Citation
Wilderness and ocean

Material Information

Title:
Wilderness and ocean historical divergences, contemporary convergences?
Creator:
Cecilione, Christine Marie
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xi, 100 leaves : ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Wilderness areas ( lcsh )
Social constructionism ( lcsh )
Biotic communities ( lcsh )
Ocean ( lcsh )
Biotic communities ( fast )
Ocean ( fast )
Social constructionism ( fast )
Wilderness areas ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 96-100).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Christine Marie Cecilione.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
781644830 ( OCLC )
ocn781644830
Classification:
LD1193.L 2011M C43 ( lcc )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
WILDERNESS AND OCEAN HISTORICAL DIVERGENCES,
CONTEMPORARY CONVERGENCES?
by
Christine Marie Cecilione B.A. Colorado State University, 2007
A thesis submitted to the University of Colorado Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Science
2011


2011 by Christine Marie Cecilione All rights reserved.


This thesis for the Master of Social Science degree by
Christine Marie Cecilione has been approved by
// -.11-Date


Cecilione, Christine Marie (Master of Social Science)
Wilderness and Ocean: Historical Divergences, Contemporary Convergences? Thesis directed by Associate Professor Larry Erbert
Historical analysis of wilderness coupled with environmental communication provides a framework on which to study the social and symbolic construct of wilderness. By historically analyzing wilderness utilizing congressional testimonies individuals begin to understand the social and symbolic construct of wilderness as it relates to both terrestrial and marine environments. The overarching goal of my thesis is to explore the implications of the symbolic and social construct of wilderness as it relates to terrestrial ecosystems. Understanding the social and symbolic construct of wilderness further underscores the need to broaden wilderness notions to include the marine ecosystem.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidates thesis. 1 recommend its publication.
ABSTRACT
Signed____t


DEDICATION
History sheds light on both the beaten path and the road less traveled It educates, informs, and acknowledges the leaders who made the impossible, possible Such leaders exist in the environmental movement whose courage, words, and unyielding desire for nature and species tutor future environmental scholars. The environmental leaders of the past are my environmental heroes today. Therefore, the dedication of this thesis symbolizes a thank you for the devotion and leadership they instill in others throughout the ages: Theodore Roosevelt, John Muir, Rachel Carson, and Jacques Yves Cousteau.
Theodore Roosevelt created 51 Federal Bird Reservations, four National Game Preserves, six National Parks, 18 National Monuments and created or enlarged 150 National Forests (Brinkley, 2009, p.825-830). One of Roosevelts most powerful moments arose during his 1904 presidential campaign: In the weeks before the election, sensing that Roosevelt was going to win, Standard Oil wrote a $100,000 check for his campaign fund. Boldly, Roosevelt rejected the money, asking that the donation be returned, not wanting to be tainted by oil money. Roosevelt insisted that presidents during the automobile age could not, under any circumstances, afford to take a contribution from an oil company seeking government influence (Brinkley, 2009, p. 576).
During that same time period, another environmental leader emerged, John Muir. Muir fought for the preservation of Yosemite and Hetch Hetchy He further held the strong belief that nature and species existed in and for themselves: For Muir snakes were good for themselves, and we need not begrudge them their share of life(Nash, 2001, p. 128)
Beginning in the 1950s, Rachel Carson made her stake in the environmental movement publishing books such as The Sea Around Us and Silent Spring.
Carson spoke on behalf of the diverse ecosystems and species. Jacques Yves Cousteau called for the preservation of a marine ecosystem. From Cousteau, a valuable lesson remains: The sea, the great unifier, is [our] only hope Now as never before, the old phrase has a literal meaning: We are all in the same boat (Sustainability Quotes, n.d.)
Throughout the process of this thesis, there were people/furry friends who stood on the sidelines cheering me on, reminding me of its purpose, and provided support along the way. To my best friend, I will be forever grateful for your support, encouragement, and guidance not only in this thesis, but also through lifes trials and tribulations. Your own determination and desire to change the world is something I admire and cherish. To my lifetime editor, thank you for


taking the time out of your day to edit and enrich the words throughout this thesis. To my K-9 companion, who sat in the chair next to me while I researched, read, and worked through all hours of the night at the kitchen table. Thank you for keeping me company and reminding me to take breaks, even if it was to let you outside. To Pop, thank you for your support and continued willingness to help me achieve my goals Finally, deepest thanks go to my mom who allowed me to take over the kitchen table with books and research material over the past year. You encourage me to be the best I can, reminding me to always believe in my abilities and myself. Ill always remember singing Zipadeedodah" on the swing set while I sat on your lap and our Christmas escape to Hawaii. You have taught me the importance of looking forward while learning from the past. Your age never comprises your beauty and your laugh always fills my heart with joy Thank you for standing by me through it all. I have great news for you too; your kitchen table is free of books and ready for proper use.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank my committee members who provided never-ending support and guidance throughout the process of this thesis: Dr. Larry Erbert, Dr. Tanya Heikkila, and Dr. Gregory Simon. Thank you Dr Larry Erbert for challenging me to think on my own and for guiding the process of this thesis. A special thanks to Dr. Tanya Heikkila, who willingly stepped in at the last minute fulfilling a major role and providing valuable feedback on numerous drafts.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Figures..................................................xi
CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION 1
Purpose of Study................................3
Wilderness as a Social and Symbolic Construct...4
Harms to the Ocean..............................7
Environmental Communication and Historical Lens.12
Wilderness as a Symbolic Frame.................16
Overview of Thesis.............................20
2. METHODOLOGY..........................................22
Selection of Materials.........................23
Coding and Scoring.............................27
3. RESULTS..............................................33
Symbolic Frames................................33
Commodity................................34
Recreation...............................37
Tourism..................................40
Timber Interests.........................42
Intrinsic Value..........................45
Technology...............................46
viii


Wilderness
48
Marine Quotes...................................50
Commodity................................51
Recreation...............................52
Tourism..................................53
Fishing Interests........................54
Intrinsic Value..........................56
Technology...............................57
Occurrence of Keywords..........................58
Overview of Keywords............................67
Supplementary Keywords..........................72
Absent Frames...................................74
Conclusion......................................75
4 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 76
Study Summary...................................76
Discussion......................................77
Framing the Environment.........................85
Recommendations.................................87
Conclusion......................................91
BIBLIOGRAPHY.......................................................96
x


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
2.1 Sentence Total within Congressional Testimonies.................30
2.2 Semantic Aspect Scale...........................................32
3.1 National Park Service Organic Act...............................60
3 .2 Ocean Dumping Ban Act...........................................61
3.3 Wilderness Act..................................................62
3 .4 Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act............................63
3 5 Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act........65
3 .6 U S. Ocean Action Plan..........................................66
xi


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Wilderness, wilderness. We scarcely know what we mean by the term, though the sound of it draws all whose nerves and emotions have not vet been irreparably stunned, deadened, numbed by the caterwauling of commerce, the sweating scramble of profit and domination
- Edward Abbey, 1968, p. 166
People venture to various places each year filled with excitement as they eagerly await the adventure ahead. National Parks and beach resorts are examples of popular tourist destinations. Tourist locations such as Yellowstone National Park accommodated more than 3.6 million visitors in 2010 (Yellowstone National Park, 2011). In that same year, 1.5 million people visited Alaska (Resource Development Council, n d) to experience the last frontier. Feel like walking along the beach in Hawaii or California, get in line as more than 180 million people visit the seashore each year (Resources About our Oceans, n.d ). Cruises also provide an alternative traveling experience with millions of people booking their next excursion aboard a ship.
Visiting National Parks and coastlines affords individuals the opportunity
to observe natural wonders and encounter wilderness. Wilderness is a concept
that stirs emotion and attracts people to its natural wonders. Viewing scenic
wonders such as Yellowstone, Glacier, or Yosemite National Park offers a
glimpse into American history. Historically, wilderness was considered a place to
1


conquer (Nash, 2001) Slowly, with an incremental change in ideologies and perceptions, wilderness became a place to preserve.
A change in attitudes and perceptions toward wilderness showcases an environmental movement to salvage the natural world, recruiting wilderness protectors to defend wilderness spaces. Nonetheless, environmental scholars urge for reconsideration in how individuals interpret wilderness spaces A wilderness debate is among us in which the dominant ideas and characteristics associated with wilderness face scrutiny. Environmental scholars question the wilderness notion and its implications on natural spaces calling all self-proclaimed environmental protectors to rethink wilderness ideas and the places society labels as wilderness
The historical, social, and symbolic construction of wilderness originates in various mediums such as historical political policies. Robbins, Hintz, and Moore (2010) define social construction as: Any category, condition, or thing that exists or is understood to have certain characteristics because people socially agree that it does (p. 118). Ideas, images, and assumptions about wilderness are socially constructed. This thesis explores the social and symbolic construct of wilderness through analysis of twelve historical congressional testimonies followed by an examination of the implications of applying the wilderness concept to the ocean. The congressional testimonies represent a range of environmental policies that are still in place today such as the National Park Service Organic Act of 1916, which established the National Park system to
2


preserve the natural wonders of America for future generations to enjoy, the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act of 1960 creates guidelines to utilize the potential of national forests, and the Wilderness Act of 1964 attempts to define wilderness in order to preserve "the wilderness character of the area (Callicott & Nelson, 1998, p 126). Terrestrial policies provide a glimpse into the characterization of wilderness spaces, which attempts to define wilderness, and represents the environmental discussion.
Not only are terrestrial policies the focal point of this thesis, marine policies also provide insight. Analysis of three historical and political marine policies allow for an examination of applying the wilderness concept to the ocean. Examination of marine environmental deliberations shed light on the similarities and differences on how people communicate and frame wilderness. The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation Management Act of 1976, the Ocean Dumping Ban Act of 1988 and the U S. Ocean Action Plan of 2000 attempt to protect the marine environment from anthropocentric, or human-centered, actions.
Purpose of Study
The purpose of this study is to explore the symbolic and social construction of wilderness as it relates to terrestrial systems to determine the viability of the application of the wilderness concept across terrestrial and marine systems. I draw upon content analysis to analyze and infer from a set of
3


documents in order to answer the following research questions: How has wilderness been represented in environmental discourse7 How can the wilderness concept be applied to the ocean and what are the implications of attempting to do so? The population of documents includes historical, political congressional testimonies. The purpose of utilizing congressional testimonies is to gain insight into political institutions that create wilderness constructions.
Wilderness as a Social and Symbolic Construct
Definitions and conceptualizations of wilderness present challenges with the social and symbolic construct including contradictions in definitions, the overarching idea of wilderness, and is a symbolic representation of human constructs One of the challenges with the wilderness construct stems from attempts to define the word itself The challenge with defining wilderness is that while the word is a noun it acts like an adjective (Nash, 2001, p. 1). Wilderness has various meanings and attempts have been made to define it. However, wilderness is so heavily freighted with meaning of a personal, symbolic, and changing kind as to resist easy definition (Nash, 2001, p 1). Wilderness is ambiguous and filled with personal, symbolic, and undergoes transformation that an easy definition is hard to reach (Cox, 2010). Nonetheless, it is a word and is therefore an idea, and ideas have consequences (Cox, 2010, p 25). The social and symbolic construct of wilderness brings about positive, yet challenging
4


characteristics. The conceptualization of wilderness conveys constructive changes as seen through environmental communication and environmental policies
Cox (2010) defines environmental communication as:
The pragmatic and constitutive vehicle for our understanding of the environment as well as our relationships to the natural world; it is the symbolic medium that we use in constructing environmental problems and negotiating society's different response to them (italics in original, p 20).
Environmental communication is pragmatic because it educates, alerts, and
persuades us to solve environmental problems. Cox (2010) underscores It is this
instrumental sense of communication that probably occurs to us initially: the work
of communication-in-actiori" (italics in original, p. 20) It is also constitutive
because it helps compose representations of nature, By shaping our perceptions
of nature, environmental communication may invite us to perceive forests and
rivers as threatening or bountiful... (Cox, 2010, p. 21). Environmental
communication scholars draw upon the work of John Muir, Rachel Carson and
Aldo Leopold to analyze the symbolic and social construction of the environment
From their work, along with the work of numerous environmental scholars,
stemmed a symbolic and social construction of wilderness, which plays a
powerful role in todays society in how individuals think and perceive the
environment.
The way society defines wilderness plays a powerful role in how
individuals conceive wilderness spaces. Definitions provide a way to understand
language along with the social construct. Words construct reality However, the
5


wilderness definition has been stretched in so many different directions that it is important to identify the point of using such a label (Schiappa, 2003, p. xii). The various ways society defines and employs the term wilderness results in a paradox in how citizens come to understand wilderness. The challenge lies in an agreed upon definition of wilderness. Because of the numerous wilderness definitions, an agreement of what wilderness is has yet to be reached.
The challenge with the wilderness idea is it is a symbolic representation of human constructions. Human perception creates the symbolic and social construct of wilderness. As a result, the challenge lies within the characteristics applied to wilderness spaces. As Nash (2001) argues, psychological carrying capacity assumes that wilderness is an experience best defined in terms of a human perception (p. 324). Wilderness is an ambiguous word filled with personal, symbolic, and constantly changing ideas that an easy definition is hard to reach (Cox, 2010).
Historians and environmental communication scholars critique wilderness as a social and symbolic construct. Cronon (1996) argues that the problem is not the things individuals label as wilderness, but the meanings behind those labels.
As the Wilderness Act suggests, wilderness is a place where humans do not remain (Callicott et al., 1998). The paradox further hypothesizes that wilderness is not wild if humans live within its boundaries Therefore, people have lost the sense of caring for places in which they actually live, idealizing a distant
6


wilderness too often means not idealizing the environment in which we actually live, the landscape that for better or worse we call home (Cronon, 1996, p. 85).
An additional challenge with wilderness is the social construction of the word tends to privilege some parts of nature at the expense of others (Cronon, 1996, p. 86) such as national parks over marine protected areas. To broaden the scope of wilderness is to realize profound feelings of humility and respect that pervades relationships with humans and the environment (Cronon, 1996). Wilderness occurs anywhere, A person with a clear heart and an open mind can experience wilderness anywhere on earth. It is a quality of ones own consciousness. The planet is a wild place and always will be (Cronon, 1996, p. 89).
Harms to the Ocean
The symbolic and social constructs of wilderness generate outcomes. Environmental policies attempt to conserve wilderness spaces while at the same promoting them as areas to develop and explore reflecting societal values. However, wilderness carries symbolic and value-laden emotion, which people attempt to characterize through language. Environmental communication provides individuals with the opportunity to advance wilderness perceptions by highlighting and challenging dominant wilderness constructs. By analyzing wilderness, citizens can perhaps better understand the environmental discussion in
7


turn appreciating all aspects of wilderness and those who inhabit them, To protect the nature that is all around us, we must think long and hard about the nature we carry inside our heads (Cronon, 1996, p. 22).
Since wilderness occurs anywhere, the symbolic and social construct of wilderness is important to relate to the ocean because the marine ecosystem is an integral part of the natural world. The ocean supports all life on Earth. The marine ecosystem also provides growing human populations with diverse resources including food, ecological services, and beauty. The ocean and its inhabitants are in jeopardy as humans deplete goods and services faster than the ocean renews them (Earle, 2009). There is concern for what is taken out of the ocean, and of similar and equal importance, there is concern for what materials are put in. The ocean represents an invaluable part of the commons, a universal place where citizens work, eat and play. The Malthusian model employs the term ecoscarcity, which suggests:
As human populations grow out of proportion to the capacity of the environmental system to support than, there is a crisis both for humans, whose numbers fall through starvation and disease-based mortality, and for nature, whose overused assets are driven past the point of self-renewal (Robbins, 2004, p. 7). Marine life forms are a staple food item in many countries across the globe. Toxic chemicals and fertilizers percolate into the ocean fouling the very waters we rely on to produce the fish that we eat (Mann, 2010, p. 204-205).
Poison destroys what is arguably the most critical ecosystem on our planet. The destruction of the marine ecosystem potentially threatens human existence calling attention to a reexamination of wilderness notions.
8


Land based principles dominate current wilderness ideologies calling for an examination of a marine wilderness. Marine ethics are often undermined by land ethics, marine ecosystems have not been at the center of environmental philosophy: we, Homo sapiens, are land animals (Wolf, 2003, p. 29). Wolf (2003) further articulates the prominence of land ethics because most of people do not see a marine environment therefore individuals cannot fully understand it.
The ocean covers 70 percent of Earth and contains 97 percent of our water, but only 5 percent of the ocean has been seen (Earle, 2009). The majority of the ocean remains a mystery (Mann, 2010) perhaps because individuals feel alien to a marine environment (Wolf, 2003). Abbey (1968) further draws attention to human perception regarding the ocean suggesting: The most appealing part of the sea, in fact, is its meeting with the land; it is the seashore which men love and not the ocean itself (p. 241). Whether people fear the vast marine ecosystem or simply enjoy the sound of crashing waves, what exists beneath the surface of the ocean is comparable to terrestrial life calling for an expansion of environmental stewardship.
Various ocean policies attempt to preserve the ecological integrity of the marine environment. In 1976 the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act aspired to conserve fishery resources, the Ocean Dumping Ban Act of 1988 banned ocean dumping of sewage sludge and industrial waste. More recent is the U S. Ocean Action Plan of 2000. In 2000, President George W. Bush established the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument in Hawaii,
9


140,000 square miles of ocean where commercial fishing is illegal (Earle, 2009). The U.S. Ocean Action Plan focuses on creating a healthier, cleaner, and more productive ocean, coasts, and Great Lakes. Creating partnerships between federal, state, indigenous groups, and local communities, the Ocean Action Plan includes all political and local arenas to protect and manage the ocean as it traverses national boundaries. Managing the ocean presents hope that the global commons does not share the same fate as the commons Hardin (1968) portrays. Hardins (1968) Tragedy of the Commons predicts the long-term consequences of overpopulation along with environmental degradation.
Even though society has various ocean policies, concern over the fate of the ocean remains. The perception of the ocean as a commodity is one of the largest anthropocentric threats to the global commons. Robbins (2010) defines commodity as an object of economic value that is valued generically, rather than as a specific object (example: pork is a commodity, rather than a particular pig) (p. 99). Another example of commodification of the ocean is evident in the oil and gas industry (Earle, 2009). The Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989 is a strong reminder of the consequence of extracting resources from the ocean. Spewing 11 million gallons of crude oil into Alaskas Prince William Sound (Earle, 2009), media images portrayed oil soaked birds, otters and other marine life that suffered the fate of the spill:
It had slithered onto Alaskan beaches hundreds of miles away, smothering and poisoning the life out of hundreds of sea otters, thousands of seabirds, and billions of small creatures that quietly died as a consequence of human error exacerbated by human indifference. (Earle, 2009, p. 154)
10


In April 2010, the Gulf of Mexico suffered a similar fate as an estimated 1.5 million to 3 million barrels of oil secreted into the ocean (Denver Post, February 2011). Almost a year later, oil continues to contaminate the ocean floor as a result of the BP oil spill (Denver Post, 2011). At a science conference, marine scientist Samantha Joyce showed pictures of dead crabs and brittle stars that were pale, loose and dead. She also saw tube worms so full of oil they suffocated (Denver Post, February 2011). The marine ecosystem suffers due to anthropocentric views of commidifying the ocean and the ideology of a limitless resource (Dallmeyer, 2003).
Earle (2009) draws from Hardin to underscore the tragedy of the commons concerning the ocean The 19th century was wrought with the mindset that marine species were free for the taking. Whales, seals, seabirds were taken at immense rates only to be brought to near extinction. Today, marine species remain in jeopardy as they are seen as more of a commodity, to be bought and sold in marketplaces around the world. Not only are marine species taken from the global commons, current ideology frames the ocean as the ultimate dumpster (Earle, 2009). The ocean is an integral part of the global commons thereby calling for an ideological shift that views the ocean as a space affording international protection before the world reaches 9 billion people by 2045 (National Geographic, 2011, p. 38). Freedom to take from the commons results in destruction of the entire commons. The ocean is the bloodline of the earth: If we want things to stay as they are that is, if we want to maintain our technological,


economic, and moral leadership and a habitable planet, rich with flora and fauna -things will have to change around here, and fast (Earle, 2009, p. 203).
Environmental Communication and Historical Lens
Two lenses -- environmental communication and historical analysis --provide frameworks for answering the research questions The first lens to analyze the social construction of wilderness is environmental communication Environmental communication provides a sphere in which wilderness discussions occur. Whereas historical analysis highlights the institutions to which the wilderness notion is tied to. Through the two lenses, an analysis of the social and symbolic construct of wilderness develops wilderness notions.
Environmental communication is important to understand the social and symbolic construct of wilderness because language creates meaning and facilitates action. Through language, symbolic action occurs because communication creates meaning and actively structure[s] our conscious orientation to the world (Cox, 2010, p. 23). Furthermore, the way we communicate with one another about the environment powerfully affects how we perceive both it and ourselves and, therefore, how we define our relationship with the natural world (Cox, 2010, p 2) Environmental communication provides new ways of articulating the world individuals live in, discovering new notions of wilderness spaces in the process and venturing to unfamiliar places.


Communication facilitates the way people make sense of the world resulting in an increased awareness of environmental challenges (Cox, 2010).
Environmental communication provides a foundation to consider the ocean as a wilderness because it transforms human behavior by presenting operative terms in order to advance human perceptions of wilderness spaces.
Kroll (2008), utilizing the work of Rachel Carson, argues for ecological stewardship, stating, that that we will become even more dependent upon the ocean as we destroy the land (p. 99). Not only does Carson draw upon ecocentrism to express the inherent value of the ocean, Kroll describes her work as it relates to oceancentrism to describe an understanding that the oceans, not the land, dominate the earth (Kroll, 2008, p. 97) Oceancentrism challenges human interpretations of the world: Just as Copernicus, Darwin, and Freud caused humans to reexamine the nature of humanity, so too did oceancentrism cause humans to think of their earth as an ocean planet with several modest continental islands (Kroll, 2008, p. 97). Carson expands on the perception of a water-dominated planet, describing a world in which the continents only here and there emerge above the surface of the all-encircling sea (Carson, 1958, p.
19).
Communication is powerful because it characterizes and constructs our environment. Cox (2007) argues that our understanding of the natural world and environmental problems is mediated by systems of representation by human communication (Carbaugh, 2007, p 65). People construct the
13


environment in their beliefs, attitudes, and policies because it is what we know (Carbaugh, 2007, p. 66). Wilderness is mediated through our actions and our technologies. Wilderness is an idea summarized in our words or verbal representations. We are, in a sense, placing words over the world (Carbaugh, 2007, p. 66). Wilderness is a human construct filled with ideas mediated in our linguistic world. Instead of hearing what the world is already saying, people attempt, and struggle, to characterize natural spaces. Carbaugh (2007) eloquently utilizes Ralph Waldo Emerson: We know more from nature than we can at will communicate (2007, p. 68). By focusing on representations of wilderness, individuals can examine wilderness notions and the words used to characterize natural spaces.
One way to understand wilderness symbols is through historical analysis. The National Park Service Organic Act of 1916 omits any definition of wilderness stating:
We didnt specifically state policy about wilderness at this time because we concluded it was understood Every previous act demanded that the parks be preserved in their natural state. Their natural state was wilderness. (Albright & Albright, 1999, p. 127)
As Robbins et al. (2010) argues, National Parks are a construct: Entrance fees,
maintained roads, hiking trails, limits on indigenous uses, interpretive exhibits,
and forest management practices all create what people expect to see when they
encounter wilderness (p. 118). Additionally, the drafters of the Wilderness Act of
1964 also took upon the challenge of defining wilderness By addressing land
boundaries and stating that wilderness is an area where humans do not remain
14


influenced the framing and conceptualization of wilderness Devising his own working definition of wilderness, Aldo Leopold thought wilderness to be a continuous stretch of country preserved in its natural state, open to lawful hunting and fishing, big enough to absorb a two weeks pack trip, and kept devoid of roads, artificial trail, cottages, or other works of man (Nash, 2001, p. 186).
Historical research not only shows where people have been, it also portrays where individuals have not been. Through historical research, people can chronologically step back in time to witness a chain of past environmental events. Historical events research is an investigation of past events with the theory that they had a critical impact on subsequent developments (Schutt, 2009, p. 428). Employing historical research methods such as historical events research offers insight into the development of social processes
The organization of the two lenses, environmental communication and historical analysis, follows what Brummett (2006) calls implied strategies.
Texts have similar interesting quirks and peculiarities things missing or things too much in evidence that convey meanings in and of themselves (Brummett, 2006, p. 120). Texts convey dominant ideas while at the same time leaving certain details out. There are three categories of implied strategies and I will explain each in detail below: 1) Association 2) Implication 3) Conflict or Absence The two lenses create a way to organize textual material, a way to determine correlations and a way to see what is missing from the text. Implied
15


strategies create a methodical approach to interpret what is inside the text (Brummett, 2006).
Current wilderness definitions do not explicitly construct the ocean as a wilderness. Thus, texts omit certain signs in which the reader notices something that should be there is not (Brummett, 2006, p. 123). Analysis of wilderness ideologies, provides a way to link anthropocentric characteristics and identify what is missing from dominant language. The absence of ecocentric notions further underscores the requisite for a change in ideologies to be able to challenge the way individuals think of wilderness.
Wilderness as a Symbolic Frame
Framing is an important communication concept because it suggests how people think of dominant ideologies while at the same time showcasing what is missing. Lakoff (2010) explains framing as how individuals come to think of unconscious structures. Fie utilizes the hospital as a frame to describe the things that make up that particular frame (i.e. doctors, nurses, patient). Framing is all around us and people use frames in their every day language. However, an important question that Lakoff (2010) points out is whose frames are being activated and instilled in the public (p. 72). Furthermore, Lakoff (2010) employs the term hypocognition to describe the lack of ideas required for the audience to capture frames Hypocognition is an important term to understand because it helps
16


identify the exclusion of ideas (Lakoff, 2010). Lakoff (2010) utilizes the environment as an example of hypocognition suggesting that the Environment Frame sees the environment and us as separate, which he argues is not true.
Another frame is The Regulated Commons, which is a non-transferable ownership of the natural world such as atmosphere, waterways, and the ocean.
The Regulated Commons do not share the same fate as the Tragedy of the Commons in which Hardin (1968) argues overpopulation is at the crux of environmental degradation. LakofTs (2010) overarching argument recognizes the importance of understanding how people frame the environment. Understanding frames matter because it allows us to develop our own interpretation instead of being vulnerable to dominate frames (Lakoff, 2010).
Entman (1993) further articulates the purpose of a frame. According to Entman (1993), frames
select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem, definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or treatment recommendation for the item described. (Entman, 1993, p. 52)
Salience is making a text more memorable or noticeable to the audience (Entman,
1993, p. 53). For example, conservationists frame the environment to highlight
certain challenges such as anthropocentric threats, toxic chemicals that infiltrate
the air and the water systems and the extinction of species. Frames also provide
four functions in that they define the problem, diagnose causes, make moral
judgments, and suggest remedies (Entman, 1993). A frame does not necessarily
encompass all of these functions. Some frames may leave them out entirely
17


Understanding the communication process aids in deciphering frames along with identifying an absence of an essential keyword or idea.
The communication process has four locations: communicator, text, receiver, and culture (Entman, 1993). Communicators make a conscious or unconscious choice to decide what to say guided by frames (Entman, 1993). The text contains the frame which are manifested by the presence or absence of certain key words, stock phrases, stereotyped images, sources of information reinforced by facts or judgments (Entman, 1993, p. 52). The frame then guides the receivers thinking. Culture demonstrates dominant frames portrayed through discourse while at the same time ignoring other frames.
Frames are powerful because they call attention to aspects of reality while at the same time excluding other frames (Entman, 1993). The omission or absence of certain words or phrases within a frame begs attention, the omissions of potential problem definitions, explanations, evaluations, and recommendations may be as critical as the inclusions in guiding the ocean (Entman, 1993, p. 54). Receivers respond to the dominant frame possessing little information about the omission of key words or phrases, which is why exclusion of interpretations by frames is as significant to outcomes as inclusion (Entman, 1993, p. 54). Therefore, the power of the frame is as powerful as the language itself (Entman, 1993).
Furthermore, frames remain important to analyze as they guide the receiver toward certain analytical deductions. Content analyses respond to texts
18


according to their meanings: denotations, connotations, insinuations, implications, associations, metaphors, frames, uses, symbolic qualities and so on (Krippendorff, 2004, p.323) As Cronon (1996) argues, it is the meanings behind the words that need to be scrutinized In the political and the academic realm, through analysis of environmental communication, individuals expand the discussion about the way people speak and represent the environment resulting in collaborative efforts enhancing environmental stewardship.
The frames around wilderness articulate as much about what is inside the frame, as what it excludes. Cox (2010) and Slater (1976) employ two key terms related to framing, unobtrusive events and the toilet assumption Cox (2010) utilizes the term unobtrusive events and claims ecological systems are less visible and often go unnoticed for years or decades because they are remote from ones personal experience (p 157). Anthropocentric values reified by current definitions of wilderness validate unobtrusive events that degrade a marine environment. The detritus of human consumption contaminates the ocean, threatening life on Earth. Toxic chemical dumping is one example of unobtrusive events because toxins invisible and their effects on us delayed, people rarely notice such toxins in our everyday lives (Cox, 2010, p. 157). This frame excludes everyday connections to marine ecosystems
Slater (1990) draws on a more colorful metaphor when describing these anthropocentric notions of disposability. He explains the toilet assumption as, the notion that unwanted matter, unwanted difficulties, unwanted complexities
19


and obstacles will disappear if theyre removed from our immediate field of vision (Slater, 1976, p. 19). The toilet assumption also suggests that the endpoint for those materials can be ignored: Our approach to social problems is to decrease their visibility: out of sight, out of mind (Slater, 1990, p. 19). The most prominent visual representation of the effects of the toilet assumption is the North Pacific Garbage Patch, which is, quite literally, a swirling vortex of trash that appears as if trash is being flushed down a toilet (Slater, 1976), the largest is roughly the size of Texas. If the ocean is perceived as a space out there, then people are less likely to see it as a wild space within the global commons that demands protection from anthropocentric values that view the ocean as a vast dumping ground.
Overview of Thesis
Analyzing the wilderness idea presents the opportunity to historically explore environmental policies in order to analyze where people have been and where they have yet to go. I will first begin by analyzing the social and symbolic significance of wilderness discourse through analysis of congressional testimonies along with the implications of the social and symbolic construct of wilderness when articulating the ocean as a wilderness area. Utilizing content analysis, coding, and scaling methods, I will analyze my data to interpret the wilderness discussion. Chapter two moves into the methodology in which six environmental
20


policies and twelve congressional testimonies provide insight into the historical construct of wilderness Chapter three presents analysis of the data with corresponding graphs. The concluding chapter discusses recommendations on how to be better environmental stewards. The overarching goal of my thesis is an explanation of the implications of the symbolic and social construction of wilderness. Environmental communication is a vehicle for understanding the implications of the articulation of a marine wilderness.
21


