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Occupation babies come of age

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Title:
Occupation babies come of age children born during the American and Allied military occupation of Japan 1945-52
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Children born during the American and Allied military occupation of Japan 1945-52
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Von Haas, Marie ( author )
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English
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1 electronic file (75 pages) : ;

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Subjects / Keywords:
Racially mixed children -- Japan ( lcsh )
Identity (Psychology) ( lcsh )
History -- Japan -- Allied occupation, 1945-1952 ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Review:
The American and Allied Military Occupation of Japan, henceforth called the “Occupation” began soon after WWII ended. The Occupation was in effect from August 1945 until September 1952. Approximately nine months after the Occupation of Japan began; the first Amerasian baby was born. This first Amerasian baby and thousands more babies born during the Occupation came to be known as “Occupation Babies.”
Review:
The U.S. had been at war against Japan in the Pacific since 7 December 1941. Hundreds of thousands of U.S. soldiers left their homes to fight in this war. When WWII ended many soldiers went back home to resume their relationships with their wives or to meet women who would become their wives and live a new life in post-WWII America. Servicemen who had been in combat usually returned home. They would be replaced by fresh young soldiers who were assigned to the Occupation. Men were young and lonely in Japan. Soldiers and the women of Japan began relationships in the peaceful environment of post-WWII Occupation. Servicemen eventually wanted to marry their new loves. The marriage process was tedious because of the immigration laws of the U.S. Women who married servicemen became known as “War Brides.” Occupation Babies were born out of these various encounters between the Japanese women and Allied servicemen.
Review:
It is seventy years since the first Occupation Baby was born. What has become of him or her? As Occupation Babies have come of age, how have they fared after all these years? Who were chosen to come to the U.S. and who were left behind in Japan? Historical narratives about Occupation Babies are limited. A few Occupation Babies who grew up to be scholars in disciplines other than History have written articles and books about War Brides. Unknowingly, these scholars discovered their identities while telling the stories of their mothers. Becoming American was riddled with tensions of race, color, and nationality. They were told to become American, but could not shed the appearance and culture of their mothers.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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System requirements: Adobe Reader.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Marie Von Haas.

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University of Florida
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on10030 ( NOTIS )
1003047600 ( OCLC )
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Full Text
OCCUPATION BABIES COME OF AGE: CHILDREN BORN DURING THE
AMERICAN AND ALLIED MILITARY OCCUPATION OF JAPAN 1945-52
by
MARIE VON HAAS
B.A., University of Colorado, Denver, 2012
A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts History Program
2017


This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by
Marie von Haas has been approved for the History Program
by
Kariann Akemi Yokota, Chair
Ryan D. Crewe, Advisor Thomas J. Noel
May 13,2017


von Haas, Marie (M.A., History Program)
Occupation Babies Come of Age: Children Bom During the American and Allied
Occupation of Japan 1945-1952
Thesis directed by Assistant Professor Ryan Crewe
ABSTRACT
The American and Allied Military Occupation of Japan, henceforth called the Occupation began soon after WWII ended. The Occupation was in effect from August 1945 until September 1952. Approximately nine months after the Occupation of Japan began; the first Amerasian baby was bom. This first Amerasian baby and thousands more babies bom during the Occupation came to be known as Occupation Babies.
The U.S. had been at war against Japan in the Pacific since 7 December 1941. Hundreds of thousands of U.S. soldiers left their homes to fight in this war. When WWII ended many soldiers went back home to resume their relationships with their wives or to meet women who would become their wives and live a new life in post-WWII America. Servicemen who had been in combat usually returned home. They would be replaced by fresh young soldiers who were assigned to the Occupation. Men were young and lonely in Japan. Soldiers and the women of Japan began relationships in the peaceful environment of post-WWII Occupation. Servicemen eventually wanted to marry their new loves. The marriage process was tedious because of the immigration laws of the U.S. Women who married servicemen became known as War Brides. Occupation Babies were bom out of these various encounters between the Japanese women and Allied servicemen.
It is seventy years since the first Occupation Baby was bom. What has become of him or her? As Occupation Babies have come of age, how have they fared after all these years?
in


Who were chosen to come to the U.S. and who were left behind in Japan? Historical narratives about Occupation Babies are limited. A few Occupation Babies who grew up to be scholars in disciplines other than History have written articles and books about War Brides. Unknowingly, these scholars discovered their identities while telling the stories of their mothers. Becoming American was riddled with tensions of race, color, and nationality. They were told to become American, but could not shed the appearance and culture of their mothers. I was a baby bom during the Occupation and here also is my story.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Ryan D. Crewe
IV


DEDICATION
It was my intention to finish this thesis before my mothers passing. I wanted her to read it with her own eyes. When I interviewed her for accuracy, she said to me, Why do you want to ask me the same questions? I already told you. How did you forget? You were there with me from the day you were bom. She passed away in my home 13 May 2014 after having spent one-hundred quality days together. She is with me in spirit always and will be with me at my Commencement 13 May 2017. Knowing her as I do, she planned it this way.
I never want to forget my mother. As she said, I have been with her since the day I was bom. I know that to say that I am glad that Japan went to war against the United States seems very aberrant. However, if there was no WWII then there would not have been an American Occupation of Japan. My father was one of many thousands who served in Japan during the Occupation and it was there that he fell in love with my mother. Hence, my gladness for WWII, otherwise I would not be here today.
v


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
My journey through academia began in January 2008.1 have been in a hurry to tell my story. I am disappointed that it has taken me nine years to complete. I could not have finished it without the support of very important people who have been with me on my journey. First and foremost, I wish to thank my mother, Keiko Sugie and father, William L. Hinze. To my husband, Herbert (Bruno) von Haas, you have been my partner throughout this journey. There is not enough space in this acknowledgement to express the appreciation and love I have for you. I am grateful to my children, two sets of twins, whose stories would be material for another thesis. To Erica Fontenot and Laura Hogg, my graduate school buddies, thank you for your friendship. Professor Ryan Crewe, thank you for always listening to me and really hearing what I had to say. Because of our conversations, I gained the confidence to believe that I could tell my story and proclaim: I am an Historian! Professor Richard Smith, thank you for being a mentor. Thank you Professor Tom Noel. I missed the opportunity to be a student in any one of your classes however; I invited myself and became a guest of a few of your lectures. Your persistent and resounding statement to me whenever we met was, You are going to write a thesis! Because of what you said to me so often, it was imperative that you were on my thesis committee. Last but not least I wish to thank Professor KariannYokota. Your presence in the History Department and eventual position of Department Chair was the departments gift to me. You are very special to me, especially your 0 A A [Nihonjin]. Thank you, from the bottom of my heart (Arigato, kokoro no soko kara).
vi


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION................................1
n. U. S. OCCUPATION/POST-WORLD WAR II 1945-1952.................4
Allied troops begin the Occupation...........................4
Occupation of Japan in contrast to the Occupation of Germany.5
Primary mission of the Occupation.............................8
m. U. S.-JAPAN RELATIONS.......................................11
The Paper Chase: Immigration Challenges on Asians/Restrictions on U.S.
Japanese marriage............................................12
Obstacles and Challenges in America..........................21
The myth of Western clothing.................................25
IV. WHAT IS AN OCCUPATION BABY?.................................28
Abandoned children and orphanages............................30
Baby Boomers.................................................36
Military Brats...............................................41
V. GROWING UP CHILDREN OF WAR BRIDES............................43
BIBLIOGRAPHY.......................................................61
APPENDIX
A. JAPANESE AND GERMAN WORDS AND DEFINITIONS.................66
B. IMMIGRATION LEGISLATION PERTAINING TO WAR BRIDES OF
JAPAN.....................................................67
C. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS OF PRIMARY SOURCES..................68
vii


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Few early documented and mythical encounters between men of the West and the Japanese women of the East resulted in the birth of mixed-race children. The protagonists of James Micheners novel Sayonara thought they might have children; Cho-Cho-san of Madame Butterfly fame had a son. Children of the Occupation were conceived by the thousands, and William Adams had children with his wife Oyuki.
William Adams was a British sailor who sailed with the Dutch East Indies Co. He arrived in Japan on April 12,1600 and died in Japan the 16th of May 1620. He lived for twenty years in Tokugawa Japan under strict orders and supervision of the shogun. The Shogunate, ruled by Tokugawa Ieyasu was officially established in Edo on March 24,1603. Tokugawa Iemitsu, a descendant of Tokugawa Ieyasu, enforced the closed country which began in 1633. During the long period of sakoku (the closed country), anyone with foreign blood was expelled from Japan on pain of death. If Joseph Adams (son of William) had children or grandchildren, he would have kept secret their English ancestry.1 Numerous attempts to trace descendants of Adams were made with no success.2 He had a Japanese wife, Oyuki3 and two mixed-race children, Susanna and Joseph.4 Before he died, he willed an equal portion of the wealth he acquired while in Japan to his daughter, Deliverance, in England upon his death.
It has been told in modem Japanese mythology that a Japanese woman known as Okichi gave her body for the nation of Japan. She was assigned as a consort for Townsend Harris. Harris was Americas first consul to Japan in 1856. Legend has it that she was heavily pressured into a
1 Giles Milton. Samurai William: The Englishman Who Opened Japan. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002: 337.
2 Ibid; 337.
3 Ibid: 120.
4 Ibid: 314.
I


relationship with Townsend and that she committed suicide in 1892. Facts are not available as to whether Okichi conceived children from her duties as consort to the ambassador. She was, however, glorified in Japan, for her sacrifice.5
Madame Butterfly was the short story written by John Luther Long in 1904. An opera by the same name was produced by Giacomo Puccini in 1915. Madame Butterfly, Cho-Cho-san (Butterfly in Japanese) and Pinkerton were lovers. Their story was legend. It tells a story of how a military man stationed in Japan falls in love with a girl from this exotic East. Consequentially, theirs was an interracial romance. Pinkerton left Japan and while he was away, Cho-Cho-san bore him a son. This baby was half Cho-Cho-san and half Pinkerton. Originally the legend was downbeat and only parting and sorrow were the fruits of an interraciai love. The playwrights, in the colonial days of the white mans burden, followed Kiplings precept that never the twain shall meet. But times have changed and so have writers.6 War correspondents of the American and Allied Occupation of Japan beginning in 1945 would report of encounters of interracial love between servicemen and Japanese women. The articles would compare these romances to the romance of the legend of Madame Butterfly.
Darrell Berrigan was arguably the first correspondent in Japan who brought attention to the plight of these children bom out of passion. He argued in 1948 that for somewhat more than 300 years white conquerors from the West have been mixing their blood with the conquered people of the East, creating a minority of unhappy misfits belonging neither to the East or the
5 John Dower. Embracing Defeat: Japan m the Wake of World War 11. New York: W. W. Norton & Company/The New Press, 1999: 126.
6 Larry Tajiri. ""Twain Meet in 'Sayonara' Drama," Denver Post, January I, 1958." In Pacific Citizens: Larry and Guyo Tajiri and Japanese American Journalism in the World War II Era, edited by Greg Robinson, 249-251, Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2012. Larry Tajiri was the editor of Pacific Citizen, the weekly newspaper of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) created in 1942. He stayed on until 1952. Larry Tajiri took a job with the Denver Post in 1954. In 1956 he was named the Posts drama critic and entertainment columnist. He was responsible for reviewing the films and plays that came through Denver.:250
2


West.7 He said that such a minority was growing in Japan during the U.S. and Allied Military Occupation (1945-1952). This minority of unhappy misfits in Japan were called Occupation Babies. Concern for these types of children is spoken of in the movie, Sayonara.8
Sayonara is the Warner Brothers drama based on the novel by James Michener and borrowed from the Madame Butterfly legend.9 Americans were able to see for themselves, on the big screen, the tensions that were aroused from the prospective interracial relationships between American men and Japanese women in post-WWIl Japan. Sayonara which opened in American theatres in 1957 was based on a novel written by James Michener. The main characters of this film were Major Lloyd Gruver (Marlon Brando) and his love interest Hana-ogi (Miiko Taka) and Airman Joe Kelly (Red Buttons) and Katsumi (Miyoshi Umeki). Hana-ogi was a realist and worried that if she and Major Gruver were to marry, they might have children. She asked Gruver-san, What about the children? What would they be Major Gruver replied, Why theyd be half yellow, and half white. Half of me and half of you.10 Children of the Occupation were the result of passionate encounters between Japanese women and Allied servicemen with no conceivable idea of what we would encounter as we came of age.
7 Darrell Berrigan. "Japan's Occupation Babies." The Saturday Evening Post, June 19,1948: 24.
8 Sayonara. Warner Brothers, 1957.
9 Tajiri. ""Twain Meet in 'Sayonara' Drama": 251.
10 Sayonara. Warner Brothers, 1957.
3


CHAPTER H
U.S. OCCUPATION/POST-WORLD WAR H 1945-1952
At the Conference of Berlin (the Potsdam Conference) heads of the governments of the United States, Soviet Union and the United Kingdom met from Julyl6 to August 2, 1945. The Potsdam Declaration was released by the United States, United Kingdom and China. This declaration announced the terms concerning the unconditional surrender of Japan. Should Japan ignore this proclamation, she would witness complete destruction of the Japanese armed forces and...utter devastation of the Japanese homeland.1 The demand dated July 26, 1945 was refused by Japan. Soon after, the United States sent B-29 aircrafts to Japan to drop the first two ever atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Theses bombs were dropped on the 6th of August 1945 and 9th of August 1945 respectively. World War II ended shortly after these two earth shattering events. The American and Allied Occupation of Japan began very soon after Imperial Japan announced its surrender on August 15,1945. On September 2,1945 the Japanese Instrument of Surrender was signed aboard the battleship USS Missouri.
Allied troops begin the Occupation
Allied troops from America, Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, and India landed in Japan to begin the occupation. Hundreds of thousands of servicemen were assigned to occupy Japan. This project, the Allied Occupation of Japan, will be hereafter noted as the Occupation. Australians occupied Kure City, a town near Hiroshima. The first American troops of any number reached Hokkaido [Otaru]...on October 5,1945. 2 Troops had already landed on the major island of Japan, Honshu. Harry Wildes, in Tokyo Typhoon, referred to the Americans and
1 Potsdam Declaration. No. 1382, Department of State, U.S.: Office of the Historian, July 26, 1945: (3).
2 Vincent W. Allen. A Very Intimate Occupation. New York: Vantage Press, Inc., 2000: xii. Most books published about the Occupation were government reports or documents of high-level diplomats. Allen's book is an eyewitness account of the Occupation.
4


Allies who occupied Japan as Occupationnaires. The Japanese called the Occupationnaires Shin chu gun.3
Occupation of Japan in contrast to Occupation of Germany
The Allies that occupied Japan were the US and British Commonwealth (Australia, New Zealand, etc.). In the Occupation of Japan, the islands were not divided into zones. Russia wanted zones similar to the occupation of Germany. There was the British zone, Soviet zone, French zone and the U.S. zone in Germany. In 1949, the states of East and West Germany were founded: the Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic; the western zones merged into the Federal Republic of German, which achieved full sovereignty in 1955 See Figure l.4 5
If you look at these maps and compare the two countries, Japan in Figure 2 and Germany, the islands of Japan would have been separated between the Allies. Of course this is what Russia wanted, sole possession of Hokkaido and the islands northeast of it.
General Douglas MacArthur was appointed as Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, agent of Russia, China, and the British Commonwealth, as well as the U.S.. on August 14,1945/ He was to command by official orders known as JSC 10, the United States Initial Post Surrender Policy for Japan. This JSC directive gave MacArthur complete executive authority to carry out its provisions and freedom of operation.6 The 441st Counter Intelligence Corps (CIC)
3 Harry Emerson Wildes. Typhoon in Tokyo: The Occupation and Its Aftermath. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1954: 7. Allen. A Very Intimate Occupation: xii. These authors mention Russian troops inability to occupy the northern half of Hokkaido. This was a decision made by President Truman after Russia rejected Washingtons proposal. Russia was not empowered to occupy Japan as it did in Germany.
4 Heide Fehrenbach. Race after Hitler: Black Occupation Children. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2005: 5.
5 General Douglas MacArthur left his reports and his General Staff, Department of the Army edited all that he wrote in the format of the published edition, Reports of General MacArthur/MacArthur in Japan: The Occupation: Military Phase, January 1966.
6 Wildes. Typhoon in Tokyo: 6.
5


was the only organization located in every prefecture in Japan that was under command of general headquarters (GHQ). They became the eyes and ears of General MacArthur.7
A map of occupied Germany, 1945-1949. The American zone of occupation, was comprised of Bavaria, Hesse, WOrttemberg-Baden, and Bremen. In 1949, the states of East and West Germany were founded- the Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic; foe western zones merged into the Federal Republic of Germany, which achieved foil sovereignty in 1955 Source: 0.1. Frederiksen, The American Military Occupation of Germany (Historical Division, Headquarters. U.S. Army, Europe, 1953), 15.
Figure 1 Map of the Occupation zones of Germany 1945-1949
7 Allen. A Very Intimate Occupation: xii.
6


Figure 2 Map of Japan, U.S. Department of State 8 Shikoku CIC region had four army intelligence detachments, one for each of the four
prefectures: Kagawa, Ehime, Tokushima, and Kochi,8 9 Kochi prefecture was in the British Occupation area (BCOF). Among the British Commonwealth troops who occupied Japan were Indian, Nepalese, and Maori units.10 The regional headquarters was in Kyoto. Douglas MacArthur commanded from Tokyo from 1945 until 1951 and then Matthew Ridgway took over until 1952.
8 Japan. U. S. Department of State, www.state.gov/p/eap/ci/ja/
9 Ibid: 55.
10 Kim Brandt. "Learning from Babysan." About Japan: A Teachers' Resource. http://aboutjapan.japansociety.org/leaming-from-babysan: 5.
7


Primary mission of the Occupation
The task of the Occupation was to follow the guidelines of the Potsdam Declaration. Orders came directly from General Douglas Mac Arthur. These orders when issued were known as Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers instructions (SCAPINS). The first SCAPIN was issued on 4 October 1945.
Any and all forms of weapons were to be found and disposed of or destroyed immediately. Justice was meted out to war criminals. Japanese prisoners of war would be released and repatriated to their homelands. Agents of the Occupation assisted Japan in developing a new democratic Japanese government. Freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of thought and respect for fundamental human rights would be implemented with assistance of SCAP. Japan would be disarmed of any military or navy. The Japanese military forces were permitted back to their homes in Japan after they had been completely disarmed.
All military supplies, fortifications, weapons were destroyed and the Japanese military forces were demobilized. The Occupationnaires were tasked with the removal of restrictions on political, civil, and religious liberties. Women were to be given voting privileges; labor unions were encouraged; school systems were liberalized; fair courts of justice were instituted; democratization of the economy was initiated; and a new constitution was ordered. The aim was to remake the former enemy into a Western-style democracy.11
The Allies occupied Japan in large numbers beginning in August 1945 The numbers of Allied soldiers in Japan fell sharply over 1946 and 1947, as it became clear that the Occupation would be largely unopposed, and peaceful. Still, during its seven years there were never fewer than 100,000 military personnelmostly men between the ages of 18 and 24garrisoned in dozens of bases scattered about the four main islands of Japan. The Allies occupied Hokkaido,
11 Allen. A Very Intimate Occupation: 160-161.
8


Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku.12 13 The objectives and tasks of the Occupation were completed swiftly in less than two years. The Occupation was a success.
Perhaps one of the key factors that helped the Occupation succeed was the docility of the Japanese. They had been warned by their leaders that if Japan lost the war, the American beasts would rape and pillage their land. When the people saw us actually among them and talked with us, they soon learned that we were not all devils. So they tolerated us, or welcomed us, and some even came to love us. Thirty thousand Occupationnaires had their feet on the ground to carry out their assignment to work with the 74,000,000 people of Japan.14 GIs became famous for their offhand friendliness and spontaneous distribution of chocolates and chewing gum. They also provided practical gifts such as penicillin, streptomycin, and blood banks.15 The post-war occupation created a situation of good will and friendship between the U.S. servicemen and the local population. This good will and friendship soon developed into permanent relationships between the Occupationnaires and women of Japan.
Many other people contributed to the successful democratization of post-WWIl Japan. There was activity throughout the islands of Japan. American servicemen and their Allies occupied Japan and interacted with the entire Japanese population. Journalists and war correspondents played a very important role in the dissemination of information.
Certain writers provided eye witness accounts of what was happening in Japan during the Occupation. Most of them had been active correspondents during the war before they transferred to Japan. The Occupation was big news around the world. American journalists published their observations in The Saturday Evening Post, Life, and Colliers magazine and military
12 Brandt. Learning from Babysan: 1.
13 Allen. A Very Intimate Occupation: 161.
14 Wildes. Typhoon in Tokyo: 1.
15 John W. Dower. Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. New York: W.W. Norton & Company/The New Press, 1999: 207,211.
9


publications such as the Stars and Stripes. Their articles and the books that they wrote provided valuable information about how the Occupation was proceeding. Mark Gayns Japan Diary allowed the reader to imagine that they were travelling throughout occupied Japan. He described the sights of Japan and activities of the Occupation.16 17 Harry Wildes Tokyo Typhoon contained information that only few writers could share. He was a research specialist for Japan in the Office of War Information; his language skills allowed him to help draft the new Japanese Constitution and he produced regular news reports for General MacArthurs private
1 7
information.
Darrell Berrigan and Peter Kalischer brought attention to the plight of the Occupation Babies and War Brides of the Occupation of Japan. Other journalists contributed to the news from Japan however, their articles were published at the end of the Occupation.18
16 Mark Gayn. Japan Diary. New York: William Sloane Associates, Inc., 1948.
17 Wildes. Tokyo Typhoon.
18 Berrigan. Japans Occupation Babies. Peter Kalischer. Madame Butterflys Children. Collier's, September 20,1952:15-18.
10


CHAPTER HI
U.S.-JAPAN RELATIONS
To understand the experiences of War Brides one must have an understanding about the changes that took place over time in the American and Allied Occupation of Japan post-World War II. The Occupation successfully created a situation of good will and friendship between the U.S. servicemen and the local population. The close contact between servicemen and the locals required that policies were enforced to prevent fraternization. Posters appear[ed] on the fences warning Japanese girls against fraternization with the GIs, Maintain the dignity of Japanese woman hood.1 In spite of the fraternization policies, romantic encounters developed. Relationships bloomed even though SCAP forbade it. Affairs ensued: Affairs of the moment and affairs that led to serious relationships which progressed into a desire for marriage.
Many Japanese women desired to marry an Allied serviceman rather than a Japanese man. Their families did not approve of an international marriage. Women were confident that the love they felt for their American husbands provided what they needed to undertake a new future as a wife in America. These romantic encounters resulted in thousands of marriages. Near the end of the Occupation, over 10,000 Americans had married Japanese women.2 American men of diverse backgrounds and Japanese women came together despite the immense legal and social barriers. This marriage acknowledged the wife as a War Bride.
1 Mark Gayn. Japan Diary. New York: William Sloane Associates, Inc., 1948: 51, This book is an eyewitness report of what happened in Japan and Korea under U.S. Occupation. Mark Gayn spent time with Darrell Berrigan towards the end of 1945
2 Anselm L. Strauss. Strain and Harmony in American-Japanese War-Bride Marriages. Marriage and Family Living. Vol. 16, No. 2 (May 1954): 99.
11


The Paper Chase: Immigration challenges on Asians/Restrictions on U.S.-Japanese marriage
The U. S. Occupation of Japan from 1945-1952 led to the phenomenon of Japanese War Brides. American servicemen and Allied servicemen began to fall in love with Japanese girls. First came love and then came the longing to marry. Fraternization was frowned upon which made the process of marriage complicated and tedious. The immigration laws of the United States also stood to prevent servicemen from marrying their girls and taking them back home to America. The Immigration Exclusion Act having been enforced since 1924 prohibited the admission of foreigners who were ineligible for citizenship (primarily Asians). This act is also known as the Johnson/Reed Act or the Oriental Exclusion Act of 1924 (denying all immigration from Japan). War brides who could not enter the country due to the immigration quotas were stuck in their home countries without their husbands and often with babies. Four months after the first Occupationnaires stepped foot in Japan, the U.S. Congress passed Public Law 271, the War Brides Act of 19453 in an effort to resolve the situation of marriage in all occupied nations around the globe. After passing through Congress, this document was then signed by President Harry Truman. The War Brides Actpermitted servicemens brides to enter the U.S., however it was not meant for Japanese or other Asian War Brides. The act remained in effect for three years. Six months later, Congress enacted Public Law 471, the Fiancees Act, which granted fiancees of U.S. servicemen three-month visas as temporary visitors.4 Within two years after the Occupation began, the American and other foreign embassies in Tokyo were flooded with
3 Brenda J. Wilt. "War Brides." America in WWII, August 2005. http://www.americainwwii.com/articles/war-brides/.
Wilt. "WarBrides."
12


applications from members of the Occupation forces for marriage certificates. There were no prostitutes, criminals or chronically diseasedall barred by the immigration law 5 allowed to marry. A dozen or more documents had to be obtained and signed by superior officers before the couple could be married.
Official army policy discouraged intermarriage in Japan for several years. Aside from informal pressures, the policy was implemented by placing a series of barriers in the way of marriage. To get married a man had to obtain the permission of his commanding officer. Secondly he had to go through an interview with his chaplain. The chaplain tried to dissuade him. And then, he had to produce proof of his single status and his ability to support his wife.
Her record in turn was checked by the Japanese authorities to screen out known prostitutes and criminals.6 A dozen or more documents had to be obtained and signed by superior officers before the couple could be married.
From August 18, 1950 to March 19, 1952 Congress allowed an opportunity for couples to marry. This was exciting information for couples who wished to marry. Unfortunately, the Korean War broke out in June, 1950. Dozens of combat units left Japan within 90 days. Death or rotation to the States with only a 48-hour stopover in Tokyo kept thousands of men from seeing their Japanese girls again and for some their children. Nevertheless, in 18 months, 8,381 American-Japanese couples successfully underwent four to eight weeks of processing, physical
5 Janet Wentworth Smith and William L.Worden. Theyre Bringing Home Japanese Wives. The authors explained Public Law 717 in their article. They also wrote that no marriages were legalized between 1947 and 1950:27.
6 Strauss. Strain and Harmony in American-Japanese War-Bride Marriages: 99.
13


examinations, investigations and interviews to register their marriages at five U.S. consulates throughout Japan.7 For many couples, the law came too late.
HEADQUARTERS
JAPAN LOGISTICAL COMMAND Offita of Rm CeemanJmg Gwnl
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SUBJECT; Fermieei on to Marry
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1 Pureuant to authority delegated in Circular 61, General HeadquarterB, Far Hast Command, 29*9 and Message, Cosuuuider-in-Chief, Far Hast, cite ZX 16668, 16 September i960, pe rente-Ion is granted it. iamti;33. JjqAu
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16 Lirob 195r
e This letter constitutes authority for marriage far both .ertlsr iMmeerned-----------------
3 Requirements ot Far Hast Comand direotivee ard State Department regulations governing registration of marriages will oe oomplled with b> the parties hereto.
BT COKMAITP OF MAJOR GEHERAl MEIjJLE
1 Memo. Marriage of Amerloar Citizens
fu, A- 1960
le-ot c. sjuiti.-. 2nd te, inc JU-Mt Adj Oe.
DISTRIBOTiOH
8 Individuals oonosmsd
(For presentation to off 101ating clergyman or Begistzar of Marriage ) 1 AG Records 1 CISTCFB, APO 600
HEADQUARTERS JAPAN LOGISTICAL COMMAND MAJOR GENERAL WEIBLE Permission to Marry 14 May 1951 Corporal William L. Hinze to Miss Keiko Sugie Marriage of American Citizens in Japan, dtd. 21 July 1950
Figure 3 Japan Logistical Command/Permission to Marry
7 PeterKalischer. Madame Butterflys Children. Colliers, 20 September 1952:17.
14


