Citation
An art museum for the University of Colorado at Boulder

Material Information

Title:
An art museum for the University of Colorado at Boulder thesis proposal
Creator:
Foreman, Dean
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
44 leaves, [9] leaves of plates : illustrations (some color), plans ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Art museums -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Boulder ( lcsh )
Art museums ( fast )
Buildings ( fast )
Colorado -- Boulder ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 44).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Dean Foreman.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
08677624 ( OCLC )
ocm08677624
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1980 .F67 ( lcc )

Full Text
THESIS PROPOSAL
AN ART MUSEUM FOR
THE UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT BOULDER
Dean Foreman Fall 1980


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Museum Characteristics / Functions 1
Administration / Operational Staff 2
Survey 3
Survey Results 6
Required Spaces / Sizes 8
Individual Space Descriptions 9
Gallery Arrangements 14
Circulation 16
Spatial Organization 17
Spatial Arrangements 19
Lighting 20
Planning For Security 24
Uniform Building Code 29
Site 34
Mechanical Systems
Steam 35
Water 35
Sanitary Sewer 37
Electrical 38
Topography 39
Vegetation 40
Boulder Climatological Data 41
List Of Advisors 43
Bibliography 44
Solution
4S


MUSEUM CHARACTERISTICS FUNCTIONS
A museum is an organism. Begun through donations of artworks needing safe, controlled facilities for their protection, the museum grows as the facilities invite additional donations and travelling exhibitions are displayed. Permanent collections grow and are added to the materials stored (usually for study) in the curatorial spaces. This reserve serves as the basis for rotation of exhibits or parts of collections in theme showings.
A university art museum takes on the added responsibility of education. Art departments schedule visitations for periodic showings, public lectures and seminars as well as workshops. Detailed study by interested students and visitors must be accommodated.
The idea for an art museum at the University of Colorado was initiated by a Denver art collector who wished to donate a collection of 3,000 prints by Joseph Turner to the school provided they could store the works in a safe, environmentally controlled space. The existing galleries at the university are inadequate to handle such a donation.
Should the University of Colorado construct such a facility and receive the Turner collection, a London museum has expressed interest in loaning a collection of art complimentary to the Turner works.
Although the University of Colorado is no longer actively persuing construction of such a facility, this situation is the basis for my thesis project.


ADMINISTRATION / OPERATIONAL STAFF
President and Governing Board
i
Director
CURATOR
- in charge of all artwork display storage responsibility
- usually not a large staff in art museums
- in many small museums curator prepares materials for display -in larger museums artists and craftsmen repair or restore
REGISTRAR
- in control of incoming works
- inspection registration photography SUPERVISOR
- controls building operations maintainance
- in charge of mechanical personnel guards laborers


3
SURVEY
Because of a limited ability to visit university art museums to do research I decided to construct a survey to be sent to a variety of University facilities. The schools chosen for the survey were decided upon for reasons including; the size of the schools, the existence of a separate facility, and the ability to find printed material on those facilities. The museums chosen were:
* University Art Gallery State University of N. Y.
Georgia Museum of Art University of Georgia
University of Texas Art Museum
* University Art Museum Berkeley, California
* Fogg Art Museum Harvard University
* Duke University Museum of Art
* Museum of Art University of Oregon
Harvard Art Museum
Institute For the Arts Rice University, Texas
University Galleries University of Southern California
* Yale University Art Gallery
New York University Art Collection University of Notre Dame Art Gallery
* Art Museum Princeton University
Washington University Gallery of Art St. Louis, Missouri
* Those surveys answered and returned.



The University of Colorado Is presently In the planning stages for the construction of a facility to exhibit artwork. Following Is a survey to be used to help develop a program for that facility. We would greatly appreciate aid In that development. We realize some of the questions may be difficult to answer or may not apply to your facilities but please answer as many questions as thoroughly as possible and return this questlonalre to:
Dean Foreman 1300 30th, B2-23 Boulder. Co.
80303
1. How many students attend the university? _________________
2. Do you have a separate facility to display artwork?_______
3. Who Is the architect for your facility?___________________
4. Is your facility sited In a busy area or quiet?
5. What was the total building cost?_________________________
6. What Is the average monthly upkeep cost?__________________
7. Whet Is the total size of your facility?__________________
Use and Visitation
1. What kinds of visitors do you receive? students,tourist?, locals, others (circle those applicable)
2. How many visitors per day?_______ Could you handle more?___
3. Operational hours per day_______________ week_____________
Do any large groups use the facility?_____________________
5. Are there organized tours?________________________________
6. Do you sell artwork?______________________________________
7. What kinds of exhibits do you display?
Operational Procedures: Spaces
Cross out procedural skips and circle functions handled In single spaces. Add any Intermediate steps.
Q>
----->
Unload ing
material
at dock
:kin
Packing
Carpentry
shop
GH(Dt Receiving
Unpacking
Shipping