CHAPTER 2
METHODOLOGY
The systematic approach employed is content analysis and the methodological form is interpretive. Content analysis provides a methodological approach to utilize environmental communication as a way to answer research questions. Defined by Schutt (2009), content analysis is a research method for systematically analyzing and making inferences from text(p. 454). Content analysis of twelve congressional testimonies was chosen because of the historical political discussion surrounding the environment and the perception of natural spaces. Schutt (2009) defines interpretivism as the belief that reality is socially constructed and that the goal of social scientists is to understand what meanings people give to that reality (p 92). The objective of interpretivism is to understand the meanings people assign to reality. Additionally, interpretivists believe that people construct an image of reality based on their own preferences and prejudices and their interactions with others... (Schutt, 2009, p 92)
The two lenses, environmental communication and historical investigation, create an understanding of the social and symbolic construct of wilderness. As the methodological approach is interpretive, environmental communication sheds light on which keywords to use while the historical lens illuminates the social and symbolic construct of wilderness. 1 began by assessing
22


terrestrial and marine based congressional testimonies to understand the environmental discussion and historical construct of wilderness. Through environmental communication and a historical lens, individuals perhaps better comprehend past roots surrounding the idea of wilderness shedding light on the social institutions tied to wilderness notions.
Selection of Materials
Congressional testimonies provide a historical basis for analyzing the social and symbolic construct of wilderness. An analysis of the following congressional testimonies: National Park Service Organic Act, Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act, Wilderness Act, Ocean Dumping Ban Act, Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, and U S. Ocean Action Plan, create a foundation on which to historically base the social construct of wilderness
The documents I sampled are twelve historical congressional testimonies.
I selected two congressional testimonies from each of the six policies. Two congressional testimonies were taken from the National Park Service Organic Act, two congressional testimonies are from the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act, and so forth. The two congressional testimonies come from different frames, conservationists, oil and gas industry or private stakeholders such as someone who owns a business. Each testimony identifies the person and the
23


corporate or nonprofit affiliation. The congressional testimonies from the
National Park Service Organic Act come from 1916, the Multiple-Use Act from
1960, the Wilderness Act from 1962, Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation
and Management Act from 1975, Ocean Dumping testimonies from 1988, and the
testimonies from the U S. Ocean Action Plan are from 1998. Below is the list of
congressional testimonies:
National Park Service Organic Act of 1916
Stephen T. Mather, Assistant to the Secretary of the Interior P S Eustis, General Passenger Agent of Burlington Rail Road
Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act of 1960
Louis S. Clapper, Conservation Director, National Wildlife Federation Ralph D. Hodges Jr. Director, Forestry Division, National Lumber Manufactures Association
Wilderness Act of 1964
Sigurd F. Olson, Biologist, Writer, and Conservationist Gordon A. Goodwin, American Petroleum Institute
Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 Ernest G. Abbott, Fisherman and Wholesale Lobster Dealer J. Steele Culbertson, Director, National Fish Meal and Oil Association
Ocean Dumping Ban Act of 1988
Sally Lentz, Staff Attorney, The Oceanic Society Sheldon Lipke, Superintendent of Plant Operations, Passaic Valley Sewerage Commissioners
U S. Ocean Action Plan of 2000
Roger McManus, President, Center for Marine Conservation Paul Kelly Senior, Vice President of Rowan Companies
Each congressional testimony contains important keywords devising a
systematic approach to analyzing the statements. The use of eight keywords
obtained from the literature review develops an analysis to study the population of


congressional testimonies. There are two reasons why the keywords were chosen: 1) they appeared numerous times throughout the literature review 2) they are also common words associated with wilderness or associated with how people value wilderness. Commodification of wilderness comprises recreation, tourism, timber interests, and fishing interests. Wilderness often falls victim to anthropocentrism and its attendant commodification. The keywords are also commonly linked to wilderness. People enjoy traveling to National Parks and hiking along trails. Facilities in National Parks, such as restrooms, railways and backcountry cabins, were created with the idea being to let technology help more people enjoy wilderness (Nash, 2001, p. 326) The way individuals value wilderness plays a role in the political and societal underpinnings surrounding the idea of wilderness along with the way people transform natural spaces through technology
The use of the keywords provides a way to analyze the text allowing for an interpretation of the social and symbolic construct of wilderness. Based on the literature review, commodity, recreation, tourism, timber interests, technology, and fishing interests will reflect the ideology of industrial groups. Keywords such as intrinsic value reflect the ideology of self-proclaimed conservationists or preservationists and environmental groups whose goal is environmental preservation
As 1 read the congressional testimonies, I chose to color coordinate each of the keywords for organizational and data tracking purposes because the color identifies the keyword. Furthermore, as 1 read the congressional testimonies, I
25


highlighted each keyword or its synonym with its corresponding color. Below is
the list of keywords along with its matching color:
Commodity purple Recreation yellow Tourism green Timber Interests brown Intrinsic Value red Technology orange Wilderness blue Fishing Interests black
I also define each of the words, along with synonyms:
Commodity An object of economic value that is valued generically, rather than as a specific object (example: pork is a commodity, rather than a particular pig)
In political economy (and Marxist) thought, as an object made for exchange (Robbins et al ., 2010, p. 240)
Synonyms: land, water, Cultural Capital (DeLuca, 2000, p. 248), usefulness (Stoll, 2007, p. 45)
Recreation any outdoor activity, spending time outdoors, social activity. Synonyms, hunting, fishing, hiking, tramping (Adkins, 2003, p. 434), mountain-climbing, camping photography, and the enjoyment of natural
scenery (Stoll, 2007, p. 42).
Tourism The practice of traveling for pleasure (The American Heritage Dictionary, 1976, p. 1358). An example is traveling to a national park for pleasure.
Synonyms: Pioneering spirits (Marafiote, 2008, p. 159), vacationer (Marafiote,
2008, p. 163), travelers (Simon, 2009, p. 17). Marafiote (2008) clarifies tourists
26


as anyone who could/would enjoy the subdued wild nature-sites, therefore, that
conveniently blurred the contrast between nature and culture, primitivity and civilization (p. 165).
Timber Interests cutting down trees to utilize them as a resource Synonyms: Timber, Wood
Intrinsic Value The value of a natural object (e g an owl or stream) in and for itself, as an end rather than a means (Robbins et al., 2010, p. 74). Robbins (2010) further explains intrinsic value as independent of the usefulness of the nonhuman world for human purposes (p. 74).
Synonyms: beauty and grandeur (Muir, 1901, p. 59), intrinsic right to exist (Guha, 1989, p. 233), spiritual value, asset.
Technology a human-made machine or object (i.e. automobile)
Synonyms: Automobile, any type of human-made transportation (i .e wagon), road, train, oil rigs, sludge removal devices, air pollution equipment.
Wilderness any use of the word wilderness is highlighted.
Fishing Interests harvesting marine species to utilize as a resource.
Synonyms: catch, harvest
Coding and Scoring
For the methodological approach interpretivism, I highlighted the whole sentence in which a keyword or phrase was found. I looked for the word and the
27


idea of that word along with its synonym. If a sentence contained two or more keywords, I counted the sentence as two or more. For example, if tourism and recreation were found in the same sentence, I counted the sentence as both tourism and recreation. If a keyword appeared multiple times in a single sentence, I counted the sentence once Counting sentences allows for analysis of the way in which the keywords are discussed throughout the historical documents Krippendorff (2004) expands by stating, Without the appropriate context, a document means very little; a document placed in the wrong context acquires incorrect meanings, or at least meanings that may not make much sense (p. 26-27).
Counting sentences allowed me to capture the idea of the keyword if it was not directly stated. For example, intrinsic value is not directly stated in the congressional testimonies, however the idea of intrinsic value is. The synonyms associated with intrinsic value such as beauty and spiritual allowed me to capture the idea of the word. Also, if the use of a keyword or phrase was a proper noun, e g. Burlington Railroad, I did not highlight or count it because it represents a company or an organization and is not indicative of the definitional meaning. Furthermore, I did not analyze any attached documents included with the congressional testimonies, only what was actually said at the hearing.
There are important differences between recreation and fishing. Recreational fishing is a pleasurable social activity. Whereas fishing interests utilize fish as a resource An example of recreational fishing comes from the
28


Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act in Ralph D. Hodges testimony: On any one forest, managed for timber production these multiple uses may include watershed, recreation, hunting, fishing, grazing, mining, and numerous other uses (Serial RR), 86th Cong. 62 (1960) (testimony of Ralph D. Hodges). An example of fishing interests is found in the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation Act: In fact, on a volume or poundage basis, their fishing vessels harvest about half of the fin fish caught and landed by US. fishermen..(Serial 93-13) 93rd Cong. 3 (1973) (testimony of J Steele Culbertson).
Once I highlighted the sentences containing a keyword and/or its synonym, I counted the sentences within that particular congressional testimony. Then I counted all of the sentences within the congressional testimony. Figure 2.1 illustrates the sentence total for each congressional testimony. I then divided the total number of instances by the total of sentences receiving a decimal. I multiplied that number by 100 to receive a percentage. The percentage is representative of what proportion the keyword occurred within the congressional testimony compared to the total number of sentences. I rounded the decimal to the nearest whole number. By analyzing the instances of the keywords in percent, an unearthing of what is said versus what is not said allows for a critique of how society communicates natural spaces, the implications of using such words, and what is absent from the text.
29


Total Number of Sentences
National Park Service Organic Act:
Statement of Stephen T. Mather 347
Statement of P S. Eustis 184
Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act
Statement of Louis S. Clapper 24
Statement of Ralph D Hodges 136
Wilderness Act
Statement of Gordin A. Goodwin 224
Statement of Sigurd F. Olson 108
Magnuson Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act
Statement of J. Steele Culbertson 120
Statement of Ernest G. Abbott 47
Ocean Dumping Ban Act
Statement of Sheldon Lipke 33
Statement of Sally Lentz 47
U S Ocean Action Plan
Statement of Paul L. Kelly 170
Statement of Roger McManus 64
Figure 2.1 Sentence Total within Congressional Testimonies
In order to exhibit what is missing from the congressional testimonies, Zillmanns Semantic Aspect Scale was applied to the analysis of the keywords Once I calculated the instance of the keyword into percent, I devised a scale that correlates with the semantic aspect scale in order for me to know where to place the keyword on the semantic aspect scale. If the keyword was absent from the text it immediately ranked at zero on the semantic aspect scale Therefore, the scale I developed starts at 0.1%. If the keyword fell at or between 0.1 %-15%, it placed at a one on the semantic aspect scale. If the keyword fell at or between 16%-30%, it placed at a two on the semantic aspect scale, at or between 31%-45% it placed at a three, 46%-60% it placed at a four, 61%-75% it placed at a five, and 76% to 100% it placed at a six. For example, in the congressional testimony of
30


Gordin A. Goodwin, wilderness consisted of 23% of the testimony. Therefore, wilderness placed at a two on the semantic aspect scale.
The semantic aspect scale helps determine the prominence or lack of a keyword. The 7-point unipolar scale ranges from 0, absence of a text, to 6, the pervasive presence of a text (Krippendorff, 2004, p. 137). Krippendorff further posits:
the use of such a scale is appropriate when attributes, qualities, or phenomena can be more or less, [including absence of a text] more or less significant to a character, more or less present in an assertion, or more or less frequent. (2004, p 137)
The purpose of the semantic aspect scale is to avoid the unreliability coders face when making choices on polar attributes (Krippendorff, 2004). Figure 2.2 illustrates the semantic aspect scale utilized in this analysis. Semantic validity is the degree to which the analytical categories of texts correspond to the meanings these texts have for particular readers or the roles they play within a chosen context (Krippendorff, 2004, p. 323).
The semantic aspect scale is a tool that promotes the development of improved communication practices. By assessing what is said versus what is not being said in differing spheres, e g. public sphere versus political sphere, can we understand the various ways the public speaks about environmental challenges in turn enhancing collaborative efforts both inside and outside the political realm. The semantic aspect scale distinguishes what is absent and what is present in congressional testimonies to determine if the discussion surrounding environmental issues is one in the same.
31


Semantic Aspect Scale Zillmann
7-Point Unipolar Scale
Name of Act: _______________________________________________
Name of Testimony:__________________________________________
Absent Very Much Present
Commodity
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Recreation: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Tourism 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Timber Interests: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Intrinsic Value: .0:1 2 3 4 5 6
Technology 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Wilderness: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Fishing Interests: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Figure 2.2 Semantic Aspect Scale
32


CHAPTER 3
RESULTS
Analysis of the twelve congressional testimonies provides insight into wilderness frames The six policies and twelve congressional testimonies are samples intended to attempt to capture the communication that occurs within the social and political dialogue. It is not representative of the entire population of policies or congressional testimonies. Therefore, inferences about communication that takes place is an attempt to further understand the implications of language and the words individuals use to characterize natural spaces.
To begin assessing the symbolic frames, I will first discuss each of the keywords as they relate to each of the policies and congressional testimonies through the use of various quotes The data begins with a quantitative assessment, which leads into qualitative summaries. I will then connect the keywords to the larger picture, which focuses on the prominence and lack of ideas.
Symbolic Frames
Language and context help establish meaning and symbolic relevance. Through language individuals grasp the environmental discussion and the social
33


institutions that are tied to the symbolic construct of wilderness. The following are examples of quotes throughout the terrestrial congressional testimonies. Each of the quotes represents the environmental discussion within the political sphere along while showcasing the use of each keyword. Analyzing the quotes for each keyword, allows for an evaluation of what is missing from the text as it relates to wilderness notions.
Commodity
In the National Park Service Organic Act of 1916 congressional testimonies, commodity is minutely present. Occurring 1% of the time in the coded sentences, commodity consists of a small percentage of the National Park Service discussion. One topic of discussion in which commodity is found arises from management of the parks, or more specifically, cultural capital. Wood is an example of resource use and is, therefore, an example of commodity. There were instances in which two or more keywords were found in the same quote. The below quote is an example of commodity, timber interests, and tourism. Buying half a cord of wood is a complaint presented by Mr. McClintic on behalf of the people in his state:
They filed some very serious charges with me as to the management of the parks out in that section of the country, and I would like to know whether you require campers to buy as much as a half a cord of wood in the parks. (64lh Cong.) 11(1916) (Stephen T. Mather)
34


Stephen T. Mather consents to Mr. McClintics statement: Considerable timber for fuel has been cut and we make a point of selling fuel to campers going in on the floor of the valley (64th Cong.) 11 (1916) (Stephen T. Mather).
Another example of commodity arises from charging automobiles to use the roads within park boundaries. Automobiles cause wear and tear on park roads. Therefore, the Park Service needs a way to maintain the roads within the parks. PS Eustis agrees a charge for the use of park roads would be beneficial: Why, I should think it would not be out of the way to make a moderate charge for the use of the park roads for private automobiles (64th Cong.) 11 (1916) (P S Eustis). Because this sentence speaks to the use of, or usefulness of roads, it portrayed commodity. Even though this sentence speaks to the broader context of tourism, I focused on the idea of charging private autombiles for the use of park roads as an isolated instance.
Commodity not only presents itself in the National Park Service Organic Act, but also in the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act 1960. The keyword, commodity, consists of 16% of the coded sentences within the two congressional testimonies. The Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act centers around the multiple uses of wilderness spaces such as recreation, wildlife and timber. Valued generically, timber and minerals are objects exchanged for value. Below is an example of commodity found in the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act:
.. and the long-time production of tangible resources cm which our economy is
35


based including wood, forage, and minerals... (Serial RR) 86^ Cong. 62 (1960) (Louis S Clapper)
Not only do objects made for exchange portray commodity, the usefulness of an object or space also present the buying and selling of goods. Ralph D. Hodges recognizes the economic value of timber along with proper forest management: Approximately 95 percent of the dollar revenues produced by the management of the national forests are derived from the sale of timber (Serial RR) 86th Cong. 62 (1960) (Ralph D. Hodges). Timber is an object of economic value that monetarily provides for the United States government and the United States territories. Another example of the usefulness of the forest is found in the following three quotes:
Although the primary use of the forest land is for the production of timber, it is company policy to make the land available for secondary uses which are not detrimental to the maximum growth of new tree crops. (Serial RR) 86th Cong 62 (1960) (Ralph D. Hodges)
It will have to be determined on the basis of the individual forests, and even, perhaps, within individual forests there will have to be different uses that will have to come in for consideration, that is into primary consideration because of their particular characteristics (Serial RR) 86th Cong. 62 (1960) (Ralph D. Hodges)
We have to have confidence enough that the program is going to be administered, that it will be done so in a sound enough manner, so that proper consideration will be given to these uses in the various areas, as to which should receive primary consideration. (Serial RR) 86th Cong. 62 (1960) (Ralph D. Hodges)
36


Examples of commodity are also found in the Wilderness Act of 1964. In
the two congressional testimonies, commodity consists of 0.90% of the coded
sentences. The following quotes speak to the uses of wilderness along with
displaying how special interest groups frame the economic worth of wilderness:
Multiple use: Congress has, by the 1960 enactment of Public Law 86-517 (H R. 10572) authorized and directed that the national forests be managed under principles of multiple use to produce a sustained yield of products and services. (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin)
The oil industry alone produced more than a billion dollars worth of petroleum products from Federal and Indian lands last year. (Serial 12 Part IV) 37111 Cong. 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin)
The multiple uses of wilderness describe how society utilizes wilderness
which portrays other societal values such as economic values. Values play a role
in how individuals characterize and perceive wilderness thereby establishing
wilderness notions. Commodity contributes to the way institutions frame
wilderness which also represents dominant ideas along with illustrating our
limitations. Overall, commodity consisted of 21.9% of the coded sentences in all
of the congressional testimonies ranking fifth out of the eight keywords in regards
to prominence.
Recreation
Discussions within the congressional testimonies consist of recreational activities such as hiking, fishing, and hunting. The idea of recreation takes into
37


account people who enjoy wilderness which showcases another societal value. The drafters of the National Park Service Organic Act realized the importance of recreational activities. Secretary of Interior Franklin K. Lanes report on the National Park Service Bill states. All is well known, the activities in the various parks have increased greatly in recent years, the number of people visiting the parks being steadily on the increase (64th Cong ) 11 (1916) (Stephen T. Mather). With more and more people entering National Parks, recreation steadily increased as well Department of Agriculture Henry S. Graves adds: I want to take this opportunity to draw your attention in general to the efficient handling of the countrys recreation and forest reservations (64th Cong.) 11 (1916) (Stephen T. Mather). Recreational management became important because it provides a way for people to enjoy wilderness
The Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act recognizes recreation as one use of wilderness. With more people taking advantage of recreational activities, recreational management was also discussed: Which increases in population, leisure time, income, and with faster travel, more consideration is being given to recreation (Serial RR) 86th Cong. 62 (1960) (Ralph D Hodges). Hodges further asserts: Recreation, like the other uses, is generally compatible with forest management and timber and water production (Serial RR) 86th Cong. 62 (1960) (Ralph D. Hodges). Louis S. Clapper also states: Whereas the development of recreation, wildlife habitat, and access facilities on the national forests has not kept up with the needs of an expanding population is now urgently in need of


implementation (Serial RR) 86th Cong. 62 (1960) (Louis S. Clapper). With a growing population, the speakers saw a need for the management of recreational activities Clapper argues that a change in verbiage within the act itself must also be taken into account Below is an example presented by Clapper: That is the policy of the Congress that the national forests are established and shall be administered for the uses of outdoor recreation, range, timber, watershed, wildlife, fish and wilderness purposes (Serial RR) 86th Cong. 62 (1960) (Louis S.
Clapper). Recreation is one of the various uses within wilderness spaces and, with a growing population, recreational management is needed in order to save wilderness from being loved to death (Nash, 2001).
The Wilderness Act further recognizes the impact a growing population has on wilderness specifically as it relates to recreation Although more people enjoy wilderness through recreational activities, a growing concern of protecting and managing wilderness spaces arises. Colorado representative, Mr. Aspinall poses the question:
I do not want to take all of the time, but let me ask you this: How far do you think we would get if we put a person interested in the mining industry, a person interested in the forest industry, a person interested in the water resource development, and a person interested in recreation on a board and asked them to get together and recommend to us the area to be made into a wilderness area as the proponents of this bill desire? (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1485 (1962) (Gordin A Goodwin)
Olson further questions how future administrations will respond to a growing
population:
While good regulations are in effect, there is no guarantee that future administrations subjected to the enormous and growing pressures of
39


population, industrial expansion, and recreational use will be able to protect the wilderness. (Serial 12 Part IV), 87^ Cong 1395 (1962) (Sigurd F. Olson)
Concerns of the impacts a growing population has on wilderness highlights a need to critique the uses within wilderness spaces. The recognition of wilderness management, according to Goodwins testimony, is Congress responsibility to safeguard natural resources: The subcommittee certainly is seeking how to meet these requirements without injuring the Nations recreational and esthetic values, as we are (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1485 (1962)
(Gordin A. Goodwin). He also contends: Further, these lands have a high value for recreational use other than wilderness (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin). The different uses of wilderness cause concern in which individuals question howto properly manage wilderness with an increased pressure on special interest groups who require wilderness resources.
Tourism
The drafters of the National Park Service Organic Act wanted to draw tourists into wilderness. To accomplish that, tourists needed certain accommodations along with a way to get to the parks. Mather took into account accommodations for tourists and the impacts that will have on private land owners: We can provide for the campers and increase the facilities for the campers as they come in larger numbers, at the same time taking care to protect
40


the interests of the stockmen (64* Cong.) 11 (1916) (Stephen T. Mather). The
drafters kept the interests of the visitors in mind presenting their needs as top
priority. The privileges of tourists are revealed in two statements by Mather:
Yes, sir; there has been grazing on the west side of the Yosemite, and I think our present superintendent, Mr. Marshall, believes that a certain amount of grazing in those areas where it will not interfere with the campers privileges is perfectly proper. (64* Cong.) 11 (1916) (Stephen T. Mather)
We found places there where simply a small section fenced off would give the campers all the privileges they would need. (64* Cong.) 11 (1916) (Stephen T. Mather)
The campers were seen with such high value because they would ultimately be
the people providing monetary funds to keep the parks running. The funds would
go to maintaining the parks, including the roads and campgrounds.
Burlington Railroad devised a system to assist travelers in their journey to
the park. Passengers could take the railroad to numerous parks:
But what seemed to impress Mr. Mather more than anything else is our special plan that for a ticket at the ordinary price from anywhere into this country, to Glacier National Park, for instance, we will take the passenger to Denver and give him a side trip down to Colorado Springs and Pueblo and this beautiful region in here [indicating on map] without extra charge. (64th Cong.) 11 (1916) (P S Eustis)
General Passenger Agent Eustis further illustrated to Congress other plans Burlington Railroad has for tourists: We are putting on for the passenger season a new train that will carry cars to Billings, and will arrive at Cody at 3 oclock in the morning (64* Cong.) 11 (1916) (P S. Eustis). Accommodating visitors through comfortable travel and facilitates marked the beginning of a new era for the enjoyment of wilderness
41


The testimonies regarding the Wilderness Act of 1964 acknowledged the
pressures of increased tourist travel. Reaching record breaking numbers, visiting
designated wilderness spaces soon became part of the American culture:
In 1959, the last year of record, there were 10 million visitors on the national wildlife refuges and ranges a 9 percent increase over the previous year (annual report Secretary of the Interior, June 30, 1960, p.337). This was more than 20 times the total number of person visiting existing wilderness or wild areas in the national forests during the same period. (Serial 12 Part IV), 87* Cong 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin)
With tourism reaching an all time high during this time period, Mr. Aspinall asks
a profound question, a question environmental scholars ask even to this day:
In talk about the protection of the wilderness to the degree necessary, if we permitted visitations of wilderness, wildlife refuges, and game ranges without limitation, how long will it be until they lose their wilderness aspect (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin)
Tourists were loving wilderness to death and with that wilderness needed
protection from the various uses
Timber Interests
The keyword timber interests is found with the congressional testimonies of the National Park Service Organic Act, the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act and the Wilderness Act. In the National Park Service Organic Act, the quotes highlighted for commodity and timber interests are the same. Utilized as a previous example for commodity, the below quotes are also illustrative of timber interests:
42


Considerable timber for fuel has been cut and we make a point of selling fuel to campers going in on the floor of the valley. (64th Cong.) 11 (1916) (Stephen T. Mather)
They filed some very serious charges with me as to the management of the parks out in that section of the country, and I would like to know whether you require campers to buy as much as a half a cord of wood in the parks. (64th Cong.) 11 (1916) (Stephen T. Mather)
Timber is one of many multiple uses within wilderness: "On any one forest, managed for timber production these multiple uses may include watershed, recreation, hunting, fishing, grazing, mining, and numerous other uses (Serial RR) 86th Cong. 62 (1960) (Ralph D. Hodges). Timber yields financial gains and, in the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act, the argument is made that timber is like another agricultural crop: The viewpoint is commonly held that timber is a crop similar to other agricultural crops (Serial RR) 86th Cong. 62 (1960) (Ralph D Hodges). Timber production also provides financial and employment inducements: National forest timber sales bring into the U S. Treasury well over $100 million annually, of which 25 percent is paid to the counties in which the national forests are located (Serial RR) 86th Cong. 62 (1960) (Ralph D. Hodges). Not only do timber sales assist the government and surrounding counties, but provides jobs to the working class: During the same period about 8 billion board feet of timber was harvested from the national forests (Serial RR) 86th Cong 62 (1960) (Ralph D. Hodges) which provide employment opportunities. The lumber industry supports and believes in multiple use as it encourages economic incentives: The lumber industry believes in the multiple-use principle in the
43


management of forest lands (Serial RR) 86th Cong. 62 (1960) (Ralph D.
Hodges)
The Wilderness Act is designed to protect wilderness areas from special interests while at the same time allowing multiple uses within the wilderness area. Stated throughout the congressional testimonies, timber interests are an example of a multiple use:
Permanent roads were ruled out of the wilderness, water levels maintained, an airspace reservation created, shoreline cutting and logging prohibited on both State and Federal lands, moneys appropriated by Congress for the purpose of Federal acquisition of private lands. (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1395 (1962) (Sigurd F. Olson)
Olsons argument suggests that permanent roads, shoreline cutting and logging
harm the wilderness character. Along those same lines Mr. Aspinall,
representative of Colorado, challenges Goodwin stating:
Yes, and we can go ahead and rubberstamp what the prospectors have done throughout the decades, or the lumbering interests. But we realize the extremes people will go to to follow their own pursuits and their own interests. (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1485 (1962) (Gordin A.
Goodwin)
Furthermore, Mr. Dominick, a second Colorado representative, states:
Not perhaps as strongly with respect to oil and gas development, because of your ability to do just the things you have said, but as far as timbering and mining and other things of this kind, it seems to me to make it very difficult to keep a wilderness area with those activities going on. (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin)
Based on the above congressional testimonies, the notion of multiple use is under
question. With multiple activities taking place, the notion of wilderness is
challenged.
44


