Citation
A residence

Material Information

Title:
A residence
Creator:
Hoffman, William S
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
63 unnumbered leaves : illustrations, charts, maps, plans ; 22 x 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Architecture, Domestic -- Florida ( lcsh )
Architecture, Domestic ( fast )
Florida ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 63).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
William S. Hoffman.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
10058051 ( OCLC )
ocm10058051
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1979 .H622 ( lcc )

Full Text
3Y 0X":"" mi mi in in
1204 00284 5452
S Date Due



.
i i
Masters Thesis
A RESIDENCE William S. Hoffman


PREFACE
The purpose of this thesis preparatory paper is to absorb information into a comprehensive foundation, needed to develop a technically valid and philosophically significant masters thesis project. This paper is not intended to be an end in itself, but rather a stepping stone, leading to further exploration concerning this particular area of study.
In a broad sense, it bears upon informative data relating to the house, both physically and spiritually. In a more finite context the house is examined in a particular climatic zone and geographical region. Therefore, I shall be focusing on the hot-humid climatic region of South Florida.
The paper is divided into two sections. The first segment encompasses environmental and regional data. The second part deals with the parameters I've developed concerning the evolution of the house and its surroundings, integrating my own personal philosophies within this framework.


CONTENTS
Part I
South Florida Environmental Analysis
Surface Geology Land Stratigraphy Drainage Erosion
Weather and Climate
Flora
Fauna
Residential Regional Analysis
House Type House Arrangement House Plan House Form House Orientation House Interior House Color
Interior and Exterior Vertical Surfaces
Window Openings
Roof Structure
Materials
Shading Devices
Mechanical Equipment
Part II
Explanation of Parameters Explanation of Philosophy
Bibliography


PART I
























*


South Florida Environmental Analysis


ij-are i.iyuuit)
rorureeri oprinys
Wauchula*
>0na j.'Zolfo Springs
Hammock
^ SSebring
Oe So'0
CAl1
MyakKB City
ka River
/
h Port rlotte
Limestone
!
Arcadia
Placit/ y(
*
Lake Placid t Cji
/..
vr)Dimuniuyo;
|"*7T
.Basinger
Okeechobee*Cypress Quarters
.'"drio,U'jack Island'Pepper Park J /
5unland Gardens** St. Lucie Museum ;ty***
Fort Pierce
svr!. *. .*.i£ .. t /
* Whit.City* Hutehin>
Walton v Island Port St. Lucie* Vi
r>
> /S
locates.
Fort Ogden
Venus.
ational Police Museum *
------Port Charlotte----------
t .Chailotte Harbor _
; , [Cleveland
i Punta Gorda 1 j Ponce de l.eon Park
* Sri* l ;
GUI, ' 'l*. r .
5 i ir'
I__/
Cypress Knee Palmdale* Muscum
I -p t Brighton/ "Semmple Indian ^ResJ__
Fest\al. January I
Turtle Witch,
May-A
e...Mw.
p:OVIJ2S k>
, tt e ptninsulC'
. coast it ret.
lntra:cist.
Jensen Beach -A- )
Rio^ Elliott>fuseum Stuart* X Housepf Refuge Museum .
t:
I-
t
iV
Palm City*;. PortSewall, I
/ PortSalemol... i- \ J : ; ow*
,ke-.-v .<...r: i.. v jmic : -=
_rJL__ Dickinson Jt~^H0be
Hope Sounds Jupiter Island
hfihii
iter Island J ffcSjS A;
L-L..J f : ..r ** V -
Moore Haven
^Bokeelia
L
orth.
Fort Myers*'
- Matiacha ,
r^'oe
La Belle* .Alva
Fort Myers Shores
\,,nhirtn. jqT&Teqoesta \ S3,nvX-. 1/V/
Xv >'>5uupltar Inlet Colony, y-V.. K \t .
\ Jupiter* \ I ea\ v '
^ ,p. x -
Pahokeef." Palm Beach Gardens* *Ndh Palm Beach Jv iatauHmn
raiiunee* .Lake Park ) flaadi County
I* 3
(JLmicl. */t
.Clewiston
Harlem*
V -Lake Park /'V I County,
Riviera Beach,ep^lm BeaChShores^-
i-y Cape Coral
Matlacha Pass
^Ai,
Or//J^ eLehigh Acres
y. F/Ce '",d.)rclief
LakeHarbor*
South Bay*
Chosen
.Belle Glade
West Palm Beach*^Beach
Slade ^.Lox.h.tcn.. ff.^MuseaIX55^'l,-
yers
v'0
St. James City
San Carlos Park Estero
id -VO' -9k^ *'
^Vf. Sanctuary
in en,'X) ae.- -\v .i i
Immokalee 30
( orkscrcv. Swamp
erg'
i'a I Naples Park'
Bonita Springs
a \Palm Springs*
')
Loxihatchef .National -
"Wildlife
* *
Refuge -
Flagler Museum
LakeWorth
.Lajntaha
j.iOceapRidge ;
BOynion Beach
(Delray Beach
:< I I
J Big Cypress
Sunniland
Seminole I. R.
North Naples* Caribbean Gardens
* Naples* East Naples*
it
Golden Gate
T
Florida
Marco..
Marco Island*
Goodland*
1 Collier "Seminole
t ope land Roc. Area Copeland Ochopee
Cape Romano .
v-T a -ijl Everglades City
State Indian r
Res.
.. Coral Springs*
Margate* Tamarac. Lauderdale* Lakes Plantation*, Davie. _
j Highland Beach / :ir Chris
Boca Raton
Deerfield Beach
*3 Chris I Sundr
Hollywood Res.
Pembroke Pines*
Fort Lauderdale
.Dania | m 1 f-
Hollywood
.Dania | as ' -X
sod
*>% , i -

#K:
Chokolgskee

v
Sight-*r>'>t.a ho*t.. r\ or EvtrgUdn Nntio...\! Prt
\-Kn
Carol City
Opa-lock
-i Hialeah
Miccosukee' Miami Springs'
. Coral Gables,
! Vi/* I ^ Westwood
XL
Miramar*) ^Hallandale / -Xt Btyfront PtrkM
-l Pitu* /'* GulfstrcamPark u* 9, .' *TnmitFlintUi
v -A North Miami Beach Dtctmber-Januzr r 'North Miami
\ A. Hammock A P^e-'^Sri^j
siZ r Pit mroo S,J H : am. Hoy ' : t V
I r -Monkey Jungle- Cutler Ridge / :'L, ;V
- a-IVliarhi Beach; :vA*;, v^,
s. *Vircaya -rir4Formtr estate now D*dc
.South "Seaquafiurn^ County Art Mustum
Lakes MiamiA*a^..><" v.,t. .-T
Kendall^afro[*c^Fiondrx,x:^^X'.:: >
,enta,
tjyti
Ridge
gVERGLADES ^- -brehidJungle* G^fs
" d; 1 HnmoctnaH- HofflCSl
0%rr : -ml! on ic es wldem t< tern:. / nffc i.i.'r',fe
PmelandTrajJ^Wrl-?,S,ead * ^gStd J f J*ISCAYNE
Pai+ay-okee Mrf Overtook
^NATIONAL PARK Vivttor Center
'i Florida City / f'flimt/NA'nNAL
-VivilorCenter ^k*r .MONUMENT
r. y/n- Mahogany,, Royal Palm*i / * a Hamjriock 11 Visitor Center i
, / ^bujjfr. r. ; Lurotjs X ** 1
/ t ^ fond J*Nine Mile
'aK1 t A:
I < A. N*
Living cord retf. Phnt y> f} mruvite an// JrnniV tnnec A I
/ il. i. "* *.
. * C* 4*',;t v
? ' i'<>: - .... ..
^arathon*^ *keyColony&MCh .'Tv*ci
\
7^ key West N.W.R.
' f*.A

j wVst^>:
- J:C3.
SuTrrterhnd /
Drrhiil fiarv/pns
oj CT->
Key Colony Be ledlilfah ^ . r*v.{|?V
jkoimen^/iovtmbtr . ** .
tM'Mm'y
* .A* *
___C- c i I-tO .<* \ t Tamnn fmirnampitt tfav
Minih.en Tarpon Tourniwent Ktiy.
-' Marathon Annual Bene fish Tournament, June
'


\
Fig. 3. Principal surface geology of Floridas three southern counties; after Puri and Vernon (1964) and Hoffmeister et al. (1967).
Miami limestone (Pleistocene)
Oolitic facies Bryozoan facies
Tamiami limestone (Miocene), partly covered by Anastasia Sands (Pleistocene)
Pamlico Sands
Key Largo limestone (Pleistocene)
C
c
SURFACE GEOLOGY
Surface geology in the south Florida area is relatively simple. Limestone formations outcrop or shallowly underlie the surface soils over most of the area.
With little change in eletation, the area is quite flat. The highest elevation being twenty feet in North Miami, down to two feet at the end of Mahogany Hammock in the Everglades National Park.
EROSION
Limestone outcrops are disected by erosion and broken with numerous solution holes, pinnacle and honeycomb rock, shallow basins and sloughs of various sizes. Much of the erosion being underground, forming caves, roofs of which later collapse to form solution holes or basins. Surfao erosion is shown by numerous rocky mesa's projecting above ground level.


o
<\1s
X si
Hammock paat
Gulf of Mexico
Fine quartz tend and thall
Turtle grass rhizomes
Soft mud and ooze
Hurricane mud (ersgonlte)
Solution hole fill (soil, marl, rock, bones, and branches)
Liver mud
< fSstsfaS
i Hi i

w

Marine mud and shell
Red mangrove peat
tfhMsMflM

m
Pond water
Basal mud and freshwater peat
Dark muck
Saw grass peat
Hellsoma mud
Bedrock
y'/Ail i
{y
1,1,1,1,1
IXI


Fig. 5. Drainage pattern of the three southern counties of Florida. During the rainy season definite flow can be observed while the waters are high. This is most evident at the culverts along the road where the water is somewhat impounded, especially following heavy rains. As the dry season approaches, flow ceases and the water becomes impounded in the numerous irregularities of the bedrock and in the impervious sands and marls. As this proceeds many living organisms are concentrated in these ponds. This is of great biological significance and might be considered characteristic of these swamps and marshes. Practically all animal and plant life are adapted to this wet-dry climate.
The movement of water on this fiatland Is often hardly perceptible. It Is further slowed down by the vegetation and also may be humped by the wind. Heavy rains lie in a hump and take days to flatten. Often the water levels do not conform to that of the land.


