Material Information

Vasquez a ski area development for Winter Park Recreation Association, Winter Park, Colorado
Added title page title:
Ski area development for Winter Park Recreation Association, Winter Park, Colorado
Dahlgren, Kelvin W
Place of Publication:
Denver, Colo.
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
32 unnumbered leaves : maps, plans ; 22 x 37 cm

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
College of Design and Planning, CU Denver


Subjects / Keywords:
Ski resorts -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Winter Park ( lcsh )
Ski resorts ( fast )
Colorado -- Winter Park ( fast )
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )


Includes bibliographical references (leaf 24).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Kelvin W. Dahlgren.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09790201 ( OCLC )
LD1190.A72 1978m .D285 ( lcc )

Full Text

The combined efforts of the following people were exceedingly helpful through the past months. I would like to acknowledge their input into this project and thank them for their time and suggestions.
G. K. Vetter Professor, University of Colorado, Denver
Alvaro Malo Professor, University of Colorado, Denver
Gary Long Professor, University of Colorado, Denver
Davis Holder Professor, University of Colorado, Denver
Bill Ruoff Architect, Vail, Colorado
Ken Wentworth - Associate in Bill Ruoffs office
Larry Kunz Maintenance and Construction Supervisor for plant department, Winter Park Ski Area, Colorado
John Graves Project Manager, Winter Park Ski Area Colorado
Bill Brown Plant Manager, Winter Park Ski Area, Colorado
Hal Newberry Technical Assistant, Winter Park Ski Area, Colorado
Terry Barnhart- Gage Davis and Associates, Boulder, Colorado

Colorado has the largest and fastest growing ski industry in the United States, attracting skiers from all over the country, as well as from abroad. This increase in skier demand has been the basis for an increase in the ski industry in this state. Economics and development policies have strongly dictated a preference for expansion of existing ski areas over the development of new areas. Thus, the past several years have seen a number of expansion developments to Colorado ski areas, not only in the increased number of ski lifts and runs, but also in facility development as well.

The Winter Park Recreation Association, which operates the Winter Park ski area, is one such organization involved in expanded development. At present, the Winter Park ski area consists of the original Winter Park base area and the recently developed Mary Jane ski area. Their plans are for a 50 percent increase in lifts and facilities within the next five years, to include not only extensive expansion to existing areas, but to new ski areas as well.

The facilities at Mary Jane, since it is a relatively new area, will require very little attention. The mountain area, however, is planned for additional work with added lifts and runs, and with the inclusion of Parsenne Bowl, a set of lifts and runs expanding the existing Mary Jane ski area.
The facilities at the Winter Park ski base area on the other hand are scheduled for very extensive building projects. In addition to future ski lifts and runs the Winter Park base area will be completely replaced with new building facilities, with the exception of the administration building which will remain and which will be integrated into the planned building complex. Besides experiencing structural problems, the other major factor in rebuilding the Winter Park base area is a shortage of space in most of the public facilities.
It should be noted that adequate public area is of prime importance in ski area facility planning.
Finally, the major growth of the Winter Park ski area will be with the inclusion of a third base area, called Vasquez, in a valley to the west of the Winter Park base area along Little Vasquez Creek. Like Mary Jane, Vasquez will be an independent ski area, yet affiliated with the Winter Park Recreation Association. Vasquez will have its own mountain operations, but the Winter Park base area will handle all of the administrative functions and the three interconnected ski slopes allow for people to ski from one area to the other at their own will. Vasquez is planned for an ultimate mountain capacity of 5,100 people compared to 6,000 people at Winter Park, 3,500 at Mary Jane and 400 at Parsenne Bowl, making it the second largest area of the Winter Park ski area by a substantial margin. Vasquez is expected to be the last major expansion of Winter Park.

Winter Park is located in Grand County, 67 miles from Denver in the north-central part of Colorado. The ski area is accessible by U. S. 40, just north of Berthoud Pass, elevation 11,314 feet, and in the vicinity of the town of Hideaway Park. The Winter Park base area, at the head of the Moffat Tunnel, is owned by the City and County of Denver. The Winter Park Recreation Association, which, as mentioned previously, operates the ski area, is a non-profit organization and an independent agency of the City and County of Denver. The Winter Park ski area, opened for skiing in 1940, was adopted as a recreation area and a part of the Denver Mountain Parks System. The remainder of the ski area is located in the Arapahoe National Forest which is controlled by the U. S. Forest Service. The Mary Jane ski area, located just southeast of the Winter Park base area, was opened in 1975. Vasquez is scheduled to open in the early 1980s.