Intrinsic Value
Intrinsic value is a keyword that is least prominent throughout all of the congressional testimonies. Nonetheless, in the National Park Service Organic Act a sentence containing the idea of intrinsic value occurs Intrinsic value is also represented in the Wilderness Act in Olsons testimony. Representative Kent, in the National Park Service Organic Act congressional testimony, states: This amendment is very carefully drawn, so that such areas of the park as will be actually used will be preserved so far as their beauties are concerned (64th Cong.) 11 (1916) (Stephen T. Mather). The preservation of beauty as it relates to the National Parks remains important to maintain.
In the Wilderness Act, Olson poetically argues for wilderness preservation. He begins by stating: When the historian Trevelyan said, We are children of the earth and removed from her our spirits wither, he spoke the truth. People need to renew their ancient ties with the earth (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1395 (1962) (Sigurd F. Olson). He further argues that as time goes on, wilderness will become more necessary. Wild country, the unchanged scene of wilderness, is a spiritual necessity to the people of America and, as time goes on, becomes increasingly so (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1395 (1962) (Sigurd F. Olson). Olson also warns:
You would lose that indefinable something which gives them a wilderness experience and which all people in this rapidly mechanized age and growing urbanization need and will increasingly need, say, by the turn of
45


the century, when another 150 million people are here. (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1395 (1962) (Sigurd F. Olson)
Opportunities must be given in order for people to stay connected with
wilderness:
We must provide opportunities for our people today and in the future to return to the simplicities and beauties of unchanged nature if they are to retain their perspective in a swiftly changing world becoming more and more removed from the out of doors. (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1395 (1962) (Sigurd F. Olson)
Technology
With the inception of the National Park Service Organic Act, technology remained a key frame throughout the discussions. From the construction of roads to the use of automobiles, technology afforded people the chance to venture into the wild. Roads and automobiles are one main topic of discussion during the congressional testimonies for the National Park Service Organic Act. Drafters of the Organic Act began to strategize transportation for tourists: We are establishing automobile shelters at half a dozen places, and we are giving the privilege of running at a reasonable rate of speed around the valley (64th Cong.)
11 (1916) (Stephen T. Mather). Not only were automobile shelters part of the strategy, roads played an integral role as well: I think ultimately they can be made free, but at the present time when our appropriations are limited the revenues are very valuable to us in assisting us in putting the park roads in shape (64th Cong.) 11 (1916) (Stephen T. Mather).
46


Eustis of Burlington Railroad adds to the discussion of the importance of technology. Eustis coordinating with the railroad company and an automobile service company to provide visitors with modes of transportation to and from the park. Visitors could utilize both means of transportation: There is a new automobile company just formed that will give transportation from Cody to the Park Circle, to Yellowstone Lake Hotel (64th Cong.) 11 (1916) (P S. Eustis). Furthermore, Eustis states: We have arranged that that same company shall come outside of the park on the end of the railroad at Cody and furnish transportation (64th Cong.) 11 (1916) (P S Eustis).
Technology is also discussed in the Wilderness Act. The argument is made that technology allowed for industrial growth such as extracting natural resources. The oil and gas industry utilizes technology to argue technological advancements in the industry .
The Nations oil and gas industry has proven that modern drilling and producing methods permit the conduct of oil and gas development operations on these refuge and game range lands, and likewise, that they can be conducted in any wild, primitive, or canoe areas, without adversely affecting the other highly prized values of such areas. (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong 1485 (1962) (Gordin A Goodwin)
Goodwin further states: The methods of looking for oil and gas that have been
developed over the last 20 to 30 years, let us say the magnatometer, the airborne
magnatometer, the seismography, the sparker I can name them (Serial 12 Part
IV), 87th Cong. 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin). Throughout time,
technological advancements allow for economic growth and the extraction of
natural resources. According to Goodwin, the improvement of technology allows
47


for wilderness to be left untainted: With modem technology known and practiced in the industry and with proper regulation and supervision interference with wilderness in such cases would be negligible (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin)
Wilderness
The keyword, wilderness, appears in two terrestrial congressional acts, the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act and the Wilderness Act. In the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act, Clapper states the policy of the United States Forest Service that includes wilderness preservation: We believe that wilderness preservation long has been a policy of the U S. Forest Service and specific recognition of it as one of the multiple uses of national forests would appear to be in order (Serial RR) 86th Cong. 62 (1960) (Louis S. Clapper). According to Clapper, wilderness preservation is part of the mission and values of the Forest Service.
In the Wilderness Act, the main area of focus is wilderness. Statements given by Olson exemplify a need to protect wilderness. He argues: The inclusion of this long-fought over area in a national wilderness preservation system is absolutely necessary in order that it can have stability and permanence (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1395 (1962) (Sigurd F Olson).
48


The role of the government also plays an important role when it comes to protecting wilderness: The successful passage of this bill in the form of S. 174 means above all else recognition by the Congress of the United States that wilderness is a governmental purpose (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1395 (1962) (Sigurd F. Olson). Olson also provides an estimate on how big wilderness can be: I think in order to provide the kind of wilderness that the average American feels is wilderness, you cannot go beyond 5,000 acres (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1395 (1962) (Sigurd F. Olson). Olson furthermore critiques the wilderness character:
But these 80 million people who get their only wilderness experience from standing on a lookout above Yellowstone Falls or above Yosemite or Glacier, or just step out of their automobiles for a swift look at clinging vines they may not even stop they get as genuine a wilderness experience as I do, because the wilderness background of those national parks or national forests, wherever they may be, give character to the country, and even though they do not set foot in it, it is the magnet that draws them to these areas. (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1395 (1962) (Sigurd F. Olson)
Goodwin sheds a different light on the wilderness discussion through his congressional testimony. Goodwin believes a wilderness bill is not necessary However, if the act passes, he provides the following recommendations to Congress:
No area should be automatically placed in a wilderness system. Instead, the Secretary of Agriculture should within 10 years review all wilderness, wild, primitive, canoe and national park areas and makes his recommendations to Congress. (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin)
a r\

Goodwin further posists:


This can be accomplished by including a requirement that all lands considered for inclusion within the wilderness system shall first be subject to inventory, evaluation with public hearings by the Congress, and review of their values for wilderness purposes and for other beneficial uses before Congress takes action with respect to them. (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin)
Goodwin also believes that oil fields and mines do not hinder the wilderness system:
So even if you had to build a road to get to an oil field, or a mine, or to some other natural resource, we do not think is is too great a violation of their wilderness concept, if they insist upon placing in the wilderness system areas that contain these other natural resources. (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin)
It is also interesting to note the response Goodwin receives from Mr. Dominick,
representative from Colorado: But I have some concern with your statement
because it seems to me that you are saying that we can have both multiple use and
a wilderness system within one area and, frankly, I do not see how this is
possible (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin).
Marine Quotes
The following are example quotes from the marine congressional testimonies. The marine testimonies provide insight into the use of the eight keywords along with identifying what is missing from the text. Analyzing the keywords as they are embodied through the quotes provides a way to better understand the environmental discussion as it relates to wilderness.
50


Commodity
The marine environment contains numerous uses that provides for
growing human populations. The goal of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery
Conservation and Management Act of 1976 is to conserve fishery resources. The
menhaden is one type of fish discussed in the congressional testimonies: The
menhaden itself is a very bony and oily fish that is undesirable as an edible
species, and is not used directly for food purposes (Serial 93-13), 93rd Cong. 137
(1973) (J. Steele Culbertson). Culbertson further states the use of the menhaden:
The menhaden oils constitute one of our largest U S. fishery export items
(Serial 93-13), 93rd Cong. 137 (1973) (J. Steele Culbertson) in which [t]heir
principal use is for canning and pickling and other food uses (Serial 93-13), 93rd
Cong. 137(1973) (J Steele Culbertson).
The U S Ocean Action Plan of 2000 attempts to protect the ocean from
over use of the diverse oceanic resources. McManus testifies to management
tactics and protection of the oceans resources:
Finally, sir, dealing with the issues that have been raised about the economic values of the ocean, I would suggest that a carefully managed and healthy ocean is going to provide a lot more economic benefit than anything else we can do that may come out of our deliberations on the ocean. (Serial 105-75) 105th Cong. 31 (Roger McManus)
McManus further argues that international threats challenge such
management tactics:
Right now if I was representing a company from another country, I could come into the exclusive economic zone of the United States, and I could
51


harvest the resources of the United States of America, the pharmaceutically valuable organisms. (Serial 105-75) 105th Cong. 31 (Roger McManus)
In order to protect the interests of the United States of America, McManus argues I think we need new legislation that will seek to manage and conserve these resources, which may be the largest economic value we will get from the oceans (Serial 105-75) 105th Cong. 31 (Roger McManus). Paul L. Kelly also speaks to resource management when protecting the economic interests of the ocean One in particular arises from the release of two condors in the Bug Sur region which attracts more tourists to the region: That is an economic interest that is enhanced by resource management (Serial 105-75) 105th Cong. 31 (1998) (Paul L. Kelly)
Recreation
The ocean provides recreational activity such as fishing or swimming at the beach. In the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act and the Ocean Dumping Ban Act, fishing as a recreational activity is briefly highlighted in the congressional testimonies. Abbott states: We have heard a lot about the name Homarus Americanus denotes it is an American species, and has been fished by American fishermen exclusively off the US. coast for 125 years (Serial 93-13), 93rd Cong. 137 (1973) (Ernest G Abbott) In the Ocean Dumping Ban Act, Lentz also states her concerns regarding the consequences of illegal dumping into the ocean: A disturbance of [copepods] could have far-reaching
52


consequences for other forms of life at the site, including important commercial and recreational fisheries (Serial 100-49), !00lh Cong. 81 (1988) (Sally Lentz). The U S. Ocean Action Plan of 2000 also utilizes family trips to the beach to state his concerns: Nevertheless, for most Americans when they go to the beach they have no idea what their families or their children will be getting into (Serial 1 OS-75) 105th Cong 31 (Roger McManus).
Tourism
The tourist industry is a concern in the Ocean Dumping Ban Act and the U S. Ocean Action Plan. Lentz believes the cost of implementing alternatives to ocean dumping is insignificant when compared to the lose of certain industries and the marine ecosystem: But that cost is insignificant when compared to the costs of continued dumping on fisheries, tourism, and the health of marine and coastal ecosystems (Serial 100-49), 100th Cong. 81 (1988) (Sally Lentz). Furthermore, in the U S. Ocean Action Plan, Kelly stands up for the oil industry stating:
I mean, because when I found that in our area when lease/sale 63,1 think it was, off the central coast of California was proposed, that another industry, the tourism industry and the agricultural industry, lobbied very effectively against the drilling for interests in their own industry. (Serial 105-75) 105th Cong. 31 (1998) (Paul L. Kelly)
53


Fishing Interests
Fishing interests is a key phrase analyzed throughout the congressional testimonies. Providing for growing human populations, fishing affects the economic and food stability of a country. The testimonies highlight foreign fishing interests along with a growing concern in reduced catches throughout the years. In the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, Abbott underlines the effects of foreign fishing interests: Heavy foreign fishing efforts during March and April of 1972, in and along the canyons, caused a 1 million pound reduction in the Rhode Island catch that year, mainly from offshore (Serial 93-13), 93rd Cong. 137 (1973) (Ernest G. Abbott). He further testifies: Gentlemen, all we fishermen can understand is that the grounds and the fish have been basically ours for generations are being exploited to the point of extinction (Serial 93-13), 93rd Cong. 137 (1973) (Ernest G. Abbott).
Foreign fishing is also a concern in Culbertsons statement. He argues:
In fact, on a volume or poundage basis, their fishing vessels harvest about half of the fin fish caught and landed by U S. fishermen, and about 35 to 40 percent of US. total landings when the weight of the shellfish with the shells on it included (Serial 93-13), 93rd Cong. 137 (1973) (J. Steele Culbertson). He further concludes: It was not before the arrival of these foreign fleets off our coast that U S. coastal fisheries had their serious decline in some of the important species
54


harvested by U S. fishermen, but since (Serial 93-13), 93rd Cong. 137 (1973) (J. Steele Culbertson).
In the Ocean Dumping Ban Act, Lentz also argues that sewage sludge dumping threatens fishing interests: Sewage sludge dumping has virtually destroyed the 12 mile site, resulting in the closing of shellfish beds, reduced catches of fish, and increased incidence of fish disease (Serial 100-49), 100th Cong. 81 (1988) (Sally Lentz).
The U S. Ocean Action Plan recognizes different, but equally important,
challenges as it relates to fishing interests. Kelly believes, What has happened,
though, as people overharvested for us or overmined and had downstream
damages there was an economic consequence which led to environmental
management issues (Serial 105-75) 105th Cong. 31 (1998) (Paul L. Kelly). He
argues for improved management practices of fisheries: Your best interest is to
manage these fisheries so they will be there to be able to be harvested
appropriately (Serial 105-75) 105th Cong. 31 (1998) (Paul L. Kelly). He also
underscores the role and importance of the commission:
Where the commission becomes very important for our industry is not in the internal aspects of fishery management, which have been addressed, but it is in the interface between what we are doing in fisheries and the other economic activities out there. (Serial 105-75) 105th Cong. 31 (1998) (Paul L. Kelly)
Fishing interests also highlights competition with foreign fishing fleets, reduced catches of fish, and overharvesting. In the congressional testimonies of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, foreign
55


fishing is of upmost concern. Fishermen believe that foreign fishing is to blame for reduced catches. They further emphasize ocean resources as theirs staking a claim on marine boundaries:
Mr. Chairman, to me and to our members, this suggests that the serious problem associated with the harvest and maintenance of our coastal fisheries is the one that has been created by the large overseas fishing fleets that have arrived and heavily fished the same coastal species that have been fished without damage by our own fisherman for generations. (Serial 93-13), 93rd Cong. 137 (1973) (Statement of J. Steele Culbertson)
Foreign fishing is a constant concern throughout the marine congressional
testimonies.
Intrinsic Value
The keyword intrinsic value is found only in the Ocean Dumping Ban Act in the statement of Sally Lentz. Lentz argues that: Copepods are minute organisms that provide an important link in oceanic food chains (Serial 100-49), 100th Cong. 81 (3988) (Sally Lentz). Phytoplankton is another important organism to the marine environment: Theres also been a finding of depressions in phytoplankton abundance at the 106 (Serial 100-49), 100th Cong. 81 (1988) (Sally Lentz). She warns that: A disturbance of these populations could have far-reaching consequences for other forms of life at the site, including important commercial and recreational fisheries (Serial 100-49), 100th Cong. 81 (1988) (Sally Lentz).
56


Technology
Technology is a dominant frame in the marine congressional testimonies.
Technological advancements allowed for extracting the oceans resources such as
developing commercial fishing techniques and retrieving oil. The Magnuson-
Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act speaks to the progress and
effects of fishing methods: Foreign vessels with highly sophisticated gear, are
literally vacuum-cleaning the lobster beds (Serial 93-13), 93rd Cong. 137 (1973)
(Ernest G. Abbott). Culbertson further contends:
Within the past 2 years, but mainly during this year, we have seen the Russians developing a very large purse seine capability on the Atlantic which they did not previously have as a part of their bottom and midwater trawl fishing operations. (Serial 93-13), 93rd Cong. 137 (1973) (J. Steele Culbertson)
Technology also became important in the testimonies of Sheldon Lipke and Sally Lentz as a solution to treat sewage sludge. Lipke draws on a number of examples to treat sewage sludge: In our last submittal to the agencies in 1981, we proposed air pollution control devices which would be considered state-of-the-art even today (Serial 100-49), 100th Cong. 81 (1988) (Sheldon Lipke). He makes known the efforts his organization has taken to provide a solution to sewage sludge: In the intervening years, we met with many vendors of innovative sludge treatment processes in order to find a process which could be permitted and implemented to end ocean dumping (Serial 100-49), 100th Cong.
81 (1988) (Sheldon Lipke). Lentz also provides her own idea: For sewage
57


sludge, such alternatives include use of the sludge as fertilizer or compost (Serial 100-49), 100th Cong. 81 (1988) (Sally Lentz).
In the U.S. Ocean Action Plan, the use of the keyword technology also allowed for Paul L. Kelly to indicate the advancements the oil industry has made He states that: Moreover, new technology has eliminated or minimized the effect of offshore operations on plant and animal life (Serial 105-75) 105th Cong. 31 (1998) ( Paul L. Kelly). He further contends that the: The risk [of oil spills] has been reduced by new technology that has evolved over the past 30 years as well as by better safety practices in our industry (Serial 105-75) 105th Cong. 31 (1998) (Paul L. Kelly). Kelly believes that: In these areas, it seems that scientific and technological advances have moved out ahead of public policy and knowledge of those advances (Serial 105-75) 105th Cong. 31 (1998) (Paul L. Kelly).
Occurrence of Keywords
When analyzing the terrestrial congressional testimonies and the marine congressional testimonies, certain keywords had a higher presence than other keywords. For example, in the terrestrial congressional testimonies, wilderness occurs 30% of the time. Followed by wilderness is technology at 27.6%, then timber interests at 22.8%, commodity at 17.9%, tourism at 11%, recreation at 10.4%, intrinsic value at 3.2% and fishing interests at 0%. The keywords in the
58


marine congressional testimonies ranked with technology as the highest, 24%, followed by fishing interests at 22%, intrinsic value at 5%, commodity at 4%, recreation at 2.5%, tourism at 2% and timber interests and wilderness ranked at
0%.
When the percentages are added together by totaling similar keywords together, identical keywords in the terrestrial testimonies with identical keywords in marine the testimonies, I can relate this finding to the overall environmental discussion The total for the keywords are: technology at 51.6%, wilderness at 30%, timber interests at 22.8%, fishing interests at 22%, commodity at 21.9%, tourism at 13%, recreation at 12.9%, and intrinsic value at 8.2%. After combing the keywords, technology is the highest percentage while intrinsic value is the lowest percentage throughout all of the congressional testimonies.
The keyword that highlights the way people modify natural spaces and occurs the majority of the time throughout the congressional testimonies is technology. On the semantic aspect scale, technology ranks the highest placing at number three. Its prevalence arose from the National Park Service Organic Act specifically in the statement of P.S Eustis and in the Ocean Dumping Ban Act in the statement of Sheldon Lipke. Eustis elaborates on the use of railroads suggesting that the railroad would help the transportation of tourists in turn allowing for more people to visit National Parks. Regarding marine congressional testimonies, Lipke speaks extensively about up-and-coming technology used to treat sludge along with air pollution control devices, In the intervening years, we
59


met with many vendors of innovative sludge treatment process in order to find a
process which could be permitted and implemented to end ocean dumping
(Serial 100-49), 100th Cong. 80 (1988) (testimony of Sheldon Lipke). The two congressional testimonies in the National Park Service Organic Act, technology occurred 22% of the time. The combination of the two congressional testimonies in the Ocean Dumping Ban Act, technology occurred 18% of the time. Figure 3.1 and 3.2 represent these findings:
Instance of Kev Word in %
*
Figure 3.1 National Park Service Organic Act
60


20% 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0%
0%
Instance of Kev Word in %
%
18%

Figure 3.2 Ocean Dumping Ban Act
The next keyword that had the highest percentage of occurrence is wilderness. The act that contained the maximum instances of wilderness is the Wilderness Act of 1964. The congressional statements presented by Sigurd F. Olson and Gordin A Goodwin set the number of instances on the two to three range on the semantic aspect scale suggesting the use of the word wilderness was not absent, at the same time it was not very much present within the testimony because it did not rank at a 5 or 6 on the semantic aspect scale. The combination of the two congressional testimonies in the Wilderness Act, wilderness occurs 26% of the time. Figure 3.3 represent this presumption:
61


Instance of Kev Word in %
30.00% 26%
25.00%
20.00%
15.00%
10.0(1%
5 o §!&:-
5.00% 0.90% 3% ite.
1*0 0
0.00%
3 jr. r r. = Zj . = ^ *5 Mi
3 z > C t-2
r* W i -5 ^ s
E = JS

Figure 3.3 Wilderness Act
Wilderness also occurs in the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act of 1960 where the instance of wilderness is 4% of the two congressional testimonies combined.
Within the two congressional testimonies of the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act, timber interests and commodity are prevalant. Figure 3.4 represent the findings within the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act combining the two congressional testimonies. Timber interests ranked highest as it relates to the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act.
62


Instance of Key Word in %
Figure 3 .4 Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act
There are instances in which commodity and timber interests are found in the same sentence, however it remains important to understand the difference between the two keywords. Commodity focuses on the usefulness or the use of an object of economic value. Whereas timber interests focuses on the industry of cutting down trees. There were times when commodity and timber interests were one in the same. For example:
And yet it must be basic in their management that the intent of Congress was that there shall be a continuous supply of timber and water, and that these two uses shall have priority of consideration in the management processes. (Serial RR), 87th Cong. 62 (1960) (Statement of Ralph D. Hodges)
An example of timber interests alone:
Earlier this month the Western Pine Association, one of our federated associations, reaffirmed its longstanding support of the multiple-use


principle and the concept of managing forests for successive crops of timber. (Serial RR), 87 Cong. 62 (1960) (Statement of Ralph D. Hodges)
An example of the use of commodity within the Multiple-Use congressional
testimony is:
We have to have confidence enough that the program is going to be administered, that it will be done so in a sound enough manner, so that proper consideration will be given to these uses in the various areas, as to which should receive primary consideration. (Serial RR), 87th Cong. 62 (1960) (Statement of Ralph D. Hodges)
The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation Management Act of 1976 contained the highest percentage of the keyword, fishing interests, occurring 15% within the two congressional testimonies combined. Figure 3.5 illustrates the instance of fishing interests.
64


Instance of Key Word in %
Figure 3.5 Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation Management Act
An example of fishing interests found within the Magnuson-Stevens Act is, The principal species they harvest is menhaden, a member of the herring family, found along the U S. coast from Maine to Texas (Serial 93-13), 93rd Cong. 137 (1973) (Statement of J. Steele Culbertson). On the semantic aspect scale, fishing interests reached its highest at two in a statement given by J. Steele Culbertson. Statements from the U S. Ocean Action Plan and Ocean Dumping Act, fishing interests ranked at a one on the semantic aspect scale. Fishing interests was not the dominant theme throughout the marine congressional testimonies. Moreover, a dominant keyword did not stand out when analyzing all of the marine congressional testimonies.
65


The keyword that had the highest percentage of instances throughout the congressional testimonies is fishing interests. It occurs 4% of the time in the US. Ocean Action Plan. On the semantic aspect scale, fishing interests ranked at 1 along with commodity, recreation, tourism, and technology. Wilderness and intrinsic value ranked at 0 meaning the text was absent from the congressional testimonies. Figure 3.6 illustrates these findings.
66


Overview of Keywords
Throughout all of the congressional testimonies, on the semantic aspect scale, no keyword was greater than three, meaning that no keyword was dominant throughout the congressional testimonies. The majority of the keywords fell at or below three On the semantic aspect scale, no keyword placed on four, five or six which suggests the prominence of an attribute according to Krippendorff (2004). Due to this, out of the eight keywords, no keyword was generally prominent throughout the congressional testimonies. As stated earlier, technology is the most predominant placing at a three on the semantic aspect scale when comparing all of the congressional testimonies.
Instances also occurred when two or more keywords occurred in the same sentence. In the National Park Service Organic Act, technology and tourism occurred within the same sentence six times. The Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act contained commodity and timber interests occurring within the same sentence 18 times. In the same congressional testimonies, recreation and tourism occurred four times. In the Wilderness Act, wilderness and intrinsic value occurred six times, wilderness and tourism occurred five times, and technology and wilderness occurred four times. The marine congressional testimonies also had instances of two or more keywords occurring in the same sentence. In the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the only instance in which two keywords occurred in the same sentence is recreation and fishing
67


interests. Recreation and fishing interests occurred once. In the Ocean Dumping Ban, intrinsic value, recreation, and fishing interests occurred one time. Tourism and intrinsic value also occurred one time. The U S. Ocean Action Plan also had two keywords occurring in the same sentence. Tourism and recreation occurred one time.
The dominant keywords relating to the terrestrial congressional testimonies is technology, timber interests, and wilderness. Technology is most prominent in the National Park Service Organic Act. The keyword timber interests is prominent in the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act and the keyword wilderness is dominant in the Wilderness Act. Technology, timber interests, and wilderness consisted of 30% of the congressional testimonies.
Out of the eight keywords, fishing interests and technology accounted for the majority when strictly assessing the keywords relating to the ocean congressional testimonies. These two keywords make up fewer than 20% of the congressional testimonies. In the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation Act, fishing interests accounted for 15%, while in the U S. Ocean Action Plan, fishing interests accounted for only 4%. In the Ocean Dumping Ban Act, technology ranked the highest at 18%.
When comparing the terrestrial and marine congressional testimonies side-by-side, the frequently indicated frame is technology. From discussions on the use of roads and railroads to innovative solutions on sludge removal and offshore drilling techniques, technology remains to be a dominant frame displaying how
68


far society has come. Paul L. Kelly, his statement regarding the U S. Ocean Action Plan, argues:
Thirty years ago, our fishing fleets lacked the capacity to harvest all the fishery resources off our coasts, and we faced overwhelming competition for these resources from very powerful foreign fleets fishing off our coasts. Today, those fisheries which once were unavailable to our fleets, are now producing billions of pounds of food for Americans (Serial 1 OS-75) 105th Cong 31 (1998) (Statement of Paul L. Kelly)
During the same hearing, Kelly further contends that innovative technology:
You talk about big ideas, the industry is proceeding ahead with very big ideas in the deep water Gulf. We now have oil and gas production in over 3,000 feet of water in the Gulf. We expect to add 1 million barrels of crude oil per day to domestic production from the Gulf of Mexico by the year 2000. We have actually drilled a well in 7,700 feet of water two summers ago. (Serial 105-75) 105th Cong. 31 (1998) (Statement of Paul L. Kelly)
The concept of wilderness is found in the Wilderness Act and the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act. In the statement of Sigurd F. Olson, wilderness placed at a three on the semantic aspect scale and in the statement of Gordin A. Goodwin, wilderness placed at a two. Although the use of the word wilderness is not as prominent in the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act, in the statement of Louis S. Clapper, wilderness placed at a two on the semantic aspect scale and at a one in the statement by Ralph D. Hodges Jr.
Another keyword that is prevalent in two congressional testimonies and absent in most is intrinsic value Intrinsic value is most prevalent in the Ocean Dumping Ban Act specifically in the statement of Sally Lentz, Staff Attorney at The Oceanic Society Lentz discusses Copepods and its importance, Copepods are minute organisms that provide an important link in oceanic food chains
69


(Serial 100-49), 100th Cong. 81 (1988) (Statement of Sally Lentz). Its importance
is independent of the usefulness of the nonhuman world for human purposes.
Intrinsic value is also seen in the Wilderness Act, which comprises of 3% of the
congressional testimonies, in the statement of Sigurd F. Olson. Olson discusses
the character and the quality of wilderness areas along with the spiritual necessity
of wilderness spaces. He powerfully states:
I feel the passage of the wilderness bill is one of the most important pieces of conservation legislation Congress has ever considered, for inherent in it is a basic decision whether or not we recognize certain intangible and cultural values or devote ourselves entirely to a materialistic philosophy. We must provide opportunities for our people today and in the future to return to the simplicities and beauties of unchanged nature if they are to retain their perspective in a swiftly changing world becoming more and more removed from the outdoors. (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1395 (1962) (Statement of Sigurd F Olson)
Even though recreation did not have a dominant presence throughout the congressional testimonies, there are references made regarding recreation. Recreation is most prominent in the terrestiral congressional testimonies particularly in the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act. Ralph D. Hodges expresses, With increases in population, leisure time, income, and with faster travel, more consideration is being given to recreation. Last year the national forests provided 81 million man-days of recreation (Serial RR) 86th Cong. 62 (1960) (Statement of Ralph D. Hodges) The instance of recreation is 8% within the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act congressional testimony
Another example of recreation as it relates to terrestrial congressional testimonies is found in the Wilderness Act. Gordin A. Goodwin, who speaks on
70


behalf of the American Petroleum Institute, Rocky Mountain Oil & Gas Association, Mid-Continent Oil & Gas Association, and Western Oil & Gas Association, suggests that these lands have a high value for recreational use other than wilderness (Serial 12 Part IV) 87th Cong. 1485 (1962) (Statement of Gordin A. Goodwin).
The final keyword which occurs in six of the twelve congressional
testimonies is tourism. Tourism occurs in the National Park Service Organic Act,
Wilderness Act, Ocean Dumping Ban Act, and the U S. Ocean Action Plan. In
the National Park Service Organic Act, a great deal of emphasis lies in
accommodating visitors, We can provide for the campers and increase the
facilities for the campers as they come in larger numbers, at the same time taking
care to protect the interests of the stockmen 64th Cong. 11 (1916) (Statement of
Stephen T. Mather). Furthermore, accommodating visitors by easy access
throughout the park and providing accurate information for further enjoyment:
Here [indicating] is a map that we intend to give to every motorist that comes to the park. It shows just where he can be taken care of; where all the camps are located; it gives him the rules and regualtions to be observed, and it shows the park in its relation to the rest of the State. (64th Cong.) 11 (1916) (Statement of Stephen T. Mather)
Drawing tourists into the park through comfortable modes of transportation, such
as the railroad, and providing the traveler with necessary information welcoming
them to the park.
Olson argues that wilderness is not just scenery or a tourist resort, it is filled with other interesting creatures and the space itself provides a natural beauty


unfounded by human interests. Olson states:
Without the background of wilderness and these great reservations and I am speaking both of parks and forests and wildlife refuges they would be nothing but tourist resorts You would lose that indefinable something that gives them a wilderness experience and which all people in this rapidly mechanized age and growing urbanization need and will increasingly need, say, by the turn of the century, when another 150 million people are here. (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1395 (1962) (Statement of Sigured F. Olson)
Without the grandeur that wilderness provides, all that would be left is a tourist destination. Gordin A. Goodwin, representative of the petroleum industry, speaks of tourism in terms of numbers suggesting that these lands have a high value for recreational use other than wilderness. In 1959, the last year of record, there were 10 million visitors on the national wildlife refuges (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong. 1485 (1962) (Statement of Gordin A. Goodwin). From an oil and gas perspective, Goodwin responds by first stating that oil fields do not take up much space Furthermore, people do not travel far from their cars therefore, the number of people visiting a wilderness area does not matter because there are roads leading to it.
Supplementary Keywords
Throughout the congressional testimonies, other key concerns arose as a result of pressing environmental concerns facing politicians and citizens. The eight keywords and their corresponding synonyms were found in 40% of the sentences within the congressional testimonies. Since the eight keywords made
72


up less than 50% of the discussion during the congressional testimonies, it is important to mention other concerns that arise to gain the full capacity of the conversation and to understand what is discussed the other 60% of the time.
There are numerous concerns addressed throughout the congressional testimonies that further represents political conversations as it relates to the environment. Below is a list of other keywords that were a common theme throughout the congressional testimonies for future research:
Foreign Fishing
Stakeholders
Recommendations on how to improve policy
Reference to Other Political Acts
Funding
Foreign fishing is a constant theme throughout the marine congressional
testimonies. Although the below quotes were coded as fishing interests, it is
important to highlight the weight of foreign fishing as a concern. In the
Magnuson-Stevens Act, Ernest G. Abbott states:
Foreign vessels, with highly sophisticated gear, are literally vacuumcleaning the lobster beds Heavy foreign fishing efforts during March and April of 1972, in and along the canyons, caused a 1 million pound reduction in the Rhode Island lobster catch that year, mainly from offshore. (Serial 93-13) 93rd Cong. 3 (1973) (testimony of Ernest G. Abbott)
J. Steele Culbertson adds: Some of our members suggest that it would serve only
as an exercise to cause a delay in coming to grips with the foreign fishing
problems pending the outcome of the Law of the Sea Conference (Serial 93-13)
73


