Citation
Castle Rock transit center

Material Information

Title:
Castle Rock transit center a passenger station facility for a light rail transit system, including retail and office space
Creator:
Gustafson, Crandon C
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
51 leaves : illustrations, maps ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Local transit stations -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Castle Rock ( lcsh )
Urban transportation -- Planning -- Colorado -- Castle Rock ( lcsh )
Local transit stations ( fast )
Urban transportation -- Planning ( fast )
Colorado -- Castle Rock ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Crandon C. Gustafson.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09462352 ( OCLC )
ocm09462352
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1980 .G87 ( lcc )

Full Text
ENVIRONMENTAL DESlGAf
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CASTLE ROCK TRANSIT CENTER
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architectural thesis:
CASTLE ROCK TRANSIT CENTER a passenger station facility for a light rail transit system, including retail and office space
Crandon C. Gustafson
University of Colorado Spring 1980
Thesis Committee: Che.lmers G. Long Robert Kindig G. K. Vetter Gary Crowell
Resources and Advisors:
Patrie Dave, architect David Sliktas, Douglas County planner William. Parker, Douglas County planner The Regional Transportation District
respectfully submitted,


INTRODUCTION
The architect, as an environmental decision-maker, must be able to operate knowledgeably at all levels of design. It is very important that he understand the context of his building, and the impact of his building on that context.
Unfortunately, the architect often enters the design process after the important decision of choosing a site has been made.
Location plays a strong role in this particular thesis project. The main element of this mixed-use project is a transit station for a light rail rapid transit system. Transit system facilities, as will be demonstrated in this report, can play a strong role in shaping urban growth. A locational study is, therefore, an essential ingredient in the design of a transit facility.
That is why this thesis is prefaced with a broader study of the growth problem facing the Denver Metro region. The study will have its own problem statement and research, which is directed toward establishing the context for the architectural facility, which is programmed in the second part of this docu-
ment .


TMS1
GROWTH
PROBLEM


REGIONAL PROBLEM STATEMENT
The population of the Denver metropolitan region is increasing rapidly. The Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) predicts a doubling growth in this area by the year 2000 (see map). Current growth trends indicate that a majority of these new residents will locate in an area immediately to the south of Denver. This new growth is occurring in a haphazard and unfocussed pattern, commonly referred to as "urban sprawl."
This current growth pattern is undesirable for a number of reasons:
1) Low-density development occurs, resulting in a need for more auto trips;
2) Average auto trip length increases as people live farther and farther away from their place of work;
3) Increased dependence on the auto leads to more air pollution. Denver is currently second only to Los Angeles in air pollution, and, due to its unique geographic position, may soon claim first place in this unenviable category;
4) Economic and cultural forces are pushing urban development into unfavorable micro-climates (the Chinook winds which occur in a 15-20 mile wide zone along the foothills), unfavorable soils (high clay content), or other limiting factors such as aquifers, water supplies, and topography;
5) Gasoline shortages may soon render these spread-out suburbs simply inaccessible. The current growth pattern is utterly dependent upon the automobile;
2


6) This undifferentiated blanket of development on the landscape does not enhance perceptions of community identity, an important factor in "the good life."
For these reasons, it is obvious that the current growth pattern is undesirable. The problem, then, is to find a means of directing this inevitable growth in a more desirable pattern. Before examining this need in greater detail, let us first examine the nature of the problem as it manifests itself in a specific area: Douglas County.
3


---, 'rp, 4- h
- FIGURE VI-1
POPULATION GROWTH 1970-2000
| | HIGH GROWTH AREAS
j |DENVER
| j REMAINING PORTIONS OF REGION
NOTES : POPULATION IN THOUSANDS WELD AND DOUGLAS COUNTIES EXCLUDED


rr?
FIGURE VI-2
EMPLOYMENT GROWTH 1970-2000
HIGH GROWTH AREAS
DENVER
| | REMAINING PORTIONS OF REGION
NOTES EMPLOYMENT IN THOUSANDS WELD AND DOUGLAS COUNTIES EXCLUDED


GROWTH IN DOUGLAS COUNTY
Douglas County has been singled out for discussion because, of all the areas in the metro region, it will be impacted the most by current growth trends. Douglas County is, at present, an agricultural county. But it is under tremendous urbanization pressures from the metro area just to the north.
The population of Douglas County has increased by 155.7% in the years between 1970 and 1978. The rest of the five-county Denver region, by comparison, has only experienced a 28.7% increase over the same period. It has been documented that almost all of Douglas County's growth has been due to migration."''
It should also be noted that, over the same period, Douglas County households increased by 222.3%. This is due to less people per household, a nationwide trend, but it must be understood that this new trend puts an increasing demand on county and municipal facilities of all kinds.
A conservative estimate of projected population growth in Douglas County shows an increase from 8,400 people in 1970 to 115,600 by the year 2000.
POPULATION PROJECTIONS FOR DOUGLAS COUNTY
2
Year
1970
2000
1980
1990
"Low" Scenario 8,406 24,199 59,443 115,563
"High" Scenario 8,406 25,870 65,300 164,810
4


"Low" Scenario Based on steady growth similar to other area
counties
"High" Scenario- Based on development to capacity, as currently
zoned and platted.
It should be noted that even the "high growth" scenario is conservative, as there is a great deal of pressure from developers to re-zone, and to plat more subdivisions for development.
One notable of this pressure is Mission Viejo's "Highlands Ranch"
project, which is slated to eventually house an additional 90,000 3
people. This figure is not included in the population projections table (see appendix for map of Highlands Ranch proposal).
At present, most county residents are employed outside the county, pointing up the essential "bedroom suburban nature of the county." As one would expect, this is not at all good for the county's tax base. There is a very strong danger that Douglas County will become one vast bedroom community, overrun with a blanket of suburban homesites built at low densities.
Recognizing this danger, the Douglas County Land Use Plan
4
of 1974 outlined the following goals:
1) Maintain a rural atmosphere by preserving agricultural land;
2) Prevent urban sprawl by creating high residential densities in certain areas, surrounded by large areas of open space, and connected with other communities by an efficient transportation system;
5


3)
4)
5)
Develop Develop Build a
and preserve open space and parks; an efficient transportation system; strong economic base.
6


NOTES
1. Douglas County A SocioEconomic Profile (Draft) Denver' Regional Council of Governments, October, 1978.
2. Ibid.
3. Phone interview with Mission Viejo.
4. Douglas County Land Use Plan, 1974.


