Citation
Off-Broadway

Material Information

Title:
Off-Broadway an urban, mixed-use development for downtown Boulder
Creator:
Lee, David W
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
approximately 200 leaves : illustrations (some color), charts (1 folded), maps, plans ; 22 x 29 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Real estate development -- Colorado -- Boulder ( lcsh )
Real estate development ( fast )
Colorado -- Boulder ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
David Lee.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09453180 ( OCLC )
ocm09453180
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1978 .L425 ( lcc )

Full Text
AN URBAN, MIXED-USE DEVELOPMENT FOR DOWNTOWN BOULDER
Masters Thesis in Architecture
David Lee
Department of Architecture University of Colorado




Preface
This publication is the documentation of my master's thesis and represents two semesters of study (summer and fall semester, 1978) at the University of Colorado in Denver. This thesis is the final project concluding two years of graduate study leading to a master's degree of architecture.
In this particular case, this thesis represents more than the two, formal semesters of study in that it is the culmination of a chronological sequence of events, issues and personal investigations occurring throughout both graduate and undergraduate study. Specifically, this thesis summarizes and implements a continuous line of thought and independent study which began during my undergraduate education and although summarized in the form of this thesis, will continue throughout my professional life. This personal exploration has been within the area of architectual design theory, more specifically, this study dealt with two major elements within design theory: philosophy and process.
In order that you might better understand and appreciate what is presented in this thesis, it is important that I give you a brief background to my investigation of design theory by tracing this line of thought and development through my undergraduate and graduate education.
Personal interest within this area of study began during my undergraduate experience at the University of Washington. I had become interested in environmental psychology and person-environment relationships; that is, the effect the physical environment has upon human behavior. I felt it was very important that we as architects, understand how our physical environments may affect user-occupants.


Through my involvement and study with U. W. Professor Philip Thiel, who has done extensive research in the behavioral aspects of design theory and process (see appendix), I was challenged to find some basis for my design. I felt I needed a personal philosophy upon which I could justify or base my designs and a design methodology which in turn could implement directly my philosophy or approach to architecture. Consequently, this became a major goal for my graduate study (see appendix for my letter of intent, extracted from my application to graduate school).
During my first semester of design in graduate school I decided to explore the complement to that which I had explored in undergraduate work; i.e., I approached my designs from a "form" approach as opposed to the "behavioral" approach I had used in undergraduate school. Although refreshing, this philosophical exercise further reminded me of a need to establish a personal philosophy and resolve my approach to design. A major issue to be dealt with in the development of my approach to design, was to establish an approach whereby my concern for the behavioral aspects could work together with my concern for the form aspects of design (see appendix for a paper written at the conclusion of that fall semester of design).
The following semester (Spring 1978) I began an independent study with Prof. Devon Carlson. During that semester I summarized my design philosophy as it had evolved thus far and derived a design process as a practical methodology for implementing my philosophy. The individual stages of the design process require that I analyze the design problem according to established criterion or canons which represent a portion of my philosophy or approach. In this sense, the practical methodology or process implements my philosophy. A statement of my philosophy and the presentation and explanation of my design


process concluded this independent study (see the appendix).
After resolving my approach to design and developing a supporting design process, specific goals were established for the thesis project. The thesis could become the summarization and presentation of this line of thought and study by using the thesis design project as a vehicle for my design approach and process.
This thesis is therefore, a two-fold project by nature, containing two separate (but related) purposes or objectives. One objective is the solution to a typical architectural design project, i.e., my response to a design problem and my ability to transform programmatic requirements into physical form and space. The other objective is the demonstration of my design process and the expression of my architectural philosophy in physical form.
This publication is broken down into two parts. The first part (part one) deals with the programmatic requirements of the architectual project. It is a compilation of program information and data relevant to the design of the project. Part two is the documentation and demonstration of my design methodology taking the project completely through the chronological sequence of the design process.


Table of Contents
PART ONE; THE PROGRAM
This section introduces the architectual design project, describes the location of the site, analyzes both the site and the site context according to both physical and social factors, lists programmatic requirements and relevant design data, and includes an appendix. This section includes the orientation and programming phases of the design process.
PART TWO; THE PROCESS
This section is the documentation and presentation of the design process. The presentation follows the chronological sequence of the design methodology. Because the design process begins with the orientation and programming phases, these first two stages of the design process are documented in Part One.


PART ONE THE PROGRAM


Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION PROJECT ORIENTATION
Project Description LOCATION
The Physical Setting Location Maps Colorado Regional Boulder
Downtown Boulder Neighborhood Context Project Block The Site
VIEWS
Views of the Site Views from the Site PROGRAMMING
* These headings represent the first two stages of the design process


PHYSICAL FACTORS
Site Inventory On-Site/Off-Site Inventory SOCIAL FACTORS
Community Context Chronology of Events Legal Parameters ACTIVITY PROGRAMMING Development Concept Use-Type Requirements APPENDIX
Project Team
Adjacent Property Owners Building Codes Professional Reports Preceding Studies Economic Feasibility Studies


Introduction
"Off-Broadway" is a proposal for a mixed-use development in downtown Boulder, calling for an urban scheme basically residential in character with a portion of commerical and professional office space. The Off-Broadway development is an actual project currently in the negotiating stages of development. The project has recently been taken through an initial design phase by Gage Davis and Associates, a planning and design firm in Boulder. Gage Davis and Associates were commisioned by the client/owner, Joseph Stepanek of Boulder. I became involved in the project through my acquaintance with Terry Barnhart of Gage Davis and Associates. From this point, I assumed the project for thesis purposes with interest and ardent support from Joseph Stepanek. My role in the project is therefore, solely for the purposes of providing an alternate proposal or design scheme.
This particular project was selected after studying and investigating a number of other projects during the course of the summer semester, pre-thesis study. The other potential projects involved in the study and selection process were all basically of a mixed-use type and included a resort development in central Oregon, the proposed Beaver Creek Ski Resort near Vail, Colorado, a recreation and community facility in Buffalo, Wyoming, a day lodge for the Winter Park Ski Area in Colorado, a renovation and urban housing scheme in Denver, and a high-rise development in downtown Denver. The Off-Broadway project was selected after rating each project according to my pre-determined goals and objectives for the thesis project. Some of the criteria I established for the thesis project are as follows. The


"essence" of the project should be design; since this is my primary interest and area of strength, the end product should express my abilities within this area. A related goal is the project's potential in allowing the greatest amount of freedom and flexibility in design (in the sense of form and style).
At the same time I wanted a project with a great many external forces or parameters acting upon it so that it may respond or relate to its physical and social context and also challenge my abilities to solve problems. I also was looking for a restrictive site so that I could become involved with the site planning and design process. One objective was to find a project of a manageable size and scale where time would allow me to design the scheme in detail. I also hoped for the opportunity to do some interior design and some landscape design. The reality of the project and the situation was also an important measure. The nature of the project in allowing me to become intellectually involved and challenged was another goal. The project should be of appropriate size and scope to be manageable, but also complex enough that it would be an effective vehicle or application for my design process. Finally, I was interested in a project that I could become excited about, have fun with, and express some of myself, my interests, and background. While the Off-Broadway project may not ideally fulfill all these objectives, it was selected as best satisfying this criteria.
Part one of this publication deals with the Off-Broadway project in its programming phase. This section contains the on and off-site analysis and the programmatic requirements and relevant design information.




