i i *
Ifio hr uck master's then is
AURARIA LIBRARY *
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. INTRODUCTION - *
III. PROGRAM Locational Map Base Map Relationships
Square Footages -
VI. DESIGN Site Plan Plans
Using the Physical Principles
My thesis project is the design of a City Center for Wheat Ridge, Colorado, that will use passive solar techniques to augment the heating and cooling requirements. The new building will be 30,000 square feet and will house and centralize all the city offices now scattered throughout five locations.
The Center will consist of a Council/Court room, Judicial department, Administrative Services, Executive, Treasurer,
City Clerk, Community Development, Public Works, Parks and Recreation and the Police Department. The Support Services include a lunch room, library, restrooms, mechanical and storage rooms.
The site consists of 8 acres located at the corner of West 29th Avenue and Wadsworth Blvd. It is basically flat
and has two houses standing on it. One house will be moved, while the small farmhouse on the corner is in good shape and
can be maintained.
To the north of the site across West 29th Avenue, is a mortuary built with white brick of residential character.
To the east are single family homes consisting of one or two stories. On the south, a tall tree line defines the property line of the Baptist Church and school complex. The complex consists of one story buildings with a rising church, all made with brick. Directly to the west is Wadsworth Blvd.
The term 'passive energy systems' can mean many things depending on who you talk to. I define it simply as providing heat and coolness, then distributing it by various applications of physical principles, such as the vertical stratification of air temperatures.
The importance of these principles are threefold. First, the building itself can encourage physical principles to take place without the use of expensive hardward by being a natural solar collector. Secondly, the use of these conservation features will allow a smooth transition from one fuel source to another. Third, it ensures a closer man-nature interface which has been lacking for a century in major areas.
I do not believe the pureness of a passive energy system (i.e., whether assisted by mechanical means) is important. What counts is using as many of the physical principles as practical and still design an aesthetically, well functioning environment.
In local government, as in the democratic doctrine, there is no tribunal above and beyond the people. Democracy strives on the virtues of the people, the openness and forthrightness of public transactions, and the simplicity of government machinery.
Therefore, the physical setting for the process of local government should encourage the people to feel comfortable and enable them to get results. The designed physical environment must work in harmony with the local government officials to bring about these conditions.
In a democratic society citizens familiarize themselves with public issues through open discussion and personal participation. The mayor and city council need to be made available to the public at frequent times.
The City Center complex must invite people in for service, spontaneously, to debate policy, and an area should be shaped to encourage people to gather and linger. It should reflect the openness and the simplicity of government machinery. Reflecting these democratic values in design allows for the citizen to involve himself in the government process more readily and serves as a constant reminder to the city officials that they are there to serve.
The time is now for governments at all levels to re-evaluate their attitudes toward the democratic process, and to take positive steps to ensure that the citizens are 'involved.'
LOCATIONAL MAP wheat ridge
CROWN.. HILL CEMETARY
) WEST) 29th AVE^llE
WHEAT RIDGE CITY OFFICES
existing site n
O K> 25 50 ico
COMMUNITY PEVEL. PARRS i RECREATION
POLICE OPERATIONS COUNCIL ROOM
MATRIX OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY V" REQUIREMENTS FOR THE PHYSICAL
RELATIONSHIPS OF E/CH OROANIZATIONAL COMPONENT
PUBLIC ALCES5 t LOBBY}
Wooa 3'7N3'aadN ----------------
Dvnanr fa craavH?] Aavagi'l----------
6KAPHI6& Â£ etORA^e EOOH [CHARED w/
, PUBLIC WORR6 4 PAR.R5 A RECREATION 3
C6HAREP oi/ PUBLIC WOEJCC *f PARKA ; RECRPAPIOM1
PUBLIC AÂ£CÂ£55 C LOBBY 3
DbH,\R.EP ujJ PUBLIC WOR.tc.-b 4
police operations 15
/ ENGINEER-\ [ IN6 AIP ] \ OPEN / \lo<9 + / / EN6INEER.IM6 \ / TE6HNI6IAN6 V (z) \ OPEN / A 200 + / / JL^ /
6RAPHI65 4 -STORAGE Rcm DbHAsR&D uj/ 4^.P] (230 $) (OlTY EN-\ ( <Â£INEER. I V semi- PRJVAItf \lOO 4> ./
60NFEE.E-H6-E R.M L6HAR.EP1 (-750*) ,-jQQ
/ PIREETOR \ [ PRIVATE ] l 120 /
TO 6RAPH166 i 6TORA6E
SHARE P tu/ PARKS ^ re
PUBU6 AE6E 55 CLO&bYD
PU6LIG AGSE65 C lobby 3
summary of space needs
Reproduction 300 square feet
Storage 300 square feet
Janitorial Storage 100 square feet
Excess Equipment Storage 300 square feet
Lunch Room with Kitchen 500 square feet
Central Staff Library & Testing Room 200 square feet
1. Council Chambers & Court Room 20 sq. ft. per person a) combination Jury room 3,000 square feet
2. Conference Room for Public Works, Parks and Community Development (15 people) two divideable 500 square feet
TOTAL 5,200 square feet
Administrative Services 970 square feet
City Attorney 420 square feet
City Clerk 600 square feet
Community Development 2,000 square feet
Executive 1,050 square feet
Judicial 1,050 square feet
Parks & Recreation 480 square feet
Police 6,080 square feet
Public Works 1,280 square feet
Treasurer 420 square feet
General Facilities 7,200 square feet
TOTAL 21,550 square feet
Public Works 7
Community Development 5
Administrative Services 1
City Attorney 0
Parks & Recreation 3
City Clerk _0
4 7 3 6 6
create an open, comfortable atmosphere, maintain working privacy where necessary.