93rd Cong. 3 (1973) (testimony of J. Steele Culbertson). The competition with foreign fishing fleets is a constant struggle, one that enters political discussion considerably
The involvement of numerous stakeholders is also a common concern throughout the congressional testimonies. In the National Park Service Organic Act, the interests of private landowners were seriously considered more specifically as it relates to property owners rights. In addition, recommendations on how to improve the policy is a main topic of discussion. The testimonies of the Wilderness Act discussed public domain in which Gordin A. Goodwin suggests the words public domain be taken out of the policys language in order to refer to every class of land that goes into the system if this section is kept in the act (Serial 12 Part IV) 87th Cong 1485 (1962) (Statement of Gordin A. Goodwin). References to other political acts also aid in the testimonies of individuals as previous policies set a precedence.
Absent Frames
When critiquing the congressional testimonies, it is important to observe missing frames because it provides a way to examine the missing frames within the text. The keyword that is absent from the marine congressional testimonies is wilderness. The absence of the wilderness frame as it relates to the marine ecosystem suggests that there is no association between wilderness and the ocean.
74


The ocean is not viewed as a wilderness space as is apparent in the terrestrial congressional testimonies in which wilderness consists of 30% of the statements. The absence of the ocean as a wilderness space suggests that the perception of the ocean follows a different frame unlike wilderness
Conclusion
The eight keywords provide insight into the discussions surrounding environmental communication and the historical roots of wilderness. Assessing the keywords allows for a closer examination of dominant frames along with absent frames. Analyzing absent frames allows for us to determine what wilderness is commonly associated with. Viewing the ocean as a wilderness is an absent frame. Wilderness is a word that carries special meanings. By assessing the congressional testimonies, the language and use of the keywords aid in establish meaning. In the next chapter, I will discuss these findings in detail along with the implications of framing the ocean as a wilderness space.
75


CHAPTER 4
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Study Summary
The purpose of this study is twofold: 1) to explore the symbolic and social construction of wilderness, and 2) to examine the implications of applying the wilderness concept to the ocean. The use of twelve congressional testimonies, in which six were terrestrial based and six were marine based, present the opportunity to explore the use of the eight keywords. The keywords provide insight into the environmental conversation within politics and society regarding wilderness spaces. For centuries, wilderness has long been conceived of as terrestrial based phenomenon Paying little attention to the ocean, which covers 70% of our planet. What is to become of the vast body of water when it is human perception and attitude, not just policy, that determines its fate, But laws and lists only express values. The only certain safeguard of wilderness areas like the Grand Canyon is in the attitudes that inspired the dam protest (Nash, 2001, p.236). Is Abbey (1968) correct in stating, the ocean itself is merely a medium of travel (p. 241)?
76


Discussion
Wilderness carries social and symbolic meanings instilling strong emotion. People feel a desire to speak on behalf of wilderness since wilderness cannot speak for itself. Therefore, individuals attach words and various meanings to wilderness: The diverse meanings of wilderness as well as the term environment remind us that these are powerful and changing ideas, the meanings of which have consequences for our behavior toward them (Cox, 2010, p. 46). Wilderness is a place and an idea, both are things people attempt to protect. Competing voices from special interest groups attempt to shape societys attitude about wilderness (Cox, 2010). Therefore, ideologies of wilderness can change with contending interests
The eight keywords illuminate the diverse interests along with capturing the communication that occurs within the political and social spheres. Analyzing the quotes associated with the eight key words highlights the environmental discussion and political and societal attitudes surrounding the social and symbolic construct of wilderness. Through qualitative analysis, the quotes contribute to constructing the ocean as a wilderness. The keywords associated with the quotes evaluate the implications of labeling the ocean as wilderness.
Analysis of both the quantitative and qualitative data contribute to answering the second research question. When strictly assessing the data through a quantitative lens, labeling the ocean as a wilderness would not benefit the
77


marine ecosystem. In the marine congressional testimonies, the use of the word wilderness is absent from the testimonies. The keyword wilderness consists of 30% of the terrestrial congressional testimonies. The lack of the keyword wilderness quantitatively indicates that the ocean would not benefit from the use of the word wilderness
Furthermore, setting aside natural spaces, specifically as it relates to the
ocean, can be done without calling the marine ecosystem wilderness There are
4,400 Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) which cover 2.35 million square
kilometers creating 0.85% of the global ocean area protected (Earle, 2009), all
created without framing the ocean as wilderness.
Based on the literature review that examines the social and symbolic
construct of wilderness, to brand the ocean as a wilderness space is to attach a
label and meanings behind that label. As Carbaugh illustrates:
Through these pre-existing terms, and similar others, we are wired and drawn into what might be called a prison-house of language, rhetorical terms and tropes that stand over and between our relation with natures world. (2007, p. 66)
Historically, the wilderness concept fosters terrestrial notions excluding the ocean as a wilderness area. With the creation of the National Park Service, politicians and citizens saw a need to protect terrestrial wilderness spaces.
However, upon further analysis of the quantitative data and assessing the qualitative data, a different conclusion surfaces. The keywords within the terrestrial congressional testimonies occur more frequently than in the marine congressional testimonies. The marine congressional testimonies total 59.5%.
78


The wilderness notion carries the social and symbolic construct of the eight keywords as well. To label the ocean as a wilderness transforms political and societal discussions expanding wilderness notions to include the ocean Sequentially, the eight keywords would also be illustrative of a marine wilderness. Therefore, the prominence of the eight keywords in the terrestrial congressional testimonies would help change and create a deeper discussion regarding a marine wilderness
Another key method throughout this thesis is the use of qualitative analysis. Through content analysis, and more specifically interpretivism, different implications reveal the benefits of labeling the ocean as wilderness. Behind the wilderness notion is emotion, an appreciation of natural spaces and species, national identity, and environmental advocates who fight to protect natural spaces for future generations to enjoy. The debate to protect such spaces is reified with the creation of environmental policies The difference lies in the way the speakers employ the keywords.
An example of the different uses of the keywords arises from the Wilderness Act of 1964 in comparison to the Ocean Dumping Ban Act and the U S. Ocean Action Plan. In the Wilderness Act, Olson poetically argues for the preservation of wilderness because it provides people a way to escape from the fast-paced, consumer hungry society To neglect people of this opportunity is to take away that indeniable thing that makes people human. Not only is there a recognition of societal benefits to maintain wilderness, in the Ocean Dumping
79


Ban Act, Lentz underscores Olsons argument concluding that other sentient beings are part of the diverse ecosystem. She argues on behalf of organisms such as phytoplankton and Copepods who are an important part in the oceanic food chain.
In 1998 collaborations on conserving the marine ecosystem creates a much different undertone when strictly assessing Mr Guttings statement. In the U S Ocean Action Plan, Mr. Gutting, representative alongside Paul L. Kelly for the oil and gas industry, states:
Right now ocean policy is being formulated on the front pages of the newspapers and in the nightly news. We see and hear many sensational stories. They may or may not be based on fact
One of the things that is very attractive about what you are proposing in this legislation is that you are going to, I hope, bring the very best science and facts not romance, not emotion, but true facts to bear and the results will be in a definitive report.
There has been a lot of emotion; we have heard a lot of rhetoric; we have seen a lot of romance about fisheries and oceans. They go so far, but it is time now for us to bring science and fact and business and the stakeholders together and try to make sense out of this. (Serial 105-75) 105th Cong. 31 (1998) (Statement of Paul L. Kelly)
Gutting argues that science and fact should be the only things under
review in the implementation of the U S. Ocean Action Plan, disregarding
emotion or romance (Serial 105-75) 105th Cong. 31 (1998) (Statement of Paul L.
Kelly). However, when setting aside wilderness spaces as seen in the National
Park Service Organic Act, the drafters carried romantic undertones of wilderness
along with fervent emotions surrounding the conservation of wilderness. Policies
are a direct reflection of our values. Therefore, to take emotion and romantic
80


nuances out of the decision making process, as Gutting suggests, is to discount values: Politics is about the collective choices we make as a society. It concerns policy goals and the means we use to achieve them as well as the way we organize and govern ourselves (Kraft, 2007, p. 4).
Kelly mentions technological advancements in offshore drilling utilizing the Gulf of Mexico as a case in point: You talk about big ideas, the industry is proceeding ahead with very big ideas n the deep water Gulf. We now have oil and gas production in over 3,000 feet of water in the Gulf (Serial 105-75) 105th Cong. 31 (1998) (Paul L. Kelly) Ironically, on April 2010, 5,000 barrels of oil spewed into the Gulf of Mexico resulting in one of the most catastrophic oil spills, next to the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Technology revolutionized American history while at the same time leads to the demise of diverse ecosystems forever changing the landscape of where we work and play. With technology comes the transformation of a natural world, where concrete jungles take over what was once conceived as wild.
Even so there remains limitations in the wilderness debate. Environmental discourse highlights the differing attitudes, the American mindset, and the social and symbolic construct of wilderness. As the congressional testimonies depict, there were diverse opinions in setting aside wilderness spaces. The drafters of the National Park Service Act did not define wilderness in the act itself because it was understood what the natural state of wilderness was. As time passed, the need to define the diverse uses of wilderness and wilderness itself emerged. The
81


Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act and the Wilderness Act is a result. In the Wilderness Act, Goodwin, who spoke on behalf of the American Petroleum Institute, believed a wilderness bill was not necessary because natural resources are within designated wilderness areas. Therefore, Goodwin argued for the need to protect the natural resources. However, for Olson, wilderness holds intrinsic value which is reason enough to safeguard wilderness.
Nash fears wilderness sufferes from an excess of interest of being loved to death (Nash, 2001, p. 340). As Nash (2001) argues, technology is one of those factors. Advancements in technology have allowed tourists to reach their destinations quicker and with ease. Nash (2001) states: It can be argued that the piece of technology with the most devastating effect on the American wilderness was the family automobile (p. 318). The impact of the transportation revolution (Nash, 2001) is undeniable. With paved roads, railroads, and air travel, arriving at the next wilderness destination is easy and comfortable.
Nevertheless, the wilderness label and wilderness notions instill value in people providing meaning to natural spaces. To attach the wilderness notion to the ocean is to preserve the marine ecosystem. As seen in the terrestrial policies, wilderness is assigned values and there are people fighting to protect those values. Even with anthropocentricism, environmental advocates fight for preservation of diverse ecosystems. Competing interests threaten oceanic resources and the visual threats of oil spills adds to the complexity and sensitivity of protecting the marine ecosystem.
82


A sensitive debate still looms regarding wilderness management. It is a debate that dates back to the 1890s when wilderness preservation started to gain momentum. The debate occurred between Gifford Pinchot and John Muir. Pinchot argued for conservation of forest resources taking an anthropocentric stance. On the opposing side, Muir argues for preservation stating that nature exists for itself, not for human purposes (Nash, 2001). Today, the over 120 year-old debate is framed as anthropentrism and biocentrism. Nash (2001) explains: Behind the big words is the very old problem of whether parks, reserves, and wilderness are for man (anthropocentric) or for nature (biocentric) (p 325). Policies such as the National Park Service Organic Act attempt to tackle this dilemma by supporting both viewpoints which has proven to be challenging. In order to preserve wilderness, society must establish limits. To recognize wilderness preservation is to
acknowledge the rights of nonhuman forms of life Wilderness seemed to be the best evidence that, in the last analysis, the earth did not belong to man. It helped people see themselves as part of the earth. In this way wilderness spearheaded the shift in direction of the the recent American conservation movement, from what Bill Devall calls a "shallow utilitarianism, to deep nonanthropocentric concern for the entire ecosystem. (Nash, 2001, p. 257)
Wilderness became an asset to the United States which later translates to a place affording protection as seen in environmental policies. With the creation of the National Park Service came the attempt to protect wilderness spaces. Numerous wilderness areas were set aside resulting in over 365 National Park Service areas to date Therefore, one of the benefits of calling a place wilderness
o o


is it sets aside natural spaces, much like the National Park Service Organic Act did.
The eight keywords have corresponding relationships with one another and some keywords were more prevalent than others. The keywords shape the lens through which society views nature and the policies established to govern it. Technology is most prominent and it is through technology people can manipulate their relationship with wilderness. With technology, the extraction of natural resources or the ability to provide transportation for tourists into wilderness, allows people to interact with wilderness differently. The eight keywords further describe the multiple-uses of wilderness.
The multiple-uses of wilderness highlight the competing interests and values. The concept of multiple-use underscores how the idea of wilderness is underdeveloped and/or competes with other dominant concepts of how people perceive and frame the natural world in political debates. We are historically fighting the battle of multiple-use and preservation. However, as time passes, a growing concern over the fate of diverse ecosystems arose. The protection of the ocean climbed its way to the top of the priority list and Bush passed the U S. Ocean Action Plan.
The results of my data suggest dissonance surrounding the eight keywords. Analysis of the eight keywords depicts a difference between political and societal conversations. In no way am I suggesting that political conversations ignore the eight keywords Rather the majority of the keywords are not the main
84


topic of discussion. Even though the eight keywords make up only a small percentage of the political conversation, all of the keywords enter the political discussion. The disparity and fragmentation of the keywords lies in the degree to which the keyword entered the discussion. The depth of the conversation revolving around the congressional testimonies is of a different degree than societal conversation. When individuals discuss commodity, timber interests, or wilderness, there are values at stake and political conversations focus on the technicalities of those words whereas societal conversations focus on the implications of these words. Therefore, the representation of wilderness in environmental discourse is fragmented because of the absence of ideas coupled with conflicting messages.
Framing the Environment
The way people frame the environment is important because language
frames reality and the lack of presence of the keywords has tangible
consequences. Lakoff (2010) employs the term hypocognition which means
the lack of ideas we need (p. 76). Lakoff (2010) argues that individuals suffer
from a lack of ideas in environmental discourse:
The reason is that the environment is not just about the environment. It is intimately tied up with other issue areas: economics, energy, food, health, trade, and security. In these overlap areas, our citizens as well as our leaders, policymakers, and journalists simply lack frames that capture the reality of the situation, (p. 76)


The overlap of ideas results in missing frames and the inability to capture the full capacity of the situation (Lakoff, 2010). For example, society has long lived under the pretense of multiple-use. The notion of multiple-use is problematic in and of itself in that it promotes preserving resources while at the same time calling for the use of resources. The concept of multiple-use is contentious because it promotes preservation and conservation. Promoting preservation and conservation creates a conflicting message thereby causing confusion in political goals and societal values. Therefore, words such as preservation and conservation present challenges when existing simultaneously within the environmental frame because it is a reflection of the multiple values within society.
The conflicting message of multiple-use directly relates to the eight keywords chosen for this study. The keywords suggest the use of the environment for human and nonhuman purposes. Lakoff (2010) argues that the current Environment Frame sees the environment as separate from, and around, us. Yet, we are not separate from Nature. We are an inseparable part of Nature (p. 76). The environmental frames depict nature as separate from people, one result is Cronons (1996) argument for the trouble with wilderness. Additionally, Nash (2001) asserts that as humans begin to distance themselves from nature: Nature lost its significance as something to which people belonged and became an adversary, a target, merely an object for exploitation. Uncontrolled nature became wilderness (p. xiii). Simultaneously the trouble with depicting the ocean as a wilderness space, is depicting the ocean as separate from the environment,
86


something out there, an object for management in which people declare it their own. As the testimony of Ernest G. Abbott implies: Gentlemen, all we fishermen can understand is that the grounds and the fish that have been basically ours for generations are being exploited to the point of extinction (Serial 93-13) 93rd Cong. 3 (1973) (testimony of Ernest G. Abbott). The use of the ocean as ours or strictly for American use ignores The Regulated Commons frame. The ocean belongs to everyone. Each individual has a claim to the ocean because it directly affects the human population. Much like the air people breathe, the ocean remains a valuable part of the global community to which people must not manipulate or exploit because doing so ultimately leads to societys demise and the end of a marine environment
Recommendations
When exploring the social and symbolic construct of wilderness, a list of recommendations arise as a result. Analysis of language, the words people use to describe wilderness, provides a jumping off point to unearth a new place for language and the way in which individuals discuss wilderness and, more broadly, the environment. As Nash (2001) argues, an intellectual revolution needs to develop regarding wilderness. A change in attitude beginning with a transformation in the way people think about wilderness promotes the environmental call to protect diverse ecosystems. Cronon (1996) speaks to a
87


change in the way people perceive wilderness spaces. He argues wilderness
exists in every tree and shrub, in peoples backyards and in their cities.
Individuals must begin to appreciate the nature that exists all around them instead
of conceiving wilderness as a place to go into.
Along with an intellectual revolution in the way people perceive
wilderness, a transformation in the way they value wilderness must occur as well.
Perhaps instead of employing the term value, a different, more universally
acceptable term should take its place. The term is respect. Respect carries a
different connotation requiring action to pursue. Respect for the environment,
respect for natural spaces, and respect for the species within those natural spaces.
When people learn to respect something or someone, the way they treat that thing
or person changes resulting in a more collaborative atmosphere. Chief Luther
Standing Bear of the Lakota tribe stated:
But the old Lakota are wise. He knew that mans heart, away from nature, becomes hard; he knew that lack of respect for growing, living things soon led to lack of respect for humans too. So he kept his youth close to his softening influence (Cal!icott& Nelson, 1998, p. 205-206)
With respect comes a foundational approach to treating all living creatures with
appreciation and acknowledging their living presence.
With an intellectual revolution of wilderness and a transformation in the
way individuals value wilderness, action must follow. What good is our word if
not translated into action? As it currently stands, society cannot keep progressing
forward with business as usual. Defined by Cox, business as usual means:
88


The continued growth of carbon-based economies. Carbon based refers to the energy sources primarily, fossil fuels or the burning of oil, coal, and natural gas used to produce electricity, fuel transportation and heating, and power other dimensions of modem life. (2010, p. 73)
With energy efficient practices, society can develop sustainable procedures to
secure a better future for, not only generations to come, but also for the global
environment and all the species that exist within it. People must establish limits
on growth creating islands of civilization, it is civilization that is contained
(Nash, 2001, p. 382) not wilderness. Nash (2001) calls the pockets of civilization
Island Civilization, Instead of people dominating Earth, people and their works
would occupy small niches in an interconnected, wild ecosystem (p. 382).
Civilization would have boundaries instead of wilderness. Furthermore, Island
Civilization respects other species that inhabit Earth (Nash, 2001, p. 383).
Respect for not only terrestrial species, but marine species as well must be
integrated into this model.
Public participation is also an important recommendation. One of the means to achieve policy goals involves public participation in environmental decisions along with utilizing the components of environmental communication. Public participation in the environmental decision making process allows for citizen involvement and civil society organizations (Cox, 2010). Best defined by Cox (2010), public participation is:
the ability of individual citizens and groups to influence environmental decisions through (1) access to relevant information, (2) public comments to the agency that is responsible for a decision, and (3) the right, through the courts, to hold public agencies and businesses accountable for their environmental decisions and behaviors, (p. 84)
89


Public participation allows for numerous stakeholders to be heard along with empowering citizens to hold governments accountable and to play a greater role in promoting more sustainable forms of development (Cox, 2010, p. 84). With public participation comes emotion. However, the range of emotion varies. It is very challenging to take emotion out of the equation in its entirety.
Therefore, to include emotion, romance and poetic environmental rhetoric in environmental decisions is to embrace environmental values while speaking on behalf of the environment and the species within. The words of John Muir, Theodore Roosevelt, William Beebe, Rachel Carson, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Jacques Yves Cousteau, and many more environmental advocates resonate through warn pages of historical policies and documents To carry their environmental sentiment, both terrestrial and marine, is to contain an understanding of the interrelationship between diverse ecosystems and species, including humans.
Finally, a more tangible recommendation that aids in the call to recognize the ocean as a wilderness is environmental advocacy campaigns. Cox (2010) defines environmental advocacy as:
Discourse (legal, educational, expository, artistic, public, and/or interpersonal communication) aimed at supporting conservation and the preservation of finite resources; aims to include support for both natural and human environments and the well-being of the life such environments sustain, (p. 256)
Environmental advocacy campaigns influence diverse channels in society in order
to achieve a desired goal. For example, political advocacy campaigns influence
90


Full Text

PAGE 1

WILDERNESS AND OCEAN: HISTORICAL DIVERGENCES, CONTEMPORAR Y CONVERGENCES? by Christine Marie Cecilione B.A. Colorado State University 2007 A thesis submitted to the University of Colorado Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Science 2011

PAGE 2

2011 by Christine Marie Cecilione All rights reserved

PAGE 3

This thesis for the Master of Social Science degree by Christine Marie Cecilione has been approved by Tanya Heikkila 61 i-------11-1]-(/ Date

PAGE 4

Cecilione, Christine Marie (Master of Social Science) Wilderness and Ocean: Historical Divergences, Contemporary Convergences? Thesis directed by Associate Professor Larry Erbert ABSTRACT Historical analysis of wilderness coupled with environmental communication provides a framework on which to study the social and symbolic construct of wilderness. By historically analyzing wilderness lItilizing congressional testimonies individuals begin to understand the social and symbolic construct of wilderness as it relates to both terrestrial and marine environments. The overarching goal of my thesis is to explore the implications of the symbolic and social construct of wilderness as it relates to terrestrial ecosystems. Understanding the social and symbolic construct of wilderness further underscores the need to broaden wilderness notions to include the marine ecosystem This abstract accuratel y represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I recommend it' publication I ISigned IT;1Erbeft

PAGE 5

DEDICATION History sheds light on both the beaten path and the road less traveled It educates, informs and acknowledges the leaders who made the impossible, possible Such leaders exist in the environmental movement whose courage, words and unyielding desire for nature and species tutor future environmental scholars The environmental leaders of the past are my environmental heroes today. Therefore, the dedication of this thesis symbolizes a thank you for the devotion and leadership they instill in others throughout the ages : Theodore Roosevelt, John Muir, Rachel Carson and Jacques Yves Cousteau Theodore Roosevelt created 5 t Federal Bird Reservations, four National Game Preserves six National Parks, IS National Monuments and created or enlarged 150 National Forests (Brinkley 2009 p S25-S30). One of Roosevelt's most powerful moments arose during his 1904 presidential campaign : "In the weeks before the election sensing that Roosevelt was going to win, Standard Oil wrote a $100 000 check for his campaign fund Boldly, Roosevelt rejected the money asking that the donation be returned, not wanting to be tainted by oil money Roosevelt insisted that presidents during the automobile age could not, under any circumstances, afford to take a contribution 'from an oil company seeking government influence" (Brinkley 2009 p 576) During that same time period, another environmental leader emerged, John Muir. Muir fought for the preservation of Yosemite and Hetch Hetchy He further held the strong belief that nature and species existed in and for themselves : "For Muir snakes were good for themselves and we need not begrudge them their share of life'" (Nash, 2001 p 12S) Beginning in the 1950s Rachel Carson made her stake in the environmental movement publishing books such as The Sea Around Us and Silent Spring Carson spoke on behalf of the diverse ecosystems and species Jacques Yves Cousteau called for the preservation of a marine ecosystem. From Cousteau a valuable lesson remains : "The sea, the great unifier, is [our] only hope. Now as never before, the old phrase has a literal meaning : We are all in the same boat" ("Sustainability Quotes," n d ) Throughout the process of this thesis there were people/furry friends who stood on the sidelines cheering me on, reminding me of its purpose, and provided support along the way To my best friend, I wiJJ be forever grateful for your support encouragement, and guidance not only in this thesis, but also through life's trials and tribulations Your own determination and desire to change the world is something I admire and cherish To my lifetime editor, thank you for

PAGE 6

taking the time out of your day to edit and enrich the words throughout this thesis To my K-9 companion, who sat in the chair next to me while I researched, read and worked through all hours of the night at the kitchen table Thank you for keeping me company and reminding me to take breaks, even if it was to let you outside To Pop thank you for your support and continued willingness to help me achieve my goals Finally, deepest thanks go to my mom who allowed me to take over the kitchen table with books and research material over the past year. You encourage me to be the best I reminding me to always believe in my abilities and myself. I'll always remember singing "ZipadeedodahTT on the swing set while I sat on your lap and our Christmas escape to Hawaii You have taught me the importance oflooking forward while learning from the past. Your age never comprises your beauty and your laugh always fills my heart with joy. Thank you for standing by me through it all. I have great news for you too ; your kitchen table is free of books and ready for proper use.