Project Description
Off-Broadway is a design proposal for a mixed-use development located in the heart of Boulder, The site is located on the S.W. corner of 13th and Pine Street, one block off Broadway (hence, its name). The basic development concept is to provide a quality living environment for people who wish to live and work in downtown Boulder and create commercial and professional office space along 13th Street, adjacent to and relating to the Old Boulderado Hotel. Presently, three 75 year old residential structures exist along 13th Street and one additional residential structure exists along Pine Street. A parking lot also exists on the site with its access off of Pine Street.
The site is zoned for high density residential development. The remainder of the project block contains commercial and professional functions. The Boulder Mall is situated one block to the south and churches and residential neighborhoods border on north and west sides. Commercial and professional functions border to the east.
Due to land and development costs, and the zoning restrictions, the program calls for the development of approximately 16 luxury townhouses in conjunction with the design of additional commercial and professional office space with the possibility of renovation and re-use of the three existing structures along 13th Street. The program also calls for off-street parking.


LOCATION


Location Maps


Regional
-it-i


Regional


i
*
r
Site Context


Project Block




VIEWS




VIEW OF THE BOULDER SKYLINE
2


VIEW FROM THE EAST
1


VIEW FROM THE NORTH
2


r
r
/
VIEW FROM THE NE
3


z
J3N 3H1 01 M3IA


VIEW TO THE EAST
3


VIEW TO THE SOUTH
4




PHYSICAL FACTORS


Site Inventory
TOPOGRAPHY

The terrain of the project site is essentially flat. There is a 654 gain in elevation from the SUE.
corner to the N.W. corner of the property. This slope running diagonally across the site is 2.6%.
/
The average slope from the NWC corner (high point) to the S.W. corner is 2.3%, or a 3.25 drop in elevation. The average slope from the S.W. corner to the S.E. corner (low point) is 1%, or a 23 drop in elevation. The average slope from the N.W. corner (high point) to the N.E. corner is 2%, or a 4' drop in elevation. The average slope from the N.E. corner to the S.E. corner (low point) is 1 .8%, or a 2o6' drop in elevation. Most of the actual changes in elevation occur in conjunction with small retaining walls and the foundations of the existing houses. The topography is therefore a series of platforms stepping from the N.W. to S.W. corners with some minor slopes occuring between them. GEOLOGY
The geology of the low lying parts of the downtown area of Boulder is comprised of quarternary deposits of loose or poorly cemented stream gravels and sand, slope wash and terrace gravels overlaying pierre shalec The project site is not located over any known faults, areas subject to subsidence, or expansive clay conditions which would threaten the site's development potential.
SOILS
According to local engineering firms, soils in the project area are predominately composed of reddish-brown sandy clays with some gravels mixed in. At present, there have been no soil boring tests.


However, the existence of large, masonry buildings adjacent to the site indicates the suitability of underlying soils capable of supporting significant development.
VEGETATION
The most significant vegetation relating to the site is the existing street trees. Along 13th Street (eastern property edge) there are three large, mature maple trees approximately 35-40 feet in height located in the planting strip. A very large specimen maple tree measuring approximately 55-60 feet in height is located near the N.W0 corner of the site in the planting strip along Pine Street. Other vegetation existing on the site includes a number of 15-25 foot sumac clusters situated along the edges of the parking lot and behind the 3 residences.
Except for minor landscaping along the perimeter of the existing buildings, there is no other significant vegetation within the site.
HYDROLOGY
The surface drainage occurs across the site from the N.W. to the S.E. While test borings have not yet been made, local engineers with knowledge of the local conditions indicate ground water to be about 8* 1 2 below the surface. Therefore, the conclusion has been made, that ground water is not expected to present any substantial constraints on development.
WILDLIFE
The only wildlife that seems to be present on this relatively urban site is domestic pets and perhaps some squirrels, rodents, and the local variety of birds.


CLIMATE
. Regional In a general sense, the climate of this region can be summarized as follows. It is considered a Steppe climate which is located in the "rain shadow" of the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Maritime air masses. The weather is dominated in the winter by Continental Polar air masses making this season very dry and cold. In the summer, the region is under the influence of the Continental Tropical and to some degree Maritime Tropical air masses (originating in the gulf) making summers dry and hot. The weather is therefore controlled by three separate sources and this creates the condition of extreme variety and rapidly changing weather. The location at the base of a mountain slope also adds to the variety of weather due to the "rainshadow effect", the diurnal rising and sinking air mass between mountain and valley, and adiabatic changes from upslope and downslope winds. The warmest temperatures occur during the month of July while the coldest temperatures occur during January. The most precipitation occurs during May while the dryest month is generally December. The seasons of this region are dominated by winter and summer.
. Micro-climate Because of Boulder's elevation (5445'), it experiences slightly cooler temperatures than the surrounding region. There is also an increase in snowfall in this particular area as it is located close to the base of the mountains where weather moving upslope dumps greater amounts of precipitation. The project area also encounters frequent, very strong winds as it is located near the mouth of a canyon where westerly winds undergo the "funnelling effect". These winds occur most frequently during the fall and spring and can reach speedsof 70-100 m.p.h. The site is located in the downtown area which is situated in a valley or basin at the very base of the


foothills. At night, the cool air from the higher elevations seems to flow into this basin and "pool" there. Because the project area is situated so close to the base of these foothills which are particularly steep at this point, the sun sets earlier in the evening causing the air to cool off sooner than points further east. More specific micro-climatic conditions include the fact that there is an abundance of mature deciduous trees surrounding the site, affecting winds and solar penetration.
The asphalt parking areas on the site and in the alley serves as a heat sink for solar insolation and re-radiation. The existing white colored roofing on the existing three residences would reflect much of the solar insolation avoiding overheating during the summer. The humidity of this area fluctuates more during a 24 hour period than seasonally. During the summer months the relative humidity is generally 70% at sunrise and 36% at mid-afternoon. During the winter, the relative humidity is about 60% at sunrise and 40% at mid-afternoon. These fluctuations correlate with the large day-night shifts in temperature associated with this region. The principal climatic factors having a bearing on design-development are sun angles, wind, and temperature extremes on both a daily and seasonal basis. This data is summarized in the tables following this page.


