Diario de la gente, Volume 1, Number 1

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Diario de la gente, Volume 1, Number 1
Series Title:
Diario de la gente
Place of Publication:
Boulder, Colo.
Diario de la gente
Publication Date:


newspaper ( sobekcm )

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Source Institution:
Auraria Library
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Auraria Library
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Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

Full Text
VoL 1
Cinco de Mayo, 1973 No. 1

" This, the first issue of El Diario Magazine is dedicated to the memory of Ricardo Falcon and all of the other soldados of the Chicano movement who have died or were Imprisoned Fighting for la causa. Their struggles will not be forgotten, nor will they cease, for we have learned from their examples and we will shout their messages until we are all freed, or silenced.
El Diario

UMAS congratulates the following graduating chicano seniors
We hereby resolve -%M
To foster unity among the Mexican American.
To encourage respect and dignity for the Mexican American.
To further justice and equality for the Mexican American persons in Colorado and at the University.
To work toward making available the opportunity of a higher education for the Mexican American studehts at the University of Colorado.
To encourage a greater admission of Mexican American students at the University. To work toward fulfilling the general needs of the Mexican American people of Colorado and students at the University by whatever means available under the democratic process in a non-violent manner.
To work toward a greater understanding between the Mexican American and other Americans.
To further education of the Mexican American cultural and historical contributions to the United States.
To foster self-respect and identity among the Mexican American with their culture and heritage.
To encourage those graduates from institutions of higher learning that are of Mexican American descent,
To return to their communities and do all that is possible to better the lot of the Mexican American.
UMAS UMC 187 University of Colorado

i.**** ************************************************ ******
In this issue
Boulder Cinco de Mayo.................
History of Cinco de Mayo..............
Year in pictures.....................
UMAS 72-72 year r..................
Farah strike .......................
Chicanos invade ASUC.................
Tragedy is no stranger...............
Avalos continues fight................
Page 5 & 6 ........8
El Diario de la: Gente is an independent Chicano publication published by the United Mexican American Students (UMAS) at the University of Colorado in Boulder, Colorado. We publish a newspaper bi-weekly during the school year and a magazine at the end of each semester. The editorial content does not necessarily reflect the views of UMAS-EOP or the University: Our offices are in the University Memorial Center, room 416, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, 80302. You can contact us by writing our office or calling 443-2211, extention 8836.
Editor.^^^,A..r.................John L. Espinosa
Assistant Editor.......................Paul Mora
Business Manager.................Guillermo DeHerrera
Artist...........................Leonard Suarez
Editorial Staff...................Evelyn Martinez
Jose Medina James Montoya
4 El Diario
The El Diario staff welcomes all letters ann contributions. If you wish to have somethin! published in our newspaper or magazine, sen#] your manuscript to El Diario, UMC 416, Univerfs sity of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, 80302. Al|/ letters must be typed, double-spaced, limited tora 300 words and signed by the sender. All other ar|i tides will be considered on their timeliness andlr availability of space. Manuscripts will not blgj returned unless they are accompanied with a stam-|i ped, self-addressed envelope. We welcome in-jp formation, poems, photographs and other con-| tributions from your area.

Attention UMAS, MECHA, BSA and all other minority student organizations:
The Associated Students of the University of Colorado are interested in establishing a
The purpose of the organization would be to unify all minority student groups in the state. This would serve to improve communications channels and provide minorities with a wide base of support on issues which affect all minority groups.
Write to us and let us know if you are interested in such a council. Let us know how you feel the council should be set up and what you feel the major issues are.
ASUC UMC 163 University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado, 80302
El Diario

Plans set for Boulder Cinco de Mayo
by Sonny Montoya {Tentative plans are now being made for the Cinco de Mayo celebration for the CU Boulder campus. Committee chairman Sylvia Manzanares has put together an interesting array of en-t e ft a inment and speakers, Th e festivities go as follows:
Wednesday, May second, will start off the festivities with music and song supplied by Los Cuartros Amigos, accompanied by the Hermanos Cordova, in the New Deli at the UMC at 6:30
Thursday, May third, activities will start with a foosball tournament in the games room at the UMC from 9:30 to 11:00 followed by a Mariachi Mass at 11:00 in the middle ballroom, UMC. Next, Brown Sugar, a local Denver band, will give a concert from 12-1:30 after the Mariachi Mass in the ballroom. Also, from 12-2:00, a luncheon at the New Deli is scheduled with Los Alvarados supplying the mpsic.
At 2:00, in the forum room, speakers Russ Vigil and Jose Perez will give talks on subjects ranging from Chicano liberation to education in the East.
Russ Vigil, a law student at Harvard University, will speak on topics concerning Chicanos and the law and end his duscussions with Education in the East, one Chicanos perspective.
Jose Perez, a native of Cuba, is a member of the staff of the Young Socialist. He has participated in many important Chicano and Latino conferences, and was a member of the steering committee of the Oakland Raza Unida party. Perez will be speaking on Chicano Liberation from the Socialist viewpoint.
From 4-7:00, the UMAS Dancers will perform in the New Deli where Mexican food will be served.
The Cinco de Mayo committee has also arranged for booths to be set up in the loggia area in the UMC. Ojos de dias, headbands, chokers, rings, etc. will be sold and general information about the festivities can also be obtained there. The booths will be open all day and artwork will be displayed also in the Alumni Hall, Gallery 2 in the UMC.
6 El Diario
Cinco de Mayo parade drew thousands at Pueblo celebration.______________~
Professor Alurista, from California State University in San Diego, will speak in Ramley 104 from 7:30-9:00. Alurista has been a professor at the University since 1968 and was the founder of the Chicano studies program at that university. He has written two books of poetry, Floricanto en Aztlan and Nation-child Plumaroja.
Professor Alurista is now involved with the Centro Cultural de La Raza in San Diego which is a union of Chicano artists and the media. He will be speaking on National Chicano Liberation followed by selected poems from his books.
Professor Aluristas poetry can be set to many moods of La Raza, such as his Because La Raza is Tired.
Topping off Thursdays events will be a movie in the University Theater from 10-12:00 p.m.
Friday, May fourth, events will open with another luncheon at the New Deli from 12-2:00 with Los Alvarados and the UMAS Dancers providing the music and dance entertainment. Mexican food will be served at the Deli.
As of yet, no speakers have been confirmed for the Friday, May Fourth, celebration, but information concerning who will speak can be found in the Colorado Daily.
Tentative plans for a dinner in either the Ballroom or the grill are iff;
Young Macho gets finaf inspection at Cinco de Mayo celebration in Pueblo.
progres^or^nS^eveiTing^^vents! The dinner will start at 6:30 but admission is still undecided.
This years Cinco de Mayo is hoped to be as successful as the Fiesta De La Gente celebrations held last semester. Hundreds of people turned out and had a very good time. We urge everyone interested to participate in the music, dance, food and song provided for the 1973 Cinco de Mayo celebration.

