Citation
Establishing the prevalence and severity of dooring crashes or dooring - crashes that deserve attention

Material Information

Title:
Establishing the prevalence and severity of dooring crashes or dooring - crashes that deserve attention
Added title page title:
Dooring - crashes that deserve attention
Creator:
Dreher, Paul E. ( author )
Place of Publication:
Denver, Colo.
Publisher:
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 electronic file (115 pages) : ;

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's ( Master of science)
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
Department of Civil Engineering, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
Civil engineering

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Traffic accidents ( lcsh )
Cyclists -- Safety measures ( lcsh )
Cyclists -- Safety measures ( fast )
Traffic accidents ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Review:
Transportation planners commonly overlook the issue of bicyclist dooring crashes. This may be due to the fact that researchers also tend to disregard this crash type in safety studies, with some even deeming the issue insignificant with respect to the overall bike safety problem. Yet, very few studies quantitatively described dooring crashes. In fact, we found no U.S.-based research on this topic. Even within the dooring countermeasures literature, few account for actual crash outcomes. This lack of attention in the research seemed to be due to a lack of valid data. The city of Chicago, Illinois, was selected after discovering that in 2010, policy changes were instituted for dooring crashes related to data collection and marketing in an effort to capture this underreported crash type. It was found that during the four-year study period from 2011 to 2014, dooring crashes comprised more than 13% of the total number of bicyclist injury crashes per year and almost 16% of total bicyclist crashes. When comparing dooring crashes to all other bicycle crashes, various connections were found when observing the data at different time intervals. Further, using the number of doors opening and varying speeds of cyclists, a relationship was established showing that while faster cyclists may encounter fewer doors, their crashes would likely be more severe. Due to underreporting and a lack of adequate reporting methods for dooring crashes, it is easy to see why many dismiss this crash type. However, this general disregard can lead to unsuitable infrastructure implementation, inadequate countermeasures, and a perpetuation of the misnomer that this crash type is inconsequential. While further research is needed to observe the full severity extent of dooring crashes, the findings show that ignoring dooring crashes is inappropriate as they are indeed significant and need to be understood better in order to create a safe bicycling environment.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: Adobe Reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Paul E. Dreher.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver Collections
Holding Location:
Added automatically
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
987250275 ( OCLC )
ocn987250275
Classification:
LD1193.E53 2016m D74 ( lcc )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
ESTABLISHING THE PREVELANCE AND SEVERITY OF DOORING CRASHES
or
DOORING CRASHES THAT DESERVE ATTENTION
by
Paul E. Dreher
B.S., Metro State University 2007
A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science Civil Engineering Program
2016


This thesis for Master of Science Civil Engineering degree by
Paul E. Dreher has been approved for the Civil Engineering Program by
Wesley Marshall, Chair Bruce Janson
Carolyn McAndrews Amy Rens
Date: December 17, 2016


Dreher, Paul E (M.S., Civil Engineering)
ESTABLISHING THE PREVELANCE AND SEVERITY OF DOORING CRASHES or DOORING CRASHES THAT DESERVE ATTENTION
Thesis directed by Associate Professor Wesley Marshall
ABSTRACT
Transportation planners commonly overlook the issue of bicyclist dooring crashes. This may be due to the fact that researchers also tend to disregard this crash type in safety studies, with some even deeming the issue insignificant with respect to the overall bike safety problem. Yet, very few studies quantitatively described dooring crashes. In fact, we found no U.S.-based research on this topic. Even within the dooring countermeasures literature, few account for actual crash outcomes. This lack of attention in the research seemed to be due to a lack of valid data. The city of Chicago, Illinois, was selected after discovering that in 2010, policy changes were instituted for dooring crashes related to data collection and marketing in an effort to capture this underreported crash type. It was found that during the four-year study period from 2011 to 2014, dooring crashes comprised more than 13% of the total number of bicyclist injury crashes per year and almost 16% of total bicyclist crashes. When comparing dooring crashes to all other bicycle crashes, various connections were found when observing the data at different time intervals. Further, using the number of doors opening and varying speeds of cyclists, a relationship was established showing that while faster cyclists may encounter fewer doors, their crashes would likely be more severe.


Due to underreporting and a lack of adequate reporting methods for dooring crashes, it is easy to see why many dismiss this crash type. However, this general disregard can lead to unsuitable infrastructure implementation, inadequate countermeasures, and a perpetuation of the misnomer that this crash type is inconsequential. While further research is needed to observe the full severity extent of dooring crashes, the findings show that ignoring dooring crashes is inappropriate as they are indeed significant and need to be understood better in order to create a safe bicycling environment.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Wesley Marshall
IV


DEDICATION
This thesis not only stands as an accomplishment of the years that I have spent working towards the completion of my masters, nor only the time that I have devoted to research and writing. Instead, this thesis is a testament to the struggles that I have overcome and the distance that I have traveled as a scholar, and above all, as an individual. I dedicate this thesis to my mother, Jessica Dreher, a woman that taught me from a very young age that if you work hard at something, you will persevere. You will have obstacles that feel insurmountable, but as long as you have faith in your ability, work hard, and know that there are those that you can rely on in time of need, one can succeed and do anything. I also send a long distance thank you to my grandmother, Audrey Mullen, who made it possible for me to receive extra help through tutoring when I was younger. She instilled in me the idea that learning can be fun, yet challenging, and that a person must be open to the way others think, which may be frustrating at times, but is needed to grow your mind. This has been a long time coming. I am so grateful to be here and prepared for the next journey ahead. Finally, I thank the comma, my closest friend.
v


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to take the time to thank Dr. Wesley Marshall who encouraged me to move in the direction of transportation engineering when we discussed my hopes and dreams about changing the 1-70 corridor. His courses were always stimulating and challenged me to question the status quo, think objectively, and look to the past to see what still works today regardless of the standards. Dr. Marshall was an incredible help in writing my thesis and creating a functional plan of attack as well as working towards excellence in my overall academic achievement. He helped instill in me a more concentrated focus on my projects, the ability to discuss something intelligently and succinctly, and finally, to determine if I was overextending myself or headed down a dead end path. It was a great honor to hear that he was impressed with my efforts in the creation of my thesis, and the fact that he feels that I have the ability to become a true master of my field should I choose to follow that path.
VI


TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.2 OUTLINE 2
II. RELATED LITERATURE 3
2.1 INTRODUCTION 3
2.2 SAFETY 3
2.3 INFRASTRUCTURE 5
2.4 DATA 7
2.5 CONCLUSION 8
III. DATA 9
IV. METHODS 11
4.1 PROCESSING RAW DATA 11
4.3 FIELD COLLECTION 15
V. RESULTS 23
5.1 DOORING CRASH PREVELANCE 23
5.3 TEMPORAL 24
5.3.1 DOORING CRASH DATA 24
5.3.2 BICYCLE CRASH DATA 34
5.4 OPEN DOOR DATA 39
VI. DISCUSSION 45
6.1 INTRODUCTION 45
vii


6.2 FURTHER UNDERSTANDING DOORING CRAHSES
45
6.3 LOCATIONAL RELATIONSHIP OF CHICAGO DOORING CRASHES 50
6.4 DOORING CRASHES VS. BICYCLE CRASHES 51
6.5 SEVERITY BETWEEN DOORING AND BICYCLE CRASHES 56
6.6 REMANING SPACE FOR THE CYCLIST 58
6.6.1 BIKE LANE DESIGN 58
VII. COUNTERMEASURES 73
7.1 DESIGN 73
7.2 BEHAVIOR 80
7.3 RESPONSIBILITY 84
7.4 RECORDING 85
7.5 ENFORCEMENT 87
VIII. CONCLUSIONS 90
BIBLIOGRAPHY 93
APPENDIX 99
APPENDIX A 100
KERNEL DENSITY MAPS 100
viii


FIGURES
Figure 1 Door Zone (Chicago Department of Transportation 2008)..................6
Figure 2 Kernel Density Maps 2011 2014...................................... 13
Figure 3 Four-year Kernel Density overlay Map..................................14
Figure 4 Milwaukee Ave: a. Southeast, b. Northwest.............................17
Figure 5 Clark St south of Addison St: a. Southeast b. Northwest...............18
Figure 6 Broadway a. North b. South............................................19
Figure 7 Lincoln Ave: a. Northwest b. southeast................................20
Figure 8 Clark St North of Wrightwood Ave: a. North b. South...................21
Figure 9 Parking Regulations...................................................22
Figure 10 Dooring Crashes by Flour- No Injury included in line Chart...........27
Figure 11 Dooring Crashes by Day- No Injury included in line Chart.............29
Figure 12 Dooring Crashes by Month- No Injury included in line Chart...........31
Figure 13 Dooring Crashes by Year- No Injury included in line Chart...........33
Figure 14 Bicycle Crashes by hour No Injury and Fatal Crashes included in line
Chart.....................................................................35
Figure 15 Bicycle Crashes by Day No Injury and Fatal Crashes included in line Chart.....................................................................36
Figure 16 Bicycle Crashes by Month No Injury and Fatal Crashes included in line Chart.....................................................................37
Figure 17 Bicycle Crashes by Year- No Injury and Fatal Crashes included in line Chart.....................................................................38
Figure 18 Matrix for Possible Bicycle Door interaction.........................44
Figure 19 Standard dooring crash description (Active Transportation Alliance 2016) ..........................................................................45
IX


Figure 20 Three Crash Types.................................................48
Figure 21 Avoidance Crash...................................................48
Figure 22 Possible Knock/Throw directions when doored.......................49
Figure 23 Sharrow...........................................................61
Figure 24 Bicycle Operating Dimensions (AASHTO 2012)........................62
Figure 25 Bike Lane striping................................................77
Figure 26 Striping angle with open door.....................................78
Figure 27 Colored permanent features........................................79
Figure 28 Angled markings on parallel parking delineators...................80
x


TABLES
Table 1 Dooring and Bicycle Crash data points............................11
Table 2 Ten Field Locations and Number of Crashes per Location...........15
Table 3 Dooring Crash Prevelance.........................................23
Table 4 Comparison of Severity between Total Dooring and Bicycle Crashes.24
Table 5 Open door and bicycle counts.....................................41
Table 6 Monthly/Seasonal bicycle counts..................................55
Table 7 Measured Door Width by Vehicle Type..............................63
Table 8 Vehicle Door Encroachment........................................65
Table 9 Max/Min/Average Vehicle Door Encroachment NACTO................69
Table 10 Max/Min/Average Vehicle Door Encroachment Chicago.............71
XI


I. INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Over the years, transportation engineers, planners, and scholars have observed an increasing numbers of bicycles on the road. These increases are observed even with the inherent danger(s) (Anderson et al. 2012) that are perceived, studied, and experienced to varying extents throughout our roadways, bike lanes, trails, and other transportation infrastructure. Being hurt in a bicycle crash is one reason that riders can be kept from the saddle, and as engineers being held to their seven cannons, safety is held paramount. Thus, we conduct studies to understand crash types and counter these dangers, in an attempt to offer users safer alternatives. One crash type that needs more attention and understanding is the dooring crash, where a cyclist collides with the open door of a vehicle. Currently, dooring crashes are considered to be a crash type that is rare and less severe than other cycling crash types, but with very few studies that objectively analyze the data, the importance of this crash types importance comes under contention. Are they important or not?
To complete this research, an in-depth literature review is first conducted, followed by utilizing knowledge of relevant characteristics of dooring, and determining the prevalence and severity of dooring crashes when compared to the general population of bicycle crashes. The goal of this thesis is to research and better understand dooring crashes as well as determine if they are a crash type that
l


deserves more attention, or if they are indeed a rarity that can continue to be neglected.
1.2 OUTLINE
This thesis is made up of seven chapters. Chapter 1 contains an introduction to the idea of dooring, why it is important, and an overview of the objective research goal.
Chapter 2 thoroughly reviews literature either directly or tangentially related to the subject of dooring.
Chapter 3 outlines the type of data that was used for the analysis of dooring crashes.
Chapter 4 describes the methods of selecting and discerning the initial study location and the development of the field study collection process.
Chapter 5 describes the raw results and observations found from the utilized
data.
Chapter 6 illustrates what this data shows about the dooring crashes in terms of locations, severity, and statistical significance, limitations, etc.
Chapter 7 describes current and proposed countermeasures.
Chapter 8 concludes the study with a summary of the findings and determination on the importance of dooring crashes.
2


II. RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 INTRODUCTION
It is known that bicycle crashes range in their severity and can be very dangerous to those who ride; it is also very important to understand their contributing factors in order to increase overall safety for bicyclists. While dooring crashes can contribute to the number of serious bicycle crashes, there has a been a tendency to treat them anecdotally with less significance due to public perception and a lack of comprehensive data. While there are recurring themes, either direct or indirect in the research, there was no one paper that stood out with a comprehensive understanding of the bicyclist dooring problem. The following literature review will use the current and historical documentation to show that this disconnect between topics demands further research into dooring crashes.
2.2 SAFETY
The most important focus of a study that observes crash data is that of safety. The literature review found that while there were sources that showed prevalence and severity, there were few if any that were peer-reviewed scholarly documents. Using the data that was provided in previous studies, it will be possible to compare with the current research.
In a 2012 bicycle crash analysis, the City of Chicago found that the numbers of cyclists on the road increased from 5,956 to 15,096 between the years of 2005 and 2010. During this time, they saw upwards of 9000 bicycle injury crashes, an increase of 27 percent, but were unable to include dooring crashes until the end of the study in 2010 and 2011 when changes were made to the way that bicycle
3


dooring crashes were recorded. Even though this data shows that dooring crashes had a higher percentage of non-incapacitating injuries than non-dooring and being roughly equal in percentages of incapacitating and possible injury crashes, there was very little information available regarding the prevalence and severity of dooring crashes.
The city of Melbourne, Australia, conducted the study, Bicycle Rider Collisions with Doors, after the death of James Bernard Cross. Mr. Cross was killed when a driver opened their door into his path, and with no time to maneuver, he was thrown off his bicycle and run over by a passing truck. This study observed the number of dooring crashes that occurred from 2006-2010, looking at the severity, time of day, and location. They found that dooring crashes represented close to 16% of all the serious injury crashes that required the cyclist to visit the hospital.
This city-conducted study reviewed other sources describing locations around the world, finding that dooring crashes varied in quantity but did little to determine risk associated with dooring crash likelihood, describe fully what a dooring crash was, or make any substantial conclusions as to the overall significance of the dooring problem.
When discussing dooring crash safety, much of the research, as with the Melbourne study, highlight the relative prevalence of dooring crashes but do not include direct information on its significance or severity. Road to Health, a study performed by the City of Toronto, Canada, looked at improving the walking and cycling conditions for their residents and found that 30% of their crashes occurred midblock and were found to be primarily related to dooring (IndEco Strategic
4


Consulting 2012). The study, Bicyclist Fatalities and Serious Injuries in New York City, found that there were seven fatal crashes that occurred when a cyclist was doored and an eighth that was caused during an avoidance maneuver. While fatalities represent the highest level of crash severity, this study failed to include other injury levels when considering dooring crashes, and again did not evaluate risk, or the infrastructure that the cyclist was riding on (Benepe et al. 2005).
Similarly, the Australian study found that car dooring is unacceptable because it hurts people(Bolitho 2013), but there needs further testing and explanation in order to grasp the idea of dooring and the extent to which it is a true safety concern.
Other studies looked at the scanning technique that people use when getting out of their cars and the education provided both to cyclists and drivers, but none evaluated actual road safety outcomes of such programs. Another study investigated bicycle messengers in New York City with respect to the severity and length of time the cyclist was affected by a dooring crash. Still, there are contradicting arguments on the significance of dooring crashes, who is to blame, and what is to be done.
2.3 INFRASTRUCTURE
Studies looking at infrastructure were predominantly found to be interested in the tracking of bicycle location in the door zone in relation to the parked cars and the sharrows installed on the street. The door zone (Figure 1) is defined as the area immediately adjacent to a parked vehicle, which creates by the possibility of a door opening conflict. For example, the City of Chicago uses a four-foot width in their
5


instructional information, but the actual width ranges by door length and the angle it opens. Total width ranges anywhere from about three feet to over five feet.
The Door Zone
is the 4-foot area along the side of a parked car where an opening door can hit and seriously injure a cyclist.
NO
Figure 1 Door Zone (Chicago Department of Transportation 2008)
Dooring is referenced in many inquiries or studies when looking at particular infrastructure but lacks data showing the number of dooring crashes. Instead, it describes the problem and then analyzes something related to safety but not
6


specifically dooring crash outcomes. This was seen in the study observing shared lane markings in Miami Beach, Florida, where dooring was referenced as being an important factor of the study, but only provided data pertaining to the chosen placement for cyclists before and after striping was installed. Without including actual dooring crash information, it was not possible to draw conclusions as to whether sharrows impacted safety. Again, this and other similar studies did not allow for any risk factors or work to compare dooring from location to location using different bicycle infrastructure.
2.4 DATA
Many of the above reports discuss the issue of underreported dooring crashes. Underreporting includes the cyclist that chooses not to report as well as those that make an attempt to report but are turned away by police. The book Killed by Automobile discusses the fact that there is an issue with the lack of interest some police officers show towards these types of crashes. This particular issue was experienced by the author of this study when a major dooring crash occurred and was told by the officer that there was no need for a report because he could walk and there was nothing broken either on him or the vehicle he collided with. This is mirrored with many other stories of cyclists that have been in a crash and been denied a police report due to the officer telling them there is no need for one.
Data collection can come from the cyclist, the police, or, an insurance claim.
A Swedish study conducted by Volvo looked at the dooring problem using reported insurance claims, which relies on all of these before-mentioned sources to create a complete dataset. Even though crashes in Sweden are required to be reported
7


and thus would lead to a police report and possibly an insurance claim, the Volvo study found that only 50% of the crashes that contained an insurance claim had moderate or serious injury. In the US, reports are generally produced based on injury or cost of a property claim showing that it is necessary to create a report if there is a possibility of over $1000 of property damage. Thus, if there is not a combination of severe injury to the cyclist and/or property damage, there may be a loss of data.
These factors seem to exacerbate the concern for dooring crashes and their data with the combination of underreporting, lack of interest from police, and finally, the level of collected data utilization that only works to create discontinuities and perpetuate the idea that dooring crashes are unimportant.
2.5 CONCLUSION
The disconnect between ideas that link and display the significance of dooring extends even to studies that show statistical information related to dooring. While information detailed in the literature review displays the severity and prevalence of dooring crashes, it was found that this focused, yet broadly based literature review, points to the need for further research in order to determine if dooring crashes are a significant crash type. Using the branches of safety, infrastructure, data, and other dooring related topics in coordination with collected data, the goal is to create an educated conclusion on the level of importance of dooring.
8


III. DATA
To analyze the prevalence and severity of crashes to determine their importance, it is necessary to collect and process data. While dooring crash data is characteristically hard to come by, Chicago, Illinois, implemented changes to the way that crash types are recorded to include dooring crashes in 2010. This change records the data even though it is not used in the analysis of crashes based on the ANSI definition of a crash:
A motor vehicle crash as classified by ANSI (American National Standard Institute) is a transport crash that involves a motor vehicle in transport. When referring to a pedalcyclist crash and a dooring crash involving a pedalcyclist, the differentiation is as follows: A pedalcyclist crash is a crash involving any occupant of a non-motorized vehicle which is propelled by pedaling and a motor vehicle in transport. A dooring crash is any crash involving any occupant of a non-motorized vehicle which is propelled by pedaling and a motor vehicle not in transport (parked or curbed vehicle). The crash classification on a dooring crash is noted merely for purposes of collecting this type of data but this data is excluded from extracts or statistical publications. This data is excluded because the crash does not involve a motor vehicle in transport and therefore does not meet the requirements to be considered a motor vehicle crash.
The above statement separates dooring crashes from all other types of crashes; this is because the dooring crash is considered a fixed object where all other crashes are with a moving vehicle. As a result, Chicago was selected for this study.
While the dooring crash data provided information related to the crash, severity, location, and other useful fields, it did not provide information related to other bicycle crash types. A second dataset was then collected showing all bicycle crashes with similar information that would allow for a comparison between the two datasets. Chicago was one of the few cities that collected and housed a database of dooring crashes. To observe how these crashes were occurring spatially, GIS
9


layers were downloaded from the data portal, including their street and bicycle networks as well as other related layers that would allow for the evaluation of the raw data.
The main objective of the thesis is to utilize this unique dataset to work towards better understanding bicyclist dooring crashes. Additional in-person data collection was also necessary to help expand my understanding of the quantitative results. For instance, in determining dooring crash risk, both bicyclist and open door counts were collected in order to better understand these interactions.
10


IV. METHODS
4.1 PROCESSING RAW DATA
Upon acquiring the yearly raw crash and bicycle count data, each year was combined into one large dataset to allow for easier processing. While the bicycle count data was only used to observe the annual and seasonal counts, both crash datasets were used to create various tables showing crash observations by length of time ranging from day to year, and finally, severity. While all datasets provided an overlap from 2010 to 2014, dooring data for 2010 shows exceptionally low reported numbers and was removed from charts and calculations. With the exclusion of the 2010 dooring data, 2010 was also removed from the complete bicycle crash data set for consistency (Table 1). While the bicycle count data was widespread and could be used to observe the overall number of cyclists in Chicago each year, the inconsistences in number, time, and location of the data collected led to this data not being practical for exposure rates in relation to dooring crashes.
Table 1 Dooring and Bicycle Crash data points
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 TOTAL DOORING CRASH DATA POINTS 127 344 345 279 203 1298
BIKE CRASH DATA POINTS 1627 1404 1578 1719 1635 7963
When the dooring datasets were combined, geocoded through Google Earth
and observed spatially, it was found that in terms of crash location, the majority of
the crashes seemed to occur on a relatively small subset of streets.
11


4.2 STUDY LOCATIONS
To study the locations of the dooring crashes, a shapefile was created from the Google Earth data. It was then possible to develop kernel density tests (Figure 2) to observe dooring hot spots in Chicago using all of the raw data. Over the years, the locations of the bicyclist dooring crashes seems to focus on reoccurring locations that show a relatively high density.
Figure 3 further shows the overlay of the four kernel density maps strongly influenced the nine locations used to observe and compare dooring and all bicycle crashes for this study (Table 2). Google Earth was used to estimate measurements of the street width, number/width of transportation lanes, presence/width of bicycle infrastructure, on-street parking, and posted speed limit. A trip was scheduled to visit and observe field locations to collect bike counts and observe the number of vehicle doors opening to gain a better understanding of dooring and how it relates to each location. Two days before leaving for Chicago, a tenth location, Damen Avenue, was included due to the crash at the 3500 block of North Damen Ave in Roscoe Village where a cyclist was reportedly doored in a fatal crash.
12


Dooring Crashes 2013
Figure 2 Kernel Density Maps 2011 2014
13


Dooring Crash Locations 2011 -2014
By Paul Dreher 09/20/2016
Legend
Figure 3 Four-year Kernel Density overlay Map
14


Table 2 Ten Field Locations and Number of Crashes per Location
# OF CRASHES # OF CRASHES U OF CRASHES U OF CRASHES
MAIN STREET 2011 2012 2013 2014
BROADWAY 5 9 5 6
CLARK 29 31 18 21
DAMEN 25 11 15 9
DEARBORNE 2 2 1 4
ELSTON 0 4 1 3
KINZIE 5 3 0 1
LAWERENCE 3 8 5 2
LINCOLN 30 25 25 16
MILWAKEE 35 32 34 20
WELLS 7 9 2 4
4.3 FIELD COLLECTION
The Chicago trip provided firsthand experience riding a bicycle on the bicycle infrastructure in question. During these site visits, I collected the number of bicycles with direction of travel, speed of traffic/bicycle, and number of doors opening on each side of the street for all ten locations. Bicycle counts were a necessary collection because the received count data was not useable in the creation of exposure or explaining and describing how the numbers related to the dooring issue. As with bicycle count information, open door counts were needed to describe the interaction between drivers/cyclists, and to create a risk factor for possible dooring
15


interactions. Physically observing locations would allow for a first-hand understanding as to the geometry of the road and provide the ability to clarify and describe aspects of dooring not apparent through a computer screen. A final walkthrough was made at each of the visited sites to observe the parking regulations (Figure 9). All parking observed required the driver to pay for a two-hour period, seven days of the week. The site walkthroughs included various impromptu stops to make final observations, discuss the project with road users, or ask questions of the people in the immediate area.
While all of the selected locations were recorded during a physical visit while riding a bicycle, due to time constraints, six, one-hour midblock counts were recorded at four of the locations. Milwaukee Ave (Figure 4) was recorded twice: once for both AM and PM peak hours; Clark St was recorded once near Addison Ave then near Wrightwood Ave (Figure 5) to collect the two hot spots on this one street; and finally, one-hour observations were also made on Lincoln Ave and Broadway (Figures 7 and 6).
16


