ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY
Broadway Bridge Area Redevelopment Study
ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY
PHASE ONE: Land Development
JOHN HENRY COPLEY UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO DENVER, COLORADO
The Broadway Bridge Area Redevelopment Study has been undertaken to bring about a hypothetical long range master plan for development.
The approximately 33 acre area is bounded by the Argo Dam to the west, the New York Central Railroad tracks to the south, the Wall Street Bridge to the east, and finally, the intersection of Plymouth and Broadway Roads to the north. Within these confines lies a unique linear natural environment, the Huron River. In very few instances has a major natural watercourse intersected a metropolitan body without the scars of man's insensitivity upon it. Through some unfortunate events of the past (i.e., the Depression and the introduction of the railroad),
Ann Arbor's river edge has been ^ spared from development.
Although underused today, this parcel is now under extreme pressure for development. It is the intent of this study to recognize the need to develop marketable land uses on these parcels, respecting the richness of the site and setting, and to capitalize on the unique intersection of the natural and the manmade.
Historical Context i
From a small, inauspicious beginning 155 years ago, Ann Arbor has developed into the vital city that it is today. The topography of the land, the Post Office location, the relocation of the University, the railroads and highways have all shaped the urban form of the city. The Broadway Bridge Area was also directly affected by these major events, but generally in a negative way.
^ General Development Plan for the City of Ann Arbor, duly 1973. Chapter I,
The History of Ann Arbor.
In 1807 the land which now includes Ann Arbor was ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Detroit. The site of Ann Arbor was founded in February 1824 when two men, in search for a location for a new town, had spent several weeks travelling along the Huron River.
Finally, 640 acres of land was registered with the U.S. Land Office and by the end of the first year, many homes and businesses had been built along the river's edge, in the Broadway Bridge Area.
Early on, two divergent groups had formed to debate the future direction of the community's growth. One faction promoted the original Huron River site as the town's business core with future growth spreading north and south. The other group supported relocating the business center on the sourthern bluff overlooking the river valley. In 1834 the U. S. Post Office was located on the southern bluff and development soon spread southward away from the river and the north end. The "northenders", not to be outdone, literally split from their southern neighbors and cultivated their own community, complete with a separate school system.
The final blow to the river community came in 1837 when the University of Michigan relocated from Detroit to the eastern edge of the upland village. Steadily residential development grew about the new camnus.
The growth of Ann Arbor was assured when, in the 1830's, the New York Central Railroad extended their lines through Ann Arbor to Jackson. The rail beds required relatively level grade. The Huron River Valley proved to be suitable and the tracks were layed. The secondary land uses that accompanied this new transportation system soon filled the unclaimed lands along the river. From that time on, the river valley in Ann Arbor has been plagued by one unsuitable industrial, manufacturing, warehousing land use after another. The former credible businesses in the "Old Town" soon succumbed due to a lack of trade, and secondary uses began operating in the area.
The depression of the 1930s saved these older structures from demolition due to the lack of redevelopment capital. Since that time, Old Town has remained a secondary, depressed neighborhood business center. Land ownership had changed hands many times and any sense of stability had been lost.
Today, however, amid a muriad of strip commercial businesses, warehouses and storage lots, a quiet renovation/ revitalization movement has begun.
It began with the Kroger Shopping Center, which recently completed major exterior improvements, and has continued further with adaptive reuse of a former foundary into office space. A new medium density apartment complex is also under construction along Broadway, north of the Bridge Area.
The potential for the small, underused neighborhood is quite good. The Redevelopment Study presented here attempts to preserve the uniqueness of the site while develonirio its potential.
The Huron River watershed encompasses nearly 650 square miles of land in the southeastern corner of Michigan and drains directly into Lake Erie.
For the most part, the Huron River is a serene watercourse, gently flowing past farmlands and forests. Rarely does the river intersect a community or smSill town. Ann Arbor and Ypsilanti, however, are the only major metropolitan areas chat do, and neither have attempted to capitalize on their unique urban river edge.
Most river communities have purchased river edge parcels for open space, and the City of Ann Arbor has consistently followed this approach. But there is more potential for the river's edge than simply open space. The city has long needed a hard urban edge along those portions of the river that lie in direct contact with urban areas. Such an edge will serve to contrast the overwhelming "naturalness" of the entire watercourse in its watershed and identify it as the intersection of urban man and nature. The scale of any riverfront development should also reflect the inherent scale of the urban community it borders.
For our purposes, the intersection of the Huron River and the City of Ann Arbor should be dramatic, but not overpowering. All manmade development should be medium rise with many points of access or pathways leading directly to the river's edge. A linear pedestrian edge along the river should also be maintained. In terms of the river context, the long range master plan should (1) reinforce the open space needs of the residents, but in a more "urban" direction; (2) reserve suitable sites for compatibility designed waterfront development where residents can live, work, shop and recreate; (3) provide mandatory visual and physical access to the water; (4) integrate all new development into the existing riverfront urban context: and (5) provide sensitive transition from the more natural Huron River environment to the proposed Broadway Bridge Redevelopment Area.
An analysis of the existing conditions in the Broadway Bridge Area Redevelopment Study identifies many major problems that typically reflect the problems of the area as a whole. Basically, the existing conditions detract from overall unity of the site and hinder any minor potential improvement. In summary, the major problems that have been identified are as follows:
1) The project area is currently undefined and lacks an identity of place, not merely a transitional area between the central business district (CBD) and the northern neighborhoods.
2) Vehicular approaches are complicated, undefined and under-designed, while pedestrian approaches are unknown to the infrequent user.
3) The existing land uses are underutilized and misused causing neglect and disrespect for the riverfront
and its surrounding neighborhood.
4) Pedestrian access to the river's edge is not readily apparent.
5) The existing open space is broken by overhead vehicular bridges, embankments, undesirable land uses, poor selection of river crossings and lacks identity and continuity.
6) The internal vehicular network
of approaches, through streets, service drives and parking lots is confusing and lacks order.
7) Vehicular and pedestrian circulation conflict at many intersections, hindering both the flow of traffic and the safety of pedestrians.
8) The site partially floods during a 100-year storm which hinders any active man-made development.
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Urban Design Goals
Based on the overview of existing conditions, the following objectives were formulated to reconcile these problems while guiding the land planning process of Phase I: Land Development.
1) To establish a strong, continuous linear open space network through the project area, as well as to provide ample open space corridors throuqh the site to the river.
2) To develop a clearly organized vehicular circulation system from entry to parking, that will (a) be easy to understand, (b) be separate from pedestrian activities, and (c) be utilized as major determinants of urban form.
3) The interior of the project should be developed in a pedestrian manner providing for a range of uses that incorporate the richness of the site and settina.
4) To establish a strong central focus within the site to reinforce the image and further establish the identity and sense of place between the existing CBD and northern neighborhoods.
5) To develop strong open space connections between adjacent neighborhood districts (i.e., Farmer's Market, Kroger Shopping Center, and University of Michigan (Central and North Campus).