Recording
Examination
Recordlng Examination

Temporary storage


Shipping
aim
Loading dock
------->1
Temporary
storage
--------
Exhibition
area s


5
Operational Procedure, contj
Do you handle travelling exhibits?___________________________
What Is the average length of stay of those exhibits?
Number of travelling exhibits per year_______________________
Do you maintain permanent collections?
If yes, § of works and approx, spatial requirements__________
How much space Is given to travelling exhibits?
Do you display works of students, faculty, local artists? ("circle) How many employees do you maintain?__________________________
Physical Facility
Check spaces contained in your facility. Indicate any functions combined In a single space. Give approx, dimensions or square footages.
0 Public lobby 0 Loading Dock
0 Coat Room 0 Shipplng/Recelving
0 Sales 0 Box/ Wood Storage
0 Ticket Office 0 Recording/ Examination
0 Restaurant 0 Mounting/ Framing
0 Library 0 Pecking/ Carpentry
0 Theater/ Lecture 0 Conservation
0 Toilets 0 Photography
0 Meeting Rooms 0 Temporary Storage
0 Study Spaces 0 Elevator/ Lobby
0 Service/ Reception 0 Curators' Office
0 Lounge 0 Registrars' Office
0 Courtyard 0 Staff Offices
0 Sculpture Garden 0 Staff Entrance/ Lobby
.0 Exhibition Space 0 Supply Loading Dock
0 Parking (# spaces) 0 Supply Storage
0 Others (specify) 0 Kitchen
0 Mechanical Spaces
0 Permanent Collection Storage
t. What kind of security systems does your facility have?
2. Has your facility ever expended? Will It?
3. What provisions for flexibility of display arrangements
does your facility have?_________________________________
4. Comments or additional information.
Thank you for your help and time


fc.
SURVEY RESULTS
Various questions were placed on the survey to obtain information regarding the scale of university museums, siting, costs, use and visitation, operational procedures, details regarding the faciiities and sizes of spaces. The research was hampered by a 50% return rate and incomplete surveys, however, the information was valuable and is capsulized below.
I attempted to send surveys only to schools with separate museum facilities and student populations similar to the University of Colorado's. I found that university size had no direct correllation to the size of the museums. Sizes ranged from 11,000 sq. ft. to 140,000 sq. ft.
Most facilities are sited in busy areas, and yet all feel that some expansion is necessary in the future.
Visitation includes students, tourists and locals from the community. Almost all remain open 8 hours per day and approximately 6 days per week.
Many museums conduct organized tours, but none sell artwork.
Every museum responding held permanent collections of some kind and most handled travelling exhibits. The number of those travelling shows varied from 2 to 15 per year and averaged in length of stay 4 to 8 weeks.
The number of employees varied from 4 to 100 averaging around 20 depending on the size of the facilitj'.
Normal operational procedures followed this pattern: 1) unloading material at the dock, 2) receiving and unpacking, 3) recording, examination, and photography, 4) temporary storage, 5) exhibition, then back through the process. Changes in that process usually came at the receiving area where functions were doubled up in spaces. Frequently the loading dock area doubled as the shipping and packing area. Sometimes recording and examination was handled in that space as well. A common doubling up of space also occured in recording/ examination and temporary storage.
The remainder of the survey concentrated on the actual spaces contained in the respective museums and their sizes and are tabulated below.


1
SURVEY RESULTS
SCHOOL SUNY HARVARD OREGON DUKE PRINCE. YALE BEREKELY
TOT.SQ.FT. 11,000 73,000 11,000 33,500 140,000 62,000
# STUDENTS 25,000 10,000 18,000 8,963 6,000 11,000 31,000
PUBLIC LOBBY 400 220 * 4 4 4 4
COAT 158 4 4 4
SALES 198 * desk 4 4
TICK.OFF. 4
REST. 4
LIBRARY 28,102
LECTURE 2,750 * 4 4
TOILETS 800 * 4 4 4 4
MEETING 2,350 * 4 4
STUDY 2,000 * 1,000 4
RECEPTTION * 4
LOUNGE 1,080 * 4 4
COURTYARD 2,310 * 4 30,000
SCULP.GARD. 4 4 4
EXHIBITION 1,100 14,386 * 4 23,000 4 31,000
PARKING 100 sp 5 * 4 10 sp 4 sp
LOADING * * 4 500 4 4
SHIP/RECEIV. * 748 * 4 4 4
WOOD STORAGE * 918 * 4 4 4 4
REDORD/EXAM * * 4 4 4
MOUNT/FRAMING * * * 4 4 4 4
PACK/CARP. 400 * 4 4
CONSERVATION 2,464 4 4 4
PHOTOGRAPHY 1,150 dk.room 4 4
TEMP.STORAGE 1,600 414 * 4 4 4
ELEV.LOBBY * 200/fl. 4 4 4 4
CURATOR 400 700 4 4 4 4 4
REGISTRAR * 345 4 4 1,000 4 4
STAFF OFF. 4,150 4 4 4 4
STAFF ENTRY 180 4 4 4
LOADING SUPPLY 4 4
SUPPLY STORAGE 918 4 4 4 4 4
KITCHEN 120 4 4 4 4 4


