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They work for victory : the story of Japanese Americans in the war effort

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They work for victory : the story of Japanese Americans in the war effort
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Japanese American Citizens League
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Salt Lake City Utah
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Japanese American Citizens League
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Auraria Library
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Auraria Library
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Respectfully Dedicated to the Memory of
FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT
Edited and Published by
THE JAPANESE AMERICAN CITIZENS LEAGUE
413-15 Beason Bldg. Salt Lake City, Utah
Price: twenty-five cents


They Work For. Victory
The Story of Japanese Americans and the War Effort
INDEX
"Americanism is "not, and never was, a matter of race or ancestry.
f'l^Every loyal American citizen should be given the opportunity to serve this country wherever his skills will make the greatest contribution whether it be|jt the
"ranks of our armed forces._______.________Page 6
"war production___________________________________ 15
"agriculture^_______....______________.........
"Government service ___.__________________________ 26
"other work essential to the war effort"..,..,__
Shrpa'jspeechJ?y FranklimjE). Roosev^ljV


Photo by Elisofon
BALLERINA SONO OSATO WITH SCULPTOR ISAMU NOGUCHI




WHO AND WHAT ARE THE
NISEI ?
NISEI: Second generation of Japanese in America, or, American citizens of Japanese ancestry.
A decade ago the term "Nisei" was virtually unknown in the American vocabulary. Today it is coming into common usage and doubtless future editions of dictionaries will carry the word and its definition.
Though specifically it means "second generation" Japanese Americans, the term is more commonly applied to all persons of Japanese ancestry in this country, and it willprobably be used to designate Americans of Japanese descent of the third and fourth generations, or so long as such a designation is needed. It is the hope of the Nisei themselves, however, that in the future such racial identification will become unnecessary and that they will be called simply "Americans."
A cross section of the Nisei would reveal a representative American group.
There would be a few who have achieved national fame like Sono Osato, star of the ballet and the New York musical, "On Your Toes," and Isamu Noguchi, sculptor-designer. There would be a group of young scientists and artists who have not yet achieved national reputation for their work but have in their fields performed .creditably and often brilliantly. Among these would be Dr. Henry Tsuchiya who, at the University of Minnesota, has been directing experimental studies on sulfa drug research and has carried on chemo-therapeutic studies in work which must at the present time be regarded as confidential; Dr. Eben Takamine, doing important war work on a new process for the production of penicillin; Dr. William T. Takahashi, 1944 Guggenheim fellow, working in virus reproduction at Rochester University; Aiko Tashiro, pianist and teacher at Bennington College in Vermont; Dr. Edward Hashimoto, associate professor at the University of Utah; and Min Yamasaki, architect and designer.
But the great majority of the Nisei, like the great majority of Americans everywhere, are everyday people working at everyday jobs. They are farmers, domestics, small business men and workers. Some are professional men, others work with their hands. They are dentists, newspapermen, fieldhands and lawyers, and politically they are Democrats and Republicans in approximately the same ratio as the rest of the voting public.
Like all Americans, they lived normal, busy lives
until Pearl Harbor broke suddenly and devastatingly on December 7, 1941.
Because the Nisei were racially identified with the enemy Japanese, they were subjected to a test of patriotism and loyalty never before demanded of Americans.
Within a few months of the start of war, all persons of Japanese ancestry were evacuated from. the coastal areas of California, Washington and Oregon and parts of Arizona to relocation centers within the interior. One hundred and twelve thousand people were thus moved, and of these some seventy thousand were Nisei, or American citizens. The rest were their alien parents, most of whom had spent upwards of twenty years in these United States.
The centers were huge, sprawling camps in desert wastelands of the western and southern states. Barbed wire fences enclosed the living and working areas, and armed sentries patrolled by night and day.
Under a program of relocation the Nisei were allowed to move from these camps to. any part of the United States save those areas from which they were evacuated. Despite the difficulties of making this new move, thirty thousand Nisei did manage by the end of 1944 to relocate to midwestern and eastern states, and large numbers of them went into farming and war work.
Thousands more were called directly into the Army, and blue service stars went up rapidly in the barrack windows of the relocation centers.
But even within the centers the work for an American victory continued. War bond drives, Red Cross work, the production of camouflage nets for the U. S. Army and the making of plane models for Navy training courses were some of the direct war contributions coming out of these desert camps. The Nisei were proving that despite the barbed wire and the armed sentries, they could and would prove their loyalty to the country in which they were born.
On December 17, 1944, that loyalty was vindicated. The Army on that day announced the reopening of the West Coast and the end of the evacuation.
The Nisei had shown by loyal and courageous Army service overseas and by honest, earnest efforts at home that their loyalty was wholly American.
This is the story and a recounting of that loyalty.
3


These Are The Faces Of The Nisei
Teacher, draughtsman, soda jerk and scientist these are the faces of the Nisei.
They are of every walk of life, they are of every religion. They are rich and poor, famous and unknown. They are the children of immigrants, but they are also the sons and daughters of Americans, and some of them are:
TEACHER MILDRED SASAKI, shown here working at the Day Care Nursery and School, conducted by the Board of Education in Cincinnati, Ohio. A specialist in nursery and kindergarten work, Miss Sasaki's help is invaluable in caring for the pre-school children of war workers.
Photo by Iwasaki for WRA
NURSE HELEN MURAKAMI, general duty nurse employed at the Lutheran Hospital, Omaha, Nebraska. Twenty-five years of age, Miss Murakami is a graduate of the University of Washington In Seattle and trained for ^Bree years at the, Pr^idence. Hospital in that city. She also'served for three years as a general duty nurse at the |||ljutter Hospital, Sacramento, California.
Photo by Iwasaki for WRA


STUDENT YANAKO WATANABE,. major in arts an.d Sciences at the University of Buffalo, New York. She is .showTithere studying at the Buffalo YWCA residence^'!
Photo by Iwasaki for WRA
SODA JERK VIRGINIA- MATSUMOTO, daughter of a World War I veteran, goes on duty at the Gu|nbo Inn, Chesterfield, Missouri.
Photo by Iwasaki for WRA
ARTIST JfOM IN ADA, animator in the New York City studios of a movie cartoon producer.
Photo by Parker for WRA
MECHANIC SHO TAKAHASHI, former stu^fftt pi mechanical, engineering at the University of California at iffis. Angeles,-maintaining machinery in a Chicago. greenhou|Je<^'
Photo: by Parker for WRA
SCIENTIST DR. WILLIAM TAKAHASHI, Guggenheim ferom 1944,^\yorjkinga laboratary^at the U,nivera sity of R^JfeS,$#$/Rochester, N. Y.
ENGINEER EUGENE E,.vKQM.O, graduate of the <'£lr)ivel|§^pol California, bjpetf^ilng mac^^^M^SjJo mark gun ammunition at the Superior Type Company, Chicago.
Photo by Parker for WRA
5


You are ajways thinking of your country before yourselves. You have never complained through your long periods in the line. You have written a.^rilliant chapter in the history of the fighting men of America. You are always ready to close with the enemy, and you have always defeated him. The 34th Division is proud of you, the Fifth Army is proud of you, and the whole United States is proud
lieut.'Gen. Mark Clark in a message to his Japanese American soldiers.
Photo by U. S. Army Signal Corps
THERE WAS RAIN, SNOW, AND THE GERMAN ENEMY ON THE WESTERN FRONT