I have included seven documents from 1951 which exemplify the types of certificates and permissions required by all couples who wanted to marry and that William L. Hinze and Keiko Sugie secured in order that they could be married in Japan and also travel to the United States. Figure 3 is the document issued through Headquarters, Japan Logistical Command. It states that William L. Hinze has Permission to Marry Miss Keiko Sugie. This document is stamped with the date 14 May 1951.
Figure 4 is the Certificate of Witness to Marriage from the American Consular Service, Sapporo, Japan. This certificate is proof that William L. Hinze and Keiko Sugie were married on 24 May 1951.
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Figures 5, 6,7, and 8 were secured after the marriage of William Hinze and Keiko Sugie which leads me to believe that the authorities were confident that the background check, exam for syphilis, inoculation for Typhoid would be favorable for Keiko Sugie. Figure 7 is the approval of the petition for an Immigration Visa for Keiko Sugie Hinze to immigrate to America.
15



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Certificate
of Justice; INS
In her book Trans-Pacific Racisms Yukiko Koshiro argued that the U.S. occupation of Japan after World War II transformed a brutal war charged with overt racism into an amicable peace in which the race issue seemed to have vanished.8 It seemed that most servicemen became colorblind and lost the memory of who were their enemies during World War II. They were allowed to marry because Public Law 717 was passed in the U.S. Congress. Marriages between servicemen and women from sixty-two locations around the world were requested after World War II ended. The law made no provision for Japanese or other oriental War Brides. Not
8 Koshiro, Yukiko. Trans-Pacific Racisms and the U.S. Occupation of Japan. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.
17


until July, 1947 was the law amended; and only then, for a very short period, were soldiers in Japan allowed legally to marry Japanese in American ceremony. In 1952 the McCarran-Walter Immigration and Naturalization Act provided for repeal of the Oriental Exclusion Act of 1924. It extended token immigration quotas to Japan and to other Asian Nations.9 The McCarran-Walter Act also provided an opportunity for Issei (first generation Japanese in America) in the U.S. to become naturalized American citizens.
The first War Bride from Japan was recorded in 1947. While the bulk arrived in 1952, anyone marrying an American GI through 1965 was included in that category. From 1947 through 1965 there were 48,912 Japanese nationals classified as Wives of Citizens who immigrated to the United States.10 This phenomenon of Japanese War Brides garnered publicity in American publications and became news back in the U.S. Correspondents wrote of the situation that grew out of the Occupation. People back in America were informed of what was happening in Japan when they read magazines which featured articles about the Allied Occupation. One of these articles appeared in the January 19, 1952 edition of The Saturday Evening Post. Janet Wentworth Smith and William L. Worden let America know that servicemen where marrying and bringing home wives in their article Theyre Bringing Home Japanese Wives. They wrote of the institutions who worked with these new wives to help them become suitable American women. Schools and resources were available to the War Brides to help them learn how to be proper American wives before they crossed the Pacific to live in America. Peter Kalischer wrote for Colliers magazine and informed readers in America of the
9 Herman. The Japanese in America: 39.
10 Miki Ward Crawford, Katie Kaori Hayashi, and Shizuko Suenaga. Japanese War Brides in America: An Oral History. Santa Barbara, CA: Prager, 2010: XIX.
18


plight of the children bom of the Occupation or as the title suggests the plight of Madame Butterflys Children.11
The exact numbers of War Brides are not available. However, estimates can be found.
For example, J. B. Pilcher, American Consul General stated in a private communication that between June 22, 1947 and December 31, 1952, 10,517 American citizens, principally Armed Service Personnel, married Japanese women.12 Gerald J. Schnepp and Agnes Masako Yui in their article, Cultural and Marital Adjustment of Japanese War Brides, reported that 15,500 marriages occured between Americans and Japanese between 1945 and 1954.13 Janet Wentworth Smith and William L. Worden in their article They're Bringing Home Japanese Wives reported six thousand marriages at the time of their publication.14 Teresa K. Williams stated in her journal article that figures ranging from 55,000 to 100,000 have been cited to estimate the number of these Japanese women/American servicemen who married after World War II.15 The U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) provided statistics on the numbers of War Brides who came from different countries under the provisions of the War Brides Act. Between 1947 and 1949, a total of 14,175 German war brides and their 750 (legitimately American) children emigrated to the United States.16 However, because many spouses immigrated under provisions of other laws, the INS figures do not tell the entire story. American military serving abroad during WWII did indeed return home with foreign spouses. The post-WWII
11 Peter Kalischer. Madame Butterflys Children. Colliers, September, 1952:15-18.
12 Strauss. Strain and Harmony in American-Japanese War-Bride Marriages: 99.
13 Gerald J. Schnepp and Agnes Masako Yui. Cultural and Marital Adjustment of Japanese War Brides. American Journal of Sociology V ol. 61, No. 1 (July 1955): 48-50.
14 Smith and Worden. Theyre Bringing Home Japanese Wives.
15 Teresa K. Williams. Marriage between Japanese Women and U.S. Servicemen since World War H. Amerasia Journal 17, No. 1 1991:139.
16 Yukiko Koshiro. Race as International Identity? Miscegenation in the U.S. Occupation of Japan and Beyond. Amerikastudien/American Studies Vol. 48, No. 1, (2003): 67.
19


Occupationnaires brought home the largest number of War Brides of any other foreign war. Under the War Brides Act, visa requirements for foreign bom spouses were waived, with the exception of foreign bom spouses from South and Southeast Asia. U.S. involvement in the Pacific during WWII took many American military to China. On June 28, 1947, Public Law 126 allowed racially ineligible alien brides to enter the United States and join their husbands as long as the marriages were performed between July 23 and August 21, 1947. Consequently a total of 823 marriages took place in occupied Japan between American men and Japanese women during this amnesty period. Of the Americans involved, 597 were Nisei (second generation Japanese Americans), 211 were white and fifteen were black.17
Berrigans article was primarily about the Occupation Babies the future brides of the Allied servicemen. But he also told his readers about the women who had illegitimate children with unnamed servicemen. He wrote about Japanese women in the development of Japan under the command of the Occupation Forces. These women had been in the work force during the war and continued to work in post-World War II Japan. 18 He wrote about the women of Japan to bring attention to the growing number of Occupation Babies being bom.
Hundreds of couples were getting married at the rate of five to twenty a day at each of the six American consulates in Japan. They were preparing to make the great trans-Pacific jump. According to Smith and Worden the Japancse-race population back home increased 4 to 5 per cent, not counting the Eurasian children of these marriages. This increase of Japanese was of great concern to Americans who still had angst towards Japanese people because of World War II. Only a few more than 100,000 Japanese lived on the Pacific Coast in 1942, and negligible
17 Ibid: 67.
18 Berrigan, Japans Occupation Babies.
20


numbers elsewhere in the United States.19 War Brides were significant because they were the first large group of Japanese immigrants to arrive in the U.S. after the Johnson-Reed act of 1924. Obstacles and Challenges in America
War Brides endured greater hardships than most American wives in post-WWH United States. Many families had disowned them for marrying a foreigner. They travelled on ships for weeks. They were rejected by their American in-laws for being a foreigner and also the enemy. A new culture and inability to speak English created barriers. For many, motherhood and the task of raising bi-racial children proved to be difficult.
Japanese War Brides had to overcome many hardships to be the wife of an American and then rise above the challenges of becoming American. The trip across the Pacific was gruesome. Then they settled around military bases or wherever American spouses called home. Their culture and language of origin created barriers. Without the support of their immediate families, they cared for their biracial children alone.
According to Smith and Worden, there were many Japanese women who had misconceptions about what to expect when they began their lives in America. These ideas range from gold-plated bathrooms to lives lived entirely in the atmosphere of screenland nightclubs.20 My mother was intelligent enough to know from books she had read that the streets in America were not paved in gold. Before we could see these fancy bathrooms we had to experience sea travel.
My mother and 1 travelled from Yokohama, Japan to the port of Seattle, Washington aboard the USNS General Simon B. Buckner T-AP 123. See a copy of the ships manifest with
19 Smith and Worden. Theyre Bringing Home Japanese Wives: 27. Masako Herman. The Japanese in America, 1843-1973: A Chronology & Fact Book Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1974:119-120.
20 Smith and Worden. Theyre Bringing Home Japanese Wives: 79.
21


information about our port of embarkation and the date: Figure 9. Luckily, my father was also aboard this ship. Sleeping quarters for men were on a different level, separate from the women and children. We shared mealtimes together and had plenty of opportunities to walk the decks. I was told that even though I was able to walk, I mostly crawled because of the ships motion. My mother was very sea sick and she was having difficulty nursing me. Before boarding, requests were made by the passengers for special needs. Many mothers requested canned milk for their children. My mother did not. She was very worried that I might starve. Fortunately for me, other mothers had requested canned milk that they did not need for their children and gave them to my mother.
HINZE, Kelko SUGIE fUNZE, Marie 1VL MANIFEST OF IN-BOUND PASSENGERS (ALIENS) USNS GENERAL SIMON B. BUCKNER T-AP 123 Yokohama, Japan 24 January 1952 Seattle, Wash. 1952 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Immigration and Naturalization Service
Figure 9 Ships Manifest USNS General Simon B. Buckner T-AP 123
22


Our trip from Japan to the state of Washington was one way only. My mother did not return to Japan until July 1972, twenty years after she initially left Japan. She would wait that many years because her childrens needs came before her own. War Brides were uncomplaining martyrs, catering to their husbands demands and sacrificing endlessly for their children, according to Glenn.21 I also took that many years to save up enough money for her airfare and other possible daily expenses while visiting Japan. In the earlier days of their lives in America air travel was uncommon, long distance telephone calls were expensive, and War Brides communicated with their families in Japan through writing letters.
Americans in the 1950s questioned whether the marriages of the Occupation could be successful. Gerald Schnepp and Agnes Masako Yui, sociologists, reported 15,500 marriages between Americans and Japanese between 1945 and 1954. They studied twenty American-Japanese war marriages. The results of their studies did not confirm the assumptions of hasty marriage and severe conflict frequently made about intercultural marriages. They found that intercultural marriages were no different than other marriages. The success or failure of their marriage would depend on the desire of the partners to make it so. Their studies indicated stability rather than conflict based on the couples age at marriage, educational attainment,
[and] residence separate from in-laws...and number of children. If any difficulties were present, it could usually be traced to difficulties with language.22
War Brides are different from Japanese American women who endured imprisonment in War Relocation Centers during WWII in the U.S. War Brides, although they were Japanese, experienced occasional hostility from Japanese Americans. War Brides were seen as wives and
21 Evelyn Nakano Glenn. Issei, Nisei, Warbride: Three Generations of Japanese American Women in Domestic Service. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986: xi.
22 Schnepp and Yui. Cultural and Marital Adjustment of Japanese War Brides:48.
23


mothers unfettered by the disturbing public history of internment.23 Mutual understanding between the Japanese citizen brides and the Japanese American women developed slowly and with apprehension. The history of War Brides has disappeared under the shadow of research that has been done on the Issei (first generation immigrants) and Nisei (second generation Japanese Americans). War Brides tended to disappear somewhere between the Picture Brides of the late 1800s and the post internment lives of the Nisei.24
When my father, mother and I arrived in America, our first stop was Chicago. Chicago was my fathers home. My mother and I were quite the spectacle for my new relatives. The Chicago environment allowed my mother independence from my fathers relatives. In Chicago my mother was able to speak with other Japanese people in her own language. The earlier Japanese Americans in Chicago provided a comfortable infrastructure for my mother. Chicagos prewar count of 400 Japanese grew to some 20,000 after 1945. Japanese Americans filtered out of camps through work and education release programs. There were opportunities for purchasing Japanese reading materials and food. However our inaugural visit to Chicago was short.
The three of us went to Fort Lee, Virginia, my fathers first stateside assignment. Unfortunately, he was ordered to deploy to Korea after only three months in Virginia. My mother and I had no choice but to move back to Chicago while my dad went to war. My mother was not yet a naturalized citizen of the United States. She was stateless. Her visa was good only from Japan to the U.S. She could not return to America if she went back to Japan. She could not afford to make the trip back to Japan. I was an American citizen and America was my home. So, here we were, back in Chicago while my dad was in Korea. We lived with my great-aunt. My
23 Caroline Chung Simpson. An Absent Presence: Japanese Americans in Postwar American Culture, 1945-1960. Durham: Duke University Press, 2001: 151.
24 Elena Tajima Creef. Discovering My Mother as the Other in the Saturday Evening Post. Qualitative Inquiry (Sage Publications, Inc.) Volume 6, Number 4 (2000):452.
24


great-aunt received an allotment from my fathers paycheck to pay for our food and lodging. We had no spending money. No allowance was given to us. My mother was only allowed to walk to the court house to attend classes to become an American citizen. There she had the pleasure of conversations with other Japanese women who were also seeking U.S. citizenship. My mother told me that this time in Chicago was made bearable because of the few encounters with other Japanese women. Otherwise, she was very lonely, scared, and secluded. She was also permitted an occasional walk around the neighborhood with me for a bit of exercise and fresh air. She was pregnant and gave birth to my sister while my dad was in Korea. She feared that my father might die fighting in Korea. It was a very long thirteen months for us. I was my mothers soul mate and her only source of comfort.
The myth of Western clothing
Contrary to most perceptions about Japanese women, they were more Western than imagined by most people in the U.S. Most narratives describe Japanese women as backwards. After eight months of occupation young Japanese women were wearing high heels and Western clothing. Actually, women in Japan had been wearing Western clothing ever since the Meiji Restoration began. In 1889 Japan became the first non-Western nation to adopt a constitutional political system, while at roughly the same time it became the first non-Westem industrial, capitalist economy. 25 The Meiji era began to construct a modem nation and westernize. Japan became a nation with a Western military, industrial mass production of various goods, and its infrastructure adopted railroads. Its culture reshaped to include Western music, food and attire. Therefore, Japan westernized more than fifty years before die Allied Occupation of Japan.26
25 Andrew Gordon. A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present; Second Edition. Oxford University Press, 2009:112.
26 Gordon. Modern History of Japan: 106.
25


Western clothing and food was also introduced. Japanese women were admired for their elegant kimonos and beautiful head dressings. They were considered to be extremely exotic in appearance. However; they were no stranger to Western attire and high heels.
They were less backward than most Americans assumed. They understood the American style of domesticity. For example, I listened as people said to my mother that my father must be a lucky man because he was married to a Japanese woman and all Japanese women waited on their men and bathed them. The persons asking my mother, Do you bathe your husband? must have seen the scene in the movie Sayonara when Katsumi bathed Kelly. My mother responded in her broken English which made all who heard her laugh. She was a very modem woman. She worked at a job outside of our home. She cooked and cleaned and cared for her children. She performed normal domestic chores in the home, but as far as she was concerned my father had two hands and could scrub his own back.
This illustration (Figure 10) by Bill Hume, Babysan offers an insight into how American soldiers thought Japanese girls would look like. What a surprise to find that they dressed like the girls back home.27
27 Bill Hume. Babysan: A Private Look at the Japanese Occupation. Tokyo, Japan: Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1953,1960: 9. Babysan is a form of Panglish which means, Miss Baby. It was more polite to call out to strange Japanese girls, Babysan! and not Hey, baby!
26


Figure 10 Bill Hume, Babysan (1953) You think Japanese girls look like this?
27


CHAPTER IV
WHAT IS AN OCCUPATION BABY?
Ten months after American troops landed in Japan, a Japanese radio announcer proclaimed that a child of mixed Japanese and American parentage had been bom that morning. The announcer called the baby a symbol of love and friendship between Japan and the United States: a rainbow across the Pacific.1 On June 28, 1946 SCAP heard that an announcement was made over Japanese radio that the first Occupation present had been bom.2 SCAP saw this as sarcastic and immediately issued an order to fire the announcer for condoning fraternization. This phenomenon of babies bom of the Occupation or Occupation Babies spilled across the Pacific like a rainbow. This rainbow was not the color of a prism but rather was white, brown, and yellow: Anglo-American, Black and Japanese.
Darrell Berrigan wrote a lengthy and informative article, Japans Occupation Babies in which he explains the existence and also the fate of new babies found in Japan. He said that Occupation Babies are the half-half children of White and Black Americans, Russians, Australians, British, Indians and Chinese and Japanese women.3 This list of peoples sums up the servicemen of the Occupation, the Americans and the Allies. Walter Hamilton wrote about the children of Kure, Japan. He told the story of mixed-race children left by their fathers who were Australian, American, British, New Zealander or Indian. Australias racial immigration policy was stricter than the U.S immigration laws.4
The Institute of Population Problems of the Japanese Ministry of Welfare proposed taking a census in 1947 of the babies bom of American fathers and Japanese mothers. By 1948
1 Yukiko Koshiro. Trans-Pacific Racisms and the U.S. Occupation of Japan. New York: Columbia University Press,
1999: 159.
2 Peter Kalischer. "Madame Butterfly's Children." Collier's, September 20,1952:15.
3 Darrell Berrigan, Japans Occupation Babies. Saturday Evening Post 220, No. 51, June 19,1948: 24. This article focuses on the increase in the number of racially-mixed children in Japan under the Allied occupation of Japan.
4 Walter Hamilton. Children of the Occupation: Japan's Untold Story.
28


the estimates of the number of these babies ranged from 1,000 to 4,000.5 Col. Crawford Sams, the chief of the Public Health and Welfare Section of SCAP, prohibited the Japanese from officially gathering statistics because it would be unwise to probe so serious a wound.6 The inability to collect statistics made it impossible to acquire an accurate count of how many babies were being bom. Despite orders forbidding it, fraternization between United States soldiers and Japanese women continued to increase the number of children being bom in and out of wedlock.
Janet W. Smith and William L.Worden in their article Theyre Bringing Home Japanese Wives, predicted that an Asian migration from Japan would increase the population of Japanese back home in America. Their bright-eyed children will be knocking on school doors in many of the forty-eight states, yet the great question of how they will fit in and whether they generally will be welcomed or shunned remains to be answered.7
Immediately following the end of WWII, the birth rate across the globe soared 78 million strong. By the end of 1949...the U.S. population soared well past 148 million.8
Japanese women and servicemen spawned babies in the thousands which added to the millions of children globally. They continued to have children with no thought to what the children would confront racially and socially in other societies. GIs left thousands of illegitimate babies as a tragic, persisting legacy of the Japanese occupation. Many veterans are fathers without knowing itand many other veterans are fathers but dont care9 They had sexual relations with each other with no concern of pregnancy. U. S. servicemen also formed
5 Yukiko Koshiro. Trans-Pacific Racisms: 161.
6 Ibid: 161.
7 Janet Wentworth Smith and William L. Worden. Theyre Bringing Home Japanese Wives. The Saturday Evening Post, January 19,1952:27.
8 J. Walker Smith and Ann Clurman. Generation Ageless: How Baby Boomers are Changing the Way We Live Today and They're Just Getting Started. New York: HarperCollins, 2007: 3.
9 Peter Kalischer. Madame Butterflys Children. Collier's 20 September 1952:15.
29


liaisons and fathered thousands of children in the Pacific during WWII between 1945 and 1946. They had boots on the ground in New Zealand and other islands in the South Pacific.10 Abandoned children and orphanages
Unknown numbers of children were bom during the Occupation. Masami Takada, then chief of the Welfare Ministrys Childrens Bureau, raised the estimate in July, 1952, to 150,000 GI babies, while Mrs. Tamaki Uyemura, president of the Japan Y.W.C.A., sent a tearful open letter to Mrs. Matthew B. Ridgway asking simple justice for 200,000 abandoned half-caste orphans.11 The Welfare Ministry patiently waited until 1952 when they were free to investigate and then sent out a questionnaire to registered physicians and midwives which revealed only 5,013 Amerasian children in all Japan. Mrs. Sawada explained that not all physicians had been consulted, that others had kept faulty records, that many children had not been officially registered, and that many more had been borne in secret. In August, 1953, the Welfare Ministry revised its estimate, saying that only 3,490 half-castes had been bom.12 Japans attempt to count the number of babies born fell short of accuracy. One can only guess as to the actual number of Occupation Babies that were bom from 1945 to 1952.
Some Occupation Babies were fortunate enough to leave Japan. But many others were left behind and some were abandoned by both father and mother.13 These children continued to grow up and exist in their mothers homeland. Misfortune overshadowed the questionable number of children who went unclaimed. Konketsuji (mixed-blood children) experienced discrimination in the limited opportunities in education, employment, marriage, and citizen
10 Judith A, Bennett and Angela Wanhalla. Mother's Darlings of the South Pacific: The Children of Indigenous Women and U.S. Servicemen, World War II. Honolulu: University ofHawai i Press, 2016.
11 Harry Emerson Wildes. Typhoon in Tokyo: The Occupation and Its Aftermath. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1954:332-333.
12 Wildes. Typhoon in Tokyo: 333.
13 Doubles: Japan and Americas Inlercultural Children. VHS. Directed by Regge Life. Produced by Regge Life. 1995.
30


rights.14 John W. Dower said in Embracing Defeat that the mixed-blood children became one of the sad, unspoken stories of the occupationseldom acknowledged by their foreign fathers and invariably ostracized by the Japanese.15 Darrell Berrigan in his research as a correspondent uncovered what public groups were doing to help these babies. Mrs. Miki Sawada purchased her fathers beautiful estate from Japan and organized her own orphanage in the name of the Episcopal Church. Catholic orphanages, the largest being Our Lady of Lourdes Home in Yokohama, were built especially for occupation babies; the Salesian Sisters established an orphanage in an old army barracks; and a Catholic Orphan Home was located on a farm. Berrigans research also made it known that the SCAP was concerned with other matters of the Occupation and less about the babies. Primary spokesperson of the cause of the occupation babies was Col. Crawford F. Sams, chief of the Public Health and Welfare Section, Allied command. There were an undetermined number of fatherless mixed-race children in Japan.
Many abandoned children of American servicemen and Japanese women were found and placed in the home of Miki Sawada. Her home was crowded with children she had accumulated. Pearl S. Buck and Miki Sawada were friends. Ms. Buck saw the children in the home of Miki Sawada as the children of the Occupation.. According to Pearl S. Buck they were not Eurasian but rather Amerasian. They were the mixed-race children sired by American servicemen and born to Japanese mothers. When Pearl S. Buck saw these mixed-race children long ago in Asia they were called Eurasians because their fathers were English and their mothers Indian, Indo-Chinese or Indonesian.16 Later she referred to the children in Japan as Amerasian. Let them be called Amerasians! Pearl S. Buck mimicked a statement she heard said by a man in the State
14 William R. Burkhardt. Institutional Barriers, Marginality, and Adaptation among the American Japanese Mixed Bloods in Japan. The Journal of Asians Studies Vol. 42, No. 3 (May 1983): 528.
15 John W. Dower. Embracing D feat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. New York: W.W. Norton & Company/The New Press, 1999: 211.
16 Pearl S. Buck. East Wind: West Wind. New York: The John Day Company, 1958: 29.
31


Department when she went to Washington for advice on how to help the orphans of the Occupation of Japan.17 These mixed-race children of Japan were known by many names. They were called Occupation Babies,18 East-West children, Eurasian, and Amerasian. Eurasian children bom in or out of wedlock are Americans if their fathers admitted paternity and registered the births with the American consulates. But those unregistered are Japanese for the rest of their lives.19 Konketsuji experienced discrimination in the limited opportunities in education, employment, marriage, and citizen rights.
Nearly thirty years after the end of the Occupation, the unclaimed children were allowed Japanese nationality. Statelessness in Japan ended with Japans Nationality Law which was amended May 25, 1984. Effective January 1, 1985 a child could be a Japanese national when either the father or mother is a Japanese national. Previously only children bom to Japanese fathers were considered Japanese citizens.20 The government finally gave konketsuji citizenship of Japan even if their mother or father was a citizen of another country. This law introduced a certain degree of legal flexibility to the interracial children of Japan.
The process of registering the birth of an Occupation Baby was tedious in postwar Japan. Proper completion of particular documents had to be in place before a passport could be issued for a child of the Occupation to travel across the Pacific to America. These papers included birth records and consulate reports. Once the consulate report was approved then a passport was issued. This author, an Occupation Baby, has provided two examples of the documents completed after her birth acknowledging her status as the child of her American father and Japanese mother and two copies of pages from her passport.
17 Pearl S. Buck and Theodore F. Harris. For Spacious Skies: Journey in Dialogue. New York: The John Day Company, 1966:54.
18 Berrigan. Japans Occupation Babies.
19 Smith and Worden. 'Theyre Bringing Home Japanese Wives: 81.
20 Mie Murazumi. Japans Laws on Dual Nationality in the context of a Globalized World. Pacific Rim Law & Policy Journal. Vol. 9, No. 2 2000: 422.
32