The base area study site, planned for development to the southwest of the Winter Park base, is in a valley (elevation 9,280 feet) and situated along Little Vasquez Creek. The valley is oriented north-south with 25 to 30 degree slopes on either side and is heavily forested with evergreen trees. Views are primarily short distant and virtually in all directions. The valley presents a view corridor with distant mountain views both to the north and to the south above the treetops.
The site can expect to get an average snowpack of between 55 inches to 65 inches annually with a snowfall of anywhere between 280 inches and 400 inches a year. Mid-winter temperatures range from highs of +20 to +40F and lows of between -20 to +15F. Conditions throughout the year are generally clear, with most of the overcast days limited to the latter part of January and into February. The winds are generally created by a micro-climate, with the warmer, and generally stronger, day winds blowing up-slope and the colder night winds flowing down the valley.
Due to the slopes to the west and east of the site, the site does not receive any morning sun until the sun reaches an altitude of about 20 and is shaded from the afternoon light when the setting sun drops below about 18 altitude. Also, because of the latitude of the site, the daily swing of the rising and setting sun varies greatly allowing for longer daylight hours in March compared to December. A chart listing the sun's altitude and azimuth at various times of the year and the shading factor for each side of the valley is shown in the accompanying pages.
Little Vasquez Creek is a year-round stream with spring snow melt conditions creating a maximum flow. In addition, the aquaduct supplying water to Denver thru the Moffat Tunnel, is located just south of the site, spanning the valley with a 4^ foot diameter above grade siphon. This siphon would have to be buried with access similar to the provisions made at the Winter Park base area. An overflow spillway is also connected to the aquaduct, mainly to handle the maximum spring flow, eliminating any potential for building down the valley from that.

East Valley. Slope West Facing
Rising shading @ 23 (50 azimuth) Setting shading @ 14 (60 azimuth)
Rising -23 altitude
10:20 Dec 21 (25 azimuth)
9:40 Jan 21 (36 azimuth)
9:30 Jan 31 (40 azimuth)
9:20 Feb 11 (45 azimuth)
9:00 Feb 21 (50 azimuth)
8:30 Feb 28 (59 azimuth)
8:00 Mar 21 (70 azimuth)
7:30 Apr 11 (82 azimuth)
7:20 Apr 21 (88 azimuth)
West Valley Slope East Facing
Rising shading ,@ 20 (55 azimuth) Setting shading @ 20 (60 azimuth)
Rising -20 altitude
9:45 Dec 21 (31 azimuth)
9:40 Jan 11 (35 azimuth)
9:20 Jan 21 (40 azimuth)
9:00 Jan 31 (45 azimuth)
8:45 Feb 11 (50 azimuth)
8:30 Feb 21 (56 azimuth)
8:00 Mar 11 (67 azimuth)
7:30 Mar 31 (79 azimuth)
7:00 Apr 21 (90 azimuth)

Setting - 3:00
14 altitude 3.20
Dec 21 0 CM s-/ azimuth)
Jan 21 (48 azimuth)
Jan 31 (52 azimuth)
Feb 21 (62 azimuth)
Feb 20 (68 azimuth)
Mar 21 (77 azimuth)
Mar 31 (84 azimuth)
Apr 21 (93 azimuth)
Setting -20 altitude
2:15 Dec 2:40 Jan 3:00 Jan 3:30 Feb 3:45 Feb 4:00 Mar 4:20 Mar 5:00 Apr
21 (32
21 (40
31 (45
21 (56
28 (62
11 (67
21 (73
21 (90


Fresh water to the site is expected to be supplied either by a well or taken from the aquaduct itself.
It should be noted at this point that Little Vasquez Creek supplies the fresh water for Hideaway Park.
Solid wastes will be disposed of by compactor and trucked to a sanitary landfill, requiring the county to expand the existing inadequate facility. Sewage treatment, at present, is also inadequate in Hideaway Park and needs to have particular attention to prevent polluting Hideaway Park's water supply. At present, the Hideaway Park District is studying the various potentials for sewage treatment which will include either a hook-up to the system for Vasquez, or an independent packaged plant. To date, gas has been the principal fuel supplied to Winter Park. However, studies have been undertaken to research the possibility of converting to and using coal for future fuel supplies. Power is supplied by Mountain Parks Electric. Fire protection will be handled by the Hideaway Park fire department as well as Winter Park's own in-house fire department.

