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ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN AURARIA LIBRARY
CIVIC CENTER Thesis
Presentation Spring 1979 Geoff Kampe
The Civic Center area of Denver is one of the smallest neighborhoods in terms of both population and area. It is bounded on the North by Colfax Ave.,on the East by Broadway and on the Southwest by Speer Boulevard. Even though these major arterials form a barrier, the Civic Center area still has strong links to Downtown and the Capitol Hill areas. With its excellent location and existing traffic arterials the Civic Center area has the potential of becoming an area of intensive mixed land use that would complement Downtown.
The decline of both housing units and population in the area have seriously compromised the development of the area. The lack of any core population in the area has resulted in the development of many one and two story offices and retail shops. Within the area the land use breakdown is rather amazing. The major divisions in the area include k0% streets and alleys,15% commercial and offices, parking, 5% residential and 1% vacant land. With
these types of land uses at present the area will not grow without major development of both housing and commercial on a more dense scale, but also the development of several hubs of community activity that will draw people and businesses into the area. With its proximity to the Downtown area the Civic Center has great promise as a residential hub. An additional fact that makes the civic center area attractive is that the land values in the area
are considerably lower than the Downtown area without giving up the proximity
to the business district.
Mixed land use is being encouraged in the Civic Center area, with a diverse mix of high density housing .office, commercial and light industrial.
Since almost of the area is used for streets and alleys the traffic
circulation is no problem. With this high a density of streets the vacation of some of the streets and alleys id no problem and the city is conducive to the development of some of the air rights over public rights of way in the area.
Pedestrian circulation in the area is a major concern in revitilizing the area. The development of arcades and walkways must be a combined effort of the public and private sectors. Incentives are offered those developers who provide this amenity. Within this network of walkways the city plans some mini-parks and plazas in the area.
With the consideration of the possible redevelopment of the Civic Center area into a vital residential, retail and commercial area that would complement Downtown and its proximity to some of the major tourist attractions such as the Capitol and the Art museum, makes the feasibility of a hotel in the area quite high.
GOALS AND CONCEPTS
The inherent function of a hotel is to gather people together in an enclosure that is both comfortable and attractive, too often the result of this concept of hotel design is to create a city within a city. This usually results in the alienation of the businesses that are in the area of the hotel. With this in mind and the amenities that are immediately at hand the Civic Center Hotel is proposed as an adjunct to the area and not a detriment. The hotel will provide an adequate area for leaseable retail space within the hotel for the convienience of its guests, but these will not overwhelm the existing retail stores in the area. By integrating into the proposed pedestrian system with the vacation of Acoma between 12 and 13 th Ave.' and the subsequent creation of a pedestrian plaza in its place. Along this mall are to be located some of the retail spaces, this will link to the Civic Center and the Art Museum. Also by providing several specialty restaurants within the hotel that will be open to the public the hotel could well become a hub of activity that will encourage further development of the Civic Center area.
The site is situated between 12 th Ave., 13 th AveBroadway and Bannock St.. Its position in relation to two major arterials is both an advantage, for ease of access,and a disadvantage due to the fact that the high traffic volumes will generate noise and polution that must be contended with.
The solar impact on the site is heavy due to its North-South orientation but this does provide the opportunity to allow each room some natural light at most times of the year. Consideration of the impact will have to be given in location of areas that could be sensative to large heat loads, such as large glass areas associated with the retail areas and lobby areas. The southern exposure is the ideal place for the entrance due both to the sun and the low traffic volume on 12 th Ave.
Public transportation links to the site are located on the North and East sides. These are major routes and provide good transportation to and from the hotel site,however, exposures on these sides would not be as desirable for an entry as the South, consideration should be given to the possibility of additional entrances on these sides. Any entrance located on these sides will have to be well protected from the elements.
The views from the site are varied and interesting. Distant views to the mountains will be available at the upper floors, while on the lower floors the views will be limited to those of the civic center area which include the Capitol',Art museum,Civic Center and parts of downtown.
Special consideration is to be given to pedestrian circulation in the area of the Civic Center. Since Acoma St. is within the boundary of the site, the feasibility of closing the street to vehicular access is a prime consideration as this will provide a pedestrian mall that will link the hotel directly to the Civic Center area for pedestrian circulation.
5.000 - /OyOOO
3.000 - S,ooc
GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
In general a hotel is divided into six main categories, public, concession, subrental, food and beverage service, guest rooms, and general service. The major groups into which these fit are the Back of the House, which is the part of the hotel that the guest should never see. This includes all services that are provided the guest in one way or another. This is the area in which the staff operates preferably unseen.
The Front of the House is that area which is open to the guests or the public. At this point the few contacts between the guests and staff occur.
In a hotel the size of the Civic Center Hotel the staff to guest ratio will be approximately O.81I. The problem at this density becomes one of creating two circulation paths that usually follow the same general routes but should never cross. Careful separation of staff and guest circulation is a major goal in the design of an efficiently operating hotel.