6) To establish an orderly pattern of building density and height that will decrease toward the water and away from the central core, and thereby improve the visual image of the project.
7) To eliminate the visual and environmental impact of automobiles parked on the surface through the provision
of underground parking, parking structures, and landscape screening.
8) To develop the site as an interesting and lively place to shop, live, work, and recreate through a variety of visual experiences that capitalize on the uniqueness of the project site.
9) To develop the project area as a major point of arrival into the city of Ann Arbor with appropriate scale, density, texture and organization.
Land Plan Recommendations
From the analysis of the existing conditions and incorporation of the Urban Design Goals, a number of recommendations have been developed. The recommendations herein have been depicted graphically to illustrate the land planning process of Phase One.
The vehicular and pedestrial arrival zones identified on the plan should adequately identify the entrances to the Broadway Bridge area. The tv/o major arrival zones, northern and southern, form the two most important arrival zones. Here the visual image of the project should be clearly recognizable and understandable. A large Broadway Bridge sign will be located at each intersection which will be designed to call attention to the development. These areas shall also be designed as a formal "funnel" to draw users into the site and direct them to the redesigned Broadway Spine. Where possible, the arrival zones shall include special paving, special landscaping and lighting to reinforce their importance.
Major Arrival Zone
The redesigned Broadway Spine provides for direct and efficient vehicular and pedestrian circulation through the site. For automobiles, four twelve-foot traffic lanes (two in each direction), and a twelve-foot landscaped median have been pro'Vided. For pedestrians, two ten-foot-wide pedestrian walkways with protective overhead canopies run along the outer edges of the vehicular traffic lanes.
To accomodate this new Broadway spine, the existing Broadway right of way should be widened and the bridge rebuilt using the existing foundation. At strategic points along the new Broadway spine, vehicular dropoffs will be located and linked to the pedestrian walkway system.
An important design consideration of the Broadway Spine should be to provide a continuous, well integrated link between the northern and southern parcels of the project. The scale of this major thoroughfare should reflect the intensity of development it bisects and should be capable of handling the traffic generated by the new Broadway Bridge development, as well as anticipated volumes travelling through the si te.
Secondary interior streets will also be treated in similar fashion. To increase pedestrian space along these streets, the street widths will be decreased thereby enabling sidewalks to be widened. Effective landscaping such as street trees and special plantings will also incorporate in the extra pedestrian space for added definition and direction. Streets planned for this treatment include: Wall, Maiden, Pontiac Trail, Lonrshore and three new service drives.
INTERNAL PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION/OPEN SPACE
The internal pedestrian circulation system provides direct access to the river's edge and unconfined access along the rive.r as well. The spaces adjacent to a river should be realized as a resource to be enjoyed by the entire public.
For pedestrian corridors directed to the water from inland parcels, many adjustments to building siting, shape, mass, and orientation will have to be made. The corridors parallel to the river require similar allowances, such as underground connections below the Broadway spine.
Once the Broadway spine and underground corridors are established making possible a strong internal pedestrian circulation system integral to the outer open spaces, a campus-like pedestrian image is then fostered.
Along each of these planned corridors, the use of consistent pedestrian-scaled lighting, planting, signage and paving will give pedestrians a sense of direction. Special plantings will be used to identify points of interest, building entrances or as screening and buffering. Pedestrian corridors developed in this consistent manner can also serve as a unifying element, binding together the varying architectural styles, colors, setbacks and heights.
Internal Pedestrian Circulation
Outward along each internal pedestrian corridor, the pedestrian eventually discovers the planned open spaces. Generally most external open spaces were either too steep for development, located in the flood plain, or inac-cessable. For those open spaces in the flood plain, dual uses have been planned including active recreation and retention ponding during periods of high water. The natural flood olain has not been drastically altered only enlarged to handle larger volumes of flood water. Throughout the open space system, informal pedestrian walkways link together a series of recreation centers, special features and nature centers.
The open spaces also serve to buffer the proposed development from surrounding districts and reinforces the core concept of the development plan.
Accompanying the active recreational open spaces, smaller, intimate spaces have also been planned for outdoor performances and displays along the river.
All four zones are linked by the hard linear edge on both sides and two proposed pedestrian bridges at the end of each hard edge, as well as the Broadway Spine pedestrian bridge overhead.
occupy zone one. This space will support the adaptive reuse structure designated for display and special event activities. Second, a larger pedestrian space and river inlet will provide an appropriately scaled activity space for the intensive land use surrounding zone two. Third, a residentially scaled river edge and inlet has been planned for zone three.
And finally, zone four will be planned as a foajor outdoor amphitheater for outdoor performances along the serene Huron River. The amphitheater will also complement the smaller more intimate clusters planned for the open space behind the amphitheater.
Finally the pedestrian reaches the river's edge through a series of highly developed pedestrian corridors, dropoffs, and informal walkways. The hard urban edge for the river only extends a few hundred feet outward from the Broadway Spine in keeping with the anticipated level of activity in the area. Four distinctly different treatments have been planned for the edge which accompanies the traditional linear river edge linking all four zones. First, a special event space with a large, dramatic waterfall will
River Edge 2
Mixed Use Urban Plaza
River Edge 3
High & Medium Density Residential
PROPOSED LAND USE
The proposed land use plan organizes the major business land uses into a "core concept" whereby the intensive uses are placed toward the center of the development and lesser intensities surround the core in concentric rings. This concept will serve to reinforce the development's identity and sense of place. At the core's center, business uses have been located where access, parking, and pedestrian traffic will be greatest. Four distinct land uses are planned for the core:
(a) adaptive reuse retail and
(b) semi-enclosed retail mall
(c) office with lower retail level
(d) mixed land use of hotel, con-
vention center and retail
(a) ADAPTIVE REUSE RETAIL & SPECIAL EVENT
It is recommended that the existing brick Detroit Edison substation be reused in the proposed development as combined retail space, such as a restaurant or specialty shops, and special event use that would make use of the exterior courtyard overlooking the waterfall.
This reused structure and display courtyard in addition to the dramatic waterfall will serve as interesting focuses for the semi-enclosed retail mall directly to the north. The pedestriaii walkway along the Broadway Spine will also be linked to this structure and sub-grade connections under Broadway also link it to other areas of the development.
Modernization shall include heat and ventilation, glazing, minor partitioning, bold graphics, toilets, and alterations required for a small ki tchen.
The main entry should be changed to the northern elevation in direct view of the major east-west pedestrian corridor. The intimate courtyard can then have controlled access through the buildino.
(b) SEMI-ENCLOSED RETAIL MALL
The retail mall shall be oriented so that the waterfall and renovated substation to the south forms its southern focus. This arrangement will allow for a double loaded retail concept with a semi-enclosed pedestrian corridor down the middle. A mid-block pedestrian connection from Broadway into the mall and extending vertically into the residential areas is also recommended.