Figure 4 Milwaukee Ave: a. Southeast, b. Northwest
17


Figure 5 Clark St south of Addison St: a. Southeast b. Northwest
18


Figure 6 Broadway a. North b. South


Figure 7 Lincoln Ave: a. Northwest b. southeast
20


Figure 8 Clark St North of Wrightwood Ave: a. North b. South


/
SUL II
PAY TO PARK
AT PAY BOX
SIGN UP AT
ParkChicago
FOR MOBILE PAY
925 204
DAY PAID PARKING
Figure 9 Parking Regulations
22


V. RESULTS
Chapter five is the organization and conveyance of the qualitative and quantitative data that was used for this study. The initial results focus on the relative prevalence and severity of dooring crashes with respect to conventional bicycle crashes. The next subsection looks at differences in time-of-day, day-of-week, and seasonal trends. Lastly, we investigate locational trends in order to better understand street-level design issues and relative risk.
5.1 DOORING CRASH PREVELANCE
After the change in the way that dooring crashes were reported and recorded in 2010, the number of reported dooring crashes more than doubled from 127 to 344. After removing the 2010 crashes from the datasets, it was seen that bicyclist dooring crashes comprised 16% of the total bicycle-related crashes over the four years, and no less than 11 % of the total number of bicyclist crashes in any given year (Table 3).
Table 3 Dooring Crash Prevelance
2011 2012 2013 2014 TOTAL DOORING CRASH DATA POINTS 344 345 279 203 1171
BIKE CRASH DATA POINTS 1404 1578 1719 1635 6336
20% 18% 14% 11% 16%
5.2 DOORING CRASH SEVERITY
Injury dooring crashes account for a combined total of 13.6% of all bicyclist crashes that occurred in Chicago during the four years. While the dooring crash data does not include any fatal crashes, it is important to remember that if a cyclist
23


swerves to avoid a door only to be hit and killed, the fatality would not be counted in the dooring crash dataset as the cyclist was eventually hit by a moving vehicle (even though the dooring was the main contributing factor). Doorings display a high percentage of severe crashes when compared to bicycle crashes but no fatalities (Table 4).
Table 4 Comparison of Severity between Total Dooring and Bicycle Crashes
DOORING BICYCLE TOTAL BIKE
SEVERITY CRASHES CRASHES CRASHES %
NO INJURIES 248 460 708 35.0%
REPORTED NOT EVIDENT 250 1860 2110 11.8%
NON INCAPACITATING 588 3416 4004 14.7%
INCAPACITATING 85 576 661 12.9%
FATAL CRASH 0 24 24 0.0%
ALL INJURIES 923 5876 6799 13.6%
TOTAL 1171 6336 7507 15.6%
5.3 TEMPORAL
5.3.1 DOORING CRASH DATA
Similar to the bicycle crashes, the number of no injury crashes was excluded from the bar charts, as their large numbers made it difficult to distinguish between crash types, but they were still added to the total number of crashes. Again, the number of injury crashes is displayed on the left vertical axis and the total number of crashes uses the right vertical axis.
As with the bicycle crashes, there is a time-of-day (Figure 10) element with dooring crashes, showing an increase beginning during the AM peak hours and then
24


increasing through the day to 6 PM with a drastic dip in reported crashes during the noon hour. There is a second large increase from 10 PM to 1 AM followed by a dramatic decrease from 1 AM to 6 AM, when the total number of reported crashes in the complete dataset is below 10 reported crashes per hour. As with bicycle crashes, four days of the week show high numbers of total dooring crashes (Figure 11). In contrast to the bicycle crashes, these days are not contiguous but instead are Monday, Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday. All injury dooring crash types fluctuate from day-to-day showing Monday/Wednesday to have the most incapacitating injuries, Tuesday/Wednesday/Friday to have the highest nonincapacitating injuries, and Monday/Wednesday/Friday/Saturday to have the highest injury reported but not evident. Figure 12 displays a monthly bell curve of the dooring crashes that is comparable to that of the bicycle crashes with its peak in July. Finally, the yearly chart in Figure 13 shows that the injury dooring crashes show similar proportions in that both the total number of reported dooring crashes and crash types decrease from 2012 to 2014.
25


CD
CM
DOORING CRASHES- INJURIES- BY HOUR
lA-Incapacitating injury
B-Non-incapacitating injury
iC-Injury reported, not evident
^Z^Total Crashes
70
120
100
80
60
CO
=>
O
o
X
co
<
u
_I
<
I
o
40
20
0


Figure 10 Dooring Crashes by Hour- No Injury included in line Chart
27


oo
CM
D00RING CRASHES INJURIES BY DAY
A-Incapacitating injury
100
80
3
o
u
x
60
40
20
^B-Non-incapacitating injury ^MC-Injury reported, not evident ^^Total Crashes
200 190 180 170
160 £ z
3
o o
150 £
cc u
_I
£
140 130 120 110 100


Figure 11 Dooring Crashes by Day- No Injury included in line Chart
29


o
co
DOORING CRASHES INJURIES BY MONTH
^A-Incapacitating injury ^B-Non-incapacitating injury ^^C-Injury reported, not evident 9 Total Crashes


Figure 12 Dooring Crashes by Month- No Injury included in line Chart
31


CM
CO
DOORING CRASHES INJURIES BY YEAR
^A-Incapacitating injury B-Non-incapacitating injury ^C-lnjury reported, not evident ^^Total Crashes
200
2011
2012
2013
2014


Figure 13 Dooring Crashes by Year- No Injury included in line Chart
33


5.3.2 BICYCLE CRASH DATA
All charts display information relating to the number of crashes: fatal, injury, and no injury. No injury crashes more than doubled the highest occurring injury crash and was then removed from the bar charts and added to the line chart displaying all of the three crashes. Similarly, the fatal crashes were removed and added to their own bar chart due to their relatively low frequency. Injury crash values are displayed on the left vertical axis and all crash values on the right.
When looking at time-of-day, all crash types aside from fatal crashes seem to align with the AM and PM peak time periods in Figure 14. Figure 15 displays that six out of seven days during the week have a combined four-year total of approximately 1,900 crashes or more. High crash rates were observed during the work-week from Tuesday to Friday, with a drop to its lowest number of reported crashes on Sunday. Seasonal changes are shown when looking at the data on a monthly basis (Figure 16). It can be seen that there is a gradual increase until April, followed by a jump in the number of crashes that peaks in July. The number of fatal crashes is also shown to increase during the summer from May to August. Finally, Figure 17 shows the steady increase in non-incapacitating injuries with a consistent value of incapacitating injuries. While fatal crashes varied from year-to-year, it can be seen that there was an overall increase in the number of crashes from year-to-year and a slight drop in crashes in 2014.
34


BICYCLE CRASHES INJURIES BY HOUR
35


BICYCLE CRASHES INJURIES BY DAY
Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
BICYCLE CRASHES FATALITIES-BY DAY
FATALITIES 7
Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
Figure 15 Bicycle Crashes by Day No Injury and Fatal Crashes included in line
Chart
36


BICYCLE CRASHES INJURIES BY MONTH
Incapacitating injury
Non-incapacitating injury injury reported, not evident ^^Total Crashes
600
500
O 300
200
100
2500
2000
1500 ~
1000 2
500
BICYCLE CRASHES FATALITIES BY MONTH
FATALITIES
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Figure 16 Bicycle Crashes by Month -No Injury and Fatal Crashes included in line
Chart
37


BICYCLE CRASHES INJURIES BY YEAR
Incapacitating injury
Non-incapacitating injury
Injury reported, not evident
Total Crashes
1200
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
2011
2012
2013
2014
BICYCLE CRASHES FATALITIES BY YEAR
FATALITIES
2011 2012 2013 2014
Figure 17 Bicycle Crashes by Year- No Injury and Fatal Crashes included in line
Chart
38


5.4 OPEN DOOR DATA
The directional number of bicycles and opening doors were collected at five locations (Table 5) at one-hour intervals creating a total of six records. Lincoln Ave, Clark St north and south, and Broadway all were collected once while Milwaukee Ave was recorded twice to observe both AM and PM hours. All of these streets were two-way, with parking on each side, and one travel lane. The number of bicyclists traveling in each direction was recorded, along with the corresponding number of open doors. Moving vehicles that opened passenger doors toward the parked vehicles in the direction of travel, such as taxis, are counted toward the total number of doors in said direction. At each of the locations, the type and limit for parking was observed to be 7 days paid for two-hour intervals. With two collections at Milwaukee Ave, directional values can be seen for both the AM and PM peak hours for number of cyclists and open doors. This relationship is not seen at the other locations, as they are midday and were only recorded once.
With no risk available the bicycle and open door values were combined and an equation was designed (Equation 1) to determine the possible number of doors that any one cyclist may encounter. This equation was calculated by multiplying the doors per hour by the block length and then dividing by the speed of the cyclist. Using this equation, the matrix in Figure 18 was created showing the number of possible door interactions a single cyclist may encounter with the estimated visual block length of 528 feet observed at Milwaukee Ave, with speed along the horizontal axis, and number of doors on the vertical.
39


[ uniir?) (BLOCK LENGTH)
KtlUlu '------------------= # of POSSIBLE DOORING INTERACTION(S)
(CYCLIST SPEED) J v 7
Equation 1 Number of Possible Door Interactions
The matrix shows a logical relationship with speed and severity. The lower the speed a bicyclist travels would correlate to a larger number of doors they interact with, but allowing for more time for avoidance maneuvers and a lower level of crash severity. In comparison, a cyclist traveling at higher speeds has the possibility to interact with fewer doors but will be provided less time to avoid and would likely experience a higher crash severity if they happened to collide with a door.
40


Table 5 Open door and bicycle counts
41


DIRECTION
LOCATION RECORD TIME XX
MILWAUKEE OUTSIDE CHROME INDUSTRIES 1630-1730 SE
830-930 SE
UNCOLN AVE SOUTH OF ROSCOE ST 1000-1100 SE
CLARK ST SOUTH OF ADDISON 1135-1235 SE
BRAODWAY NORTH OF ALDINE AVE 1300-1400 S
CLARK ST SOUTH OF DRUMMOND PL 1415-1515 SE


ft# OF ft# OF DIRECTION ft* OF ft* OF
BIKES XX BIKES XX YY BIKES YY BIKES YY
133 22 NW 194 44
26S 30 NW 15 23
28 39 NW 14 36
32 30 NW 22 32
33 5 N 34 21
33 31 NW 42 38


# Bikes Bicylist Speed (ft/sec)
p in fH p LD "1 fH oa "i O r* p IN
m rn IS) UD LO r*- 00 c- m a fH 1 fH fH fH fH fH fH fH fH fH fH rsj rs rs IN IN in rsi
0.000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0.CO7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0.C14 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0.021 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
0.028 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0.035 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
-C 0.C42 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
8 0.C49 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
g 0.056 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
QJ CL M i_ 0.C63 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1
o o Q 0.C69 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1
s CL O 0.076 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0.083 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0.090 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0.097 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0.104 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2
0.111 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2
0.118 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2


Figure 18 Matrix for Possible Bicycle Door interaction
44


VI. DISCUSSION
6.1 INTRODUCTION
This discussion will use the final results found relating to prevalence and severity found in the comparison between dooring and bicycle crashes, along with the background literature to synthesize the findings. The data is used to explain and theorize connections to further understand if dooring crashes are significant.
6.2 FURTHER UNDERSTANDING DOORING CRAHSES
Car dooring is where a motorist or car passenger opens a car door, striking a cyclist and causing a collision. This description is combined with the standard crash diagram shown in Figure 19 depicting a bicyclist colliding with the driver side door. Using a crash description of this type with no modifiers may lead to a tendency to oversimplify a crash, masking its hazards and true nature. It was found by expanding the current description of dooring that there are three main types of cause and effect when a dooring crash occurs. There is a fourth crash related to dooring, but it does not involve impact with a car door.
NO YES
Figure 19 Standard dooring crash description (Active Transportation Alliance 2016)
45


Figure 20a displays the current standard type of crash that is generally used or thought of when someone speaks of a bicyclist dooring crash. For the sake of this discussion section, we will call this type where a door is opened into the path of an approaching bicyclist not allowing them to stop or avoid the collision in time a head-on collision. The second crash type, a handlebar crash (Figure 20b) is where the door opens in such a way that it collides with the handlebars of the bicyclist.
This can happen for various reasons, including a driver perceiving more space than available with a cyclist riding further from parked cars or a driver just opening his door as a cyclist has begun to pass the vehicle. The side crash (Figure 20c) occurs when any other portion of the rider is hit as they pass the vehicle; this includes the any portion of the riders body or bicycle. The final type of crash (Figure 21), as mentioned above, is caused by but does not contain a collision with an open door; this crash is referred to as an avoidance or near miss crash. The cyclist sees the open door with just enough time to swerve out of the way but in doing so puts themselves into the path of another vehicle.
If you are going to get doored, try to fall into the car, said Jonathen Wikholm, an avid urban cyclist, who manages Chrome Industries on north Milwaukee Avenue in Chicago. This approach is important as the majority of reported dooring crashes mirror the death of James Cross in Melbourne, where he was doored, thrown from his bicycle away from the vehicle, and then run over by a passing truck. All research points to the logical theory that when you hit a fixed object, you would then be knocked/thrown in a forward direction, but the only research that has described the effects of a dooring crash are those that involve a fatality. During any of the three
46


dooring crashes shown in Figure 20, the bicyclist will be either knocked/thrown from their bicycle followed by various outcomes. Not all of the outcomes of the crashes are equal; for instance, the head-on crash has the most variety of outcomes. The rider will be either knocked/thrown outwards away from the vehicle, forward over the handle bars, or if they are lucky, into the parked vehicle. Compared to the head-on crash, both the handlebar and side crashes will knock/throw the cyclist forwards and/or outwards (Figure 22) depending on the portion of the body that is hit. While all three crashes provide an unyielding and jarring impact, they also have the possibility for an outcome where the cyclist can be hit by adjacent passing vehicle. It is the side and handlebar crash types that will typically throw the cyclist out, and therefore, increase the danger by being hit by a passing car. And even if the cyclist recognizes the open door in enough time to swerve, they are now forced to be attentive to more than just the door they are avoiding. They must now be aware of what is immediately ahead of and behind them. The complex avoidance maneuver forces the cyclist to now deal with possible new hazards of moving vehicles in addition to the fixed object they are avoiding. With the expanded knowledge of the types of dooring crashes and their effects on the cyclist when they happen, the following sections will shed more light on the need to make these connections to understand this crash type more fully.
47


Figure 20 Three Crash Types
Figure 21 Avoidance Crash
48


Figure 22 Possible Knock/Throw directions when doored
49


6.3 LOCATIONAL RELATIONSHIP OF CHICAGO DOORING CRASHES
Roads are classically designed on routes that have historical significance, whether it is parallel to a creek or river, some geologic feature, trail, etc. In his 1909 Plan of Chicago,
Daniel Burnham introduced the grid system to Chicagos planning scheme.
He did not, however, do away with the diagonal streets that were originally Native American trails that were further developed with the influx of new settlers. These trails transitioned from dirt trails to wooded tolls, and eventually, to paved streets that serve as major arterials for the residents of Chicago.
It would make sense that commuters would use the most direct route to reach their destination whether in a vehicle or on a bicycle. Using the physical and estimated crash locations and density maps it can be seen that while the crashes are spread throughout the city, there are high numbers of crashes along the arterials that allow for direct routes into downtown and the loop. Exploiting the relative decrease in the number of reported dooring crashes, the kernel density (shown in Figures 2 and 3, and in more detail in APPENDIX A) maps become more focused showing that, while the number of dooring crashes and their locations change from year-to-year, the locations with high crash frequency fluctuate little.
Milwaukee Ave, Lincoln Ave, and Clark St, all historically converted from trails to major arterials, show a high frequency of dooring crashes over the course of the entire four-year period. In connection with these three streets, the north/south streets such a Damen Ave. show higher frequency of dooring crashes (separate from immediately downtown or the loop). The downtown/loop observation locations
50


display moderate to minor changes in the design of the roadway for the east-west streets while the north-south streets become directional, increase in number of lanes and width, decrease in speed, and vary more in bicycle infrastructure. Parallel parking was available for vehicles at every location observed in the study with a two-to-three hour time limit 7 days a week. These parking bays were observed to provide the minimum or no buffer from the moving traffic for adjacent bicycle use. Many of these locations demonstrated high pedestrian traffic and turnover of parked vehicles.
Various streets and infrastructure are created or modified for their respected needs and requirements. When these needs and requirements change faster than the speed of the infrastructure, problems and issues may arise. In Chicago, dooring crashes were found to be more prevalent on its two-way arterials with heavy vehicular usage, parallel parking, desired destinations, but not necessarily dependent on bicycle infrastructure. This study spatially observed Chicago streets, and their dooring crashes, and found it clear that micro-level issues related to infrastructure design choices and land require further research to determine their level of interaction with dooring.
6.4 DOORING CRASHES VS. BICYCLE CRASHES
Due to the fact that the datasets are separated by definition, observing how the crashes relate to each other is important. Both bicycle crashes and dooring crashes are compared to determine if they share similarities, observe how they differ, and relate to each other.
51


Beginning with time of day in Chicago, both datasets display a relationship to the AM and PM peak hour. Observing the bar charts (Figures 10 and 14), this connection to peak hours can be seen in the injury crash types with increases between 6:00 AM to 9:00 AM and 3:00 PM to 7:00 PM. This trend is very prominent for bicycle crashes with defined peaks, while the dooring crashes have a bit more variability. The dooring peaks are not as well defined, showing incapacitating and injury reported crashes having mild, indistinct peaks and non-incapacitating crashes having a relative persistent increase through the day. This variability in the time of day is also seen in the number of recorded fatalities, seeing high values after the AM peak, before the PM peak, after the PM peaks, and then again near midnight.
These variabilities are not discussed or explained from the data that was collected, but inferences could be made with regards to the variabilities. Fatality variations may be related to the people on the road during the times of peak numbers as well as may be related to those that use bicycles for work. Dooring crashes, when compared to their bicycle crash counterpart, provide for more assumptions when observing how they change over time. A possibility for the increase in all crash types may be related to the end of the workday. During this time, people are dismissed from their jobs and rush to reach their after work destination. The PM peak shows superior volumes of people and reported crashes when compared to AM, where commuters who began their day at different times join each other on the same network for the trip home. Another difference between dooring and bicycle crashes is seen in the late evening peak but only in the dooring crashes. One could argue that as the evening progresses, those that are on bicycles may visit bars and
52


ride home intoxicated, increasing their tracking inconsistency. This decrease in reaction time allows for a higher possibility of someone hitting a fixed object and getting hurt as well as impaired judgment for drivers who open their car door and create more hazards for cyclists. Finally, there was an irregularity in the dooring data shown at 12 PM, which is not consistent with the rest of the data that shows a lower value than expected. There is a possibility that this is related to the lunch hour where there are fewer people in Chicago riding their bicycle or driving their vehicle due to the walkability of the city or due to low or non-reporting. Further research to determine if this is an abnormality would be needed.
The day of the week has less in common when compared to the number of crashes per hour. All of the individual bicycle crash types (Figure 15) see a variety of peaks during the week: incapacitating injury crashes peak on Tuesday; injury reported crashes peak on Friday; non-incapacitating injury crashes show peaks on Tuesday/Friday; and fatality crashes see high numbers on Monday, Wednesday, and Thursday. Similarly, dooring crashes (Figure 11) see high values in incapacitating and injury reported crashes four days a week Monday, Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday while non-incapacitating injury crashes see three of the seven days on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Friday.
Through inspection of the data and how it relates to day of the week, it is unclear the reasoning as to why there is a disconnect with the number of bicycle and dooring crash types and total numbers. While the source in the variety of the crash types and the Tuesday through Friday total crash plateau is unknown, the relationship of the dooring crash types allows for deeper inferences as to their
53


occurrence. With the general peaks happening predominantly on Monday, Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday, these are seen as significant days of the week. Monday, being the first day of the work week, finds both drivers and cyclists possibly running late or not being fully prepared for the start of the week. Wednesday, being the middle of the week, many people go out to relax and rejuvenate allowing for more distraction while in transit. Friday and Saturday lead to logical conclusions. Friday would have commuters wanting to leave work and arrive to their destination as quickly as possible to start the weekend, or like Wednesday, show more exuberance and revelry that the workweek is over. Finally, Saturdays high numbers, being the first of the weekend days, may be attributed to the increased number of people out and about, including more people that may not generally drive a vehicle or bicycle. Further research would be needed to determine if there is indeed a connection between the day of the week and crashes by observing time of day for each day of the week and talking to the people involved in the crash to try to determine the cause
Monthly data, like hourly data, shows the strongest similarities between bicycle and dooring crash data. Logically, it makes sense that the number of bicycles on the road would create a bell curve beginning in spring, peaking in summer, and decreasing in the fall. Bicycle count data provided by Apex Consulting, working with the Chicago Department of Transportation (Table 6), shows that this idea holds true. The bicycle count data was only collected during spring, summer, and fall based on calendar definition of the season, and it shows that there is an increase in the number between spring to summer and a decrease from
54


summer to fall. While this data did not include winter, it is assumed that the bicyclists on the road in the winter are the small, hardened group that will ride year-round, no matter the conditions. Both bicycle crashes and dooring crashes show a similar bell curve that matches the idea of the increase in number of bicycles on the road. All crash types share this similar trend except for the number of bicycle fatalities that are shown in the bicycle crashes.
Table 6 Monthly/Seasonal bicycle counts
Month Season Male Cyclists Female Cyclists Total
March Spring 4024 1182 5206
June Summer 7720 3077 10797
September Fall 6756 2639 9395
Crashes by year show a general, increasing trend of reported bicycle crashes (Figure 17) and decreasing trend for reported dooring crashes (Figure 13). With these observed general trends, it can be seen that the injury crashes proportions stay relatively consistent from year-to-year, while the number of fatalities fluctuates from year-to-year as well as the number of fatalities by hour, day, and month. It is important to note here that the changes in the way dooring crashes were reported initially was modified beginning in 2010.
As stated earlier, 2010 data was removed due to the exceptionally low numbers of reported crashes, followed by a dramatic increase in the following year
55


in 2011. The decrease in reported dooring crashes requires further research to determine the cause, but the conjecture is made here that this is not an actual decrease but due to a combination of positive changes and continued and possible increased lack of reporting. This conjecture is reinforced after viewing a video in which a female cyclist is doored by a passenger leaving a taxi. She then confronts the gentlemen leaving the vehicle, states that dooring is an offense, and requests their contact information. The response was that it was the riders fault, she did not have the right to be riding the bike where she was, ignoring the bicycle travel lane that other cyclists were utilizing, and that he refuses to provide any information to the doored cyclist. The various time frequency charts display the fact that reported dooring crashes happen regularly and suffer, as do all bicycle crash statics, underreporting.
6.5 SEVERITY BETWEEN DOORING AND BICYCLE CRASHES
People that think that dooring crashes are not serious perhaps have never experienced one, do not know someone that has been doored, or have not heard horrible stories of those who have been permanently incapacitated, killed from being thrown from their bike or by a severe impact or hit by a passing vehicle. Or, they have not yet seen this study.
Dooring crashes contribute to more than 35% of the total number of bicyclist no injury crashes per year; more importantly, they account for 13.6% of all reported bicyclist injury crashes for the four-year period ranging from 2011 to 2014. When considering all crashes for the four-year period, the importance of including dooring
56


crashes is reinforced with 1,171 of the 7,507 or 15.6% of the total crashes being dooring crashes.
Fatal crashes are clearly the most severe as they result in the loss of life; fortunately, there were no recorded or associated dooring crashes that ended in fatality. The next most severe crashes are incapacitating injuries, which saw a low one-year of 8% but averaged 10% or more for all other years.
Of the three injury crash types, non-incapacitating and injury reported but not evident, were the highest for each of the four years. The definition of nonincapacitating injuries state that these are not fatal and do not necessarily require the person affected in the crash to be removed from the scene but that there is obvious injury and is something to keep in mind. Non-incapacitating crashes are poignant when considering what happens during a bicycle crash. Stories were shared during field research of crashes where the cyclists were hit, followed by a quick preliminary check of ones self, telling the driver that they were fine, riding away only to find that hours or days later they were injured more severely than initially thought and had to deal with the consequences of the crash well after the fact. Some stories included being seen by EMTs shortly after the crash, not feeling like they were in pain, declining treatment only to find themselves visiting urgent care or their family doctor to deal with the injuries they did not observe initially. The impact of being thrown from your bike, let alone just the action of attempting to avoid a collision, releases adrenalin into the human blood stream. This surge of adrenalin helps the body deal with stress or injury. Its effects include increasing the efficiency of oxygen intake for both blood and muscles, expanding of the pupils for increased
57


observation, altering the way metabolism works as an assistant in cognitive functioning, and is efficient as a block to pain receptors. The level of injuries seen by non-incapacitating and injury reported crashes are not necessarily cause to go to the hospital. This is an issue as the full effects of the crash may not be fully seen or understood and may arise until well after the crash has occurred. This leaves the cyclist in a poor situation; not receiving aid immediately removes the possibility of support due to the crash as well as leaving with no statistical connection as to its severity.
6.6 REMANING SPACE FOR THE CYCLIST
Roads are often contested spaces between cyclists and vehicles. Our society is very vehicular-centric with a focus on moving vehicles from one location to another quickly and safely, and therefore, space has been focused towards the vehicle. Cycling has become more popular and accepted as a primary, utilitarian form of transportation for many people, and because of this, the number of bicycles on the street have increased from year-to-year, encouraging cities to rebuild or modify current infrastructure with a focus on safety for these vulnerable users.
6.6.1 BIKE LANE DESIGN
The urban bikeway design guide is an invaluable resource for engineers and planners alike. In the NACTO Urban Bikeway Design Guide, three levels of importance are provided for bicycle infrastructure: required, recommended, and optional. For the purpose of this thesis, two sections: conventional bike lanes and shared lane markings will be assessed.
58