JAPANESE AMERICANS IN KHAKI
All ALONG THE WESTERN FRONT men talked of the "Lost Battalion."
For five days 270 infantrymen of the 141 st Regiment of the 36th Division had been trapped behind German lines near Bruyeres. They had no food, medical supplies or means of communication. Their water supply was a swampy mudhole, and when death came to the severely wounded, prayers were spoken over their bodies in whispers so that the enemy would not hear.
The whole surrounding countryside had been thoroughly mined, and the Germans held strong roadblocks ail around.
On the sixth day American planes were able to drop food and supplies, but after dive-bombing, they flew off again into the sullen French skies.
It was the eighth day of isolation when one of their lookouts sighted a soldier in American uniform making his cautious way toward their slip trenches. The uniform was worn by a Japanese American, Pfc. Mutt Sakumoto.
The "Lost Battalion" had been saved, and the first men to reach it were members of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, an all-Japanese American unit. For this action twenty-nine Nisei soldiers were decorated, and posthumous decorations were awarded eight others who died in effecting the rescue.
The story of Japanese American men in uniform has been a story of dramatic bravery. Eighteen thousand of them, proud of the uniforms they wear, are today proving to the world that they will live and fight and if necessary, diefor the country of their birth.
They come from city and village, farm and factory, and thousands came from the relocation centers to which they were evacuated. Almost one thousand designate as their home the relocation center at Poston, Arizona, and the huge service billboard at the Minidoka center in Idaho has recently acquired two new wings to accommodate all the new names as their owners marched off to U. S. army camps.
The Purple Heart Battalion
The first all-Japanese American unit was the 100th Infantry Battalion, composed of Japanese American servicemen from the Hawaiian Islands. Former members of the territorial guard, they were sent in 1942 to Camp McCoy, Wisconsin, for training, and then to Camp Shelby, Mississippi.
They trained like demons, these men of the 100th. They had lost friends and relatives in the attack on
Pearl Harbor that fateful 7th of December, 1941. They had participated in the defense of their homeland that day, and some of them had died in that defense. One of their comrades, Private Torao Migita, had been one of the first American soldiers to fall at Schofield Barracks when the Japanese planes flew overhead. The first Japanese officer taken prisoner that day was captured by two of their men, and the first Japanese submarine was faken by a patrol of Japanese American soldiers led by Pfc. Thomas Higa.
So these Japanese Americans of the 100th Battalion went into action aching for revenge. Had they had their way, they would have faced the Japanese enemy, but the Army decreed otherwise.
They went into action in Italy on September 2, 1943, and within months their exploits became legends that spread through the American troops abroad, that were repeated on the continent and were caught up hungrily by the people at home in the Hawaiian Islands.
They landed at Salerno and then inch by inch they fought their way up the Italian boot. It was bloody fighting all the way. There were days of fast moving when objectives came into sight and defenses crumbled before them. But there were more days when the going was slow, tough and hard.
They crossed the Volturnothree times in all. Twice they fought their way over, twice they were beaten back. But the third time they stayed. They launched the first infantry attack against Cassino, spearheading the American move against this city. They participated in battles at Beneventu and Santa Maria Oliveto, and they captured San Michele.
By the end of 1943, 96 of them had been killed, 221 wounded. The casualties marked a one-third loss in this unit of 1000 fighting men.
By July, 1944, they were well up the Italian boot. On July 19, led by Lieutenant General Mark W. Clark, they led the way into Livorno, and on the 27th of that month Gen. Clark bestowed upon them a distinguished unit citation. It was at this time that Gen. Clark said to the members of the 100th: "Your record in battle has been marked by one outstanding achievement after another. You are always thinking of your country before yourselves. You have never complained through your long periods in the line. You have written a brilliant chapter in the history of America's fighting men."
The unit had been awarded 900 Purple Hearts, four Distinguished Service Crosses, 36 Silver Stars and 21 Bronze Stars within its first six months in the line. Its record had been written in blood, and the 100th Infantry
7


HONOR
The Minidoka Relocation Center proudly presents its Military Honor Roll. Standing is Masako Fujii, Wac volunteer from Minidoka.
Battalion was 'thereafter' -known as "The Purple Heart Batjallbn.1'
liowing, the men ^ this'single battalion added new honors tb theiStar-studded record m battle. By Marc'hHB945, this record included 1547 Purple Hearts, 21 .Distinguished Service Crosses, seven Soldier's Medals, |six Legions of MerH 73 Si|y;er Stars, 96 Bronze Stars, 16 Division Citations, two awards from the Italian government and the War Department Distinguished Unit Citation.
The infantrymen of the 100th had come a long way from the sandy beaches of Hawaii and the West Coast.
"Go For Broke"
If;., early ;in 1943, there were Still some doubt as,to ]t|ibr loyalty of the Japanese American soldier, jt was not, ^hared by&he'1 War Department. In January it announced the recruiting of Japanese American volunteers for a new;unit, the 442nd Combat Team.
The announcement brought a clearcut indication of the sympathies of young 'Nisei. In Hawaii local draft
boards were swamped by 10,000 eager volunteers. "This is the chance I've been waiting for," said Christian Nakama as he volunteered. "As Americans we're entitled to get a crack at Tojo, Hitler and Mussolini."
Fifteen hundred young men from the relocation centers signed up with recruiting teams. Four brothers Chet, Howard, Kenny and Ted Sakura volunteered at the Minidoka relocation center, and* to their: mother, Mrs. Misa Sakura, Secretary of War Henry Stimson wrote: "I am sure, that you are progd of your Sons who have willingly taken their places in the defense of their country."
The 442nd went into training in the^jish pine growths of Mississippi and the swampy grounds of Louisiana. Volunteers all, they were imbued by a fighting faith and fervor that spurred them on, even during! .their early training days. 'They adopted as their slo-^i gan, "Go For Broke." They had put all their eggs in one basket.
They went overseas ;in June, 1*944, and atthis time the 100th Infantry Battalion was officially made a part of the 442nd. Their first action was with the Fifth Army in its drive on Livorno. They went into battle with vigor, and in four da^fthey charged fifty miles.
From the first they were subjected to the most intense front-line fighting in the Italian theater. In the
8


THERE ARE AMONG AMERICA'S FIGHTING MEN
JAPANESE AMERICANS l;N SERVICE: Top row, left to right: PFC. TAKESHI YATABE, wounded in action; MAJOR WALTER TSU-KAMOTO; 2nd LIEUT. KEI TANAHASHI, killed in action.
Lower, left to right: PFC. HACHIRO MUKAI, killed in action; PFC. PRISCILLA YASUDA; 2nd LIEUT. MOE YONEMURA.
first 29 day£?bf fighting they lost 120 qif their men. They were attached 'then ;to the 34th Divifion, which had a record of irnprib days in the line than any:other American unit.
On October?|!5 they went 'on intp the Seventh Army front in France,, where they* lied1, the rescue of the "Lost Battalion,"Sand they were on the way to Germany.
And when Lieut. Virgil R. Miller, executive of-JB&et'"of the 442nd was. questioned regarding the 'unit, he said:
"What do you think of the Japanese Americans as fightersthat's what you want to know, is it? All right, then, you can qupte me as follows: they're the best outfit in the United States Army." He paused, then he said: "You can go so far as to say that they're the best damn outfit in the United States Army!"
In the Pacific
Little news Has,cjme oiif. of the Pacific area regard-ihgSJ^iJP^nese Ametibap troops in Ithrat thf aJe|$^iy/ar|j But theirs i| a striking and dramatic-story.* Several t|wMi sand of them are today proving that the Japanese American is as eager to fight the Japanese enemy as the German.
They have been at Bataan, in the Marshalls|ffarawa, New Georgia, Guadalcanal, Bougainville, Leyte and all those island points where American fighting men have* struggled with the relentless? Japanese enemfM:In Burma, Sgt. Kenny Yasui, known as the "Baby Sergeant York,'"', captured thirteen enemy Japanese on% the Irrawaddy, River. On .Leyte Sgt. frank Hachiya, on a special and dangerous mission, was shot by a Japanese sniper, He was barfly able fiy refurrv.,to headquarters,; bllipijM-'ac^ complished his-mission and theij died of|his injuries. 1 S/Sgf. Shigeo Jto was awarded the Bronze Star Medal and Ribbon in a cere motion Leyte in the-Philippines "for nrieritoriQ£is?.-s,^rvicf^'in ^connectipi^ wifft.military; opera--, jilns. again^fferpne 173y." Sgt:. l.fo fought in the Attu and Kiska 'c^.pafgns Alaska in,_F943;.^served fii|$Hawaii with the^§|th 'Divy^MWand tKprt went On the 7-Zfh
lEwry ,,
j Many .'N-if^f Afei^te se rved with M e r ri 111 s M4* rauders IfF~|that outfit's savage attacks upon the enemy.. But alLfef the isfari outposts hayef known these Japanese American soldiers.. A number of them have been decor rated for bra^^^Kor||gof----f,l!f#&siC'll9ve died action. And the /a^Jid^^imm'phfafor, H. V. Kaftenborn,
has said: "American-born. Japanese. are doing one of the greatest' ^f^ices for ^J|PactftG armies."
There was Sgt. Henry: Gpsho, called "Horizontal
9


Photo by Signal Corps
Photo by Signal Corp!