12 L!


" Here is room for towns and cities "
- Ian McHarg, speaking of the Castle Rock area


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A NEW GROWTH CENTER: CASTLE ROCK
In the propitious organization of Douglas County for future growth, the town of Castle Rock will play a key role. It has a number of strong points. It "is quickly emerging as the retail center of Douglas County."1 It is located on the major north-south Interstate highway of Colorado, 1-25. Two railroads, the Santa Fe and The Denver & Rio Grande, run through Castle Rock.
It is, at present, the only incorporated town in the county, and is also the county seat. The current population of Castle Rock is approximately 4,400 people.
The Ecological Case for Castle Rock
Climate: "The Castle Rock plateau, at a higher elevation, is
free from the effect of Chinooks, benefits from
the prevailing southwesterlies, and provides a
2
superior climate."
Soils: The plateau in the vicinity of Castle Rock has mostly gravelly soils, which are excellent for foundations.
The area has a minimum of clayey soils, which are least advantageous for development because of their high shrink-swell potential and tendency to slide. Physiographic Diversity: In the vicinity of Castle Rock there
are many areas of gentle relief which provide desirable settings for development.
Scenery and Mountain View: Locations from which the mountain
skyline can best be viewed occur along the west-facing slopes of mesas and plateaus around Castle Rock.


"The ecologically propitious places for development in the region lie to the south of Denver, in the upper reaches of the Cherry and Plum Creek Basins of Douglas County. Favorable soils, geology, and climate coincide with the varied and wooded topography of the Castle Rock plateau, unique to the high plans. Here is room for towns and cities.
Here are opportunities for development that is
aware of the environment and creatively responsive
3
to its processes."
Water: Castle Rock has a "significant amount of water available
4
for future growth." Presently, 2,628 acre-feet of water is available annually. Of this, only 484 acre-feet of water is used each year.
In conclusion, Castle Rock seems an opportune place for a "New Town" growth concept to work. It is also in a logical location for a major transit terminus. The Regional Transportation District currently extends service to Parker. It has also identified major "corridors" south along Santa Fe Drive to the county line, and south along 1-25 to the Denver Technological Center, as far as the county line. Castle Rock lies at the vortex of these directional trends. Should RTD implement a light rail rapid transit system, as is being proposed (see appendix for newspaper documentation), these "corridors" will be developed as light rail lines. Natural opportunities for


the extension of these corridors occur along the existing railroad right-of-ways along Highway 85, and the 1-25 right-of-way. Douglas County withdrew from the Regional Transportation District in 1975, but preliminary returns from the Douglas County Comprehensive Survey (the results of which have not yet been released) indicate that many county residents, especially those living in
the Castle Rock area, favor a renewal of RTD service to their 5
area.
The question arises: what is the potential impact of a light rail transit system?


NOTES
Douglas County ~ A Socio Economic Profile (Draft), Denver Regional Council of Governments, October, 1978.
An Ecological Planning Study, Wallace, McHarg, Roberts, and Todd, and Development Research Associates for the RTD,
1972.
Ibid.
Douglas County Facilities and Services (Draft), Denver Regional Council of Governments, December, 1978.
Interview with David Sliktas, Douglas County Planner, December 13, 1979.


THIS LIGHT RAIL PROPOSAL .


THE LIGHT RAIL- PROPOSAL
Citing the energy crisis and its corresponding increasing demand on mass transit, the Regional Transportation District in October, 1979, began reviving plans for a light rail transit system (see appendix for newspaper articles describing the system), "Light Rail" is basically another term for what is more familiarly known as "trolley cars." Light Rail enjoys some advantages over other forms of mass transit. Construction costs are lower than subway or heavy rail systems. Light Rail is more flexible than other systems, and uses less energy.
THE IMPACT OF LIGHT RAIL STATIONS ON LAND USE In combination with other factors, the locations of mass transit stations can be used to direct urban growth in desirable patterns. The transit system constitutes a new public infrastructure, which changes patterns of travel behavior. One projected impact of the system is an intensification of land use near the stations.'*' Therefore, an objective in locating the stations would be to gain maximum "leverage" on the private investment dollar, directing growth as much as possible.
There is a good deal of historic evidence supporting the role of transit stations as generators of urban development. In the United States, there existed a very strong link between land speculation and street railway construction. The same was true of Europe at the turn of the century:
". . tramways were not simply following
suburban development, but they were leading


that development by extending their service
2
in advance of existing demand."
In the European situation of choking cities, the tramway allowed
"a reasonable diffusion of population without, however, blowing
the city apart (as the automobile has done in twentieth cen-
3
tury America)."
There is also a growing body of evidence, from recent transit installations in the United States, supporting the role of transit stations as positive forces in changing the economic basis for land use (see Appendix for an article on the impact of "MARTA" stations in Atlanta).
The transit system and its stations substitute mobility for proximity. Studies of the Bay Area Rapid Transit system (BART) in California indicate that "The evidence available suggests that newly acquired accessibility encourages residential
4
development to be supported where it previously could not."
From studies of BART, as well as systems in Toronto, Washington, D.C., and New Jersey, "There appears to be substantial evidence that savings in transportation costs leading to greater accessibility are usually reflected in an increase in
5
land value."
However, one cannot expect instant growth to occur on the announcement of plans to build a transit station. This is illustrated by the Atlanta example. Land speculation may not be widespread until after the transit system is in operation because of the factor of investor risk.


Other factors will affect the impact of transit facilities on land use. Some of these are:
- Local government policies
- Development trends and forces, including regional population and employment trends
- Availability of land for development
- Compatibility of nearby land uses to future intensive development.
As has been demonstrated, the Castle Rock area scores favorably in the above categories, making it a prime location for a transit facility to have a positive impact.


pictured above ere the proposed corridors for the light rail transit system. I'ote that extension of the two south corridors, following Interstate 25 and 3anta ?e Drive, would link up in Castle Rock.