The first document Figure 11 is the translated midwifes certificate of birth. It states that a female was bom to Keiko Sugie on 7 March 1951 in Sapporo, Hokkaido. The midwifes name was Haru Bando and the interpreter from Camp Crawford was Tadashi Koganezawa. Note that there is no mention of my father on this document because I was born before my parents received permission to be married.
The second document Figure 12 is the authors American Consulate Report of Birth. The place and date of the report is Sapporo, Japan, September 26,1951. This report was sent to the Department of State in Washington, D.C. to record my official State Department Record of Birth.
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Figure 11 Birth Certificate of Midwife
33


The report also states that William Louis Hinze is an American citizen and lived in Chicago, Illinois until he was assigned to Japan in 1948. Keiko Hinze was not an American citizen. Note that this report states that my fathers race is Caucasian and my mothers race is Mongolian.
They were given four choices for mothers race is Mongolian. They were given four choices for
race: Caucasian, Malay, Negroid, Indian, or Mongolian.21
TRIPLICATE
KEPOBT OF BTBTH
CHILD KMBf ABROAD 01 AMWUCAN PAKHOT OP PA33NT8
AMERICAN CONSULATE REPORT OF BIRTHS Made May llinw Sapporo, Japan 26 September 1951
Figure 12 American Consulate Report of Birth
21 Birth Abroad to U.S. Citizen Parent and Alien Parent, Married. Immigration and Nationality Act, U.S. Department of State: Bureau of Consular Affairs: Public Law 103-416; 7 FAM 1134.2; 1134.4a, 1134.4c.
34


Figures 13 and 14 are of the passport issued to Marie May Hinze from the Office of the
Political Adviser of the United States at Tokyo, Japan, October 3,1951
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Passport issued by Office of Political Adviser of the United States at Tokyo, Japan October 3,1951
Figure 13 Passport Marie May Hinze (2 & 3)
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Marie May Hinze
Passport issued by Office ofPolilicol Adviser of the United Slates al Tokyo, Japan October 3, 1951
Figure 14 Passport Marie May Hinze (4 & 5)
35


In the June 19, 1948 edition of The Saturday Evening Post, Darrell Berrigan wrote about Japan's Occupation Babies22 and caused quite a stir back in America as well as at SCAP headquarters. After Berrigans words were printed all of America was aware of the birth of. Occupation Babies. Berrigan began his article by making a profound statement about how for somewhat more than 300 years white conquerors from the West have been mixing their blood with the conquered people of the East, creating a minority of unhappy misfits belonging neither to the East nor the West. In long-occupied countries like India, Indonesia and Indo-China, the Eurasian population, fathered by European military and civilian administrators, has grown into a troublesome minority of millions living in a political and social limbo between the native populations and the Western nationals. Such a minority is growing in Japan under the Allied occupation.23 It is suggested that the Allied occupation was like the white conquerors from the West mixing their blood with the people of the East. The American and Allied servicemen of the Occupation were creating unhappy misfits. This author was not able to find the exact number of Occupation Babies bom. The numbers found by this author are inconsistant.
Baby Boomers
When the first Occupation Present was bom in occupied Japan in 1946 the childs name was not disclosed. However, the first Baby Boomer was bom in Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania 1 January 1946. Her name is Kathleen Casey-Kirschling. The number of births until 1952 was never concise. Estimates of how many children were bom ranged from 1,000 to 200,000.24 Amerasians are a small percentage of the post-WWII baby boom. Japanese Occupation Babies as well as babies bom of the War Brides of Europe and other countries
22 Berrigan. Japans Occupation Babies,"
23 Ibid: 24.
24 Koshiro. Race as International Identity? : 64.
36


around the globe comprised this population of millions of children who were bom between January 1, 1946 and December 31, 1964.
In the years after the war, couples who could not afford families during the Great Depression made up for lost time; the mood was now optimistic. During the war, unemployment ended and the economy greatly expanded; afterwards the United States experienced vigorous economic growth until the 1970s. The G.I. Bill enabled record numbers of people to attend college. This led to an increase in stock of skills and yielded higher incomes to families. Returning veterans married, started families, pursued higher education, and bought their first homes. Many other countries around the globe also experienced baby boom years as their populations also felt optimistic about the economy of their nations. Sylvia Porter is credited for the term Baby Boomers. Take the 3,548,000 babies bom in 1950. Bundle them into a batch, bounce them all over the bountiful land that is America. What do you get? Boom. The biggest. ..boom ever known in history. She made this statement in the May 4, 1951 edition of the New York Post.25 There were an estimated 76.4 million Baby Boomers bom between 1 January 1946 and 31 December 1964 in the world. They make up almost 40 percent of the worlds population today.
Amerasians are a small percentage of the post-WWH baby boom. Japanese Occupation Babies as well as babies bom of the War Brides of Europe and other countries around the globe are included in this population of millions of children who were bom between! January 1946 and 31 December 1964. The number of births until 1952 in Japan was never concise. Estimates of how many children were bom ranged from 1,000 to 200,000.26 In the January 19, 1952 edition of The Saturday Evening Post, Janet Wentworth Smith and William L. Worden
25 Sylvia Porter, Babies Equal Boom, New York Post May 4,1951.
26 Koshiro. Race as International Identity? : 64.
37


mentioned that thousands of bright-eyed children ... would be the by-product of six thousand Americanssoldiers, sailors, airmen, civilians and officers[who] have married Japanese citizens in Japan since the end of World War II. 27 One could assume that this number of six thousand marriages would produce 6,000 babies. Gerald Schnepp and Agnes Masako Yui, sociologists, reported that 15,500 marriages occurred between Americans and Japanese from 1945 and 1954 in their article, Cultural and Marital Adjustment of Japanese War Brides.28 The Schnepp and Yui report of 15,500 marriages could indicate that 15,500 babies could be bom from these unions.
Amerasians have been called Hafu, half-half, Konketsuji (mixed-blood) and Occupation Babies. Americans of Japanese descent share a long and sometimes painful history. They were the children of the ultimate meeting of East and West Amerasians belonging to neither society. They were not considered Japanese nor were they accepted as Americans. Most Americans know very little about the true plight of Amerasians; all they "know" is what they have read in the newspapers. Correspondents tended to depict Amerasians as lost children.29 The Amerasians of Japan are the living legacy of the Occupation. They were left behind nearly seventy years ago when the Occupation ended and a majority of Occupationnaires withdrew from Japan. The United States did not directly assume responsibility for children of American citizens until the passage of the Amerasian Immigration Act of 1982 (97-359). This was a breakthrough since it was the first time that the United States attempted to make an immigration law specifically applicable to the Amerasian individual. Although this immigration act was meant for Amerasians, it was not meant for all Amerasians. Priority was given to only the
27 Smith and Worden. Theyre Bringing Home Japanese Wives.
28 Gerald J. Schnepp and Agnes Masako Yui. Cultural and Marital Adjustment of Japanese War Brides. American Journal of Sociology Vol. 61, No. 1 (July 1955), 48.
29 William R. Burkhardt. Institutional Barriers, Marginality, and Adaptation among the American-Japanese Mixed Bloods in Japan. The Journal of Asian Studies Vol.42, No. 3 (May 1983), 525.
38


Amerasian children of Vietnam, Korea, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand fathered by U. S. citizens.30
Darrell Berrigan brought the issue of these occupation babies to Americans who subscribed to The Saturday Evening Post. After only three years of occupation he estimated 1,000 to 4,000 black, white, brown, and yellow occupation babies were bom. According to his interpreter, Naoshi Kaneko, the whole world population, 100 billions, at least the same number of people who buy issue number of The Saturday Evening Post might read his name.31 Americans learned that the Allied servicemen of Australia, Britain, India, China, and white and black Americans were responsible for this new population. Walter Hamiltons book, Children of the Occupation is primarily a narrative of the Japanese-Australian children bom of the Occupation.32 The plight of these children was especially challenging because the immigration laws in Australia were even more severe against any Japanese compared to the immigration laws of the United States.
Many babies were left behind. These babies were known as konketsuji. Konketsuji grew up longing to know their fathers and only knowing the Japanese ways. William Burckhardts article Institutional Barriers, Marginality, and Adaptation among the American-Japanese Mixed Bloods in Japan brings scholarship and awareness to those Amerasians who were left behind in
30 Amerasian Immigration Act 1982 (Public Law 97-359).
31 Keeping Posted. Naoshis in the Beams. the Saturday Evening Post. 19 June 1948:10. According to Naoshi Kaneko, Darrell Berrigan was so famous that all 70 members Press Club of Tokyo knew his name. Darrell Berrigan was a correspondent for United Press, New York Times in 1942 writing Weary British Retreat in Burma, Knowing That They Face Disaster: 4. The Chinese Government, particularly the Chiang Kai-shek regime, accused Berrigan and Isaacs of writing critically of or unfriendly toward the Government of China and refused to permit their return to China. Hurley, the Ambassador in China within correspondence between himself and the U.S. Secretary of State received a telegram from T.O. Thackrey, Editor and General Manager, New York Post stating that Berrigan highly experienced foreign correspondent with long and excellent record in CBI [China-Burma-India Theater]. Thackrey also stated that this arbitrary action on the part of the Chinese Government is regarded by the Post of most serious nature which will do grave injury to press relations between United States and Chinese Government. The Ambassador in China (Hurley) to the Secretary of State; Chungking, July 30, 1945.
32 Walter Hamilton. Children of the Occupation: Japan's Untold Story (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2013).
39


Japan. Brown Babies is a term used for children bom to black soldiers and white European women during and after WWII. Heide Fehrenbach devotes her entire narrative Race after Hitler to the plight of children of the four years of military occupation in Europe between 1945 and 1949. 94,000 occupation children were bom during this period, but public attention quickly focused on a small but visible subset, the so-called Mischlinge. Mischlingskinder were distinguished from the others by their colored paternity. There was only a small minority of postwar German biracial births (some 3,000 to 5,000) however: they took on a disproportionately great symbolic significance on both sides of the Atlantic. Their existence challenged historical definitions of ethnic German-ness and sparked heated debates about the social effects of occupation, as well as the character and consequences of democratization.33 The children were variously understood as Germans or Americans, occupation children or illegitimate children, mixed-bloods or half-Negro.34 In the United States, Afro-German children were most typically called half-Negro children or, more colloquially, brown babies. One of the purposes of this study is to investigate the specific social and cultural meanings attached to perceived mixing between allegedly distinct races.35
In his book Eye on the Struggle, James McGrath Morris quoted Ethel Lois Payne who witnessed a large population of abandoned infants at an orphanage said, the brown babies are there. She said, Here were 160 foundlings of all mixtures, about 50 of them Spookinese,
Negro and Japanese.36 Pertaining to marriages as well as births, there is no way to determine actual numbers. No formal record keeping was kept. Combined estimates show approximate numbers.
33 Heide Fehrenbach. Race after Hitler: Black Occupation Children. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2005: 2. Biracial, bicultural children unwanted by enemy nations; mischlinge or mixed-bloods.
34 Ibid: 11.
35 Ibid: 14.
36 James McGrath Morris. Eye on the Struggle: Ethel Payne, the First Lady of the Black Press. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2015: 65. Black Journalist; Spookinese, Negro and Japanese babies.
40


Military Brats
Stories from Japan are generally about military families from their time stationed in Occupation Japan. The families assigned to military installations in Japan were generally white Americans. On rare occasions a serviceman with a Japanese Bride might live in military housing. Military Brats today who share their experiences of living in Japan are generally White. I was an Army brat and went to military schools which were fully integrated. We went to school with students who were white, black, Hispanic, Korean and a few Japanese. I grew up knowing that quality education was a priority. When I reached the age of adulthood, which was 18 years old, I was no longer a military dependent of my father. After the age of eighteen, I lived off-post in civilian communities. It was on the outside that I encountered racism for the first time. For the first time in my life I saw peoples segregate themselves from others. I felt uncomfortable seeing people separate themselves from others who looked different. I was an Army brat of color and was not privileged in the civilian world. Within the military communities we did not experience this type of segregation. The military addressed potential discrimination and provided equal opportunities for people of all races.
The military was fully focused on equal opportunity since President Trumans Executive Order 9981, 1948.37 This executive order integrated the military by mandating equal treatment for all without regard to race, color, religion or national origin. Though this order was intended for men serving in the U.S. Armed Forces, this equal treatment was also applied to the families who lived on military installations. These installations are referred to as Camps, Forts, Bases, and or stations)sub-communities of a greater state. Army bases are much like the company towns of the early 20th century, where everyone works for the same employer, and the company provides for all people who live there. Commissaries (provides commodities), Post Exchanges
37 Executive Order 9981,26 July 1948.
41


(retail stores), hospitals for the servicemen and their families, entertainment centers, schools, and much more. All persons living and working on military installations had equal access to any and all facilities. The rank,-or pay grade was the only form of social stratification that separated any of us brats. However, I did not let this affect my relationships with my classmates. Our fathers rank did not inhibit us from socializing with whomever we wanted to. Looking back to my days as an Army brat 1 did not see color lines. Living within military installations was like living in a bubble.38 We were protected from the racism that existed off-post.
I believe that my experiences of living on-post shielded me from the shock of learning that I was different. Others thought that I was different. From this point forward I became passionate to know why others saw me as different. Upon introduction to new people, inevitably I would be asked, Where are you from? I needed to know how to answer that question of where I was from.
38 Brats: Our Journey Home. DVD. Directed by Donna Musil, Produced by Beth Goodwin and Donna Musil. Performed by Kris Kristofferson Narration and Music. Brats Without Borders, Inc. 2005. This is a documentary that all Military Brats will want to watch. It is interesting to learn about other Brats and what they have achieved as adults. Norman Schwarzkopf and Kris Kristofferson talk about growing up as Brats.
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CHAPTER V
GROWING UP CHILDREN OF WAR BRIDES
The story of the children of War Brides is part of a larger phenomenon of post-World War II America. As we have revealed the story of our mothers and fathers, we also began to know who we are. I do not presume that the experiences of all Occupation Babies were the same; however our experiences are very similar because our mothers are Japanese. The children of the Occupation who grew up in America recognize and understand the sacrifice and risks that their mothers endured when they left Japan. Now as adults, they honor the choices mothers made. They also saw firsthand the challenges their mothers had learning to live in America. Getting to America was not an easy process and living here was an even greater challenge.
We found out that prospective brides of American servicemen took classes in Japan to learn how to be the perfect American Wives. The children on the other hand did not partake in such lessons primarily because they were just babies when all America was concerned about how War Brides would fit into American society.
How did we navigate an embodied identity and cultural diversity? Stephen Murphy-Shigematsu said, These kids [Occupation Babies] were heavily stigmatized as the children of the former enemy and occupiers and immoral women, with prejudice and discrimination directed at them.1 However, Life in the United States wasnt too bad. He said, The steaks were big and the hot dogs were a foot long. There were hot fudge sundaes with a red cherry on top and pink clouds of cotton candy.2 With these observations and more to be found in his narrative, Celtic Samurai, before he knew it, he was American.
1 Stephen Murphy-Shigematsu. Celtic Samurai: Storytelling a Transnational-Transracial Family Life. In WarBaby/Love Child: Mixed Race Asian American Art, edited by Laura Kina & Wei Ming Dariotis, 51-57. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2013: 55.
2 Murphy-Shigemasu. Celtic Samurai: 52-53.
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As a disc jockey at a Colorado FM radio station, Gil Asakawa gave himself the nickname, Teriyaki Cosmic Cowboy. 3 He said that without realizing it, he was searching for his identity. Gil wrote a sourcebook Being Japanese American for Nikkei (all Japanese) as the result of his search for his identity. His narrative is about how he evolved, not as Japanese, but as a Japanese American. 4 There was a time when Gil was unsure of whom he was. At a young age, he thought he was a banana. He was told that because he was yellow on the outside, and white on the inside. Gils father was an American soldier when he met his mother in Japan. His mother was Japanese and his father was Nisei (second generation Japanese American), therefore his blood quantum was 100% Japanese. He grew up with white Americans and thought of himself as white; however he was yellow on the outside. Gil has a great sense of humor and said, I like to think of myself as more than just a fruit. Im really a dessert. Im a banana split, with both my yellow and white sides sharing equal attention.5
Velina Hasu Houston is Japanese and Blackfoot Pikuni, African American and Cuban with historical ties to India and China. She said, Because Amerasians of WWII are raised by native Japanese mothers in the Japanese custom and culture, our cultural identity is more Asian (not Asian American) than American whereas our American culture is a blend of whatever ethnic groups of which we are composed. For instance, I am half native Japanese and half African-Indian mainstream American. The cultural and racial realities are that I am a blend of four cultures and three races.6 7 When asked where she is from, Velina was blessed with a choice of
3 Gil Asakawa, Being Japanese American: A JA Sourcebook for Nikkei, Hapa...& Their Friends. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press, 2004: vii.
4 Ibid: x.
5 Ibid: vii.
6 Houston, Velina Hasu. The Past Meets the Future: A Cultural Essay. Amerasia Journal 17:1 (1991): 54.
7 Elfneda Berthiaume Shukert and Barbara Smith Scibetta. War Brides of World War II. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1988: 255, War Brides is a documented history using personal stories and archival material. Velina Hasu Houston is a playwright and
44


responses. She said that she finds something to love and something to hate about being Japanese, about being American, and about being black and Indian. Like Gil Asakawa learning that he was a banana, white on the inside and yellow on the outside Velina learned about whom she was from her father with the visual aid of Neapolitan ice cream. Her father demonstrated by taking a spoonful of each color of ice cream and stirred it together in a bowl. He told her that the even brown tone that the mixed ice cream became was her. They could not be taken apart. She is a blend of all her cultures and races.
Elena Tajima Creef experienced an identity crisis when she was a young teenager. She said that she was the only half-oriental in her school. She pretended to be Mexican. Having long black hair and sun darkened skin made her deception successful. What was difficult for her was creating illusions for her mothers identity.8
Did our parents, school, jobs, friends, strangers, lovers, the evening news, or all of these influence us? Perhaps a stronger influence was the stigma of having parents who come from two different racial groups. Interracial relationships were deemed unacceptable and so were the children of these unions. Yukiko Koshiro said that in the context of U.S.-Japanese relations, the term race came to represent two separate ideasthat is, race is manifested by physical appearance, and race as an explanation of national power and status in the world.9 This racism of physical appearance which seemed to have disappeared would reappear in the United States as the children of a Japanese mother. These children were conceived from the cordial relationships
8 Shukert and Scibetta. War Brides of World War II: 256. Ph. D. Elena Tajima Creef is an Associate Professor of Womens Studies at Wellesley College.
9 Yukiko Koshiro.Race as International Identity? Miscegenation in the U.S. Occupation of Japan and Beyond. Amerikastudien/American Studies Vol.48, No. 1 (2003): 3.This article attempts to retrieve the story of the little-known fate of so-called mixed-blood children, those bom to American GIs and Japanese women in the aftermath of World War II, which has long vanished in the confluence of American and Japanese historical narratives.
45


of servicemen and Japanese women. They would find themselves struggling with their identities because of racial formation. Sometimes it was because they were also Japanese like their mothers and other times they struggled with the race of their fathers.
There was a time when I was very confused while searching for the answer to the question, Who am I? I perused the Consulate Report of my Birth to find that my father was Caucasian and my mother was Mongolian. I had no understanding of what a Caucasian or Mongolian was. The official form constructed by the United States Government indicated that my parents were not German and Japanese. Michael Omi and Howard Winant argued in their article, Racial Formation that race is a social construct. They wrote: Our society is so thoroughly racialized that to be without racial identity is to be in danger of having no identity.10 While Amerasians learn to understand that their mothers are Japanese, they also learn that they are half-Japanese and half someone else. This is an identity that is 50% Japanese and 50% someone else. It is disappointing, however, to know that blood quantum is still an important issue for others to know who we are. A number of examples can be given with regard to percentage of blood which determines an Asian identity. France Nuyen is not Japanese but she was quoted as having said that she was bom in Marseilles, her mother is French, her father is Chinese (post-WWII U.S. Citizen), and she has some Moorish blood.11 Actress, Nancy Kwan, also not Japanese, said that she is half-Chinese, three-eighths English, one eighth Scot, blended with a touch of Malaysian.12 Another example of the question, How much is one Japanese can be found in the conversation between Major Gruver (Marlon Brando) and his lover Hana-ogi (Miiko Taka) in Sayonara the movie. Hana-ogi asks, What about the children? What would
10 Michael Omi and Howard Winant. Racial Formation. In Racial Formation in the United States from the 1960s to 1990s: 53-77. New York: Routledge, 1994.
11 Life. Young Star Rises as Suzie Wong. (October 6,1958: 95-98). Authors personal copy.
12 To Whom It May Concern: Ka Shen's Journey. Documentary about Nancy Kwan. Redwind Productions. Distributed by Locomotive Distribution. 2009.
46


they be? Major Graver replies: Why theyd be half yellow, and half white. Half of me and half of you.13 Thus, Occupation babies would be without question, half Japanese and the other half would be that of our fathers.
I never saw her as a mother. Sometimes I dreamed that she was the mother that I saw in the homes of my friends (often the faces of my friends were snuggled in their mothers bosoms) or even like the mothers that I saw on television. Sometimes I wished that my mother was not different from other mothers. However, I set those thoughts aside because I was expected to oblige my parents. I could not share those thoughts with my mother because it would be an insult to who she was.
My academic research allowed me to realize that others like me were doing the same -searching although in different ways and by using different scholarly disciplines such as Sociology, Ethnic Studies, and writing memoirs of their mothers. My narrative is intended to be historical. I would like to acknowledge the scholarship of those like me in order to reveal my discoveries. There scholarship tells me that they have discovered themselves in much the same way as I discovered who I am. "Not much was known about the mixed-race children after the mid-1951s in spite of the intense publicity they had received early on.14 Later there was less interest in those babies who were the result of American and Japanese relationships. Silent lessons occurred as the children of these unions grew up. Their education would take place in American society. The duality of whether to be more white or be more Asian, yellow would often create personal struggles for the children as they grew up in the U.S. For some of us what was required was a sense of humor or tile ability to laugh at their situation. For example, Gil Asakawa, while growing up found humor in his physical characteristics. He was told that he was
13 Sayonara. Warner Brothers, 1957.
14 Koshiro. Race as International Identity: 75.
47


a banana, but with humor he was more than just a fruit. He was a dessert, like a banana split.15 16 Stephen Murphy-Shigematsu showed his humor when he spoke of himself as The Celtic Samurai. This title is a reference to the fact that he has a Japanese mother and his father is Irish.
Much of the scholarship found about Japanese War Brides and their children resonates from these same children. It can be argued that their motivation to write about Japanese War Brides comes from their desire to find their own identities. There are myths surrounding Amerasians, and self-sacrificing Asian mothers. However, how Japanese mothers are heard is produced by the highly organized social representations made by their children. What I have seen emerge are counter narratives about the children whose fracturing dominates their mothers narratives. Many of these scholars have confessed to studying their mothers only to realize they were looking for an understanding of who they were. Kathryn Tolbert, Lucy Craft, and Karen Kasmauski recently created a documentary of their mothers, Fall Seven Times, Get Up Eight:
The Japanese War Brides}6 This is a film about three women and their stories about the social, economic, and racial processes they experienced as Japanese War Brides in America. The title of this documentary is a clue to the womens never-give-up attitude towards life. Kathryn, Lucy and Karen listened to their mothers and then did the background research to bring the stories of their mothers to the screen. Prior to their presentation, they prepared questions in advance for their mothers to respond to.
Young Amerasian men might imagine themselves as being like the Japanese of old. The film industry in Japan provided enough examples of being a Japanese male, but of course all of these images were of the Japanese pre-Meiji. The average American knows two kinds of
15 Gil Asakawa. Being Japanese American: vii.
16 Fall Seven Times, Get Up Eight: The Japanese War Brides. Produced by Lucy Craft, Karen Kasmauski, &
Kathryn Tolbert. 2015.
48