Due to the extreme environmental conditions found at such a mountain site, special attention must be given to the building's response to these factors to create a compatible solution.
Snow is probably of prime consideration. The build-up of snow essentially raises the grade level and thus building entries and openings must take this into account to prevent blocking any openings. For entries and snow-free areas, it is advisable to raise the level sufficiently above the expected snowpack and provide steps to the actual grade and thus allowing the snow to build up at the steps instead of at building entries.
Snow build-up on the roof is also important and for this two possibilities exist. One is to remove the snow entirely from the roof by providing a steep, smooth roof and the other alternative is to retain snow on the roof. This is accomplished by a low pitch roof with a friction surface or special "pins" to hold the snow. Although it provides good insulation, snow retained on
the roof needs to be carefully analyzed to ensure a sound structure. For the Winter Park area, a snow loading of 100 psf should be designed into the structure, and ice damming at the eaves can be controlled thru heated gutters and downspouts. It should be noted here that the unique bridging action of snow, a result of the snow to weigh heaviest where the resistance is the greatest, causes the snow loading to be greater at walls and columns than at mid-span. Finally, sluffing of snow from a roof, even a low pitched roof, should be controlled to prevent dumping snow at the building entry or other public areas.
The effects of the sun at higher altitudes, thru increased radiation, is also a factor in building design. To deflect the high, hot summer sun, deep-set windows or overhangs should be provided to still allow the warming, low winter sun to penetrate the building. The sun should also be provided for snow melting by proper orientation of building entries and public areas.

Parking at the Vasquez ski area is scheduled to handle up to about 1,425 spaces, at an average of 2.85 skiers per car and 20 percent of the spaces devoted to charter buses. At present however, due to an extreme lack of adequate parking areas, the Winter Park Recreation Association is studying the possible expansion of the existing shuttle system. This system now connects Winter Park, Mary Jane and Hideaway Park. Proposals to an expanded system call for a major central parking area with a connecting shuttle system to include the present departure points as well as the Vasquez ski area. This would require only a shuttle system dropoff point at the Vasquez base.
The orientation of the base facilities should be such as to maximize the benefits of both sun and view, and likewise, the spatial arrangement of the various building functions should be organized so that the appropriate spaces also receive the maximum benefit of sun and view.
The view, and in particular the short distant views, are of the utmost importance and the project should be based around this precept. Even more prominent than the building functions and the relationships that are created is the consideration of people watching other people. With this in mind, the concept should be one that surrounds the major outside activity area, the staging area, with the indoor public activity area.
This suggests a plaza scheme, and going even further by bringing the staging area into the building. This concept should continue within the building walls as well by enhancing activity integration among the variety of building functions, particularly the public areas.
Finally, a very strong spatial progression is apparent in the functional relationships of a ski area base facility. Arriving skiers, especially, create a strong progression. At the arrival, skiers usually proceed to the cafeteria and restrooms first, then to ticketing, the staging area, and finally the lifts. This progression can be enhanced by providing a hierarchy of focal

points to help orient a person. A diagram indicating relationships of the building functions within the context of the concept just established is included and suggests this patial progression.

Skier Base Facility Commercial and Public Areas
Lobby - 3,000 sf
Information Booth - 150 sf
Pub - 1,700 sf
Lounge - 6,700 sf
Cafeteria - 8,400 sf
Scramble Area - 2,500 sf
Kitchen - 5,000 sf
Ski Rental - 8,300 sf
Ski Ticket Sales - 1,200 sf
Ski Equipment Retail - 5,100 sf
General Retail - 4,500 sf
Indoor Play Area - 800 sf
Crib Room - 400 sf
Kitchen - 110 sf
Boy's Restroom - 70 sf
Girl's Restroom - 70 sf
Men's Restroom - 2,100 sf
Women's Restroom - 2,100 sf
Seasonal Locker Room - 1,600 sf
Day Lockers - 1,100 sf
Handicap Area 800 sf
Sun Terraces - 6,700 sf
Service Docks 800 sf
63,200 sf
Supporting Services
First Aid
Waiting Area 80 sf
Lounge 100 sf
Medical Director's Office 120 sf
X-Ray Room 170 sf
(2)~~ Exam Rooms 120 sf
Bunk Room 550 sf
Ambulance Garage 575 sf
Ski Patrol
Lounge-Meeting Room 200 sf
Locker Room 180 sf
Men's Restroom 200 sf