PAGE 7

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank my committee members who provided never-ending support and guidance throughout the process of this thesis : Dr. Larry Erbert, Dr Tanya Heikkila, and Dr Gregory Simon Thank you Dr. Larry Erbert for challenging me to think on my own and for guiding the process of this thesis. A special thanks to Dr. Tanya Heikkila, who wiHingJy stepped in at the last minute fulfilling a major role and providing valuable feedback on numerous drafts

PAGE 8

TABLE OF CONTENTS Figures ............. .... ............ ........ ...................... .. ....... ............................. xi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .... ... ...... .. ... ........... ............. ....... .... ...... .... .. ..... 1 Purpose of Study .......... .... ...... .... .......................... ....... ........ .3 Wilderness as a Social and Symbolic Construct.. ........ ....... .4 Harms to the Ocean .... .... ............ ............................ ..... ....... 7 Environmental Communication and Historical Lens ......... 12 Wilderness as a Symbolic Frame ......... ....... ......... .......... .l6 Overview of Thesis ..... ...... ....... .... ....... ........... .... .......... ...... 20 2. METHODOLOGY. ............... ......... .... ................... .......... ....... .... .22 Selection of MateriaJs ... ......... .... ....... ..... .. ...................... .23 Coding and Scoring ............. ................ ............................... 27 3 RESULTS ...... ....... ............ .. ............. ... ........................ ........ ........ .33 Symbolic Frames ....... ... .. ..... .................. ........ .................. .33 Commodity ....... .... ......................... ..... ....... .......... .34 Recreation ............................ ............ ...... ............. 3 7 Tourism ........ .................... ... ....................... ....... ... 40 Timber Interests ............. ........ .......... ........ .... .. ...... .42 Intrinsic Value ....... .......... .......... ........................... .45 Technology ...... .... .. ..... ... .................................... .46 Vlll

PAGE 9

Wilderness ....... ........... .... ............. ....... ........... .... .48 Marine Quotes ................. ................................................... 50 Commodity ......... ... ... ... .............. ...... ........ ........... 51 Recreati on ... ........ ...... ......... ...... ....... ... ... ............. 52 Tourism ........... .... ... ........... ... ............... .... ............. 53 Fishing Interests ............................................... ...... 54 Intrinsic VaJue .... ........... ............ .......... ............ ..... 56 Technology ....................... ................. ................... 57 Occurrence of Keywords ...................... ...................... ...... 58 Overview of Keywords .................... ........................... .... 67 Supplementary Keywords ........... ........... ................ .... ...... 72 Absent Frames .......... ............................ ........... ....... ..... .... 74 Conclusion ......................... ....... .... ..................................... 75 4 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ................................... ....... 76 Study Summary ....... .... .................... ...... .... ............... .... ...... 76 Discussion .... ..................... ...... ............. ...... ................ ..... 77 Framing the Environment. ............ ...... ............................... 85 Recom mendati ons .... ....... ............. .................................... 87 Conclusion ............... ...... ..................... ....... .... ..... .... ... .... 91 BIBLIOGRAPHY ........... ............... ...... .......... .... ................ ............... ....... ........ 96 x

PAGE 10

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2 1 Sentence Total within Congressional Testimonies ....................... .......... ..... 30 2.2 Semantic Aspect Scale ....... ......... ... .................. ......... .... ... ........ .... ............ .32 3.1 National Park Service Organic Act.. ................. .............. ....... ......... ..... ... 60 3.2 Ocean Dumping Ban Act .................... ................... ....... ....... ..................... 61 3 3 Wilderness Act.. .... .................... .... ................. ............... ................... ........... 62 3.4 Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield AcL ...... ........... ..... ........ ............ ............ 63 3 5 Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act ............ .. ... 65 3.6 U. S Ocean Action Plan ............... .................. ...... .... ... ...... .... .................. 66 Xl

PAGE 11

CHAPTER ] INTRODUCTION "Wilderness, wilderness .... We scarcely know what we mean by the term, though the sound of it draws all whose nerves and emotions have not yet been irreparably stunned, deadened, numbed by the caterwauling of commerce, the sweating scramble of profit and domination Edward Abbey, 1968, p. 166 People venture to various places each year filled with excitement as they eagerly await the adventure ahead National Parks and beach resorts are examples of popular tourist destinations Tourist locations such as Yellowstone National Park accommodated more than 3.6 million visitors in 2010 ("'Yellowstone National Park," 2011) [n that same year, 1.5 million people visited Alaska (Resource Development Council, n d) to experience "'the last frontier." Feel like walking along the beach in Hawaii or California, get in line as more than 180 million people visit the seashore each year C"Resources About our Oceans n d ) Cruises also provide an alternative traveling experience with millions of people booking their next excursion aboard a ship Visiting National Parks and coastlines affords individuals the opportunity to observe natural wonders and encounter wilderness Wilderness is a concept that stirs emotion and attracts people to its natural wonders Viewing scenic wonders such as Yellowstone, Glacier, or Yosemite National Park offers a glimpse into American history Historically, wilderness was considered a place to 1

PAGE 12

conquer (Nash, 2001) Slowly with an incremental change in ideologies and perceptions wilderness became a place to preserve A change in attitudes and perceptions toward wilderness showcases an environmental movement to salvage the natural world recruiting wilderness protectors to defend wilderness spaces Nonetheless environmental scholars urge for reconsideration in how individuals interpret wilderness spaces. A wilderness debate is among us in which the dominant ideas and characteristics associated with wilderness face scrutiny Environmental scholars question the wilderness notion and its implications on natural spaces calling all self-proclaimed environmental protectors to rethink wilderness ideas and the places society labels as wilderness The historical, social, and symbolic construction of wilderness originates in various mediums such as historical political policies. Robbins Hintz and Moore (2010) define social construction as : .. Any category, condition or thing that exists or is understood to have certain characteristics because people socially agree that it does"" (p 118) Ideas images, and assumptions about wilderness are socially constructed. This thesis explores the social and symbolic construct of wilderness through analysis of twelve historical congressional testimonies followed by an examination of the implications of applying the wilderness concept to the ocean The congressional testimonies represent a range of environmental policies that are still in place today such as the National Park Service Organic Act of 1916, which established the National Park system to 2

PAGE 13

preserve the natural wonders of America for future generations to enjoy, the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act of 1960 creates guidelines to utilize the potential of national forests, and the Wilderness Act of 1964 attempts to define wilderness in order to preserve the wilderness character of the area"" (Callicott & Nelson, 1998, p 126) Terrestrial policies provide a glimpse into the characterization ofwildemess spaces, which attempts to define wilderness and represents the environmental discussion Not only are terrestrial policies the focal point of this thesis, marine policies also provide insight. Analysis of three historical and political marine policies allow for an examination of applying the wilderness concept to the ocean Examination of marine environmental deliberations shed light on the similarities and differences on how people communicate and frame wilderness The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation Management Act of 1976, the Ocean Dumping Ban Act of 1988 and the U.S. Ocean Action Plan of 2000 attempt to protect the marine environment from anthropocentric, or human-centered actions Purpose of Study The purpose of this study is to explore the symbolic and social construction of wilderness as it relates to terrestrial systems to determine the viability of the application of the wilderness concept across terrestrial and marine systems. I draw upon content analysis to analyze and infer from a set of 3

PAGE 14

documents in order to answer the following research questions : How has wilderness been represented in environmental discourse? How can the wilderness concept be applied to the ocean and what are the implications of attempting to do so? The population of documents includes historical, political congressional testimonies. The purpose of utilizing congressional testimonies is to gain insight into political institutions that create wilderness constructions. Wilderness as a Social and Symbolic Construct Definitions and conceptualizations of wilderness present challenges with the social and symbolic construct including contradictions in definitions, the overarching idea of wilde mess, and is a symbolic representation of human constructs One of the challenges with the wilderness construct stems from attempts to define the word itself. The challenge with defining wilderness is that "while the word is a noun it acts like an adjective" (Nash, 2(0), p 1). Wilderness has various meanings and attempts have been made to define it. However, wilderness "is so heavily freighted with meaning of a personal, symbolic, and changing kind as to resist easy definition" (Nash, 2001, p 1). Wilderness is ambiguous and filled with personal, symbolic, and undergoes transformation that an easy definition is hard to reach (Cox, 2010). Nonetheless, it is a word and is therefore an idea, "and ideas have consequences" (Cox, 2010, p 25). The social and symbolic construct of wilderness brings about positive, yet challenging 4

PAGE 15

characteristics. The conceptualization of wilderness conveys constructive changes as seen throogh environmental communication and environmental policies Cox (20 I 0) defines environmental communication as : The pragmatic and constitutive vehicle for our understanding of the environment as well as our relation. .. hips to the natural world; it is the symbolic medium that we use in constructing environmental problems and negotiating society '05 different response to them (italics in original, p. 20) Environmental communication is pragmatic because it educates, alerts, and persuades us to solve environmental problems. Cox (2010) underscores "It is this instrumental sense of communication that probably occurs to us initially: the work of commllnication-in-action" (italics in original, p. 20) It is also constitutive because it helps compose representations of nature, "By shaping oor perceptions of nature, environmental communication may invite us to perceive forests and rivers as threatening or boontiful .. n (Cox, 2010, p. 21) Environmental communication scholars draw upon the work of John Muir, Rachel Carson and Aldo Leopold to analyze the symbolic and social construction of the environment. From their work, along with the work of numerous environmental scholars, stemmed a symbolic and social construction of wilderness, which plays a powerful role in today's society in how individuals think and perceive the environment. The way society defines wilderness plays a powerful role in how individuals conceive wilderness spaces. Definitions provide a way to understand language along with the social construct. Words construct reality. However, the 5

PAGE 16

wilderness definition "has been stretched in so many different directions that it is important to identify the point of using such a label" (Schiappa, 2003, p xii) The various ways society defines and employs the term wilderness results in a paradox in how citizens come to understand wilderness The challenge lies in an agreed upon definition of wilderness Because of the numerous wilderness definitions, an agreement of what wilderness is has yet to be reached The challenge with the wilderness idea is it is a symbolic representation of human constructions. Human perception creates the symbolic and social construct of wilderness As a result, the challenge lies within the characteristics applied to wilderness spaces As Nash (2001) argues, "psychological canying capacity assumes that wilderness is an experience best defined in terms of a human perception" (p. 324) Wilderness is an ambiguous word filled with personal symbolic and constantly changing ideas that an easy definition is hard to reach (Cox 2010) Historians and environmental communication scholars critique wilderness as a social and symbolic construct Cronon (1996) argues that the problem is not the things individuals label as wilderness, but the meanings behind those labels As the Wilderness Act suggests, wilderness is a place where humans do not remain (Callicott et aI., 1998) The paradox further hypothesizes that wilderness is not wild if humans live within its boundaries Therefore, people have lost the sense of caring for places in which they actually live "idealizing a distant 6

PAGE 17

wilderness too often means not idealizing the environment in which we actually live, the landscape that for better or worse we can home" (Cronon, 1996, p. 85). An additional challenge with wilderness is the social construction of the word "tends to privilege some parts of nature at the expense of others" (Cronon 1996, p 86) such as national parks over marine protected areas. To broaden the scope of wilderness is to realize profound feelings of humility and respect that pervades relationships with humans and the environment (Cronon, 1996). Wilderness occurs anywhere, .... A person with a clear heart and an open mind can experience wilderness anywhere on earth. It is a quality of one's own conSCIOusness. The planet is a wild place and always will be" (Cronon, 1996, p. 89). Hanns to the Ocean The symbolic and social constructs of wilderness generate outcomes. Environmental policies attempt to conserve wilderness spaces while at the same promoting them as areas to develop and explore reflecting societal values. However, wilderness carries symbolic and value-laden emotion, which people attempt to characterize through language. Environmental communication provides individuals with the opportunity to advance wilderness perceptions by highlighting and challenging dominant wilderness constructs. By analyzing wilderness, citizens can perhaps better understand the environmental discussion in 7

PAGE 18

tum appreciating all aspects of wilderness and those who inhabit them, "To protect the nature that is all around us, we must think long and hard about the nature we carry inside our heads" (Cronon, 1996, p 22). Since wilderness occurs anywhere, the symbolic and social construct of wilderness is important to relate to the ocean because the marine ecosystem is an integral part of the natural world. The ocean supports all life on Earth The marine ecosystem also provides growing human populations with diverse resources including food, ecological services, and beauty. The ocean and its inhabitants are in jeopardy as humans deplete goods and services faster than the ocean renews them (Earle 2009) There is concern for what is taken out of the ocean, and of similar and equal importance, there is concern for what materials are put in. The ocean represents an invaluable part of the commons, a universal place where citizens work, eat and play The Malthusian model employs the term "ecoscarcity," which suggests : As human populations grow out of proportion to the capacity of the environmental system to support them, there is a crisis both for humans, whose numbers fall through starvation and disease-based mortality, and for nature, whose overused assets are driven past the point of self-renewal (Robbins, 2004, p 7) Marine life forms are a staple food item in many countries across the globe. Toxic chemicals and fertilizers percolate into the ocean 'fouling the very waters we rely on to produce the fish that we eat' (Mann, 2010, p 204-205) Poison destroys what is arguably the most critical ecosystem on our planet. The destruction of the marine ecosystem potentially threatens human existence calling attention to a reexamination of wilderness notions. 8

PAGE 19

Land based principles dominate current wilderness ideologies calling for an examination of a marine wilderness Marine ethics are often undennined by land ethics, "marine ecosystems have not been at the center of environmental philosophy: we, Homo sapiens, are land animals" (Wolf, 2003, p 29). Wolf (2003) further articulates the prominence of land ethics because most of people do not see a marine environment therefore individuals cannot fully understand it The ocean covers 70 percent of Earth and contains 97 percent of our water, but only 5 percent of the ocean has been seen (Earle, 2009). The majority of the ocean remains a mystery (Mann, 2010) perhaps because individuals feel alien to a marine environment (Wolf, 2003) Abbey (1968) further draws attention to human perception regarding the ocean suggesting : uThe most appealing part of the sea, in fact, is its meeting with the it is the seashore which men love and not the ocean itself' (p. 241) Whether people fear the vast marine ecosystem or simply enjoy the sound of crashing waves, what exists beneath the surface of the ocean is comparable to terrestrial life calling for an expansion of environmental stewardshi p. Various ocean policies attempt to preserve the ecological integrity of the marine environment In 1976 the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act aspired to conserve fishery resources, the Ocean Dumping Ban Act of 1988 banned ocean dumping of sewage sludge and industrial waste More recent is the U.S. Ocean Action Plan of2000. In 2000, President George W. Bush established the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument in Hawaii, 9

PAGE 20

140,000 square miles of ocean where commercial fishing is illegal (Earle, 2009). The U.S. Ocean Action Plan focuses on creating a healthier, cleaner, and more productive ocean, coasts, and Great Lakes. Creating partnerships between federal, state, indigenous groups, and local communities, the Ocean Action Plan includes all political and local arenas to protect and manage the ocean as it traverses national boundaries Managing the ocean presents hope that the global commons does not share the same fate as the commons Hardin (1968) portrays Hardin s (1968) "Tragedy of the Commons'" predicts the long-term consequences of overpopulation along with environmental degradation Even though society has various ocean policies, concern over the fate of the ocean remains. The perception of the ocean as a commodity is one of the largest anthropocentric threats to the global commons. Robbins (2010) defines commodity as "an object of economic value that is valued generically, rather than as a specific object (example : pork is a commodity, rather than a particular pig)" (p 99). Another example of commodification of the ocean is evident in the oil and gas industry (Earle, 2009) The Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989 is a strong reminder of the consequence of extracting resources from the ocean. Spewing 11 million gallons of crude oil into Alaska's Prince William Sound (Earle, 2009), media images portrayed oil soaked birds, otters and other marine life that suffered the fate of the spill : It had slithered onto Alaskan beaches hundreds of miles away, smothering and poisoning the life out of hundreds of sea otters, thousands of seabirds, and billions of small creatures that quietly died as a consequence of human error exacerbated by human indifference (Earle, 2009, p 154) 10

PAGE 21

In April 2010 the Gulf of Mexico suffered a similar fate as an estimated 1.5 million to 3 million barrels of oil secreted into the ocean (Denver Post February 2011) Almost a year later oil continues to contaminate the ocean floor as a result of the BP oil spill (Denver Post 2011) At a science conference marine scientist Samantha Joyce showed pictures of dead crabs and brittle stars that were pale loose and dead She also saw tube worms so full of oil they suffocated (Denver Post, February 2011). The marine ecosystem suffers due to anthropocentric views of commidifYing the ocean and the ideology of a limitless resource (Dallmeyer, 2003) Earle (2009) draws from Hardin to underscore the tragedy of the commons concerning the ocean The 19th century was wrought with the mindset that marine specie s were free for the taking Whales, seals, seabirds were taken at immense rates only to be brought to near extinction Today, marine species remain in jeopardy as they are seen as more of a commodity, to be bought and sold in marketplaces around the world. Not only are marine species taken from the global commons, current ideology frames the ocean as the ultimate dumpster (Earle 2009). The ocean is an integral part of the global commons thereby calling for an ideological shift that views the ocean as a space affording international protection before the world reaches 9 billion people by 2045 (National Geographic, 20 II, p 38). Freedom to take from the commons results in destruction of the entire commons The ocean is the bloodline of the earth : "If we want things to stay as they are that is, if we want to maintain our technological 11 1 1

PAGE 22

economic, and moral leadership and a habitable planet, rich with flora and fauna ... things will have to change around here, and fast" (Earle, 2009 p 203) Environmental Communication and Historical Lens Two lenses -environmental communication and historical analysis--provide frameworks for answering the research questions. The first lens to analyze the social construction of wilderness is environmental communication Environmental communication provides a sphere in which wilderness discussions occur. Whereas historical analysis highlights the institutions to which the wilderness notion is tied to. Through the two lenses, an analysis of the social and symbolic construct of wilderness develops wilderness notions. Environmental communication is important to understand the social and symbolic construct of wilderness because language creates meaning and facilitates action Through language, symbolic action occurs because communication creates meaning and "actively structure[s] our conscious orientation to the world" (Cox 2010, p 23) Furthermore, the way we communicate with one another about the environment powerfully affects how we perceive both it and ourselves and, therefore, how we define our relationship with the natural world" (Cox, 2010, p 2). Environmental communication provides new ways of articulating the world individuals live in discovering new notions of wilderness spaces in the process and venturing to unfamiliar places ,,, lL.

PAGE 23

Communication facilitates the way people make sense of the world resulting in an increased awareness of environmental challenges (Cox, 2010) Environmental communication provides a foundation to consider the ocean as a wilderness because it transforms human behavior by presenting operative terms in order to advance human perceptions of wilderness spaces. Kroll (2008), utilizing the work of Rachel Carson, argues for ecological stewardship, stating, "that that we will become even more dependent upon the ocean as we destroy the land" (p 99). Not only does Carson draw upon ecocentrism to express the inherent value of the ocean, Kroll describes her work as it relates to "oceancentrism" to describe an "understanding that the oceans, not the land, dominate the earth" (Kroll, 2008, p 97) Oceancentrism challenges human interpretations of the world: "Just as Copernicus, Darwin and Freud caused humans to reexamine the nature of humanity, so too did oceancentrism cause humans to think of their earth as an ocean planet with several modest continental islands" (Kroll, 2008, p 97). Carson expands on the perception of a water-dominated planet, describing a world "in which the continents only here and there emerge above the surface of the all-encircling sea" (Carson, 1958, p. 19). Communication is powerful because it characterizes and constructs our environment. Cox (2007) argues that our understanding of" 'the natural world and environmental problems' is 'mediated by systems of representation by human communication''''' (Carbaugh, 2007 p 65). People construct the 13

PAGE 24

environment in their beliefs, attitudes, and policies because it is what "we know" (Carbaugh, 2007, p 66) Wilderness is mediated through our actions and our technologies Wilderness is an idea summarized in our words or verbal representations We are, in a sense, "placing words over the world" (Carbaugh, 2007, p. 66). Wilderness is a human construct fined with ideas mediated in our linguistic world Instead of hearing what the world is already saying, people attempt, and struggle, to characterize natural spaces. Carbaugh (2007) eloquently utilizes Ralph Waldo Emerson : "'We know more from nature than we can at will communicate" (2007, p 68) By focusing on representations of wilderness individuals can examine wilderness notions and the words used to characterize natural spaces One way to understand wilderness symbols is through historical analysis The National Park Service Organic Act of 1916 omits any definition of wilderness stating: We didn't specifically state policy about wilderness at this time because we concluded it was understood Every previous act demanded that the parks be preserved in their natural state. Their natural state was wilderness (Albright & Albright, 1999, p. 127) As Robbins et aL (2010) argues, National Parks are a construct : "Entrance fees maintained roads, hiking trails, limits on indigenous uses, interpretive exhibits, and forest management practices'" all create what people expect to see when they encounter wilderness (p 118). Additionally, the drafters of the Wilderness Act of 1964 also took upon the challenge of defining wilderness By addressing land boundaries and stating that wilderness is an area where humans do not remain 14

PAGE 25

influenced the framing and conceptualization of wilde mess. Devising his own working definition of wilderness, A1do Leopold thought wilderness to be a continuous stretch of country preserved in its natural state open to lawful hunting and fishing big enough to absorb a two weeks' pack trip and kept devoid of roads, artificial trail, cottages, or other works of man" (Nash, 2001, p. 186) Historical research not only shows where people have been it also portrays where individuals have not been. Through historical research, people can chronologically step back in time to witness a chain of past environmental events Historical events research is an investigation of past events with the theory that "they had a critical impact on subsequent developments" (Schutt, 2009, p 428) Employing historical research methods such as historical events research offers insight into the development of social processes The organization of the two lenses, environmental communication and historical analysis, follows what Brummett (2006) calls "implied strategies Texts have "similar interesting quirks and peculiarities things missing or things too much in evidence that convey meanings in and of them selves (Brummett, 2006 p 120) Texts convey dominant ideas while at the same time leaving certain details out. There are three categories of implied strategies and I will explain each in detail below : 1) Association 2) Implication 3) Conflict or Absence The two lenses create a way to organize textual material, a way to detennine correlations and a way to see what is missing from the text. Implied 15

PAGE 26

strategies create a methodical approach to interpret what is inside" the text (Brummett, 2006). Current wilderness definitions do not explicitly construct the ocean as a wilderness Thus, texts omit" certain signs in which the reader notices something that should be there is not" (Brummett, 2006, p 123) Analysis of wilderness ideologies, provides a way to link anthropocentric characteristics and identify what is missing from dominant language The absence of ecocentric notions further underscores the requisite for a change in ideologies to be able to challenge the way individuals think of wilderness Wilderness as a Symbolic Frame Framing is an important communication concept because it suggests how people think of dominant ideologies while at the same time showcasing what is missing Lakoff(201O) explains framing as how individuals come to think of unconscious structures. He utilizes the hospital as a frame to describe the things that make up that particular frame (i. e doctors, nurses, patient) Framing is all around us and people use frames in their every day language However an important question that Lakoff (2010) points out is "whose frames are being activated" and instilled in the public (p 72) Furthermore, Lakoff(2010) employs the term "hypocognition" to describe the Jack of ideas required for the audience to capture frames Hypocognition is an important term to understand because it helps 16

PAGE 27

identify the exclusion of ideas (LakofT, 2010) LakofT (20 1 0) utilizes the environment as an example of hypocognition suggesting that the Environment Frame sees the environment and us as separate which he argues is not true Another frame is The Regulated Commons ,'" which is a non-transferable ownership of the natural world such as atmosphere waterways, and the ocean The Regulated Commons do not share the same fate as the Tragedy of the Commons in which Hardin (1968) argues overpopulation is at the crux of environmental degradation Lakoff's (2010) overarching argument recognizes the importance of understanding how people frame the environment. Understanding frames matter because it allows us to develop our own interpretation instead of being vulnerable to dominate frames (LakofT 2010) Entman (1993) further articulates the purpose ofa frame According to Entman (1993) frames select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation. and/or treatment recommendation for the item described (Entman 1993 p 52) Salience is making a text more memorable or noticeable to the audience (Entman 1993 p 53) For example, conservationists frame the environment to highlight certain challenges such as anthropocentric threats, toxic chemicals that infiltrate the air and the water systems and the extinction of species Frames also provide four functions in that they define the problem diagnose causes make moral judgments and suggest remedies (Entman, 1993) A frame does not necessarily encompass all of these functions Some frames may leave them out entirely. 17

PAGE 28

Understanding the communication process aids in deciphering frames along with identifying an absence of an essential keyword or idea The communication process has four locations : communicator, text, receiver, and culture (Entman, ]993). Communicators make a conscious or unconscious choice to decide what to say guided by frames (Entman, 1993). The text contains the frame "which are manifested by the presence or absence of certain key words, stock phrases, stereotyped images, sources of information" reinforced by facts or judgments (Entman, 1993, p. 52). The frame then guides the receiver's thinking. Culture demonstrates dominant frames portrayed through discourse while at the same time ignoring other frames Frames are powerful because they caJl attention to aspects of reality while at the same time excluding other frames (Entman, 1993) The omission or absence of certain words or phrases within a frame begs attention, "the omissions of potential problem definitions, explanations, evaluations, and recommendations may be as critical as the inclusions in guiding the ocean" (Entman, 1993, p. 54) Receivers respond to the dominant frame possessing little information about the omission of key words or phrases, which "is why exclusion of interpretations by frames is as significant to outcomes as inclusion" (Entman, 1993, p. 54). Therefore, the power of the frame is as powerrul as the language itself (Entman, 1993) Furthermore, frames remain important to analyze as they guide the receiver toward certain analytical deductions Content analyses "respond to texts 18

PAGE 29

according to their meanings : denotations, connotations insinuations, implications, associations, metaphors, frames, uses, symbolic qualities and so on'" (Krippendorff, 2004 p.323) As Cronon (1996) argues it is the meanings behind the words that need to be scrutinized In the political and the academic realm, through analysis of environmental communication, individuals expand the discussion about the way people speak and represent the environment resulting in collaborative efforts enhancing environmental stewardship The frames around wilderness articulate as much about what is inside the frame, as what it excludes Cox (2010) and Slater (1976) employ two key terms related to framing, unobtrusive events and 'the toilet assumption.' Cox (2010) utilizes the term "unobtrusive events" and claims "ecological systems are less visible and often go unnoticed for years or decades"" because "they are remote from one s personal experience" (p 1S7) Anthropocentric values reified by current definitions ofwildemess validate unobtrusive events that degrade a marine environment. The detritus of human consumption contaminates the ocean threatening life on Earth Toxic chemical dumping is one example of unobtrusive events because toxins "invisible and their effects on us delayed, people rarely notice such toxins in our everyday lives" (Cox, 2010 p 157) This frame excludes everyday connections to marine ecosystems Slater (1990) draws on a more colorful metaphor when describing these anthropocentric notions of d i sposability He explains the toilet assumption as "the notion that unwanted matter, unwanted difficulties unwanted complexities 19

PAGE 30

and obstacles will disappear if they're removed from our immediate field of vision" (Slater, 1976, p. 19). The toilet assumption also suggests that the endpoint for those materials can be ignored : "Our approach to social problems is to decrease their visibility : out of sight, out of mind" (Slater, 1990, p 19). The most prominent visual representation of the effects of the toilet assumption is the North Pacific Garbage Patch, which is, quite literally, a swirling vortex of trash that appears as if trash is being flushed down a toilet (Slater, 1976), the largest is roughly the size of Texas. If the ocean is perceived as a space "out there," then people are less likely to see it as a wild space within the global commons that demands protection from anthropocentric values that view the ocean as a vast dumping ground Overview of Thesis Analyzing the wilderness idea presents the opportunity to historically explore environmental policies in order to analyze where people have been and where they have yet to go. I will first begin by analyzing the social and symbolic significance of wilderness discourse through analysis of congressional testimonies along with the implications of the social and symbolic construct of wilderness when articulating the ocean as a wilderness area. Utilizing content analysis, coding, and scaling methods, I will analyze my data to interpret the wilderness discussion. Chapter two moves into the methodology in which six environmental 20

PAGE 31

policies and twelve congressional testimonies provide insight into the historical construct of wilderness Chapter three presents analysis of the data with corresponding graphs. The concluding chapter discusses recommendations on how to be better environmental stewards. The overarching goal of my thesis is an explanation of the implications of the symbolic and social construction of wilderness Environmental communication is a vehicle for understanding the implications of the articulation of a marine wilderness 21

PAGE 32

CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY The systematic approach employed is content analysis and the methodological form is interpretive. Content analysis provides a methodological approach to utilize environmental communication as a way to answer research questions. Defined by Schutt (2009), content analysis is "a research method for systematically analyzing and making inferences from text"(p. 454) Content analysis of twelve congressional testimonies was chosen because of the historical political discussion surrounding the environment and the perception of natural spaces Schutt (2009) defines interpretivism as ""the belief that reality is socially constructed and that the goal of social scientists is to understand what meanings people give to that reality" (p 92) The objective of interpretivism is to understand the meanings people assign to reality. Additionally, Uinterpretivists believe that people construct an image of reality based on their own preferences and prejudices and their interactions with others ... (Schutt, 2009, p 92) The two lenses, environmental communication and historical investigation, create an understanding of the social and symbolic construct of wilderness As the methodological approach is interpretive, environmental communication sheds light on which keywords to use while the historical lens illuminates the social and symbolic construct of wilderness I began by assessing 22

PAGE 33

terrestrial and marine based congressional testimonies to understand the environmental discussion and historical construct of wilderness Through environmental communication and a historical lens, individuals perhaps better comprehend past roots surrounding the idea of wilderness shedding light on the social institutions tied to wilderness notions Selection of Materials Congressional testimonies provide a historical basis for analyzing the social and symbolic construct of wilderness. An analysis of the following congressional testimonies: National Park Service Organic Act, Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act, Wilderness Act, Ocean Dumping Ban Act, Magnuson Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, and U.S Ocean Action Plan, create a foundation on which to historically base the social construct of wilderness. The documents I sampled are twelve historical congressional testimonies. I selected two congressional testimonies from each of the six policies. Two congressional testimonies were taken from the National Park Service Organic Act, two congressional testimonies are from the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act, and so forth. The two congressional testimonies come from different frames conservationists, oil and gas industry or private stakeholders such as someone who owns a business Each testimony identifies the person and the 23

PAGE 34

corporate or nonprofit affiliation. The congressional testimonies from the National Park Service Organic Act come from 1916, the Multiple-Use Act from 1960, the Wilderness Act from 1962, Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act from 1975, Ocean Dumping testimonies from 1988, and the testimonies from the U.S Ocean Action Plan are from 1998. Below is the list of congressional testimonies : National Park Service Organic Act of 1916 Stephen T. Mather, Assistant to the Secretary of the Interior P S Eustis, General Passenger Agent of Burlington Rail Road Multiple Use and Sustained Yield Act of 1960 Louis S Clapper, Conservation Director, National Wildlife Federation Ralph D. Hodges Jr. Director, Forestry Division National Lumber Manufactures Association Wilderness Act of ] 964 Sigurd F. Olson, Biologist, Writer, and Conservationist Gordon A. Goodwin, American Petroleum Institute Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 Ernest G. Abbott Fisherman and Wholesale Lobster Dealer 1. Steele Culbertson, Director, National Fish Meal and Oil Association Ocean Dumping Ban Act of 1988 Sally Lentz, Staff Attorney, The Oceanic Society Sheldon Lipke Superintendent of Plant Operations, Passaic Valley Sewerage Commissioners U.S Ocean Action Plan of 2000 Roger McManus, President, Center for Marine Conservation Paul Kelly Senior, Vice President of Rowan Companies Each congressional testimony contains important keywords devising a systematic approach to analyzing the statements. The use of eight keywords obtained from the literature review develops an analysis to study the population of

PAGE 35

congressional testimonies. There are two reasons why the keywords were chosen: I) they appeared numerous times throughout the literature review 2) they are also common words associated with wilderness or associated with how people value wilderness. Commodification of wilderness comprises recreation, tourism, timber interests, and fishing interests Wilderness often falls victim to anthropocentrism and its attendant commodification. The keywords are also commonly linked to wilderness. People enjoy traveling to National Parks and hiking along trails Facilities in National Parks, such as restrooms, railways and backcountry cabins, were created with the idea being "to let technology help more people enjoy wilderness" (Nash, 2001, p. 326) The way individuals value wilderness plays a role in the political and societal underpinnings surrounding the idea of wilderness along with the way people transfonn natural spaces through technology. The use of the keywords provides a way to analyze the text allowing for an interpretation of the social and symbolic construct of wilderness. Based on the literature review, commodity, recreation, tourism, timber interests, technology, and fishing interests will reflect the ideology of industrial groups. Keywords such as intrinsic value reflect the ideology of self-proclaimed conservationists or preservationists and environmental groups whose goal is environmental preservati on. As I read the congressional testimonies, J chose to color coordinate each of the keywords for organizational and data tracking purposes because the color identifies the keyword. Furthennore, as I read the congressional testimonies, I 25