Conventional bike lanes provide a space that is solely designated for bicyclists with striping, conventional signage, and even intelligent transportation systems. When bike lanes are installed adjacent to parallel parking, a minimum of 12 feet is required from the curb to the outer edge of the bike lane striping, which includes the 4-inch solid white line separating bike lane and parking and a minimum three-foot bike lane. While the widths will vary from location-to-location based on available space and need, the preferable width for bike lanes is roughly five to six feet, allowing the total width of bike lane and parking lane to vary with the focus being on safety (NACTO 2016). Extending the width of a bike lane over the width of parking to provide more room for the bicyclist is encouraged. If there is adequate space, further separation between the markings for bike lane and on-street parking should be provided to reduce the number of bicyclists that ride in the door zone. Wider parking bays are also suggested by the NACTO standards, as it creates and increased distance between vehicles and bicycles. This suggestion was found to have adverse effects in some locations where it was shown that while wider parking lanes allow more forgiveness to the driver, and theoretically to the cyclist, this increased width encourages the driver to park further from the curb, counteracting the extra room provided as a buffer to bicyclists. Various locations in Chicago where bicycle lanes are implemented adjacent to parallel parking (Figure 5), diagonal stripped lines are utilized to further aid in parking for drivers as well as to visualize the path of travel for a vehicle attempting to park or leave a space for passing bicyclists.
59


Compared to conventional bike lanes, shared bike lanes have fewer required, recommended, and optional features, as they do not separate bicycles from vehicular traffic, but instead provide options to the bicycles with the goal of a safely shared space. The only feature that is required by NACTO is the one feature that is not visible in many of the shared locations in Chicago, and that is the sharrow (Figure 23) that is to be installed in all locations that provide a shared space. The majority of Milwaukee Ave is marked as a shared lane on the current Chicago bike map. The required striping for these shared lanes was either in major need of repair or no longer visible on Milwaukee and many other locations. Because these features were not always present or hard to distinguish, it was difficult to determine the distance from curb, striping frequency, and how these would relate to the door zone. Due to the fact that all study locations included on-street parking, the remaining required and recommended features were not relevant. There were some optional features found on their grid with the use of color that is used to increase visibility of the lane for both vehicles and bicyclists alike. Bicycle infrastructure means to provide a safe and integrated environment for all people. By utilizing and interpreting the design guidance for various locations, theoretically, safe spaces are created. Sadly, this safe space may actually provide only perceived safety, and in many cases, places the cyclist in direct conflict.
60


Figure 23 Sharrow
6.6.2 DOOR WIDTH MEASUREMENTS
To determine encroachment of open doors, current measurements were taken of 34 popular vehicles from three car dealerships (Table 7) ranging from 41 to 58 inches wide. According to the European commission, vehicle doors should open from 70 to 90 degrees for functional ease of use. Table 8 calculates if the width remaining with open doors at 70 or 90 degrees allows for the minimum operating width for a cyclist set by AASHTO.
61


Phymcal
30 h. (075 m) Mwtw Opaflnq
40 n. (12 m)
Preferred Cfc 60i.(1.5 m)
SQ
.c
.53*

I
Widths
Figure 24 Bicycle Operating Dimensions (AASHTO 2012)
62


Table 7 Measured Door Width by Vehicle Type
63


AVG VEHICLE AVG DOOR
TYPE OF VEHICLE AND YEAR WIDTH FT LENGTH IN
COMPACT 6 45
2014 6 42
2016 6 46
COMPACT CROSSOVER 6 43
2006 6 44
2009 6 44
2013 6 42
2014 6 42
2016 6 45
2017 6 44
CROSSOVER 6 44
2013 6 44
FULL-SIZE 6 46
2014 6 46
2016 6 45
Large SUV 7 46
2016 7 46
MID-SIZE 6 47
2016 6 47
MID SIZE CROSSOVER 6 42
2015 6 44
2016 6 42
2017 7 41
MINIVAN 7 42
2015 7 42
MUSCLE 6 56
2011 6 57
2015 6 56
2016 6 56
PICKUP TRUCK 7 44
2015 7 44
2016 7 43
SPORT-COMPACT 6 53
2011 6 55
2014 6 45
2016 6 58
SUB COMPACT 5 46
2016 5 46
SUB-COMPACT CROSSOVER 6 43
2011 6 43
64


Table 8 Vehicle Door Encroachment
65


PARKING LANE WIDTH NACTO WHITE LINE BUFFER WIDTH BIKE LANE WIDTH
90 DEGREE
NUMBER OF WIDTH OF DOOR 70 DEGREE WIDTH
MAKE YEAR MODEL DOORS TYPE OF VEHICLE VEHICLE (ft) LENGTH (in) WIDTH (inches) (inches) OPERATING DISTANCE 70 1
Chevy 2016 1/2 ton Suburban 4 Large SUV 6.75 45.5 40.74 45.50 3.19
Silverado 2 Pickup truck 6.67 45.25 40.52 45.25 3.29
Cruze 4 compact 5.92 41.5 37.16 41.50 4.32
Malabu 4 mid-size 6.08 46.5 41.63 46.50 3.78
Volt 4 compact 5.92 43.25 38.72 43.25 4.19
Equinox 4 mid- size crossover 6.08 42 37.61 42.00 4.11
Camera 2 muscle 6.25 56 50.14 56.00 2.90
Impala 4 full-size 6.08 44.5 39.84 44.50 3.93
Mini 2016 Mini Cooper 2 sub-compact 5.67 48.75 43.65 48.75 4.03
Nissan 2011 Juke 4 sub-copact crossover 5.83 43 38.50 43.00 4.29
Chevy 2011 Camera 2 muscle 6.33 56.75 50.81 56.75 2.76
Chevy 2016 Spark 4 sub-compact 5.25 42.5 38.05 42.50 4.91
Ford 2014 Focus 4 compact 6.00 42.75 38.28 42.75 4.14
Buick 2014 Verano 4 compact 5.92 41.25 36.93 41.25 4.34
Toyota 2015 Highlander 4 mid-size crossover 6.33 43.75 39.17 43.75 3.73
2013 Rav 4 4 compact crossover 6.08 42 37.61 42.00 4.11
Doge 2015 Challenger 2 muscle 6.33 56 50.14 56.00 2.82
2015 Ram 4 Pickup truck 6.63 44 39.40 44.00 3.42
Subaru 2013 Outback 4 crossover 6.00 44 39.40 44.00 4.05
2016 Forester 4 compact crossover 5.92 45 40.29 45.00 4.06
Honda 2006 Element 4 compact crossover 6.00 43.5 38.95 43.50 4.08
2009 CRV 4 compact crossover 6.00 44 39.40 44.00 4.05
2014 Civic Si 4 sport-compact 5.75 44.75 40.07 44.75 4.24
2014 Accord Coup 4 full-size 6.08 46 41.19 46.00 3.81
2016 Accord 4 full-size 6.08 46 41.19 46.00 3.81
2016 Civic 2 sport-compact 5.92 57.75 51.71 57.75 3.10
2016 Ridgeline 2 Pickup truck 6.48 41.25 36.93 41.25 3.77
2016 Accord Coup 2 compact 6.08 55.5 49.69 55.50 3.11
2017 Piolit 4 mid-size crossover 6.55 41.2 36.89 41.20 3.71
2017 CRV 4 compact crossover 5.97 43.5 38.95 43.50 4.12
2017 Odyssey 4 minivan 6.58 41.5 37.16 41.50 3.65
2017 CR-Z 2 sport-compact 5.75 55 49.25 55.00 3.48
Kia 2014 Spoilage 4 compact crossover 6.08 42.25 37.83 r 42.25 4.09
Acura 2016 FLX 4 compact 6.08 44.5 39.84 r 44.50 3.93


<£>
LD
NACTO Standards 7 PARKING LANE WIDTH 0.33 NACTO WHITE LINE 0 BUFFER WIDTH 6 BIKE LANE WIDTH
8 PARKING LANE WIDTH 0.33 NACTO WHITE LINE 0 BUFFER WIDTH 6 BIKE LANE WIDTH
OPERATING DISTANCE 90 OPERATING DISTANCE 70 OPERATING DISTANCE 90 OPERATING DISTANCE 70 OPERATING DISTANCE 90 2.79 4.19 3.79 5.19 4.79
2.89 4.29 3.89 5.29 4.89
3.96 5.32 4.96 6.32 5.96
3.37 4.78 4.37 5.78 5.37
3.81 5.19 4.81 6.19 5.81
3.75 5.11 4.75 6.11 5.75
2.41 3.90 3.41 4.90 4.41
3.54 4.93 4.54 5.93 5.54
3.60
3.91
5.03
5.29
4.60
4.91
6.03
6.29
5.60
5.91
2.27
4.54
3.76
5.91
3.27
5.54
4.76
6.91
4.27
6.54
3.35 4.73 4.35 5.73 5.35
3.75 5.11 4.75 6.11 5.75
2.33 3.82 3.33 4.82 4.33
3.04 4.42 4.04 5.42 5.04
3.66 5.05 4.66 6.05 5.66
3.66 5.06 4.66 6.06 5.66
3.71 5.08 4.71 6.08 5.71
3.66 5.05 4.66 6.05 5.66
3.85 5.24 4.85 6.24 5.85
3.41 4.81 4.41 5.81 5.41
3.41 4.81 4.41 5.81 5.41
2.60 4.10 3.60 5.10 4.60
3.41 4.77 4.41 5.77 5.41
2.62 4.11 3.62 5.11 4.62
3.35 4.71 4.35 5.71 5.35
3.74 5.12 4.74 6.12 5.74
3.29 4.65 4.29 5.65 5.29
3.00 4.48 4.00 5.48 5.00
3.73 5.09 4.73 6.09 5.73
3.54
4.93
4.54
5.93
5.54


6.6.3 ARE WE PROVIDING ENOUGH SPACE?
Figure 24 displays the relative bicycle dimensions set forth by AASHTO. A cyclist occupies roughly two and half feet depending on the dimensions of the bicycle; AASHTO stipulates that bicyclists need a minimum of four feet and a preferred five feet for adequate operation. The minimum and preferred widths provide extra wiggle room and forgiveness when a cyclist is made to swerve, pass, etc. Table 8 uses the NACTO standards and vehicle measurements to calculate the remaining space if a door is open. This table displays that many if not all of the vehicles measured do not allow even the minimum operating width when the vehicle door is open to either 70 or 90, which would then force the cyclist to maneuver in to the travel lane and avoid the door. It is important to know what the maximum impact would be if someone was to be driving the widest vehicle with longest doors at a full 90, and how this vehicle would affect the cyclist. It can be seen using the NACTO standards that both the max and average values show red meaning that they do not provide the minimum operating width, while the min values provide width between the minimum and preferred operating widths when the parking lane is eight or more feet wide (Table 9). This is important because, like the standards, these values are looking at ideal situations assuming that the vehicle is parked correctly, that the cyclist is riding the average bicycle, and if needed to react, would only respond in the allotted operating width.
When using these calculations with the estimated Chicago bike lanes, similar trends are observed (Table 10). Installing the widest parking lanes adjacent to the equally wide bike lane provides more than adequate space to the bicyclist even
67


when the widest vehicle opens its doors to 90. Comparing this to the minimum and average parking and bike lane widths, problems arise with inadequate space left for bicycles when doors open. The smallest vehicles provide enough space for all infrastructure values minus a 90 door in the smallest parking spot. On average, using the estimated infrastructure measurements, Chicagos cyclists seem to have enough space, but when observing all measurements, it can be seen that there are situations that create higher possible conflict when the door is at 70 or the widest it can be at 90.
Combining design, remaining operating space with various vehicles being parallel parked, then hypnotizing avoidance maneuvers or directions, a cyclist may be thrown (if doored) and create a foreboding image for those that are unlucky to be doored.
68


Table 9 Max/Min/Average Vehicle Door Encroachment NACTO
69


o
rv
NACTO Standards
PARKING LANE PARKING LANE PARKING LANE
WIDTH 7 WIDTH 8 WIDTH 9
NACTO WHITE NACTO WHITE NACTO WHITE
LINE 0.33 LINE 0.33 LINE 0.33
BUFFER WIDTH 0 BUFFER WIDTH 0 BUFFER WIDTH 0
BIKE LANE BIKE LANE BIKE LANE
WIDTH 6 WIDTH 6 WIDTH 6
90 DEGREE
WIDTH OF DOOR 70 DEGREE WIDTH OPERATING OPERATING OPERATING OPERATING OPERATING OPERATING
VEHICLE (ft) LENGTH (in) WIDTH (inches) (inches) DISTANCE 70 DISTANCE 90 DISTANCE 70 DISTANCE 90 DISTANCE 70 DISTANCE 90
MAX 6.75 57.75 51.71r 57.75 2.27 1.77 3.27 2.77 4.27 3.77
MIN 5.25 41.20 36.89 V 41.20 5.01 4.65 6.01 5.65 7.01 6.65
AVG 6.10 45.91 41.11 r 45.91 3.80 3.40 4.80 4.40 5.80 5.40


Table 10 Max/Min/Average Vehicle Door Encroachment Chicago
71


(N
rv
Study Average Study Min Study Max
PARKING LANE PARKING LANE PARKING LANE
WIDTH 9 WIDTH 8 WIDTH 11
NACTO WHITE NACTO WHITE NACTO WHITE
LINE 0.33 LINE 0.33 LINE 0.33
BUFFER WIDTH 0 BUFFER WIDTH 0 BUFFER WIDTH 0
BIKE LANE BIKE LANE BIKE LANE
WIDTH 6 WIDTH 5 WIDTH 8
90 DEGREE
WIDTH OF DOOR 70 DEGREE WIDTH OPERATING OPERATING OPERATING OPERATING OPERATING OPERATING
VEHICLE (ft) LENGTH (in) WIDTH (inches) (inches) DISTANCE 70 DISTANCE 90 DISTANCE 70 DISTANCE 90 DISTANCE 70 DISTANCE 90
MAX 6.75 57.75 51.71 r 57.75 4.27 3.77 2.27 1.77 8.27 7.77
MIN 5.25 41.20 36.89 r 41.20 7.01 6.65 5.01 4.65 11.01 10.65
AVG 6.10 45.91 41.11r 45.91 5.81 5.41 3.81 3.41 9.81 9.41


VII. COUNTERMEASURES
Countermeasures are direct actions taken to alter something to affect something else. For transportation, countermeasures are normally used to make something more efficient, useful, and above all else, to make something safer. Research shows that there have been some countermeasures in design, behavior, and enforcement in an effort to alleviate the dooring issue. This section will discuss what has been either studied or done to create change; following this, new ideas and proposals will be discussed. It is important to disclose that these suggestions stem from curiosity and a desire to see change; they have not been vetted as to their full feasibility, suspected cost, or time to install. These are only concepts to encourage new ideas and positive forward movement.
7.1 DESIGN
Design is related to the first E of engineering when discussing the accepted ideas for safety. Design works to create new and innovative solutions to found problems, review and update current engineering standards, and performing audits on the current implementation to determine if what is in place is adequate for the needs.
Research related to design showed information related to the installation of shared markings where there were none and how these new options affected the way that bicyclists rode in relation to the door zone. The city of Melbourne,
Australia, and Miami Beach, Florida, implemented similar studies in which they observed locations where the bicycle riding was prevalent adjacent to on street parallel parking. These studies observed the cyclists initial choice of lateral tracking
73


or the distance from the parked car. Following the observations, markings were installed, and observations were recorded. These two studies found varying results with Melbourne not observing major change in the distance from cars. Florida observed that some but not all cyclists were tracking closer to the sharrows while others were avoiding the raised surface of the markings, placing them either further or closer to the parked cars. From these studies, it appears that tracking may be related to the perceived safety of some cyclists since they prefer to ride closer to the parked cars. Another thought is that these cyclists may understand what the door zone is or what to be aware of in the zone, and therefore, ride where they do based on ignorance.
When considering dooring and design, studies that focused on the location of where cyclists chose to ride, before and after shared markings were installed, were all that were found. There were no studies related to other design features that could be proposed then studied to observe their effects on the door zone. The recommended and optional NACTO suggestions are good but are not always feasible or provide much information about the door zone. The first suggestion is related to conventional bike lanes. Whether or not it is possible to decrease the width of the parking lane and increase the width of the bike lane or provide a buffer, a new method of striping could be installed to aid in driver and bicycle communication. Striping options could display the average width of a door that may open on the bicyclist path of travel (Figure 25). This particular striping could also aid as a visual cue for the driver when they open their door. Not only would the width help the bicyclist but it may also provide a visual cue to the driver as to the amount
74


of space that they take when opening their door; various widths could be used based on the angle of the open door (Figure 26).
The second suggestion relates to shared zones, infrastructure that does not receive many options that are always feasible in the space provided. Beginning with striping, which wears down and degrades over time on concrete and asphalt leaving no trace of the markings, colored asphalt or concrete could be used to supplement sharrows and delineate both the door zone and the fact that this section of roadway is a shared use zone (Figure 27). These features may also have the ability to help with bicycle positioning at intersections where the painted stripe could direct bicycles to queue techniques whether it be a queue box, or to encourage them to queue in a single file. These markings are a more permanent feature that could be mixed with reflective glass beads to increase reflectiveness, and have the possibility to help with way finding, depending on their use.
Finally, using the example of delineation seen in Figure 5, angled striping could be used for the parallel parking bay delineation and extend into the shared space of the width of the door zone. This suggestion again would benefit the cyclist in showing the door zone to both cyclist and vehicle with queues for parallel parking entering and leaving (Figure 28). This suggestion may not work on blocks that do not determine the actual spot for parking as those with meters but could still be implemented with suggested parking bay locations to utilize the block parking more efficiently.
Back in angled parking forces the driver to be more aware of their surroundings by looking back to park and then points them away from the curb
75


facing towards traffic where they are able to see more of their surroundings. This design change would modify an existing street either removing parking from one side (or not depending on available space to allow the bike lanes to be installed with the newly allocated space). Research would need to be done to see the actual impact this would have on the number of parking spaces that would be available, as well as if it would be feasible to alternate blocks so that it is possible for both directions to park with relative ease.
76


Figure 25 Bike Lane striping


Figure 26 Striping angle with open door
78


Figure 27 Colored permanent features
79


7.2 BEHAVIOR
Looking for vehicles when you exit a vehicle is taught to children very early and is something that older drivers and passengers tend to do when exiting and entering a vehicle. Clear logic and physics shows us that if an oncoming vehicle collides with an open door, the result is generally severe damage to both vehicles and possibly bodily injury depending on the aftermath of the collision. There have been different techniques that have been attempted to change the behavior of both the cyclist and the driver with mixed results.
The Road Safety Action group of Melbourne, Australia, as with other locations, including Chicago and New York, have attempted to increase awareness and change behavior through sticker campaigns. Drivers were educated on the dooring issue and then asked to place a sticker on their car, in locations that would aid themselves as a visual reminder, to look as there may be a cyclist that is passing. It was unclear from the results if the stickers had a significant effect on the behavior of looking to observe if there was a cyclist; it did help to increase peoples knowledge about dooring. Some of the subjects did not understand the idea of
80


dooring or what the sticker initially meant, but after an explanation, they felt that it was a good idea. The misunderstanding as to the meaning of the sticker extended to some passers-by when the sticker was observed on the subjects car. The explanation as to the meaning of the sticker by the study subject allowed the exchange of information and dissemination of the dooring problem. Participants who attended focus groups spoke to the idea that the stickers helped with their awareness, but the observed actions of participants before and after changed very little, if at all.
New York has taken an innovative approach to increasing awareness with its focus on taxicabs. Over 13,000 taxicabs in New York have television screens that play videos during the passengers ride. This video depicts passengers leaving the taxi with the words take out your boss, take out your friends, take out a date all with the passenger leaving the vehicle curbside. The final screen shows a cyclists approaching, followed by a door opened street-side at 90dooring the cyclist with the words but dont door a cyclist. There was no data showing the number of people that watched the video compared to those who muted the video during their ride, nor is there any report to show if this effort has reduced the number of doored cyclists each year since its inception in 2012.
Education is one of the roots of behavior change. Bicycle manuals talk about the door zone, where to ride, and what to look for when near parked cars. Vehicular education documentation includes information that talks about opening car doors, and some discuss about the fact that you should be aware of bicycles when opening your door. Changing a drivers muscle memory is the technique seen with the
81