12-2 and 5-7 p.m.
12-2 and 4-4 p.m.
7:30 p.m.
12-2 p.m. 6 p.m.
8:30 p.m.
-7 p.m. Mexican food will be served in the New Deli.
Los Quatros Amigos of Veracruz
and Los Hermanos Cordova of Longmont
will entertain in the New Deli.
p.m. Mexican food will be served in the New Deli.
UMAS Dancers will perform in the New Deli.
Alurist, a Chicano poet will talk in East Ballroom.
Mexican food will be served in the New Deli.
The Cinco de Mayo dinner will be served in the UMC Ballroom. Los Alvarados will perform and there will be a pinata for the children. Cinco de Mayo dance will be in the UMC Ballroom, Rudy Gutierrez will provide the music.
Tickets for the dance and

by EvelynMartinez The United Farmworkers Union (UFWU) is continuing its battle against the powerful farm growers, Teamsters Union, Safeway stores, and grower-sponsored legislation.
In addition to the present lettuce controversy and current;£farm legislation being considered, the UFWU has renewed the grape boycott 8 El Diario
in California since the contracts with Coachella Valley grape growers expired in April,
The farmworkers under the UFWU are struggling for their right to collective bargaining through their own union.
In addition to being effective in the two major boycotts of lettuce and grapes, the UFWU is being forced to
fight on several fronts with th# Teamsters Union and various farnj|| owner organizations which arel pushing for restrictive farm labo|| legislation in a number of states, inf eluding Colorado.
The Teamsters do not represent farmworkers in their contracts; theii contracts are not designed to raise tin farmworkers from their plight; ami

f have continually harrassed the VXJs organizing efforts, lthough the basic wage sought by Teamsters and the UFWU for fiworkers is about the same, the two )ns differ greatly on what benefits workers should have. In addition higher wages, the UFWU farm-kers are only asking for decent ig conditions.
i.S. Department of Labor statistics icate that farmworkers are the est paid laborers in the nation. The rage earnings for a farmworker lily of four amount to a mere
00 a year. 80,000-90,000 farm-kers are injured on the job an-lly by grower misuse of pesticides,
1 800 annual fatalities.
he UFWU is also fighting for such W necessities as toilets in the fields, iical provisions, and education for farmworkers. Children under 16 rs old often have to work full-time :he fields to keep the family fed; 6 of all farmworkers seldom will past the 7th grade, eamsters contracts do not offer se provisions called for by UFWU nworkers.
to December 29, 1972, the Califor-Supreme Court ruled that the misters do not represent farm-rkers. The Supreme Court alsb nd that the Teamsters and the wers coerced and harrassed far inkers into joining the Teamsters. court further ruled that the lettuce t was not a jurisdictional dispute veen the two unions, as Teamsters, sway, growers and some legislators m.
Lettuce Boycott
he nationwide secondary boycott, afeway and A&P supermarkets is in junction with the nationwide let-; boycott. The Safeway and A&P cott began in January of this year, he UFWU has been conducting a on wide primary boycott of iceberg id) lettuce since May 1972, when )tiations with the lettuce growers ce down. The aim of the primary ;ott was to persuade consumers to eating non-UFWU lettuce, he UFWU is protesting Safeways :hase of iceberg lettuce not hared by UFWU workers but by nsters union workers. Safeway is largest purchaser of iceberg lettuce lie country and refuses to stock UFWU picked lettuce. Statistics cate there are a total of 2,318
Safeway chain stores across the country, with total sales of $5.4 billion annually.
After nearly four months, the UFWU boycott against Safeway is now at an all time high, according to Richard Longoria, director of the Denver UFWU Boycott office. Lettuce is much harder to boycott than grapes, Longoria said, and Safeway has never reacted publicly as they have now. Were at an all time high in public awareness, he said.
According to Longoria, six to eight stores in the Denver area are being picketed daily, and pickets have been set up in nearly every segment of Colorado, including southern Colorado, the Western Slope, and Cheyenne and Laramie, Wyoming.
In February, Cesar Chavez, UFWU leader, visited the Denver region accompanied with an estimated 75 farmworkers on their way to the east coast to negotiate with A&P supermarket officials.
In response to a question about the progress of the lettuce boycott, Chavez told thousands of Denver UFWU supporters, The lettuce boycott, the level of understanding is very, very high. Id say its as high as it was when we won the grape boycott... The larger cities, 40-50 larger cities, Id put Denver as one of the best. I look forward to a victory here before we have a victory elsewhere, Chavez said.
Chavez said Safeway is the biggest chain store causing the problem. Safeway stores are not only aligned with the growers because they have growers on their board of directors, but theyve gone out of their way to buy scab lettuce Were saying, if they want to be neutral, dont buy either lettuce, he said.
Delores Huerta, todays leading Chicana activist and UFWU organizer, vice president and director of negotiations for the UFWU was also a guest at the university. Huerta called for renewed efforts by all who are receptive to the plight of the farmworker to held the farmworkers in their current struggles with the lettuce growers and renewed struggles with the grape growers.
Boulder Boycott Efforts Expanded
Boulder UFWU supporters havent given up their efforts to get people to stop shopping at Safeway. Over 3000 shoppers have been turned away from Safeway since the pickets began in January.
Organizations endorsing the lettuce boycott in the Boulder area include Boulder Collective for Peace Research, UMAS Farm Labor Task Force, Lettuce Boycott Committee, St. Thomas Aquinas Church, Boulder Meeting of Friends, ASUC (Associated Students of the University of Colorado, United Mexican American Students (UMAS), arid Migrant Action Program (MAP). .
Current plans are to expand the picket lines of Safeway into the week-days. According to Jose Ortega, UMAS. Farm Labor Task Force spokesman, Theres a lot of Safeway customers that havent been contacted, people who arent aware of the picket have yet to be informed of the farmworker struggles.
Victor Gonzales of the UMAS FTLF said, Pickets are being organized everyday and will continue everyday throughout the summer. The projected goal of FLTF is to turn away approximately 10,000 Safeway shoppers within a few months. Gonzales called for the voluntary assistance of all students and others to come out and help picket.
At the university level, the University has agreed to stop buying iceberg (head) lettuce in response to a substantial consumer demand, according to a statement released last week by
El Diario 9

Vice President for Student and Minority Affairs James Corbridge.
Head lettuce will no longer be available in the dormitories and through UMC food services. However, alternatives such as romaine, leaf and bib lettuce will be offered.
Thd decision came after efforts pf student negotiators canvassed the dormitories in support of signatures (2000 required) demanding that the university buy only UFWU lettuce or provide alternatives. The 2000 signatures are valid proof of consumer concern, since they represent over 40 percent of dorm students.
UFWU-Safeway Suits ; Three law suits: totaling approximately $ 196 million are now pending, two against Safeway and one against the UFW.
Last month, a $13 million spit alleging that Safeway misrepresented the fat content of its ground beef was filed against Safeway by Denver UFW Boycott Office Director Richard Longoria and a non-profit Colorado Corporation called the Interfaith Committee to Aid Farmworkers (ICAF).
A few days later, Safeway filed a ^$150 million countersuit against the UFWU, the ICAPF, and other individuals including UFWU leader Cesar Chavez, alleging that UFWU supporters have engaged in mass picketing of Safeway stores and otherwise disrupting the lawful conduct of business.
The most recent suit filed in Denver totaled $33 million charging Safeway with knowledgeably mislabeling cuts of meat, and selling them for higher prices than they would normally be sold.
Denver District Attorney Dale Tooley has answered the allegations against Safeway. Tooley has said Safeway Stores, Inc. in the Denver area has fraudulently misrepresented the fat content of their hamburger.
) In tests conducted by the Denver Department of Health and Hospitals at Too leys request, ground beef marked extra lean had a higher fat content than that marked lean, with the extra lean meat priced 23 cents higher than the lean.
The suits also charged the Safeway chain stores with fraudulent and illegal meat labeling practices, which are deceiving metro-Denver area consumers and endangering the health patients and diabetics, according to the Task Force for Consumer Protection of Denver.
Renewed Grape Boycott With the exploration of United Farmworkers Union contracts with California Coachella Valley grape growers, a struggle has begun over who will represent the farmworkers.
' As soon as the UFWU contracts expired last month, 85 percent of the growers signed contracts with the Teamsters Union officials, even though the Teamsters have been charged with having no real right to represent the farmworkers.
The growers signed with the Teamsters because the Teamsters dont demand any rights for the farmworkers, Carol Longoria of the Denver UFWU office said. She said the Teamsters didnt even ask the farmworkers if they wanted the Teamsters Union represenation.
Immediately after the growers signed with the Teamsters, 1600 of the Coachella Valleys 2000 grape pickers atorfwrr-
went out on strike, Longoria m* The Teamsters and the growers to sweetheart contracts, Londjg said, where little or no wc benefits are sought or obtained .MB Maureen Monahan of the Db9 UFWU said that no grape boycott^ go into effect until May, when thefat grape harvesting begins. Two g|j| growers did negotiate with! id UFWU, she said, but the other] M-* 200 growers will have to be convfln
Farmworker Legislation Wk
Another important aspect of ft farmworkers struggle is the prop<|p inclusion of farmworkers infll National Labor Relations]^ (NLRA).
The NLRA allows workers # organize into unions, but prohilffii secondary boycotts. On the state lejpi Colorado House Bill 1401, know the Kansas Bill is presently be|p reviewed before the Colorado Stfp H ouse of Representatives Slip committee on Labor and Employrflfp Relations. The bill prohibfjjd organizational picketing, second^! boycotts by farmworkers and striMi during critical periods of product! of harvesting of crops.
Monahan said that outlawing strr|| at harvest time would take away | of the few effective weapons the fa|l| workers have.
Monahan continued that Team! Union acts in California necessity wildcat strikes, strikes not authorial by a union, mainly because the Teal sters dont even ask the farmworM who should represent them, but inst||| sign contracts directly with tlf growers.
El Diario