Photo by Signal Corps
Photo by Signal Corps
JAPANESE AMERICANS IN ACTION on the Western Front. UPPER LEFT: A team of Nisei GIs throwing 105 mm shells at Germans in support of an infantry attack. LOWER LEFT: A unit moving out of its old command post, which is holding a Section of the front lines. ABOVE: Members of the 442nd moving up toward the front lines in France. LOWER: A Japanese American machine gunner keeps himself ready for the enemy.




Photo by Signal Corps
Photo by WRA
UPPER LEFT: Infantrymen of the 442nd attend church services outside their billet in France. LOWER LEFT: A camouflaged dugout provides a place to rest. UPPER: Col. Lee D. Cady congratulates Lieut. Howard Y. Miyake upon receiving the Silver Star during retreat ceremonies at the Peninsular Base Section Medical Center, Naples. LOWER: Sgt. Ben Kuroki is swamped by autograph seeker's at the Heart Mountain relocation center.


I
Hank" by nis comrades In Merrill's Marauders, because "he's been pinned down so often by Jap machine-gun fire." .
"One of .our platoons owes th Hank,- who'lfflled his- share of the Japanese enemy, a"vayrs p|ed aside talk on that score. "Honorable ancestors much regret meeting Merrill's Marauders," he would say. * * *
. In December, 1943, a Nebraska farm boy came home from the wars. He was Sgt. Ben Kuroki, top turret gunner, who participated in 25 heavy bombing missions over Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, and then begged for more. He was granted another five missions with hjs Liberator crew, and then came home.
Ben Kuroki volunteered for Army service on the day after Pearl Harbor. Suspicion held' up his enlistment ur|fi| January 5 of the following year, but immediately ^following his enlistment he begged for duty in the Pacific area. He had a tough time getting onto a crew and into active duty. During his training period he was called "Keep 'em Peeling,',' because he peeled so many ,"potatoes waiting for an assignment.
JAPANESE AMERICAN WAC Chito Isonaga, native of Koloa, Kauai, eats her New Year's dinner with 57 comrades who enlisted in the Women's Army Corps in the Territory of Hawaii. photo by U. S. Army Sig nal Corps
. He went finally to Europe, though he said, "I didn't join the Army with the intention of fighting in Europe.
I joined to avenge Pearl Harbor."
This, spring ||| was reported that Sgt. Kuroki had finally achieved his ultimate wish. He was reported in the Pacific theatre, and he wrote home to a friend, "I must concentrate on dropping some 'roses' on Tokyo Rose."
On February 21, 1945, a large audience at the Poston relocation center watched quietly as Brigadier General J. H. Wilson pinned the Distinguished Service Cross upon Mrs. Matsu Madokoro.
The award was a posthumous award to her only "son, Pfc. Harry Madokoro,, who was killed on the Italian front.
During the final assault on an enemy-held field near Molina A Ventoabbao, Italy, Pfc. Madokoro advanced ahead of his squad to a strategic position from which he could, deliver effective automatic rifle fire. He dispersed a nest of snipers, neutralized another,enemy nest and enabled his platoon to take a stragetic hill. At Luciana, Madokoro occupied an advance position and proceeded to fire on the enemy entrenched on the outskirts of the town. With heavy fire directed at him, he held his position and provided covering fire when his squad was forced to withdraw. The following day, when his squad became separated from the remainder of the company within the town, he provided flank protection against enemy attacks. The enemy entered a nearby draw and threw hand grenades at him, but Madokoro crawled toward the draw., tossed a hand grenade into the enemy position and neutralized it.
He died in the line of duty on August 25, 1944. His citation noted that his Distinguished Service Cross was: awarded "for extraordinary heroism in 4c.fin" on two separate occasions.
* *
War Department notifications of death or wounds received in action have gone to hundreds of Japanese American families throughout the nation.
Many families have sent two, three and more sons into the service of their country. Mrs. Haruye Masaoka, mother of six sons, has seen five of them replace civilian^ clothing for the khaki of the U. S,. Army. By the end of 1944 one, Pvt. Ben Masaoka, was missing in action, and two more, Sgt. Ike and Pfc. Tad, were severely wounded in action. One other, CpI. Mike Masaoka, still remained overseas.
They are good fighting men, these Japanese Americans.
And on January 21, 1944, the War Department announced that Selective Service procedures for the Nisei, temporarily suspended after the start of the war, would be resumed. Further, it announced in December, 1944, that aliens of Japanese ancestry would aljplbe eligible for. military service.
Both of these rights had taken proof of loyalty and ability, and Japanese Americans in combat had provided that proof.
14


war
. Many peopf&Grck, Whe^P^'ill -eftor 'There|
.is dne answertfojhatv It williend^uSt as soon as we make it end, by ouyisbmbined. aborts. our com^b|J sts^^m, our combing determination to fight through ana work fJt: ^dand jthe end of mHitarisn^rvGermany and Italy and i^pan. Jylosi certainly we,^h^L;j^qtse|tle for -less.
. Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
TOOELE ORDNANCE DEPOT, TOOELE, UTAH
Photo by U.S. Army Signal Corps


Photos by U. S. Signal Corp||
L'lKETHE WAR RELOCATIONxenf&s of the west the Tooele Ordnance Depot at Tooele, Utah, ro|pi;pvep-. ifiight from scrubland and waste. Within a few weeks the twenty-seven thousand acres comprising the project became one of the great munitions centers, of the nation. Here in the warehouses, shops, office and administration bu|d.ings, in the rounded igloos and on the fields, men and women are working, to. keep ammunition Ofi the move to th Infighting fronts, they load ammunition, they'maintain combat equipment in top form, and they reclaim artillery cases. Tooele, Utah, is a war city dedicated to the defense of the" nation, and among its.-hundreds of residents and workers are many persons of Japanese ancOitry.
Close to one hundred -Nisei aref^lready employed /here as mechanics, munitions handlers, loaders,/clerks, fstenographers, and typists. Most of them live with their families/on /the, and th'ey are apart, of the
city V life, as w|||J as part of the working personheMf IflRrst Japanese American oft the project Was Tom Okeinfuira, ^mqd-ically discharged ,Veteran of World War-11. Since, he r|||istered, t&n; more Japanese American war /veterans have taken their place on the Tooele production line, taking on the clothes of the war worker for 'the khaki of the American soldier.
The Tooele Nisei are- not only proud of their work for defense, they are proud too of the soils and brothers they haVb%sent to the U. S. Army and for whom- they are loading the munitions of war.
UPPER LEFT: Hugo Kazato, left, and George Kudo load 2,000 lb. bombs at the Tooele Ordnance Depot. LOWER LEFT: Japanese Americans store howitzer shells in igloo at Tooele; left to right: Ed Nakano, Jack Chikami, Tony Kishi. UPPER RIGHT: The "spirit of Tooele" is typified by Captain Harley Kinney and Dickie Murakami, 4, whose father is a war worker at Tooele.
16