PAGE 36

highlighted each keyword or its synonym with its corresponding color. Below is the list of keywords along with its matching color : Commodity purple Recreation yellow T ouri sm green Timber Interests brown Intrinsic Value red Technology orange Wilderness blue Fishing Interests black I also define each of the words, along with synonyms : Commodity "An object of economic value that is valued generically rather than as a specific object (example : pork is a commodity, rather than a particular pig). In political economy (and Marxist) thought, as an object made for exchange (Robbins et al., 2010, p. 240) Synonyms : land, water, Cultural Capital (DeLuca, 2000, p 248), "usefulness" (Stoll 2007 p 45) Recreation any outdoor activity spending time outdoors, social activity Synonyms: hunting, fishing, hiking, "tramping" (Adkins, 2003, p. 434), mountain-climbing, camping photography, and the enjoyment of natural scenery (Stoll 2007, p 42) Tourism "The practice of traveling for pleasure"" (The American Heritage Dictionary, 1976, p. 1358). An example is traveling to a national park for pleasure Synonyms : Pioneering spirits (Marafiote, 2008, p. 159), vacationer (Marafiote 2008 p 163), travelers (Simon 2009 p 17) Marafiote (2008) clarifies tourists 26

PAGE 37

as "anyone who could/would enjoy the subdued 'wild' nature-sites, therefore, that conveniently blurred the contrast between nature and culture, primitivity and civilization" (p. 165). Timber Interests cutting down trees to utilize them as a resource. Synonyms: Timber, Wood Intrinsic Value "The value ofa natural object (e g an owl Of stream) in and for itself as an end rather than a means" (Robbins et aL, 2010, p. 74) Robbins (2010) further explains intrinsic value as '-
PAGE 38

idea of that word along with its synonym. If a sentence contained two or more keywords, I coonted the sentence as two or mOTe. For example, if tourism and recreation were found in the same sentence, I counted the sentence as both tourism and recreation If a keyword appeared multiple times in a single sentence I counted the sentence once Counting sentences allows for analysis of the way in which the keywords are discussed throughout the historical documents Krippendorff (2004) expands by stating, Without the appropriate context, a document means very a document placed in the wrong context acquires incorrect meanings, or at least meanings that may not make much sense" (p 2627) Counting sentences allowed me to capture the idea of the keyword ifit was not directly stated For example, intrinsic value is not directly stated in the congressional testimonies, however the idea of intrinsic value is The synonyms associated with intrinsic value such as beauty and spiritual allowed me to capture the idea of the word Also, if the use of a keyword or phrase was a proper noun e g Burlington Railroad, I did not highlight or coont it because it represents a company or an organization and is not indicative of the definitional meaning Furthermore, I did not analyze any attached documents included with the congressional testimonies, only what was actually said at the hearing There are important differences between recreation and fishing Recreational fishing is a pleasurable social activity Whereas fishing interests utilize fish as a resource An example of recreational fishing comes from the 28

PAGE 39

Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act in Ralph D Hodges testimony : "On any one forest, managed for timber production these multiple uses may include watershed, recreation, hunting, fishing, grazing, mining, and numerous other uses" (Serial RR), 86th Cong o 62 (1960) (testimony of Ralph D Hodges). An example of fishing interests is found in the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation Act : "In fact, on a volume or poundage basis, their fishing vessels harvest about half of the fin fish caught and landed by US. fishermen .. (Serial 93-13) 93rd Cong o 3 (1973) (testimony of J Steele Culbertson) Once I highlighted the sentences containing a keyword and/or its synonym, I counted the sentences within that particular congressional testimony Then I counted all of the sentences within the congressional testimony Figure 2 1 illustrates the sentence total for each congressional testimony I then divided the total number of instances by the total of sentences receiving a decimal. I multiplied that number by 100 to receive a percentage. The percentage is representative of what proportion the keyword occurred within the congressional testimony compared to the total number of sentences [rounded the decimal to the nearest whole number. By analyzing the instances of the keywords in percent, an unearthing of what is said versus what is not said allows for a critique of how society communicates natural spaces, the implications of using such words, and what is absent from the text 29

PAGE 40

Total Number of Sentences National Park Service Organic Act: Statement of Stephen T. Mather 347 Statement ofP.S. Eustis 184 Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act Statement of Louis S Clapper 24 Statement of Ralph D. Hodges 136 Wilderness Act Statement of Gordin A. Goodwin 224 Statement of Sigurd F Olson 108 Magnuson Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Statement of J Steele Culbertson 120 Statement of Ernest G Abbott 47 Ocean Dumping Ban Act Statement of Sheldon Lipke 33 Statement of Sally Lentz 47 U.S Ocean Action Plan Statement of Paul L. Kelly I 70 Statement of Roger McManus 64 Figure 2.1 Sentence Total within Congressional Testimonies In order to exhibit what is missing from the congressional testimonies, Zillmann's Semantic Aspect Scale was applied to the analysis of the keywords. Once I calculated the instance of the keyword into percent, I devised a scale that correlates with the semantic aspect scale in order for me to know where to place the keyword on the semantic aspect scale If the keyword was absent from the text it immediately ranked at zero on the semantic aspect scale Therefore the scale I developed starts at 0.1% If the keyword fell at or between 0.1 %-15% it placed at a one on the semantic aspect scale If the keyword fell at or between 16%-30%, it placed at a two on the semantic aspect scale, at or between 31 %-45% it placed at a three, 46%-60% it placed at a four 61 %-75% it placed at a five, and 76% to 100% it placed at a six. For example, in the congressional testimony of 30

PAGE 41

Gordin A. Goodwin, wilderness consisted of23% of the testimony Therefore, wilderness placed at a two on the semantic aspect scale. The semantic aspect scale helps determine the prominence or lack of a keyword. The 7-point unipolar scale ranges from 0, absence of a text to 6, the pervasive presence of a text (Krippendorff, 2004, p.137) Krippendorff further posits: the use of such a scale is appropriate when attributes, qualities, or phenomena can be more or less [including absence of a text] more or less significant to a character, more or less present in an assertion, or more or less frequent. (2004, p. 137) The purpose of the semantic aspect scale is to avoid the unreliability coders face when making choices on polar attributes (Krippendorff, 2004). Figure 2.2 illustrates the semantic aspect scale utilized in this analysis Semantic validity "is the degree to which the analytical categories of texts correspond to the meanings these texts have for particular readers or the roles they play within a chosen context" (Krippendorff, 2004, p. 323) The semantic aspect scale is a tool that promotes the development of improved communication practices By assessing what is said versus what is not being said in differing spheres, e.g public sphere versus political sphere can we understand the various ways the public speaks about environmental challenges in tum enhancing collaborative efforts both inside and outside the political realm The semantic aspect scale distinguishes what is absent and what is present in congressional testimonies to determine if the discussion surrounding environmental issues is one in the same. 31

PAGE 42

Name of Act: Semantic Aspect Scale Zi II mann 7-Point Unipolar Scale -------------------------------------Name of Testimony : __________________________ Absent Very Much Present Commodity : o 2 3 4 5 6 --------------Recreation : o 1 2 3 .4. 5 6 --------------Tourism: o 2 3 4 5 6 -------------Timber Interests: o 2 3 .4. 5 6 --------------Intrinsic Value : o 2 3 .4. 5 6 --------------Technology : o 2 3 .4. 5 6 --------------Wilderness : o 2 3 4 5 6 --------------Fishing Interests: o 2 3 4 5 .6. --------------Figure 2 2 Semantic Aspect Scale 32

PAGE 43

CHAPTER 3 RESULTS Analysis of the twelve congressional testimonies provides insight into wilderness frames The six policies and twelve congressional testimonies are samples intended to attempt to capture the communication that occurs within the social and politicaJ diaJogue It is not representative of the entire population of policies or congressional testimonies Therefore, inferences about communication that takes place is an attempt to further understand the implications oflanguage and the words individuaJs use to characterize natural spaces To begin assessing the symbolic frames, I will first discuss each of the keywords as they relate to each of the policies and congressional testimonies through the use ofvarious quotes. The data begins with a quantitative assessment, which leads into quaJitative summaries. I will then connect the keywords to the larger picture which focuses on the prominence and lack of ideas. Symbolic Frames Language and context help establish meaning and symbolic relevance Through language individuaJs grasp the environmental discussion and the social 33

PAGE 44

institutions that are tied to the symbolic construct of wilderness The following are examples of quotes throughout the terrestrial congressional testimonies. Each of the quotes represents the environmental discussion within the political sphere along while showcasing the use of each keyword. Analyzing the quotes for each keyword allows for an evaluation of what is missing from the text as it relates to wilderness notions. Commodity In the National Park Service Organic Act of 1916 congressional testimonies, commodity is minutely present. Occurring 1 % of the time in the coded sentences commodity consists of a small percentage of the National Park Service discussion One topic of discussion in which commodity is found arises from management of the parks, or more specifically, cultural capital. Wood is an example of resource use and is, therefore, an example of commodity There were instances in which two or more keywords were found in the same quote The below quote is an example of commodity, timber interests and tourism Buying half a cord of wood is a complaint presented by Mr. McClintic on behalf of the people in his state: They filed some very serious charges with me as to the management of the parks out in that section of the country and I would like to know whether you require campers to buy as much as a haifa cord of wood in the parks (64th Cong ) 11 (1916) (Stephen T. Mather) 34

PAGE 45

Stephen T. Mather consents to Mr. McClintic's statement: ''Considerable timber for fuel has been cut and we make a point of selling fuel to campers going in on the floor of the valley" (64th Cong.) 11 (1916) (Stephen T. Mather). Another example of commodity arises from charging automobiles to use the roads within park boundaries Automobiles cause wear and tear on park roads Therefore, the Park Service needs a way to maintain the roads within the parks P S Eustis agrees a charge for the use of park roads would be beneficial: "Why, I should think it would not be out of the way to make a moderate charge for the use of the park roads for private automobiles" (641b Cong.) 11 (1916) (p.S Eustis). Because this sentence speaks to the use of, or usefulness of roads, it portrayed commodity. Even though this sentence speaks to the broader context of tourism, I focused on the idea of charging private autombiles for the use of park roads as an isolated instance Commodity not only presents itself in the National Park Service Organic Act, but also in the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act 1960 The keyword, commodity, consists of 16% of the coded sentences within the two congressional testimonies The Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act centers around the multiple uses of wilderness spaces such as recreation, wildlife and timber. Valued generically, timber and minerals are objects exchanged for value. Below is an example of commodity found in the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act: and the long-time production of tangible resources on which our economy is 35

PAGE 46

based including wood, forage, and minerals ... (Serial RR) 86th Congo 62 (1960) (Louis S Clapper) Not only do objects made for exchange portray commodity, the usefulness of an object or space also present the buying and selling of goods. Ralph D Hodges recognizes the economic value of timber along with proper forest management: "Approximately 95 percent of the dollar revenues produced by the management of the national forests are derived from the sale of timber" (Serial RR) 86th Congo 62 (1960) (Ralph O Hodges) Timber is an object of economic value that monetarily provides for the United States government and the United States territories Another example of the usefulness of the forest is found in the following three quotes: Although the primary use of the forest land is foc the production of timber, it is company policy to make the land available for secondary uses which are not detrimental to the maximum growth of new tree crops. (Serial RR) 86th Cong o 62 (1960) (Ralph O. Hodges) It will have to be determined on the basis of the individual forests, and even, perhaps, within individual forests there will have to be different uses that will have to come in fOT consideration, that is into primary consideration because of their particular characteristics (Serial RR) 86th Congo 62 (1960) (Ralph O. Hodges) We have to have confidence enough that the program is going to be administered, that it will be done so in a sound enough manner, so that proper consideration will be given to these uses in the various areas, as to which should receive primary consideration. (Serial RR) 86th Congo 62 (1960) (Ralph O. Hodges) 36

PAGE 47

Examples of commodity are also found in the Wilderness Act of 1964 In the two congressional testimonies, commodity consists ofO.9()01o of the coded sentences The following quotes speak to the uses of wilderness along with displaying how special interest groups frame the economic worth of wilderness: Multiple use : Congress has, by the 1960 enactment of PubJic Law 86-517 (H .R. 10572) authorized and directed that the national forests be managed under principles of multiple use to produce a sustained yield of products and services (Serial 12 Part IV), 8th Congo 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin) The oil industry alone produced more than a billion dollars worth of petroleum products from Federal and Indian lands last year. (Serial 12 Part IV), 871h Congo 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin) The multiple uses of wilderness describe how society utilizes wilderness which portrays other societal values such as economic values Values playa role in how individuals characterize and perceive wilderness thereby establishing wilderness notions Commodity contributes to the way institutions frame wilderness which also represents dominant ideas along with illustrating our limitations. Overall, commodity consisted of21.9% of the coded sentences in all of the congressional testimonies ranking fifth out of the eight keywords in regards to prominence Recreation Discussions within the congressional testimonies consist of recreational activities such as hiking, fishing, and hunting. The idea of recreation takes into 37

PAGE 48

account people who enjoy wilderness which showcases another societal value. The drafters of the National Park Service Organic Act realized the importance of recreational activities. Secretary of Interior Franklin K Lane's report on the National Park Service Bill states : .... All is well known, the activities in the various parks have increased greatly in recent years, the number of people visiting the parks being steadily on the increase" (64th Cong ) 11 (1916) (Stephen T. Mather) With more and more people entering National Parks, recreation steadily increased as well. Department of Agriculture Henry S. Graves adds: "I want to take this opportunity to draw your attention in general to the efficient handling of the country's recreation and forest reservations" (64th Cong ) 11 (1916) (Stephen T. Mather) Recreational management became important because it provides a way for people to enjoy wilderness The Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act recognizes recreation as one use of wilde mess With more people taking advantage of recreational activities, recreational management was also discussed : .... Which increases in population, leisure time, income, and with faster travel, more consideration is being given to recreation" (Serial RR) 86th Congo 62 (1960) (Ralph D Hodges). Hodges further asserts : "Recreation, like the other uses, is generally compatible with forest management and timber and water production" (Serial RR) 86tb Cong o 62 (1960) (Ralph D. Hodges). Louis S Clapper also states : "Whereas the development of recreation, wildlife habitat, and access facilities on the national forests has not kept up with the needs of an expanding population is now urgently in need of

PAGE 49

implementation" (Serial RR) 86th Congo 62 (1960) (Louis S Clapper) With a growing population, the speakers saw a need for the management of recreational activities. Clapper argues that a change in verbiage within the act itself must also be taken into account. Below is an example presented by Clapper : "That is the policy of the Congress that the national forests are established and shall be administered for the uses of outdoor recreation, range, timber, watershed, wildlife, fish and wilderness purposes" (Serial RR) 86th Congo 62 (1960) (Louis S. Clapper) Recreation is one of the various uses within wilderness spaces and with a growing population, recreational management is needed in order to save wilderness from being loved to death (Nash, 2001) The Wilderness Act further recognizes the impact a growing population has on wilderness specifically as it relates to recreation. Although more people enjoy wilderness through recreational activities, a growing concern of protecting and managing wilderness spaces arises Colorado representative, Mr. Aspinall poses the question : I do not want to take all of the time, but let me ask you this : How far do you think we would get if we put a person interested in the mining industry, a person interested in the forest industry, a person interested in the water resource development, and a person interested in recreation on a board and asked them to get together and recommend to us the area to be made into a wilderness area as the proponents of this bill desire? (Serial 12 Part N), 87th Cong o 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin) Olson further questions how future administrations will respond to a growing population : While good regulations are in effect, there is no guarantee that future administrations subjected to the enormous and growing pressures of 39

PAGE 50

population, industrial expansion, and recreational use will be able to protect the wilderness (Serial 12 Part IV), Cong o 1395 (1962) (Sigurd F. Olson) Concerns of the impacts a growing population has on wilderness highlights a need to critique the uses within wilderness spaces. The recognition of wilderness management, according to Goodwin's testimony, is Congress' responsibility to safeguard natural resources: "The subcommittee certainly is seeking how to meet these requirements without injuring the Nation's recreational and esthetic values, as we are" (Serial 12 Part IV), 8th Congo 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin). He also contends : "Further, these lands have a high value for recreational use other than wilderness" (Serial 12 Part IV), Congo 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin) The different uses of wilderness cause concern in which individuals question how to properly manage wilderness with an increased pressure on special interest groups who require wilderness resources Tourism The drafters of the National Park Service Organic Act wanted to draw tourists into wilderness To accomplish that, tourists needed certain accommodations along with a way to get to the parks Mather took into account accommodations for tourists and the impacts that will have on private land owners : "We can provide for the campers and increase the facilities for the campers as they come in larger numbers, at the same time taking care to protect 40

PAGE 51

the interests of the stockmen" (64th Cong. ) 11 (1916) (Stephen T. Mather) The drafters kept the interests of the visitors in mind presenting their needs as top priority The privileges of tourists are revealed in two statements by Mather : Yes sir ; there has been grazing on the west side of the Yosemite and I think our present superintendent, Mr. Marshall, believes that a certain amount of grazing in those areas where it will not interfere with the campers' privileges is perfectly proper. (64th Cong ) 11 (1916) (Stephen T. Mather) We found places there where simply a small section fenced ofT would give the campers all the privileges they would need (64th Cong. ) 11 (1916) (Stephen T. Mather) The campers were seen with such high value because they would ultimately be the people providing monetary funds to keep the parks running The funds would go to maintaining the parks, including the roads and campgrounds Burlington Railroad devised a system to assist travelers in their journey to the park Passengers could take the railroad to numerous parks : But what seemed to impress Mr. Mather more than anything else is our special plan that for a ticket at the ordinary price from anywhere into this country, to Glacier National Park, for instance, we will take the passenger to Denver and give him a side trip down to Colorado Springs and Pueblo and this beautiful region in here [indicating on map] without extra charge (64th Cong ) 11 (I916)(P. S Eustis) General Passenger Agent Eustis further illustrated to Congress other plans Burlington Railroad has for tourists : "We are putting on for the passenger season a new train that will carry cars to Billings and will arrive at Cody at 3 0 clock in the morning" (64th Cong. ) 11 (1916) (p.S Eustis) Accommodating visitors through comfortable travel and facilitates marked the beginning of a new era for the enjoyment of wilde mess. 41

PAGE 52

The testimonies regarding the Wilderness Act of 1964 acknowledged the pressures of increased tourist travel. Reaching record breaking numbers, visiting designated wilderness spaces soon became part of the American culture : In 1959, the last year of record, there were 10 million visitors on the national wildlife refuges and ranges a 9 percent increase over the previous year (annual report Secretary of the Interior, June 30, 1960, p.337) This was more than 20 times the total number of person visiting existing wilderness or wild areas in the national forests during the same period (Serial 12 Part IV), 8th Congo 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin) With tourism reaching an all time high during this time period Mr. Aspinall asks a profound question, a question environmental scholars ask even to this day : In talk about the protection of the wilderness to the degree necessary, if we permitted visitations of wilderness, wildlife refuges and game ranges without limitation, how long will it be until they lose their wilderness aspect. (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Congo 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin) Tourists were loving wilderness to death and with that wilderness needed protection from the various uses. Timber Interests The keyword "timber interests" is found with the congressional testimonies of the National Park Service Organic Act, the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act and the Wilderness Act In the National Park Service Organic Act, the quotes highlighted for commodity and timber interests are the same. Utilized as a previous example for commodity, the below quotes are also illustrative of timber interests: 42

PAGE 53

Considerable timber for fuel has been cut and we make a point of selling fuel to campers going in on the floor of the valley. (64111 Cong.) 11 (1916) (Stephen T. Mather) They filed some very serious charges with me as to the management of the parks out in that section of the country, and [would like to know whether you require campers to buy as much as a haifa cord of wood in the parks (64th Cong ) 11 (1916) (Stephen T. Mather) Timber is one of many multiple uses within wilderness : "On anyone forest, managed for timber production these multiple uses may include watershed, recreation, hunting, fishing, grazing, mining, and numerous other uses" (Serial RR) 86th Congo 62 (1960) (Ralph D. Hodges). Timber yields financial gains and, in the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act, the argument is made that timber is like another agricultural crop: "The viewpoint is commonly held that timber is a crop similar to other agricultural crops" (Serial RR) 86th Cong o 62 (1960) (Ralph D. Hodges). Timber production also provides financial and employment inducements : "National forest timber sales bring into the U S Treasury well over $100 million annually, of which 25 percent is paid to the counties in which the national forests are located" (Serial RR) 86111 Congo 62 (1960) (Ralph D. Hodges). Not only do timber sales assist the government and surrounding counties, but provides jobs to the working class: "'During the same period about 8 billion board feet of timber was harvested from the national forests" (Serial RR) 86th Cong o 62 (1960) (Ralph D Hodges) which provide employment opportunities The lumber industry supports and believes in multiple use as it encourages economic incentives: "The lumber industry believes in the multiple-use principle in the 43

PAGE 54

management of forest lands" (Serial RR) 86th Cong o 62 (1960) (Ralph D. Hodges) The Wilderness Act is designed to protect wilderness areas from special interests while at the same time allowing multiple uses within the wilderness area. Stated throughout the congressional testimonies, timber interests are an example of a multiple use : Permanent roads were ruled out of the wilderness, water levels maintained, an airspace reservation created, shoreline cutting and logging prohibited on both State and Federal lands, moneys appropriated by Congress for the purpose of Federal acquisition of private lands. (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Congo 1395 (1962) (Sigurd F Olson) Olson's argument suggests that permanent roads, shoreline cutting and logging harm the wilderness character Along those same lines Mr. Aspinall, representative of Colorado, challenges Goodwin stating : Yes, and we can go ahead and rubberstamp what the prospectors have done throughout the decades, or the lumbering interests But we realize the extremes people will go to to follow their own pursuits and their own interests (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Congo 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin) Furthermore, Mr. Dominick, a second Colorado representative, states: Not perhaps as strongly with respect to oil and gas development, because of your ability to do just the things you have said, but as far as timbering and mining and other things of this kind, it seems to me to make it very difficult to keep a wilderness area with those activities going on (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Congo 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin) Based on the above congressional testimonies, the notion of multiple use is under question. With multiple activities taking place, the notion of wilderness is challenged. 44

PAGE 55

Intrinsic Value Intrinsic value is a keyword that is least prominent throughout all of the congressional testimonies. Nonetheless, in the National Park Service Organic Act a sentence containing the idea of intrinsic value occurs Intrinsic value is also represented in the Wilderness Act in Olson's testimony Representative Kent, in the National Park Service Organic Act congressional testimony states : This amendment is very carefully drawn so that such areas of the park as will be actually used will be preserved so far as their beauties are concerned (64th Cong ) 11 (1916) (Stephen T. Ma t her) The preservation of beauty as it relates to the National Parks remains important to maintain In the Wilderness Act Olson poetically argues for wilderness preservation. He begins by stating : "When the historian Trevelyan said, We are children of the earth and removed from her our spirits wither,' he spoke the truth People need to renew their ancient ties with the earth" (Serial 12 Part IV) sih Cong o 1395 (1962) (Sigurd F Olson) He further argues that as time goes on wilderness will become more necessary : "Wild country, the unchanged scene of wilderness is a spiritual necessity to the people of America and as time goes on becomes increasingly so (Serial 12 Part IV), 8th Cong o 1395 (1962) (Sigurd F. Olson) Olson also warns : You would lose that indefinable something which gives them a wilderness experience and which all people in this rapidly mechanized age and growing urbanization need and will increasingly need say by the tum of 45

PAGE 56

the century, when another 150 million people are here (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Congo 1395 (1962) (Sigurd F Olson) Opportunities must be given in order for people to stay connected with wilderness : We must provide opportunities for our people today and in the future to return to the simplicities and beauties of unchanged nature if they are to retain their perspective in a swiftly changing world becoming more and more removed from the out of doors (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Congo 1395 (1962) (Sigurd F Olson) Technology With the inception of the National Park Service Organic Act, technology remained a key frame throughout the discussions From the construction of roads to the use of automobiles, technology afforded people the chance to venture into the wild Roads and automobiles are one main topic of discussion during the congressional testimonies for the National Park Service Organic Act. Drafters of the Organic Act began to strategize transportation for tourists : "We are establishing automobile shelters at half a dozen places, and we are giving the privilege of running at a reasonable rate of speed around the valley (64th Cong ) II (1916) (Stephen T Mather) Not only were automobile shelters part of the strategy, roads played an integral role as well : "I think ultimately they can be made free, but at the present time when our appropriations are limited the revenues are very valuable to us in assisting us in putting the park roads in shape" (64th Cong ) 11 (1916) (Stephen T Mather) 46

PAGE 57

Eustis of Burlington Railroad adds to the discussion of the importance of technology. Eustis coordinating with the railroad company and an automobile service company to provide visitors with modes of transportation to and from the park Visitors could utilize both means of transportation : "There is a new automobile company just formed that will give transportation from Cody to the Park Circle, to Yellowstone Lake Hotel" (64lh Cong.) 11 (1916) (P.S Eustis). Furthermore, Eustis states: "We have arranged that that same company shall come outside of the park on the end of the railroad at Cody and furnish transportation" (64th Cong ) 11 (1916) (P.S. Eustis) Technology is also discussed in the Wilderness Act. The argument is made that technology allowed for industrial growth such as extracting natural resources The oil and gas industry utilizes technology to argue technological advancements in the industry: The Nation's oil and gas industry has proven that modem drilling and producing methods permit the conduct of oil and gas development operations on these refuge and game range lands, and likewise, that they can be conducted in any wild, primitive, or canoe areas, without adversely affecting the other highly prized values of such areas (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong o 1485 (1962) (Gordin A Goodwin) Goodwin further states: "The methods oflooking for oil and gas that have been developed over the last 20 to 30 years, let us say the magnatometer, the airborne magnatometer, the seismography, the sparker -I can name them" (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong o 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin) Throughout time, technological advancements allow for economic growth and the extraction of natural resources. According to Goodwin, the improvement of technology allows 47

PAGE 58

for wilderness to be left untainted : "With modem technology known and practiced in the industry and with proper regulation and supervision interference with wilderness in such cases would be negligible" (Serial 12 Part IV) 8ih Cong o 1485 (1962) (Gordin A Goodwin). Wilderness The keyword, wilderness, appears in two terrestrial congressional acts, the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act and the Wilderness Act. In the Multiple Use and Sustained Yield Act, Clapper states the policy of the United States Forest Service that includes wilderness preservation : "We believe that wilderness preservation long has been a policy of the U.S. Forest Service and specific recognition of it as one of the multiple uses of national forests would appear to be in order (Serial RR) 86th Congo 62 (1960) (Louis S Clapper). According to Clapper wilderness preservation is part of the mission and values of the Forest Service In the Wilderness Act, the main area of focus is wilderness Statements given by Olson exemplify a need to protect wilderness He argues : The inclusion of this long-fought over area in a national wilderness preservation system is absolutely necessary in order that it can have stability and permanence" (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Congo 1395 (1962) (Sigurd F Olson). 48

PAGE 59

The role of the government also plays an important role when it comes to protecting wilderness : "The successful passage of this bill in the fonn of S.174 means above all else recognition by the Congress of the United States that wilderness is a governmental purpose" (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Congo 1395 (1962) (Sigurd F Olson). Olson also provides an estimate on how big wilderness can be: I think in order to provide the kind of wilderness that the average American feels is wilderness, you cannot go beyond 5,000 acres" (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong o 1395 (1962) (Sigurd F. Olson) Olson furthennore critiques the wilderness character : But these 80 million people who get their only wilderness experience from standing on a lookout above Yellowstone Falls or above Yosemite or Glacier or just step out of their automobiles for a swift look at clinging vines they may not even stop they get as genuine a wilderness experience as I do, because the wilderness background of those national parks or national forests, wherever they may be, give character to the country and even though they do not set foot in it, it is the magnet that draws them to these areas (Serial 12 Part IV) 87th Cong o 1395 (1962) (Sigurd F Olson) Goodwin sheds a different light on the wilderness discussion through his congressional testimony Goodwin believes a wilderness bill is not necessary However, if the act passes he provides the following recommendations to Congress : No area should be automatically placed in a wilderness system Instead the Secretary of Agriculture should within 10 years review all wilderness, wild, primitive, canoe and national park areas and makes his recommendations to Congress (Serial 12 Part IV) 87th Cong o 1485 (1962) (Gordin A Goodwin) Goodwin further posists :

PAGE 60

This can be accomplished by including a requirement that all lands considered for inclusion within the wilderness system shall first be subject to inventory, evaluation with public hearings by the Congress and review of their values for wilderness purposes and for other beneficial uses before Congress takes action with respect to them (Serial 12 Part IV) 87th Cong o 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin) Goodwin also believes that oil fields and mines do not hinder the wilderness system : So even if you had to build a road to get to an oil field or a mine, or to some other natural resource, we do not think is is too great a violation of their wilderness concept, if they insist upon placing in the wilderness system areas that contain these other natural resources (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Congo 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin) It is also interesting to note the response Goodwin receives from Mr. Dominick, representative from Colorado : But I have some concern with your statement because it seems to me that you are saying that we can have both multiple use and a wilderness system within one area and, frankly, I do not see how this is possible (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong o 1485 (1962) (Gordin A. Goodwin) Marine Quotes The following are example quotes from the marine congressional testimonies The marine testimonies provide insight into the use of the eight keywords along with identifying what is missing from the text. Analyzing the keywords as they are embodied through the quotes provides a way to better understand the environmental discussion as it relates to wilderness 50