NOTES
1. Final Report: Preliminary Engineering and Related Studies for Saint Paul Downtown People Mover, City of Saint Paul Metropolitan Transit Commission, Saint Paul, Minnesota, February 1979.
2. Tramways and Trolleys The Rise of Urban Mass Transport in Europe, John P. McKay, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1976.
3. Ibid.
4. Transit System Impacts on Urban Land Use, Report No. 96264-9032-00, prepared for RTD by Systems Management Contractor, February, 1975.
5.
Ibid.


TH DESIG L


PROBLEM STATEMENT
A prosaic statement of the problem would be to design a facility to serve the functions of pedestrian circulation and waiting, dispersal of transit information, vehicle maneuvering space, selling of tickets, and so forth. A listing of functions is certainly desirable to an understanding of the problem, and is presented in graphic and verbal form somewhat later.
Communication:
But first, I would like to introduce a key organizing concept: communication. I believe the essence of a transit terminal
is communication; communication of people and information.
It can be said that the urban area has a form, or meaning, that takes shape in the mind of the perceiver over time. The transit terminal can be thought of as the door through which one explores this meaning. Therefore, the terminal must bear a strong relationship to its context, to which it serves as an introduction. The transit terminal has a great potential to organize our urban experience.
Mixed Use:
So the design problem becomes one of integrating the terminal with the existing infrastructure in a way that enhances the vitality of its surroundings. In this respect, the terminal can make use of one of its resources: large volumes of people coming and going. This resource makes retail activity a natural


symbiotic activity with transit terminals. In return, retail and office activities can strengthen the vitality of the terminal. By including these activities within the terminal complex, the transit facility can begin to organize its urban context.
Components of the Problem;
- Surrounding land use
- Existing circulation pattern
- Station interface with existing pattern of circulation (drop offs, pedestrian access, etc.)
- "Readability" of the organization of the station
- Dispersal of rider information
- Proximity of varied uses to promote round-the-clock vitality of the complex
- Control of free and paid areas
- Ticketing and passenger flow
- Pedestrian waiting area
- Passenger safety
- Flexibility: Since the station has been located
so as to promote growth, an increase in ridership is expected, which will require the facility to expand some-
time in the future.


" If an environment has a strong visible framework and highly characteristic parts, then exploration of new sectors is both easier and more inviting. If strategic links in communication are clearly set forth, then those who might otherwise neglect them may be tempted to enter. "
- Kevin Lynch, in The Image of the City









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CONCOURSE
The concourse is that element where the user enters, examines route maps, pays his fare, and then proceeds to the platform. The concourse has two major functional areas: the free area and the paid area. These areas are separated by control mechanisms such as turnstiles.
There are three basic relationships of concourse to platform:
1) AT-GRADE ALIGNMENT: The concourse is located next to the guideway, with a crossover to the far platform above or below the alignment.
2) DEPRESSED GUIDEWAY: Concourse is located at grade, with one flight down to the platform.
3) AERIAL GUIDEWAY: Concourse is located at grade with one flight up to the platform.
It should be noted that while these are the most basic configurations, each site will present its own special requirements which will modify the basic plan to a greater or lesser degree.


PLATFORM
A platform is that space adjacent to a train in which people board and deboard. The platform coincides with the maximum length of train for the system. The platform can be placed between trains passing in opposite directions (center platform) or can be placed on either side of the trains.
Center Platform Advantages:
1) Uses common circulation to connect it to the concourse;
2) Allows the user to make the choice of direction he wishes to go after arriving at the Platform.
Center Platform Disadvantages:
1) The user may be disoriented once he arrives at the platform;
2) The approaching tracks must spread to straddle the central platform, thus increasing construction costs as well as visual impact.
Side Platform Advantages:
1) Enables the tracks to pass directly through the station;
2) Eliminates user confusion.
Side Platform Disadvantages:
1) Increased amount of vertical circulation necessary;
2) The user must select direction of travel before reaching platform.


Studies have determined that the added cost of construction
of spread tracks to approach a center platform is greater than the added cost of the extra vertical circulation required with a side platform station.


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SOLUTION


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ARCHITECTURAL THESIS
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WILCOX STREET


NORTH ELEVATION


EAST ELEVATION
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SOUTH ELEVATION


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A PRIMARY VERTICAL CIRCULATION
B BOILER / CHILLER
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C BUS S DELIVERY CIRCULATION CONE WAY)
D TO UNDERGROUND PARKING
E BUS WAITING & INFORMATION AREA
F DRIVER'S LOUNGE
Q* RECEIVING DOCK & MAINTENANCE AREA
H- PAID AREA OF CONCOURSE
I LEASABLE RETAIL SPACE
J- CINEMA
K LUNCH COUNTER
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I



The goals iterated by The Douglas County Land Use Plan echo
many of the concerns stated in a series of planning studies done for the Denver metro area by the firm of Wallace, McHarg, Roberts, and Todd. The following six pages, excerpted from Phase One -A Concept: Interim Report (1972) outline several different growth scenarios.
In summary, the report stresses the value of focussing growth around fairly intense centers in the region. It also emphasizes the importance of linking these centers with a transit system.
It is apparent that transportation plays an influential role in directing urban growth.