5
REQUIRED SPACES- SIZES
The spaces required for a workable museum and their sizes were determined from a number of sources including books on museum planning, preliminary studies by the University of Colorado, and tabulations from the surveys conducted of other university museums. Percentages of total space were given to each individual space reported from the surveys and then applied to the overall size desired. From these sources the following list was determined.
Lobby; 300- lOOOsq. ft. (500) Lecture: 2000 3000 Study: 2000 3000 Courtyard / Sculpture: ?
Loading Docks: 200 min.
Wood Storage: 500
Conservation: 500 700 Temporary Storage: 200
Registrar: 300 400 Staff Offices: 200 per Supply Storage: 500 scattered Mechanical / Misc.: 2000 Permanent Collection Storage: 6000
Coat Room: 150 Toilets: 300 each Lounge: 500
Exhibition: 15,000 20,000 Shipping / Receiving: 1000 Mounting / Framing: 500 Photography / Darkroom: 400 Elevator Lobby: 100 / floor Curator: 200 300 Staff Entry: 150 Kitchen: 100 200
Circulation: 4000
Total: 40,550 square feet


1
INDIVIDUAL SPACE DESCRIPTIONS
VESTIBULE
- weather trap
- covered entry
- canopies covering sidewalk to entry good LOBBY
- effective supervision of public parts of building by as few people as possible
- constriction of space at back of lobby for counting (?)
- box office not required
- lobby to be spacious, well lighted and ventilated
- not to be encumbered by architectural features
- seating for a good number of people
- wide stairway necessary from lobby within view of desk no claim on axial space in a convenient, secondary position
- keep good relationship from lobby to offices no private entry to offices from lobby access indirect from service entry
- educational spaces (if any), auditorium and exhibition space -all direct and obvious from lobby
- auditorium not to be placed throught main entry to exhibition areas -provide for separate lecture audiences
- public telephones to be provided
- introductory exhibits small offerings may be in lobby should not block vistas or activity lanes
CHECK ROOM
- some sales of publications and postcards
- may separate functions by different people
- check room usually to right of entry
- close to doors but not near enough to cause congestion
- requirement depends on climate
- may overflow to storeroom or office beyond to cover peak hours
- space for lendable wheelchair (?)
INFORMATION DESK
- usually at left of main entry
- can be opening from office in smaller museum
- keep stairway, passenger elevator and starting points for exhibits close to this area


- a bulletin board near entry for calendar of events or information will cut down on use
- place on view here a plan of building schematic
- sales counter may be handled at information desk, unless books, prints or brochures are being sold if so, belongs in lobby
RESTROOMS
- size depends on size of building if small, one
- usually separated one or two each for staff and visitors
- may combine with smoking lounge
- should not open to exhibition areas or auditoriums
- staff restrooms near offices combined with staff lounge
- may be first-aid cabinet
ORIENTATION SPACE
- entrance hall or open space beyond lobby
- offer seating for tired maybe reading area
- comfortable atmosphere
- transition space between lobby and exhibits
- should not be a thoroughfare or barred by doors
CURATORIAL SPACE
- enlarge curatorial spaces rather than exhibition spaces
- live storage (or study storage) make collections available for study reference and research form largest part of curatorial space to be expandible up or out
- non-curatorial storage in: receiving area for boxes, exhibition cases and screens when not in use (near freight elevator) temporary storage near exhibitions registrar needs safe place director may need vault
- no dead storage should be provided
ADMINISTRATION SPACES
- near main entrance under control from lobby suggests front of museum given to offices still tied to service functions of receiving, shipping, registration and shop work
- director's office to contain board room or meeting space usually calls for nearby vault separate outer office for secretaries and reception
- other offices depend on size of staff or projected size may be a general office for secretarial work
- registrar's office with sufficient cabinet, file and closet space
SERVICE FUNCTIONS/SPACES
- service entry leads directly to receiving room, with packing/unpacking


area minimize distance to freight elevator
- doorways for truck truck dock and emplyee entrance
- loading platform height difference, 36-46" loading docks 10' width X 15' heighth X 2540' length
- for small museum, may have sheltered back-up dock if so, need a separate and lockable door between dock and receiving space
- receiving room space for unpacking, packing and shipping associated are: supervisor's office, crate storage, registrar and photography -freight elevator and shops nearby spaces arranged for the movement
of large materials, storage for boards up to 20' long straight access to shop and receiving important size from 500 sq. ft. min to 2,500 sq. ft. most active museums 1,000 sq. ft.
- doors to this area should have alarms and be well-secured fireproof construction mandatory sprinklered or closed off by fire door or fire curtain sprinklers dangerous to objects though'
SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE
- control room for receiving
- space for spreading blueprints and for office work
- time clock and bulletin board outside office
FREIGHT ELEVATOR
- straight shot to receiving
- hydraulic 6' X 7' min. 7' X 13' to S' X 15' common
- removable cab roof for large objects may be necessary
- 3-ton capacity sufficient
- should not open to exhibition spaces directly
- may have intermediate lobby but no bottlenecks or turns are desirable
REGISTRARS OFFICE
- place for record keeping
- direct access to receiving room
- arrange for complete locking
- will work with acquisitions and temporary shows
- space for examining objects and assembling groups of objects
- space for office work, desk, maybe a vault shelves or racks for temporary storage
- strictly a space for momentary safekeeping of items coming in or going out
SERVICE CORRIDORS
- unobstructed passageways
- distribution to building