give the public their own space which is open, inviting and comfortable.
provide the very best service to the public.
provide the necessary security.
make all services easily accessible.
develop open space for community use.
use farmhouse and farm as a community service facility. (Turn over to Parks and Recreation)
incorporate the use of natural energies wherever practical.
create a mood of openness, directness and informality.
encourage the public to take part in the democratic process.
provide flexibility for change within the building.
allow for expansion when necessary.
TO PROVIDE. THE- PUBLIC WITH A SPACE WHICH IS
WHEAT RIDGE CITY CENTER
1st FLOOR PLAN
o o to o
WHEAT RIDGE CITY CENTER
0 * 10 70 40
WHEAT RIDGE CITY CENTER
WHEAT RIDGE CENTER
INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE ')
TVv: jm / Jfl -4S
I lii -* II r^::Â£&fc] H I 1 p
w,, $$$ f V
L' hfri .-v: r. t \ Y'
using the physical principles
My project, designing a City Center for Wheat Ridge, made me take a close look at the basic physical principles
as applied to smaller structures, and somehow interpret what could work in a larger building.
In siting the building, I wanted to take advantage of the major axis being east-west for maximum solar gain in the winter, and minimum solar gain in the summer. I also used berms on the north and west sides to protect against
the cold winter winds. Coniferous trees on these sides also aid in reducing the effect of the winter winds.
In planning, I chose a closed atrium grouping, regarded by Richard Crowther as the most thermal efficient arrangement for an office building. The north wall consists mainly of spaces needing no windows (i.e., locker rooms, council room) while the remaining three walls are basically office spaces.
The heaviest concentration of glass is located on the southern side with awnings and operable louvers for protection from the summer sun. East and west windows are necessary for natural lighting and are protected by louvers
All glass is double-glazed.
Natural lighting is essential to reduce the cooling load in a large office building. The strip windows on the east and west allow for view and natural light while being shaded for the major part of the day. The louvers protect the office spaces from the low sun angles. Skylights with triple glazing are provided over the open office spaces as required (1 square foot of skylight for 20 square feet of office).
Also great care should be taken to install as much task lighting as possible and keep general illumination lighting
to a minimum.
The atrium floor is 2 feet thick to provide the necessary thermal mass for balancing the temperature swing over a 24-hour period. The walls directly under the two large south-facing skylights act both as a storage wall and a reflecting walls. A smaller more concentrated rock storage bin would be located under the atrium floor and tied to the back up heating system. This storage area would be heated by hot air collected at the ceiling in a duct and drawn into the storage with a fan.
The building would be cooled by flushing the structure at night with cool air. Having the mass store the coolness thru the major part of the next day. If cool air is needed during the day cool north air can be drawn in thru the two north hallways and distributed in a duct system. Cooling is also accomplished by southern breezes blowing over a shallow pond right before it reaches the building. This cooled breeze is allowed to pass through the building at designated points.
Finally, great care would be taken to insulate the structure in order to hold the heat or coolness as required.
AIA Journal, "Evaluation: Living Experiment in Energy Conservation Systems," December 1977, Vol. 66, No. 13, p. 32-37 AIA Journal, "Energy Conserving State Office Building," September 1976, p. 48.
Anderson, Bruce. Solar Energy Fundamentals in Building Design. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1977. 374 pp.
Architectural Record, "Government Center"; Mass, Malden; Doxiads; September 1976, pp. 136-138.
Architectural Record, "Municipal Building"; Ohio, Middletown; Harry Weese; January 1976, pp. 20-21.
Architectural Record, "Public Administration Buildings," September 1976, p. 127.
Crowther, Richard L. Sun Earth. Denver: A. B. Hirschfeld Press, Inc., 1977. 232 pp.
Olgyay, Victor. Design With Climate. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1963. 190 pp.
Passive Solar Heating and Cooling. Conference and Workshop Proceedings, May 18-19, 1976, Albuquerque, NM. Washington Energy Research and Development Administration, 1976. 355 pp.
Pictorial, "Aspen Airport," published by the National Concrete Masonry Association, McLean, VA. 12 pp.
Solar Architecture; Proceedings of the Aspen Energy Forum, May 1977. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc. 1977. 333 pp
Watson, Donald. Designing and Building a Solar House. Charlotte, VT: Garden Way Publishing, 1977. 281 pp.