Dispersal
Under this alternative, population growth, to the extent possible, would be spread throughout the available space in the Region. For illustration, one might imagine single family homes on one- or two-acre sites throughout the Region.
To achieve this pattern of development would require an extensive grid of transportation, probably highways, which would provide a relatively uniform level of access over the entire Region. Location of industry in remote areas would have to be encouraged, while growth of utility systems would have to be restricted. In fact, it might be necessary to use septic tanks and wells, rather than extending utility systems at great costs. Tax policies would have to be adjusted to encourage this type of pattern and, lastly, low density zoning would be required. The grid of transportation is schematically shown on the illustration.
Reinforce Central Denver
This development pattern involves concen-tratfon of the population growth within the existing metropolitan boundary, and further concentration of it in the core in order to build up central Denver and areas immediately surrounding it. This obviously entails higher densities of development. Probable actions required to achieve this pattern would include major transit development, first to deal with the concentration of activity, and secondly to produce a level of circulation capability that would encourage this type of development. A staged development of transit capability within the central area is illustrated. The hardware might take many forms, but the system would certainly be one of high capacity, operating on its own guideway at a very high frequency of service.
In addition to the major transit development, the Reinforce Central Denver alternative would require major redevelopment, a reuse of land within the central portions of the metropolitan area to a higher intensity of activity. It would also require restriction on utility expansion to curb the suburban
growth that is characteristic of existing trends. It would probably require some form of metropolitan agreement in order to achieve a unity of action that would be necessary to produce this pattern of growth.
As well, this pattern would probably demand some form of metropolitan taxation that would recognize the redistribution of the tax base resulting from pursuit of this pattern.
Reinforce Metro Centers
This alternative is similar to Reinforce Central Denver in that it tries to keep the population growth within the existing Denver metropolitan area. It differs, however, in that it would involve the building up of several concentrations of development within the metropolitan area rather than a single concentration in Central Denver alone. The centers shown are only examples, not recommendations. The objective would be to build up several "communities" within the metropolitan area. Included might be centers oriented to Arvada, Aurora, Littleton, Englewood, Lakewood, Golden, Cherry Creek, and so forth. Of course, the form that these centers would take depends upon local desires and conditions. *
The actions required to achieve this pattern of development would include major transit development. Illustrated is a staged plan of transit development for this concept, emphasizing two elements: (1) development of greater circulation capability within the centers, and (2) connection between the centers to provide a high degree of mobility within the metropolitan area.
Again there would have to be a restriction on utility system growth to discourage continuing growth on the edges of the metropolitan area. An agreed-upon metropolitan growth policy would be required, as well as tax policies adjusted to recognize shifts in the tax base resulting from this policy, and extensive public and private cooperation.
39


Reinforce Regional Centers
In this concept the population growth is concentrated within existing regional centers. There would be some growth within the existing Denver metropolitan area but positive steps to encourage growth in other area such as Boulder, Longmont, Greeley and Castle Rock would also be developed. This concept differs from Existing Trend in two important regards: (1) more development would be encouraged away from the Denver metropolitan area, and (2) policies would discourage random growth at the edges of the existing centers while encouraging the enhancement and rational growth of the existing area.
Achieving.this pattern of development would require major transit development. The staged pattern of transportation improvements shown recognizes that these would not be independent communities, but would in fact be part of an economically and socially unified Region. The economic and cultural ties involved require a high level of communication, and transportation improvement would have to compensate for the increased distances between the cultural and economic centers. The buildup of these regional centers would require improvement of circulation capability within each canter. Also, transportation improvements would have to recognize that the area is still a Region, not a collection of individual communities. Transportation shown as "linehaul" on the illustration can compensate for the increased distances and maintain or improve the level of mobility with high speeds, frequency and capacity. Other actions would include the necessity to establish programs of public investment in these other Regional Centers to build up the utility systems, for example. A regional growth policy a broad plan toward which all the communities would work would be needed. Along with this there would have to be adjusted tax policies to recognize the shift in the tax base, and restraints on metropolitan growth, including the restrictions on utility expansion, open space reservations, and so forth.


New Towns
d-ira?!fj
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In the New Towns concept growth is, to the extent possible, placed in entirely new communities. Three example locations of new toto/ns illustrate this idea. The areas shown could be likely candidates, but it should be emphasized that there are many possible locations for new towns within the Region. These new towns are not just additional subdivisions; rather they represent more complete communities.
This requires that they be of larger size, say a minimum of 50,000 persons, possess a range of residential types from high income to low income, and have a range of retail, commercial, and industrial activities. This does not mean that they are independent, self-sufficient communities with all residents employed within town, but a new town would be an integral part of the Region. A number of rather significant actions would be required to achieve the New Towns con-* cept. To build a large community on a unified plan requires a major investment commitment and sophisticated planning controls. This commitment would, in all likelihood, be a combination of federal, state and private money. In addition, a New Town requires a major employment commitment to provide some industrial base.
As an example, a new town centering on Windsor might meet this requirement by virtue of the Kodak plant located there. Similarly, the Ken-Caryl Ranch west of Denver may meet this important requirement because of the Johns-Manville employment base that will be provided there. Development of a new town, of course, requires assembly of a large parcel of land; for a population of 50,000 a minimum of 7-8 thousand acres, for example. Development of a new town is difficult to achieve; it requires a high degree of cooperation among governmental bodies and between them and the private sector. If the Region seriously wants to pursue new towns as the means of accommodating some of the future growth, then it becomes very important to express that public interest at an early stage and make a public commitment to the idea. This would offer considerable encouragement to necessary private investment.
While this public commitment might take many forms, one of the important commitments would relate to public transportation. A public transportation concept for New Towns is illustrated. One element shows the development of circulation systems within the New Towns to encourage an attractive form of development at a pedestrian scale, not an auto scale. This high degree of internal mobility might be provided by the developers of the New Town. The second element shown is the advance acquisition of right-of-way. While for any public transportation system there obviously needs to be acquisition of right-of-way, the right-of-way is highlighted in this section as an indication of what might be an acceptable public commitment to the idea. By advance acquisition of right-of-way, there is, in effect, a public statement of commitment, and that those things necessary to provide the mobility required for the effective development of New Towns within the Region will be done.
The evaluation of each of the five growth alternatives, as well as the Existing Trend, against economic, social, environmental and ecological criteria, is presented in Table 1. Generally speaking, the Metro Centers, Regional Centers and New Towns concepts appear to contain elements which would be desirable components of a growth concept for the Region.
41


I*
THE URBAN STORY
It
The following six pages is representative of my thinking in organizing the nature of this design problem. It is excerpted from a sketchbook process using visual and verbal metaphors.