The main entrance to the hotel should be located at a point that is easily visible to passing motorists and should have access to major North-South and East-West traffic circulation. Locating the entrance on a major street will present some difficulty in circulation of traffic into and out of hotel parking areas, therefore, the location of the driveway and entrance should be carefully selected so as not to interfere with normal traffic circulation.
Considerations for the entrance location should include the need for short term parking in addition to long term parking. This will determine the location and lenght needed for the driveway. In addition to guest automobile circulation consideration must be given to taxi and bus lanes.
Parking should be located so as to create a circular type circulation into and out of the parking area. A guest should be able to drop off a passenger and enter the parking structure without entering another circulation. Also he should be able to exit the parking area and pick up a passenger at the entrance without entering another circulation.
Separation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic at the point of entry should be given the highest priority.
Parking access should he directly associated with the motor entry of the hotel. In keeping with the spirit of mass transportation the number of parking spaces to be provided will be minimal. In addition to guest parking additional parking is to be provided for the retail and restaurant areas.
For mass arrivals of guests by bus there should be provided parking for several buses, this parking area will be at grade and should be out of site of the main entrance to the hotel.
POSSIBLE PARKING CIRCULATION AND LOCATION
The entrance of the hotel can become the gateway from the real world to a fantasy world and should be treated accordingly. The entrance is the first impression a guest gets of the enclosed space and should open vistas for him immediately upon entering.
Beyond the psychological impact the entrance can have there are practical considerations that must be resolved. The entrance should provide some sort of protection for guests getting in and out of their cars or taxis. This can be accomplished by a simple canopy or by bring the bedroom wing out over the entrance.
Air lock type doors should be provided for the conservation of energy and protection from the wind. This type entry also provides a place for guests to wait for transportation with full view of the driveway. This area should be designed for handicapped access. The transition space should have a highly wear resistant surface so as to prevent the interior floor finishes from becoming abnormaly worn by dirt brought in from the outside.
DESK AND RECEPTION AREA
The major consideration of the desk is its location, it should be immediately visible upon entry into the hotel and on the way to the core. In conjunction with the reception desk there should be an information desk. This desk should be in the same general area but should not interfere with the function of the reception area. The reception clerks will perform a variety of functions which will include mail and key handling greeting of guests and verification of vacant rooms in the hotel.
Departing guests will also pay ther bill in this area. This will normally be handled in a private office adjacent to the desk.
The security involved in handling mail and keys will require a key clerk whose responsibility is to make sure keys are not given to unauthorized persons. Mail will be sorted and placed in post office boxes that are accessible to the guests.
A safe should be provided for guests valuables, this also will be located in aprivate area and will have safe deposit boxes much like those in a bank.
SQUARE FOOTAGE OR NUMBER
Number of stories 15
Number of rooms 500
Ground floor area 50,000
Rooms/floor Elevators/100 rooms 34
Hotel offices 500
Stairways l/20 rooms
Retail stores 13,000
Main dining room 6,000
Specialty restaurants(2) 6,000
Main kitchen 4,000
Bake shop 1,200
Coffee shop 2,500
Bar and lounge 7,000
Private dining rooms(8) 2,000
Employees dining 1,400
Banquet and ballroom 15r000
Storage 2 ,000
Serving pantry 2,000
Stewards store room 2,500
Liquor storage 1.500
Recieving room 1,500
Managers office 150
Accounting office 500
Linen room 2,000
Locker rooms 2,400
Maintenance shop 3,000
Furniture storage Guest rooms 1,200
Maids room 200
Mechanical room 5,000
Fuel storage 1,500
Transformer vault 750
ZONING REQUIREMENTS Zone B-8
1. Enclosure of uses- All uses established or placed into operation on a zone lot shall do so in an entirely closed structure unless exempt.
2. Volume of sound generated- sound levels shall not exceed 70 becibels at any boundary line.
3. Vibration generated- ground vibration due to the use shall not be perceptible without instruments.
k. Emission of heat,glare, radiation or fumes- every use shall be operated so as not to emit a dangerous level of any of the above beyond any boundary.
5. Outdoor storage and waste disposal- all materials or wastes which might cause fumes or dust or might constitute a fire hazard or which are edible by or otherwise be attractive to rodents or insects shall be stored outdoors only in closed containers.
6. Basic maximum gross floor area- the sum total of the gross floor area excluding parking within the structure and excluding any mechanical floor shall be no greater than k times the area of the zone lot.
7. Floor area premiums-
Unenclosed plaza-6 ft of floor area for each 1 ft of plaza.
Enclosed plaza- 6 ft of floor area for each 1 ft of enclosed plaza
if at least one entrance has a width of ^0'.
3 ft if one entrance is less than 40'but greater than 20'.
Unenclosed arcade- 3 ft of floor area for each 1 ft of arcade if,
depth less than 12 ft. and average height 12 ft. If arcade is deeper than 12 ft. but less than 20' and the average height equals or exceeds the depth.
