Citation
Negotiative metamorphosis for a globalized working class

Material Information

Title:
Negotiative metamorphosis for a globalized working class
Creator:
Martin, Christopher Sean ( author )
Place of Publication:
Denver, Colo.
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 electronic file (71 pages) : ;

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of arts)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
Department of English, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Literacy ( lcsh )
Negotiation ( lcsh )
Literacy ( fast )
Negotiation ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Review:
A world with an increasingly limited availability of resources indicates a need to redefine literacy education among working and lower classes. Reaching students at early ages and utilizing already available resources becomes paramount when attempting to provide increasingly effective tools to interact in a globalized world. This is especially important when recognizing that higher education is becoming more restrictive and less appealing to students. Negotiation provides unique potential as an independent form of literacy that helps to overcome these limitations. It also has long-lasting benefit by aiding in a student's attainment of further forms of literacy and provides a functional aspect to life in the workplace.
Review:
Building upon Patrick Finn's powerful literacy of the 90s, the following paper proposes to reevaluate negotiation as it applies to a modern landscape. The applications and benefits of negotiation in a primary school setting are becoming more and more appealing as downward mobility continues putting pressure on US citizens. However, the original notions of negotiation as a skill set are limited and fail to maximize the overall benefit for society. Instead, negotiative education, if it were to be enacted, would likely need to adopt the newer philosophical approach found in integrative negotiation. Using an evolved form of negotiation could serve as a vehicle for powerful literacy in the face of limited resources and with minimal effort and resistance from working students.</DISS_para>
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: Adobe Reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by christopher Sean Martin.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver Collections
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
985458542 ( OCLC )
ocn985458542
Classification:
LD1193.L54 2016m M37 ( lcc )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
NEGOTIATIVE METAMORPHOSIS FOR A GLOBALIZED WORKING CLASS
By
CHRISTOPHER SEAN MARTIN B.A. Metropolitan State College, 2008
A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts English
2016


This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by Christopher Sean Martin has been approved for English Program by
Rodney Herring, Chair Michelle Comstock
Larry Erbert


Martin, Christopher Sean (M.A., English)
Negotiative Metamorphosis for a Globalized Working Class Thesis directed by Assistant Professor Rodney Herring
m
ABSTRACT
A world with increasingly limited resources needs to redefine literacy among working and lower classes. Reaching students at early ages and utilizing already available resources becomes paramount when providing effective tools to interact in a globalized world. This is especially important when recognizing that higher education is becoming more restrictive and less appealing to students. Negotiation provides unique potential as an independent form of literacy that helps to overcome these limitations. It also has long-lasting benefit by aiding in a students attainment of further forms of literacy and provides a functional aspect to life in the workplace.
Building upon Patrick Finns powerful literacy of the 90s, the following paper proposes to reevaluate negotiation as it applies to a modem landscape. The applications and benefits of negotiation in a primary school setting are becoming more and more appealing as downward mobility continues putting pressure on US citizens. However, the original notions of negotiation as a skill set are limited and fail to maximize the overall benefit for society. Instead, negotiative education, if it were to be enacted, would likely need to adopt the newer philosophical approach found in integrative negotiation. Using an evolved form of negotiation could serve as a vehicle for powerful literacy in the face of limited resources and with minimal effort and resistance from working students.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Rodney Herring


IV
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION...................................................1
II. LITERATURE, FRAMEWORK AND MYTHS................................6
Literacy with an Attitude......................................6
Educational Disparity in the University........................12
Meritocracy...................................................17
Economic Reasoning............................................20
Literacy as Competitive Advantage.............................22
Negotiation Scaffolded from Critical Literacy.................26
III. STUDENT APPLICATIONS..........................................28
Self-Interest.................................................30
Explicit Discourse............................................34
Social Justice Educators and Class Identity...................38
Relationships and Interactions with Society...................44
IV. DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS....................................48
Conflict Limitations..........................................48
Integrative Negotiation.......................................55
Suggestions and Directions....................................60
REFERENCES
64


1
CHAPTERI INTRODUCTION
New technology, new foundations of shared knowledge, new literacies and ways of communicating: It is easy to argue that world has met an age to match that influence of the printing press. The Internet, of course, has opened avenues of exploration, created platforms of shared knowledge, changed the value of the written word, and altered the method by which people absorb informationall notions incredibly similar to social changes seen during the centuries following Gutenbergs creation. For decades now, technology has promised potential for social expansion and economic improvements. In some ways, it undoubtedly does as a quick Google search would show. However, while no one argues the value of a connected world, changes are a far cry from how we often perceive the printing press. While the world appears limitless, social changes arent in line with the expansion that eventually led to the Enlightenment of the 1600s. Globalization, instead, came forward and, at least for the US, technology has largely meant offshoring and redistributing of both money and jobs to more cost-efficient locations. Looking forward, we are also looking at large scale automation continuing that continues to put pressure on the lower classes.
Downward mobility, lost resources, soaring educational costs: It is also easy argue that the US has seen a complementary reordering of working life. Technology, while opening one door to a new, potentially better world is also reordering the lower class by making many trades obsolete and/or less useful in the US market. More generally, the globalized world is redistributing resources once available to the lower classes. Perhaps, this is an inevitable consequence, something completely natural and to


2
be expected, but that doesnt eliminate issues surrounding the change. A recent recession has emphasized this notion of lost resources. Since 2008, many jobs have been met with the beginnings of a substantial change not only in the sense of availability, but also in general construction. Even those consistently employed have made sacrifices. While true that new jobs are being created and the economy is getting better (as of early 2016), US citizens face a new, lower, and potentially permanent standard of living, at least in terms of working benefits. This reordering implies changes to the entire economic spectrum of a workers life. Working hours, benefits, and wages have altered significantly with mostly negative effects. We are watching as social structures reverse course towards aristocratic models (plutocracy is the term I see used often) where the general population wields very little power. With this reversal, further implications for labor negotiation and human [as] capital (Brandt 271) increase. For those interested in the well-being of the working class (in the US as well as potentially elsewhere), treating this moment as a potential defining point in working class education makes sense.
However, the downward direction of social mobility and consolidation of wealth isnt exactly happening overnight; its been creeping up for thirty years (Economic Policy Institute), though, it is also accelerating. At least in the US, we still maintain a relatively free and open democracy, so while recent downward trends are worrisome, it is not as though change isnt possible. Moreover, resources arent sparse and new technological tools unlock certain potential. As with the printing press in its own day, new technology isnt inherently a problem, but rather a natural tool of literacy that can cause a variety of outcomes both good and bad. Pamphlets printed in the earliest days, for example, could have been used for education or propaganda depending on who controlled the printer.


3
Combined with family networks, public schools, and a society that, while not perfect, is largely altruistic, there are avenues for education and new literacies to, hopefully, overcome any negative consequences of a new social age. The US carries this potential better than most as one of the most digitally capable countries in the world. Thomas Friedman, an American writer and economist, further touts Americas extensive higher education system for its scope and scale. While that may not have panned out exactly as he thought, it has produced a plethora of shared knowledge none the least of which is online courses and general information to anyone with a data connection.
Unfortunately, many in our society, including leaders, politicians and Thomas Friedman, are misled or guided by myths about our capitalist system. The pure complexity for improving working disposition often creates conclusions that are splintered, incomplete or completely wrong. Most obviously, a problem of distributing educational resources exists. Most workers have a difficult time simply finding the time and funds for a higher education. More dominantly, the meritocracy myth, which Fll come back to in depth, fails to truly describe the competitive platform most people are provided at birth. Furthermore, the ability to provide access to information and forms of literacy fail some, while aiding others. Despite an argued skills gap (Weisenthal) providing opportunity for workers motivated enough to seek lifestyle improvement, the equation for economic improvement is not as simple as saying work hard and/or go to college to maintain a comfortable lifestyle. Correcting downward mobility may require education, but our educational system has never really been equitable among social classes and continues to become even more restrictive to those in the most need. In total, a skill disparity (and the corollary access to that knowledge), a counter-current of soaring


4
educational costs working against our poorest, and an overall diminishing return on labor make it relatively easy to acknowledge that wealth and income inequality will, barring a phenomenal change, continue and grow.
With this problem comes a variety of solutions ranging across the academic sphere. For my purposes, using an educational and literacy standpoint, prominent academics include the likes of Paulo Freire, Mike Rose and Deborah Brandt, all of whom have taken literacy for the working class ahead while countless more have follow suit working for social justice. Despite the breadth of work, one book creates a unique niche within the overall conversation. Literacy with an Attitude sets itself apart because of the author, scale and application. Patrick Finn, a working class professor, has a particular appeal because of his background within the trade ranks combined with being a literacy scholar and teacher. Over the years I have seen many articles and discussions about working class literacy, but they are often taken to pen by people firmly from a different class perspective. Observations done in a working class bar (Lindquist 225-247) make their way into the academic conversation as ethnography, but I have to argue that, while not without value, items like this should be heavily filtered when it comes to useful application. Finn has an ethos that, while not completely unique, gives him authority as an author. Secondly, the scale of Literacy with an Attitude is larger than most and proposes social measures built on top of individual student needs as a possible solution. Its an enormous topic.
While Finn has a few derivative articles found throughout academic journals, very little evaluation has been done to extend his workthe only truly dedicated publication I found was less than ten pages and didnt expand beyond a single classroom experience


5
(Darvin 35-40). However, I believe that Patrick Finns potential relevance is resurging in the new social landscape and, as such, I will attempt to open Literacy with an Attitude work to renewed evaluation and exploration. Finns association with one particular skillnegotiationis appealing when dealing with literacy for the working classes and could use additional consideration. To this effect, a brief discussion of current myths about how the US education system works and the weaknesses that validate Finns point of origin will provide the base for my thinking. I will then explore Finns argument as he builds on decades of scholarly work and provides a seemingly possible framework to help resolve the growing problems and inequality (this has implications specifically to the US, but with hopeful application elsewhere).
Lastly, I will explore some problems that have yet to be addressed with Literacy with an Attitude and provide possible directions for future scholarly work which will continue to scaffold on Finns original ideas. Perhaps the largest issue with Finns work, regardless of ones overall agreement with his position, is that his ideas fail to take into account conflict issues that surround negotiation. More specifically, Finns argument is clearly situated in a more traditional perspective that argues negotiation as division and dispersion of limited resources, rather than one that seeks better gains by all. Finns reliance on whats called distributive negotiation creates a heavy flaw in his overall approach, but new research and theory manages to resituate the argument. Fortunately, within this shortcoming is a potential opportunity for other, better-suited researchers and I hope to recommend a modified version of his educational paradigm that could serve several purposes for future educators.


6
CHAPTER II
LITERATURE, FRAMEWORK AND MYTHS
Working class literacy is obviously an incredibly complicated topic and Patrick Finns work, one that separates itself from most literature through its scope, matches that complexity. Literacy also has its share of myths and assumptions that are largely untrue and need to be set aside in order to discuss the implications of Patrick Finns work. The following section intends to lay the foundation for an expansion for Negotiative Literacy.
Literacy with an Attitude
To begin: Patrick Finn opens with an exploration of working class education through a study by Jean Anyon. This study researched the difference between a range of fifth grade classrooms ranging from working class to what was considered affluent professional. Working students are described as receiving knowledge [...] presented as fragmented facts isolated from wider bodies of meaning and from the lives and experiences of the students. Work was following steps in procedure (10). This is in contrast to the affluent classes where students were developing a relationship to the economy, authority, and work that is appropriate for artists, intellectuals, legal and scientific experts, and other professionals whose work is creative, intrinsically satisfying for most people, and rewarded with social power and high salaries (18). Creativity and exploration were brushed over in working schools despite students showing equal IQ scores [...] Affluent students learned methods with substantial negotiation (18), while workers were learning to follow directions and do mechanical, low-paying work (20). Of note, in addition to these observations, Finn makes it clear that, while receiving their education, working students were also, learning to resist authority (20).


7
The resistance grows from a form of oppositional identity developed by virtue of working students coming from families that lack power in general society (Finn 39).
That is, workers tend to reject the values of the affluent and powerful because they exist as involuntary minorities (41). Working class social spheres, fueled by the education system and cultural values, reject upper class values and the communication methods associated with power and feel that compromise and adoption of these methods is to essentially sell out. Finn notes that this development of resistance in unique and opposition, absent of power differentials, doesnt gamer this effect. Finns example is best demonstrated: An American Catholic converts to Catholicism. So what? A Catholic in Northern Ireland turns Protestant. Turncoat! (46). It is the disenfranchised that naturally set up barriers and actively work in opposition to those in power. Loyalty to their class creates class conflict and it is cultural conflictsomething that each party contributes to.
Oppositional identity an enormous problem for working class students because it
permeates their lives. As such, it also bleeds into the classrooms and is reinforced in the
home. As with a Northern Ireland Catholic, working culture is salient to some lives in
that their, parents disdain for theory was conveyed to their children and so the culture
of the [students] was not simply different from the school, it was antithetical to the
school (57). It is a cycle of working culture set in opposition to administrators and
policy makers that dont understand the culture they are trying to help. Teachers often
dont understand what it is that is motivating students in these schools. As Finn notes:
Willis observed that the most horrific breakdowns occur when young teachers innocently try to assert the real-school model of high-status knowledge in exchange for cooperation and hard work. Nothing, Willis says, brings out the viciousness of certain working class cultural traits


8
like the plain vulnerability of the mighty fallen. Nothing annoys [administrators] more than being brought in to sort out the wreckage. The most successful teachers are those who make few demands in return for enough cooperation to maintain the appearance of conducting school...
(61)
Schools, then, become a reinforcing agent that creates conflict between classes all while still limiting education and access to academic resources. They act as literacy gatekeepers while encouraging students to not even seek out the gates.
That isnt to say that school doesnt hold value in working communities and education actually is seen as an avenue to a better life. In Finns book, it is simply that school doesnt offer equitable value. In another example, a steel-based town in Pennsylvania lost its industry and was left without the union jobs that had previously made the area somewhat prosperous. At that point, the notion of a defendable community (opposition to upper class values) became largely irrelevant as school was seen as the only avenue for anything but poverty. However, education remained domesticating without the value that upper class systems provided. Parents, engrained with an idea of what school looks like, didnt question the difference between literacy provided. Unfortunately, the goal of mobility through education doesnt tend to work unless working class people want to adopt different values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs (80) to serve their needs. As many academics have come to accept, the answer starts with Paulo Friere and Critical literacy. According to Finn, the works of Friere, [have] suggested an answer to this dilemma: that we educate working class children like rich childrenin their own self-interest (80). This is a fundamental point in both Finns work as well as my later argument; it also closely links with a capitalist perspective and our economic system as a whole.


9
Finn further explores the contrast in how working students tend to be educated and why upper class students tend to succeed more often than their counterparts. The kind of literacy and language used among each class is different and skews functional value towards those of the upper ranks. Upper class communities impart an explorative and negotiative perspective to reading and writing. They encourage engagement and interaction with text. In opposition, working students are largely offered an authoritative approach that encourages obedience and offers a much more finite use of knowledge. Upper class forms of literacy lead to more, diverse forms of literacy. Lower class literacy leads to working functionality. Explicit discourse, a method of adopting to widespread needs, comes from the interaction with people outside of the communitysomething that results from the upper class inherent interaction with society at large. Implicit discourse, a reliance on small-scale, shared knowledge, results from a working childs reliance on the community. Values differ and result in largely different outcomes. To a degree, the oft-held perspective remains that literacy is literacy. Reading is reading, writing is writing, and literacy is a simple directive in education that should allow all students, regardless of class status, to engage compete in society. However, that isnt the case.
According to Finn, Friere and countless others, literacy isnt so simple. For Finn, specifically, literacy goes through four phases: performative, functional, informational, and powerful. At a performative literacy, students learn to read and write. It is simply the ability to recognize and create symbols. Functional literacy is the ability to function is a literate world; it is the ability to fill out a job application, understand directions for using a household gadget, and writing a note to leave on the kitchen table for your spouse (124). Informational literacy is the ability to read and absorb the kind of


10
knowledge that is associated with the school and to write examinations and reports based on such knowledge (124). Lastly, Finns powerful literacy arrives with creativity and reasonthe ability to evaluate, analyze, and synthesize while reading and listening and to persuade and negotiate through writing and speaking (125). For working students (as well as policy makers and school administrative purposes), informational literacy seems to be enough. Upper classes, however, demand powerful literacy, a form of literacy that allows their children to use and arrange their environments to their own benefit. It allows them to scaffold learning and build better personal situations in the future.
For Finn, powerful literacy is the most important level not because it necessarily leads to personal advancement; it leads to a defense for the working class. Not all of our poor and working class students can get a high-status, high-paying occupation, but they can get a hell of a lot better deal than they are getting now, says Finn (225). This is an acknowledgement that powerful literacy, or literacy of any kind, doesnt increase the resources available, but it can protect against the implications of having more powerful counterparts in US society. Moreover, monetary benefit doesnt take priority over the well-being of people in general. Downward mobility is a fact of the globalized world. Education is expensive and we are watching a clear trend towards the consolidation of wealth. Inequality, especially in education, is a social problem and doesnt change with the successful educating of any one student. Finn states, [wjorking class schools expend nearly all their energy on preparing students to improve their lot by individual advancement [...] while, in fact, the route to acquiring social rights for the vast majority of [...] students is a collective struggle, not individual advancement (175).


11
Finn continues forward by discussing the emergence of literacy as a social tool following the revolution inspired by the printing press in the eighteenth century. Corresponding Societies arose with the distribution of pamphlets and information and encouraged people from different walks of life to come together in a society of strangers, to question authority and exercise power (133). Further, Finn states, [t]he literacy of the Corresponding Societies was literacy with an attitude- not the self-defeating attitudes of [working students], but the attitude of critical agents who recognized the potential power of literacy combined with civic courage (133). Finns argument thus moves to larger social issues and also well beyond the scope of typical working class literacy. It encourages a two-way dialogue between educators and students. It involves a system of political activism that replicates the goals of the Corresponding Societies.
Some educators are well aware of the differences between an upper class and lower class education, but, unfortunately, even with good intentions, fail to deliver on the promise of powerful literacy for all. The ideal system presented by Finn doesnt work without a two-way interaction. Students need to be open to changes and work in tandem with educators that are also working towards a better social future. The goal is enormous according to Finn:
There must be two related, symbiotic, and simultaneous movements. The first will be a movement to educate working-class students (using Frierian motivation) to fight for social rights effectively as students and as future citizenswhether as New Paradigm border crossers committed to social justice for everyone or as the vast majority of working class students who will not become middle class when they leave school but will have a better life as working class adults with full citizen rights. The second will be a movement among older students and adult citizens for universal social rights through campaigns for such things as unions, living wages, universal health care, and decent schools. As the second movement gains


12
ground, poor and working class children will arrive at school better prepared and in better health, as well as better fed, housed, and cared for.
This will make the work of the schools (the first movement) more effective (253).
Essentially, social changes have to come from everybody. Buy-in for reform and equal education has to match society at several levels. A student needs to be willing to accept powerful forms of literacy and further understand that using a tool does not mean that they have sold out or are turncoats to their class values. As a class, they have a chance to affect social change, but not until they collectively assert power on level with more dominant classes (e.g. upper classes and policy makers).
Educational Disparity in the University Before the recession, Thomas Friedman, a proponent and advocate of the globalization, was confident that the Unites States would always be able to compete despite the fact that cheaply-manufactured, overseas goods began to erode manufacturing and low to moderate skill jobs. His argument: ... America, as a whole will do fine in a flat world with free tradeprovided it continues to churn out knowledge workers who are able to produce idea-based goods that can be sold globally and who are able to fill the knowledge jobs that will be created as we not only expand the global economy but connect all the knowledge pool in the world, but there is no limit to the number of ideagenerated jobs in the world (Friedman 37). From one angle, this argument holds merit. US universities definitely offer an avenue towards higher level work, corresponding pay, and the potential, at least, for new jobs. According to the bureau of labor statistics, in 2014 people with a high school education were unemployed at nearly twice the rate of a person with a bachelors degree while also earning less than two thirds of their more educated counterparts.