Japanese movies, The first kind is that of grunting samurai slashing] at each other with swords. Akira Kurosawa, Ozu Yasujiro, and Naruse Mikio were the directors and producers of choice in America, The second kind is that of a prehistoric monster [who] stomps through downtown Tokyo. A young man was more likely to associate with the samurai rather than the prehistoric monster.17 Toshiro Mifune was the star in many of Kurosawas movies. Young Amerasian men related to his personae. The prehistoric monster is popularly known as Godzilla.
Amerasian females struggled with a different sort of confused identity. While we saw our mothers as Hana-ogi or Katsumi of Sayonara and our fathers were Major Gruver or Joe Kelly. I can say that I am fortunate because my mother could have been Cho-Cho-san and my father Pinkerton of the ageless Madame Butterfly story. My father did not leave us in Japan. We imagined ourselves differently.18 Oh, to be Suzie Wong would have been wonderful or perhaps even Liat from South Pacific.19 20 I idolized France Nuyen. I even have a personal copy of Life magazine, 6 October 1958 where France Nuyen is on the cover. The only thing missing from this edition is Frances autograph. Nancy Kwan is the most beautiful young woman I have ever seen, I especially loved her performance in Flower Drum Song when she sings, I enjoy being a girl.
70
I wanted to be that girl in Flower Drum Song.
In the United States, Amerasians became Japanese. It is with common social sameness that the children grew up to understand the ways of their mothers, thereby knowing what it means to be Japanese. Asian Americans have done remarkably well in achieving the American dream of getting a good education, working at a good job, and earning a good living. So much so that the image many have of Asian Americans is that we are the model minoritya bright,
17 James Bailey. At the Movies. The Wilson Quarterly Vol. 9, No. 3 (Summer 1985), 67-68.
18 Gina Marchetti. Romance and the Yellow Peril: Race, Sex, and Discursive Strategies in Hollywood Fiction. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
19 South Pacific. Buddy Adler and Richard Rodgers, 1958.
20 Flower Drum Song. Ross Hunter, 1961.
49


shining example of hard work and patience whose example other minority groups should follow. The expectation of our mothers is that we become successful and productive citizens. We had to bring honor to our mothers. Our success would be proof that our mothers had made the right choice to come to America. If we did not succeed, we would bring shame to our mothers. In order for us to be successful, out mothers micromanaged us from a Japanese perspective while we were learning how to be American. The practical reality is that it was not so easy. But then, knowing very well the sacrifices that our mothers made for us only propelled us to meet those expectations. In the process of assimilating most Amerasians spoke English, even with our Japanese mothers. Our mothers felt it was more important for us to grow up speaking only English. However, I am sure that most of us often heard certain Japanese words and phrases spoken in the house. When we came home we would shout out, tadaima for Im home. Our mothers would respond with okaeri for welcome back. When we sat down to eat, we would say itadakimasu meaning lets eat. When we had finished eating we would thank our parents for the delicious meal by saying gochisousama. Gohan had many meanings. It could mean breakfast, lunch, or dinner, or the steamed rice. We had steamed rice at every meal. Sometimes my mother would lose patience with us, children, and swear at us with bakal In English this means stupid or dumb. Honestly, there were places, borderlands, where tensions existed between mother and daughter; identity and competition; and also our way of speaking to each other. 1 spoke English and my mother would revert back to Japanese thinking that I would not understand what she was saying.
There did come a day when I was told that I needed to hurry up and learn how to read, write, and speak Japanese. This request was made because when a parent who grew up in another country aged, in their later years they would revert back to speaking the language of their youth.
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Therefore, I had to be ready to communicate with my mother during her last days on earth. Learning a second language when one is fifty plus years old is not as easy as it would have been if one learned that second language at a younger age. But, at the request of my mother, I took four semesters of Japanese in college. I did what I was told, but as fate would have it, my mother had a massive stroke and did not speak to me before she died.
It is not unusual for Amerasians to remove their shoes before entering the house, use chopsticks, respect authority, and revere their ancestors. For example, death was a common reference to many practices in my house. My mother would shout at us in horror if we stuck our chopsticks into our steamed rice straight up. This indicated death. We could not have four of anything in our house. The word four has a dual meaning. Although the kanji (Japanese writing) is different, shi, when counting, is four, but it also means death. And then we bum incense daily at the butsudan or house shrine to show respect to our ancestors who had obviously died. My father handcrafted a lovely butsudan for our home and over time my mother acquired a gong and proper incense.
I felt a pain in my heart when I read the story that Stephen Murphy-Shigematsu wrote in Celtic Samurai about his mother and her struggle with rice when she and he first experienced America. Stephens poor mother had Chinese rice, Uncle Bens and improperly prepared rice. Rice pudding is not the same as gohan, steamed Japanese rice. It is emotionally painful to be deprived of the comfort food from ones homeland. Most all of the food that my mother was accustomed to eating in Japan was also not available initially in the U.S. But, over time we were able to have familiar foods in our home. The commissary or grocery store on the military installations where we lived was one of the first places that stocked Japanese rice. They would have it shipped in from California. The Koda Farms in California had been cultivating rice since
51


the 1910s. Their rice production had ceased during the U.S. internment of Japanese Americans from 1942 to 1946. They resumed their rice production soon after Keisabura Koda and his family went back to California.21 My mother and other War Brides were very grateful for this rice.
Pickles are a customary side dish for every Japanese meal. Japanese pickles were not available for us to purchase until Japan began exporting Japanese food to the U.S. In the 1950s my mother would improvise and make her own pickles, tsukemono, from vegetables at the commissary. She would cut up cucumbers, egg plant, cabbage, or any other vegetable and soak it for hours in salt. Side dishes of pickles were served with nearly every meal. In our first years in America we had to have salt at our dinner table. But, as soon as we were able to buy it, shoyu or soy sauce was our condiment of choice. My mother improvised at every meal until we could purchase Japanese goods which were exported out of Japan.
While growing up, children talked with their mothers often. Or rather, their mothers talked at them. They learned about all the places in Japan that their mothers remembered when they lived there. Some day mother and child would go back to the place of their birth or their mothers birth, often hand-in-hand, together. They did not desire to stay in Japan. America was their home. There was only a need to see what had happened while they were far away in America. My mother and other War Brides desired to see their family and perhaps their elders for one last time before they left this earth. The challenges of acting like an American were difficult as it meant working harder, studying harder, behaving properly so that the white population would see past the racial features of an Other. Their accomplishments would secure that identity. The Model Minority became ihe calling card of an ideal citizen. Of course, this too depends on who is doing the looking.
21 Koda Farms, Inc. www.kodafarms.com 2011.
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Amerasians are indeed Japanese in their hearts while living as citizens of the United States with all the privileges associated with that status. Citizenship is a legal construct, but it also refers to living everyday life or the social aspect of membership22 23 Amerasians who journeyed to the U.S. retained all rights of any other U.S. citizen. Others questioned how that could be so when to be a real American means to be white or at least look white. Sue-Je Lee Gage said that her goal in writing her article was to illuminate these issues and explore how race and identity are constructed in U.S. international politics. In her article The Amerasian Problem Sue-Je Gage wrote of the Amerasians bom during the Occupation and their contribution to global history.
Many Amerasians were left behind in Japan bom out of unions that never eventuated in marriage. Approximately 170,000 Amerasians in the Philippines, Vietnam, Korea, Thailand, and Laos. These Amerasians have been fathered and abandoned by American citizens.24 25 Perhaps they longed for the chance to be more than the Japanese-Other in Japan. Maclear said, Teresa Kay Williams, in her work on Amerasian populations, has argued that Amerasians have been viewed as either abandoned in Asia, longing to return to their father's country, or raised as Americans in the United States. She suggests that the problem with these representations is not so much that they are necessarily false, but that with the general absence of historical contextualization, they offer limitedand limitingprofiles of complex experiences. The assumed complex nature of Amerasians demands closer scrutiny for what they reveal, as well as for what they obscure 26 A more revealing understanding of what life was like for those
22 Sue-Je Lee Gage. The Amerasian Problem: Blood, Duty, and Race "International Relations (Sage Publications, Inc.) Vol. 6, No. 4 (2007): 90.
23 Ibid: 87.
24 William R. Burkhardt. Institutional Barriers, Marginality, and Adaptation among the American-Japanese Mixed Bloods in Japan. The Journal of Asian Studies Vol. 42, No. 3 (May 1983): 540. 1983
25 Maclear. Drawing Dividing Lines This article has no page numbers.
26 Maclear. Drawing Dividing Lines.
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Japanese-Other in Japan can be had by watching HAFU the film S'y}1 This film is a documentary following select Japanese-Others in Japan. In this film the viewer follows the adults who tell their stories of what it was like growing up as the Other in Japan.
Japanese society, as it experienced the influx of foreign labor forces as well as the increase in intermarriage, discarded the derogatory term half [hafu\ (suggesting ones incomplete Japanese-ness) for bi-racial Japanese and instead adopted a positive term double [daburuY (emphasizing ones richer Japanese-ness complemented by globalism). Little research has been done on when, how, and why such a favorable shift occurred in the perception of multiracial identity.27 28 The Occupation became a laboratory of democracy29 which experimented with the creation of mixed color children. Americans were white and brown and Japanese were yellow. This experiment soon disappeared from Post-war narratives. It is my intention to turn on the narratives, seventy years later.
Nearly seventy years later the children of War Brides have learned that they are a product of an historical project which was the result of the Allied Occupation of Japan, the aftermath of WWII. The search for sources for this narrative revealed that much of the scholarship available came from the children of the Occupation. By definition of the Model Minority, they have earned degrees in many disciplines such as history, sociology, journalism, psychology, and ethnic studies. It is not often clear if a scholar is specifically an Occupation Baby or even Amerasian. Their last names indicate that they are at least Asian. Elena Tajima Creef, Gil Asakawa, Stephen Murphy-Shigematsu, Lucy Craft, Karen Kasmauski, and Kathryn Tolbert are recognized by the author as Amerasian Americans who have applied scholarship to the stories of their mothers. This author recognizes as Asian: Sue-Je Lee Gage, Evelyn Nakano Glenn, Masako
27 Marcia Yumi Lise. HAFU the film Produced by Megumi Nishikura and Lara P6rez Takagi, 2013.
2S Koshiro. Race as International Identity:77
29 Ibid: 62.
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Herman, Bill Hosokawa, Yukiko Koshiro, Kyo Maclear, Masako Nakamura, Naoko Shibusawa, Caroline Chung Simpson, and Tomoko Tsuchiya. If I have erred as to the Asianness of these scholars, I apologize in advance: Gomennasai and sumimasen.
As an Amerasian I was constantly searching for my identity which changed like the skin colors of a chameleon. I constructed in my mind that I was Nancy Kwan or France Nuyen even though they were not Japanese they were the most beautiful Asians I have ever seen. I was often disappointed when I looked in the mirror and did not see Suzie Wong30 3. In school when I looked into the long mirror in the girls restroom with my classmates standing beside me, I saw that I did not look like them either. Within Kyo Maclears article, Drawing dividing Lines, she drew attention to the Amerasian body as a repository of fear, revulsion and desire because the media often make references to their peculiar features. Her essay is an analysis her research of Amerasian or Occupation Babies of the 1990s with references to the Occupation Babies of the Allied Occupation of Japan. Her gender analysis is not unlike other sociologists who study the results of race-mixing when East (feminine) mates with West (masculine).
I hope that I have given sufficient agency to Japanese women who married servicemen of the Allied Occupation of Japan and also their Amerasian babies. It was my intention to understand how the children bom during the Allied Occupation of Japan were like me. It is my intention that my narrative will be included with the scholarship of other Occupation Babies. My research resulted in a better understanding of the Occupation and War Brides of Japan. My research also led me to a greater understanding of myself. I am glad that James Michener had his protagonist ask tills question, What about our children, what will become of them? What did become of these children of American Servicemen and Japanese women? What we have in
30 The World of Suzie Wong. Produced by Ray Stark, 1960.
3lSayonara Warner Brothers, 1957.
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common is we all have mothers from Japan. However, our fathers are from America with diverse roots and religions which are Irish, German, Mexican, Black, Native American, Nisei (first generation Japanese American of Japanese immigrants), Italian, Jewish, Catholic, Protestant. Living in America, being of diverse cultures, and the laws associated with race and miscegenation presented us with many similar challenges.
I appreciate my father so much more today than when I was a child. He accepted me as his own (which I was without question) and completed all the necessary paperwork and got all the permissions to be able to marry my mother and provide me with U.S. citizenship before I left Japan. Until the time when I understood the lengths that he and other Occupationnaires went through to bring home their Japanese brides I thought he was an ordinary father and my mother was different.
My father, William L. Hinze, was bom in Chicago, Illinois. His grandparents migrated from Prussia in the early 1900s. Like many young men across America between 1945 and 1952, he enlisted into the Army at a very young age. He finished his military training at Ft. Lewis, Washington in 1948. He was nineteen years old when he and the 11* Airborne were stationed in Sendai, Honshu, Japan. In late 1949 he was transferred to Camp Crawford, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. Hokkaido is one of the four main islands of Japan and is a very beautiful place. A confluence of factors made Hokkaido a GI paradise. Camp Crawford, in Sapporo, was considered the best base in Japan. Hokkaidos bams and dairy farms, its rolling hills and rivers teeming with fish were reminiscent of home. Even Sapporos grid like street pattern, adopted from a suggestion made by American Horace Capron, resembled small-town America.32 There was opportunity for him to participate in a sport that would be his passion the rest of his life. He loved to hunt and kill animals for food. He loved to fish. He acquired many Japanese friends who
32 Burritt Sabin. GIs Occupied Paradise. Japan Times. March 2, 2003.
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shared his love for hunting and fishing. This story about William L. Hinze, though brief, is only one of many stories that could be told by servicemen who served in occupied Japan. William really loved Hokkaido. He loved the country even before he met and fell in love with my mother.
I am qualified to undertake the telling of the story of War Brides because I knew one personally. My thinking was that I am the first bom daughter of a War Bride; therefore 1 was an authority of my mothers story. I discovered that I did not know my mother as well as I thought because I did not know her past. I could not tell her story fully until I learned her immigration story. My mother was only one of thousands of War Brides. What did that mean? I began to find sources which would provide me with the information that would explain the phenomenon of my mother. The first book that I became familiar with is War Brides of World War II. What I found while gathering all my research to tell my mothers story is a lack of narratives about the children of War Brides. While perusing through the sources about War Brides, I was able to glean information about people like me.
The children of War Brides were mentioned and photographed in various newspaper and magazine articles. Wanda Nodolski was featured in Theyre Bringing Home Japanese Wives with her parents Sgt. Casimine Nodolski of Elizabeth, New Jersey and Setsuko of Japan.33 34 Penny Pfeiffer was featured in James Micheners article Pursuit of Happiness with her parents, Frank and Sachiko Pfeiffer.35 Linda Romo is one of five children of Kazue Nagai Katz. Kazue is said to be the first war bride of a GI in occupied Japan 1946. She preceded some 72,700 Asian War Brides46,000 from Japanwho immigrated to the United States between 1947 and 1964.36
33 Elfrieda Berthiaume Shukert and Barbara Smith Scibetta. War Brides of World War 11. CA: Presidio Press, 1988.
34 Smith and Worden. Theyre Bringing Home Japanese Wives.
35 James Michener. Pursuit of Happiness by a GI and a Japanese. Life 21 February 1955:
36 Annie Nakao. Kazue Katz Blazed Trail for Thousands as First Japanese War Bride. The Examiner. June 2, 2000.
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I wonder about the children featured in periodicals of 1952 and 1953. Paulette Shaw was a toddler and in 1952 was photographed for Ebony magazine. She and her parents Sgt. Paul L Shaw and Mishiko can be seen in the article The Truth about Japanese War Brides.37 38 Also photographed for this article were Freddie Hayes and Paulette playing together. Freddies parents are Sgt. Edward Hayes and Kimii Sugahara. Vera Honae Wigglesworth is seen with her parents Fenton and Eiko. She was four months old when her family was featured in March 1953 edition of Ebony magazine. Those photos were taken sixty-five years ago. I would like to have a conversation with those babies. I would like to know what their experiences were growing up with their mothers. My mother never got to see her mother once she left Japan. Was this an experience that their mothers had, also? How did their mothers prepare food? Did their mothers speak Japanese or English at home?
As a child growing up I was companion to my mother. Often 1 felt that she was my sister and not my mother. My mother was, as she said, same like you, when she became a naturalized citizen of the United States. That magical day was March 27,1956, five years after I was bom and became a citizen of the United States. I met the requirements of a child bom abroad to a U.S. citizen parent and also because my father applied to the consulate. The consulate determined that I was a citizen of the U.S. at birth. She got a few years head start at the polls. She was able to vote in the presidential election of 1956.1 voted in 1972. Another example of my sameness to my mother was in 1964.1 was thirteen years old when my mother took her driving test to get her drivers license. Three years later I got my drivers license.
My mother spoke often of her childhood and life in Japan. These stories were drilled into my little mind. As an adolescent I understood her tales to be examples of how I should grow into
37iEbony. The Truth about Japanese War Brides. March 1952:18-20.
38 Ebony. The Loneliest Brides in America. March 1953: 18.
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adulthood. However, her ways and examples were difficult to achieve because I also had another life outside of our home. We were in America and we were doing what American children do. I had become American. 1 brought my new ways and new ideas into my home which did not fare well with my parents.
Most research studies about the Occupation and Japanese and American relationships are found in the studies about race and the consequences of interracial marriages and bi-racial children. All of these studies are important. My intention is more about the cultural transition of War Brides and the relationships between mothers and their children as they make this transition and then how the children coped with their Japanese-ness and/or American-ness.
Occupation Babies are becoming more visible as they have come of age. It has been over seventy years since the first bom child of the Occupation was gifted to Japan. After World War II ended, Japan surrendered and the American and Allied Occupation of Japan began. Tens of thousands of Occupation Babies were bom during the Occupation.
The purpose of the Occupation was for the American military and her allies to rebuild japan in accordance with the guidelines of the Potsdam Declaration of 26 July 1945. General Douglas MacArthur was appointed to the position of Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) on 14 August 1945. It was the task of his men, the Occupationnaires, to transform Japan into a Western-style democracy. This assignment initially required nearly 100,000 service men to work with 74,000,000 people of Japan. The Occupation was largely unopposed and peaceful. It was so peaceful that many servicemen and Japanese women began to develop personal relationships. SCAP did not approve of these relationships; in fact they issued non-fraternization orders. Military orders were unsuccessful at controlling the romantic desires that ensued. Consequently, SCAP could not prevent the births of thousands of Occupation Babies.
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I am an Occupation Baby and my story began when my American father went to Japan and met my Japanese mother in 1949.1 have researched and found that 1 am one of thousands who were bom during the Occupation. We have been invisible for nearly seventy years. Many of us wanted to make sure that our mothers, War Brides of the Occupation of Japan, were not forgotten by telling their stories. Inadvertently we learned about ourselves and realized that we also have a story to tell. It is my intention that this thesis provides a small beginning to our narratives as the children of the Occupation of Japan.
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APPENDIX A
JAPANESE AND GERMAN WORDS AND DEFINITIONS
While writing this thesis, it has not been necessary to focus on Japanese names and its conventions. My focus has been predominantly American. I have italicized Japanese and German words and included definitions, explanations or descriptions of their meanings when necessary.
ainokohalf Japanese; half-caste homeuncooked rice
babysanmiss baby konketsujichild of mixed-blood
bakastupid; dumb kuromboblack child
butsudanin house Buddhist shrine mischlingskinder/mischlingblack children
Dabarudouble (German)
gochisousamathe meal is delicious Niseifirst generation Japanese American
GodzillaIconic Japanese monster okaeriwelcome back
go/wwsteamed rice, breakfast, lunch, or sakokuthe closed country
dinner SayonaraGood bye
gomennasai excuse me, pardon me, I shifour or death
apologize shin chu gunOccupationnaires
hafuhalf sumimasenexcuse me, pardon me, I
IsseiJapanese immigrant apologize
itadakimaslet's eat tadaimaI'm home
kanjiJapanese writing tsukemono-pickles, a side dish
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APPENDIX B
IMMIGRATION LEGISLATION PERTAINING TO WAR BRIDES OF JAPAN
1924 Johnson-Reed Act; Oriental Exclusion Act of 1924; and/or Japanese Exclusion Act of 1924. Signed by President Coolidge
December 28,1945 Public Law 271 War Brides Act. Expedited entry of military spouses eligible under the quota system Expired December 28,1948
June 29,1946 Public Law 471 Alien Fiancees and Fiances Act
August 6, 1946 Soldier Brides Act Granted non-quota status to the Chines Wives ofU.S. Citizens
July 22,1947 Public Law 213 expanded the provisions of the War Brides Act to cover racially ineligible spouses
August 19,1950 Public Law 717 Admission of Alien spouses and minor children of members ofU.S. armed forces The War Brides Act originally scheduled to last only six months, but extended for an additional six months
June 27,1952 Public Law 82-414 McCarran-Walter Act
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 Removed racial barriers to immigration
67


APPENDIX C
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS OF PRIMARY SOURCES
FIGURES
1. Map of the Occupation zones of Germany 1945-1949......................6
2. Map of Japan, U.S. Department of State................................7
3. Document; Japan Logistical Command/Permission to Marry................14
4. Foreign Service/Certificate of Witness to Marriage....................18
5. Background Check......................................................18
6. Background Check/Japanese document....................................18
7. Serological Examination Certificate...................................17
8. Visa Approval/ U.S. Department of Justice; INS........................17
9. Ships Manifest USNS General Simon B. Buckner T-AP 123................22
10. Bill Hume, Babysan (1953)............................................27
11. Birth Certificate of Midwife.........................................33
12. American Consulate Report of Birth...................................34
13. Passport Marie May Hinze (2 & 3).....................................35
14. Passport Marie May Hinze (4 & 5).....................................35
68


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DISS_title OCCUPATION BABIES COME OF AGE: CHILDREN BORN DURING THE AMERICAN AND ALLIED MILITARY OCCUPATION OF JAPAN 1945-52
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DISS_para The American and Allied Military Occupation of Japan, henceforth called the “Occupation” began soon after WWII ended. The Occupation was in effect from August 1945 until September 1952. Approximately nine months after the Occupation of Japan began; the first Amerasian baby was born. This first Amerasian baby and thousands more babies born during the Occupation came to be known as “Occupation Babies.”
The U.S. had been at war against Japan in the Pacific since 7 December 1941. Hundreds of thousands of U.S. soldiers left their homes to fight in this war. When WWII ended many soldiers went back home to resume their relationships with their wives or to meet women who would become their wives and live a new life in post-WWII America. Servicemen who had been in combat usually returned home. They would be replaced by fresh young soldiers who were assigned to the Occupation. Men were young and lonely in Japan. Soldiers and the women of Japan began relationships in the peaceful environment of post-WWII Occupation. Servicemen eventually wanted to marry their new loves. The marriage process was tedious because of the immigration laws of the U.S. Women who married servicemen became known as “War Brides.” Occupation Babies were born out of these various encounters between the Japanese women and Allied servicemen.
It is seventy years since the first Occupation Baby was born. What has become of him or her? As Occupation Babies have come of age, how have they fared after all these years? Who were chosen to come to the U.S. and who were left behind in Japan? Historical narratives about Occupation Babies are limited. A few Occupation Babies who grew up to be scholars in disciplines other than History have written articles and books about War Brides. Unknowingly, these scholars discovered their identities while telling the stories of their mothers. Becoming American was riddled with tensions of race, color, and nationality. They were told to become American, but could not shed the appearance and culture of their mothers.
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PAGE 1

OCCUPATION BABIES COME OF AGE: CHILDREN BORN DURING THE AMERICAN AND ALLIED MILITARY OCCUPATION OF JAPAN 1945-52 by MARIE VON HAAS B.A., University of Colorado, Denver, 2012 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment ofthe requirements for the degree of Master of Arts History Program 2017

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This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by Marie von Haas has been approved for the History Program by Kariann Akemi Yokota, Chair Ryall D. Crewe, Advisor Thomas J. Noel May 13,2017 11

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von Haas, Marie (M.A., History Program) Occupation Babies Come of Age: Children Born During the American and Allied Occupation ofJapan 1945-1952 Thesis directed by Assistant Professor Ryan Crewe ABSTRACT The American and Allied Military Occupation of Japan, henceforth called the "Occupation" began soon after WWII ended. The Occupation was in effect from August 1945 until September 1952. Approximately nine months after the Occupation of Japan began; the first Amerasian baby was born. This frrst Amerasian baby and thousands more babies born duritlg the Occupation came to be known as "Occupation Babies." The U.S. had been at war against Japan in the Pacific since 7 December 1941. Hundreds of thousands of U.S. soldiers left their homes to fight in this war. When WWII ended many soldiers went back home to resume their relationships with their wives or to meet women who would become their wives and live a new life in post-WWII America. Servicemen who had been in combat usually returned home. They would be replaced by fresh young soldiers who were assigned to the Occupation. Men were young and lonely in Japan. Soldiers and the women of Japan began relationships in the peaceful environment of postWWII Occupation. Servicemen eventually wanted to marry their new loves. The marriage process was tedious because of the immigration laws of the U.S. Women who married servicemen became known as "War Brides." Occupation Babies were born out of these various encounters between the Japanese women and Allied servicemen. It is seventy years since the first Occupation Baby was born. What has become of him or her? As Occupation Babies have come of age, how have they fared after all these years? iii

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Who were chosen to come to the U.S. and who were left behind in Japan? Historical narratives about Occupation Babies are limited. A few Occupation Babies who grew up to be scholars in disciplines other than History have written articles and books about War Brides. Unknowingly, these scholars discovered their identities while telling the stories of their mothers. Becoming American was riddled with tensions of race, color, and nationality. They were told to become American, but could not shed the appearance and culture of their mothers. I was a baby born during the Occupation and here also is my story. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Approved: Ryan D. Crewe iv

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DEDICATION It was my intention to finish this thesis before my mother s passing. I wanted her to read it with her own eyes. When I interviewed her for accuracy, she said to me, Why do you want to ask me the same questions? I already told you. How did you forget? You were there with me from the day you were born She passed away in my horne 13 May 2014 after having spent one-hundred quality days together. She is with me in spirit always and will be with me at my Commencement 13 May 2017. Knowing her as I do, she planned it this way I never want to forget my mother. As she said, I have been with her since the day I was born. I know that to say that I am glad that Japan went to war against the United States seems very aberrant. However, if there was no WWII then there would not have been an American Occupation of Japan. My father was one of many thousands who served in Japan during the Occupation and it was there that he fell in love with my mother. Hence, my gladness for WWII, otherwise I would not be here today. v

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My journey through academia began in January 2008 I have been in a hurry to tell my story. I am disappointed that it has taken me nine years to complete. I could not have finished it without the support of very important people who have been with me on my journey. First and foremost I wish to thank my mother Keiko Sugie and father William L. Hinze To my husband, Herbert (Bruno) von Haas, you have been my partner throughout this journey There is not enough space in this acknowledgement to express the appreciation and love I have for you. I am grateful to my children, two sets of twins, whose stories would be material for another thesis. To Erica Fontenot and Laura Hogg my graduate school buddies, thank you for your friendship. Professor Ryan Crewe, thank you for always listening to me and really hearing what I had to say. Because of our conversations, I gained the confidence to belie v e that I could tell m y story and proclaim : "I am an Historian! Profe ssor Ri c hard Smith, thank you for being a mentor. Thank you Professor Tom Noel. 1 missed the opportunit.y to be a student in anyone of your classes however; I invited myself and became a guest of a few of your lectures. Your persistent and resounding statement to me whenever we met was, You are going to write a thesis!" Because of what you said to me so often, it was imperati v e that you were on my thesis committee Last but not least I wish to thank Professor Kariann Y okota Your presence in the History Department and eventual position of Department Chair was the department's gift to me. You are very special to me, especially your S *A [NihOlUin]. Thank you, from the bottom of my heart (Arigato kokoro no soko kara) ,L'O).i1n' 6 VI