A totally enclosed mall is not recommended. Rather, a partially enclosed space that allows for weather changes, light variations, and a natural ambiance should be employed. Generally, the retail shops should be limited to a two-story complex. It is intended that this land use complement the existing shopping center in the neighborhood and capitalize on its unique natural surroundings. Smaller specialty shops with great variety not normally found in typical enclosed malls should be found in the proposed Broadway Bridge Retail Mall. Higher income specialty shops and stores should also be recruited for the mall to serve the proposed middle to high income residential population.
The northern end of the mall will serve as a pedestrian dropoff and the entrance for underground parking. Loading docks linked to a rear service corridor will also share the northern end.
Above the western portion of the mall, medium density townhouse housing is planned to overlook the retail mall For control purposes, the only direct link to the mall from the residential units above will be at mid-block. Service access and vehicular access to the residential units will take place on the same level separately from service/vehicular access to the mall.
The partially enclosed mall will be multi-leveled with many attractive pedestrian amenities such as flowering plantings, bold graphics, decorative lighting, colorful overhead canopy and many small wagon vendors.
Restaurants, small ethnic eateries or cafeterias should be located closer to the waterfall to capitalize on its intensive pedestrian activity and great visual interest.
The eastern portion of the mall will have shops with dual entry from the mall and the Broadway pedestrian spine and should be planned accordingly.
For visual interest, a few of these shops should have a single entry to break up the long Broadway facade.
(c) OFFICE WITH LOWER RETAIL LEVEL
This block on the northeastern corner of Wall Street and Broadway is the first structure to come into view from the northern entry to the city along Plymouth Road. Its image, shape, orientation, and character are very important in developing a positive image about the proposed development and in general, the city.
Office use in Ann Arbor is generally not in great demand. Many downtown upper stories are vacant. But the proposed Broadway Bridge Redevelopment project will bring many new middle and upper income residents to the new business core and new office space should be provided for those businesses relocating.
The lower levels should be primarily retail that relate to the major north-south pedestrian corridor bisecting the parcel. The corridor provides a necessary link from the northern retail and residential districts to the Huron River.
Service and parking access occurs along the eastern edge from the realigned Maiden Lane. Added parking for office and retail users will be supplied by the new parking structure to the north east on Maiden Lane.
(d) MIXED USE
The mixed use parcel located on the southeast corner of Wall Street and Broadway should be the central focus of the entire development. Having the largest open parcel in the business zone without major site restrictions such as topography, flooding or vegetation, permits development flexibility. The uses to be combined in a mixed facility are hotel, convention center and retail. Hotel and convention uses are in great demand in the Ann Arbor metropolitan area due to the attractiveness of the city and the luring power of the University of Michigan attracting major academic conventions.The retail uses will, again, be confined to the lower pedestrian levels and should respect the major pedestrian corridors that intersect on this parcel. The restaurant type retail uses should be located adjacent to the river inlet to capitalize on the pedestrian activity and visual interest.
Service and parking access to the mixed use facility shall occur on the eastern edge along a new service road that penetrates the site.
2 Ann Arbor Convention Bureau & Chamber of Commerce
Major entry into the facility should occur along the revised Broadway Spine and Wall Street, and the facility as a whole should strongly relate to the river inlet planned for the parcel. Building massing should respect the recommendation to reduce mass toward the river, and not to block views or access to the river from inland districts.
The land uses surrounding the inner business core are primarily residential and open space. Four distinct residential land uses are proposed:
(a) terrace medium density
(b) high-density apartments
(c) medium density townhouse
(d) medium density apartments
Housing demand in the Ann Arbor metropolitan area is very high without any appreciable decline forecasted in the near term.3 The Broadway Bridge Redevelopment project offers great potential for housing in a unique riverfront cosmopolitan-type environment.
3 Kaplan Associates, Housing Demand Analysis
(a) TERRACE MEDIUM DENSITY TOWNHOUSE
The terrace townhouses are planned for the space directly above the semi-endos retail mall. By stepping the residentia clusters up the hill in terrace fashion, greater numbers of units can be planned. The proposed density for these units is approximately 15 units per acre with parking provided under the adjacent townhouse units stacked above. An internal loop road will service the parking areas as well as the units.
The townhouses should be oriented so they relate to the mall alignment and should also respect the internal pedestrian corridors linking inland districts to the water. This unique residential land use is only planned for this one area since it relies on specific topographic conditions.
Terrace Townhouse Above Retail
(b) HIGH DENSITY APARTMENTS
High density apartments are planned for (1) the residential development south of the river and (2) the parcel bounded by Wall Street to the south, Maiden Lane to the north, and a realigned Maiden Lane to the west. Here the higher density, 20-30 units per acre are called for to blend the densities of the central business core to the lower residential densities to the east. These surrounding residential parcels should also be bolstered with medium density infill housing wherever possible to visually taper the development toward its ednes.
South of the river the taller higher density apartment tower is intended to act as a focal point on the long Division Street approach, as a focal point for the semi-endosed retail mall to the north, and serve to identify the entry of the proposed development to the north.
The orientation of both proposed hip!) density apartment complexes should align the narrower facade toward the water to improve visual and physical access corridors toward the water. Parking and service access for both complexes should occur below pedestrian levels to reduce conflicts in these intensive activity areas.
(c) MEDIUM DENSITY T0WNH0USES
Residential land use of this type occurs on three parcels: (1) the residential cluster south of the river, (2) the cluster in the northwestern corner above the terrace housing, and (3) ad.iacent to the eastern edge of the mixed use complex. In all cases, parking should be placed one ha 1f level below existing grade and town-iiouses stacked above, placed a half level above thereby reducing excavation. Densities for this land use should approximate 15 units per acre and site organization should respect the internal pedestrian svstem including corridors leading directly tr the water.
Townhouse Above Parking
(d) MEDIUM DENSITY APARTMENT ABOVE PARKING STRUCTURES
Opportunity exists for the spaces above proposed parking structures to be used for medium density apartment units of 15 units per acre density. This unique combination requires special attention and should only be used where proposed adjacent land uses are complementary in character and intensity. In this development, the parking structures are reasonably close to residential uses of similar uses and if the parking structure is sensitively designed, the combination could be quite attractive.
The two above grade parking structures proposed serve other adjacent land uses but a few additional residential parking stalls can be accomodated.
Townhouse/Apt. Above Parking Structure
Parking needs for the proposed development shall be determined by Chapter 59, City Code, Parking Regulations. Generally most parking will be placed below grade to reduce vehicular conflicts within the internal, campus-1 ike spaces of the development. Two above grade parking decks have been planned for the eastern portion of the site to meet anticipated added demand in surrounding the intensive business-oriented land uses. To reduce the visual impact of these structures upon the residential land uses, these structures should arrange for at least one level below grade to reduce its physical height.
The introduction of residential units as part of the parking structure will also visually blend the complex to its surroundings.