CLH1AT0LDGICAL SUMMARY FOR MIAMI, FLORIDA.
Miami is located in Latitude 25 47' North, Longitude 80 11' West, on the lazier east coast of Florida. To the east of the City lies Biscayne Bay, an arm of the ocean, about 15 miles long and 3 miles wide. East of the bay is the island of Miami Beach, a mile or less wide and about ten long, and beyond Miami Beach is the Atlantic Ocean. The surrounding countryside is level and sparsely wooded.
The climate of Miami is essentially subtropical marine, featured by a long, warm summer, with abundant rainfall, followed by a mild, dry winter. The marine influence is evidenced by the low daily range of temperature and the rapid warming of cold airmasses which pass to the east of the State. Located as it is, the Miami area is subject to winds from the east or southeast about half the time, and in several specific respects has a climate whose features differ from those prevailing farther inland.
One of these features is the annual precipitation for the area. The cooperative station on Miami Beach, at the water's edge, lias a normal annual rainfall of about 46 inches. The Weather Serivce Office at the airport has a normal of over 59 inches. The daily rainfall is somewhat different at the two locations. During the early morning hours more rainfall occurs at Miami Beach than at the airport, while during the afternoon die reverse is true. The airport office is about 9 miles inland.
The average daily range of temperature (difference between the maximum and the minimum) is only 10 at Miami Beach, while well inland the average daily range is near 18 An even more striking difference appears in the annual number of days with temperatures reaching 90 or higher. At the Miami Beach station the figure is less than 15 per year and at inland stations about 60. llinimum temperature contrasts also are particularly marked under proper conditions, the difference between inland locations and the Miami Beach station frequently amounting to 15 or more, especially in winter.
Freezing temperatures occur occasionally in the farming districts southwest, west, and northwest of die City, but almost never near the ocean. Noteworthy past cold periods occurred in February 1917, December^-January 1917-1918, December 1934, January 1940, and January-February 1958.
Tropical hurricanes affect the area, the months of greatest frequency being September and October. Noteworthy hurricanes were those of September 17-18, 1926, November 4, 1935, September 15, 1945, October 17-18, 1950; Donna, September 10, 1960, Cleo, August 27, 1964, and Betsy, September 8, 1965.
Destructive tornadoes are very rare, although funnel clouds occasionally touch the ground, and waterspouts are sighted quite often along the beaches during the summer months; however, significant damage is seldom reported.
Some of the more important tornadoes occurred in April 1925, June 1959, February 1968, and June 1968. In the April 1925 tornado 5 people were killed, and these are the only deaths ever reported in the Miami area from tornadoes.


DETAILED ANALYSIS
Temperature: Highest recorded temperature is 96 F; winter temperatures never remain below freezing point throughout a day. Summer design temperature can be taken as 90; in winter as 47F (discounting the 1% of coldest temperature). The region is characterized by small temperature variation; the monthly temperature range is 22F through the year. The daily temperature variation is only about 6 in summer, about 13F in winter.
Temperature distribution in annual hours:
over 85 11% typical for June, July, September afternoons; less frequently for March, April, May, October afternoons
65 to 85 75% major climate zone. All average monthly temperatures lie in this range
45 to 65 14% primarily a nocturnal range from December till March. Occasionally a daytime range during cold spells in winter
under 45 0% negligible
Sun: Actual sunshine hours account for 66% of the possible hours in the yearly average, llaximum.in March and April with 72%; minimum in June with 61%. Sunnier cloudiness cuts the intensity of solar radiation; it builds up during the hot part of the day, reducing solar input. Large proportion of diffuse radiation. Shaded conditions are required nearly throughout the year.
Wind: Average wind velocity of 10 mph comes from easterly direction both in mornings and afternoons. The large part of the night hours and evenings are mostly calm, or bring only light breezes. Winter night winds are stronger and come from north as well as from east. Northemly winds are common from October through March. Sea-breeze and trade-wind combination may reach 20-30 mph velocities on summer afternoons, with stronger winds on hottest days. Strongest winds are generally under 50 mph; however, 123 mph maximum wind velocity was recorded from E and SE directions, mainly from Septenter through November.
Precipitation: The average yearly rainfall of about 60 inches comes principally in the summer months. September is generally the rainiest month, with average precipitation of 18 days. Rain in at least every second day can be expected from June till September. Winter average is one rainy day out of four. Maximum rainfall can amount to 24 inches per day in November. In March, April, May, and in August 8" to 10" rainfalls may occur during a 24 hour period. Rain can fall up to 2" in half an hour; but rarely above %" in a five minute period.
Relative Humidity and Vapor Pressure: The average yearly vapor pressure is nearly 18 mm llg. From July to October the daily conditions rise over 20 mm Hg; a situation where conditions are hardly bearable without a breeze. 25%^ of the year is in such an extremely uncomfortable range. A further 50% is still in vapor pressure areas where air novements are required to restore the feeling of comfort.


nvci 05c 1 cmpci aiui c "ou"6 w J kmm.fi
Vr Jan F* M.r AO* mp Jun. Au, fpt Oc, Nov Doc Annual Season JulvlAu. s*pt Oct Nov Doc Jan Fob Mar Apr Mav LkmWTatal

