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William Ferril, the Colorado Historical Society, and collecting artifacts in the Philippines during the Spanish-American War

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William Ferril, the Colorado Historical Society, and collecting artifacts in the Philippines during the Spanish-American War
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Andrews, Paul Christopher ( auhor )
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English
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Spanish-American War, 1898 -- Campaigns -- Philippines ( lcsh )
Philippines ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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In 1898 the United States went to war with Span in Cuba and the Philippines. Men serving in the First Colorado were sent to the Philippines to fight both the Spanish, and eventually the Filipinos. William Columbus Ferril, the curator of the Colorado Historical Society, saw the war as an opportunity to collect artifacts from the Philippines and asked both Alva Adams, the Governor of Colorado, and Russel Alger, the U.S. Secretary of War, for permission to collect relics during the fighting. When the Colorado troops returned from the Philippines, they delivered several items they collected during the war. They are still held by History Colorado, the present name of the Colorado Historical Society.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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System requirements: Adobe Reader.
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by Paul Christopher Andrews.

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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986791779 ( OCLC )
ocn986791779
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LD1193.L57 2016m A64 ( lcc )

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WILLIAM FERRIL, THE COLORADO HISTORICAL SOCIETY, AND COLLECTING
ARTIFACTS IN THE PHILIPPINES DURING THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
by
PAUL CHRISTOPHER ANDREWS B.A., University of Colorado, Boulder, 1992
A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment Of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts History Program
2016


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This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by Paul Christopher Andrews has been approved for the History Program by
Rebecca Hunt, Chair Thomas Noel Geoffrey Hunt
December 17, 2016


iii


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Andrews, Paul Christopher (M. A. History)
William Ferril, The Colorado Historical Society, and Collecting Artifacts in the Philippines During the Spanish American War Thesis directed by Senior Instructor Rebecca Hunt
ABSTRACT
In 1898 the United States went to war with Span in Cuba and the Philippines. Men serving in the First Colorado were sent to the Philippines to fight both the Spanish, and eventually the Filipinos. William Columbus Ferril, the curator of the Colorado Historical Society, saw the war as an opportunity to collect artifacts from the Philippines and asked both Alva Adams, the Governor of Colorado, and Russel Alger, the U.S. Secretary of War, for permission to collect relics during the fighting. When the Colorado troops returned from the Philippines, they delivered several items they collected during the war. They are still held by History Colorado, the present name of the Colorado Historical Society.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Rebecca Hunt


V
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank my thesis advisor Dr. Rebecca Hunt for keeping me on track through this long process. She was always available to help when I was going off on tangents and gave me the encouragement I needed when I didnt think I could finish this project. I would also like to thank Dr. Geoffrey Hunt for his guidance and for his great book, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 1898-1899, which was such a help. My thanks also go to Dr. Thomas Noel for all the help hes provided throughout my graduate career.
I would also like to acknowledge the incredible staff at the Stephen H. Hart Library at the History Colorado Center, especially James Peterson, Laura Ruttum Sentoria, and Keith Schrum, who were always available and helped me find gems hidden in the archives I would also like to thank the staff at the Western History Department at the Denver Public Library.
I would also like to thank Steve Draper for so long ago putting the idea of getting an MA in public history in my head and my fellow traveler, Keith Outcelt, who was always available for a pint to discuss the path wed chosen.
Finally, Id like to express profound gratitude to my wife Alisha, and our kids, Sam and Vivien, for their support and understanding. Without Alishas help in getting this mess in order, it would not be what it is now. I love you all so much. I would also like to thank my father for instilling me with the desire to continue my education, even if I took a longer break than I
intended.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION......................................... 1
II. THE HISTORY OF LOOTING DURING WAR.....................3
III. COLLECTING SOI YLMLRS DURING WAR......................9
IV. THE U S. MUSEUM FIELD AT THE TURN OF THE
NINETEENTH CENTURY............................. 11
V. THE COLORADO HISTORICAL SOCIETY,
WILLIAM COLUMBUS FERRIL, AND CECIL A. DEANE.... 13
VI. THE WAR WITH SPAIN AND THE PHILIPPINE REBELLION......23
VII. LOOTING IN THE PHILLIPINES...........................33
VIII. SOLDIER'S SOUVENIRS..................................45
IX. HOMECOMING...........................................50
X. CONCLUSION...........................................59
BIBI.IOGRAPY..............................................62
APPENDIX
A. CORRESPONDANCE.......................................67


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LIST OF TABLES
1. Firearms in the War Relics Collection.........................................20
2. Firearms with provenance in the War Relics Collection.........................20
3. Swords in the War Relics Collection...........................................21
4. Items belonging to famous people in the War Relics Collection.................22
5. Weapons and military items from the Philippines in the
War Relics Collection........................................................ 52
6. Everyday items from the Philippines in the
War Relics Collection.........................................................53
7. Pottery and textiles in the War Relics Collection..............................54
8. Uniform items from the Philippines in the
Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 Collection.................................. 56
9. Weapons from the Philippines in the
Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 Collection..................................56
10. Everyday items from the Philippines in the
Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 Collection..................................57
11. Religious items from the Philippines in the
Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 Collection...................................58


Vlll
LIST OF IMAGES
1. Ferril Captured.................................................17
2. A Corner of the War Relics Room.................................19
3. Looking for Dinero..............................................43


1
CHAPTERI INTRODUCTION
He had beautiful white teeth and a fair complexion, and an Iron Cross on his chest, which meant he had been a good soldier. And I sat with him, and I grew fond of him. I loved him. I did not hate him. And two hours later word came to us that we had to advance again, and I led my men forward and we went on with the battle. But before we went, I spread a cloth over his face and I took his Iron Cross, and Ive got the ribbon of it upstairs somewhere now. And it was not like robbing a corpse; it was like taking a souvenir of an old friend.1
The United States ended the nineteenth century by going to war with Spain, and the men of the First Colorado found themselves halfway across the world in the Philippines. On May 17th, 1898, the men of the First Colorado marched through the streets of Denver, from Camp Adams, located in City Park, to Union Station to board trains to San Francisco. From San Francisco, they sailed to the Philippines.2 While they were there they collected souvenirs, and relics, of their time.
Three years prior to the war with Spain Colorado State Historical Society founded a War Relics collection, which was housed in the basement of the State Capital. During the First Colorados time in the Philippines, regimental staff and soldiers collected Philippine artifacts at the behest of the Colorado State Historical Society in order to add to their War Relics collection.3
The curator of the Historical Society during the war was William Columbus Ferril, a former newspaperman, working for The Denver Republican, The Rocky Mountain News, and The Denver Times 4 It was Ferrils idea to use the Colorado troops in the Philippines to collect
1 John Keegan, and Richard Holmes, Soldiers a History of Men in Battle [VHS] Volume 13- Experience of War (London: Churchill Films, 1988)
2 Arthur C. Johnson Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry, U.S. V. in the Campaign in the
Philippine Islands (Washington, D.C.: War Department, 1899) 2.
Geoffrey R. Hunt Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 1898-1899 (Albuquerque: University of
New Mexico Press, 2006) 220.
4 Maxine Benson, A Centennial Legacy, Colorado Magazine 57 (1981): 10.


2
artifacts for the War Relics collection. He spoke to the Governor of Colorado, Alva Adams, and wrote to the Secretary of War, Russell Alger, to ask for permission to collect artifacts. Alger gave permission to Ferril, who wrote to the commander of the First Colorado, General Irving Hale, giving Hale and his men authorization to grab what they could; consent to plunder and loot.
Plunder and looting has been a reality of warfare since conflict began, resulting in the passage of numerous conventions and treaties in an attempt to stop it. There are two major types of loot that may end up in museum exhibits; cultural property and souvenirs. Cultural property, includes items that have intrinsic value to people because of traditional or religious importance.
It also includes indigenous arts and crafts, and items of historic value. Sacred buildings and the artifacts they hold are also cultural property. Most international treaties and conventions cover wrongful collection of cultural property. However, this is not the case with objects considered as souvenirs.
The majority of historical literature about looting and plundering focuses on taking cultural artifacts. These items were generally found in either private collections or museum collections. In practice, it is illegal for museums to acquire and exhibit stolen property.
However that did not stop reputable museums in the later eighteenth century through the midtwentieth century from showing stolen cultural artifacts.
Artifacts taken from the battlefield, or vacated homes, or abandoned buildings, or building taken over for military use are considered war souvenirs. These items are both picked up by individual soldiers as they fight, and collected by specialist curators attached to military units. Some of these items are covered under the laws dealing with cultural property, but most are not, resulting in a longtime disregard for the acquisition of such items.


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CHAPTER II
THE HISTORY OF LOOTING DURING WAR
In ancient Greece plundering during warfare was legal, and according to the Greek historian Polybius. Looting the defeated enemy was simply an act of war. When Antigonus Doson sacked Mantinea in the fourth century BCE, Polybius words were
This [razing] is only what, by the laws of warfare, awaits even those who have been guilty of no special act of no special act of impiety. They deserve, therefore, to meet with punishment even more complete and heavy...5
In ancient Rome war was more civilized, although loot and pillage were still taken by the Roman legions. Cicero made Gaius Verres, the praetor of Sicily, pay retribution to the people of Sicily after Verres pillaged them between 73 BCE and 75 BCE. Cicero also praised Scipio after he took Carthage in the Third Punic War in 149 BCE, when Scipio returned plundered artwork to Sicily.6 Regardless of these attempts to curb looting, pillaging was still a major part of warfare until recently.
By the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the practice of the good war began to develop, with rules for war put in place, and looting and pillaging formally phased out of combat. Commanders tried to institute a policy that restricted looting to only those items necessary to military success, however soldiers still looted for their own gain.
The laws of war were only as strong as the ability of commanders to enforce them. During the Napoleonic wars of the early eighteen hundreds, the Duke of
5 Peter Karsten, Law, Soldiers and Combat (Westport, CT, London: Greenwood Press, 1978) 7.
6 Flora E.S. Kaplan (ed.), Museums and the Making of Ourselves The Role of Objects in National Identity (London, New York: Leicester University Press, 1994) 331.


4
Wellington, a stern disciplinarian, found that his men disregarded his orders, when their
needs became too much. Wellington said of his officers:
I may order what I please, but if they do not execute what I order, or if they execute with negligence, I cannot expect British soldiers to be orderly and regular.7
Napoleons army looted with impunity during their European campaigns. They stole 2,065 paintings and 130 sculptures. Napoleon even held an Imperial Roman style triumph for himself in Paris. The triumph was a large military parade to celebrate a conquering hero, and featured the works of art and other items Napoleons army had taken. When he was defeated in 1815 the treaty that finally ended the Napoleonic wars, The Congress of Vienna, was used to force France to return the stolen works.8
The Congress of Vienna was not the earliest treaty used to repatriate cultural property after a conflict. The Treaty of Whitehall in 1662 forced the Netherlands to return loot to England. The use of treaties to return pillage did, however, begin to gain momentum after the Congress of Vienna. The treaties also began to address longstanding complaints. In 1866, The Treaty of Vienna, not to be confused with the earlier Congress of Vienna, compelled the Duchy of Hessan to return a library they took from Cologne in 1794, nearly seventy-five years earlier.9
The first international treaty that explicitly mentioned the act of pillaging and looting during war was the Hague Convention of 1899. The Convention addressed a
7 Karsten, Law, Soldiers and Combat, 70. John Keegan discusses how one of the most important advances in the conduct warfare is was the creation of a professional officer class, that were educated not only in leadership, but in the rules that govern warfare. That aim, which Western armies have achieved with remarkably constant success during the two hundred years in which formal military education has been carried on, is to reduce the conduct of war to a set of rules and a system of procedures- and thereby to make orderly and rational what is essentially chaotic and instinctive. John Keegan. The Face of Battle. (New York: The Viking Press, 1976), 20.
8 Kaplan, Museums and the Making of Ourselves The Role of Objects in National Identity, 330.
9 Kaplan, Museums and the Making of Ourselves The Role of Objects in National Identity, 330.


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wide variety of issues including the rights of belligerents and the use of weapons. On pillaging, the Convention stated Towns were not to be pillaged, even when taken by assault. A revised Convention was ratified 1907, and made improvements to the articles concerning looting, including Article Twenty-Seven which specifically focused on pillaging historical and cultural structures. It stated that in sieges and bombardments all steps must be taken to spare certain buildings from destruction, including religious buildings, art centers and hospitals. These buildings were protected as long as they were not used for military purposes. However, Article Five stated that the inhabitants of the town were responsible for indicating what buildings should be protected.10
The Treaty of Versailles, signed in 1919 and which ended the First World War, indicated that Germany must return looted artifacts to France. It not only included items that were taken in the course of the First World War, but also during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871 as well. Article 245 of the Versailles Treaty, was how the allies forced Germany to comply:
Within six months after the coming into force of the present Treaty the German Government must restore to the French Government the trophies, archives, historical souvenirs or works of art carried away from France by the German authorities in the course of the war of 1870-1871 and during this last war, in accordance with a list which will be communicated to it by the French Government; particularly the French flags taken in the course of the war of 1870-1871 and all the political papers taken by the German authorities on October 10, 1870, at the chateau of Cercay, near Brunoy (Seine-et-Oise) belonging at the time to Mr. Rouher, formerly Minister of State.11
10 Karsten, Law, Soldiers and Combat, 22.
11 FirstWorldWar.com. The Treaty of Versailles. http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/versailles.htm


6
During the Second World War, General Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote orders regarding the protection of cultural sites, making it a policy of the American Army in Europe. He sent a memorandum to his subordinate commanders on May 26th 1944. In it he laid out rules dealing with historic monuments. The memo explained that as the fight ranged across Europe, many historic and cultural sites would be encountered. He ordered each commander to take the responsibility to protect these monuments, if possible. However, military necessity could justify their destruction, with the implication that cultural artifacts could not always be saved in the face of war.12 It was a policy that paid lip service to the protection of cultural and historical sites, but allowed their destruction without real consequence.
There is no mention of artifacts, cultural property, or art works in the memo. Armies still took art works. General George Patton ordered that an extensive cache of artwork be removed from Merkes, Germany in the spring of 1945. The removal of the art was the job of the Monuments Men. The works were shipped to the United States by the Army where they were stored at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. The Metropolitan Museum of Art displayed several of the works in an exhibit in the summer of 1948. The catalog of the exhibit explains that the works were removed by the army to protect them, and that they would eventually be returned to Germany.13
John H. Hess, a New York journalist stated in his 1974 book The Grand Acquisitors that traffic in pillaged art after World War Two boomed. Both museums and
12 W. Michael Reisman, and Chris T. Antonio u, The Laws of War: A Comprehensive Collection of Primary Documents on International Law Governing Armed Conflict (New York: Vintage Books, 1994) 96.
13 The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Paintings from the Berlin Museum. New York. Catalog introduction.


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art dealers participated in the trade. He went on to say The antiquities collection of the greatest of them all, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, was in fact founded on loot.14
In 1954 a new Hague Convention broadened the definition of cultural property to include artifacts that could be moved. Article One, section A of the 1954 Convention defined cultural property as moveable or immovable property of great importance to the cultural heritage of every people such as monuments of architecture, art or history, whether religious or secular.. ,15 This new definition was meant to make clear that all cultural property was off limits during war, and yet the looting continued.
Most recently, when forces from the United States, Great Britain and Australia invaded Iraq in March 2003, several Iraqi cultural institutions were looted. During and after the invasion, Iraqi citizens and others looted The Iraqi Museum, the Iraqi National Library, the Iraqi National Archives, the Iraqi Religious Library, and several other locations. The U.S. military command expected looting of items that related to the overthrown government of Saddam Hussain, but they did not expect the widespread pillaging that took place.16 It was concluded that the looting was carried out by Iraqi citizens, many who may have had knowledge of the collections and were looting for profit. Several thousand items were stolen.17 Donald Rumsfeld, the U.S. Defense Secretary, said that the looting was part of the price of the invasion. He was quoted as saying "Freedom's untidy, and free people are free to make mistakes and commit crimes
14 Phyllis Mauch Messenger (ed.), The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property Whose Culture? Whose Property? (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1999) 190.
15 Reisman, The Laws of War: A Comprehensive Collection of Primary Documents on International Law Governing Armed Conflict, 97.
16 Keith Suter. Protecting the Worlds Cultural Heritage. Contemporary Review 290 (2008): 190-199.
17 Sashsa P. Paroff. Another Victim of the War in Iraq: The Looting of the National Museum in Bagdad and the Inadequacies of International Protection of Cultural Property. Emory Law Journal 53 (2004): 2021-2054.


8
and do bad things."18 He blamed the looting on social upheaval and ended by saying Stuff happens.19
The rise of other groups in the Mideast has caused concern for other cultural heritage sites and artifacts. In Afghanistan, in the valley of Bamiyan, the ruling Islamic party, the Taliban, destroyed two giant Buddha statues in March, 2001. The statues were created in the 6th century and were two of the largest sculptures of the Buddha in the world. Mullah Mohammad Omar, a leader in the Taliban, called the statues non-Islamic idols and object of worship and ordered they be publically blown up. The Taliban was also responsible for the destruction of several other cultural artifacts in the National Museum of Afghanistan.20 Prior to the damage the Taliban did, an estimated 70% of the National Museum of Afghanistans collections were destroyed and looted betweenl989 and 1996. The mujahedeen forces, which fought the Soviet Union from 1979 to 1989, splintered into several factions after Soviets left, plunging Afghanistan into civil war. It was these groups and this war that is responsible for the destruction of cultural artifacts.21
Daesh, or ISIS, is the most recent group that has made the destruction of cultural artifacts a matter of policy. The most infamous act of destruction was shown on YouTube on February 26, 2015. In the video, members of Daesh destroy artifacts at the Mosul Museum and at the archeological site at Kuyunjuk, in Kurdish Iraq. Daeshs devastation of these cultural sites was, like the Taliban, perpetrated for reasons of ideology.22
18 SeanLoughlin "Rumsfeld on Looting "Stuff Happens."" CNN. April 12, 2003. Accessed July 25, 2016.
19 SeanLoughlin "Rumsfeld on Looting "Stuff Happens."" CNN. April 12, 2003. Accessed July 25, 2016.
20 Gil J. Stein. The War-Ravaged Cultural Heritage of Afghanistan: An Overview of Assessment, Mitigation, and Preservation. Near Eastern Archaeology 78 (2015): 187-195.
21 Gil J. Stein. The War-Ravaged Cultural Heritage of Afghanistan. Near Eastern Archaeology 78 (2015): 187-195.
22 Omar Harmansah. ISIS, Heritage, and the Spectacles of Destruction in the Global Media. Near Eastern Archaeology 78 (2015) 170-177.


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CHAPTER III
COLLECTING SOUVENIERS DURING WAR
Regardless of continued looting, there are many laws and international treaties in place to try and protect antiquities, cultural property, and art works. However, there do not seem to be any to protect souvenirs collected by soldiers on the battlefield. These tokens represent the travels of individual soldiers in a hostile environment. They mark the experience of war. The majority of item collected by soldiers will never be returned to their countries of origin, though often times family members will donate war souvenirs to local museums or historical societies.
Collecting items that were exclusively intended for military use were much less
regulated. On the battlefield, soldiers collected small items such as uniforms, medals,
ribbons, insignia, or personal weapons. These personal artifacts obtained by soldiers are
considered souvenirs, which are taken to mark events that are not repeatable but are
reportable. They reduce the large and complex events soldiers find themselves in to a
personal scale. They are reminders of harrowing events soldiers find themselves in.231
began my paper with an excerpt of an interview of Charles Carrington, a World War I
veteran conducted in the mid-1980s. His words have always been very striking and I
believe they gave a succinct explanation of why soldiers collected these kinds of
souvenirs. These are his words in full.
One day on the Somme, in one of the minor operations, I and my company captured a trench, and then we were held up by the Germans, and we lay down in shell holes; and there was a sort of rough fight for some hours. But I was not alone in the shell hole. I found that I was sharing it with a young dead German soldier, who was a man about I
23 Susan M Pearce, Museum Objects and Collections: A Cultural Study (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992) 72.


10
could see a man of about my own age and style. And I liked the look of this [man.] He had beautiful white teeth and a fair complexion, and an Iron Cross on his chest, which meant he had been a good soldier. And I sat with him, and I grew fond of him. I loved him. I did not hate him. And two hours later word came to us that we had to advance again, and I led my men forward and we went on with the battle. But before we went, I spread a cloth over his face and I took his Iron Cross, and Ive got the ribbon of it upstairs somewhere now. And it was not like robbing a corpse; it was like taking a souvenir of an old friend.24
During World War Two, the U.S. Armys 10th Mountain Divisiontrained at Camp Hale in Coloradolooted artifacts from Mussolinis Villa Feltrinelli, which are now in the collection of History Colorado, formally the Colorado History Museum. In 2007, the Colorado History Museum exhibited many of these, contextualizing the extent to which a single soldier would take whatever they could, focusing on the soldiers and not the objects.25 The soldiers of the 10th Mountain Division knew they were collecting trophies for themselves. The focus of a soldiers experience during wartime, in relation to what they looted rather than on the war relic itself, is a contemporary exhibit method. In 1896, when William Ferril was appointed curator of the Colorado History Museum, the acquisition and curation method was much different.
24 John Keegan, and Richard Holmes, Soldiers a History of Men in Battle [VHS] Volume 13- Experience of War (London: Churchill Films, 1988)
25 Moya Hanson (curator of the 10th Mountain Division Exhibit, Colorado Historical Society Museum) in an email with the author, April 2009.


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CHAPTER IV
THE U.S. MUSEUM FIELD AT THE TURN OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
When William Ferril became the curator of the Colorado History Museum, he was described as an enthusiastic amateur, and his focus was on the acquisition and display of war relics as trophies.26 During Ferrils time, academic historians showed little or no interest in in using objects and artifacts to study and understand history. Like Ferril, interested collectors, local curators, and amateur researchers drove the use of objects in historical research and were the ones who filled museums with artifacts. Academic historians were not part of this initial national scholarship.27
Collectors and curators of local museums were driven by their desire to collect objects that they believed were important to local, national, and international history. They collected iconic items of famous people, important status symbols, and local totems. Museums exhibited these artifacts to educate the public about important history makers in the United States.
The exhibits were also intended to be good family entertainment.28 There was a driving desire for discovering local and national roots in the collections of American museums and historical societies. The museum became a place where people came to learn about the heroes and great events that made the United States. The hope was that the public would feel a sense of belonging to a great nation when they visited the museum.29 A. Howard Clark, curator of the United States National Museum (later the Smithsonian Institution), a graduate of Wesleyan University, and a Mayflower descendant was committed to collect and preserve relics of
26 Benson A Centennial Legacy 57.
27 Thomas J Schlereth. Material Culture Studies in America. (Walnut Creek, Lanham, New York, Oxford: Alta Mira Press, 1999), 14.
28 Schlereth, Material Culture Studies in America, 5.
29 Alvin Schwartz. Museum: The Study of Americas Treasure Houses (New York: E. Dutton, 1967) 125.


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important national events or of persons prominent in the history of our country.30 The national myths and ideals that the founders of historical societies wanted to highlight most had a direct impact on the scope of their collections.31
These same types of myths drove local historical societies. Their love of their country and communities fueled zeal for collecting.32 Reuban Gold Thwaits presented a report at the American Historical Associations annual meeting in 1905. The title of the report was The Best Methods of Organization and Work on the Art of States and Local Historical Societies. He began his report stating: each historical society is in large the product of local conditions and opportunities. But back of these, moulding [sic] conditions and taking advantage of opportunities, are needed individuals imbued with genuine and self-sacrificing enthusiasm in the cause.33 He went on to say that enthusiasm was not the only thing needed, but that skill, expertise, and the respect of peers was also necessary.34
Charles Wilson Peale, founder of what would be the Philadelphia Museum in 1800, stated his desire to collect when he gave an address to possible investors to his museum in 1792. He explained his plan to fill his museum with A collection of the arms, dresses, tools and utensils of the aborigines of diverse countries may also fill a considerable space. The sentiments of Peale and Thwaits are qualities that William Ferril brought as curator of the Colorado State Historical Society, and in particular to his pursuit of artifacts from the Philippines.
30 Warren Leon and Roy Roseweig (eds). History Museums in the United States: A Critical Assessment (Urbana, Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1989) 9.
31 Edward Alexander and Mary Alexander. Museums in Motion: An Introduction to the History and Functions of Museums (Lanham, New York, Toronto, Plymouth U.K.: Alta Mira Press, 2008) 120.
32 Alexander. Museums in Motion, 118.
33 Hugh H. Genoways and Mary Anne Andrei (eds.). Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy. (Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, 2008), 73.
34 Genoways and Andrei (eds.). Museum Origins. 73.


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CHAPTER V
THE COLORADO HISTORICAL SOCIETY, WILLIAM COLUMBUS FERRIL, AND
CECIL A. DEANE
The Colorado State Historical and Natural History Society was created by an act of the Second Session of the General Assembly of the State of Colorado. The session was convened in Denver on January 1st, 1879.35 The act that created the society had a lofty view of both the history and future of Colorado and its natural wonders, reading,
Whereas, The history of Colorado, being as yet unwritten and existing now only in tradition of fragmentary manuscripts of private individuals and of the public press; and
Whereas, The natural history of Colorado, as represented by published essays of scientific and by preserved specimens, is set forth only by organizations and museums without the state, in this country and in Europe; and
Whereas, The opportunity, now so evident, for making a permanent record of these essential elements of our prosperity, is fast passing away, so that a few years hence, both the men who have been the actors, and the material for collections, will be quite beyond our reach; and
Whereas, It is believed that many valuable historical papers, and specimens of natural history, would be contributed to a properly organized society; therefore, in order to encourage and promote the advancement of these material interests and to establish a state museum...36
35 General Assembly of the State of Colorado, Laws Passed on the First Day of January, A.D. 1879, 85.
36 General Assembly of the State of Colorado, Laws Passed, 85. The phrase The history of Colorado, being as yet unwritten... is a bit hyperbolic. J.E. Wharton wrote History of the City of Denver From Its Earliest Settlements to the Present Time in 1866, a full thirteen years before the law creating the Colorado Historical Society was passed. It was published by the Byers and daily Printers Office in Denver.


14
The bill, House Bill 134, was passed on February 6th, 1879. The bill stipulated that the State would pay $500 to encourage the formation of the museum, but the funds could not be used to pay compensation to anyone working for the museum.
Sec. 2. That there be and is hereby appropriated out of any money in the state treasury, not otherwise appropriated, the sum of five hundred dollars to assist the said society to further the ends of its organization, and generally set further in the preamble, thereof;
Provided, however, that no part of the money herby appropriated shall be paid as compensation to any officer or member of the society;37
In July 1879, a group of prominent Denver men met to write the articles of incorporation, the constitution and the bylaws of the Colorado Historical and Natural History Society. The first president of the society was Dr. Frederick J Bancroft, a Connecticut doctor who was also had a hand in establishing the Denver Medical Society, St Lukes Hospital and the DU Medical School.38 The vision of the museum at that point was a selection of small exhibits, each focusing on a different aspect of the natural history of Colorado.39 In 1881, the first location of the thematic exhibits was a room at the Glenarm Hotel, located at First and Glenarm. The society did not remain at its Glenarm location long, and moved twice between 1885 and 1886. The first move was to the Arapahoe County Courthouse in 1885. The second move, just a year later, was to the fourth floor of the Denver Chamber of Commerce Building at Fourteenth and Lawrence.40
Also housed in the Denver Chamber of Commerce Buildings fourth floor was the Mercantile Library. Charles R. Dudley, the librarian, was displeased with the societys approach to collecting. He said the collections became a nuisance, as the generally inclined gave liberally of the things for which they have no use... You could find almost anything from a New England
37 General Assembly of the State of Colorado, Laws Passed, 85-86.
38 Benson A Centennial Legacy 2.
39 Benson, A Centennial LegacyT.
40 Benson A Centennial Legacy 3.