The general description of the nroposed Broadway Bridge Redevelopment plan is intended to serve as a conceptual guideline for future design development of the mixed use parcel.
The conceptual reasoning for this proposal is not based upon hard economic market analysis, but its purpose is derived from the Land Use Policies established in the General Development Plan for the City of Ann Arbor.
The following discussion is a preliminary program for the Broadway Bridge Center, a mixed use facility planned by Broadway Bridge Area Redevelopment Study. The facility, located at the core of the proposed development, combines a major hotel (250 rooms), convention center (800 seat capacity) with a "specialty" type retail center (30,000 SF). Accomodating a mixed use center of this size on a tight, urban site with many design restrictions requires a keen architectural solution. Mixed use centers are quite rare in the particular context of a medium-sized city (125,000). It is an attempt to bring an urban quality to a relatively underused portion of the city and with it the mix of people, activities, and spaces that engenders a sense of coming together of energy and excitement.
A major land development corporation represents the principal client who will then lease space to qualified tenants. From the onset, the client views this development as a speculative operation. Flexibility, marketability and ease of operation are critical requirements for the project.
The center should be planned with non-specific tenants in mind, therefore, design flexibility is critical. The client should be capable of changing tenants (with similar business operations) without major spatial renovation.
Intricate internal organization and operations should be avoided, but not at the expense of spatial interest.
All tenant spaces should be readily marketable. The design of the center should visually and economically attract tenants as well as tenant business. The center should be an appealing and convenient place to shop, work and attend various special conferences or events in the convention center. The architect's task is very special, as he must conceive a design that achieves a general harmony of style, visually interesting and marketable, while permitting a reasonable variation in tenant emphasis.
The Broadway Bridge Mixed Use Center is a key ingredient in the success of the redevelopment of the area and should be approached accordingly. It includes a hotel, convention center and retail facilities to serve community use. The Center should be functionally inteorated with the surrounding community.
Each component of the Center should be interdependent with each other, but they should also have their own identity. Retail shopping activities should be a prime activity at grade level.
The Center should promote continuous, efficient flow of people to the water and along the river front. Vehicular/pedestrian conflicts should be minimized on the site. The Center should provide ample off-street parking and delivery facilities without restricting off-site traffic flow.
It should provide a stimulating pedestrian experience, both internally and externally, with spatial variety and opportunity for unplanned gatherings, events or performances.
It should provide a degree separation between hotel and convention users from the public.
(2) Form The Mixed Use Center should sensitively relate in form and scale
to the Huron River.
The Center should be the visible center of the redevelopment area, providing a sense of orientation for all users.
Since the site is restricted in size due to the inclusion of major pedestrian spaces, the center should be vertically oriented, but without sacrificing human scale characteristics.
The Center should respond to extreme water conditions, typical of a riverfront site: flood, runoff and poor soil conditions.
Since the Center is planned as the core of the redevelopment, its visual image should be exciting, bold and handsome.
The Center should reflect the physical form guidelines established bv the Urban Design Study.
(1) Description The site is bounded by (1) the redesigned Broadway Spine to the
west, (2) Wall Street to the north, (3) proposed service drive to the east, and (4) the Huron River to the south. The site in its existing form consists of approximately four acres (173,750 SF). The site is part of, and is, therefore, controlled by the Master Land Plan Recommendations established under the Broadway Bridge Area Redevelopment Study.
(2) Zoning Present land uses include vacant land, office, industrial ware-
house, and public open space.
(a) Allowable Land Uses
C-3 Fringe Commercial C-l Local Business R-5 Motel-Hotel
(b) Proposed Zoning: PUD From the Code of the City of Ann Arbor, Chapter 55, Zoning Chapte the schedule of allowable area height and placement regulations follows. The proposed complex will be developed under PUD zoning and as such, setbacks, densities, and heights are left to the discretion of the developer with final approval by City Council. Particular sections of the PUD standards generally apply to the proposed mixed use complex: 5.80.3a The uses proposed shall have a beneficial effect one that could not be achieved under any other single zoning classification. 5.80.3c The zoning is warranted by the design and amenities incorporated in the development. 5.80.3d Usable open space shall be provided, at least equal to the total of the minimum (required) usable open space for each of the component uses of the development. 5.80.3e Off-street parking sufficient to avoid burdening the public streets.
5.80.3f Landscaping shall be provided so as to insure that proposed uses will be adequately buffered from one another and adjoining property.
3.80.3q Vehicular and pedestrian circulation patterns allow safe, convenient and uncongested circulation within and to the district.
3.80.3h Major natural, historical and architectural features of the district shall be preserved.
In the absence of direct zoning requirements for PUD zoning, the zoning schedule for C-2A districts shall be used. All of the proposed land uses are permitted principal land uses of C-2A, Central Business District:
Maximum usable floor area (in percentage of net
lot area without premiums) 400%
Maximum usable floor area (in percentage of net
lot area, with premiums*) 600%
Required setback line:
(1) When any open space abuts residentially-zoned land, a required open space shall be required equal to that which is required in abutting residential zone.
(2) When a building exceeds five (5) stories in height, or has any residential uses contained therein, there shall be window wall and nonwindow wall setbacks in accordance with Section 5:67, otherwise none.
(3) No front setback is required in any case.
(4) Rear setback: none
(5) Side setback: none Maximum height: none
Minimum gross lot size (area): none
Minimum gross lot size (width): none
*Added usable floor area premiums are awarded for many pedestrian amenities such as plazas, arcades and roof plazas; and should be incorporated.
(3) Soil Conditions
Parking requirements shall conform to Chapter 59 of the City Code:
(1) Hotel: 1 parking space for first 10 beds, thereafter
1 space for every 2 beds
(2) Hotel Restaurant: 1 parking space for every dining seat.
(3) Convention: 1 parking space for every 12 seats.
(4) Retail: 1 parking space for every 200 SF of usable
Subsurface soils are mainly sandy gravel, with good percolation, typical of flood plain geological conditions.
Bear capacities of the subsurface soils are considered adequate and any special structural foundation revisions are unnecessary.
Water table levels are fairly high in this area due to the proximity of the Huron River and should be accounted for in the subsurface structures (waterproofing and proper drainage).
The site slopes dramatically from Broadway toward the Huron River: 776.0 (Broadway) to 760.0 (Huron River water level), an elevation change of 16 feet.
Toward the city owned parcel to the east, the change in grade is not as severe: 776.0 (Broadway) to 765.0 (parkland), a difference of 11 feet.
100 year flood elevation: 766.5
According to the State of Michigan Department of Natural Resources, all commercial and residential finished floor elevations should be above the 100 year flood level established by the US Corps of Engineers. Parking facilities can be placed below flood levels with adequate water protection up to the flood level.
The 100 year flood basin should not be drastically altered, its flood retention capability should be maintained.
Pedestrian grade changes from the Broadway Spine to the river inlet should allow smooth transition for all pedestrians as well as provision for handicap users.