1** 64.2 01.9 67,f 04.0 ?*. I 0.6 2.0 1.4 74.6 71.0 71.3 71.9 72.9 1433-96 1456-57 % * 3 0 0 7 17 17 46 1)2 11 4 0 21 17 1M 111
1*41 05.1 01.1 64.0 72.4 7*. 6 0.6 1.9 1.5 1.1 O.t 71.6 71.7 94.4 1457-36 0 0 1 0^ 74 1)7 161 21 4)1
1*2 0*.l 01.1 6>.0 71.6 76.6 60.4 1) > 1.4 1*1 76.7 72.2 *4.4 74.1 1496-34 Ol 2 0 14 12*
1*4) 60.5 01.0 7,* 7..4 76.0 0.1 61.1 12.1 1.2 75.) 70.6 6*. 2 74.1 1454-60 0 0 a 29 11 65 99 11 299
If** 6*.5! *4.1 71.* 75.4 75.6 1.6 62.1 2.1 1.1 75.3 *6.1 *4.2 74.6 1460-61 6) 77 26 11 111
1*4* 05.1 6. 1 71*1 77.0 73.4 61.2 1.6 2.2 11.1 77.4 70.4 67,0 73.1 ol 0
14*1-62 0 0 0 0 0 64 96 7 19 1*1
14*6 61 5 04.7 72. 74.4 74.* I.l 1.1 2.7 1.1 76.) 76.0 71.6 76.9 1442-61 0 0 c 0 2* 120, 41 *6 2*6
14*7 75*1 02.5 67.5 77.4 76.1 60.6 61.0 2.0 1.9 76.3 76.0 70.1 79.1 16*1-64 0 O' 29 9 *7 2*1
! 14 46 66.4 71.0 76.1 75.7 77.4 1.5 2.1 2.1 l.l T7.| 76.6 72.4 76.1 01644-69 0 0 c 61 25 11 110
14*4 70.2 7) J 70.6 7J.I 77.6 0.1 2.1 2.1 1.4 74.0 *1.7 71.1 76.2 1645-6* 70 16
1450 75.1 04.4 71.0 70.* 76.1 J.J 61.6 1.7 1.0 76.4 64.0 65.2 79.2 0 0 c 0 1* 1 1*9
14*6-47 O 27 41 29 *1 C 117
1451 05.2 05.1 70.5 71.1 77.T 1.0 1.9 1.6 1.1 76.1 71.0 72.5 79.9 1447-66 0 w c 0 0 29 96 101 37 214
I 1'52 64.2 *6.0 74.3 7),0 71.6 2.4 6).* 1.5 2.1 71.2 7).) 66.6 76.2 1646-64 0 12 16 54 21)
i 145) 07.6 71.2 74.7 73.7 60.1 1.1 2.3 11.1 2.0 76.0 72.4 *4.5 76.4 16*6-70 0 0 0 0 21 117 96 14 266
1454 *4.1 *7.1 04.4 76.6 *4.2 1.2 2.6 4.1 2.4 77.2 70. 64.2 73.3 1670-71 *2 2) 67 49 11 til
1455 64.4 *7.1 TW. 75.0 71.0 60.1 1.0 u.l 2.1 77.1 72.6 64,6 73.1 0 0 c
1471-72 c* 0 0 2 36 C 1
145* 02.7 71.0 70. S 71.4 74.* 60.7 2.T 1.9 O.T 76.2 6*. *. 73.2 1672-71 0 0 0 rv 1 10 41 64 c 116
1457 70.1 72.7 70.1 7*.t 76.1 61.1 1.7 1.7 1.* 76.4 73.0 63.6 73.4 1471-74 0 1 0 17 c 111
145* 01.* 54.4 *4.4 74.5 77.* 1.7 2.3 1.3 2.* 77.2 76.7 *4.0 74.6 0 1* 1 1C
1454 66.4 74.1 71.1 75.0 77.1 60.1 O.T l.C 0.6 0.4 71.1 *7.1 73.1 1679-7* 11 46
1460 00.7 *7.6 67.0 7*.6 77.0 1.1 1.7 D.l l.T 74.3 76.7 63.9 73.2 0
1461 1 14*2 0*. *6.1 64.0 71.6 71.0 70.J 74.1 7) 1 76.0 77.0 1.1 o.a 1.9 l.V 1.4 2.6 2.0 l.l 77.T 77.3 71.6 i**.l 66.9 61.7 73.4 74.7 Cooli ng Dei ;re< s D ays
1 146) i 614*4 67.1 67.4 71.1 61.3 74.6
65.7 74.6 77.1 77. *| 1.2 2.6 1.6 2.1 76.4 7*.4 72.2 76.4 Y..r Jan F.b M.r | Apr 1 M.y Jun.' July! AuilS.pt Oct | Nov Doc Total
7.l 74.2
fW.W V. r *' ' *
146* 66.01 0*.4| 04.f 72. a 77,6 76.2 1.1 1.7 l.t 77.4 70.2 66.6 74.) 1466 104) 66/ 1*9 173 496 92* 3*7 9(1 512 47 161 41*2
14*7 71.4 06.4 72.6 7*.7 74.1 74.4 2.* 1.9 l.V 76.2 71.2 70.) 73,6 1670 15 31 211 23 *46 911 35S 34* 323 437 165 211 *101
1461 6* 1 62.7 *7.e 73.6 77.1 74.| 1.6 1.6 2.2 77.6 71.C 66.6 74.1
1464 67.6 65.2 *7.0 77.1 T4.| 2.1 4.1 1.3 2.3 0.6 70.4 69.41 73.3 1471 176 211 202 11* 466 536 911 476 441 274 262 *!
1470 05.1 64.7 71.4 74. C 74.L 2.0 2.7 *.a 2.2* 74.3 *4.6 70.9 73.6 1672 2*2, 1*4 221 307 166 454 440 321 71 406 261 217 *170
1.4 7.4 71.6 7*. 2 76.* 167) 212 1 101 32* 456 * 74 991 316 91] 364 14) 161 *1)4
1471 *6.2 70.ol 70.1 71.0 74.1 61.( 2.7 0.7 1674 264 150 1)1 142 471 916 331 96* ill 41* 24| 16) 44J7
1472 75.e *. 72.1 75.e 77.6 74. 0.1 1.7 0.4 71.1, 70.6 73.4 1473 261 211 27| Ml *96 301 906 93) 317 441 237 171 4370
147) 70.1 65.1 74.5 73.4 74.* 1.1 l. 1.) 1.6 77.6 76.2 67.0 7*. 1
1474 74.6 66.4- 75.6 76.2 0.0 2.1 2.6 4.0 4.1 76.1 71.4 64.0 77.1
. 1475 72.7 71.1 71.6 77.5 74,* 1.3 1.1 2.6 1.0 74.2 72.) 64.0 77.0
MCDkS j MEAN 67.5 66.0 71,1 76.4 76.0 0.4 2.2 2.7 1.6 77. 71.1 *6.3 73.3
MX 75.6 76.7 74,6 2.7 7.1 4.1 4.7 6.2 64.3 74.* 76.6 1.0
i MIN 54.21 54.2 62.4 67.1 70.3 71.1 73.2 71.6 75.0 71.1 64. 60.) *7.4
Precipitation A j Snow rfal
Ytr Jan 7^] Mar Apr May Jun. July Auf Spt Oct ) No* Ok Annual Stuon | July [ Auf |&ptj Oct | Nov Doc J.n Fob M.r | Apr | May|juno|Total
1440 1.52 2.26J 5.40i 0. * 1.1*1 11.59 6.0*| .71 17.3V 4.1* 0.*4 )20| *7.12 1670-71 o.c O.C O.C O.C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 O.C 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
1471-7; o.c 0.1 0.1 0.0 o.c 0.0 o.c o.c 0.1 0.0 o.c 0.0 6.0
1441 2.61 1.64 1.1* 5.46 i.ir 7.06 15.1) 5.01 .01 2.22 6.44 1.93 61.14 1472-71 o.c o.c o.c 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.c 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
1442 2.)T 2.11 1.61 20.40 *.2*1 14.541 1.2V 1.61 7.03 5.46 1.37 1.2* 61.*7 1471-74 o.c o.c o.c 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.c 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
144) 1.5C 0.30 1.16 2.071 4.46 *.4* 7.57 16.66 .10 4.20 *.*) 0.51 *2.43 1474-71 O.C o.c o.c 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 o.c 0.0 0.0 0.0 .0
{ 1444 5.0> 0.01 1.2* 1.01 6.0* 2.11 7.45 1.17 5.64 6.7* 0.10 0.37 0.14
14*5 1.70j 0.10 0.7* 2.6* 1.421 1.61 7.151 *.27 .66 6.07 1 *0 1.92 2.26 1475-7* o.c o.c o.c o.c 0.0 0.0
144* *1.11 1.26- 1.70 1.2T 6.16 7.72 11.76 3.1* 3.2*1 3.6) 3.15 2.34 3*.4) K|C0D
1447 1.IT 2.74 1.46 4.45- 6.20 *4.45 11.51 6.66 10.70 14.73 4.36 0.4*, 76.14 MEAN o.c o.c o.c o.c 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
1446 1.46 1. OZj 0.5) 6.76 6.65- 3.51 6.62^ 6.15 21.02 11.64 0.7l 1.11 74.63
1449 0.11 0. )7 7.22 5.72 6.07 10.11 1.4* 7.3T 6.07 7.13 1.21 1.10 62.1*
1450 0.50 1.65j 0.61 2.37 1.27 )*6ol 7.44 6.69 3.66 12.46 2.66 1.20 44.46
1451 0.04 2.04 6.*7 *.74 1.6* 5.01 1.64 5.11 2.6) 6.54 0.34 1.0* *.*7
1452 0.54 2.)0 2.01 1.4* 0 6 2.0! 7.14 4.4) *.4* 21.01 0.13 1.44 *6.40
145) 6.01 1.6V 0.61 *17 1.13 5.4a 6.66 4.07 11.10 10.2* 2.44 2.16 69.15
1454 0.44< 2.14 1.4* 5.43 ll.*> 10.14 4.21 1.63 1.26 4.24 4.77 0.4* 62.26
1455 0.71 0.7*| 0.21 1.1* 1.7* 4.64 7. * *27 3.32 6.16 0.6| ! 61.33
145* 1.74 0.41 0.02 2*.n 3.** r.4i 2.14 *.34 4.34 3.3* 0.24 0.26 17.00
1457 0.06 4.66 2.6* 5.04 10.11 3.12 4.5* 1* .36 1.12 7.64 2.34 2.H 70.*7
1451 5.6 v 1.54 5.16 0.15 11.1* *.5* 6.56 l.*0 4.12 *.13 1.66 6.14 71.42
1454 .2.21 2.12 * 5 a.oa 6.1*i 20.56 l.20i 6.1* 12.46 7.62 11.13 1.10 4.1)
14*0 0.14 2.20 0.67 10.21 1.** 6.11 3.27 *.19 24.40 10.34 2.16 0.30 70.26
14*1 5.12 0.61 1.41 0.5* 6.61 10. *6 1.41 *66 ).*0 1.42 2.13 0.19 41.70
14*2 1.46 0.1* 2.76 1.14 0.42 10.16 1.74 1.02 7.62 1.30 4.13 0.20 42.27
14*1 0.64 ) 43< 0.71 0,)> 6.16 *.ia 1.77 4.77 11.12 4.4) 1.41 4.26 44.01
1464 0.46 2.21 0.50 ).)1 4.67' 10.*1 5.31 4.66 4.22 6.77 1.00 6.24 40.20
1465 1.41 2.46 1.47 1.2* 0.** 6.59 6.3* *.4T 11.16 16.74 0.46 0.62 36.40
146* 1.4-2 6.36 1.24 l.l 5.3) 21.IT . 9 7.62 .00 10. * . 0.74 2.06
14*7 2.75 l.l*J 1.60 0.15 1.66 13.41 3.35. 1.1V 4.11 12.64 1.61 1.17 64.22
14*6 1.42 2.rH 0.6* 1.27 16.34 22.16 6.13 6.1* 11.11 .71 1.21 0.1V 1.14
14*4 *.*6 2.02^ 1.44 *.*> 6.02 11. *2 6.46 4.11 6.24 11.37 1.01 1.19 71.44
1470 2.64 1.77 2.61 0.45 10.46 5.51 4.4V 1.60 .4 1.01 0.04 0.17 44.72
1471 0.51 0.60 0.40 0.07 4.1V U.*> 4.72 6.02 4.6) 7.46 0.46 6.1) 30.72
1472 1.6a 2.71 1.0) 2.*7 11.71 10.4a T.iV 6.*6 5.OB 2.6* 2.77 4.11 *1.11
1*72 1.41 2.21 1.76 2.24 1.01 6.41 6.14 14.60 6.54 1.16 0.** 2.*6 91.24
1474 2.54, 0.10 2.27 2.11 2.6V 12 6.04 4.24 6.11 1.61 4.42 1.17 44.00
1475 1.14 0.40 0.61 0.3) *.44 6.IT *.44 3.14 4.64 6.23 2.60 0.64 14.10