15
meeting house foot oven to a Fiji Islanders head rest.41 Though Dudley did appreciate that the society afforded much entertainment for the young.42 Charles Dudley had to endure the societys collections sharing a floor with the Mercantile Library for nine years. The societys next move came with the completion of the new state capitol building in 1895.
The cornerstone for the new capitol was laid on July 4th, 1890. When the new building was finished enough for partial occupancy, in mid-1895, the society moved its collections to the basement. The collection boasted 3,000 artifacts from the Cliff Dwellings in Mancos Canyon, and three rooms of artifacts from prehistoric Colorado. The collection included skeletons, skulls, pottery, wood and stone tools, baskets, and textiles.43 In 1896, before the move into the capital, Dr. Bancroft resigned as the societys president. William Byers, a 59er and publisher of The Rocky Mountain News, became the new president. On August 14th, 1896, William Columbus Ferril, another newspaperman, was hired as curator, and became the Colorado State Historical Societys first paid official.44
William Columbus Ferril was bom on August 28th, 1855 in Lawrence Kansas. His father, Reverend Thomas Ferril was a Methodist minister. His mother, Minerva, died when he was six years old. His father remarried Cleopatra Lynch and she served as his first connection to Colorado.45 John T. Lynch, Cleopatras brother, represented Summit County in the House of the Territorial General Assembly for two sessions, between 1861 and 1865.46 William Ferril
41 Benson A Centennial Legacy 5.
42 Benson A Centennial Legacy 5.
43 Legislative and State House Blue Book of Colorado: Being a Collection of Portrait Engravings and Biographies of the State Officials; Members of the Supreme Court and Court of Appeals; Member of the Senate and House of Representatives of the Twelfth General Assembly... Together With Other Things of Interest in Colorados Magnificent State House 1899. (Denver: Carson-Harper Company and W.H. Lawrence, 1899), 75.
44 Benson A Centennial Legacy 10.
45 Henry S. Fellerman, Will C. Ferril: Newspaper Man and Historian, The Brand Book 17 (1961): 249-50.
46 Williams N. Byers. Encyclopedia of Biography of Colorado, Volume 1. (Chicago: The Century Publishing and Engraving Company, 1901). 345.


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attended Lewis College in Glasgow, Missouri. As the son of a minister, he qualified for a 50% reduction in all his fees, and paid only $2 a month for room and board. He graduated from Lewis College with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1875. He further went on to earn a Bachelor of Arts and Didactics from the North Missouri State Normal School in 1876. 47 He also obtained an MA at the University of Denver in 1900, during his time as curator of the Historical Society.48
After completing his degrees, William Ferril became the principal of the Bentonville High School in Bentonville Arkansas. He remained at the high school for only two years from
1876 tol877. He then worked for Arkansas U.S. Senator James H. Berry and while working for the senator, started to study law. Ferril was certified to practice law in Arkansas in December of
1877 and in Missouri in March of 1878.49 Ferril would only practice law for a short time, however. Poor heath prompted him to move to Colorado in 1879, and he gave up law for good. He initially settled in Silver Cliff and took up journalism.50 He moved to Denver in 1883, when he was asked by Eugene Field to join the staff of The Denver Republican, eventually serving as the papers editor from 1885 to 1887.51
Ferril was soon a full-fledged newspaperman, editing The Rocky Mountain News from 1887 to 1888, before returning to The Republican. He was also the editor of The Denver Times, worked on The Colorado Sun and The Denver Mining Exchange Journal. He also wrote for the Kellogg and New York Press syndicates.52 It was while Ferril was writing articles for the New
47 Fellerman, Henry S., William C. Ferril: Western Writer and Historian (MA thesis, University of Denver, 1960): 12.
48 Byers. Encyclopedia of Biography of Colorado, Volume 1, 345.
49 Fellerman, William C. Ferril. 13.
50 Byers. Encyclopedia ofBiography of Colorado, Volume 1, 345.
51 Fellerman, Will C. Ferril, 252.
52 Fellerman, Will C. Ferril, 253.


17
York Staff Syndicate in 1889 that he began to become interested in writing about history.53 This interest led to his appointment as the new Historical Societys curator.
In 1896 William Ferril abandoned the role of a newspaperman to devote himself to his new vocation as curator of the Colorado Historical and Natural History Society. He jumped into the role by creating new education programs for the areas elementary schools, giving many of the lectures himself. A report in the book State Officials and 13th General Assembly of Colorado states that over 2,000 students had attended lectures by Ferril in 1901 alone. The visitor count for the Historical Society through 1901 was listed as 228,863.54 He also made the society a repository for official federal and state papers and arranged for the delivery of newspapers from throughout Colorado. The newspaper collection he amassed is still one of the largest local newspaper collections anywhere.55 The library consisted of 10,000 items, including the newspaper file, books, pamphlets and manuscripts from many of Colorados pioneers.56
The State Historical and Natural History Societys collections also included several hundred stuffed birds and mammals.57 Ferril often took to the field himself to collect specimens, especially birds, for the societys collection.58 As curator of the Society, Ferril had permission to collect all flora and fauna, but as a cartoon on The Denver Republican on April 20th, 1902 showed, he was frequently stopped by game wardens.
53 Fellerman, Will C. Ferril, 255.
54 State Officials and 13th General Assembly of Colorado 1901 (Denver: unknown publishers, 1901)
55 Benson, A Centennial Century, 10.
56 Legislative and State House Blue Book 1899, 76.
57 Legislative and State House Blue Book 1899, 75.
58 Fellerman, Will C. Ferril, 256.


18
Image 1: Denver Republican. April 20* 1902.
Curator Ferril Captured
Ferril was also frequently ill, due to the long hours he worked. He kept what he called a daily journal during his tenure as curator, and on June 2, 1898, he wrote Bad cold and not well; made the day as easy as possible.59 The journal is filled with similar entries. Regardless of his bad health, Ferril was always an enthusiastic collector. When the United States entered the Spanish-American War, he saw an opportunity to expand the museums collections, especially in the War Relics collection. It was the same opportunity that Reuben Gold Thwaits had spoken of.
The War Relics collection was exhibited in the Western Wing of the Historical Societys space in the new State Capital building. The War Relics collection included over 2,000 artifacts of military significance from the wars of the United States from the American Revolution through the early twentieth century.60 Cecil A. Deane was the custodian of the collection. According to the Legislative and State House Blue Book of 1899, the collection served to teach the children of Colorado about the U.S.s military past. Among the visitors have been many
59 William C. Ferril, Daily Journal, Vol. I, June 1, 1898- Feb 8, 1899
611 Legislative and State House Blue Book 1899, 79.


19
teachers from the public schools with their classes, that the younger generation may learn by observation of these interesting relics something of the actualities of war, and thus form a better appreciation of the countrys glorious military history.61
Cecil Deane had a singular passion for artifacts that had a connection to the wars of the United States. He enlisted in the Army of the Potomac as a private during the American Civil War and became a First Lieutenant. He came to Denver in 1866 as a wagon train driver, delivering supplies from Addison, Kansas, but soon became a surveyor. He worked for the U.S. Government for fifteen years as the Deputy Surveyor of Public Lands, where he spent much of his time working on getting the railroad through the mountains.62 The introduction to the Catalogue of War Relics of February 1898 stated The nucleus for the states collection of war relics was made by Cecil A. Deane, the present custodian, in 1895, and was secured from many of the great battle finds of the War of the Rebellion.63 Deane donated his large collection to the Society under the condition that it must be housed in the Capitol and made available to the public.64 A photograph in the Legislative and Stare House Blue Book of Colorado, 1899 shows an unknown man standing amongst several racks of rifles and large artillery shells in a part of the War Relics room.
61 Legislative and State House Blue Book 1899, 80.
62 Legislative and State House Blue Book 1899, 80.
63 Cecil A, Deane. Catalogue of War Relics (Denver, CO: Smith-Brooks Printing Company, State Printers, 1898) Introduction.
64 Legislative and State House Blue Book 1899, 79.


20
Image 2; Legislative and Stare House Blue Book of Colorado, 1899. 79. A Comer of the War Relics Room
The War Relics catalogue illustrates the kind of relics that Deane was most interested in, which were arms and armaments. He collected rifles, pistols, knives, pieces of artillery shell and any part of the weapon he could seemingly get his hand on. The first four and a half pages of the catalogue list almost nothing but rifles.
They include a wide variety of guns, a few of which are foreign made.
Table 1: Fireanns in the War Relics Collection
Item Number Description
15 Sharp's Carbine. Patent. 1848.
16 Ferry's Carbine. Patent. 1848. First kind of breech loader.
24 Chassepot Rifle. (French Zouaves.) 1886
26 Yeager's (Hunter's) Rifle. Made in Switzerland in 1851.
28 Spencer Rifle. 1859.
31 Springfield Breach Loading Rifle. 1864.
35 Ybarzabel Cap Lock. Spanish
39 Merrill Breach Loading Rifle.
47 Queen's Arm Flint Lock. Was used in Revolutionary War.
48 Flint Lock Musket. 1837. Changed to cap.
Deane, Catalogue of War Relics


21
Some of the weapons have specific provenance, many of which were used by famous frontiersmen.
Table 2: Firearms with provenance in the War Relics Collection
Item Number Description
17 Colt's Carbine. Patent. Six Chambers. Was carries through the war by E.E. Cheever, Company H, 89th Illinois Infantry
18 Gold-Mounted Henry Rifle. Brought to Denver by Gov. John Evans, in 1862.
36 Double-Barreled Smooth Bore Buffalo Gun. Owned by Kit Carson. Made by Wallis & Sheath. London. Weights, seventeen pounds.
37 Harper's Ferry Cap Lock. Carried in late war by Michael Ivory, 1st Colorado Cavalry.
Deane, Catalogue of War Relics
There are over forty long arms listed in the first five pages of the War Relics catalogue.
Even more numerous than the guns were the ordnance that Deane collected. There are nearly ten pages of nothing but shells and bullets. He collected both actual shells and shell fragments, including some very large pieces such as item 100 a three-hundred pound shell.65 Deane also collected items that had shell fragments in them. There are at least five items in the catalogue that are nothing more than a block of wood with imbedded shell fragments. As for bullets, Deane collected hundreds. Part of the catalogue reads 432 to 538 inclusive. Union and Confederate bullets from Gettysburg battle field, Gettysburg, Pa. and 539 to 591, inclusive. Union and Confederate bullets from Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mountain and Chattanooga battle fields, Tenn.66
Although not as numerous as the firearm and artillery related items, there is a substantial number of swords, knives and bayonets. Some of the more special artifacts Deane sought out, like the rifles he collected, had very specific provenance, including his own sword.
65 Deane, Catalogue of War Relics, 11.
66 Deane, Catalogue of War Relics, 19.


22
Table 3: Swords in the War Relics Collection
Item Number Description
891 French Cavalry Sabre
893 German Cavalry Sabre.
901 Modem German Cavalry Sword.
906 Moorish Cimetar [sic] Inlaid with gold. Was captured from the British at the battle of Saratoga, N.Y. in 1777. Was later used by a colonial officer during the Revolution.
910 Sword Used by Capt. John Tallan. New York colonial troops, during the war. Worn by his grandson, Capt. Richard Tallan, of Scotts artillery in Mexican War. Presented by Mrs. J.S. Goming, Denver
911 Sword of C.A. Deane. First lieutenant, Company A, 1st Battalion Pennsylvania Infantry.
1406 Saber. Worn by Samuel C. Dorsey, Company H, 1st Colorado Cavalry.
Deane, Catalogue of War Relics
Much of the rest of the war relics catalogue is filled with various items of military life, such as cartridge boxes, canteens and some military medical equipment. However, Deane seemed very interested in collecting the items of great men, items that great men had been in contact with, or items that had significant to great moments of history. The last several pages of the Catalogue of War Relics contain some of these very specific items.
Table 4: Items belonging to famous people in the War Relics Collection
Item Number Description
1045 Ivory paper Cutter. Given to Lieut. Burnett by Gen. Washington.
1143 Confederate Note. With autograph of Brig. Gen. Benj. H. Grierson on back.
1158 Autograph of R.B. Hayes. Ex-president United States.
Deane, Catalogue of War Relics
The item that best illustrates the wide variety of war artifacts that Deane hunted is item 1318 Wheat. From battle field of Waterloo.67
67 Deane, Catalogue of War Relics, 38.


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CHAPTER VI
THE WAR WITH SPAIN AND THE PHILIPPINE REBELLION
Karl Irvine Faust wrote a history of the United States involvement in the Philippines during the Spanish American War. His book Campaigning in the Philippines was first published by Hicks-Judd, San Francisco, in 1899. The first line of the book summed up how Faust, and perhaps many Americans, including William Ferril, saw the war. One of the most wonderful events of history is the American occupation of the Philippines.68 However, the Philippines were not on anyones mind when the Spanish American war began, and the U.S. involvement in Asia was overshadowed by Cuba. According to Faust, most people did not even know where the Philippines were.69 The Spanish American War is most remembered for the campaign in Cuba, the slogan Remember the Maine! and Theodore Roosevelt leading the charge up San Juan Hill. And indeed, it was the conflict in Cuba that drew the attention of those interested in Americas war with Spain at the time.
The desire of the Cuban people to rule themselves and expel the Spanish authorities was the impetus for the Spanish American War. Jose Marti, a poet and activist, led a revolt against the Spanish in February, 1895.70 In response to the uprising, the Spanish authorities cracked down on the Cubans and created camps to keep the population under military control. The camps were crowded and unhealthily and soon the United States learned what the Spanish were doing through newspapers accounts.71 Concerned by the events in Cuba, the United States sent the USS Maine, under the command of Captain Charles D Sigsbec, to Havana on January 25th,
68 Karl Irvin Faust, Campaigning in the Philippines (New York: Amo Press, 1970), 1.
69 Faust, Campaigning in the Philippines, 17.
70 James M. McCaffrey, Inside the Spanish American War: A History Based on First Person Accounts (Jefferson, NC, London: McFarland & Co., Inc., Publishers, 2009), 3.
71 McCaffrey, Inside the Spanish American War: 3.


24
1898. The official reason the Maine was in Cuba was in case American citizens needed to be evacuated.72 On the night of February 15th, 1898, the Maine exploded in Havana Bay, killing 266 members of her crew.
The destruction of the Maine began the roll to war between the United States and Spain.73 According to James McCaffrey, Popular outcry swept President McKinley, basically a man of peace, toward war.74 On April 11th, McKinley asked Congress for the authority to use force against the Spanish.75
On the 13th of April 1898, the House of Representatives passed a resolution that directed President William McKinley to intervene in Cuba. The resolution demanded that Spain recognize the independence of Cuba and give up the authority it had on the island. The demand was backed by a threat of war. The resolution was passed on the 19th of April, 1898.76 On the 23rd of April, Spain declared war on the United States. The U.S. Congress, in a display of pique announced that Spain was too late and that the United States and Spain had been at war since April 21st.77 While the country was preparing for war in Cuba, events on the other side of the globe were developing that would lead to the United States, the men of the First Colorado, and William Columbus Ferrils, involvement in the Philippines.
The desire to go to war with Spain was not shared by all. Mark Twain, one of Americas best known humorist and critics said in January 1901 I knew enough about the Philippines to have a strong aversion to sending our bright boys out there to fight with a disgraced musket
72 McCaffrey, Inside the Spanish American War, 4.
73 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine War, 8.
74 McCaffrey, Inside the Spanish American War, 7.
75 McCaffrey, Inside the Spanish American War, 7.
76 Faust, Campaigning in the Philippines, 29.
77 McCaffrey, Inside the Spanish American War, 7.


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under a polluted flag His words were a clear-cut anti-imperialist message, but he eventually apologized.78
Admiral George Dewey was in Hong Kong when, on April 24th 1898, he received orders from the Secretary of the Navy to sail to the Philippines. His task was to sink or capture the Spanish Fleet at Manila Bay.79 The reason for the order to sink a Spanish fleet in Asia, when hostilities were centered on Cuba, was part of a Navy plan from 1896. The Navy wanted to take Manila Bay and neutralize the Spanish fleet in Asia, if the United States and Spain ever went to war. Twelve days after Congress had given President McKinley authority to use force against Spain in Cuba, Admiral Dewy opened fire on the Spanish Fleet in Manila Bay, destroying it on May 14th, 1898.80 Once the Spanish fleet was no longer a threat, Dewey needed to land troops to complete the occupation of the Philippines. The U.S. Army was not able to send as many troops to Asia as were needed, because of commitments in Cuba. The answer was in sending volunteer troops raised from the state militias.81
The destruction of the Maine had already bolstered enlistment in the regular army and the state militias. Before the Maine, the enlistments numbered an average of 700 to 1000 per month. After the Maine it jumped to 9,000 for the months of May and June 1898. Many of those enlistments were to state militias. At the time of the war the militias were often seen as unprofessional, only training sporadically during the summer, and often spent their time organizing parades, dances, and networking, rather than performing military service.82 With the
78 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 241.
79 Faust, Campaigning in the Philippines, 3.
80 Richard E. Welch, Jr., Response to Imperialism: The United States and the Philippine-American War, 1899-1902 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979), 3-4.
81 Faust, Campaigning in the Philippines, 55.
82 McCaffrey, Inside the Spanish American War, 20.


26
chance to fight the Spanish in Cuba, men flocked to be a part of any unit that would have them. This included the men of Colorado.
In Denver, Governor Alva Adams received a cable from Secretary of War Russell Alger requesting one infantry regiment and one light artillery regiment made up of the existing units of the militia.83 The Colorado State Militia immediately began to recruit and reorganize to meet the request of President McKinley and Secretary Alger. Soon, men were quickly volunteering to fill the ranks.84 Jerome Smiley, a historian writing at the time of the war, wrote The quotas of the several states were relativity small, and there was almost a fierce competition among gallant spirits to get into the ranks.85
The men of Denver organized and mobilized in April of 1898. They set up Camp Alva Adams north of City Park and began to drill.86 The men who joined the First Colorado came from all over the state. As the men enlisted, they were placed into any company that needed men, but in the end, the companies eventually organized based on geographic lines.87 Denver provided the First Colorado with four companies, B, E, I, and K. There were two Pueblo companies, A and C. The remaining six companies were made of men from Boulder, Greeley. Leadville and Cripple Creek.88 They ranged from the ages of 17 to 52, but the average age of the soldiers was 24 or 25. Only 10% of the men of the First Colorado were native to Colorado, and
83 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 31.
84 According to Geoffrey Hunt in Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, not all men were accepted into the ranks of the First Colorado. One hundred and fifty African-Americans from Denver, and one hundred African-Americans from Manitou formed companies to fight. None were accepted to the First Colorado as soldiers. Two black Coloradoans did accompany the regiment to the Philippines as officers servants. Hunt, Colorado's Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 31.
85 Jerome C. Smiley (ed) History of Denver: With Outlines of the Earlier History of the Rocky Mountain Country. (Denver: Times-Sun Publishing Company, 1901), 939.
86 Johnson. Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry, 1.
87 Johnson Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry, 2.
88 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 40.


27
12% of them were born outside the United States, mainly Europe.89 Smiley wrote The first Colorado was a superb regiment; even above the high standards of American volunteer organizations.90 He commented that the regiment was made up of men from every walk of western life and many had already been trained in the state militia.91
The men of the First Colorado believed they were going to Cuba, as rumors surfaced that they were moving Chickamauga, Georgia. But the infantry regiment was ultimately bound for the Philippines. General Wesley Merritt was given command of the Eighth Army Corps to take and hold Manila after Admiral Deweys victory. He needed men. He requested that the Eighth Army Corps be increased to 14,000 men to go to the Philippines.92 The men from the state militia units were given to him. The cavalry, however, traveled to Cheyenne, Wyoming, and did go to Cuba.93
According to Arthur Johnson, both a soldier in the First Colorado and a reporter for The Rocky Mountain News, when the First Colorado marched to Union Station, It was an auspicious day, perfect overhead and underfoot, and a vast throng of thousands sent up its huzzas, and said good-byes and wished God-speed to the men.94 The men arrived in San Francisco and set up their encampment, calling it Camp Hale, within the larger army camp, called Camp Merritt.95 On the 14th of June, 1898, the men of the First Colorado marched through the streets of San Francisco, were treated to a dinner by the Red Cross, and then boarded the transport ship China for their voyage to the Philippines.96
89 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 43-44.
90 Smiley (ed) History of Denver, 941.
91 Smiley (ed) History of Denver, 941.
92 McCaffrey, Inside the Spanish-America War, 129.
93 Johnson Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry, 2.
94 Johnson Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry, 2.
95 Johnson Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry, 2.
96 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 58.


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The First Colorado arrived in the Philippines on the 16th of July, when the China anchored in Manila Bay. By the eighteenth, they began to move their equipment ashore and settled in Camp Dewey, the main American camp. By the 22nd of July the entire regiment was ashore.97 The regiments first action was on the 1st of August, when the Spanish shelled the trenches the First Colorado were holding, and Fred E Springfield, from Company D was the first Coloradan to be killed in the war.98
The First Colorado was located across from the Spanish fort San Antonio de Abad, at the southeast comer of Manila. The fort was old, but solid. The Cruiser Olympia began to shell Manila at 10 am on the morning of the 13th of August and one hour later, the First Colorado was ordered to march forward and assault the fort.99 The Colorado men easily routed the Spanish from the fort, and raised the first U.S. flag over Manila.100 As they moved into the city, the band played ThereTl Be A Hot Time in the Old Town Tonight, a popular song at the time. When the regiment got to Manila City Hall, they wanted to place the first flag on a Spanish government building. During that flag raising, Private Charles Phenix was killed.101 Jerome Smiley wrote of
97 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 76.
98 Johnson Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry, 7.
99 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 89-90.
100 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 92.
101 Johnson Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry, 9. William Ferril noted in his journal on September 1st Wrote letter to W.H. Phoenix [sic] (father of the gallant Charles Phoenix... for photograph of his son Charles who was killed in the attack on Manila. Charles was member of Colo 1st. Ferril, Daily Journal He received an answer to his letter on October 9th. William Phenix wrote William H Phenix was married to Unis Evans? November the 25 1855 in Clark Co Illinois.
We have had 11 children, 8 boys and 3 girls. Thaire [sic] but fore a living now 2 boys and 2 girls. Charles was next to the youngest he was Bom December the 21 1875 in Clarke Co Illinois. Move to to Mosuria [sic] in September 1979 has all wais lived on a farm til he went to Denver March the first in 1896. We have never herd wether [sic] Charles was kildded [sic] or wounded and it is reported that he was wounded on the 13 and dide [sic] the 16 and it was reported he was shot thru the heart. I would like to no all bout it if you got any correct newes [sic] please let me now how it was. William H Phenix to William C Ferril, October 9, 1898 Colorado Historical Society File MSS 157 (Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO). Ferril also received a letter that contends that Charles Phenix was not the gallant soldier Ferril believed him to be. The letter was from the wife of Lieutenant Hilton, who also took part in the flag raising. The letter reads- Dear Sir, I notice in tonights Post the article about Chas. Phoenix and the request for correct information from the dead soldiers father. I have a letter from M Hilton in which he describes the exact manner and time of the young mans death. Lieut. Hilton should know as he was there at the time and (unreadable) about it. Phoenix [sic] was not assisting or raising the flag, but was standing by Sarg.


29
the attack The First Colorado, which was assigned to the most important position, bore a brilliant part.102 The Spanish commander Jaudenes surrendered Manila at 4.30 p.m.103 When Manila fell, the War Relics collection received several Mauser rifles and several cannons which were used by the Spanish to defend the city.104 After the surrender of the Spanish forces, the First Colorado were required to do a long and tedious six months of garrison duty, which included guard duty at Bilibid Prison. The duty was described as irksome.105
When the fighting with Spain was over, the port of Manila was quickly reopened by the U.S Navy. Trade returned to the city at once and the Filipino merchants welcomed the American soldiers, and began to extend them credit. Problems began immediately and Major General Elwell Otis of the 8th Corps had to issue orders that men pay their debts as soon as they received their bi-monthly pay.106 According to Karl Faust, the Filipinos who fought beside the Americans against the Spanish wanted to foster a sense of brotherhood with their fellow soldiers. His overtures fell on barren ground and he was taught that there could be no affinity between him and the Americans.107 Professor Geoffrey Hunt, an authority on the First Colorados time in the Philippines, argues that the initial relationship between the Coloradans and the Filipinos was one of respect. That began to change though, and he quotes one soldier as saying It looks to me
Dick Holmes side watching him hold the Stars and Stripes not of the (unreadable) window and was shot in the breast. I believe & did not die for almost nine days later. I will send the letter to you as soon as Mr. Hiltons father returns it from Estes Park, which will be about Saturday. I do not like to se these fake reports get head way in justice to the mans family, who are bound sometime to know that facts and in this case the story of his (Phoenixs) exploit was much twisted by the papers. The poor fellow disobeyed orders, as I understand it from my husband and his curiosity was his death knell. Please do not make this letter public. I write in confidence and hope you will accept the communication as such, away form English-twisting reports. Sincerely, Mrs C.H. Hilton Mrs C.H. Hinton to William C Ferril, October, 1898 Colorado Historical Society File MSS 157 (Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO). I do not know how Ferril reacted to this news, or whether he ever received Lieutenant Hiltons letter.
102 Smiley (ed) History of Denver, 942.
103 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 95.
104 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 218.
105 Smiley (ed) History of Denver, 943.
106 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 125.
107 Faust, Campaigning in the Philippines, 85.


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very much like our grand war for down trodden humanity will end up in a war of conquest and here conquest means extermination.108
The First Colorado, occupying Spanish trenches, was fired on by Filipino insurgents, who
confused them for Spanish soldiers. The Filipinos had their arms confiscated, as General Hale
said as a lesson not to monkey with the buzz saw when in motion.109 Although Hale ordered
the arms returned later, it marked a decline in the way the two armies worked together.110 Faust
called the insurgents undisciplined and claimed they would not hold their trenches or
participate in attacks.111 A new fight was coming. John M. Bass, wrote in Harpers weekly
The Filipino is the true child of the East. His moral fibre [sic] is as the web of the pineapple gauze of which the women make their dresses. He will cheat, steal, and lie beyond the orthodox limit of the Anglo-Saxon. His unreliability and the persistence with which he disobeys orders are irritation beyond description; besides this, his small stature and color invite abuse. There can be no doubt our soldiers are spoiling for a fight. They hate and despise the native for the manner he has lied to and cheated them, and on the whole they are inclined to treat the Filipino the way a burly policeman treats a ragged street urchin. The native is like a child, unreasonable, and easily affected by the small things. Unable to appreciate the benefits of good government, he fiercely resents the rough manner in which the soldier jostles him out of the way.112
On the 4th of February hostilities began again. Filipino rebels, who had initially wanted to join the Americans in the fight against Spain, had occupied the Old Spanish trenches and blockhouses that surrounded Manila. They fired on the Americans in Manila.113 The next day, the First Colorado retook Blockhouse 5 from the Filipinos.114 The Filipino-American War had begun. That began a six-week campaign to force the insurgents from the blockhouses and all
108 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 3.
109 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 122.
110 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 122.
111 Faust Campaigning in the Philippines, 75-76.
112 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 138-139.
113 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 150.
114 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 156.


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other positions East from Baligbalig to San Francisco del Monte.115 As the Americans forced the Filipino troops back, they burned the small villages that the insurgents were using as staging areas to the east of the city. The First Colorado was ordered to fortify, guard, and defend the waterworks, which supplied Manila with its water.116
The big breakout for the Americans in the war came on the 25th of March, when American troops marched on Malolos to drive the insurgents away from Manila and the waterworks.117 The men from Colorado began their toughest duty in the insurgency on the 3rd of June, when they marched from Santolan to Antipolo. It was called the Antipolo hike.118 Antipolo was an insurgent stronghold, believed to hold 2500 Filipino soldiers. The First Colorado, joined with men of the regular U.S Army, the U.S. Cavalry, and volunteers from Oregon and Utah, including several mountain guns, made up the attacking force.119 The attack began five miles outside of Antipolo. The First Colorado started up the mountains in a skirmish line and took fire from the defending Filipino insurgents. The U.S. forces got their mountain guns in place and began to fire on the Filipino positions. The infantry then began the long hard trek to Antipolo. They made it three miles in the first day.120 When the men of the First Colorado reached Antipolo the next day, they found that the Filipino insurgents had fled or blended in with the civilian positions. After a short rest, they began the march back to their original positions at the waterworks.121
The final action the men from Colorado saw was at the beginning of June 1899. Six companies of the First Colorado, companies B, D, E, F, M, and I marched south as part of an 8,000 men expedition to take the Filipino strongholds of Paranaque and Las Pinas. Most of the
115 Johnson. Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry, 14.
116 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 156.
117 Smiley (ed) History of Denver, 943.
118 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 192.
119 Johnson Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry, 23.
120 Johnson Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry, 24.
121 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 193.


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men that made up the expedition were men of the regular army. They began their march on June 9tii 122 Qn | o11^ the U.S. forces assaulted the Guadalupe Heights and drove the Filipinos from their defensive positions and pursued them for five miles.122 123 For the men of the First Colorado it was their last combat and their last service in the field. On the 11th of June, they marched the ten miles back to the waterworks, where they took up their guard duties again.124
The First Colorado was ordered home on the 4th of July 1899. They returned to San Francisco on the 16th of August. From there they returned to Colorado.125 They arrived on the 14th of September and on the 16th, they marched up Sixteenth Street from Union Station. Smiley wrote The regiment marched up Sixteenth Street on the way to the Capitol through a mass of cheering humanity.126 The adventure was over.
122 Johnson. Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry, 26.
123 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 195.
124 Smiley (ed) History of Denver, 946-47.
125 Johnson. Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry, 30.
126 Smiley (ed) History of Denver, 950.