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TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................. 1 II. U. S OCCUPATIONIPOST-WORLD WAR II 1945-1952 ............................ .4 Allied troops begin the Occupation .......................................................... 4 Occupation ofJ apan in contrast to the Occupation of Germany ......................... 5 Primary mission of the Occupation .......................................................... 8 III. U. S.-JAPAN RELATIONS ................................................................. 11 The Paper Chase: Immigration Challenges on Asians/Restrictions on U.S. Japanese marriage ....... .................................................. .. ........ ... ... 12 Obstacles and Challenges in America ...................................................... 21 The myth of West em clothing ............................................. .. ....... .... 25 IV WHAT IS AN OCCUPATION BABY? .................................................. 28 Abandoned children and orphanages ........................................................ 30 Baby Boomers .................................................................................. 36 Military Brats .................................................................................. .41 V. GROWING UP CHILDREN OF WAR BRIDES ....................... ................. .43 BIBLIOGRAPHY ....................................................... ... ............................. 61 APPENDIX A. JAPANESE AND GERMAN WORDS AND DEFINITIONS ...................... 66 B IMMIGRATION LEGISLATION PERTAINING TO WAR BRIDES OF JAPAN ........................................................................................ 67 C LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS OF PRIMARY SOURCES .......... .. .. ............. 68 VII

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Few early documented and mythical enCQunters between men of the West and the Japanese women of the East resulted in the birth of mixed-race children. The protagonists of James Michener's novel Sayonara thought they might have children; Cho-Cho-san of Madame Butterfly fame had a son. Children of the Occupation were conceived by the thousands, and William Adams had children with his wife Oyuki William Adams was a British sailor who sailed with the Dutch East Indies Co. He arrived in Japan on April 12, 1600 and died in Japan the 16th of May 1620. He lived for twenty years in Tokugawa Japan under strict orders and supervision of the shogun The Shogunate ruled by Tokugawa leyasu was officially established in Edo on March 24 1603. Tokugawa Iemitsu, a descendant of Tokugawa Ieyasu enforced the closed country which began in 1633. "During the long period of sakoku (the closed country), anyone with foreign blood was expelled from Japan on pain of death. If Joseph Adams (son of William) had children or grandchildren he would have kept secret their English ancestry I "Numerous attempts to trace descendants of Adams" were made with no success .2 He had a Japanese wife Oyuk? and two mixed-race children Susanna and Joseph.4 Before he died, he willed an equal portion ofthe wealth he acquired while in Japan to his daughter, Deliverance, in England upon his death. It has been told in modern Japanese mythology that a Japanese woman known as Okichi gave her body forthenation of Japan. She was assigned as a consort for Townsend Harris Harris was America s first consul to Japan in 1856. Legend has it that she w as heavily pressured into a I Giles Milton. Samurai William : The Englishman Who Opened Japan. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002: 337. 2 Ibid: 337. Ibid : 120. Ibid: 314

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relationship with Townsend and that she committed suicide in 1892. Facts are not available as to whether Okichi conceived children from her duties as consort to the ambassador. She was, however, glorified in Japan for her sacrifice. s Madame Butterfly was the short story written by John Luther Long in 1904. An opera by the same name was produced by Giacomo Puccini in 1915. Madame Butterfly, Cho-Cho-san (Butterfly in Japanese) and Pinkerton were lovers Their story was legend. It tells a story of how a military man stationed in Japan falls in love with a girl from this exotic East. Consequentially, theirs was an interracial romance. Pinkerton left Japan and while he was away, Cho-Cho-san bore him a son. This baby was half Cho-Cho-san and half Pinkerton. Originally the legend was downbeat and only parting and sorrow were the fruits of an interraciai love. The playwrights, in the colonial days of the 'white man's burden,' followed Kipling's precept that never the twain shall meet. But times have changed and so have writers.,,6 War correspondents of the American and Allied Occupation of Japan beginning in 1945 would report of encounters of interracial love between servicemen and Japanese women. The articles would compare these romances to the romance of the legend of Madame Butterfly. Darrell Berrigan was arguably the first correspondent in Japan who brought attention to the plight of these children born out of passion. He argued in 1948 that "for somewhat more than 300 years white conquerors from the West have been mixing their blood with the conquered people of the East, creating a minority of unhappy misfits belonging neither to the East or the John Dower. Embracing Defeat : Japan In the Wake of World War 11. New York: W. W. Norton & Company/The New Press 1999: 126. 6 Larry Tajiri. ""Twain Meet in 'Sayonara' Drama," Derrver Post January I, 1958." In Pacific Citizens: Larry and Guyo Tajiri and Japanese American Journalism in the World War II Era, edited by Greg Robinson, 249-251. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2012. Larry Tajiri was the editor of Pacific Citizen, the weekly newspaper of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) created in 1942 He stayed on until 1952 Larry Tajiri took ajob with the Denver Post in 1954. In 1956 he was named the Post's drama critic and entertainment columnist He was responsible for reviewing the films and plays that came through Denver.:250 2

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West."7 He said that such a minority was growing in Japan during the U.S. and Allied Military Occupation (1945-1952) This minority of "unhappy misfits" in Japan were called "Occupation Babies Concern for these types of children is spoken of in the movie Sayonara .8 Sayonara is the Warner Brothers drama based on the novel by James Michener and borrowed from the Madame Butterfly legend.9 Americans were able to see for themselves on the big screen, the tensions that were aroused from the prospective interracial relationships between American men and Japanese women in post-WWll Japan Sayonara which opened in American theatres in 1957 was based on a novel written by James Michener. The main characters ofthis film were Major Lloyd Gruver (Marlon Brando) and his love interest Hana-ogi (Miiko Taka) and Airman Joe Kelly (Red Buttons) and (Miyoshi Umeki) Hana-og i was a realist and worried that if she and Major Gruver were to marry, they might have children She asked Gruver-san "What about the children? What would they be Major Gruver replied, Why they'd be half yellow, and half white Half of me and half of yoU."1O Children of the Occupation were the result of passionate encounters between Japanese women and Allied servicemen with no conceivable idea of what we would encounter as we came of age 7 Darrell Berrigan. "Japan's Occupation Babie s." The Saturday Evening Post, June 19, 1948: 24. Sayonara Warner Brothers, 1957. 9 Tajiri. "UTwain Meet in 'Sayonara' Drama": 251. 1 0 Sayonara. Warner Brothers 1957 3

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CHAPTER II U.S. OCCUPATIONIPOST-WORLD WAR II 19451952 At the Conference of Berlin{the POl$I!am Conference) heads of the governments of the United States, Soviet Union and the United Kingdom met from July16 to August 2, 1945. The Potsdam Declaration was released by the United States United Kingdom and China. This declaration announced the terms concerning the unconditional surrender of Japan. Should Japan ignore this proclamation, she would witness complete destruction of the Japanese armed forces and utter devastation of the Japanese homeland.'" The demand dated July 26,1945 was refused by Japan. Soon after, the United States sent B-29 aircrafts to Japan to drop the first two ever atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan Theses bombs were dropped on the 6th of August 1945 and 9th of August 1945 respectively. World War II ended shortly after these two earth shattering events. The American and Allied Occupation of Japan began very soon after Imperial Japan announced its surrender on August 15, 1945. On September 2 1945 the Japanese Instrument of Surrender was signed aboard the battleship USS Missouri. Allied troops begin the Occupation Allied troops from America Great Britain Australia New Zealand and India landed in Japan to begin the occupation Hundreds of thousands of servicemen were assigned t o occupy Japan. This project, the Allied Occupation of Japan, will be hereafter noted as the "Occupation." Australians occupied Kure City a town near Hiroshima. "The first American troops of any number reached Hokkaido I0taruj ... on October 5, 1945. 2 Troops had already landed on the major island of Japan, Honshu. Harry Wildes in Tokyo Typhoon, referred to the Americans and I Potsdam Declaration. No. 1382 Department of State, U S.: Office of the Historian July 26 1945 : (3). 2 Vincent W Allen. A V ery Int imat e Oc c upati on. New York: Vantage Press, Inc 2000 : xii. Most books published about the Occupation were government reports or documents of high level dipl o mats. Allen's book is an e yewitness ac co unt of the Occupation. 4

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Allies who occupied Japan as "Occupationnaires." The Japanese called the Occupationnaires Shin chu gun. 3 Occupation of Japan in contrast to Occupation of Germany The Allies that occupied Japan were the US and British Commonwealth (Australia, New Zealand, etc.). In the Occupation of Japan, the islands were not divided into zones. Russia wanted zones similar to the occupation of Germany. There was the British zone, Soviet zone, French zone and the U.S. zone in Gcrmany. "In 1949, the states of East and West Germany were founded: the Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic; the western zones merged into the Federal Republic of German, which achieved full sovereignty in 1955" See Figure 1.4 If you look at these maps and compare the two countries, Japan in Figure 2 and Germany, the islands of Japan would have been separated between the Allies. Of course this is what Russia wanted, sole possession of Hokkaido and the islands northeast of it. General Douglas MacArthur was appointed as Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, agent of Russia, China, and the British Commonwealth, as well as the U.S., on August 14,1945.3 He was to command by official orders known as JSC 10, the United States Initial Post Surrender Policy for Japan. This JSC directive gave MacArthur complete executive authority to carry out its provisions and freedom of operation.6 The 441 sl Counter Intelligence Corps (CIC) 3 Harry Emerson Wildes. Typhoon in Tokyo: The Occupation and Its Aftermath. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1954: 7. Allen. A Very Intimate Occupation: xii. These authors mention Russian troop's inability to occupy the northern half of Hokkaido. This was a decision made by President Truman after Russia rejected Washington's proposal. Russia was not empowered to occupy Japan as it did in Germany_ 4 Heide Fehrenbach. Race after Hitler: Black Occupation Children. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2005: 5. 5 General Douglas MacArthur left his reports and his General Staff, Department of the Army edited all that he wrote in the format of the published edition, Reports of General MacArthur/MacArthur in Japan: The Occupation: Military Phase, January 1966. 6 Wildes. Typhoon in Tokyo: 6. 5

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was the only organization located in every prefecture in Japan that was under command of general headquarters (GHQ). They became the "eyes and ears of General MacArthur.,,7 -------UENIJII OF GERMAI\IV '-.. '" .-"'-". r-JITIo1.Y "\... 1 .. ...... .. .. I .. ... A map cfcceupied Gennany. 1945-1949. The American zone ofocx:upation was comprilledof Bavaria, Hesse, WOrttembetg-Badcn. and Bremen. In 1949, the states of East and Welt Germany wen: foundedthe Sa
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CHINA .. .. J:fJ Okinse Figure 2 Map of Japan U S. Department of State 8 I "Shikoku eIe region had four army intelligence detachments, one for each of the four prefectures: Kagawa, Ehime Tolrushima, and Kochi.,,9 Kochi prefecture was in the British Occupation area (BCOF). Among the British Commonwealth troops who occupied Japan were Indian, Nepalese, and Maori unitS."1O The regional headquarters was in Kyoto. Douglas MacArthur commanded from Tokyo from 1945 until 1951 and then Matthew Ridgway took over until 1952. 8 Japan. U. S. Department of State. www.state.gov/p/eap/ci/ja/ 'Ibid: 55. 10 Kim Brandt. Learning from Bab y san." About .Japan: A Teachers' Resource http: / / abou\japan.japansociety.org/leaming-from-babysan: 5. 7

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Primary mission of the Occupation The task of the Occupation was to follow the guidelines of the Potsdam Declaration. Orders came directly from General Douglas MacArthur. These orders when issued were known as Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers' instructions (SCAPINS). The first SCAPIN was issued on 4 October 1945. Any and all forms of weapons were to be found and disposed of or destroyed immediately Justice was meted out to war criminals. Japanese prisoners of war would be released and repatriated to their homelands. Agents of the Occupation assisted Japan in developing a new democratic Japanese government. Freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of thought and respect for fundamental human rights would be implemented with assistance of SCAP. Japan would be disarmed of any military or navy. The Japanese military forces were permitted back to their homes in Japan after they had been completely disarmed. All military supplies, fortifications, weapons were destroyed and the Japanese military forces were demobilized The Occupationnaires were tasked with the removal of restrictions on political, civil and religious liberties Women were to be given voting privileges; labor unions were encouraged; school systems were liberalized; fair courts of justice were instituted; democratization of the economy was initiated; and a new constitution was ordered. The aim was to remake the former enemy into a Western-style democracy.u The Allies occupied Japan in large numbers beginning in August 1945 The numbers of Allied soldiers in Japan fell sharply over 1946 and 1947, as it became clear that the Occupation would be largely unopposed and peaceful. Still, during its seven years there were never fewer than 100,000 military personnel-mostly men between the ages of 18 and 24-garrisoned in dozens of bases scattered about the four main islands of Japan." The Allies occupied Hokkaido, II Allen. A Very Intimate Occupation: 160-161. 8

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Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku.12 The objectives and tasks of the Occupation were completed swiftly in less than two years. The Occupation was a success Perhaps one of the key factors that helped the Occupation succeed was the docility of the Japanese. They had been warned by their leaders that if Japan lost the war, the 'American beasts would rape and pillage their land. When the people saw us actually among them and talked with us, they soon learned that we were not all devils So they tolerated us or welcomed us, and some even came to love us." 13 Thirty thousand Occupationnaires had their feet on the ground to carry out their assignment to work with the 74,000,000 people of Japan. 14 "GIs became famous for their offhand friendliness and spontaneous distribution of chocolates and chewing gum." They also provided practical gifts such as penicillin streptomycin, and blood banks.IS The post-war occupation created a situation of good will and friendship between the U.S. servicemen and the local population. This good will and friendship soon developed into permanent relationships between the Occupationnaires and women of Japan. Many other people contributed to the successful democratization of postWWII Japan. Ibere was activity throughout the islands of Japan. American servicemen and their Allies occupied Japan and interacted with the entire Japanese population. Journalists and war correspondents played a very important role in the dissemination of information. Certain writers provided eye witness accounts of what was happening in Japan during the Occupation. Most of them had been active correspondents during the war before they transferred to Japan. The Occupation was big news around the world. American journalists published their observations in The Saturday Evening Post, Life and Collier's magazine and military 12 Brandt. "Learning from Babysan": 1 13 Allen A Very Intimate Occupation: 161. 14 Wildes Typhoon in Tokyo: 1. IS John W Dower. Embracing Defeat : Japan in (he Wake of World War II. New York: W.W. Norton & Companyrrhe New Press, 1999: 207, 211. 9

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publications such as the Stars and Stripes. Their articles and the books that they wrote provided valuable infonnation about how the Occupation was proceeding. Mark Gayn's Japan Diary allowed the reader to imagine that they were travelling throughout occupied Japan. He described the sights ofJapan and activities of the Occupation.16 Harry Wildes' Tokyo Typhoon contained infonnation that only few writers could share. He was a research specialist for Japan in the Office of War Infonnation ; his language skills allowed him to help draft the new Japanese Constitution and he produced regular news reports for General MacArthur's private infonnation.17 Darrell Berrigan and Peter Kalischer brought attention to the plight of the Occupation Babies and War Brides of the Occupation of Japan. Other journalists contributed to the news from Japan however, their articles were published at the end of the Occupation.I8 16 Mark Gayn. Japan Diary. New York: William Sloane Associates, Inc., 1948. 17 Wildes Tokyo Typhoon 18 Berrigan "Japan's Occupation Babies." Peter Kalischer "Madame Butterfly's Children." Collier'S September 20,1952; 15. 10

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CHAPTER III U.S.-JAPAN RELATIONS To understand the experiences of War Brides one must hayeanunderstanding about the changes that took place over time in the American and Allied Occupation of Japan post-World War II. The Occupation successfully created a situation of good will and friendship between the U.S. servicemen and the local population. The close contact between servicemen and the locals required that policies were enforced to prevent fraternization. "Posters appear[ ed] on the fences warning Japanese girls against fraternization with the GIs, 'Maintain the dignity of Japanese woman hood."'! In spite of the fraternization policies, romantic encounters developed. Relationships bloomed even though SCAP forbade it. Affairs ensued: Affairs of the moment and affairs that led to serious relationships which progressed into a desire for marriage. Many Japanese women desired to marry an Allied serviceman rather than a Japanese man. Their families did not approve of an international marriage. Women were confident that the love they felt for their American husbands provided what they needed to undertake a new future as a wife in America. These romantic encounters resulted in thousands of marriages. Near the end ofthe Occupation, over 10,000 Americans had married Japanese women.2 American men of diverse backgrounds and Japanese women came together despite the immense legal and social barriers. This marriage acknowledged the wife as a War Bride. 1 Mark Gayn. Japan Diary. New York: William Sloane Associates, Inc., 1948: 51. This book is an eyewitness report of what happened in Japan and Korea under U.S. Occupation. Mark Gayn spent time with Darrell Berrigan towards the end of 1945 2 Anselm L. Strauss. "Strain and Harmony in American-Japanese War-Bride Marriages." Marriage and Family Living. Vol. 16, No.2 (May 1954): 99. II

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The Paper Chase: Immigration challenges on AsianslRestrictions on U.S.-Japanese marriage The U. S. Occupation of Japan from 1945-1952 led to the phenomenon of Japanese War Brides. American servicemen and Allied servicemen began to fall in love with Japanese girls. First carne love and then carne the longing to marry. Fraternization was frowned upon which made the process of marriage complicated and tedious. The immigration laws of the United States also stood to prevent servicemen from marrying their girls and taking them back home to America. The Immigration Exclusion Act having been enforced since 1924 prohibited the admission of foreigners who were ineligible for citizenship (primarily Asians). This act is also known as the JohnsonIReed Act or the Oriental Exclusion Act of 1924 (denying all immigration from Japan). War brides who could not enter the country due to the immigration quotas were stuck in their home countries without their husbands and often with babies. Four months after the first Occupationnaires stepped foot in Japan, the U.S Congress passed Public Law 271, the War Brides Act of 19453 in an effort to resolve the situation of marriage in all occupied nations around the globe. After passing through Congress, this document was then signed by President Harry Truman. The War Brides Act,permitted servicemen's brides to enter the U.S., however it was not meant for Japanese or other Asian War Brides. The act remained in effect for three years. Six months later, Congress enacted Public Law 471, the Fiancees Act, which granted fiancees of U.S. servicemen three-month visas as temporary visitors .4 Within two years after the Occupation began, the American and other foreign embassies in Tokyo were flooded with 3 Brenda J. Wilt. "War Brides." America in WWll August 2005. http://www.americainwwii.comlarticles!war bride s! 4 Wilt. "War Brides." 12

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applications from members of the Occupation forces for marriage certificates. There were "no prostitutes, criminals or chronically diseased-all barred by the immigration law 5 allowed to marry. A dozen or more documents had to be obtained and signed by superior officers before the couple could be married. Official army policy discouraged intermarriage in Japan for several years. Aside from informal pressures, the policy was implemented by placing a series of barriers in the way of marriage. To get married a man had to obtain the permission of his commanding officer Secondly he had to go through an interview with his chaplain. The chaplain tried to dissuade him. And then, he had to produce proof of his single status and his ability to support his wife. Her record in turn was checked by the Japanese authorities to screen out known prostitutes and criminals.6 A dozen or more documents had to be obtained and signed by superior officers betore the couple could be married. From August 18, 1950 to March 19, 1952 Congress allowed an opportunity for couples to marry This was exciting information for couples who wished to marry. Unfortunately the Korean War broke out in June, 1950. Dozens of combat units left Japan within 90 days Death or rotation to the States with only a 48-hour stopover in Tokyo kept thousands of men from seeing their Japanese girls again and for some their children. "Nevertheless, in 18 months, 8,381 American-Japanese couples successfully underwent four to eight weeks of processing, physical S Janet Wentworth Smith and William L Worden. "They're Bringing Home Japanese Wives." The authors explained Public Law 717 in their article. They also wrote that no marriages were legalized between 1947 and 1950:27. 6 Strauss. "Strain and Hannony in American-Japanese War-Bride Marriages": 99 l3

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examinations investigations and interviews to register their marriages at five U S consulates throughout Japan.,,7 For many couples, the law came too late. r' TIINU JAPAN LOGISTICAL COMMAND om.:. J ... c.-.. ..... c;.. ... 1 N>O ... -JIlBN. L.. ( .. ) ....... -.n"nJo....I .. K) 54' 1 z aeq:U2.relIlUlt. ot l"&r kat direot1vtu. &IX\ Stat. Del*x::tmen\ at lMI.Z'%'l.ages ..,.l.l Ott QOiII.pl.:1e4 Wi th bl' t.b.B p&rties hereto. :BY COJDlOI'I 01' 1tU0tl GIlIrE:B.U. DIm..:&: a Inola. lIeno. Karz-1aee o-r uer:1a&r. C,.tUlens .in.""""". 4td 21 JUl. .. 1950 DISDDan:i.:ar B :Inch"!"i4uala OOAOltZ'Ilad (::ror pz- .utat).on V-or lleai_t::r. ar at llII.'ft"iase ) 1. AD :Recorda 1. CIJI'Cl'lI, APO 500 l.OO oJ. ':'!'llllOl..". bill u.. .lAC All., a.. HEADQUARTERS JAPAN LOGISTICAL COMMAND MAJOR GENERAL WEmLE Permission to Many 14 May 1951 Corporal William L. Hinze to Miss Keiko Sugie Marriage of American Citizens in lapan, dtd. 211uly 19S0 Figure 3 Japan Logistical CommandlPennission to Marry 7 Peter Kalischer. "Madame Butterfly's Children." Collier's, 20 September 1952: 17. 14

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I have included seven documents from 1951 which exemplify the types of certificates and pennissions required by all couples who wanted to marry and that William L. Hinze and Keiko Sugie secured in order that they could be married in Japan and also travel to the United States. Figure 3 is the document issued through Headquarters, Japan Logistical Command. It states that William L. Hinze has "Pennission to Marry" Miss Keiko Sugie. This document is stamped with the date 14 May 1951. Figure 4 is the "Certificate of Witness to Marriage" from the American Consular Service, Sapporo, Japan. This certificate is proof that William L. Hinze and Keiko Sugie were married on 24 May 1951. Figure 4 Foreign Service/Certificate of Witness to Marriage Figures 5, 6, 7, and 8 were secured after the marriage of William Hinze and Keiko Sugie which leads me to believe that the authorities were confident that the background check, exatTI for syphilis, inoculation for Typhoid would be favorable for Keiko Sugie. Figure 7 is the approval of the petition for an Immigration Visa for Keiko Sugie Hinze to immigrate to America. 15

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' t, r; .. ,dOl' .... .e:,.\':IH .. .a1o 4\lr .. ';',I:'; "'"'''' -'"" ..... t:.;., "tt, l..1 .. :cc:.!t. ... .r._,"".;u...f"'1:'" :". "' .. -.:. .... .......c). .. -11; .... ....: .... .. .... LaoSl'ca:,UY_ ... ... 12"-1" .,.,..,. .... -..01' ..,., .............. _...._ ........... ..,.. .. too""' ........ ..... Figure 5 Background Check t ., i .1:t', Figure 6 Background Check/Japanese document 16

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b "" ...... try """'. .... _c "", ..... )0. "'.: T6' ol-rl .. ;, n ...... t,_ n_,' l..Io,'. L:.1IW": !'lie ._ ,_ .... .... bU _'. .... J.1OJ_ .... G1cr.' ....t of ........... 1 ",1 ..... ".",bL,. ..,. ......... Nl .. ,;-,',r 1O ....... .01<1<. "",";.):"" Ke!'ko &.!ic: Jli=: ScroI"I!;.al F.llall>imlillll C'ctt.lficak 19S1 E'.nmino&i
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until July, 1947 was the law amended ; and only then, for a very short period, were soldiers in Japan allowed legally to marry Japanese in American ceremony. In 1952 the McCarran-Walter Immigration and Naturalization Act provided for repeal of the Oriental Exclusion Act of 1924. It extended token immigration quotas to Japan and to other Asian Nations.9 The McCarran-Walter Act also provided an opportunity for Issei (first generation Japanese in America) in the U.S. to become naturalized American citizens. The first War Bride from Japan was recorded in 1947. While the bulk arrived in 1952, anyone marrying an American GI through 1965 was included in that category From 1947 through 1965 there were "48,912 Japanese nationals classified as 'Wives of Citizens' who immigrated to the United States."JO This phenomenon of Japanese War Brides garnered publicity in American publications and became news back in the U.S. Correspondents wrote of the situation that grew out of the Occupation. People back in America were informed of what was happening in Japan when they read magazines which featured articles about the Allied Occupation. One of these articles appeared in the January 19, 952 edition of The Saturday Evening Post. Janet Wentworth Smith and William L. Worden let America know that servicemen where marrying and bringing home wives in their article "They're Bringing Home Japanese Wives." They wrote of the institutions who worked with these new wives to help them become suitable American women. Schools and resources were available to the War Brides to help them learn how to be proper American wives before they crossed the Pacific to live in America. Peter Kalischer wrote for Collier 's magazine and informed readers in America ofthe 9 Herman. The Japanese inAmerica: 39. 10 Miki Ward Crawford, Katie Kaori Hayashi, and Shizuko Suen.g Japanese War Brides in America: An Oral History. SantaBarbara, CA: Prager, 2010: XIX. 18

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plight of the children born of the Occupation or as the title suggests the plight of "Madame Butterfly's Children. "11 The exact numbers of War Brides are not available.-However, estimates can be found. For example, J. B. Pilcher, American Consul General stated in a private communication that between June 22,1947 and December 31,1952 10,517 American citizens principally Armed Service Personnel, married Japanese women 12 Gerald J Schnepp and Agnes Masako Yui in their article, "Cultural and Marital Adjustment of Japanese War Brides," reported that 15, 500 marriages occured between Americans and Japanese between 1945 and 1954.'3 Janet Wentworth Smith and William L. Worden in their article "They re Bringing Home Japanese Wives reported six thousand marriages at the time of their publication.14 Teresa K. Williams stated in her journal article that "figures ranging from 55,000 to 100,000 have been cited to estimate the number of these Japanese women/American servicemen" who married after World War n 15 The U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) provided statistics on the numbers of War Brides who came from different countries under the provisions of the War Brides Act. Between 1947 and 1949, a total of 14,175 German war brides and their 750 (legitimately American) children emigrated to the United States.,,16 However, because many spouses immigrated under provisions of other laws, the INS figures do not tell the entire story. American military serving abroad during WWII did indeed return home with foreign spouses. The postWWII Peter Kalischer. Madame Butterfly's Children C o llier s, September, 1952 : 15-18. 12 Strauss. "Strain and Harmony in American-Japanese War-Bride Marriages": 99 13 Gerald J Schnepp and Agnes Masako Yui. "Cultural and Marital Adjustment of Japanese War Brides American Journal o/Soc iology Vol. 61, No 1 (July 1955): 48-50. 14 Smith and Worden. "They're Bringing Home Japanese Wives." IS Teresa K Williams. "Marriage between Japanese Women and U .S. Servicemen since World War II." Amerasia Journal 1', No. 1 1991: 139. '6 Yukiko Koshiro. Race as International Identity? 'Miscegenation in the U S Occupation ofJapan and Beyond ." AmerikastudieniAmeri c an Studies Vol. 48, No I (2003): 67. 19