Chic anoBusiness Students Association Organization of Chicanos Interested In Business Careers. Look for our offices In these places:
University of Colorado, Boulder University of Northern Colorado, Greeley Metro State College, Denver Adams State College, Alamosa Southern Colorado State College, Pueblo 1. Trinidad Jr. College, Trinidad Colorado Mountain College, Leadville ; North Eastern Jr. College, Sterling
State Headquarters University of Colorado, Boulder Business School 147 443-2211 ext. 6181 Stan Perea State Chairmen

History of Cinco de Mayo
On ; the Nebraska Chicano Awareness Centers Calendario De La Raza, May 5th is described as follows: Commemoration of the Battle of Puebla. Defeat of the French in Mexico. Unfortunately, most Chicanos in the United States are not aware of the historical significance of El cinco de Mayo. Moreover, those who are aware have limited knowledge of the events that led to the Battle of Puebla. Hopefully, this article will provoke the student toward further research on this important historical date on the people of my cultural heritage.
The Mexican Constitution of 1857 was the exact expression of the aspirations of the Mexican people as distinguished from the Roman Church, army and aristocracy. Forty-seven years was this constitution in the making forty seven years of such national travail as no modern people in the western hemisphere had endured; and for fifty-seven years thereafter the Mexican people fought against foes within, and the power of the civilized world without, to make it a reality in the land-* and they are fighting yet. It was no Magna Charta framed by medieval barons, no French Civil Code framed by bourgeois propertied, no constitution framed by land speculators and capitalists for their own immediate profit. In many respects it has no parallel in western hemisphere history, no kindred human document with which it may be compared, because it is the first constitution of the people, the first expression of a pure democracy as opposed to a bogus democracy, the first national enunciation of the principle that the foundation of all social institution^ is the rights of man -aas directly and unalterably opposed to the Rights of Property.
If one could ask any Mexican, be he peaceful peon tilling the fields, or skilled mechanic in the shop, or student in the schools, or miner toiling in noisome depths or patriot with rifle at back for the fatherland and liberty what is the deepest desire of his, heart his answer would be, The constitution of 1857fJ^ The contents, in brief, of the first four articles of the constitution were as cited:
L 12 El Diario
Article I
The Mexican people recognize that the rights of men are the foundations and the purpose of social institutions. In consequence they proclaim that all laws and authorities of the country must respect and sustain the warranties stipulated by this constitution.
From the day that this article of the constitution became effective, all economic, political, and religious institutions in Mexico had to be based upon, and conform to, the principle of the rights of men.
Article II
In the Republic everyone is born free. The slaves who step into the national territory recover their liberty by this mere*fact, and have the right of the protection of the law.
Prior to the implementation of this constitution; in Mexico the serfs were still to a large extent considered as attached to the land. If an estate changed hands the serfs went with it as part of the equipment. This article was intended to destroy forever any restraint upon the freedom of men. In later articles of the constitution one can witness the extension and elaboration of their basic principle to encompass the rnost complete freedom of the human family. The second part of the article recalls to us the fact that this constitution was framed at a time when the institution of slavery was still in power in the United States. The fugitive slave was a common figure in Mexico, and the constitution not only granted him the full right of asylum, but declared that from the moment his foot touched Mexican soil he recovered his freedom, thereby recognizing that he was born a free man.
Article III All education is free.
This fundamental principle was later amplified to make education universal, free, non-sectarian and compulsory. The Catholic schools of Mexico were [lorry institutions, and even such rudimentary education was restricted to the rich. For the poor there was nothing but the most complete illiteracy.
Article IV
Every man is free to adopt the profession, trade, or work that suits him, it being useful and honest; and to
enjoy the product thereof...
To toil in peonage on the land of the Church or aristocracy was the common peoples only desitny. This article, which gave them the right to choose their employment without restraint, ipso facto, broke the bonds of peonage, and it did more: it recognized the right of the people to the enjoyment of the full product of their labor.
Article V
No man shall be compelled to work without his plain consent and without just compensation. The state will not permit to become effective any contract, pact or agreement with the purpose of the curtailment of any man, may the cause be for personal labor, education, or religious vows. The law in consequence does not recognize monastic orders, and will not permit their establishment, no matter what may be the denomination or purpose for which they pretend to be established.
The monastic orders were suppressed because bitter experience had proven them tb be an unmitigated evil, and breeding grounds of sedition, oppression, exploitation, and social depravity. Out of their cloisters sprang all the cuartelazos which had flayed the common people; out of their cloisters sprang all the misery and poverty of the common people, their degradation and national disgrace.
In all there were twenty-eight articles which destroyed clerical, aristocratic and military privileges of the fundamental prerequisites of a healthy social life.
But the constitution which had brought such blessing to the peon brought nothing but destruction to the strangest and best organized institutions in Mexico. Accustomed only to the exercise of tyranny, and bitterly unused and untrained to obedience to the civil law, the Church and army struggled fiercely against the impending destruciton of their privilege to plunder and oppress.
When the Secretary of the Interior issued orders that all government employees should take the oath of obedience to the Constitution of 1857, the Church deliberately advised and commanded disobedience to the order.