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CHAPTER VII
LOOTING IN THE PHILLIPINES
The longer the U.S. soldiers stayed in the Philippines the declining relationship between the Americans and the Filipinos became palpable. Disputes were commonplace. Arthur Johnson respected the Filipinos as good businessmen, calling them a nation of yellow Yankees; however, he admitted that as prices on items like eggs and bananas began to rise, the American soldiers began to ignore what the Filipinos were charging and pay whatever they wanted. He did not think that the Americans believed it was dishonest to cheat non-white foreigners.127
The strain on relations created an atmosphere that was ideal for the type of looting that took place on behalf of the Colorado Historical Society. Although the U.S. was concerned about Filipino looting in Manila, the concern did not seem to extend to U.S. soldiers respect for property.128 Colonel Henry B. McCoy of the First Colorado was involved in two incidents, one that resulted in disciplinary action. In one of the instances, he ordered the priests of San Sebastian out of their rooms, and ordered his men to move their effects. When one priest refused to move from his chair McCoy tipped [him] out of it and half led and half pushed him out of the room.129 When the incident was investigated General Arthur McArthur found that undo force was not used by Colonel McCoy or his men to expel the priests, and that was the official end of the matter.130 The other incident involved Colonel McCoys occupation of a house leased by Spanish General Ricardo Monch for his own use. That incident did involve an order for McCoy to return items, including furniture.131
127
Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 118.
128 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 127.
129 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 128.
130 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 128.
131 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 129.


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For William Ferril the First Colorados exploits in the Philippines were a great
opportunity to add to the Historical Societys War Relic collection. He wrote of his plan to
obtain artifacts from the Philippines in his journal on October 26th, 1898. He wanted to ask for
permission from Russell A. Alger, the Secretary of War, for free shipping costs for artifacts from
the Philippines. He also asked Alva Adams, the Governor of Colorado, for the money to ship the
artifacts from San Francisco to Denver.
Had a talk with Hall, agent of Santa Fe last ? calling at his office ? to see him to make inquiries as to shipments of freight from San Francisco to Denver. 1st Class is $40 per ton. My idea was to have arrangements made to obtain relics from Manila. Had a talk with Gov. Alva Adams this morning. I told him I had a plan to obtain 2 tons of war relics from Manila, and if the State ??(would pay back)?? in cost, the sum not to exceed $100. He said he would. I told him I had a plan without giving into details. After this (?) promise I wrote Secretary of War R.A Alger, Washington D.C.132
Ferril wrote to Alger, the US Secretary of War, on the same day. Alger wrote back just
twenty-one days later. (See Appendix A)
Subject: Free Transportation of relics from Manila
War Department Washington File no. 7914
November 16, 1898.
My Dear Sir:
I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 26th ultimo, requesting in behalf of the State Historical and Natural History Society of Colorado that authority be granted Brigadier General Irving Hale and Colonel Henry B McCoy, 1st Colorado U.S. Volunteers, and other officers and men of that regiment, to ship free of cost on some returning Government transport two tons of relics from Manila I., to San Francisco, California: also that the said Historical Society be presented with guns and other weapons used in battle.
132 Ferril, Daily Journal'


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Replying thereto, I beg to inform you that the requested authority for shipment of relics by some returning Army transport has been approved, it being understood that this approval applies exclusively to such relics, etc., as are private property. There is no authority of law for the donation of guns or other arms used in battle, which are the property of the United States.
Very respectfully,
R.A. Alger (signature)
Secretary of War.133
This letter gave Ferril permission to ship the artifacts the First Colorado collected from their time in the Philippines, and gave him the means to get them back to the United States from Asia. More significant than the shipping arrangement, is that Alger had given his express permission to Ferril to ask the First Colorado to gather artifacts. He had given them permission to grab what they could. With his denial of any guns or arms used in war, he had told Ferril that anything shipped would have to be non-US property. The only other property that was available, then, was the property of the Spanish and Filipinos.
Ferril wrote to General Hale on the 23rd of November informing him that Alger had given his permission for the First Colorado to collect and ship relics from the Philippines. (See Appendix A)
Kindly greetings to all. I mail three letters, with same subject matter, to Gen. Hale, Col. McCoy, and Lt. Col. Moses, to guard against on or more being lost in the mails. To Gen. Hale I send the original letter from Gen. R.A. Alger, Secretary of War, and copies of same in the others. Gen. Algers letter explains itself, but I thought I would add details and explanations.
I recently wrote the Secretary of War, that you be permitted to ship free of cost, two(2) tons of relics from Manila to San Francisco, by Government transport, for the State Historical and
133 Russell S. Alger to William C. Ferril, November 16, 1898, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 157 (Stephen
H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO)


36
Natural History Society of Colorado, the society to pay the cost of shipment from San Francisco, which is $40 a ton, first class. I did not refer to the cannon which you captured, or any special guns, but simply asked that the regiment might send some guns etc., used in the battle of Manila, but still the property of the Government.
As you will observe, the first request was granted, and the latter denied.
As it would require so much time to write you as to what relics you may wish to donate, I thought the better way would be to get permission from the Secretary of War, and the let you do the best you can for the society. Hence when I wrote to Washington for permission to have free shipment, I explained that you did not know that I did so, and I did not know what you might be able to do in the matter. I further requested the Secretary of War to notify you officially from Washington, if request was granted, and advise me also, that I could also write. Secretary Alger may have so written to you, but as he is silent on that point, I send his original letter to me, and copies of the same in which the authority is granted.
First, let me explain. The State Historical and Natural History Society of Colorado is not a private corporation, but is organized under special act of 1879, and all the property obtained by it, whether by gift, purchase or otherwise, the same has the title vested in the state. I have seen no announcement in the reports from Washington, as to the grant of this request. General Algers letter, I have not made public. Several states are represented by troops at Manila, and should other requests of similar nature, relics at Manila might go up. I thought the matter over like this.
When you return, you will all have more or less relics, which you be scattered all over the state, but at Manila, you have more that you may bring back with you, which you would give the state if the transportation were provided. This I have accomplished.
Please do the best you can for us. Let every man give at least something. Mark the relic, name it, give name of donor, and send historical sketch of each one. This letter- the historical- is very important. Catalogue as you may think best, to preserve the integrity of the relic for shipment. I want a Manila Collection for our room in the state capital, and make it FIRST, representative of the Colorado First. Something of which you and the state may be proud. Second, it would be well to add something from Dewey, the fleet, and other troops etc., Spanish, insurgents, etc. (handwritten) that may be of interest., and something of the city islands, etc. I now have framed the Wave pamphlet of the Colorado First, showing something of your life in California, but first saw Luther, and had the names correctly spelled. I also have framed, a number of views of the First, as you appeared on Dewey


37
Day in Denver etc. Our funds are so limited, that I have not been able to do much, but thousand [sic] have seen these pictures, framed and hanging on our walls in the capital. I have saved some of Harpers Weekly for framing.
First. Send all you can, relating to the boys who are dead killed in battle, died in hospital, etc. I hope that the weapons etc used by Swingstead, Phenix, and others are private property now [as well as condemned guns and other equipment (handwritten)] so they may be sent. Help us on flags, guns, swords, bullets, shells, etc, plates, knives and forks, cups, hats or clothing with bullet holes, etc, well you know without going into details.
Be sure that the photographer and Kodak man gets in his work. In addition to all the picture groups, etc, each one marked with names, I want a picture of each one, from the highest officer, to the private soldiers. Put in two or three of each man, if you wish, and also large ones that may sometime be framed. Dont forget to put in Manila newspapers, program of literary or theatrical entertainments. I not only want relics, but all that you may send, that will also help preserve the history and record of the First of which we are all so proud, ad I wrote Secretary Alger when I made my request for the shipment of these things. Dont forget the brave women who have nursed and cared for Colorado sick. Put in their pictures, and those of any one who may have been linked in an especially historic manner with the Colorados.
By the way, hasnt [sic] the band have some mashed horn that could be put in. I could mention an hundred and one things. But what is the need of it. You know better than I in this case what I want and what would be the most interesting. If you think necessary, disinfect the collection after it shall have been made.
As you are with the army, you are better advised as to how the transfer should be made at San Francisco, but it might be well to write General Merriam (?) or some officer at San Francisco to be on the lookout for the shipment, and as to the transfer to the railroad, making the shipment via such line to Denver as you may wish. Hoping that you may be pleases to send a collection of relics, I trust that I have not asked what may cause too much trouble. May the God of our fathers guard and keep you, all.
Very Truly Yours,
Will C. Ferril (signature)
Curator, State Historical and Natural History Society,
State Capital Building Denver, Colorado U.S.A.134
134 William C. Ferril to Irving Hale, November 23, 1898, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 233 (Stephen H.
Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO)


38
The letter is very comprehensive and shows the fervor William Ferril had for collecting artifacts from the Philippines. It also raised some questions of legality, for which General Hale showed concern.
Hale wrote back to Ferril on the 9th of January, 1899. The communication consisted of a single-page handwritten letter. Hale acknowledged that he had received Ferrils request and official notification that the First Colorado could collect and ship artifacts back to Colorado. (See Appendix A)
HEADQUARTERS SECOND BRIGADE SECOND DIVISION, EIGHTH ARMY CORPS
Manila, I.. Jan 9 1899
Mr. Wm C. Ferril,
Curator, State Historical Society,
Denver, Colorado
Dear Sir,
I have received your letter (Col. McCoy & Col. Moses have recd copies) requesting members of the Colorado Regt to collect as many souvenirs and relics as possible for the Historical Society and enclosing letter from the Secretary of War stating that transportation of two tons of relics has been authorized. A similar letter from the QM Generals office to the Chief Quartermaster here has been referred to us.
We have discussed the matter and decided that the best plan will be to appoint the Regiment committee of the whole, or each member of the committee of one, to bear this letter in mind and seave [sic] as large and varied an assortment of souvenirs as possible. As most of them will probably be small, each man can take his own articles home and they can be collected afterwards. However, if we get any very weighty articles, as church bells or insurgents [sic] gunboats, the transportation may be convenient.
I return Sec. Algers letter as requested Very Truly Yours Irving Hale.135
135 Irving Hale to William C. Ferril, January 9, 1899, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 157 (Stephen H. Hart
Library and Research Center, Denver, CO)


39
On the second side of the letter, General Hale offered Ferril some advice and a warning.
Confidential
PS. I note that you have not published the correspondence ever on this subject, in which you show good judgment. The same applies to this letter and anything else you may receive on the subject, which is a rather delicate one in some respects, several court martials [sic] having sprung from improperly controlled taste for relics- not in the Colorado regiment, however which is very law-abiding in this as in all things. Especially should the subject of guns be avoided. You can throw out these suggestions to those who you fear might be too talkative, but will of course not mention where they came from.136
The section of FerriTs letter that I believe Hale is referring to is I have seen no announcement in the reports from Washington, as to the grant of this request. General Algers letter, I have not made public. Several states are represented by troops at Manila, and should other requests of similar nature, relics at Manila might go up.137 While Ferril was concerned that other states would begin collecting relics that he wished the First Colorado to collect, General Hale saw a more sinister problem; The problem of being seen as looters. The concern over loot, booty and the protection of private property was real for General Hale. It also made the permission Alger gave to Ferril a concern too.
This seems to be counter to the instructions that President McKinley sent to Major General Elwell S. Otis, the Military Governor of the Philippines. McKinley drafted the letter for Secretary Alger on December 21st 1898. The letter was sent to Otis in Manila by ciphered cable on December 27th, 1898. The letter give Otis explicit instructions on how the US military will
136 Hale to Ferril, January 9, 1899, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 157
137 Ferril to Hale, November 23, 1898, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 233


conduct itself in the Philippines after the Spanish had surrendered on the 10th of December 1898, including,
40
In performing this duty the military commander of the United States is enjoined to make known to the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands that, in succeeding to the sovereignty of Spain, in severing the former political relations of the inhabitants, and in establishing a new political power, the authority of the United States is to be exerted for the security of the persons and property of the people of the islands, and for the confirmation of all their rights and relations. It will be the duty of the commander of the forces of occupation to announce and proclaim in the most public manner that we come, not as invaders or conquerors, but as friends, to protect the natives in their homes, in their employments, and in the personal and religious rights. 138
General Otis relieved General Wesley Merritt as Military Governor of the Philippines on
August 28th, 1898. At some point, General Emilio Aquinaldo, commander of the Philippine
Forces sent a letter to General Merritt and stated that his forces should receive a portion of what
was taken during the siege of Manila. Otis replied in the place of Merritt, and took a stern
position with Aquinaldo with regards to the collection of property.
Your forces, you say, in substance, should have a share in the booty resulting from the conquest of the city, on account of hardships endured and assistance rendered. The facts on which you base your conclusion granted, the conclusion under the laws of war, which are binding on my Government, does not follow. It has never recognized the existence of spoils of war, denominated booty, as many European Governments. No enemys property of any kind, public or private, can be seized, claimed, or awarded to and of its officers or men; and should they attempt to appropriate any of it for their individual benefit, they would be severely punished through military tribunals, on which have been conferred by law very sweeping jurisdiction.139
138 Correspondence Relating to the War with Spain (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, 1993), 859.
139 Correspondence Relating to the War with Spain, 825.


41
The United States Senate looked at incidents of looting after the war. The Senate created a Committee on the Philippines and held hearings on all aspects of the war. The Committee first met on the 15th of December, 1898, just five days after the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Spanish-American War, was signed.140 The treaty was ratified in February of 1899.141 Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, a Republican from Massachusetts, chaired the committee from 1899 to 1911. General Arthur MacArthur was called to testify on Monday, April 7th, 1902, and testified for several days.142 During his testimony the subject of looting was brought up several times.
General MacArthur began his testimony on April 10th, 1902 by reading Field Order 26 to
the committee. He specifically pointed out the seventh paragraph of the order.
Then follows a number of prescriptions for the tactical fight. The seventh paragraph of that order is to this effect:
7. The purpose of the United States in these islands is beneficent.
It is therefore, one of the most important duties of American soldiers to assist in establishing friendly relations with the natives by kind and considerate treatment in all matters arising from personal contact. To exasperate individuals or to burn or to loot unprotected or abandoned houses or property is not only criminal in itself, but tends to impede the policy of the United States and to defeat the very purpose which the army is here to accomplish.143
The Committee report went on to include several instances of looting. Private Edward Furman, from Company A of the First Washington Volunteer Infantry wrote a statement in which he alleged that his company engaged in looting and burning. In his statement, recorded by S.W. Groesbeck, Judge-Advocate, Department of California, he said As to jewelry, some of the men did find some houses hastily abandoned by the occupants, and in others from which our men were fired upon. Our men sometimes got trace of buried treasure money and dug it up. The
140 http://www.archives.gov/legislative/guide/senate/chapter-12-philippines.html
141 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 141.
142 Hearings Before the Committee on the Philippines of the United States Senate 1902, 850.
143 Hearings Before the Committee on the Philippines of the United States Senate 1902, 883.


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most I ever saw was shown by one of our men, some gold in a handkerchief: as much as one could hold in the hand.144 Private Burt A Stanley from Company B of the Forty-Seventh Infantry was taken to task about a letter that he wrote to his mother. In the letter he wrote Oh, we always get the money; we are allowed to do so when they take up arms against us. We are allowed to ransack every town that is insurgent.145 Stanley said the allegations were false, and that he never intended the letter to become public.146
Included in the published report of the hearings are accounts of some of the crimes committed during and after the war, including the resulting punishments. The crimes were varied, and range from abuse and robbery to murder and rape. The most serious cases often resulted in a death sentence. Cases of looting were not punished as harshly. Second Lieutenant William M Capp, of the Sixth Artillery, was found guilty of Firing into town and looting and was reprimanded with no other sentence. The punishment for enlisted men was more severe. A. Dobby, from the First Wyoming Volunteers, got a $10 fine and two months confinement for looting. Alvin S. Grosz, from the Nineteenth Infantry, committed the more severe crime of looting from church and was dishonorably discharged and sentenced to three months confinement, without pay.
Court Martials for more serious crimes were also held. John A. Adams of the Thirteenth Infantry was found guilty of Robbery and was dishonorably discharged after serving six months in confinement without pay.147 On the whole, the looting that was going on in the Philippines was not seen as a problem. The laissez-faire attitude towards stealing during the war
144 Hearings Before the Committee on the Philippines of the United States Senate 1902, 958.
145 Hearings Before the Committee on the Philippines of the United States Senate 1902, 962.
146 Hearings Before the Committee on the Philippines of the United States Senate 1902, 962-63.
147 Hearings Before the Committee on the Philippines of the United States Senate 1902., 990.


43
is highlighted in Fausts book Campaigning in the Philippines with this photo, captioned Looking For Dinero.
i.ooxrx<; r or "wsr:
Image 3: Faust, Campaigning in the Philippines, 249 Looking for Dinero
It appears in the book without any pretext or a word from the author explaining the regulations regarding looting, or the penalties associated with it.
General Hale denied that the men of the First Colorado were involved in looting in his letter to William Ferril saying .. several court martials having sprung from improperly controlled taste for relics- not in the Colorado regiment, however which is very law-abiding in this as in all things.148 That was not, in fact, the case. The men of Colorado did engage in acts of theft for their own profit. Arthur Johnson noted that the men of G Company returned to Manila from operations in early February pockets bulging with relics from the villages and the men laden down with poultry.149 Geoffrey Hunt also includes a quote from Pvt. Carl J Larson from Company C about looting.
148 Irving Hale to William C. Ferril, January 9, 1899
149 Hunt, Colorado's Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 171.


44
Gen Hale with about five hundred men went out to a town called Maraquina several miles ahead of our line, there was no one in town. [T]here was a house what had been used as an Insurgent headquarter [sic]. From there the officers took a lot of truk [sic] as I had to bring it back for them, I got a few trinkets myself. I got a d[r]esswaist as the ladies use them here. If you are a relic fiend I will keep it for you, if I ever get back to gods country again, a thing what is very uncertain under present circumstances.150
Its clear the men of the First Colorado also had a taste for souvenirs.
150 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 171.


45
CHAPTER VIII SOLDIERS SOUVENIRS
The men of the First Colorado expressed their desire to bring something back from their time in the Philippines in letters they wrote home. Many of the letters are housed at the Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center at History Colorado. Soldiers of the First Colorado often mention souvenirs in their letters.
Edwin Segerstrom joined Company K in Pueblo in June of 1898 and served as
stenographer at regimental headquarters during the war. He wrote to his mother and sister
several times. On one occasion he wrote: (See Appendix A)
On the Bluffs in front of Masiquina at Waterworks P.F March 20-1899
Dear Mother& Sister
Some of the boys are talking of panning for gold in the river here.
It seems to be the impression among some that there is gold around somewhere & I met a soldier of the Montana regiment a couple of weeks ago who said the boys out on their line were getting color in their pans...
I wrote you a couple of weeks ago & sent you money order in registered letter for $10. Also sent a little sandalwood box with a handkerchief in it. Also package of photos- 3 pictures I believe. I registered the little sandalwood box & hope you will get everything all right. I guess it will pass the customhouse all right as I told the P.O. clerk here what it was.
Affectionately, Edwin 151
151 Edwin Segerstrom to his mother and sister, March 20, 1899, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 1403
(Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO)


46
He wrote them again in a few weeks time. (See Appendix A)
Manila, P.I., May 8 1899 Dear Mother & Sister
I enclose $10.00 money order which I hope you will receive all right. Also enclose a little Manila street car ticket just a little curiosity. I am almost afraid to send home any relic or curiosity for I am afraid the customhouse in Frisco will not let them go through without heavy charges.152
The final time Edwin Segerstrom wriote is mother and sister concerning the souvenirs he collected, was on his way back from the Philippines, to the United States, via. Japan. (See Appendix A)
Florence, Colo 12/12/99 Dear Mother and Sister
I have sent you today via Wells-Fargo Express, the box which I have promised you so long. I did not take much time to pack it, and I a little apprehensive as to whether the box will go through all right, but hope it will.
The box is not very big and what is in it will probably not interest you very much. I was in such a hurry that I forgot one or two things I wanted to put in, but will try and send them some other time. I wish you would preserve those Filipino, Spanish and Japanese newspapers carefully as some of them are quite valuable, especially those Filipino papers published just before the outbreak of the rebellion.
That large company picture was taken at the Presidio, San Francisco, and I wish you would trim the edges ff a little and make it look presentable before you show it to people. I could not get it in my Manila box when we left San Francisco for Colorado and cut off a couple of edges as you will notice. The little Japanese book is a guide to Tokio [sic] and I got it in the city while I was there at a little Japanese book stand. At the time I got it I had a crowd of curious Japs watching me buy it, as though I was some strange anima. I did not know what the book was than, but found out afterwards. I wish you would keep the Mauser cartridges and Krag-Joguson shells that I sent you and not give any of them away.
152 Edwin Segerstrom to his mother and sister, May 8, 1899, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 1403 (Stephen
H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO)


47
They were picked up by me where the Filipino had dropped them after shooting at our forces. I have a lot of those Remington brass tipped cartridges picked up on the battle fields, but did not send them home. At least I dont think any of them went in the box.
I hardly remember now what I put in the box, but if you dont understand what some of the things are write me so, and I will try and tell you. That little Japanese gumhair pin I got in Nagasaki in a bag was for a little Jap girl.
Hoping you are both well and that you will write soon, I remain Affectionately Edwin
(I got that box of candy. It was mighty good. Many thanks)153
Segerson seemed a person with a nervous disposition, by the tone of his letters. He clearly seemed worried about the things hes sending back to his family, even when he had returned to Colorado. He did not worry about whether the items he was sending are illegal, just that he might be charged large fees for their shipping.
In a scrapbook that was put together by Charles W. Wilson at the time of the war, there is a long letter or journal entry written by John M Sanford. It is several typewritten pages, and contains a couple of sections that not only deal with taking items from wounded and dead insurgents, but also shows that the U.S. forces were dealing with a lot of criminal issues in the Philippines. (See Appendix A)
Manila P.I., Oct. 29, 1899
Ive been detailed as a member of a general Court Martial and cannot get out of it. I was, however, in one good scrap before I was ordered into the City. This Court will probably keep me here two months, as there are a large number of cases to be brought before it and tried, so I shall miss all the fun at the front.
When we arrived to within half a mile of Aryes, our advance party was fired on, and deployed in skirmish line across the road, and on the left in the rice field. I was soon ordered to deploy my column
153 Edwin Segerstromto his mother and sister, December 12, 1899, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 1403
(Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO)


48
in the rice field on the left, and in a few minutes the bullets began to sing through the air above our heads. This was the first scrap H Company had gotten into, and the men, mostly recruits, hugged the ground pretty closely at first. Pretty soon, as we opened fire and moved forward, they began to get our range and the bullets hit around pretty lively for a while. The rest of the Battalion deployed on our left, and the battery began throwing shells in their trenches, so that then soon scuttled out and ran like deer for the left of our advance. We didnt savey [sic] their object at first and charged across the fields, only to find that they had gotten clean away across the river, and had cut the bridge behind them. In our charge we came across a wounded insurgent whose gun had been taken by his comrades. I secured all his other equipments [sic] and ammunition, and shall bring them back when I come. John M Sanford154
There is, however, no John M. Sanford named in Arthur Johnsons lists of men that served in the First Colorado. Charles W. Wilson did not serve with the First Colorado either. How he obtained it or why it was collected is unknown.
Alvin P. Moore, a corporal from K Company, wrote some of the most entertaining letters concerning souvenirs. He wrote his sweetheart or wife Cora Reed several times. The letters are long and are a bit melancholy in places. The two did not see eye to eye on the war, but Moore clearly missed her. However, on two occasions the letters took a lighter turn to discuss the strange souvenir that a girl named Mollie, who may have been Coras little sister, wanted him to bring her. In the letters he wrote. (See Appendix A)
San Sebastian, Manila Apr 28 99 Dear Cora...
Well Cora the mystery of what you was teasing Mollie about in regard to the monkey she wished me to bring from here for her grows deeper as time passes by I am sure I cannot understand it as monkeys scarce to be a very desirable pet and I assure it would be to
154 John M. Sanford to unknown October 29, 1899, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 676 (Stephen H. Hart
Library and Research Center, Denver, CO)


49
me if it was properly trained and under the circumstances I think I would willingly undertake the training myself.
You need not tell Mollie what I said about the pet monkey as that was only intended for you to read.155
He wrote to Cora again a couple of weeks later to deliver bad news about the gifts hed promised Mollie. (See Appendix A)
San Sebastian, Manila May 11 99 Dear Cora...
Well tell Mollie that I am afraid I will not have a very good chance to bring a parrot or monkey either from here whence I came, but that she would need a parrot for a while after I do come home for she will be apt to hear enough talk without any parrot. And Cora between you and I. I am not quite sure whether it would be safe for me to try to bring a monkey that far. What do you think?
Alvin156
A monkey, stuffed and mounted, was an artifact that Ferril would have appreciated.
Also included in Moores archive box case are two artifacts. They are a woven straw belt and a pipe, which he may have brought back to from the Philippines. The pipe is wooden with a brass bowl and brass mouthpiece. It is about ten inches long and may be made of bamboo. The mouthpiece is about two inches long and tapered at the end. It has Chinese characters on it. The bowl is very small and may be an opium pipe.157
155 Alvin P. Moore to Cora Reed May 11, 1899, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 1542 (Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO)
156 Alvin P. Moore to Cora Reed April 28 11, 1899, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 1542 (Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO)
157 Archive box MSS 1542. Moore, Alvin Corp. Co. K, 1st CO USV. Accessed at History Colorado Oct, 2013.


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CHAPTER IX HOMECOMING
In Denver, there was a large celebration for the return of the troops. William Ferril wrote in his journal that on September 14th, 1899
1st Colorado U.S.V. returned from Manila today and were received a royal welcome [sic] from their march from the depot to the State Capital grounds. My wife and our three children, Lucy, Harriet and John with me here at the capital and together we watched the parade and (enthusiasm euphoria) to the capital grounds. It has been a grand day in Denver.158
Celebrations in Denver were the order of the day. A popular activity was viewing the souvenirs that the soldiers brought back from the Philippines. Like Ferril, the general public had a passion for the artifacts from the Philippines. An article in The Highland Chief on October 15th, 1899 related the events at a Manila Evening put on by the Colorado Volunteers Relatives Union. The highlight of the night was a large and enthusiastic gathering of the friends of our soldier boys which lingered till a late hour viewing the numerous souvenirs from Manila. These were displayed in an artistic manner in cases and on the walls of the building and so numerous and interesting were they that one evening was too short to see them all.159
The Daily Journal in Telluride ran an article about a box of artifacts that a resident, Charles D. Rose, received from Chas. B. Lewis. Lewis, a lieutenant, in the First Colorado, who went to the Philippines, and made this collection while in that country and on the way home.160 The artifacts included Spanish, Chinese and Japanese coins, several rifle shells, a Filipino
158 Ferril, Daily Journal
159 Notices (1899, October, 15) Highland Chief
160 Souvenirs from Manila (1899, October, 7) Daily Journal


51
cigarette case, and a buffalo horn ring. It also included Spanish buttons taken from the uniform of a dead Spanish soldier who had been killed by some Colorado soldiers.161
The souvenirs presented at the celebrations may have been numerous, but I do not think that Ferril got as many artifacts as he had hoped. The men of the First Colorado kept many of the items they collected, and later donated them to the Veterans of Foreign Wars post they formed. In fact, William Ferril only mentioned the artifacts from Manila one other time in the journals from the time of the war. On the 3rd of October, 1899, he wrote Recd 15 relics from Manila today brought over by Col. McCoy, of the First Colorado.162 It was the last mention of the First Colorado, Manila, the Philippines, The Spanish-American War Ferril made in his journals inl899. The items that were received by Ferril were placed in the War Relics collection.
Cecil A Deane was little interested in collecting anything that was not associated with the military or military men. There are only a few artifacts that are not strictly arms or armaments in the 1898 Catalogue of War Relics, but even those have a military context. One is item 1007 Piece of Dress. Cotton was picked, carded, spin, woven and dyed by Miss Etta Hannah, Murray county Tenn., in 1863. Was a reb.163 Deane continued to add artifacts for the collection. In his submission report of February 24th, 1902 he made a list of the items received by the relics department. He listed several items from the Philippines, specifically Luzon and the Island of Mindanoa.
Cecil A. Deane, made a report to the Board of Capital Managers on February 24th, 1902. Deane made several of these reports, as he begins the report with the words I herewith submit report of relics received in this department so far during present month.164 Many of the items
161 Souvenirs from Manila (1899, October, 7) Daily Journal
162 Ferril Journal- 3 Oct 1899
163 Deane, Catalogue of War Relics, 25.
164 Cecil A. Deane. Submission Report to the Colorado Historical Society, February 24th, 1902.