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Occupationnaires brought home the largest number of War Brides of any other foreign war Under the War Brides Act, visa requirements for foreign born spouses were waived, with the exception of foreign born spouses from South and Southeast Asia. U.S involvement in the Pacific during WWII took many American military to China. On June 28, 1947, Public Law 126 allowed racially ineligible alien brides to enter the United States and join their husbands as long as the marriages were performed between July 23 and August 21, 1947. Consequently a total of 823 marriages took place in occupied Japan between American men and Japanese women during thi s amnesty period Of the Americans involved 597 were Nis e i (second generation Japanese Americans), 211 were white and fifteen were black.,,1 7 Berrigan's article was primarily about the Occupation Babies the future brides of the Allied servicemen. But he also told his readers about the women who had illegitimate children with unnamed servicemen. He wrote about Japanese women in the development of Japan under the command ofthe Occupation Forces These women had been in the work force during the war and continued to work in post-World War II Japan. 1 8 He wrote about the women of Japan to bring attention to the growing number of Occupation Babies being born Hundreds of couples were getting married at the rate of five to tw e nty a day at each of the six American consulates in Japan. They were preparing to make the great trans-Pacific jump. According to Smith and Worden the Japanese-race population back home increased 4 to 5 per cent, not counting the Eurasian children of these marriages. This increase of Japanese was of great concern to Americans who still had angst towards Japanese people because of World War II Onl y a few more than 100 000 Japanese lived on the Pacific Coast in 1942 and negligible \ 7 Ibid : 67. 18 Berrigan, "Japan's Occupation Babies." 20

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numbers elsewhere in the United States."19 War Brides were significant because they were the first large group of Japanese immigrants to arrive in the U.S. after the Johnson-Reed act of 1924. Obs tacles a nd Challenges in America War Brides endured greater hardships than most American wives in postWWII United States. Many families had disowned them for marrying a foreigner. They travelled on ships for weeks. They were rejected by their American in-laws for being a foreigner and also the enemy." A new culture and inability to speak English created barriers. For many, motherhood and the task of raising bi-racial children proved to be difficult. Japanese War Brides had to overcome many hardships to be the wife of an American and then rise above the challenges of becoming American The trip across the Pacific was gruesome. Then they settled around military bases or wherever American spouses called home. Their culture and language of origin created barriers. Without the support of their immediate families, they cared for their biracial children alone. According to Smith and Worden, there were many Japanese women who had misconcept i ons about what to expect when they began their lives in America These ideas range from "gold-plated bathrooms to lives lived entirely in the atmosphere of screenland nightclubs.,,2o My mother was intelligent enough to know from books she had read that the streets in America were not paved in gold. Before we could see these fancy bathrooms we had to experience sea travel. My mother and I travelled from Yokohama, Japan to the port of Seattle, Washington aboard the USNS General Simon B. Buckner T-AP 123. See a copy of the ships manifest with 19 Smith and Worden. "They're Bringing Home Japanese Wives"; 27. Masako Hennan. The Japanese in America, /843-/973 : A C hronology & Fa c t Book Dobbs Ferry NY : Oceana Publications 1974: 119 120. 20 Smith and Worden. They're Bringing Home Japanese Wi v es": 79. 21

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infonnation about our port of embarkation and the date : Figure 9. Luckily, my father was also aboard this ship. Sleeping quarters for men were on a different level separate from the women and children. We shared mealtimes together and had plenty of opportunities to walk the decks. I was told that even though I was able to walk, I mostly crawled because of the ship's motion. My mother was very sea sick and she was having difficulty nursing me. Before boarding requests were made by the passengers for special needs. Many mothers requested canned milk for their children My mother did not. She was very worried that I might starve Fortunately for me other mothers had requested canned milk that they did not need for their children and gave them to my m o ther HINZE. Kelko SUGIE HINZE. Marje J\.L MANIFEST OFJN-BOUND PASSENGERS (AUI.oNS) USNS GENERAL SIMON B. BUCKNER. T-AP 123 Yokohad1ll, Japaa 24 Jaauary 19!2 Seattle, W.sJa. 1"2 UNI1'D Sf A 'rES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Immtgr.tIoJI aad NaturaUzadoa Servk'l' Figure 9 Ship s Manifest USNS General Simon B. Buckner T-AP 123 22

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Our trip from Japan to the state of Washington was one way only. My mother did not return to Japan until July 1972 twenty years after she initially left Japan. She would wait that many years because her children's needs came before her own War Brides were uncomplaining martyrs, catering to their husbands' demands and sacrificing endlessly for their children," according to GlennY I also took that many years to save up enough money for her airfare and other possible daily expenses while visiting Japan. In the earlier days of their lives in America air travel was uncommon, long distance telephone calls were expensive and War Brides communicated with their families in Japan through writing letters. Americans in the 1950s questioned whether the marriages of the Occupation could be successful. Gerald Schnepp and Agnes Masako Yui, sociologists reported 15,500 marriages between Americans and Japanese between 1945 and 1954. They studied twenty AmericanJapanese war marriages. The results of their studies did not confirm the assumptions of hasty marriage and severe conflict frequently made about intercultural marriages They found that intercultural marriages were no different than other marriages. The success or failure of their marriage would depend on the desire of the partners to make it so Their studies indicated stability rather than conflict based on the couple's "age at marriage educational attainment, [and] residence separate from in-laws ... and number of children If any difficulties were present, it could usually be traced to difficulties with language.22 War Brides are different from Japanese American women who endured imprisonment in War Relocation Centers during wwn in the U S War Brides, although they were Japanese, experienced occasional hostility from Japanese Americans. War Brides were seen as wives and 21 Evelyn Nakano Glenn. Iss e i Ni sei Warbride : Three Gen e rations of Japanes e American Women in Domestic Service Philadelphia: Temple University Press 1986 : xi 22 Schnepp and Yui. "Cultur.1 and Marital Adjustment of Japanese Wax Brides":48 23

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mothers unfettered by the disturbing public history of internment.23 Mutual understanding between the Japanese citizen brides and the Japanese American women developed slowly and with apprehension. The history of War Brides has "disappeared under the shadow of research that has been done on the Issei (first generation immigrants) and Nisei (second generation Japanese Americans). War Brides tended to "disappear somewhere between the Picture Brides of the late 1800s and the post internment lives of the Nisei. 14 When my father, mother and I arrived in America, our first stop was Chicago. Chicago was my father's home. My mother and I were quite the spectacle for my new relatives. The Chicago environment allowed my mother independence from my father's relatives In Chicago my mother was able to speak with other Japanese people in her own language. The earlier Japanese Americans in Chicago provided a comfortable infrastructure for my mother. Chicago's prewar count of 400 Japanese grew to some 20,000 after 1945. Japanese Americans filtered out of camps through work and education release programs. There were opportunities for purchasing Japanese reading materials and food. However our inaugural visit to Chicago was short. The three of us went to Fort Lee Virginia, my father's first stateside assignment. Unfortunately, he was ordered to deploy to Korea after only three months in Virginia. My mother and I had no choice but to move back to Chicago while my dad went to war. My mother was not yet a naturalized citizen of the United States. She was stateless. Her visa was good only from Japan to the U.S. She could not return to America if she went back to Japan. She could not afford to make the trip back to Japan. I was an American citizen and America was my home. So, here we were, back in Chicago while my dad was in Korea. We lived with my great-aunt. My 23 Caroline Chung Simpson. An Absent Presence : Japanese Americans in Postwar American Culture, 1945-1960. Durham: Duke University Press, 2001: 151. 24 Elena Tajima Creef. Discovering My Mother as the Other in the Saturday Evening Post. Qualitative Inquiry (Sage Publications, Inc.) Volume 6, Number 4 (2000):452. 24

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great-aunt received an allotment from my father's paycheck to pay for our food and lodging. We had no spending money. No allowance was given to us. My mother was only allowed to walk to the court house to attend classes to become an American citizen. There she had the pleasure of conversations with other Japanese women who were also seeking u.s. citizenship. My mother told me that this time in Chicago was made bearable because of the few encounters with other Japanese women. Otherwise, she was very lonely, scared, and secluded. She was also permitted an occasional walk around the neighborhood with me for a bit of exercise and fresh air. She was pregnant and gave birth to my sister while my dad was in Korea. She feared that my father might die fighting in Korea. It was a very long thirteen months for us. I was my mother's soul mate and her only source of comfort. The myth of Western clothing Contrary to most perceptions about Japanese women, they were more Western than imagined by most people in the U.S. Most narratives describe Japanese women as backwards. "After eight months of occupation young Japanese women were wearing high heels and Western clothing." Actually, women in Japan had been wearing Western clothing ever since the Meiji Restoration began. "In 1889 Japan became the first non-Western nation to adopt a constitutional political system, while at roughly the same time it became the first non-Western industrial, capitalist economy." 25 The Meiji era began to construct a modern nation and westernize. Japan became a nation with a Western military, industrial mass production of various goods, and its infrastructure adopted railroads. Its culture reshaped to include Western music, food and attire. Therefore, Japan westernized more than filly years before the Allied Occupation of Japan.?6 25 Andrew Gordon. A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present; Second Edition. Oxford University Press, 2009: 112. 26 Gordon. Modern History of Japan: 106. 25

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Western clothing and food was also introduced. Japanese women were admired for their elegant kimonos and beautiful head dressings. They were considered to be extremely exotic in appearance. However; they were no stranger to Western attire and high heels. They were less backward than most Americans assumed. They understood the American style of domesticity. For example, I listened as people said to my mother that my father must be a lucky man because he was married to a Japanese woman and all Japanese women waited on their men and bathed them. The persons asking my mother, "Do you bathe your husband?" must have seen the scene in the movie Sayonara when Katsumi bathed Kelly. My mother responded in her broken English which made all who heard her laugh. She was a very modern woman. She worked at a job outside of our home. She cooked and cleaned and cared for her children. She performed normal domestic chores in the home, but as far as she was concerned my father had two hands and could scrub his own back. This illustration (Figure 10) by Bill Hume, Babysan offers an insight into how American soldiers thought Japanese girls would look like. What a surprise to find that they dressed like the girls back home.27 27 Bill Hume. Babysan: A Private Look at the Japanese Occupation. Tokyo, Japan: Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1953, 1960: 9. Babysan is a form of "Panglish" which means, "Miss Baby." It was more polite to callout to strange Japanese girls, "Babysanl" and not "Hey, baby!" 26

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[9) Figure 10 Bill Hume, Babysan (1953) "You think Japanese girls look like this?" 27

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CHAPTER IV WHAT IS AN OCCUPATION BABY? Ten months after American troops landed in Japan, a Japanese radio announcer proclaimed that a child of mixed Japanese and American parentage had been born that morning. The announcer called the baby a symbol of love and friendship between Japan and the United States: "a rainbow across the Pacific."! On June 28, 1946 SCAP heard that an announcement was made over Japanese radio that "the first Occupation present" had been born.2 SCAP saw this as sarcastic and immediately issued an order to fire the announcer for condoning fraternization. This phenomenon of babies born of the Occupation or Occupation Babies spilled across the Pacific like a rainbow. This rainbow was not the color of a prism but rather was white, brown, and yellow: Anglo-American, Black and Japanese. Darrell Berrigan wrote a lengthy and informative article, "Japan's Occupation Babies in which he explains the existence and also the fate of new babies found in Japan. He said that Occupation Babies are the '''half-half' children of White and Black Americans, Russians, Australians, British, Indians and Chinese" and Japanese women.3 This list of peoples sums up the servicemen of the Occupation, the Americans and the Allies. Walter Hamilton wrote about the children ofKure, Japan. He told the story of mixed-race children left by their fathers who were Australian, American, British, New Zealander or Indian. Australia's racial immigration policy was stricter than the U.S immigration laws.4 The Institute of Population Problems of the Japanese Ministry of Welfare proposed taking a census in 1947 of the babies born of American fathers and Japanese mothers. By 1948 I Yukiko Koshiro. Trans-Pacific Racisms and the u.s. Occupation of Japan. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999: 159. 1 Peter Kalischer. "Madame Butterfly's Children." Collier'S September 20 1952 : 15. 3 Darrell Berrigan, Japan's Occupation Babies." Saturday Evening Post 220 No. 51, June 19, 1948 : 24 This article focuses on the increase in the number of racially-mixed children in Japan under the Allied occupation of Japan. 'Walter Hamilton. Children of the Occupation: Japan's Untold Story. 28

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the estimates of the number of these babies ranged from 1,000 to 4,000.5 Col. Crawford Sams, the chief of the Public Health and Welfare Section of SCAP prohibited the Japanese from officially gathering statistics because it would be unwise to "probe so serious a wound." 6 The inability to collect statistics made it impossible to acquire an accurate count of how many babies were being born. Despite orders forbidding it, fraternization between United States soldiers and Japanese women continued to increase the number of children being born in and out of wedlock. Janet W. Smith and William L.Worden in their article "They're Bringing Home Japanese Wives, predicted that an Asian migration from Japan would increase the population of Japanese back home in America Their "bright-eyed children will be knocking on school doors in many of the forty-eight states," yet the great question of how they will fit in and whether they generally will be welcomed or shunned remains to be answered.7 Immediately following the end of WWII the birth rate across the globe soared 78 million strong. By the end of 1949 .. the U.S. population soared well past 148 million. s Japanese women and servicemen spawned babies in thousands which added to the millions of children globally. They continued to have children with no thought to what the children would confront racially and socially in other societies. GIs left thousands of illegitimate babies as a tragic, persisting legacy ofthe Japanese occupation. Many veterans are fathers without knowing it-and many other veterans are fathers but don't care,,9 They had sexual relations with each other with no concern of pregnancy U S servicemen also formed 5 Yukiko Koshiro. Trans-Pacific Ra c isms: 161. 'Ibid: 16l. 1 Janet Wentworth Smith and William L. Worden. "They're Bringing Home Japanes e Wives ." The Saturday Evening Post, January 19, 1952: 27 J Walker Smith and Ann Clurman Generation Age l e ss : H o w Baby Boomers are Changing the Way We Liv e Todayand They' re Just Getting Starte d N e w York : HmperCollins, 2007: 3 9 Peter Kalischer. "Madame Butterfly's Children." Collier' s 20 September 1952:15 29

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liaisons and fathered thousands of children in the Pacific during WWII between 1945 and 1946. They had boots on the ground in New Zealand and other islands in the South Pacific. to Abandoned children and orphanages Unknown numbers of children were born during the Occupation. "Masami Takada, then chief of the Welfare Ministry s Children's Bureau, raised the estimate in July, 1952 to 150,000 GI babies, while Mrs. Tamaki Uyemura president of the Japan Y.W.C.A., sent a tearful 'open letter' to Mrs Matthew B. Ridgway asking simple justice for 200 000 abandoned half-caste orphans.,,11 The Welfare Ministry patiently waited until 1952 when they were free to investigate and then sent out a questionnaire to registered physicians and midwives which revealed only 5,013 Amerasian children in all Japan. "Mrs. Sawada explained that not all physicians had been consulted, that others had kept faulty records that many children had not been officially registered, and that many more had been borne in secret. In August, 1953, the Welfare Ministry revised its estimate, saying that only 3 490 half-castes had been born."12 Japan s attempt to count the number of babies born fell short of accuracy. One can only guess as to the actual number of Occupation Babies that were born from 1945 to 1952. Some Occupation Babies were fortunate enough to leave Japan But many others were left behind and some were abandoned by both father and mother. \3 These children continued to grow up and exist in their mothers' homeland. Misfortune overshadowed the questionable number of children who went unclaimed Konketsuji (mixed-blood children) experienced discrimination in the "limited opportunities in education, employment, marriage and citizen 10 Judith A, Bennett and Angel. Wanhall Mother's Darlings of the South Pacific : The C hildren of Indigenous Women and us. Servicemen, World War /1 Honolulu : University of Hawai j Press, 2016 11 Harry Emerson Wildes. Typhoon in Tokyo: The O ccupation and Its Aftermath. New York : The Macmillan Company 1954: 332-333. 12 Wildes. Typhoon in Tokyo: 333. 13 Doubles: Japan and America's Intercultural Children. VHS. Directed by Regge Life. Produced by Regge Life. 1995. 30

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rights.,,14 John W. Dower said in Embracing Defeat that the "mixed-blood children became one of the sad, unspoken stories of the occupation-seldom acknowledged by their foreign fathers and invariably ostracized by the Japanese.,,15 Darrell Berrigan in his research as a correspondent uncovered what public groups were doing to help these babies. Mrs. Miki Sawada purchased her father's beautiful estate from Japan and organized her own orphanage in the name of the Episcopal Church. Catholic orphanages, the largest being Our Lady of Lourdes Home in Y okobama, were built especially for occupation babies; the Salesian Sisters established an orphanage in an old army barracks; and a Catholic Orphan Home was located on a farm. Berrigan's researcb also made it known that tbe SCAP was concerned with other matters of the Occupation and less about the babies. Primary spokesperson of the cause of the occupation babies was Col. Crawford F. Sams, cbief of the Public Healtb and Welfare Section, Allied command. There were an undetermined number of fatherless mixed-race children in Japan. Many abandoned children of American servicemen and Japanese women were found and placed in the home ofMiki Sawada. Her home was crowded with children she bad accumulated. Pearl S. Buck and Miki Sawada were friends. Ms. Buck saw the children in the home of Miki Sawada as the cbildren of the Occupation .. According to Pearl S. Buck they were not "Eurasian" but rather "Amerasian." They were the mixed-race children sired by American servicemen and born to Japanese mothers. When Pearl S. Buck saw these mixed-race children long ago in Asia they were called Eurasians because their fathers were English and their mothers Indian, IndoChinese or Indonesian.16 Later she referred to the children in Japan as Amerasian "Let them be called Amerasians!" Pearl S Buck mimicked a statement she heard said by a man in the State "William R. Burkhardt. "Institutional Barriers, Marginality, and Adaptation among the American Japanese Mixed Bloods in Japan." The Journal of Asians Studies Vol. 42, No.3 (May 1983): 528. l' John W. Dower. Embracing Difeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II New York: W.W. Norton & CompanyiTbe New Press, 1999: 211. 16 Pearl S. Buck. East Wind: West Wind New York: The John Day Company, 1958: 29. 31

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Department when she went to Washington for advice on how to help the orphans of the Occupation of Japan.17 These mixed-race children of Japan were known by many names They were called Occupation Babies,18 East-West children, Eurasian, and Amerasian. Eurasian children born in or out of wedlock are Americans if their fathers admitted paternity and registered the births with the American consulates. But those unregistered are Japanese for the rest of their Iives.,,19 Konketsuji experienced discrimination in the limited opportunities in education, employment marriage, and citizen rights. Nearly thirty years after the end of the Occupation, the unclaimed children were allowed Japanese nationality Statelessness in Japan ended with Japan s Nationality Law which was amended May 25, 1984. Effective January 1, 1985 a child could be a Japanese national when either the father or mother is a Japanese national. Previously only children born to Japanese fathers were considered Japanese citizens.,,2 o The government finally gave konketsuji citizenship of Japan even if their mother or father was a citizen of another country. This law introduced a certain degree of legal flexibility to the interracial children of Japan. The process of registering the birth of an Occupation Baby was tedious in postwar Japan. Proper completion of particular documents had to be in place before a passport could be issued for a child of the Occupation to travel across the Pacific to America. These papers included birth records and consulate reports. Once the consulate report was approved then a passport was issued This author, an Occupation Baby, has provided two examples of the documents completed after her birth acknowledging her status as the child of her American father and Japanese mother and two copies of pages from her passport. 17 Pearl S Buck and Theodore F. Harris. For Spacious Skies : J o urney in Dialogue N e w York: The John Day Company, 1966:54 18 Berrigan. J apan's Occupation Babies. I Smith and Worden They re Bringing Home Japan ese Wiv es : 81. 211 Mie Murazumi Japan s Laws on Dual Nationality in the eontext ofa Globalized World. Pacific Rim Law & Policy Journal Vol 9, No.2 2000: 422 32

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The first document Figure 11 is the translated midwife's certificate of birth. It states that a female was born to Keiko Sugie on 7 March 1951 in Sapporo Hokkaido. The midwife's name was Haru Bando and the interpreter from Camp Crawford was Tadashi Koganezawa. Note that there is no mention of my father on this document because I was born before my parents received permission to be married The second document Figure 12 is the author s American Con s ulate Report of Birth The place and date of the report i s Sapporo, Japan, September 26,1951. This report was sent to the Department of State in Washington, D.C. to record my official State Department Record of Birth. 1 _.utJ ... ...... --.. ill .... uo1 __ .... .,-.a ..... lllill.l =:':.' fIMt .......... ..... t t."l:r ..... IIIRJH( ........ K .lt.n,m 'dIJlWIU: b-\nOl'_nbJ .... .lflil 1'IAlIIJIOrJolOTflF.II,_ .... Figure 11 Birth Certificate of Midwife 33

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The report also states that William Louis Hinze is an American citizen and lived in Chicago, Illinois until he was assigned to Japan in 1948. Keiko Hinze was not an American citizen. Note that this report states that my father's race is Caucasian and my mother's race is Mongolian. They were given four choices for mother's race is Mongolian. They were given four choices for race: Caucasian, Malay, Negroid, Indian, or Mongolian.21 TRIPLICATIl 07 JIIB'l'Jl --_ .. -AMEltICA."'fCONSUl.AmlU!POkfOFunmt Uina IIIJIID 26 ScpII!I'IIbcr 19S1 I Figure 12 American Consulate Report of Birth 21 Birth Abroad to U.S. Citizen Parent and Alien Parent. Married Immigration and Nationality Act, U.S. Department of State: Bureau ofeonsular Affairs: Public Law 103-416; 7 FAM 1134.2; 1 134.4a, 1 134.4c. 34

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Figures 13 and 14 are of the passport issued to Marie May Hinze from the Office of the Political Adviser of the United States at Tokyo, Japan, October 3,1951 .tlk.,.," li i 4'bm ----.&.u. .7:....,. ... dcr I .,fk ... ',,-r->" "."..,/,.._",",.-t pI-.,p M+t'.-.J JuW-I-" _21J_ LL, .. ...."..". ........... :. '-- -..........-'? ... .. .. ... Jt-. """"-___ -==__ ..... 1-'GI!I:t:L.._ ___ _--.:.---/_U._ ----. \ MarieMIIYHinH issuc:d by Office ofPoliriCIII Adviser ofilac: UDitW StJ\cs III Tokyo, J_pan 0ct0ber3,lSlSl Figure 13 Passport Marie May Hinze (2 & 3) -........, ..... "-'-' .. "I"rfs' Ia.J1-I"""""_ .AnH-,,,,_r-j.tt,,r-fo._ih -,-I""' .y"--.'lC,. .. ,,,,_ tI"J-fW ct:.#k-... _"" .... ....J.y ..... .r__ .rat..--"""" MMio May HiDzc PlmpOrt iillNd by ",rPoliliClil ofdw United States at T1>l:yo, I.., ()dober 3, Figure 14 Passport Marie May Hinze (4 & 5) 35

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In the June 19, 1948 edition of The Saturday Evening Post, Darrell Berrigan wrote about "Japan's Occupation Babies" 22 and caused quite a stir back in America as well as at SCAP headquarters. After Berrigan's words were printed all of America was aware of the birth of. Occupation Babies. Berrigan began his article by making a profound statement about how for "somewhat more than 300 years white conquerors from the West have been mixing their blood with the conquered people of the East, creating a minority of unhappy misfits belonging neither to the East nor the West. In long-occupied countries like India, Indonesia and Indo-China, the Eurasian population, fathered by European military and civilian administrators, has grown into a troublesome minority of millions living in a political and social limbo between the native populations and the Western nationals. Such a minority is growing in Japan under the Allied occupation.,,23 It is suggested that the Allied occupation was like the white conquerors from the West mixing their blood with the people of the East. The American and Allied servicemen of the Occupation were creating "unhappy misfits." This author was not able to find the exact number of Occupation Babies born. The numbers found by this author are inconsistant. Baby Boomers When the first "Occupation Present" was born in occupied Japan in 1946 the child's name was not disclosed. However, the first Baby Boomer was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania I January 1946. Her name is Kathleen Casey-Kirschling. The number of births until 1952 was never concise. Estimates of how many children were born ranged from 1,000 to 200,000.24 Amerasians are a small percentage of the post-WWII baby boom. Japanese Occupation Babies as well as babies born of the War Brides of Europe and other countries 22 Benigan. "Japan's Occupation Babies, II Ibid: 24. 24 Koshiro. "Race as International Identity?" : 64. 36