Women' s Restroom - 150 sf
(2) Offices no sf each
Ski School
Lounge-Meeting Room - 375 sf
Locker Room - 350 sf
Mens Restroom - 300 sf
Women's Restroom - 300 sf
(2) Offices - no sf each
General Office Area - 200 sf
Waiting Area - 200 sf
Mineograph-Storage Room - 100 sf
Lift Attendants
Lounge-Meeting Room - 350 sf
Locker Room - 350 sf
Men's Restroom - 300 sf
Women's Restroom - 300 sf
Security Office - 350 sf
6,480 sf
Total Skier Base Facility 69,680 sf


Lodging Units
(100) Double Rooms - 400 sf each
(6) Suites - 800 sf each
Maid Service Rooms - 140 sf each
(per floor) 45, ,360 sf
Commercial and Public Areas
Lobby - 800 sf
Lounge - 950 sf
Men's Restroom - 150 sf
Women's Restroom - 200 sf
Ski Storage Room - 700 sf
Baggage Storage Room - 275 sf
Vending Machines - 80 sf
Cocktail Lounge - 750 sf
Restaurant - 2, ,100 sf
6. ,005 sf
Recreation Facilities Health Club
Saunas-Steam Room - 250 sf
330 sf
Men's Lockers-Restroom - 375 sf
Women's Lockers-Restroom - 375 sf
Attendant's Station - 80 sf
Pool - 1,050 sf
Games Room - 475 sf
2,935 sf
Lodging Administration
Front Office
Front Desk - 130 sf
Reservations Office - 110 sf
Group Sales Office - 110 sf
Manager's Office - 125 sf
Food & Beverage Office - 120 sf
Accounting-Comptroller Office 160 sf
General Office-Waiting Area 275 sf
Mimeograph-Storage Room - 80 sf
1,110 sf

Supporting Services
Laundry Room - 750 sf
Linen Storage - 350 sf
General Storage - 300 sf
Furniture Storage - 250 sf
Receiving Room - 180 sf
Employee Lockers-Restrooms - 680 sf
Maintenance Shops - 400 sf
Service Docks - 400 sf
3,310 sf
Mechanical Services
Boiler Room - 600 sf
Fuel Storage - 200 sf
Refrigeration Compressor - 400 sf
Fan Room-Ventilation - 400 sf
Transformer Vault - 100 sf
1,700 sf
Total Lodging - 60,420 sf
Total Project - 130,100 sf

Skier Base Facility
* serves as a central area for the functions necessary in the operation of a ski area
* serves the needs of the day skier
* serves as a focal point, a meeting place
* generates a large volume of activity
* circulation and functional relationships are important and critical
* should enhance people watching people
* serves as a focal point, an entry
* serves as a circulation hub, a point of transition
* generates a large volume of activity
* includes information booth-lost and found
* should be spacious
* all public areas should be recognized from lobby to enhance circulation
* serves as a social gathering place, apres-ski entertainment
* has a slow turnover of people

* provide table seating for 150, access to terraces
* provide bar and limited food service
* provide dance floor and band stage
* create passive day use, active-crowded night activity
* relate to cafeteria, views of staging area, slopes
* atmosphere should be intimate, comfortable
* serves as overflow from cafeteria as well as for lounging
* has an average turnover rate of people
* provide comfortable table seating, access to outside eating terraces
* relate to pub and cafeteria, view of staging area, slopes, orient to afternoon sun
* create variety of small spaces
* serves as a dining area
* has a high turnover rate, most active, noisy

* provide seating for 700, also access to outside eating decks
* provide easy access from slopes, views of staging area and slopes, orient to afternoon sun
* relates directly to scramble area, also to lounge and pub
* create variety of smaller spaces, yet spacious, open
Scramble Area
* basically a self-serve food service area
* generates very crowded conditions, with
people carrying trays
* provide central hot dish preparation area
* relates directly to kitchen and cafeteria, with easy access from slopes
* create one-way directional flow (with beverage service last) to ease circulation conflicts
* should be spacious to ease waiting lines at entry, central preparation area and check-out

* serves as main central preparation area for all food services for skier base facility
* requires receiving room, garbage room, dry and cold storage, baking, food preparation area, dishwashing, employee lockers, lounge, restrooms, and manager's office, with access to service docks
* provide direct access to scramble area, pub and outdoor bar-be-que
Ski Rental
* supplies ski equipment rental and repair service to the general public
* generates large volume of activity, with clumsy carrying of skiis
* provide seating area for trying on boots, area with tables for adjusting skiis, checking counter, repair shop to service public, and 2,200 sf for storage of rental skiis, poles and boots
* situate ski rental for ease of locating as well as with a direct access to slopes