52
from the February report are likely from the First Colorados actions in the Philippines during the Spanish American War. Deane wrote that Numbers 1711 to 1729 inclusive from Island of Mindanoa. 165 Mindanoa is the second largest and most southern island in the Philippines. Included in the artifacts is one important document, item number 1798 Copy of proclamation of M. Emile Aquinaldo to Philipino [sic] insurgents. Printed in the Tggalog [sic] language in 1898.166
The list further includes the following items that include both Filipino and Spanish military items. Deane, I believe, was most interested in items like this.
Table 5: Weapons and military items from the Philippines in the War Relics Collection
Item number Description
1716 Filipino flag, surrendered by Major Roa of the insurgent forces to Major Jas. Case of the 40th US Infantry
1718 Clips of Mauser cartridges. Spanish
1719 Clips of Mauser cartridges. Spanish
1717 Native throwing spear. Six and one-half feet long. Mahogany handle. Steel blade 18 inches long
1722 Spanish dagger. Eighteen inches long. Caribou handle
1725 Braided breast decoration with copper pendants. Taken from an insurgent officer killed at Cagayan.
1726 Chevrons. Taken from an insurgent killed at the same place
1729 Bolo. Blade 22 inches long. Handle of finely carved caribou hom
1754 Pilipino [sic]dagger and case
Cecil A. Deane. Submission Report to the Colorado Historical Society, February 24th, 1902
Many of the artifacts are of a personal nature. They may have been taken from the bodies of insurgents, or prisoners, but they are not the type of strictly military item that Deane was most interested in.
165 Cecil A. Deane. Submission Report to the Colorado Historical Society, February 24th, 1902.
166 Cecil A. Deane. Submission Report to the Colorado Historical Society, February 24th, 1902.


53
Table 6: Everyday items from the Philippines in the War Relics Collection
Item Number Description
1727 Philipino [sic] comb. Mahogany
1728 Philipino [sic] spoon. Cocoaught [sic] bowl, bamboo handle
1740 Philipino [sic] blanket. Linen
Cecil A. Deane. Submission Report to the Colorado Historical Society, February 24th, 1902
Oddly out of place on the submission list is item 1724, a Brass candlestick. Found in a deserted church. 167 Deane made have specifically noted the church was deserted to ensure the item was not classified as loot.
The full inventory of the War Relics collection was made available to me by History Colorado. It is an Exel file of sixty-four pages. Originally the War Relics collection artifacts were numbered as they were added to the catalog. They have been slightly renumbered to conform better to a recognized numbering scheme. The new catalog numbers are now made of three parts, each separated by a period. The prefix WR has been added to the beginning of the identification, and an indicator for the number of parts has been added. As an example, the linen blanket that was listed above as item number 1740 on the original submission report is now item number WR. 1740.1.168
All the items listed in the submission report are also listed in the History Colorado inventory. The inventory also includes several other items from the Philippines that may have been part of the relics brought back by the First Colorado. Several of the additional items do not seem to have any real military connection at all. They are artifacts of everyday life in the Philippines.
167 Cecil A. Deane. Submission Report to the Colorado Historical Society, February 24th, 1902.
168 History Colorado War Relics inventory sheet, created 2013, accessed November 24th, 2015.


54
Table 7: Pottery and textiles in the War Relics Collection
Item Number Description
WR. 1803.1 Pottery Tagalog Philippine Islands Tagalog Philippine Islands Tagalog Philippine Islands
WR. 1804.1 Pottery Tagalog Philippine Islands Tagalog Philippine Islands Tagalog Philippine Islands
WR. 1805.1 Pottery Tagalog Philippine Islands Tagalog Philippine Islands Tagalog Philippine Islands
WR. 1806.1 Pottery Tagalog Philippine Islands Tagalog Philippine Islands Tagalog Philippine Islands
WR. 1808.1 Cup Philippine Islands Philippine Islands Philippine Islands
WR.1812.1 Needlework Weaving Philippine Islands Philippine Islands Philippine Islands
WR.1813.1 Needlework Weaving Philippine Islands Philippine Islands Philippine Islands
WR.1814.1 Needlework | Weaving Philippine Islands Philippine Islands Philippine Islands
WR.1815.1 Needlework Weaving Philippine Islands Philippine Islands Philippine Islands
History Colorado War Relics inventory sheet, created 2013, accessed November 24th, 2015
The language in the catalog is vague, so it is hard to say if these items are complete artifacts. There is also no indication that they were collected because of the First Colorados time in the Philippines, but I believe that since they are in the War Relics collection, that is the case. Soldiers may have collected these curiosities because they wanted to have examples of items that the Filipino people used in their everyday lives.
With the exception of a few newspapers and other documents, the items I have listed represent most of the items related to the Philippines in the War Relics collection. The last item on the new inventory of War Relics is WR. 1859.1 a Coin Mexico | Chihuahua Silver ~ One Quarter Real VALUE: LESS THAN 3 CENTS U.S.169 There is no acquisition date for the last war relic, and Cecil A Deane retired shortly after he made his submission report of February
169 History Colorado War Relics inventory sheet, created 2013, accessed November 24th, 2015.


55
24th, 1902. His retirement was announced in the Denver Times on October 18th, 1902. The article had the headline New Custodian of War Relic Bureau. Captain Cecil A. Deane Steps Down and Out and announced Captain Cecil A. Deane, so long custodian of the war relic department at the statehouse, has severed his connection with the department. The captain retired recently, but the fact was kept secret, he giving it out that he was taking a vacation. He will devote his time to the collection of prehistoric relics among the ruins of the cliff dwellers and to studies in archeology under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution. W. W. Ferguson is his successor as custodian of the relics bureau.170
Although there are considerably more than the fifteen relics that William Ferril mentioned receiving from Colonel McCoy in his journal entry of October 3rd, 1899,1 do not believe the majority of relics that the men of the First Colorado brought back from the Philippines were shared with the Historical Society. Instead, the men of the First Colorado kept most of the items they collected and many eventually found their way to the Veterans of Foreign Wars John S. Stewart Post No. 1, which still celebrates its Spanish-American War veterans. The post is named for the highest-ranking officer from the First Colorado killed in the war.171
I was given access to a partial inventory of the artifacts at the John S. Stewart Post. Dr. Geoffrey Hunt and Dr. Rebecca Hunt cataloged the artifacts in 2004. The list includes artifacts with the item numbers from 2004.106.348.1-2 through 2004.106.638.9 with a few gaps, or about fifty-eight individual items that all have a connection to the Philippines.172 As with the War Relics collection, the items vary from those with strictly military use to things that were probably picked up by soldiers as souvenirs. The Veterans of Foreign Wars artifacts include a wide
170 Denver Times October 18th, 1902.
171 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 231.
172 Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 inventory sheet, created 2004, accessed November 24th, 2015.


56
variety of items from the First Colorados time in the Philippines and Asia. The artifacts range from a full uniform to items from the Philippines, Japan and China. The main uniform parts are items 2004.106.611.1 through 2004.106.611.6
Table 8: Uniform items from the Philippines in the Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 Collection
Item Number Name Description
2004.106.611.1 a-c hat, military (a) 1st Colorado Span Am hat, wool felt; (b) insignia infantry IB; (c)hat cord, used in the Philippines
2004.106.611.2 a,b leggings, army 1st Colorado Span Am canvas khaki, 11.5 inch, used in the Philippines
2004.106.611.3 canteen, military 1st Colorado Span Am,used in the Philippines, khaki canvas cover marked U.S., inked on side, 1st. Lt. Shoulderboard w/ Lt. Lewis
2004.106.611.4 a-c haversack, military 1st CO Span Am, used Philippines, a- khaki canvas bag, U.S., inked on flap shoulderboard + CEL, b- leather shoulder strap, c- modified hat device mauser cartridge
2004.106.611.5 belt, military 1st CO Span Am, used Philippines, black leather belt, rectangular U.S. brass buckle, Indian wars vintage
2004.106.611.6 decoration, military 1st CO Span Am, used Philippines, Colorado Militia, 10 marksman ladders, 1888-1897,
Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 inventory sheet, created 2004, accessed November 24th, 2015
Similar to the War Relics collection, the VFW Post artifacts can be broken down into different two major categories, such as Spanish and Filipino military artifacts that were collected from the battlefield and the kind of items that were bought or picked up by troops of the First Colorado as souvenirs. The items of a strictly military nature include Spanish and Filipino arms and ammunition.
Table 9: Wea pons from the Philippines in the Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 Collection
Item Number Name Description
2004.106.612.14 a,b dagger w/scabbard Filipino daggar and scabbard
2004.106.612.15 a,b bayonet w/ scabbard dagger made from a Spanish bayonet with scabbard
2004.106.612.16 a-c sticks, drum Spanish military drumsticks and holder
2004.106.612.21 a,b box, cartridge Spanish cartridge box w/ sling
2004.106.631.5 cartridge, rifle .28 calibre Mauser, Spanish Army
2004.106.631.6 cartridge, rifle .45 calibre brass Remington, Filipino Army
2004.106.638.18 knife Filipino hunting knife, hand forged steel, wooden handle
2004.106.638.19 a,b dagger w/sheath a) brass dagger with handle of ebony and ivory; b) leather sheath
Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 inventory sheet, created 2004, accessed November 24th, 2015


57
These are the kind of artifacts that Deane wanted for the War Relics collection. Like so many of the items that did find their way into the war relics collection, though, the vast majority of things collected for the VFW collection are of a non-military nature. Smoking items, combs and shaving items seemed to be very popular.
Table 10: Everyday items from the Philippines in the Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 Collection
Item Number Name Description
2004.106.612.1 comb, hair handmade bamboo comb for combing hair, Philippines, used by native Philippino, Chinese and Japanese women
2004.106.612.2 comb, hair lacquerware comb, Philippines, used by native Philippino, Chinese and Japanese women
2004.106.612.20 case. Cigarette Philippine, Nipa cloth cigarette case
2004.106.612.22.1,2 pins, clothes Filipino bamboo clothes hanging pins
2004.106.612.23 a.b utensil, eating Japanese chopsticks, wood, steel, brown, grey
2004.106.612.25 strop, shaving Japanese/Filipino razor strop made from rice root
2004.106.612.26 razor, shaving wood, steel, Chinese/Filipino
2004.106.612.27a+ cards, game Chinese paper domino cards
2004.106.612.28a+ cards, game Chinese paper domino cards, sealed set
2004.106.612.29 pipe, smoking Japanese pipe for smoking unknown substance
2004.106.612.3 comb, hair used by native Philippino, Chinese and Japanese women, stork design
2004.106.612.30 a,b case, pipe Japanese tobacco pouch and pipe case
2004.106.612.4 comb, hair used by native Philippino, Chinese and Japanese women, black wood and bamboo with oriental characters on the black
2004.106.612.5 comb, hair used by native Philippino, Chinese and Japanese women, bamboo frayed on one end, cylindrical
2004.106.638.20 strop, shaving balsam wood razor strop
2004.106.638.3 a,b shoes woven bamboo sandles, cloth straps
2004.106.638.4 case, cigarette woven Nipa cloth, diamond pattern
2004.106.638.5 pipe, smoking wood, brass pipe
2004.106.638.6 pipe, smoking leather and silver pipe case and tobacco pouch tied together
2004.106.638.9 bmsh, bottle split tubular bamboo bmsh with long mahogany handle
Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 inventory sheet, created 2004, accessed November 24th, 2015
Like the brass candlestick that was included in Deanes report in 1902, two religious items were also included in the VFWs collection. There is no indication where these items came from, and since they are small personal items, not part of the decoration in a church, I


believe they were collected for their aesthetic nature, and not looted from a church, as the brass candlestick may have been.
58
Table 11: Religious items from the Philippines in the Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 Collection
Item Number Name Description
2004.106.612.17 crucifix seed rosary, Filipino
2004.106.638.8 rosary rosary, camelian (label says amber)
Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 inventory sheet, created 2004, accessed November 24th, 2015
The most unusual items donated were a pair of womens shoes. Item number 2004,106.612.10 a, b are listed as shoes, womens. Philippines, female street shoes, wood, tooled leather brown.173 They were most likely bought as a gift.
Its unknown to me whether or not the men who collected these items knew that William Ferril had asked them, through their superiors, to gather items for the Historical Societys collection.
Some of the items that the First Colorado brought back from the Philippines would have undoubtedly satisfied Cecil Deanes criteria for the War Relics collection. The Historical Society received several Spanish and Filipino weapons, including Spanish rifles and ammunition, and several traditional Filipino knives and bolos. The documents of the insurrection, and the uniform parts and decorations would have also been of interest to Deane. I do not doubt, however, that many of the artifacts, especially the pottery and weaving, were not items he would include. Regardless, William Ferrils hope that the first Colorado would bring the Historical Society two tons of artifacts failed.
173 Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 inventory sheet, created 2004, accessed November 24th, 2015.


59
CHAPTERX CONCLUSION
William Columbus Ferril was an enthusiastic curator and collector, and when the chance was given to him to expand the collections of the Colorado Historical Society by artifacts gathered by the First Colorado in the Philippines, he took the opportunity. He wrote a flurry of letters and received permission to ship the artifacts back from the Philippines to the United States from the Russell A. Alger, the U.S. Secretary of War. He also arranged shipping from San Francisco to Denver. He wrote in his daily journal ... I had a plan to obtain 2 tons of war relics from Manila.. ,174, and what he ended up with were only a few artifacts.
The various catalogs and databases for the Colorado Historical Societies War Relics collection show less than 100 items that may have been brought from the Philippines. A further impediment to the verification of the First Colorados Filipino artifacts are the variety of cataloging techniques and technology changes that have occurred since the last of Cecil Deanes War Relics catalogs was published. According to James Peterson, Assistant Curator for Artifacts at History Colorado, at least three different systems have been used since Deane and Ferrils tenure. When data was transcribed from paper into a computerized catalog, and later transferred to new systems, much of the work was done by contractors. The contracts were paid by the amount of data that could be transferred from the original card catalog to the new computer systems. Much of the provenience relating to how the artifacts were originally acquired was lost.175
174 Ferril daily journal
175 Peterson, James. Interviewed by author. Interview on the First Colorado and the War Relics collection. History Colorado. March 11, 2016.


60
The legality of the artifacts that the First Colorado donated is not a concern for the staff at History Colorado. The items that are in the collection are things that were picked up by individual soldiers and donated to the War Relics collection.176 The First Colorado did not take art works or Philippines national treasures of intrinsic and cultural value. The items they collected were gathered from wreck of war, as they moved through the Philippines during their campaign. It could be argued that the Filipino people were under an imperial power, and could request artifacts be returned. However, the only mechanism to return artifacts to subjected people in the United States is NAGPRA (The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act), a U.S. law passed in 1990 to facilitate the return of culturally significant artifacts to Native Americans, and it does not apply to the Philippines.177 In addition, most of the artifacts that the First Colorado brought back from the Philippines have been in storage since the 1930s. The War Relics collection space was needed when the WPA (Workers Progress Administration) began working on the dioramas that depicted the history of Colorado. The popular scenes were part of the exhibits at the Colorado History Museum until its most recent move from Thirteenth Street and Broadway to a block south, to Twelfth Street and Broadway. It is rare that the artifacts from the War Relics collection are used in exhibits or viewed now.178 In an odd twist, several of the weapons that were used by Colonel John Chivingtons Third Colorado Cavalry at Sand Creek in 1864 were auctioned off to help the state pay for commemorative medals for the returning men of the First Colorado. The rifles are something that Cecil Deane would collect specifically for the War Relics collection.179
176 Peterson, James. Interviewed by author. Interview on the First Colorado and the War Relics collection. History Colorado. March 11, 2016.
177 Fine-Dare, Kathleen. Grave Injustice: The American Indian Repatriation Movement and NAGPRA. (University of Nebraska Press: Lincoln, London. 2002) 118.
178 Peterson, James. Interviewed by author. Interview on the First Colorado and the War Relics collection. History Colorado. March 11, 2016.
179 Hunt, Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 213.


61
The eagerness that William Ferril had for collecting artifacts in the Philippines was indicative of his exuberance for collecting. He was not regarded as a man who always followed through with his intensions, however. This ultimately led to his downfall as the curator of the Colorado Historical Society. In 1910, he was replaced as curator of the Historical Society in a closed door meeting of the Societys board. He was informed he had been fired by Edward Morgan, who became the Societys president in 1903. Ferril did not accept the news with grace and refused to surrender the keys to his office. He eventually relented and was replaced by the new curator, Jerome C. Smiley. When asked why Ferril had been dismissed, Morgan answered Ferril was a good man at collecting material, but he apparently does not know how to file it
180 Benson A Centennial Legacy 12.


62
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books
Primary sources
Deane, Cecil A. Catalogue of War Relics. Denver, CO: Smith-Brooks Printing Company, State Printers, 1898.
Johnson, Arthur C. Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry, U.S. V. in the Campaign in the Philippine Islands. Washington, D.C.: War Department, 1899.
Legislative and State House Blue Book of Colorado: Being a Collection of Portrait Engravings and Biographies of the State Officials; Members of the Supreme Court and Court of Appeals; Member of the Senate and House of Representatives of the Twelfth General Assembly... Together With Other Things of Interest in Colorados Magnificent State House 1899. Denver: Carson-Harper Company and W.H. Lawrence, 1899
State Officials and 13th General Assembly of Colorado 1901
Secondary Sources
Alexander, Edward and Alexander, Mary. Museums in Motion: An Introduction to the History and Functions of Museums. Lanham, New York, Toronto, Plymouth, U.K., 2008.
Byers, William N. Encyclopedia of Biography of Colorado: History of Colorado Volume I. Chicago: The Century Publishing and Engraving Company, 1901.
Faust, Karl Irvin. Campaigning in the Philippines. New York: Amo Press, 1970.
Fine-Dare, Kathleen. Grave Injustice: The American Indian Repatriation Movement and NAGPRA. Lincoln, London: University of Nebraska Press, 2002
Genoways, Hugh H. and Andreai, Mary Anne (eds). Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy. Walnut Creek, CA.: Left Coast Press, 2008.
Hunt, Geoffrey R., Colorados Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars, 1898-1899. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2006
Jenkins, McKay. The Last Ridge: The Epic Story of the U.S. Armys 10th Mountain Division and the Assault on Hitlers Europe. New York: Random House, 2003.
Kaplan, Flora E.S. (editor). Museums and the Making of Ourselves : The Role of Objects in National Identity. London and New York: Leicester University Press, 1994
Karsten, Peter. Law, Soldier and Combat. Westport, CT and London: Greenwood Press, 1978


63
Keegan, John. The Face of Battle. New York: Viking Press, 1976
Leon, Warren and Roseweig, Roy (eds). History Museums in the United States: A Critical Assessment. Urbana, Chicago. University of Illinois Press, 1989.
McCaffrey, James M. Inside the Spanish American War: A History Based on First Person Accounts. Jefferson, NC, London: McFarland & Co., Inc., Publishers, 2009.
Messenger, Phyllis Mauch (editor). The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property? Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1999
Pearce, Susan M. Museums, Objects and Collections: A Cultural Study. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992
Reisman, W. Michael and Antoniou, Chris T. The Laws of War: A Comprehensive Collection of Primary Documents on International Law Governing Armed Conflict. New York: Vintage Books, 1994
Schlereth, Thomas J. Material Culture Studies in America. Walnut Creek, Lanham, New York, Oxford: Alta Mira Press, 1999.
Schwartz, Alvin. Museum: The Study of Americas Treasure Houses. New York: E. Dutton, 1967.
Welch, Jr, Richard E. Response to Imperialism: The United States and the Philippine-American War, 1899-1902. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.
United States Adjutant- Generals Office. Correspondence Relating to the War with Spain. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, 1993
Thesis
Fellerman, Henry S. William C Ferril: Western Writer and Historian MA Thesis, University of Denver, 1961.
Journal articles
Benson, Maxine. A Centennial Legacy, Colorado Magazine 57 (1981): pg. 1-90.
Fellerman, Henry S. William C. Ferril: Newspaperman and Historian, The Brand Book 17 (1961) pg. 249-250.
Harmansah, Omar. ISIS, Heritage, and the Spectacles of Destruction in the Global Media. Near Eastern Archaeology 78 (2015) 170-177.


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Paroff, Sasha P. Another Victim of the War in Iraq: The Looting of the National Museum in Bagdad and the Inadequacies of International Protection of Cultural Property. Emory Law Journal 53 (2004): pg. 2021-2054.
Suter, Keith. Protecting the Worlds Cultural Heritage. Contemporary Review 290 (2008): pg. 190-199.
Stein, Gil J. The War-Ravaged Cultural Heritage of Afghanistan. Near Eastern Archaeology 78 (2015): 187-195.
Flags from the Colorado Historical Collection. Colorado Heritage, Autumn (2002): p 17. Newspapers
Daily Journal (Telluride, Colorado)
Denver Times (Denver, Colorado)
Highland Chief (Denver, Colorado)
Personal Journals
Ferril, William C. Daily Journal 1989-1899 History Colorado Letters
Alger, Russel S. Russell S. Alger to William C. Ferril, November 16, 1898. Letter. From the Colorado Historical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO. (Accessed March 7, 2014)
Ferril, William C. William C. Ferril to Irving Hale, November 23, 1898, Letter. From the Colorado Historical, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO. (Accessed March 7, 2014)
Hale, Irving. Irving Hale to William C. Ferril, January 9, 1899. Letter. From the Colorado Historical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO. (Accessed January 18, 2014)
Hinton C.H. Mrs. C.H. Hinton to William C Ferril, October, 1898. From the Colorado Historical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO. (Accessed February 27, 2016)


65
Moore, Alvin P. Alvin P. Moore to Cora Reed April 28 11, 1899. From the Colorado Historical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO. (Accessed February 27, 2016)
Moore, Alvin P. Alvin P. Moore to Cora Reed May 11, 1899. From the Colorado Historical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO. (Accessed February 27, 2016)
Phenix, William H. William H. Phenix to William C Ferril, October 9, 1898. Colorado Historical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO. (Accessed February 27, 2016)
Sanford, John M. JohnM. Sanford to unknown October 29, 1899. From the Colorado Historical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO. (Accessed February 27, 2016)
Segerstrom, Edwin. Segerstrom, Edwin to his mother and sister, March 20, 1899. From the Colorado Historical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO. (Accessed February 27, 2016)
Segerstrom, Edwin. Segerstrom, Edwin to his mother and sister, May 8, 1899. From the Colorado Historical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO. (Accessed February 27, 2016)
Segerstrom, Edwin. Segerstrom, Edwin to his mother and sister, December 12, 1899. From the Colorado Historical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO. (Accessed February 27, 2016)
Government Documents
Deane, Cecil A. Submission Report to the Colorado Historical Society, February 24th, 1902 General Assembly of the State of Colorado. Laws Passed on the First Day of January, A.D. 1879
Video
Keegan, John and Holmes, Richard. VHS. Soldiers: A History of Men in Battle. London: Churchill Films, 1988.
Catalogs
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Paintings from the Berlin Museum. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1948


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Interview
Peterson, James. Interviewed by author. Interview on the First Colorado and the War Relics collection. History Colorado. March 11, 2016.
Email Correspondence
Moya Hanson, curator of the lOthe Mountain Division Exhibit, email message to author, April 28, 2009
Web resources
Firstworldwar.com. The Treaty of Versailles. June 19, 1919. http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/versailles.htm
Laughton, Sean. "Rumsfeld on Looting "Stuff Happens"" CNN. April 12, 2003. Accessed July 25, 2016. http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/04/ll/sprj.irq.pentagon/.
National Archives. Records of the Committee on the Philippines, 1899-1921. http://www.archives.gov/legislative/guide/senate/chapter-12-philippines.html


APPENDIX A
OUBJCCTt
Flt NO.
Free transportation of relp.cs from Manila.
WAR DEPARTMENT,

7914.
My dear Sir:
WASHnIN%TON,
Slab His'*1 .
tlutlilul L-t-J SiClClji November 16, 1098.
V OtNVEB, CCfi.0.
| MAY 11 i|^ '
HKHTHW f ^
1 have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 86th ultimo, request^ig an behalf of the State Historical and Statural History Society of Colorado that authority be granted Brigadier GeneraJ Irving Hale and Colonel Henry B.
McCoy, let Colorado If, S. Volunteers, and other officers and
men of that regiment, to ah Ip free of cost on some returning
Government transport two tola of relics from Manila, P. I., to
San Francisco, California; |lso that the said Historical Socl-
f
ety be presented with guns |nd other weapons used in battle.
Replying thereto, I be^ to inform you that the requested authority for shipment of r|lics by some returning Army transport has been approved, it jjeing understood that this approval applies exclusively to auch.relics, etc., as are private prop-
erty. There i3 no authonjy of law for the donation of guns and other arms used in batt|e, which are the property of the United States. §
E Very respect fully
Mr. Wm. C. Ferril,
Curator, State Historical
and Natural History Soliety, Denver, Coloradot|


68
a#*- HI5To^/
AND ^
NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY
WILLIAM
"""O moroan.
NATHAN A. BAKER,
N. I
(VICC-PNES.


histoc^
I J AND
NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY l
WILLIAM N. BYERS PRESIDENT EDWARD B. MORGAN, )
NATHAN A. BAKER, VviCE-PRES.
GEO. L. CANNON, Jft.)
CHARLES R. DUDLEY, SECRETARY WILLIAM D. TO DO, TREASURER
WILLIAM C. FERRIL, CURATOR
Denver, Colorado,

I59^_r
' . C*>;* in:-: .?<,
b, JiOCoy,
Xv 'Oloraue U. Vcitmiffers,
too--, Oiiiu** i> iwrt.i
'.m of T\c,t Po-innrt,
ilii d 1
..Vr.-V- ^eiinu8 to toil. I inMjL l; n;e a. .c*\ , ,j.v .
SO '? SUfjj C-it ijytMSl", to oeu ,uviv, U>1, .*> oy, to -
Wore to {jwaiv U^fcA.i :>i oi .0 of iAr* o*a..i ; lor- t i.i at.V
To | cw.1* Hrti I send th a*' : < , X;,. C0i>i3 0 SW'ie A.: ii :i
lie . Mt-;'*s aw.. , -3 X X , but thou r, t I vf'O^h.U V
SO : * ** w-i -* l -.Y;Ks t
I ro emly w'iii,* v; Seay* way Oi -tT, tilt _-yu '
l.im- to V; fl'-ytt 0i 808V, V*0(2) Qi rcilOii i'iV-.i
f;w; rViLAl SO, 80;. r: Govt- r\,:-
: *,u-. i.*U ri.atf.1 and iutmV'1 iii story 30ity o i Color. 0, v. r.
St'tsi.t to Tiey ti.f cost ef shipment fro;: :,?n ;-avroiScc, vrich
1 (X t ten, fir-s v c* i r I did no* rottr oyytr

you oepta-.v 5 0 u x/ Special iiuia, bv., t.-o l ehf rv
i i?d . 2 it . aw. td tc, v.t?ed i.-. t;.e ;-r,tcj.-.. of
Uu.dl<, but still tjv i>yopJ*ty of w Govr-iti-WiA. ..a you ,il|,
l;-:;crv'", th- first wjusdi wi8 ;;r&atsd# twwt tin*
As It *voul-< nqttii'i

70
s^-vt histo/?/c
AND C
NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY
WILLIAM N. BYERS PRESIDENT EDWARD B. MORGAN, )
NATHAN A. BAKER, f VICE-PRES.
GEO. L. CANNON, JR.)
CHARLES R. DUDLEY, SECRETARY
WILLIAM C. FERRlL, CURATOR
Denver, Colorado,____________________IS9 _
o
tfhat relic you ,\y 4h * .onsve, 1 thou^r, the better
uray would he to get permission 7vo i ia* Sesreiary of
ant; then let you when S wrote to "to liv'ton for perjiinsio.'i to have free ship* i3Citt 2 explained that you die act know that X h. done so, II I til, .-ist know ul>st you ri.y.t !>' jbi* to *> In the
Lv.vter. 2 further racrweste,; the Seoretary of War k notify
you officially tram ^fcakiirjU,::, if recast ere ipunletf, end
t-vvlKt Mul also, that I could also Wile. 'm**tnxy Alyer r*y 5rave jo written to you, but as he is silent that peir.t,
I Eie# of the rone,
l:i v/hioli tiic rartiiorlty is ranted.
Ilvci, let wo ;<;>!' A/.* T., late .iivio leal o,i Katural .dsW*f loeiciy of Colorado is sot a .e eor.hioss, but is
or^udsvu uuc: £,. oial ae-t o. 1079, ii all the property Oi><-tai.'iK by it, whi t: r by *,1*1, yuroh&se or eibewdse*, tb
M........ Li l Uti bi state* 2 have seer. no >
.e:,t in tins reports froo v,nhi;.!,'ton, as to the rent-
oi tills rvcivc.t. Cental Alars letter I have not node pu* lie* Several states are wpr