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around the globe comprised this population of millions of children who were born between January I, 1946 and December 31, 1964. In the years after the war, couples who could not afford families during the Great Depression made up for lost time; the mood was now optimistic. During the war, unemployment ended and the economy greatly expanded; afterwards the United States experienced vigorous economic growth until the 1970s. The 0.1. Bill enabled record numbers of people to attend college. This led to an increase in stock of skills and yielded higher incomes to families. Returning veterans married, started families, pursued higher education, and bought their first homes. Many other countries around the globe also experienced baby boom years as their populations also felt optimistic about the economy of their nations. Sylvia Porter is credited for the term Baby Boomers. "Take the 3,548,000 babies born in 1950. Bundle them into a batch, bounce them allover the bountiful land that is America. What do you get? Boom. The biggest ... boom ever known in history." She made this statement in the May 4,1951 edition of the New York Post.25 There were an estimated 76.4 million "Baby Boomers" born between I January 1946 and 31 December 1964 in the world. They make up almost 40 percent of the world's population today. Amerasians are a small percentage of the post-WWII baby boom. Japanese Occupation Babies as well as babies born of the War Brides of Europe and other countries around the globe are included in this population of millions of children who were born between I January 1946 and 31 December 1964. The number of births until 1952 in Japan was never concise. Estimates of how many children were born ranged from 1,000 to 200,000.15 In the January 19, 1952 edition of The Saturday Evening Post, Janet Wentworth Smith and William L. Worden Sylvia Porter, "Babies Equal Boom New York Post May 4, 1951. 26 Koshiro. "Race as International Identity?" : 64. 37

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mentioned that thousands of "bright-eyed children ... would be the by-product of "six thousand Americans--soldiers, sailors, ainnen civilians and officers--[who] have married Japanese citizens in Japan since the end of World War II." 27 One could assume that this number of six thousand marriages would produce 6,000 babies. Gerald Schnepp and Agnes Masako Yui, sociologists reported that 15, 500 marriages occurred between Americans and Japanese from 1945 and 1954 in their article Cultural and Marital Adjustment of Japanese War Brides."28 The Schnepp and Yui report of 15, 500 marriages could indicate that 15,500 babies could be born from these unions. Amerasians have been called Hafu half-half Konketsuji (mixed-blood) and Occupation Babies. Americans of Japanese descent share a long and sometimes painful history. They were the children of the ultimate meeting of East and West Amerasians belonging to neither society. They were not considered Japanese nor were they accepted as Americans. Most Americans know very little about the true plight of Amerasians; all they "know" is what they have read in the newspapers. Correspondents tended to depict Amerasians as lost children.29 The Amerasians of Japan are the living legacy of the Occupation. They were left behind nearly seventy years ago when the Occupation ended and a majority of Occupationnaires withdrew from Japan. The United States did not directly assume responsibility for children of American citizens until the passage of the Amerasian Immigration Act of 1982 (97-359). This was a breakthrough since it was the first time that the United States attempted to make an immigration law specifically applicable to the Amerasian individual. Although this immigration act was meant for Amerasians, it was not meant for all Amerasians. Priority was given to only the 27 Smith and Worden. "They're Bringing Home Japanese Wives." Gerald 1. Schnepp and AgnCll Masako Yui. Cultural and M arital Adjustment of Japane s e War Brides ." American Journal a/Soc iology Vol. 61, No. I (July 1955) ,48. 29 William R. Burkhardt Institutional Barriers, Marginality, and Adaptation among the American-Japanese Mixed Bloods in J.pan." The Journal 0/ Asian Studies Vol.42, No 3 (May 1983), 525. 38

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Amerasian children of Vietnam, Korea, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand fathered by U. S. citizens. 3D Darrell Berrigan brought the issue of these occupation babies to Americans who subscribed to The Saturday Evening Post. After only three years of occupation he estimated 1 000 to 4,000 "black, white, brown, and yellow" occupation babies were born. According to his interpreter, Naoshi Kaneko, "the whole world population, 100 billions, at least the same number of people who buy issue number of The Saturday Evening Post might read his name. ,,31 Americans learned that the Allied servicemen of Australia, Britain, India, China, and white and black Americans were responsible for this new population. Walter Hamilton's book, Children of the Occupation is primarily a narrative of the Japanese-Australian children born of the Occupation.12 The plight of these children was especially challenging because the immigration laws in Australia were even more severe against any Japanese compared to the immigration laws of the United States. Many babies were left behind These babies were known as konketsuji Konkelsuji grew up longing to know their fathers and only knowing the Japanese ways. William Burckhardt s article "Institutional Barriers, Marginality, and Adaptation among the American-Japanese Mixed Bloods in Japan" brings scholarship and awareness to those Amerasians who were left behind in 30 Amerasian Immigration Act 1982 (Public Law 97-359). 31 Keeping Posted. ''Naoshi's in the Beams." The Saturday Evening Post. 19 June 1948: 10. According to Naoshi Kaneko, Darrell Berrigan was so famous that all 70 members Press Club of Tokyo knew his name. Darrell Berrigan was a correspondent for United Press, New York Times in 1942 writing "Weary British Retreat in Burma, Knowing That They Face Disaster: 4. The Chinese Government, particularly the Chiang Kai-shek regime accused Berrigan and Isaacs of writing critically of or unfiiendly toward the Government of China and refused to permit their return to China. Hurley the Ambassador in China within correspondence between himself and the U.S. Secretary ofState received a telegram from T.O. Thackrey Editor and General Manager, New York Post s tating that Berrigan highly experienced foreign correspondent with long and excellent record in CBI [China Burma-India Tbeater] ." Thackrey also stated that this arbitrary action on the part of the Chinese Government is regarded by the Post of most serious nature which will do grave injury to press relations between United States and Chinese Government The Ambassador in China (Hurley) to the Secretary of State; Chungking, July 30, 1945. 12 Walter Hamilton. Children of the Oc c upation: Japan's Untold Story (New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 20\3). 39

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Japan. BroWll Babies is a term used for children born to black soldiers and white European women during and after WWll. Heide Fehrenbach devotes her entire narrative Race after Hitler to the plight of chiidFen of the four years of military occupation in Europe between 1945 and 1949. 94,000 occupation children were born during this period, but public attention quickly focused on a small but visible subset, the so-called Mischlinge. Mischlingskinder were distinguished from the others by their colored paternity. There was only a small minority of postwar German biracial births (some 3,000 to 5 000) however; they took on a disproportionately great symbolic significance on both sides of the Atlantic. Their existence challenged historical definitions of ethnic German-ness and sparked heated debates about the social effects of occupation, as well as the character and consequences of democratization ."JJ 'The children were variously understood as Germans or Americans, 'occupation children' or 'illegitimate children,' 'mixed-bloods' or 'half-Negro.", J 4ln the United States, Afro-German children were most typically called 'half-Negro children' or, more colloquially, 'broWll babies .' One of the purposes of this study is to investigate the specific social and cultural meanings attached to perceived 'mixing' between allegedly distinct races ." J 5 In his book Eye on the Struggle James McGrath Morris quoted Ethel Lois Payne who witnessed a large population of abandoned infants at an orphanage said, the 'broWll babies' are there. She said, "Here were 160 foundlings of all mixtures, about 50 of them 'Spookinese,' Negro and Japanese.,,36 Pertaining to marriages as well as births, there is no way to determine actual numbers. No formal record keeping was kept. Combined estimates show approximate numbers "Heide Fehrenbach. Race after Hitl e r : Blac k Occupation Children. New Jersey : Princeton U niv ... ity Press, 2005: 2 BiraciaJ, bicultural children unwanted by enemy nations; mischlinge or mixed-bloods. Ibid: I I. Ibid: 14. James McGrath MOlTis. Eye on the Struggle: Eth e l Payne. the First Lady of the Bla c k Press New Yor k : HarperCollins Publishers, 2015: 65. Black Journalist; Spooki n ese, Negro and Japanese babies. 40

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Military Brats Stories from Japan are generally about military families from their time stationed in Occupation Japan. The families assigned to military installations in Japan were generally white Americans. On rare occasions a serviceman with a Japanese Bride might live in military housing. Military Brats today who share their experiences of living in Japan are generally White. I was an Army brat and went to military schools which were fully integrated We went to school with students who were white black, Hispanic, Korean and a few Japanese. I grew up knowing that quality education was apriority. When I reached the age of adulthood, which was 18 years old, I was no longer a military dependent of my father. After the age of eighteen, I lived off-post in civilian communities. It was on the outside that I encountered racism for the first time. For the first time in my life I saw peoples segregate themselves from "others." I felt uncomfortable seeing people separate themselves from others who looked different. I was an Army brat of color and was not privileged in the civilian world. Within the military communities we did not experience this type of segregation. The military addressed potential discrimination and provided equal opportunities for people of all races The military was fully focused on equal opportunity since President Truman's Executive Order 9981,1948.37 This executive order integrated the military by mandating equal treatment for all without regard to race, color, religion or national origin. Though this order was intended for men serving in the U.S. Armed Forces, this equal treatment was also applied to the families who lived on military installations. These installations are referred to as Camps, Forts, Bases and or stations}-sub-communities of a greater state. Army bases are much like the company towns of the early 20th century, where everyone works for the same employer and the company provides for all people who live there. Commissaries (provides commodities) Post Exchanges 37 Executive Order 9981, 26 July 1948. 41

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(retail stores), hospitals for the servicemen and their families, entertainment centers, schools, and much more. All persons living and working on military installations had equal access to any and all facilities The ranki -or. pay grade was the only fonn of social stratification that separated any of us brats. However, I did not let this affect my relationships with my classmates. Our father's rank did not inhibit us from socializing with whomever we wanted to. Looking back to my days as an Anny brat I did not see color lines. Living within military installations was like living in a bubble.38 We were protected from the racism that existed off-post. I believe that my experiences of living on-post shielded me from the shock of learning that I was different. Others thought that I was different. From this point forward I became passionate to know why others saw me as different. Upon introduction to new people, inevitably I would be asked, "Where are you from?" I needed to know how to answer that question of where I was from. Brats : Our Journey Home DVD. Directed by Donna Musil. Produced by Beth Goodwin and Donna Musil. Perfonned by Kris Kristofferson Nanation and Music BralS Without Borders Inc 2005 This is a documentary thai all Military Brats will want to watch. It is interesting to learn about other Brats and what tbey have achieved as adults. Nonnan Schwarzkopf and Kris Kristofferson talk about growing up as Brats. 42

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CHAPTER V GROWING UP CHILDREN OF WAR BRIDES The story of the children of War Brides is of a larger phenomenon of post-World War II America. As we have revealed the story of our mothers and fathers, we also began to know who we are. I do not presume that the experiences of all Occupation Babies were the same; however our experiences are very similar because our mothers are Japanese. The children of the Occupation who grew up in America recognize and understand the sacrifice and risks that their mothers endured when they left Japan. Now as adults, they honor the choices mothers made. They also saw firsthand the challenges their mothers had learning to live in America. Getting to America was not an easy process and living here was an even greater challenge. We found out that prospective brides of American servicemen took classes in Japan to learn how to be the perfect American Wives. The children on the other hand did not partake in such lessons primarily because they were just babies when all America was concerned about how War Brides would fit into American society. How did we navigate an embodied identity and cultural diversity? Stephen MurphyShigematsu said, "These kids [Occupation Babies 1 were heavily stigmatized as the children of the former enemy and occupiers and immoral women, with prejudice and discrimination directed at them.,,1 However, "Life in the United States wasn't too bad." He said, "The steaks were big and the hot dogs were a foot long. There were hot fudge sundaes with a red cherry on top and pink clouds of cotton candy.,,2 With these observations and more to be found in his narrative, "Celtic Samurai," before he knew it, he was American. 1 Stephen Murphy-Shigematsu. "Celtic Samurai: Storytelling a TransnationalTransracial Family Life." In WarBabylLove Child: Mixed Race Asian American Art, edited by Laura Kina & Wei Ming Dariotis, 51-57. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2013: 55. 2 Murphy-Shigemasu. "Celtic Samurai": 52-53. 43

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As a disc jockey at a Colorado FM radio station, Gil Asakawa gave himself the nickname, "Teriyaki Cosmic Cowboy." 3 He said that without realizing it, he was searching for his identity. Gilwrote a sourcebook Being Japanese American for Nikkei (all Japanese) as the result of his search for his identity. His narrative is about how he "evolved, not as Japanese, but as a Japanese American.,,4 There was a time when Gil was unsure of whom he was. At a young age, he thought he was "a banana." He was told that because he was "yellow on the outside, and white on the inside." Gil's father was an American soldier when he met his mother in Japan. His mother was Japanese and his father was Nisei (second generation Japanese American), therefore his blood quantum was 100% Japanese. He grew up with white Americans and thought of himself as white; however he was "yellow" on the outside. Gil has a great sense of humor and said, "I like to think of myself as more than just a fruit. I'm really a dessert. I'm a banana split, with both my 'yellow' and 'white' sides sharing equal attention."s Velina Hasu Houston is Japanese and Blackfoot Pikuni, African American and Cuban with historical ties to India and China. She said, "Because Amerasians of WWII are raised by native Japanese mothers in the Japanese custom and culture, our cultural identity is more Asian (not Asian American) than American whereas our American culture is a blend of whatever ethnic groups of which we are composed. For instance, I am half native Japanese and half AfricanIndian mainstream American. The cultural and racial realities are that I am a blend off our cultures and three races.,,6 When asked where she is from, Velina was blessed with a choice of 3 Gil Asakawa. Being Japanese American: A JA Sourcebook/or Nikkei. Hapa ... & Their Friends. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press, 2004: vii. 4 Ibid: x. 'Ibid: vii. 6 Houston, Velina Hasu. "The Past Meets the Future: A Cultural Essay." Amerasia Journal 17:1 (1991): 54. 7 Elfrieda Berthiaume Shuker! and Barbara Smith Scibetta. War Brides o/World War 11 Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1988: 255. War Brides is a documented history using personal stories and archival material. Velina Hasu Houston is a playwright and 44

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responses. She said that she finds "something to love and something to hate about being Japanese, about being American, and about being black and Indian." Like Gil Asakawa learning that he was a banana, white on the inside and yellow on the outside Velina learned about whom she was from her father with the visual aid of Neapolitan ice cream. Her father demonstrated by taking a spoonful of each color of ice cream and stirred it together in a bowl. He told her that the even brown tone that the mixed ice cream became was her. They could not be taken apart. She is a blend of all her cultures and races. 7 Elena Tajima Creef experienced an identity crisis when she was a young teenager. She said that she was the only "half-oriental" in her school. She pretended to be Mexican. Having "long black hair and sun darkened skin" made her deception successful. What was difficult for her was creating illusions for her mother's identity.s Did our parents, school, jobs, friends, strangers, lovers, the evening news, or all of these influence us? Perhaps a stronger influence was the stigma of having parents who come from two different racial groups. Interracial relationships were deemed unacceptable and so were the children of these unions. Yukiko Koshiro said that "in the context of U.S.-Japanese relations, the term race came to represent two separate ideas-that is, race is manifested by physical appearance, and race as an explanation of national power and status in the world.,,9 This racism of physical appearance which seemed to have disappeared would reappear in the United States as the children of a Japanese mother. These children were conceived from the cordial relationships 8 Shuker! and Scibetta. War Brides o/World War II: 256. Ph. D. Elena Tajima Creefis an Associate Professor of Women's Studies at Wellesley College. 9 Yukiko Koshiro."Race as International Identity? 'Miscegenation' in the U.S. Occupation ofJapan and Beyond." AmerikastudieniAmerican Studies Vo1.48, No.1 (2003): 3.This article attempts to retrieve the story of the little koown fate of so-called mixed-blood children, those born to American Gis and Japanese women in the aftermath of World War II, which has long vanished in the confluence of American and Japanese historical narratives. 45

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of servicemen and Japanese women. They would find themselves struggling with their identities because of racial formation. Sometimes it was because they were also Japanese like their mothers and other times they struggled with the race of their fathers. There was a time when I was very confused while searching for the answer to the question, "Who am I?" I perused the Consulate Report of my Birth to find that my father was Caucasian and my mother was Mongolian. I had no understanding of what a Caucasian or Mongolian was. The official form constructed by the United States Government indicated that my parents were not German and Japanese. Michael Omi and Howard Winant argued in their article, "Racial Formation" that "race" is a social construct. They wrote: "Our society is so thoroughly racialized that to be without racial identity is to be in danger of having no identity."lo While Amerasians learn to understand that their mothers are Japanese, they also learn that they are half-Japanese and half someone else. This is an identity that is 50% Japanese and 50% someone else. It is disappointing, however, to know that "blood quantum" is still an important issue for others to know who we are. A number of examples can be given with regard to percentage of blood which determines an Asian identity. France Nuyen is not Japanese but she was quoted as having said that she was born in Marseilles, her mother is French, her father is Chinese (post-WWII U.S. Citizen), and she has some Moorish bloodY Actress, Nancy Kwan, also not Japanese, said that she is half-Chinese, three-eighths English, one eighth Scot, blended with a touch ofMalaysianY Another example of the question, "How much is one Japanese" can be found in the conversation between Major Gruver (Marlon Brando)and his lover Hana-ogi (Miiko Taka) in Sayonara ihe movie. Hana-ogi asks, "What about the children? What would 10 Michael Omi and Howard Winant. "Racial Formation." In Racial Formation in the United Statesfrom the 1960s to 1990s: 53-77. New York: Routledge, 1994. 11 Life. "Young Star Rises as Suzie Wong." (October 6,1958: 95-98). Author's personal copy. 12 To Whom It May Concern: Ka Shen's Journey. Documentary about Nancy Kwan. Redwind Productions. Distributed by Locomotive Distribution. 2009. 46

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they be?" Major Gruver replies: "Why they'd be half yellow, and half white. Half of me and half of you." 13 Thus, Occupation babies would be without question, half Japanese and the other half would be that of our fathers. I never saw her as a mother. Sometimes I dreamed that she was the mother that I saw in the homes of my friends (often the faces of my friends were snuggled in their mother's bosoms) or even like the mothers that I saw on television. Sometimes I wished that my mother was not different from other mothers. However, I set those thoughts aside because I was expected to oblige my parents. I could not share those thoughts with my mother because it would be an insult to who she was. My academic research allowed me to realize that others like me were doing the same-searching although in different ways and by using different scholarly disciplines such as Sociology, Ethnic Studies, and writing memoirs of their mothers. My narrative is intended to be historical. I would like to acknowledge the scholarship of those like me in order to reveal my discoveries. There scholarship tells me that they have discovered themselves in much the same way as I discovered who I am. "Not much was known about the mixed-race children after the mid-1951s in spite of the intense publicity they had received early on."14 Later there was less interest in those babies who were the result of American and Japanese relationships. Silent lessons occurred as the children of these unions grew up. Their education would take place in American society. The duality of whether to be more "white" or be more Asian, "yellow" would often create personal struggles for the children as they grew up in the U.S. For some of us what was required was a sense ofhwllor or the ability to laugh at their situation. For example, Gil Asakawa, while growing up found humor in his physical characteristics. He was told that he was 13 Sayonara. Warner Brothers, 1957. 14 Koshiro. "Race as International Identity : 75. 47

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a "banana," but with humor he was "more than just a fruit." He was a dessert, like a banana split.,,15 Stephen Murphy-Shigematsu showed his humor when he spoke of himself as "The Celtic Samurai." This title is a reference to the fact that he has a Japanese mother and his father is Irish. Much of the scholarship found about Japanese War Brides and their children resonates from these same children. It can be argued that their motivation to write about Japanese War Brides comes from their desire to find their own identities. There are myths surrounding Amerasians, and self-sacrificing Asian mothers. However, how Japanese mothers are heard is produced by the highly organized social representations made by their children. What I have seen emerge are counter narratives about the children whose fracturing dominates their mothers narratives. Many of these scholars have confessed to studying their mothers only to realize they were looking for an understanding of who they were. Kathryn Tolbert, Lucy Craft, and Karen Kasmauski recently created a documentary of their mothers, Fall Seven Times, Get Up Eight: The Japanese War Brides.16 This is a film about three women and their stories about the social, economic, and racial processes they experienced as Japanese War Brides in America. The title of this documentary is a clue to the women's never-give-up attitude towards life. Kathryn, Lucy and Karen listened to their mothers and then did the background research to bring the stories of their mothers to the screen. Prior to their presentation, they prepared questions in advance for their mothers to respond to. Young Amerasian men might imagine themselves as being like the Japanese of old. The film industry in Japan provided enough examples of being a Japanese male, but of course ali of these images were of the Japanese pre-Meiji. "The average American knows two kinds of 15 Gil Asakawa. Being Japanese American: vii. 16 Fall Seven Times, Get Up Eight: The Japanese War Brides. Produced by Lucy Craft, Karen Kasmauski, & Kathryn Tolbert. 2015. 48

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Japanese movies." The first kind is that of "grunting samurai slash[ing] at each other with swords." Akira Kurosawa, OZ\I Yasujiro, and Naruse Mikio were the directors and producers of choice in America. The second kind is that of "a-prehistoric monster [who] stomps through downtown Tokyo." A young man was more likely to associate with the samurai rather than the prehistoric monster. 17 Toshiro Mifune was the star in many of Kurosawa' s movies. Young Amerasian men related to his personae. The prehistoric monster is popularly known as Godzilla. Amerasian females struggled with a different sort of confused identity. While we saw our mothers as Hana-ogi or Katsumi of Sayonara and our fathers were Major Gruver or Joe Kelly. I can say that I am fortunate because my mother could have been Cho-Cho-san and my father Pinkerton of the ageless Madame Butterfly story. My father did not leave us in Japan. We imagined ourselves differently.18 Oh, to be Suzie Wong would have been wonderful or perhaps even Liat from South Pacific.19 I idolized France Nuyen. I even have a personal copy of Life magazine, 6 October 1958 where France Nuyen is on the cover. The only thing missing from this edition is France's autograph. Nancy Kwan is the most beautiful young woman 1 have ever seen. I especially loved her performance in Flower Drum Song when she sings, "I enjoy being a girl." I wanted to be that girl in Flower Drum Song. 20 In the United States, Amerasians became Japanese. It is with common social sameness that the children grew up to understand the ways of their mothers, thereby knowing what it means to be Japanese. Asian Americans have done remarkably well in achieving "the American dream" of getting a good education, working at a good job, and earning a good living. So much so thai the image many have of Asian Americans is that we are the "model minority"-a bright, 17 James Bailey. "At the Movies." The Wilson Quarterly Vol. 9, No.3 (Summer 1985),67-68. 18 Gina Marchetti. Romance and the "Yel/aw Peril": Race, Sex, and Discursive Strategies in Hollywood Fiction. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. 19 South Pacific. Buddy Adler and Richard Rodgers, 1958. 20 Flower Drum Song. Ross Hunter, 1961. 49

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shining example of hard work and patience whose example other minority groups should follow The expectation of our mothers is that we become successful and productive citizens. We had to bring honor to-our mothers. Our success would be proof that our mothers had made the right choice to come to America. If we did not succeed, we would bring shame to our mothers. In order for us to be successful, out mothers micromanaged us from a Japanese perspective while we were learning how to be American. The practical reality is that it was not so easy But then, knowing very well the sacrifices that our mothers made for us only propelled us to meet those expectations. In the process of assimilating most Amerasians spoke English even with our Japanese mothers. Our mothers felt it was more important for us to grow up speaking only English. However, I am sure that most of us often heard certain Japanese words and phrases spoken in the house. When we came home we would shout out, tadaima for I'm home. Our mothers' would respond with okaeri for welcome back. When we sat down to eat, we would say itadakimasu meaning let's eat. When we had finished eating we would thank our parents for the delicious meal by saying gochisousama. Gohan had many meanings. It could mean breakfast, lunch, or dinner, or the steamed rice We had steamed rice at every meal. Sometimes my mother would lose patience with us, children and swear at us with baka! In English this means stupid or dumb. Honestly, there were places, borderlands, where tensions existed between mother and daughter; identity and competition; and also our way of speaking to each other. I spoke English and my mother would revert back to Japanese thinking that I would not understand what she was saymg. There did come a day when I was told that I needed to hurry up and learn how to read, write and speak Japanese. This request was made because when a parent who grew up in another country aged, in their later years they would revert back to speaking the language of their youth. 50

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Therefore, I had to be ready to communicate with my mother during her last days on earth. Learning a second language when one is fifty plus years old is not as easy as it would have been if one learned that second language at a younger age. But, at the request of my mother, I took four semesters of Japanese in college. I did what I was told, but as fate would have it, my mother had a massive stroke and did not speak to me before she died. It is not unusual for Amerasians to remove their shoes before entering the house, use chopsticks, respect authority, and revere their ancestors. For example, death was a common reference to many practices in my house. My mother would shout at us in horror if we stuck our chopsticks into our steamed rice straight up. This indicated death. We could not have four of anything in our house. The word four has a dual meaning. Although the kanji (Japanese writing) is different, shi, when counting, is four, but it also means death. And then we bum incense daily at the butsudan or house shrine to show respect to our ancestors who had obviously died. My father handcrafted a lovely butsudan for our home and over time my mother acquired a gong and proper incense. I felt a pain in my heart when I read the story that Stephen Murphy-Shigematsu wrote in "Celtic Samurai" about his mother and her struggle with rice when she and he first experienced America. Stephen's poor mother had Chinese rice, Uncle Ben's and improperly prepared rice. Rice pudding is not the same as gahan, steamed Japanese rice. It is emotionally painful to be deprived ofthe comfort food from ones homeland. Most all of the food that my mother was accustomed to eating in Japan was also not available initially in the U.S. But, over time we were able to have familiar foods in our home. The commissary or grocery store on the military installations where we lived was one ofthe first places that stocked Japanese rice. They would have it shipped in from California. The Koda Farms in California had been cultivating rice since 51

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the 1910s. Their rice production had ceased during the U.S. internment of Japanese Americans from 1942 to 1946. They resumed their rice production soon after Keisabura Koda and his family went back to Califomia.21 My mother and other War Brides were very grateful for this rice. Pickles are a customary side dish for every Japanese meal. Japanese pickles were not available for us to purchase until Japan began exporting Japanese food to the U.S. In the 1950s my mother would improvise and make her own pickles, tsukemono, from vegetables at the commissary. She would cut up cucumbers, egg plant, cabbage, or any other vegetable and soak it for hours in salt. Side dishes of pickles were served with nearly every meal. In our first years in America we had to have salt at our dinner table. But, as soon as we were able to buy it, shoyu or soy sauce was our condiment of choice. My mother improvised at every meal until we could purchase Japanese goods which were exported out of Japan. While growing up, children talked with their mothers often. Or rather, their mothers talked at them. They learned about all the places in Japan that their mothers remembered when they lived there. Some day mother and child would go back to the place of their birth or their mothers' birth, often hand-in-hand, together. They did not desire to stay in Japan. America was their home. There was only a need to see what had happened while they were far away in America. My mother and other War Brides desired to see their family and perhaps their elders for one last time before they left this earth. The challenges of acting like an American were difficult as it meant working harder, studying harder, behaving properly so that the white population would see past the racial features of an "Other." Their accomplishments would secure that identity. The "Model Minority" became the calling card of an ideal citizen. Of course, ihis too depends on who is doing the looking. 21 Koda Farms, Inc. www.kodafarms.com 2011. 52