^rchbishop of Mexico, Don B> de la Garza, announed in cir-8sent to the bishop a few days af-he order for the taking of the oath been given, that since the articles fe constitution were inimical to the Jtution, doctrine and rites of the folic Church neither the clergymen laymen could take this oath under ipretense whatever In addition, |pdate from the Pope in Rome, the |§ of Christ on Earth, to disobey ut-I and completely all the commands |he Constitution of 1857 was leered. This mandate of Pope Pius fftot only unified and reinforced the polic opposition throughout the ltd against the Mexican government Hits constitution, thus paving the Ip for the internecine strife and the lied European intervention which i|pyed hard upon it.
|i| the 11th of June, 1861, Benito Kz was proclaimed constitutional pident of Mexico, and on the 31st October of the same year, France,
| igland, and Spain signed a compact J ^London pledging themselves to a fiat invasion of Mexico for the pur-i ke of overthrowing the con-Itutional government, and mbilishing in its place a monarchy, ported by bayonet.
1a second fundamental cause of indention is to be found in the JHgle for commercial supremacy in jBLatin American market which had iirung up between Europe and the ffited States, after Mexico and the Miish colonies of Central and South ifoierica had obtained their in-jpendence from Spain, and opened Mr ports to the trade of the world, jp the year 1861 the struggle had ijready become acute; and the iljiropean manufacturers and shippers, irarmed by the tremendous industrial vjtvance of the United States, were Mger to support any policy which ipuld checkmate the influence of so formidable a rival in the Latin ffjlmerican republics.
R] The spokesman of this powerful fjement in Europe was the petty bourgeois Napoleon III. Possessed of £ iania for imperial expansion, the Em-cpror was already revelling in visions ;jf a monarchist of Latin America asfie object commercial slave of France, if i$ gargantuan ambition not only con-jimplated the establishment of a ijhonarchy in Mexico subservient to prance, but also contemplated the permanent seizure of the State of Sonora
and the State of Baja (lower) California for the sake of their gold mines, and as a base of operations for the future conquest of the United States.
It is no wonder that international capitalism, the Clerical party in Mexico, the Papal See and the disgruntled European manufacturers and shippers, saw in the Little Napo lean the deus ex machina who would serve all their allied ambitions in serving his own, who would crush the dangerous Mexican democracy, restore the power of the Church, and checkmate the commercial encroachments of the United States.
To Napoleon III and the French army, therefore, was entrusted the sacred mission of Europe to destroy the new-born Mexican democracy.
On the 31st of October, 1861, a convention representing England,
France and Spain was held in London to finalize the military intervention in Mexico. A letter addressed to the European powers by President Benito Juarez was used as the legitimizing tool for the intervention. In that letter, the Mexican president informed the English, French and Spanish minister in Mexico City that in view of the recent civil war in Mexico, and the consequent disorganization of national finances, his government deemed it necessary and unavoidable to withhold the payment of the interest on the foreign credits for a period of two years. There was no attempt at repudiation; merely a request for forebearance on the part of the powers in view of Mexicos stricken condition. It seems incredible to the imprejudiced mind that this act of Continued page 29
El Diario 13

14 El Diario
break at the Fiesta de la Gente.
Jose Angel Gutierrez, founder of La Raza Unida, lectures UMAS class.
head in his hand as he consults with his physician at memorial mass held in honor of the Late Sen. Robert Kennedy in Phoenix June 4, 1972, Chavez was in the last day of his 24-day fast for Love'* he undertook to protest the signing of a bill in Arizona which took away the United Farm Workers Unions powers of strike and boycott. Chavez is flanked by folksinger Joan Baez and Joseph Kennedy III, son of RFK.

I Corky autographs summer students copy of Pen-samientos.
Dolores Huerta, vice-president of the UFW Visited Boulder in April.
Reies Lopez Tijerina displays fist full of dollars at Albuqurque Congress in October.

The Indian drums brought hicanos and Indios together in support of the stand at Wounded Knee.
IP t;'H

'&%%*" -M I
; V.Ai
WMffes v
kw /
Nicole Hire and Brent k ; were the 3000th Safeway || shoppers turned away by the m picketline in Boulder. w
El Diario

We ore La Roza!
La Senora:
The following poem was written for El Teatro De Ustedes, but it belongs to us all. It can be changed, used and repeated again and again until we are one.
Together we are la raza Defending our barrios Defending our raza Accepting la causa as ours Together we are la raza
I am La Madre who has to go On my knees to the Welfare Office To get the scraps
That the System gives to the Poor..
I do this for my children
Who need food and a place to live
I suffer great indignaties
Against my proud Indian History...
I suffer for my family every day ...
I do this because we are Poor.
I am el Padre who, who for so long Never told my children who we really are.
I have toiled in the fields Working for pennies...
I have spent long days under the hot sun,
Saying yes and bowing my head To a cruel Patron ...
I also fill the lines at the Employment Office ...
I do this and much more for my children.
I am El Pinto,
Locked away for years
Because I could not afford a Lawyer ...
I was jailed because I was Brown
And because I could not speak English ...
I was jailed and l am Innocent...
But rto one will listen ...
Together we are la raza Defending our barrios Defending our raza Accepting la causa as ours Together we are la raza
I am fighting at the Universities,
Fighting to retain my heritage, my language ...
Fighting the racist administrators,
I will return to my barrio,
Where I will be a soldier of la raza, first
And a doctor, lawyer, teacher or writer, second ...
We will build a Chicano nation
El Diario

I am Brian Sanchez An actor, a Chicano,
Now I am stuck for three years In a Federal Prison Galled La tuna .,.
I am a prisoner ...
Because I dared to oppose an Immigration Officer ... Because I believed in Justice I became a Prisoner ... Democracy You Lied!
I am Jimmy Luna ...
I died in 1973 and was Buried at Lagarrita ...
I died a Helgista Believing in a Union And all that it stood for...
I died loving La Raza ...
I died with dreams of Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, And Cesar Chavez on my mind ...
I am Jimmy Luna
Together we are la raza Defending our barrios Defending our raza Accepting la causa as ours Together we are la raza
;^The movement ps for our children, we will carry them until they can carry on bur work.
I am Ray Roybal
Accused along with Elmer Peralta
Of Bombing the Fort Lupton Police Department
If anyone is to be tried
Then it must be the government...
Not us...
God knows we are the Innocent God knows we are the Innocent.
I am Elmer Peralta Who along with my carnal Roybal Am accused of an act of violence Against a violent society.
I am being tried because I am Chicano And because I dared to defend our Raza ...
And I will do it again ...
And again ...
And they will have to try me
Again and Again
And each time
They must find me innocent.
I am Junior Martinez,
killed in the St. Patricks Day Massacre
by the white invader.
I was a poet, an artist and a revolutionary I have heard the fury of those who are oppressed,
I am Luis, I live when my Raza refuses to be enslaved.
I El Diario 18

I am Ricardo Falcon ...
I have been shot and killed a hundred times And yet I live ...
A white racist bullet will not stop my voice, my thoughts, my spirit...
Through all my anger I weep I cry salt drenched tears
For the people who did not learn from my^death ... Who did not learn from my life ...
I see many men and women who are already dead ... They are dead because they refuse to see what they are.
What we are. .
If things do not change Then we ought to get it on ...
I wonder what side youll take this time ...
Will you be my Brother or Sister,
Mother of Father or Son.
When will we be one ...
Today or man ana or man ana or when ...
All: Who we are
We are you And you are us Together we are la raza Together we are la raza.