European practice of leading with the left which has the occupant reach to open their door with the hand that is furthest away from the door. This movement forces the occupant to rotate their body in order to reach the handle and open the door.
With this rotation, the inclination is to continue to rotate your neck and look over your shoulder, the most complete way of determining what is behind you. A similar technique could be applied in the US asking the occupant to reach with the right, and displaying how it will give you the best look to the rear.
Driver assistance technology has been introduced to detect if there is an object to the side of the vehicle. This technology currently does not discriminate between objects, and only assists in the zone it detects relying on human eyes for other areas. Driver assistance technology is only that, an assist; it is theorized that people may begin to solely rely on the detector and less on their observations, possibly creating a greater risk for cyclist. It is further possible that the assistance technology in the future would restrict the driver from opening the door at all if there is an obstruction, but this is not currently available.
Throughout the research, two behavioral threads became very apparent when discussing dooring distraction and observation. Distraction has become more and more prevalent in our society and creates problems everywhere it is observed. Finding a parking spot can be very difficult, and once you have parked, you check your phone, get your things together, look for cars, do a second check, and then leave your car. Distraction during any one, if not all, of these stages can create a gap in a persons awareness of what is around them. During the inquest into one dooring fatality, the driver said that she went through the motions and performed
82


similar steps as described above before she left the vehicle. A witness described the driver checking her phone, fidgeting in the car for belongings, and in fact, taking longer than what was stated. Any amount of distraction could have attributed to the driver not seeing the bicyclist when he was hit, as with any of the dooring crashes.
Studies have also been performed on distraction and how it affects mental processing. Showing that the more distracted someone becomes with increased multitasking, the brain finds it harder to stay focused and begins to misstep; things are skipped or missed. Observation has been used in all of the accounts of dooring, either on the side of the bicyclist or the occupant. In each of the fatality reports, the driver who opened the car door reported that they looked but did not see the cyclist and proceeded to open their door. When looking around, you generally are looking for vehicles because they are so abundant and can cause a large amount of damage. Compared to vehicles, bicycles are low profile, quiet, and do not share similar dimensions or travel speed. Combining the idea that people generally look for other cars with the fact that bicycles are so different from automobiles, it could be established that when people look and scan they are only immediately looking for vehicles and, because of this, bicycles become invisible or are unseen. While bicyclists can benefit from increased scanning by looking into the back window and into side view mirrors, the weight of the responsibility is on the driver to make sure that when they open their door, it is not longer than needed and does not create a hazard to adjacent traffic.
Behavior is very important when creating long-term change, but it needs to be repeated and encouraged before it becomes permeant. The cyclists behavior can
83


be altered with rider education related to the door zone and how to avoid it. It is the
responsibility of the bicyclist to observe their surroundings, but it is the responsibility of the vehicle not to create a hazard for vehicles around them, which include bicycles. Providing education relevant to the present relationship with bicycles and what the responsibilities of the driver and occupants are will begin the process of behavioral change on the part of the vehicle. To support these changes, both bicycles and vehicles may benefit with reinforcement infrastructure that provides further reminders of the door zone and the role it plays.
7.3 RESPONSIBILITY
It is easily known that opening a vehicle door into oncoming traffic can be dangerous and cause great damage to both your car and to the car that hits your door. This mentality does not translate to cyclists that are on the road where many drivers are unaware of laws that make it illegal to create an obstruction for traffic. According to the learners handbook that is provided to new drivers in the Victoria province of Australia, vehicular occupants have a legal obligation to verify that they are not creating a danger when opening their vehicle; they must observe and be cognizant of all oncoming traffic and bicyclists. While it is both the responsibility of the bicyclist that is passing and the driver that is opening their vehicle door, dooring laws make it clear when assigning responsibility who is at fault and modifying the idea that dooring is an unavoidable accident to the idea that it is instead an avoidable crash.
Chicago -9-80-035 opening and closing vehicle doors No person shall open the door of a vehicle on the side available to moving traffic unless and until it is reasonably safe to do so, and can be done without interfering with the movement of other traffic, nor shall any person leave a door open on the side
84


of a vehicle available to moving traffic for a period of time longer than necessary to load or unload passengers. (Diane 2016)
7.4 RECORDING
Dooring crashes fall prey to the same drawback as all bicycle crashes; they often go unreported either by the cyclist, driver, or the police. In Chicago, the driver is responsible for verifying that they will not cause a hazard by opening their door, meaning that if a crash were to occur, they would be at fault. The responsibility to report the crash to the authorities falls on both the cyclist and the driver as with any vehicular crash. Finally, it is the responsibility of the officer to objectively record the crash and create a report, all of which are outlined in the rules of what to do in a crash set forth by New York City. In Chicago, where there is relatively more understanding of the dooring issue, the assumption is that everyone complies and that all of these steps happen, which is not always the case. In locations where there is less knowledge and compliance, the assumption that dooring crashes would be recorded fully does not hold.
The system that is currently in place is not consistent when applied to cyclists. Some officers have been shown to disregard a bicycle crash based on the perceived property damage, lack of or misunderstanding of the crash, even bias against bicycles (Dennerlein and Meeker 2002, Komanoff and Members of Right of 1999). This can lead to many different outcomes where the cyclist may be blamed for the crash or easily dismissed, but the result is a lack of reporting, even when a cyclist attempts to do so. Combined with this hurdle is the complication of reporting methods. Many governmental bodies use pedestrian and vehicular crash charts for
85


bicycle crashes where they are forced to make modifications or generalizations either due to ease in documenting a crash or due to variety in the options available to them.
Many cities have laws that relate to opening a car door, stating that the driver will not open a car door into vehicular traffic and cause an undo hazard, as well as not leaving the door open longer than needed to enter or exit, or conduct their business. Logically, this is simple to understand when a vehicle strikes an open door of another vehicle, it creates severe damage to both vehicles. In comparison, when this happens to a bicycle, there may be some damage to the vehicle depending on where the bicycle collides, but the bulk of the damage will be done to the cyclist, a vulnerable road user. As stated earlier, dooring crashes are not included in most crash datasets because they are not, by definition, vehicular or bicycle crashes. This poses and clouds the problem of dooring as well as doing a disservice to those that have experienced being doored first hand. The various examples of dooring deaths that go reported and those that remain misreported are examples of cyclists who were thrown from their bike after being doored then killed by a passing vehicle. It is possible that dooring crash fatalities occur more often than is known because of this definition gap (i.e. a cyclist is doored then thrown from their bicycle and finally hit by a passing vehicle); this fatality is now a vehicular or bicycle crash and not tallied under the dooring category. The current reporting system makes it clear that dooring crashes for this study represented 15.6% of all reported bicyclist crashes and 13.3% of all reported injury bicyclist crashes, which
86


are both high percentages. One can only speculate how the numbers will increase with changes to just the way that dooring crashes are reported and recorded.
7.5 ENFORCEMENT
Enforcement supports engineering and education; it not only forces people to comply with the designated rules but also provides those that are affected the means to act. Research showed that when enforcement was employed, it was in the form of citations for non-fatal crashes, fines, court hearings, and modifications to policy.
In 2010, Chicago began its concentrated effort to record and track the number of dooring crashes happening each year. In the first two years that reports of dooring crashes were consistently documented, Chicago saw an unnatural increase in the number of reported crashes from 2010 to 2011 (enough so that 2010 was not included in this study for consistency). This increase suggests that when drivers and cyclists understood that they were able to report this crash type, it was reported more commonly. This change benefited from the fact that there were changes to the policy surrounding dooring and the way in which it was treated by the police. With these changes, the public began to report these crashes, followed by a better understanding of what dooring crashes were. Following 2011, there has been a steady decrease in the percentage of dooring crashes in relation to the total percentage of crashes in the city of Chicago. This could lead to many different conclusions related to the number of dooring crashes actually decreasing due to: awareness, drivers becoming more accustomed to seeing bicycles on the street in increasing numbers, or even an extreme increase in the number of all other crashes
87


Full Text
HOWAF
HOWARD
Toyifc
rOUHY
PRATT
PRATT
?SON
BRYN
BRYN MAWR
iNNEDY
IRVING
ADDIS(
^RMITAGE
ARMITAGE
OMSIOJ4
CHICAGO
KINZIE
VAN BUREN
EISENHOWER
VAf BUREN
.ERTON fcULTEI^pt# CERMAK
C JLLERTC N CERE M
43RI)
)HN PAUL
43 RD fOPE
Dooring Crash Density 2013
By Paul Dreher 09/20/2016
Legend
ARTERIALS
COLLECTORS
EXPRESSWAY
RAMPS
2013 Crashes
ALL OTHER BIKE INFRASTRUCTURE BIKE LANE
BUFFERED BIKE LANE CYCLE TRACK GREEN WAVE SHARED-LANE
tjf Boundaries City
l l l l eT


HOW/
HOWARD
PRATT
DcVON
BRYN
BRYN
MAWR
KENNE
IRVING PAF
.MONT
DIVERSE
' 3RAND
ERTON
ARMITAGE
ARMITAOE
ivisiON
CHICAGO
KINZIE
EISENHOWER1
VAf BUREN
HARRISONO
< CULLERTON CULLERTON
CULLERTC h CERM/
CERMAK
_2£IU_
43 RD
r Ti
OUHY
| i PRATT
" 2 V
Dooring Crash Density 2014
By Paul Dreher 09/20/2016
Legend
ARTERIALS
COLLECTORS
EXPRESSWAY
RAMPS
2014 Crashes
ALL OTHER BIKE INFRASTRUCTURE BIKE LANE
BUFFERED BIKE LANE CYCLE TRACK GREEN WAVE SHARED-LANE
104



PAGE 1

! !"#$%&'"(')*+#(!+,-!.!&$)/!+$)0+"!.!-'#1+23+022-')*+/-$"(!" + 45 + 022-')*+ 6 + /-$"(!"+#($#+0!"!-.!+$##!)#'2) + + 78 + ,9:;+! <+ 05=>=5 + %<"=FDF+F:7JDAA=K+A4+A>=+ + 39L:;A8+4M+A>=+*59K:9A=+"L>44;+4M+A>=+ + BCDE=5FDA8+4M+/4;459K4 + DC+,95AD9;+M:;MD;;J=CA + 4M + A>=+5=N:D5=J=CAF+M45+A>=+K=O5==+4M+ + @9FA=5F+4M+"LD=CL=+ + /DED;+ !CODC==5DCO + ,54O59J + + GHPQ + +

PAGE 2

! DD + #>DF+A>=FDF+M45+@9FA=5+4M+"LD=CL=+/DED;+!CODC==5DCO+K=O5==+78+ + ,9:;+! <+ 05=>=5 + >9F+ 7==C+9RR54E=K+M45+A>=+ + /DED;+!CODC==5DCO+,54O59J + 78 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + S=F;=8+@95F>9;;?+/>9D5 + %5:L=+T9CF4C + + /954;8C+@L$CK5=UF + $J8+-=CF + 09A=V + 0=L=J7=5+PI?+GHPQ + +

PAGE 3

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

PAGE 4

! DE + 0:=+A4+ :CK=55=R45ADCO+9CK+9+;9LY+4M+9K=N:9A= + 5=R45ADCO+J=A>4KF+M45+K445DCO+ L59F>=F?+DA+DF+=9F8+A4+F==+U>8+J9C8+K DFJDFF+A>DF+L59F>+A8R= <++(4U=E=5?+ A>DF + O=C=59; + KDF5=O95K+ L9C+ ;=9K+A4+:CF:DA97;=+DCM59FA5:LA:5=+DJR;=J=CA9AD4C?+DC9K=N:9A=+ L4:CA=5J=9F:5=F?+9CK+9+R=5R=A:9AD4C+4M+A>=+ JDFC4J=5+ A>9A+A>DF+L59F>+A8R=+DF+ + DCL4CF=N:=CAD9; <++ S>D;=+M:5A>=5+5=F=95L>+DF+C==K=K+A4+47F =5E=+A>=+M:;;+F=E=5DA8+=_A=CA+ 4M+K445DCO+L59F>=F?+A>=+MDCKDCOF+F>4U+A>9A+DOC45DCO+K445DCO+L59F>=F+DF+DC9RR54R5D9A=+ 9F+A>=8+95=+DCK==K+FDOCDMDL9CA+9CK+C==K+A4+7=+:CK=5FA44K+ 7=AA=5+ DC+45K=5+A4+L5=9A=+9+ F9M= + 7DL8L;DCO + =CED54CJ=CA <++ + #>=+M45J+9CK+L4CA=CA+4M+A> DF+97FA59LA+95=+9RR54E=K <++ '+5=L4JJ=CK+DAF+R:7;DL9AD4C< + $RR54E=KV + S=F;=8+@95F>9;; + + +

PAGE 5

! E + 0!0'/$#'2) + #>DF+A>=FDF+C4A+4C;8+FA9CKF+9F+9C+9LL4JR;DF>J=CA+4M+A>=+8=95F+A>9A+'+>9E=+ FR=CA+U45YDCO+A4U95KF+A>=+L4JR;=AD4C+4M+J8+J9FA=5F?+C45+4C;8+A>=+ADJ=+A>9A+'+>9E=+ K=E4A =K+A4+5=F=95L>+9CK+U5DADCO <++ 'CFA=9K?+A>DF+A>=FDF+DF+9+A=FA9J=CA+A4+A>=+FA5:OO;=F+ A>9A+'+>9E=+4E=5L4J=+9CK+A>=+KDFA9CL=+A>9A+'+>9E=+A59E=;=K+9F+9+FL>4;95 ? + 9CK+974E=+ 9;;?+9F+9C+DCKDEDK:9; <++ '+K=KDL9A=+A>DF+A>=FDF+A4+J8+J4A>=5?+T=FFDL9+05=>=5?+9+U4J9C+ A>9A+A 9:O>A+J=+M54J+9+E=58+84:CO+9O=+A>9A+DM+84:+U45Y+>95K+9A+F4J=A>DCO ? + 84:+UD;;+ R=5F=E=5= <++ 14:+UD;;+>9E=+47FA9L;=F+A>9A+M==;+DCF:5J4:CA97;=?+7:A+9F+;4CO+9F+84:+ >9E=+M9DA>+DC+84:5+97D;DA8?+U45Y+>95K?+9CK+YC4U+A>9A+A>=5=+95=+A>4F=+A>9A+84:+L9C+5=;8+ 4C+DC+ADJ=+4 M+C==K?+4C=+L9C+F:LL==K+9CK+K4+9C8A>DCO <++ '+9;F4+F=CK+9+;4CO+KDFA9CL=+ A>9CY+84:+A4+J8+O59CKJ4A>=5?+$:K5=8+@:;;=C?+U>4+J9K=+DA+R4FFD7;=+M45+J=+A4+ 5=L=DE=+=_A59+>=;R+A>54:O>+A:A45DCO+U>=C+'+U9F+84:CO=5 <++ ">=+DCFAD;;=K+DC+J=+A>=+DK=9+ A>9A+;=95CDCO+L9C+7=+M:C ? + 8=A+L>9;;=CODCO ? + 9CK+A>9A+9+R=5F4C+J:FA+7=+4R=C+A4+A>=+U98+ 4A>=5F+A>DCY?+U>DL>+J98+7=+M5:FA59ADCO+9A+ADJ=F?+7:A+DF+C==K=K+A4+O54U+84:5+JDCK <++ #>DF+>9F+7==C+9+;4CO+ADJ=+L4JDCO < + + '+9J+F4+O59A=M:;+A4+7=+>=5=+9CK+R5=R95=K+M45+A>=+ C=_A+^4:5C=8+9>=9K <++ 3DC9;;8? + '+A>9CY+A>=+L4JJ9?+J8+L;4F=FA+M5D=CK <++ + + +

PAGE 6

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

PAGE 7

! EDD + #$%&!+23+/2)#!)#" + ': ')#-20;/#'2) <:< ')#-20;/#'2) <:= 2;#&')! # '': -!&$#!0+&'#!-$#;-! $ =:<+')#-20;/#'2) $ =:=+"$3!#1 $ =:>+')3-$"#-;/#;-! % =:?+0$#$ & =: @+/2)/&;"'2) ''': 0$#$ ( '.: 9!#(20" "" ?:<+,-2/!""')*+-$8+0$# $ "" ?:>+3'!&0+/2&&!/#'2) "% .: -!";&#" #$ @:<+022-')*+/-$"(+,-! .!&$)/! #$ @:>+#!9,2-$& #) `<\
PAGE 8

! EDDD + A:=+3;-#(!-+;)0!-"#$)0')*+022-')*+/-$("!" )% A:>+&2/$#'2)$&+-!&$#'2)"(',+23+/('/$*2+022-')*+/-$"(!" %* A:?+022-')*+/-$"(!"+.":++%'/1/&!+/-$"(!" %" A:@+"!.!-'#1+%!#8!!)+022-')*+$)0+%'/1/&!+/-$"(!" %+ A:A+-!9$)')*+",$/!+32-+#(!+/1/&'"# %' Q+-!",2)"'%'&'#1 ') B:?+-!/2-0')* '% B:@+!)32-/!9!)# '& .''': /2)/&;"'2)" (* %'%&'2*-$,(1 ($ $,,!)0'C (( $,,!)0'C+$ "** 7!-)!&+0!)"'#1+9$," "** + + +

PAGE 9

! D_ + 3'*;-!" + 3DO:5=+P+0445+b4C=+W/>DL9O4+0=R95AJ=CA+4M+#59CFR45A9AD4C+GHHcX + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + Q + 3DO:5=+G+a=5C=;+0=CFDA8+@9RF+GHPP+ Z + GHP[ + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + P\ + 3DO:5=+\+34:5 Z 8=95+a=5C=;+0=CFDA8+4E=5;98+@9R + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + P[ + 3DO:5=+[+@D;U9:Y==+$E=V+9<++"4:A>=9FA?+7<++)45A>U=FA + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<< + PI + 3DO:5=+`+/;95Y+"A+F4:A>+4M+$KKDF4C+"AV+9<++"4:A>=9FA+7<++)45A>U=FA + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + Pc + 3DO:5=+Q+%549KU98+9<++)45A>+7<++"4:A> + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<< + Pd + 3DO:5=+I+&DCL4;C+$E=V+9<++)45A>U=FA+7<++F4:A>=9FA + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + GH + 3DO:5=+c+/;95Y+"A+)45A>+4M+S5DO>AU44K+$E=V+9<++)45A>+7<++"4:A> + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + GP + 3DO:5=+d+,95YDCO+-=O:;9AD4CF + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + GG + 3DO:5=+PH+0445DCO+/59F>=F+78+(4:5 6 + )4+'C^:58+DCL;:K=K+DC+;DC=+/>95A + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + GI + 3DO:5=+PP+0445DCO+/59F>=F+78+098 6 + )4+'C^:58+DCL;:K=K+DC+;DC=+/>95A + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + Gd + 3DO:5=+PG+0445DCO+/59F>=F+78+@4CA> 6 + )4+'C^:58+DCL;:K=K+DC+;DC=+/>95A + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + \P + 3DO:5=+P\+0445DCO+/59F>=F+78+1=95 6 + )4+'C^:58+DCL;:K=K+DC+;DC=+/>95A + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + \\ + 3DO:5=+P[+%DL8L;=+/59F>=F+78+>4:5+ 6 + ) 4+'C^:58+9CK+39A9;+/59F>=F+DCL;:K=K+DC+;DC=+ />95A <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + \` + 3DO:5=+P`+%DL8L;=+/59F>=F+78+098+ 6 + )4+'C^:58+9CK+39A9;+/59F>=F+DCL;:K=K+DC+;DC=+ />95A <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + \Q + + 3DO:5=+PQ+%DL8L;=+/59F>=F+78+@4CA>+ Z + 6 + )4+'C^:58+9CK+ 39A9;+/59F>=F+DCL;:K=K+DC+;DC=+ />95A <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + \I + + 3DO:5=+PI+%DL8L;=+/59F>=F+78+1=95 6 + )4+'C^:58+9CK+39A9;+/59F>=F+DCL;:K=K+DC+;DC=+ />95A <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + \c + + 3DO:5=+Pc+@9A5D_+M45+,4FFD7;=+%DL8L;=+0445+DCA=59LAD4C + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<< + [[ + 3DO:5=+Pd+"A9CK95K+K445DCO+L59F>+K=FL5DRAD4C+W$LADE=+#59CFR45A9AD4C+$;;D9CL=+GHPQX + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + [` + +

PAGE 10

! + 3DO:5=+GH+#>5==+/59F>+#8R=F + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + [c + 3DO:5=+GP+$E4DK9CL=+/59F> + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + [c + 3DO:5=+GG+,4FFD7;=+aC4LYe#>54U+KD5=LAD4CF+U>=C+K445=K + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<< + [d + 3DO:5=+G\+">9554U + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<< + QP + 3DO:5=+G[+%DL8L;=+2R=59ADCO+0DJ=CFD4CF+W$$"(#2+GHPGX + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<< + QG + 3DO:5=+G`+%DY=+&9C=+FA5DRDCO + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + II + 3DO:5=+GQ+"A5DRDCO+9CO;=+UDA>+4R=C+K445 + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<< + Ic + 3DO:5=+GI+/4;45=K+R=5J9C=CA+M=9A:5=F + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<< + Id + 3DO:5=+Gc+$CO;=K+J95YDCOF+4C+R959;;=;+R95YDCO+K=;DC=9A45F + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<< + cH + + +

PAGE 11

! _D + #$%&!" + #97;=+P+0445DCO+9CK+%DL8L;=+/59F>+K9A9+R4DCAF + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + PP + #97;=+G+#=C+3D=;K+&4L9AD4CF+9CK+):J7=5+4M+/59F>=F+R=5+&4L9AD4C + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + P` + #97;=+\+0445DCO+/59F>+,5=E=;9CL= + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<< + G\ + #97;=+[+/4JR95DF4C+4M+"=E=5DA8+7=AU==C+#4A9;+0445DCO+9CK+%DL8L;=+/59F>=F + <<<<<<<< + G[ + #97;=+`+2R=C+K445+9CK+7DL8L;=+L4:CAF + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<< + [P + #97;=+Q+@4CA>;8e"=9F4C9;+7DL8L;=+L4:CAF + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + `` + #97;=+I+@=9F:5=K+0445+SDKA>+78+.=>DL;=+#8R= + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + Q\ + #97;=+c+.=>DL;=+0445+!CL549L>J=CA + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< <<<<<<<< + Q` + #97;=+d+@9_e@DCe$E=59O=+.=>DL;=+0445+!CL549L>J=CA+ 6 + )$/#2 + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + Qd + #97 ;=+PH+@9_e@DCe$E=59O=+.=>DL;=+0445+!CL549L>J=CA+ Z + />DL9O4 + <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< + IP + +

PAGE 12

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f=+A>=+K9A9 ? + A>=+DJR45A9CL=+4M+A>DF+ L59F>+A8R= g F+DJR45A9CL=+L4J=F+:CK=5+L4CA=CAD4 C< + ++ $ 5 =+A>=8+ DJR45A9CA+45+C4Ah + + #4+L4JR;=A=+ A>DF+ 5=F=95L> ? + 9C+DC Z K=RA>+;DA=59A:5=+5=ED=U+DF+ MD5FA+ L4CK:LA=K?+ M4;;4U=K+78+:AD;DfDCO+YC4U;=KO=+4M+5=;=E9CA+L>959LA=5DFADLF+4M+K445DCO?+9CK+ K=A=5JDCDCO+A>=+R5=E9;=CL=+9CK+F=E=5DA8+4M+K445DCO+L59F>=F+U>=C+L4JR95=K+A4+A >=+ O=C=59;+R4R:;9AD4C+4M+7DL8L;=+L59F>=F <++ #>=+O49;+4M+A>DF+A>=FDF+DF+A4+5=F=95L>+9CK+ 7=AA=5+ :CK=5FA9CK+K445DCO+L59F>=F+9 F+U=;;+9F + K=A=5JDC=+DM+A>=8+95=+9+L59F>+A8R=+A>9A+

PAGE 13

! G + K=F=5E=F+J45=+9AA=CAD4C ? + 45+DM+A>=8+95= + DCK==K+ 9+595DA8 + A>9A+L9C+L4CADC:=+A4+7=+ C=O;= LA=K < + <: = + 2;#&')! + + #>DF+A>=FDF+DF+J9K=+:R+4M+F=E=C+L>9RA=5F <++ />9RA=5+P+L4CA9DCF+9C+DCA54K:LAD4C+ A4+A>=+DK=9+4M+K445DCO ? + U>8+DA+DF+DJR45A9CA ? + 9CK+9C+4E=5ED=U+4M+A>=+47^=LADE=+5=F=95L>+ O49;< + + />9RA=5+G + A>454:O>;8+ 5=ED=U F + ;DA=59A:5=+=DA>=5+KD5=LA;8+45+A9CO=C AD9;;8+5=;9A=K+A4+ A>=+F:7^=LA+4M+K445DCO< + + />9RA=5+\ + 4:A;DC=F+A>=+A8R=+4M+K9A9+A>9A+U9F+:F=K+M45+A>=+9C9;8FDF+4M+K445DCO+ L59F>=F <++ + />9RA=5+[+ K=FL5D7=F+A>=+J=A>4KF+4M+F=;=LADCO+9CK+KDFL=5CDCO+A>=+DCDAD9;+FA:K8+ ;4L9AD4C+ 9CK+ A>=+K=E=;4RJ=CA+4M+A>=+MD=;K+FA:K 8+L4;;=LAD4C+R54L=FF< + + />9RA=5+` + K=FL5D7=F+ A>=+59U+5=F:;AF+9CK+47F=5E9AD4CF+M4:CK+M54J+A>=+:AD;Df=K+ K9A9 < + + />9RA=5+ Q + D;;:FA59A=F+U>9A+A>DF+K9A9+F>4UF+974:A+A>=+K445DCO + L59F>=F+DC+ A=5JF+ 4M+ ;4L9AD4C F ?+F=E=5DA8?+9CK+FA9ADFADL9;+FDOCDMDL9CL= ?+ ;DJDA9AD4CF ?+ =AL < ++ + + />9RA=5+ I + K=FL5D7=F+L:55=CA+9CK+R54R4F=K+L4:CA=5J=9F:5=F< + />9RA=5+c + L4CL;:K=F+A>=+FA:K8+UDA>+9+F:JJ958+4M+A>=+MDCKDCOF+9CK+ K=A=5JDC9AD4C+4C+A>=+DJR45A9CL=+4M+K445DCO+L59F>=F< + + +