13
Friedman, along with innumerable educational proponents, is probably right when saying that colleges are the primary avenue for a knowledge economy providing societywide benefit. Whats more, the US specifically should have no problem attaining this high-speed railway towards economic prosperity. Friedman also states, [w]hat makes America unique is not that it built MIT, or that its grads are generating economic growth and innovation, but that every state in the country has universities trying to do the same. America has 4,000 colleges and universities, said Allan E. Goodman, president of the Institute of International Education. The rest of the world combined has 7,768 institutions of higher education (Friedman 224). A wide expanse of resources back Friedmans thoughts.
Unfortunately, Friedman doesnt count the disparity of access that exists among social classes (which, of course, has even larger implications placed in context of a larger globalized landscape). Capitalist proponents may assume that laissez faire economics will distribute these resources fairly and empower the entire population with educational options. Though, it turns out, this argument echoes as hollow. Our educational system, while immense and full of opportunity, has made a huge turn against general accessibility. At the time of Friedmans work, about ten years ago, education seemed like an inherent part of US life, a society-wide privilege for anyone with ambition. Back then, almost a quarter of the nation held a bachelors degree or higher (US Census) and few spoke about student loans as the next great bubble. The nation was doing well, money was available (through a variety of grants and creditors), and it appeared as though our educational system might truly act as the competitive key for many working people. Unfortunately, after that decade, annual college costs rise consistently in the


14
double digits (US News). The promise that college provides is questionable as an available platform to everyone and little reason exists to expect that anything will change enough to return us to the previously cheery outlook. Even if you take away actual financial gatekeepers, other factors, including basic fear, will limit the willingness to even consider higher education as an option. With unending reports of rising student debt, potential loan defaults and the faltering payoff after achieving an education, the question about the universitys value is met with only a vague reply at best. For the working class, the problem is particularly magnified. For the working middle-class, this problem is growing and, depending on the situation, could even impinge on some farther up the social ladder.
University failure goes further. We can take economic concerns out of the equation and pretend that financial access isnt as much of a concern. Perhaps we offer community college courses or programs for free. Perhaps an expanded federal loan forgiveness program shows up (without consequence). It sounds like a great solution and the scenario undoubtedly works well for some. Still, though, it fails to address the complexity of educating the masses. Problems run deeper, beneath university culture itself. The idea we tend to believe: Send a working kid to college and they will have even access to the resources of our society. However, working class advocates have made a convincing case that an exclusionary culture of both communication and student assumptions create yet additional gatekeepers beyond the financial level to continue keeping lowest socio-economic classes out of the market currents that run toward upward mobility.


15
Mary Soliday, an English professor in New York, argues that working class students do not get the same access to knowledge and modes of thinking even if they can offer up the funds. Her evaluation of composition studies showed that the political environmentdirectly influenced by middle to upper class administrators, politicians, staff, etc.causes additional hardship on students who are forced to deal with alien social pressures on top of imposing work schedules. That says two things, both of which revolve around working class culture. First, administrative processes can discourage. Take, for example, two students. The first has parents that have been through school and possibly friends attending alongside. The second, first-time college student and the only one of his friends that didnt opt to go straight to work. Obviously, the first student has access to readily available resources to overcome complications or unusual circumstances while the second one is for most purposes on her own. Its easy to see who has the easier go of it and that speaks to the fact that working class students begin at a disadvantage. Going to school often pits the second student with a slew of unknowns that can cause incredible frustration if not failure.
Secondly, and possibly more importantly, cultures and languages between classes become a problem. In the above example, the first student is likely to have been bom to the middle class with all of the cultural values that come from it. The second is more likely to be bom to working class parents who, for a number of reasons, dont carry the same values. These values may include the value of intellectual inquiry placed in opposition to an ideology that focuses on the value of work. Alternatively, the values may be something along the lines of how information is distributed. One may be comfortable with the experiences had in a middle class school where empowerment was


16
the norm versus the other who knows education as being found in a library or in more private settings. Unfortunately, according to Solidays work, working students will often refuse that absorption [into the higher-class culture], overtly or covertly (733), which can, of course, leads to failure at arguably little fault of that student.
As I mentioned earlier, however, other opportunities might lend themselves to the idea of meritocracy working to get students around Solidays exclusionary culture. Despite access limitations, technology and internet resources have made similar, educational resources available to the masses at low to no cost. So, a student could, rather than attending college where these ideas are centralized, merely work around Solidays exclusionary culture and receive the same knowledge and ideas through web courses and other forums. Examples thrown around might be Steve Jobs and Mark Zuckerberg who never completed college either. However, circumventing higher education fails to resolve the problem. Yes, internet resources are absolutely available. However, the college system includes additional thinking processes and exploration as well as intangibles such as social skills in the greater society. A university (or even a higher class prep school) provides guidance, and without knowing it, students receive a tour of higher society. Through this exploration and experience, students are able to effectively find the value of promising technological tools. Jobs and Zuckerberg are flawed examples. Both were raised middle-class and no doubt had at least some of these skills. If they didnt, they grew up closer to the example of the first student above who had access to educated parents and friends acting as resources.
Perhaps Thomas Friedman is correct in the promise that comes with an advanced education, but we have to accept that his avenue simply isnt viable for everyone. In


17
most instances, this means primary public schools are the most viable option. Unfortunately, current high school programs dont provide nearly a complete replacement for the college experience or even exposure to middle and upper class culture. Without teaching the accompanying skills and ways of thinking found in those cultures, students may fail to put calligraphy into an operating system (as Jobs did) or combine social interactions with the internet (as is the case with Zuckerberg).
In the end, when looking for the largest net impact, colleges and the university setting fail to meet needs and earlier stages of education are critical to the working class. Although Friedmans argument about the societal value of higher education is well founded, many students are left out of higher education and their voices are never heard. Without acknowledging and empowering disadvantaged students in a higher education setting, we cannot ignore that those students contributions to society are lost. If higher education is not accessible, we need to encourage comparable powerful and useful literacy at earlier stages, most likely at the public school level.
Meritocracy
Another pervasive myth in our systemthat simply working hard will carry people to successremains a problem. In some ways this appears to override the above arguments by saying that if students truly have the talent and motivation to move through the social ranks, they will. However, the truth of this idea fails when crossing class lines. While stating the following will undoubtedly turn off many readers, it is imperative to understand that the US is not a land of opportunity and that a large portion of our society thinks along a path guided by the meritocracy myth. Meritocracy, the belief that in a capitalist system the best of the best rise to the top based on natural talent and hard work, has been an advertised American ideal of equal opportunity taught not only to our


18
youth, but also to people around the world. It is simply not true as a rule. Perhaps well known in corners of academia, its reality as a myth certainly isnt universal. When lacking resources, educationand even specific kinds of language useour economic system actually builds the odds against certain people while solidifying others with no regard to talent. Education helps, but isnt equally made available and the quality differs widely. In addition, a business culture where networking gets touted so widely implicitly demonstrates that better paying jobs often tend to stay within the social circles of the economic elite. Social connections keep the idea of true social mobility constrained as both pay and work are favorably directed along social lines. Realistically, a persons route through economic ranks becomes much more difficult without a buddy on Wall Street lending a favor or an Ivy League background to reminisce over with the hiring manager.
Meritocracy is complexly pervasive as it not only acts as a carrot to those born to the lower classes, but also provides the upper classes with a convenient reasoning for unequal share of the economic pie. As an accepted rule of right (Allen, 28), meritocracy justifies the notion that those already privileged deserve their wealth or status. How else would they have come by it if not for being one of the best? Upper classes often see it as the free market system simply rewarding earned success. Furthermore, meritocracy places the perception that the working class likewise earns their place on the bottom rungs. As Allen say of the myth: For example, the belief that rich people are industrious and poor people are lazy is ideological (32). Unfortunately, this kind of reasoning works against the working class in more ways than simply reducing the financial resources available, it also provides a discordant perspective to those in power


19
and decision making positions, especially political ones. This, of course, does nothing for social and civic rights of those less able or willing to take part in social management. As such, dispelling the meritocracy myth might go a long way towards economic equilibrium and certainly towards ethical, social stewardship.
Held within the meritocracy myth, another, smaller-level concept pervades our general perceptions. Our nations border-crossers are thought to be demonstration that meritocracy is true. Border-crossers are the individuals among the working class who actually pass through class walls and proceed up social ranks, most often by, well, merit. Superficially, they help to justify the entire idea of meritocracy, but are exceptions to the rule and not a demonstration of it. That is, these people are often among the very best of the working class and remarkably suited for progression into middle and upper class institutions. They represent a disproportionate fraction of the working class and are often given help by socially minded educatorsessentially receiving additional resources and knowledge that others are unable to receive. To quantitate the disproportion, the Brookings Institute, a Washington D.C. think tank, shows that working class people have approximately half of the idealized chance of social progression that would be expected if meritocracy holds true. Odds go down significantly if a person resides within another social division. African Americans, for example, have closer to ten percent of the chance and those bom to unmarried parents have a quarter of the opportunity of their upper class counterparts.
While border-crossers are a fantastic example of society not being completely lop-sided, they are generally misleading as an example and do little to advance us towards a system that is truly equitable. That is, they dont help societal inequality. As


20
will be more closely examined in the discussion of Finns work, they often do more than cross economic borders, but also social ones. They become the class they settle in, either upper or middle, and tend to adopt the values and ideals of those cultures and leave behind their original working identities. The result is that a large portion of successful border-crossers no longer carry the class values previously held. While certainly not bad, the US system of meritocracy and border-crossing leaves those who are unable to follow on the designated rung of their birthplace. They remain any Wall Street connections or Ivy League resume notations.
For this reason, Finns work again becomes appealing. An effort to expand the defense of the class as a whole is well beyond most peoples efforts and is suited to bypass these myths into something potentially greater. By getting beyond these problems, Finn works to create a social situation whereby the entire class stands to benefit and achieve something closer to an equal playing field.
Economic Reasoning
To be clear, Patrick Finns work does not assume that all people should move on to higher classes; resources will always be limited and, well, its obviously just not possible. However, he does look for a universally fair shot if we are going to pretend that the US (and the future global economy) runs on meritocracy and, much more importantly, Finn wants those left on the lower levels (by choice or not) to be able to maintain, protect or improve their civic and social rights. For Finn, there doesnt have to be an individual monetary benefit, so long as workers are able to effectively look out for themselves in a system where political and social power forces its weight against them. This means teaching the skills to negotiate, leverage resources and navigate the dominate


21
culture through language. He calls this literacy with an attitude (129), a form of powerful literacy which will be explained more fully.
Because we are dealing with socioeconomics, it may be useful to picture a small business, one that makes hiring choices, creates products, and leverages markets as you would expect. An individual person is this business and their class defines the environment. Individual personal capabilities, such as critical thinking, analysis, evaluation, and any other number of skills would act similarly to employees, various equipment or perhaps even market knowledge or business acumen. Every resource, building, or item of intellectual property would act as components to determine the business products and services. Moreover, the quality of the input resources will largely determine the business overall success. It would be easy to show that having few or low quality resources reduces a companys competitive advantagelarge corporations, upper class businesses, are going to be better capitalized, have access to greater resources and (especially important) more likely house benefits such as legal teamsways to manipulate the system in their own favor.
As with the actual economy, literacy inputs work in this fashion between the micro aspects of business and the macro level economy as a whole. So, increasing a working companys successusually through some sort of competitive advantagewill change the larger landscape from unnoticeable day to day interactions to potentially global results. For example, innovation and successful use of resources might spark a new Facebook where a single company affects hundreds of millions or a friends personal loan could become the local dry cleaner providing the livelihood for a single family. If a working class student isnt going to inherit their fathers corporate shares, but he could be


22
capable of using the resources that are available to radically increase her business. Finn sees his powerful literacy like this, but, to take the metaphor further, he wants to see the knowledge and literacy economy working independent of affluence. That is, if this metaphorical version of Facebook comes from a working class neighborhood, then it would also come along with the development and local employment in that neighborhood. The entire area effectively benefits from the business success. That is, up until they relocate their offices to Orange County.
Literacy as Competitive Advantage
Research has clearly established that various forms of literacy can act as economic tools to provide working class citizens the opportunity to compete on the global playing field. Moreover, the relationship between individual literacies and economic effect on both the micro and macro social levels is fairly evident in other authors work. Questions largely revolve around which specific kinds of literacy need to be used and, in the current environment, we also have to consider which ones are most effective to use with limited resources.
Deborah Brandt, the author of Literacy in American Lives, stands out at the forefront of when considering literacy as an economic tool. She says, [literacy is now what iron ore or oil once was: a raw material to engine the GNP. That this raw material is drawn from human beings rather than from the earthand that its the same raw material upon which our civil liberties practically relymarks a turning point in the history of literacy well worth our attention and study (306). She posits the idea of literacy transactions that largely govern how information is essentially traded and used in American culture. In general, this idea has appeal when looking at education through an economic framework, but that appeal extends when applying it to the electronic age.


23
In fact, assuming literacy to be a primary vehicle for economic improvement (both socially and individually), then building literacy would require mining for valuable literacy ores. Uncovering varying degrees of individual skills, each with its own economic value, can then be used to scaffold and make its owner more valuable or, more accurately said, more powerful in society. As such, good reason exists to view various forms of literacy (digital, social, etc.) in economic terms and place respective effort to teaching them as economic instruments. When you look at vocational schools and other examples of working class education, this idea is certainly not alien. If we treat literacy through an economic paradigm, we immediately create a more applicable circumstance for workers where skills taught, by definition, could be traded for personal benefit. On a larger scale, we have an opening to solve a direct problem with class inequality and perhaps an opportunity to recreate a new negotiative birth with a collectively stronger voice for the working-class.
John Buschman takes the idea further with the notion that dollar in a workers hand is also a dollar put into a growing economy that can continue to be traded. Personally, I think of the incentives that the government handed out in the years following the recession when tax breaks were laid out to everyone simply to put more money into the economy. Buschman says, [literacy was once thought to be well understood and well-defined, particularly through the consequences of its alternative, illiteracy: poverty, backwardness, lack of access to the intellectual and emotional riches that reading brought and the economic advances that literacy enabled. This template was applied to the personal level[...] the social level[...] and the global level (95). The ore of literacy moves from an individual paying rent to the landlord who investments in the


24
Japanese stock market to an auto maker that puts the dollar back into another worker. In this sense, literacy can exist as beyond the basic scope of reading and writing while also moving throughout the educational economy. It isnt difficult to allow for the idea that Finn may be able to affect change on both individual and social levels through some sort of educational changes. Basically, he is looking to increase the value that working class literacy trades at.
More powerful and applicable forms of literacy yield better results for individuals and a lack thereof often leads to a lower standard of living (and also less ability to selfadvocate). As Brandt says, [ijncreasingly, the pressure of the new economy is aligning literacy and language with productivity and competitiveness. While becoming a good worker was long a desired outcome of literacy education, what is new is the direct role literacy now plays in economic activity (Brandt 306). As such, an important aspect for any worker-centric exploration should be focused on modifying literacy skills to be competitive in the digital age and not rely on a college education. When I spoke about the internet not providing the guiding hand, this is where one of the problem exist.
Having access to the internet does not mean that it is being functionally used or being developed into something new. Without scaffolding and continued creation, no worker can be the next Jobs or Zuckerberg (or even an alternative, successful middle-class citizen, really).
New knowledge and innovative ways to manipulate it have to start with the ability to learn and gain access to information that isnt clearly handed to them. While the guiding hand that universities tend to offer is valuable in pushing students to develop this skill, it is not something given to younger students. Mike Rose, for one, argues that


25
literacy should be used to gain additional resources to be used. As he says, [t]he more comfortable and skillful students become with this kind of influential talk, the more they will be included in further conversations and given access to further conceptual tools and resources (192). Rose calls for special attention to be given to a powerful language that potentially opens new resources and paths to critical literacy. Again, this language would have more utility when taught at earlier stages, thus allowing people to more efficiently adopt and manipulate the benefits and knowledge from grade school on up throughout their lives no matter what direction they travel. Give them a stronger, more applicable start to educational progression and they may be more able to reach goals achieved regularly by higher classes. Perhaps fantastically obvious, but language itself needs to be part of the solution.
Improving the input factors, including language and interaction methods, can be shown tangibly (and more thoroughly). Debra Brandt demonstrates how this interaction of correct input factors affects people on a small scale and then how it plays out on the larger one through a system of literacy sponsors in what amounts to be an economy of traded skills. In her examples, a student given access to the right input factors (education, technology, etc.) will likely be able to cope and overcome changing economic conditions which tends to lead to a better financial positioning later in life. The fundamental premise: higher quality educational ingredients will lead to higher quality outputs. In one story, the literacy afforded to a Professors son allowed that person to ride a new wave of industry. The cumulative result far outpaced the working class counterpart who was given lower value skills (Brandt). Of course, other factors contribute to a persons success, but the conceptual underlining shows how important having competitive


26
literacies can be while also showing how long-term results can be affected by these small literacy transactions.
Negotiation Scaffolded from Critical Literacy
Critical literacy, perhaps, creates the most important splinter of literacy education
as it applies to Finns text. In the 1940s, critical literacy was described as a way of
teaching "guided by passion and principle, to help students develop consciousness of
freedom, recognize authoritarian tendencies, and connect knowledge to power and the
ability to take constructive action" (Giroux). Essentially, it was a way of thinking that
allows people to move away from inherent class submissiveness through textual analysis
and an understanding that knowledge itself can be skewed. In the end, [cjritical literacy,
then, is about making students more knowledgeable and aware of the texts that surround
them and ones they choose (Hagood, 248). A matter of application and filtration of
texts; critical literacy is in-depth evaluation and critique. Of course, this idea centers on
economic understanding. For example, Buschman says:
Literacy is always part of some larger social practice other than just literacy itself. We never just read or write per se. [W]e can only read a text if it is housed within a social practice that gives it meaning. Paulo Freire named the neutral skill-acquisition approach to literacy the bankingor digestive or nutritionistmodel of literacy education: in one version, the teacher makes a deposit that a student is expected to capitalize. The more efficiently he does this, the better educated he is considered. In another, illiterates are thirsty or hungry for knowledge or empty and in need of filling or being fed [...] Freire argues that this is fundamentally authoritarian [...] and reduces learners to objects of the directives he imposes, leading to a profoundly unjust social and political order (98).
Critical literacy is a crucial piece of advancing working class students and a largely accepted method for educators to approach their students. As for the educators, Margaret Hagoods explains this in part as, [gjiven the dangerous and problematic


27
nature of literacies to produce selective views of the world, critical literacy has been deemed an important and needed aspect of literacy instruction for supporting and interrogating young peoples knowledge of how the texts they usesuch as grunge rock, fashion magazine, or news accountsfigure into their understandings of themselves and of their everyday lives (247). Unfortunately, critical literacy acts as a first step towards social justice, rather than the end.
Its a modem world; one where everything is digitally expanded, increasingly diverse and always mutating. Black and white has become a spectrum of creativity, perspective and input. The global concept of literacy has advanced along with it and necessitated a sprawling of academic study. New literacy, as an umbrella term, has already been shredded down by different disciplines into largely very specific skills and goals. Now, we see a slew of minor-literacies including cultural literacy, technological literacy, information literacy, visual literacy, political literacy and almost any other number of possible ways to understand and manipulate the world. John Buschman explains: [a] number of publications note the dozens of forms of new literacies (e.g., cultural, visual, multiple, interactive, workplace, media, critical, consumer, cross-cultural, moral historical, scientific, mathematical, technological, political, geographic, multicultural, etc. and the relative position of [information literacy] within this constellation. To this we now add the need to be literate in the social media of Web 2.0 [...] (101). Each new perspective provides a different point of view or skillset that all potentially (and ideally) combine into a larger way of thinking.
Finns powerful literacy acts as a good example of an evolution of literacy into something larger. It has moved from an understanding of sources and power structures


28
found in critical literacy, added in other elements and turned it into a large scale effort for the betterment of the working class. Unfortunately, his goals are hugenothing short of moving a majority of students to think on higher levels despite a lack of educational resources and tools. In the face of limited resources, I believe that his goal, or at least a portion thereof, may be attainable in easier terms than stated. One of the concepts, a recurring theme in my research and Finns own book, is the feature of economic relationships with obvious applications to students. Moreover, seen in the correct fashion, it could have implications for combining the new splinter literacies and take advantage of the technological tools that are available.
Reapplied and reevaluated, negotiation, as a form of literacy, may be one of the powerful skills that leading to a better standard of living for an entire class while not requiring the massive input that a university setting requires. Moreover, by viewing it as a literacy element rather than more nebulous concept, negotiation could be seen to simplify Finns effort into a smaller, more actionable element. Omnipresent in economic terms, yet almost untaught in the public school system and with incredible potential when discussing working class critical literacy, negotiation is something that hasnt received substantial treatment. Finn actually says it fantastically well when comparing typical domesticating literacy (a literacy offered through public schools) to that of powerful literacy (one found in prep and higher-class schools), [i]t is the literacy of persons who are conscious of their own power and self-interest. Its the literacy of negotiation (Finn 124-125).
Finns argument of today may look significantly different. Looking from the top of this sprawling of knowledge, call it a new peak of literacy, so much has changed in


29
two decades. When looking down, the foundations are wider and the mountain doesnt look the same as it did before the technological revolution. New micro-level skills, any of the above forms of literacy, could potentially be added to achieve Finns goal. While critical literacy may be at the base in importance as it relates to workers, and most likely still the most important mineral of Finns powerful literacy, perhaps another skill still lays waiting. Negotiation, as Finn portrays it, seems to have negatively disproportionate value hereat least as far as potential goes. It embodies so many valuable skills, including the ability to interact with each of these other literacies, but it doesnt currently seem to be considered anything more than a tool of business. Perhaps it should be a tool of the masses.