Yo soy la palabra Chicano,
En mi yo represen to una Raza,
Tambien rep resen to una Familia;
Mis Primos, TiSs, Compadresf Padrinos,
Y tambien a los Camaradas.
Pero ustedes nomas no me dejan En Paz; representar Mi origen y mi her encia!
Me han mal usado; maldecido,
Y hasta me han usado De rompecabezas.
Yo soy una simple palabra,...
Que ha nadie le paga faltas. C-H-I-C-A-N-0!...con honor,
Conrespeto y con mis derechos,..:.
Nada mas y nada menos.
Tratenme y respetenme come .soy!... .
Porque ustedes tambien ast$s(fn;...
Nada mas y nada menos.
mfcor Alfonso Fuentes
Half-forgotten, half-remembered in a dimming tapestry,
Aztec ethos, White conquest, so it told the whole story,
As we say it now, and then in the disyllabic language born with hybrid fetuses,
Across the sun I saw an eagle fly -rf -with squared sings.
P. Ramirez
How often must man search?
Why must he think not?
It is a fact to be reassured...
But what about the wages?
He must be honest in his search,
For no one else will be convinced.
No one else to hurt;... or to live with.
To search...for what?
To cpnvince, to reassure?
To hurt or to live with?
NoL.To give, To love, and To be loved.
Alfonso Fueptes
Hijo, mono, indio
tu hora se llego
y todo el mundo desturnio
antecedentes parentes nobles
rodillando por caminos nuevos
Vida de penit encia
Hijo, mono noble
con flor en la jo vent ud
ofrencia de sangre
despar amada sobre la tier a
chupando vala de odio
traspacio tu corazon
Hijo de antecedentes nobles tu espirito vuela a los altos del sol icon todos ojos de tu gente siguiendo hasta la muerte del odio que te mato
se conocio
por Jose Medina
El Diario

I went to elementary school on Main Street.
Attended secondary at Park Street.
Held my pride on Davis Street.
At Victoria Street 1 saw a college / never knew.... Hunger,
My everlasting brother adopted me off the Scott Street dwellers...
Santa Maria Avenue was a witness to hate, anger, and rare heat stained my soul.
I laughed at the foolishness of the San Diego hookers;.. Yesterday I met time in my grandmothers face,
So as I walk down the street full of human heart beats, Yet gentle as the early morning rain...
The undeclared sholars of the barrio.
We finally realize we had never known the meaning of peace at all.
I gaze at the empty streets
Diffused, I wander over the jungle of forgotten words... Like the rain running to the nearest puddle softly down...... por Tigre
with one more little shove i could return to myself
i could very easily become the prodigal son in some strange airport it is also quite possible that with a little bitty shove i could fall
forever into nothingness and it could be all right too since i am already nothingness... cream and sugar
and stereo music and coffee, today i played jesus christ tomorrow i play judas.
and what shall i do now...?
asks the wrinkles on the womans face
chasing with her distant look her mind.
and what shall i do now...?
asks the cleanly shaved, gum chewing man
from his wheel chair and sandaled feet.
now that the four walls in this
nursing home as well as the
room mate are foreign,
the manager, the nurse, the cleaning woman
...all strangers...they dont even speak Spanish.
i want my veladoras
and my san martin, my yerbas
y mis plantitas,
y mis canarios, my god..
why did my sons and daughters
and grandchildren do this to me? ,
and what shall i do now...?
the open mouth, half sleep white trensas
asks...but to whom
is a better question yet.
the food tastes not like
my tasty tortillas y caldito
and mis atolitqs,
the t.v. in color is fine
but mis novelas, what happened
to my novelas on the mexican channel?
and what shall i do now...?
asks the woman from her bed,
npw that i cannot do anything
...wait for death to tie the string?
El Diario

One Year
in UMASHistory
by Paul Mora
The United Mexican-American Students organization at the University of Colorado has undergone a number of changes during the past year.
One year ago, during May of 1972, both the organization and UMAS-EOP were under attack from university administrators, an attack from which Chicanos on campus have not yet recovered.
The attack began with the suspension of Ricardo Falcon, UMAS-EOP assistant director, for allegedly threatening an UMAS student and for poor conduct in general.
The attack grew to encompass a wide range of charges against UMAS-EOP for alleged poor operations in the program. The Falcon suspension was reviewed by the Human Rights Commission at the University, and the Commission said that Falcon was unjustifiably suspended.
University administrators ignored the Commission and ordered Pat Vigil, UMAS-EOP director, to fire Falcon. Vigil said that he would not fire Falcon, since no charges had been substantiated against Falcon.
Vigil cited the Commissions report and said the student Falcon allegedly threatened had denied Falcon had ever threatened him. The University then issued an ultimatum: either Vigil would fire Falcon, or the university Would fire both of them.
Vigil remained steadfast, and the university then fired both Falcon and Vigil, and obtained a court order which prohibited the two administrators from setting foot on campus for one year.
The UMAS organization was in the forefront of the efforts to support Falcon and Vigil. On several occasions the UMAS students marched en masse in
protest of university actions. University administrators then expelled a number of students who were actively involved in the UMAS organization, including UMAS president Florencio Freddy Granado.
With the elimination of so many UMAS-EOP staff and students, the program was left leader less. The university administrators then agreed to allow Joe Franco, who had formerly been the counseling coordinators, to become interim director.
After a somewhat turbulent summer program, Franco was appointed director of the program, the position he now holds.
With the wholesale expulsion of UMAS organization leaders and UMAS-EOP staff, the UMAS organization was inactive until about mid-point of the fell semester, when the Fiesta de la Gente celebration was held.
Members of the UMAS organization planned and carried out the Fiesta, which involved all segments of the University community in a celebration of our Chicano heritage. Mexican dances, banquets with Chicano food, Spanish-language films and other activities made the Fiesta a very successful project.
Along about November a change in the UMAS organization was proposed, a new UMAS, designed more along the lines of a corporation than the old UMAS organization. The new UMAS leaders would be the chairmen of various committees, such as the Farm Labor Task Force, UMAS publications, etc. Each would have a vote in important decisions to be made in regard to UMAS students.
The new plan was designed to overcome one weakness in the old organization, the fact that a president, vice president, and second V.P. could be removed too easily, leaving the organization leader less. With a Board of Directors each having one vote and equal power, even the expulsion of several committee chairmen would not leave the organization leaderless.
UMAS members voted to accept the new plans, and so a new chapter was added to the history of Chicano student organizations.
A very noticeable change in both UMAS-EOP and the UMAS organization has been the absence of confrontations between Chicanos and the University administration. Part of this change can be attributed to the general apathetic mood of college students across the nation, and part of the change can be called a new tactical strategy.
UMAS Chicanos now occupy varying positions in the CU student government and have worked from these positions to enact change for the benefit of Chicanos. (see related story.)
The central theme for UMAS organizational activities is community awareness and understanding of La Raza, with a stress on Chicano involvement in the farmworkers struggle and other movement-related activities.
For a year now the UMAS organization has been rebuilding and expanding to reassume its place as the leading Chicano student organization in the state. With the admittance of an expected 350 students this summer and perhaps 50 more in the fall, UMAS will become even more able to help La Raza achieve educational equality.
El Diario