PAGE 61

Commodity The marine environment contains numerous uses that provides for growing human populations. The goal of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 is to conserve fishery resources The menhaden is one type offish discussed in the congressional testimonies : "The menhaden itselfis a very bony and oily fish that is undesirable as an edible species, and is not used directly for food purposes" (Serial 9313), 93rd Cong o 13 7 (1973) (J. Steele Culbertson). Culbertson further states the use of the menhaden : The menhaden oils constitute one of our largest U.S. fishery export items" (Serial 93-13), 9 3rd Congo 137 (1973) (J Steele Culbertson) in which "[t]heir principal use is for canning and pickling and other food uses" (Serial 93-13), 93rd Cong o 137 (1973) (J. Steele Culbertson). The U.S Ocean Action Plan of 2000 attempts to protect the ocean from over use of the diverse oceanic resources. McManus testifies to management tactics and protection of the ocean s resources : Finally sir dealing with the issues that have been raised about the economic values of the ocean, I would suggest that a carefully managed and healthy ocean is going to provide a lot more economic benefit than anything else we can do that may come out of our deliberations on the ocean (Serial 105-75) 105th Congo 31 (Roger McManus) McManus further argues that international threats challenge such management tactics : Right now in was representing a company from another country I could come into the exclusive economic zone of the United States and I could 51

PAGE 62

harvest the resources of the United States of America, the pharmaceutically valuable organisms (Serial 105-75) 105th Cong o 31 (Roger McManus) In order to protect the interests of the United States of America, McManus argues : I think we need new legislation that will seek to manage and conserve these resources which may be the largest economic value we will get from the oceans (Serial 105-75) 1051h Cong o 31 (Roger McManus). Paul L. Kelly also speaks to resource management when protecting the economic interests of the ocean One in particular arises from the release of two condors in the Bug Sur region which attracts more tourists to the region : "That is an economic interest that is enhanced by resource management" (Serial 105-75) 1051h Cong o 31 (1998) (paul L. Kelly) Recreation The ocean provides recreational activity such as fishing o r swimming at the beach In the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act and the Ocean Dumping Ban Act, fishing as a recreational activity is briefly highlighted in the congressional testimonies. Abbott states : "We have heard a lot about the name Homarus Americanus denotes it is an American species, and has been fished by American fishermen exclusively off the US. coast for 125 years" (Serial 93-13), 93rd Congo 137 (1973) (Ernest G Abbott) In the Ocean Dumping Ban Act, Lentz also states her concerns regarding the consequences of illegal dumping into the ocean: "A disturbance of[copepods] could have far-reaching 52

PAGE 63

consequences for other fonns of life at the site including important commercial and recreational fisheries" (Serial 100(9), l00th Congo 81 (1988) (Sally Lentz) The U.S Ocean Action Plan of 2000 also utilizes family trips to the beach to state his concerns : Nevertheless, for most Americans when they go to the beach they have no idea what their families or their children will be getting into" (Serial 10S7S) lOSth Cong o 31 (Roger McManus) Tourism The tourist industry is a concern in the Ocean Dumping Ban Act and the U S Ocean Action Plan Lentz believes the cost of implementing alternatives to ocean dumping is insignificant when compared to the lose of certain industries and the marine ecosystem: "But that cost is insignificant when compared to the costs of continued dumping on fisheries, tourism and the health of marine and coastal ecosystems" (Serial 100-49), 100th Cong o 81 (1988) (Sally Lentz). Furthennore in the U.S. Ocean Action Plan, Kelly stands up for the oil industry stating : I mean because when I found that in our area when lease/sale 63, I think it was, otT the central coast of California was proposed, that another industry the tourism industry and the agricultural industry lobbied very effectively the drilling for interests in their own industry (Serial lOS-7S) lost Congo 31 (1998)(Paul L. Kelly) S3

PAGE 64

Fishing Interests Fishing interests is a key phrase analyzed throughout the congressional testimonies. Providing for growing human populations, fishing affects the economic and food stability of a country. The testimonies highlight foreign fishing interests along with a growing concern in reduced catches throughout the years. In the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, Abbott underlines the effects of foreign fishing interests: "Heavy foreign fishing efforts during March and April of 1972, in and along the canyons, caused a 1 million pound reduction in the Rhode Island catch that year, mainly from offshore" (Serial 93-13), 93Td Congo 137 (1973) (Ernest G. Abbott) He further testifies: "Gentlemen, all we fishermen can understand is that the grounds and the fish have been basically ours for generations are being exploited to the point of extinction" (Serial 93-13), 93rd Congo 137 (1973) (Ernest G. Abbott). Foreign fishing is also a concern in Culbertson's statement. He argues: "In fact, on a volume or poundage basis, their fishing vessels harvest about half of the fin fish caught and landed by U .S. fishermen, and about 35 to 40 percent of U.S. total landings when the weight of the shellfish with the shells on it included" (Serial 93-13), 93rd Cong o 137 (1973) (1. Steele Culbertson). He further concludes: "It was not before the arrival of these foreign fleets off our coast that U.S. coastal fisheries had their serious decline in some of the important species 54

PAGE 65

harvested by U.S fishennen, but since" (Serial 93-13), 93rd Cong o 137 (1973) (1. Steele Culbertson) In the Ocean Dumping Ban Act, Lentz also argues that sewage sludge dumping threatens fishing interests : "Sewage sludge dumping has virtually destroyed the 12 mile site, resulting in the closing of shellfish beds reduced catches offish, and increased incidence offish disease" (Serial 100-49), 100th Congo 81 (1988) (Sally Lentz) The U.S. Ocean Action Plan recognizes different, but equally important, challenges as it relates to fishing interests Kelly believes, "What has happened, though, as people overharvested for us or ovennined and had downstream damages there was an economic consequence which led to environmental management issues" (Serial 105-75) 105th Congo 31 (1998) (Paul L. Kelly). He argues for improved management practices of fisheries : "Your best interest is to manage these fisheries so they will be there to be able to be harvested appropriately" (Serial 105-75) 105th Cong o 31 (1998) (Paul L. Kelly). He also underscores the role and importance of the commission : Where the commission becomes very important for our industry is not in the internal aspects of fishery management, which have been addressed but it is in the interface between what we are doing in fisheries and the other economic activities out there. (Serial 105-75) 105th Cong o 31 (1998) (paul L. Kelly) Fishing interests also highlights competition with foreign fishing fleets reduced catches of fish and overharvesting In the congressional testimonies of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act foreign 55

PAGE 66

fishing is of upmost concern. Fishennen believe that foreign fishing is to blame for reduced catches. They further emphasize ocean resources as theirs staking a claim on marine boundaries : Mr. Chainnan, to me and to our members, this suggests that the serious problem associated with the harvest and maintenance of our coastal fisheries is the one that has been created by the large overseas fishing fleets that have arrived and heavily fished the same coastal species that have been fished without damage by our own fishennan for generations. (Serial 93-13), 93rd Congo 137 (1973) (Statement of 1. Steele Culbertson) Foreign fishing is a constant concern throughout the marine congressional testimonies Intrinsic Value The keyword intrinsic value is found only in the Ocean Dumping Ban Act in the statement of Sally Lentz. Lentz argues that: "Copepods are minute organisms that provide an important link in oceanic food chains" (Serial 100-49), 100th Congo 81 (1988) (Sally Lentz). Phytoplankton is another important organism to the marine environment: "There's also been a finding of depressions in phytoplankton abundance at the] 06" (Serial 100-49), 100th Congo 8] (1988) (Sally Lentz). She warns that: "A disturbance of these populations could have far-reaching consequences for other fonns of life at the site, including important commercial and recreational fisheries" (Serial ] 00-49), ] OOth Congo 81 (1988) (Sally Lentz). 56

PAGE 67

Technology Technology is a dominant frame in the marine congressional testimonies Technological advancements allowed for extracting the ocean's resources such as developing commercial fishing techniques and retrieving oil. The MagnusonStevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act speaks to the progress and effects of fishing methods : "Foreign vessels with highly sophisticated gear are literally vacuum-cleaning the lobster beds (Serial 93-13) 93rd Cong o 137 (1973) (Ernest G Abbott) Culbertson further contends : Within the past 2 years, but mainly during this year, we have seen the Russians developing a very large purse seine capability on the Atlantic which they did not previously have as a part of their bottom and midwater trawl fishing operations (Serial 93-13) 93rd Cong o 137 (1973) (1. Steele Culbertson) Technology also became important in the testimonies of Sheldon Lipke and Sally Lentz as a solution to treat sewage sludge Lipke draws on a number of examples to treat sewage sludge : In our last submittal to the agencies in 1981, we proposed air pollution control devices which would be considered state-of-theart even today" (Serial 100-49), l00th Congo 81 (1988) (Sheldon Lipke) He makes known the efforts his organization has taken to provide a solution to sewage sludge : In the intervening years, we met with many vendors of innovative sludge treatment processes in order to find a process which could be pennitted and implemented to end ocean dumping (Serial 100-49), 100th Cong o 81 (1988) (Sheldon Lipke) Lentz also provides her own idea : For sewage 5 7

PAGE 68

sludge, such alternatives include use of the sludge as fertilizer or compost" (Serial 100-49), l00th Congo 81 (1988) (Sally Lentz) In the U.S. Ocean Action Plan, the use of the keyword technology also allowed for Paul L. Kelly to indicate the advancements the oil industry has made He states that: "Moreover, new technology has eliminated or minimized the effect of offshore operations on plant and animal life" (Serial 105-75) 105th Congo 31 (1998) ( Paul L. Kelly) He further contends that the: "The risk [of oil spills] has been reduced by new technology that has evolved over the past 30 years as well as by better safety practices in our industry" (Serial 105-75) 105th Congo 31 (1998) (Paul L. Kelly) Ke))y believes that : "In these areas, it seems that scientific and technological advances have moved out ahead of public policy and knowledge of those advances" (Serial 105-75) 1 o 5th Cong o 31 (1998) (Paul L. Kelly). Occurrence of Keywords When analyzing the terrestrial congressional testimonies and the marine congressional testimonies, certain keywords had a higher presence than other keywords For example, in the terrestrial congressional testimonies, wilderness occurs 30% of the time Followed by wilderness is technology at 27 6%, then timber interests at 22.8%, commodity at 17.<)010, tourism at 11%, recreation at 10.4%, intrinsic value at 3.2% and fishing interests at 0% The keywords in the 58

PAGE 69

marine congressional testimonies ranked with technology as the highest, 24%, followed by fishing interests at 22%, intrinsic value at 5%, commodity at 4% recreation at 2 5%, tourism at 2% and timber interests and wilderness ranked at 0% When the percentages are added together by totaling similar keywords together identical keywords in the terrestrial testimonies with identical keywords in marine the testimonies, I can relate this finding to the overall environmental discussion The total for the keywords are : technology at 51.6% wilderness at 30% timber interests at 22 8%, fishing interests at 22%, commodity at 2l.9%, tourism at 13% recreation at 12. 9%, and intrinsic value at 8 2% After combing the keywords, technology is the highest percentage while intrinsic value is the lowest percentage throughout all of the congressional testimonies The keyword that highlights the way people modify natural spaces and occurs the majority of the time throughout the congressional testimonies is technology. On the semantic aspect scale, technology ranks the highest placing at number three. Its prevalence arose from the National Park Service Organic Act specifically in the statement ofP.S Eustis and in the Ocean Dumping Ban Act in the statement of Sheldon Lipke Eustis elaborates on the use of railroads suggesting that the railroad would help the transportation of tourists in tum allowing for more people to visit National Parks Regarding marine congressional testimonies, Lipke speaks extensively about up-and-coming technology used to treat sludge along with air pollution control devices In the intervening years, we 59

PAGE 70

met with many vendors of innovative sludge treatment process in order to find a process which could be permitted and implemented to end ocean dumping" (Serial 100-49), 100th Cong o 80 (1988) (testimony of Sheldon Lipke). The two congressional testimonies in the National Park Service Organic Act, technology occurred 22% of the time The combination of the two congressional testimonies in the Ocean Dumping Ban Act, technology occurred 18% of the time Figure 3 1 and 3.2 represent these findings: Instance of Key \Vord in 0/0 15'';6 00 / / Q 1%. .;l-_...-.."",,_ .r,., :: t: :.. :.. :=: 9" h 'I: '-"-t .= ;;:: .... Figure 3 1 National Park Service Organic Act 60 ')'''''i __ n :.. :: !:.' ;... :.. -; :.. .:" -() 0 '" t'-. Ic E: "-:.. = ;; e..t .... ;;:

PAGE 71

Instance of Key \\lord in 0/0 20"0 18'% 16 .... U%. HI"", So, .. 6", 2 % (t .. 0 % .. -I .. 8 ;;,:-.. : ... : !'; ;" :i I .. 0 ... Figure 3.2 Ocean Dumping Ban Act 18% ;", 0 '-; ", ::.. ... ::.. ., .=: ". ;" '-.. .i: ... !"'" I} '" a: ::.. :: ., The next keyword that had the highest percentage of occurrence is .. 0 '" t E :L .=:. ;.,.. wilderness The act that contained the maximum instances of wilderness is the Wilderness Act of 1964. The congressional statements presented by Sigurd F. Olson and Gordin A. Goodwin set the number of instances on the two to three range on the semantic aspect scale suggesting the use of the word wilderness was not absent at the same time it was not "very much present" within the testimony because it did not rank at a 5 or 6 on the semantic aspect scale The combination of the two congressional testimonies in the Wilderness Act, wilderness occurs 26% ofthe time. Figure 3.3 represent this presumption : 61

PAGE 72

Instance of Key \\ford in 0/0 10.110",. 5.00 % ; Figure 3 3 Wilderness Act ., ... ... ftJ = .-I .... :I:-I-.:.. :.. .: ... ;.... l\Of J'!re ,. !:; ;., .:: ..c ", :.. 'f) ." I: :.. I: '"' ... :.. :.. ;: ::E :: .; :t ,. c:: .c .! ;.;. Wilderness also occurs in the Multiple Use and Sustained Yield Act of 1960 where the instance of wilderness is 4% of the two congressional testimonies combined Within the two congressional testimonies of the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act, timber interests and commodity are prevalant. Figure 3.4 represent the findings within the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act combining the two congressional testimonies Timber interests ranked highest as it relates to the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act. 62

PAGE 73

Instance of Kev Word in 0/0 8'" '0 ""0 ..... 0 f) 0.60" ;' (} tI"-;, ,. I :l .,. l-I. I.. :: :" :: .... ;... t: :.. :... :.. : :... ., .... :.. ;; :l .... = --:... Figure 3.4 Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act There are instances in which commodity and timber interests are found in the same sentence, however it remains important to understand the difference between the two keywords. Commodity focuses on the usefulness or the use of an object of economic value Whereas timber interests focuses on the industry of cutting down trees. There were times when commodity and timber interests were one in the same For example: And yet it must be basic in their management that the intent of Congress was that there shall be a continuous supply of timber and water, and that these two uses shall have priority of consideration in the management processes. (Serial RR), 87th Congo 62 (1960) (Statement of Ralph D. Hodges) An example of timber interests alone : Earlier this month the Western Pine Association, one of our federated associations, reaffirmed its longstanding support of the multiple-use 63

PAGE 74

principle and the concetft of managing forests for successive crops of timber. (Serial RR), 87 Cong o 62 (1960) (Statement of Ralph D Hodges) An example of the use of commodity within the Multiple-Use congressional testimony is : We have to have confidence enough that the program is going to be administered, that it will be done so in a sound enough manner, so that proper consideration will be given to these uses in the various areas, as to which should receive primary consideration (Serial RR), 87th Cong o 62 (1960) (Statement of Ralph D Hodges) The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation Management Act of 1976 contained the highest percentage of the keyword, fishing interests occurring 15% within the two congressional testimonies combined Figure 3 5 illustrates the instance of fishing interests 64

PAGE 75

Instance of Key Word in 6/0 12% <>0 1 o 0 0.60" ; II ; II ... .:: 'I. ... C V' 'tl it (I .. #: .f ;::: i: :.. :E :.. ... ... Figure 3 5 Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation Management Act ." 1:: = .=. ." :: An example of fishing interests found within the Magnuson-Stevens Act is, The principal species they harvest is menhaden a member of the herring family found along the U.S coast from Maine to Texas (Serial 93-13) 93rd Cong o 137 (1973) (Statement of J Steele Culbertson) On the semantic aspect scale fishing interests reached its highest at two in a statement given by 1. Steele Culbertson Statements from the U.S Ocean Action Plan and Ocean Dumping Act fishing interests ranked at a one on the semantic aspect scale Fishing interests was not the dominant theme throughout the marine congressional testimonies Moreover a dominant keyword did not stand out when analyzing all of the marine congressional testimonies. 65

PAGE 76

The keyword that had the highest percentage of instances throughout the congressional testimonies is fishing interests It occurs 4% of the time in the U.S Ocean Action Plan On the semantic aspect scale, fishing interests ranked at 1 along with commodity, recreation, tourism and technology Wilderness and intrinsic value ranked at 0 meaning the text was absent from the congressional testimonies Figure 3.6 illustrates these findings I nstance of Key \\lord in 0/0 ..... .. ;'fJ 'fJ/ ... I"" 10 / 0 .... ... E 0 .90"' 8 1/ ;' Figure 3.6 U.S. Ocean Action Plan o 1/ ;., .... ;., ,. .;: -66 (I .,. ." J: :;: a; ;., ''-.. = ., = '" ; ...

PAGE 77

Overview of Keywords Throughout all of the congressional testimonies, on the semantic aspect scale, no keyword was greater than three, meaning that no keyword was dominant throughout the congressional testimonies. The majority of the keywords fell at or below three. On the semantic aspect scale, no keyword placed on four, five or six which suggests the prominence of an attribute according to Krippendorff (2004). Due to this, out ofthe eight keywords, no keyword was generally prominent throughout the congressional testimonies. As stated earlier, technology is the most predominant placing at a three on the semantic aspect scale when comparing all of the congressional testimonies. Instances also occurred when two or more keywords occurred in the same sentence In the National Park Service Organic Act, technology and tourism occurred within the same sentence six times. The Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act contained commodity and timber interests occurring within the same sentence 18 times. In the same congressional testimonies, recreation and tourism occurred four times. In the Wilderness Act, wilderness and intrinsic value occurred six times, wilderness and tourism occurred five times, and technology and wilderness occurred four times. The marine congressional testimonies also had instances of two or more keywords occurring in the same sentence. In the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the only instance in which two keywords occurred in the same sentence is recreation and fishing 67

PAGE 78

interests Recreation and fishing interests occurred once In the Ocean Dumping Ban, intrinsic value, recreation, and fishing interests occurred one time. Tourism and intrinsic va1ue also occurred one time The U.S Ocean Action Plan also had two keywords occurring in the same sentence Tourism and recreation occurred one time The dominant keywords relating to the terrestrial congressional testimonies is technology, timber interests and wilderness. Technology is most prominent in the National Park Service Organic Act. The keyword timber interests is prominent in the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act and the keyword wilderness is dominant in the Wilderness Act Technology, timber interests, and wilderness consisted of 30% of the congressional testimonies Out of the eight keywords, fishing interests and technology accounted for the majority when strictly assessing the keywords relating to the ocean congressional testimonies These two keywords make up fewer than 20% of the congressional testimonies. In the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation Act, fishing interests accounted for 15%, while in the U.S Ocean Action Plan fishing interests accounted for only 4% In the Ocean Dumping Ban Act, technology ranked the highest at 18% When comparing the terrestrial and marine congressiona1 testimonies side by-side the frequently indicated frame is technology From discussions on the use of roads and railroads to innovative solutions on sludge removal and offshore drilling techniques, technology remains to be a dominant frame displaying how 68

PAGE 79

far society has come. Paul L. Kelly, his statement regarding the U.S Ocean Action Plan, argues: Thirty years ago, our fishing fleets lacked the capacity to harvest all the fishery resources ofT our coasts, and we faced overwhelming competition for these resources from very powerful foreign fleets fishing ofT our coasts Today, those fisheries which once were unavailable to our fleets, are now producing billions of pounds of food for Americans. (Serial 10575) 105th Cong o 31 (1998) (Statement of Paul L. Kelly) During the same hearing, Kelly further contends that innovative technology : You talk about 'big ideas: the industry is proceeding ahead with very big ideas in the deep water Gulf. We now have oil and gas production in over 3 000 feet of water in the Gulf. We expect to add I million barrels of crude oil per day to domestic production from the Gulf of Mexico by the year 2000. We have actually drilled a well in 7,700 feet of water two summers ago (Serial 105-75) 105th Congo 31 (1998) (Statement of Paul L. Kelly) The concept of wilderness is found in the Wilderness Act and the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act. In the statement of Sigurd F Olson, wilderness placed at a three on the semantic aspect scale and in the statement of Gordin A. Goodwin, wilderness placed at a two. Although the use of the word wilderness is not as prominent in the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act in the statement of Louis S Clapper wilderness placed at a two on the semantic aspect scale and at a one in the statement by Ralph D Hodges Jf. Another keyword that is prevalent in two congressional testimonies and absent in most is intrinsic value Intrinsic value is most prevalent in the Ocean Dumping Ban Act specifically in the statement of Sally Lentz, Staff Attorney at The Oceanic Society Lentz discusses Copepods and its importance, Copepods are minute organisms that provide an important link in oceanic food chains 69

PAGE 80

(Serial 100-49), 100th Congo 81 (1988) (Statement of Sally Lentz) Its importance is independent of the usefulness of the nonhuman world for human purposes. Intrinsic value is also seen in the Wilderness Act, which comprises of 3% of the congressional testimonies, in the statement of Sigurd F. Olson. Olson discusses the character and the quality of wilderness areas along with the spiritual necessity of wilderness spaces. He powerfully states: I feel the passage of the wilderness bill is one of the most important pieces of conservation legislation Congress has ever considered, for inherent in it is a basic decision whether or not we recognize certain intangible and cultural values or devote ourselves entirely to a materialistic philosophy. We must provide opportunities for our people today and in the future to return to the simplicities and beauties of unchanged nature if they are to retain their perspective in a swiftly changing world becoming more and more removed from the outdoors (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong o 1395 (1962) (Statement of Sigurd F. Olson) Even though recreation did not have a dominant presence throughout the congressional testimonies, there are references made regarding recreation Recreation is most prominent in the terrestiral congressional testimonies particularly in the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act Ralph D Hodges expresses, "With increases in population, leisure time, income, and with faster travel, more consideration is being given to recreation. Last year the national forests provided 81 million man-days of recreation" (Serial RR) 86th Cong o 62 (1960) (Statement of Ralph D. Hodges). The instance of recreation is 8% within the Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act congressional testimony. Another example of recreation as it relates to terrestrial congressional testimonies is found in the Wilderness Act. Gordin A. Goodwin, who speaks on 70

PAGE 81

behalf of the American Petroleum Institute, Rocky Mountain Oil & Gas Association, Mid-Continent Oil & Gas Association, and Western Oil & Gas Association, suggests that "these lands have a high value for recreational use other than wilderness" (Serial 12 Part IV) 87th Cong o 1485 (1962) (Statement of Gordin A. Goodwin) The final keyword which occurs in six of the twelve congressional testimonies is tourism Tourism occurs in the National Park Service Organic Act, Wilderness Act, Ocean Dumping Ban Act, and the U.S Ocean Action Plan In the National Park Service Organic Act, a great deal of emphasis lies in accommodating visitors, "We can provide for the campers and increase the facilities for the campers as they come in larger numbers, at the same time taking care to protect the interests of the stockmen" 64th Cong o 11 (1916) (Statement of Stephen T Mather) Furthennore, accommodating visitors by easy access throughout the park and providing accurate infonnation for further enjoyment: Here [indicating] is a map that we intend to give to every motorist that comes to the park It shows just where he can be taken care of; where all the camps are located ; it gives him the rules and regualtions to be observed, and it shows the park in its relation to the rest of the State (64th Cong ) II (1916) (Statement of Stephen T. Mather) Drawing tourists into the park through comfortable modes of transportation, such as the railroad, and providing the traveler with necessary information welcoming them to the park Olson argues that wilderness is not just scenery or a tourist resort, it is filled with other interesting creatures and the space itself provides a natural beauty "7' I 1

PAGE 82

unfounded by human interests. Olson states: Without the background of wilderness and these great reservations and I am speaking both of parks and forests and wildlife refuges they would be nothing but tourist resorts You would lose that indefinable something that gives them a wilderness experience and which all people in this rapidly mechanized age and growing urbanization need and will increasingly need, say, by the tum of the century, when another 150 million people are here. (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong o 1395 (1962) (Statement of Sigured F. Olson) Without the grandeur that wilderness provides, all that would be left is a tourist destination Gordin A. Goodwin, representative of the petroleum industry, speaks of tourism in terms of numbers suggesting that "these lands have a high value for recreational use other than wilderness In 1959, the last year of record there were 10 million visitors on the national wildlife refuges" (Serial 12 Part IV), 87th Cong o 1485 (1962) (Statement of Gordin A. Goodwin). From an oil and gas perspective, Goodwin responds by first stating that oil fields do not take up much space. Furthermore, people do not travel far from their cars therefore, the number of people visiting a wilderness area does not matter because there are roads leading to it. Supplementary Keywords Throughout the congressional testimonies, other key concerns arose as a result of pressing environmental concerns facing politicians and citizens The eight keywords and their corresponding synonyms were found in 40% of the sentences within the congressional testimonies. Since the eight keywords made 72

PAGE 83

up less than 50% of the discussion during the congressional testimonies, it is important to mention other concerns that arise to gain the full capacity of the conversation and to understand what is discussed the other 60% of the time There are numerous concerns addressed throughout the con g ressional testimonies that further represents political conversations as it relates to the environment. Below is a list of other keywords that were a common theme throughout the congressional testimonies for future research : Foreign Fishing Stakeholders Recommendations on how to improve policy Reference to Other Political Acts Funding Foreign fishing is a constant theme throughout the marine congressional testimonies. Although the below quotes were coded as fishing interests it is important to highlight the weight of foreign fishing as a concern In the Magnuson-Stevens Act, Ernest G Abbott states : Foreign vessels with highly sophisticated gear, are literally vacuum cleaning the lobster beds Heavy foreign fishing efforts during March and April of 1972 in and along the canyons, caused a 1 million pound reduction in the Rhode Island lobster catch that year mainly from offshore. (Serial 93-13) 93rd Cong o 3 (1973) (testimony of Ernest G Abbott) 1. Steele Culbertson adds : Some of our members suggest that it would serve only as an exercise to cause a delay in coming to grips with the foreign fishing problems pending the outcome of the Law of the Sea Conference" (Seria l 93-1 3 ) 73

PAGE 84

93rd Cong o 3 (1973) (testimony of 1. Steele Culbertson) The competition with foreign fishing fleets is a constant struggle, one that enters political discussion considerably The involvement of numerous stakeholders is also a common concern throughout the congressional testimonies. In the National Park Service Organic Act, the interests of private landowners were seriously considered more specifically as it relates to property owners rights. In addition, recommendations on how to improve the policy is a main topic of discussion. The testimonies of the Wilderness Act discussed public domain in which Gordin A. Goodwin suggests the words "public domain" be taken out of the policy's language in order to "refer to every class ofland that goes into the system if this section is kept in the act" (Serial 12 Part IV) 8ih Congo 1485 (J 962) (Statement of Gordin A. Goodwin). References to other political acts also aid in the testimonies of individuals as previous policies set a precedence. Absent Frames When critiquing the congressional testimonies, it is important to observe missing frames because it provides a way to examine the missing frames within the text. The keyword that is absent from the marine congressional testimonies is wilderness. The absence of the wilderness frame as it relates to the marine ecosystem suggests that there is no association between wilderness and the ocean 74

PAGE 85

The ocean is not viewed as a wilderness space as is apparent in the terrestrial congressional testimonies in which wilderness consists of 30010 of the statements. The absence of the ocean as a wilderness space suggests that the perception of the ocean follows a different frame unlike wilderness Conclusion The eight keywords provide insight into the discussions surrounding environmental communication and the historical roots of wilderness. Assessing the keywords allows for a closer examination of dominant frames along with absent frames. Analyzing absent frames a))ows for us to detennine what wilderness is commonly associated with. Viewing the ocean as a wilderness is an absent frame Wilderness is a word that carries special meanings. By assessing the congressional testimonies the language and use of the keywords aid in establish meaning In the next chapter, I will discuss these findings in detail along with the implications of framing the ocean as a wilderness space. 75

PAGE 86

CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Study Summary The purpose of this study is twofold : 1) to explore the symbolic and social construction of wilderness, and 2) to examine the implications of applying the wilderness concept to the ocean. The use of twelve congressional testimonies, in which six were terrestrial based and six were marine based, present the opportunity to explore the use of the eight keywords. The keywords provide insight into the environmental conversation within politics and society regarding wilderness spaces For centuries, wilderness has long been conceived of as terrestrial based phenomenon. Paying little attention to the ocean, which covers 70% of our planet. What is to become of the vast body of water when it is human perception and attitude, not just policy, that determines its fate, "But laws and lists only express values The only certain safeguard of wilderness areas like the Grand Canyon is in the attitudes that inspired the dam protest" (Nash 2001, p 236). Is Abbey (1968) correct in stating, "the ocean itself is merely a medium of travel" (p. 241)? 76

PAGE 87

Discussion Wilderness carries social and symbolic meanings instilling strong emotion People feel a desire to speak on behalf ofwildemess since wilderness cannot speak for itself. Therefore, individuals attach words and various meanings to wilderness : "The diverse meanings of wilderness as well as the tenn environment remind us that these are powetful and changing ideas, the meanings of which have consequences for our behavior toward them" (Cox, 2010 p 46) Wilderness is a place and an idea, both are things people attempt to protect. Competing voices from special interest groups attempt to shape society s attitude about wilderness (Cox 2010). Therefore, ideologies of wilderness can change with contending interests The eight keywords illuminate the diverse interests along with capturing the communication that occurs within the political and social spheres Analyzing the quotes associated with the eight key words highlights the environmental discussion and political and societal attitudes surrounding the social and symbolic construct of wilderness Through qualitative analysis, the quotes contribute to constructing the ocean as a wilderness The keywords associated with the quotes evaluate the implications of labeling the ocean as wilderness Analysis of both the quantitative and qualitative data contribute to answering the second research question When strictly assessing the data through a quantitative lens, labeling the ocean as a wilderness would not benefit the 77