Photo by Aoyama for WRA
Japanese Americans at the Sioux Ordnance Depot, Sidney, Nebraska, unload "prop" charges from box car.
PRODUCTION
Charles Nishikawa of Tooele produces for-, ^hree brothers H Army^nniformfoyPvt. Harry Nishikawa of -StartSoefjimq,, M rn n. f o r Pfc. Masato Nishikawa, who was twice injured overseas; and -for Pvt. Shigeo Nishikawa. Another Tooele resident is four-month-old Sandra Gaj| Okusu, whg^etother is a Tooefe war worker. rfand'ra GajU&Jtake in World War II is a big one;yseVen' uncles-in rfhie U. S. Army..' They are T/3 Cosma Sakamoto, overseas fflrthe Philippipe^rjSgt. Masa Sakamotjbfc wpbM 442nd in France;. CpI. Walter Sakamoto,-with the 442n|§ im France, wounded in action; Pvt. Calvin Sakahtpt^Fort Snellirig, Minn.; Pvt. Ben Okusu, Fort Sill, Oklahoma; Witejj Masaharu Hata, with the 442nd in France; and Pvt. James Fujioka, Presido, San Francisco.
With such Arm^Pfcord families, it isvn wonder that the Tooele Nisei have run up amazing production records at this munitions depot, that their officers have pointed wl+^/.pride to the cooperatipn^spirit and laudable good will of these Japanese Americans.
The Sioux Ordnance Depot near Sidney, Nebraska, too, has a large number of Japanese Americans working for victory. Some.eighty Nisei are employed here, add-
Photo by Aoyama for WRA
Proud and happy residents of the Sioux Ordnance Depot project are Japanese Americans Mrs. Taft Beppu and her two-year-old daughter, Penny.
FOR VICTORY
ing their manpower .to" the greatest war effort in the history of the world. Thus at home and1 abroad, these -young A'rpbr i c a n s-i'ityojtpand (Ji.ght and.fp reduce for ytjjps inevitableiAllied victg^^T
BUT NISEI AMERICANS ARE NOT ONLY4N*#RD-NANCE WORK, for^tbe,frrcontributionsf^^e' war effort? =>a re many and VariedHlhjsmall industries and large, jgH city and country, they are producing ^direcfly. for the1 Jfyy?ar effort.'^
The green Hawaiian Islands, Paradise of the Pacific, were, after the treacherous Pearl Harbor attack, weak and defenseless. G re at Jipk i n Ifcfsh i ps?- lay useless ^n thre har-,bbpi.SldcaW Fjeld bombs' dr\d shel||&ifeg
harbor was laid wastq. Twel'fe%m§n in a rowbidalwj£ was -said, take the islands at anf time.
Butjaday the Hawaiian Islands have emerged as on,e of the strongest military posts in the world. The islands have been re-strengthened, rebuilt, refortified.
Ninety per cept; carpenters, as well as most
of the mechanics repairing construction equipment and a large proportion of equipment operators, plumbers, electricians and other.Workers were of Japanese ancestry,
17


Production For Victory
according to Remington Stone, civilian assistant to the army depot engineer for the central Pacific area.
"This preparation would? have beeriJ||rtually impossible without the aid of the many thousands of craftsmen and other workers of Japanese ancestry," he said.
Camouflage Nets
THE MAJOR WAR PRODUCTION CONTRIBUTION of the war relocation centers has been the weaving of camouflage nets for the U. S. Army. The development of aviation reconnaissance an^-fhe accuracy of aerial^'bombardment in present day.military operations has made imperative the masking of troop positions from enemy observation.
The idea that nets, for this use could be produced by the Japanese Americans apparently originated at the Santa Anita reception center, one of the centers operated by the Army to which the evacuees were sent prior to going to the war relocation centers farther inland.
Certain loyal citizens at Santa Anita, an^i^Gfe' to translate idle hours into positive production for victory, proposed the camouflage net program to the Wartime Civilian Control Authority, the Army authority under which the camp was run.
The offer, was accepted, and operations began under the Santa Anita racetrack grandstand, which gave the height necessary for the suspension of the nets wKrljei work was in progress.
From five hundred to twelve thousand eydcuees have been employed on this project during its existence. Army engineers were sufficiently impressed by the performance at Santa Anita to proceed wi-tlv the con-, struction of net garnishing plants at the Manzanar, G£ija River and Poston, Arizpha,. relocation centers.
Each project included five garnishing sheds with 10 rigs in each, a cutting shed with 20 motor-driven reels, a ware ho us'!'; offic,e{ space and other tiece'ss4a,ry space. Each rig cd accommodate ftom eight to sixteen workers, depending on the size of the net being garnished.
Three blends of nets; were producedwinter, summer and desert. Different shades of burlap were used for each at ratios established by Army specifications. Nets
JAPANESE AMERICAN WOMEN WORK FOR DEMOCRACY: (Cover photo) Ruth Nishi, 21, operating a turret lathe making parts for gas valves in a Chicago manufacturing plant.
Photo by Parker for WRA
BELOW: War Worker Jeri Tanaka, employee in the Modern Lighting and Manufacturing Company in Des Moines, Iowa, a company now working on war contracts.
Photo by Iwasaki for WRA
18


tol.. differenM^wete? in production at fd|||e>nt times, with sizes ranging from nets of 144 square feet to 2160 ||||iare feet.x
Completed nets were spread in the yard ;a|M inspected'by the U. S. Engineering personnel for work-n^flBpfeand adherance to specifications. When&lccept-ed, they were reefed into'company sizes and transported to the warehouse, compressed into balesy wrapped in watertight paper, strapped with steel bands, stenciled and shipped.
As this was a war contract and items produced are vital to the security of the armed forces, figures on production and information regarding disposition are secret. But it has been recognized that this production of camouflage nets was of vital importance as a wartime project. The net workers, all Japanese Americans confined to barbed-wire enclosed centers, set high records for rate efproduction. This was a war job that could be done within the camps, and it was done with a will.
Defense Projects
Late in 1943 the R. J. Ederer Company plant in Chicago was awarded the Army-Navy "E" for excellence in production for the armed forces. A plant engaged 100 per cent in war work, it manufactured camouflage nets, commercial fish nets, air cargo nets and sports nets^jfrShe armed forces. At that time 33 Japa-nese-Americans, most of them women, were proud of theirfirm's record, participating as loyal employees in the company's war award.
Thus-Jn Chicago, in Detroit, in Buffalo and else-
Cenneth Sugioka, Nisei, at work on a precision lathe in he defense plant of the Hathaway Instrument Company n Denver, Colorado.
where, such Japanese Amerigljhs arej4^pibuting their share ^&the nitron's war effort.
The Electronic Mef^anics' Corporation of .Clifton, New Jersey, has been engagedHfr secret work for the Navy,r, ajidi numbers among its workers seven Japanese American^ Ringe Shima, once of Stockton, California, is an engineer Tn^-eharge of production at one of the company's plants. At the Rutherford, New Jersey, plant, another Nisei, Toshi Hi rata, is in charge of research oil spark plugs. Another Nisei, Al Funabashi, also at this plant, is president of his local union.
^.'There are many names of Nisei Americans that might be cited for individual contributions to the civilian war effort. There is Min Yamasaki, architect and designer who planned the information room for Time Magazine at the Time and Life Building at Rockefeller Plaza.
Yamasaki helped design and construct army bases in Newfoundland just before the Pearl Harbor attack. After a year on the- Newfoundland job, he aided in constructing and designing the site of the Sampson Naval Training base at Geneva, New York. He was one of the first persons there when the site was opened, and one of the last to leave when the job was finished. Nor is his ; war work finished. Mj| has planned model housing projects for war workers and he is at present drawing plans for airplane test cells.
There was the fafher-and-son team, Shiro Ebihara and his son Hank, both aliens, both working in Cleveland at Johnston and Jennings Co. Ebihara worked on tank, truck and plane parts, while Hank was engaged mainly in boring gun parts.
Thomas Oki, Japanese American war worker, shown operating a flame sprayer applying molten metal on a piston head for a P-47 Thunderbolt Fighter at the Neo Mold Company, Cleveland.
Photo by Parker for WRA
Photo by Iwasaki for WRA