AND
NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY
william n. evens president
EDWARD B. MORGAN, )
NATHAN A. BAKER, rviCE-PRES.
GEO. L. CANNON, JR.J CHARLES R. DUDLEY, SECRET AAV WILLIAM D. TODD, TREASURER
WILLIAM C. FERRlL, CURATOR
Denver, Colorado, 1^9
ovr ike '' <% 1 ... ... :os.
fill du in.-,.* ..ore or 1:: ro lie a, 3 e , will be r>nttmc
all 4)V tP.-\ yi.u bvi
bra,.; ou.; -a :,vu .Aij.e'i- VpV; '..Cl ;% \?t- v: ,iS ^ j.
tra:;ia;;ort,..iaL!:i i-j ;i'V #0 tht bast ycu 9m for s* IM wry v: gtv# at 3* l
sour vi:uv v; i' iilie v .-.ivt i jivt of 'V.r>oar, unc
toric&I 01 ^'. 0 C Y* Xrttvr-C ' r!* rto-
* -**; jL. <., Jib* V/iv L', ^2s' v- &*A*V, ! tllj . : V- b L eC
o*iw X. H-'- !*v*,/ C>1 i .'.V 'i X \i i* I'* HX ..i .I:' . J. v^ll
kiv-M JwL CJ V"* ou roa: ; ?< cn - 4# Via 4 1*. . 'i-r-ol, -
L-wic
Of .V.
Sifii
iVOLV
it iliiif*, A i?V WvVu.*- CL
Ul*v> ti** t> if iVV
t*V %i .O *-:V f* 't
S-^cuwviv,
> VT *Vf i ItvJ- Vkif'- 0 .vt :
A
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btit XAl U. tSt- ^UC,1 ^ f ,LL, J'ii t..*. - .-v COj eCi*XiV
Bjxrilvo.. X Oii# i &s you te.^A;tiU%w u. ***. iii : ".:vyf-ie. 0r runtT; &r £s
lljidteu, X <*4a*V0 iiOi beer., ubi.tr to bo cmh, but ti ,0V
one ivev*t biutwrtSj ca*-. *££ v.. CKS*


HISTOe^
AND
NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY
WILLIAM M. BYERS PRESIDENT COWARD B. MORGAN, >
NATHAN A. BAKER, fVICE-PRES.
GEO. L. CANNON, JR.J CHARLES R. DUDLEY, SECRETARY WILLIAM D. TODD, TREASURER
WILLIAM C. PERRIL, CURATOR
Denver, Colorado,-
-159-
11 s in i:x oc.-iiol. I havn. 9vi. aoa* o£ ,s
i02 :.l dug.
" .....-Hi, matin;: to Uw boyt & ore
i uiin no&pital, otftu y , ;.. .
* f -v i ,1'. i - . .... x. j <. . 3 I
0& vd-cM Oi OhA-'M'VvuA
,v r*y WMO it ..... ... ' l .. ( ;. ;
' any.
Tiidt.. fell you
-ttiliec. 1; bait*. <
,/> < j r:. ier4i,
rn-ti; o;
>vUet ,
!Ui t CU, AVC:
AiOi ^ A
V ~ U U
j !rU a >\ b. a o ' il.AU ..V.-.Cd. Ik.. *wt I
*'0J iC -- v t fiA cTTi^. vi 11 v v | < v vj OUf' ! U i v : v
Witi; W**" , A. "> i f. 4iW ^ i. ^ "C :. 0# Ov..Lh . .1 -Uu i ti >c sst
3d i.<; A O.'Tii'tr, i b L 0 <>0 ifrf *"'\l V i **. -/'>- i-hre-z.
u. a. x . ;Ri Mi eh, ,/. -0 it; OU.I t V* us*
tin; be /V ^ ^ Son* t ror-jfft to ir. ?>..:!* ?>* -
... 0 .. ks oS Lit : . ry want mile'., bn; all ?. hat you : h*y -no, t: e il. > ; uli
?:%£ %:.< bi*-' y .a' r: jor> or tu* Finst Ct* i id
60 "proiui*, ,!D T ,5*0 tc Secratui AluOr I l,.i y 4-
quflst uc." til? ?:: iisjont or il.iiHJs. .'-cr.x.
brivs v-p mu. \?, & i.evt uii \W^>
in their piutury uv4 ei *vy aa*> iu.v* c. unit*


73
s^t HISTO/?/q^
AND
NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY
WILLIAM N. BYERS PRESIDENT EDWARD MORGAN. |
NATHAN A. BAKER, rviCE-RRES.
CEO. L. CANNON, JR. J CHARLES R. DUDLEY, SECRETARY WILLIAM D. TODD. TREASURER
WILLIAM C. FERRIL, CURATOR
S
Denver, Colorado,.
159____
d ill ft" f 1 r'fiv MstOV>.C ; t4-* *>* ;j
*£ t Ufc8*51t ti\* on;i, .< ;u::.,', Sol *r\ tt ; ts oould ; mit In*
2 ueuivi wivirion i. t-nd or? tt-X Hat whet ip. tse
;!i .? it. i'oi. knew ottt.f r u.ui I i tir it l.ni 7
e.,v whe t wulsi V A ,0St *l;u,er^Kiii-ii;# ii yw tMr-.!
*** '>*> *y | :l; i.-Hat tin? l '0 .V'e1. (),. A j ^ tfr 2. ?. k* .c 3.) H ?*.v
,. .., i 1 At . A : ;* you tU>R t r terry, you a?* tmstr f vitf r-
to 1*0 V tlo. traaJ.'*r 3?todd To ;jwd. e.u S&rt iVKwiseo, h*tt. if
ad' *-,t **< .on t< o> tPft3 HRfftM or so? tv c'fJ ?** >-t
Lj4 4 V-L1 t. ;.(< J i. .*'r&cc .;i : 11 > #hi; t vl; r, k
Is.;: %0 i.f.iviu tr. you :i| Ydr'h. sc. ir.. t >oo t ry r.-.-s
to A c{ 1 *<: of t I tmp.t t i t x ,Ht
ar- * i a v.t, !:> Cftlt!' > toe ... trot tie. t Cot of
O'. f* *' c * T 1 ( kR ye- 5.11,
/jiLiRr.r
iT*
YY tWA
](aW^Su^aJ
Cup* tor, :t.-1 St: f
Tdtort" 1 ur.,l Tisutfs ?>i ?ty,
ltd : t l'diic
r*:w*r, Color**;,
tf.
A.


74
SubjectFree Transportation of ?.> U.es JTor Manila.
WAR DEPARTMENT,
WASHINGTON.
Flit K*. 7914.
Novfi'ibW 16, 1886*
My Dear Sir: -
X have the honor fco aoknowledye th receipt of your
1c tier of 26 ch ultimo, requesting in behalf of the f.t .t"
.... t ui i ivi anc! Natural History CoeiMy Gf Colorado that authori-
ty . i. hriyatitr General Hale and Colonei Henry lo
C , i: 4 J-0- > 1 Volunteers, ami other officer?, anf
; en 0 1 i. n. * rajimtnt, to shin free oi cost Oil some return-
i.ip Co . i wae;. t transport two tons of relics froiii Manila, I-.
*9 to ot; jFi'an disc? California; also that soid Historical do-
elrty j* presenter with {juns anc other weapons used in bt.l-
T ..
: thereto, I bog to inform you th*t the nquited
uuf or!*y for i'ipcnej-t o. relict by some rtturnin 10 : tarei s.
port has bet up proved, it bei.i un' erstood that this (?.ppro-
vo.1 tii-li e; elusivcly to such relics property. Thai it. r.o authority of lav; for the conation of
pUllh <- 1 .v' of tr nr used in be UK, which w propel'. o
the t; iU totCS.
very rrnmmtfuliy
!2. T'illian C. Ft nil,
Curator, Glut* Historical,
and Natural History Society, Denver Colorado.


75
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Jfct-T~<3$
J^IADQUARTERS IgCOND BRIGADE SECOND DIVISION, EpHTH ARMY COF
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79

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84
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85
r
Far th lfsst six woolen the regiment lies been novlng from place to place with groat activity. < have been seeing 8 grei> t dRl of the country about forty stiles north of V.onils -VKi
Manila. P. Oot. £9
1899-
have bed a number of lively little scraps with the enemy, resulting always the seme way the i'hlllpinoo running swey.
The loss on our side hss been very small, consisting of one or two men killed In each acrep. The day we arrived in i anile the other battalion loot one man killed end two wounded. *-ur principal lose la by drowning. We hrve lost thirteen men in this way since our arrival.
I hrve beers detailed a s. member of genorel court, lar-
ticl and ernnet set out of it. I w&s, however, in one good scrap before I was ordered into the City. This Court will probably keep me her two months, as there t re a li ;re nu&toer of cases to be brought before it and tried, bo shell miss r.ll the fun et the front.
'he generci opinion here seems to be, that the rebels ore discouraged, end that the rebellion will be over before the rainy season begins.
- con see that the regulars are going to gorrison the Islands for a good many yerrs to come, and that the Islands will not be helf bod when pence roigns once more, and one can move along the roods without having to wonder whether he is


86
_ or not.
-- -ri:; ~ rice rteiaa up to yo
s tM ln out Mr< 1 e bir*inS
rist-O**'
becn very
^ hfivo u
_ your head. r even in C
sun bentina down on y ^und. r
* nieru on t*n *>
fEr, ns *vo nct Xryo ^ecn bic to
. -- nave boon her*. hcv
tent, oinoc stayed there over
_ kind, rnd If w nJ-y
CO-ncJ
aocure c nouaa
night, Jm<2 out- ooo't ri* up SOOd d inn
Ths chicken, one gets out here ere not like nerlccn chicken,. They ere **>11, tough, with very little flcch on them, md they cm fly like cn old wild duck. They ore mostly of
the gome breed, end the eggs ore small. To ny mind, the <*uef
arnwoncjc to till* country is W,c root ttiot oXX tin., V. v-
ported and the cattle can not live here. consequently wo hove tc use buffalo ailk tnd tl* canned product, both of which one
gets tired of in c. very short time.
l will try to give you a sketch of our life for the poet six weeks es i remember it. were relieved at U ; unking rotation on dept. 16, end on marching into Fanils were pocked eborrd e train which left the next morning for Can Fernando.
By wc mean the First Battalion, Companies F, li tnd K.
no took up quarters et ban Fernando, and in two days F and K were oent on to ..cxico, o town three miles eoot of ban Fernando, uni right in tii insurgents Country.
The Tirot news wc received from there wes that four men


87


88
0 *
ra n bout ten o clock end wnt' ~ ^
rTy> oiei^-*^
there. four Picked out n nu
more
tlwn r.rvy
mass at ones.
1 think W boueM fruit. fiBh.
bull-ccrt wont Into
irvak cknce we have been her*.
and had. a very fine mess while there. cur San l'omr.ndo daily, find we could et anything wo wonted Troci the Commliatzry. The piece Itself wno very pretty, on* It wor interesting; to watch the t-hillpinoe end thei r mode of life. greet derl or rice is brought into Sente Rite to be aeporcted from the husks, and it wes very interesting to watch them at
jor>>_ They hefi e lone row of wooden mortero about three feet
high. The gre in woe put in these mil v line of men end. women
were formed on each side who kept up an incessant pounding with wooden mallets. ifter sufficient pounding, the contents of
each mortar is poured in t shallow tray-like basket, and the chr.ff a sport ted from the groin.
The guerd duty wes hard n t Conte Kits, end come very frequently. did not see any insurgents end only heard one shot fired all the time we were there.
o were finally ordered beck to Sen Fernando, end felt y but we started, end reaching there were ordered to
.roceed to txico without delay. f* retched Mexico in the
on ^retty well tired out. The next morning i.et.asters ----for permission to take *H* Comply t0 3*nta /vfle. If you


89
.'npa^o. Of couiwe nolnnc> nl>ny> gets p exnisc ion, oo at 6 A. ti. tile next ny.
sot Ziiore ell right and tliti not se*>
coain^ hone thet night our bull-train wro
-Hacked ir. the tree CIS
trith no results, as we hed nut a strong S^crC 'clth 11 cur "C*1 sold they gee sene of the insurgents, but I doubt It, ns vjc could not find nny trsces the next sneroing.
aiioxt dsy i icutcnr-nt Taylor with '"£* Comocr.y woe sent up to
Snnta nr. as v guard for a working party repairing the road.
:.wer*l patrols went up ?nd down during the aorning, the last
one leaving Sants ns at 2 f. Si.
1 * *' ' £- -ttr. ir. 3 iracri that the Lnsu..-
t 3:3c it seems Lieutenant Taylor end Lieutenant Howerd eou^le of )te from ineidc the city, or frea went out to see tfcout the out-posts which hrd been established.
' * * a ' ireo two volley* into the
fbout half past four a nessengor .esuae tearing in to.kexlco with
a mecergo that Lieutenants Taylor and Howard wore either killed
4 - %v. .1 i ?lf- .if?
or captured, rnd surrounded and fighting hard. This was signed by the 1st Lergeant of hr Company. Of course this put us
nli in -n uproar. Lieutenant Uller was sent immediately with "f" Company.
Lieutenant Uncoln followed him with SC .urn of -A" Company and Lioutensnt Herring with 73 men of H" and /.- followed a --ter. Ud.natcra uad been v;ent to look over the scene


90
jutcuq TOO***1* V
f <3.
of our cttnCic of tho
Oc.y boforo end atopP*

:r.c c t?'
snger Ions
enough to henr the troubl* t then l* ct pony.
rt4
out. cion on a
- ieutemmts Taylor one.
'.e there were no ofrioere benieoc
of tnc day Mexico, and
Howard et Santa Ana, X was offi001*
Had sons to licntB s.no, it left s all of our men nc 0
Eon for Mexico, and when one of
had to stay.
only BO men on guard oe e gerrl
our outposts was fi>d on after dark, we thought we were SoinG to here s fight on our own account. -hey fired ehout six shots hut ns the outposts did not return the fire# they did not repest
the shooting.
bout 2:30, ho*vor, we liar.rd two shots followed t.y Vwo
volleys from the outposts, and the patrol learned thet the insur-
. . {; ,? i fl~ "* iik : y
rents had fired e couple of sliota from inside the city, or frees
... v,. *..< *******fr *? ^ their rear, and that the outposts had fired two volleys into the
yard where the shots ernne from. ft or that we were not distur-
.. 3 v. ' 1 (' 'vt -4b gjf T, vV
- # *
bed, but I don't think there was any sleeping on the post that
night.
.nen o courier came in freer E-ontp Ana and said that evtry-thing ,7,.0 ..ii ru.ght. Trylor and Howard had 8 narrow escape capture, ou,. they were safe and had driven the insurgents out of th.lt. trench., end cent the* .kiPplne. of ecu. ..
11 El<1 l ta" of T*nor end noncra. ..cp., ,d .uo
that not a men hod been hit.


91
w w
t tps bolnft t)f senior officer Kt aantn Bnt
t, courier and rtq usa ltd pornL ion to return to txlco t>y or Sen iueuatlM, rul give the inBurgente, who wera known to be in the t town in moaie force, n severe lesson. All the oti orricera objected: to the plt*n end told. i..o..ostors thet it moo foolish to go thet way, when tier* wrs nothing to be gained., s-nd the -uen practically tired out- But Brig. Cien. Young geve -a.asters permission nnd ho str.rtou for r.nn ugustlne i r *'
AO mcko c long story short, they soon found the insurgents, fought with them all the -ftemoon end drove them brek. -he engugencnt closed at 5:4;. on scccunt of darkness, end i..c2..ns
term tarnea the town and. started for t-ojico. icnnwhilo i hed town and if l could see any way of flanking tine enemy to go
ahead nnd do bo. cheaters wbs away from the road 1 wes on,
end hnd oeen firing so rerulcrly and Eteodily, that 1 wet aurc he *aa all right, end ae I could not see any w?>y of flanking the enemy, except by taking a eix mile trnxap through rice field* und arriving on the scene after df!rkt i returned to l.exico with ay men. tn arriving at the out-ponto, I heard galloping horse. it tres o men f r an kei- assters' force, whe arid that reinforcements and eratoulfmcK were needed t once. .-..ajor *y&unt urue red. me to push right on to tenta .ns, and from there to Gen uguBttne to reinforce cL.estors.
I started out et a -iuick pace end kept it up until wm atnr


92


Full Text

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W ILLIAM FERRIL, THE COLORADO HISTORICAL SOCIETY, AND COLLECTING ARTIFACTS IN THE PHILIPPINES DURING THE SPANISH AMERICAN WAR by PAUL CHRISTOPHER ANDREWS B.A ., University of Colorado, Boulder, 1992 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment Of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts History Program 2016

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ii This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by Paul Christopher Andrews has been approved for the History Program by Rebecca Hunt, Chair Thomas Noel Geoffrey Hunt December 17, 2016

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iii

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iv Andrews, Paul Christopher (M.A. History) William Ferril, The Colorado Historical Society, and Collecti ng Artifacts in the Philippines During the Spanish American War Thesis d irected by Senior Instructor Rebecca Hunt ABSTRACT In 1898 the United States went to war with Span in Cuba and the Philippines. Men serving in the First Colorado were sent to the Philippines to fight both the Spanish, and eventually the Filipinos. W illiam Columbus Ferril, the curator of the Colorado Historical Society, saw the war as an opportunity to collect artifacts from the Philippines and asked both Alva Adams, the Governor of Colorado, and Russel Alger, the U.S. Secretary of War, for permission to collect relics during the fighting. When the Colorado troops returned from the Philippines, they delivered several items they collected during the war. They are still held by History Colorado, the present name of the Colorado Historical Society. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Approved: Rebecca Hunt

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v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank my thesis advisor Dr. Rebecca Hunt for keeping me on track through this long process. She was alway s available to help when I was going off on tangents also like to thank Dr. Geoffrey Hunt for his guidance and for his great book, Volunteer Infantr y in the Philippine Wars, 1898 1899, which was such a help. My thanks also I would also like to acknowledge the incredible staff at the Stephen H. Hart Library at the Hist ory Colorado Center, especially James Peterson, Laura Ruttum Sentoria, and Keith Schrum, who were always available and helped me find gems hidden in the archives I would also like to thank the staff at the Western History Department at the Denver Public L ibrary. I would also like to thank Steve Draper for so long ago putting the idea of getting an MA in public history in my head and my fellow traveler, Keith Outcelt, who was always available for to express profound gratitude to my wife Alisha, and our kids, Sam and it would not be what it is now. I love you all so much. I would also like to thank my father for instilling me with the desire to continue my education, even if I took a longer break than I intended.

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vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION . 1 II. THE HISTORY OF LOOTING DURING WAR .. .. 3 III. COLLECTING SOU VENIERS DURING WAR .. 9 IV. THE U.S. MUSEUM FIELD AT THE TURN OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY .. 11 V. THE COLORADO HISTORICAL SOCIETY, WILLIAM COLUMBUS FERRIL AND CECIL A. DEANE 13 VI. THE WAR WITH SPAIN AND THE PHILIPPINE REBELLION ... 23 VII. LOOTING IN THE PHILLIPINES .... .. 33 VIII. 45 IX. HOMECOMING . 50 X. CONCLUSION 59 APPENDIX A.

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vii LIST OF TABLES 1. Firearms in the War Relics Collection 2. Firearms with provenance in the War Relics Collection 3. Swords in the War Relics Collection 4. Items belonging to famous people in the War Relics Collection 22 5. Weapons and mil itary items from the Philippines in the War Relics Collection 52 6. Everyday items from the Philippines in the War Relics Col lection 53 7. Pottery and textiles in the War Relics Collection 8. Uniform items from the Philippines in the Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 Collection 9. Weapons from the Philippines in the Vete rans of Foreign Wars Post #1 Collection 56 10. Everyday items from the Philippines in the Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 Collection 57 11. Religious items from the Philippines in the Veterans of F .... 58

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viii LIST OF IMAGES 1. Ferril Captured 2. A Corner of the War Reli 3. Looking for Dinero 43

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1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION He had beautiful white teeth and a fai r complexion, and an Iron Cross on his chest, which meant he had been a good soldier. And I sat with him, and I grew fond of him. I loved him. I did not hate him. And two hours later word came to us that we had to advance again, and I led my men forwar d and we went on with the battle. But before we went, I spread a cloth over his face and I took his Iron robbing a corpse; it was like taking a souvenir of an old friend. 1 The United States ended the nineteenth century by going to war with Spain, and the men of the First Colorado found themselves halfway across the world in the Philippines. On May 17 th 1898, the men of the First Colorado marched through the streets of Denv er, from Camp Adams, located in City Park, to Union Station to board trains to San Francisco. From San Francisco, they sailed to the Philippines. 2 While they were there they collected souvenirs, and relics, of their time. Th re e years prior to the war with Spain Colorado State Historical S ociety founded a War Relics collection which was housed in the basement of the State Capital. During the First ime in the Philippines, regimental staff and soldiers collected Philippine artifacts at the behes t of the Colorado State Historical Society in order to add to their War R elics collection. 3 The curator of the Historical Society during the war was William Columbus Ferril, a former newspaperman working for T he Denver Republican The Rocky Mountain News and T he Denver Times 4 1 John Keegan, and Richard Holmes, Soldiers a History of Men in Battle [VHS] Volume 13 Experience of War (London: Churchill Films, 1988) 2 Arthur C. Johnson Official History of the O perations of the First Colorado Infantry, U.S.V. in the Campaign in the Philippine Islands (Washington, D.C.: War Department, 1899) 2. 3 Geoffrey R. Hunt 1899 ( Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2006 ) 220. 4 Colorado Magazine 57 (1981): 10.

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2 artifacts for the War Relics collection. He spoke to the Governor of Colorado, Alva Adams, and wrote to the Secretary of War Russell Alger to ask for permission to collect artifacts. Alger gave permission to Ferril who wrote to the commander of the First Colorado, General Irving Hale, giving Hale and his men authorization t o grab what they could; consent to plunder and loot. Plunder and looting has been a reality of warfare sinc e conflict began, resulting in the passage of n umerous convention s and treaties in an attempt to stop it. There are two major types of loot that may end up in museum exhibits ; cultural property and souvenirs. C ultural prope r ty, includes items that have intrinsic value to people because of traditional or religious importance. It also includes indigenous arts and crafts, and items of historic value. Sacred buildings and the artifacts they hold are also cultural property. Mos t international treaties and conventions cover wrongful collection of cultural property. However, this is not the case with objects considered as souvenirs The majority of historical literature about looting and plundering focuses on taking cultural ar tifacts. These items were generally found in either private colle ctions or museum collection s In practice, it is illegal for museums to acquire and exhibit stolen property. However that did not stop reputable museums in the later eig hteenth century thr ough the mid twentieth century from showing stolen cultural artifacts. Artifacts taken from the battlefield, or vacated homes, or abandoned buildings, or building taken over for military use are considered war souvenirs. These items are both picked up by individual soldiers as they fight, and collected by specialist curators attached to military units. Some of these items are covered under the laws dealing with cultural property, but most are not, resulting in a longtime disregard for the acquisition of such items.

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3 CHAPTER II THE HISTORY OF LOOTING DURING WAR In ancient Greece plunder ing during warfare was legal, and according to the Greek his torian Polybius. L ooting the defeated enemy was simply an act of war. When Antigonus Doson sacked Mantinea in the fourth century BCE This [razing] is only what, by the laws of warfare, awaits even those who have been guilty of no special act of no special act of impiety. They deserve, therefore, to meet with punishment even more complete an 5 In ancient Rome war was more civilized, although loot and pilla ge were still taken by the Roman legions. Cicero made Gaius Verres, the praetor of Sicily, pay retribution to the people of Sicily after Verres pillaged them between 73 BCE and 75 B CE Cicero also praised Scipio after he took Ca rthage in the T hird Punic War in 149 BCE, when Scipio returned plundered artwork to Sicily 6 Regardless of these attempts to curb looting, pillaging was still a major part of warfare until recently. By the s ixteenth and seventeenth centuries the practice of the to develop, with rules for war put in place and looting and pillaging formally phased out of combat. Commanders tried to institute a policy that restricted looting to only those item s necessary to military success, however soldiers still looted for their own gain. The laws of war were only as strong as the ability of commanders to enforce them. During the Napoleonic wars of the early eighteen hundreds, t he Duke of 5 Peter Karsten, Law, Soldiers and Combat (Westport, CT, London: Greenwood Press, 1978) 7. 6 Flora E.S. Kaplan (ed.), e of Objects in National Identity (London, New York: Leicester University Press, 1994) 331.

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4 Wellingto n, a ste rn disciplinarian, found that his men disregarded his orders, when their needs became too much. Wellington said of his officers: I may order what I please, but if they do not execute what I order, or if the y execute with negligence, I cannot expect Britis h sold iers to be orderly and regular. 7 2,065 paintings and 130 sculptures. Napoleon even held an Imperial Roman style triumph for himself in Paris. The triumph was a large military parade to c elebrate a conquering hero, and was defeated in 1815 the treaty that finally ended the Napoleonic wars, The Congress of Vienna, was used to force France to re turn the stolen works. 8 The Congress of Vienna wa s not the earliest treaty used to repatriate cultural property after a conflict. The Treaty of Whitehall in 1662 forced the Netherlands to return loot to England. The use of treaties to return pillage did, however, begin to gain momentum after the Congress of Vienna. The treaties also began to address long standing complaints. In 1866, The Treaty of Vienna not to be confused with the earlier Congress of Vienna, compelled the Duchy of Hessan to return a l ibrary they took from Cologne in 1794 nearly seventy five years earlier 9 The first international treaty that explicitly mentioned the act of pillaging and looting during war was the Hague Convention of 1899. The Convention addressed a 7 Karsten, Law, Soldiers and Combat 70. John Keegan discusses how one of the most important advances in the conduct warfare is was the creation of a professional officer class, that were educated not only in leadership, but in the rules that govern warfare. during the two hundred years in which formal military education has been carried on, is to reduce the conduct of war to a set of rules and a system of procedures and thereby to make orderly and rational what is essentially chaotic and The F ace of Battle. (New York: The Viking Press, 1976), 20. 8 Kaplan, Mus 330. 9 Kaplan, 330.

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5 wide variety o f issues including the rights of belligerents and the use of weapons. O n pillaging, the Convention stated Towns were not to be pillag ed, even when taken by A revised Convention was ratified 1907, and made improvements to the articl es concernin g looting including Article Twenty Seven which specifically focused on pillaging historical and cultural structures. It stated that in sieges and bombardments all steps must be taken to spare certain buildings from destruction, including religious buildi ngs, art centers and hospitals. These buildings were protected as long as they were not used for military purpose s. However, Article Five stated that the inhabitants of the town were responsible for indicating what buildings should be protected. 10 The T reaty of Versailles, signed in 1919 and which ended the First World War indicated that Germany must return looted artifacts to France. It not only included items that were taken in the course of the First World War, but also duri ng the Franco Prussian Wa r of 18 70 1871 as well. Article 245 of the Versailles Treaty, was how the allies f orced Germany to comply: Within six months after the coming into force of the present Treaty the German Government must restore to the French Government the trophies, archiv es, historical souvenirs or works of art carried away from France by the German authorities in the course of the war of 1870 1871 and during this last war, in accordance with a list which will be communicated to it by the French Government; particularly th e French flags taken in the course of the war of 1870 1871 and all the political papers taken by the German authorities on October 10 1870, at the chateau of Cercay, near Brunoy (Seine et Oise) belonging at the time to Mr. Rouher, formerly Minister of Sta te. 11 10 Karsten, Law, Soldiers and Combat 22. 11 http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/versailles.htm

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6 During the Second World War, Genera l Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote orders regarding the protection of c ultural sites making it a policy of the American Army in Europe. He sent a memorandum to his subordinate commanders on May 26 th 1944. In it he lai d out rules dealing with historic monuments. The memo explained that as the fight ranged across Europe, many historic and cultural sites would be encountered. He ordered each commander to take the responsibility to protect these monuments, if possible. However, m ilitary necessity could justify their destruction with the impli cation that cultural artifacts c ould not always be saved in the face of war. 12 It was a policy that paid lip service to the protection of cultural and historical sites, but allowed their destruction without real consequence. There is no mention of artifacts, cultural property, or art works in the memo. Armies still took art works. General George Patton ordered that an extensive cache of artwork be removed from Merkes, Germany in th e spring of 1945. The removal of the art The works were shipped to the United States by the Army where they were stored at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. The Metropolitan Museum of Art displayed sever al of the works in an exhibit in the summer of 1948. The catalog of the exhibit explains that the works were removed by the army to protect them, and that they would eventually be returned to Germany. 13 John H. Hess, a New York jou rnalist stated in his 1 974 book The Grand Acquisitors that traffic in pillaged art after World War Two boomed. Both museums and 12 W. Michael Reisman, and Chris T. Antoniou, The Laws of Wa r: A Comprehensive Collection of Primary Documents on International Law Governing Armed Conflict (New York: Vintage Books, 1994) 96. 13 The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Paintings from the Berlin Museum New York. Catalog introduction.