All substantial runoff from roofs, sidewalks, lawns and parking areas should be interrupted before discharge into the Huron River.
(5) Significant Features
Huron Ri ver
Detroit Edi son Truck Storage Facili ty
The river forms the southern boundary and is approximately 50 feet wide. Since the construction of Argo Bam as a flood protection device, water levels have remained fairly constant. Seasonal fluctuation can be as much as two to three feet from the dead of summer dry levels to the large discharges that typically occur during early spring. The river course today has been stabilized and decreasing its width should not occur due to the downstream implications of such an action. If anything, the river could use some added width for more pedestrian contact and better flood control through "naturally" designed retention basins.
What vegetation exists on the site can be classified as fast growing, flood plain type vegetation, with shallow roots. It does provide some visual buffering of the river from inland uses, but its retention in development plans is not critical. The revised landscape plan should offer improved tree and shrub replacement that blends the mixed use development into its setting and provides some visual interest as well.
This two-story automotive repair facility does not offer substantial potential for renovation. Its bulk, orientation and siting interfere with proposed pedestrian circulation and open spaces and should be removed.
University These structures are also unfit, structurally and architecturally, of They should be removed from the proposed development.
Mi chigan Offi ces & Vacant Restaurant
(6) Pedestrian Circulation
(a) Existing As a corner lot, the bulk of the existing pedestrian circulation Conditions occurs slong Broadway and Wall Streets. Pedestrian movement along
(b) Master Plan Recommen- dations these paths typically results from shoppers heading toward or from the Kroger Shopping Center to the north. Other minor shopping trips to surrounding stores account for a small minority of pedestrian activity. A second minor pedestrian corridor occurs along the southern border, adjacent to the river. The City of Ann Arbor has provided an informal open space walkway system for quiet walks and bike rides along the river. No direct internal pedestrian circulation penetrates the core of the site. Two major internal pedestrian corridors, as proposed, will intersect on the site. One, in a north-south direction, will link the northern internal urban spaces to the Huron River. The other, in an east-west direction, will link the mixed use activities to the other pedestrian spaces across Broadway by means of an underground corridor. These corridors are strictly pedestrian in nature, and should be articulated as such. The river edge is also planned as a pedestrian space, primarily as a special exterior focus for the mixed use facility. A river inlet of some form is recommended to expand the amount of physical edge and to help in flood prevention. A secondary pedestrian bridge crossing is planned to extend from across the river to the southeastern portion of the site, and thereby linking both sides of the river. Of course the major pedestrian corridor will occur along the canopy portion of the redesigned Broadway Spine. Increased pedestrian widths along Wall Street will also serve as a major pedestrian generator from the eastern districts of the development. Major points of pedestrian entry are then along Broadway (midblock) from street level and subgrade level, and along Wall Street (midblock). Minor entries include the pedestrian bridge across the river and proposed midblock entry along the eastern edge linking the residential parcels and open spaces to the mixed use facility.
(7) Vehicular Circulation
(a) Existing Condi tions Along the western edge of the site, Broadway is considered one of three major Ann Arbor vehicular entries and exits, the other two
(b) Master Land Plan Recommendations
being Fuller Parkway and Main Street. The volumes of daily commuter traffic generally reinforces this observation. During rush hour periods, all four lanes (both directions) are filled to capacity. If this isn't enough, the Broadway corridor also re-cieves extensive off-peak traffic generated by the shopping center and the University of Michigan North Campus. It is important, then, to provide an efficient vehicular circulation system along Broadway.
Traffic on Wall Street is considered secondary, it merely provides a convenient link from Fuller to Broadway and vice versa. The scale of the roadway width does not reflect the intensity of vehicular activity and should be reduced.
Curb cuts along Broadway should be avoided to improve traffic flow unless turn-off lanes can be provided. Due to the compactness of the site, this event seems unlikely. A pedestrian dropoff is tentatively planned for the site, midblock along Broadway, but consideration should be given to the aforementioned requi rement.
As the major north-south vehicular corridor through the site and into the city, Broadway will be improved with two full-width traffic lanes (each direction) and a landscaped median, which also serves as left turning lane. As important as this corridor is to the image of the development and to the city in general, great care should be taken in the relationship of the mixed use facility to the Broadway Spine.
Wall Street will receive a secondary type improvement related to the scale of its use. Reduced street width, street trees and pedestrian lighting, and a smaller landscaped median should be considered for this street. Curb cuts for dropoffs are better suited along Wall than Broadway. The north-south pedestrian corridor that forms the north pedestrian entry into the site could be compatibly designed with such a vehicular dropoff.
A service drive and turnaround is planned for the eastern edge of the site. The service drive's exit onto Wall should be adequately spaced from Broadway so as not to cause vehicular turning conflicts and traffic slowdowns from Broadway. The service drive should provide access to the proposed mixed use site, nearby parking
(8) Parking and Site
(a) Number of Spaces
(b) Parking Entry & Exit
(c) Short Term Parking
(d) Delivery Truck Access
garage, and residential cluster closer to the river. This single drive will consolidate access drives and surb cuts onto Wall Street which improves the clarity of the vehicular circulation system.
Based on current city zoning requirements, an approximately number of parking spaces has been determined as:
(guest parking (long term) 121)
(restaurant (short term) - 20)
(bar (short term - 5)
2- Retail (short term)
3- Convention (short term)
4- Street Parking______________________
5- TOTAL PARKING REQUIREMENT (typical space dim.: 9'0"x20'0")
The 66 spaces anticipated for convention use will partly be met by the hotel guest parking since many of the hotel guests will in fact attend various convention activities. These spaces are then surplus parking for the complex and the business core in general.
All parking entry/exits should occur along the proposed service drive, thereby reducing conflicts along Wall Street.
150 spaces 66 spaces none
Convenient, easily accessible short term parking should be provided for retail shoppers and restaurant/bar patrons.
All deliveries, garbage pickup and general service vehicles are planned for the eastern edge, along the service drive, in combination with short term parking access drives and proposed receiving room. These delivery zones should be visually screened from shoppers arrives by car and on foot.
(e) Truck Turni ng
(g) Service Dri ve
(h) Fire Lane
All truck delivery pickups and deliveries should be rear loaded, therefore, ample turning spaces are required for mid-sized panel delivery trucks.
All parking and delivery areas should be well lighted:
minimum 2 fc., average 5fc. Lighting should be scaled appropriately
for intended user: vehicular, delivery and pedestrian.
Service drive shall be a paved, two-way drive with turnaround.
Width: 20' minimum
Curb and gutter, crowned section
Lighting: 5 fc. average; 2 fc. minimum
20 foot width, access to all buildings, front and rear.
Vehicular dropoffs should be planned as a non-circuitous drive providing convenient approach, delivery and exiting maneuvering space, in close proximity to a major pedestrian entry.