B~wo years ago a letter directed toPresident Roosevelt and Secretary of War Stims'on. was given wide :pub-' licity. It came fr^no Hank Ebihara, and it declared in part:
"I know you are a very busy man and I hate to bother you like this when you are so busy in more important matters ... I was very happy when Secretary of War Henry Stimson announced that Ni^^J Americans would be given a chance to volunteer for active combat duty. But at the same time I was sadsad because under your present laws I am an enemy alien. I am a 22-year-old boy, American in thought, American in act, as American as any other citizen. My parents brought me to America when I was only two years old. Since coming to America as an infant my whole life was spent in New Mexico.
"At Pearl Harbor my pal, Curly Moppins, was killed outright without a chance to fight back when the Japanese planes swooped down in a treacherous attack. And Dickie Harrell and other boys from my home town came back maimed for life. Then more of my classmates volunteeredBud Henderson, Bob and Jack Aldridge, etc. They were last heard of as missing in the Philippines. It tears my heart out to think that I could not avenge their deaths.
"The laws of this country bar me from citizenshipbecause I am an Orientalbecause my skin is yellow. This is not a good law and bad laws could be changed.
"But this is not what I want to bring up at this time. As you well know, this is a people's war. The fate of the free people all over the world hangs in the balance. I only ask that I be given a chance to fight to preserve the principles that I have been brought up on and which I will not sacrifice at any cost. Please give me a chance to serve in your armed forces."
came op his letter at th^^-ime, and because Henry Ebihara, in the /^frrny^he
applied immediately for defense work, and he and -his father became a father-and-sgn for defense duo. <
.. iThen 0 November 25, 1944, the War Department announced that aliens of Japanese ancestry might volunteer for military service. Henry Ebihara was-the first to voj'!i!|teer under this new ruling. He was accepted, and in February, 1945, he was ^ducted into-the U.'S. Army, Pvt. Henry Ebihara. v
IN DETROIT, MICHIGAN, the* wheels of industry are spinning fas.t, turning out the tarjks and guns of war as fast as man and mind can work. The plants that' yesterday sent sleek, shiny new cars. dpwrr the assembly
lines are today turning out/'deek and deadly ammunition, ammunition that will one day find the enemy in the Pacific, outposts and in:;Jd,ifS's Germa.n^fe|
Detrfa'iBs a^Baeared to file war program. Here almost all employment i§.,,considered essential or semi-essential. The hu And here huridred^imfprfpaAmericans, have 'found their, place in the war eff$tf||| By Janaary I,
1945, approximately 2300 Japanese Americans had settled i,n the teeming Detroit district, which includes, all of Michigans lower peninsula and Northern Ohio.
Of these 2300 approximately 80 per cent went directly into war work. Ttjey found jobs in the huge steel mils like the Copko^tjpe.McLouth, and: the Ryerson plants; they went to the Chrysler, CadBc and Ford industries andilwfor waWroduction plants like the Guardian Glass Co., U. S. Rubber and Garwood Industries. And they found war jobs to be do||j|at many of the smaller plants.
They were welders, they were mechanics., they were electricians^*,; They worked bvkr draugtiting boards, and they worked on assembfBlines. //They riveted, f||y repaired, they designed.
They were part of Americas war effort. Sip New Jersey there was Jack Sumida, electrical engineer, working in electronics research; there was Kenneth Funabak-oshi, machinist in an electrical plant. There was Kiyoshi Nishikawa, chemist.in plastics; there was James Akiyama, junior electrical engineer. There was Ichiro Watanabe, designing vital parts, and there was Frank Terasaki, Minoru Kanagaki, Robert Okadawar workers all.
There was Barney Sato m Denver, working at the huge moulds of a vast plant which turns out products for railroads.
There were John Fujita and Milton Kanatani in Kansas City, industrial designing draftsmen. There was Bill Saito, radio engineer in radar work. There was Don Kozeni, metallurgist, and/Jrlar.ry Yanaga, mechanic-.*^
There were men and women inifjhe aircraft industry,. designers and draughtsmen and mechanics..^?. There was Riyp. Sato,||ptite JaPppese American artist vyhp tpied,,; her talents to war work'in a New Ypik plane plant f6|i>w-ing Pearl Harbor.
BHn Harnfftorid,^Indiana. there were a large number of Japanese Americans at the Metals Refining Company plant. The plant produces copper, iron and lead powders, copper and lead oxides, lead and type metalsall items used directly in the production of the implements of war. Despite severe labor shortages, this company has won the coveted Army-Navy "E" for excellence in war production^ as well as an additio,pMi|tar to mark con-: g|mued -excejlencbyt A great deal ofvcredi?;fbr this record was given to the nard-working'Nisei employed at; the plant. Most of the Nisei were formerly farmers, students and businessmen. They had had no direct contact with industrial work, but they were anxious to do their
paKf
&p|£ir names are Japanese,1 but .they -are Americans all.
20


agriculture
The war years demanded of thejiation fha%ppf^rm-' ers plant more'sejpdf^ffia^ its. fieldsJproduce Jar^ficrsv that, its fruitj*tf$ grain feed a greater parf^|the IvorlcLpI population^fflan at any time in its history. did, andjfn its work:-was aided by tens of tWK^ds^fc young^Iapane^l A'nri'lflfcans. | ^ % Jh|
THE FARM'S HARVEST: A MAJOR REQUISITE OF A NATION AT WAR


I
FOOD FOR FREEDOM
EARLY IN 1942 a small caravan of cars and farm trucks made its slow way from California, across the bleak deserts of Nevada on into Utah. The passengers were all Japanese Americans, men and women and children.
They stopped, finally, at Keetley, Utah, and immediately they erected a huge billboard on the highway. "Food For Freedom," it said.
The ground behind the billboard stretched out rocky, hard with frost and covered with sagebrush. Drifts of snow lay against the buildings, and the white tops of the surrounding mountain ranges sent down sharp blasts of winter wind.
But within a few weeks the sagebrush coat was gofie, the boulders in the ground had been taken out, and the soil was turned and ready for planting. A handful of Japanese Americans led by Fred Wada had turned 3000 acres of unwanted land into acreage ready to produce for victory. New seed went into the ground early that year, seed to produce lettuce, cabbage, peas and meadow hay. The men worked 16 hours a day and more. Keetley, Utah, 6300 feet above sea level, has a short planting season, and the settlers felt the urgency of planting and harvesting before another winter covered the ground with snow.
Keetley, Utah, did produce food for freedom that year as it has produced in the seasons since 1942. What was done there is typical of what Japanese American farmers have done ever since the start of war to help the nation's food supply.
Literally thousands of^young men and women have labored in fields throughout the midwest and the east, some on their own fields and others as farm workers.
The first major call to farm work for masses of Japanese Americans came in' 1942, when they were called into the staple cotton fields of the southwest. Huge acreages of this vital war material were in desperate need of picking, and Japanese Americans came out from neighboring evacuee camps to help in this critical situation. From that time on they were called on again and again to provide manpower for the agricultural industry.
In 1942 the huge sugar beet industry, sorely tried by an acute labor shortage, asked for volunteer evacuee help. Eight thousand answered, one thousand coming
from the Heart Mountain Relocation Center alone. The response from the Minidoka center in Idaho was so tremendous that the center felt an acute labor shortage of its own and women were drafted to carry on with heavy duties around the camp.
But during the first season in sugar beet work the 8,000 volunteers harvested 915,000 tons of beets, enough to produce 265 million pounds .of sugar. In September, 1942, Selvoy J. Boyer, chairman of the Utah State Labor Committee reported that evacuee labor had saved much of the vital beet crop in Utah and Idaho, major sugar-beet states. Had it not been for this help, said Boyer, a large part of the crop in both states would have had to be plowed under. This sentiment was echoed by the Twin Falls, Idaho, Chamber of Commerce, which noted on April 2, 1943, that "a great amount of crops would have gone unharvested in this area last fall if it had not been for the Japanese evacuee labor. You can be assured therefore that the public is grateful." And the Preston, Idaho, Chamber of Commerce reported: "It has been conceded by our people that had it not been for the Japanese American boys, the beet harvest in Franklin County could not have been accomplished."
Throughout 1943 and 1944 the relocation centers continued to send out large numbers of workers as the country's farm labor situation became increasingly acute. In 1944 the relocation center at McGehee, Arkansas, provided 532 workers. Topaz, the central Utah camp, sent out 1032 workers during the same year. Seven hundred and seven of these placements were made for the War Food Administration and three hundred and twenty-five for the War Manpower Commission for canning and poultry work.
In industries allied to food production, too, the evacuees have been doing work of importance. Hundreds have been employed in canning and processing plants from Utah to the eastern coast. The major number of workers at a packing plant in Utah, which processes poultry for the U. S. armed forces, was said to be of Japanese ancestry in press reports in February, 1945. Large numbers of Nisei have been working at the Sea-brook Farms in New Jersey, a community devoted to processing food for army troops. In other cities and
ABOVE RIGHT: George Shintaku, 26, helps manage a poultry farm at Arlington Heights, Illinois. LOWER RIGHT: Yasaburo Akinagawa wears a miner's lamp as he inspects mushrooms at the Illinois Mushroom Company, Naperville, Illinois.
22




towns where the farm's harvest is preserved for future use, Japanese Americans have been doing their share, and in Spanish Fork, Utah, when the California Packing Corporation received its 1943 Army- Navy "E" award, thirty Japanese American workers shared in the honor.
A dozen aliens of Japanese ancestry have been aiding in the war effort of the N. S. Koos & Son Co. of Kenosha, Wisconsin. Edward Koos, president of this firm which supplies agricultural needs declared of his Japanese American workers: "Their being here makes it possible for us not only to supply the fertilizer needs of Midwestern farmers, but to accept orders from the U. S. Army as well."
Japanese American Farmers
Prior to the war thousands of Japanese American farmers in California, Washington and Oregon had tilled the soil. They harvested crops in green Washington's farm country, they gave tender care to fruit orchards in central California, and they struggled with the wind and sun and desert in California's barren Imperial Valley, and they made that desert bloom.
Photo by lwasaki for WRA
ABOVE: George Shoji, Japanese American, produces food for victory on a 120-acre farm near Elkhorn, Wisconsin.
They were farmers and they loved the soil. And when the war started, they wanted to keep on producing. Today there are Nisei farmers in the sunny fields of the-midwest, in the truck garden farms of New Jersey and the broad ranches of Idaho. There are the Jack Itos and the Tom Miyoshis and the Jim Sagamis in Mazomanie, Wisconsin; the Kishidas in south central Utah, who produced 80 acres of vital sugar beets; the Takagis who planted near Omaha, Nebraska; and the Furutas of Milford Center, Ohio. They are one with all farmers in America in producing food for freedom.
The Nakadas of Azusa, California, living in the Gila River relocation center, sent their seven sons into the U. S. Army, and then went home to Azusa to raise crops for these khaki-clad sons of America.
Large farmers and small, they are part of +he American food production program.
24