1
Meteorological Data For The Current Year
rIa
INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
Longitude:
1*7!
Month Temperature * P Or dsya Bern 65 *F Precipitation In Inches Relative humidity, pci . Mind ! 3 il f li Number of days Average station ash
Averagm Extremes Water equivalent Snow lea pattern 1 1 2 07 (Lecal 2 19 time 2 19 Resultant Faateet mile Sunrise So sunset j i : 6 ;i o If li ) Si f* Tempersure *f
Maximum Minimum
ll fl 1 l 1 1 1 1 S 3 h I 2 h 2 1 o 11 i ll 1! | 1 l IS 3 I6| b! ll ll Ji Elm. U' m.s.L
JAN 74.7 AA.7 71.7 4 20 44 14 14 241 1.99 0.7C IT 0.0 0.0 79 2 2 09 6*9 10.7 >4 99 14 9.2 17 f 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1010.9
FEB 10.t 49.4 79.1 9 19 91 1 291 0.90 0.91 24 0.0 0.0 79 9 If 44 12 4.1 9.7 29 14 24 9.1 f 14 9 7 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 1011.9
NAA o.e A9.9 71.4 9 19 4 1 10 274 0.41 0.44 19 0.0 0.0 74 79 99 49 11 9.9 9.4 90 29 19 9.1 4 19 4 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1017.6
APR. 4.9 70.7 77.9 99 19 92 9 0 142 0.99 0.41 21-22 0.0 0.0 74 2 91 44 10 9.4 11.4 26 24 11 4.9 19 19 4 9 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 LOlt.O
HAY 9.7 71.1 79. A 91 A At 9 0 494 4.94 1.19 17-11 0.0 0.0 4 9 49 74 14 9.0 7.9 29 22 90 4.9 9 14 10 14 0 19 0 2 0 6 0
JUN 7.A 79.A 1.9 2 79 29 0 901 6.97 2.11 24-22 0.0 0.0 4 49 79 19 2*4 7.1 21 24 26 6.6 1 17 12 14 0 19 0 6 0 0 0 1016.4
JUL A.A 79.A 1.1 90 29 71 I 0 90S 4.99 2.02 4-9 0.0 0.0 04 0 69 74 11 4.9 7.7 19 19 4 7.2 1 14 14 14 0 16 0 0 0 0
AUG 7.A 77.9 . 0 11 74 19 0 599 9.19 1.79 19-14 0.0 0.0 el *9 72 74 09 4.2 9.1 21 11 1 4.1 1 29 7 IT 0 16 0 2 0 0 0 1014.9
SEP 7.9 74.9 2.0 ft IA 79 19 0 J17 4.49 1.10 23-24 0.0 0.0 7 90 4f 79 09 4.1 9.2 90 04 16 4.7 2 16 10 14 0 16 1 6 0 0 0 1019.6
OCT 4.4 79.1 79.1 AC 9 47 24 0 441 4.29 2.14 X-n 0,0 0.0 2 4 44 79 07 9.6 10.1 90 09 4 4.2 4 14 11 17 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 1016.9
NOV 71. AA.l 71.1 4 1 44 19 19 297 2.10 1.24 * 19 0.0 0.0 70 2 41 70 04 7.9 11.4 29 04 t 1.4 6 19 t 10 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1010.6
DEC 79. At.l At.A 12 l 2 22 49 174 0.44 0.91 7-0 0.0 0.0 74 94 44 09 4.6 11.6 26 09 6 6.4 10 IT 4 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ^020.9
APR OEC OCT JUL \
YEAR 9.1 70. 77.0 1 11 42 22 107 4970 99.10 t.M 10-19 0.0 0.0 1 9 62 u 09 4*9 9.7 99 19 4 9.6 70 149 100 194 0 9 4 22 ( 0 0 1017.7
Normals, Means, And Extremes
Meant and extremes above are from existing and comparable exposures. Annual extremes have been exceeded at other sites In the locality as follows: Airport locations: Highest temperature 100 In July 1042; lowest temperature 26 In December 1934 (28 In January 1940): auaximas precipitation In 24 hours 12.S8 In April 1942. City locations: Lowest temperature 27 In February 1917; maximum precipitation In 24 hours 15.10 In November 1925; fastest mile of wind 122 from the South In October 1950. Miami Beach (Allison Hospital): Fastest mile of wind 132 from the East, September If, 1926.
NORMALS feted on record for the 1941-1970 period.
DAT! OF AN EXTREME The sst recent la cam of Multiple occurrence.
PREVAIL INS WIN0 DIRECTION Record through 1963.
MIN0 DIRECTION Ntmerals Indicate tent of degrees clockwise free true north. 00 Indicates cals.
FASTEST MILE HIND Speed 1s fattest observed inslnute value when the direction 1s In tens of degrees.
(e) Length of record, years, through the current ytsr unless otherwise noted, based on January data.
(b) 70* and above at Alaskan stations.
Lass than one half.
T Trace.



TCttfeWtJPg FUmWfc


Here the daily temperature curves indicate a definite horizontal tendency. In the coldest months the daily range does not exceed 15F and during the most overheated period decreases to a 5 variation. Hie yearly temperature distribution is compressed into a very close range and remains fairly constant on the side of extreme humidity. Climatic problems are practically negligible during the underheated period, as the temperature remains at overheated levels most of the year. Uind effects play an important part as relief from both high temperature and humidity; and even when temperatures would be in the comfort range, vapor pressure requires air movementsv The evaluation chart indicates that throughout the year shading is required, even on the coolest day, for at least six hours. Within the wind area indication the full lines represent the 300 and 700 fpm theoretical wind velocity requirements. The dotted line refers to air movements needed to counteract vapor pressure independently of the temperature situations. During daytime hours the average yearly needs are: 12% sun heat, 887, shade, 62% breeze period (without the vapor pressure needs); 26% of the time is in shade comfort.


N 26 NORD
S


1
Fig. 7. Map of Collier, Dade, and Monroe counties showing physiographic regions.
/. Florida Keys
II. Florida Bay
III. Saline Mangrove Zone
IV. Freshwater Swamps
V. Pineland Ridge.
VI. Low Pineland and Sloughs
VII. Shark River Slough or Tree Island Everglades
VIII. Hammock and Cypress Ridge
IX. Big Cypress Swamp
FLORA
Ecologists, geologists, and agronomists, among others, have descriptively divided the three southern counties of Florida, including the Everglades National Park, into a number of environmental areas called physiographic provinces or ecosystems The major characteristics of these provinces are their geology, soil, elevation, hydrology, salinity, animals, and vegetation, the later factor being influenced by all of the other factors.


Florida Keys: On the upper keys, the uplands carry tropical hardwoods, especially gumbo-limbo, mastic, poisonwood, lysiloma, velvetleaf, crabwood, and lignum vitae. The small bays and coves bear algae and sea grasses, and inland, water-holding depressions support freshwater swamp plants.
On the lower keys are found stands of Dade County (slash) pine, tropical hardwoods, and several trees not found on the upper keys, such as gyminda, savia, pisonia, and clusia. There are numerous thatch and silver palms as well.
Florida Bay: Mid banks support several marine flowering plants, especially turtle grass and also marine algae. On the keys, mangrove swamps and mangrove perimeters support numerous tropical hardwoods on the more elevated areas, plus various shrubs, sedges, and grasses.
Saline Mangrove Zone: The dominant plants are the three mangroves-red, white, and black-which reach their greatest size on the tidal flats, and the usual halophytes. Many of the tropical hardwoods grow on the higher, well-drained ground, namely the coastal embankment and shell mounds. Black mangrove is widely distributed but does not extend inland entirely across the tidal zone where this belt is wide. White mangrove occurs on all lowlands and invades the freshwater area 1 to 3 miles, while red mangrove pushes landward 10 to 15 miles into the cypress and to the edge of the pine association.
The banks of the estuaries are forested with mangroves for a few miles upstream from the coast. Farther inland, as the water becomes less brackish, buttonwood and swamp hardwoods dominate the creek banks. Between these wooded banks lie extensive swamps filled with a mucky to peaty soil 6 to 9 feet deep. Overhanging mats of juncus and other sedges and grasses are gradually filling the numerous ponds of these swamps. As the surface rises, button-wood strands and islands form.
The ability of red mangrove to invade far into the freshwater areas has caused much confusion in the interpretation of these zones and has resulted in expensive engineering mistakes. The common interpretation has been to call any supporting red mangroves a marine environment. For this reason it seems logical to separate the saline and freshwater swamps even though red mangrove populates thousands of acres of the latter.
Freshwater Swamps: The flora of this province is varied. Near the embankment it is composed of red and white mangroves or saw grass marshes. Inland, numerous bay heads are present, forested with freshwater swamp trees that can endure an occasional inundation by hurricane tides.
Saw grass patches and sloughs are abundant in depressions of the bedrock. Several species of spike rushes and beak rushes are common on the marl soils. Still farther inland near the edge of hurricane tides, cypress and willow heads are numerous.
Pineland Ridge: Formerly a continuous stand of Dade County pine spotted with tropical hardwood hammocks formed the arborescent flora. Shrubby and herbaceous species formed an understory of tropical hardwoods, and nearly 100 shrubby or herbaceous endemics are kept under control by periodic fires. The glades and larger solution holes support typically swamp plants, grasses, sedges, and swamp hardwoods.


Low Pineland and Sloughs: Tropical hardwood hanrnocks are frequent throughout the area, as well as many patches of pine; both are found on the rock outcrops. Bay heads and swamp plants exist in the sloughs and on the lower ground. There is considerable palmetto on the marl soils of the eastern portions. These once-flooded areas are rapidly being cleared for cultivation or construction.
Shark River Slough: Most of the plant communities except for those of the Saline Mangrove Zone are represented in the Tree Island Everglades. Saw grass and spike rush marshes are mmerous, and large tree islands occur. The rock outcrops are covered with hammock growth, and some have considerable palmetto. Bay heads with swamp hardwoods are numerous, and some cypress on peat deposits are found in the extreme southern portion. The other associations represent emergent vegetation; their bases are covered with water during the rainy season. Ponds are also large and numerous.
Hammock Ridge: The plant associations in this province are in general similar to those described for Province V, Pineland Ridge, and Province IX, Big Cypress Swamp, with a blending of sane northern species. Large hammocks, bay heads, cypress domes, and sloughs with much drawf cypress and patches of saw grass and spike rush swamps between occur here.
The limestone elevations were formerly carpeted with sane of the finest tropical hardwood hammocks. Many large palmetto hammocks occur in the southern part of this province. Both of these are relatively fire-resistant, and many still persist. The same species of tropical hardwoods are present here as have been previously described, though lacking are some species restricted to the Florida Keys.
Live oak, water oak, lysiloma, gumbo-limbo, two species of eugenia (white stopper and twinberry),. and poisonwood are abundant, and bus tic is conmon. Occasionally black ironwood is found. Water oak is coimon in the bay heads and cypress strands. The vine fern is found abundantly in many hammocks.
Big Cypress Swamp; The vegetation of this province is characterized by cypress strands or sloughs 4 to 6 feet deep, many of which formerly carried trees of high commericial value. Pine or tropical hardwood hammocks appear on the rocky outcrops. Bay heads, pond apple swamps, and pop ash domes are located in the depressions. The rock outcrops often form abrupt islands. Huckleberry, an acid-loving plant, grows in the understory of the pine-lands. Red maple and paurotis palms are frequent in the bay heads and cypress strands. Drought and fires destroyed or greatly altered much of the pineland as well as the cypress strands in 1962 and 1965 Epiphytes, orchids, and bromeliads are abundant. Many grassy prairies break up the woodlands. These prairies are perpetuated by fires.