INCHES INCHES DEGREES
Climate Data
I


Solar Data
Latitude N 40
SOLAR TIME AM PM JAN 21 FEB 21 MAR 21 APR 21 MAY 21 JUN 21 JUL 21 AUG 21 SEP 21 OCT 21 NOV 21 DEC 21
AL T 2 4 2
5 7 A.TI 1 15 117 1 15
ALT 7 10 If. 13 R
6 6 AZI on too 108 ioo IOO
At T 1 1 19 24 26 24 10 11 5
7 5 AZI 72 *K) 00 07 100 07 JO no 72
ALT ; 15 23 TO 35 37 36 31 33 15 n 6
8 4 AZI o. 70 70 R7 01 nn no 70 62 55 53
al r 1 7 ;a m A} 47 40 47 43 33 25 1 7 14
9 3 AZI 14 V' . 7 1.7 76 no 77 OH 57 '.O 44 42
ALT r.i rip A? M 5R GO 50 52 42 32 24 21
10 2 AZI 31 3'- A? r. 1 r,i GO 03 52 42 30 31 20
ALT ?n 37 An 59 60 09 07 50 48 30 30 25
11 1 AZI 16 IP 23 20 37 4? 70 30 23 19 16 15
ALT V) 30 50 or* 70 74 71 02 50 40 X) 27
12 AZI " o o o O 0 O 0 O O 0 O


Solar Data
120*
winter
sun
typical for 40' north latitude


On-site/Off-site inventory
It is the purpose of this section to consider the "next larger scale" the on-site/off-site relationships having significant bearing upon the character of the site,,
EXISTING BUILDINGS ON SITE
There are four existing buildings within the property boundaries of the site. All four of which are older residential structures. Three of the four residences are located on 13th Street along the eastern edge of the property The fourth residence is located on Pine Street in the NoW. corner of the property. Presently, there is a parking lot between the fourth residence and the other three on 13th Street; its entrance if off Pine Street.
The three residential structures along 13th Street are presently utilized as apartments with the exception of the southern most building which houses the Indo-Ceylonese restaurant on its ground floor. These three buildings are 2 stories with an attic and basement and built of brick with wood trim. These three buildings all have hip roofs and a consistent architectural style as they were constructed at the same time. They were built in 1903 making them 75 year old structures and while they are not presently on the list of structures given priority for designation as landmarks by the Landmark's Preservation Advisory Board, they represent as a group, a good example of early Colorado residential architecture. These three residences are all in fairly good structural condition according to the engineer's report received by Gage Davis and Associates (see appendix),, While some addition of floor joists may be required


for stiffening purposes and a beam added to reduce a span in a few locations, renovation of these structures seems entirely feasible. Depending on the amount of interior re-design proposed for these three structures, it could become more expensive to renovate them than to tear them down and build new structures according to a discussion I had with Joe Stepanek the client. However, due to the historic importance of these structures, their value to the neighborhood and community, their fine detailing,scale,and rich architectural style, renovation represents the most 'responsible' solution (Mr. Stepanek is of the same opinion).
The fourth residential structure at 1218 Pine Street is presently utilized as a rental duplex. It is also a 2 story structure with an attic and basement and built of brick with wood trim0 It has an architectural style that is vaguely similar to the other three residences but lacks their richness and fine detailing. While no records have been found for verification, it is believed that the building dates from about 1920. This building is not in as good physical condition as the other structures on the site. Due to structural problems, a new roof structure would be required. The entire interior of the building would also require replacement as would all the electrical, mechanical, and plumbing systems. This building also is not designated as a landmark Because of its poor structural condition and also because of the impact saving this structure would have on efficient utilization of the site, the potential for renovation or re-use of this building is poor.
EXISTING BUILDINGS OFF SITE
This inventory will include all adjacent structures neighboring the site that are located on the same city block (blk. 120) as the property. These include two residential structures to the west of the site


on Pine Street. On the other half of the block (accross an alley) starting on the western edge of the block is a small bank, then Gage Davis and Everett/Ziegel's office building, an office supply establishment, an attorney's office building, and the old Boulderado Hotel on the eastern edge of the block.
The residential structure bordering the western edge of the property on Pine Street is a remodeled residential structure currently utilized as a small office building. It is two stories with an attic and basement. The first story is dark green painted brick and the second story is wood sided and wood trim. The building has been remodeled into a contemporary, rustic wood, residential style. It appears in very good condition and well kept.
The other residential structure located on the corner of Pine Street and Broadway is a restored old house currently used as a doctor's office. It is also two stories with an attic. Tfe building is beige painted brick with an abundance of wood trim and ornate wood carpentry detailing. The colors are white, beige, and medium browns. It represents a rich, ornate, residential style and appears to be about 75 years old. The building is in good condition.
The small bank on Broadway and Spruce Street is a one story structure constructed of brick and concrete block. The exterior materials are brick and a beige stucco. It has a flat roof with a parapet. The building is done in a contemporary brick, commercial style. It appears to be relatively new construction and in very good condition.
Gage Davis and Everett/Ziegel's office building is a four story brick structure. The professional offices are occupied by the planning firm and the architecture firm. It is constructed in a contemporary


industrial style with steel truss joists painted white, pipe railings and exposed mechanical ducts painted red, an abundance of glass walls, and brick painted dark brown. The roof is flat0 It is a new structure in excellent condition.
The standard office supply building is a two story structure with a pyrmidal shaped hip roof. The construction is brick with wood trim, both painted off white. It appears to be about 30-40 years old, in fair condition. The style is non-descript, residential-small commerical.
The attorney's office is also two story construction with a flat roof. It is concrete block painted off-white. It appears to be about 25 years old and in fair condition. The style is small commercial.
The Boulderado Hotel on the corner of Spruce and 13th Street is the major attraction of this specific community. It is an extremely rich piece of turn-of-the century, Colorado architecture with an important history within the city of Boulder. It is a historic landmark built in 1908 dating the structure as 70 years old. The Boulderado is currently used as a hotel as it was originally built for that purpose. The interior is extremely lavish with a beautiful lobby space skylighted with a stained glass canopy.
The building is a five story structure with a basement,built of brick with hip roofs at each of the building's four corners. The building is accented with wood trim painted dark brown. It is generally in fair condition with some portions in poor condition. There are about 60 hotel rooms, 10-15 small offices on the mezzanine level, and five restaurant-bar spaces scattered throughout the mezzanine, first floor, and basement. Retail and office space faces Spruce Street. This building represents the largest scale construction on the project block.


Neighboring buildings on the blocks surrounding the site include a renovated house and parking lot to the east, across 13th Street, and the Whittier residential neighborhood diagonally across the intersection of Pine and 13th Street. To the north across Pine Street is the Trinity Luthern Church and the First Baptist Church of Boulder, both of which are large scale construction. Further removed from the site, across Broadway is another large church and a parking lot. Diagonally across the intersection of Broadway and Pine Street there is a Masonic Lodge. The general physical community context includes the old, historic, three an^ four story construction of downtown Boulder (the mall) located one block to the south on Pearl Street. The context also includes generally old, historic residential neighborhoods the the north, west, and east of the project site.
VEHICULAR CIRCULATION, PARKING AND ACCESS
The busiest of the four streets surrounding the project block is Broadway. It is a major arterial in the Boulder Street system. It is four lanes, 2 lanes south-bound and 2 lanes north-bound, with no parking along either side. Traffic on Broadway generally runs about 35-40 mph. There are stoplights where Broadway intersects both Pine Street and Spruce Street. Bus service is provided along this street.
Spruce Street is the next busiest road and runs along the southern edge of the project block. The site is isolated from Spruce Street as the other half of the project block is between the property and the street. Spruce Street is three lanes of traffic with one parking lane on each side of the street. Traffic runs about 20-25 mph and is a commercial street. There are stoplights where it intersects Broadway and also 13th Street. The parking is metered and there is also bus service provided. Compared with Broadway there is little traffic on Spruce Street.