Photo by S. R. Boswell
Food For Freedom
Food For Lend-Lease
Among the more spectacular farm ventures of Japanese Americans is the onion-seed project of the Tachikis who began, operating 800 acres of. farmland near El-berta, Utah, in the "dust bowl of Utah County." The land in Utah County is dry and flat, and powdery white dust covers the ground. The summers are hot and heavy, and the winters are hard. In this region, in 1943, the Tachiki brothers planned a new experimental project, a plan to raise vegetable seeds and to produce for Lend-Lease at the same time.
The experiment, new in the state of Utah, was watched with interest by surrounding farmers, agricultural experts and farm bureau officials of the state. Seventy-six acres of land went into onions, twenty acres into lettuce, and fifteen acres into radishesall to be grown for seed. The rest of the acreage was put into sugar beets, a vital war crop.
The experiment with vegetable seeds proved successful, and an experimental station was established there by the Utah State Agricultural College.
And of major importance, the entire crop of vegetable seeds was sent overseas, for America's Lend-Lease program.
PRODUCTION FOR LEND LEASE: On the ranch above Roy Tachiki introduced a new industry, the raising of onions for seed, to the state of Utah. His entire 1944 production went toward Lend-Lease.
In the Relocation Centers
It must not be forgotten that while outside farm activities were the major contribution of Japanese American farmers to the war effort, many persons in the relocation centers should be credited with turning thousands of acres of land into food-producing farms of great value. The centers were, without exception, set on undeveloped, uncultivated soil, but willing hands and long hours of toil made the land productive, and this year ten thousand acres of cultivated land at Topaz were put on public sale.
In addition, the centers produced their own farm needs, thus cutting down on the cost of food and sparing that part of the nation's food supply that would have been necessary for the center residents. The Topaz center, by way of example, planted in 1944 approximately 400 acres of vegetables, which produced food valued at more than $30,000. They planted 724 acres of grain wheat, barley and oats. They supplied in addition all of the beef, pork, poultry and eggs necessary for the center's vast population, a worthy record for persons behind barbed wire.


Government
WHEN WAR CAME TO THESE UNITED STATES,
thept|apanese^languagYK^fhe Tan g u a g e of the enemy Became;, a weapon inv d,ti-'r. own hafSds, those Nisei; Americans who were able to1 speak and write that lan-guagfemfecame frontline fighters in the jwbrld of secret wa rfaMf^'
||P"heir has not beeim|Jilinor can it be*tdrajj
the time and need wM y' a h -
gh;ymM recejyfng noftilub!IS^V\^aI Mp their important v^mk'.S|rar ylyrewardill^Bin fhei|pe:r^lln6^Jjedae,'fhat theirs'^is work that must be dose and'that^ inva liable war. J-.
SCgf
_ In government offices throughout the land these Sis^i1 Americans are engaged in research studies* in monitor;ng^p translating and editing. They are teaching the Japanese language to thousands of young men in the Army and in the Navy, They make transcriptions Tpr broad4Mlsfe|ilwthe battle of psychological warfare. Bey. mj§f|e^ maps ^^.ienerhy terrifpfyv They- monitor broads alts frdra d'apan. Twenty-one translators and an-lElaunlifpqilaafm .-FriarMsco- send programs pl| Japan for nine ho,ift|^Sy day.
- The,'war"ibr^aght on a cr.yMg .need for hundreds of
the Japanese'
|Bpguapgd. Th*e Nisei deli? on this >d|fficult task and are today* secure in* tfe'^gov^Je'daeB|jiatJllieir students are Sftaldhg of fhl'^Pralininq. In Jjebruar-y,/ 1945,
after a long period of se^p^,: ,theE,WfflrC^e^ArtfAnf .an-nohpeed that the University MMiemaan 'has" carried on g;iillreistratinIna program u'nder Dr. Joseph i'Y|amagiwa.
heJa da nef^jM-Suage School ai ^Sa1, C^l^db: graduated "the largest class of Cau-S^igns 'ever to learn JaBaflller' it 'also signalled^o'uf f'of; fi^nor ii^vK^anese Am^^fy'^structors, whoM>mprised 9D perGetvT of the te'achets. inst^rctors' was
g iven.'a^'er^raVeg^artific!ht^p^^BUt$ta nd i n g. fa
Photo by Aoyama for WRA
Rose Yokomizo, native of Scottsbluff, Neb., takes die-tation from Major William A. Kutzke, post engineer at the Sioux Ordnance Depot, Nebraska.
Francisco; with the Foreign Broadcast IntelFigenefilServ-ice; with the Office of Strategic Services; the War Traduction Board; the Federal Communications Commissrori;1 and the Office of Censorship.
Mafiy of these offices have1,clamped* a close ^censorship upon their activljps. The Office of Strategic Service's,^ f.or example, e^^^an almost'Vomplete blackout on information concerning Nisei empj,dy;fe^iand the nature qf JbejjrJ^mes. Thk^n' itself is indicative of the vital and (Smid^E^al character of the services rendered' by the fyjsei. However, of their work, Edwin M, Martin, acting/chief of .the Far: East Division, has written; "The Far East Division' of the Officfe|pf S|f|ategic Services has employed |.everal Japanese Americans as translators and their work has been of real value to us. Through then-translating.efforts, a great deal of valuable material hats ||Ben,> made available to the War Ag^§^B in Waffu ington."
Laten Oaptaifa^ H. Roberts, commanding officer of fHfcWI'ar^^ncernirig these instructors; 'Thfl^f! Wprk ha^-bebn i^K&tand-in^ and a direct cofhtgiutiH|^M Sfe\-higeltKi'p'Winding of fhe^^^rg The gefffrine endeavors of^^t!^^Nis%i^c^hhot be^^^HI
:l^b,<^fch during these fryir^^^^6frw4%lSIII
played, ^By^^mepcan' c'itizeniMM Jada^^^ele^ent in preserving freedom and! o'oPmfipi.fv in Amerioa >8 in time Beeprhe kn%wn ,+o and gain the: grateful appreqa-ll&^pf UnifedfStat#sS: America."
Japanese Americans are als$' s^fyirvg with :ofi War Information in Washington, Denver and ||1|
In the Forman Broadcast Intelligence Service are Nisei, agaiM^itajUSla par^Jf the important war wdr£ 111 +hp^aniza^iol)n1945, Edwifl^jul- wen assistant sai4.\The.,Sapa|iife 'Am^^S|
employes: i .
J aalsIatoiiSha ve. doVe. an outstanding jlBr All have proved4 themselves efficient asi'lan* guage 'cjaftsSln and fin,e*.as humaqCbeings. Our Portland vst-affrrien Ili -veterans in the qfganiza&pn, most having been in the FBIS almost since Pearl Harbor. One
-------^--r, helped organize our Ha-
waiia^^^l^m^fflMsfeWngj is now planning to return to
26