# of cars per dropoff: 3
min. radius: 20
width: 12-15' one-way
(1) Introduction Site development should be integrated with and reflect the urban
characteristics planned for the architectural elements. Such design integration and consistency should also flow between the various elements of the proposed site development: paving, landscaping, lighting, river edge treatment, and signing.
Through a consistency of site design as well as architectural design, the mixed use facility will present a well planned, logical and fully integrated visual image. The selection and application of various site details should be properly coordinated with the architectural design and should solve specific site problems to result in a unified development.
Basically the proposed site development should respond to the
following general goals:
(a) provide attractive pedestrian-oriented spaces of various sizes, scale and importance designed to encourage many levels of activities, special events and performances;
(b) reinforce and complement the urban forms and spaces generated by the proposed architecture;
(c) provide visual direction and sense of place for pedestrians and vehicles;
(d) project scale relationships between the individual, architecture and open space, and create an appropriate scale relationship to the adjoining districts;
(e) provide sensitive solutions to existing environmental and climatic conditions (sun protection, wind protection, soil erosion, and flood control);
(f) emphasize special event areas, entries, or important pedestrian intersections with appropriate landscaping and other site elements;
(g) reinforce vehicular and pedestrian circulation system and define spatial qualities of the open spaces;
(h) and, screen and buffer undesirable site elements and provide visual and physical privacy between uncompatible uses or activities.
(a) Vehicular Paving
(b) Pedestrian Paving
All roads, promenades, service drives, walks or pathways whether vehicular or pedestrian, should be paved.
Concrete: 8" unreinforced
Bituminous: 2" layer over 6" concrete sub-base Special Paving: special paving over 6" concrete "Grass Crete": fire lane paving in grassed areas
Allowable slopes: .5% 8%
Concrete curbs (6" high) are required on all streets and at the edges of parking areas.
Concrete: 4", unreinforced varying surface texture, scoring, or jointing patterns are economical ways of adding visual interest.
Bituminous: lh" layer over 4" compacted granular subgrade
Special paving: special paving over sand layer or mortar base or concrete base.
Allowable slopes: 1% 4%
A carefully planned and executed planting concept can do much to enhance the image of the proposed development. Criteria for selecting plan materials should include:
- desirability and tolerance to withstand urban conditions
- tolerant to extremely dry and wet soil conditions
- future growth
Canopy type trees producing shade, limited wind protection and adding a feeling of permanence to the site. (Honeylocust, ash, maple or oak plains tree.)
Dense screen plantings used to create visual barriers. Combining evergreen and deciduous material can create a pleasing composition and still achieve the desired result. (Hawthorn, crabapples, Austrian pine, spruce or maples.)
Being special, they should be placed in locations of special emphasis such as courtyards, entries or in backdrops for sculptural elements. They are considered secondary landscape elements.
(a) Pedestrian Lighting
(b) Vehicular Lighting
(5) River Edge T rea tmen t
Pedestrian and vehicular lighting requirements are substantially different. Regardless of the technical requirements, the design, detailing and installation of light sources should be integrated. Colors, materials, finish, forms, shapes and graphics can all be manipulated into a unified lighting system.
Average requirement: 1 fc. Warm light sources and reduced Special areas: 5 fc. pole heights (12 ft.) should be
Average pole height: 12' employed.
Vehicular lighting plan should be carefully considered. Direct light from a tall standard should not be reflected into interior spaces. Pole and head design, color, materials and graphics should complement the pedestrian system.
Average requirement: 5 fc.
Average pole height: 30'
Many other street elements can be successfully integrated with a light pole standard and should be considered:
traffic signals trash receptacles directional signs pedestrian light emergency phones
Huron River water levels will vary and the pedestrian edge should be treated accordingly. As the river levels recede, the exposed edge should not be unsightly or unattractive.
The promenade or river walk along the river should receive special emphasis, both for flood protection and pedestrian treatment.
Brick or granite paving, textured concrete or cobblestones are typical materials designed to give ample flood protection and giving visual interest, texture and style to the walkway.
River inlets should be dredged to an average depth of ten (10) feet to improve flood control.
The mixed use building design will provide many suitable locations for signage. Signing should be an integral part of the building design and the proposed site development. Uniformity of scale,
(7) Special Events
(8) Food Vendors
(9) Retaining Walls
letter design, placement and sign color should be well coordinated to avoid duplication and misrepresentation. Separate graphic systems should be employed to identify each component of the mixed use facility, but within a unified sense.
Site elements to be identified include:
through connection under Broadway
pedestrian corridor to open space
Many seasonal special events are programmed for the pedestrian open spaces along the river:
ice skating Music performances art displays raft races fishing
minstrel shows theater
Vendors' booths are to be included in the site design. They are required to be seasonally operated and converted into a warming and skating rental space during winter.
10 stalls, 8' x 10' each
They should be colorful, lacy, intricately designed booths that attract attention but do not detract from the unity of the site as a whole. Booths should be flexible, knockdown design to speed transformation during winter and to accomodate various vendor space requirements.
Grade transitions should be handled in strictly urban solutions Gabions for flood control are not recommended. Level changes can add visual interest to the project as well as solve grade problems. Reinforced concrete retaining walls are recommended: Maximum height: 3' Frost Depth; 42" Drainage: 4" agg. til
(10) Waterproofing To reduce the tendency for river water to run beneath pedestrian
plaza paving, a river edge waterproofing should be employed. Eliminating unnecessary water below the pavement reduces the risk of damage from the freeze-thaw cycle.
Services Truck deliveries should be centrally located to-serve all three r components and concentrate receiving facilities to one location.
Mechanical systems, particularly heating and cooling, should be centralized to reduce equipment costs, but duct runs should not be unrealistic.
Vertical transportation,elevators and stairs should be centralized for visual clarity but each component should be distinguished.
CPASV B-M r/0/v
Activity _ Grouping
Convention groups, although sor,retires hotel guests, should be separated visually and audibly from other groups.
Smaller convention groups should be separated from larger groups, but all convention activities should be fully integrated.
Activity or event-related pedestrian groupings should be physically separated from pedestrian flow, but within visual surveillance.
Hotel users and convention users should have opportunity to interact in public forum, separate from private hotel rooms.
Retail users should have full view of external pedestrian activities but with certain degree of separation, merely for identity.
Retail shops should serve both community and the Center but total integration with hotel and convention users is unnecessary.
Hotel rooms should have adequate privacy from all other components, groups or activities.
Hotel registration should be separated from the private room activities.
Main entry for all three components should be centrally located, integrated with each other, and linked to vertical transporation.
Hotel restaurant should be linked to convention facilities for possible food preparation and service during meetings or special events.
Retail spaces should have excellent position in the Center, easily accessible from foot as well as from the automobile.
Hotel lobby and convention foyer should have good visibility from exterior approaches and access to these spaces should be non-circuitous.
Receiving and delivery spaces are secondary and physically screened from all users.
Mechanical spaces should be out of view from all users, not accessible by the public.
Large convention meeting room should have more visibility than the smaller meeting rooms.