30
CHAPTER III STUDENT APPLICATIONS
Regardless of political leaning or ones support for concepts like unions, Finns work has significant appeal when addressing such a large topic. While union concepts (and Corresponding Societies absolutely toe this line) wont ever be universally agreed upon, the economic basis makes sense and the need for some sort of change is being magnified in each year that we continue to see wealth redistribution to the upper echelons of society. Beyond the large scale effects, though, one also has to acknowledge the benefits to individuals, even if social change must wait for adoption and the occurrence of other large scale changes (such as political and administrative policies. This chapter expands on the inner workings of Finns work.
Self-Interest
If Finns efforts are viable, then perhaps negotiation, taken as the primary goal rather than an auxiliary one as presented in Literacy with an Attitude, could offer the preferred results. First, it encompasses major literacy and critical thinking skills (i.e. synthesis, analysis, leverage, etc...). Negotiation skills would also inherently include the effective premises of critical literacysomething already agreed upon as a highly useful form of literacy for workers. Second, negotiation, nearly by definition, is self-interested. While critical literacy may be subjective and often-times seemingly irrelevant without direct application, negotiation remains highly self-serving and immediately applicable to personal needs. It feeds directly into the largest premise of Patrick Finns work.
Perhaps most importantly, the inherent skill set would allow an individual to later affect social change. Negotiation as a skill-set might encourage attitudes and behaviors that support a more beneficial macro-environment for working class students.


31
Essentially, negotiation might help empower the working class and create a similar result to Finns intended form of unionization. Having created citizens already disposed to using negotiation, the next extension to unite and defend their own civil rights is only a small step forward. Negotiation has been a cornerstone of the union movement and it is an interesting thought to picture what individuals with this ability and mindset taught at early ages might carry forth (whether to union jobs or not). If nothing else, it might go a long way towards encouraging and explaining the processes that would most help them in both the workplace break room as well as voting booths across the nation. Ideally, workers would then pass the mindset and abilities on to the next generation and this could create a general expansion of a self-defensive working class. Of course, the idea of classwide adoption even makes sense and can be backed up to opponents and conservatives who might be reluctant to buy into the value. Any pure capitalist could argue how people, knowing the direct benefit of negotiation, would use it to build and create for themselves. It is a pretty basic free market notion.
Furthermore, remarkable similarities exist in what Finn needs to accomplish and what is being done with negotiation literature. Instead of a business-centric idea, the literature has shown that negotiation can be involved with far-ranging composition of skills and applications beyond an individuals personal improvement. That is, negotiations attributes happen to produce different benefits as they relate specifically to literacy and the ability to combine different kinds of knowledge into unique perspectives; they help in comprehension and higher-order skills, including prediction and inference (Lewicki et. al). Ideally, negotiative training would give them the basic skills to adopt


32
information independently from a young age and use it immediately for their uses while also contributing to ongoing social change.
Negotiation works well as a stand-alone skill as well. It obviously has applications in almost any business setting and could potentially allow students and border-crossers an increased ability to make useful connections in the academy (should that be their destination). Moreover, negotiation is critical to a unified and, should we go that far, unionized class. If Finns self-interested education becomes a reality, negotiation will be a critical key and may very well be the more prominent ore in new literacy transactions. At the very least, negotiation deserves additional attention in different applications.
A site that tries to compile a set of working skillsets for people entering the workforce, SkillsYouNeed.com, puts negotiation as one of the large working skills alongside personal, interpersonal, demonstration, leadership and writing skills. Its description on the importance of negotiation states, It is inevitable that, from time-to-time, conflict and disagreement will arise as the differing needs, wants, aims and beliefs of people are brought together. Without negotiation, such conflicts may lead to argument and resentment resulting in one or all of the parties feeling dissatisfied. The point of negotiation attempts to reach agreements without causing future barriers to communications. Essentially, it works for a compromise between two parties and, ideally, creates the most beneficial outcome to problems.
The Brownstoners of Finns book create a fairly relevant example (90-92). Their ability to affect change within the school system demonstrated a nearly pure negotiative approach through which they used a number of resources to advocate for their objectives.


33
Recognized power differentials between themselves and administrators get leveraged to the Brownstoners advantage. By extension, those with less power and ability were left on the losing side because there was no push-back or competitive response mounted by the working class students and parents. The working class people had pure numbers, but basically gave up control to the better negotiators. If there was more of a push-back, the school system of the Brownstoners may have had a completely different and more balanced outcome where working class students are also able to take advantage of changes as well. Perhaps they could have adopted some of the powerful traits that the Brownstoners demonstrated and used the negotiative skills to continue improvement.
Further though, while Finns powerful literacy contains the ability to interact in American culture with authority and success, the end-goal remains as the ability to maintain and create new social, / civic and human rightssomething larger than the individual (though riding on his/ her back). Finn wants a class to use critical literacy, see where the mechanisms are working against them, and then subsequently start to overcome those obstacles. On the bottom-most level, Finn looks for the working class to be able to take action for themselves and this idea is largely based on the economic principles. That is, Finn thinks that students are more likely to move towards a mutually beneficial goal if they can see, tangibly, how they stand to benefit. Negotiation, as a robust topic far beyond that which Literacy with an Attitude discusses, works far more expansively than credited. For example, Spangles description of negotiation includes the observation that, [historically, negotiation was based on self-interest, and tactics involved strategic influence (Spangle 3). Self-advocation remains perhaps the most salient feature of both powerful literacy teaching as well as that of negotiation studies.


34
Its perfectly capitalist operating under one of the most basic tenants of our society and still shows the deep connection between the awareness objectives of critical literacy along with actionable traits of negotiation.
Explicit Discourse
Explicit language, a method of coding communication typically present among upper-classes, creates and an enormous dilemma and barrier for working students. Working class students are more likely to come from a society of intimates (Finn 88) where communication can be based on shared experience and community knowledge. As an implicit form of communication, this mode fails to work effectively beyond the immediate community and doesnt translate well across class borders. In opposition, explicit communication doesnt rely on shared experience and carries a certain level of power to any social situation. Naturally taught in upper class societies, explicit discourse gets embedded into upper class students at early ages where it seems natural and goes largely unnoticed. However, as a skill, it is often severely lacking in the working communities. An important segment in Literacy with an Attitude argues that schools in upper class communities, teachers and parents tend to have an interactive approach with the students, allowing them to explore, engage and learn. Offering working class students this ability might open a similar dialogue. One of the largest noted obstacles for working class students is the ability to adopt mainstream language in addition to (or instead of in the case of border-crossers) their own community-based languages. Finn knows this and his work largely hearkens back to Mike Roses assertion about the need for students to use, leverage and manipulate powerful and explicit language to succeed when border-crossing.


35
A specific example of this exists in Finns book when he argues the differences in teaching methods between two groups: The Roadvillers and the Maintowners.
Roadvillers are the working class students who experience their interactions with text and language far differently than the upper class Maintowners. Roadvillers receive a similar emphasis on textual reading, but in a far different way. At very early ages, children may be read to with parents then interacting by asking questions, but the questions are largely centered on apparent facts and far less subjective subject matter. Questions pertain to tangible facts from any story and children are expected to explain or repeat back the information they have heard. Following the development of these two groups, the Roadvillers tend to do fine in school for the first few years of basic education, but gradually fall off and are unable to extend their thinking or perhaps completely understand the lessons once they move away from the actual, outlined facts of a text (228).
On the other hand, upper class households, the Maintowners, tend to take a different approach. Finn says, Maintown seems like a case study for the cultural characteristics that lead to habitual use of explicit language. Authority in the home tends to be collaborative rather than authoritarian. Parents and children live in a society of strangers where little can be assumed about what your communications partners know or what they believe. Parents feel powerful. They rarely accept any situation where they feel put at a disadvantage without attempting to negotiate (108). Questions start similarly to the Raodville households, but also tend to move towards interactive questions such as how does it make you feel? or what would you have done in [a characters] position? While this difference seems small, it lays a foundation of how a child learns


36
to interact with a text. At a very early age, children are able to negotiate; they allow themselves interpretation and begin to apply information. They are learning to interact, take lessons and apply them to their own situation unlike the more direct line of questioning performed by the Roadvillers (111-119).
Finn remarks that working students, the Roadvillers, do adequately well in the early years of public education, but that ability wears off throughout their stay. While no direct studies appear to have addressed the topic, negotiation, as a foundation learned at the beginning stages of education, may be useful in replicating the interactions found in upper-classes by creating a paradigm for students to engage with teachers, professors and other positions of authority. With the basic premises learned early on, a student would understand not only personal needs, but also their opponents and potential consequences of their interaction. Negotiation, a skill that now has backing scientific and theoretical literature rather than vague business practice, might help bridge the transition from home discourse to that of the public system and help them cross, even if not accept in day-to-day life, into explicit discourse. An immediate argument in favor or the domesticating forms of literacy is that it is more pragmatic for teachers and administrators when dealing with larger classes and limited resources, but one of the effects of negotiation would be, theoretically, a reduced need for that approach. That is, if a student anticipates the needs of other parties, is able to accommodate, then they would also be helping serve their self-interest without putting up unintentional roadblocks and the need for authoritarian classrooms. Ideally, everyone, students, teachers and administrators, would have a better resulting environment for their own purposes. One would think that the explicit discourse would also be expanded through continued experience and practice. Perhaps


37
the ability seeps back into working families a corollary effect that Finn would no doubt love to see.
Negotiation as a skill (or potential set of skills) undoubtedly applies beyond the workplace and could have value at any point in the primary curriculum, even if, for whatever reason I cant see, it doesnt end up being effectively applied at the earliest stages where Finns Roadvillers start to fade off. Negotiation is heavily referenced as working in a students favor well beyond elementary education. By providing access to larger bodies of literacy and knowledge whether it be through educators or interaction through technologies, negotiation further helps a student navigate from primary schools on through colleges and universities. Undoubtedly, this also would carry over to work.
Most authors cited here have at one point noted how literacy opens doors to new literacy and the external environment can mean everything to some students. Negotiation can aid explicit discourse of powerful communities and help provide the ability to communicate and access external resourcessomething that only border-crossers tend to find. While perhaps missing from the very early stages of development, that negotiative property could be universal if only we introduce the same (or similar) perspectives and abilities of the upper classes into our public schooling systems. It doesnt have to be overwhelming, but could rather be a complementary feature alongside critical literacy and the general work of socially-minded teachers. Moreover, it is uniquely suited to working class students needs in that it doesnt assume higher education or even later primary schooling to be a given path, though it does allow it. No matter where a student winds up, be it in the garage, the machine floor or a graduate program at the local university, negotiation lends itself to more powerful interactions for workers.


38
Social Justice Educators and Class Identity
Another potential issue with Finns approach will be the presence of social justice educatorsteachers capable and interested not only of doing the subjective right thing, but those also with a connection to working-class values and an actual interest in bettering working education. Our system largely looks to border-crossers, but the numbers of these are limited to the few (and dwindling) numbers of people who move upward through other classes. Moreover, as noted, these students tend to be absorbed into the classes they occupy without spreading social benefits into their communities.
Patrick Finns social movement, Mike Roses language argument, Deborah Brandts literacy transactions are limited without a two-way improvement bringing students toward powerful language and then having those benefits filter back to the students left at the bottleneck of literacy education (the point where working students tend to fall off). While we have good teachers doing what they are trained to do, we also lack the necessary level of Finns (and Freires) social justice educators necessary to catalyze enough students towards change on the larger cultural problem. At the very least, we likely havent fulfilled the potential of social justice educators that may be usable when seeking class-transcendent educational democracy. Our system focuses largely on the idea of encouraging the lucky few to take steps into the higher classes, but this only creates a bottleneck for equilibrium with a few, select students moving upwards and the largest population left swimming beneath the entrance to powerful learning. Those that do pass through often fail to return, let alone carry the knowledge of that venture back to the largest portion of the population. Finn proposes a bridge that would, ideally, bypasses the bottleneck to complete a loop allowing people and knowledge to flow back to those that remain, for whatever reason, among the working classes.


39
Finns argument requires, [n]ew Paradigm border crossers [to] work hard in school and learn school discourse not to replace their own, but to use it to further their own self-interest and the collective interest of their class (Finn 257). While it helps to have socially-minded middle and upper class educators working for democratization of knowledge, there little external emphasis that comes to the aid of the collective side of Finns equation. That is to say the collective interest, and larger social correction, is better served beyond the small number of social justice educators, but rather from class members working for social justice. As such, a larger effort for educating working students would go a long way towards opening the educational bottleneck and offer a loop of literacy access among workers. Finn recognizes this. As he says, [i]f we are to truly educate the vast majority of working-class children, we need a major paradigm shift. We must replace the Old Paradigm of extrinsic motivation and individual border crossing with a New Paradigm of Freirean motivation and powerful literacy, the literacy that will enable the majority of poor and working-class children (who will no doubt continue to leave school at the end of high school or sooner) to become better able to exercise their civil, political and social rights (197). Education, once again seems suited for early education, but the limitation for social justice educators is obvious.
One solution might be that we simply seek more social justice educators, but this idea is complicated by our ability (or lack thereof) to encourage a large sect of the population to embrace teaching powerful literacy, effectively. This certainly means getting past using Springer guests as examples and barrooms as ethnographical settings and means convincing a large group of mostly middle class students to treat powerful literacy as an investment with clear social returns this is similar to the economic


40
reasoning. How do you get a middle class educator to put the necessary emphasis and passion into social justice (let alone communicate those ideas and methods)?
Negotiation, a self-interested, powerful form of language use potentially creates the two-way loop in education. How large that loop ends up being, I have zero clue. The initial thinking is that negotiation skills, especially those taught early, would bring in a greater number of potential social justice educators in general. That is, bringing more working people forward to the university setting would bring working values into middle and upper class discourse while also increasing the overall pool of people available to become social justice educators and carry on the effort.
However, additional problems exist and border-crossers will still tend to convert to upper and middle classes when they move up the social ranks. It certainly isnt clear that social justice educators are necessarily going to be a natural extension of better working class education. However, this conversion is perhaps unnecessary. Finn is clear that the collective interest is naturally served by working class members, but oppositional identity makes many unwilling to become more powerful on their own behalf and that others tend to be absorbed. However, this doesnt have to be the case. Finn, Rose and still others have argued that working students can learn to use language, negotiation and other skills to their advantage to compete on the higher class social field while not compromising their class values. Most would call it code switching, but it is also more dynamic than merely adopting a second language. It involves a slew of personal, social, and working traits. Additionally, it involves overcoming conflicts of personal identity, the perceptions about power and how it is used, to move students into more powerful communities. In the university setting, specifically, working students


41
would be in a unique place of not only learning new literacies, but also introducing their own class values into a place where policy and social change take place.
Overcoming this complexity has its own research. One author Ive found calls for a meta-awareness of various discourse communities, which will equip [students] simultaneously to learn as well as to resist and critique the established genres (Sundin 29). It is an idea closely coinciding with critical literacy, powerful literacy and negotiative literacy except that the meta-awareness is the primary goal. To working class advocates, awareness has to be an essential initial goal with action and application coming as the more final step. Unfortunately, class differences make it difficult for students to identify and adopt mainstream and dominant culture including the ideas of explicit discourse. However, negotiation intertwines with critical and powerful literacy and creates the bridge to something at least comparable to upper classes. An observation on critical literacy concludes, [cjhildren who, at the start of the year, had difficulty accessing learning were able to take on different identities [...] that created space for them to participate in ways they hadnt previously (Vasquez 615).
Research into teaching critical and powerful literacy comes with a number of roadblocks. An enormous issue is the cultural difference existing between families of working-class and upper-class workers and citizens. Even with socially-conscious educators, an acknowledged problem will be overcoming reluctance by many of the working class to buy in. Oppositional identity, the us vs them mentality that can interfere with a students willingness to adopt mainstream culture and language, usually exists beneath conscious thought. Finn speaks of the engrained feeling of any outsider, [f]or involuntary minorities, the dominant group is not only different, it is the enemy


42
(47). In this case, involuntary minorities are not limited to any racial divisions, but merely those that have a lower starting point than surrounding and more dominant cultures. It isnt hard to see these lines of defiance in culture. Look to any punk rock anthems (from almost any nation) and you will see class warfare peering back. For some it is passing, for others it tethers itself and pulls upon a mental anchor. In mass media, look to the news and you see the occupy movement and directed emphasis on corporate corruption. Look to theaters and you see the rise of movies with strong class undertones (of course, I think of the last Batman and any movie focusing on Wall Street, but whatever works for you).
However, negotiation has become a diverse topic well beyond the scope that we traditionally believe in and involves processes that can be leveraged to overcome numerous hurdles including the problematic us vs them disposition. Further, it can actually be exploited to a students benefit when dealing with a larger society and parties that dont share their interest. For this, however, it has to be understood that negotiation can be looked at as more complicated than simply picturing a back and forth request for more resources with each party focusing on immediate benefits to themselves. This, the more traditional approach called the distributive form of negotiation, is largely considered limited when seeking equitable outcomes for all. The problem, and I will come back to this later in more depth, is that it focuses on immediate benefits for one party and precludes participation (and concern) for the opposition. Of course, negotiation doesnt have to be so simple. A more up to date outlook on negotiation, this one the integrative form of negotiation, can enable students to learn to negotiate beyond a single, end-result and limited tangible victory. That is, negotiation can be collaborative


43
and could combine to allow a student to seek benefits that work with other students, teachers, administrators and parents. Rather than a fight, we encourage students to seek open communication and mutually beneficial situations. This allows working students to pursue their own self-interest without asking for a compromise from another party, most likely teachers, administrators and possible members of their family or religious institutions.
Looking past the limited perspective of distributive negotiation, researchers notice interesting negotiative qualities that pertain to knowledge acquisition and general academic interactions. Integrative negotiation allows collaboration while also keeping aspects of personal self-interest. Gibbons, Bradoc and Busch actually define negotiation as, [t]he exchange of information through language that coordinates and manages meaning. Mike Rose also proposed that being able to communicate with the authorities led to more information and new opportunities (156). Finn himself argues that students must learn the language to manipulate access without giving up their own working identity (39-42). While not ideal, students who perceive an enemy could use negotiation to understand dominant culture for opportunities for personal gain. Though, as I will come to, negotiation can be much more.
Spangle, moreover, notes an interesting coincidence between Finns powerful literacy and negotiation. He states, [negotiation can serve as a tool for managing the dialectical dimensions of conflict displayed in tensions about autonomy or connectedness, openness or closedness, independence or dependence, and control or yielding. Negotiation provides a method for guiding parties through a process that focuses discussion more on understanding and meaning and less on blaming, control, or


44
who gets authority over what (Spangle 4). Would it be more difficult or less so to maintain personal identity using negotiation at some of our public school roots?
While useful, social justice educators are always going to be limited. Some arent even going to truly have the classs best interest in mind or even have a clue what that is. Whats more, working class students may help increase their overall effectiveness, but they simply cannot be relied upon to resolve the educational disparity. However, the point of social justice educators is still critical. In many ways, their mission is to bring powerful literacy practices to those who may not otherwise receive it and this is still a reasonable even if it may be done in another way. Negotiation, taken as an independent literacy, could again provide a possible solution to help working students do a number of things by breaking down their reluctance or at the very least allowing them to learn to work around any us vs. them situations to actually see their self-interest. In doing so, they can (potentially) bolster the ranks of social justice educators with those better able to accurately communicate with the working class while also bringing in larger populations who gain access to higher literacy. Negotiation may be uniquely able to provide several benefits for reaching Finns overarching goals, not the least of which is the ability to place working culture and values into the academic debate. Finn wants to move towards what can best be described as a unionized class, negotiation offers potential to move literacy education and social justice educators in that direction.
Relationships and Interactions with Society
Picture back to the business metaphor and an individual/ business interacting with suppliers, other companies and still contributing to the macro-level business environment. Professional, personal, and political ends, regardless of a students background or future,


45
can be largely affected by a widespread change in literacy education working to include
negotiation. Spangle states of the benefits:
Inherent in interpersonal, family and community relationships is a growing need to manage relationships more effectively. The cost of broken relationships, employee disputes and community violence continue to grow, and new ways for resolving differences are needed.
Negotiation is one option to transform conflict into problem solving or compromise. If offers an opportunity for people to reduce tensions caused by their differing views of the world. Negotiation provides an opportunity to create change and overcome resistance to change without having to use threats, make demands, or attempt to coerce (3).
Social, familial, work or education, it doesnt matter. Negotiation has far reaching applications to students and can benefit people of any origin including students in other socioeconomic classes. The potential for receiving a larger portion of the pie can only have benefits for the working class (and arguably society as a whole even if you subscribe to concepts like trickle-down economics), but there are other opportunities for negotiation to apply in a workers favor.
The work environment has changed considerably. Pensions are gone. Lifelong loyalty between employee and company are, by and large, non-existent and replaced with relationships of convenience. I dont think it would be a stretch to assume that most companies are largely focused on the bottom line and it isnt rare, by any means, for a company and their management to look to short-change workers when given the opportunity. While it doesnt sound fair, it is also the reality behind capitalism. It also isnt necessarily unethical. I had one teacher explain how banks can refinance debt when the economic climate works out and students were quick to launch statements that it shouldnt be allowed. He simply responded and asked us if we thought it was fair that we


46
can refinance our own debt when interest rates dive. No one in the class had a response to that. Perhaps higher than global average salaries arent in the cards for most workers, but that isnt the end to better work conditions or other opportunities to invite pro-active conversation.
This potential happens everywhere in an individuals life; it starts before a worker is even working. For example, someone who walks into a job interview may be asked their salary or work requirements. On the other side, an experienced worker may be offered one raise, but deserving another. For another example, take a worker who may have a family situation that requires time off or the ability to work from home. Negotiation, used correctly, has positive effects. Spangle argues: A manager negotiating an issue with an employee may not reach agreement but may establish a dialogue about role, authority, and cooperation. Putnam and Roloff (1992b) point out that negotiators uncover systems of meaning that influence subsequent messages and communication patterns over time. Each negotiation is about more than a single outcome (4). I have already acknowledged that not all workers are destined for the salaries of a corporate CEO, but other places exist where they can improve their lives and better working (as well as school and social) conditions can walk a more productive path, assuming that people are skilled enough to do so. All of the above working situations, from interview to family crisis, can become opportunity to create a better standard of living through negotiation and trade. While an employee needs to recognize their own working utility and leverage it as with traditional negotiation, they also need to be able to seek out solutions that benefit both parties. A flexible work schedule, for example, might allow a company to get Saturday coverage and save a family the high cost of day care.