PAGE 14

! \ + '': + -!&$#!0+&'#!-$#;-! + + =:<+ ')#-20;/#'2) + + 'A+DF+YC4UC+A>9A+7DL8L;=+L59F>=F + 59CO =+DC+A>=D5+F=E=5DA8+9CK+L9C + 7=+E=58+ K9CO=54:F+ A4+A>4F=+ U>4 + 5DK=i+ DA+DF+ 9;F4+ E=58+DJR45A9CA+A4+:CK=5FA9CK+A>=D5+ L4CA5D7:ADCO + M9LA45F + DC+45K=5+A4+ DCL5=9F= + 4E=59;;+F9M=A8+M45+7DL8L;DFAF <++ S>D;=+K 445DCO+L59F>=F+ L9C+ L4CA5D7:A=+A4+A>=+C:J7=5+4M+F=5D4:F + 7DL8L;=+L 59F> =F ? + A>=5=+ >9F+9 + 7==C+9+ A=CK=CL8 + A4 + A5=9A+A>=J+ 9C=LK4A9;;8+ UDA>+;=FF+FDOCDMDL9CL=+ K:=+A4+ R:7;DL+ R=5L=RAD4C + 9CK+9 + ;9LY+4M+ L4JR5=>=CFDE=+K9A9 <++ S>D;=+A>= 5=+95=+5=L:55DCO+A>=J=F ? + =DA>=5+KD5=LA+ 45 + DCKD5=LA + DC+ A>=+ 5=F=95L>? + A>=5=+U9F+C4+4C=+ R9R=5+A>9A + FA44K+ 4:A+UDA>+9+L4JR5=>=CFDE=+ :CK=5FA9CKDCO+4M+ A>=+ 7DL8L;DFA+ K445DCO+R547;= J <++ #>=+M4;;4UDCO + ;DA=59A:5=+5=ED=U+UD;;+ :F=+A>=+L:55=CA+9CK+>DFA45DL9;+ K4L:J=CA9AD4C + A4+ F>4U+A>9A + A>DF+KDFL4CC=LA+7=AU==C+ A4RDLF+K=J9CKF + M:5A>=5+5=F=95L>+DCA4+K445DCO+L59F>=F < + =:=+ "$3!# 1 + + #>=+J4FA+DJR45A9CA+M4L:F+4M+9+FA:K8+A>9A+47F=5E=F+L59F>+K9A9+DF+A>9A+4M+F9M=A8 <++ #>=+;DA=59A:5=+5=ED=U+M4:CK+A>9A+U>D;=+A>=5=+U=5=+F4:5L=F+A>9A+F>4U=K+ R5=E9;=CL= + 9CK+ F=E=5DA8 ? + A>=5=+U=5=+M=U+DM+9C8+A>9A+U=5=+ R==5 Z 5=ED=U=K+FL>4;95;8+K4L:J=CAF <++ BFDCO+A>= + K9A9+A>9A+U9F+R54EDK=K+DC+R5=ED4:F+FA:KD=F ? + DA+UD;;+7=+R4FFD7;=+A4+L4JR95=+ UDA>+A>=+L:55=CA+5=F=95L>< + C+ 9 + GHPG+7DL8L;=+L59F>+9C9;8FDF ?+ A>=+/DA8+4M+/>DL9O4+ M4:CK+ A>9A+A>=+C:J7=5F+ 4M+L8L;DFAF+4C+A>=+549K+DCL5=9F=K+M54J+`?d`Q+A4+ P`?HdQ+7=AU==C+A>=+8=95F+4M+ GHH` + 9CK+GHPH <++ 0:5DCO+A>DF+ ADJ=? + A>=8+F9U+:RU95KF+4M+dHHH+7DL8L;=+DC^:58+L59F>=F ? + 9C+ DCL5=9F=+4M+GI+R=5L=CA ? + 7:A+U=5=+:C97;=+A4+DCL;:K=+K445DCO+L59F>=F+:CAD;+A>=+=CK+4M+ A>=+FA:K8+DC+GHPH+9CK+GHPP+U>=C+L>9CO=F+U=5=+J9K=+A4+A>=+U98+A>9A+7DL8L;=+

PAGE 15

! [ + K445DCO+L59F >=F+ U=5= + 5=L45K=K <++ !E=C+A>4:O>+A>DF+K9A9+F>4UF+A>9A+K445DCO+L59F>=F+ >9K+9+>DO>=5+R=5L=CA9O=+4M+C4C Z DCL9R9LDA9ADCO+DC^:5D=F+A>9C+C4C Z K445DCO + 9CK+7=DCO+ 54:O>;8+=N:9;+DC+R=5L=CA9O=F+4M+DCL9R9LDA9ADCO+9CK+R4FFD7;=+DC^:5 8 + L59F>=F ? + A>=5=+ U9F+E=58+;DAA;=+DCM45J9 AD4C+ 9E9D;97;=+5=O95KDCO+A>=+R5=E9;=CL=+9CK+F=E=5DA8+4M+K445DCO+ L59F>=F <++ + #>=+LDA8+4M+@=;74:5C=?+$:FA59;D9 ? + L4CK:LA=K+A>=+FA:K8?+j%DL8L;=+-DK=5+ /4;;DFD4CF+UDA>+0445F?k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j -49K+A4+(=9;A> ? k + 9+FA:K8+ R=5M45J=K+78+A>=+/DA8+4M+#454CA4 ? + /9C9K9? + ;44Y =K + 9A+ DJR54EDCO+A>=+U9;YDCO+9CK+ L8L;DCO+L4CKDAD4CF+M45+A>=D5+5=FDK=CAF + 9CK + M4:CK+A>9A+\H]+4M+A>=D5+L59F>=F+4LL:55=K+ JDK7;4LY+9CK+U=5=+M4:CK+A4+7 =+R5DJ95D;8+5=;9A=K+A4+K445DCO + W'CK!L4+"A59A=ODL+

PAGE 16

! ` + /4CF:;ADCO+GHPGX < + + #>=+FA:K8 ? + j%DL8L;DFA+39A9;DAD=F+9CK+"=5D4:F+'C^:5D=F+DC+)=U+145Y+ /DA8?k+M4:CK+A>9A+A>=5=+U=5=+F=E=C+M9A9;+L59F>=F+A>9A+4LL:55=K+U>=C+9+L8L;DFA+U9F+ K445=K+9CK+9C+=DO>A>+A>9A+U9F+L9:F=K+K:5DCO+9C+9E4DK 9CL=+J9C=:E=5 <++ S>D;=+ M9A9;DAD=F + 5=R5=F=CA+A>=+>DO>=FA+;=E=;+4M+L59F>+F=E=5DA8 ?+A>DF+FA:K8+M9D;=K+A4+DCL;:K=+ 4A>=5+ DC^:58+;=E=;F+U>=C+L4CFDK=5DCO+K445DCO+L59F>=F?+9CK+9O9DC+KDK+C4A+=E9;:9A=+ 5DFY?+45+A>=+DCM59FA5:LA:5=+A>9A+A>=+L8L;DFA+U9F+5DKDCO+4C + W%=C=R=+=A+9; <++ GHH`X <++ "DJD;95;8? + A>= + $:FA59;D9C + FA:K8+M4:CK+A>9A+jL95+K445DCO+DF+:C9LL=RA97;=+7=L9:F=+DA+ >:5AF+R=4R;=k W%4;DA>4+GHP\X ?+ 7:A+ A>=5=+C==K F + M:5A>=5+A=FADCO+9CK+ =_R;9C9AD4C + DC+45K=5+ A4+O59FR+A>=+ DK=9+4M+K445DCO+9CK+A>=+=_A=CA+A4+U>DL>+DA+DF+9+A5:=+F9M=A8+L4CL=5C < + 2A>=5+FA:KD=F+;44Y=K+9A + A>=+FL9CCDCO+A=L>CDN:=+A>9A+R=4R;=+:F=+U>=C+O=AADCO+ 4:A+4M+A>=D5+L95F + 9CK + A>=+=K:L9AD4C+R54EDK=K+74A>+A4+L8L;DFAF+9CK+K5DE=5F?+ 7:A+C4C=+ =E9;:9A=K+9LA:9;+549K+F9M=A 8+4:AL4J=F+4M+F:L>+R54O59JF<++$C4A>=5+FA:K8+ DCE=FADO9A=K+ 7DL8L;=+J=FF=CO=5F+DC+)=U+145Y+/DA8 + UDA>+5=FR=LA+A4 + A>=+F=E=5DA8+9CK+ ;=COA>+4M+ADJ=+A>=+L8L;DFA+U9F+9MM=LA=K+78+ 9+K445DCO + L59F> <++ "AD;; ? + A>=5=+95=+ L4CA59KDLADCO+95O:J=CAF+4C+A>=+FDOCDMDL9CL=+4M+K445D CO+L59F>=F?+U>4+DF+A4+7;9J=?+9CK+ U>9A+DF+A4+7=+K4C=< + =: > + ')3-$"#-;/#;-! + + "A:KD=F+;44YDCO+9A+DCM59FA5:LA:5=+U=5=+R5=K4JDC9CA;8+M4:CK+A4+7=+DCA=5=FA=K+DC+ A>=+A59LYDCO+4M+7DL8L;= + ;4L9AD4C + DC+A>=+K445+f4C=+DC+5=;9AD4C+A4+A>= + R95Y=K+L95F+9CK+A>= + F>9554UF+DCFA9; ;=K+4C+A>=+FA5==A <++ #>=+K445+f4C=+W 3DO:5=+P X+DF+K=MDC=K+9F+A>=+95=9+ DJJ=KD9A=;8+9K^9L=CA+A4+9+ R95Y=K+ E=>DL;= ?+U>DL> + L5=9A= F + 78+A>=+R4FFD7D;DA8+4M+9+K445+ 4R=CDCO + L4CM;DLA <++ 345+=_9JR;=?+A >=+/DA8+4M+/>DL9O4+:F=F+9+M4:5 Z M44A+UDKA>+ DC + A>=D5+

PAGE 17

! Q + DCFA5:LAD4C9;+DCM45 J9AD4C?+7:A+A>=+9LA:9;+UDKA>+59CO=F+78+K445+;=COA>+9CK+A>=+9CO;=+DA+ 4R=CF <++ #4A9;+UDKA> + 59C O=F + 9C8U>=5=+M54J+974:A+A>5==+M==A+A4+4E=5+MDE=+M==A< + + !"#$%&' ( )**%'+*,&' -./"01#*')&21%34&,3'*5'6%1,72*%313"*,'899:; 0445DCO+DF+5=M=5=CL=K+DC+J9C8+DCN:D5D=F+45+FA:KD=F+U>=C+;44YDCO+9A+R95ADL:;95+ DCM59FA5:LA:5=+7:A+;9LYF+K9A9+F>4UDCO+A>=+C:J7=5+4M+K445DCO+L59F>=F <++ 'CFA=9K ? + DA+ K=FL5D7=F+A>= + R547;=J+9CK+A>=C+9C9;8f=F+F4J=A>DCO+5=;9A=K+A4 + F9M=A8 + 7:A+C4A+

PAGE 18

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jL4JR;=A=k+K9A9F=A <++ !E=C+A>4:O>+L59F>=F+DC+"U=K=C+95 =+5=N:D5=K+A4+7=+5=R45A=K+

PAGE 19

! c + 9CK+A>:F+U4:;K+;=9K+A4+9+R4;DL=+5=R45A+9CK+R4FFD7;8+9C+DCF:59CL=+L;9DJ ? + A >=+.4;E4+ FA:K8 + M4:CK+A>9A+4C;8+`H]+4M+A>=+L59F>=F+A>9A+L4CA9DC=K+9C+DCF:59CL=+L;9DJ+ >9K + J4K=59A=+45+F=5D4:F+DC^:58 <++ 'C+A>=+B" ? + 5=R45AF+95=+O=C=59;;8+R54K:L= K+79F=K+4C+ DC^:58+45+L4FA+4M+9+R54R=5A8+L;9DJ+F>4UDCO+A>9A+DA+DF+C=L=FF958+A4+L5=9A=+9+5=R45A+DM+ A>=5=+DF+9+R4FFD 7D;DA8+4M+4E=5+lPHHH+4M+R54R=5A8+K9J9O= <++ #>:F ? + DM+A>=5=+DF+C4A+9+ L4J7DC9AD4C+4M+F=E=5=+DC^:58+A4+A>=+L8L;DFA+9CK e45 + R54R=5A8+K9J9O= ? + A>=5=+J98 + 7=+9+ ;4FF+4M+K9A9< + #>=F=+M9LA45F+ F==J+A4+=_9L=579A=+ A>=+L4CL=5C+M45+K445DCO+L59F>=F+9CK+A>=D5+ K9A9+UDA>+A>=+L4J7DC9AD4C+4M+:CK=55=R45ADCO?+;9LY+4M+DCA=5=FA+M54J+R4;DL=?+9CK+MDC9;;8 ? + A>=+;=E=;+4M+L4;;=LA=K+K9A9+:AD;Df9AD4C+ A>9A+ 4C;8+U45YF+A4+L5=9A=+KDFL4CA DC:DAD=F+9CK+ R=5R=A:9A=+A>=+DK=9+A>9A+K445DCO+L59F>=F+95=+ :CD JR45A9CA< + =: @ + /2)/&;"'2) + + + #>=+KDFL4CC=LA+ 7=AU==C+DK=9F+A>9A+;DCY+9CK+KDFR;98+A>=+FDOCDMDL9CL=+4M+K445DCO + =_A=CK F + =E=C+A4+FA:KD=F+A>9A+F>4U+ FA9ADFADL9;+ DCM45J9AD4C+5=;9A=K+A4+K445DCO <++ S>D;=+ DCM4 5J9AD4C+K=A9D;=K+DC+A>=+;DA=59A:5=+5=ED=U+KDFR;98 F + A>=+F=E=5DA8+9CK+ R5=E9;=CL= + 4M+ K445DCO+L59F>=F ? + DA+U9F+M4:CK+A>9A+A>DF+ M4L:F=K ? + 8=A+7549K;8+7 9 F=K+;DA=59A:5=+5=ED=U ? + R4DCAF+A4+A>=+C==K+M45+M:5A>=5+5=F=95L>+DC+45K=5+A4+K=A=5JDC=+DM+K445DCO+L59F>=F+95=+9+ F DOCDMDL9CA+L59F>+A8R= <++ BFDCO+A>=+759CL>=F+4M+F9M=A8?+DCM59FA5:LA:5=?+K9A9?+9CK+4A>=5+ K445DCO+5=;9A=K+A4RDLF + DC+L445KDC9AD4C+UDA>+L4;;=LA=K+K9A9 ? + A>=+O49;+DF+A4+L5=9A=+9C+ =K:L9A=K+L4CL;:FD4C+4C+A>=+;=E=;+4M+DJR45A9CL=+4M+K445DCO <++ + +

PAGE 20

! d + ''': + 0$#$ + #4+9C9;8f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f=K+E=>DL;=+U>D L>+DF+R54R=;;=K+78+R=K9;DCO+9CK+9+ J4A45+E=>DL;=+DC+A59CFR45A <++ $+K445DCO+L59F>+DF+9C8+L59F>+DCE4;EDCO+9C8+ 4LL:R9CA+4M+9+C4C Z J4A45Df=K+E=>DL;=+U>DL>+DF+R54R=;;=K+78+R=K9;DCO+9CK+9+ J4A45+E=>DL;=+C4A+DC+A59CFR45A+WR95Y=K+45+L:57=K+E=>DL;=X <++ #>=+L59F>+ L;9FFDM DL9AD4C+4C+9+K445DCO+L59F>+DF+C4A=K+J=5=;8+M45+R:5R4F=F+4M+L4;;=LADCO+ A>DF+A8R=+4M+K9A9+7:A+A>DF+K9A9+DF+=_L;:K=K+M54J+=_A59LAF+45+FA9ADFADL9;+ R:7;DL9AD4CF <++ #>DF+K9A9+DF+=_L;:K=K+7=L9:F=+A>=+L59F>+K4=F+C4A+DCE4;E=+9+ J4A45+E=>DL;=+DC+A59CFR45A+9CK+A>=5=M45 =+K4=F+C4A+J==A+A>=+5=N:D5=J=CAF+A4+7=+ L4CFDK=5=K+9+J4A45+E=>DL;=+L59F>< + + #>=+974E=+FA9A=J=CA+F=R959A=F+K445DCO+L59F>=F+M54J+9;;+4A>=5+A8R=F+4M+L59F>=Fi+A>DF+ DF+7=L9:F=+A>=+K445DCO+L59F>+DF+L4CFDK=5=K+9+MD_=K+47^=LA+U>=5=+9;;+4A>=5+L59F>=F+95=+ UDA>+9+J4EDC O+E=>DL;= <++ $F+9+5=F:;A?+/>DL9O4+U9F+F=;=LA=K+M45+A>DF+FA:K8 <++ + S>D;=+A>=+K445DCO+L59F>+K9A9+ R54EDK=K + DCM45J9AD4C+5=;9A=K+A4+A>=+L59F>?+ F=E=5DA8?+;4L9AD4C ? + 9CK+4A>=5+:F=M:;+MD=;KF ? + DA+KDK+C4A+R54EDK=+DCM45J9AD4C+5=;9A=K+A4+ 4A>=5+7DL8L;=+L59F> + A8R=F <++ $+F=L 4CK+K9A9F=A+U9F+A>=C+L4;;=LA=K+F>4UDCO+9;;+7DL8L;=+ L59F>=F+UDA>+FDJD;95+DCM45J9AD4C+ A>9A + U4:;K+9;;4U+M45+9+L4JR95DF4C+7=AU==C+A>=+AU4+ K9A 9 F=AF <++ />DL9O4 + U9F+4C=+4M+A>=+M=U+LDAD=F+A>9A+L4;;=LA =K + 9CK+>4:F= K + 9+K9A979F=+4M+ K445DCO+L59F>=F <++ #4+47F=5E=+>4U+A>=F =+L59F>=F+U=5=+4LL:55DCO+ FR9AD9;;8 ? + *'"+

PAGE 21

! PH + ;98=5F+U=5=+K4UC;49K=K+M54J+A>=+K9A9+R45A9; ? + DCL;:KDCO+A>=D5+FA5==A+9CK+7DL8L;=+ C=AU45Y F+9F+U=;;+9F + 4A>=5+5=;9A=K+;98=5F+A>9A+U4:;K+9;;4U+M45+A>=+=E9;:9AD4C+4M+A>=+ 59U+K9A9< + #>= + J9DC+47^=LADE=+4M+A>=+A>=FDF+DF+A4+:AD ;Df=+A> DF+:CDN:=+ K9A9 F=A + A4 + U45Y+ A4U95KF+ 7=AA=5+ :CK=5FA9CKDCO+ 7DL8L;DFA+ K445DCO+ L59F>=F <++ $KKDAD4C9;+DC Z R=5F4C+ K9A9+ L4;;=LAD4C+U9F+ 9;F4+ C=L=FF958+A4 + >=;R+ =_R9CK + J8 + :CK=5FA9CKDCO+ 4M+A>=+N:9CADA9ADE=+ 5=F:;AF <++ 345+DCFA9CL= ? + DC+K =A=5JDCDCO+ K445DCO+L59F>+ 5DFY ? + 74A>+7DL8L; DFA + 9CK+4R=C+K445+ L4:CAF+U=5=+L4;;=LA=K+ DC+45K=5+A4+7=AA=5+:CK=5FA9CK+A>=F=+ DCA=59LAD4C F< + + +

PAGE 22

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

PAGE 23

! PG + ? : = + "# ; 01+&2/$#'2) + + #4+FA:K8+A>=+;4L9AD4CF+4M+A>=+K445DCO+L59F>=F?+ 9 + F>9R=MD;= + U9F+L5=9A=K+ M54J+ A>=+*44O;=+!95A>+ K9A 9 <++ A+U9F+ A>=C+ R4F FD7;=+ A4+K=E=;4R+Y=5C=;+K=CFDA8+A=FAF+ W 3DO:5=+ G X+ A4+47F=5E=+K445DCO+>4A+FR4AF+DC+/>DL9O4+:FDCO+9;;+4M+A>=+59U+K9A9 <++ 2 E=5+A>=+8=95F ? + A>=+;4L9AD4CF+4M+A>=+ 7DL8L;DFA+K445DCO+ L59F>=F+ F==JF+A4+M4L:F+4C + 5=4LL:55DCO+;4L9AD4CF+ A>9A+F>4U+ 9+5=;9ADE=;8+ >DO>+K=CFDA8 < ++ + 3DO:5=+\+ M:5A>=5+F>4UF+A>=+4E=5;98+4M+A>=+M4:5+Y=5C=;+K=CFDA8+J9RF+FA54CO;8+ DCM;:=CL=K+A>=+CDC=+;4L9AD4CF+:F=K+A4+47F=5E=+9CK+L4JR95=+K445DCO+9CK+9;;+7DL8L;=+ L59F>=F+M45+A>DF+FA:K8+W #97;=+G X <++ *44O;=+!95A>+U9F+:F=K+A4+=FADJ9A=+J=9F:5=J=CAF+ 4M+A>=+FA5==A + UDKA>?+C:J7=5eUDKA>+4M+A59CFR45A9AD4C+;9C=F?+R5=F=CL=eUDKA>+4M+7DL8L;=+ DCM59FA5:LA:5=?+4C Z FA5==A+R95YDCO?+9CK+R4FA=K+FR==K+;DJDA <++ $+A5DR+U9F+FL>=K:;=K+A4+ EDFDA+9CK+47F=5E=+MD=;K+;4L9AD4CF+A4+L4;;=LA+7DY=+L4:CAF+9CK+47F=5E=+A>=+C:J7=5+4M+ E=>DL;=+K445F+4R= CDCO+A4+O9DC+9+7=AA=5+:CK=5FA9CKDCO+4M+K445DCO+9CK+>4U+DA+5=;9A=F+A4+ =9L>+;4L9AD4C <++ #U4+K98F+7=M45=+;=9EDCO+M45+/>DL9O4?+9+A=CA>+;4L9AD4C?+09J=C+ $E=C:=?+U9F+DCL;:K=K+K:=+A4+A>=+L59F>+9A+A>=+\`HH+7;4LY+4M+)45A>+09J=C+$E=+DC+ -4FL4=+.D;;9O=+ U>=5=+ 9+L8L;DFA+U 9F+5=R45A=K;8+K445=K + DC+9+M9A9;+L59F> <++ + +

PAGE 24

! P\ + + !"#$%&' 8 <&%,&=')&,7"3@'C127'89((' D 89(E

PAGE 25

! P[ + + !"#$%&' F !*$% D @&1% <&%,&=')&,7"3@ *G&%=1@' C12 + +

PAGE 26

! P` + + 61?=&' 8 6&,'!"&=>'H*013"*,7'1,>' I$4?&%'*5'.%17 /&7'2&%'H*013"*, + + ?:>+ 3'!&0+/2&&!/#'2) + #>=+/>DL9O4+A5DR+R54EDK=K+ MD5FA>9CK + =_R=5D=CL=+5DKDCO+9+7DL8L;=+4C+A>=+7DL8L;=+ DCM59FA5:LA:5= + DC+N:=FAD4C <++ 0:5DCO+A>=F=+FDA=+EDFDAF?+'+L4;;=LA=K+A>=+C:J7=5+4M+7DL8L;=F+ UDA>+KD5=LAD4C+4M+A59E=;?+FR==K+4M+A59MMDLe7DL 8L;=?+9CK+C:J7=5+4M+K445F + 4R=CDCO + 4C+ =9L>+ FDK=+4M + A>= + FA5==A+M45+9;;+A=C+;4L9AD4CF <++ %DL8L;=+L4:CAF+U=5=+9+C=L=FF958+ L4;;=LAD4C+7=L9:F=+A>=+5=L=DE=K+L4:CA+K9A9+U9F+C4A+:F=97;=+DC+A>=+L5=9AD4C+4M+ =_R4F:5=+45+=_R;9DCDCO+9CK+K=FL5D7DCO+>4U+A>=+C:J7=5F+5=;9A=K + A4+A>=+K445DCO+DFF:= <++ $F+UDA>+7DL8L;=+L4:CA+DCM45J9AD4C?+4R=C+K445+L4:CAF+U=5=+C==K=K+A4+K=FL5D7=+A>=+ DCA=59LAD4C+7=AU==C+K5DE=5FeL8L;DFAF?+9CK+A4+L5=9A=+9+5DFY+M9LA45+M45+R4FFD7;=+K445DCO+