FARAH strike, boycott little known in Colorado
The strike and boycott by Farah Pants Company employees in Texas have received little publicity in nor-nally aware Colorado.
Employees at Farah have been striking for almost a rear at plants in San Antonio, El Paso and Victoria, Texas. The basic issue behind the strike is William F. Farahs refusal to allow the unionization of Farah employees.
The workers complain of low wages, no job security, impossible produciton quotas, unfair treatment of women, and the lack of real worker benefits. Farahs reply is his assertion that non-union free enterprise can pe successful, and he refuses to negotiate with the strikers.
While negotiations were in progress, the workers in Farahs cutting room voted to joing the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, and AFL-CIO union. On May 9, 1972, workersJpegan to walk out of the Farah plants despite the pleas of union negotiators to come back, but they replied it's too late, we cannot."
After seven months of striking the employees decided to call for a nationwide boycott of Farah pants, and have since received wide support from such varying personalities as New York Citys liberal mayor John Lindsay and Philadelphias law-n-order mayor Frank Rizzo, among many others.
Union officials have said that Farah lost $8.3 million last year, but Farah may be receiving support from the government in the form of contracts for his goods. Such government purchases partially offset the effect of several retailerss who have cancelled reorders with the Farah company since the strike began.
Farah strike support committees are being organized in varying cities in California and Texas. The strike supporters are concerned about more than just the Farah strike, and are stressing the larger problem of industry locating in poor areas where labor is cheap and the people are open to exploitation.
Strike support workers have attacked Farahs actions because of the movement of industry to the poor areas where unions arent a company bother.
Although the National Labor Relations Board has ruled that Farah employees do have the right to unionize, Farah refuses to recognize the union as a legitimate collective bargaining-agent for Farah workers.
Specific worker demands concern several areas:
low wages: the average clothing industry worker in Texas receives $3500 annually, while the Depart-
ment of Labor figures that $9000 is needed each year to raise a family of four.
job security: with no union to provide for worker solidarity, the laborers at the mercy of management. If management should set production quotas too high for the workers to meet, workers could be (and have been) fired indiscriminately.
unfair treatment of women: Women who leave their jobs temporarily to give birth are paid beginners wages when they return, regardless of their previous standing in the company. Again, a union would work to correct such policies.
Farah has been under fire continually for his sometimes brutal treatment of the picketers outside his Texas plants. Hired guards patrol company grounds with unmuzzled police dogs and continually harass the picketers.
In addition, company officials Were able to persuade a judge to issue an injunction against the picketers, and more than 400 of the picketers were jailed. Some of the arrested workers were at home when they were arrested.
Since the arrests the injunction has been ruled invalid by the courts, and so the picketers continue their vigil outside Farah plants. The strikers are asking for nationwide support of their boycott of Farah products.
Above all, says Tony Sanchez, a union organizer, people want something to say about how they are treated, to have respect for their dignity. Give them a living wage, and give them their dignity, too.

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Tostadas Tacos Tamales
For the Best In Mexican Cuisine
11:00 a.m.-9:00 p.m.
2555 28th Street 449-3964

El Diario

Chicanos invade ASUC
by Sonny Montoya Until October of 1972 the only Chicano input into the student government was infrequent appearances by members of the varying UMAS organization committee persons to ask the government for funds.
Time and time again the UMAS students and the members of the Associated Students of the University of Colorado (ASUC) Senate clashed over the amount of funding for Chicano groups, with Chicano groups receiving far less than they had requested:
Then, just prior to the ASUC senate elections in October of 1972, a group of Chicano students decided they would have input into the senate by electing senators to ASUC- There followed an intensive campaign for the election of the five Chicano senatorial candidates.
After a tremendous showing in the primary election, the five Chicano senatorial candidates were elected to the senate. The senators next formed a coalition with the New Directions Coalition, a like-thinking group of senators, and began to correct some of the inequities on the senate.
However, the Chicano senators and the NDC senators did not have a working majority on the Senate, and there followed constant hassles between the NDC-Chicano coalition and the few conservatives on the senate. A chance to rectify this situation canid very soon.
When the next senate elections were held in March of 73, the senators worked and fought for elction of a new tri-executive for the student government. Two previous NDC senators, Patty Price and Paul Boetcher, along with Chicano student Jess Vigil, were set against a conservative slate advocating abolishment of the ASUC form of government.
The NDC-UMAS coalition defeated the conservative slate decisively.
Accomplsihments by the senate and the Chicano executive include influences in minority appointments to the various joint boards. An example of this is the appointment of Eileen Torres to the Cultural Events Board.
Vote For:
1. We will begin immediate senatorial Impeachment proceedings against Peter Solomon.
2. We demand equal employment, salaries, and opportunity of job advancement tor women and minorities, as stipulated by
: H.E.w. ,
3. We wilt enforce the right Of all Student Organizations to be
funded by ASUC ^Senate, and to be allowed use of university facilities. . ,
4. We will worfe;for the establishment of a student research board Which would make recommendations of curriculum Innovations.
5. We Will work tor the development of an open debate* forum. Decisions Of this forum, which .would Involve the total student body and/or said representatives, will supercede both A:S.U.&. Senate and: Presidential decisions.
ft6. We demand, the Implementation of an ombudsman program to. provide a check and balance system within the university structure,
School of A&S ASUC Senate Candidates
Chicano ASUC candidates distributed this poster during their *72 campaign.
El Diario

The greatest achievement of the Chicano members of the senate and executive is the influence they had on the funding of all minority organizations in comparison to the amount of funding granted before the Chicano influence in ASUC.
UMAS, for example, is now receiving $7715 for the 1973 school year, when they had received only $5143 the previous year, an increase of $2572. MACHO, another minority students organization, is now receiving $1910, a noticable increase from their previous allotment. The Farm Labor Task Force is allotted $2372.39 for the next school year, an increase of close to $800.
The Migrant Action Program has been allotted $2033 for the upcoming year, and the Chicano Law Students, who had not been receiving any funding, is now receiving $1428.
Budget allotments are not the only area the Chicano senators and executive have shown their influences. The nationwide head lettuce boycott has achieved great progress on the CU campus because of their work and backing.
The ASUC lettuce boycott committee has obtained 2159 signatures from dormitory residents on petitions demanding the University serve only UFW head lettuce or provide alternatives.
As a result of ASUCs action, the university is now observing a total boycott of head lettuce. The administration feels that this places them in a neutral position in the dispute between the UFW and the Teamsters Union.
Tri-executive Jess Vigil has been working on his own project since his election to the Associated Students of the University of Colorado. He has organized the Colorado Minorities Council in an attempt to create unity between the various minority organizations throughout Colorado campuses.
The theme for this years Chicano ASUC officials seems to be community awareness, both by more community-oriented events and more interaction between Chicano students and the university community.
earjold now. If you havent seen KM our magazine, send for your free copy today.
La Luz Magazine 360 South Monroe Denver, Colorado 80209 301-388-5807
El Diario

Ricardo Falcon
On August 30, 1972, Ricardo Falcon and friends left Fort Lupton, Colorado to journey the El Paso, Tejas, where they were to attend the first La Raza Unida National Convention. Ricardo did not complete this historic journey, he was felled by racist bullets fired by Perry Brunson in Orogande, New Mexico.
Falcon, the former UMAS-EOP assistant director who was fired by the University in the Spring of 1972, died at the hands of Brunson after they argued over water Falcons party heeded to cool a leaking radiator. The argument began over water, but Brunson insulted Falcons raza like the man he was, Falcon defended his people like the coward he is, Brunson drew a gun and, shot the unarmed Falcon.
On December 6, 1972, Brunson was acquited of manslaughter charges stemming from the shooting. Once again the killing of our raza was termed justifiable in the courts. The verdict did not come as a surprise to the friends of Falcon who marched from Orogrande to Alamogordo where the trial was held. Throughout the trial, it was the Chicanos who were treated as if it were they who were on trial.
Falcon had many friends in the movement. More than
1200 persons attended his funeral in Fort Lupton. The
Brown Berets and friends carried his casket two miles to
its burial place. Falcon will long be remembered, for his
spirit lives on in all Chicanos who fight to bring justice to
. 26 El Diario ^ ---
their people.
His contributions to UMAS, La Raza Unida and the United Farm Workers will not be in vain. The movement has lost a string young leader, but from his example we will mold many more.
Two days after the shooting, Pricilla Falcon, his wife, asked, How am I going to tell my son his father was killed over water. It was the white raciet who killed for water, but Falpon died for his people.
Brian Sanchez
On September 2, 1972 Brian Sanchez, a Migrant Action Program student at the University, was charged with three counts of assaulting a federal officer. On Novermber 8, 1972 he was found guilty of two counts and sentenced to three years in federal prison.
Sanchez, who is well known throughout the state as one of the organizers of El Teatro de Ustedes of Boulder,was charged following an incident on the American side of the bridge from Juarez, Mexico. He and ten others were crossing back into the United States after spending the evening in Juarez. At the bridge, Gene R. Barth stopped the party and asked them questions about their citizenship. One member of the party had not crossed the border before and was confused; Sanchez told him how to answer.
The immigration official interpreted this as an attempt on Sanchez part to interfere with the questioning. Barth told Sanchez to Step to the back of the building, boy!
Tragedy is no stranger to our struggle!
Luis Junior** Martinez funeral.