Hawaii soon to serve as head of the translation staff there, now in process of recruitment. In the Washington office, our Romaji staff is rated at the top of our foreign language translation groups, and the members are
liked as individuals. Originally trained by Dr. --------
---------, their group efficiency has been maintained at
a high level. I think it is no exaggeration to say they are regarded as one of the finest, if not the finest, language technician staffs in the Government."
It must be noted here that not only American citizens of Japanese ancestry but also Japanese aliens are today working for the American government in the interest of the Allied cause. No more striking example of patriotism exists than these Japanese aliens who exert their energies for the victory of America over Japan.
Among such men is Yasuo Kuni.yoshi, nationally-known artist who turned his energies toward the war immediately after Pearl Habor.
Aside from spearheading activities of Japanese Americans in New York to strengthen our all-out war program, Kuniyoshi has written radio scripts and broadcast over shortwave to Japan for the Coordinator of Information and the Office of War Information. His' script entitled "Japan Against Japan," was broadcast on Feb. 10, 1942, and repeated on March 12, 1942. He has also created war posters for the OWI and made sketches for a booklet, "This Is Japan."
Another artist who has done important work for the war services is at present on civilian war duty overseas. He is Taro Yashima, Japanese-born artist who escaped to America in 1941, shortly before the war. Tortured and imprisoned nine times by the Tokyo police, Yashima has brought his full knowledge of Japanese brutality to his present work.
These men, along with hundreds of other Japanese aliens, have by their work renounced Japan and are putting their full energies into her defeat.
In a sense, with almost every Government bureau geared to the war program, every Niseis service in federal employment is auxiliary to the war effort. Besides these strictly wartime agencies in which the Nisei work, they are employed also in almost every Government office.
A large number of Nisei girls, trim, courteous and efficient, are working as secretaries, stenographers and clerks', helping to alleviate an employment situation made inordinately acute by a high turnover and a dire labor shortage.
Well trained and responsible, these women have been employed in Civil Service in Washington and other cities as well as in the Sioux, Nebraska, and Tooele, Utah, ordnance depots. Many of these women have husbands or brothers in the armed services, particularly in the 442nd Regimental Combat Team and in the Pacific theater. By working in wartime agencies they feel they are matching to the degree they are able the mili-
tary feats of their husbands and brothers on America's far flung battlefronts.
No Japanese American has ever been discharged for dereliction of duty or for disloyalty. They are the only employees in government service who can boast a quintuple check on their loyalty, having passed the microscopic scrutiny of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Army and Navy Intelligence, the War Relocation Authority and the Civil Service Commission.
ABOVE: Ray Hashitani, formerly of Oregon, an employee of the OPA in Washington. BELOW: Dillon Myer, director of the War Relocation Authority, reads a copy of the Heart Mountain Sentinel with Civil Service employees Eiko Narita, left, Joan Ishiyama and John Kitasalco. Photos by Van Tassel for WRA.
27


"other work essential
to the
war
A rf In Detroit, in Cleveland, in Chicago,in Minneapolis-,.-in Milwaukee, Japanese Americans are serving in important capacities. They maintain the nation's industrial equipment, they operate machines, they work mines.
In Cleveland, NiS^i are employed as electricians and ^Bijlairmen, as tool and die workers, as power machine operators and grindeh-s. About half of the Nisei in the /pity are contributing directly to war work in defense : plants.
^Detroit, nerve center of a vast war-producing area, N$sei have added their skills! and energy to keep the city ^w>ducing at top speed. The city needed skilled workers, engineers to run and maintain transportation equipment, nilrs^s.'fo .care for the public health, and laborers to keep ^padMn Condition. Approximately 250 Japanese Amer^ Kiatil are today in Detroit as servants of the city. They J 'g,r;e tn|£oh a n it si d lifers, and ipbnductors. for the Detroit lmee1#aitway: H are fl9in^Cs'.:'2fOTf driaftsrnen in the Planning Division; they are d;jetiefans, diet ^armi^^^^Mars^:! and physicians' in Public Heatbey^s'§iml|in many essential capacities to' kM^Mftoit-^p^dteing inf-topworm.
In Cnpcjago thousands are in every conceivable in-|B^|ryyL||iere are 22.international Harvester Company, which '^anufactiMets tractors for both do-mffii^and overseas Cse. There are thirty-two more a| btte^pf^fhe "majop|railroadt equipment manufacturing Wants. The if'/a re 45 mechanics WHft a transportation maintenancet^ompan^and Twenty-five other Nisei with a ^p|St manufacturing 1LSTs.
Japanese Americans .h:a-V!^lpne Photo by Van Tassel for WRA
Mrs. Yoshiye Abe, employee of the Flag and Decorating Company in Denver, hopes the flag she is working on will be carried someday by a victorious army into Tokyo or Berlin.
Stations from the Treasury Department and the Utah War Fund testifying to the company's participation in these drives.
EVEN IN THE RELOCATION CENTERS war activity has been kept going at a fast rate. In addiifin to the |important camouflage net project, other war c$§p tributions have Irijcpluded a guayule project at ,'Manzanar, California$p'k/screen projects emSHeart- Mountain, Wyoming, and Amache, Coado; a ship model factory at Rivers, Arizona; and civilian war work such as Red Cro'ss and War Bond drive's at every camp.
The guayule project began in April, 1942, at the Manzanar cefier under the direction of Dr. Ralph Emerson of the Califoja School of Technology,. Labora-tpties and'-; seed, -plots v^^rd- set out, and 190,000 seed-lings represent^ nineteen varieties of gwayule we£e; pl^i^i;.. Three chem|i&t|iltwo propagato'rs and seventeen KlJed'. nurserymen began the experimental work.
The entirfe project^|||peen watched With clt>se in-teii^t^l^is^dntfe^ffgi ml||y ofCalifornia'^educational instit^ti^^^Experimen^eli being, made on the extrac-ti6h.'^Sftfbber from guayule by a new, fast process.
Ijlf'h fhis.pro^ee^both ali^fe and citizens 1;of Japanese ancestry have, |ao)l; their efforts, working,together to the enMB^hiscM'fry^tnight have a substitute for rubber,BliiilBwa'r fhaterial.
28


Model Ship Factory
On March 19, 1943, a new kind of assembly line went info production at the Gila River relocation center. On this assembly line Japanese Americans turned out hundreds of sub-chasers, PT boats, and belligerent and Allied ships.
They were all models, made with meticulous accuracy and measuring from two to eighteen inches in length, and they were used by U. S. Navy training classes to train aviators and naval cadets in ship identification.
The factory, established under Navy contract, opened in March, 1943, and closed in May, 1944. During these fourteen months the workers produced 710 belligerent warship models in addition to earlier production of many sub-chasers and submarines of which no actual count was made. The original order for production consisted principally of the Battleship German von Tirpitz, the cruiser Prinz Eugen, the destroyer Koeln, a quantity of submarine models, and an unlimited number of PT boats. Personnel in the shop at that time numbered about twelve young men.
When production was started on allied ships, the personnel was increased to 70 workers, 15 of whom were girls. Production of allied models included U. S. subchaser's, U. S. light cruisers, the U. S. aircraft carrier Wasp, PT80 boats, tne destroyer Fletcher and the destroyer Sims.
Filling orders which called for larger and varied models required more precision. One model of the U. S. South Dakota was eight inches in length, with all parts above water full operative. Draftsmen who were trained in the shop designed this model from a very small plan, photographs, and other limited information. When this model, valued at $1200, was shipped to Washington, high praise was received from the Navy.
A model of the carrier, St. Louis, 71/2 inches long and fully operative, is now on display in the Navy Office in New York City as an example of fine craftsmanship.
Silk screen shops, too, at the Granada, Colorado, and Heart Mountain, Wyoming, relocation centers did work for the Navy in producing hundreds of thousands of posters.
* *
IN APRIL, 1943, the shocking, electric news of the Tokyo executions broke upon the American public. Three thousand Japanese American soldiers in training at Camp Shelby, Mississippi, sent their reply to the Tokyo warlords: they purchased $100,000 in war bonds in two days.
And in Hawaii other Japanese Americans collected $10,340 and presented it to Lieutenant General Robert C. Richardson, commander of the Army's Hawaiian department.
"We hope this money will be used for bombs to give Premier Tojo and his cutthroats bloody hell," said their spokesman, Walter Mihata.
29
Not all the civilian contributions of Japanese Americans have been so dramatic, but they have been steady and sincere. In all Red Cross, War Bond and blood bank drives the Nisei have responded heartily. Thirty-five Nisei registered in Denver on January 29 to donate to the blood bank, and in New York City sparkling-eyed Katherine Iseri was a regular blood bank contributor until the time she was inducted in the Women's Corps Army.
Nor have Japanese Americans contributed only to U. S. blood banks. On the 18th of September, 1943, twenty-five members of the Japanese American Committee for Democracy appeared at the Chinese Blood Bank at 154 Nassau Street in New York City and contributed blood for the fighting armies of Free China. Since then many Japanese Americans have made regular visits to the Chinese blood bank. They have also participated in China Relief drives, and they are striking examples of the fact that Nisei Americans work and fight and give for America and America's allies. From that day years ago when a Japanese American was arrested on the San Francisco waterfront for picketing oil and scrap metal shipments to Japan, the Nisei have proven their loyalty lies with America.
IN SALT LAKE CITY, Utah, members of the Japanese American Citizens League during the Fourth War
JAPANESE AMERICANS REMEMBER PEARL HARBOR: Two Nisei instructors at Northwestern University give their blood to the Red Cross on the anniversary of Pearl Harbor. Left to right: Captain Albert A. Granitz, Japanese Americans Tsune Baba and G. Byron Honda, and Red Cross Nurse Jane East.
Photo by Acme