47
Moreover, this root-level negotiation can result in a better situation for everyone, upper and middle classes included. Actually, modem definitions of negotiation often assume two or more parties working towards a mutually beneficial outcome.
Importantly, any final negotiative result doesnt have to follow the route of the Brownstoners in Literacy with an Attitude where lower class individuals get sidelined due to an enormous power differential and what I have to, sadly, call ignorance on the side of workers. Instead, an armed working class, capable of self-defense and advocating their own self-interest may be able to proposition a situation where the employer gets a more satisfied and productive employee, while the employee walks away with a better living standard.
A problem though exists as directly indicated in the previous sentence. While it was the first line of thinking in my mind, it is also rhetorically compiled with aggressive, conflict-engrained words that demonstrate what is perhaps most wrong with Finns work. He generally does not take into account the fact that successful negotiation, of any sort and on any level be it individual, company-wide or societal, becomes increasingly difficult the more you remove the notion of a beneficially outcome in favor of wrestling at a larger portion of limited resources.


48
CHAPTER IV
DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
Despite all of the theoretically positive notions of Finns work, there are limitations. The biggest that I foresee is that, while the groundwork for social change may be laid out, the argument is simplified on the social level. Finn intends for the working class to demand a better situation. However, his work doesnt explore the fact that it is not in the upper class self-interest to do so. Conflict will be immense. Fortunately, literature exists that argues that a slight change, an evolution of his base concepts, might allow Finns work to overcome conflict limitations. The following attempts to expand on the obstacles that enacting Finns work might encounter and present a possible solution to overcome them.
Conflict Limitations
Finn carries working class preconceptions and ideologies into his book that would unfortunately both create unnecessary conflict between classes as well as limit the potential end-result of any change created. More precisely, without revision and expansion of his definition of negotiation to move beyond the us vs them notion, Finn will likely to create enormous kick back from opposing parties and offset any gains he might normally (or potentially) make. In keeping to the more distributive form of negotiation, a traditional form often seen between organized unions and company management (a form of negotiation that assumes the pie is fixed), Finn might possibly achieve a portion of his goal, but his gains would almost assuredly come from sacrifices of others. While this is still a better solution than leaving educational disparity alone, it isnt necessarily ideal. At the very least, Finn leaves potential on the table by not moving forward to more progressive, integrative forms of negotiation.


49
As a plumbers son and east-coaster (where unions are culturally prevalent), Finns background is almost unquestionably skewed towards a limited perception of negotiation as a basic and functional concept or skill used in defined oppositiona form negotiation of negotiation that recreates the us vs. them mentality. This creates a number of problems leading to a natural tendency to see negotiation as a limited resources situation. Unfortunately, this naturally also increases conflict and creates auxiliary problems. Finns apparent direction and the negotiation most often associated with labor relations is clearly distributive in nature, one described as a system where, [o]ne party wants to gain as much as possible at the expense of another (win-lose)that is, every dollar won by one party is lost by another (Spangle 38). Furthermore, parties are clearly adversaries, victory is the goal, the parties demand concessions of each other as a condition of the relationship, they are hard on people, distrust others, dig in their position, make threats [and] hide or mislead the bottom line (Spangle 14). If provided no other options, then perhaps this works as a viable solution to prevent the exploitation. However, nothing I see demands this be the case and the entire approach should likely be reserved as a final option. As it stands, Finn himself might shrug when considering the potential backlash that will inevitably follow a traditionally unionized working class, especially now when political polarization is the national norm.
Finns approach naturally positions his argument as a solid black and white, two-party issue without clearly evaluating the power differentials and anticipating the typical reactions in any conflict situation. While empowering working class citizens should be an unquestionable direction to take, I am not sure that the unintended consequences of a power grab, legitimate or not, will be worth it. In a system with assumed limited


50
resources, aristocracy has not historically been on the generous side, especially when the power differential do not demand any give in a negotiation. Working towards self-interest creates the conflict paradox that almost assures Finns overall failure. At best, this conflict makes Finns efforts irrelevant and, at worst creates additional problems through upper class roadblocks.
Furthermore, negotiation in a wider, more productive context could be used by and taught to all parties regardless of class, school, or grade level. Finns distributive model is only really necessary (or useful) when more powerful parties are using similar tactics at the workers expense and when there is no option or ability to move to more integrative approaches. Integrative negotiation, however, is something that can be benefit everyone even if only one party uses it. In each of the above three scenarios people looking for flexible hours, a raise, or in the process of salary negotiationsa better overall outcome could be achieved if any of the parties were working with a collaborative perspective in mind. The solution of flexing time to get Saturday coverage and reduce a persons day care cost could just as easily be found by a member of human resources or a direct supervisor rather than employee. Moreover, companies and institutions might benefit from having their employees trained in integrative negotiation as one of the working soft skills. Deborah Brandt argues about integrative negotiation being used: One of the most vexing problems from the corporate perspective is that literacy and other human capital want to behave as a public good. Unlike many finite material assets, sharing literacy does not reduce its utility. In fact, sharing literacy often enhances its utility (307). An open dialogue for negotiation rather than a veiled and conflicting one can increase the end-result for even a corporation, but it requires leaders


51
on that side to take a more productive approach as well. If we are seeking the most functional forms of literacy worth paying for, we should look at integrative negotiation and include it among all parties and all classes.
Micro-level problems further reinforce the conflict. Littlejohn and Domenici note several of these rhetorical and discourse issues that will most likely arise as if Finn is successful in empowering working class students. Language bouncing does not guarantee successful communication. The language of the two sides will differ, and where similar terms are used, they will probably have quite different meanings (Littlejohn 396). That is, there should at least be concern that the specific languages become less compatible than desired. Second, the fundamental values may still reduce the conversation from anything productive. Again Littlejohn says, [Conflict participants] engage in simplism, moralism, monism and, on the other side, preservationism (403). In this case, simplism becomes exemplified with rhetorical positions such the use of class war slogans and picketing solutions. The overall result: [In the end] [creativity is nil, as the conflicting parties can think of no solution other than capitulation or elimination (396).
Furthermore, one has to wonder if Finns audience is also limited because of this positioning. While not incredibly well known, Finns work does have people writing reading and responding (Im here), but those engaging with his text would likely be from a similar position either politically or socio-economically and are less likely to be a typical social justice educator. In fact, the only other dedicated text I found when beginning this project was also a self-identified working class student. Unfortunately, this perspective can inversely be rejected completely on philosophical grounds.


52
Unionization is as political as it gets, especially in todays social climate. Its pretty clear that Literacy with an Attitudes will be seen as such when one of its online reviews calls it pure communist dogma (Amazon). Finns position assumes that workers alone hold the power to influence society to their benefit, but as I have noted, conflict results will likely be overwhelming if thats the case (and they take Finns negotiation paradigm). As such, it would seem that negotiation of some sort needs to be taught society wide rather than limited to just the working classes. Without support from other participants, namely middle and upper class Finns focus on social justice educators holds slim chance of success. Finn needs to extend his paradigm, in a more developed form, beyond individual classes and push it to be to be taught society-wide rather than limited to just the working classes. In doing so, he stands to earn additional educators and sympathizers to implement his changes.
Finn could significantly increase the overall effect of his efforts by helping ensure that the opposing party doesnt go to the negotiation table also thinking that the pie really is fixed and that hardball type strategies are in their own self-interest. While initially dealing with scarce resources, other resolutions may exist outside of the assumed dichotomy. Perhaps, social changes can be brought into better alignment to allow for mutually beneficial solutions. This would, of course, require a huge change in public opinions and perceptions, and may not come anywhere close to making everyone happy, but there could still likely be a more equitable solution than Finn has presented. The integrative approach looks for this kind of solution by increasing the available economic pie or creating solutions equitable to each sides needs. Value for workers could come in the form of more money or through intangible benefits such as work conditions, benefits,


53
or time off. Even basic workplace satisfaction could be added onto the table. Finns effort works a better off working class, something that does not necessitate actual dollars in pockets. A short-sighted image of social reform, one that more closely resembles a person approaching with a distributive mind-set, would to assume actual cash has to be the end result.
Integrative Negotiation
My focus on integrative negotiations ability to expand on Finns position isnt to say that traditional approaches are without value. Distributive negotiation may actually be considered more of the tangible complement to integrative negotiation with tools that can certainly be applied. For example, Kristi Hedges argues that one of the first processes a negotiator should employ is priority ranking. An important professor in my education repeated that the key to both negotiation and conflict resolution was to know what you want. Without that, you cant know where to go (Erbert). Hedges, in a brief work far shorter than the several hundred-page text book that accompanies negotiation courses also lists tactics like dont counter too low, make the first offer, re-anchor if necessary. She also notes research that shows that counter-offers make both parties more satisfied.
That said, distributive negotiation is only part of the equation as new philosophies and perspectives have given rise to new literature. As the social world has changed, it makes sense that our own viewpoints change as well. Our is an age of negotiation. The fixed positions and solid values of the past seem to be giving way and new rules, roles and relations have to be worked out [... ] negotiation becomes not a transition, but a way of life (Zartman 2-3). All of this is to say that negotiation isnt the set-in-stone skill perceived by Finn and, well, most peopleespecially those that may already be


54
engrained in unions and other work related conflicts between classes. I, for example, am sure the previous fifty pages are full of connoted items that allow you to figure out my political perspective (despite me trying to be unbiased). Brad Spangle, however, cites abundant resources over the last half century to give several definitions for how administrators, teachers, and researchers might approach the topic in primary schools. They are:
1) A process in which at least two partners with different needs and viewpoint try to reach agreement on matters of mutual interest (Adler, Graham, & Gehrke, 1987, p.
413).
2) An interactive process by which two or more people seek jointly and cooperatively to do better than they could otherwise (Lax and Sebenius, 1991a, p. 97).
3) The exchange of information through language that coordinates and manages meaning (Gibbons, Bradac,
& Busch, 1992, p. 156).
4) The interaction of two or more complex social units that are attempting to define or refine the terms of their interdependence (Walton & McKersie, 1965, p. 35).
5) Two or more interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals and engage in social interaction to reach a mutually satisfying outcome (Putnam &
Roloff, 1992, p. 3). (2)
In many of the cases, the authors of negotiation believe that the art or process creates a collective effort towards a beneficial outcome, but some are vaguer with less positive potential outcomesa few are potentially dangerous. Obviously, the more useful definitions stand out and all can generally be categorized into two umbrella directions for research. Collaborative forms move past Finns more traditional and mechanical approach.
Of course, this might largely seem like the framing of negotiation, but there is value in doing just that. An integrated approach moves the objective away from basic


55
give and take and moves into give, take and creation. This should likely be the evolution of negotiation built onto Finns work. Defining your negotiative starting point as something closer to being, based on cocreation of understandings about the problem and integration of parties needs (Spangle 14) allows for more equitable solutions as and acts as the more ideal option when exploring literacy as a school subject. In this situation parties parlay back and forth with the result being one that creates a mutually beneficial conclusiona win-win with all groups receiving some kind of benefit. An integrated approach can help with dialogue, meaning, and cooperation for the future. According to Spangle, [bjehaviors associated with the integrative approach include open sharing of information, willingness to trust others, tradeoffs of valued interests, and interest-based discussion (14), a search for the overall greatest benefit.
Moreover, an extension of this framing reduces conflict and negotiative training could be used to better communication in such situations. Spangle states that ones approach to negotiation has an effect on each parties responses. Of a distributive approach, he says, [t]he emphasis was on selective sharing of information to create an agreement with little regard for the underlying social processes. Although parties were unaware of it, their interactions influenced the level of trust they held in each other, the power was experienced, to the extent to which each would be open with information, or the kind of relationship that developed (Spangle 3). As such, negotiation can be used beyond arguing for more workplace benefits like money or sick time; it can also build better relationships. Ive mentioned how the world can be seen in perpetual opposition. One percenters face off against the working class; Republicans take on Democrats; always us versus them... It is class war. The connotation of defiance and violence is


56
pervasive and, again, shows how much value can be found in re-framing a topic. Here, the ongoing perception that there is a limited amount of economic pie to go around encourages more radical responses when competing for a section of that pie. It is a fight. Unfortunately, our current ideals support this level of competition. However, the framing of integrative negotiation would allow for less conflicted responses.
Perhaps most importantly to Finns cause, integrative negotiation can be scaffolded and has theoretical. On a social level, integrative negotiation mirrors the large-scale social change Finn seeks with the potential, tangible, workplace benefits in tow. It further assists students with the acquiring of new literacies, which is something that Mike Rose argued for heavily in his highly-regarded work. This, of course, then feeds back into the social sphere and compounds benefits through an increase in border-crossers and other large-scale social improvements.
In following that trail of potential benefits, I want to look at each one a bit closer. First, the integrative approach has society wide opportunity. Integrative negotiation would take our economic system and opens it beyond the limited pie that most people see. An entire class that makes up most of our society would almost definitely be able to find new innovations that could expand that economic pie to larger total value. This value could come in the form of more money or simply provide some less-tangible benefits such as work conditions, benefits, or time off that result in a higher degree of overall happiness. Even basic workplace satisfaction could be added into the total amount of perception of the pie that guides us. Our goal envisions a better off working class, but that vision shouldnt limit itself to the world of physical currency. Sadly, one of the most salient problems with any sort of powerful literacy or critical literacy assumes


57
that resources are limited and that perception places a roadblock that integrative negotiation needs to overcome. Patrick Finns goals arent to necessarily steal those away from the upper class, but rather to have a higher standard of life for the masses which largely occurs at the policy-making level. I think a few small adjustments would make this possible through our educational system and a new emphasis on negotiation.
Moreover, integrative negotiation closely ties into all sorts of other literacy skills including information literacy, digital literacy, and social or cultural literacy. As discussed, the web 2.0 revolution has been one that evolved from the open-source software and has led the world into a more social paradigm of interaction. Information flows much more freely than it has in the past and most people have access to similar tools including educational materials. We are now functionally drawing on each other as well as the entire archive of human knowledge. Back to Zuckerberg: Background doesnt have to matter so long as you can manipulate resources into a desirable end (as in through world markets). Workers can now have a greater input into the global production cycle while wielding new tools and new opportunity. Innovation is being rewarded and entrepreneurs of any class can look to overcome lowered barriers to entry. Combining resources is certainly one way to do this. With Zuckerberg, the combination of coding ability, other peoples ideas and (most likely) a great many other sources turned into Facebook. For Jobs, the product was a technological behemoth as well. Anyone can be an innovator given the correct circumstances and, just like Brandt argues, it is important to give the correct literacies to everyone if only as a matter of social justice (as Finn seeks). Negotiation could be used as a fundamental skill for all people, working class and others that allows powerful literacy to be achieved outside of the Academy.


58
Compounding would, hopefully, be the end result in the social cycle. As for workers, a critical component of Finns powerful literacy remains the ability to affect change on all levelsmicro and macro. Essentially, powerful literacy for a million individuals should be greater than the sum of each part when individuals combine to assert change on a larger scale. Compounding literacy inputs can have a similar effect on our academic structure and the creation of additional resources for the working class to further this improvement. In fact, Finn relies on this in part as one of the mid-level steps in working class progression. By making working students more successful or more willing to attend higher education, not only would there be a more likely chance of propagating their own skill and social ability, but the class as a whole would largely engage in a negotiative interaction with the university through an increase in border-crossers. Hopefully, while admittedly a bit of a stretch, the interchange of knowledge would work equally on both levels and the working class would see an influx of higher education learning by sending more students to the academy.
However, I like to think that the inclusion of negotiating skills could have even further impact and encourage a better education for every student and teacher. Negotiation, after all, is described as serving as a special type of communication in which parties (a) engage in reasoned discussion and problem-solving processes and (b) develop shared understandings that serve as the basis for agreements. Negotiation becomes a means to facilitate relationships based on dialogue and agreements based on understandings (Spangle 3). Everyone in society would benefit by increased negotiation skills, and thinking only the working class lack skills damages/harms/reduces the value of higher education. One author points out the overall value of higher education comes


59
from the interaction between parties. As former English teachers and current teacher educators who have used and continue to use discussion as a predominant teaching mode, we know discussion affords students opportunities to hear diverse viewpoints and perspectives; engage in exploratory rather than presentational talk; and modify their original understandings (Groenke 6). Many people going through a university program are going to end up in management situations and their ability to relate to working students will be helpful, possibly even giving them future advantages in the workforce.
Students in general are given a better education through a combination of negotiation and advancement into higher education. Take this argument about classroom interaction: Based on their interests and desires [...] they mentored and ushered one another along. Knowledge was shared and distributed among the children [...] and groups were cross-functional (Vasquez 615). Negotiation, again, becomes a platform for positive interaction and the effect is not limited to any one class of students. Sadly, though, most working class students attend public schools rather than private so this interaction may only come from the interactions in a college or university setting and it is important that the experience be more representative of society as a whole. If we are going to get the most out of this exchange of ideas, it most likely has to come here. At the very least, I can see a student making themselves more likely to encounter the experience of an executive elite school system if they could trade something, even in-class behavior, for something more useful.
Suggestions and Directions
For any number of discussed reasons, negotiation would seem like it could be an ideal skill for the working class to adopt. It simply mirrors so many of the goals of established researchers and academics. Sadly, my personal arguments are limited. I have


60
no practical experience with primary schools; I am not an educator of any sort. Furthermore, my current job, educational background and surroundings make me a border-crosser at best, and certainly not someone qualified to wade through an expanse of literature that crosses so many fields (let along administrative hurdles). However, I am comfortable arguing for the potential. I personally have adopted what I see as an integrative negotiation approach in my work, which has allowed me from a bank teller paying his way through school to a position as a communications executive within a few short years. Governed by a greatest benefit approach and creating new solutions something integrative negotiation fundamentally requiresI have been able to expand the entire footprint of my employer and improve relationships even though I refuse to network. The notion of people seeking mutually beneficial solutions complements modern social systems, and the approach especially matches the needs of a new knowledge economy. However, integrative negotiation is not the standard perspective on a competitive and capitalist system despite having so many immediate applications to a workers day-to-day reality.
Negotiation in general offers an accessible platform for students to develop the ability to analyze a situation and communicate more effectively among other classes that also keeps with the capitalist, cultural nuance of working towards ones own self-interest. Its use would be invaluable in both workplace situations (better individual salaries, workplace safety and the general recognition of some sort of personal power, etc.) as well as social interactions (bartering, use of public goods, greater access to information and resources). As a developed skill, it should (may) also have a corollary, collective effect for the entire US and especially those considered working and lower-middle class.