If the arcade is deeper than 20' and the average height is 20' or more.
Enclosed arcade- 2 ft of floor area for each 1 ft of arcade if
it has at least 2 entrances opening onto the street the minimum width of the 2 entrances is 20',the minimum width between all bounding walls is 20',average height is 12' .
Low level light area- 2 ft of floor area for each 1 ft of low level
light area occuring between 0 and *4-0' above grade, 1ft if area occurs between ^-0 and 80' above grade.
Outside are of window exposure-from areference point at the bottom center of
the window, a horizontal sector of l40 with a radius of 25'. Within the
sector the minimum area of exposure shall be any open sector or combimation
BUILDING CODE DATA
Occupancy Fire resistance of ext. walls Openings in exterior walls
A 2.1 2 hr. less than 20' Not permitted less than 5'
1 hr. elsewhere Protected less than 20'
B 1 2 hr. less than 20* Not permitted less than 5'
1 hr. elsewhere Protected less than 20'
B 2 2 hr. less than 20' Not permitted less than 5'
1 hr elsewhere Protected less than 20'
R 1 2 hr. less than 20' Not permitted less than3'
1 hr. elsewhere Protected less than 20'
B 1 B 2 R 1
A 2.1 3 hr. 1 hr. 1 hr.
B 1 3 hr. 3 hr.
B 2 1 hr.
Allowable floor area for all occupancies based on Typel F.R. construction is unlimited.
Requirements for occupancy group A 2.1 Cannot be located in the basement Access to public street required Main entrance to be on access Sprinkler system required Ventilation
5 ft-^/min. fresh air
15 ft3/min. total ventilation per occupant.
Requirements for B 2 and R 1 occupancy
Building must be either compartraented horizontally with the floor area
of each compartment not to exceed 30,000 ft ,or vertically in 5 floor increments. In lieu of compartmentation a sprinkler system may be employed with each system serving not more than 20 floors. A shutoff valve is required on
Min. 2 exits if occupant load in excess of
Ground floor 50 30
Upper floors 10 S' 50
Offices 30 100
Assembly areas 50 7
Conference rooms 50 15
Dining rooms 50 15
Parking 30 200
Hotel 10 200
Kitchen 30 200
Locker rooms 30 50
Mechanical rooms 30 300
Others 50 100
Occupant load 500-999 minimum of 3 exits required Occupant load 1,000 or more minimum of 4 exits required.
Exits required=occupant load of story under consideration + 50# of the occupant load of the first adjacent floor +25# of the occupant load of the next adjacent floor.
Width of exits occupant load/50
Minimum width of 44" required if occupant load exceeds 50 Maximum rise 75",maximum run 10"
2 hr. fire resistance required Vestibule of 44" x 72"
1 air change/min.
Exhaust 150$ of supply Distance to exits
90' maximum, 110 if sprinkled.
Separate exit systems are required if occupant load 300 or more.
SOIL AND FOUNDATION ANALYSIS
Erratic combination of medium dense to dense silty to fairly clean sand and gravel deposits with interbedded wet clay layers.
Bedrock occurs at 71-83 feet below existing grade.
Water table occurs from 28-52 feet. Stabilized water table assumed to be at 45 feet below existing grade.
FOUNDATION RECOMMENDATIONS Primary choice
Straight shaft piers with a maximum end pressure of 65000 psf. and a skin friction of 6,500 psf. These values can be increased 2io per foot of penetration to a maximum value of 100,000 psf. Loading of 50,000 psf. will result in a settlement of 1". A column loading of 1,500 kips will require 36" piers penetrating 14' into competent bedrock. The allowable lateral load on the piers is 50-75 kips with a resulting deflection. It will be necessary to restrain the tops of the piers to prevent lateral
Spread footings are a possibility if loadings not exceeding 3,000-5,000 psf. are to be considered. This choice would require a careful balancing of the loadings.
A rigid mat foundation is a possibility with DL i LL equal to 2,500 psf. This type of foundation would require relatively uniform bearing with minimum eccentricity.
Upper granular soils will support light to moderately loaded floor slabs. Excavation to have approved fill compacted to 95% proctor density. Floor slabs are to be separated from columns and bearing walls. Control joints at 25 x 25' intervals. A minimum of 6" of clean free draining gravel with a maximum aggregate size of 3 is to be placed beneath floor slab.
If lowest floor comes within 10' of the stabilized water table an underdrain system should be provided. This is to consist of perforated pipe in a gravel filled trench at least 2* below the
lowest floor. Lateral drains are to be provided at minimum 100'
intervals, with a minimum slope of 1%.
Lateral earth pressure
With granular free draining backfill the lateral earth pressure can be assumed to be 35 psf/ft for the active condition and
^5 psf/ft for the rest condition.
CMC CENTER HOTEL
4 th FLOOR PLAN
21st FLOOR PLAN
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CIVIC CENTER HOTEL