Pine Street is two lanes of traffic (one east-bound, one west-bound) with one parking lane on each side of the street. It is a residential street in character and traffic runs along this road at about 25-30 mph. The parking is free and the corners are cut at each intersection. There is a stop light at the intersection of Pine Street and Broadway. Pine Street runs along the north side of the site. There are 23 total parking spaces provided.
13th Street runs along the eastern edge of the site. It is one way, one lane of traffic running north. There is diagonal parking on both sides of the street, and it is metered. There are 34 parking spaces providedo There is a stop light where 13th intersects Spruce and a stop sign at the intersection of 13th and Pine Street. The corners are cut at both intersections.
The alley which cuts through the project block is one way east. It is primarily a narrow, service road for the businesses and offices along Spruce Street. The alley is also a means of access to the series of private parking areas behind each of the establishments and the three existing residences on Pine Street.
The apparent means of vehicular access to the site assuming that the three residences on 13th Street are preserved, are as follows: access via the alley along the southern edge of the property, and access via an entrance off of Pine Street along the northern edge of the property. Both the eastern and western edges of the site will not allow a vehicle entrance.
PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION ACCESS
The location of the site in such close proximity to the downtown Boulder pedestrian mall makes pedestrian access and circulation a significant factor for site design. Due to the special quality of the Boulder


urban environment and its conducive nature for the pedestrian, it seems some very exciting relationships or links could be established between the project and the mall area one block to the south.
Existing pedestrian circulation generally follows the sidewalk system that borders the project block.
This sidewalk system includes some special, enhancing features worth noting. The sidewalk materials along 13th Street consist of flagstone pavers. The sidewalks at the four-way intersections consist of brick pavers and the curb is extended beyond the parking lanes to give the pedestrian secure visibility up and down the street. The sidewalks are buffered from the street with 7* and 9' wide planting strips. Access to the site is possible from points along the sidewalks which border the northern and eastern edges of the property. It is presupposed that the alley could become an essential point of access to the site as this would be the most direct route to the mall area one block to the south. One other condition worthy of note is the existing spaces created between the three residences on 13th Street. There is a very exciting archway and covered passageway between the two northern most structures which could be utilized in the new circulation scheme should it become feasible.
UTILITIES
The existing utilities as recorded in a 1977 survey are described as follows. There is an 8"water main running in the same direction and beneath Pine Street. A 24" storm sewer runs below Pine Street and a 30" storm sewer runs below 13th Street. There is a catch basin located at the eastern end of the alley and a 12" storm sewer connecting it to the 30" storm sewer running below 13th Street. An 8" sanitary sewer runs below the centerline of the alley. A 4" gas line runs beneath Pine Street and a 2" gas line runs beneath 13th Street. Overhead electric and telephone service is currently supplied


from lines running to a transformer and pole in the alley. Overhead wires run the length of the alley. Fire hydrants are located on the opposite side of Pine Street at the corners of Broadway and Pine and 13th and Pine. There are three street lights lining Pine Street and three lining 13th Street. VEGETATION
There are a number of trees existing beyond the property lines which are worthy of note because of their proximity to the site or because their relationship to the site enhances the character of the project area. The most notable of these are the group of seven, 55' high maple trees which line the north side of Pine Streeto There are also two additional 60' high maple trees located in the N.W. corner of the project block, in front of the two residential structures. Behind the first residential structure on the corner of Broadway and Pine are two more 60' high maples. Along the length of Spruce Street and in front of the Boulderado Hotel on 13th Street exists a series of 12'-25' high maples in street planters. There are two large maples on the opposite side of 13th Street, across the street from the Boulderado.
The remaining, significant vegetation includes clusters of sumac trees located in back of the Spruce Street establishments, across the alley from the site.
TOPOGRAPHY
The topographic character surrounding the site can be considered in a general sense, a continuation of the condition on the site. The site sits in a gently sloping area with the slope running from the N.W. downhill to the S.E. The slopes become slightly steeper as you proceed beyond the site, west on Pine Street and north on Broadway.


SOCIAL FACTORS


Community Context
REGIONAL CHARACTER
It is essential to consider the character of the social setting of the site at various scales. This consideration will begin with the largest scale the region,, As the character of the physical setting is dominated by the convergence of the mountains and the plains (described in the physical setting section), the character or quality of the social setting of this region is dominated by the assimilation of rural American culture with that of contemporary urban culture. More specifically, this region exhibits cultural values, lifestyles, and behaviors of both rural and urban backgrounds. The character of this region must also include mention of the presence of Denver, as a large, urban metropolis and also as a center to the entire Rocky Mountain region. The regional character also seems to reflect a cultural background, history, pride and a great deal of identity associated with the physical setting of the Rocky Mountains. COMMUNITY CHARACTER
The next scale considered is that of the community; the city of Boulder will represent the community. Boulder retains a character that is unique and difficult to summarize in that there is such a wide variety of social factors contributing to the personality of the city. It is the responsibility of the architect to comprehend these social factors or forces that he might fully understand how the social aspects of his design should relate to the community context.
One of these contributing forces is the same condition which characterized the region the assimilation


of rural and urban cultures. The product of this assimilation is a community which is very tightly knit/ featuring a very high rate of citizen involvement in community affairs, and a great deal of value and interest placed on local government; and at the same time the city contains an extremely wide diversity of demographic types, lifestyles, values and attitudes. The community exhibits qualities of homogeneity typical of a rural background, and in a different respect it is a very diverse community typical of an urban background. Boulder's rural qualities can be seen in its location, history, and the sheer size of the community. The number of cultural events, restaurants, retail establishments, etc. (features typical of urban communities) in relation to the population, is evidence of its urban qualities and somewhat describes the lifestyle of the people within the community.
Another contributing factor is the presence of a major university within the community. Boulder can not be labeled as a college town in that it would exist easily without the University of Colorado, and the identity of Boulder does not depend solely on the university. More specifically, Boulder retains an identity of its own; the university is an element of that identity. It appears that the university contributes to more progressive lifestyles and attitudes and increases the degree of social activity. It also seems to account for the demographic diversity and creates a great degree of variety and color within the community. Additional factors include Boulder's history and roots in the early settlement of Colorado and it is also the county seat of Boulder County. The community's association or identification with the beautiful physical setting of the Rocky Mountains is also a contributing factor to Boulder's personality
The compilation of all these factors gives Boulder a very colorful, exciting, and active character


exhibiting an esprit de corps all of its own. NEIGHBORHOOD CHARACTER
The character of the neighborhood can be described as a microcosm of the character of the larger community with the addition of a few specific conditions. The most important of these conditions is the fact that this neighborhood includes the downtown Boulder mall. The site sits in transition between the downtown urban environment and the quieter, old residential environment. Social activity and physical density rapidly decreases from the mall area to the professional offices on Spruce Street to the residential character of Pine Street. Another condition is the effect of the Boulderado Hotel on the immediate neighborhood and particularly the site. Its size, historic style, and distinct identity influences the neighborhood context. The fact that it is a hotel and that it is designed in the old western tradition brings a great deal of social activity and spirit to the site. Finally, is the influence that the surrounding residential neighborhood contributes to the neighborhood character. In a social sense, this neighborhood is comprised of mostly families with a medium to high socio-economic status, this area does not contain many student rental units and the residences are generally owned rather than rented; this is particularly true to the north and west of the site0 In a physical sense, this neighborhood is composed of generally beautiful, large homes, that are older and built in a rich, historic style, mostly out of brick with detailed wood trim.
LAND-USE CONTEXT
Directly surrounding the site are the following use-types. Directly north of the site are two churches. To the N.E. is the Masonic Lodge. To the vest are two office buildings converted from residential