61
Having people recognize power and be further willing to use it as a group (or even recognizing the potential) seems as though it would naturally aid in collective bargaining, unionization efforts as well as a greater influence in gaining and maintaining basic civic and social rights on a governmental level. Protecting working class rights, as Patrick Finns overarching goal, may find its easiest and most pragmatic solution in the form of early negotiative literacy.
Maybe adding a class to early public education fails to change society. Maybe it fizzles out, cultural competitiveness wins and we carry on with the continued system of border-crossers and misplaced faith in meritocracy. The utility of negotiation still exists. Integrative forms, at least still allow students to not only reach for better solutions, but also find them where they may not otherwise be apparent. Spangle notes a number of corollary benefits to negotiation beyond that fall in line with the idea of increasing border-crossers. One such benefit calls negotiation, [t]he exchange of information through language that coordinates and manages meaning. Benefits to this approach are apparent within academic and literacy fields. Mike Rose proposed that being able to communicate with the authorities led to more information and new opportunities (286). Martha Marinara explains that the working class students need to do the academy to be successful (733). Finn argues that students must learn the language to manipulate access without giving up their own working identity (42). All three are applicable. Integrative negotiation grounds itself in give and take, generally in an exchange that offers sacrifices for a better position. It is a system of knowing a goal and moving towards it in a dynamic process of thinking and interaction. Assuming a student achieves all three of these qualities. Would it then be more difficult or less so to maintain personal identity in future


62
interactions within the educational system? Spangle, moreover, notes an incredible coincidence between Finns powerful literacy and negotiation. He states, [negotiation can serve as a tool for managing the dialectical dimensions of conflict displayed in tensions about autonomy or connectedness, openness or closedness, independence or dependence, and control or yielding. Negotiation provides a method for guiding parties through a process that focuses discussion more on understanding and meaning and less on blaming, control, or who gets authority over what (Spangle 4). Negotiation, then, offers an appealing route to achieving powerful literacy.
Of course, as with everything, there must be a practical application. In my thinking, only a few options sound reasonable. Though, this is absolutely an area where I falter. First, we could simply make negotiation a course of its own. Second, we could try to ask educators to include it and administrators to enact it as a cross-curriculum effort in their schools (while I am no educator, I do have to admit that this one seems least likely to be effective). Perhaps negotiation is included in the college curriculum of educators as an intermediary to work its way into lower level schools. It would require a level of buy-in, but I believe that it is possible. Looking back, I can also say firmly that a required course would have been helpful from the start (though, I am obviously biased). Lastly, we could look to change the actual framing of critical and powerful literacy to include or encompass negotiation. Negotiation provides an interesting method for linking critical literacy to action and makes this an incredibly easy first step.
In the end, Finns goals can in no way take shape anytime soon (it requires large-scale social change), but they remain hard to argue against as noble and socially responsible. This is even truer today as the technological revolution sets in and recent


63
economic upheaval settles. What needs evaluation twenty years after publication is whether Finns work is still worth the exploration as a basis to address a new working reality. While not without flaws, his argument encompasses so many facets of working class education, research and history that I firmly believe that I believe that it does. Moreover, negotiation truly is an intriguing tool within his much larger argument whether a person is on board with Finns writing or not; it certainly may have broader applications in academia if embraced for its potential. In an era seeing literacy research expand into incredibly diverse ranges, I would propose negotiation to be included as it applies so well in the effort set forth by Patrick Finn.


64
REFERENCES
Allen, Brenda. Difference Matters: Communicating Social Identity. Long Grove:
Waveland Press, 2011. Print.
Arnett, Ronald C., Bell McManus, Leeanne Marian and Amanda G. McKendree. Conflict Between Persons: The Origins of Leadership. Denver: Kendall/ Hunt Publishing, 2013. Print.
Beach, Jamie Myers and Richard. "Hypermedia Authoring as Critical Literacy." Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 44.6 (2001): 538-546. 2010. Web.
Beck, Ann S. "A Place for Critical Literacy." Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 48.5 (2005): 392-400. Apr 16 2012. Web.
Brandt, Deborah. "At Last: Losing Literacy." Research in the Teaching of English 39.3 (2005): 305-310. Print. 16 04 2012. .
Brandt, Deborah. Literacy in American Lives. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Print.
Buschman, John. "Information Literacy, New Literacies, and Literacy." The Library Quarterly 79.1 (2009): 95-118. April 16, 2012. Web.
Chart: See 20 Years of Tuition Growth at National Universities. USnews.com. Economic Policy Institute., 06 Jan. 2015. Web. 01 Apr. 2015.
Comor, Edward. "Contextualizing and Critiquing the Fantastic Prosumer: Power,
Alientation, and Hegemony." Critical Sociology 37.3 (2010): 309-325. Print. 04 July 2011.
Cupach, William R., Danial J. Canary, and Susan J. Messman. Relationship Conflict: Conflict in Parent-Child, Friendship and Romantic Relationships. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. 1995. Print/ Class Resource.
Darvin, Jacqueline. "Beyond Filling Out Forms: A More Powerful Version of Workplace Literacy." The English Journal 91.2 (2001): 35-40. 2011. Web.
Detlev Zwick, Samuel K Bonsu, and Aaron Darmody. "Putting Consumers to Work: 'Co-Creation' and New Marketing Govem-mentality." Journal of Consumer Culture 8.2(2008): 163-193. Print.
Erbert, Larry. Conflict Communication. Auraria Campus, Denver, CO. 2015. Lecture.
Finn, Patrick J. Literacy with an Attitude: Educating Working Class Students in Their Own Self-Interest Second Edition. Albany: State University of New York Press,


65
2009. Print.
Friedman, Thomas L. The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. New York: Farrar, 2007. Print.
Hagood, Margaret C. "Critical Literacy for Whom?" Reading Research and Instruction 41.3 (2010): 247-265. Apr. 16 2012. Web.
Hedges, Kristi. Six Surprising Negotiation Tactics that Get You the Best Deal. Forbes, Online. 12 2013. 30 May 2016. Web.
Hocks, Mary E. "Using Multimedia to Teach Communication Across the Curriculum." WPA: Writing Program Administration 25.1.2 (2001): 25-40. Web.
Hull, Glynda. "Critical Literacy at Work." Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy 43.7 (2000): 648-652. Apr. 16 2012. Web.
Kaestle, Carl F. Literacy in the United States. Binghampten: Yale University, 1991. Print.
Luke, Allan. "Critical Literacy: Foundational Notes." Theory into Practice 51.1 (2012): 4-11. Apr. 12 2012. Web.
Lewicki, Roy J, David M. Saunders, John W. Minton, and Roy J. N. Lewicki. Essentials of Negotiation. Boston, Mass: Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 2001. Print.
Linquist, Julie. "Class Affects, Classroom Affectations: Working Through the Paradoxes of Strategic Empathy." College English 67:2. Apr 11 2004. Web.
Linquist, Julie. "Class Ethos and the Politics of Inquiry: What the Barroom Can Teach Us About the Classroom." College Composition and Communication 51:2. 17 Sep. 2010. Web.
Littlejohn, Stephen and Kathy Domenici. Communication, Conflict and the Management of Difference. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press Inc. 2007. Print.
Maples, Joellen and Susan L. Groenke. "Critical Literacy in Cyberspace." The ALAN Review (2008): 6-14. Web.
Marinara, Martha. "When Working Class Students "Do" the Academy: How We
Negotiate with Alternative Literacies." Journal of Basic Writing 16.2 (1997): 3-
16. Web.
McCarthey, Sarah J. "Making the Invisible More Visible: Home Literacy Practices of Middle-Class and Working Class families." Early Child Development and Care 127.1 (2010): 179-189. Web. 11 07 2011.


66
Mishel, Lawrence, Elise Gould and Josh Bivens. Wage Stagnation in Nine Charts. Economic Policy Institute. 6 Jan. 2015. Web. Jan 30 2016.
Mitzi Lewison, Amy Seely Flint, and Katie Van Sluys. "Taking on Critical Literacy: The Journey of Newcomers and Novices." Language Arts 79.5 (2002): 382-391. Web.
Myers, Jamie and Richard Beach. "Hypermedia Authoring as Critical Literacy." Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 44:6 (2002): 382-391. Web.
Neo, Mai Neo and Ken T.K. "Innocative Teaching: Using Multimedia in a Problem-
Based Learning Environment." Educational Technology & Society 4.4 (2001): 1-18. Apr 26 2011. Web.
Pennell, Michael. ""If Knowledge is Power, You're About to Become Very Powerful": Literacy and Labor Market." College Composition and Communication 58.3 (2007): 345-384. Apr. 16 2012. Web.
Rios, Guilherme. "Letters in a Community Organisation: A Case of Powerful Literacy." D E L T A 21 (2005): 105-127. Web.
Spangle, Michael and Myra Warren Isenhart. "Negotiations on Information Seeking
Experise: A Study of Web-based Tutorials for Information Literacy." Journal of Documentation 64.1 (2008): 24-44. Apr. 17 2012. Web.
Spangler, Brad. "Integrative or Interest-Based Bargaining." Beyond Intractability. Eds.
Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: June 2003
.
Shank, Patti. The Value of Multimedia in Learning. Adobe Design Center 12 2005. 9 Sep 2010. Web.
Skerrett, Allison. "Teaching Critical Literacy for Social Justice." Action in Teacher Education 31.4 (2012): 54-65. Apr 16 2012. Web.
Smith, Emma. "Underachievement, Failing Youth and Moral Panics." Evaluation and Research in Education 23.1 (2010): 37-49. July 7 2011. Web.
Soliday, Mary. "Class Dismissed." College English 61.6 (1999): 731-741. Sep. 17 2010. Web.
Sundin, Olof. "Negotiations on Information Seaking Experise: A Study of Web-based Tuturorials for Infomation Literacy." Journal of Documentation 64.1 (2008): 24-44. Apr. 17 2012. Web.


67
Vasquez, Vivian. "Critical Literacy Isn't Just for Books Anymore." The Reading Teacher 63.7 (2010): 614-616. 16 Apr. 2012. Web.
Wage Stagnation in Nine Charts. Epi.org. Economic Policy Institute. 06 Jan. 2015.
Web. 01 Apr. 2015.
Wilmot, William & Joyce Hocker. Interpersonal Conflict. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Publishing. 2013. Print.
Wolf, Paula. "Preservice Teachers Planning for Critical Literacy." English Education 42.4 (2010): 368-389. Print.
Zartman, William and Jacob Blaustein. "Negotiation and Conflict Management: Essays on Theory and Practice. English Education 42.4 (2010): 368-389. Print.
Zartman, William and Jacob Blaustein. Negotiation and Conflict Management: Essays on Theory and Practice. New York, NY: Routledge, Inc., 2009. Print.


Full Text

PAGE 1

NEGOTIATIVE METAMORPHOSIS FOR A GLOBALIZED WORKING CLASS By CHRISTOPHER SEAN MARTIN B.A. Metropolitan State College, 2008 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts English 2016

PAGE 2

ii This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by Christopher Sean Martin has been approved for English Program by Rodney Herring, Chair Michelle Comstock Larry Erbert July 1, 2016

PAGE 3

iii Martin, Christopher Sean (M.A., English ) Negotiative Metamorphosis for a Globalized Working Class Thesis directed by Assistant Professor Rodney Herring ABSTRACT A world with i ncreasingly limited resources n eeds to redefin e literacy among working and lower classes. Reaching students at early ages and utilizing already available resources becomes para mount when p ro viding effective tools to interact in a globalized world. This is especially important when recognizing that higher education is becoming more restrictive and less appealing to students Negotiation provides unique p o t ent ial as an independent form o f literacy that helps to overcome these limitations. It also has long lasting benefit by aiding a ttainment of further forms of literacy and provid es a functional aspect to life in the workplace. Building upon s powerful literacy of the 90s, the following paper proposes to reevaluate negotiati on as it applies to a modern landscape. The applications and benefits of negotiation in a primary school setting are becoming more and more appealing as downward mobility continues putting pressure on US citizens. However, the original notions of negotiation as a skill set are limited and fail to maximize the overall benefit for society. Instead, negotiative education, if it were to be enacted, would lik ely need to adopt the newer philosophical approach found in integrative negotiation. Using an evolved form of negotiation could serve as a vehicle for powerful literacy i n the face of limited resources and with minimal effort and resistance from working students. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Approved: R odney Herring

PAGE 4

iv TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION .... ... ......... 1 II. LITERATURE, FRAMEWORK AND MYTHS Literacy with an Attitude .. Educational Disparity in the University ... Meritocracy .. Literacy as Competitive Advantage .. ... .... ........ ............ 2 2 Negotiation Scaffolded from Critical Literacy ... 2 6 III. STUDENT A PPLICATIONS ... .. Self In terest .. 30 Explicit D iscourse .. Social Justice Educators and Class Identity 38 Relationships and Interactions with Society IV. ... 4 8 Conflict Limitations .. .4 8 Integrative Negotiation ... 5 5 Suggestions and Directions ..60 REFERENCES ... .6 4

PAGE 5

1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION New technology, new foundations of shared knowledge, new literacies and way s of communicating: It is easy to argue that world has met an age to match that influence of the printing press. The Internet, of course, has opened avenues of exploration, created pla tforms of shared knowledge, changed the value of the written word, and altered the method by which people absorb information all notions incredibly similar to social techno logy has promised potential for social expansion and economic improvements. In some ways, i t undoubtedly does as a quick Google search would show. However, while no one argues the value of a connected world, changes are a far cry from how we often perce ive the printing press. While the world appears limitless, social changes line with the expansion that eventually led to the Enlightenment of the 1600s Globalization instead, came forward and, at least for the US, technology has largely meant offshoring and redistributing of both money and jobs to more cost efficient locations. Looking forward, we are also looking at large scale automation continuing that continues to put pressure on the lower classes Downward mobility, lost resources, soar ing educational costs: It is also easy argue that the US has seen a complementary reordering of working life. Technology, while opening one door to a new, potentially better world is also reordering the lower class by making many trades obsolete and/or le ss useful in the US market. More generally, the globalized world is redistributing resources once available to the lower classes. Perhaps, this is an inevitable consequence something completely natural and to

PAGE 6

2 be expected es surrounding the change. A recent recession has emphasized this notion of lost resources. Since 2008, many jobs have been met with the beginnings of a substantial change not only in the sense of availability, but also in general construction. Even thos e consistently employed have made sacrifices. While true that new jobs are being created and the economy is getting better (as of early 2016), US citizens face a new, lower, and potentially permanent standard of living, at least in terms of working benefi ts. T his reordering implies changes to the entire economic significantly with mostly negative effects. We are watching as social structures reverse course towards aristocratic models (plutocracy is the term I see used often) where the general population wields very little power. With this reversal, further i mplications for the well being of the working class (in the US as well as potentially elsewhere), treating this moment as a potential defining point in working class education makes sense. However, the downward direction of social mobility and consolidation of wealth Institute), though, it is also accelerating. At least in the US, we still maintain a relatively free and open democracy, so while recent downward trends are worrisome, it is not as tools unlock certain potential. As with the printing press in its own day, new technology se a variety of outcomes both good and bad. Pamphlets printed in the earliest days, for example, could have been used for education or propaganda depending on who controlled the printer.

PAGE 7

3 Combined with family networks public schools, and a society that, while not perfect, is largely altruistic, there are avenues for education and new literacies to, hopefully, overcome any negative consequences of a new social age. The US carries this potential better than most as one of the most digitally capable countri es in the world. Thomas education system for its scope and scale. While that may not have panned out exactly as he thought, it has produced a plethora of shared knowledg e none the least of which is online courses and general information to anyone with a data connection Unfortunately, m any in our society, including leaders, politicians and Thomas Friedman, are misled or guided by myths about our capitalist system. The pure complexity for improving working disposition often creates conclusions that are splintered, incomplete or completely wrong. Most obviously, a problem of distributing educational resources exists. Most workers have a difficult time simply finding the time come back to in depth, fails to truly describe the competitive platform most people are provided at birth. Furthermore, the ability to provide access to information and forms of literacy fail some, while aiding others. D Weisenthal ) providing opportunity for workers motivated enough to seek lifestyle improvem ent, the education, but our educational system has never really been equitable amon g social classes and continues to become even more restrictive to those in the most need. In total, a skill disparity (and the corollary access to that knowledge), a counter current of soaring

PAGE 8

4 educational costs working against our poorest, and an overall diminishing return on labor make it relatively easy to acknowledge that wealth and income inequality will, barring a phenomenal change, continue and grow. With this problem comes a variety of solutions ranging across the academic sphere. For my purposes, using an educational and literacy standpoint, prominent academics include the likes of Paulo Freire, Mike Rose and Deborah Brandt, all of whom have taken literacy for the working class ahead while countless more have follow suit working for social justice Despite the breadth of work, one book creates a unique niche within the overall conversation. Literacy with an Attitude sets itself apart because of the author, scale and application. Patrick Finn, a working class professor, has a particular appeal be cause of his background within the trade ranks combined with being a literacy scholar and teacher. Over the years I have seen many articles and discussions about working class literacy, but they are often taken to pen by people firmly from a different cla ss perspective. Observations done in a working class bar (Lindquist 225 247) make their way into the academic conversation as ethnography, but I have to argue that, while not without value, items like this should be heavily filtered when it comes to usefu l application. Finn has an ethos that, while not completely unique, gives him authority as an author. Secondly, the scale of Literacy with an Attitude is larger than most and proposes social measures built on top of individual student needs as a possible solution. While Finn has a few derivative articles found throughout academic journals, very little evaluation has been done to extend his work the only truly dedicated publication I nd beyond a single classroom experience

PAGE 9

5 (Darvin 35 the new social landscape and, as such, I will attempt to open Literacy with an Attitude work to renewed evaluation and explo skill negotiation is appealing when dealing with literacy for the working classes and could use additional consideration. To this effect, a brief discussion of current myths about how the US education system builds on decades of scholarly work and provides a seemingly possible framework to help resolve the growing pro blems and inequality (this has implications specifically to the US, but with hopeful application elsewhere). Lastly, I will explore some problems that have yet to be addressed with Literacy with an Attitude and provide possible directions for future scho larly work which will account conflict issues that surround negotiation clearly situated in a more traditional perspective that argues negotiation as division and tive negotiation creates a heavy flaw in his overall approach, but new research and theory manages to resituate the argument. Fortunately, within this shortcoming is a potential opportunity for other, better suited researchers and I hope to recommend a mo dified version of his educational paradigm that could serve several purposes for future educators.

PAGE 10

6 CHAPTER II LITERATURE, FRAMEWORK AND MYTHS Working class literacy is obviously an incredibly complicated topic and Patrick tself from most literature through its scope, matches that complexity. Literacy also has its share of myths and assumptions that are largely untrue following sectio n intends to lay the foundation for an expansion for Negotiative Literacy. Literacy with an Attitude To begin: Patrick Finn opens with an exploration of working class education through a study by Jean Anyon This study researched the difference between a range of fifth grade classrooms ranging from working class professional [ ] presented as fragmented facts isolated from wider bodies of meaning and from the lives and This is in economy, authority, and work that is appropriate for artists, intellectuals, l egal and scientific experts, and other professionals whose work is creative, intrinsically satisfying for most people, and rewarded with social power and high salaries (18). C reativity and exploration were brushed over in working schools despite s tudents showing equal IQ paying work Of note, in addition to these observations, Finn makes it clear that, while receiving their lear

PAGE 11

7 The resistance grows from a form of oppositional identity developed by virtue of working students coming from families that lack power in general society (Finn 39). That is, workers tend to reject the values of the affluent and powerful because they exist Working class social spheres, fu eled by the education system and cultural values, reject upper class values and the communication methods associated with power and feel that compromise and adoption of these methods is to essentially sell out. Finn notes that this development of resistan ce in unique and o ample is Catholic in Northern Ireland turns Protestant the disenfranchised that naturally set up barriers and actively work in opposition to those in power. Loyalty to their class creates class conflict and it is cultural conflict something that each party contributes to. O pposition al identity an enormous pr oblem for working class students because it permeates their lives. As such, it also bleeds into the classrooms and is reinforced in the home. As with a Northern Ireland Catholic, working culture is salient to some lives in that their, for theory was conveyed to their children and so the culture of the [students] was not simply different from the school, it was antithetical to the It is a cycle of working culture set in opposition to administrators and policy makers that d e trying to help. Teachers often teachers innocently try to assert the real school model of high status

PAGE 12

8 like the plain vulnerability of the mighty fallen. Nothing annoys most successful teachers are those who make few demands in return for (61) Schools, then, become a reinforcing agent that create s conflict between classes all while still limit ing education a nd access to academic resources. They act as literacy gatekeepers while encouraging students to not even seek out the gates. in working communities and education actually is seen as an avenue to a better life book it is simply that school steel based town in Pennsylvania lost its industry a nd was left without the union jobs that had previously made the area somewhat prosperous At that point, the notion of a defendable community (opposition to upper class values) became largely irrelevant as school was seen as the only avenue for anything but poverty. However, education remained domesticating without the value that upper class systems provided. Parents, engrained estion the difference between literacy provided Unfortunately, the goal of mobility through education work beliefs academics have come to accept, the answer starts with Paulo Friere and Cri tical literacy. According to Finn, the works of Friere, rich children in their own self int work as well as my later argument; it also closely links with a capitalist persp ective and our economic system as a whole.