/z.
- no bottlenecks in circulation
- 10' min. vertical clearance always to freight elevator
- fire doors to protect areas from fire spread
PHOTOGRAPHY WORKROOMS
- dark room near registrar's office
- guard from vibrations from mechanical room
- usually min. 6tudio/camera room 250 sq. ft. and darkrooms 40-50 sq. ft. each with sink, counter and storage space
- baffle entry to exclude light
- include file for negatives
SHOPS
- for carpentry work
- 6ize depends on need for display cases, etc. 500 sq. ft. min. to 1000 sq. ft.
- near receiving room and elevator
- storage for tools, lumber, glass, stands, cases, etc.
- watch for fire danger
- long bench for carpentry
- circular saw, band saw, joiner and planer
- for metal work need bench, 10' machine lathe, drill press and grinder
PREPARATION & RESTORATION ROOMS
- special shops and studios for preparers of exhibits
- restoration not functionally connected with mechanical work shops -used for restoring paintings, mending textiles, repairing exhibits
- in small museum, may be only one preparer and only one work place
SERVICE STORAGE SPACE
- for exhibition cases and equipment EXHIBITION SPACES
The exhibition spaces are the heart of any museum and the design of those spaces are critical to the success of any design.
FLEXIBILITY
- temporary shows must have flexibility to cut off from the rest of the museum
- permanent or relatively fixed exhibitions changeable character for different exhibitions


TYPES OF EXHIBITION SPACES
- simple chamber moderate size with artificial light
- exhibit hall larger scale
- hall with balcony
- clerestory hall poor for exhibitions
- skylighted gallery most common hard to plan exhibitions- poor for changes
- exhibition corridor doubles up use of space should not run far in a straight line best artificially lighted don't put windows at the end of corridors
- general space to be broken up by partitions generally windowless
GROUPINGS OF SPACES
- space to space arrangement continuous suite of chambers extending in rows form L, U, H, T, E plans when closed to through traffic circulation is a problem
- corridor to corridor each room accessible from passageway
- nave to room central large chamber doors to spaces
INTERIORS
- should not compete with exhibits columns, details, moldings, heavy patterns or fixtures to be avoided
- unbroken stretches of walls desireable
- colors should take lighting into account
- light ceilings look higher light walls look farther apart
- colors normally neutral but may be vivid if in good taste-richness or coolness of colors depends on exhibits pastels used frequently
- walls material to accept nails or screws without marring -wood sheath covered with fabric is common hanging rails or flush channels frequent may be objectionable appearance
- doorways simple openings without ornament- size for large displays or many people floor to ceiling openings good
- ceilings usually plastered or drywalled curved ceilings may be disturbing by focusing sound heights getting smaller -lower ceilings in artificially lit spaces 10' minimum for small side rooms 12'-20' average space above ceilings for mechanical systems lighting 5'-6' over ceiling good- 20' clear adequate
- room size tendency to get smaller widths 20' with lengths 1 Y~ times width
- spatial division of exhibition space critical either light floor to ceiling construction (removeable) or removeable partitions v/ith some clean joining major problem is not to let too much be


GALLERY ARgAhJ^rWTS
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INTERIORS cont.
seen at once break up vistas isolate objects focus
- floorings resilient under foot require resistance to abuse and dents sound resilient nonglossy surface not too dark or light nonobjective and nondistracting variety is good
- circulation promote full and orderly coverage of exhibits yet shouldn't inhibit free movement forced passage in limited space frustrate visitors good to use inner area for orientation or slow movement / relaxation surrounded by outer circuit for progression of spaces.
- visitors move in counter clockwise rotation exit attraction is powerful pul] exhibits layed out to be seen right to left -exit should be near entry to avoid cutting out portions of exhibits


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SPATIAL ORGANIZATION
GENERAL
- attention given to growth from the start
- for safety and security one entrance for public, one for services with staff using either minimum
FIRST LEVEL
- main floor should have principal exhibition space
- in small buildings the office, curatorial space, library and classroom (?) may have to be on this floor to gain central overview by few people
- small buildings may assign multiple functions to spaces like exhibition space for lectures and class work
- changes of floor level on an exhibition floor are sources of difficulty may force loading and unloading of material in moving
- each exhibition level should be in a continuous plane throughout -this can change if helpful to design or site
SECOND LEVEL
- exhibition space should extend up to second floor rather than down
- second level more a space for secondary exhibits to serve students and workers
- second levels are good for curatorial functions with expanding reserve collections and growth of storage
- mezzanines with display rooms and associated curatorial space and study rooms leading to storage is a good use of space
- most visitors will not go to second level good spaces for curatorial/ storage
- bad to make curatorial space compete with service functions on lower levels on upper levels, keeps curators together and near exhibits as opposed to spread out on one level
- administrative offices can go up also
R OOF S/BASEMENTS
- roofs are options for terraces and sculpture
- basement is usually most congested part of a museum too many functions end up there
- basement is superintendent's floor services mechanical spaces
- functions that should not be in basement curator and exhibition -no room for storage growth