structures. To the S.W. is the Globe Industrial Bank, an architects and planners office building, and retail office supply business. To the south is a lawyer's office and the Boulderado Hotel and associated restaurants. To the S.E., there are professional offices in a rennovated residence. To the east, there is a large parking lot for the Boulderado Hotel.
Beyond these preceeding establishments that directly bordered the site, there are generally residential neighborhoods to the west, north, and east of the site. The areas to the S.E., south, and S.W. contain downtown Boulder business establishments.
COMMUNITY FACILITIES
The project site is located lj blocks north of the downtown Boulder mall and has excellent pedestrian access to its shopping facilities, personal services, restaurants, and entertainment. The Boulderado Hotel, with several restaurants, shops, and forms of entertainment is directly adjacent to the site.
There are five major churches within one block of the site. The Masonic Lodge is 2 block to the N.W. Most of the medical facilities in Boulder, including Boulder General Hospital and Boulder Memorial Hospital, are within one-half mile of the site. Sacred Heart Junior High and Elementary School is I 2 blocks north at 13th and Mapleton Street and 1 block beyond to the north is Casey Junior High School. The closest city parks are Central Park along Boulder Creek and the North Boulder Park on 9th and Balsam Street, both 4 mile or less from the site. The North Boulder Recreation Center is about 5 mile north of the site on Broadway. The YMCA, court house, post office, and public library are all within 4 mile of the site. Boulder High School is about 5 mile away and the University of Colorado is also within walking distance.


MUNICIPAL SERVICES
. Police protection is provided by the City of Boulder.
. Fire protection is provided by the City of Boulder and is adequately served by existing fire protection facilities. Hydrants are located at the intersection of Spruce and Broadway and at the intersection of Spruce and 13th Street. Both hydrants are within 175 feet of the property.
. Trash collection is provided by private services. Trash pick-up occurs along the alley and it is assumed that a centralized trash collection facility will be provided for the entire development incorporating one or more dumpsters within an enclosed area to control odors and sanitation.
. Bus service is provided by RTD and is available to the site from regular transit stops at Broadway and Spruce Streets (north/south) and Spruce and 13th Streets (east/west).
. Street cleaning and road maintenance is provided regularly by the City or County of Boulder.


Chronology of Events
DATE
March 25, 1865
Aug .5,1 867
Sept. 1 880 1886 1889 1903
April, 1906
June 1 5, 1 906
EVENT
John Tourtellot and Frederick Squires bought the west half of the lot the Hotel Boulderado occupies for $19.90o
Marinus Smith, one of the leading sponsors in locating the University in Boulder, bought the east half of the Boulderado site for $19.65.
Mary Ann Storey bought both lots for $3,200.00.
Mary Hayman bought the combined lot for $4,000o00.
The Storey's bought back the combined lot for $4,000.00.
Mr0 Charles Buckingham, a prominent Boulderite and associated with the National State Bank in Boulder, also major stock holder in the Boulder Hotel Co., built the three residential structures along 13th Street. They remained in the Buckingham estate until recent years.
The Boulder Hotel Company was organized as a result of a local campaign by the Commercial Association (Chamber of Commerce) and Col. Samuel B0 Dick, President of the Colorado and Northwestern Railroad (The Switzerland Trail of America). Their purpose was to build a decent hotel to insure the proper growth of the city.
The Boulder Hotel Co bought the lot from the Storey's. A $100,000 capital


Oct. 2, 1906 stock was raised from 1000 shares at $100 each to pay for the hotel construction. Ground was broken for the Boulderado.
New Year's Eve 1908 Open house party and dedication of the newly completed Boulderado Hotel.
1920 The residential structure at 1218 Pine Street was built.
Sept., 1940 1963 The Hutson Hotel Co. from Kansas City bought the Boulderado. Boulderado exchanges ownership.
1967 Boulderado exchanges ownership.
1976 Boulderado bought for approximately $1 million by an investment group headed by William E. Brantmeyer.
Aug., 1978 Another investment group bought the Boulderado for $1,370,000. the general partner is Barton Bortles, 32, of Boulder. Plans made to restore and upgrade the facility c.


Legal Parameters
LEGAL DESCRIPTION
Lots 1 2, 3, and 4 of block 1 20, in the original town of Boulder, County of Boulder, State of Colorado. Joseph E. Stepanek, owner.
LOCATION
The site is bounded on the north by Pine Street, on the east by 13th Street, on the south by the alley between Spruce Street and Pine Street, and on the west by privately owned commercial properties. The site measures 200 feet along Pine Street and 140 feet along 13th Street and contains approximately 28,000 square feet.
ZON ING
Under current City of Boulder zoning, the site is zoned high density residential established (HR-E).
The land to the north and east of the site is also zoned high density residential established (HR-E).
The land to the west of the site is zoned transitional business established (TB-E). The land directly south of the site is zoned regional business redeveloping (RB-X).
BUILDING CODES
The County of Boulder adheres to the 1973 uniform building code. Specific codes and restrictions dealing with the proposed building types can be found in the appendix.
SETBACKS
Redevelopment of this site to include the proposed amount of units is made difficult primiarily by the


commitment to retain and reuse the existing structures along 13th Street. Efficient utilization of the remainder of the site would be difficult to attain utilizing the setback requirements under the existing zoning category. It is therefore proposed that the development scheme be submitted as a planned unit development which would release the existing setback requirements so that some degree of flexibility be introduced to the design of an otherwise difficult site.
LAND USE
At this stage of the design process the land use of the proposed scheme centers around a mixed-use development involving residential and commerical uses with off-street parking and common open spaces. EASEMENTS/ENCUMBRANCES
While there are no known easements crossing the site, the westernmost 50 feet of the site is within the boundaries of the central-area general improvement district.
FIRE ZONE RESTRICTIONS
The project site is in fire zone No. 3 for retail establishments, office buildings, drinking and dining establishments. This means the exterior walls must have a 1 hour fire rating when less than 10 feet to the property line and openings in exterior walls are not permitted less than 5 feet and must be protected when less than 10 feet to property boundaries. For the dwelling units, exterior walls must have a 1 hour rating when less than 3 feet to property lines and openings in exterior walls are not permitted when less than 3 feet to property lines.
SPECIAL USE REVIEW AND HEIGHT CONSIDERATIONS
The residential uses for the site are in compliance of the HR-E zone. The proposed professional offices,


restaurant, and small commercial uses will be incorporated within the development so as not to alter the predominately residentail character of the P.U.D. These exceptional uses in violation of the HR-E zoning are uses permitted by special review.
It is presupposed that because of the proposed number of dwelling units and resulting density a reduction in the lot size per unit may be required. The required minimum lot size is 1600 sq. ft ./unit <> This can be reduced if the difference, increased four times, is accounted for in open space.
In order that the proposed restaurant qualify for special use review, any outdoor eating area must not be larger than 1/3 the size of the indoor eating space.
A request for an exception from the 35' height limitation requirement will be made in order to recover some of the flexibility for efficient site design lost due to retaining and re-using the existing buildings along 13th Street. The justification for this exception is based upon the site's location adjacent to a number of existing buildings of significant height and bulk. These include the Boulderado Hotel (nearly 65' in height), the First Baptist Church, Trinity Lutheran Church, The Congregational Church, and the Masonic Lodge. Given the massing of the buildings of the surrounding area, the location of the site in relation to downtown, and the loss of design flexibility associated with the preservation of the buildings along 13th Street, the exception from the 35' height limitation is necessary and appropriate.
The development must meet the floor area ratio restriction of the district in which the site is located, which is 3;1 D Usable open space must occupy at least 15% of the site.