TOP LEFT: Ruby Yoshino, Japanese American singer, shown here entertaining in a ward at the Walter Reed Hospital in Washington. With four brothers in the U. S. Army and another in the merchant marine, Miss Yoshino carries on at home with volunteer war work. Photo by Van Tassel for WRA. LOWER LEFT: This silk screen shop at the Heart Mountain Relocation Center has produced thousands of important war posters for the Navy. Photo by Parker for WRA. UPPER RIGHT: Japanese Americans participate in a sewing project for European refugees with Americans of other ancestries. Left to right: Eunice Allen, Mary Shigeta, Leona Evans and Toshi Baba. LOWER RIGHT: Katherine Iseri, ofttime blood donor at the New York Red Cross, is congratulated upon joining the Women's Army Corps by a Red Cross Worker. Now Pvt. Iseri, she is at Camp Ritchie, Maryland.
oan rive set as their goal 16 jeeps for the Army's use. ey rang doorbells, they called up prospective pur-c^asrS| they pounded the pavements. And by the end of the drive, the small but active group of committeemen and women had sold $25,000 worth of bonds and stamps. During the same drive the Idaho Falls chapter of that same organization sold $15,000 worth of bonds.
In the centers the sale of bonds has been impressive, especial[y||in,view of the fact that the residents are al-~|p^/,dd^ foi*, fheirRjll-time, eight-liour-daijy jobs a cash fMbwance averaging $16 monthly. The residents of the SI art Mountain Relocation Center in Wyoming have, in two and one:half years, contributed $4J,390.35 through their purchases of stamps'-and bonds. During the same period the Rohwer center purchased $ 18,000 worth of
bonds.
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Other Work Essential to the War Effort
Some bonds purchases are large, more are small. It was Eikichi Toshima, a vegetable farmer, who walked into the Gila River camp's post office, laid a check for $6,000 I across the bond window, took his receipt, and walked out without a word.
And there are school children at the Rohwer;relocation center who own three Army jeeps, jeeps which, they hope, are still seeing service somewhere overseas.
"Jeep or Bust," their slogan was when the campaign started. Their goal was one single jeep to cost $1,165, which was a lot of pennies and nickels and dimes for the school-age youngsters. But within two weeks they xhad passed their goal with $2507.95. When the campaign was over, they counted up their sales$3505.95. And somewhere men in khaki are riding three jeeps that are the special pride and joy of these children, who had, in their own way, contributed to America's war program.
Women in White
As registered nurses, volunteer nurses aides and cadet nurses, Nisei women have played an important part in wartime America.
Even in the relocation centers, hard hit by an acute shortage of trained nurses, youngsters of sixteen and seventeen have donned white caps and gone about the serious business of tending the ill. Wide-eyed and solemn, they go about their business, carrying trays that seem too heavy for their slim shoulders, carefully tucking in bed sheets, trotting on tiny feet down the long hospital halls. Their striped pinafores are starched and clean, and their tiny caps sit neatly on their heads.
Many of them have gone into regular training as cadet nurses since it was first announced in August, 1943, that Japanese American women were eligible to join the U. S. Cadet Nurses Corps. First from the Gila River center to join the Cadet Nurses Corps was Anne Wat-anabe, who immediately applied for training at the Hamline University in St. Paul. Others followed in rapid succession. Within three months thirty-one left the Minidoka Relocation Center to train as nurses in hospitals scattered through eight states of the Union. Like Nisei WACs, they felt they were doing their utmost in serving the nation. ,
Today hundreds of Nisei are serving as nurses or are in training. Rochester, N. Y., counted ten Nisei
Photo by WRA
SONO MATSU and TOMI KAWAKAMI Cadet Nurses
cadets at the beginning of the year at the Genessee, St. Mary's and Rochester General Hospitals. Eight more were in Kansas CityJayne Shimada, Helen Mukai, Chiyo Iwamoto, Tomi Kawakami, Sonoko Matsuo, Fumi Matsumoto, Riyoko Kikuchi and Michiye Fujimoto.
Many are already with the Army, like Lieutenants Marguerite Ugai and Yaeko Suyama, both serving in England, and Lieutenant Yaye Togasaki of the Army Nurses Corps. Meanwhile, a woman doctor, Captain Yoshiye Tagasaki is at present with the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration.
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RUB C/VN SAY tFi'e'§:e. days what^^pg^s are es-kipfipir what are^ot? Andrjiow can ,o n e' s rp aVJlcipation Bjthe war.dffort be measured?
' ..Thefts ai;et>;women, ajieHi at the Heart
MduM^gBileJbcatialliceri^gr W^o^pehcl th#Y spare moments, spying for European refugee children. Even within the barbed-\vire enclosures, the plight of Thes'e- Hit-B,-ridden children 'has -touched the hearts of the evefcu^es.
There are ,other women,,, young and old, whpp|nit ^Weaters for the Red Cro||f|> This volunteer work, too, measures up well in earnestness andskincerity with the W0t,k of any assembly-line worfekon the swing shift. Th^ is Ruby Yoshino, singer, who has entertained in Arpy h@lM.tal wards, dedicating her songs to her -five brothers fm the s'eryiice of their country.
In Royal Otijlls, Michigan, Jimmy Kajiwara, on§|i of Sa^^FhanciS;!),, has become a familiar sight on the sfSy$ Wlthe city. And his work is*,piloting, ^q, for Mia traine^T Doberman Pinschers, who will later lead if* blind. Kajiwara and another Niseii||homas Imoto, are both emafe Pathfinder Kennel's.
And in Nebraska, Father "FlMagan'IlBoys Town has ^become a Symbol of wise, intelligent and sympathetic treatment of homeless boys. The great buildings and wide M||Iiof Boys Town havh:vs,nt iiffjtfhe world y&ung men of high caliber and *
Amqng B:oys Town employees afe t^el^young men| and women of Japanese ancestry.
JAPANESE AMERICAN citizens and aliens have cooperated in a new venture, the production of guayule in an extensive project at the Manzanar Relocation Center which may prove to be a highly important contribution to the country's rubber needs.
They have become a part of a great |||titution, lying, and for a great ideal. They line up as foflsf^vs: Patrick Okura, assistant director and psychologist in the welfare department. Formef|||with the Los Angeles Civil Servi'cf£ Mr. Okura with his wife, Lily, have become intimately associated with the problems of Boys Town.
James Takahashi, landscape gardener; Henry Ko-dama, in charge of the Boys Town victory garden; Jerry Hashii and Eddie Hotta, gardeners. Momoto Oku, father of two sons in the armed forces and of another, Private ptfsumu Babe Okura, killed in action in Frahllte Kaz Ikebasu, Herk; George Takemoto, dairymart; Mrs. Geo.rge TakemoS typist; Paul Takahashi, barber; and MikeQshima, carpenter. v
Can value of their work1,to the war effort be Bffltiinated corig^tly? There are many others, ^trained in ithe way^^^hildren, TheYe/i"s Peter Ida, track ^ach and high school teacher. There js Abe Hagiwara^fburisellor |n the Cleveland YMCA; there is Pat Nod a, high school instructor.
America's war effort^ a mighty' one, unexcelled in spirit, unsurpassed iq production, limitless in scope.
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Since the material in this pamphlet was prepared, the War Department has announced the death in action of Lt. Moe Yonemura, whose photograph appears on page 9.


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