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96264-8039-00
C. Functional Considerations & Design Objectives
1. THE MA.J0R ELEMENTS, are discussed in the Cycle I Transit Stations and Alignments Report (page C 32, SMC 96264-8021-00). A station has two major components, the concourse and the platform. Connection between (when on separate levels) is provided by vertical access. Services, including electrical, mechanical, restrooms, etc., are adjacent to, and support the two major components.
A platform is that space adjacent to a train in which people board and deboard.
The platform coincides with the maximum length of train for the system. The platform can be placed between trains passing in opposite directions (center platform) or can be placed on either side of the trains (side platform).
A center platform has the advantage of 1) using common circulation to connect it to the concourse and 2) allowing the user to make the choice of direction he wishes to go after he has arrived at the platform. Disadvantages are: 1) The user may be disoriented once he arrives at the platform and therefore be confused as to which train to take; and 2) the approaching tracks must straddle the central platform and therefore may increase the visual impact of above grade tracks and increase the cost of construction above grade or in subway.
The side platform has the advantage of 1) enabling the tracks to pass directly through the station and 2) it eliminates potential confusion for the user; once on the platform the user can only take a train in one direction. The disadvantage is the increased amount of vertical circulation, as each platform must be sized for its peak demand with no opportunity for sharing vertical circulation with the other side platform.


96264-8039-00
Static'-, developed for costing and impact assessment in Cycle III all have side platforms except for Concept 5c Subway. This decision assumes that the side platform is more economical than a center platform when the cost of approaching cracks is considered. Subsequent trade-off studies will determine the validity of this assumption.
The concourse is defined as that element whicn the user enters, examines route maps, pays his fare, uses the coding machine (in the case of Concept 5c) and then proceeds to the platform. The concourse has two major functional areas: the free area and the paid area. These areas are separated by control mecnanism such as turnstiles.
2. Tne relationship of tne platform to the
concourse.
There are three basic relationships of concourse to platform:
1 >3uideway at Grade Concourse at grade adjacent to each platform, with an optional cross over, or the entire concourse on one side with a required cross over to the platform on the other side of the guideway.
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i
2)Guideway in a Subway with concourse above, either at grade (if the subway is not within an existing right-of-way) or if within an existing right-of-way, below that right-of-way (i.e. under a street).
3)Aerial guideway with the concourse below at grade, or in the case of the guideway above a street, an aerial concourse either above or below the guideway, depending on site requirernents.
74


96264-8039-00
3. Re;ationship of Free Area to Paid Area within d Concourse
a) The most compact configuration has a single free area and a single paid area.
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b) The paid areas can be placed at each end of the free area, to distribute people at each end of a platform, eliminating dead-end ii j
platforms and encouraging one-way circulation along the platform or in the case of an exceptionally long platform assuring a wide distribution of people.
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l
c) To create the greatest distance between entrances such as in a subway configuration, with associated high cost and high volume, there is a desire to have entrances a block or more apart to increase convenience to the user. The free area is placed at each end of the paid area. In some instances the paid area may be split to spread entrances from the street level and entrances to the platform.
4. Relationship of Elements within Concourse
a) Fare Collection sequentially from the entrance, the patron that has pre-bought a ticket may pay at the turnsti-le and pass on to the platform. In Alternate 5C and 6, once the patron has passed through the turnstile, he must actuate a coding device to summon a vehicle of his destination. For those patrons without tickets, they enter the station, examine a route map, perhaps use a money changing machine to get proper change and then purchase a ticket in a vending machine. At this point the patron can pass through the turnstile. Those optional activities (route map, money changing and ticket vending) should be out of the main flow of traffic.
b) Turnstiles the turnstile provides control between the free area and the paid area of the concourse. An agent's booth should be located adjacent to turnstiles to assist the confused patron, correct a malfunctioning turnstile or reverse turnstiles to respond to peak traffic demands. For those stations with a substantial imbalance of in and out movement during peak hours, the
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75


96264-8039-00
agent's booth should be placed to the side to allow the reversing of turnstiles. If the booth were in the center the patron may be confused as to which turnstiles are for entering and which for exiting.
for those stations with the balanced in and out during peak hours, an architectural element between the entrance and the exit clarifies circulation.
c) Handicap provisions Federal guidelines require that handicapped persons have full access to public facilities. In the case of vertical separation between concourse and platform, elevators or ramps will be required. In the interest of economy elevators have been assumed at this time. If the free area of the concourse is separated from grade an elevator will be required to this point as well. Next to the agent's booth a gate must be provided to allow the handicapped to pass through the line of turnstiles Within the paid area itself an elevator must be provided to each platform.
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In detailed design, additional provisions must be considered such as restrooms, telephones and drinking fountains.
d) Public Restrooms if restrooms are provided, they should be within the paid area of the concourse to: 1) assure visual control from the agent's booth, and 2) allow the transit user access without leaving the paid area. Access to the restrooms should be located out of the main flow of traffic.
e) Services the following indicates those elements that should be included within the concourse and those with the option to be located elsewhere. As a general principal, in the interest of economy, services should be located centrally.
1) Electrical room can be either at the concourse or platform level and can be adjacent to the switch gear room (number 9 below).
2) HVAC room in the case of "roof top units" (totally self-contained units) these requirements could be entirely accommodated on the roof of the facility. This is generally discouraged within the industry, and is
76


96264-8039-00
only done in the case of the most serious budget constraints. However, fans and the cooling tower could be located on the roof. Generally heavy equipment such as chillers and compressors should be located at grade or below because of their weight.
3} Fire alarm system this room should be readily accessible to the station agent and the fire department. Included in this room will be valves to actuate the sprinkler system, electronics to actuate the fire alarm system and communicate with the public (to provide evacuation instructions).
4) Telephone and Communications Room this can be located either at the concourse or platform levels and could be combined with the fire alarm system.
5) Restrooms see item d) above.
5) Janitor's closet depending on station configuration and the availability of an elevator, the janitor's closet may be required on one or more levels. The current program provides an allowance until maintenance requirements are known.
7) Auxiliary power as in 3) above, this room must be accessible to the station agent and fire department. This room contains equipment to actuate emergency light systems and to provide power to elevators (and esca-1ators if desired).
8) Transformer Substation this room can be in a vault configuration near the street (in the case of the station adjacent to or within an existing right-of-way).
9) Switch gear room this room should be adjacent to the transformer substation when possible to minimize the extent of high transmission lines. It, in turn, should be near the electrical room. Concourse or platform level is satisfactory.
10) Vehicle Control Room locational requirements not known at this time.
77


96264-8039-00
5. Horizontal Circulation
The major design problem within a station is to move people in a clear efficient manner from entrance to train. People should be able to flow like a river with minimum impedance. Optional activities not performed by the majority of people should be to the side of the main flow in eddy currents. In these areas a person can collapse his umbrella, pause to examine the route map, get change for a ticket vending machine, buy his ticket and re-enter the main flow of traffic.
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Circulation must be laid out to avoid conflicts between entering and exiting flows of traffi c.
User Orientation wherever possible, visual contact with the outdoors should be provided and between platform and concourse. 90 degree and 180 degree turns should be minimized to avoid disorientation.
6. Vertical Circulation
a) Minimum requirements one elevator must be provided to each platform on the entrance level for handicapped and one elevator from the entrance level to adjacent grade. Two means of egress from platform and concourse spaces must be provided when occupancy exceeds 50 people (UBC 1973, Section 33). Presently all concepts exceed this occupancy.
b) Optional requirements elevators for the handicapped may also be used for moving other patrons. Escalators could be provided for convenience.