PAGE 27

! PQ + DCA=59LAD4C F <++ ,>8FDL9;;8+47F=5EDCO+;4L9AD4CF+U4:;K+9;;4U+M45+9+ M D5FA Z >9CK + :CK=5FA9CKDCO+9F+A4+A>=+O=4J=A58+4M+A>=+549K+9CK+R54EDK=+A>=+97D;DA8+A4+L;95DM8+9CK+ K=FL5D7=+9FR=LAF+4M+K445DCO+C4A+9RR95=CA+A>54:O>+9+L4JR:A=5+FL5==C :++ $+MDC9;+ U9;YA>54:O>+U9F+J9K=+9A+=9L>+4M+A>=+EDFDA=K+FDA=F+A4+47F=5E=+A>=+R95YDCO+5=O:;9AD4CF+ W 3DO:5=+d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i + /;95Y + "A + U9F+5=L45K=K+4CL=+C=95+$KKDF4C+ $E=+A >=C+C=95+S5DO> A U44K+$E=+ W3DO:5= + `X+ A4+L4;;=LA+A>=+AU4+>4A+FR4AF+ 4C+A>DF+4C=+ FA5==A i + 9CK+ MDC9;;8 ? + 4C= Z >4:5+47F=5E9AD4CF+U=5=+9;F4+J9K=+4C+&DCL4;C+$E= + 9CK+ %549KU98 + W 3D O:5= F + I + 9CK+ Q X <++ + +

PAGE 28

! PI + + !"#$%&' E C"=J1$K&& AG&L'1 M'' N *$3/&173O'? M'' I *%3/J&73

PAGE 29

! Pc + + !"#$%&' P .=1%K'N3'7*$3/'*5'A>>"7*,'N3L 1 M'' N*$3/&173'? M'' I*%3/J&73

PAGE 30

! Pd + + !"#$%&' Q B%*1>J1@'1 M'' I*%3/ ? M'' N*$3 /

PAGE 31

! GH + + !"#$%&' R H",0*=,'AG&L 1 M'' I*%3/J&73'? M'' 7*$3/&173

PAGE 32

! GP + + !"#$%&' : .=1%K'N3'I*%3/'*5'S%"#/3J**>'AG&L 1 M'' I*%3/'? M'' N*$3/

PAGE 33

! GG + + !"#$%&' T U1%K",#'V&#$=13"*,7

PAGE 34

! G\ + .: + -!";&#" + />9RA=5+ MDE=+ DF+A>=+45 O9CDf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

PAGE 35

! G[ + FU=5E=F+A4+9E4DK+9+K445+4C;8+A4+7=+>DA+9CK+YD;;=K ? + A>=+M9A9; DA8+U4:;K+C4A+7=+L4:CA=K+ DC+ A>= + K445DCO+ L59F>+K9A9F=A+ 9F+A>=+L8L;DFA+U9F+ =E=CA:9;;8+ >DA+78+9+J4EDCO+E=>DL;= + W=E=C+ A>4:O>+A>=+K445DCO+U9F+A>=+J9DC+L4CA5D7:ADCO+M9LA45X <++ 0445DCOF + KDFR;98+9+>DO>+ R=5L=CA9O=+4M+F=E=5 = + L59F>=F+U>=C+L4JR95=K+A4+7DL8L;=+L59F>=F + 7 :A+C4+M9A9;DAD=F + W #97;=+ [ X <++ + 61?=&' E .*421%"7*,'*5'N&G&%"3@'?&3J&&,'6*31=')**%",#'1,>'B"0@0=&'.%17/&7 + + @: > + #!9,2-$& + `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

PAGE 36

! G` + DCL5=9FDCO+A>54:O>+A>=+K98+A4+Q+,@+UDA>+9+K59FADL+KDR+DC+5=R45A=K+L 59F>=F+K:5DCO+A>=+ C44C+>4:5 <++ #>=5=+DF+9+F=L4CK+;95O=+DCL5=9F=+M54J+PH+,@+A4+P+$@+ M4;;4U=K+78+9+ K59J9ADL+K=L5=9F=+M54J+P+$@+A4+Q+$@ ? + U>= C + A>=+ A4A9;+C:J7=5+4M + 5=R45A=K+L59F>=F+ DC+ A>=+L4JR;=A=+K9A9F=A + DF + 7=;4U+PH+5=R45A=K+L59F>=F+R=5+>4:5 <++ $F+UDA>+ 7DL8L;=+ L 59F>=F?+M4:5+K98F+4M+A>=+U==Y+F>4U+>DO>+C:J7=5F+4M+A4A9;+K445DCO+L59F>=F+W 3DO:5=+ PP X <++ 'C+L4CA59FA+A4+A>=+ 7DL8L;=+ L59F>=F?+A>=F=+K98F+95=+C4A+L4CADO:4:F+7:A+DCFA=9K+ 95=+ @ 4CK98?+S=KC=FK98?+35DK98?+9CK+"9A:5K98 <++ $;;+DC^:58+K445DCO+L59F>+A8R=F+ M;:LA:9A=+M54J + K98 Z A4 Z K98+F>4UDCO+@4CK98eS=KC=FK98+A4+>9E=+A>=+J4FA+ DCL9R9LDA9ADCO+DC^:5D=F ?+#:=FK98eS=KC=FK98e35DK98+A4+>9E=+A>=+>DO>=FA+ C4C Z DCL9R9LDA9ADCO+DC^:5D=F ?+9CK+@ 4CK98eS=KC=FK98e35DK98e"9A:5K98+A4+>9E=+A>=+>DO>=FA+ DC^:58+5=R45A=K+7:A+C4A+=EDK=CA <++ 3DO:5=+PG+ KD FR;98F+9+J4CA>;8+7=;;+L:5E=+4M+A>=+ K445DCO+L59F>=F+A>9A+DF+L4JR9597;=+A4+A>9A+4M+A>=+ 7DL8L;=+ L59F>=F+UDA>+DAF+R=9Y+DC+ T:;8 <++ 3DC9;;8?+A>=+8=95;8+L>95A+DC+ 3DO:5=+P\+ F>4UF+A>9A+A>=+DC^:58+K445DCO+L59F>=F+ F>4U+FDJD;95+R54R45AD4CF+DC+A>9A+74A>+A>=+A4A9;+C:J7=5 + 4M+5=R45A=K+K445DCO+L59F>=F+ 9CK+L59F>+A8R=F+K=L5=9F=+M54J+GHPG+A4+GHP[< +

PAGE 37

! GQ + + +

PAGE 38

! GI + + + + + + + + + + + !"#$%&' (9 )**%",#'.%17/&7'?@'W*$% X I*'Y,Z$%@'",0=$>&>'",'=",&'./1%3 +

PAGE 39

! Gc + + +

PAGE 40

! Gd + + + + + + + + + !"#$%&' (( )**%",#'.%17/&7'?@')1@ X I*' Y,Z$%@'",0=$>&>'",'=",&'./1%3 +

PAGE 41

! \H + + +

PAGE 42

! \P + + + + + + + + + !"#$%&' (8 )**%",#'.%17/&7'?@'C*,3/ X I*'Y,Z$%@'",0=$>&>'",'=",&'./1%3 +

PAGE 43

! \G + + +

PAGE 44

! \\ + + + + + + + + + + + !"#$%&' (F )**%",#'.%17/&7'?@'[&1% X I*'Y,Z$%@'",0=$>&>'",'=",&'./1%3 +

PAGE 45

! \[ + `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`+ KDFR;98F+A>9A+FD_+ 4:A+4M+F=E=C+K98F+K:5DCO+A>=+U==Y+>9E= + 9+ L4J7DC=K+ M4:5 Z 8=95 + A4A9;+4M+ 9RR54_DJ9A=;8+ P ? d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

PAGE 46

! \` + + !" #$%&' (E B"0@0=& .%17/&7'?@'/*$%' X I*'Y,Z$%@'1,>'!131='.%17/&7'",0=$>&>'",'=",&' ./1%3 + +

PAGE 47

! \Q + + !"#$%&' (P B"0@0=&' .%17/&7'?@')1@' X I*'Y,Z$%@'1,>'!131='.%17/&7'",0=$>&>'",'=",&' ./1%3 +

PAGE 48

! \I + + !"#$%&' (Q B"0@0=&' .%17/&7'?@'C*,3/' D X I*'Y,Z$%@'1,>'!131='.%17/&7'",0=$>&>'",'=",&' ./1%3 + +

PAGE 49

! \c + + !"#$%&' (R B"0@0=&' .%17/&7'?@'[&1% X I*'Y,Z$%@'1,>'!131='.%17/&7'",0=$>&>'",'=",&' ./1%3 + + +

PAGE 50

! \d + @: ? + 2,!)+022-+0$#$ + #>=+KD5=LAD4C9;+C:J7=5+4M+7DL8L ;=F+9CK+4R=CDCO+K445F+U=5=+L4;;=LA=K+9A+M DE=+ ;4L9AD4CF+W #97;=+`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c + U9F+L5=9A=K+F>4UDCO+A>=+C:J7=5+4M+ R4FFD7;=+K445+DCA=59LAD4CF+9+FDCO;=+L8L;DFA+J98+=CL4:CA=5+ UDA>+A>=+=FADJ9A=K+EDF: 9;+ 7;4LY+;=COA> + 4M+`Gc+M==A + 47F=5E=K+9A+@D;U9:Y==+$E= ?+UDA>+FR==K+9;4CO+A>=+>45Df4CA9;+ 9_DF?+9CK+C:J7=5+4M+K445F+4C+A>=+E=5ADL9;< + +

PAGE 51

! [H + !""#$ %"&# ()"*+ )-./0% 1 *2*)3$0 $4--! 5 6 7 89 4"$$3(), !""#3./ 3.0 -#:*03". 1 $ 5 + \]$13"*,' ( I$4?&%'*5'U*77"?=&')**%'Y,3&%103"*,7 #>=+J9A5D_+F>4UF+9+;4ODL9;+5=;9AD4CF>DR+UDA>+FR==K+9CK+F=E=5DA8 <++ #>=+;4U=5+ A>=+FR==K+9+7DL8L;DFA+A59E=;F+U4:;K+L455=;9A=+A4+9+;95O=5+C:J7=5+4M+K445F+A>=8+DCA=5 9LA+ UDA>?+7:A+9;;4UDCO+M45+J45=+ADJ=+M45+9E4DK9CL=+J9C=:E=5F+9CK+9+;4U=5+;=E=;+4M+L59F>+ F=E=5DA8 <++ 'C+L4JR95DF4C ? + 9+L8L;DFA+A59E=;DCO+9A+>DO>=5+FR==KF+>9F+A>=+R4FFD7D;DA8+A4+ DCA=59LA+UDA>+ M=U=5+ K445F+7:A+UD;;+7=+R54EDK=K+;=FF+ADJ=+A4+9E4DK+9CK+U4:;K+ ;DY=;8 + =_R=5D=CL=+9+>DO>=5+L59F>+F=E=5DA8+DM+A>=8+>9RR=C=K+A4+L4;;DK=+UDA>+9+K445 <++ + + +

PAGE 52

! [P + ' 61?=&' P ^2&,'>**%'1,>'?"0@0=&'0*$,37 + + +

PAGE 53

! "# ! ! "#

PAGE 54

! "# "$

PAGE 55

! "" ! ! "#$%&'! () *+,&#-!./&!0/11#23'!4#5653'!7//&!#8,'&+5,#/8

PAGE 56

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

PAGE 57

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

PAGE 58

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

PAGE 59

! "[ "#$%&'! BC A<&''!F&+1
PAGE 60

! "F "#$%&'! BB 0/11#23'!G8/5HIA<&/J!;#&'5,#/81!J<'8!;//&';

PAGE 61

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`>5.+&0&,4!0%/ 3/.20&6/! (/)3/2'/!&,!0%/!,*89/3!+1!3/5+30/(!(++3&,4!)32'%/' : 0%/! ;/3,/.!(/,'&07 N'%+-,!&, D&4*3/ '!J!2,( a :!2,(!&,!8 +3/!(/02&.!&,!U]]`YWHb! U O! 825' 9/)+8/!8+3/!1+)*'/(! '%+-&,4 0%20 :! -%&./ 0%/!,*89/3!+1! (++3&,4!)32'%/'!2,( 0%/&3 .+)20&+,'!)%2,4/!13+8! 7/23 M 0+ M 7/23 : 0%/! .+)20&+,' -&0%!%&4%! )32'%! 13/Z*/,)7! 1.*)0*20/ .&00./ =!! T&.-2*;//!U6/:!c&,)+.,!U6/:!2,(!A.23;!d0 : 2..!%&' 0+3&)2..7!)+,6/30/(! 13+8! 032&. 0+!82P+3!230/3&2.' : '%+-! 2! %&4%!13/Z*/,)7! +1 (++3&,4 )32'%/'! +6/3!0%/!)+*3'/!+1!0%/! /,0&3/ 1+*3 M 7/23! 5/3&+( =!! H,!)+,,/)0&+,!-&0%! 0%/'/!0%3//!'03//0' : 0%/!,+30%V '+*0 %! '03//0'! '*)%!2!W28/,!U6/=! '%+-!%&4%/3!13/Z*/,)7!+1!(++3&,4 )32'%/'!N'/52320/! 13+8!&88/(&20/.7!(+-,0+-,!+3!0%/!.++5O = !! $%/!(+-,0+-,V.++5!+9'/3620&+,!.+)20&+,'!

PAGE 62

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e23&+*'!'03//0'!2,(!&,132'03*)0*3/!23/!)3/20/(!+3!8+(&1&/(!1+3!0%/&3!3/'5/)0/ (! ,//('!2,(!3/Z*&3/8/,0' =!! S%/,!0%/'/! ,//('!2,(!3/Z*&3/8/,0'!)%2,4/!12'0/3!0%2,! 0%/!'5//(!+1!0%/!&,132'03*)0*3/ : 53+9./8'!2,(!&''*/'!827!23&'/ =!! H,!A%&)24+ : (++3&,4! )32'%/'!-/3/!1+*,(!0+!9/!8+3/! 53/62./,0 +,! &0'! 0-+ M -27! 230/3&2.' -&0%!%/267! 6/%&)*.23!*'24/ :! 5232../.!523;&,4 :!(/'&3/(!(/'0&,20&+,':! 9*0! ,+0!,/)/''23&.7! (/5/,(/,0!+,!9&)7)./!&,132'03*)0*3/ =!! $%&'!'0*(7! '520&2..7!+9'/36/(! A%&)24+! '03//0':! 2,( 0%/&3 (++3&,4!)32'%/' :!2,(!1+*,(!& 0!)./23 0%20! 8&)3+ M ./6/.!&''*/'!3/.20/(!0+! &,132'03*)0*3/!(/'&4,!)%+&)/ 2,(!.2,(! 3/Z*&3/!1*30%/3!3/'/23)%!0+!(/0/38&,/!0%/&3! ./6/.!+1!&,0/32)0&+,!-&0%!(++3&,4= +$ 8 %)).#*4 '.3&12& "& $!! 9#':'62!'.3&12& W*/!0+!0%/!12)0!0%20!0%/!(202'/0'!23/!'/52320/ (!97!(/1&,&0&+,:! +9'/36&,4 %+-! 0%/!)32'%/'!3/.20/!0+!/2)%!+0%/3!&'!&85+302,0 =! ^+0%! 9&)7)./! )32'%/'!2,(!(++3&,4! )32'%/'!23/!)+8523/( 0+!(/0/38&,/!&1! 0%/7!'%23/!'&8&.23&0&/':!+9'/36/!%+-!0%/7! (&11/3 : 2,(! 3/.20/!0+!/2)%!+0%/3=

PAGE 63

! #J ^/4&,,&,4!-&0%!0&8/!+1!(27 &,!A%&)24+: 9+0%!(202'/0'!(&'5.27!2!3/.20&+,'%&5!0+! 0%/!UT!2,(!]T!5/2;!%+*3 =!! f9' /36&,4!0%/!923!)%230'!N D&4*3/'!EK!2,(!E" O : 0%&'! )+,,/)0&+,!0+!5/2;!%+*3 )2,!9/!'//,!&,!0%/!&,P*37!)32'%!075/'!-&0%!&,)3/2'/ 9/0-//,!IgKK!UT!0+!FgKK! U T!2,(!agKK!]T!0+!XgKK!]T =!! $%&'!03/,(!&'!6/37!53+8&,/,0! 1+3! 9&)7)./! )32'%/'!-&0%!(/1&,/(!5/2;':!-%&./!0%/ (++3&,4!)32'%/'!%26/!2!9&0!8+3/! 623&29&.&07 =!! $%/!(++3&,4! 5/2;'! 23/! ,+0!2'!-/..!(/1&,/( : '%+-&,4! &,)252)&020&,4!2,(! &,P*37!3/5+30/( )32'%/' %26&,4!8&.( : &,(&'0&,)0!5/2;'!2,(! ,+, M &,)252)&020&,4!)32'%/' %26&,4!2!3/.20&6/!5/3'&'0/,0! &,)3/2' /! 0%3+*4%!0%/!(27 = !! $%&'!623&29&.&07!&,!0%/!0&8/!+1! (27!&'!2.'+!'//,!&,!0%/!,*89/3!+1!3/)+3(/(!1202.&0&/' : '//&,4!%&4%!62.*/'!210/3!0%/!UT 5/2; :!9/1+3/!0%/!]T 5/2; :!210/3!0%/!]T!5/2;' : 2,(!0%/,! 242&,! ,/23!8&(,&4%0 =!! $%/'/!623&29&.&0&/'!23/!,+0!(&')*''/(!+3!/>5.2&,/(!13+8!0% /!(202!0%20!-2'!)+../)0/( : 9*0! &,1/3/,)/' )+*.(!9/!82(/!-&0%!3/423('!0+!0%/!623&29&.&0&/' =!! D202.&07! 623&20&+,' 827!9/!3/.20/(! 0+!0%/ 5/+5./ +,!0%/!3+2( (*3&,4!0%/!0&8/'!+1!5/2;!,*89/3'! 2'!-/..! 2'! 827! 9/! 3/.20/ ( 0+!0%+'/!0%20!*'/!9&)7)./'!1+3 -+3; =!! W++3&, 4!)32'%/' : -%/,! )+8523/(!0+! 0%/&3! 9&)7)./!)32'%! )+*,0/35230 : 53+6&(/ 1+3!8+3/!2''*850&+,'!-%/,! +9'/36&,4!%+-!0%/7!)%2,4/!+6/3!0&8/ =!! U!5+''&9&.&07!1+3!0%/!&,)3/2'/!&,!2..!)32'%! 075/'!827!9/!3/.20/(!0+!0%/!/,(! +1!0%/!-+3; (27 =!! W*3&,4!0%&'!0&8/ : 5/+5./!23/! ( &'8&''/(! 13+8 0%/&3!P+9'!2,(! 3*'%!0+!3/2)%!0%/&3! 210/3!-+3; (/'0&,20&+, =!! $%/!]T! 5/2;!'%+-'!'*5/3&+3!6+.*8/'!+1!5/+5./!2,(!3/5+30/(!)32'%/'!-%/,!)+8523/(!0+! UT:!-%/3/!)+88*0/3'!-%+!9/42,!0%/&3!(27!20!(&11/3/,0!0&8/'!P+&,!/2)%!+0%/3!+,! 0%/! '28/!,/0-+3;! 1+3! 0%/!03&5!%+8/ =!! U,+0%/3!(&11/3/,)/!9/0-//,!(++3&,4!2,(! 9&)7)./! )32'%/'!&'! '//,!&,! 0%/!.20/!/6/,&,4!5/2;! 9*0! +,.7!&,!0%/!(++3&,4!)32'%/' =!! f,/!)+*.(! 234*/!0%20 2'!0%/!/6/,&,4!53+43/''/':!0%+'/!0%20!23/!+,!9&)7)./' 827 6&'&0!923' 2,(

PAGE 64

! #a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g &,)252)&020&,4!&,P*37! )32'%/'! 5/2;! +,!$*/'(27 Q &,P*37! 3/5+30/(!)32'%/'! 5/2;!+,!D3&(27 Q ,+, M &,)252)&020&,4!&,P*37!)32'%/' '%+-!5/2; '!+,! $*/'(27VD3&(27 Q! 2,( 1202.&07!)32'%/'!'//!%&4%!,*89/3'! +, T+,(27:!S /(,/'(27:! 2,(! $%*3'(27 =!! d&8&.23.7 : (++3&,4!)32'%/'!N D&4*3/!EE O!'//!%&4%!62.*/'!&,! &,)252)&020&,4!2,(!&,P*37!3/5+30/(!)32'%/' 1+*3!(27'!2!-//; L T+,(27:!S/(,/'(27:! D3&(27 : 2,(!d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

PAGE 65

! #" +))*3 3/,)/ =!! S&0%!0%/!4/,/32.!5/2;'!%255/,&,4! 53/(+8&,2,0.7 +,!T+,(27:! S/(,/'(27:!D3&(27 : 2,(!d20*3(27 : 0%/'/!23/! '//,!2'!'&4,&1&)2,0! (27'!+1!0%/!-//; =!! T+,(27 : 9/&,4!0%/!1&3'0!(27!+1!0%/!-+3;!-//; :!1&,( 9+0%!(3&6/3'!2,(!)7).&'0'!5+''&9.7! 3*,,&,4!.20/!+3!,+0!9 /&,4!1*..7!53/523/(!1+3!0%/!'0230!+1!0%/!-//; =!! S/(,/'(27 : 9/&,4! 0%/!8&((./!+1!0%/!-//; : 82,7!5/+5./!4+!+*0!0+!3/.2>!2,(! 3/P*6/,20/! 2..+-&,4!1+3! 8+3/!(&'032)0&+,!-%&./!&,!032,'&0 =!! D3&(27!2,(!d20*3(27!./2(!0+!.+4&)2.!)+,).*'&+,' =!! D3&(27!-+*.(!%26/!)+88*0/ 3'!-2,0&,4!0+!./26/!-+3;!2,(!233&6/!0+!0%/&3!(/'0&,20&+,! 2'!Z*&);.7!2'! 5+''&9./ 0+!'0230!0%/!-//;/,( : +3!.&;/!S/(,/'(27 : '%+-!8+3/! />*9/32,)/!2,(!3/6/.37!0%20!0%/! -+3; -//;!&'! +6/3 =!! D&,2..7: d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c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

PAGE 66

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a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

PAGE 67

! #I &,!JKEE =!! $ %/!(/)3/2'/!&,!3/5+30/(!(++3&,4!)32'%/'!3/Z*&3/'! 1 *30%/3!3/'/23)%! 0+! (/0/38&,/!0%/!)2*'/:!9*0!0%/!) +,P/)0*3/! &'!82(/!%/3/!0%20!0%&'!&'!,+0!2,!2)0*2.! (/)3/2'/!9*0!(*/!0+!2!)+89&,20&+,!+1!5+'&0&6/!)%2,4/'!2,(!)+,0&,*/(!2,(!5+''&9./! &,)3/2'/(!.2);!+1!3/5+30&,4 =!! $%&'!)+,P/)0*3/!&'! 3/&,1+3)/( 210/3!6&/-&,4!2! 6&(/+!&,! -%&)%!2!1/82./!)7).&'0!&'!(++3/(!97!2!52''/,4/3!./26&,4!2!02>& =!! d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f3 : 0%/7! %26/!,+0!7/0!'//,!0%&'!'0*(7= W ++3&,4! ) 32'%/'!)+,03&9*0/!0+!8+3/!0%2,!a #h!+1!0%/!0+02.!,*89/3!+1! 9&)7).&'0! ,+!&,P*37! )32'%/'!5/3!7/23 Q 8+3/!&85+302,0.7 : 0%/7!2))+*,0!1+3! Ea =I h!+1!2..!3/5+30/( 9&)7).&'0 &,P*37! )32'%/'!1+3!0%/!1+*3 M 7/23!5/3&+(!32,4&,4!13+8! JK EE!0+!J KE" =!! S%/,! )+,'&(/3&,4!2..!)32 '%/'!1+3!0%/!1+*3 M 7/23!5/3&+(:!0%/!&85+302,)/!+1!&,).*(&,4!(++3&,4!