FAUNA
Termites: Destruction by termites is less important as the quantity of wood in houses is reduced. Termites have their nests underground. Their food is anything of the consistency of wood, and in order to find food they will travel considerable distances along or underground, up the surface of walls, along cracks, inside wooden posts and other menfoers and, creating vertical columns like hollow stalagmites, will bridge gaps and arrive unexpectedly under wooden floors, which they will consume with great pleasure. The danger is greatest at ground level and diminishes but does not necessarily disappear with height. Since the termites are guided by blind instinct and have all the time in the world at their disposal, it is difficult to keep them from a good supply of food, and the sensible course is to diminish the supply and set a barrier of indigestible and unwanted materials, such as concrete, between them and it. Metal in windows and door frames, concrete in floors and staircases, metal or the right plastic conduit instead of wiring on wood strips eliminate so large a quantity of wood as to reduce the depredation of termites to negligible dimensions, and make it unnecessary to add any elaborate barriers such as metal strips and guards.
Termite shields can offer a useful line of defense against invasion by subterranean termites. If shields are to be effective they must be continuous and remain undamaged. Both requirements are difficult to achieve in practice.
Even when well designed and built, shields do not necessarily ensure that no termites will enter the house, but they do serve to push them out into view where they can easily be seen, brushed off the building by an alert householder and destroyed. Ground poisoning by means of a sodium arsenite solution or by creosote, both under the house and around the foot of the walls, forms an added precaution against termite entry.
Borer Beetles: Other pests that affect tropical building are borer beetles which enter some woods and not others, and may be found in plywoods and soft cores. They can be disfiguring on smooth wood surfaces and can destroy valuabl paneling and furniture, being often present in the wood before it is used and appearing when everything is nicely in position.
i
Cockroaches: Cockroaches of various kinds are met with in kitchens and larders and attack book spines for the glue, while borer beetles work straight through the closed pages. Books can be treated but seldom without seme disfigurement. They are best left on open shelves in a circulation of air and where they can be taken out from time to time and examined.
Mosquitoes All stagnant water in the humid tropics is inevitably a breeding place for mosquitoes. All sources of illumination should either be very well sealed or completely open ewing to mosquitoes and other flying insects.
Ants: Ants are primarily a nuisance with regard to provisions and are not dangerous to the building, though annoying to the occupant. Measures against them should be restricted to preventing their access into houses, because they are otherwise very useful insect devourers.


Rats: The nuisance of rats can only be eliminated by depriving them of every possible source of food. Furthermore, every possible concealment for rats such as rubbish heaps, piles of stones or wood, tall grass, etc. should be removed or avoided. Food-stores can be made rat-proof if the entrance is high enough above the ground and thus inaccessible to rats. The base and the floor are best made of concrete.
Bats & Birds: Bats and birds are an indirect nuisance because, if inadequate preventative measures are taken they can nest in large nurrbers in the unchecked hollow spaces of a building. Ventilation openings in double-layer roofs, joints, slits and other openings, normally leading to unused spaces, should all be carefully closed up with insect or wire-net ting.


Residential Regional Analysis


j 17 The Warm Climate Regions of the World. The Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, latitudes 23I0 N and S respectively, indicate the extreme northern and southern positions at which the sun appears to be directly overhead at noon. Between the two tropics, the sun appears to be directly overhead at noon twice a year. However within the tropics the suns rays are always steep. The altitude of the sun is only one measure of a warm climate; temperature, humidity and wind pattern also being important. Temperature probably being the most important of these three. Isotherms are lines drawn linking places experiencing the same temperatures, such as mean daily, mean monthly or the mean annual. The 68 F mean annual isotherm has proved to be a convenient measure of the spread of warm climates from a building designers viewpoint


Crown Copyright
12 Warm and humid climates have lower temperatures than hot dry, because of the overcast skies. Wind speeds are low and it is often necessary to raise a building off the ground in order to take advantage of them. Buildings on stilts offer protection from floods, intruders and snakes. The house shown here is on the Pahang River in Malaya '*?. I
HOUSE TYPES
Individual, preferably somewhat elevated, house types are advantageous. Freely elongated, high buildings are preferred, with a loose density.
In the hot-humid zone high temperature conditions prevail which remain quite consistently in the vapor-pressure are The natural remedy for such a situatic lies in increased air movement; therefore here the utilization of wind effe is the primary consideration in site selection. For sun orientation where overheated conditions prevail practically all year long, exposures with minimum solar heat intake are advantageous. A position very near to the east-west axis may not correspond to the demand of wind exposure. Therefoi adjustment has to be made to satisfy both requirements..
To benefit from air flow, the hot-humid housing layout tends to spread, resulting in low density and low land utilization.
As buildings located on a north-south axis in the hot-humid zone receive more undesirable radiation than in an; other climatic zone, the over-all orientation lies consistently near to thi east-west axis. However, as the temperature impacts are not too excessive freely elongated building shapes are not only allowable, but advantageous. This also corresponds to the air-flow requirements.



The longish houses should be closed, or protected by shading walls at the east and west sides with parasol roof construction. Under sun shelter the plans can have freedom, as convection heat has only secondary importance. Elevated structures benefit from stronger air flow.
The general character of a town structure in the hot-humid environment is a low density layout with consistent sun wind orientation, and with a freedom in plans under protective shade.


GENERAL ARRANGEMENT
Buildings should be shaded structures which encourage cooling air movements; shade protection should be on all sun-exposed sides, mainly on roof and E and W exposures.
In Miami, Florida, the percentage heat gains for the orthodox house arise in summer from the following sources: woodframe wall, east 37>, south 2%, west 3%, north 2%; window areas, east 20%, south 8%, west 207o, and north 9%.
Heat gain through the roof amounts to 157., through infiltration 9%, and by heat created indoors to 9%. In winter under the given conditions heat loss occurs only by infiltration.
The arrangement of the balanced house was changed by orientation, rearrangement of openings, building shape, ventilated roof construction, weather stripping, ventilated appliances, overhangs, and shading. In sunnier the heat gain breakdown is as follows: woodframe construction at each orientation accounts for 4%, for a total of 16%; glass areas at south gain 25%, at north 257,. The roof brings 10%, infiltration 11%, and heat created indoors amounts to 13% of the total. Winter heat loss is negligible, and is caused by infiltration.
The daily total heat-flow curves between the orthodox and balanced houses in winter are shown. As under the given conditions the orthodox structure registers positive thermal behavior, the task of the balanced house remains only to equalize the heat impacts. In the sunnier heat flow totals of the same houses, note the fluctuating heat impacts of the orthodox house, with a peak value of 28.606 Btu, as compared to the equalized effect of the balanced house, with a maximum heatload of 8.975 Btu.
Since the underheated period prevails only 127. of the year in this region the winter conditions have relatively smal importance for the evaluation. In addition structures under average sunlit conditions will keep the thermal level near comfort conditions. All walls, except north, behave positively with a small amount of heat gain (27.). The roof supplies from 27. to 9% heat gain depending on the construction. Glass areas capture the most heat energy, over 807. of the total. Of this, the south side provides more than the sum of all other exposures; the second largest amount comes from east and west, and even the north orientation works positively.
The improvement of the balanced structure over the orthodox house in sunmertime is the product of the following measures: orientation, shape, and rearrangement of openings (-84.913 Btu) 247.; shading of glass surfaces (-40.680 Btu) cuts the load by 11%. Note that here where orientation was fully exploited the usual predominance of shading effect is lessened. However, because of their interrelatedness both aspects may be considered in conjunction as creating 35%. The applied "shaded" roof construction (-38.900 Btu) accounts for 11%. Reduced infiltration (-16.920 Btu) brings a reduction of 47.. Wall shading (-7.355 Btu) amounts to 27,, ventilation of appliances (-10.900 Btu) to 3%. Total reduction of heat gain as compared to the orthodox house is 55%.
The yearly importance index for climate balancing is evaluated here on summer criteria, because of the duration of the overheated period (887.) and the negligible stresses of the underheated season. Accordingly, the order of the applied measures is as follows: (1) orientation and shading of glass surfaces 64% (both solar aspects may be considered jointly because of their interdependence here); (2) horizontal exposure gains in importance, with roof construction at 207.; (3) reduction in infiltration lessens 77,; (4) ventilation of appliances 57.; (5) shading of wall surfaces 4%.