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c) Concourse and Center Platform only one set of vertical circulation is required in this configuration.
d) Concourse and Side Platforms two sets of vertical circulation are required in this configuration.
e) With side platforms, vertical circulation should be placed outside the platform space to avoid interference with platform ci rculation.
f) By properly placing vertical circulation elements one directional flow is possible on the platform. This flow increases space utilization and reduces user confusion.


96264-8039-00
g) If user comfort, convenience and desires are considered, the escalator would rank best with the stair second and elevators generally third. Escalators and stairs enable people to move continuously. In the case of the escalator, people can rest while the escalator does the work for them. If only stairs are provided, a straight stair rather than one that turns 180 degrees is desirable as less user disorientation will occur. The preceived waiting time for an elevator by someone rushing for a train may be a constant annoyance. An elevator can be claustrophobic; whenever possible, glass elevators snould be used. In the case of a station that requires substantial vertical rise from one level to the other (exceeding 20 feet), elevators to move all people should be con-si dered because of their ccmpace space utilization.
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7. Expandabi1i ty
To extend the life of a station, fixed elements within the station should be so organized to allow the facilities to be expanded to increase station capacity. This open-ended characteristic applies to both concourse and platform levels.

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80


96264-8039-00
8. Station Massing
Once the functional and technical constraints are met, the massing of these parts must be considered. Whenever concourse and platform can be aligned, easily understood station expression, as well as construction economies, can be achieved. In the case of platforms aoove concourses, the opportunity for shelter from rain and snow under the platform should be considered.
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81


Characteristics of the Light Rail Vehicle


! 9 6264900^0 2
Appendix A, Rev. A
INITIAL
OPERATING AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS (ASSUMPTIONS)
f
Operating Speed:
, Stations >.6 mi. spacing SO mph (maximum)
Stations <.6 mi. spacing AO mph (maximum)
Arterial Streets 30 mph (maximum)
!
Acceleration:
t 0-45 mph 4.5 FPS2
40-60 mph 3.0 FPS2
1 Decleration:
Service 4.5 FPS2 Emergency 10.0 FPS^
Acceleration Rates or Jerk (longitudinal, lateral and vertical)
3.6 FPS'
Speed-through Switches:
High speed "y" and mainline 60 mph Slow speed turnouts 25 mph
Stop Dwell Times:
Exclusive right-of-way 15 seconds City streets 20 seconds
I
f Service Frequencies:
Maximum, peak periods 60 seconds Minimum, regular service 10 minutes
Loading Standards (average passengers per car at the maximum load point):
Off-peak 68 Peak hour 110 Peak 5 minutes 158
Hours of Operation: 24 hours


96264-9004-02
Appendix A, Rev. A
DESIGN CRITERIA
Vehicle
Size Length 70 ft.
Width 8 ft. 8 in.
Height 12 ft. 8 in.
Gross Empty Weight 44,000 lbs.
Capacity: seated 68
standees 90
Reliability/maintainability to be determined Suspension:
Steel wheel on steel rail Propulsion:
Electric traction motor Controls:
Manual (automatic collision avoidance and controls will be evaluated for application on the exclusive right-of-way).
i
Reliability/maintainability to be determined Train Size:
4 car/trains (maximum on exclusive right-of-way)
2 car/trains (maximum on surface street)


LIGHT PAIL
96254-3004-02
Appendix A, Rev. A
GEOMETRICS AT GRADE OH ARTERI/.LS
Minimum horizontal curvature (at 8 mph) 50 ft.
Minimum horizontal curvature at design speed (30 mph) 750 ft.
Haximura super-elevation (based on local street) 0
Maximum super-elevation unbalance 0,08
Absolute maximum gradient (short length) 5,0%
Absolute maximum gradient (sustained) 4.0%
Preferred maximum gradient (short length) 4,0%
Preferred maximum gradient (sustained) 3,0%
Maximum vertical curvature:
to produce 0.07 g vertical acceleration
Transition curves will be used between circular curves and tangents or between circular curves of different radii,
Maximum allowable gradients shall be reduced when combined with horizontal curves.
Stations may be located cn vertical tangents with maximum gradient of 2,0%.
Stations should be located on tangent track. A spiral transition may begin near the end of the platform. If necessary, the station may be placed on a circular curve with a radius in excess of 1,000 feet.
Turnouts and switches shall not be placed on horizontal or vertical curves.
Line Segments
Suitable barriers will be located between light rail except at intersections.
tracks .and traffic lanes
Signal pre-emption devices will be utilized at intersections in-barriers.
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A3-7


Geometries Grade Separated
9 $254-5004-02
Appendix A, Rev. A
Minimum horizontal curvature (at 28 mph) 300 ft.
Minimum horizontal curvature of design speed (60 mph) 1,335 ft.
Maximum super-elevation 0.10
Maximum super-elevation unbalance 0.08
Absolute maximum gradient (short length) 6,0%
Absolute maximum gradient (sustained) 4.0%
Preferred maximum gradient (short length) 4,0%
Preferred maximum gradient (sustained) 3.0%
Maximum vertical curvature 0.029%
(Produces 0.07 g vertical acceleration at 60 mph) Minimum vertical clearance over:
Railroads ' 23'-0"
Federal Highways 16'-6"
Local Streets 14'-6"
Transition curves will be used between circular curves and ^angents or between circular curves of different radii. *
Maximum allowable gradients shall be reduced when combined with horizontal curves.
Stations may be located on vertical tangents with maximum gradient of !.C% but preferably not greater than 0.5%
Stations should be located on tangent track with at least 100 feet of tangent track beyond each and of the station platform. In extreme cases, the spiral transition may begin near the end of the platform or the station may be placed on a circular curve with a radius in excess of 3,500 feet.
Turnouts and switches shall not be placed on horizontal or vertical curves on grades in excess of 1.5%
Lew speed switches shall be used at station turn outs switches; however, high speed shall be maintained on the mainline. High speed switches shall be used at line junctions.