OFF-STREET PARKING REQUIREMENTS
The parking requirements for the various uses proposed in this development are as follows. Residential use requires 1 .5 parking spaces be provided per dwelling unit. Commercial, professional office, and restaurant uses require that 1 parking space be provided for every 300 sq. ft. of floor area for that particular use.


ACTIVITY
PROGRAMMING


Development Concept
The completion of the pedestrian mall has triggered a renewed interest in the downtown area of Boulder that leads to an intensification of the urban character of the downtown area. Redevelopment of the site at 13th and Pine Street can contribute to the urban fabric of the central area while respecting the scale and character that is unique to its surrounding and to Boulder as a whole.
The basic concept for redevelopment of the 13th and Pine Street site seeks to provide a quality living environment for people who wish to live and work in the heart of Boulder. While the development concept is centered around the creation of a living environment the site context affords introduction of many exciting mixed-use possibilities. The site context suggests mixed-use in that the project block becomes a zone of transition between the intense urban character of the Boulder mall to the south and the residential character of the neighborhood to the north. Mixed-use is also suggested by the presence of the Boulderado Hotel and the numerous use-types located on the southern half of the project block.
The site is situated in a very strategic location for residential use. Shopping and entertainment are very adequately provided in the downtown mall l^ blocks away. Churches, parks, schools, the post office, the public library, two banks, and medical facilities are all located within a short walking distance of the site.
The site is also situated in a strategic location for professional offices, small commerical, and entertainment uses. The reasons are the site's location in relation to the mall, the activity associated with


the Boulderado Hotel, and the presence of many existing professional offices.
Due to the existing commerical character of 13th Street, it seems most appropriate to concentrate the commercial, professional, and entertainment activities along the 13th Street edge of the site. The introduction of these activities will be incorporated with the concept of renovation and re-use of the existing residential structures along 13th Street.
Due to the existing residential character of Pine Street, it seems most appropriate to locate the dwelling units along this edge of the site. Pine Street represents a logical location for the "front door" of the residential portion of the development. The existing residential structure located at 1218 Pine Street will be removed because of its poor physical condition and the resulting savings acquired in the form of design flexibi lity.
The complexities of site design and planning associated with a mixed-use development on the site, as well as retention and reuse of some of the existing buildings, suggests the application of developing under a planned unit development. The inherent flexibility of the planned unit approach to development permits site design and planning to be responsive to development factors unique to the proposed site while permitting a response to the latest policies and standards established by the City of Boulder.


Use-type Requirements
According to marketing studies and cost/benefit analysis performed by Gage Davis and Associates and Joe Stepanek client/owner/ economic figures indicate that in addition to the renovation and commercial reuse of the three existing residential structures approximately 16 new dwelling units have to be incorporated in the new development in order that the project become an economically feasible venture- If approved by the city/ it would also be economically feasible to reduce the number of dwelling units and increase the amount of commerical space. This would have to be accomplished in such a manner that the overall development presents itself basically residential in character in order to meet the planning policies and values of the City of Boulder. (Refer to Appendix)


Requirements
Activity Use Primary Activities Users
Location
Design Requirements
Dwelling units
Living/ sleeping/ eating Residents and guests
Pine Street interface
Approximately 16 total units Size: 1500-2000 sq. ft. ea. Two bedrooms and two baths Private outdoor space Individual distinction


Requirements
Activity Use : Office space (professional)
Primary Activities : Business functions
Users : Professional tenants
Location : Reuse of existing structures along 10th Street
Design Requirements : Office space should be flexible
good lighting and ventilation provide a variety of sizes


Requirements
Activity Use Primary Activities Users
Location
Design Requirements
: Restaurant/bar
: Dining, drinking and socializing : Residents, hotel guests, and the Boulder Community
: Existing residential structure at 2129 13th Street
High quality restaurant approx. 75 seat capacity two outdoor dining areas w/a combined area less than 1/3 of indoor dining area


Requirements
Activity Use Primary Activities Users
Location
Design Requirements
Commercial space (specialty and support shops)
Display and selling of merchandise
Residents, hotel guests, and the Boulder community
Reuse of existing structures along 13th Street new construction along the alley
Basically small spaces provided approx. 300-600 sq. ft.
Perhaps one large space provided approx. 1000-2000 sq. ft. good identity or frontage display space oriented to exterior "public spaces identifiable shop entrance


Requirements
Activity Use Primary Activities Users
Location
Design Requirements
Open space
Sitting, relaxing, socializing Residents, tenants, and guests
Behind the existing structures along 13th Street and the new construction along Pine Street
Quiet, private outdoor space Nicely landscaped Oriented to views.


Requirements
Activity Use Primary Activities Users
Location
Design Requirements
Off-Street parking
Parking, loading and unloading cars
Residents, tenants, and guests
In close proximity of dwelling units, commercial and office space.
1 .5 parking spaces/dwelling unit 1 parking space/300 sq. ft. of commerical or office space 1 parking space/300 sq. ft. of restaurant space, security control provided must be adequately ventilated


APPENDIX


Project Team
CLIENT/OWNER/DEVELOPER Mr. Joseph E. Stepanek 1622 High Street Boulder, Colorado PH: 443-9329
PLANNING AND DESIGN CONSULTANTS
Gage Davis and Associates
Peter A. Remmen, AIP
1 215 Spruce Street
Boulder, Colorado
PH: 449-1166
ENGINEERING CONSULTANTS Drexel Barrel I and Co.
1 425 Pearl St 0 Boulder, Colorado PH: 442-4338


JOHNSON VO I LAND ARCHULETA INC
2305 Canyon Blvd. Boulder, Colorado PH: 444-1951
McFALL AND KONKEL 2160 So. Clermont St. Denver, Colorado PH: 753-1260


Adjacent
First Congregational Church 11 28 Pine St.
Boulder, Colorado
City of Boulder Municipal Building Boulder, Colorado
John Wilderquist & Arthur Earl c/o Tom Potter, Atty
595 Canyon Blvdo Boulder, Colorado
Ada Jones 924 Portland Boulder, Colorado
Wave P. Stoffle 986 Arapahoe Boulder, Colorado
Property Owners
1 209 Partnership 1 21 5 Spruce Street Boulder, Colorado
John L. & Lois M. Graves 1818 Walnut St0 Boulder, Colorado
Town Bldg. Co. c/o James Burger P .O. Box 53 Boulder, Colorado
John D. Gillaspie 4365 Caddo Pkwy Boulder, Colorado
George B. & Genievieve W. Nahrgang 131 2 Pine St.
Boulder, Colorado


George Vranesh & John D. Musick Jr 2120 13th St.
Boulder, Colorado
Faisal Al-Salem 1 301 Spruce St.
Boulder, Colorado
Homer W. & Bernice Blacker 350 Hemlock
Broomfield, Colorado 80020
Hickman Company 66 Grove Lane Novata, Cal0 94947
Robert T. Shonkwiler 1 327 Spruce St.
Boulder, Colorado
Boulderado Plaza Inc. c/o William Brantmeyer Boulderado Hotel Boulder, Colorado
Etta May Pierce 2224 13th St.
Boulder, Colorado
Salome & J Walter Taylor 2226 1 3th St.
Boulder, Colorado
Robert G. Bowron P. O. Box 933 Boulder, Colorado
Eugene & Sheri Levine 1313 Pine St.
Boulder, Colorado
Marguerite E. Sherman 1319 Pine St.
Boulder, Colorado
Thomas E. & Phyllis M. Suitts 555 S. 68th Boulder, Colorado