3!
PC
s
V
ii
: : ?
3-513
: j j
w : s : ? ? j ; 52S35i535 i 3 s s H : J 2
i t
t t 9 9
5 5 9
5 2 2
5 5 5
5 2
i i
i : i : : i i i ts i i r i i § 5 5 2
t i i !
s i
s s

9 9 9 2 5
< 0**0- *
223oS25o9
s i ii '5 5 s 5
*****
2 5
^
5 5 i 5
2 2
9 2 § 2
5 5
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
t 5
5
2 2 2 2 2 9 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 5
5 5 5
***** rw ]
: : :
: c : ;
*sssss;j3i
5 £
'ii's
3 3
i i
3 3 3
i 3*
u PC
3
I £
1 3
i
i
a s
E 2
£ IJ.J00
0 1
3 'o
P -
5
11 *
ir 1
II 5
EC i
SI
5 2 2 25 2 5 < *^#*rw*-o
. : : j : H 5 H ; : ; : i : ; i i : > t :
i : s ! : n 5 s : j 5 J ! i s : ; i s i
; . : 3 : t : : s > ; i : 2 3 ; i it ; : H
i i t t i H ; t if i t ! i t I H i i t !
i.i s t j if f n Tn n 'n n ;* 15 *ii*iili£if'lifti?tijj*jti i i t t i t i : s ? : U ; f ! i : i i t i
t 5 : 5 ; s ; i t i 5 i i ; : i i i i i t :
5555S555555555555555555
************** *. )0>6%0%0S0%0>6^
: 5 s s ; s 2 S 5 5 2 £ a * i 1 I £ 5 i 2 5 2
5 i i 11 i 'i i 'i 'i 'i i i* s i i i i '=**5 i
M
5
HEAT FLO*' 1000 ITU/HOUft
-----MM O M * O M
M
O
00
-till
HEAT FLOW 1000 ITU/HOUK
M M M
O M . > a O M 4k
MIAMI ORTHODOX HOUSE JAN 21


MIS WO FRAME SIMULA (HAAS ROOT HEAT CRT IHFIL- NMJRUf
IfCOCRS TRATIOR TOTAL
B S V R I 4 V R
tel 197 Ml 9T e im e IM 1,119
-y -91 -94 -T* -loo -400 114 919 -191 -1,091
-IT -7% -If -toe -TM -TM no 909 -441 1,494
-II -91 -IT -m -II* -140 41 919 -9*9 -1,994
1 IH -III -III -194 -940 -940 19 919 -417 -1.411
% -197 -1 -III 1,010 1,090 -11 919 -449 -1,907
J l> -9 -194 III 1,010 -1,010 -J 919 -7*1 -1,111
4 -III -ITt 144 -19 -1,900 1,900 -*4 1,119 -790 9,T4*
T -IT! -991 -119 -91 1,410 -TM -111 1.119 -704 9*0
-19 -fl -99 9.410 -400 III 1,919 -971 1,141
-4o -III -79 -lf 19,140 1 ,MO 104 799 -119 4,979
Ml *19 -M4 -147 19,MO l,9M -TO 199 -II 91,019
II IT! 44 -49 I*,fl0 9,910 -99 99 HI 99,997
IM 941 9 to 94,000 1,740 9 99 191 l,*4T
* 494 9* 97 1.400 9,740 Ml 199 447 *1,174
II 704 194 m 91,940 9,Tie 110 99 447 94,111
9 ITT Ml 191 H9 4,990 l,*M 991 99 4*1 91,911
II *71 794 4Tf Ml 10,9M 1,9*0 449 99 191 19,447
IT 191 111 919 117 1,110 TM 449 1,449 >49 7,709
I I 447 4 TO I4f 940 10 41* 9,919 99 9,0*9
l* i II* l 91 IM IM 991 1,119 44 9,714
re U 71 41 49 -IM -IM 490 1,119 -44 1,794
il 14 T 10 -910 940 404 1,119 -in 1,M4
-A 9 4 -II -140 -140 1>9 1,119 -191 49*
11 -IT -> -if -4f -IM -IM 49 1,119 -919 910
DAILY TOTAL III 4,111 }4 -911 41,400 0,OM 1.IM M,4}0 -1,791 t*M SS
ms VXD FRAME 3INQLE 01 ASS ROOF HEAT CRT HTIL-INXXR3 TRATIOR wanx TOTALS
I S V R 8 V 1
*ca *97 Ml 97 o IM 0 IM 1,999
o Ml 94 M4 IT 940 940 404 >09 971 4,497
1 *00 *4* 194 *97 140 40 449 919 947 4.194
9 117 *9 111 4* 40 040 49 919 9*9 4,*40
1 111 III ITT 11 no * MO 901 919 49* 4,ll
1 m 1 71 4 140 040 94} 919 499 4,074
9 71 MO 41 * MO 4* 991 919 99 4,119
4 171 Ml IM 91 1 ,no 1,1M 919 1,119 947 9,711
7 ITT 1 171 94 1,000 ,9M 91* 119 400 4,911
94 **9 119 41 9,140 ,*M 991 1,919 441 I.OM
9 **7 40 MO 79 9,400 ,400 944 799 T1 7,I9
0 *49 99 97 104 9,9M 9,9M 4oo 99 794 7,4*7
II 44 14 III in 9,740 ,440 449 *99 147 1,191
I* 11 141 *41 197 9,740 l,T4o 491 99 OM 1,949
1 91 140 *19 ITI 9,740 9,440 79* 99 9* 1,947
14 *97 179 *99 HI 9,440 ,440 797 99 9*7 1,944
19 99 171 104 194 9.440 9,440 OM 99 99 1,971
14 JO* HI lo 401 9,400 9,9M 49 99 II* i,n
IT *99 17| HO 191 9,140 ,* 97 1,449 44 1,979
II IT 111 >01 HI 1,990 l,4f 49 ,919 HI 9,79
*9 79 147 9' 149 1, MO 1,100 49 1,119 m 4,411
M 94 HI 40 114 1,*M I.OM M9 1,119 741 4.M9
91 19 94 17 111 1 ,040 1 ,0M 779 1,119 TOl 4,094
H 111 *T Ml 940 940 7%7 1,119 191 9,494
91 *1 *7* II 19 940 940 711 1,119 417 9,9H
DAILY
TOTAL ),(lf (,>() 9,HT T,))>
40,5*0
4o,4M i4,4o> M,4>* U.9M 140,999 gg
MIAMI
BALANCED HOUSE
JAN 21

a
MIAMI BALANCED HOUSE JULY 21


Miami
OlrHODOX House
wintu
N
S
SUMMf |
N
AIANCIO NOUSC
WINT CR


Plan
TOTAL HI AT IUOGIT MIAMI JULY >1
HOURS
TOTAL HI AT IUOGIT MIAMI JAN 21
HOURS


Finney Guest Cottage, Siesta Key, Florida, 1017 (Project)
A student project prepared at Harvard under Walter Gropius, later restudied and developed jor a client. The principles at that lime were:
1 clarity of construction,
2 simple overall volumes penetrating vertically and horizontally,
3 clear geometry floating above the landscape,
4 everything reduced to simple redangulars and, of course,
5 a flat roof.
The Bauhaus principles via Harvard were adapted to Florida's particular landscape.
Plan and perspective drawing. Tlic residential quarters span an artificially created sheet of water which connects with the bayou. A jetty leads to the small island facing the house.
PLAN
As temperatures are not too excessive, free plans can be evolved as long as the house is under protective shade; a free air path through interior is important. Plan might be organized into separate elements, since 75% of the time outdoor conditions are near comfort, if shaded. Paving should be avoided. Screened areas are necessary to keep out insects. Roll-back walls are useful. Heat and moisture-producing areas should be ventilated and separated frem the rest of the structure. Vapor, insect, and humidity control is necessary in storage spaces.
18 Outward looking plan characteristic of hot, humid climates and permitting through breeze




B.T.U.'S AND SHAPES
________I I I
T T T r r
ratio of Bidet 9-1 4.1 9.1 2.1 III 1:2 1:9 1:4 1:9
HOT-HUMID
wlnttr
174. Basic forms and building shapes in different regions.
FORM, VOLUME
Strong radiation effects on the E and W sides should dictate the shape of buildings to a slender elongation. TV optimum shape is 1:1.7, but up to 1:3. on the E-W axis is also acceptable. P volume effect is undesirable.
To define the most desirable form of a house in the given environment the crl terion of "optimum shape" was applied. However, to leave a certain latitude wherein the proportions of a plan can be considered as generally good, the criterion of "elasticity" was adapted. The upper limit of variation from the optimum was arbitarily defined here as the elongated shape that is subjected to the same heat inpacts as a square form.
Miami: Sumner optimum is 1:1.7, in winter 1:2.69. Here again the winter shape is quite liberal, but of less importance because of the very short underheated period. Adopted optimum is 1:1.7, elasticity 1:3.
l:3
optimum i: 1.7


MOT HKMA KKtION (MIAMI *>-*)
VIAALY TOTAL KAPl.MlOM CMAATAP ACfOOOlMO TO OL/CRHtATCD AW ) yctHEATeo
H
*} return
124. Regional orientation chart.
s
ORIENTATION
Sol-air orientation is balanced at 5 E of South, with relatively small deviation from it (10) to remain desirable. Orientation with long side toward differing wind directions accep table only under shaded conditions.
VHILATOKAl
!LATt*Ai aim ilattaai.
rAAATTD 1100} TWUV4 Coin*
5OfTIMUW


INTERIOR
Interior spaces must be shaded and wel ventilated. Flexible spaces, by the use of screened, movable, or low partitions, are desirable. Floor materia must be impervious to moisture. Daytime living areas should allow the flc of E to W winds. An area of safe retreat is necessary during hurricane periods.
COLOR
Reflective light colors in the pastel range are best, in order to avoid glat both inside and outside.