Administrative hotel spaces (managers' office, accounting, receiving, linen, etc.) are secondary, ancillary, and should be placed out of direct contact with high priority spaces.
Retail service corridors should not have contact with shopper spaces.
Entry lobby with elevators/escalators to hotel lobby and convention foyer should have good visibility from all major approaches (pedestrian and vehicular) and from within the Center itself.
Key retail tenants should receive prime locations and larger space allotment.
Key 1- Hotel
Relationships Back house activities should be directly related to hotel lobby/
Lobby space should have direct view and access to hotel desk.
Restaurant should have strong relationship to hotel lobby and desk.
2- Convention Center
Convention foyer directly related to large meeting room but with audio privacy between them.
Elevator directly opens onto convention foyer.
Minor melting spaces adjacent to large meeting room but not directly related; audio privacy required between each room.
Convention foyer strongly linked to hotel lobby.
Center receiving should have access to convention rooms.
No direct connections between hotel elevators and convention elevators.
Key tenants strongly related to important pedestrian entries or intersections.
Key tenants separated to produce through traffic past smaller tenants.
All tenants strongly related to receiving and storage.
Flexi- 1- Hotel bi 1 i ty
"Back of the house" spaces should accomodate convertibility and versatility if tenant changes occur.
Hotel rooms should permit a variety of furniture layouts, styles and sizes.
Small meeting rooms should easily expand into a larger room when joined.
Large meeting room should be convertible into many smaller rooms for private groups.
A variety of events will occur in each meeting room and flexibility should be planned.
Retail spaces should be flexible in widths, lengths, area and character to allow for a variety of tenant needs and for future tenant expansion, relocation or displacement.
Separated All pedestrian users in all components should be segregated from Flow automobile traffic, truck deliveries and automobile dropoffs.
All service corridors should be segregated from shoppers, convention-goers, and hotel guests.
Hotel lobby and convention foyer should have a certain degree of separation and privacy from everyday common shopping activities.
Service elevators should be shielded from public elevators.
Mixed A comrndn space, dedicated to multipurpose and multidirection
Flow circulation shall be provided to promote change and planned
encounters, as well as a central point of reference.
Circulation to all three components will flow through this common space.
Should be strongly related to proposed off-site pedestrian circulation.
(1) Introduction As the main vertical element of the mixed use complex, the hotel
component should be dominant cl early visible from surrounding land uses. Without obstructing views to the water or presenting a monolithic facade blocking access, the guest rooms should be oriented with full view of the river valley below.
(2) General Data and
(a) Number of Guest Rooms/ Height of Bui 1 ding
Based on analysis of current metropolitan hotel operations, market and relationships of the number of guest rooms to projected capacities of the convention facilities, 250-300 guest rooms are recommended. The Ann Arbor Convention Bureau has concluded through their own investigation that a major urban hotel facility of 300 to 450 rooms with convention facilities is in great demand in Ann Arbor. A hotel of this magnitude would be approximately 15 to
20 stories in height and 16,000 square foot typical guest floor area. Generally, the Broadway Bridge Center hotel facility should approximate 10-15 stories (250-300 rooms) which is significantly more sensitive to the scale of its urban surroundings.
Floor Area 22,000 SF
Guest 11,000 SF
(d) Guest Rooms
per Floor 32 *
(e) Stai rways
per Floor 2 *
(*) based on approximations from
typical hotels, Time Saver Standards
(3) Space Allocation The hotel has four general space divisions, classified according
A. Public space
B. Food and beverage service space
C. Guest room space
D. General service space
A. Public Public spaces comprise those areas open to the public as necessary
Spaces auxiliaries but that generally do not yield a direct profit:
1- Front desk area 300 SF
1 SF per guest room 20 LF counter
2- Combined lobby & lounge 1,500 SF
3- Mens' guest toilet 150 SF
4- Women's guest toilet 250 SF
5- Coat checkroom 100 SF
B, Food and
C. Guest Room Space
This division includes those areas designed for receiving, storage, preparation, and service of food and beverages for hotel guests, the public, and employees.
The restaurant is planned to serve not only the hotel guests but the general public as well. Public visibility and access is, therefore, very important to the success of the operation.
a. Main Kitchen 3,500 SF
b. Bar and cocktail lounge 1,000 SF
c. Dining room 4,000 SF
d. Lobby 100 SF
e. Men's toilet 100 SF
f. Women1s 150 SF
g. Receiving room 400 SF
h. Beverage store room 200 SF
i, Garbage room 100 SF
Subtotal * 9,600 SF
* not including circulation, structure, misc. areas
This division includes the guest rooms, guest baths, closets and vestibules; generally the area that guests rent. Also included are the various auxiliary spaces such as corridors, stair wells, elevator shafts, linen closets and extra room suites.
1- Guest room (250 rooms 0 250 SF/room) 62,500 SF
including single, double or twin bed, 3-piece bath, closet and entry vestibule
2- Auxiliary space 20,000 SF
including corridors, elevators, linen closets, walls and partitions ______(40% of total guest room areaj^ _______________
D. General Service Space
Other space allocations related to guest rooms include:
a. Guest rooms dimensions: 12'6" x 20'0"
b. Corridor width: 6'0"
c. Corridor length (max.): lOO'O"
d. Elevator foyer: 150 SF
e. Emergency stairs/floor: 2
f. Each guest floor should include a service areas for housekeeping service cart storage, cleaning supplies, vacuums, linens and towels. Each area should be large enough to handle room service cart storage, and the service elevator should open to this storage area, but not into the view of guests.
This division includes those areas for general administration, operation, maintenance, and storage not otherwise accounted for:
1- Manager's office 100 SF
2- Accounting office 100 SF
3- Linen room 150 SF
4- Mechanical space 1,200 SF
Subtotal 1,550 SF
Laundry service will be subcontracted outside the hotel operation
as well as all maintenance and hotel re
A. Public Spaces
front desk 300
combined lobby and lounge 1,500
men's guest toilet 150
women's guest toilet 250
coat checkroom SUBTOTAL 100
B. Food and Beverage Service Restaurant Spaces
main kitchen 3,500
bar & cocktail lounge 1,000
dining room (max. 250) 4,000
foyer men's toilet 100
women's toilet 150
recei ving/storage 400
beverage store room 200
C. Guest Room Spaces
Guest rooms 62,500
(250 rooms x 250 SF/room) Auxilliary space 20,000
(.40 x total)
D. General Service Spaces Manager's office Accounting office Linen room Mechanical space SUBTOTAL
(1) Introduction The Broadway Bridge Area Redevelopment Study has recommended that a retail space be included as a major component of the mixed use complex. As a specialty center, these retail spaces are intended to supplement the larger, community retail center located west of Broadway where personal services and convenience goods comprise the balance of the tenantry.