Lloyd A. Juliet Weber Jr.
1 502 Cascade Boulder, Colorado
First Church of Christian Scientist 2243 13th St.
Boulder, Colorado
Hellen D. Cullen 1220 Mapleton St.
Boulder, Colorado
Trinity Evangelical 2200 Broadway Boulder, Colorado
First Baptist Church of Boulder 1237 Pine St.
Boulder, Colorado
Masonic Temple 2205 Broadway Boulder, Colorado


Building Codes


Chapter 11
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP B,
DIVISIONS 1, 2 AND 3 OCCUPANCIES
NOTE: Tables in Chapter 11 appearat the end of the Chapter.
Group B, Divisions 1, 2 and 3 Occupancies Defined
Sec. 1101. Group B. Divisions 1,2 and 3 Occupancies shall be:
Division 1. Gasoline service stations, storage garages where no repair work is done except exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame, welding or the use of highly flammable liquids.
Division 2. Wholesale and retail stores, office buildings, drinking and dining establishments having an occupant load of less than 100, printing plants, municipal police and fire stations, factories and workshops using materials not highly flammable or combustible, storage and sales rooms for combustible goods, paint stores without bulk handling. (See Section 102 for definition of Assembly Buildings.)
Buildings or portions of buildings having rooms used for educational purposes beyond the 12th grade with less than 50occupants in any room.
Division 3. Aircraft hangars where no repair work is done except exchange of parts and maintenance requiring no open flame, welding, or the use of highly flammable liquids.
Open parking garages.
Heliports.
For occupancy separations see Table No. 5-B.
For occupant load see Section 3301.
Construction, Height, and Allowable Area
See. 1102. (a) General. Buildings or parts of buildings classed in Group B. Divisions 1,2 or 3 Occupancy because of the use or character of the occupancy shall be limited to the types of construction set forth in Tables No. 5-c an(j isi0. 5-D and shall not exceed, in area or height, the limits 'Pccified in Sections 505, 506, and 507.
Other provisions of this Code notwithstanding, a Group B, Division I Occupancy located in the basement or first story of a building housing a Group B, Division 2 or a Group R, Division 1 Occupancy may be classed
a separate and distinct building for the purpose of area limitation, limitation of number of stories and type of construction, when all of the oiiowmg conditions are met:
I- The Group B, Division I Occupancy is of Type I Construction.
There is a Three-hour Occupancy Separation between the Group B, Division I Occupancy and all portions of the Group B, Division 2 or Group R, Division I Occupancy.
5 The basement or first story is restricted to the storage of passenger
70
vehicles (having a capacity of not more than nine persons per vehicle), but may contain laundry rooms and mechanical equipment rooms incidental to the operation of the building.
4. The maximum building height in feet shall not exceed the limits set forth in Table No. 5-D for the least type of construction involved.
(b) Special Provisions. Marine or motor vehicle service stations including canopies and supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible, fire-retardant treated wood or of one-hour fire-resistive construction.
KXCKPI IONS: I. Roofs of one-story service stations may be of heavy-timber construction.
2. Canopies conforming to Section 5212 may be erected over pumps.
In areas where motor vehicles, boats or airplanes are stored, and in gasoline service stations, floor surfaces shall be of noncombustible, nonabsorbenl materials. Floors shall drain to an approved oil separator or trap discharging to sewers in accordance with the Plumbing Code.
KXC'I'.PI ION: Floors may be surfaced or waterpioofcd with asphaltic paving materials in areas where motor vehicles or airplanes arc stored or operated.
Storage areas in excess of 10(H) square feet in connection with wholesale or retail sales, shall be separated from the public areas by a One-hour Fire-resistive Occupancy Separation as defined in Chapter 5. Such areas may be increased to 3000 square feet when sprinklers, not otherwise required, are installed in the storage area.
KXCKPTION: A One-hour I ire-resistive Occupancy Separation is not required where an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system is installed throughout the building. Area increases also shall be permitted as specified in Section 506(c).
Storage garages in connection with Group R, Division 1 Occupancies shall have an unobstructed headroom clearance of not less than 6 feet 6 inches above the finish floor to any ceiling, beam, pipe, or similar construction except for wall-mounted shelves, storage surfaces, racks or cabinets.
For attic space partitions and draft stops see Section 3205.
For smoke and heal venting sec Section 3206.
Location on Property
Sec. 1103. For fire-resistive protection of exterior walls and openings, as determined by location on property, see Section 504 and Part V.
Exit Facilities
Sec. 1104. Stairs, exits, and smokeproof enclosures shall be provided as specified in Chapter 33; sec Section 3316.
Light, Ventilation and Sanitation
Sec. 1105. All portions of Group B, Divisions I, 2 and 3 Occupancies, shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior gla/cd openings with an area equal to one-tenth of the total floor area, and natural ventilation by means of exterior openings with an area not less than one-
80