:S2S''--2CV+-02
Appendix. A, Rev. A
Line Segments
Emergency fan ventilation facilities for smoke removal will be used for subway sections at a spacing not to exceed 1,500 feet.
Pumps and sumps will bo located
subways
at vertical curve 3ag points.
Snow malting facilities will not ba provided; is .required. Snow removal is required.
switch heating capability
Emergency walkways shall be used adjscant to all tracks and shall be a minimum of 2'6 wide and have a headroom clearance of at least T'O".
Emergency exits for subway sections will be located at distances not to exceed 1,000 feet. Crossing of trackways is not permitted in order to reach an emergency exist.
Stations
Length of platforms280 ft. maximum (permits 4 70-foot cars). (Stations in suburbs may be shorter.)
Platform widths (sea figure A3-3)
Side platforms 10 feet
Center platforms 23 feet 5 inches
2c? between body and platform edge: 2 inches
Minimum headroom: 10 feet
Exits: 2 minimum distance not to exceed 150 feet from any point. Escalators, elevators, stairs at major stations, *
Elevators, stairs only at. secondary stations.
Fare collection facilities will be provided at all stations. Heating and air conditioning at all major stations.
Forced ventilation at secondary stations.
Train screening will be evaluated for use at stations.
Bus loading zones, where provided, will be protected by a canopy.
Parking stalls will be provided whs area around the station.
rc appropriate to the number of stalls as rrival modes, and constraints of the


962648062-Q0
Table 4.2-3. Vehicle Empty Weight Ratios
Steel Wheel Vehicles
Vehicle Lbs./Ft.2 Lbs ./Lin
SIG (Economy Light Rail) * 92 764
Schindler Bg 4/4 131 942
Boeing CTA Car 109 1010
PCC Car (1600 series) 97 804
M-A-N Tranway 99 765
Krupp Kompakt 98 708
Tatra T3 95 779
Boeing SLRV no 971
Average... 118 964
Rubber-Tired Vehicles
Vehicle Lbs./Ft.2 Lbs./Lin
Westinghouse 71-430 series 75 721
* Ford Fairlane 101 677
LTV (D/F Airport) 95 667
Transbus (Spec.) 68 575
Mexico City 123 1011
Boeing (Morgantown) 84 565
Average... 105 797

Prototypes
4-10


96264-8062-00
TRANSITION
LINE
PREDICTED CONDITIONS BASED ON LEVEL TANGENT TRACK
DYNAMIC POSITION RESULTING FROM ASSUMED 3 ROLL DOES NOT CONSIDER THE POSSIBILITY OF AN AIR-BAG FAILURE
CAR
UNDERBODY j£ EQUIPMENT CLEARANCE
APPROXIMATE DYNAMIC PROFILE WITH 3 ROLL
Figure 3.3-1. Preliminary Vehicle Clearance Diagram


CONCOURSE
High Volume
(1.0) CONCOURSE
95264-8039-00
EVALUATION OF THE MICRO PEAK (5 Min. Peak)
The 15 min. peak flow figures were used throughout this program except in the following areas where pedestrian flows were considered critical, the 5 min. peak flow figures were used.
- 5 Min. Peak Flow = 1.5 x 267 p/m = 400 p/min.
- entrances:
400 p/min. in 7 doors = 57 p/min./door
- headway equivalent:
This is critical maximum.
60 sec./min.
57 p/min.
(See Fruin page 162)
1.05 sec./ped.
- corridor
surqe flow volume = 267 p/min.
18 ft.
(See Fruin page 76, Level of Service C)
= 14.8 p/ft./min.
18


CONCOURSE
High Volume
95254-8039-00
(1.0) CONCOURSE
CALCULATION OF REQUIRED CONCOURSE AREA PUBLIC SPACE
For high volume station 8000 p/hr.
The procedure is similar to the one demonstrated for low volume stations.
The 15 minute design peak is 4000 p, or 267 p/min.
(1.1) ENTRANCE DOORS
One 3' door = 40 p/min.
4000 p (50% of 3000) 15 min. x 40 P/min.
= 6.7 doors
or 267 p/min. arrive
Requ. doors =6.7
7 doors @ 3' IN 2 doors 0 31 OUT
for peak in
(1.2) CORRIDOR WIDTH Width of space between entrance and turnstiles
Corridor width as function of capacity
267 p/min.
15 p/ft./min.
17.8 ft.
or 2 corridors @ 12'-0" each for 2 approach directions
19


CO Si COURSE
High Voluiii
96264-8039-00
FAR8 COLLECTION Sequence of Operation:
1 Route Map
2 Money Changer
3 Fare Vendor
4 Turnstiles
5 Agent's Booth and Service Gate
Calculation of space requirements of all critical parts, for a High Volume Station:
(1.2.1)
designed to 15 minute peak flow with queue space to absorb the 5 minute peak for the full 5 minutes.
ROUTE MAP (Source: Estimates)
Size: Wall area 8' x 3'
Floor area 4'- x 8' =32 sq.ft.
Capacity: 30 sec./p., or 2 p/inin.
Requirements: 2% of people during 5 minute peak, 2% of 400 p/m = 8 p/min. Provision: 4 maps, 4' x 32' =
128 SQUARE FEET TOTAL
(1.2.2)
FARE VENDOR (Source: Manual of Architectural Standards, Chapter 11.7)
Size: 2'6" deep, 3*0" wide, 6'0" high, spaced 4'C" o.c.
Capacity: 10 sec./p., or 6 p/min.
Requirements: Assume 10% of patrons during 15 minute peak need tickets. No waiting should be necessary during this time period over-all.
10% of 267 p/min. = 25.7 p/min.
26 7
g- = 4.5 = 5 vendors required (5)
During the 5 minute peak: 10% of 400 p/min. = 40 p/min. need tickets with 5 vendors (40 5 x 6 = 10). 10 p/min. would have to wait, or the waiting line would build up at a rate of 10 p/min. 5 min. 0 10 p/min = 50 people would be waiting after 5 minutes.
lie assume the station agent sells tickets during that time to at least ?J people (5 p/min.), only 20 people would be waiting in 6 locations, maxi sum queue space: 4 people per line. ___
20