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LIGHTING
GENERAL
- need for flexible lighting systems to illuminate museums
- low-contrast surroundings create a relaxed mood
- high-contrast surroundings produce "tautness" and a sense of theatrical, visual drama which should be employed only where appropriate and without visual discomfort
CONCENTRATING VS DIFFUSE LIGHTING
- flexibility of positioning all concentrating light sources required -use of electrified track is common
- museums which own collections of paintings that substantially exceed in number the available wall space require approximately full wall coverage of vertical illumination so that repeated adjustment of the lighting is not needed
- diffuse light alone may detract from appreciation of sculpture -try to keep luminance contrasts within 6 to 1 limits
- diffuse light may be often supplied by light reflected from nearby surfaces or by general room inter-reflections
- diffuse light alone "desaturates" colors imparts dullness -concentrated (directional) light combats this
COLOR OF LIGHT SOURCE
- interior spaces lower color temperature or (warmer) source than daylight is preferred
- high-intensity discharge sources compact, efficient, produce a great deal of light but present sources have limited color rendering capability
GALLERY DESIGN PRINCIPLES
- presentation of concentrated light to wall displays should be at an incident angle of 60 degrees with the horizontal centered at an adult sight-line height of 5'6" from the floor
- nominal level of illumination of 30 footcandles on both horizontal and vertical planes recommended good for visitor functions of gallery viewing, copying and studying
SIGHT-LINES, CEILING HEIGHTS & VIEWING ZONES
- ceiling heights to be based on the anticipated maximum height of wall-hung displays
- 60 footcandles for short-term or temporary exhibits 20 footcandles for fixed or permanent exhibits
- cost of vertical lighting in terms of good seeing favors diffuse light
- over-employment of concentrated light may decrease visual efficiency and increase photochemcial damage hazard


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22
- viewer should be unaware of where the light is coming from
- luminance ratios between adjacent luminaires or surfaces should be reduced to 3:1
- floor reflectance in galleries should be held below 10%
MUSEUM CONSERVATION
- extent of deterioration depends upon: the level of radiation, the time of exposure, the spectral characteristics of radiation, the capacity of the individual materials to absorb and be affected by the radiant energy
- external factors may increase rate of deterioration high temperature, high humidity, active gases in atmosphere
- radiations having spectral distributions which are dominant in the shorter wavelengths are most hazardous
- ultraviolet much more hazardous than visible light NATURAL LIGHTING
- daylight is the best means of lighting a museum good for expenses
- plan building so as to make the best use of natural light
LIGHTING FROM ABOVE
- gives a freer, steadier supply of light
- saves wallspace
- gives maximum latitude in planning space inside building
- facilitates security measures
LATERAL LIGHTING
- good even when combined with overhead lighting
- high-placed windows, especially if they occupy more than one wall provide more light should be placed at a considerable height
SOURCE:
IES LIGHTING HANDBOOK, 5th ed.


25
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PLANNING FOR SECURITY
SITE & BUILDING SELECTION
- safely accessible to public and staff along public transportation lines
- nearby fire and police stations
- nearby fire hydrants
- easy access to building by emergency service vehicles
- off flooding areas
- floodlight building exterior
- reduce recessed windows, doors, corners, overhangs and niches to minimum
- landscape placed to avoid hiding places or giving access to building
- avoid exterior circuit boxes and single access lines for electricity
PUBLIC AREAS
- reduce number of doors to minimum
- automatic visitor counting
- use different exterior doors and keys than interior ones
- provide logical orientation and space planning to keep guards from having to dispense information
- set aside space near entry for assembly and group orientation
- check-room for coats and objects restricted from entry
- place auditoriums and classrooms (night use) away from exhibits
- keep orientation and direct circulation good avoid constrictions
- open spaces (courtyards) good for orientation and evacuation
- avoid dead ends in galleries and exhibit halls
- prevent air flows that might hinder detection devices
- built-in detection devices good with central control panel
- doors to have built-in magnetic switches
- control access from public to non-public spaces
- all exits to exterior must be controlled by guards or electrical equipment
NON-PUBLIC AREAS
- major structural barriers best different levels
- deny access to public
- divide area into two parts: 1) engineering, security, custodial, mechanical 2) collections storage, registration, restoration and conservation, exhibits preparation, research and offices


Z5>
- place artifacts' storerooms and vaults in inner building away from exterior walls
- use numerous, smaller storage rooms compartmentalized to prevent fire spread
- more security and protection for storage
- loading and unloading area inside behind closed doors
- secure storage or holding area adjacent to receiving monitored
ORGANIZATION
- director in charge of all delegates responsibility/authority to chief security officer/staff plans, organizes, coordinates and controls all security measures
- provided with systems control access communication to police, fire station, hospital
- designate primary and alternate evacuation routes and a muster point for guards and/or staff in case of emergency
SECURITY FORCE
- people still basis for overall museum security especially during daylight/working hours when many systems aren't used
- museum should train its own staff for loyalty to museum
- must break up monotony trade locations, public relations, etc.
INVENTORY CONTROL
- inventory must be made and recorded: 1) deters theft 2) immediate indication of theft 3) descriptive information in case of theft
- when entering museum, objects given a unique and permanent number or code and identification mark
- all items should be photographed soon after entry supplemented with written description
- all records kept locked, secured and safe in file cabinets
- logs of admittances to storage areas should be kept
FIRE PROTECTION
- physically detached from other buildings
- fire-resistant materials used
- electrical installations to code
- fire dampers in ducts piercing fire walls
- lightning protection
- mechanical rooms separate from warehouses, storerooms and stocks of combustible materials
- mechanical systems in fire-resistant enclosure separated from museum
- mechanical shafts equipped with smoke alarms and damper controls


