. Rovalla, A. P., Gallien Jr., L.B., &Wighting, in M.J. (2005). Culture and interpersonal factors affecting African American academic performances in higher education: review and synthesis of the research literature. Journal of Negro Education 74(4), 359 370. Reyna, S. P. (2010). The Disasters of War in Darfur, 1950 2004. Third World Quarterly, 31(8), 1297 1320. doi:10.1080/01436597.2010.541083. Ryle, J. (2004). Disaster in Darfur. New York Review of Books 51 (13), 55 59.

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51 Umana Taylor, Diversi,& Fine, M .A. (2002) Ethnic identity and self esteem among latino adolescent: Distinction between the latino populations Distinction. Journal of Adolescent Research, 17(3), 303 327. Ventura, A. K., & Worobey, J. (2013). Early influences on the development of food preferences. Current Biology, 23(9), R401 R408. Verhoeven, H. (2011). Climate Change, Conflict and Development in Sudan: Global Neo Malthusian Narratives and Local Power Struggles. Development & Change, 42(3), 679 707. doi:10.1111/j.1467 7660.2011.01707.x Wagner, J. (2005). Systematic Use of Rape as a Tool of War in Darfur: A Blueprint for International War Crimes Prosecutions, The. Geo. J. Int'l L., 37, 193. Watson, A. M. (2007). Children born of wartime rape: Rights and representations. International Femi nist Journal of Politics, 9(1), 20 34. Young, H., & Osman, A. (2006). Challenges to peace and recovery in Darfur. A Situation Analysis of the On going Conflict and Its Continuing Impact on Livelihoods. Medford, MA: Feinstein International Famine Center.

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52 APPENDI X APPENDIX A : University of Colorado Denver; Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board Approval

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53 APPENDIX B: Darfuri Family Interview Protocol Darfuri Family Protocol Demographic Information 1. Male -------/female --------2. ------------: Degree/Diploma -----------3. Age ----------4. Occupation -----------5. How many children do you have ---------6. What is your ethnic background? Darfuri, please be specific Zagawa, Fur, Masaleet, Bargo,Tongor, or other. 7. Please describe your life in Darfur before and after the war? 8. How has your family and children adapted to their new life in Colorado? 9. What community resources have been important to Darfur i family in Colorado? 10. How have Darfuri family and their children adapted to their new life in Colorado? 11. What kind of experienced health problems facing women in Colorado? 12. What are the educational, social and health needs that are sp ecific preserved differently by non formal and formal educator who work with the Darfuri migrant in Colorado? 13. How did parents and children deal with their anew life in Colorado?

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54 14. How did the family deal with change after a migratory move? 15. What community resources were important to Darfuri families? 16. How did school, family, and community impact Darfuri children who grew up in the migrant? 17. Who women and girls talk to if they experience violence and what else can be done to help wom en and girls. What kind of experienced, health problems facing women and girls, places girls and women go for health care and medical assistance, and obstacles faced when seeking health care. 18. What is problems relating to safety and security, ways the c ommunity is trying to solve these problems, and suggestions for other ways these problems might be solved. 19. What is information about the living condition of the IDPs focusing on? 20. How the groups spend their time, economic activity before the conflict and now; girls education, information collection and sharing; who women and girls are most likely to talk to when they face problems; identification of the head of household and decision making processes.

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55 APPENDIX C: Darfuri Family Cons ent Form General Darfuri families Informed Consent Letter Hello my name is Omhagain Somi Dayeen and I am student at University of Colorado Denver School of education and Human development. psychology/ Human Devel opment Emphasis. I am conducting a study on Ecological effaces of the war in Darfur on children, and their families in Colorado Denver. Specifically, this study will focus on understanding how different ecological factors including but not limited to fami ly cultural values, family involvement, community involvement and, educational, educational and social policies, migration and immigration realities and economic factors impact the Darfuri in Colorado. This study will benefit the scholarly research by USA. Moreover, another benefit of the study is that the findings could aid helping professionals in the community and student services professio families in Colorado. This research will be conducted through sound culturally sensitive research. We hope that you will participate in our study. Your participation in the study is voluntary and at any time during the study you may withdraw. The risks of this study are no greater than those normally encountered in everyday life. Thus, individuals who identify themselves as Darfuri, community members and/or refugees are eligible for the study. You will be asked to participate potentially in one or more of the following interviews depending on your availability and if the interview or observation pertains to you. Those interviews include one hour open ended interviews, focus groups or an observation. We would also appreciate it if we could audio record your interview. Interviews

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56 will be conducted in Arabic or English depending on your preference. The interviews will be conducted in a convietent and safe location for both the respondent and the researcher. The audiotapes will be transcribe d and translated so that the data can be used to write research manuscripts, research reports, create presentations and for other work related to the research. I will make every effort to preserve your confidentiality. Your interview and the audiotape from your interview will be kept in a locked filing cabinet in my office. Only my research team and I will see the collected data. Information from this research will be used solely for the purpose of this study, publications, and any presentation or wor k that may result from it. All research material will be destroyed at the end of the study. Your name will not be used in the research or at any time during the study or any other work related to the research. If you have any questions about the researc h, please contact me at (omziryab@hotmail.com). (omhagain.dayeen@ucdenver.edu) If you have questions about the conduct of this study or rights as a research participant you may contact the Director/Research Compliance Officer at University of Colorado Den ver Thank you for your time and if you agree to participate in the study please print and sign your name. _______________________________ __________________ Date ______________________________ ___________________ Date

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57 APPENDIX D : Darfur Map