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Amerasians are indeed Japanese in their hearts while living as citizens of the United States with all the privileges associated with that status. "Citizenship is a legal construct, but it also refers to living everyday life or the social aspect of membership,,22 Amerasians who journeyed to the U.S. retained all rights of any other U.S. citizen. Others questioned how that could be so when to be a "real American" means to be white or at least look white. Sue-Je Lee Gage said that her goal in writing her article was "to illuminate these issues and explore how race' and identity are constructed in U.S. international politics.,,23 In her article "The Amerasian Problem" Sue-Je Gage wrote of the Amerasians born during the Occupation and their contribution to global history. Many Amerasians were left behind in Japan born out of unions that never eventuated in marriage. "Approximately 170,000 Amerasians in the Philippines, Vietnam, Korea, Thailand, and Laos." These Amerasians have been fathered and abandoned by American citizens.24 Perhaps they longed for the chance to be more than the Japanese-Other in Japan. Maclear said, "Teresa Kay Williams, in her work on Amerasian populations, has argued that Amerasians have been viewed as 'either abandoned in Asia, longing to return to their father's country or raised as Americans in the United States. '" 2S She suggests that the problem with these representations is not so much that they are necessarily false, but that with the general absence of historical contextualization, they offer limited-and limiting--profiles of complex experiences. The assumed complex nature of Amerasians demands closer scrutiny for what they reveal, as well as for what they obscure.26 A more revealing understanding of what life was like for those 22 Su",Je Lee Gage. "The Amerasian Problem: Blood, Duty, and Race. International Relations (Sage Publications, Inc.) Vol. 6, No.4 (2007): 90. 23 Ibid: 87. 24 William R. Burkhardt. "Institutional Barriers, Marginality, and Adaptation among the American-Japanese Mixed Bloods in Japan." The Journal of Asian Studies Vol. 42, No.3 (May 1983): 540. 1983 2' Maclcar. "Drawing Dividing Lines" This article has no page numbers. 26 Maclear. "Drawing Dividing Lines. 53

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Japanese-Other in Japan can be had by watching HAFU the film /, -7. 27 This fibn is a documentary following select Japanese-Others in Japan. In this fibn the viewer follows the adults who tell their stories of what it was like growing up as the "Other" in Japan. "Japanese society, as it experienced the influx of foreign labor forces as well as the increase in intermarriage, discarded the derogatory term 'half [haft]' (suggesting one's incomplete Japanese-ness) for bi-racial Japanese and instead adopted a positive term 'double [daburu]' (emphasizing one's richer Japanese-ness complemented by globalism). Little research has been done on when, how, and why such a favorable shift occurred in the perception of multiracial identity.,,28 The Occupation became a "laboratory of democracy,,29 which experimented with the creation of mixed color children. Americans werc whitc and brown and Japanese were yellow. This experiment soon disappeared from Post-war narratives. It is my intention to turn on the narratives, seventy years later. Nearly seventy years later the children of War Brides have learned that they are a product of an historical project which was the result of the Allied Occupation of Japan, the aftermath of WWII The search for sources for this narrative revealed that much of the scholarship available came from the children of the Occupation. By definition of the Model Minority, they have earned degrees in many disciplines such as history, sociology, journalism, psychology, and ethnic studies. It is not often clear if a scholar is specifically an Occupation Baby or even Amerasian. Their last names indicate that they are at least Asian. Elena Tajima Creef, Gil Asakawa, Stephen Murphy-Shigematsu, Lucy Craft, Karen Kasmauski, and Kathryn Tolbert are recognized by the author as Amerasian Americans who have applied scholarship to the stories of their mothers This author recognizes as Asian: Sue-Je Lee Gage, Evelyn Nakano Glenn, Masako 27 Marcia Yumi Lise. HAFU the film /'-7. Produced by Megumi Nishilrura and Lara Pc!rez Takagi, 2013. Koshiro. "Race as International Identity :77 29 Ibid: 62. 54

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Herman, Bill Hosokawa, Yukiko Koshiro, Kyo Maclear, Masako Nakamura, Naoko Shibusawa, Caroline Chung Simpson, and Tomoko Tsuchiya. IfI have erred as to the Asianness of these scholars, I apologize in advance: Gomennasai and sumimasen. As an Amerasian I was constantly searching for my identity which changed like the skin colors of a chameleon. I constructed in my mind that I was Nancy Kwan or France Nuyen even though they were not Japanese they were the most beautiful Asians I have ever seen. I was often disappointed when I looked in the mirror and did not see Suzie Wonlo. In school when I looked into the long mirror in the girls' restroom with my classmates standing beside me, I saw that I did not look like them either. Within Kyo MacIear's article, "Drawing dividing Lines," she drew attention to the Amerasian body "as a repository of fear, revulsion and desire" because the media often make references to their "peculiar" features. Her essay is an analysis her research of Amerasian or Occupation Babies of the 1990s with references to the Occupation Babies of the Allied Occupation of Japan. Her gender analysis is not unlike other sociologists who study the results of race-mixing when East (feminine) mates with West (masculine). I hope that I have given sufficient agency to Japanese women who married servicemen of the Allied Occupation of Japan and also their Amerasian babies. It was my intention to understand how the children born during the Allied Occupation of Japan were like me. It is my intention that my narrative will be included with the scholarship of other Occupation Babies. My research resulted in a better understanding of the Occupation and War Brides of Japan. My research also led me to a greater understanding of myself. I am glad that James Michener had his protagonist ask this question, "What about our children, what will become ofthem?,,31 What did become of these children of American Servicemen and Japanese women? What we have in 30 The World of Suzie Wong. Produced by Ray Stark, 1960. 31Sayonara. Warner Brothers, 1957. 55

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common is we all have mothers from Japan. However, our fathers are from America with diverse roots and religions which are Irish, German, Mexican, Black, Native American, Nisei (first generation Japanese American of Japanese immigrants) Italian, Jewish, Catholic, Protestant. Living in America, being of diverse cultures, and the laws associated with race and miscegenation presented us with many similar challenges. I appreciate my father so much more today than when I was a child. He accepted me as his own (which I was without question) and completed all the necessary paperwork and got all the permissions to be able to marry my mother and provide me with U.S. citizenship before I left Japan. Until the time when I understood the lengths that he and other Occupationnaires went through to bring home their Japanese brides I thought he was an ordinary father and my mother was different. My father, William 1. Hinze, was born in Chicago, Illinois. His grandparents migrated from Prussia in the early 1900s. Like many young men across America between 1945 and 1952, he enlisted into the Army at a very young age. He finished his military training at Ft. Lewis, Washington in 1948. He was nineteen years old when he and the 1 Airborne were stationed in Sendai, Honshu, Japan. In late 1949 he was transferred to Camp Crawford, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. Hokkaido is one of the four main islands of Japan and is a very beautiful place. "A confluence of factors made Hokkaido a GI paradise. Camp Crawford, in Sapporo, was considered the best base in Japan Hokkaido's barns and dairy farms, its rolling hills and rivers teeming with fish were reminiscent of home. Even Sapporo's grid like street pattern, adopted from a suggestion made by American Horace Capron, resembled small-town America.,,32 There was opportunity for him to participate in a sport that would be his passion the rest of his life He loved to hunt and kill animals for food. He loved to fish. He acquired many Japanese friends who J2 Burritt Sabin. "Gis Occupied Paradise'." Japan Times. March 2 2003. 56

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shared his love for hunting and fishing. This story about William L. Hinze, though brief, is only one of many stories that could be told by servicemen who served in occupied Japan. William really loved Hokkaido. He loved the country even before he met and fell in love with my mother. I am qualified to undertake the telling of the story of War Brides because I knew one personally. My thinking was that I am the first born daughter of a War Bride; therefore I was an authority of my mother's story. I discovered that I did not know my mother as well as I thought because I did not know her past. I could not tell her story fully until I learned her immigration story. My mother was only one of thousands of War Brides. What did that mean? I began to find sources which would provide me with the information that would explain the phenomenon of my mother. The first book that I became familiar with is War Brides of World War 11.33 What I found while gathering all my research to tell my mother's story is a lack of narratives about the children of War Brides. While perusing through the sources about War Brides, I was able to glean information about people like me. The children of War Brides were mentioned and photographed in various newspaper and magazine articles. Wanda Nodolski was teatured in "They're Bringing Home Japanese Wives;> with her parents Sgt. Casimine Nodolski of Elizabeth, New Jersey and Setsuko of Japan. 34 Penny Pfeiffer was featured in James Michener's article "Pursuit of Happiness" with her parents, Frank and Sachiko Pfeiffer.35 Linda Romo is one of five children of Kazue Nagai Katz. Kazue is said to be the first war bride ofa or in occupied Japan 1946. She preceded some 72,700 Asian War Brides-46,000 from Japan-who immigrated to the United States between 1947 and 1964.36 33 Elfrieda Berthiaume Shukert and Barbara Smith Scibetta. War Brides a/World War II. CA: Presidio Press, 1988. ] 4 Smith and Worden. "They're Bringing Home Japanese Wives," James Michener. ''Pursuit of Happiness by a GI and a Japanese. Life 21 February 1955: Annie Nakao. "Kazue Katz Blazed Trail for Thousands as First Japanese War Bride." The Examiner. June 2, 2000. 57

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I wonder about the children featured in periodicals of 1952 and 1953. Paulette Shaw was a toddler and in 1952 was photographed for Ebony magazine. She and her parents Sgt. Paul L Shaw and Mishiko can be seen in the article "The Truth about Japanese War Brides.,,37 Also photographed for this article were Freddie Hayes and Paulette playing together. Freddie's parents are Sgt. Edward Hayes and Kimii Sugahara. Vera Honae Wigglesworth is seen with her parents Fenton and Eiko. She was four months old when her family was featured in March 1953 edition of Ebony magazine.38 Those photos were taken sixty-five years ago. I would like to have a conversation with those babies. I would like to know what their experiences were growing up with their mothers. My mother never got to see her mother once she left Japan. Was this an experience that their mothers had, also? How did their mothers prepare food? Did their mothers speak Japanese or English at home? As a child growing up I was companion to my mother. Often I felt that she was my sister and not my mother. My mother was, as she said, "same like you," when she became a naturalized citizen ofthe United States. That magical day was March 27,1956, five years after I was born and became a citizen of the United States. I met the requirements of a child born abroad to a U.S. citizen parent" and also because my father applied to the consulate. The consulate determined that I was a citizen of the U.S. at birth. She got a few years head start at the polls. She was able to vote in the presidential election of 1956. I voted in 1972. Another example of my sameness to my mother was in 1964. I was thirteen years old when my mother took her driving test to get her driver's license. Three years later I got my driver's license. My mother spoke often of her childhood and life in Japan. These stories were drilled into my little mind. As an adolescent I understood her tales to be examples of how I should grow into 31 Ebony. "The Truth about Japanese War Brides March 1952 : 18-20. 38 Ebony. ''The Loneliest Brides in America ." March 1953: 18. 58

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adulthood. However, her ways and examples were difficult to achieve because I also had another life outside of our home. We were in America and we were doing what American children do. I had become American. I brought my new ways and new ideas into my home which did not fare well with my parents. Most research studies about the Occupation and Japanese and American relationships are found in the studies about race and the consequences of interracial marriages and bi-racial children. All of these studies are important. My intention is more about the cultural transition of War Brides and the relationships between mothers and their children as they make this transition and then how the children coped with their Japanese-ness and/or American-ness. Occupation Babies are becoming more visible as they have come of age. It has been over seventy years since the first born child of the Occupation was gifted to Japan. After World War II ended, Japan surrendered and the American and Allied Occupation of Japan began. Tens of thousands of Occupation Babies were born during the Occupation. The purpose of the Occupation was for the American military and her allies to rebuild Japan in accordance with the guidelines of the Potsdam Declaration of 26 July 1945. General Douglas MacArthur was appointed to the position of Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) on 14 August 1945. It was the task of his men, the Occupationnaires, to transform Japan into a Western-style democracy. This assignment initially required nearly 100,000 service men to work with 74,000,000 people of Japan. The Occupation was largely unopposed and peaceful. It was so peaceful that many servicemen and Japanese women began to develop personal relationships. SCAP did not approve of these relationships; in fact they issued non-fraterni7ation orders. Military orders were unsuccessful at controlling the romantic desires that ensued. Consequently, SCAP could not prevent the births of thousands of Occupation Babies. 59

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I am an Occupation Baby and my story began when my American father went to Japan and met my Japanese mother in 1949. I have researched and found that I am one of thousands who were born during the Occupation. We have been invisible for nearly seventy years. Many of us wanted to make sure that our mothers, War Brides of the Occupation of Japan, were not forgotten by telling their stories. Inadvertently we learned about ourselves and realized that we also have a story to tell. It is my intention that this thesis provides a small beginning to our narratives as the children of the Occupation of Japan. 60

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Allen, Vincent W. A Very Intimate Occupation. New York: Vantage Press, Inc., 2000. Amerasian Immigration Act 1982 (public Law 97-359), U.S. Citizenship and hnmigration Services ; Official Website of the Department of Homeland Security, https :ll www.uscis gov / toolslglossary / amerasian-act. Asakawa, Gil. Being Japanese American: A JA Sourcebook for Nikkei, Hapa ... & Their Friends. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press, 2004. Bailey, James. "At the Movies." The Wilson Quarterly Vo1.9, No.3 (Summer 1985): 67-77. www jstor orglstablel40256892. Bennett, Judith A., and Angela Wanhalla. Mother's Darlings of the South Pacific: The Children of Indigenous Women and U.S. Servicemen, World War II. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2016. Berrigan, Darrell. "Japan's Occupation Babies." The Saturday Evening Post, June 19,1948: 2425 117-118. Brandt, Kim. "Learning from Babysan." About Japan: A Teachers' Resource. http://aboutjapan.japansociety.org/learning-from-babysan. Brats: Our Journey Home DVD. Directed by Donna Musil. Produced by Beth Goodwin and Donna Musil. Performed by Kris Kristofferson Narration and Music Brats Without Borders, Inc., 2005. Buck, Pearl S. East Wind: West Wind. New York: The John Day Company, 1958. Buck, Pearl S., and Theodore F. Harris. For Spacious Skies: .Journey in Dialogue. New York: The John Day Company, 1966. Burkhardt, William R. "Institutional Barriers, Marginality, and Adaptation among the American Japanese Mixed Bloods in Japan." The Journal of Asian Studies Vol. 42, No 3 (May 1983): 519-544. www. jstor.orglstable/2055516. Cooper, Linda "Yokoso Y'a1I." Discover Nikkei Nikkei Chronicles #5: Nikkei-go: The Language of Family, Community and Culture. (17 August 2016) Crawford, Miki Ward, Katie Kaori Hayashi, and Shizuko Suenage. Japanese War Brides in America: An Oral History. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2010 Creef, Elena Tajima. "Discovering My Mother as the Other in the Saturday Evening Post." Qualitative Inquiry (Sage Publcations, Inc.) Volume 6, no. Number 4 (2000): 443-455. Doubles : Japan and America's Intercultural Children VHS. Directed by Regge Life Produced by Regge Life. 1995 61

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Dower, John W. Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War n. New York : W W. Norton & Companyffbe New Press, 1999. Ebony. "The Loneliest Brides in America." March 1953: 17-20,23-24. Ebony. "The Truth about Japanese War Brides." March 1952: 17-20,23-25. Executive Order 9981. Harry S. Truman Library & Museum/digital collection, University of Missouri, www.trumanlibrary.orgl998Ia.htm. Fehrenbach, Heide. Race after Hitler: Black Occupation Children. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2005. Fall Seven Times, Get Up Eight: The Japanese War Brides Produced by Lucy Craft, Karen Kasmauski and Kathryn Tolbert 2015. Flower Drum Song. Directed by Henry Koster. Produced by Ross Hunter. Performed by Nancy Kwan, James Shigeta, Miyoshi Umeki and Jack Soo. 1961. Gage, Sue-J e Lee. "The Amerasian Problem: Blood, Duty, and Race." International Relations (SAGE Publications) Vol 21, no. I (2007): 86-102. DOl: 10.1177/0047117807073769. Gayn, Mark. Japan Diary. New York: William Sloane Associates, Inc., 1948. Glenn, Evelyn Nakano. Issei, Nisei, Warbride: Three Generations of Japanese American in Domestic Service. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986. Gordon, Andrew. A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Hamilton, Walter. Children of the Occupation: Japan's Untold Story. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2013. Herman, Masako. The Japanese in America, 1843-1973: A Chronology & Fact Book Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1974. Houston, Velina Hasu. "The Past Meets the Future: A Cultural Essay." Amerasia Journal 17:1 (1991): 53-56. Hwne, Bill. Babysan: A Private Look at the Japanese Occupation. Tokyo, Japan: Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1953, 1960. Kalischer, Peter. "Madame Butterfly's Children." Collier's, September 20,1952: 15-18. Kaneko, Naoshi, and KEEPING POSTED. "Naoshi's in the Beams." Saturday Evening Post, June 19, 1948: 10. 62

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Koda Farms, Inc. www.kodafarms.com 2011. Koshiro, Yukiko. "Race as International Identity? 'Miscengenation' in the U.S. Occupation of Japan and Beyond." AmerikastudieniAmerican Studies 48, No.1, Internationalizing U.S. History (2003): 61-77. www.jstor.orglstable/41157793. -. Trans-Pacific Racisms and the U.S. Occupation of Japan. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999. Life. "Young Star Rises as Suzie Wong: France Nuyen Shines in Title Role ofa New Play." October 6, 1958: 95, 96, 98. Lise, Marcia Yumi. HAFU the film /\-7. Directed by Megumi Nishikura and Lara Perez Takagi. Produced by Megumi Nishikura. 2013. MacArthur, General Douglas. Reports of General MacArthur/MacArthur in Japan: The Occupation: Military Phase. Edited by His General Staff. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, January1966. Mac1ear, Kyo. "Drawing Dividing Lines: An Analysis of Discursive Representations of Amerasian 'Occupation Babies'." Resources for Feminist Research Vol. 23, No.4 (1995): 20-34. http://search.proquest.comldocviewI194880347?accountid=14506. Map of Japan. U. S. Department of State, www.state.gov/p/eap/ci/ja/. Michener, James A. Sayonara. New York: Random House, 1953. Michener, James. "Pursuit of Happiness by a GI and a Japanese." Life, 21 February 1955: 124126, 129, 131, 133, 134, 136, 138, 141. Milton, Giles. Samurai William: The Englishman Who Opened Japan. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002. Morris, James McGrath. Eye on the Struggle: Ethel Payne, the First Lady of the Black Press. New York: HarperCollins Publixhers, 2015. Murazumi, Mie. "Japan's Laws of Dual Nationality in the Context ofa Globalized World." Pacific Rim Law & Policy Journal (Seattle: University of Washington School of Law), 2000. Murphy-Shigernatsu, Stephen. Stephen Murphy-Shigematsu. www.murphyshigematsu.com. Murphy-Shigernatsu, Stephen. "The Celtic Samurai: Storytelling a TransnationalTransracial Family Life." In War Baby/Love Child: Mixed Race Asian American Art, edited by Laura Kina and Wei Ming Dariotis, 51-57. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2013. Nakao, Annie. "Kazue Katz Blazed Trail for Thousands as First Japanese War Bride." The Examiner, June 2,2000: www.uswarbrides.comlbride_storieslkatz.htrnl. 63

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Omi Michael and Howard Winant "Racial Fonnation. In Racial Formation in the United StatesJrom the 1960s to 1990s, 53-77. New York: Routledge, 1994. People Today. "Occupation Complication: Out-of-Wedlock Babies ofGl's and Japanese Girls Propaganda Pawns." Vol. 8, No.9 May 5,1954: 3-6. Porter, Sylvia. "Babies Equal Boom." New York Post, May 4, 1951. Potsdam Declaration. No. 1382, July 26,1945, Department of State, U.S.: Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs United States, Department of State, https:/lhistory.state.govlhistoricaldocuments/frusI945Berlinv02/d 13 82. Sabin, Burritt "GIs Occupied 'Paradise'." The Japan Times March 2, 2003 http :// www.japantimes.co .jp/ comrnunity / 2003/03/02/generallgis-occupied-paradisel Sayonara Directed by Joshua Logan Produced by Warner Brothers Perfonned by Marlon Brando, Miiko Taka, Red Buttons and Miyoshi Umeki. 1957. Schnepp, Gerald J., and Agnes Masako Yui. "Cultural and Marital Adjustment of Japanese War Brides." American Journal o/Sociology Vol. 61, No.1 (Jul. 1955): 48-50. www.jstor.orglstable/2771933. Shukert, Elfrieda Berthiaume, and Barbara Smith Scibetta. War Brides o/World War II. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1988. Simpson, Caroline Chung. An Absent Presence: Japanese Americans in Postwar American Culture, 1945-1960. Duke University Press, 2001. Smith, J.Walker, and Ann Clurman Generation Ageless: How Baby Boomers Are Changing the Way We Live Today--and They're .Just Getting Started New York: HarperCollins 2007 Smith, Janet Wentworth, and William 1. Worden. "They're Bringing Home Japanese Wives." The Saturday Evening Post, January 19, 1952: 26-27, 79-81. South Pacific. Directed by Joshua Logan. Produced by Buddy Adler and Richard Rodgers. Perfonned by France Nuyen, John Kerr and Juanita Hall. 1958. Strauss, Anselm 1. "Strain and Harmony in American-Japanes War-Bride Marriages." Marriage and Family Living Vol. 16, no. 2 (May 1954): 99-106 www.jstor.orglstablel347761 Tajiri Larry. ""Twain Meet in 'Sayonara'Drama, Denver Post, January 1, 1958 In Pacific Citizens: Larry and Guyo Tajiri and Japanese American Journalism in the World War 11 Era, edited by Greg Robinson, 249-251. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2012. The World 0/ Suzie Wong. Directed by Richard Quine. Produced by Ray Stark. Perfonned by Nancy Kwan and William Holden. 1960. 64

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To Whom It May Concern : Ka Shen's Journey. Documentary about Nancy Kwan. Redwind Productions. Distributed by Locomotive Distribution, 2009. War Brides Act Decemb e r 28,1945 Public Law 271 http: // library.uwb.eduiguideslUSimmigrationl59%20stat%20659.pdf Wildes, Harry Emerson. Typhoon in Tokyo: The Occupation and Its Aftermath. New Yorlc The Macmillan Company, 1954. Williams Teresa K. "Marriage between Japanese Women and U S Servicemen since World War II Ameras i a Journal Vol. 17, No.1 (1991): 135-154 Wilt, Brenda J "War Brides." America in WWlI: Magazine o/a People at War 1941-1945 August 2005. http :// www.americainwwii.com/articles / war-brides /. 65

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APPENDIX A JAPANESE AND GER.c\IAN WORDS AND DEFINITIONS While writing this thesis it has not been necessary to focus on Japanese names and its conventions. My focus has been predominantly American. I have italicized Japanese and German words and included definitions, explanations or descriptions of their meanings when necessary. ainoko--half Japanese; half-caste babysan--miss baby baka--stupid ; dumb but s udan--in house Buddhist shrine Dabaru--double gochisousama--the meal is delicious Godzilla--Icoruc Japanese monster gor.an--steamed rice, breakfast, lunch or dinner gomennasai--excuse me pardon me, I apologize hajU--half Issei--Japanese immigrant itadakimas--Iet's eat kanji--Japanese writing kome--uncooked rice konketsuji--child of mixed-blood kurombo--black child mischlingskinderlmischling--black children (German) Nisei--first generation Japanese Arrtt:rican okaeri--weIcome back sakoku--the closed country Sayonara--Good bye shi--four or death shin chu gun--Occupationnaires sumimasen--excuse me, pardon me I apologize tadaima--I'm home tsukemono--pickles a side dish 66

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APPENDIXB IMMIGRATION LEGISLATION PERTAINING TO WAR BRIDES OF JAPAN 1924 -------------.... --Johnson-Reed Act; Oriental Exclusion Act of 1924; and/or Japanese Exclusion Act of 1924. Signed by President Coolidge December 28, 1945 Public Law 271 "War Brides Act." Expedited entry of military spouses eligible under the quota system Ju.tle 29, 1946 August 6, 1946 July 22,1947 August 19, 1950 June 27,1952 Expired December 28, 1948 Public Law 471 Alien Fiancees and Fiances Act Soldier Brides Act Granted non-quota status to the Chines Wives of U.S. Citizens Public Law 213 expanded the provisions of the "War Brides Act" to cover racially ineligible spouses Public Law 717 Admission of Alien spouses and minor children of members of U.S. anned forces The "War Brides Act" originally scheduled to last only six months, but extended for an additional six months Public Law 82-414 McCarran-Walter Act Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 Removed racial barriers to immigration 67

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APPENDIXC LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS OF PRIMARY SOURCES FIGURES 1. Map of the Occupation zones of Germany 1945-1949 .................................. 6 2. Map ofJapan, U.S. Department of State .................................................... 7 3. Document; Japan Logistical Command/Permission to Marry .......................... .14 4. Foreign Service/Certificate of Witness to Marriage ..................................... .18 5. Background Check ............................................................................ 18 6. Background Check/Japanese document .................................................... 18 7. Serological Examination Certificate ........................................................ .17 8. Visa Approval/ U.S. Department of Justice; INS .......................................... .17 9. Ship's Manifest USNS General Simon B. Buckner T-AP 123 ............................ 22 10. Bill Hume, Babysan (1953) ................................................................... 27 11. Birth Certificate of Midwife ................................................................. .33 12. American Consulate Report of Birth ........................................................ 34 13. Passport Marie May Hinze (2 & 3) ........................................................... 35 14. Passport Marie May Hinze (4 & 5) ........................................................... 35 68