- separate functional areas and dangerous areas with fire doors and walls
- fire doors on automatic close control from ionization detectors
- assign certain spaces for smoking
- separate all combustible materials keep storage of them to a minimum
- restoration work and wood construction areas well ventilated
- automatic fire detectors with panel in museum and fire department
thermal detectors in rooms with low ceilings small and inconspicuous
smoke detectors in rooms, elevator shafts and ducts photoelectric detectors slow response to smokeless flaming fires ionization detectors recommended slower to respond to smoldering fires recommended for rooms with ceiling over 15'
- sprinkling system highly recommended risk of water damage to paintings, textiles, rare manuscripts or bodes but good for other areas
- CO2 extinguishing systems
- halon or halogenated hydrocarbons good system no damage potential but expensive to refill danger of toxicity in high concentrations -suitable for libraries, computer rooms and engine rooms with flammable fuels
- dry chemicals good for surface protection leaves powdery residue -not for populated areas good for kitchens
- portable fire extinguishers should be located in numerous areas
- standpipes and hoses located so every area covered by 2 or more hoses fine spray
- automatic smoke discharge devices on ionization detectors draw off combustible and toxic gases
THEFT & BURGLARY PROTECTION
- should mix security/alarm systems with basic concept of mechanical security such as: thick walls, steel doors, locks, barred windows and highly resistant glass doors
- key to alarm systems is censor and method of detection presence or absence of or changes in physical phenomena like: electric currents, mechanical vibrations, magnetic and electromagnetic fields, electrical fields, acoustic waves, optical and thermal rays
- all electric wiring to be tamper-proof hidden and protected
- 48-hour back-up in case of discontinuity
PERIMETER PROTECTION
- vulnerable points concentrated on: doors, windows, skylights, roofs, ventilation ducts, penetrable walls
- no outside circuit boxes
- floodlight exterior
- fit windows and doors with tempered steel bars, shutters, grilles, etc.
- windows with moldings and hinges only on inside


- armored or laminated glass or glass with alarm system
- skylights fitted with cold-drawn steel grille
- doors reinforced with steel plate
- doors hinged to inside frame to be reinforced
- locks to be dead-locking latches or dead bolts pick resistant tumbler locks with 7 tumblers minimum
ELECTRIC/ELECTRONIC PROTECTION (perimeter)
- magnetic contact switches doors and windows signals when opened balanced magnetic switches stop magnetic tampering security only against opening
- metal foil tape glued around window edges connected to signal wire on fixed windows unattractive bypassed if whole window removed
- built-in wires inside glass invisible used night and day -expensive bypassed if whole window removed
- Piezoelectric glass-breaking sensors sensor inactivated by heat
- vibration detectors can respond to traffic or airplanes good systems though sensitivity adjustable
- photoelectric eyes infrared light or laser beams transmitted and received forms screen or protection subject to tampering with electronic devices
- magnetic inductive systems two parallel cable loops underground -resDonds to metallic objects sabotage proof few false alarms
- control access through doors with remote controls
- television cameras controlled or monitored in control room
INTERIOR PROTECTION
- mechanical locks for doors offer least possible fire impediment while providing burglary protection
- key cards good system minimize numbers given out register
ELECTRIC/ELECTRONIC PROTECTION (interior)
- contact mats pressure sensitive to steps easy to avoid if location known
- television closed circuit 2 cameras diagonally placed in each room depends on human surveillance
- microwave motion detection wave can travel through acoustic tile and so be hidden above ceilings false alarms probable broadcasting license required
- absorption radar false alarms probable
- ultrasonic motion detection reliable false alarms by air motion and ringing telephones
- photoelectric eyes barriers across rooms and hallways


2b
- passive infrared devices only a receiver detects thermal radiation reliable limited range
CENTRAL CONTROL STATIONS
- monitors for all alarm systems
- communication to police and fire stations
- can monitor temperature and humidity levels, mechanical equipment and water systems
- in room of reinforced concrete
- avoid windows
- sabotage-proof ducts, air outlets and water supplies
- shielded and grounded to avoid electric interference
- strictly controlled entry
- emergency lighting supply and electric back-up
- independent HVAC with higher pressure inside
- PA system
- alternative is alarm panel in security office secured and with back-up battery


UNIFORM BUILDING CODES
GENERAL
- occupancy classification Group A, Division 3 if assembly room included, less than 300 seats
- exterior wall fire resistance 2 hours
- openings in exterior walls not less than 5' protected, less than 10'
- construction type type 1 to get maximum floor area allowable -unlimited
- occupancy separation no restrictions
- floor area sprinklered unlimited
CONSTRUCTION, HEIGHT & ALLOWABLE AREA
- height unlimited
- slope of floor cannot exceed 1 vertical:5 horizontal
- see Sect. 602 (b) for building construction types
- basement levels and those over main floor can't be less than 1 hour construction separation between floors
- access to public street at least 20' width unobstructed
LIGHT & VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS
- all enclosed spaces used by people provided with exterior glazed openings 1/10 of floor area min. natural ventilation with open-able windows 1/20 of floor area min. or a mechanical ventilation system with 5 cu. ft./min. of outside area total air circulation 15 cu. ft./min./occupant under continuous operation when occupied
- exit lighting on separate circuit
- lights in corridors and exit ways protected with wire cages.
EXIT REQUIREMENTS, STAIRS & OCCUPANT LOADS
- 2 exits required
- 7 sq. ft./occupant
- handicap access by ramps or elevators
- occupant load determined by dividing total square footage by 7 sq. ft./occupant 20-40,000 sq. ft. @7 = 2,857-5,714
- floors above first story with occupancy of more than 10 needs 2 exits
- mezzanines if more than 2,000 sq. ft. or more than 60' in any direction needs 2 stairways to adjacent floor
- stories with occupant loads of 501-1,000 3 exits min.
- stories v/ith occupant loads of more than 1,000 4 exits min.