PAGE 68

! #X )32'%/'!&'!3/&,1+3)/(!-&0%!E:EXE!+1!0%/!X:#KX!+3! E#=I h!+1!0%/!0+02.!)32'%/'!9/&,4! (++3&,4!)32'%/'= D202.!)32'%/'!23/! )./23.7! 0%/!8+'0!'/6/3 / 2'!0%/7! 3/'*.0!&,!0%/!.+''!+1!.&1/ Q 1+30*,20/.7 : 0%/3/!-/3/!,+!3/)+3(/(!+3! 2''+)&20/(!(++3&,4!)32'%/'!0%20!/,(/(!&,! 1202.&07 =!! $%/!,/>0!8+'0!'/6/3/!)32'%/'!23/!&,)252)&020&,4!&,P*3&/' : -%&)%! '2-!2!.+-! +,/ M 7/23!+1![h!9*0! 26/324/( EKh!+3!8+3/!1+3!2..!+0%/3!7/23' =!! f1!0%/!0%3//!&,P*37!)32'%!075/' : ,+, M &,) 252)&020&,4! 2,(!&,P*37!3/5+30/(!9*0!,+0! /6&(/,0:! -/3/!0%/!%&4%/'0!1+3!/2)%!+1!0%/!1+*3!7/23' =!! $%/!(/1&,&0&+,!+1!,+, M &,)252)&020&,4 &,P*3&/'!'020/!0%20!0%/'/!23/!,+0!1202.!2,(!(+!,+0! ,/)/''23&.7 3/Z*&3/! 0%/!5/3'+,!211/)0/(!&,!0%/ )32'%!0+!9/!3/8+6/(!13+8!0 %/! ')/,/ 9*0!0%20!0%/3/!&'! +96&+*'!&,P*37 2,(!&'!'+8/0%&,4!0+!;//5!&,!8&,( =!! Y+, M &,)252)&020&,4! )32'%/'!23/! 5+&4,2,0!-%/,!)+,'&(/3&,4!-%20!%255/,'!(*3&,4!2!9&)7)./!)32'% =!! d0+3&/'!-/3/! '%23/(!(*3&,4!1&/.(!3/'/23)%!+1!)32'%/'!-%/3/!0%/!)7).&'0'!-/3/!%&0:!1+ ..+-/(!97!2! Z*&);!53/.&8&,237!)%/);!+1!+,/B'!'/.1:!0/..&,4!0%/!(3&6/3!0%20!0%/7!-/3/!1&,/:!3&(&,4! 2-27!+,.7!0+!1&,(!0%20!%+*3'!+3!(27'!.20/3!0%/7!-/3/!&,P*3/(!8+3/!'/6/3/.7!0%2,! &,&0&2..7!0%+*4%0!2,(!%2(!0+! (/2.!-&0%!0%/!)+,'/Z*/,)/'!+1!0%/!)32'%!-/..!210/ 3!0%/! 12)0 =!! d+8/!'0+3&/'!&,).*(/(!9/&,4!'//,!97! `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

PAGE 69

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f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i`!cUY`!W`dHjY $%/!*392,!9&;/-27!(/'&4,!4*&(/!&'!2,!&,62.*29./!3/'+*3)/!1+3!/,4&,//3'!2,(! 5.2,,/3'!2.&;/ =!! H ,! 0%/!YUA$f G392,!^&;/-27!W/'&4,!j*&(/:!0%3//!./6/.'!+1! &85+302,)/!23/!53+6&(/(!1+3!9&)7)./!&,132'03*)0*3/ g 3/Z*&3 /(:!3 /)+88/,(/( : 2,(! +50&+,2. =!! D+3!0%/!5*35+'/!+1!0%&'!0%/'&' : 0-+!'/)0&+,' g )+,6/,0&+,2.!9&;/!.2,/'!2,(! '%23/(!.2,/!823;&,4'!-&..!9/!2''/''/( =!!

PAGE 70

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f!JKEIO =!! `>0/,(&,4!0%/!-&(0%!+1!2!9&;/!.2,/!+6/3!0%/!-&(0%!+1! 523;&,4!0+!53+6&(/!8 +3/!3++8!1+3!0%/!9&)7).&'0!&'!/,)+*324/( =!! H1!0%/3/!&'!2(/Z*20/! '52)/ : 1*30%/3!'/52320&+,!9/0-//,!0%/!823;&,4'!1+3!9&;/!.2,/!2,(!+, M '03//0!523;&,4! '%+*.(!9/!53+6&(/(!0+!3/(*)/!0%/!,*89/3!+1!9&)7).&'0'!0%20!3&(/!&,!0%/!(++3!<+,/ =!! S&(/3!523;&,4!927'!23/!2.' +!'*44/'0/(! 97!0%/!YUA$f!'02,(23(' : 2'! &0!)3/20/'!2,(! &,)3/2'/( (&'02,)/!9/0-//,!6/%&)./'!2,(! 9&)7)./' =!! $%&'!'*44/'0&+,!-2'!1+*,(!0+! %26/!2(6/3'/!/11/)0'!&,!'+8/!.+)20&+,'!-%/3/!&0!-2'!'%+-,! 0%20 -%&./ -&(/3!523;&,4! .2,/'!2..+-!8+3/!1+34&6/,/''!0+!0%/!(3& 6/3 : 2,(!0%/+3/0&)2..7!0+!0%/!)7).&'0: 0%&'! &,)3/2'/(!-&(0%!/,)+*324/' 0%/!(3&6/3!0+!523;!1*30%/3!13+8!0%/!)*39 : )+*,0/3 2)0&,4! 0%/!/>032!3++8!53+6&(/(!2'!2!9*11/3!0+!9&)7).&'0' =!! e23&+*'! .+)20&+,'!&,! A%&)24+!-%/3/! 9&)7)./!.2,/'!23/!&85./8/,0/(! 2(P2)/,0!0+ 5232../.!523;&,4!N D&4*3/!# O : (&24+,2.! '03&55/(!.&,/'!23/!*0&.&
PAGE 71

! IK A+8523/(!0+! )+,6/,0&+,2.!9&;/!.2 ,/' : %23/(!9&;/!.2,/' %26/!1/-/3!3/Z*&3/(:! 3/)+88/,(/( : 2,(!+50&+,2.! 1/20*3/': 2'!0%/7!(+!,+0!'/52320/!9&)7)./'!13+8! 6/%&)*.23!03211&) : 9*0!&,'0/2(! 53+6&(/! +50&+,'!0+!0%/!9&)7)./'!-&0%!0%/!4+2.!+1!2!'21/.7! '%23/(!'52)/ =!! $%/!+,.7!1/20*3/!0%20!&'!3/Z*&3/(! 97!YUA$f!&'!0%/!+,/!1/20*3/!0%20!&'! ,+0!6&'&9./!&,!82,7!+1!0%/!'%23/(!.+)20&+,'!&,!A%&)24+ : 2,(!0%20!&'!0%/!'%233+-! N D&4*3/!Ja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d2(.7:!0%&'!'21/!'52)/!827!2)0*2..7!53+6&(/!+,.7!5/3)/&6/(!'21/07 :!2,( &,! 82,7!)2'/':!5.2)/ 0%/!)7).&'0!&,!(&3/)0!)+,1.&)0=

PAGE 72

! IE "#$%&'! BK :<+&&/J I=I=J! Wff\!SHW$_!T`UdG\`T`Y$d $+!(/0/38&,/!/,)3+2)%8/,0!+1!+5/,!(++3':!)*33/,0!8/2'*3/8/,0'!-/3/! 02;/,!+1!a"!5+5*.23!6/%&)./'!13+8!0%3//!)23!(/2./3'%&5'!N $29./!X O!32,4&,4!13+8!"E!0+! #[!&,)%/'!-&(/ =!! U))+3(&,4!0+!0%/!`*3+5/2,!)+88&''&+,: 6/%&)./!(++3'!'%+*.(!+5/,! 13+8!XK!0+!FK!(/43//'!1+3!1*,)0&+,2.!/2'/!+1!*'/ =! $29./![ )2.)*.20/'!&1!0%/!-&(0%! 3/82&,&,4!-&0%!+5/,!(++3'!20!XK!+3!FK!(/43//'!2..+-'!1+3!0%/!8&,&8*8!+5/320&,4! -&(0%!1+3!2!)7).&'0!'/0!97!UUd_$f =

PAGE 73

! IJ ! ! "#$%&'! BL 4#5653'!M='&+,#8$!7#N'81#/81! > ??:OAM!BC(BE

PAGE 74

! Ia ! ! A+23'! P *'+1%&';!7//&!Q#;,
PAGE 75

! I"

PAGE 76

! I# ! ! A+23'! [ R'<#53'!7//&!S85&/+5
PAGE 77

! "" ! ""

PAGE 78

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

PAGE 79

! !R $ MD:I$CD:$M6=:>C$E:D6G@:$J?:I>$6C>$=JJ9>$CJ$VTU "$$ 3JH?A96I7$CD6>$CJ$CD:$H6I6H8H$AI=$ AE:9A7:$?A9W6I7$AI=$F6W:$@AI:$M6=CD> Q $ ?9JF@:H>$A96>:$M6CD$6IA=:O8 AC:$>?AG:$@:KC$KJ9$ F6GBG@:>$MD:I$=JJ9>$J?:I "$$ LD:$>HA@@:>C$E:D6G@:>$?9JE6=:$:IJ87D$>?AG:$KJ9$A@@$ 6IK9A>C98GC89:$EA@8:>$H6I8>$A$VTU$=JJ9$6I$CD:$>HA@@:>C$?A9W6I7$>?JC "$$ *I$AE:9A7:Q$ 8>6I7$CD:$:>C6HAC:=$6IK9A>C98GC89:$H:A>89:H:IC>Q$3D6GA7J\>$GBG@6>C>$>::H$CJ$D AE:$ :IJ87D$>?AG:Q$F8C$M D:I$JF>:9E6I7$A@@$H:A>89:H:IC>Q$ 6C$GAI$F:$>::I$CDAC$CD:9:$A9:$ >6C8AC6JI>$CDAC$G9:AC:$D67D:9$?J>>6F@:$GJIK@6GC$MD:I$CD:$=JJ9$6>$AC$STU$J9$CD:$M6=:>C$6C$ GAI$F:$AC$VTU "$$ $ $ 3JHF6I6I7$=:>67IQ$9:HA6I6I7$J?:9AC6I7$>?AG:$M6CD$EA96J8>$E:D6G@: >$F:6I7$ ?A9A@@:@$?A9W:=Q$CD:I$DB?IJC6]6I7$AEJ6=AIG:$HAI:8E:9>$J9$=69:GC6JI>Q$A$GBG@6>C$HAB$ F:$CD9JMI$X6K$=JJ9:=Y$AI=$G9:AC:$A$KJ9:FJ=6I7$6HA7:$KJ9$CDJ>:$CDAC$A9:$8I@8GWB$CJ$F:$ =JJ9:= "$$ $

PAGE 80

! !V $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ "#$%&! (#)*(+,*-.&/#0&!1&2+3% &!455/!6,3/5#327&,8! 9 :-;"< $

PAGE 81

! "# ! ! "#

PAGE 82

! "# ! ! "#$%&! '( )#*+),-+./&0#1&!2&3,4%&!5660!7-406#438&-9! : ;3,4#16

PAGE 83

! "# ! ! "#

PAGE 84

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

PAGE 85

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

PAGE 86

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

PAGE 87

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

PAGE 88

! II + + !"#$%&' () *"+&',-.&' /0%"1".#

PAGE 89

! IU + + + + + + + + + + !"#$%&' (2 30%"1".# -.#4&'5"06'71&.'877% +

PAGE 90

! IV + !"#$%&' (9 :747%&8' 1&%;-.&.0' <&-0$%&/

PAGE 91

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

PAGE 92

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`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a&1-.#0)' + &,#.)%-"$ + ,".#(& $%)%-"$+-$.0#,&*+-$3"'()%-"$+%1)%+%)0/*+)9"#%+"6&$-$2+.)'+,""'*7+ )$,+*"(&+,-*.#**+ )9"#%+ %1&+3).%+%1)%+8"#+*1"#0,+9&+)<)'&+"3+9-.8.0&*+<1&$+"6&$-$2+ 8"#'+,""' 4++ !1)$2-$2+)+,'-:&' H *+(#*.0&+(&("'8+-*+%1&+%&.1$-B#& + *&&$+<-%1+%1&+

PAGE 93

! UP + A#'"6&)$+6').%-.&+"3+Z0&),-$2+<%1+%1&+0&3%[+<1-.1+1)*+%1&+"..#6)$%+'&).1+%"+"6&$+ %1&-'+,""'+<-%1+%1&+1)$,+%1)%+-*+3#'%1&*%+)<)8+3'"(+%1&+,""' 4++ =1-*+(":&(&$%+3"'.&*+ %1&+"..#6)$%+%"+'"%)%&+%1&-'+9",8+-$+"',&'+%"+'&).1+%1&+1)$,0&+)$,+"6&$+%1&+,""' 4++ K-%1+%1-*+'"%)%-"$ 7 + %1&+-$.0-$)%-"$+-*+ %"+."$%-$#&+%"+'"%)%&+8"#'+$&./+)$,+0""/+":&'+8"#'+ *1"#0,&'7+%1&+("*%+."(60&%&+<)8+"3+,&%&'(-$-$2+<1)%+-*+9&1-$,+8"# 4++ E+*-(-0)'+ %&.1$-B#&+."#0,+9&+)660-&,+-$+%1&+b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c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

PAGE 94

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

PAGE 95

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a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c + L"+6&'*"$+*1)00+"6&$+ %1&+,""'+"3+)+: &1-.0&+"$+%1&+*-,&+):)-0)90&+%"+(":-$2+%')33-.+#$0&**+)$,+#$%-0+-%+ -*+'&)*"$)908+*)3&+%"+,"+*"7+)$,+.)$+9&+,"$&+<-%1"#%+-$%&'3&'-$2+<-%1+%1&+ (":&(&$%+"3+"%1&'+%')33-.7+$"'+*1)00+)$8+6&'*"$+0&):&+)+,""'+"6&$+"$+%1&+*-,&+

PAGE 96

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d"()$"33+)$,+D&(9&'*+"3+;-21%+"3+\VVVR 4++ =1-*+.)$+0&),+%"+()$8+,-33&'&$%+"#%."(&*+<1&'&+%1&+.8.0-*%+()8+9&+ 90)(&,+3"'+%1&+ .')*1 + "'+&)*-08 + ,-*(-**&,7 + 9#%+ %1&+'&*#0%+-*+)+0)./+"3+'&6"'%-$27 + &:&$+<1&$+)+.8.0-*%+ )%%&(6%*+%"+,"+*" 4++ !"(9-$&,+<-%1+%1-*+1#',0&+-*+%1&+."(60-.)%-"$+"3+'&6"'%-$2+ (&%1",* 4++ D)$8+2":&'$(&$%)0+9",-&*+#*&+6&,&*%'-)$+)$,+:&1-.#0)'+.')*1+.1)'%* + 3"'+

PAGE 97

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e+"3+)00+ '&6"'%&, + 9-.8.0-*% + .')*1&*+)$,+\_4_e+"3+)00+'&6"'%&,+-$G#'8+ 9-.8.0-*%+ .')*1&* 7 + <1-.1+

PAGE 98

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f + )<)'&$&**7+,'-:&'*+ 9&."(-$2+("'&+)..#*%"(&,+%"+*&&-$2+9-.8.0&*+"$+%1&+*%'&&%+-$+ -$.'&)*-$2+ $#(9&'*7+"'+&:&$+)$+&T%'&(&+-$.'&)*&+-$+%1&+$#(9&'+"3+)00+"%1&'+.')*1&*+

PAGE 99

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d-00&,+98+ E#%"("9-0&+)$,+M..#6)%-"$)0+?$G#'-&* + E("$2+F"*%"$+F-.8.0&+D&**&$2&'* + <1&'&+%1&+ ,&*.'-6%-"$+"3+()$8+9-)*&,+ 6"0-.&+ <1"(+ 1):&+)+6'&,-*6"*-%-"$ + )2)-$*%+.8.0-*%* 4++ D)$8+*"#'.&*+,&*.'-9&,+*-%#)%-"$*+<1&'&+%1&+ .8.0-*% + -*+90)(&,+3"'+%1&+.') *1+-$+%1&+ -$-%-)0+'&6"'%7+*&&-$2+0-%%0&+%"+$"+ '&6&'.#**-"$* + %"+%1&+,'-:&' 4++ 5-$)$.-)0+ 6&$)0%-&* + 1):&+ 9&&$+-$.'&)*&,+-$+()$8+ 0".)%-"$* 7 + -$.0#,-$2+-$+!1-.)2"+)$,+a-.%"'-)7+ E#*%')0-) 7 + <1&'&+)+,""'-$2+.')*1+ <-00+."*%+%1&+6&'*"$+"6&$-$2+%1&+,""'+'"#2108+g_WW+bN + "'+ ("'& 7 + <1-.1+,"&*+$"%+.":&'+%1&+."*%+"3+("*%+9-/&*+0&%+)0"$&+%1&+."*%+"3+)+1"*6-%)0+ :-*-% 4++ ?%+<)*+)0*"+3"#$,+%1)%+%1&+6)'%-&*+'&*6"$*-90&+3"'+,""'-$2*+%1)%+0&),+%"+3)%)0-%-&*+ <&'&+2-:&$+3-$)$.-)0+ 6&$)0%-&*+ )$,+."((#$-%8+*&':-.&+9#%+$"%+ $&.&**)'-08 + .1)' 2&,+ <-%1+-$:"0#$%)'8+()$*0)#21%&' 4++ ?%+-*+6"**-90&+%1)%+%1&+0&2)0+')(-3-.)%-"$*+3"'+,""'-$2+

PAGE 100

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b$%-0+.1)$2&*+)'&+ (),& 7 + %1-*+:#0$&')90&+(",&+"3+%')$*-%+<-00+."$%-$#& + %"+ '&.&-:&+ 3&<&' + '-21%*+%1)$+ :&1-.0&*+)$,+ *#33&'+ *)3&%8+ ,-*.'-(-$)%-"$ 4 + + +

PAGE 101

! VW + !"""# $ $ %&(%8'."&(. $ @""'-$2+-*+)+.')*1+%86&+%1)%+ -* + )$&.,"%)008+ ."$*-,&'&,+-$*-2$-3-.)$ % + 98+()$8+ 6&"60& 7 + &-%1&'+%1'"#21+$"%+#$,&'*%)$,-$2+%1&+6'"90&(7+-$."''&.%+,&3-$-%-"$* 7 + ) $,h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e+"3+%1&-'+%"%)0+9-.8.0&+.')*1&*+ 9&-$2+ .)#*&,+98+,""'-$2 7+)+%'&$,+ *-(-0)'+%" + E#*%')0-) 7+ !)$),)7 + )$,+"%1&'+0".)%-"$*+)'"#$,+ %1&+<"'0,+6"-$%-$2+%"+%1&+3).%+%1)%+%1-*+6'"90&(+-*+$"%+-*"0)%&,+%"+"$&+0".)%-"$ 4++ K1-0&+ %1&+!1-.)2"+,""'-$2+.')*1&*+,-,+$ "%+,-*60)8+)$8+3)%)0+.')*1&*+-$+ ."(6)'-*"$ + %"+"%1&'+ 0".)%-"$*+)'"#$,+%1&+<"'0,7+%1&+,)%)+,-,+*1"<+%1)%+%1-*+.')*1+%86&+.)$+6'",#.&+ *&:&'&+.')*1&*+)$,+1"0,*+)+ *%)%-.)008 + *-2$-3-.)$%+6'"6"'%-"$+"3+%1&+%"%)0+$#(9&'+"3+ .')*1&*+<-%1+\_e+)$,+\Qe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

PAGE 102

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

PAGE 103

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e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

PAGE 104

! V_ + 4"48"&2+-759 $ PW\\ 4++ ?$B#&*%+-$%"+%1&+@&)%1+"3+iEDAN+FA;LE;@+!;MNN 4++ ?$+ :7$%0'7<'?"@07%"-A 7+\ ] \Q 4++ DAX FMb;LA7+EbN4 + + EENj=M 4++ PW\P 4++ B$"8&'<7%'06&'8&C&471;&.0'7<'*"@D@4&'!-@"4"0"&/ 4++ K)*1-$2%"$7+@!f+ E(&'-.)$+E**".-)%-"$+"3+N%)%&+j-21<)8+)$,+=')$*6"'%)%-"$+"33-. )0*4 + + E.%-:&+=')$*6"'%)%-"$+E00-)$.& 4++ PW\S 4++ E:"-,+%1&+,""'+C"$& 4++ E.%-:&+=')$*6"'%)%-"$+ E00-)$. &4 + + E$,&'*"$7+A47+i 4++ D 4++ F')C-07+D 4++ !#''87+@ 4++ A 4++ !C&'<-$*/-7+i 4++ @&)$7+^ 4++ 5)&%17+X 4++ 5&'2)*"$7+! 4++ i"1$*"$7+k 4++ d')$*/87+! 4++ X)'*"$7+D 4++ D&$$&**"$7+N 4++ L"00+l+i 4++ M(<&2 4++ PW\P 4++ ^'"("%-$2+F-.8.0&+!"((#%&'+N)3&%8 4++ N)$+i"*&7+!E4 + + E':-,*"$7+E 4++ ; 4++ OPW\ PR+^"<&'+%"+%1&+^&,,0&'* 4++ >;&%"@-.'E4-..".#'>//7@"-0"7. = + \\ ] \\4 + + E%/-$*"$7+i 4++ A 4++ l+^ 4++ D 4++ j#'*%+!MXX?N?MLN+FA=KAAL+!Y!X?N=N+EL@+ DM=M;?N=N+?L+LAK+mAEXEL@ 4++ >@@"8&.0'>.-4D/"/'F'E%&C&.0"7.A + \Q = + \_I ] \Q\4 + + E#0%()$ ] j)007+X 4++ l+5 4++ X 4++ j)00+O\VVUR+M%%)<) ] !)'0 &%"$+."((#%&'+.8.0-*%+"$ ] + )$,+"33 ] '"),+-$.-,&$%+')%&* 4++ >@@"8&.0'>.-4D/"/'-.8'E%&C&.0"7.A + _W = + PV ] J_4 + + E#0%()$ ] j)007+X 4++ l+D 4++ k 4++ d)0%&$&./&'+O\VVVR+="'"$%"+9-.8.0&+."((#%&'+*)3&%8+ ')%&* 4++ >@@"8&.0'>.-4D/"/'-.8'E%&C&.0"7.A + _\ = + SIQ ] SUS4 + + F&$&6&7+E47+= 4++ 5'&,&$7+; 4++ d&008+l+? 4++ K&-$*1)00 4++ PWWQ 4++ F-.8.0-*%+5)%)0-%-&*+)$,+ N&'-"#*+?$G#'-&*+-$+L&<+Y"'/+!-%8+E+i"-$%+;&6"'%+3'"(+%1&+^)'/*+)$,+ ;&.'&)%-"$7+=')$*6"'%)%-"$7+)$,+%1&+L&<+Y"'/+!-%8+^"0-.&+@&6)'%(&$% 4++ JW ] JW 4++ L&<+Y"'/+!-%84 + + F"0-%1"7+i 4++ OPW\_R+E+(#0%] *%)2&7+(#0%] 3).&%&,+)66'").1+%"+),,'&**-$2+n.)'+,""'-$2n+ -$+-$$&'+D&09"#'$& 4++ (GHI'>$/0%-4"-.':744&#&'7<'J7-8'3-<&0D':7.<&%&.@&A + \\\ = + U6 ] U64 + + !)'*&7+E47+E 4++ k"",()$7+; 4++ D)./&%%7+i 4++ ^)$%&'+l+@ 4++ M2-0:-&+OPW\_R+=1&+3).%"'*+ -$o#&$.-$2+.)'+#*&+-$+)+.8.0& ] 3'-&$,08+.-%8f+%1&+.)*&+"3+!)(9'-,2& 4++ K7$%.-4'7<' L%-./17%0'B&7#%-16DA + PU = + SI ] IJ4 + + !):).#-%-7+! 4++ )$+M:&':-&<+"3+!8.0-$2+;&*&)'.1 4++ ="'"$%"7+!)$),)f+N1)'&+%1&+'"),4 + + !1&$7+X47+! 4++ !1&$7+; 4++ N'-$-:)*) $7+! 4++ A 4++ D.d$-21%7+; 4++ A<-$2+l+D 4++ ;"&+OPW\PR+ A:)0#)%-$2+%1&+*)3&%8+&33&.%*+"3+9-.8.0&+0)$&*+-$+L&<+Y"'/+!-%8 4++ >;&%"@-.' K7$%.-4'7<'E$M4"@'N&-406A + \WP = + \\PW ] \\PI4 +