PAGE 88

marine ecosystem. In the marine congressional testimonies, the use of the word wilderness is absent from the testimonies The keyword wilderness consists of 30% of the terrestrial congressional testimonies The lack of the keyword wilderness quantitatively indicates that the ocean would not benefit from the use of the word wilderness Furthennore, setting aside natural spaces specifically as it relates to the ocean can be done without calling the marine ecosystem "wilderness." There are 4,400 Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) which cover 2.35 million square kilometers creating 0 85% of the global ocean area protected (Earle, 2009), all created without framing the ocean as wilderness Based on the literature review that examines the social and symbolic construct of wilderness, to brand the ocean as a wilderness space is to attach a label and meanings behind that label. As Carbaugh illustrates: Through these pre-existing terms, and similar others, we are 'wired' and drawn into what might be called a 'prison-house' of language, rhetorical terms and tropes that stand over and between our relation with nature s world. (2007, p. 66) Historically, the wilderness concept fosters terrestrial notions excluding the ocean as a wilderness area With the creation of the National Park Service, politicians and citizens saw a need to protect terrestrial wilderness spaces. However, upon further analysis of the quantitative data and assessing the qualitative data, a different conclusion surfaces The keywords within the terrestrial congressional testimonies occur more frequently than in the marine congressional testimonies The marine congressional testimonies total 59 5% 78

PAGE 89

The wilderness notion carries the social and symbolic construct of the eight keywords as well. To label the ocean as a wilderness transforms political and societal discussions expanding wilderness notions to include the ocean Sequentially, the eight keywords would also be illustrative of a marine wilderness Therefore the prominence of the eight keywords in the terrestrial congressional testimonies would help change and create a deeper discussion regarding a marine wilderness Another key method throughout this thesis is the use of qualitative analysis Through content analysis, and more specifically interpretivism, different implications reveal the benefits oflabeling the ocean as wilderness Behind the wilderness notion is emotion, an appreciation of natural spaces and species, national identity, and environmental advocates who fight to protect natural spaces for future generations to enjoy The debate to protect such spaces is reified with the creation of environmental policies The difference lies in the way the speakers employ the keywords An example of the different uses of the keywords arises from the Wilderness Act of 1964 in comparison to the Ocean Dumping Ban Act and the U.S Ocean Action Plan. In the Wilderness Act, Olson poetically argues for the preservation of wilderness because it provides people a way to escape from the fast-paced, consumer hungry society To neglect people of this opportunity is to take away that indeniable thing that makes people human Not only is there a recognition of societal benefits to maintain wilderness, in the Ocean Dumping 79

PAGE 90

Ban Act Lentz underscores Olson s argument concluding that other sentient beings are part of the diverse ecosystem She argues on behalf of organisms such as phytoplankton and Copepods who are an important part in the oceanic food chain In 1998 collaborations on conserving the marine ecosystem creates a much different undertone when strictly assessing Mr. Gutting's statement. In the U.S Ocean Action Plan, Mr. Gutting, representative alongside Paul L. Kelly for the oil and gas industry, states : Right now ocean policy is being formulated on the front pages of the newspapers and in the nightly news. We see and hear many sensational stories They mayor may not be based on fact. One of the things that is very attractive about what you are proposing in this legislation is that you are going to I hope, bring the very best science and facts not romance, not emotion, but true facts to bear and the results will be in a definitive report There has been a lot of emotion; we have heard a lot of rhetoric; we have seen a lot of romance about fisheries and oceans They go so far but it is time now for us to bring science and fact and business and the stakeholders together and try to make sense out of this (Serial 105-75) 105th Congo 31 (1998) (Statement of Paul L. Kelly) Gutting argues that science and fact should be the only things under review in the implementation of the U S. Ocean Action Plan, disregarding emotion or romance (Serial 105-75) 105th Cong o 31 (1998) (Statement of Paul L. Kelly). However, when setting aside wilderness spaces as seen in the National Park Service Organic Act the drafters carried romantic undertones of wilderness along with fervent emotions surrounding the conservation of wilderness. Policies are a direct reflection of our values Therefore to take emotion and romantic 80

PAGE 91

nuances out of the decision making process as Gutting suggests is to discount values : "Politics is about the collective choices we make as a society. It concerns policy goals and the means we use to achieve them as well as the way we organize and govern ourselves'" (Kraft, 2007, p 4). Kelly mentions technological advancements in offshore drilling utilizing the Gulf of Mexico as a case in point : "You talk about big ideas, the industry is proceeding ahead with very big ideas n the deep water Gulf We now have oil and gas production in over 3,000 feet of water in the Gulf' (Serial 105-75) 105th Cong o 31 (1998) (Paul L. Kelly). Ironically on April 2010, 5,000 barrels of oil spewed into the Gulf of Mexico resulting in one of the most catastrophic oil spills next to the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989 Technology revolutionized American history while at the same time leads to the demise of diverse ecosystems forever changing the landscape of where we work and play. With technology comes the transformation of a natural world where concrete jungles take over what was once conceived as wild Even so there remains limitations in the wilderness debate Environmental discourse highlights the differing attitudes, the American mindset and the social and symbolic construct ofwildemess As the congressional testimonies depict there were diverse opinions in setting aside wilderness spaces The drafters of the National Park Service Act did not define wilderness in the act itself because it was understood what the natural state of wilderness was. As time passed the need to define the diverse uses of wilderness and wilderness itself emerged. The 81

PAGE 92

Multiple-Use and Sustained Yield Act and the Wilderness Act is a result. In the Wilderness Act Goodwin, who spoke on behalf of the American Petroleum Institute, believed a wilderness bill was not necessary because natural resources are within de s ignated wilderness areas. Therefore Goodwin argued for the need to protect the natural resources However for Olson wilderness holds intrinsic value which is reason enough to safeguard wilderness. Nash fears wilderness sufferes from an excess of interest of "being loved to death" (Nash 2001, p 340). As Nash (2001) argues, technology is one of those factors. Advancements in technology have allowed tourists to reach their destinations quicker and with ease Nash (200]) states : "It can be argued that the piece of technology with the most devastating effect on the American wilderness was the family automobile" (p 318). The impact of the transportation revolution (Nash, 2001) is undeniable. With paved roads railroads and air travel, arriving at the next wilderness destination is easy and comfortable. Nevertheless the wilderness label and wilderness notions instill value in people providing meaning to natural spaces To attach the wilderness notion to the ocean is to preserve the marine ecosystem As seen in the terrestrial policies wilderness is assigned values and there are people fighting to protect those values Even with anthropocentricism environmental advocates fight for preservation of diverse ecosystems. Competing interests threaten oceanic resources and the visual threats of oil spills adds to the complexity and sensitivity of protecting the marine ecosystem 82

PAGE 93

A sensitive debate still looms regarding wilderness management. It is a debate that dates back to the] 890s when wilderness preservation started to gain momentum The debate occurred between Gifford Pinchot and John Muir Pinchot argued for conservation of forest resources taking an anthropocentric stance. On the opposing side, Muir argues for preservation stating that nature exists for itself, not for human purposes (Nash, 2001). Today, the over 120 yearold debate is framed as anthropentrism and biocentrism. Nash (2001) explains : "Behind the big words is the very old problem of whether parks, reserves, and wilderness are for man (anthropocentric) or for nature (bioeentric)" (p 325) Policies such as the National Park Service Organic Act attempt to tackle this dilemma by supporting both viewpoints which has proven to be challenging. In order to preserve wilderness, society must establish limits To recognize wilderness preservation is to acknowledge the rights of nonhuman forms of life Wilderness seemed to be the best evidence that, in the last analysis, the earth did not belong to man It helped people see themselves as part of the earth. In this way wilderness spearheaded the shift in direction of the the recent American conservation movement, from what Bill Devall calls a 'shallow' utilitarianism, to 'deep' nonanthropoeentric concern for the entire ecosystem (Nash, 2001, p. 257) Wilderness became an asset to the United States which later translates to a place affording protection as seen in environmental policies With the creation of the National Park Service came the attempt to protect wilderness spaces Numerous wilderness areas were set aside resulting in over 365 National Park Service areas to date Therefore, one of the benefits of calling a place wilderness

PAGE 94

is it sets aside natural spaces, much like the National Park Service Organic Act did The eight keywords have corresponding relationships with one another and some keywords were more prevalent than others The keywords shape the lens through which society views nature and the policies established to govern it. Technology is most prominent and it is through technology people can manipulate their relationship with wilderness With technology, the extraction of natural resources or the ability to provide transportation for tourists into wilderness, allows people to interact with wilderness differently The eight keywords further describe the multiple-uses of wilderness. The multiple-uses of wilderness highlight the competing interests and values The concept of multiple -use underscores how the idea of wilderness is underdeveloped and/or competes with other dominant concepts of how people perceive and frame the natural world in political debates We are historically fighting the battle of multiple-use and preservation However, as time passes, a growing concern over the fate of diverse ecosystems arose The protection of the ocean climbed its way to the top of the priority list and Bush passed the U.S Ocean Action Plan. The results of my data suggest dissonance surrounding the eight keywords Analysis of the eight keywords depicts a difference between political and societal conversations In no way am I suggesting that political conversations ignore the eight keywords Rather the majority of the keywords are not the main 84

PAGE 95

topic of discussion Even though the eight keywords make up only a small percentage of the political conversation, all of the keywords enter the political discussion The disparity and fragmentation of the keywords lies in the degree to which the keyword entered the discussion The depth of the conversation revolving around the congressional testimonies is of a different degree than societal conversation When individuals discuss commodity, timber interests, or wilderness, there are values at stake and political conversations focus on the technicalities of those words whereas societal conversations focus on the implications of these words Therefore, the representation of wilderness in environmental discourse is fragmented because of the absence of ideas coupled with conflicting messages Framing the Environment The way people frame the environment is important because language frames reality and the lack of presence of the keywords has tangible consequences. Lakoff(201O) employs the term "hypocognition" which means "the lack of ideas we need" (p. 76). Lakoff (20 I 0) argues that individuals suffer from a lack of ideas in environmental discourse : The reason is that the environment is not just about the environment. It is intimately tied up with other issue areas: economics, energy, food, health, trade, and security. In these overlap areas, our citizens as well as our leaders, policymakers, and journalists simply lack frames that capture the reality of the situation (p 76) 8S

PAGE 96

The overlap of ideas results in missing frames and the inability to capture the full capacity of the situation (Lakoff, 2010). For example, society has long lived under the pretense of multiple-use. The notion of multiple-use is problematic in and of itself in that it promotes preserving resources while at the same time calling for the use of resources The concept of multiple-use is contentious because it promotes preservation and conservation. Promoting preservation and conservation creates a conflicting message thereby causing confusion in political goals and societal values Therefore, words such as preservation and conservation present challenges when existing simultaneously within the environmental frame because it is a reflection of the multiple values within society The conflicting message of multiple-use directly relates to the eight keywords chosen for this study The keywords suggest the use of the environment for human and nonhuman purposes Lakoff(2010) argues that the current Environment Frame "sees the environment as separate from, and around, us. Yet, we are not separate from Nature We are an inseparable part of Nature" (p.76). The environmental frames depict nature as separate from people, one result is Cronon's (1996) argument for the trouble with wilderness Additionally, Nash (2001) asserts that as humans begin to distance themselves from nature : "Nature lost its significance as something to which people belonged and became an adversary a target, merely an object for exploitation. Uncontrolled nature became wilderness (p xiii) Simultaneously the trouble with depicting the ocean as a wilderness space, is depicting the ocean as separate from the environment, 86

PAGE 97

something out there, an object for management in which people declare it their owo. As the testimony of Ernest G. Abbott implies: "Gentlemen, all we fishennen can understand is that the grounds and the fish that have been basically ours for generations are being exploited to the point of extinction" (Serial 93-13) 93rd Cong o 3 (1973) (testimony of Ernest G. Abbott) The use of the ocean as "ours" or strictly for American use ignores The Regulated Commons frame. The ocean belongs to everyone. Each individual has a claim to the ocean because it directly affects the human popUlation. Much like the air people breathe, the ocean remains a valuable part of the global community to which people must not manipulate or exploit because doing so ultimately leads to society's demise and the end of a marine environment. Recommendations When exploring the social and symbolic construct of wilderness, a list of recommendations arise as a result. Analysis of language, the words people use to describe wilderness, provides a jumping off point to unearth a new place for language and the way in which individuals discuss wilderness and, more broadly, the environment As Nash (2001) argues, an intellectual revolution needs to develop regarding wilderness. A change in attitude beginning with a transformation in the way people think about wilderness promotes the environmental call to protect diverse ecosystems. Cronon (1996) speaks to a 87

PAGE 98

change in the way people perceive wilderness spaces He argues wilderness exists in every tree and shrub in people's backyards and in their cities Individuals must begin to appreciate the nature that exists all around them instead of conceiving wilderness as a place to go into Along with an intellectual revolution in the way people perceive wilderness a transformation in the way they value wilderness must occur as well. Perhaps instead of employing the term "value ," a different, more universally acceptable term should take its place. The term is respect. Respect carries a different connotation requiring action to pursue Respect for the environment respect for natural spaces and respect for the species within those natural spaces When people learn to respect something or someone the way they treat that thing or person changes resulting in a more collaborative atmosphere. Chief Luther Standing Bear of the Lakota tribe stated : But the old Lakota are wise. He knew that man s heart, away from nature, becomes hard; he knew that lack of respect for growing, living things soon led to lack of respect for humans too. So he kept his youth close to his softening influence (Callicott & Nelson, 1998 p 205-206) With respect comes a foundational approach to treating all living creatures with appreciation and acknowledging their living presence With an intellectual revolution of wilderness and a transformation in the way individuals value wilderness action must follow What good is our word if not translated into action? As it currently stands, society cannot keep progressing forward with business as usual Defined by Cox, business as usual means : 88

PAGE 99

The continued growth of carbon-based economies 'Carbon based' refers to the energy sources primarily, fossil fuels or the burning of oil, coal, and natural gas used to produce electricity, fuel transportation and heating, and power other dimensions of modern life. (2010, p 73) With energy efficient practices, society can develop sustainable procedures to secure a better future for, not only generations to come, but also for the global environment and all the species that exist within it. People must establish limits on growth creating islands of civilization, "it is civilization that is contained" (Nash, 2001, p 382) not wilderness Nash (200 1) calls the pockets of civilization Island Civilization, "Instead of people dominating Earth, people and their works would occupy small niches in an interconnected, wild ecosystem" (p 382) Civilization would have boundaries instead of wilderness Furthermore, Island Civilization respects other species that inhabit Earth (Nash, 2001, p 383) Respect for not only terrestrial species, but marine species as well must be integrated into this model. Public participation is also an important recommendation One of the means to achieve policy goals involves public participation in environmental decisions along with utilizing the components of environmental communication Public participation in the environmental decision making process allows for citizen involvement and civil society organizations (Cox, 2010). Best defined by Cox (2010), public participation is : the ability of individual citizens and groups to influence environmental decisions through (1) access to relevant information, (2) public comments to the agency that is responsible for a decision, and (3) the right, through the courts, to hold public agencies and businesses accountable for their environmental decisions and behaviors (p. 84) 89

PAGE 100

Public participation allows for numerous stakeholders to be heard along with empowering citizens to "hold governments accountable and to playa greater role in promoting more sustainable forms of development (Cox, 20] 0, p 84) With public participation comes emotion. However, the range of emotion varies. It is very challenging to take emotion out of the equation in its entirety Therefore, to include emotion, romance and poetic environmental rhetoric in environmental decisions is to embrace environmental values while speaking on behalf of the environment and the species within. The words of John Muir, Theodore Roosevelt, William Beebe, Rachel Carson, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Jacques Yves Cousteau, and many more environmental advocates resonate through warn pages of historical policies and documents To carry their environmental sentiment, both terrestrial and marine, is to contain an understanding of the interrelationship between diverse ecosystems and species, including humans. Finally, a more tangible recommendation that aids in the call to recognize the ocean as a wilderness is environmental advocacy campaigns Cox (20] 0) defines environmental advocacy as: Discourse (legal, educational, expository, artistic, public, and/or interpersonal communication) aimed at supporting conservation and the preservation of finite resources; aims to include support for both natural and human environments and the well-being of the life such environments sustain (p. 256) Environmental advocacy campaigns influence diverse channels in society in order to achieve a desired goal. For example, political advocacy campaigns influence 90

PAGE 101

legislation or regulations (Cox, 2010) Also, a direct appeal to the public through media events, public education, and/or direct action create publicity and influence societal attitudes and behaviors (Cox, 2010). Advocacy campaigns have a "strategic course of action by which a campaign pursues such goals" (Cox, 2010, p 229) Environmental advocacy campaigns challenge societal norms in turn changing the way citizens communicate with each other and with elected officials (Cox, 2010). In order to accomplish this goal, campaigns must have clear objectives, target the correct decision makers, and create a plan of action to influence decision makers to act on the objectives (Cox, 2010). By stating clear objectives, campaigners can define exactly what they are asking for which provides a concrete and specific purpose. Furthermore, in order to influence a change, campaigns must have a strong strategy Cox (2010) defines strategy as : "A critical source of influence or leverage to bring about a desired change" (p 237). With a clear strategy and targeting the correct audience, citizens can create change in policies and the way individuals communicate with each other. Conclusion The symbolic and social construct of wilderness is purely a human concept invented by civilized people (Nash, 2001) Nonetheless, the wilderness idea holds meaning and value which concerned citizens fight to protect. To save 01

PAGE 102

wilderness spaces environmental proponents utilize wilderness ideals to create a foundation on which to base their arguments Perhaps the challenge is that wilderness along with the seven other keywords in this study are discussed in a philosophical sense in both political and societal conversations while at the same time are discussed pragmatically This results in a dissonance of cognitive frames along with a fragmentation in political and societal conversations. Furthermore when a definition of a word contradicts and is elusive conflicting messages and an inconsistency in societal and political values results in a jaded view of how individuals perceive the environment because wilderness is intimately tied to other concerns such as energy food and economics (Lakoff 2010). The symbolic and social construct of wilderness are instilled in the American mindset, a transformation in the way people perceive wilderness spaces must occur By transforming attitudes and perceptions, a revolution in the way people treat and fonn policies surrounding the environment will follow with the hope of an increased awareness of environmental stewardship that traverses national boundaries : "Human interests led the wilderness charge in the last century but respect for nonhuman life and for ecological processes will assume increasing importance in the next one" (Nash 2001 p 388) Respect for all sentient beings means a respect for a larger community of life (Nash, 2001) and a transfonnation in how individuals treat natural spaces is a result. Environmental communication contributes to an understanding of the symbolic construct of the environment, not only in the political decision making 92

PAGE 103

process, but also in organizations, public forums, and citizens. It allows for individuals to "enhance the ability of society to respond appropriately to environmental signals relevant to the well-being of both human civilization and natural biological systems" (Cox, 2010, p. 13). Environmental communication educates, alerts and helps organizations solve environmental problems (Cox, 2010). Furthennore, "nature is ethically and politica]]y silent. Ultimately, it is we who invest in seasons and species with meaning, significance, and value" (Cox, 2010, p 26). Wilderness, civilized people scarcely know what they mean by the tenn but say the word and it emotionally draws them in. The word wilderness carriers symbolic undertones along with a social construct developed centuries ago Wilderness must undergo another intellectual revolution in order to preserve not just already designated wilderness spaces, but the wilderness that exists in our own back yard In order for natural spaces and the species that rely on that space to exist solely for the purpose of existing, human perception must change being humble to the notion of respect : Giving rights to wilderness is an appealing idea which has proven useful in recruiting supporters for wilderness preservation But in the political and legal arenas where the future of wilderness is shaped, it makes a minimal contribution to a philosophy of wilderness The most effective defenses of wilderness seem to be rooted squarely in the needs and interests of civilized people The essential premise is that wilderness and civilization are no longer in an adversary relationship. Modem civilization, it is said, needs wilderness, and if wilderness is to exist it surely needs the protection of a self-restraining civilization (Nash, 2001, p.271) 93

PAGE 104

The depletion of the marine ecosystem causes irreversible effects some of which society is already beginning to bear witness to Ocean acidification bleaching of coral reefs, loss of biodiversity, all of which depends on an intellectual revolution on how people perceive not just wildernes s, but the environment as well. An exhausted marine ecosystem has unyielding effects on the entire terrestrial ecosystem and human population, "At the moment, corals and peteropods are lined up against a global economy built on cheap fossil fuels It's not a fair fight" (Kolbert, 2011, p 121) Business as usual has started to read like the end of the world" (Brown, 2009, p xi) Environmental proponents are beginning to see the effects of business as usual. In March 2011 Japan suffered a horrific earthquake that triggered a tsunami causing major damages. One of the damages occurred at a nuclear power plant that began to seep radiation into the atmosphere and into the ocean Seven months later visual consequences ofthe tsunami float on the surface of the Pacific Ocean Aerial photos showcase cars, whole houses, and tractor-trailers ("Cars, Whole Houses and Even Severed Feet in Shoes," 2011) Twenty million pounds of debris float across the ocean heading towards the United States of America ("Tsunami Debris from Japan Earthquake to Hit US ," 2011) Up to today no government action or international effort has been taken to remove the debris In this moment I am reminded of a trip I took to Churchill, Canada to witness one of the most amazing creatures roam across the arctic tundra, the polar 94

PAGE 105

bear. There is something magical about watching a polar bear in their natural environment, seeing them play together, watching mothers show their cubs the ropes about how to survive in such an extreme environment. And when you get close to one, look them in the eye, there's something in that moment that lifts you above, recognition, that you are not the only one in this world. And for that moment, that polar bear puts you to shame, because you realize you could not live in the world she does, and humans are making it harder for her world to even exist. I hope future generations will one day be able to witness a polar bear mom and her cubs, the breaching of a whale, an otter floating on the top of Alaskan waters, or a dolphin staring curiously up at you Protection of the natural environment rests on a civilization knowing boundaries and being humbled by the notion of respect in order for the natural world and its species to thrive. 95

PAGE 106

BffiLIOGRAPHY Abbey, E. (1968) Desert Solitaire: A Season in the Wilderness New York: Touchstone Adkins, K. (2003). Serpents and Sheep : The Harriman Expedition, Alaska, and the Metaphoric Reconstruction of American Wilderness. Technical C ommunication Quarterly, J 2 (4), 423-437 Albright H. & Albright M S (1999). C reating the National Park Service: The Missing Years. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press GoogIe Books : http://books google comlbooks Bowermaster, 1 (Ed .). (2010) Oceans: The Threats to Our Seas and What you can do to Tum the Tide. New York : Public Affairs. Brown L. (2009) Plan B 4 .0: Mobilizing to Save Civilization. Earth Policy Institute Capra, F (1996). The Web o/Life. New York : Anchor Books. Carbaugh, D. (2007). Quoting "the Environment": Touchstones on Earth Environmental Communication, J (I), 64-75 Carson, R (1958) The Sea Around Us New York : Western Publishing Company Chief Luther Standing Bear. (1998) In 1 B Callicott, & M P Nelson (Eds ), The Great New Wilderness Debate (p 201-206) Athens Georgia : The University of Georgia Press. Cox, R. (2010). Environmental Communication and the Public Sphere (2nd ed.) California : Sage Publications, Inc Cox R. (2007) Nature's "Crisis Disciplines" : Does Environmental Communication Have an Ethical Duty? Environmental Communication, J (1) 5-20 96

PAGE 107

Cronon, W. (1996). The Trouble with Wilderness; or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature, (Ed.). New York W W. Norton & Company. Dallmeyer, D.G. (Ed.). (2003) Values at Sea: Ethics/or the Marine Environment. Athens: University of Georgia Press. DeLuca, K. M. & Demo, A.T. (2000) Imaging Nature: Watkins, Yosemite, and the Birth of Environmentalism. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 17 (3),241-260. Earle, S. (2009). The World is Blue: How Our Fate and the Ocean's Are One Washington, DC: National Geographic Society. Ells, K. (2008). Ecological Rhetoric through Vicarious Narrative : The Enduring Significance of Garrett Hardin's The Tragedy of the Commons Environmental Communication, 2 (3),320-339. Entman, R.M. (1993) Framing : Toward Clarification ofa Fractured Paradigm Journalo/Communication, 43 (4),51-58. Guha, R. (1989). Radical American Environmentalism and Wilderness Preservation: A Third World Critique. In 1. B. Callicott & M. P Nelson (Eds ) The Great New Wilderness Debate (p. 231-245). Athens, Georgia: The University of Georgia Press. Hardin, G. (1968). The Tragedy of the Commons. Science, 162 (3869), 12431248. Herndl, e.G. & Brown, S.c. (Eds.) (1996). Green Culture: Environmental Rhetoric in Contemporary America Madison, Wisconsin : The University of Wisconsin Press. KrippendorfT, K. (2004). Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology California: Sage Publications, Inc Kraft, M. E. (2007). Environmental Policy and Politics New York: Pearson Education, Inc. Kroll, G. (2008). America's Ocean Wilderness: A Cultural History o/Twentieth Century Exploration. Kansas: University Press of Kansas. Lakoff, G. (2010). Why it Matters How We Frame the Environment. Environmental Communication 4 (1) 70-81 97

PAGE 108

Mann, C. (Ed ) (2010) Why We Need a National Ocean Policy. New York: Public Affairs. Marafiote, T. (2008) The American Dream : Technology, Tourism, and the Transformation of Wilderness Environmental Communication, 2 (2) 154-172 Muir, 1. (1901) Selections from Our National Parks. In 1. B Callicott & M P Nelson (Eds ) The Great New Wilderness Debate (p. 48-62). Athens Georgia : The University of Georgia Press Nash, R F (2001). Wilderness and the American Mind. New Haven: Yale University Press Olwig, K.R. (1996) Reinventing Common Nature : Yosemite and Mount Rushmore -A Meandering Tale ofa Double Nature In William Cronon (Ed ) Uncommon Ground (p 379-408) New York : W W. Norton & Company Robbins P (2004) Political Ecology Massachusetts : Blackwell Publishing Robbins, P., Hintz, 1., & Moore, S A (2010). Environment and SOCiety: A Critical Introduction Massachusetts : Blackwell Publishing Schiappa, E (2003) Defining Reality : Definitions and the Politics of Meaning Southern Illinois University Simon, G L. & Alagona P S (2009). Beyond 'Leave No Trace' Ethics, Place and Environment, 12 (1),17-34. Slater, P. (1990). The Pursuit of Loneliness: American Culture at the Breaking Point Boston: Beacon Press Schutt, R. K. (2009) Investigating the Social World: The Process and Practice of Research. California : Pine Forge Press Stoll S (2007) U.S. Environmentalism Since 1945 Boston : Bedford/S Martin's. Wolf, C. (2003) Environmental Ethics and Marine Ecosystems: From a "Land Ethic" to a "Sea Ethic". In Dorinda G. Dallmeyer (Ed .), Values at Sea: Ethics for the Marine Environment (19-31) Athens, Georgia : University of Georgia Press. 98

PAGE 109

The Wilderness Act of 1964 (1998) In IB. Callicott, & M P Nelson (Eds ) The Great New Wilderness Debate (p 120 130) Athens, Georgia : The University of Georgia Press National Geographic (2011) Population 7 Billion: How Your World will Change 219 (1),38-39. Associated Press (2011, February 20) Scientist: Oil still blankets gulftloor. Denver Post p 9A. Emergency Marine Fisheries Protection Act of 1975, Ninety-Fourth Congress (1975). "The Fully Managed Multiple-Use Forest Era, 1960-1970 ." Retrieved April 1 2011 from http://www foresthistory org/ASPNETlPublications/first century/sec7 htm Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Reauthorized Retrieved May 2 2011, from http://www nmfs noaa gov/msa2005/. "Tsunami Debris from Japan Earthquake to Hit US .. Jn 2-3 years Retrieved October 3 1 2011 from http://www ibtimes com/articles/236825/20 111 024ltsunami -debri s-j apan earthquake-hit-us-years-windward-islands-hawaii-west-coast-pacific-ocean htm. Cars Whole Houses and Even Severed Feet in Shoes : The Vast Field of Debris from Japan Earthquake and Tsunami That's Floating Towards US West Coast Retrieved October 31, 2011 from http://www dailymail co uklnewslarticle-1374520/Japan-earthquake-tsunami debris-tloating-US-West-Coast.html. National Forests Multiple Use and Sustained Yield Act H.R 10572 86th Congress (1960) Ocean Dumping H R 561-31 100th Congress (1988) Territorial Seas H .R. 4760 and H R 4756 93rd Congress. (1973) National P arks ... Why Where and How Many? Retrieved September 16,2011, from http : //www nps gov/caCO/forteachers/uploadlnparks.pdf Yellowstone National Park. (2009-2011) Retrieved September 16 2011 from http://www.yellowstonenationalpark com/ 99

PAGE 110

The Ocean Foundation Retrieved September 16,2011, from http://www oceanfdn orglnewsroomlabout-our-oceans Resource Development Council. Retrieved September 16, 2011, from http://www akrdc.orglissuesltourism/overview html 100