Before he could respond, he was physically forced to the rear of the building by Barth. Another officer, James B. Stewart, joined Barth at this time and while Barth held him, Stewart beat Sanchez on the side of the head.
The men in Sanchez party broke up the clash, and then they all were permitted to leave. Outside of the building, Sanchez and Jose Calderon decided to talk to the officers superiors and file a complaint against them for beating Sanchez. They were not permitted to file a complaint and were informed that the officers where charging Sanchez with assault, instead.
At the political trial which followed, it was brought out that the border officials were warned of La Raza Unida activists. Sanchez was tried for his beliefs as a supporter of La Raza Unida and a Chicano.
When Calderon persisted in filing a complaint with the FBI. It was he they investigated instead. He was fired from his job at Aims College in Greeley when they learned he was under investigation.
Anyone wishing to know more details of this case is urged to write to El Diario offices. Also friends of Sanchez can write him at: Brian Paul Sanchez, Box 1000, No. 84958, Anthony, New Mexico-Tejas, 88021.
Crusade for Justice
On March 17,1973, what has become known at the St. Patricks Day Massacre took place at the Crusade for Justice in Denver. The assault left Luis Junior Martinez dead and 19 injured. Police arrested 36 persons but released all but three without charges.
Those who were most severely beaten by police were charged with the most serious crimes. They include Luis Rameriz, Mario Vasquez and Ernesto Vigil, who were all severely injured and are now charged with felony crimes.
The incident began when an unidentified man walked across the street to ask Patrolman Stephen Snyder and Patrolwoman Carol Hogue why they were parked across from the Crusade for Justice and the adjoining apartment building owned by the Crusades free school, Escuela Tlatelolco.
Snyder and Hogue attempted to arrest the young man for jaywalking and Snyder chased him in the alley when he fled. Hogue called on the car radio for assistance and before 45 seconds had passed, there were police everywhere, Ernesto Vigil said later.
When the incident was over, Martinez was dead, the apartment building was heavily damaged by an explosion from an unknown source and police were being praised for exercising restraint.
Since the shoot-out, the Chicanos have been tried in the local newspapers and found guilty. Although police have not determined the cause of the explosion which damaged the building, they called in wrecking crews to destroy the evidence before an independent investigation could be made. First reports have said that more than 100-200 weapons were found, but that number has since dwindled to less than 30.
Since the shoot-out the local media has attempted to discredit Luis Martinez and the Crusade. The truth is, Martinez was a poet and artist loved by his people. The Denver police have assumed the right to come into the Chicano community and murder, beat and harrass Chicanos at will.______________________________ A
The Farm Labor Task Force would like to thank those students and community people who were able to join us on the picket lines.
Our work is far from finished, but the strong support we have seen will make justice possible for all farmworkers soon.
For information on the farmworkers struggle write:
Farm Labor Task Force UMC 187
University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, 80302
El Diario 27


Ironically, the policeman who shot Luis Martinez was awarded a medal for heroism by the Denver Chamber of Commerce. The Rockv Mountain News, which had earlier absolved the Denver police department pf any guilt in the Crusade massacre, ran a story about Patrolman Stephen H. Synders medal for heroism, but the story ommitted the fact that Synder killed Luis.
The Denver Chicano Liberation Defense Committee hae been established to aid the defendants in their fight for justice. The committee has received support from such nationally known figures as Angela Davis and Los Tres de la Raza. Questions or donations can be directed to the Denver Chicano Liberation Defense Committee, P.O. Box 18347,156.7 Downing Street, Denver, Colorado, 80218.
Fort Lupton bombing
Anselmo Peralta and Raymund Roybal were each given one year probation after entering a plea of Nolo Contendere (no contest) to the charge of accessory after the fact in the Fort Lupton Bombing case.
The case stems from an incident on March 9, 1971, when an unknown person or persons deposited a charge of
Luis Ramirez; jftells an assembly of 300 how he was beaten by police at the St. Patricks'Day Massacre. He if flanked by Corky Gonzales and Mark Martinez. Martinez* brother Luis was killed by police the night of the shoot-out.
dynamite in the unmanned Fort Lupton Police Station.
The defendants, both former UMAS students, were facing 28 years imprisonment if convicted on the felony charges. They entered the plea of no contest to the misdemeanor charge after they had been threatened with perjury charges. The prosecution was prepared td come forward with at least five professional witnesses who would testily the pair had perjured themselves. Experience has shown that the work of a Chicano does not weigh heavily in the courts when- compared to the word of professional liars.
The only faiir trial would have been no trial at all. Fortunately these two dedicated Chicano activisits were saved from becoming the scapegoats of the Weld County racists. Tf does not surprise us that the District Attorney Don Miller reduced the charges after he had, gotten as much mileage out of the publicity as possible.
It is interesting that before the bombing Ricardo Falcon, then a UMAS student, exposed the Fort Lupton police for racist actions. He found that from June 1968 to April 1970, the Fort Lupton police had made 468 arrests. Of this total, 327 were arrests of Chicanos, although Chicanos Comprise only 25 per cent of the citys population.

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Continued from page 12 common business procedure, well within the generally accepted rules of international finance, should have been made the pretext for intervention. The fact remains that it was.
On the second of January, 1862, the fleets of the three allies entered the harbor of Vera Cruz, Mexico. Spain was represented by six thousand soldiers and twenty-six warships and transports, France by three thousand soldiers and eleven warships, and England by a thousand men and seven warships. The invasion, of course, meant the suspension of all social reconstruction for the Mexican people. They had conquered for themselves liberty and a democratic constitution in the teeth of the Clerical party; they had now to defend their entire program of reform against Europe. The recent civil war had left them exhausted and famine stricken. With scarcely a pause they had now to enter upon a still more desparate and prolonged conflict; and the fact that Benito Juarez brilliance held at bay the vastly superior combined army of the French and Mexican reactionaries for more than three years, and then proceeded slowly but surely to drive them out of the country, is a remarkable proof of Mexican values and vitality.
President Juarez officially recognized in favor of England a debt of $69,311,657; in favor of Spain a debt of $9,369,086 and in favor of France a debt of $200,000. The English and Spanish expressed full satisfaction with their arrangement, and shortly withdrew their force from Mexico.
But with the aforementioned withdrawal Napoleon III was more at ease to exercise his now unrestricted power, and accomplish his purpose of establishing a monarchy in Mexico.
The Church was intoxicated with joy. She saw before her an eternally unfolding supremacy, uninterrupted golden age of plunder. With a foreign army and a monarch-puppet at her demand, she stood at last on the pinnacle of her ambition. But the long expected fulfillment was destined to be of a short duration. The Church knew it not, but the reign of the priest had passed from Mexico forever.
In the years 1864 and 1865 Juarez army engaged the involvers in no less than four hundred and twenty-four pitched battles and skirmishes; and the years 1862 and 1863 were hardly less
bloody. In the four years of battle, twenty seven thousand Mexican patriots and twenty three thousand French soldiers and reactionary Mexicans were killed.
During these early years of the war with France, Juarez headed a mobil government. On May 5, 1862 his poorly equipped forces stopped the superior army of Napoleon III at Puebla. Although it was another five years before the French met their final defeat at Queretero, the victory on May 5 th served to keep alive Juarez struggle to recover the reigns of power.
On the 12th of December 1864, Maximillian entered Mexico accompanied by his wife the Empress, and appropriated for himself a monthly salary of $125,000 and an allowance of $167,666 a month for his wife making together a total of -$1,700,000 a year; while his journey to Mexico cost $500,000 and the wage of his cooks and servants $315,000 more. In addition, Maximillian acquired loan of $8,0Q0,000 francs as 90 new cut interest before leaving Europe hence this loan totally $40,000,000 had to be paid by Mexico.
Maximillian of Hapsburg, brother of Franz Joseph, Emperor of Austria had consented to be entrhoned Emperor of Mexico by the allied armies of intervention, on conditions! that France pledge herself to support him with her army, and continue to do so until such: time as he could firmly entrench him-
self in power. With these forces beh him, Maximillian set out to dest Benito Juarez government. Juai however, was fully alive to the danj and by continuously changing his i of government, successfully eluded force sent against him.
In 1866, Napoleon III realized t Frances military prestige was floi dering throughout the world a regretfully announced on the secc of January the immediate and eni withdrawal of the French troops fr Mexico.
The withdrawal of the French tro< from Mexico left Maximillian w reactionary forces to continue 1 struggle. This withdrawal was i mediately followed by the ov< whelming advance of Juarez fore State after state, and citv after city 1 into his hands, till Queretero* Mex City, and Puebla alone remained in possession of Maximillian.
Maximillian, with his two genen Mirama and Mejia, prepared to mak last stand at Queretero, the stronghc of his forces. Juarez promptly h seige to the city, and in two mon reduced the defender to despen straits. Thereupon, Maximillian, seei the end was near, offered to betray forces, and deliver them withe stipulation on condition that he hi self be spared and permitted to retu to Europe. Benito Juarez refused a on the 19th of May 1867, Maximilli was executed by a firing squad Queretero, Mexico.
El Diario