PAGE 13

9 Finn further explores the contrast in how working students tend to be educa ted and why upper class students tend to succeed more often than their counterparts. The kind of l iteracy and language used among each class is different and skews functional value towards those of the upper ranks. Upper class communities impart a n explorative and negotiative perspective to reading and writing. They encourage engagement and interaction with text. In opposition, working students are largely offered an authoritative approach that encourages obedience and offers a much more finite u se of knowledge. Upper class forms of literacy lead to more, diverse forms of literacy. Lower class literacy leads to working functionality. Explicit discourse, a method of adopting to widespread needs, comes from the interaction with people outside of the community something that a reliance o n small scale, shared knowledge, the community. Values differ and result in largely different outcomes. To a degree, the oft held perspective remains that literacy is literacy. Reading is reading writing is writing and literacy is a simple directive in education that should allow all students, regardless of class status, to e A ccording to Finn specifically, literacy goes through four phases: performative, functional, informational, and powerful. At a pe rformative literacy, students learn to read and write. It is simply the ability to recognize and create symbols. Functional literacy is the ability to function or using a household gadget, and writing a note to leave on the kitchen table for your

PAGE 14

10 knowledge that is associated with the school and to write examinations and reports based reason the ability to evaluate, analyze, and synthesize while reading an d listening and to For working students (a s well as policy makers and school administrative purposes), informational literacy seems to be enough. Upper classes, however, demand powerful literacy a form of literacy that allows their children to use and arrange their envir onments to their own benefit It allows them to scaffold learning and build better personal situations in the future For Finn, p owerful literacy is the most important level not because it necessarily leads to personal advancement; it leads to a defense f or the working class. our poor and working class students can get a high status, high paying occupation, but This is an acknowledgement that p owerful literacy or literacy of any kind, resources available, but it can protect against the implications of having more powerful counterparts in US society. o ver the well being of people in general. Downward mobility is a fact of the globalized world. Education is expensive and we are watching a clear trend towards the consolidation of wealth. Inequality, especially in education, is a social problem the successful e ducating of any one student orking class schools expend nearly all their energy on preparing students to improve their lot by individual

PAGE 15

11 Finn continues forward by discussing the emergence of literacy as a social tool following the revolution inspired by the printing press in the eighteenth century. literacy of the Co rresponding Societies was literacy with an attitude not the self defeating attitudes of [working students], but the attitude of critical agents who argument thus moves to larger social issues and also well beyond the scope of typical working class literacy I t encourages a two way dialogue between educators and students. It involves a system of political activism that replicates the goals of the Corresponding Societies S ome educators are well aware of the differences between an upper class and lower class education but, unfortunately, even with good intentions, fail to deliver on the promise of powerful literacy for all. without a two way interaction. Students need to be open to changes and work in tandem with educators that are also working towards a better social future. The goal is enormous according to Finn: There must be two related, symbiotic, and simultaneous movements. The first will be a movement to educate working class students (using Frierian motivation) to fight for social rights effectively as students and as future citizens whether as New Paradigm border cros sers committed to social justice for everyone or as the vast majority of working class students who will not become middle class when they leave school but will have a better life as working class adults with full citizen rights. The second will be a move ment among older students and adult citizens for universal social rights through campaigns for such things as unions, living wages, universal health care, and decent schools. As the second movement gains

PAGE 16

12 ground, poor and working class children will arrive at school better prepared and in better health, as well as better fed, housed, and cared for. This will make the work of the schools (the first movement) more effective (253). m and equal education has to match society at several levels. A student needs to be willing to accept powerful forms of literacy and further understand that using a tool does not mean that they have sold out or are turncoats to their class values. As a cl ass, they have a chance to affect social change, but not until they collectively assert power on level with more dominant classes (e.g. upper classes and policy makers). Educational Disparity in the University Before the recession, Thomas Friedman, a proponent and advocate of the globalization, was confident that the Unites States would always be able to compete despite the fact that cheaply manufactured, overseas goods began to erode manufacturing and low to mo flat world with free trade provided it continues to churn out knowledge workers who are able to produce idea based goods that can be sold globally and who are able to fill the knowl edge jobs that will be created as we not only expand the global economy but connect all the knowledge pool in the world, but there is no limit to the number of idea US universities definitely offer an avenue towards higher level work, corresponding pay, and the potential, at least, for new jobs. According to the bureau of labor statistics, in 2014 people with a high school education were unemployed at nearly twice the r ate of a educated counterparts.

PAGE 17

13 Friedman, along with innumerable educational proponents, is probably right when saying that colleges are the primary avenue for a knowle dge economy providing society high hat makes America unique is not that it built MIT, or that its g rads are generating economic growth and innovation, but that every state in the country has universities trying to do the same. Institute of International Education. The rest of the world combined has 7,768 institutions thoughts. social classes (which, of course, has even larger implications placed in context of a larger globalized landscape). Capitalist proponents may assume that laissez faire economics will distribute these resources fairly and empower the entire population with educational options. Though, it turns out, this argument echoes as hollow. Our educational system, while immense and full of opportunity, has made a huge turn against general like an inherent part of US life, a society wide privilege for anyone with ambition. Back few spoke about student loans as the next great bubble. The nation was doing well, money was availabl e (through a variety of grants and creditors), and it appeared as though our educational system might truly act as the competitive key for many working people. Unfortunately, after that decade, annual college costs rise consistently in the

PAGE 18

14 double digits ( US News). The promise that college provides is questionable as an available platform to everyone and little reason exists to expect that anything will change enough to return us to the previously cheery outlook. Even if you take away actual financial gat ekeepers, other factors, including basic fear, will limit the willingness to even consider higher education as an option. With unending reports of rising student debt, potential loan defaults and the faltering payoff after achieving an education, the ques For the working class, the problem is particularly magnified. For the working middle class, this problem is growing and, depending on the situation, could even impinge on some fart her up the social ladder. University failure goes further. We can take economic concerns out of the community college courses or programs for free. Perhaps an expan ded federal loan forgiveness program shows up (without consequence). It sounds like a great solution and the scenario undoubtedly works well for some. Still, though, it fails to address the complexity of educating the masses. Problems run deeper, beneat h university culture itself. The idea we tend to believe: Send a working kid to college and they will have even access to the resources of our society. However, working class advocates have made a convincing case that an exclusionary culture of both comm unication and student assumptions create yet additional gatekeepers beyond the financial level to continue keeping lowest socio economic classes out of the market currents that run toward upward mobility.

PAGE 19

15 Mary Soliday, an English professor in New York, arg ues that working class students do not get the same access to knowledge and modes of thinking even if they can offer up the funds. Her evaluation of composition studies showed that the political environment directly influenced by middle to upper class adm inistrators, politicians, staff, etc. causes additional hardship on students who are forced to deal with alien social pressures on top of imposing work schedules. That says two things, both of which revolve around working class culture. First, administrat ive processes can discourage. Take, for example, two students. The first has parents that have been through school and possibly friends attending alongside. The second, first time college student and the only aight to work. Obviously, the first student has access to readily available resources to overcome complications or unusual circumstances go of it and that speaks to the fact that working class students begin at a disadvantage. Going to school often pits the second student with a slew of unknowns that can cause incredible frustration if not failure. Secondly, and possibly more importantly, cultures and languages betw een classes become a problem. In the above example, the first student is likely to have been born to the middle class with all of the cultural values that come from it. The second is more likely to be born to working class parents who, for a number of re same values. These values may include the value of intellectual inquiry placed in opposition to an ideology that focuses on the value of work. Alternatively, the values may be something along the lines of how information is distribu ted. One may be comfortable with the experiences had in a middle class school where empowerment was

PAGE 20

16 the norm versus the other who knows education as being found in a library or in more students will which can, of course, leads to failure at arguably little fault of that student. As I mentioned earlier, however, other opportunities might lend them selves to the Despite access limitations, technology and internet resources have made similar, educational resources available to the masses at low to no cost. So, a stude nt could, rather than attending college where these ideas are centralized, merely work around courses and other forums. Examples thrown around might be Steve Jobs and Mark Zuckerberg who never completed college either. However, circumventing higher education fails to resolve the problem. Yes, internet resources are absolutely available. However, the college system includes additional thinking processes and exploration as well as intangibles such as social skills in the greater society. A university (or even a higher class prep school) provides guidance, and without knowing it, students receive a tour of higher society. Through this exploration and experience, students a re able to effectively find the value of promising technological tools. Jobs and Zuckerberg are flawed examples. Both were raised middle class and no doubt had at least some of these t student above who had access to educated parents and friends acting as resources. Perhaps Thomas Friedman is correct in the promise that comes with an advanced

PAGE 21

17 most instances, this means primary public schools are the most viable option. replacement for the college experience or even exposure to middle and upper class culture. Without teachin g the accompanying skills and ways of thinking found in those cultures, students may fail to put calligraphy into an operating system (as Jobs did) or combine social interactions with the internet (as is the case with Zuckerberg). In the end, when lookin g for the largest net impact, colleges and the university setting fail to meet needs and earlier stages of education are critical to the working class. founded, many student s are left out of higher education and their voices are never heard. Without acknowledging and empowering disadvantaged students in a higher education education is not accessible, we need to encourage comparable powerful and useful literacy at earlier stages, most likely at the public school level. Meritocracy Another pervasive myth in our system people to success remains a probl em. In some ways this appears to override the above arguments by saying that if students truly have the talent and motivation to move through the social ranks, they will. However, the truth of this idea fails when crossing class lines. While stating the following will undoubtedly turn off many readers, it is imperative to understand that the US is not a land of opportunity and that a large portion of our society capi work, has been an advertised American ideal of equal opportunity taught not only to our

PAGE 22

18 youth, but also to people around the world. It is simply not true as a rule. Per haps well lacking resources, education and even specific kinds of language use our economic system actually builds the odds against certain people while solidifying others with no widely. In addition, a business culture where networking gets touted so widely implicitly demonstrates that better paying jobs often tend to stay within the social circles of the economic elite. Social connections keep the idea of true social mobility constrained as route through economic ranks becomes much more difficu lt without a buddy on Wall Street lending a favor or an Ivy League background to reminisce over with the hiring manager. Meritocracy is complexly pervasive as it not only acts as a carrot to those born to the lower classes, but also provides the upper classes with a convenient reasoning for merit ocracy justifies the notion that those already privileged deserve their wealth or classes often see it as the free market system simply rewarding earned success. Furth ermore, meritocracy places the perception that the working class likewise earns their ely, this kind of reasoning works against the working class in more ways than simply reducing the financial resources available, it also provides a discordant perspective to those in power

PAGE 23

19 and decision making positions, especially political ones. This, of course, does nothing for social and civic rights of those less able or willing to take part in social management. As such, dispelling the meritocracy myth might go a long way towards economic equilibrium and certainly towards ethical, social stewardship. Held within the meritocracy myth, another, smaller level concept pervades our meritocracy is true. Border crossers are the individuals among the working class who actually pass through class walls and proceed up social ranks, most often by, well, merit. Superficially, they help to justify the entire idea of meritocracy, but are exceptions to the rule and not a demonstration of it. That is, these people are often among the very best of the working class and remarkably suited for progression into middle and upper class institutions. They represent a disproportionate fraction of the working class and are often given help by socially minded educators essentially rece iving additional resources and knowledge that others are unable to receive. To quantitate the disproportion, the Brookings Institute, a Washington D.C. think tank, shows that working class people have approximately half of the idealized chance of social p rogression that would be expected if meritocracy holds true. Odds go down significantly if a person resides within another social division. African Americans, for example, have closer to ten percent of the chance and those born to unmarried parents have a quarter of the opportunity of their upper class counterparts. While border crossers are a fantastic example of society not being completely lop sided, they are generally misleading as an example and do little to advance us towards a system that is trul

PAGE 24

20 cross economic borders, but also social ones. They become the class they settle in, either upper or mid dle, and tend to adopt the values and ideals of those cultures and leave behind their original working identities. The result is that a large portion of successful border crossers no longer carry the class values previously held. While certainly not bad, the US system of meritocracy and border crossing leaves those who are unable to follow on the designated rung of their birthplace. They remain any Wall Street connections or Ivy League resume notations. g. An effort to expand the bypass these myths into something potentially greater. By getting beyond these problems, Finn works to create a social situation whereby the entire class stands to benefit and achieve something closer to an equal playing field. Economic Reasoning obviously just not possible. However, he does look for a universally fair shot if we are going to pretend that the US (and the future global economy) runs on meritocracy and, much more importantly, Finn wants those left on the lower levels (by choice or n ot) to be able to be an individual monetary benefit, so long as workers are able to effectively look out for themselves in a system where political and social powe r forces its weight against them. This means teaching the skills to negotiate, leverage resources and navigate the dominate

PAGE 25

21 powerful literacy which will be explained mor e fully. Because we are dealing with socioeconomics, it may be useful to picture a small business, one that makes hiring choices, creates products, and leverages markets as you would expect. An individual person is this business and their class defines th e environment. Individual personal capabilities, such as critical thinking, analysis, evaluation, and any other number of skills would act similarly to employees, various equipment or perhaps even market knowledge or business acumen. Every resource, buil ding, or item of intellectual property would act as components to determine the r low large corporations, upper class businesses, are going to be better capitalized, have access to greater resources and (especially important) more likely house benefits such as legal teams way s to manipulate the system in their own favor. As with the actual economy, literacy inputs work in this fashion between the micro aspects of business and the macro level economy as a whole. So, increasing a usually through some sort of competitive advantage will change the larger landscape from unnoticeable day to day interactions to potentially global results. For example, innovation and successful use of resources might spark a new Facebook where a single company affects hund loan could become the local dry cleaner providing the livelihood for a single family. If a

PAGE 26

22 capable of using the resources that are available to radically increase her business. Finn sees his powerful literacy like this, but, to take the metaphor further, he wants to see the knowledge and literacy economy working independent of affluence. That is, if this metaphorical versi on of Facebook comes from a working class neighborhood, then it would also come along with the development and local employment in that neighborhood. The entire area effectively benefits from the business success. That is, up until they relocate their o ffices to Orange County. Literacy as Competitive Advantage Research has clearly established that various forms of literacy can act as economic tools to provide working class citizens the opportunity to compete on the global playing field. Moreover, the relationship between individual literacies and economic effect on both the micro and macro social levels is fairly evident in other be used and, in the current enviro nment, we also have to consider which ones are most effective to use with limited resources. Deborah Brandt, the author of Literacy in American Lives, stands out at the ow what iron ore or oil once was: a raw material to engine the GNP. That this raw material is drawn from human beings rather than from the earth material upon which our civil liberties practically rely marks a turning point in t he in American culture. In general, this idea has appeal when looking at education through an economic framework, but that appeal extends when applying it to the elect ronic age.

PAGE 27

23 In fact, assuming literacy to be a primary vehicle for economic improvement (both literacy ores. Uncovering varying degrees of individual skills, each with its own economic value, can then be used to scaffold and make its owner more valuable or, more accurately said, more powerful in society. As such, good reason exists to view various forms of literacy (digital, social, etc.) in economic terms and place res pective effort to teaching them as economic instruments. When you look at vocational schools and other examples of working class education, this idea is certainly not alien. If we treat literacy through an economic paradigm, we immediately create a more applicable circumstance for workers where skills taught, by definition, could be traded for personal benefit. On a larger scale, we have an opening to solve a direct problem with class inequality and voice for the working class. hand is also a dollar put into a growing economy that can continue to be traded. Personally, I think of the inc entives that the government handed out in the years following the recession when tax breaks were laid out to everyone simply to put more understood and well defined, particula rly through the consequences of its alternative, illiteracy: poverty, backwardness, lack of access to the intellectual and emotional riches that reading brought and the economic advances that literacy enabled. This template was applied to the personal leve literacy moves from an individual paying rent to the landlord who investments in the

PAGE 28

24 Japanese stock market to an auto maker that puts the dollar back into another worker. In this sense, l iteracy can exist as beyond the basic scope of reading and writing while also Finn may be able to affect change on both individual and social levels through some sort of educational changes. Basically, he is looking to increase the value that working class literacy trades at. More powerful and applicable forms of literacy yield better results for individuals and a lack thereof often leads to a lower standard of living (and also less ability to self ation, what is new is the direct role any worker centric exploration should be focused on modifying literacy skills to be competitive in the digital age and not rely on a college education. When I spoke about the internet not providing the guiding hand, this is where one of the problem exist. Having access to the internet does not mean that it is being functionally used or being developed into something new. Without scaffolding and continued creation, no worker can be the next Jobs or Zuckerberg (or even an alternative, successful middle class citizen, really). New knowledge and innovative ways to manipulate it have to start with the ability to learn and gain access this skill, it is not something given to younger students. Mike Rose, for one, argues that

PAGE 29

25 literacy sho comfortable and skillful students become with this kind of influential talk, the more they will be included in further conversations and given access to further conceptual tools a nd that potentially opens new resources and paths to critical literacy. Again, this language would have more utility when taught at earlier stages, thus allowing peo ple to more efficiently adopt and manipulate the benefits and knowledge from grade school on up throughout their lives no matter what direction they travel. Give them a stronger, more applicable start to educational progression and they may be more able t o reach goals achieved regularly by higher classes. Perhaps fantastically obvious, but language itself needs to be part of the solution. Improving the input factors, including language and interaction methods, can be shown tangibly (and more thoroughly) Debra Brandt demonstrates how this interaction of correct input factors affects people on a small scale and then how it plays out on the traded skills. In her exampl es, a student given access to the right input factors (education, technology, etc.) will likely be able to cope and overcome changing economic conditions which tends to lead to a better financial positioning later in life. The fundamental premise: higher q uality educational ingredients will lead to higher quality outputs. In one industry. The cumulative result far outpaced the working class counterpart who was give success, but the conceptual underlining shows how important having competitive

PAGE 30

26 literacies can be while also showing how long term results can be affected by these small Negotiation Scaffolded f rom Critical Literacy Critical literacy, perhaps, creates the most important splinter of literacy education teaching "gui ded by passion and principle, to help students develop consciousness of freedom, recognize authoritarian tendencies, and connect knowledge to power and the abil ity to take constructive action" (Giroux). Essentially, it was a way of thinking that allows people to move away from inherent class submissiveness through textual analysis and an understanding that knowledge itself can be skewed. In the end, literacy, then, is about making students more knowledgeable and aware of the texts that surround texts; critical literacy is in depth evaluation and critique. Of course, this idea centers on economic understanding. For example, Buschman says: Literacy is always part of some larger social practice other than just literacy itself. We never just read or write per se. [W]e can only read a text if it is housed within a soci Freire named the neutral skill acquisition approach to literacy the model of literacy education: in to this is fundamentally auth political order (98). Critical literacy is a crucial piece of advancing working class students and a largely accepted method for educato rs to approach their students. As for the educators,

PAGE 31

27 nature of literacies to produce selective views of the world, critical literacy has been deemed an important and needed aspect of literacy instruction for supporting and such as grunge rock, fashion magazine, or news accounts figure into their understandings of themselves and Unfortunately, critical literacy acts as a first step towards social justice, rather than the end. diverse and always mutating. Black and white has become a spectrum of creativ ity, perspective and input. The global concept of literacy has advanced along with it and necessitated a sprawling of academic study. New literacy, as an umbrella term, has already been shredded down by different disciplines into largely very specific sk ills and goals. Now, we see a slew of minor literacies including cultural literacy, technological literacy, information literacy, visual literacy, political literacy and almost any other number of possible ways to understand and manipulate the world. Joh n Buschman cultural, visual, multiple, interactive, workplace, media, critical, consumer, cross cultural, moral historical, scientific, mathematical, technological, p olitical, geographic, multicultural, etc. and the relative position of [information literacy] within this constellation. To this we now add the need to be literate in the social media of Web 2.0 (101). Each new perspective provides a different point of view or skillset that all potentially (and ideally) combine into a larger way of thinking. something larger. It has moved from an understanding of sources and power str uctures

PAGE 32

28 found in critical literacy, added in other elements and turned it into a large scale effort for the betterment of the working class. Unfortunately, his goals are huge nothing short of moving a majority of students to think on higher levels despite a lack of educational resources and tools. In the face of limited resources, I believe that his goal, or at least a portion thereof, may be attainable in easier terms than stated. One of the concepts, a is the feature of economic relationships with obvious applications to students. Moreover, seen in the correct fashion, it could have implications for combining the new splinter literacies and take advantage of the technological tools that are available. Reapplied and reevaluated, negotiation, as a form of literacy, may be one of the powerful skills that leading to a better standard of living for an entire class while not requiring the massive input that a university setting requires. Moreover, by viewi ng it as a literacy element rather than more nebulous concept, negotiation could be seen to terms, yet almost untaught in the public school system and with incredible potential when substantial treatment. Finn actually says it fantastically well when comparing typical domesticating literacy (a literacy offered through public schoo ls) to that of powerful literacy (one found in prep and higher are conscious of their own power and self 124 125). gnificantly different. Looking from the top of this sprawling of knowledge, call it a new peak of literacy, so much has changed in

PAGE 33

29 look the same as it did before the techn ological revolution. New micro level skills, any critical literacy may be at the base in importance as it relates to workers, and most likely still the most importan lays waiting. Negotiation, as Finn portrays it, seems to have negatively disproportionate value here at least as far as potential goes. It embodies so many valuable skills, including the seem to be considered anything more than a tool of business. Perhaps it should be a tool of the masses.