CONCOURSE
High Vo lun
96264-8039-00
Typical
ticket
(1.2.3)
Provisions: 5 vendors 2-6" x 3'-0" (4'-0" o.c.) with S'-O" queue space for 4 people.
201-0
210 souAus r
MONEY CHANGER (In Free Area)
101 -6'
Size: 2'-6"
Capacity: 10
Requirements:
change.
Provisions: space for 4 p
deep, 3'-0" wide, 6'-0" high, 4'-0" o.c. sec./p or 6 p/min.
50% of those getting tickets during 15 minute peak need
5% of 26.7 p/min. = 13.3 p/min.
3 money changers 2'-6" x 3'-0" (4'-0" o.c.), with 8'-0" queu eople.
12b
21


CONCOURSE
High Volume
95264-8039-00
(1.3) TURNSTILES
Size: 4,-G" deep, 2'-0" wide (3'-6" o.c.)
Capacity: Tor coin operated single slot * 25 p/min.
Requirements: Regular 15 minute peak flow should not cause queueing.
Assume 80r> of the 257 p/min. art IN movements.
0,3 x 267 p/min. _ turnstiles IM (say 9)
25 p/min- 2.2 turnstiles OUT (say 2)
During 5 minute peak, with 267 p/min.
0.3 x 400 = 320 p/min IN
Turnstile capacity 3 @ 25 p/min = 225 p/min.
95 p/min (320 225) start queueing up for 5 minutes to a maximum of 475 people.
At an average of 5 sq.ft./p (Fruin page 86)
Level of Service D) 2375 sq.ft, are required.
(31'-6" x 6" x 75'-0") or 475 @ 5 sq.ft. = 2375 sq.ft.
Requi red


96264-3039-00
CONCOURSE
High Volume
Provisions: 9 turnstiles 4'-0" x 3'-6" (o.c.) 9 in, 2 out, reversible, to 2 in, 9 out, with undisturbed queuespace for 165 people of 12' x 33' (5"3ARTD), and additional queuespace without major crossflows of an equivalent of 33' x 75', or 2475 sq.ft, in both directions of the turnstile.
p
.:ii .
queue
t
i
i
*
t
i
i
I
IS'-IT
75-0"
i
turnstiles 9 in, 2 out
a.in. queue space 32*-0" +
general back up space
23


CONCOURSE
High Volume
96264-8039-00
. R!£A SU,;;!Ai 0.1 .i.
l~> T
turnstiles
queue space
x 40' -
7,350 SQ.FT, or
3,680 sq. ft. Free Area 3,600 sq. ft. Paid Area
40
l
(1.4) AGENT'S BOOTH AND SERVICE GATE.
Agent's booth accessible from both free and paid areas.
3 i z
17' -0
-ree
40" queue space L7'0" booth
' o'O" queue space
( 5 inin. peak ticket vending)
17'0" x 12''0"
200 SQ.FT. PLUS


96264-3039-00
CONCOURSE
High Volume
PAID AREA

FREE AREA
1 5
I
_i
[rrrw
a "11 % rrnj£ t
rr[Tm
rr!"rf /
r
SUMMARY OF PROVISION
(5) booth a gate
(2) and (3)
fare vendor and money changer 10'-6" x 321-0"
(1) route map
4'-0" x 32'-0"
SUBTOTAL
TOTAL
200 sq.ft.
-(4) turnstiles, etc. 7,535 sq.ft,
335 sq.ft.
123 sq.ft.
8,300 sq.ft.
8,300 sq.ft.


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h-
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4
i
L 1
25


96264-8039-00
CONCOURSE High Volume
COMMENT: As much as 1,300 sq. ft. may be added to provide space for four 20' x 4' escalators and 1,200 sq. ft. for four 6'-0" stairs (2 up to each platform) within the paid area.
8,300 sq. ft. + 2,500 sq. ft. = 10,800 sq. ft.
Therefore, a High Volume Concourse may require a maximum of
11,000 sq. ft. (Paid + Free Area)
25


96264-3039-00
2.0 PLATFORM Concept 3 High Volume Side Platform
/S V. .^lO'-O" (2)
280'-0" (1) sk__
no 0 1 o CO
(1) 4 cars @ 70' long = 280'.
(2) 10', including V shy distance, + 280' length equals 2,800 sq. ft. of platform. A maximum of 267 people might be waiting on the platform during the peak
15 minutes (headway time x 267 p/m, 60 sec. x 267 p/m = 267 p). In an emergency requiring evacuation of the passengers from a train we assume the flow of people from the concourse would be complete before the next train would pull into the station. 632 people would exit onto the platform in a maximum of 1 minute. By means of two 6' stairs and two 48" escalators, 420 people will have left the platform during the same time period (6'-0" stair @ 90 p/m,
48" escalator @ 120 p/m). The platform would have a maximum of 480 people after full evacuation of the train (267 + 632 420 = 480) @ 5.8 sq. ft./person.
2,800 sq. ft. 480 P
5.8 sq. ft. per person
This represents "Level of Service D" in Fruin page 85 (No Touch Zone) and is considered more than adequate under emergench conditions.
(3) Distance between platforms is given by Appendix A, updated by SMC staff.
37


Vertical circulation


3.1 ELEVATORS
Vertical Circulation
96264-8039-00
m l n G
_______________L
f
I
I
L
5' 7' cab. 0 2.75 sq. ft./person (Truin page 64) = 13-person occupancy with 5 sq. ft., per person queue space. We are assuming 13 people waiting to get on the elevator and 13 people exiting and waiting out of the queue space.
5 sq. ft./p x 13 persons = 65 sq. ft. + 32 sq. ft. circulation space for those exiting (assuming half as much space for circulation).
65 + 32 = 97 sq. ft.
45