Ski Ticket Sales
* serves as sales for lift tickets and registration for ski school and ski races
* generates a large volume of activity
* provide employee lounge and restrooms, busi ness office, 10 windows for ticket sales,
2 windows for ski race registration and ski school
* locate at staging area to service lodging guests as well as day skiers
* locate so queing does not conflict with staging area circulation
Ski Equipment Retail
* serves as sales for ski equipment, accessories, and clothing
* provide cashier area, changing rooms, stock storage, office, employee lounge and lavatory and access to service docks
* provide for easy location and attraction, most business comes from slopes
General Retail
* serves as sales for gifts, books and magazines, drug store items, sundry items, and some grocery and liquor
* provide cashier area, stock storage, office employee lounge and lavatory, and access
to service docks
* provide for easy location and attraction, with partial sales related to lodging
* serves as all day babysitting service
* provide outdoor playground and small instructional ski slope
* situate for ease of locating, orient to sun Seasonal Lockers
* provide for 400 full size rental lockers, locate near public restrooms
Day Lockers
* provide for 500 minimal size lockers, situate near public restrooms and lobby, easy to locate

Handicap Area
* provide for handicap ski equipment storage, dressing area, restrooms, and office
* integrate handicap area within other base facilities as much as possible
Sun Terraces
* orient to the afternoon sun, with seating
* provide outdoor bar-be-que service, with outdoor eating
First Aid
* provide 12 cots for bunk room
* requires direct access to ambulance and to outside slopes, as well as access for the general public
Ski Patrol
* provide for 25 patrol members, with easy access to slopes, ski storage
Ski School
* provide for 60 ski school instructors, with easy access to slopes, ski storage
* business offices require public access
Lift Attendants
* provide for 60 employees, with easy access to slopes, ski storage
Security Office
* provide general office-waiting area with two desks, lockers, lavatory.

* serves as accommodations for overnight guests
* serves as a social gathering place
* generates a large volume of activity, both day and evening activity
* provide 100 double rooms and 6 suites, and all functions required for the operation of the lodging of overnight guests
* keep building low and compact
* do not dominate the land with the large mass, reflect and blend in with the character of the tree and slope
* encourage and enhance the release of the daily work grind, stress relaxation
* integrate day skier activity with overnight guest activity
* serves as a minor focal point, an entry
* serves as a circulation hub, a point of transition
* generates a large volume of activity, checkin and check-out, and skier activity
* provide seating-waiting area, relates to front desk, temporary baggage storage, restrooms

* provide access from vehicle drop-off area as well as to slope
* ease circulation conflict between skier activity and check-in and check-out
* serves as a social gathering place, a place to relax
* a passive space, quiet
* as the "heart" of the project, provide large fireplace and comfortable seating, character
* create intimate area along with major space, orient to views and sun, with access to terrace
Ski Storage Room
* serves as a storage room for ski equipment of overnight guests
* provide lockable storage for 400 pairs of skiis and poles
* relates to check-in desk and with access to slopes

Cocktail Lounge
* serves as a social gathering place
* an active area, crowded
* provide seating for 50, with bar and area for staging entertainment
* relates to restaurant, terraces, with access to restrooms
* provide character, atmosphere
* serves as dining area for lodging guests as well as day skiers
* provide 700 sf for kitchen with food preparation, office, employee areas, food storage, and access to service docks
* provide seating for 80, waiting area, cashier coat room, men and women's restrooms
* relates to cocktail lounge, terrace
* atmosphere important



Cereghini, Mario, Building in the Mountains, Milano, Edizioni Del Milione, 1956.
Development Plan,.Beaver Creek, by Vail Associates,
Inc. March 1977.
Mackinlay, Ian and Willis, W. E., Snow Country Design, Research undertaken with the support of a U. S. Federal Grant.
Olgyay, Victor, Design with Climate, New Jersey,
Princeton University Press, 1963.
Steamboat, Phase I Analysis Concepts, by Ken R. White Co.
Winter Park-Vasquez-Environmental Reconnaissance and Preliminary Base Area Planning Considerations, by Beardsley, Davis, Erickson, Inc. March 1974.
Winter Park Facility Program-Methodology and Reconnaissance Study, by Gage Davis and Associates.
January 1977.
Winter Park Base Area Study, by Gage Davis and Associates. September 1977.

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