- see page 499 for more detailed requirements Sect. 3302
- exit width occupant load divided by 50 divided among all exits
- exit arrangements page 500
- maximum travel distance to exit or exit passageway without sprinklers, 150' with sprinklers, 200' may increase 100' if last 150' is within corridor with restrictions see Sect. 3304
EXIT DOORS
- doors swung in direction of exit travel
- openable from interior without keys
- panic hardware required from 30" to 44" from floor
- 3' X 6'8" min. size
- 90 opening of doors required
- 32" clear width of exitway when door opened
- revolving doors not a required exit CORRIDORS & EXIT BALCONIES
- exit corridors must be continuous to exit no obstructions or intervening spaces except foyers, lobbies or reception areas
- 44" min. width
- 7' clear height
- no projections or obstructions into space
- 20' from any exit when in corridor
- when corridors accessible to elevators, no stairs, just ramps required
- 1 hour fire resistant construction walls, ceilings, floors
- fire doors with fire/draft assembly required in corridors with 20 minute fire protection rating
- doors to be automatic self-closing STAIRWAYS
- 44' min. width
- handrails 3projection max.
- between 4" and 7%" risers
- less than 10" run
- winding, circular, spiral stairs see page 505, Sect. 3305
- 12' max. distance vertically between landings
- stairs greater than 88" width must have intermediate handrail
- stairs to have handrails on each side
- if 4 or more stories must have stairway to roof
- headroom for stairs 6'6"


RAMPS
- width 44"
- slope 1:12 max. slope
- landings top and bottom l1 intermediate for each 5' vertically
- 5' length of landings min. at top 6' at bottom
- doors not to reduce landing less than 42"
- handrails required as in stairs no intermediate rails required
- surface of non-slip material SMOKE-PROOF STAIRWAY ENCLOSURE
- see page 509, Sect. 3309 EXIT LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS
- at every required exit
- wherever needed to indicate direction of egress
- illuminated not less than If. c. at floor level
SKYLIGHTS
- 4" curb required when angled less than 45
- 25" between supports in wired glass skylight
- 5' between supports corrugated wired glass
- wired or tempered glass 7/32" min. thickness
PENTHOUSES & ROOF STRUCTURES
- must be less than 28' tall when enclosing tanks or elevators
- must be less than or equal to 12' in all other cases
- 33 1/3% of supporting roof max.
- 1 hour fire resistant construction
BOILER & FURNACE ROOM
- 2 meanB of egress when it is 500 sq. ft. or more and boiler or furnace exceeds 400,000 BTU/hour input
- one egress may be a fixed ladder
REQUIREMENTS BASED ON CONSTRUCTION TYPES
- usable spaces under floors must be enclosed with 1 hour construction
- doors self-closing non-combustible or solid wood 1 3/4" min. thickness
ROOFS
- class C roof coverings required see page 92, Sect. 1704 FIRE RESISTANT REQUIREMENTS
- assuming type 1 construction see page 102, table 17A


52
- exterior bearing 4 hour
- interior bearing 3 hour
- exterior non-bearing 4 hour
- structural frame 3 hour
- permanent partitions 1 hour
- shaft enclosures 2 hour
- floors 2 hour
- roofs 2 hour EXCEPTIONS
- fixed partitions can be constructed of: non-combustible materials, fire-retardant treated wood, 1 hour fire resistant construction, wood panels up to 3/4 room height, plastic partitions, see Sect. 5210
- movable partitions don't need fire resistant ratings if: they don't block exits or establish an exit corridor, they are located by permanent tracks, materials have flame spread classification as in Table 42B
SHAFT ENCLOSURES
- openings vertically through floors enclosed with fire resistant construction
- not required to close if opening only 2 floors
- elevator shafts through 2 or more stories must vent to outside 3 sq. ft./elevator
TOILET REQUIREMENTS
- 1 lavatory and 2 water closets for each sex
- floors smooth, hard, non-absorbent surfaces
- toilets in stalls min. 30" width
- 24" min. in front of fixtures
- 1 handicapped fixture min. with 30" doorway clearance
- 60" diameter circle in toilet room
- doors may encroach only 12" into circle
- handicapped toilet to have 42"X48" space in front of toilet
- grab bars required 32-34" from floor 1%1%" diameter
- 26" width X 27" height X 12" depth under at least one lavatory
- mirror within 40" of floor
- one towel dispenser and disposal with in 40" of floor
WATER FOUNTAINS
- 1 drinking fountain/floor
- 1 within 33" of floor with spout up front hand operated controls