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7 art dealers participated in the trade. He went on to say greatest of them all, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, wa 14 In 1954 a new Hague Convention broadened the definition of cultural property to include artifacts that could be moved. Article One, section A of the 1954 Conventio n moveable or immovable propert y of great importance to the cultural heritage of every people such as monuments of architecture, art or history, 15 This new definition was meant to make clear that all cultural property was off limits during war, and yet the looting continued. Most recently, when forces from the United States, Great Britain and Australia invaded Iraq in March 2003, several Iraqi cultural institutions were looted. During and after the invasion Iraqi citizens and others looted The Iraqi Muse um, the Iraqi National Library, the Iraqi National Archives, the Iraqi Religious Library, and several other locations. The U.S. military command expected looting of items that related to the overthrown government of Saddam Hussain, but they did not expect the widespread pillaging that took place. 16 It was concluded that the looting was carried out by Iraqi citizens, many who may have had knowledge of the collections and were looting for profit. Several thousand items were stolen. 17 Donald Rumsfeld, the U. S. Defense Secretary, said that the looting was part of the price of the invasion. He was quoted as saying "Freedom's untidy, and free people are free to make mistakes and commit crimes 14 Phyllis Mauch Messenger (ed.), (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1999) 190. 15 Reisman, The Laws of Wa r: A Comprehensive Collection of Primary Documents on International Law Governing Armed Conflict 97. 16 Contemporary Review 290 (2008): 190 199. 17 Sashsa P. Par Emory Law Journal 53 (2004): 2021 2054.

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8 and do bad things 18 He blamed the looting on social upheaval and en ded by saying 19 The rise of other groups in the Mideast has caused concern for other cultural heritage site s and artifacts. In Afghanis tan, in the valley of Bamiyan the ruling Islamic party, the Taliban, destroyed two giant Buddha statu es in March 2001. The statues were created in the 6 th century and were two of the largest sculptures of the Buddha in the world. Mullah Mohammad Omar, a leader in the Taliban, called the statues non Islamic idols and object of worship and ordered they b e publically blown up The Taliban was also responsible for the destruction of several other cultural artifacts in the National Museum of Afghanistan. 20 Prior to the damage the Taliban did an estimated 70% of the ons were destroyed and looted between1989 and 1996. The mujahedeen forces, which fought the Soviet Union from 1979 to 1989, splintered into several factions after Soviets left plunging Afghanistan into civil war. It was these groups and this war that is responsible for the destruction of cultural artifacts 21 Daesh, or ISIS, is the most recent group that has made the destruction of cultural artifacts a matter of policy. The most infamous act of destruction was shown on YouTube on February 26, 2015. In the video, members of Daesh destroy artifacts at the Mosul Museum and at the archeological site at Kuyunjuk, in Kurdish Iraq. devastation of these cultural sites was, like the Taliban perpetrated for reasons of ideology. 22 18 Sean Loughlin "Rumsfeld on Looting "Stuff Happens."" CN N April 12, 2003. Accessed July 25, 2016. 19 Sean Loughlin "Rumsfeld on Looting "Stuff Happens."" CNN April 12, 2003. Accessed July 25, 2016. 20 Ravaged Cultural Heritage of Afghanistan: An Overview of Assessment, Mitigation, and Pr 195. 21 Near Eastern Archaeology 78 (2015): 187 195. 22 Near Eastern Archaeology 78 (2015) 170 177.

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9 CHAPTER III COLLECTIN G SOUVENIERS DURING WAR Regardless of continued looting, there are many laws and international treaties in place to try and protect antiquities, cultural property and art works. However, t here do not see m to be any to protect souvenirs collected by soldi ers on the battlefield. These token s represent the travels of individual soldiers in a hostile environment. They mark the experience of war The majority of item collected by soldiers will never be returned to their countries of origin, though often ti souvenirs to local museums or historical societies Collecting items that were exclusive ly intended for military use were much less regulated. On the battlefield, soldiers collected small items such as uniforms, meda ls, ribbons, insignia, or personal weapons. These personal artifacts obtained by soldiers are considered souvenirs, which are taken to mark events that are not repeatable but are reportable. They reduce the large and complex events soldiers find themselv es in to a personal scale. They are reminders of harrowing events soldiers find themselves in. 23 I began my paper with an excerpt of an interview of Charles Carrington, a World War I veteran condu cted in the mid 1980s. His wor ds have always been very stri king and I believe they gave a succinct explanation of why soldiers collected these kinds of souvenirs. These are his words in full. One day on the Somme, in one of the minor operations, I and my company captured a trench, and then we were held up by the Germans, and we lay down in shell holes; and there was a sort of rough fight for some hours. But I was not alone in the shell hole. I found that I was sharing it with a young dead German soldier, who was a man about I 23 Susan M Pearce, Museum Objects and Collections: A Cultural Study (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992) 72.

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10 could see a man of about my own age and style. And I liked the look of this [man.] He had beautiful white teeth and a fair complexion, and an Iron Cross on his chest, which meant he had been a good soldier. And I sat with him, and I grew fond of him. I loved him. I did not hate him. An d two hours later word came to us that we had to advance again, and I led my men forward and we went on with the battle. But before we went, I spread a cloth over of it upstairs somewhere now. A nd it was not like robbing a corpse; it was like taking a souvenir of an old friend. 24 th M ountain Division trained at Camp Hale in Colorado looted artifacts which are now in th e collection of History Colorado, formally the Colorado History Museum. In 2007, the Colorado History Museum exhibited many of these, contextualizing the extent to which a single soldier would take whatever they could, focusing on the soldiers and not the objects. 25 The soldiers of the 10 th Mountain Division knew they were collecting trophies for themselves. The focus of experience during wartime in relation to what they looted rather than on the war relic itself, is a contemporary exhibit met hod. In 1896, when William Ferril was appointed curator of the Colorado History Museum, the acquisition and curation method was much different. 24 John Keegan, and Richard Holmes, Soldiers a History of Men in Battle [VHS] V olume 13 Experience of War (London: Churchill Films, 1988) 25 Moya Hanson (curator of the 10 th Mountain Division Exhibit, Colorado Historical Society Museum) in an email with the author, April 2009.

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11 CHAPTER IV THE U.S. MUSEUM FIELD AT THE TURN OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY When William Ferril became the curato r of the Colorado History Museum, he was described as an enthusiastic amateur and his focus was on the acquisition and display of war relics as trophies 26 cademic historians showed little or no interest in in using objects and arti facts to study and understand history. Like Ferril, i nterested collectors, local curators, and amateur researchers drove the use of objects in historical research and were the ones who filled museums with artifacts. Academic historians were not part of th is initial national scholarship. 27 C ollectors and curators of local museums were driven by their desir e to collect objects that they believed were important to local, national, and international history They collected iconic items of famous people, impo rtant status symbols, and local totems. Museums exhibited these artifacts to educate the public about important history makers in the United States. The exhibits were also intended to be good family entertainment. 28 There was a driving desire for discov ering local and national roots in the collection s of American museums and historical societies. The museum became a place where people came to learn about the heroes and great events that made the United States. The hope was that the public would feel a sense of belonging to a great nation when they visited the museum. 29 A. Howard Clark, curator of the United States National Museum (later the Smithsonian Institution), a graduate of Wesleyan University, and a Mayflower descendant was committed to collect an 26 27 Thomas J Schlereth. Material Culture Studies in America (Walnut Creek, Lanham, New York, Oxford: Alta Mira Press, 1999), 14. 28 Schlereth, Material Culture Studies in America 5. 29 Alvin Schwartz Museum : (New York: E. Dutton, 1967) 125.

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12 30 The national myths and ideals that the founders of historical societies wanted to highlight most had a direct impact on the scope of their collections 31 These same types of myths drove local historical societies. Their love of their country and communities fueled zeal for collecting. 32 Reuban Gold Thwaits presented a report at the the report was The Best Methods of Organization and Work on the Art of States and Local Historical Societies He began his report stating opportunities. But back of these, moulding [sic] conditions and taking advantage of opportunities, are needed individuals imbued with genuine and self sacrificing enthusiasm in the 33 He went on to say that enthusiasm was not the only thing needed, but that skill, expertise, and the r espect of peers was also necessary. 34 Charles Wilson Peale founder of what would be the Philadelphia Museum in 1800, stated his desire to collect when he gave an address to possible investors to his museum in 1792. He explained his plan to fill his museum with sentiments of Peale and Thwaits are qualities that Willia m Ferril brought as curator of t he Colorado State Histor ical S ociety and in particular to his pursuit of artifacts from the Philippines. 30 Warren Leon and Roy Roseweig (eds). History Museums in the United States: A Critical Assessment (Urbana, Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1989) 9. 31 Edward Alexander and Mary Alexander. Museums in Motion: An Introduction to the History and Functio ns of Museums (Lanham, New York, Toronto, Plymouth U.K.: Alta Mira Press, 2008) 120. 32 Alexander. Museums in Motion 118. 33 Hugh H. Genoways and Mary Anne Andrei (eds.). Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museum History and Philosophy (Walnut Creek, CA: Le ft Coast Press, 2008), 73. 34 Genoways and Andrei (eds.). Museum Origins 73.

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13 CHAPTER V THE COLORADO HISTORICAL SOCIETY, WILLIAM COLUMBUS FERRIL AND CECIL A. DEANE The Colorado State Historical and Natural History Society was created by an act of the Sec ond Session of the General Assembly of the State of Colorado. The session was convened in Denver on January 1 st 1879. 35 The act that created the society had a lofty view of both the history and future of Colorado and its natural wonders, reading, Wherea s, The history of Colorado, being as yet unwritten and existing now only in tradition of fragmentary manuscripts of private individuals and of the public press; and Whereas, The natural history of Colorado, as represented by published essays of scientific and by preserved specimens, is set forth only by organizations and museums without the state, in this country and in Europe; and Whereas, The opportunity, now so evident, for making a permanent record of these essential elements of our prosperity, is fa st passing away, so that a few years hence, both the men who have been the actors, and the material for collections, will be quite beyond our reach; and Whereas, It is believed that many valuable historical papers, and specimens of natural history, would be contributed to a properly organized society; therefore, in order to encourage and promote the advancement of these material interests and to establish a state museum 36 35 General Assembly of the State of Colorado Laws Passed on the First Day of January, A.D. 1879, 85. 36 General Assembly of the State of Colorado Laws Passed, 85. history of Colorado, being as yet in 1866, a full thirteen years before the law creating the Colorado Historical Societ y was passed. It was s Office in Denver.

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14 The bill, House Bill 134, was passed on February 6 th 1879. The bill stipulated t hat the State would pay $500 to encourage the formation of the museum, but the funds could not be used to pay compensation to anyone working for the museum Sec. 2. That there be and is hereby appropriated out of any money in the state treasury, not othe rwise appropriated, the sum of five hundred dollars to assist the said society to further the ends of its organization, and generally set further in the preamble, thereof; Provided, however, that no part of the money herby appropriated shall be paid as com pensation to any officer or member of the society; 37 In July 1879, a group of prominent Denver men met to write the articles of incorporation, the constitution and the bylaws of the Colorado Historical and Natural History Society. The first president of the society was Dr. Frederick J Bancroft, a Connecticut doctor who was also had a School. 38 The vision of the museum at that point was a selection of small exhibits, eac h focusing on a different aspect of the natural history of Colorado. 39 In 1881, the first location of the thematic exhibits was a room at the Glenarm Hotel, located at First and Glenarm The society did not remain at its Glenarm location long, and moved tw ice between 1885 and 1886. The first move was to the Arapahoe County Courthouse in 1885. The second move, just a year later, was to the fourth floor of the Denver Ch amber of Commerce Building at Fourteenth and Lawrence. 40 Also housed in the Denver Chamber of Commerce Buildings fourth floor was the Mercantile Library. Charles R. Dudley, the librarian, was displeased with to collec became a nuisance, as the generally inclined gave liberally of the things 37 General Assembly of the State of Colorado Laws Passed, 85 86. 38 39 40

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15 meeting house foot oven 41 Though Dudley d id appreciate that the afforded much entertainment for the young. 42 Charles Dudley had to end ure the next move came with the co mpletion of the new state capito l building in 1895. Th e cornerstone for the new capito l was laid on July 4 th 1890. When the new building was finished enough for partial occupancy, in mid 1895, the society moved its collections to the basement. The collection boasted 3,000 artifacts from the Cliff Dwellings in Mancos Canyon, and three rooms of artifacts from prehistoric Colorad o. The collection included skeletons, skulls, pottery, wood and stone tools, baskets, and textiles. 43 In 1896, b efore the move into the capital, Dr. Bancroft resigned as Byers, a 5 9er and publisher of The Rocky Mountain News became the new president On August 14 th 1896, William Columbus Ferril, another newspaperman, was hired a s curator, and became the Colorado State Histor ical 44 William Columbus Ferril was born on August 28 th 1855 in La wrence Kansas. His father, Reverend Thomas Ferri l was a Methodist minister. H is mother, Minerva, died when he was six year s old. His father remarried Cleopatra Lynch and she served as his first connection to Colorado. 45 r, represented Summit County in the House of the Territorial General Assembly for two session s between 1861 and 1865. 46 William Ferril 41 Bens 42 43 Legislative and State House Blue Book of Colorado: Being a Collection of Portrait Engravings and Biographies of the State Officials; Members of the Supreme Court and Court of Appeals; Member o f the Senate and House of Magnificent State House 1899. ( Denver: Carson Harper Company and W.H. Lawrence, 1899 ), 75 44 45 The Brand Book 17 (1961): 249 50. 46 Williams N. Byers. Encyclopedia of Biography of Colorado, Volume 1 (Chicago: The Century Publishing and Engraving Company, 1901). 345.

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16 attended Lewis College in Glasgow, Missouri. As the son of a minister, he qualified for a 50% reduction in all his fees, and paid only $2 a month for room and board. He graduated from Lewis College with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1875. He further went on to earn a Bachelor of Arts and Didactics from the North Missouri State Normal School in 1876. 47 He also obtained an MA at the University of Denver in 1900, during his time as curator of the Historical Society. 48 After completing his degrees, William Ferril became the principal of the Bentonville High School in Bentonville Arkansas. He remained at the high school for onl y two years from 1876 to 1877. He then worked for Arkansas U.S. Senator James H. Berry and while working for the senator, started to study law. Ferril was certified to practice law in Arkansas in December of 1877 and in Missouri in March of 1878. 49 Ferril would only practice law for a short time, however. Poor heath prompted him to move to Colorado in 1879, and he gave up law for good. He initially settled in Silver Cliff and took up journalism. 50 He moved to Denver in 1883, when he was asked by Eugene F ield to join the staff of The Denver Republican eventually serving as 51 Ferril was soon a full fledged newspaperman, editing The Rocky Mountain News from 1887 to 1888, before returning to The Republican He was also the editor of The Denver Times worked on The Colorado Sun and The Denver Mining Exchange Journal He also wrote for the Kellogg and New York Press syndicates. 52 It was while Ferril was writing articles for the New 47 Fellerman, Henr 12. 48 Byers. Encyclopedia of Biography of Colorado, Volume 1, 345 49 50 Byers. Encyclopedia of Biography of Colorado, Volume 1, 345 51 52

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17 York Staff S yndicate in 1889 that he beg an to become interested in writing about history. 53 This In 1896 William Ferril abandoned the role of a newspaper man to devote himself to his new vocation as curator of the Colorado Historical and Natural History Society. He jumped into the lectures himself. A report in the book State Officials and 13 th General Assembly of Colorado states that over 2,000 students had attended lectures by Ferril in 1901 alone. The visitor count for the Historical Society through 1901 was listed as 228,863. 54 He also made the society a repository for official federal and state papers and arranged for the de livery of newspapers from throughout Colorado. The newspaper collection he amassed is still one of the largest local newspaper collections anywhere. 55 The library consisted of 10,000 items, including the newspaper file, books, pamphlets and manuscripts fr 56 hundred stuffed birds and mammals. 57 Ferril often took to the field himself to collect specimens, lection. 58 As curator of the Society, Ferril had permission to collect all flora and fauna, but as a cartoon on The Denver Republican on April 20 th 1902 showed, he was frequently stopped by game wardens. 53 54 State Officials and 13 th General Assembly of Colorado 1901 (Denver: unknown publishers, 1901) 55 56 Leg islative and State House Blue Book 1899, 76 57 Legislative and State House Blue Book 1899, 75 58

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18 Image 1: Denver Republican April 20 th 1902 Ferril was also frequently ill, due to the long hours he worked. He kept what he called a daily journal during his tenure as curator, Bad cold and not well; m ade the day as easy as possible 59 The journal is filled with similar entries. Regardless of his bad health, Ferril was always an enthusiastic collector. When the United States entered the Spanish the War Re lics collection It was the same opportunity that Reuben Gold Thwaits had spoken of. space in the new State Capital building. The War Relics collection included over 2,000 artifacts of military significance from the wars of the United States from the American Revolution through the early twentieth century. 60 Cecil A Deane was the custodian of the collection According to the Legislative and State House Blue Book of 1 899 the collection served to teach 59 60 Legislative and State House Blue Book 1899, 79.

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19 teachers from the public schools with their classes, that the younger generation may learn by observation of these interesting r elics something of the actualities of war, and thus form a better 61 Cecil Deane had a singular passion for artifacts that had a connection to the wars of the United States. He enlisted in the Army of the Potomac as a private during the American Civil War and became a First Lieutenant. H e came to Denver in 1866 as a wagon train driver, delivering supplies from Addison Kansas, but soon became a surveyor. He worked for the U.S. Government for fifte en years as the Deputy Surveyor of Public Lands, where he spent much of his time working on getting the railroad through the mountains. 62 The introduction to the r relics was made by Cecil A. Deane, the present custodian, in 1895, and was secured from many 63 Deane donated his large collection to the Society under the condition that it must be housed in the Cap itol and made available to the public. 64 A photograph in the Legislative and Stare House Blue Book of Colorado, 1899 shows an unknown man standing amongst several racks of rifles and large artillery shells in a part of the War Relics room. 61 Legislative and State House Blue Book 1899, 80. 62 Legislative and State House Blue Book 1899, 80. 63 Cecil A, Deane. Catalogue of War Relics (Denver, CO: Smith Brooks Printing Company, State Printers, 1898) Introduction. 64 Legislative and State House Blue Book 1899, 79.

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20 Image 2 : Legis lative and Stare House Blue Book of Colorado, 1899 79. A Corner of the War Relics The War Relics catalogue illustrates the kind of relics that Deane was most interested in, which were arms and armaments. He collected rifles, pistols, knives, pie ces of artillery shell and any part of the weapon he could seemingly get his hand on. The first four and a half pages of the catalogue list almost nothing but rifles. They include a wide variety of guns, a few of which are foreign made. Table 1: Fire arms in the War Relics Collection Item Number Description 15 Sharp's Carbine. Patent. 1848. 16 Ferry's Carbine. Patent. 1848. First kind of breech loader. 24 Chassepot Rifle. (French Zouaves.) 1886 26 Yeager's (Hunter's) Rifle. Made in Switzerl and in 1851. 28 Spencer Rifle. 1859. 31 Springfield Breach Loading Rifle. 1864. 35 Ybarzabel Cap Lock. Spanish 39 Merrill Breach Loading Rifle. 47 Queen's Arm Flint Lock. Was used in Revolutionary War. 48 Flint Lock Musket. 1837. Changed to cap. Deane, Catalogue of War Relics

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21 Some of the weapons have specific provenance, many of which were used by famous frontiersmen. Table 2 : Firearms with provenance in the War Relics Collection Item Number Description 17 Colt's Carbine. Patent. Six Chamb ers. Was carries through the war by E.E. Cheever, Company H, 89th Illinois Infantry 18 Gold Mounted Henry Rifle. Brought to Denver by Gov. John Evans, in 1862. 36 Double Barreled Smooth Bore Buffalo Gun. Owned by Kit Carson. Made by Wallis & Sheath. London. Weights, seventeen pounds. 37 Harper's Ferry Cap Lock. Carried in late war by Michael Ivory, 1st Colorado Cavalry. Deane, Catalogue of War Relics There are over forty long arms listed in the first five pages of the War R elics catalogue. Even more numerous than the guns were the or dnance that Deane collected. There are nearly ten pages of nothing but shells and bullets. He collected both actual shells and shell fragments, including some very l arge pieces such as item 100 a three hundred poun d s hell. 65 Deane also collected items that had shell fragments in them. There are at least five items in the catalogue that are nothing more than a block of wood with imbedded shell fragments. As for bullets, Deane collected hundreds. Part of the catalo Union and Confederate bullets from Missionary Ridge, Lookout Mountain and Chattanooga 66 Although not as numerous as the firearm and artillery related items, there is a substantial number of swords, knives and bayonets. Some of the more s pecial artifacts Deane sought out like the rifles he collected, had very specific provenance, including his own s word. 65 Deane, Catalogue of War Relics 11. 66 Deane, Catalogue of War Relics 19.

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22 Table 3 : Swords in the War Relics Collection Item Number Description 891 French Cavalry Sabre 893 German Cavalry Sabre. 901 Modern German Cavalry Sword. 906 M oorish Cimetar [sic] Inlaid wi th gold. Was captured from the British at the battle of Saratoga, N.Y. in 1777. Was later used by a colonial officer during the Revolution. 910 Sword Used by Capt. John Tallan. New York colonial troops, during the war. Worn by ted by Mrs. J.S. Gorning, Denver 911 Sword of C.A. Deane. First lieutenant, Company A, 1 st Battalion Pennsylvania Infantry. 1406 Saber. Worn by Samuel C. Dorsey, Company H, 1 st Colorado Cavalry. Deane, Catalogue of War Relics Much of the rest of the wa r relics catalogue is filled with various items of military life, such as cartridge boxes, canteens and some military medical equipment. However, Deane seemed very interested in collecting the items of great men, items that great men had been in contact w ith, or items that had significant to great moments of history. The last several pages of the Catalogue of War Relics contain some of these very specific items. Table 4 : Items belonging to famous people in the War Relics Collectio n Item Number Description 1045 Ivory paper Cutter. Given to Lieut. Burnett by Gen. Washington. 1143 Confederate Note. With autograph of Brig. Gen. Benj. H. Grierson on back. 1158 Autograph of R.B. Hayes. Ex president United States. Deane, Catalogue of War Relics The item t hat best illustrates the wide variety of war artifacts that Deane hunted is item 1318 67 67 Deane, Catalogue of War Relics 38.

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23 CHAPTER VI THE WAR WITH SPAIN AND THE PHILIPPINE REBELLION Karl Irvine Faust wrote a history of the United States involvement i n the Philippines during the Spanish American War. His book Campaigning in the Philippines was first published by Hicks Judd, San Francisco, in 1899. The first line of the book summed up how Faust, and perhaps many Americans, including William Ferril, sa 68 However, the Philippines Asia was overshadowed by Cuba Accord ing to Faust, most people did not even know where the Philippines were. 69 The Spanish American War is most remembered for the campaign in Cuba, And indeed, i war with Spain at the time The desire of the Cuban people to rule themselves and expel the Spanish authorities was the impetus for the Spanish American War. Jos Marti, a poet and activist led a revolt against the Spanish in February, 1895. 70 In response to the uprising, the Spanish authorities cracked down on the Cubans and created camps to keep the population under military control. The camps were crowded and unhealt hily and soon the United States learned what the Spanish were doing through newspapers accounts. 71 Concerned by the events in Cuba, the United States sent the USS Maine, under the command of Captain Charles D Sigsbec, to Havana on January 25 th 68 Karl Irvin Faust, Campaigning in the Philippines (New York: Arno Press, 1970), 1. 69 Faust, Campaigning in the Philippines 1 7. 70 James M. McCaffrey Inside the Spanish American War: A History Based on First Person Accounts (Jefferson, NC, London: McFarland & Co., Inc., Publishers, 2009), 3. 71 McCaffrey Inside the Spanish American War: 3.

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24 1898. The official reason the Maine was in Cuba was in case American citizens needed to be evacuated. 72 On the night of February 15 th 1898, the Maine exploded in Havana Bay, killing 266 members of her crew. The destruction of the Maine began the roll to war betwe en the United States and Spain. 73 74 On April 11 th McKinley asked C ongress for the authority to use force against the Spanish. 75 On the 13 th of April 1898, the House of Representatives passed a resolution that directed President William McKinley to intervene in Cuba. The resolution demanded that Spain recognize the independence of Cuba and give up the authority it had on the island. The demand w as backed by a threat of war. The resolution was passed on the 19 th of April, 1898. 76 On the 23 rd of April, Spain declared war on the United States. The U.S. Congress, in a display of pique announced that Spain was too late and that the United States and Spain had been at war since April 21 st 77 While the country was preparing for war in Cuba, events on the other side of the globe were developing that would lead to the United States, the men of the First Colorado, and in the Philippines. have a strong aversion to sending our bright boys ou t there to fight with a disgraced musket 72 McCaffrey, Inside the Spanish Americ an War 4. 73 Hunt, Infantry in the Philippine War, 8. 74 McCaffrey, Inside the Spanish American War, 7. 75 McCaffrey, Inside the Spanish American War, 7. 76 Faust, Campaigning in the Philippines 29. 77 McCaffrey, Inside the Spanish Americ an War 7.

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25 cut anti imperialist message, but he eventually apologized. 78 Admiral George Dewey was in Hong Kong when, on April 24 th 1898, he received orders from the Secretary of t he Navy to sail to the Philippines. His task was to sink or capture the Spanish Fleet at Manila Bay. 79 The reason for the order to sink a Spanish fleet in Asia, when hostilities were centered on Cuba, was part of a Navy plan from 1896. The Navy wanted to take Manila Bay and neutralize the Spanish fleet in Asia, if the United States and Spain ever went to war. Twelve days after Congress had given President McKinley authority to use force against Spain in Cuba, Admiral Dewy opened fire on the Spanish Fleet in Manila Bay, destroying it on May 14 th 1898. 80 Once the Spanish fleet was no longer a threat, Dewey needed to land troops to complete the occupation o f the Philippines. The U.S. Army was not able to send as many troops to Asia as were needed, because of commitments in Cuba. The answer was in sending vo lunteer troops raised from the s tate m ilitia s 81 The destruction of the Maine had already bolstered enlistment in the regular army and the state militias Before the Maine, the enlistments numbered an average of 700 to 1000 per month. After the Maine it jumped to 9,000 for the months of May and June 1898. Many of those enlistments were to state militias At the time of the war the militias were often seen as unprofessional, only train ing sporadicall y during the summer, and often spent their time organizing parades, dances, and networking rather than performing military service. 82 With the 78 Hunt, 241. 79 Faust, Campaigning in the Philippines 3. 80 Richard E. Welch, Jr ., Response to Imperialism: The United States and the Philippine American War, 1899 1902 (Chapel Hill: Universi ty of North Carolina Press, 1979), 3 4. 81 Faust, Campaigning in the Philippines 55. 82 McCaffrey, Inside the Spanish American War 20.

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26 chance to fig ht the Spanish in Cuba, men flocked to be a part of any unit that would have them. This included t he men of Colorado. In Denver, Governor Alva Adams received a cable from Secretary of War Russell Alger requesting one infantry regiment and one light artillery regiment made up of the existing units of the m ilitia. 83 The Colorado State Militia immediat ely began to recruit and reorganize to meet the request of President McKinley and Secretary Alger. Soon, men were quickly volunteering to fill the ranks. 84 Jerome Smiley a historian writing at the time of the war, several states were relativity small, and there was almost a fierce competition among gallant 85 The men of Denver organized and mobilized in April of 1898. They set up Camp Alva Adams north of City Park and began to drill. 86 The men who jo ined the F irst Colorado came from all over the state. As the men enlisted, they were placed into any company that needed men, but in the end the companies eventually organized based on geographic lines. 87 Denver provide d the F irst Colorado with four comp anies, B, E, I, and K. There were two Pueblo companies, A and C. The remaining six companies were made of men from Boulder, Greeley. Leadville and Cripple Creek. 88 They ranged from the ages of 17 to 52, but the average age of the soldiers was 24 or 2 5. O nly 10% of the men of the F irst Colorado were native to Color ado, and 83 Hunt, 31. 84 According to Geoffrey Hunt in fantry in the Philippine Wars not all men were accepted into the ranks of the First Colorado. One hundred and fifty African Americans from Denver, and on e hundred African Americans from Manitou formed companies to fig ht. None were accepted to the First Colorado as soldiers. Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars 31. 85 Jerome C. Smiley (ed) History of Denver: With Outlines of the Earlier Histor y of the Rocky Mountain Country (Denver: Times Sun Publishing Company, 1901), 939. 86 Johnson Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry 1. 87 Johnson Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry 2. 88 Hunt, Co 40.