(a) Architectural Character The retail component should have its own visual identity and yet be fully integrated into the Broadway Bridge Center's total environment. The retail stores should be warm, inviting and attractive, designed to be a positive element within the landscape and highly compatible with surrounding residential and retail areas. The retail component should be open and walkable, linked to the other mixed use components by means of a partially enclosed pedestrian corridor. A human scale should be perceived by the shopper in direct contrast to the hotel component. Entrances to the interior pedestrian spaces from the exterior pedestrian-oriented river inlet should be obvious and easily accessible for all users.
(b) Tenants Based on preliminary market and feasibility studies, a specialty retail center is planned as part of the mixed use center. A variety of tenant-boutiques, import shops, high fashion, or specialty apparel shops, arts and crafts, food stores, food service outlet and restaurant should be considered. A key tenant such as a restaurant or specialty retail store, should be selected as a prime tenant to draw shoppers through the pedestrian corridors past smaller retail shops. The character of the retail tenants should suit the hotel and convention facilities that also share the site.
(c) Tenant Placement A few simple rules apply to tenant placement in the mixed use center: locate key tenant so that as much of the pedestrian traffic flows past the supplementary tenants; arrange parking, major entrances, and exits of the tenant groupings so that movement of customers to and from the key tenant is convenient and exposes other tenants;
Gross leaseable area;
Common malls, courts, corridors: Service corridors:
3.000 SF (max)
TOTAL 35,000 SF
Typical key tenant area (average): 2,000 SF
Typical small tenant area (average): 750 SF
Typical tenant area (average): 1,500 SF
Kiosks (maximum) 100 SF
Kiosks are encouraged for both interior and exterior spaces, placed in areas of heavy traffic to add a special flavor of activity and excitement.
(h) Multiple Levels
(i) Ceiling Height
For quick installation and reduced labor costs, a simple structural system should be used for this small specialty retail center, Steel beam and column construction with steel truss supporting light precast or poured-in-place concrete slab roof deck is a typical system.
Monolithic concrete floors with maintenance-free covering are also part of a typical system.
Vertical merchandising should be used on this restricted site to improve store-to-store proximity. The multi-leveled retail spaces will reduce site coverage and walking distances; and allow greater flexibility in relating to the pedestrian oriented river inlet proposed for the site.
Visibility of the various levels is very important in multilevel design, as are open wells and dramatic two-story design elements.
Vertical transportation should be located on the ends of the pedestrian corridors to draw shoppers past tenant spaces.
Cross bridges should be used to connect both sides of upper levels and offer dramatic views on both levels.
The appropriate clear ceiling height depends somewhat on the exterior architectural treatment. Lower finished ceilings tend to cut heating and cooling costs, but require occasional architectural breaks to relieve the tunnel characteristics.
Distance from floor slab to floor slab (or bar joist for roof) should vary from 9 to 13 feet. This will allow an air space of two to three feet between finished ceiling and roof for mechanical equipment, plumbing, and electrical hardware.
(d) Exterior Features - any convenience-type tenant should have relatively easy access from the parking areas. A hodge-podge retail appearance should be avoided, but the need for a unified exterior treatment should not be confused with the need to create a distinctive retail image through the use of more than one major material. Materials selected should be durable, easily maintained, waterproof, available, and of course, attractive. In a partially enclosed retail component as this, details of exterior architectural design are most important for emphasizing entrances to internal retail corridors. Material changes, roof variations, or wall extension or indentation should be introduced to identify the entrances and to give them a distinctive appearance.
(e) Tenant Spaces Interior finishing and fixturing are not to be included except as part of a specially negotiated turnkey job. The developer will furnish the bare space only. The developer will, however, assist tenants in storefront planning and design, respecting the importance of harmonious store interiors and creating a pleasing and exciting retail image for the complex as a whole. Standard store widths and lengths cannot be given for any particular tenant; Store Depth; 30' 60' Store Width: 25' minimum Smaller stores add character to the center, but care must be taken that suitable depths are provided by overlapping a larger store behind the smaller store in an "L" configuration.
(f) Retail Space Flexibility Structural column spacings should allow for a measure of flexibility in store partitioning. Except for fire walls, partitions between tenant spaces should not be used as bearing walls. Tenant partitions should be built of material and by methods allowing for easy removal and renovation. Structural elements such as plumbing and heating stacks, air conditioning ducts, toilets and stairways should be placed on end walls or on the walls least likely to be removed.
* & t?.
(2) Types of Spaces
(a) Ballroom/ Large Meeting Room
(b) Meeting Rooms
(c) Foyer or Vestibule
(d) Serving Pantry
(f) Coat room
Convention facilities with adjoining hotel rooms are in great demand in Ann Arbor, A medium-sized facility is planned for the Broadway Bridge Center. Large spaces are more readily available downtown and the University of Michigan. The convention center should be an integral component of the mixed use component, with good visibility and access, and having its own identity.
Flexibility in room design should be provided to serve many groups of different sizes.
This room should have the capacity to seat approximately 500 people or two groups of 250. Adequate visual and audio privacy is required for the two groups. The space should also function as a ballroom or banquet room for large gatherings of up to 500.
Four smaller meeting rooms each with seating capacity of 75 are required, Additionally, these rooms are required to be combined into two larger rooms of 150 seated people. Each room should have ample space for aisles, storage and presentation space.
As a large lobby or gathering space, the foyer serves as the major entrance to the ballroom/large meeting room. A combination of exhibition space and lobby is preferred.
Simply, this space, adjoining the main ballroom, is a food assembly and pickup area for banquets.
Men's and women's toilets are required, one each.
Storage of guest, coats and miscellaneous material.
Preferably adjoining the main ballroom, this space is required for storage of chairs, tables and miscellaneous displays.
The convention facilities are to be serviced by an elevator, separate from the hotel elevators.
(a) Ballroom/Large meeting room 5,000 SF
(b) Meeting rooms 3,000 SF
(c) Foyer or vestibule 850 SF
(d) Serving pantry 500 SF
(e) Toilets 500 SF
Men; 250 SF Women; 250 SF
(f) Coatroom 150 SF
(g) Storage 250 SF
(h) Elevator 60 SF
SUBTOTAL 10,310 SF
& partitions) 1,031 SF
TOTAL 11,341 SF
(1) Introduction Servicing, or loading and unloading of deliveries, shall jointly
serve all mixed use components: hotel, retail, and convention.
Area 1,500 1,800 SF (not including miscellaneous service corridors)
1- Loading Dock: capable of servicing three (3) mid-sized panel trucks unloading simultaneously. Trucks should have ample maneuvering space to back directly into the loading dock.
2- Receiving: designed to temporarily hold and store various goods until transfer to specific destinations within the center
(800 SF min.).
3- Service Elevator: one service elevator is required for the entire complex.
4- Office 100 SF
Since the service facility involves the loading and unloading of goods, it should be screened and placed out of direct customer view. The receiving area shall hold most deliveries until shipment through service corridors or the service elevator. Occasional over-the-sidewalk delivery should not distract shoppers or hotel and convention users.