Walker Guest House, Snnibcl Island, Florida, 10521053
WALLS
Two bays on each side o/ this guest collage are filial with pivoting panels which function as
1 the enclosing wall,
; 2 the ventilating element,
3 the shading device,
4 the hurricane shelter.
I
! The third bay is filled with glass, to admit light and splendid views. When the J panels are closed, the pavilion is snug and cave-like, when open, the space psycho-
' logically changes and one is virtually in the landscape.
i
i
; rian and side view with raised wall elements. Two sections each of all four i walls can be swung upwards into a horizontal position, steel balls suspended from steel cables provide counter balances. All connections of the white-painted wooden structure are joined by screws. ,
Walls have less importance here than any other region. They are used primarily for screening from insects and for their flexible wind penetration qualities, rather than as thermal barriers. Folding window-wall solutions are possible.
With adequate shading, the tenperaturt of the interior is about the same as the outside air temperature. It woult very quickly rise much above the outside temperature if the thin walls wei not shaded.
Any form of heat storage should be avi ed and large areas of the wall should be capable of being opened to reduce its resistance to the cross ventilati< needed.
The use of thin, light materials such as the traditional matting and wicker work or organic matter occuring in th( hot, humid areas satisfies the requir< ments for little weight. Light-weighi frame construction, clad with thin panels that are also used as interior walls containing large openings necessary to use heat insulating material for the infill panels, if the rooms aj not fully air-conditioned.
Surface treatment for external walls with white or silvery paint reflect heat radiation extremely well, yet th< can cause very uncomfortable glare. Thus, in the hottest areas with the highest light intensity, the external walls are not often pure white, but are more subdued in colour.


i


OPENINGS AND WINDOWS
Customary distintion between walls and openings disappears. Ventilation is needed 85% of the year; E-W cross vent ilation is essential. Roll-back opening walls are practical. Elements sue as screening, louvres, jalousies, and grills are useful to admit air flow, deter flies and mosquitoes and to protect from sun. Structure must be shel ered from sun and rain; it must be shielded from sky radiation and glare. Removable shutters are desirable for hurricane protection.
ROOF
Strongest thermal impacts occur here: the design emphasis changes from walls to roof. A ventilated double roof is desirable, the upper roof functioning as sun protection. It must be watertight, insulated, and reflect solar rays. A wide overhang is necessary fo rain protection and for reduction of sk^ glare (the rain often comes at a 45 angle).
A roof having an upper surface of fair reflecting quality, held above a ceili layer, with on adequate air space betw This roof being built of light materia has practically no heat log and a shor time after sundown is at night tempera ture.


Philip Hiss Residence (Umbrella House), Lido Shores, Sarasota, Florida, 19531954
The intense sun of Florida suggested a shade-roof covering the house's swimming pool and terraces. The double roof is organized by a regular structure, but the interior volumes of space are independently arranged free of the roof structure, thereby allowing each space to be clearly formed according to its needs.
Illustration and plans demonstrate how the design of the house emerged from its construction grid. Sunshade roofing, carried across the house and fore-court, forms an architecturally accentuated outdoor space. Although house and roofing structure are not connected, an architectural entity is created which, in its clarity, is similar to that of Roman domestic architecture.


o' fu
MATERIALS
Insulation index is 35 ; required insulation value relative to S is: E-1.4; W-1.5; N-l.l; roof-2.3 Light heat capacity walls are best, for thermal log may cause night re-radiation of heat and morning condensatic c. Prevention of deterioration of materials by moisture and animate sources is necessary.
MATERIALS
Ferrous metals and zinc
Aluminium and its alloys
Copper and its alloys and lead
Tinker
DEFECTS
Corrode rapidly in HOT-WET tropics unless prominently exposed and free of ground. Zinc unsuitable due to corrosion
High cost of sheets sufficiently strong to stand tropical conditions Need for numerous fixings to ensure resistance to uplift when used in hurricane areas. Low tear strength, vulnerable to damage from failing trees and wind-blcwn debris. Glare from external surface a problem.
Rain noise under unceiled roof troublesome
Lead suffers through "fatigue cracking" due to thermal expansion and contraction
In HOT-DRY climates the continual expansion and contraction of tinker causes deterioration. This also means that paint-holding qualities are reduced. But these are small difficulties in comparison with depredations of fungi and insects in HOT-HUMID zones. Deterioration due to rotting is not as great in HOT-WET areas as might be expected
Deterioration becomes considerable after 18 months to 2 years. Fire risk. Harbours vermin
VIRTUES
The danger due to corrosion in HOT-DRY climates is greatly reduced
Will withstand HUMID and HOT-DRY cond itions well. High reflectivity littl affected by ageing. Is light and transportable, does not leak. Does not corrode unless contaminated by ox ganic matter such as acidic fruits which may drop from trees onto low roofs. (It is important that aluminix be fixed with aluminium or sherardize steel bolts or screws since contact with a dissimilar metal does not lead to corrosion)
Performance of copper, brass and bron in humid tropical atmosphere is gener ally excellent
Abundance of supply. Serviceability
Simply and speedily erected and repai
Thatch


MATERIALS
Plastic
Concrete and other cement products
Material Steel reinforcement
Asbestos cement sheeting
Concrete blocks and cement morter renderings
DEFECTS
Although weathering action is not critical, tropical and especially hot desert conditions bring about definite deterioration notably in thermo-plastic materials which warp and crack. Most plastics susceptible to termite attack so must be kept free of ground
Difficulty of guarding against premature hydration of cement in humid conditions. Lack of adequate water supply in HOT-DRY areas. Risk of acidic river water. Effect of heat on performance of high alumina cement, Cement products are particularly susceptible to intense blackening of exposed surfaces in HOT-VET tropics
The difficulties of protection of reinforcement against corrosion may be enhanced in HOT-VET areas by the high rainfall and atmospheric humidity, lose of unwashed and saline aggregation, improper curing, and the use of salty water in the mixing
Becomes brittle in HOT-DRY climates. High breakage rates of any but bound flat sheets. Has tendency to encourage fungal growth which cuts down reflectivity. Rain noise not so bad as on unceiled aluminium and iron sheets
The crazing of cement renderings is more apparent in HOT-HUMID than HOT-DRY areas although this is probably not much greater than in temperate zones
VIRTUES
One possible use is of thermo-plastic tubing for plumbing in the tropics, although it cannot be used for underground reticulation
Transportability of cement and rod-steel to most sites. Extreme adaptability to most conditions
Economic and easy to handle. Roof -light, cool to live under providing upper surface kept clean. Relatively cheap and easy to handle. Roof pitch 20 and over for preference in wet areas
Concrete blocks and renderings remain uncracked in HOT-DRY areas


MATERIALS
Stone
Glass
Earth and stabilized earth
Gypsum products
DEFECTS
High temperatures may produce stresses and cracking
Known to deteriorate more rapidly in HOT-WET than HOT-DRY but only to a small extent. Water absorption with recrystallisation of alkaline constituents and growth of mould are two difficulties
Earth walls are highly susceptible to termite depredation unless stabilized. Stabilized earth blocks have lower strength than concrete blocks. Depending on type of earth used may restrict building to singlestorey with hand-made blocks, two or three-storey with machine-made blocks
VIRTUES
Stones of quite low quality can be used with satisfactory results in tropical conditions
Certain earths are quite durable in HOT-WET areas. Very durable in HOT-ARID zones. May be greatly improved by modem techniques such as by the addition of renderings, etc., and soil-stabilisation techniques. Has the advantage of being largely a site material and so cuts down on transpor costs. Stabilised earth blocks can h made with fairly unskilled labour
In HOT-DRY climates gypsum is sometim used successfully externally
Building boards
Untreated hardboard and plywood Hardboard and resin-bonded plywood
liable to termite attack (clear of termites) used with satisfa
tory results in HOT-WET but painting is considered desirable. Durability tests on various cellulesic wall boar have shown that although mould and al; growth are more severe under tropical (HOT-WET) conditions deterioration wa little different from that in temperate zone.


MATERIALS DEFECTS
Paints Breakdown due to photo-chemical
action, thermal radiation, cycles of heating and cooling, wetting and drying, moisture prevention and occasionally invasion by microorganisms. Poor workmanship an important factor. Storage at high temperatures promotes gelation.
White pigmented paints fail more rapidly than darker ones. Repainting more frequent in HOT-WET than HOT-DRY. HOT-WET (every 2-3 years), HOT-DRY (4-5 years).
Paint not regarded as an adequate protection to either timber or steel in humid conditions
Bituminous materials Tend rapidly to blister, creep and
become brittle in hot conditions, unless treated with whitewash, aluminium, paint, etc.
Burned clay products Not always satisfactory where there
is a lack of technical skill in manufacture, which may result in under burning. Considerable labour cost in fixing; felt underlay desirable; roof timbers more expensive than for sheet materials. Vibration in hur-ricance winds may cause cracking and thus necessitate replacement
Fibreglass
VIRTUES
Aluninium pigmented paints behave very well under tropical conditions
Of great value as protection to timber against rot, fungi and insects
Subject to no abnormal deterioration on account of tropical conditions
Fibreglass is ageless, unattractive to vermin, will not rot, highly fire-resistant. Many uses ranging from loose infill through flexible mats to boards of fair rigidity, but incapable of use as partitions and walls in the absence of a surfacing material such as hardboard and plasterboard


SHADING DEVICES
Sunbreakers are important because of powerful radiation mainly on E and W sides; note also that the N wall gets more radiation inpact in sunnier than S wall.


%


rr


MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT
AO hours of the year need moderate heating, with approximate thermal differential between indoors and outdoors of 25-35 F; 1250 hours require low heating (average daily differential of 5-10); and 940 hours need no special requirements. During 6650 hours of th year, cooling would be desirable; however, such installation with its high cost is in sharp contrast to normal outdoor conditions. Mechanical ventilation with fans, would be effective. Domestic solar water heater is here a possibility.
Air is wanted at body height and at fl height to keep us and the objects we touch as cool as may be. By day this air should come in under shade without passing over or through heated surface Physical comfort in hot-wet tropical houses naturally ventilated comes from the cooling contact on skin and light clothes of moving air. Moving air,eve at low speeds, where it is most wanted brings much refreshment and is inmodia ely and exactly appreciated. Electric fans perform the same function, but not so well, and are normally reserved for the worst conditions.