PAGE 34

30 CHAPTER III STUDENT APPLICATIONS work has significant appeal when addressing such a large topic. While union concepts upon, the economic basis makes sense and the need for some sort of change is being magnified in each year that we continue to see wealth redistribution to the upper echelons of society. Beyond the large scale effects, though, one also has to acknowledge t he benefits to individuals, even if social change must wait for adoption and the occurrence of other large scale changes (such as political and administrative policies. This chapter Self Interest orts are viable, then perhaps negotiation, taken as the primary goal rather than an auxiliary one as presented in Literacy with an Attitude, could offer the preferred results. First, it encompasses major literacy and critical thinking skills (i.e. synthes is, analysis, leverage, etc...). Negotiation skills would also inherently include the effective premises of critical literacy something already agreed upon as a highly useful form of literacy for workers. Second, negotiation, nearly by definition, is sel f interested. While critical literacy may be subjective and often times seemingly irrelevant without direct application, negotiation remains highly self serving and immediately applicable to personal needs. It feeds directly into the largest premise of P Perhaps most importantly, the inherent skill set would allow an individual to later affect social change. Negotiation as a skill set might encourage attitudes and behaviors that support a more beneficial macro environment for workin g class students.

PAGE 35

31 Essentially, negotiation might help empower the working class and create a similar result using negotiation, the next extension to unite and defend the ir own civil rights is only a small step forward. Negotiation has been a cornerstone of the union movement and it is an interesting thought to picture what individuals with this ability and mindset taught at early ages might carry forth (whether to union jobs or not). If nothing else, it might go a long way towards encouraging and explaining the processes that would most help them in both the workplace break room as well as voting booths across the nation. Ideally, workers would then pass the mindset and abilities on to the next generation and this could create a general expansion of a self defensive working class. Of course, the idea of class wide adoption even makes sense and can be backed up to opponents and conservatives who might be reluctant to buy into the value. Any pure capitalist could argue how people, knowing the direct benefit of negotiation, would use it to build and create for themselves. It is a pretty basic free market notion. Furthermore, remarkable similarities exist in what Finn ne eds to accomplish and what is being done with negotiation literature. Instead of a business centric idea, the literature has shown that negotiation can be involved with far ranging composition of rovement. That is, literacy and the ability to combine different kinds of knowledge into unique perspectives; order skills, including prediction and inference (Lewicki et. al). Ideally, negotiative training would give them the basic skills to adopt

PAGE 36

32 information independently from a young age and use it immediately for their uses while also contributing to ongoing social chang e. Negotiation works well as a stand alone skill as well. It obviously has applications in almost any business setting and could potentially allow students and border crossers an increased ability to make useful connections in the academy (should that b e their destination). Moreover, negotiation is critical to a unified and, should we go interested education becomes a reality, ew literacy transactions. At the very least, negotiation deserves additional attention in different applications. A site that tries to compile a set of working skillsets for people entering the he large working skills alongside personal, interpersonal, demonstration, leadership and writing skills. Its to time, conflict and disagreement will arise as the differ ing needs, wants, aims and beliefs of people are brought together. Without negotiation, such conflicts may lead to argument and resentment resulting in one or all of the parties feeling dissatisfied. The point of negotiation attempts to reach agreements w ithout causing future barriers to ideally, creates the most beneficial outcome to problems. 92). Their ability to affect change within the school system demonstrated a nearly pure negotiative approach through which they used a number of resources to advocate for their objectives.

PAGE 37

33 Recognized power differentials between themselves and administrators get lev eraged to on the losing side because there was no push back or competitive response mounted by the working class students and parents. The working class people had pur e numbers, but basically gave up control to the better negotiators. If there was more of a push back, the school system of the Brownstoners may have had a completely different and more balanced outcome where working class students are also able to take ad vantage of changes as well. Perhaps they could have adopted some of the powerful traits that the Brownstoners demonstrated and used the negotiative skills to continue improvement. teract in American culture with authority and success, the end goal remains as the ability to maintain and create new social, / civic and human rights something larger than the individual (though riding on his/ her back). Finn wants a class to use critica l literacy, see where the mechanisms are working against them, and then subsequently start to overcome those obstacles. On the bottom most level, Finn looks for the working class to be able to take action for themselves and this idea is largely based on t he economic principles. That is, Finn thinks that students are more likely to move towards a mutually beneficial goal if they can see, tangibly, how they stand to benefit. Negotiation, as a robust topic far beyond that which Literacy with an Attitude dis cusses, works far more interest, and tactics advoca tion remains perhaps the most salient feature of both powerful literacy teaching as well as that of negotiation studies.

PAGE 38

34 still shows the deep connection between the awareness objectives of critical literacy along with actionable traits of negotiation. Explicit Discourse Explicit language, a method of coding communication typically present among upper classes, creates and an enormous dilemma and barrier for working students. where commu nication can be based on shared experience and community knowledge. As an implicit form of communication, this mode fails to work effectively beyond the explicit communic power to any social situation. Naturally taught in upper class societies, explicit discourse gets embedded into upper class students at early ages where it seems natural and goes large ly unnoticed. However, as a skill, it is often severely lacking in the working communities. An important segment in Literacy with an Attitude argues that schools in upper class communities, teachers and parents tend to have an interactive approach with t he students, allowing them to explore, engage and learn. Offering working class students this ability might open a similar dialogue. One of the largest noted obstacles for working class students is the ability to adopt mainstream language in addition to (or instead of in the case of border crossers) their own community based languages. Finn for students to use, leverage and manipulate powerful and explicit language to s ucceed when border crossing.

PAGE 39

35 teaching methods between two groups: The Roadvillers and the Maintowners. Roadvillers are the working class students who experience their int eractions with text and language far differently than the upper class Maintowners. Roadvillers receive a similar emphasis on textual reading, but in a far different way. At very early ages, children may be read to with parents then interacting by asking questions, but the questions are largely centered on apparent facts and far less subjective subject matter. Questions pertain to tangible facts from any story and children are expected to explain or repeat back the information they have heard. Following the development of these two groups, the Roadvillers tend to do fine in school for the first few years of basic education, but gradually fall off and are unable to extend their thinking or perhaps completely understand the lessons once they move away from the actual, outlined facts of a text (228). On the other hand, upper class households, the Maintowners, tend to take a characteristics that lead to habitual use of explicit language. Authority in the home tends to be collaborative rather than authoritarian. Parents and children live in a society of strangers where little can be assumed about what your communications partners know or what they believe. Parents feel powerful They rarely accept any situation where they similarly to the Raodville households, but also tend to move towards interactive questions

PAGE 40

36 to interact with a text. At a very early age, children are able to negotiate; they allow themselves interpretatio n and begin to apply information. They are learning to interact, take lessons and apply them to their own situation unlike the more direct line of questioning performed by the Roadvillers (111 119). Finn remarks that working students, the Roadvillers, d o adequately well in the early years of public education, but that ability wears off throughout their stay. While no direct studies appear to have addressed the topic, negotiation, as a foundation learned at the beginning stages of education, may be usefu l in replicating the interactions found in upper classes by creating a paradigm for students to engage with teachers, professors and other positions of authority. With the basic premises learned early on, a student would understand not only personal needs but also their opponents and potential consequences of their interaction. Negotiation, a skill that now has backing scientific and theoretical literature rather than vague business practice, might help bridge the transition from home discourse to that o f the public system and help them cross, even if not accept in day to day life, into explicit discourse. An immediate argument in favor or the domesticating forms of literacy is that it is more pragmatic for teachers and administrators when dealing with larger classes and limited resources, but one of the effects of negotiation would be, theoretically, a reduced need for that approach. That is, if a student anticipates the needs of other parties, is able to accommodate, then they would also be helping se rve their self interest without putting up unintentional roadblocks and the need for authoritarian classrooms. Ideally, everyone, students, teachers and administrators, would have a better resulting environment for their own purposes. One would think tha t the explicit discourse would also be expanded through continued experience and practice. Perhaps

PAGE 41

37 the ability seeps back into working families a corollary effect that Finn would no doubt love to see. Negotiation as a skill (or potential set of skills) u ndoubtedly applies beyond the workplace and could have value at any point in the primary curriculum, even if, for egotiation is heavily referenced as larger bodies of literacy and knowledge whether it be through educators or interaction through technologies, negotiation further help s a student navigate from primary schools on through colleges and universities. Undoubtedly, this also would carry over to work. Most authors cited here have at one point noted how literacy opens doors to new literacy and the external environment can me an everything to some students. Negotiation can aid explicit discourse of powerful communities and help provide the ability to communicate and access external resources something that only border crossers tend to find. While perhaps missing from the very early stages of development, that negotiative property could be universal if only we introduce the same (or similar) perspectives and overwhelming, but could rather b e a complementary feature alongside critical literacy and the general work of socially minded teachers. Moreover, it is uniquely suited to primary schooling to be a giv en path, though it does allow it. No matter where a student winds up, be it in the garage, the machine floor or a graduate program at the local university, negotiation lends itself to more powerful interactions for workers.

PAGE 42

38 Social Justice Educators and C lass Identity educators but those also with a connection to working class values and an actu al interest in bettering working education. Our system largely looks to border crossers, but the numbers of these are limited to the few (and dwindling) numbers of people who move upward through other classes. Moreover, as noted, these students tend to b e absorbed into the classes they occupy without spreading social benefits into their communities. way improvement bringing stu dents toward powerful language and then having those benefits filter back to the students left at the bottleneck of literacy education (the point where working students tend to fall off). While we have good teachers doing what they are trained to do, we also catalyze enough students towards change on the larger cultural problem. At the very hat may be usable when seeking class transcendent educational democracy. Our system focuses largely on the idea of encouraging the lucky few to take steps into the higher classes, but this only creates a bottleneck for equilibrium with a few, select stude nts moving upwards and the largest population left swimming beneath the entrance to powerful learning. Those that do pass through often fail to return, let alone carry the knowledge of that venture back to the largest portion of the population. Finn prop oses a bridge that would, ideally, bypasses the bottleneck to complete a loop allowing people and knowledge to flow back to those that remain, for whatever reason, among the working classes.

PAGE 43

39 rk hard in school and learn school discourse not to replace their own, but to use it to further their own self have socially minded middle and upper class educators working for democratization of better served beyond the small number of social j ustice educators, but rather from class members working for social justice. As such, a larger effort for educating working students would go a long way towards opening the educational bottleneck and offer a loop of literacy access among workers. Finn re truly educate the vast majority of working class children, we need a major paradigm shift. We must replace the Old Paradigm of extrinsic motivation and individual border crossing with a New Paradigm of Freirean motivation and powerful literacy, the literacy that will enable the majority of poor and working class children (who will no doubt continue to leave school at the end of high school or sooner) to become better able to exercise their civil, political and so for early education, but the limitation for social justice educators is obvious. One solution might be that we simply seek more social justice educators, but this idea is complicated by our ability ( or lack thereof) to encourage a large sect of the population to embrace teaching powerful literacy, effectively. This certainly means getting past using Springer guests as examples and barrooms as ethnographical settings and means convincing a large group of mostly middle class students to treat powerful literacy as an investment with clear social returns this is similar to the economic

PAGE 44

40 reasoning. How do you get a middle class educator to put the necessary emphasis and passion into social justice (let alo ne communicate those ideas and methods)? Negotiation, a self interested, powerful form of language use potentially creates the two way loop in education. How large that loop ends up being, I have zero clue. The initial thinking is that negotiation skil ls, especially those taught early, would bring in a greater number of potential social justice educators in general. That is, bringing more working people forward to the university setting would bring working values into middle and upper class discourse w hile also increasing the overall pool of people available to become social justice educators and carry on the effort. However, additional problems exist and border crossers will still tend to social ranks. It certainly better working class education. However, this conversion is perhaps unnecessary. Finn is clear that the collective interest is natura lly served by working class members, but oppositional identity makes many unwilling to become more powerful on their own Finn, Rose and still others have argued that w orking students can learn to use language, negotiation and other skills to their advantage to compete on the higher class social field while not compromising their class values. Most would call it code switching, but it is also more dynamic than merely ad opting a second language. It involves a slew of personal, social, and working traits. Additionally, it involves overcoming conflicts of personal identity, the perceptions about power and how it is used, to move students into more powerful communities. I n the university setting, specifically, working students

PAGE 45

41 would be in a unique place of not only learning new literacies, but also introducing their own class values into a place where policy and social change take place. Overcoming this complexity has its awareness of various discourse communities, which will equip [students] 29). It is an idea closely coinciding with critical literacy, powerful literacy and class advocates, awareness has to be an essential initial goal with action and application coming as the more final step. Unfortunately, class differences make it difficult for students to identify and adopt mainstream and dominant culture including the ideas of explicit discourse. However, negotiation intertwines with critical and powerful literacy and creates the bridge to something at least comparable to upper classes. An observation them to parti Research into teaching critical and powerful literacy comes with a number of roadblocks. An enormous issue is the cultural difference existing between families of working class and upper class workers and citizens. Even with socially conscious educators, an acknowledged problem will be overcoming reluctance by many of the pt mainstream culture and language, usually exists beneath conscious thought. Finn speaks of the engrained feeling of any outsider,

PAGE 46

42 (47). In this case, involuntary minorities are not limited to any racial divisions, but merely those that have a lower starting point than surrounding and more dominant anthems (from almost any nat ion) and you will see class warfare peering back. For some it is passing, for others it tethers itself and pulls upon a mental anchor. In mass media, corruption. Look to theaters and you see the rise of movies with strong class undertones (of course, I think of the last Batman and any movie focusing on Wall Street, but whatever works for you). However, negotiation has become a diverse topic well beyond the scope that we traditionally believe in and involves processes that can be leveraged to overcome numerous hurdles including the problematic Further, it can when dealing with a larger society and parties For this, however, it has to be understood that negotiation can be looked at as more complicated than simply picturing a back and forth request for more resources with each party focusing on immediate benefits to t hemselves. This, the more traditional approach called the distributive form of negotiation, is largely considered limited when seeking equitable outcomes for all. The problem, and I will come back to this later in more depth, is that it focuses on immedi ate benefits for one party and precludes participation (and concern) for the opposition. Of course, this one the integrative form of negotiation, can enable students to learn to negotiate beyond a single, end result and limited tangible victory. That is, negotiation can be collaborative

PAGE 47

43 and could combine to allow a student to seek benefits that work with other students, teachers, administrators and parents. Rather than a fight, we encourage students to seek open communication and mutually beneficial situations. This allows working students to pursue their own self interest without asking for a compromise from another party, most likely teachers, administrators and possib le members of their family or religious institutions Looking past the limited perspective of distributive negotiation, researchers notice interesting negotiative qualities that pertain to knowledge acquisition and general academic interactions. Integra tive negotiation allows collaboration while also keeping aspects of proposed that being able to communicate with the that students must learn the language to manipulate access without giving up their own working identity (39 42). While not ideal negotiation to understand dominant culture for opportunities for personal gain. Though, as I will come to, negotiation can be much more. Spangle, moreover, notes an interesting coincidence between Fin dialectical dimensions of conflict displayed in tensions about autonomy or connectedness, openness or closedness, independence or dependence, and control or yielding. Negotiation provides a method for guiding parties through a process that focuses discussion more on understanding and meaning and less on blaming, control, or

PAGE 48

44 to maintain personal identity using negotiation at some of our public school roots? at is. they simply cannot be relied upon to resolve the educational disparity. However, the point of social justice educators is still critical. In many ways, their m ission is to bring powerful literacy practices to those who may not otherwise receive it and this is still a reasonable even if it may be done in another way. Negotiation, taken as an independent literacy, could again provide a possible solution to help w orking students do a number of things by breaking down their reluctance or at the very least allowing them to learn to they can (potentially) bolster the ranks of social justice educators with those better able to accurately communicate with the working class while also bringing in larger populations who gain access to higher literacy. Negotiation may be uniquely able to provide several s overarching goals, not the least of which is the ability to place working culture and values into the academic debate. Finn wants to move towards what can best be described as a unionized class, negotiation offers potential to move literacy education an d social justice educators in that direction. Relationships and Interactions with Society Picture back to the business metaphor and an individual/ business interacting with suppliers, other companies and still contributing to the macro level business envir onment.

PAGE 49

45 can be largely affected by a widespread change in literacy education working to include negotiation. Spangle states of the benefits: Inherent in interper sonal, family and community relationships is a growing need to manage relationships more effectively. The cost of broken relationships, employee disputes and community violence continue to grow, and new ways for resolving differences are needed. Negotiat ion is one option to transform conflict into problem solving or compromise. If offers an opportunity for people to reduce tensions caused by their differing views of the world. Negotiation provides an opportunity to create change and overcome resistance to change without having to use threats, make demands, or attempt to coerce (3). applications to students and can benefit people of any origin including students in other can only have benefits for the working class (and arguably society as a whole even if you for negotiation to apply The work environment has chan ged considerably. Pensions are gone. Lifelong loyalty between employee and company are, by and large, non existent and replaced with companies are largely focused on I had one teacher explain how banks can refinance debt when the economic climate works out and students were quick to launch statements that it

PAGE 50

46 can refinance our own debt when interest rates dive. No one in the class had a response active con versation. is even working. For example, someone who walks into a job interview may be asked their salary or work requirements. On the other side, an experienced worker may be offered one raise, but deserving another. For another example, take a worker who may have a family situation that requires time off or the ability to work from home. gotiating an issue with an employee may not reach agreement but may establish a dialogue about role, authority, and cooperation. Putnam and Roloff (1992b) point out that negotiators nication already acknowledged that not all workers are destined for the salaries of a corporate CEO, but other places exist where they can improve their lives and better working (as well as school and social) conditions can walk a more productive path, assuming that people are skilled enough to do so. All of the above working situations, from interview to family crisis, can become opportunity to create a better standard of living through negotiation and trade. While an employee needs to recognize their own working utility and leverage it as with traditional negotiation, they also need to be able to seek out solutions that benefit both parties. A flexible work schedule, for example, might allow a company to get Saturday coverage and save a family the high cost of day care.

PAGE 51

47 Moreover, this root level negotiation can result in a better situation for everyone, upper and middle classes included. Actually, modern definitions of negotiation often assume two or more parties working towards a mutually beneficial outcome. Brownstoners in Literacy with an Attitude where lower class individuals get sidelined due to an enormous power differential and what I have to, sadly, call ignorance on the side of workers. Instead, an armed working class, capable of self defense and advocating their own self interest may be able to proposition a situation where the employer gets a more satisfied and productive employee, while the employee walks away with a better living standard. A problem though exists as directly indicated in the previous sentence. While it was the first line of thinking in my mind, it is a lso rhetorically compiled with aggressive, conflict He generally does not take into account the fact that successful negotiation, of any sort and on any level be it individual, company wide or societal, becomes increasingly difficult the more you remove the notion of a beneficially outcome in favor of wrestling at a larger portion of limited resources.

PAGE 52

48 CHAPTER IV DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS limitations. The biggest that I foresee is that, while the groundwork for social change may be laid out, the argument is simplified on the social level. Finn intends for the work ing class to demand a better situation. However, his work interest to do so. Conflict will be immense. Fortunately, literature exists that argues that a slight change, an evolution of his base present a possible solution to overcome them. Conflict Limitations Finn carries workin g class preconceptions and ideologies into his book that would unfortunately both create unnecessary conflict between classes as well as limit the potential end result of any change created. More precisely, without revision and expansion of his definition will likely to create enormous kick back from opposing parties and offset any gains he might normally (or potentially) make. In keeping to the more distributive form of negotiation, a traditiona l form often seen between organized unions and company achieve a portion of his goal, but his gains would almost assuredly come from sacrifices of others. While this i s still a better solution than leaving educational disparity alone, it forward to more progressive, integrative forms of negotiation.