&
- when in alcove 32" width min.
TELEPHONES
- 1 within 54" of floor FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS
- provide sprinklers when floors greater than 1500 sq. ft.
- at tops of chutes of any kind
- in combustible areas
- in occupancy over 12,000 sq. ft. used for exhibition or display
- if more than 100 sprinklers must have alarms
- standpipes at every floor level landing of required stairway and at each side of wall adjacent to exit opening


34
SITE
GENERAL
- advantageous to choose a less central position greater choice and easier acquistion of land, less fatigue from traffic noise and air pollution
- should always be readily accessible from all parts of the town by public transportation
- museums in parks or gardens more detached reduces risk of fire -some protection from dust, noise, pollution
- belt of trees surrounding museum good natural filter for dust and pollution helps stabilize humidity of atmosphere good for works of art
- open space good can be used for future expansion


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41
BOULDER CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA
BOULDER Latitude: 40.01 Longitude: 105 16 Elevation: 5404
YEARLY SUMMARIES
Ave. Max. Temp. Ave. Min. Temp. Deg. Days. Prec. Tot. Snow Tot
1960 Jan 43 19 1036 .54 10.4
Feb 38 18 1055 1.04 21.4
Mar 52 28 760 .72 10.5
Apr 65 38 380 1.9 7.7
May 72 46 192 .74 1.5
Jun 85 56 ' 12 1.03
Jul 88 61 3 1.28
Aug 88 59 9 .41
Sep 80 52 64 .67 _
Oct 67 41 326 2.38 4.5
Nov 57 30 630 .27 5.5
Dec 47 23 910 1.27 18.1
5377 12.25 79.6
1959 Jan 45 20 999 1.0 16.5
Feb 42 20 929 1.2 15.9
Mar 53 27 754 1.9 19.9
Apr 60 34 537 2.1 32.0
May 70 44 246 3.73
Jun 85 55 15 .64
Jul 86 57 0 .82
Aug 87 59 0 1.3
Sep 74 46 199 3.0 10.9
Oct 63 35 467 2.0 14.5
Nov 55 25 726 .72 13.6
Dec 51 26 798 .11 .5
5670 18.52 123.8
1958 Jan 48 25 862 .74 11.9
Feb 51 27 702 .53 6.4
Mar 43 23 972 2.8 28.8
Apr 57 35 553 3.2 16.1
May 77 51 91 4.2 -
Jun 84 56 19 2.0
Jul 85 58 6 2.0 -
Aug 88 61 4 .8 -
Sep 80 51 88 1.05 .2
Oct 70 41 296 .5 3.5
Nov 56 28 665 .6 12.3
Dec 48 25 851 .75 12.2
5109 19.17 91.4


Ave. Max. Term. Ave. Min. Temp. Deg. Days Prec. Tot. Snow Tot.
1957 Jan 39 16 1151 1.05 15.2
Feb 55 29 638 1.28 4.0
Mar 53 27 746 .63 5.0
Apr 55 31 634 6.8 44.0
May 66 43 306 6.2 4.0
Jun 82 54 51 .9
Jul 88 63 0 .9
Aug 88 59 0 2.0 -
Sep 78 48 117 .85 -
Oct 65 42 354 2.48 1.6
Nov. 50 30 734 1.12 4.6
Dec 56 32 640 .0 1.0
5371 24.21 79.4
Degree Days Precipitation Snow
1957 5371 24.21 79.4
1958 5109 19.17 91.4
1959 5670 18.52 123.8
1960 5377 12.25 79.5
Average 5381 18.53 93.55
CONCLUSIONS
- design for heavy snow loads
- moderate precipitation
- heavy and frequent freeze/thaw relationships
- climate generally moderate
- semi-arid


t3
ADVISORS
Bob Behrens Art and sculpture integration with architecture
Cal Briggs Interior design historical sensitivity and fit
David Potter University liason
Gary Long Mechanical Systems
Davis Holder Structures
Joal Cronenwett Museum Architecture
Charles Heartling Architecture


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Architectural Record, ed. Buildings for the Arts. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1978
Bazin, Germain. The Museum Age. Universe 3ooks Inc., 1967.
Brawne, Michael. The New Museum Architecture & Display. Frederick A. Praeger, 1965.
Burgard, Ralph. Arts in the City. Associated Councils of the Arts.
Coleman, Laurence Vail. Museum Buildings A Planning Study. Waverlv Press, 1950.
De Borhegyi, Stephan and Hanson, Irene. The Museum Visitor. Selected
Essays and Surveys of Visitor Reaction tc Exhibits in the Milwaukee Public Museum. 1968.
Dudley, Dorothy and Bezold, Irma. Museum Registration Methods. The American Association of Museums and Smithsonian Institute, 196S.
Midyette, J. Nold. Program for the Arts. University of Colorado,
Boulder Campus Architectural Thesis.
Perkin & Will, Architects. The College and University Fine Arts Center. College and University Business Magazine, I960.
Schouyaloff, Alexander. Place for the Arts. The Seel House Press, 1970.
Schuman, William. The Heart of an Arts Center. American Arts Councils, 1966.
Sasaki, Hideo, Midyette, J. Nold and Moberg, Dale R. City/University Center for the Arts. For the University of Colorado Regents and Boulder City Council. March 1976.
Tillotson, Robert G. Museum Security. International Council of Museums. 1977. ^


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