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27 12% of them were born outside the United States mainly Europe. 89 Colorado was a superb regiment; even above the high standards of Am erican volunteer organization 90 He commented that the regiment was made up of men from every walk of en trained in the state militia 91 The men of the First Colorado believed they were going to Cuba, as rumors surfaced that they were moving Chic kamauga, Georgia. But the infantry regiment was ultimately bound for the Philippines. General Wesley Me rritt was given command of the Eighth Army Corps to take He requested that the Eighth Ar my Corps be increased to 14,000 men to go to the Philippines. 92 The men from the state militia units were given to him. The cavalry, however, traveled to Cheyenne, Wyoming, and did go to Cuba. 93 According to Arthur Johnson both a soldier in the First Co lorado and a reporter for T he Rocky Mountain News when the First Colorado marched to Union Station, day, perfect overhead and underfoot, and a vast throng of and said good byes and wished God speed to 94 The men arrived in San Francisco and set up their encampment, calling it Camp Hale, within the larger army camp, called Camp Merritt. 95 On the 14 th of June, 1898, the men of the First Colorado marched through the streets of San Francisco, were treated to a dinner by the Red Cross, and then boarded the transport ship China for their voyage to the Philippines. 96 89 Hunt, 43 44. 90 Smiley (ed) History of Denver, 941. 91 Smiley (ed) History of Denver, 941. 92 McCaffrey, Inside the Spanish America War 129. 93 Joh nson Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry 2. 94 Johnson Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry 2. 95 Johnson Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry 2. 96 Hunt, Volunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars 58.

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28 The First Colorado arrived in the Philippines on the 16 th of July, when the China anchored in Manila Bay. By the eighteenth, they began to move their equipment ashore and settled in Camp Dewey, the main American camp. By the 22 nd of July the entire regiment was ashore. 97 The regiment s first action was on the 1 st of August, when the Spanish shelled the trenches the First Colorado were hol ding, and Fred E Springfield from Company D was the first Coloradan to be killed in the war 98 The First Colorado was located across from the Spanish fort San Antonio de Abad, at the southeast corner of Manila. The fort was old, but solid. The Cruiser Olympia began to shell Manila at 10 am on the morning of the 13 th of August and one hour later, the First Colorado was ordered to march forward and assault the fort. 99 The Colorado men easily routed the Spanish from the fort, and raised the first U.S. flag over Manila. 100 As they moved into the city, the band a popular song at the time. When the regiment got to Manila City Hall, they wanted to place the first flag on a Spanish government building. Du ring that flag raising, Private Charles Phenix was killed. 101 Jerome Smiley wrote of 97 Hunt, 76. 98 Johnson Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry, 7. 99 Hunt, 89 90. 100 Hunt, 92. 101 Johnson Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry, 9. William Ferril noted in his journal on September 1 st (father of t son Charles who was killed in the attack on Manila. Charles was member of Colo 1 st received an answer to his letter on October 9 th s married to Unis Evans? November the 25 1855 in Clark Co Illinois. We have had 11 children, 8 boys and 3 girls. Thaire [sic] but fore a living now 2 boys and 2 girls. Charles was next to the youngest he was Born December the 21 1875 in Clarke Co Illinoi s. Move to to Mosuria [sic] in September 1979 has all wais lived on a farm til he went to Denver March the first in 1896. We have never herd wether [sic] Charles was kildded [ si c] or wounded and it is reported that he was wounded on the 13 and dide [sic ] the 16 and it was reported he was shot thru the heart. I would like to no all bout i t if you got any correct newes [sic] please let me (Steph en H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO). Ferril also received a letter that contends that Charles Phenix was not the gallant soldier Ferril believed him to be. The letter was from the wife of Lieutenant Hilton, who also took part in the flag raising. The letter reads which he describes the exact manner and time of th at the time and (unreadable) about it. Phoenix [sic] was not assisting or raising the flag, but was standing by Sarg.

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29 102 The Spanish commander Jaudenes surrendered Manila at 4.30 p.m. 103 When Manila fell, the War Relics collection received several Mauser rifles and several cannons which were used by the Spanish to defend the city 104 After the surrender of the Spanish forces, the First Colorado were required to do a long and tedious six mo nths of garrison duty, which 105 When the fighting with Spain was over, the port of Manila was quickly reopened by the U.S Navy Trade returned to the city at once and the Filipino merchants welcomed the American soldiers, and began to extend them credit. Problems began immediately and Major General Elwell Otis of the 8 th Corps had to issue orders that men pay their debts as soon as they received their bi monthly pay. 106 According to Karl Faust, th e Filipinos who fought beside the Americans overtures fell on barren ground and he was taught that there could be no affinity between him and the A 107 Professor Geoffrey Hunt Philippines, argues that the initial r elationship between the Colorad ans and the Filipinos was one of respect. That began to change though, and he quotes one soldier as Dick Holmes side watching him hold the Stars and Stripes not of the (unrea dable) window and was shot in the returns it from Estes Park, which will be about Saturday. I do not like to se these fake reports g et head way in exploit was much twisted by the papers. The poor fellow disobeyed orders, as I understand it from my husband and his curios ity was his death knell. Please do not make this letter public. I write in confidence and hope you will accept the communication as such, away form English Hinton to William C Ferril, October, 1898 Colorado Historical Society File MSS 157 (Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO). I do not know how Ferril reacted to this news, or whether he ever received 102 Smiley (ed) History of Denver, 942. 103 Hunt, Colora 95. 104 Hunt, 218. 105 Smiley (ed) History of Denver, 943. 106 Hunt, 125. 107 Faust, Campaigning in the Phil ippines 85.

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30 very much like our grand will end up in a war of conquest and 108 The First Colorado, occupying Spanish trenches, was fired on by Filipino insurgents, who confused t hem for Spanish soldiers. The Filipinos had their arms confiscated, as General Hale 109 Although Hale ordered the arms returned later, it marked a decline in the way the two armies worked t ogether. 110 Faust c alled the participate in attacks. 111 A new fight was coming. John M. Bass, wrote in The Filipino is the true child of the East. His moral fibre [sic] is as the web of the pineapple gauze of which the women make their dresses. He will cheat, steal, and lie beyond the orthodox limit of the Anglo Saxon. His unreliability and the persistence with which he disobeys orders are irritation beyond descr iption; besides this, his small stature and color invite abuse. There can be no doubt our soldiers are spoiling for a fight. They hate and despise the native for the manner he has lied to and cheated them, and on the whole they are inclined to treat the Filipino the way a burly policeman treats a ragged street urchin. The native is like a child, unreasonable, and easily affected by the small things. Unable to appreciate the benefits of good government, he fiercely resents the rough manner in which the s oldier jostles him out of the way. 112 On the 4 th of February hostilities began again. Filipino rebels, who had initially w anted to join the Americans in the fight against Spain, had occupied the Old Spanish trenches and blockhouses that surrounded Manila. They fired on the Americans in Manila. 113 The next day the First Colorado retook B lockhouse 5 from the Filipinos 114 The Filipino American War had begun. That began a six week campaign to force the insurgents from the blockhouses and all 108 Hunt, 3. 109 Hunt, 122. 110 Hunt, 122. 111 Faust Campaigning in the Philippines 75 7 6. 112 Hunt, 138 139. 113 Hunt, 150. 114 Hunt, 156.

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31 other positions E ast from Baligbalig to San Francisco del Monte. 115 As the Americans forced the Filipino troops back, they bur ned the small villages that the insurgents were using as staging areas to the east of the city. The First Colorado was ordered to fortify, guard, a nd defend the waterworks, which supplied Manila with its water. 116 The big breakout for the Americans in the war came on the 25 th of March, when American troops marched on Malolos to drive the insurgents away from Manila and the water works. 117 The men from C olorado began their toughest duty in the insurgency on the 3 rd of June, when the y marched from Santolan to Antipolo. It was called the Antipolo hike. 118 Antipolo was an insurgent stronghold, believed to hold 2500 Filipino soldiers The First Colorado, joi ned with m en of the regular U.S Army, the U.S. Cavalry, and volunteers from Or e gon and Utah, including several mountain guns, made up the attacking force 119 The attack began five miles outside of Antipolo. The First Colorado started up the mountains in a skirmish line and took fire from the defending Filipino insurgents. The U.S. forces got their mountain guns in place and began to fire on the Filipino positions. The infantry then began the long hard trek to Antipolo. They made it three miles in the fi rst day. 120 When the men of the First Colorado reached Antipolo the next day, they found that the Filipino insurgents had fled or blended in with the civilian positions. After a short rest, they began the march back to their original positions at the water works 121 The final action the men from Colorado saw was at the beginning of June 1899. Six companies of the First Colorado, companies B, D, E, F, M, and I marched south as part of an 8,000 men expedition to take the Filipino strongholds of Paranaque and L as Pinas. Most of the 115 Johnson Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry 14. 116 Hunt, 156. 117 Smiley (ed) History of Denver, 943. 118 Hunt, 192. 119 Johnson Official History of the Operations of t he First Colorado Infantry, 23. 120 Johnson Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry, 24. 121 Hunt, 193.

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32 men that made up the expedition were men of the regular army. They began their march on June 9 th 122 On the 10 th the U.S. forces assaulted the Guadalupe Heights and drove the Filipinos from their defensive positions and pursued them for five miles. 123 For the men of the First Colorado it was their last combat and their last service in the field. On the 11 th of June, they marched the ten miles back to the waterworks, where they took up their guard duties again. 124 T he First Colorado w as ordered home o n the 4 th of July 1899 They returned to San Francisco on the 16 th of August. From there they returned to Colorado. 125 They arrived on the 14 th of September and on the 16 th they marched up Sixteenth Street from Union Station. Smiley wro 126 The adventure was over. 122 Johnson Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantr y, 26. 123 Hunt, 195. 124 Smiley (ed) History of Denver, 946 47. 125 Johnson Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry, 30. 126 Smiley (ed) History of Denver, 950.

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33 CHAPTER VI I LOOTING IN THE PHILLIPINES The longer the U.S. soldiers stayed in the Philippines the declining relations hip between t he Americans and the Filipinos became palpable. Dispu tes were commonplace. Arthur Johnson ; however, he admitted that as prices on items like eggs and bana nas began to rise, the American soldiers began to ignore what the Filipinos were charging and pay whatever they wanted. He did 127 The strain on relations created an atm osphere that was ideal for the type of looting that took place on behalf of the Colorado Historical Society. Although the U.S. was concerned about Filipino looting in Manila, the conc ern did not seem to extend to U. S. soldiers respect for property. 128 Colo nel Henry B. McCoy of the First Colorado was involved in two incidents, one that resulted in disciplinary action. In one of the instances, he ordered the priests of San Sebastian out of their rooms, and ordered his men to move their effects. When one pri est refused 129 When the incident was investigated General Arthur McArthur found that undo force was not used by Colonel McCoy or his men to expel the pri es ts, and that was the official end of the matter 130 Spanish General Ricardo Monch for his own use. That incident did involve an order for McCoy to return items, including furnitu re. 131 127 Hunt, lunteer Infantry in the Philippine Wars 118 128 Hunt, 127. 129 Hunt, 128. 130 Hunt, 128. 131 Hunt, C 129.

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34 loits in the Philippines were a great obtain artifacts from the Philippines in his journal on October 26 th 1898. He wanted to ask for permission from Russell A. Alger, the Secretary of War, for free shipping costs for artifacts from the Philippines. He also asked Alva Adams, the Governor of Colorado, for the money to ship the artifacts from San Francisco to Denver Had a talk with Hall, agent of Santa Fe last ? calling at his office ? to see him to make inquiries as to shipments of freight from San Francisco to Denver. 1 st Class is $40 per ton. My idea was to have arrangements made to obtain relics from Manila. Had a talk with Gov. Alva Adams this morning. I told him I had a plan to obtain 2 tons of war relics from Manila, and if the State ??(would pay back)?? in cost, the sum not to exceed $100. He said he would. I told him I had a plan without giving into de tails. After this (?) promise I wrote Secretary of War R.A Alger, Washington D.C. 132 Ferril wrote to Alger, the US Secretary of War, on the same day. Alger wrote back just twenty one days later. (See Appendix A) Subject: Free Transportation of relics f rom Manila War Department Washington File no. 7914 November 16, 1898. My Dear Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 26 th ultimo, requesting in behalf of the State Historical and Natural History Society of Colorado that aut hority be granted Brigadier General Irving Hale and Colonel Henry B McCoy, 1 st Colorado U.S. Volunteers, and other officers and men of that regiment, to ship free of cost on some returning Government transport two tons of relics from Manila I., to San Fran cisco, California: also that the said Historical Society be presented with guns and other weapons used in battle. 132

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35 Replying thereto, I beg to inform you that the requested authority for shipment of relics by some returning Army transport has been approved it being understood that this approval applies exclusively to such relics, etc., as are private property. There is no authority of law for the donation of guns or other arms used in battle, which are the property of the United States. Very respectful ly, R.A. Alger (signature) Secretary of War. 133 This letter gave Ferril permission to ship the artifacts the First Colorado collected from their time in the Philippines, and gave him the means to get them back to the United States from Asia. More signific ant than the shipping arrangement, is that Alger had given his express perm ission to Ferril to ask the First Colorado to gather artifacts. He had given them permission to grab what they could. With his denial of any guns or arms used in war, he had told Ferril that anything shipped would have to be non US property. The only other property that was available, then, was the property of the Spanish and Filipinos. Ferril wrote to General Hale on the 23 rd of November informing him that Alger had given his per mission for the First Colorado to collect and ship relics from the Philippines. (See Appendix A) Kindly greetings to all. I mail three letters, with same subject matter, to Gen. Hale, Col. McCoy, and Lt. Col. Moses, to guard against on or more being los t in the mails. To Gen. Hale I send the original letter from Gen. R.A. Alger, Secretary of War, and copies of same in the others. Gen. Alger itself, but I thought I would add details and explanations. I recently wrote the Secretary of War, that you be permitted to ship free of cost, two(2) tons of relics from Manila to San Francisco, by Government transport, for the State Historical and 133 Russell S. Alger to William C. Ferril, November 16, 1898, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 157 (Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO)

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36 Natural History Society of Colorado, the society to pay the cost of shipment from San Francisco, whic h is $40 a ton, first class. I did not refer to the cannon which you captured, or any special guns, but simply asked that the regiment might send some guns etc., used in the battle of Manila, but still the property of the Government. As you will observe, the first request was granted, and the latter denied. As it would require so much time to write you as to what relics you may wish to donate, I thought the better way would be to get permission from the Secretary of War, and the let you do the best you can for the society. Hence when I wrote to Washington for permission to have free shipment, I explained that you did not know that I did so, and I did not know what you might be able to do in the matter. I further requested the Secretary of War to notif y you officially from Washington, if request was granted, and advise me also, that I could also write. Secretary Alger may have so written to you, but as he is silent on that point, I send his original letter to me, and copies of the same in which the aut hority is granted. First, let me explain. The State Historical and Natural History Society of Colorado is not a private corporation, but is organized under special act of 1879, and all the property obtained by it, the same has the title vested in the state. I have seen no announcement in the reports letter, I have not made public. Several states are represented by troops at Manila, and should othe r requests of similar nature, relics When you return, you will all have more or less relics, which you be scattered all over the state, but at Manila, you have more that you may bring back wit h you, which you would give the state if the transportation were provided. This I have accomplished. Please do the best you can for us. Let every man give at least something. Mark the relic, name it, give name of donor, and send historical sketch of ea ch one. This letter the historical is very important. Catalogue as you may think best, to preserve the integrity of the relic for shipment. I want a Manila Collection for our room in the state capital, and make it FIRST, representative of the Colorado First. Something of which you and the state may be proud. Second, it would be well to add something from Dewey, the fleet, and other troops etc., Spanish, insurgents, etc. (handwritten) that may be of interest., and something of the city islands, etc. I now have framed the Wave pamphlet of the Colorado First, showing something of your life in California, but first saw Luther, and had the names correctly spelled. I also have framed, a number of views of the First, as you appeared on Dewey

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37 Day in Denve r etc. Our funds are so limited, that I have not been able to do much, but thousand [sic] have seen these pictures, framed and hanging on our walls in the capital. I have saved some First. Send all you can, relating to t he boys who are dead killed in battle, died in hospital, etc. I hope that the weapons etc used by Swingstead Phenix, and others are private property now [as well as condemned guns and other equipment (handwritten)] so they may be sent. Help us on flags, guns, swords, bullets, shells, etc, plates, knives and forks, cups, hats or clothing with bullet holes, etc, well you know without going into details. Be sure that the photographer and Kodak man gets in his work. In addition to all the picture groups, e tc, each one marked with names, I want a picture of each one, from the highest officer, to the private soldiers. Put in two or three of each man, if you forget to put in Manila newspapers, prog ram of literary or theatrical entertainments. I not only want relics, but all that you may send, that will also help preserve the history and record of the when I made my request for the shi forget the brave women who have nursed and cared for Colorado sick. Put in their pictures, and those of any one who may have been linked in an especially historic manner with the Colorados. [sic] the band have some mashed horn that could be put in. I could mention an hundred and one things. But what is the need of it. You know better than I in this case what I want and what would be the most interesting. If you think necessary, disinfect the collection after it shall have been made. As you are with the army, you are better advised as to how the transfer should be made at San Francisco, but it might be well to write General Merriam (?) or some officer at San Francisco to be on the lookout for the shipmen t, and as to the transfer to the railroad, making the shipment via such line to Denver as you may wish. Hoping that you may be pleases to send a collection of relics, I trust that I have not asked what may cause too much trouble. May the God of our fathe rs guard and keep you, all. Very Truly Yours, Will C. Ferril (signature) Curator, State Historical and Natural History Society, State Capital Building Denver, Colorado U.S.A. 134 134 William C. Ferril to Irving Hale, November 23, 1898, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 233 (Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO)

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38 The letter is very comprehensive and shows the fervor William Ferril had for c ollecting artifacts from the Philippines. It also raised some questions of legality, for which General Hale showed concern Hale wrote back to Ferril on the 9 th of January, 1899. The communication consisted of a single page handwritten letter. Hale ac knowledged that he ha d official notification that the First Colorado could collect and ship artifacts back to Colorado. (See Appendix A ) HEADQUARTERS SECOND BRIGADE SECOND DIVISION, EIGHTH ARMY CORPS Manila, I.. Jan 9 1899 Mr. Wm C. Ferril, Curator, State Historical Society, Denver, Colorado Dear Sir, copies) requesting members of the Colorado Regt to collect as many souvenirs and relics as possible for the Histor ical Society and enclosing letter from the Secretary of War stating that transportation of two tons of relics has been authorized. A similar here has been referred to us. We have discuss ed the matter and decided that the best plan will be to appoint the Regiment committee of the whole, or each member of the committee of o ne, to bear this letter in mind and sea ve [sic] as large and varied an assortment of souvenirs as possible. As m ost of them will probably be sma ll, each man can take his own articles home and they can be collected afterwards. However, if we get any very weighty articles, as church bells or insurgents [sic] gunboats, the transportation may be convenient. I return Sec. Al Very Truly Yours Irving Hale 135 135 Irving Hale to William C. Ferril, January 9, 1899, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 157 (Stephen H. Hart Libr ary and Research Center, Denver, CO)

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39 On the second side of the letter, General Hale offered Ferril some advice and a warning. Confidential PS. I note that you have not published the correspondence ever on this subject, in which yo u show good judgment. The same applies to this letter and anything else you may receive on the subject, which is a rather delicate one in some respects, several court martials [sic] having sprung from improperly controlled taste for relics not in the Col orado regiment, however which is very law abiding in this as in all things. Especially should the subject of guns be avoided. You can throw out these suggestions to those who you fear might be too talkative, but will of course not mention where they came from. 136 I have seen no letter, I have not made public. Several states are represented by troops at Manila, and should other requests of similar go up. 137 While Ferril was concerned that other states would begin collecting relics that he wished the First Colorado to collect, General Hale saw a more sinister pro blem; The problem of being seen as looters. The concern over loot, booty and the protection of private property was real for General Hale. It also made the permission Alger gave to Ferril a concern too. This seems to be counter to the instructions that President McKinley sent to Major General Elwell S. Otis, the Military Governor of the Philippines. McKinley drafted the letter for Secretary Alger on December 21 st 1898. The letter was sent to Otis in Manila by ciphered cable on December 27 th 1898. Th e letter give Otis explicit instructions on how the US military will 136 Hale to Ferril, January 9, 1899, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 157 137 Ferril to Hale, November 23, 1898, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 233

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40 conduct itself in the Philippines after the Spanish had surrendered on the 10 th of December 1898, including, In performing this duty the military commander of the United States is enjoine d to make known to the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands that, in succeeding to the sovereignty of Spain, in severing the former political relations of the inhabitants, and in establishing a new political power, the authority of the United States is to be exerted for the security of the persons and property of the people of the islands, and for the confirmation of all their rights and relations. It will be the duty of the commander of the forces of occupation to announce and proclaim in the most public manner that we come, not as invaders or conquerors, but as friends, to protect the natives in their homes, in their employments, and in the personal and religious rights. 138 General Otis relieved General Wesley Merritt as Military Governor of the Philip pines on August 28 th 1898. At some point, General Emilio Aquinaldo, commander of the Philippine Forces sent a letter to General Merritt and stated that his forces should receive a portion of what was taken during the siege of Manila. Otis replied in the place of Merritt, and took a stern position with Aquinaldo with regards to the collection of property. Your forces, you say, in substance, should have a share in the booty resulting from the conquest of the city, on account of hardships endured and as sistance rendered. The facts on which you base your conclusion granted, the conclusion under the laws of war, which are binding on my Government, does not follow. It has never recognized the existence of spoils of war, denominated booty, as many European public or private, can be seized, claimed, or awarded to and of its officers or men; and should they attempt to appropriate any of it for their individual benefit, they would be severely punished through milit ary tribunals, on which have been conferred by law very sweeping jurisdiction. 139 138 Correspondence Relating to the War with Spain (Washington, D.C .: Center of Military History, 1993), 859. 139 Correspondence Relating to the War with Spain 825.

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41 The United States Senate looked at incidents of looting after the war. The Senate created a Committee on the Philippines and held hearings on all aspects of the war. Th e Committee first met on the 15th of December, 1898 just five days after the Treaty of Paris which ended the Spanish American War, was signed. 140 The treaty was ratified in February of 1899. 141 Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, a Republican from Massachusetts, c haired the committee from 1899 to 1911. General Arthur MacArthur was called to testify on Monday, April 7th, 1902, and testified for several days. 142 During his testimony the subject of looting was brought up several times. General MacArthur began his testimony on April 10 th 1902 by reading Field Order 26 to the committee. He specifically pointed out the seventh paragraph of the order. Then follows a number of prescriptions for the tactical fight. The seventh paragraph of that order is to this effect: 7. The purpose of the United States in these islands is beneficent. It is therefore, one of the most important duties of American soldiers to assist in establishing friendly relations with the natives by kind and considerate treatment in all matters aris ing from personal contact. To exasperate individuals or to burn or to loot unprotected or abandoned houses or property is not only criminal in itself, but tends to impede the policy of the United States and to defeat the very purpose which the army is her e to accomplish. 143 The Committee report went on to incl ude several instances of looting Private Edward Furman, from Company A of the First Washington Volunteer Infantry wrote a statement in which he alleged that his company engaged in looting and burnin g. In his statement, recorded by S.W. Groesbeck, Judge men did find some houses hastily abandoned by the occupants, and in others from which our men were fired upon. Our men sometime s got trace of buried treasure money and dug it up. The 140 http://www.archives.gov/legislative/guide/senate/chapter 12 philippines.html 141 Hunt, 141. 142 Hearings B efore the Committee on the Philippines of the United States Senate 1902, 850. 143 Hearings Before the Committee on the Philippines of the United States Senate 1902, 883.

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42 most I ever saw was shown by one of our men, some gold in a handkerch ief: as much as one could hold i 144 Private Burt A Stanl ey from Company B of the Forty S eventh Infantry was taken to ta we always get the money; we are allowed to do so when they take up arms against us. We are 145 Stanley said the allegations were fa lse, and that he never intended the letter to become public. 146 Included in the published report of the hearings are accounts of some of the crimes committed during and after the war including the resulting punishment s The crimes were varied and range from abuse and robbery to murder and rape. The mo st serious cases often resulted in a death sentence. Cases of looting were not punished as harshly. Second Lieutenant W illiam and was reprimanded with no other sentence. The punis hment for enlisted men was more severe. A. Dobby, from the First Wyoming Volunteers, got a $10 fine and two months confinement for Alvin S. Grosz, from the Nineteenth Infantry, comm it ted the more severe crime of and was dishonorably discharged and sentenced to three months confinement, without pay. Court Martials for more serious crimes were also held John A. Adams of the Thirteenth Infantry was found guilty months in confinement without pay. 147 On the whole, the looting that was going on in the Philippines was not seen as a problem. The laissez faire attitude towards stealing during the war 144 Hearings Before the Committee on the Philippines of the United States Senate 1902, 958 145 Hearings Before the Committee on the Philippines of the United States Senate 1902, 962. 146 Hearings Before the Committee on the Philippines of the United States Senate 1902, 962 63. 147 Hearings Before the Committee on the Philippines of the United States Senate 1902., 990.

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43 is hig Campaigning in the Philippines with this photo captioned Image 3 : Faust, Campaigning in the Philippines 249 It appears in the book without any pretext or a word from the author expl aining the regulations regarding looting, or the penalties associated with it. General Hale denied that the men of the First Colorado were involved in looting in his letter to William Ferril several court martials having sprung from improperly controlled taste for relics not in the Colorado regiment, however which is very law abi ding in 148 That was not, in fact the case. The men of Colorado did engage in acts of theft for their own profit. Arthur Johnson noted that the men of G Company returned to 149 Geoffrey Hunt also includes a quote from Pvt. Carl J Larson from Company C about looting. 148 Irving Hale to William C. Ferril, January 9, 1899 149 Hunt, 171.

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44 Gen Ha le with about five hundred men went out to a town called Maraquina several miles ahead of our line, there was no one in town. [T]here was a h ouse what had been us ed as an Insurgent headquarter [sic] From there the officers took a lot of truk [sic] as I had to bring it back for them, I got a few trinkets myself. I got a d[r]esswaist as the ladies use them here. If you are a relic fiend I will keep it for you, if I ever get back to gods country again, a thing what is very uncertain under present circums tances. 150 150 Hunt, 171.