.





PART II





EXPLANATION OF PARAMETERS
Building Module
Within the context of the design, there are various levels of consciousness which will be investigated to aid in reaching the ultimate solution. The building module, being the smallest scale element of consideration in the evolution of the residence, shall serve as my starting point.
Previous investigation indicated that the positive and negative aspects of varous materials, with respect to weathering, form, size, ease of construction, modular compatability and and asthetics were all vital elements to consider. By this governing criteria a material or materials will be selected. Ultimately the variables will all influence the final form the residence will take.
Space
The spaces compatible to residential living environments will evolve from the basic building module previously described.
The design of enclosures within the framework will be directly influenced by the limitations placed on the material enveloping the defined space and the functions within it. Yet, even with these certain limitations, the essential element of flexability shall be allowed for in addition, subtraction and alteration of these areas.
For example, lets take plywood, with its initial module of 4 ft. x 8 t., broken down to 2 Ft. by 2 foot modules. Any number of combinations would contribute to variations possible within the horizontal and vertical limitations of space.
Residence
The residence will be limited to the norms of what I call "The Middle Class Housing Syndrome". In general terms, I am speaking of what the averageamerican family would aspire to, in relation to housing in the United States. It is a direct result of the developer's interpretation of the "House'.' For example take the "3 bedroom 2 bath ranch style home" confirm ly identified by the number of sleeping and bathing areas it possesses.


I intend to break away from this syndrome, but not to the degree of stepping ouside the functional and spiritual norms our society has set for itself, only to the degree of reinforcing our deep seeded needs and desires, far too often overlooked in the housing industry. My goals and intentions are two fold.
First, I intend to provide the opportunity for a family to afford its own home, and secondly, to furnish provisions for a higher standard in the living environment, within the context of the house and conmunity. (These aspects will be addressed in the second section of this paper).
The finite details concerning programming of interior function and space allocations, will be drawn from consumer demands and guidelines set down in "The Place of Houses" by Moore,
Allen and Lyndon.
With the cost of building on the rise, opportunities for the middle and lower income families to afford a home are increasingly limited. As a result, a resurgance of the "Do It Yourself" ideal is returning. This movement can be easily observed by the growing number of americans repairing and altering their own hones, as an alternative to these rising costs.
t-fy intention, in a financial and spiritual context is to design a house in such a way that it could be biiilt by the layman with a minimal amount of assistance from outside sources.
This would cut the expense by at least 50% which accounts for the cost of labor in the construction process. Not only would this reduction in price allow for greater numbers of people to own their own home, but, in addition, it would bring the inhabitants to a level of perception and comprehension in terms of the spaces they live in, obtainable only by the direct interaction with the construction process.
The standards by which qualities of the living environment are measured can be considered abstract and debatable at various levels of thought. I am not imp lying at this point that my personal feelings toward these standards are necessarily valid for everyone. I am saying, however, that certain aspects of the environment and surrounding region are principles by which the house design evolves. And if they are considered to be positive in nature, and assuming I have established the proper background research into these areas, then the basis by which the house is designed can only allow for a positive foundation of thought and a higher standard for living.


EXPLANATION OF PHILOSOPHY
My intentions previously stated are concentrated on the needs of people, my foremost objective. These same intentions apply to my philosophy towards the house itself.
With many levels of philosophical implications available to use, foremost in my mind is the conscious design of spaces experienced by people, simultaneously allowing for the freedom of choice while utilizing these areas.
Community
Hie use of the word community is to mean the area in which the house belongs. Further clarification would define this space to be the area in which all its inhabitants could relate to as their own. As Amos Rapoport expressed in House, Form and Culture "People respond to the idea of an enclosed community A symbol of security and prestige".
There are three general considerations within this particular area of concern. First, there are the elements which are developed within the community space, those that the members of the community can relate to as being a part of. Parks, fountains and community landmarks all provide the forms and spaces essential to the identity which the people can relate to in the development of a common unit. Second is the boundary which separates this group of houses, physically and spiritually from its immediate surroundings. In simpler terms, lets call it the development of an edge. In this case the edge becomes a reflection of the origin, growth and purpose of the community it encompasses. Thirdly, we have the point of transition from the domain of all to that of the members of the community. The entry is that space which makes this separation.
This physical unity and symbolic gesture of identity is seen as one enters N.Y.C. via the Statue of Liberty, upon entry to St. Louis lb., via Saarinen Arch, and passing over the Golden Gate Bridge into San Francisco. Japanese villagers symbolize their entry by placing an arch over the road or mounds of earth to either side. All these synbolize a point of transition from one space into another. The elements of focus, outline and transition from one space into another. The elements of focus, outline and transition all become links in the chain of overall definition of a common space.
The Block
All the elements of community identity apply as well to the "Block" of hemes. Each contains its own sense of identity and heirarchies of special identification by its inhabitants. Along with heirarchy there are preferences placed on the identity of place, which varies in accordance to the individuals own realm of consciousness. At the "Block" level. This sense of identity would be encouraged thru the use of focus, that being a common space. The concept of sharing this common space would act as a catalyst, developing a bond between those who are actually sharing


The misconceptions of suburbia would be somewhat alleviated by this type of planning (by this I mean, the false conception that suburbia is a rural environment, when in reality it is much too dense for that concept to be true). Thus the common space would allow for an area, the scale of which would not be possible on a typical sub-division site.
It would also encourage the spirit of togetherness which somehow is lost in suburbia as we know it. This spirit would be reinforced in that the space would be shared and cared for by all of the local residents.
The Site
Moving towards a more immediate relationship to the house itself, the site, lot or yard is the next area of consideration in the chain of spacial differentations.
With suburbia as it now exists and taking into the account the region the residence is being designed for, the site plays a significant part in making the distinction between "group private" and "family private".
The space which surrounds the "suburbian" house is of no real use, in a functional context, but a platform for the house to rest on. The visual and acoustical invasion is dominant in this particular circumstance. Little concern is given to the effective use to these spaces in relation to the house.
In the Japanese culture the opposite is true. The differentation of space is such that when one passes onto the site, he is within the realm of the "family private" space. This is achieved by placing a physical barrier between the street (public space) and the site (private space).
Returning to the concepts of housing in hot-humid regions, this particular aspect of site development becomes significant in that the need for opemess, to promote maximum ventilation becomes a critical factor. This creates problems of visual and acoustic privacy which are solved by the placing of barriers at the site line, rather than at the house itself. With this particular concept of site development, inhancements of the functional and visual ex-tentions onto the site are greatly increased. This amenity is further exemplified when the consistency of favorable weather conditions in South Florida are considered.


With the site becoming a sense of place with relation to the house rather than the public thrufare, the relationships of outline, focus and entry apply with consistency to the conmunity as well as the house. The "focus" now parallels with the house, the "outline" coincides with the physical barrier, -and the "entry" aligns with the transition from public to private.
The House
The focus then, in terms of the house at this scale can now simultaneously become finite objectively and abstract conceptually. The considerations which become finite are fairly straight forward, such as the number of roans, arrangement of spaces, funcional relationships etc. Yet the abstractions begin to flourish in the social, psychological and cultural aspects of the house. The actual function of the house becomes a part of the overall implications it has on its inhabitants and environment.
"In architecture, as in life, the symbol becomes one sided if a part is missing: Both parts that of function, that of spirit are required for balance and Harmony" (8)
The spirit of the house becomes an abstraction, yet a concept which requires consideration if the house is to be successful as a viable living environment. It is apparent that the spirit which lives in a house can only be created by its owners. -This spirit is exemplified in the inprint which the inhabitant puts on his domain. This imprint is the distinction whereby a machine for living becomes a "Home" rather than a "House". This personal effect can be accomplished in various ways, such as the actual participation in the building decoration or general alteration in a manner which pleases the individual. This aspect of housing must be allowed if the house is to be successful as a home. For it is important to understand that each culture, group of people, and every individual places personal priorities on his own living environment, each being as valid as the other, depending once again on the varying points of view. To alter these inborn feelings is of little use. The idea of working with and allowing for them is the essence of developing a successful solution in prototype housing.
"There may lie the great lessons of vernacular buildings for our own day the value of constraints to establish generalized "loose" frameworks where the interplay of the constant and changeable aspects of man can find expression" (19)


BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Alexander, Christopher A PATTERN LANGUAGE 15. Morse, Edward JAPANESE HOMES AND THEIR SURROUNDINGS
2. Alexander, Christopher COMMUNITY AND PRIVACY 16. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrati LOCAL CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA
3. Alexander, Christopher NOTES 0N THE SYNTHESIS OF FORM 17. Oakley, David TROPICAL HOUSES
4. Bloomer, Kent and Moore, Chales BODY MEMORY AND ARCHITECTURE 18. Progressive Architecture August 1976 HOUSES
5. Bachelard, Gaston THE POETICS OF SPACE 19. Rapoport, Amos HOUSE FORM AND CULTURE
6. Craighead, Frank TREES OF SOUTH FLORIDA 20. Rudolph, Paul ARCHITECTURE OF PAUL RUDOLPH
7. 8. Fry, Maxwell TROPICAL ARCHITECTURE Gardiner, Stephen EVOLUTION OF THE HOUSE 21. 22. SOUTH FLORIDA BUILDING CODE White, Edward INTRODUCTION TO ARCHITECTURE PROGRAMING
9. Gixoni, B. MAN CLIMATE AND ARCHITECTURE
10. Hall, Edward THE HIDDEN DIMENSION
11. Halprin, Lawrence RSVP CYCLES
12. Lippsmeier, Georg BUILDING IN THE TROPICS
13. McIIarg, Iah DESIGN WITH NATURE
14. Morre, Charles, Gerlad Allen, Donlyn, Lydon THE PLACE OF HOUSES