Avalos continues fight
to walk again
Last week Sam Avalos, an UMAS student and English teaching assistant for UMAS-EOP, underwent surgery as part of his continuing battle to regain the use of his legs.
Sams month long ordeal began when the truck he was driving left the road and rolled three times near Gallup, New Mexico .Two friends with Sam at the time, Dave Cator and Joe Matthews, received minor injuries in the crash.
Sam was first taken to a hospital in Gallup, and on April 2 he was flown from Gallup to the Craig Rehabilitation Center in Denver, where he has since been receiving intensive care from some of the nations best doctors.
Immediately after the wreck Sam recalls coming to and finding I couldnt move my body. While Sam was at first paralized from his neck down, he has since improved to where he can feel pressure on his legs and can use both his arms.
Last weeks surgery was an attempt to relieve pressure on nerves controlling Sams right hand. With the full use of both his right arm and hand,
Sam could then work on regaining the use of his legs by exercising on parallel bars.
The final results of the operation will not be known for some time, but hopes remain high that the surgery \yas a success.
A number of students at the University are planning fund-raising activities for Sam, since his total medical expenses could run as high as $30-40,000. Although the Avalos did have a family plan insurance policy with Blue Cross/Blue Shield, Sams coverage expired when he turned 19, and according to Sams brother Nick,
the company failed to notify us. The Avalos had steadily paid for the insurance over a number of years, and it came as a surprise to the family when they found Sam w&s not covered.
A BC/BS representative told the Avalos that the expiration date was in the contract, and BC/BS will not help with Sams expenses.
Luckily, Sam was covered by University BC/BS, but that coverage is far from enough to pay the total bill.
El Diario
Sam Avalos
El Diario established a bank account where any contributions to help Sam can be sent. Thus far Sams friends have donated over $200, but much more is needed.
The Sam Avalos fund was opened at the Coronado National Bank in Denver, one of the few totally Chicano owned banks in the nation. Contributions can be sent to:
The Sam Avalos Fund do The Coronado National Bank 1400 Irving
Denver, Colorado 80201 One fund-raising benefit for Sam is being carried out now. You can help, just by contacting any El Diario staff member for information on the event. El Diarios address is the University Memorial Center, Room 416, Boulder, Colorado, 80302, and our phone number is 443-2211, ext. 8836. We can all help a member of la familia in his hour of need.
1*4 3-7280
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925 arapahoe, boulder, colo. 80502-4-49-6:511
MACHO serves ex-Pintos
Mexican-American-Correctional-He lp Organization (MACHO) is an organization geared to helping exoffenders.
MACHO is also interested in pert al reform, and in bringing about constructive change in the Juvenile Court system in the state of Colorado.
MACHO is also involved in the iCivil and Human Rights of exoffenders. The current coordinator of MACHO is a board member of the Human Rights Commission of the ? University of Colorado, Boulder cam-i pus. MACHO is'also actively involved ; in providing student entertainment for [any of the correctional facilities in the istate of Colorado, giving priority to the men and womens penitentiary in I Canon City, and the state reformatory fat Buena Vista.
\ In the area of guidance, MACHO, Ian understaffed, underfunded [organization is in the process of setting |up a counseling component in which fell counselors and staff members will gbe consisted of ex-offenders of all ^nationalities, creeds, race, or color. iThis is based on the precept that people that can identify with one janother can understand and help one another far more effectively and eon-structively.
I In the area of placement, MACHO b/actively involved in the recruitment If ex-offenders for the summer E.O.P. (program. Regents made a com-Rnittment to MACHO last year when Tfce Board said that 11 % of all EOP jionies or slots (grants) would be used ifor ex-offenders, interested in ob-ffitaining a career in the field of higher J| education.
|B'In the area of treatment there are jnSome feasible aspects and solutions to mdevelop and consider in any institution ii of higher education.
Kpne is in the utilization of the ifjyarious departments of the University. tgFor example, MACHO is working on it. developing a system of interagency d-feoordination with all correctional and airehabilitative agencies, organizations, hi institutions, and the like.
[]* An effort is being made to coor-Pldinate the graduate and undergraduate ^students in the area of Law, HPsychology, Psychiatry, Psychological, i Sociology, Medicine, Business, etc.
MACHO is also interested in the
area of developing services for studentsj involved in drug abuse. A very serious problem effecting everyone and a number one Contributor to the rising, cost of crime.
MACHO will hopefully be able to utilize research teams that will go into the Courts to observe cases, convicting,/ and sentencing in each court system.
The data collected will be used to identify some of the major problems" faced by the offenders and the legal
As for future plait ning MACHO is seeking viable avenues for securing academic credits for students interested in the field of corrections and criminology research, especially, in-; stitutional reasearch, eg.
a) Challenging current policies
b) Proposing programs
c) Cooperating with civic and community groups
d) Encouraging the development of Icomparable programs at other Universities..
jMMfc Jr
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El Diario

Have you ever thought of going to college? Let the University of Colorado Educational Opportunity Programs show you how you can.
We have:
-flexible admissions policies -financial aid
-supportive staff of 120 to assist you -more than 1,000 carnales continuing at the university
Send for your packet of "Everything you wanted to know about college, but were afraid to ask."
Regent Hall 125 University of Colo
Boulder, Colorado
I am interested in applying for admission into the University of Colorado, Boulder Campus, Educational Opportunity Program. Please send be an EOP Application Packet for the: la
_ Mexican-American Program
.Black Education Program
.American Indian Program
. Asian-American Program
.Other (please indicate).
Name of Student.
Phone No..
Home Mailing Address.,

Street or P.Q. Box .Married
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