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45 CHAPTER VIII Th e men of the First Colorado expressed their desire to bring something back from their time in the Philippines in letters they wrote h ome Many of the letters are housed at the Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center at History Colorado. Soldiers of the First Colorado often mention souvenirs in their letters. Edwin Segerstrom joined Company K in Pueblo in June of 1898 and served a s stenographer at regimental headquarters during the war He wrote to his mother and sister seve ral times On one occasion he wrote: (See Appendix A) On the Bluffs in front of Masiquina at Waterworks P.I. March 20 1899 Dear Mother& Sister Some of the boys are talking of panning for gold in the river here. It seems to be the impression among some that there is gold around somewhere & I met a soldier of the Montana regiment a couple of weeks ago who said the boys out on their line were getting color in I wrote you a couple of weeks ago & sent you money order in registered letter for $10. Also sent a little sandalwood box with a handkerchief in it. Also package of photos 3 pictures I believe. I registered the little sandalwood box & hope you will get everything all right. I guess it will pass the customhouse all right as I told the P.O. clerk here what it was. Affectionately, Edwin 151 151 Edwin Segerstrom to his mother and sister, March 20, 1899, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 1403 (Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO)

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46 Manila, P.I., May 8 1899 Dear Mother & Sister I enclose $10.00 money order which I hope you will receive all right. Also enclose a little Manila street car ticket just a little curiosity. I am almost afraid to send home any relic or curiosity for I am afraid the customhouse in Frisco will not let them go through without heavy charges. 152 The final time Edwin Segerstrom wriote is mother and sister concerning the souvenirs he collected, was on his way back from the Philippines, to the United States, via. Japan. (See Appendix A) Florence, Colo 12/12/99 Dear Mother and Sister I have sent you today via Wells Fargo Express, the box which I have promised you so long. I did not take much time to pack it, and I a little apprehensive as to whether the box will go through all righ t, but hope it will. The box is not very big and what is in it will probably not interest you very much. I was in such a hurry that I forgot one or two things I wanted to put in, but will try and send them some other time. I wish you would preserve those Filipino, Spanish and Japanese newspapers carefully as some of them are quite valuable, especially those Filipino papers published just before the outbreak of the rebellion. That large company picture was taken at the Presidio, San Francisco, and I wish you would trim the edges ff a little and make it look presentable before you show it to people. I could not get it in my Manila box when we left San Francisco for Colorado and cut off a couple of edges as you will notice. The little Jap anese book is a gu ide to Tokio [sic] and I got it in the city while I was there at a little Japanese book stand. At the time I got it I had a crowd of curious Japs watching me buy it, as though I was some strange anima. I did not know what the book was than, but found out afterwards. I wish you would keep the Mauser cartridges and Krag Joguson shells that I sent you and not give any of them away. 152 Edwin Segerstrom to his mother and sister, May 8, 1899, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 1403 (Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO)

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47 They were picked up by me where the Filipino had dropped them after shooting at our forces. I have a lot of those Remington b rass tipped cartridges picked up on the battle fields, but did not send understand what some of the things are write me so, and I will try and tell you. That little Japanese gumhair pin I got in Nagasaki in a bag was for a little Jap girl. Hoping you are both well and that you will write soon, I remain Affectionately Edwin (I got that box of candy. It was mighty good. Many thanks) 153 Segerson seemed a person with a nervous disposition by the tone o f his letters. He clearly seemed to his family, even when he had returned to Colorado. He did not worr y about whether the items he was sendin g are illegal, just that he might be charged large fees for their shipping. In a scrapbook that was put together by Charles W. Wilson at the time of the war there is a long letter or journal entry written by John M Sanford. It is several typewritten page s, and contains a couple of sections that not only deal with taking items from wounded and dead insurgents, but also shows that the U.S. forces were dealing with a lot of criminal issues in the Philippines. (See Appendix A) Manila P.I., Oct. 29, 1899 ve been detailed as a member of a general Court Martial and cannot get out of it. I was, however, in one good scrap before I was ordered into the City. This Court will probably keep me here two months, as there are a large number of cases to be brought b efore it and tried, so I shall miss all the fun at the front. When we arrived to within half a mile of Aryes, our advance party was fired on, and deployed in skirmish line across the road, and on the left in the rice field. I was soon ordered to deploy m y column 153 Edwin Segerstrom to his mother and sister, December 12, 1899, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 1403 (Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO)

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48 in the rice field on the left, and in a few minutes the bullets began to sing through the air above our heads. This was the first scrap hugged the ground pretty closely at first. Pretty soon, as we opened fire and moved forward, they began to get our range and the bullets hit around pretty lively for a while. The rest of the Battalion deployed on our left, and the battery began throwing shells in their trenches, so that then soon scuttle d out and ran like [sic] their object at first and charged across the fields, only to find that they had gotten clean away across the river, and had cut the bridge behind them. In our charge we came acros s a wounded insurgent whose gun had been taken by his comrades. I secured all his other equipments [sic] and ammunition, and shall bring them back when I come. John M Sanford 154 There is however, no John M. Sanford named that served in the First Colorado. Cha rles W. Wilson did not serve with the First Colorado either. How he obtained it or why it was collected is unknown. Alvin P. Moore, a corporal from K Company. wrote some of the most entertaining letters concerning so uvenir s He wrote his sweetheart or wife Cora Reed several times. The letters are long and are a bit melancholy in places. The two did no t see eye to eye on the war, but Moore clearly missed her. However, on two occasions the letters took a lighter turn to discuss th e strange souvenir that a bring her. In the letters he wrote. (See Appendix A) San Sebastian, Manila Apr 28 99 Dear Cora Well Cora the mystery of what you was teasi ng Mollie about in regard to the monkey she wished me to bring from here for her grows deeper as time passes by I am sure I cannot understand it as monkeys scarce to be a very desirable pet and I assure it would be to 154 John M. Sanford to unknown October 29, 1899, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 676 (Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO)

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49 me if it was properly trained and unde r the circumstances I think I would willingly undertake the training myself. You need not tell Mollie what I said about the pet monkey as that was only intended for you to read. 155 He wrote to Cor a again a couple of weeks later to deliver bad news about promised Mollie. (See Appendix A) San Sebastian, Manila May 11 99 Dear Cora Well tell Mollie that I am afraid I will not have a very good chance to bring a parrot or monkey either from here whence I came, but that she would need a parr ot for a while after I do come home for she will be apt to hear enough talk without any parrot. And Cora between you and I. I am not quite sure whether it would be safe for me to try Alvin 156 A monkey, s tuffed and mounted, was an artifact that Ferril would have appreciated. are two artifacts. They are a woven straw belt and a pipe, which he may have brought back to from the Philippines. The pipe is wooden with a brass bowl and brass mouthpiece. It is about ten inches long and may b e made of bamboo. The mouthp iece is about two inches long and tapered at the end. It has Chinese characters on it. The bowl is very small and may be an opium pipe. 157 155 Alvin P. Moore to Cora Reed May 11, 1899, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 1542 (Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO) 156 Alvin P. Moore to Cora Reed April 28 11, 18 99, Colorado Historical Society File MSS 1542 (Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO) 157 Archive box MSS 1542. Moore, Alvin Corp. Co. K, 1 st CO USV. Accessed at History Colorado Oct, 2013.

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50 CHAPTER IX HO MECOMING In Denver, there was a large celebration for the return of the troops. William Ferril wrote in his journal that on September 14 th 1899 1 st Colorado U.S.V. returned from Manila today and were received a royal welcome [sic] from their march from the depot to the State Capital grounds. My wife and our three children, Lucy, Harriet and John with me here at the capital and together we watched the parade and (enthusiasm euphoria) to the capital grounds. It has been a grand day in Denver. 158 Celebrat ions in Denver were the order of the day. A popular activity was viewing the souvenirs that the soldiers brought back from the Philippines Like Ferril, the general public had a passion for the artifacts from the Philippines. An article in The Highland Chief on October 15 th 1899 boys which lingered till a late hour viewing the numerous souvenirs from Manila. These were displayed in an artistic manner in cases and on the walls of the building and so numerous and 159 The D aily Journal in Telluride ran an article about a box of artifacts that a resident, went to the Philippines, and made this collection while in that country and on the way home 160 The ar tifacts included Spanish, Chinese and Japanese coins, several rifle shells, a Filipino 158 159 Notices (1899, Octo ber, 15) Highland Chief 160 Souvenirs from Manila (1899, October, 7) Daily Journal

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51 of a dead Spanish soldier who had been killed by some Colorado soldier 161 The souvenirs presented at the celebrations may have been numerous, but I do not think that Fer ril got as many artifacts as he ha d hoped. The men of the First Colorado kept many of the items they collected, and later donated them to the Veterans of F or eign Wars post they formed. In fact, William Ferril only mentioned the artifacts from Manila one other time in the journals from the time of the war. On the 3 rd Manila today brou ght over by Col. McCoy, of the First 162 It was the last mention of the First Colorado, Manila, the Philippines, The Spanish American War Ferril made in his journals in1899. The items that were received by Ferril were placed in the War Relics collection. Cecil A Deane was little interested in collecting anything that was not associated with the military or military men. There are only a few artifacts that are not strictly arms or armaments in the 1898 Catalogue of War Relics, but even those have a military context. On e is item 1007 163 Deane continued to add artifacts for the collection. In his submission report of February 24 th 1902 he made a list of the items receive d by the relics department. He listed several items from the Philippines, specifically Luzon and the Island of Mindanoa. Cecil A. Deane, made a report to the Board of Capital Managers on February 24 th 1902. Deane made several of 164 Many of the items 161 Souvenirs from Manila (1899, October, 7) Daily Journal 162 Ferril Journal 3 Oct 1899 163 Deane, Catalogue of War Relics 25. 164 th 1902.

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52 from the February report are likely from the First during 165 Mindanoa is the second largest and most southern island in the Philippines. Included in the artifacts is one important document, item number 1798 M. Emile Aquinaldo to Philipino [sic] insur gents. Printed in the Tggalog [sic] language in 166 The list further includes the following items that include both Filipino and Spanish military items. Deane, I believe, was most i nterested in items like this. Table 5: Weapons and military items from the Philippines in the War Relics Collection Item number Description 1716 Filipino flag, surrendered by Major Roa of the insurgent forces to Major Jas. Case of the 40 th US Infantry 1718 Clips of Mauser cartridges. Spanish 1719 Clips of Mauser cartridges. Spanish 1717 Native throwing spear. Six and one half feet long. Mahogany handle. Steel blade 18 inches long 1722 Spanish dagger. Eighteen inches long. Caribou handle 1725 Bra ided breast decoration with copper pendants. Taken from an insurgent officer killed at Cagayan. 1726 Chevrons. Taken from an insurgent killed at the same place 1729 Bolo. Blade 22 inches long. Handle of finely carved caribou horn 1754 Pilipino [sic] dagger and case February 24 th 1902 Many of the artifacts are of a personal nature. They may have been taken from the bodies of insurgents, or prisoners, but they are not the type o f strictly military item that Deane was most interested in. 165 th 1902. 166 th 1902.

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53 Table 6 : Everyday items from the Philippines in the War Relics Collection Item Number Description 1727 Philipino [sic] comb. Mahogany 1728 Philipino [sic] spoon. Cocoaught [sic] bowl, bamboo handle 1740 Philipino [sic] blanket. Linen th 1902 167 Deane made have specifically noted the church was deserted to ensure the item was not classified as loot. The full inventory of the War Relics collection was made available to me by History Colorado. It is an Exel file of sixty four pages. Originally th e War Relics collection artifacts were numbered as they were added to the catalog. They have been slightly renumbered to conform better to a recognized num bering scheme The new catalog numbers are now made of three parts, each separated by a period. Th e prefix WR has been added to the beginning of the identification, and an indicator for the number of parts has been added. As an example, the linen blanket that was listed above as item number 1740 on the original submission report is now item number WR.1 740.1. 168 All the items listed in the submission report are also listed in the History Colorado inventory. The inventory also includes several other items from the Philippines that may have been part of the relics brought back by the First Colorado. Severa l of the additional items do not seem to have any real military connection at all. They are artifacts of ev eryday life in the Philippines 167 th 1902. 168 History Colorado War Relics inventory sheet, created 2013, accessed November 24 th 2015.

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54 Table 7 : Pottery and textiles in the War Relics Collection Item Number Description WR.1803.1 Pottery Tagalog | Philippine Islands Tagalog | Philippine Islands Tagalog | Philippine Islands WR.1804.1 Pottery Tagalog | Philippine Islands Tagalog | Philippine Islands Tagalog | Philippine Islands WR.1805.1 Pottery Tagalog | Philippine Islands Tagalog | Philippine Islands Tagalog | Philippine Islands WR.1806.1 Pottery Tagalog | Philippine Islands Tagalog | Philippine Islands Tagalog | Philippine Islands WR.1808.1 Cup Philippine Islands Philippine Islands Philippine Islands WR.1812.1 Needl ework | Weaving Philippine Islands Philippine Islands Philippine Islands WR.1813.1 Needlework | Weaving Philippine Islands Philippine Islands Philippine Islands WR.1814.1 Needlework | Weaving Philippine Islands Philippine Islands Philip pine Islands WR.1815.1 Needlework | Weaving Philippine Islands Philippine Islands Philippine Islands History Colorado War Relics inventory sheet, created 2013, accessed November 24 th 2015 The language in the catalog is vague, so it is hard to say if these items are complete artifacts. There is also no indicat ion that they were collect ed time in the Philippines, but I believe that since they are in the War Relics collection, that is the case. S oldiers may have coll ected these curiosities because they wanted to have examples of items that the Fili pino people used in their every day lives. With the exception of a few newspapers and other documents, the items I have listed represent most of the items related to the Ph ilippines in the War Relics collection. The last item Mexico | Chihuahua Silver ~ One Quarter Real 169 There is no acquisition date for the last war relic, and Ceci l A Deane retired shortly after he made his submission report of February 169 History Colorado War Relics inventory sheet, created 2013, accessed November 24 th 2015.

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55 24 th 1902. H i s retirement was announced in the Denver Times on October 18 th 1902. The Do department at the statehouse, has severed his connection with the department. The captain retired recently, but the fact was kept secret, he giving it out that he was ta king a vacation. He will devote his time to the collection of prehistoric relics among the ruins of the cliff dwellers and to studies in archeology under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution. W. W. Ferguson is his successor as custodian of the re 170 Although there are considerably more than the fifteen relics that William Ferril mentioned receiving from Colonel McCoy in his journal entry of October 3 rd 1899 I do not believe the majority of relics that the men of the First Colorado bro ught back from the Philippines were shared with the Historical Soc iety. Instead, the men of the First Colorado kept most of t he items they collected and many eventually found their way to the Veterans of Foreign Wars John S. Stewart Post No. 1, which stil l celebrates its Spanish American War veterans. The post is named for the highest ranking officer from the First Colorado killed in the war. 171 I was given access to a partial inventory of the artifacts at the John S. Stewart Post Dr Geoffrey Hunt and Dr. Rebecca Hunt cataloged the artifacts in 2004. The list includes artifacts with the item numbers from 2004.106.348.1 2 through 2004.106.638.9 with a few gaps, or about fifty eight individual items that all have a connection to the Philippines. 172 As wit h the War Relics collection, the items vary from those with strictly military use to things that were probably picked up by soldiers as souvenirs. The Veterans of Foreign Wars artifacts include a wid e 170 Denver Times October 18 th 1902. 171 Hunt, 231. 172 Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 inventory sheet, created 2004, accessed November 24 th 2015.

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56 variety of items from the First Philippines and Asia. The artifacts range fro m a full uniform to items from t he Philippines, Japan and China. The main uniform parts are items 2004.1 06.611.1 through 2004.106.611.6 Table 8 : Uniform items from the Philippines in the Veterans of Foreign W ars Post #1 Collection Item Number Name Description 2004.106.611.1 a c hat, military (a) 1st Colorado Span Am hat, wool felt; (b) insignia infantry 1B; (c)hat cord, used in the Philippines 2004.106.611.2 a,b leggings, army 1st Colorado Span Am canva s khaki, 11.5 inch, used in the Philippines 2004.106.611.3 canteen, military 1st Colorado Span Am,used in the Philippines, khaki canvas cover marked U.S., inked on side, 1st. Lt. Shoulderboard w/ Lt. Lewis 2004.106.611.4 a c haversack, military 1st CO Sp an Am, used Philippines, a khaki canvas bag, U.S., inked on flap shoulderboard + CEL, b leather shoulder strap, c modified hat device mauser cartridge 2004.106.611.5 belt, military 1st CO Span Am, used Philippines, black leather belt, rectangular U. S. brass buckle, Indian wars vintage 2004.106.611.6 decoration, military 1st CO Span Am, used Philippines, Colorado Militia, 10 marksman ladders, 1888 1897, Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 inventory sheet, created 2004, accessed November 24 th 2015 Sim ilar to the War Relics collection, the VFW Post artifacts can be broken down into different two major categories, such as Spanish and Filipino military artifacts that were collected from the battlefield and the k ind of items that were bought or picked up b y troops of the First Colorado as souvenirs. The items of a strictly military nature include Spanish and Filipino arms and ammunition. Table 9 : Weapons from the Philippines in the Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 Collection Item Number Name Description 2004.106.612.14 a,b dagger w/ scabbard Filipino daggar and scabbard 2004.106.612.15 a,b bayonet w/ scabbard dagger made from a Spanish bayonet with scabbard 2004.106.612.16 a c sticks, drum Spanish military drumsticks and holder 2004.106.612.21 a,b bo x, cartridge Spanish cartridge box w/ sling 2004.106.631.5 cartridge, rifle .28 calibre Mauser, Spanish Army 2004.106.631.6 cartridge, rifle .45 calibre brass Remington, Filipino Army 2004.106.638.18 knife Filipino hunting knife, hand forged steel, wood en handle 2004.106.638.19 a,b dagger w/ sheath a) brass dagger with handle of ebony and ivory; b) leather sheath Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 inventory sheet, created 2004, accessed November 24 th 2015

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57 These are the kind of artifacts that Deane want ed for th e War R elics collection. Like so many of the items that did find their way into the war relics collection, though, the vast majority of things collected for the VFW collection are of a non military nature. Smoking items, combs and shaving items seemed to be very popular. Table 10 : Everyday items from the Philippines in the Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 Collection Item Number Name Description 2004.106.612.1 comb, hair handmade bamboo comb for combing hair, Philippines, used by native Philipp ino, Chinese and Japanese women 2004.106.612.2 comb, hair lacquerware comb, Philippines, used by native Philippino, Chinese and Japanese women 2004.106.612.20 case. Cigarette Philippine, Nipa cloth cigarette case 2004.106.612.22.1,2 pins, clothes Filipi no bamboo clothes hanging pins 2004.106.612.23 a.b utensil, eating Japanese chopsticks, wood, steel, brown, grey 2004.106.612.25 strop, shaving Japanese/Filipino razor strop made from rice root 2004.106.612.26 razor, shaving wood, steel, Chinese/Filipin o 2004.106.612.27a+ cards, game Chinese paper domino cards 2004.106.612.28a+ cards, game Chinese paper domino cards, sealed set 2004.106.612.29 pipe, smoking Japanese pipe for smoking unknown substance 2004.106.612.3 comb, hair used by native Philippin o, Chinese and Japanese women, stork design 2004.106.612.30 a,b case, pipe Japanese tobacco pouch and pipe case 2004.106.612.4 comb, hair used by native Philippino, Chinese and Japanese women, black wood and bamboo with oriental characters on the black 2004.106.612.5 comb, hair used by native Philippino, Chinese and Japanese women, bamboo frayed on one end, cylindrical 2004.106.638.20 strop, shaving balsam wood razor strop 2004.106.638.3 a,b shoes woven bamboo sandles, cloth straps 2004.106.638.4 case cigarette woven Nipa cloth, diamond pattern 2004.106.638.5 pipe, smoking wood, brass pipe 2004.106.638.6 pipe, smoking leather and silver pipe case and tobacco pouch tied together 2004.106.638.9 brush, bottle split tubular bamboo brush with long mahog any handle Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 invento ry sheet, created 2004, accessed November 24 th 2015 Like the brass candlestick that was included in religious ndication where these items came from, and since they are small personal items, not part of the decoration in a church, I

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58 believe they were collected for their aesthetic nature, and not looted from a church, as the brass candlestick may have been. Table 11 : Religious items from the Philippines in the Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 Collection Item Number Name Description 2004.106.612.17 crucifix seed rosary, Filipino 2004.106.638.8 rosary rosary, carnelian (label says amber) Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 inventory sheet, created 2004, accessed November 24 th 2015 tooled leather brown 173 T hey were most likely bought as a gift. hether or not the men who collected these items knew that William Ferril collection. Some of the items that the First Colorado brought back from the Philippines would have Society received several Spanish and Filipino weapons, including Spanish rifles and ammunition and several traditional Filipino knives and bolos. The documents of the insurrection, and the uniform parts and decorations would have also been of interest to Deane. I do not doubt, however, that many of the artifacts, especially the pottery and weav ing, were not the Historical Society two tons of artifacts failed. 173 Veterans of Foreign Wars Post #1 inventory sheet, create d 2004, accessed November 24 th 2015.

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59 CHAPTER X CONCLUSION William Columbus Ferril was an enthusiastic curator and collector, and when the chance was given to him to expand the collections of the Colorado Historical Society by artifacts gathered by the First Colorado in the Philippines, he took the opportunity. He wrote a flurry of letters and received permission to ship the artifac ts back from the Philippines to the United States from the Russell A. Alger, the U.S. Secretary of War He also arranged shipping from San I had a plan to obtain 2 tons of war relics from Manila 174 a nd what he ended up with were only a few artifacts. The various catalogs and databases for the Colorado Historical Societies War Relics collection show less than 100 items that may have been brought from the Philippines. A further impediment to the ve War Relics catalogs was published. According to James Peterson, Assistant Curator for A rtifacts tenure. When data was transcribed from paper into a computerized catalog, and later transferred to new systems, much of the work was done by contractors The contracts were paid by the amount of data that could be transferred from the original card catalog to the new computer systems. Much of the provenience relating to how the artifacts were originally acquired was lost. 175 174 Ferril daily journal 175 Peterson, James. Interviewed by author. Interview on the First Colorado and the War Relics collection. History Colorado. March 11, 2016.

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60 The legality of the artifacts that the First Colorado donated is not a concern for the staff at History Colorado. The items that are in the collection are things that were picked up by individual soldiers and donated to the War Relics collection. 176 The First Colorado did not take art works or Philippines national treasures of intrinsic and cultural value. The items they collected were gathered from wreck of war, as they moved through the Philippines during their campaign. It could be argued that the Filipino people were under an impe rial power, and could request artifacts be returned. However, the only mechanism to return artifacts to subjected people in the United States is NAGPRA (The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act), a U.S. law passed in 1990 to facilitate t he return of culturally significant artifacts to Native Americans, and it does not apply to the Philippines. 177 In addition, most of the artifacts that the First Colorado brought back from the Philippines have been in storage since the 1930s. The War Relic s collection space was needed when the WPA (Workers Progress Administration) began working on the dioramas that depicted the history of Colorado. The popular scenes were part of the exhibits at the Colorado History Museum until its most recent move from Thirteenth Street and Broadway to a block south, to Twelfth Street and Broadway. It is rare that the artifacts from the War Relics collection are used in exhibits or viewed now 178 In an odd twist, several of the weapons that were used by Colonel John Chiv Colorado Cavalry at Sand Creek in 1864 were auctioned off to help the state pay for commemorative medals for the returning men of the First Colorado. The rifles are something that Cecil Deane would collect specifically for the War Relics co llection. 179 176 Peterson, James. Interviewed by author. Interview on the First Colorado and the War Relics collection. History Colorado. March 11, 2016. 177 Fine Dare, Kathleen. Grave Injustice: The American Indian Repatriation Movement and NAGPRA (University of Nebraska Press: Lincoln, London. 2002) 118. 178 Peterson, Ja mes. Interviewed by author. Interview on the First Colorado and the War Relics collection. History Colorado. March 11, 2016. 179 Hunt, 213.

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61 The eagerness that William Ferril had for collecting artifacts in the Philippines was indicative of his exuberance for collecting. He was not regarded as a man who always followed through with his intensions, however. This ultimately led to his downfall as the curator of the Colorado Historical Society. In 1910, he was replaced as curator of the Historical Society in a resident in 1903. Ferril did not accept the news with grace and refused to surrender the keys to his office. He eventually relented and was replaced by the new curator, Jerome C. Smiley. When asked why Ferril had been dismissed, Morgan answered was a good man at collecting material, but he apparently does not know how to file it 180 180

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62 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Primary sources Deane, Cecil A. Catalogue of War Relics Denver, CO: Smith Brooks Printing Company, State Printers, 1898. Johnson, Arthur C. Official History of the Operations of the First Colorado Infantry, U.S.V. in the Campaign in the Philippine Islands Washington, D.C.: War Department, 1899. Legislative and State House Blue Book of Colorado: Being a Collection of Portrait Engravings and Biographies of the State Officials; Members of the Supreme Court and Court of Appeals; Magnificent State House 1899. Denver: Carson Harper C ompany and W.H. Lawrence, 1899 State Officials and 13 th General Assembly of Colorado 1901 Secondary Sources Alexander, Edward and Alexander, Mary. Museums in Motion: An Introduction to the History and Functions of Museums Lanh am, New York, Toronto, Plymouth, U.K., 2008. Byers, William N. Encyclopedia of Biography of Colorado: History of Colorado Volume I. Chicago: The Century Publishing and Engraving Company, 1901. Faust, Karl Irvin. Campaigning in the Philippines New Yo rk: Arno Press, 1970. Fine Dare, Kathleen. Grave Injustice: The American Indian Repatriation Movement and NAGPRA Lincoln, London: University of Nebraska Press, 2002 Genoways, Hugh H. and Andreai, Mary Anne (eds). Museum Origins: Readings in Early Museu m History and Philosophy Walnut Creek, CA.: Left Coast Press, 2008. Hunt, Geoffrey R., 1899. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2006 Jenkins, McKay. The Last Ridge: The Epic Story o th Mountain Division and New York: Random House, 2003. Kaplan, Flora E.S. (editor). National Identity London and New York: Leicester Uni versity Press, 1994 Karsten, Peter. Law, Soldier and Combat Westport, CT and London: Greenwood Press, 1978

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63 Keegan, John. The Face of Battle New York: Viking Press, 1976 Leon, Warren and Roseweig, Roy (eds). History Museums in the United States: A Critical Assessment. Urbana, Chicago. University of Illinois Press, 1989. McCaffrey, James M. Inside the Spanish American War: A History Based on First Person Accounts. Jefferson, NC, London: McFarland & Co., Inc., Publishers, 2009. Messenger, Phy llis Mauch (editor). The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property? Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1999 Pearce, Susan M. Museums, Objects and Collections: A Cultural Study Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Inst itution Press, 1992 Reisman, W. Michael and Antoniou, Chris T. The Laws of War: A Comprehensive Collection of Primary Documents on International Law Governing Armed Conflict New York: Vintage Books, 1994 Schlereth, Thomas J. Material Culture Studies in America Walnut Creek, Lanham, New York, Oxford: Alta Mira Press, 1999. Schwartz, Alvin. New York: E. Dutton, 1967. Welch, Jr, Richard E. Response to Imperialism: The United States and the Philippine American War, 1899 1902. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979. United States Adjutant Correspondence Relating to the War with Spain. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, 1993 Thesis Denver, 1961. Journal articles Colorado Magazine 57 (1981): pg. 1 90. Th e Brand Book 17 (1961) pg. 249 250. Harmansah Omar Near Eastern Archaeology 78 (2015) 170 177.

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64 useum in Emory Law Journal 53 (2004): pg. 2021 2054. 190 199 Stein Gil J War Near Eastern Archaeology 78 (2015): 187 195. Newspapers Daily Journal (Telluride, Colorado) Denver Times (Denver, Colorado) Highland Chief (Denver, Colorado) Personal Journals Letters Alger, Russel S. Russell S. Alger to William C. Ferril, November 16, 1898 Letter. From the Colorado Historical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO. (Accessed March 7, 2014) Ferril, William C. William C. Ferril to Irving Hale, November 23, 1898 Letter. From the Colorado Historical, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver CO. (Accessed March 7, 2014) Hale, Irving. Irving Hale to William C. Ferril, January 9, 1899 Letter. From the Colorado Historical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO. (Accessed January 18, 2014) Hinton C.H. Mrs C.H. Hinton to William C Ferril, October, 1898 From the Colorado H istorical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO. (Accessed February 27, 2016)

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65 Moore, Alvin P. Alvin P. Moore to Cora Reed April 28 11, 1899 From the Colorado Hi s torical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO. (Accessed February 27, 2016) Moore, Alvin P. Alvin P. Moore to Cora Reed May 11, 1899 From the Colorado Hi storical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, C O. (Accessed February 27, 2016) Phenix, William H. William H. Phenix to William C Ferril, October 9, 1898 Colorado H istorical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO. (Accessed February 27, 2016) Sanford, John M. John M. Sanf ord to unknown October 29, 1899 From the Colorado Historical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO. (Accessed February 27, 2016) Segerstrom Edwin. Segerstrom, Edwin to his mother and sister, March 20 1899 From the Colorado Historical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO. (Accessed February 27, 2016) Segerstrom Edwin. Segerstrom, Edwin to his mother and sister, May 8, 1899 From the Colorado Historical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library and Res earch Center, Denver, CO. (Accessed February 27, 2016) Segerstrom Edwin. Segerstrom, Edwin to his mother and sister, December 12 1899 From the Colorado Historical Society, Stephen H. Hart Library and Research Center, Denver, CO. (Accessed February 27, 2016) Government Documents th 1902 General Assembly of the State of Colorado. Laws Passed on the First Day of January, A.D. 1879 Video Keegan, John and Holmes, R ichard. VHS. Soldiers: A History of Men in Battle. London: Churchill Films, 1988. Catalog s The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Paintings from the Berlin Museum New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1948

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66 Interview Peterson, James. Interviewed by aut hor. Interview on the First Colorado and the War Relics collection. History Colorado. March 11, 2016. Email Correspondence Moya Hanson, curator of the 10the Mountain Division Exhibit, email message to author, April 28, 2009 Web resource s Firstworldwar .com. The Treaty of Versailles June 19, 1919. http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/versailles.htm Laughton, Sean. "Rumsfeld on Looting "Stuff Happens"" CNN. April 12, 2003. Accessed July 25, 2016. http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/04/11/sprj.irq.pentagon/. National Archives. Records of the Committee on the Philippines, 1899 1921. http://www.archives.gov/legislative/guide/senate/chapter 12 philippines.html

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