PAGE 53

49 t coaster (where unions are culturally prevalent), negotiation as a basic and functional concept or skill used in defined opposition a form negotiation of negotiation that re number of problems leading to a natural tendency to see negotiation as a limited resources situation. Unfortunately, this naturally also increases conflict and creates nt direction and the negotiation most often associated with labor relations is clearly distributive in nature, one described as a system where, lose) that is, every dollar won by are clearly adversaries, victory is the goal, the parties demand concessions of each other as a condition of the relationship, they are hard on people, distrust others, dig in their posit no other options, then perhaps this works as a viable solution to prevent the exploitation. However, nothing I see demands this be the case and the entire approach should likely be reserved as a final option. As it stands, Finn himself might shrug when considering the potential backlash that will inevitably follow a traditionally unionized working class, especially now when political polarization is the national norm. Fin party issue without clearly evaluating the power differentials and anticipating the typical reactions in any conflict situation. While empowering working class citizens should b e an unquestionable direction to take, I am not sure that the unintended consequences of a power grab, legitimate or not, will be worth it. In a system with assumed limited

PAGE 54

50 resources, aristocracy has not historically been on the generous side, especially when the additional problems through upper class roadblocks. Furthermore, negotiation in a wider, more productive context could be used by model is only really necessary ( or useful) when more powerful parties are using similar integrative approaches. Integrative negotiation, however, is something that can be benefit everyone even if onl y one party uses it. In each of the above three scenarios people looking for flexible hours, a raise, or in the process of salary negotiations a better overall outcome could be achieved if any of the parties were working with a collaborative perspective in mind. The solution of flexing time to get Saturday coverage resources or a direct supervisor rather than employee. Moreover, companies and institutions might benefi t from having their employees trained in integrative negotiation literacy and othe r human capital want to behave as a public good. Unlike many finite material assets, sharing literacy does not reduce its utility. In fact, sharing literacy often con flicting one can increase the end result for even a corporation, but it requires leaders

PAGE 55

51 on that side to take a more productive approach as well. If we are seeking the most otiation and include it among all parties and all classes. Micro level problems further reinforce the conflict. Littlejohn and Domenici note several of these rhetorical and discourse issues that will most likely arise as if Finn is successful in empowerin g working class students. Language bouncing does not (Littlejohn 396). That is, there s hould at least be concern that the specific languages become less compatible than desired. Second, the fundamental values may still reduce participants] engage in simplism, mora lism, monism and, on the other side, onflicting parties can think of no solution other ng a similar position either politically or socio economically and are less likely to be a typical social justice educator. In fact, the only other dedicated text I f ound when beginning this project was also a self identified working class student. Unfortunately, this perspective can inversely be rejected completely on philosophical grounds.

PAGE 56

52 the power to influence society to their benefit, but as I have noted, conflict results will such, it would seem that negotiation of some sort needs to be taught society wide rather than limited to just the working classes. Without support from other participants, namely success. Finn needs to extend his paradigm, in a more developed form, beyond individual classes and push it to be to be taught society wide rather than limited to just the working classes. In doing so, he stands to earn additional educators and sympathizers to implement his changes. Finn could significantly increase the overall effect of his efforts by helping ensure that really is fixed and that hardball type strategies are in their own self interest. While initially dealing with scarce resources, other resolutions may exist outside of the assumed dichotomy. Perhaps, social changes can be brought into better alignment to allow for mutually beneficial solutions. This would, of course, require a huge change in public opinions and perceptions, and may not come anywhere close to making everyo ne happy, but there could still likely be a more equitable solution than Finn has presented. The integrative approach looks for this kind of solution by increasing the available economic workers could come in the form of more money or through intangible benefits such as work conditions, benefits,

PAGE 57

53 does not necessitate actual dollars in pockets. A short sighted image of social reform, one that more closely resembles a person approaching with a distributive mind set, would to assume actual cash has to be the end result. Integrative Negotiation say that traditional approaches are without value. Distributive negotiation may actually be considered more of the tangible complement to integrative negotiation with tool s that can certainly be applied For example, Kristi Hedges argues that one of the first processes a negotiator should employ is priority ranking. An important professor in my education repeated th at the key to both negotiation and conflict resolution was to what you want work far shorter than the several hundred page text book that accompanies negotiation courses also l necessary. She also notes research that shows that counter offers make both parties more satisfied. That said, distributive negotiation is only part of the equation as new phi losophies and perspectives have given rise to new literature. As the social world has changed, it fixed positions and solid values of the past seem to be giving way a nd new rules, roles 3). All of this is to say that negotiation in stone skill perceived by Finn and, well, most people especially th ose that may already be

PAGE 58

54 engrained in unions and other work related conflicts between classes. I, for example, am sure the previous f ifty pages are full of connoted items that allow you to figure out my political perspective (despite me trying to be unbias ed) Brad Spangle, however, cites abundant resources over the last half century to give several definitions for how administrators, teachers, and researchers might approach the topic in primary schools. They are: 1) with different needs and viewpoint try to reach agreement on matters 413). 2) seek jointly and cooperatively to do better than they ax and Sebenius, 1991a, p. 97). 3) & Busch, 1992, p. 156). 4) that are attempting to define or refine the t erms of their 5) incompatible goals and engage in social interaction to Roloff, 1992, p. 3). (2) In many of th e cases, the authors of negotiation believe that the art or process creates a collective effort towards a beneficial outcome, but some are vaguer with less positive potential outcomes a few are potentially dangerous. Obviously, the more useful definitions stand out and all can generally be categorized into two umbrella directions for research. Collaborative forms move past and mechanical approach Of course, this might largely seem like the framing of negotiation, but the re is va lue in doing just that. An i ntegrated approach moves the objective away from basic

PAGE 59

55 give and take and moves into give, take and creation This should likely be the evolution of negotiation built onto work Defin ing your negotiative starting point a s based on cocreation of understandings about the problem and allows for more equitable solutions as and acts as the more ideal option when exploring literacy as a school subject. In this situation parties parlay back and forth with the result being one that creates a mutually beneficial conclusion A n integrated approach can help with dialogue, meaning, and cooperation for th e future. According to information, willingness to trust others, tradeoffs of valued interests, and interest based enefit. Moreover, an extension of this framing reduces conflict and negotiative training could be used to better communication in such situations Spangle states that Of a distributive he emphasis was on selective sharing of information to create an agreement with little regard for the underlying social processes. Although parties were unaware of it, their interactions influenced the level of trust th ey held in each other, the power was experienced, to the extent to which each would be open with information, or As such, negotiation can be used beyond arguing for more workplace benefits like money o r sick time; it can also build always us versus them... It is class war. The co nnotation of defiance and violence is

PAGE 60

56 pervasive and, again, shows how much value can be found in re framing a topic. Here, the ongoing perception that there is a limited amount of economic pie to go around encourages more radical responses when competing for a section of that pie. It is a fight. Unfortunately, our current ideals support this level of competition. However, the framing of integrative negotiation would allow for less conflicted responses. Perhaps m integrat ive negotiation can be scaffolded and has t heoretical. On a social level, integrative negotiation mirrors the large scale social change Finn seeks with the potential, tangible, workplace benefits in tow. It further assists students with the acquiring of new literacies, which is something that Mike Rose argued for heavily in his highly regarded work. This, of course, then feeds back into the social sphere and compounds benefits through an increase in border crossers and other large scale social improvemen ts. In following that trail of potential benefits I want to look at each one a bit closer. First, t he integrative approach has society wide opportunity. Integrative negotiation would take our economic system and opens it beyond the limited pie that mos t people see. An entire class that makes up most of our society would almost definitely be able to find new innovations that could expand that economic pie to larger total value. This value could come in the form of more money or simply provide some less tangible benefits such as work conditions, benefits, or time off that result in a higher degree of overall happiness Even basic workplace satisfaction could be added into the total amount of perception of the pie that guides us. Our goal envisions a be tter off working class, but that vision itself to the world of physical currency Sadly, one of the most salient problems with any sort of powerful literacy or critical literacy assumes

PAGE 61

57 that resources are limited and t hat perception places a roadblock that integrative away from the upper class, but rather to have a higher standard of life for the masses which largely occurs at the policy making level I think a few small adjustments would make this possible through our educational system and a new emphasis on negotiation. Moreover, integrative negotiation closely ties in to all sorts of other literacy skills including information literacy, digital literacy, and social or cultural literacy. As discussed, the web 2.0 revolution has been one that evolved from the open source software and has led the world into a more social pa radigm of interaction. Information flows much more freely than it has in the past and most people have access to similar tools including educational materials. We are now functionally drawing on each other as well as the entire archive of human knowledge have to matter so long as you can manipulate resources into a desirable end (as in through world markets). Workers can now have a greater input into the global production cycle while wielding new tools and new opp ortunity Innovation is being rewarded and e ntrepreneurs of any class can look to overcome lowered barriers to entry C ombining resources is certainly one way to do this. With Zuckerberg, the combination of coding ability likely) a great many other sources turned into Facebook. For Jobs, the product was a technological behemoth as well. Anyone can be an innovator given the correct circumstances and, just like Brandt argues, it is important to give the correct literacies t o everyone if only as a matter of social justice (as Finn seeks). Negotiation could be used as a fundamental skill for all p eople, working class and others that allows powerful literacy to be achieved outside of the Academy.

PAGE 62

58 Compounding would, hopefully, be the end result in the social cycle. As for change on all levels micro and macro Essentially, powerful literacy for a million individuals should be greater than th e sum of each part when individuals combine to assert change on a larger scale. Compounding literacy inputs can have a similar effect on our academic structure and the creation of additional resources for the working class to further this improvement In fact, Finn relies on this in part as one of the mid level steps in working class progression. By making working students more successful or more willing to attend higher education, not only would there be a more likely chance of propagating their own ski ll and social ability, but the class as a whole would largely engage in a negotiative interaction with the university through an increase in border crossers. Hopefully, while admittedly a bit of a stretch, the interchange of knowledge would work equally o n both levels and the working class would see an influx of higher education learning by sending more students to the academy. However, I like to think that the inclusion of negotiating skills could have even further impact and encourage a better education for every student and tea cher. Negotiation, after all, is which parties (a) engage in reasoned discussion and problem solving processes and (b) develop shared understandings that serve as the bas is for agreements. Negotiation becomes a means to facilitate relationships based on dialogue and agreements based on skills, and thinking only the working class lack skills damages/harms/reduces the value of higher education. One author points out the overall value of higher education comes

PAGE 63

59 educators who have used and continue to us e discussion as a predominant teaching mode, we know discussion affords students opportunities to hear diverse viewpoints and any people going through a university program are going to end up in management situations and their ability to relate to working students will be helpful, possibly even giving them future advantages in the workforce. Students in general are given a bett er education through a combination of negotiation and advancement into higher education. Take this argument about classroom another along. Knowledge was shared and distri groups were cross for positive interaction and the effect is not limited to any one class of students. Sadly, though, most working class students attend pu blic schools rather than private so this interaction may only come from the interactions in a college or university setting and it is important that the experience be more representative of society as a whole. If we are going to get the most out of this ex change of ideas, it most likely has to come here. At the very least, I can see a student making themselves more likely to encounter the experience class behavior, for something mo re useful. Suggestions and Directions For any number of discussed reasons, negotiation would seem like it could be an ideal skill for the working class to adopt. It simply mirrors so many of the goals of established researchers and academics. Sadly, my personal arguments are limited. I have

PAGE 64

60 no practical experience with primary schools; I am not an educator of any sort. Furthermore, my current job, educational background and surroundings make me a border crosser at best, and certainly not someone qualified to wade through an expanse of liter ature that crosses so many fields (let along administrative hurdles). However, I am comfortable arguing for the potential. I personally have adopted what I see as an integrative negotiation approach in my work, which has allowed me from a bank teller pay ing his way through school to a position as a communications executive within a few something integrative negotiation fundamentally requires I have been able to expand the entire footprint of my employer and improve relationships even though I refuse to network. The notion of people seeking mutually beneficial solutions complements modern social systems, and the approach especially matches the needs of a new on a competitive and capitalist system despite having so many immediate applications to to day reality. Negotiation in general offers an accessible platform for stude nts to develop the ability to analyze a situation and communicate more effectively among other classes that interest. Its use would be invaluable in both workplace situation s (better individual salaries, workplace safety and the general recognition of some sort of personal power, etc.) as well as social interactions (bartering, use of public goods, greater access to information and resources). As a developed skill, it should (may) also have a corollary, collective effect for the entire US and especially those considered working and lower middle class.

PAGE 65

61 Having people recognize power and be further willing to use it as a group (or even recognizing the potential) seems as though it would naturally aid in collective bargaining, unionization efforts as well as a greater influence in gaining and maintaining basic civic and social rights on a governmental level. Protecting working class rights, as Patrick y find its easiest and most pragmatic solution in the form of early negotiative literacy. Maybe adding a class to early public education fails to change society. Maybe it fizzles out, cultural competitiveness wins and we carry on with the continued system of border crossers and misplaced faith in meritocracy. The utility of negotiation still exists. Integrative forms, at least still allow students to not only reach for better solutions, but also find them where they may not otherwise be apparent. Spangl e notes a number of corollary benefits to negotiation beyond that fall in line with the idea of increasing border s to this approach are apparent within academic and literacy fields. Mike Rose proposed that being able to Martha Marinara explains that the working class students ne successful (733). Finn argues that students must learn the language to manipulate access without giving up their own working identity (42). All three are applicable. Integrative negotiation grounds itself in give and take, g enerally in an exchange that offers sacrifices for a better position. It is a system of knowing a goal and moving towards it in a dynamic process of thinking and interaction. Assuming a student achieves all three of these qualities. Would it then be mor e difficult or less so to maintain personal identity in future

PAGE 66

62 interactions within the educational system? Spangle, moreover, notes an incredible can serve as a tool for managing the dialectical dimensions of conflict displayed in tensions about autonomy or connectedness, openness or closedness, independence or dependence, and control or yielding. Negotiation provides a method for guiding parties through a process tha t focuses discussion more on understanding and meaning and less offers an appealing route to achieving powerful literacy. Of course, as with everything, there must be a practical application. In my thinking, only a few options sound reasonable. Though, this is absolutely an area where I falter. First, we could simply make negotiation a course of its own. Second, we could try to ask educators to include it and admini strators to enact it as a cross curriculum effort in their schools (while I am no educator, I do have to admit that this one seems least likely to be effective). Perhaps negotiation is included in the college curriculum of educators as an intermediary to work its way into lower level schools. It would require a level of required course would have been helpful from the start (though, I am obviously biased). Lastly, w e could look to change the actual framing of critical and powerful literacy to include or encompass negotiation. Negotiation provides an interesting method for linking critical literacy to action and makes this an incredibly easy first step. In the end, scale social change), but they remain hard to argue against as noble and socially responsible. This is even truer today as the technological revolution sets in and recent

PAGE 67

63 economic uphe aval settles. What needs evaluation twenty years after publication is reality. While not without flaws, his argument encompasses so many facets of working class educat ion, research and history that I firmly believe that I believe that it does. Moreover, negotiation truly is an intriguing tool within his much larger argument whether ons in academia if embraced for its potential. In an era seeing literacy research expand into incredibly diverse ranges, I would propose negotiation to be included as it applies so well in the effort set forth by Patrick Finn.

PAGE 68

64 REFERENCES Allen, Brenda. Difference Matters: Communicating Social Identity. Long Grove: Waveland Press, 2011. Print. Arnett, Ronald C., Bell McManus, Leeanne Marian and Amanda G. McKendree. Conflict Between Persons: The Origins of Leadership. Denver: Kendall/ Hunt Publishing, 2013. Print. Beach, Jamie Myers and Richard. "Hypermedia Authoring as Critical Literacy." Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 44.6 (2001): 538 546. 2010. Web. Beck, Ann S. "A Place for Critical Literacy." Journal of Adolescent & Ad ult Literacy 48.5 (2005): 392 400. Apr 16 2012. Web. Brandt, Deborah. "At Last: Losing Literacy." Research in the Teaching of English 39.3 (2005): 305 310. Print. 16 04 2012. . Brandt, Deborah. Literacy in America n Lives. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Print. Quarterly 79.1 (2009): 95 118. April 16, 2012. Web. Economic Policy Institute., 06 Jan. 2015. Web. 01 Apr. 2015. Comor, Edward. "Contextualizing and Critiquing the Fantastic Prosumer: Power, Alientation, and Hegemony." Cr itical Sociology 37.3 (2010): 309 325. Print. 04 July 2011. Cupach, William R., Danial J. Canary, and Susan J. Messman. Relationship Conflict: Conflict in Parent Child, Friendship and Romantic Relationships. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. 1995. Print/ Class Resource. Darvin, Jacqueline. "Beyond Filling Out Forms: A More Powerful Version of Workplace Literacy." The English Journal 91.2 (2001): 35 40. 2011. Web. Detlev Zwick, Samuel K Bonsu, and Aaron Darmody. "P utting Consumers to Work: 'Co Creation' and New Marketing Govern mentality." Journal of Consumer Culture 8.2 (2008): 163 193. Print. Erbert, Larry. Conflict Communication. Auraria Campus, Denver, CO. 2015. Lecture. Finn, Patrick J. Literacy with an At titude: Educating Working Class Students in Their Own Self Interest Second Edition. Albany: State University of New York Press,

PAGE 69

65 2009. Print. Friedman, Thomas L. The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty First Century. New York: Farrar, 2007. Pri nt Hagood, Margaret C. "Critical Literacy for Whom?" Reading Research and Instruction 41.3 (2010): 247 265. Apr. 16 2012. Web. Online. 12 2013. 30 May 2016. Web. Hocks, Mary E. "Using Multimedia to Teach Communication Across the Curriculum." WPA: Writing Program Administration 25.1.2 (2001): 25 40. Web. Hull, Glynda. "Critical Literacy at Work." Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy 43.7 (2000): 648 652 Apr. 16 2012. Web. Kaestle, Carl F. Literacy in the United States. Binghampten: Yale University, 1991. Print. Luke, Allan. "Critical Literacy: Foundational Notes." Theory into Practice 51.1 (2012): 4 11. Apr. 12 2012. Web. Lewicki, Roy J, David M. S aunders, John W. Minton, and Roy J. N. Lewicki. Essentials of Negotiation. Boston, Mass: Irwin/McGraw Hill, 2001. Print. Linquist, Julie. "Class Affects, Classroom Affectations: Working Through the Paradoxes of Strategic Empathy." College English 67:2. Apr 11 2004. Web. Linquist, Julie. "Class Ethos and the Politics of Inquiry: What the Barroom Can Teach Us About the Classroom." College Composition and Communication 51:2. 17 Sep. 2010. Web. Littlejohn, Stephen and Kathy Domenici. Communication, C onflict and the Management of Difference. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press Inc. 2007. Print. Maples, Joellen and Susan L. Groenke. "Critical Literacy in Cyberspace." The ALAN Review (2008): 6 14. Web. Marinara, Martha. "When Working Class Students "Do" the Academy: How We Negotiate with Alternative Literacies." Journal of Basic Writing 16.2 (1997): 3 16. Web. McCarthey, Sarah J. "Making the Invisible More Visible: Home Literacy Practices of Middle Cl ass and Working Class families." Early Child Development and Care 127.1 (2010): 179 189. Web. 11 07 2011.

PAGE 70

66 Economic Policy Institute. 6 Jan. 2015. Web. Jan 30 2016. Mitzi Lewison, Amy Seely Flint, and Katie Van Sluys. "Taking on Critical Literacy: The Journey of Newcomers and Novices." Language Arts 79.5 (2002): 382 391. Web. Myers, Jamie and Richard Beach. "Hypermedia Authoring as Critical Literacy." Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 44:6 (2002): 382 391. Web. Neo, Mai Neo and Ken T.K. "Innocative Teaching: Using Multimedia in a Problem Based Learning Environment." Educational Technology & Society 4 .4 (2001): 1 18. Apr 26 2011. Web. Pennell, Michael. ""If Knowledge is Power, You're About to Become Very Powerful": Literacy and Labor Market." College Composition and Communication 58.3 (2007): 345 384. Apr. 16 2012. Web. Rios, Guilherme. "Letters in a Community Organisation: A Case of Powerful Literacy." D.E.L.T.A 21 (2005): 105 127. Web. Spangle, Michael and Myra Warren Isenhart. "Negotiations on Information Seeking Experise: A Study of Web based Tutorials for Informat ion Literacy." Journal of Documentation 64.1 (2008): 24 44. Apr. 17 2012. Web. Spangler, Brad. "Integrative or Interest Based Bargaining." Beyond Intractability Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colora do, Boulder. Posted: June 2003 < http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/interest based bargaining >. nter 12 2005. 9 Sep 2010. Web. Skerrett, Allison. "Teaching Critical Literacy for Social Justice." Action in Teacher Education 31.4 (2012): 54 65. Apr 16 2012. Web. Smith, Emma. "Underachievement, Failing Youth and Moral Panics." Evaluation and Rese arch in Education 23.1 (2010): 37 49. July 7 2011. Web. Soliday, Mary. "Class Dismissed." College English 61.6 (1999): 731 741. Sep. 17 2010. Web. Sundin, Olof. "Negotiations on Information Seaking Experise: A Study of Web based Tuturorials for Infomation Literacy." Journal of Documentation 64.1 (2008): 24 44. Apr. 17 2012. Web.

PAGE 71

67 Vasquez, Vivian. "Critical Literacy Isn't Just for Books Anymore." The Reading Teacher 63.7 (2010): 614 616. 16 Apr. 2012. Web. .org. Economic Policy Institute. 06 Jan. 2015. Web. 01 Apr. 2015. < http://www.epi.org/publication/charting wage stagnation/> Wilmot, William & Joyce Hocker. Interpersonal Conflict. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Publishing. 2013. Print. Wolf, Paula. "Pre service Teachers Planning for Critical Literacy." English Education 42.4 (2010): 368 389. Print. Zartman, William and Jacob Blaustein. "Negotiation and Conflict Management: Essays 389. Print. Zartman, William and Jacob Blaustein. Negotiation and Conflict Management: Essays on Theory and Practice. New York, NY : Routledge Inc. 2009. Print.