PAGE 105

! VJ + + !1-.)2"+@&6)'%(&$%+"37+= 4++ l+= 4++ ?00-$"-*+@&6)'%(&$%+"3 4++ PW\P 4++ PW\P+F-.8.0&+!')*1+ E$)08* -*+N#(()'8+;&6"'% 4++ SU ] SU 4++ !1-.)2"7+?X4 + + !1-.)2"+@&6)'%(&$%+"3+=')$*6"'%)%-"$ 4++ PWWU 4++ !1-.)2"+F-/&+D)6f + N%'&&%*+3"'+ !8.0-$2 4++ !1-.)2"7+?Xf+!-%8+"3+!1-.)2"4 + + !-%8+"37+! 4++ !@M=+."$%-$#&*+%"+),,'&**+-**#&+"3+p+,""'-$2+p4 + + !"0"'),"+@&6)'%(&$%+"3+=')$*6"'%)%"$ 4++ PW\\ 4++ N1)'&+%1&+;"),+.)(6)-2$+."$%-$#&*+ %"+3".#*+"$+9-/& 4++ P ] _4 + + !"$.&6%*+"37+! 4++ PW\_ 4++ ;&,#.-$2+q.)' ] ,""'-$2Hf+=1&+'"0&+"3+*%-./&'*+)*+:-*#)0+ '&(-$,&'* 4++ SI ] SI 4++ ^"'%+D&09"#'$&4 + + !"$$&'7+; 4++ PW\P 4++ ^"0-.&+)66&)0+3"'+<-%$&**&*+%"+3)%)0+.')*1+-$+F&./ &$1)(4 + + !'"(-,)*7+; 4++ PW\J 4++ I+.8.0-*%*+,-&,+-$+)#%" ] 9-/&+."00-*-"$*+-$+!1-.)2"+0)*%+8&)'7+#6+ 3'"(+_+-$+PW\_ 4++ PW\J ] PW\S4 + + !#((-$27+F 4++ PW\P 4++ !"$30-.%+6)%1+)$)08*-*f+)$)08C-$2+)$,+()$)2-$2+%1&+.8.0-*% ] ,'-:&'+-$%&'3).& 4++ \S6 ] \S64 + + !#((-$2*7+F 4++ OPW\PR+E$)0 8C-$2+l+()$)2-$2+%1&+.8.0-*% ] ,'-:&'+-$%&'3).&+#*-$2+ Z."$30-.%+6)%1+)$)08*-*[+!#((-$27+F 4++ \+\+;"),+N)3&%8+E#,-%*+^hX 4++ >$/0%-4-/"-.':744&#&'7<'J7-8'3-<&0D':7.<&%&.@& = + \ ] \_4 + + @&$$&'0&-$7+i 4++ = 4++ l+i 4++ @ 4++ D&&/&'+OPWWPR+M..#6)%-"$)0+-$G#'-&*+)("$2+F"*%"$+ 9-. 8.0&+(&**&$2&'* 4++ >;&%"@-.'K7$%.-4'7<'O.8$/0%"-4'P&8"@".&A + JP = + Q\V ] QPQ4 + + @-)$&7+j 4++ OPW\SR+E*/+D)**F-/&f+M6&$-$2+!)'+@""'*7+K1"+j)*+=1&+X&2)0+ ;&*6"$*-9-0-%8+="+K)%.1+M#%r+ = + ] Q4 + + A#'"6&)$+!"((-**-"$ 4++ PW\W 4++ a&1-.0&+,&*-2$+)$,+:&1-.0&+*)3&%8 4++ ?$+ Q$%71&-.' :7;;"//"7. 4 + + 5jKE 4++ \VVU 4++ =1&+F-.8.0&+!"(6)%-9-0-%8+?$,&Tf+E+X&:&0+"3+N&':-.&+!"$.&6%+7+ ?(60&(&$%)%-"$+D)$#)0 4++ PP ] PP4 + + 5jKE 4++ PW\_ 4++ 5jKE+!"#'*&+"$+F-.8.0&+)$,+^&,&*%'-)$+=')$*6"'%)%-"$ 4++ ?$+ *"@D@4&' ,-.&/ 4 + + 5jKE 4++ PW\J 4++ N-2$)0-C&,+?$%&'*&.%-"$*f + E$+?$3" '()%-"$+k#-,& 4++ ?$+ (R(RI'*"@D@4"/0/ 4++ 5jKE4 + +

PAGE 106

! VQ + 5jKE 4++ PW\Q 4++ D)$#)0+"$+b$-3"'(+=')33-.+!"$%'"0+@&:-.&*+ODb=!@R 4++ ?$+ (GGS' Q8"0"7.':6-10&%'S: R'' P-%+".#/ 4++ (#%.1431<)4,"%42":4 + + k')$:-00&7+N47+5 4++ ;)-%7+D 4++ F)'9&'+l+E 4++ X)-',+OPWW\R+N1)'-$2+;"),+N6).&f+@'-:&'*+ ) $,+!8.0-*%*+E*+AB#)0+;"),+b*&'* 4++ L%-./17%0'J&/&-%@6'3&%"&/ = + VQ ] VQ4 + + k'&&$3-&0,7+i 4++ PW\S 4++ j"<+)+F-/&+!"#$%&'+"$+D-0<)#/&&+E:& 4++ !"#0,+j&06+!#'&+%1&+ @""'-$2+A6-,&(-. 4++ \ ] Q4 + + j)-0&8&*#*7+=47+i 4++ X 4++ E$$&*%+l+E 4++ D 4++ @&00-$2&'+OPWWIR+!8.0-*%*+-$G#'&,+<1-0&+ *1)'-$2+ %1&+'"),+<-%1+("%"'+:&1-.0&* 4++ O.T$%D'E%&C&.0"7.A + \_ = + PWP ] PWS4 + + j)'/&87+@ 4++ X47+@ 4++ K 4++ ;&-$3#'%+l+E 4++ d$#-()$ 4++ \VVJ 4++ @&:&0"6(&$%+"3+%1&+F-.8.0& 4++ \_ ] PW 4++ !1)%%)$""2)f+5jKE7+b4N 4++ @&6)'%(&$%+"3+=')$*6"'%)%-"$4 + + j&')(97+! 4++ PWWI 4++ N%'&&%+)$,+N-%&+ ^0)$+@&*-2$+N%)$,)',* 4++ &, 4++ 4++ @ 4++ 4++ =')$*6"'%)%-"$7+JV 4++ !1-.)2"7+?00-$"-*4 + + j&'*0#$,7+D4 ] F 4++ l+L 4++ M 4++ is'2&$*&$+OPWW_R+X""/&, ] 9#% ] 3)-0&, ] %" ] *&& ] &''"'*+-$+ %')33-. 4++ >@@"8&.0'>.-4D/"/'F'E%&C&.0"7.A + _Q = + UUQ ] UV\4 + + j#$%&'7+K 4++ K47+; 4++ N'-$-:)*)$+l+! 4++ E 4 ++ D)'%&00 4++ PW\P 4++ A:)0#)%-"$+"3+N1)'&,+X)$&+ D)'/-$2*+-$+D-)(-+F&).17+50"'-,)4 + + j#$%&'7+K 4++ K47+X 4++ =1"()*7+; 4++ N'-$-:)*)$+l+! 4++ E 4++ D)'%&00 4++ PW\\ 4++ A:)0#)%-"$+"3+ N1)'&,+X)$&+D)'/-$2* 4++ \ ] VP 4++ !1)6&0+1-004 + + ?$,A."+N%')%&2-.+!"$*#0%-$27+? 4++ PW\P 4++ ="'"$%"+ ^#90-.+j&)0%17+;"),+%"+j&)0%1f+ ?(6'":-$2+K)0/-$2+)$,+!8.0-$2+-$+="'"$%" 4++ \WV ] \WV 4++ ="'"$%"7+!)$),)4 + + i"1$*"$7+D47+N 4++ L&<*%&),7+i 4++ MT0&8+l+i 4++ !1)'0%"$+OPW\_R+!8.0-*%*+)$,+"6&$+:&1-.0&+ ,""'*f+!')*1+.1)').%&'-*%-.*+)$,+'-*/+3).%"'* 4++ 3-<&0D'3@"&.@&A + QV = + \ _Q ] \JW4 + + d-(7+i 4++ d47+N 4++ d-(7+k 4++ 5 4++ b03)'**"$+l+X 4++ E 4++ ^"''&00"+OPWWIR+F-.8.0-*%+-$G#'8+ *&:&'-%-&*+-$+9-.8.0& ] ("%"'+:&1-.0&+)..-,&$%* 4++ >@@"8&.0'>.-4D/"/'-.8' E%&C&.0"7.A + _V = + P_U ] PQ\4 + + d"()$"337+! 4++ l+K 4++ D&(9&'*+"3+;-21%+"3 4++ \VVV 4++ d-00&,+F8+E#%"("9-0 &f+@&)%1+-$+%1&+ N%'&&%*+-$+L&<+Y"'/+!-%8+\VVJ ] \VVI 4++ QV ] QV 4++ L&<+Y"'/+!-%84 + + d'-C&/7+d 4++ i 4++ l+; 4++ K 4++ ;"0)$,+OPWWQR+K1)%+-*+)%+%1&+&$,+"3+%1&+'"),r+ b$,&'*%)$,-$2+,-*."$%-$#-%-&*+"3+"$ ] *%'&&%+9-.8.0&+0)$&*+-$+#'9)$+*&%%-$2* 4++ L%-./17%0-0"7.'J&/&-%@6'E-%0'U V'L%-./17%0'-.8'Q.C"%7.;&.0A + \W = + QQ ] SU4 + + X)/&'7+X 4++ PW\P 4++ !8.0-*%*+(#*%+*%&&'+.0&)'+"3+%1&+%1'&)%+"3+6)'/&,+.)'* 4++ P ] _4 + +

PAGE 107

! VS + X)$,-*7+F 4++ K 4++ O\VVJR+F-.8.0&+?$%&').%-"$+j)C)',+N."'&f+)+=1&"'&%-.)0+D",&0 4++ L%-./17%0-0"7.'J&/&-%@6'J&@7%8 = + 6 4++ ] U4 + + X-$,()$7+D47+ N 4++ i"$**"$7+X 4++ i)/"9**"$7+= 4++ d)'0**"$7+@ 4++ k#*%)3*"$+l+E 4++ 5'&,'-/**"$ 4++ PW\Q 4++ !8.0-*%*+-$%&').%-$2+<-%1+6)**&$2&'+.)'*>+)+*%#,8+"3+'&)0+ <"'0,+.')*1&* 4++ \ ] \P4 + D)'-$27+K 4++ ? 4++ D 4++ l+? 4++ a 4++ E 4++ L 4++ N.1)2&$+O\VVWR+EkA+@A^AL@AL!A+M5+ E=??=b@AN+EL@+dLMKXA@k A+?L+!Y!X?N=N 4++ >@@"8&.0'>.-4D/"/'-.8' E%&C&.0"7.A + PP = + \PI ] \_S4 + + D)'*1)007+K 4++ A 4++ l+L 4++ K 4++ k)''-./+OPW\\R+A:-,&$.&+"$+K18+F-/& ] 5'-&$,08+!-%-&*+E'&+ N)3&'+3"'+E00+;"),+b*&'* 4++ Q.C"%7.;&.0-4'E%-@0"@&A + \_ = + \S ] PI4 + + D)C1)'#0+j"B#&7+D 4++ O\VVWR+E$+)$)08*-*+"3+3)% )0+9-.8.0&+)..-,&$%*+-$+a-.%"'-)+ OE#*%')0-)R+<-%1+)+*6&.-)0+'&3&'&$.&+%"+$-21%%-(&+)..-,&$%* 4++ >@@"8&.0'>.-4D/"/' -.8'E%&C&.0"7.A + PP = + \ ] \\4 + + D.!)'%187+D 4++ l+d 4++ k-09&'%+O\VVSR+!8.0-*%+'"),+,&)%1*+-$+X"$,"$+\VUQ ] \VVPf+ @'-:&'*7+:&1-.0&*7+()$&#:&'*+)$,+-$G#'-& 4++ >@@"8&.0'>.-4D/"/'-.8'E%&C&.0"7.A + PU = + PIQ ] PIV4 + D.X&",7+d 4++ PW\Q 4++ F-/&+X)<+b+f+@""'-$2 4++ ] _4 + + D-$-/&07+A 4++ OPW\PR+!8.0-*%+*)3&%8+"$+9-.8.0&+9"#0&:)',*+)$,+6)')00&0+)'%&'-)0+'"#%&*+-$+ F&'/&0&87+!)0-3"'$-) 4++ >@@"8&.0'>.-4D/"/'-.8'E%&C&.0"7.A + JQ = + PJ\ ] PJI 4 + + D-$-/&07+A 4++ a 4++ PW\W 4++ N%'&&%+=86"0"28+)$,+F-.8.0-*%+N)3&%8f+E+N8*%&(*+E66'").1+F8+ N%'&&%+=86"0"28+)$,+F-.8.0-*%+N)3&%8+f+E+N8*%&(*+E66'").1 4++ \WW ] \WW4 + + D#$'"7+! 4++ PW\P 4++ F-.8.0&+;-,&'+!"00-*-"$*+<-%1+!)'+@""'*f+!')*1+N%)%-*%-.*+)$,+ X-%&')%#'&+;&:-&< 4+ + SS ] SS 4++ D&09"#'$&f+;"),+N)3&%8+E.%-"$+k'"#6+?$$&'+ D&09"#'$&4 + + LE!=M 4++ PW\S) 4++ b'9)$+F-/&<)8+@&*-2$+k#-,&f + !"$:&$%-"$)0+F-/&+X)$&* 4++ ?$+ W%M-.' *"+&5-D'U&/"#.'B$"8& 4++ $)%-"$)0+E**".-)%-"$+"3+!-%8+=')$*6"'%)%-"$+M33-.-)0*4 + + LE!=M 4++ PW\S9 4++ b'9)$+N%'&&%+@&*-2$ + k#-,&f+X)$&+K-,%1 4++ L)%-"$)0+E**".-)%-"$+"3+ !-%8+=')$*6"'%)%-"$+M33-.-)0*4 + + M0,&$C-&07+; 4++ l+E 4++ E09&'%+,&+?)+F'#1&C& 4++ PW\P 4++ !"$%&*%&,+*6).&*f+F-.8.0&+X)$&*+ -$+b'9)$+A#'"6&7+\VWW ] \VVQ 4++ PV ] JV4 + + M0//"$&$7+N47+b 4++ X)1,&$')$%)7+^ 4++ N0)%-*+l+; 4++ j"$/)$&$+O\ VUQR+F-.8.0&+)..-,&$%*+ "3%&$+.)#*&+,-*)9-0-%8 4++ 3@-.8'K'37@'P&8A + P\ = + V ] V4 + +

PAGE 108

! VI + ^#.1&'7+G47+X 4++ =1"'<)0,*"$7+; 4++ F#&10&'7+L 4++ d0&-$7+k 4++ ^"'%&'7+d 4++ j)(6*1-'&7+E 4++ E9)$&7+E 4++ D#$%1)0-7+A 4++ ;"9*"$7+D 4++ D)*1-'-+l+E 4++ =)$0&+OPW\WR+K"'0,+ =')$*6"'%+^"0-.8+l+^').%-.& 4++ \S = + \ ] Q\4 + + ^#%$)(7+; 4++ l+F 4++ E0"$&+OPW\PR+)'&+E(&'-.)$*+k"",+!-%-C&$*r+JVS = + W ] J4 + + ;)*)$&$7+D 4++ l+j+N#(()0)+O\VVUR+E%%&$%-"$+)$,+AT6&.%)%-"$+^'"90&(*+-$+F-.8.0&+ c + !)'+!"00-*-"$*+f+)$+-$ ] @&6%1+N%#,8 4++ >@@"8&.0'>.-4D/"/'F'E%&C&.0"7.A + _W = + SQI ] SSS4 + + ;&-*/-$7 + A 4++ PW\Q 4++ F-.8.0&+^)'/-$2f+N%)$,)',*7+k#-,&0-$&*7+;&."((&$,)%-"$* 4++ &, 4++ N4 ] D 4++ = 4++ E2&$.87+IV 4++ N)$+5')$.-*."7+!Ef+N5DE4 + + ;&8$"0,*7+! 4++ 4++ M47+D 4++ E 4++ j)''-*7+d 4++ =&*.1/&7+^ 4++ E 4++ !'-6%"$+l+D 4++ K-$%&'*+OPWWVR+ =1&+-(6).%+"3+%')$*6"'%)%-"$+-$3')*%'#.%#'& + "$+9-.8.0-$2+-$G#'-&*+)$,+.')*1&*f+)+ '&:-&<+"3+%1&+0-%&')%#'& 4++ Q.C"%7.;&.0-4'N&-406'E&%/1&@0"C&/A + U = + JI ] JI4 + + ;-,&'7+F 4++ l+X 4++ ;&:-&< 4++ PW\P 4++ ?$B#-'8+-$%"+;"),+N)3&%8+E(&$,(&$%+O!)'+@""'*+R+ F-00+PW\P+X&2-*0)%-:&+!"#$.-0+N%)$,-$2+!"((-%%&&+"$+A."$"(8+)$,+ ?$3')*%'#.%#'& 4++ \ ] S 4++ F-.8.0&+L&%<"'/+a-.%"'-)4 + + ;",2&'*7+k 4++ F 4++ O\VVQR+F-.8.0-*%+,&)%1*+)$,+3)%)0-%8+'-*/+6)%%&'$* 4++ >@@"8&.0'>.-4D/"/' -.8'E%&C&.0"7.A + PI = + P\Q ] PP_4 + + ;89)'.C8/7+k 4++ l+! 4++ K#+OPW\WR+F-.8.0&+3).-0-%8+60)$$-$2+#*-$2+k?N+)$,+(#0%] .'-%&'-)+ ,& .-*-"$+)$)08*-* 4++ >114"&8'B&7#%-16DA + _W = + PUP ] PV_4 + + N):)2&7+i 4++ PW\\ 4++ n+!)'+,""'+n+,'-:&'+.1)'2&,+":&'+.8.0-*%+n+*+,&)%1 4++ \ ] P4 + + N0)%&'+k"',"$+X)<+M33-.&* 4++ PW\P 4++ D&,-)+;&0&)*& 4++ P ] _4 + + N%#%%*7+i 4++ !47+i 4++ K-00-)(*"$7+= 4++ K1-%0&8+l+5 4++ N1&0,"$+O\VVWR+F-.8. 0&+E..-,&$%*+)$,+ ?$G#'-&*+ ] + )+^-0"% ] N%#,8+!"(6)'-$2+j"*6-%)0 ] ;&6"'%&,+)$,+^"0-.& ] ;&6"'%&,+ @)%) 4++ >@@"8&.0'>.-4D/"/'-.8'E%&C&.0"7.A + PP = + SI ] IU4 + + =1&+!-%8+"3+!1-.)2" 4++ PW\_ 4++ D)8"'+;)1(+A()$#&0+N#66"'%*+F-/&+N)3&%8+?$-%-)%-:&*+ %" 4++ P ] _4 + + ="9&'2%&7+@ 4++ ; 4++ l+N 4++ !#'%-* 4++ PW\_ 4++ ?$B#-'8+-$%"+%1&+;"),+N)3&%8+E(&$,(&$%+O!)'+ @""'*R+F-00+PW\P 4++ \SUV ] \SVV4 + + ="(0-$*"$7+@ 4++ \VVU 4++ !"$30-.%*+F&%<&&$+!8.0-*%*+)$,+D"%"'-*%*+-$+="'"$%"7+!)$),) 4++ ="'"$%"7+!)$),)f+Y"'/+b$-:&'*-%84 + + =')$*6"'%)%-"$+E0%&'$)%-:&* 4++ PW\S 4++ F-/-$2 + ;#0&*+N%'&&%+!",&+F-/-$2+;#0&*+N%'&&%+ !",&+f+X&),+F8+AT)(60&4 +

PAGE 109

! VU + + =#'$&'7+N47+k 4++ K"",7+= 4++ j#21&*+l+; 4++ N-$21+OPW\\R+N)3&%8+^&'3"'()$.&+5#$.%-"$*+ 3"'+F-.8.0&+!')*1&*+-$+L&<+m&)0)$,+)$,+E#*%')0-) 4++ L%-./17%0-0"7.'J&/&-%@6' J&@7%8V'K7$%.-4'7<'06&'L%-./17%0-0"7 .'J&/&-%@6'*7-%8A + PP_S = + SS ] I_4 + + b$-:&'*-%8+"37+M 4++ PW\S 4++ Lm+!8.0-*%+h+@""'-$2+D)6+;&0&)*&,+98+?^;b 4++ \ ] V 4++ @#$&,-$4 + + #$/$"<$ 4++ PW\J 4++ 5&()0&+.8.0-*%* H + .)' ] ,""'&, 4++ X-:&X&)/4 + + bN@M=+ l+ LjN=NE 4++ PWWV 4++ PWWV+@)%)+ ] + F-.8.0-*%*+)$,+M%1&'+!8.0-*%* 4++ \ ] Q4 + + a)$.&7 + N 4++ PW\P 4++ @""'-$2*+-$+!1-.)2"+)$,+LY!+)'&+*%-00+)+*"''8+*%)%&+9#%+"$&+"3+ %1&(+-*+,"-$2+*"(&%1-$2+)9"#%+-% 4++ \ ] I4 + + a)$.&7+N%&:&$ 4++ PW\S 4++ L&<+!&$*#*+@)%)+N)8*+!1-.)2"H+*+F-/&+D",&+N1)'&+?*+)%+)$+ E00+ $ + =-(&+j-21+N"'%+98+L&<&*%+N%)'%+%1&+,-*.#**-"$+t+F&+%1&+3-'*%+%"+."( + 0-$&*+3"'+=#&*,)8+7+=",)8+H+*+j&),0-$&* 4++ \ ] J4 + + K)',+PW+!8.0-$27+! 4++ PWWV 4++ KE;@+PW+!Y!X?Lk+!MDD?==AA+ c + X?N=+M5+ ^;?M;?=?AN 4++ L&<+Y"'/+!-%84 + + K"",7+i 4++ D47+^ 4++ 5 4++ X).1&'&C7+; 4++ ^ 4++ D)'*C )0&/+l+D 4++ i 4++ d-$2+OPWWVR+@'-:&'*n+)$,+ .8.0-*%*n+&T6&'-&$.&*+"3+*1)'-$2+%1&+'"),f+?$.-,&$%*7+)%%-%#,&*+)$,+6&'.&6%-"$*+ "3+:-*-9-0-%8 4++ >@@"8&.0 + + +

PAGE 110

! VV + -77*(1"> $

PAGE 111

! %&& E^^AL@?u+E+ + dA;LAX+@ALN?=Y+DE^N +

PAGE 112

! "#" "#"

PAGE 113

! "#$ "#$

PAGE 114

! "#% "#%

PAGE 115

! "#& !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "#&