twentieth of the total floor area or shall be provided with artificial light and a mechanically operated ventilating system as specified in Section 605.
In all buildings or portions thereof where flammable liquids are used, exhaust ventilation shall be provided, sufficient to produce four air changes per hour. Such exhaust ventilation shall be taken from a point at or near the floor level.
In all enclosed parking garages, used for storing or handling of f automobiles operating under their own power and on all loading platforms in bus terminals, ventilation shall be provided capable of exhausting a minimum of 1.5 cfm per square foot of gross floor area. The | Building Official may approve an alternate ventilation system designed to exhaust a minimum of 14,000 cfm for each operating vehicle. Such system shall be based upon the anticipated instantaneous movement rale of vehicles but not less than 2.5 percent (or one vehicle) of the garage capacity. Automatic CO sensing devices may be employed to modulate the ventilation system to maintain a maximum average concentration of CO of 50 ppm during any eight hour period, with a maximum concentration not greater than 200 ppm for a period not exceeding one hour. Connecting offices, waiting rooms, ticket booths, etc., shall be supplied with conditioned air under positive pressure.
EXCEPTION: In gasoline service stations without lubrication pits, storage garages and aircraft hangars not exceeding an area of 5000 square feet, the Building Official may authorize the omission of such ventilating equipment where, in his opinion, the building is supplied with unobstructed openings to the outer air which are sufficient to provide the necessary ventilation.
Every building or portion thereof where persons arc employed shall be provided with at least one water closet. Separate facilities shall be provided for each sex when the number of employees exceeds four and both sexes are employed. Such toilet facilities shall be located either in such building or conveniently in a building adjacent thereto on the same property.
Such water closet rooms in connection with food establishments where food is prepared, stored, or served, shall have a nonabsorbent interior finish on floors, walls, and ceilings and shall have hand washing facilities therein or adjacent thereto.
All water closet rooms shall be provided with an exterior window at least 3 square feet in area, fully opcnahle; or a vertical duct not less than 100 square inches in area for the first toilet facility with an additional 50 square inches for each additional toilet facility; or a mechanically operated exhaust system, which is connected to the light switch, capable of providing a complete change of air every 15 minutes. Such systems shall be vented to the outside air and at the point of discharge shall be at least 5 feet from any openablc window.
for other requirements on water closets, sec Section 1711.
Shaft Enclosures
Sec. 1106. Exits shall be enclosed as specified in Chapter 33.
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Elevator shafts, vent shafts and other vertical openings shall be enclosed, and the enclosure shall be as specified in Section 1706.
Fire-extinguishing Systems
Sec. 1107. When required by other provisions of this Code, automatic fire-extinguishing systems and standpipes shall be installed as specified in Chapter 38.
Special Hazards
Sec. 1108. Chimneys and healing apparatus shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 37 of this Code and the Mechanical Code.
No storage of volatile flammable liquids shall be allowed in Group B, Division 1, 2 or 3 Occupancies and the handling and use of gasoline, fuel oil and other flammable liquids shall not be permitted in any Group B, Division I, 2 or 3 Occupancy unless such use and handling comply with U.B.C. Standard No. 10-1.
Devices generating a glow' or flame capable of igniting gasoline vapor shall not be installed or used within 18 inches of the floor in any room in which volatile flammable liquids or gas arc used or stored.
Every room containing a boiler or central healing plant shall be separated from the rest of the building by not less than a One-hour Eire-resistive Occupancy Separation.
EXCEPTIONS: I. Boilers or central beating plants where the largest piece of fuel equipment docs not exceed 4(H),000 Btu per hour input.
2. Buildings not more than one story in height of Group B. Division 2 Occupancy with an occupant load of less than .30.
Buildings erected or converted to house high-piled combustible stock shall comply with the Eire Code.
Open Parking Garages
Sec. 1109. (a) Scope. Except where specific provisions are made in the following subsections, other requirements of this Code shall apply.
(b) Definition. For the purpose of this Section, an open parking garage is a structure of Type I or II construction, which is open on two or more sides totaling not less than 40 percent of the building perimeter and which is used exclusively for parking or storage of private pleasure cars. For a side to be considered open, the total area of openings distributed along the side shall be not less than 50 percent of the exterior area of the side at each tier.
EXCEPTION: The grade level tier may contain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total area of not mote than 1000 square feet and such area need not be separated from the open parking garage.
Open parking garages are further classified as either ramp-access or mechanical-access. Ramp-access open parking garages are those employing a scries of continuously rising floors or a series of interconnecting ramps between floors permitting the movement of vehicles under their own power from and to the street level. Mechanical-access parking garages
82


arc those employing parking machines, lifts, elevators, or other mechanical devices for vehicles moving from and to street level and in which public occupancy is prohibited above the street level.
(c) Construction. Construction shall be of noncombuslible materials. Open parking garages shall meet the design requirements of Chapter 23. Adequate curbs and railings shall be provided at every opening.
(d) Area and Height. Area and height of open parking garages in Fire Zones No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 shall be limited as set forth in Table No. 11-A except for increases allowed by subsection (c).
In structures having a spiral or sloping floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per parking tier. In the case of a structure having a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches of height or portion thereof shall be considered as a tier.
The clear height of a parking tier shall be not less than 7 feet, except that a lesser clear height may be permitted in mechanical-access open parking garages when approved by the Building Official.
(e) Area and Height Increases. The area and height of structures with cross ventilation throughout may be increased in accordance with provisions of this subsection. Structures with sides open [as defined in subsection (b)] three-fourths of the building perimeter may be increased 25 percent in area and one tier in height. Structures with sides open [as defined in subsection (b)] around the entire building perimeter may be increased 50 percent in area and one tier in height.
Open parking garages constructed to heights less than the maximums established by Table No. 11-A may have individual tier areas exceeding those otherwise permitted, provided the gross tier area of the structure does not exceed that permitted for the higher structure. At least three sides of each such larger tier shall have continuous horizontal openings not less than 30 inches in clear height extending for at least 80 percent of the length of the sides and no part of such larger tier shall be more than 200 feet horizontally from such an opening. In addition, each such opening shall face a street or yard accessible to a street with a width of at least 30 feet for the full length of the opening and standpipes shall be provided in each such tier.
(f) Location on Property. When located adjacent to interior properly lines, exterior walls shall be of the degree of fire resistance set forth in Table No. 11 -B and such walls shall be without openings.
(g) Stairs and Exits. Where persons other than parking attendants arc permitted, stairs and exits shall meet the requirements of Chapter 33, based on an occupant load of 200 square feet per occupant. Where no persons other than parking attendants are permitted there shall be trot less than two stairs 3 feet wide. Lifts may be installed for use of employees only, provided they are completely enclosed by noncombustible materials.
83
(h) Standpipes. Standpipes shall be installed when required by the provisions of Chapter 38.
(i) Fire-extinguishing Systems. When required by other provisions of this Code, automatic fire-extinguishing systems and standpipes shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 38.
(j) Enclosure of Vertical Openings. Enclosure shall not be required for vertical openings except as specified in subsection (g) for stairs, exits, and lifts.
(k) Ventilation. Ventilation, other than the percentage of openings specified in subsection (b), shall not be required.
(l) Prohibitions. The following uses and alterations are not permitted:
1. Automobile repair work.
2. Parking of busses, trucks and similar vehicles.
3. Partial or complete closing of required openings in exterior walls by tarpaulins or any other means.
TABLE NO. 11 AOPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND HEIGHT
HEIGHT
MECHANICAL ACCESS
TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION AREA PER TIER (Square Feet) Automatic rire-Fitinpuishinf System
RAMP ACCESS NO YES
i Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
II F.R. 125.000 12 Tiers 12 Tiers 18 Tiers
II I-hour 50.000 10 Tiers 10 Tiers 15 Tiers
11 N 30,000 8 Tiers 8 Tiers 12 Tiers
TABLE NO. 11 BOPEN PARKING GARAGES EXTERIOR WALLS
DISTANCE FROM PROPERTY LINE FIRE ZONE FIRE ZONE FIRE ZONE
TO BUILDING NO. 1 NO. 2 NO 3
O'-10 2-hour 2-hour l-hour
10'-20' 1-hour 1 -hour None
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Chapter 13
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP R, DIVISION 1 OCCUPANCIES
Group R, Division 1 Occupancies Defined Sec. 1301. Group R, Division 1 Occupancies shall be:
Hotels and apartment houses.
Convents and monasteries (each accommodating more than 10 persons). For occupancy separations see Table No. 5-B.
For occupant load see Section 3301.
Construction, Height and Allowable Area
Sec. 1302. (a) General. Buildings or parts of buildings classed in Group R. Division I because of the use or character of the occupancy shall be limited to the types of construction set forth in Tables No. 5-C and No. 3-D and shall not exceed, in area oi height, the limits specified in Sections 505, 506 and 507.
(b) Special Provisions. Group R, Division I Occupancies, more than two stories in height or having more than 3000 square feet of floor area above (he first story, shall be not less than one-hour fire-resistive construction throughout.
EXCEPTION: Dwelling units within an apartment house not over two stories in height may have nonbearing walls of unprotected construction, provided the units are separated from each other and from corridors by construction having a fire-resistance rating of not less than one hour. Openings to such corridors shall be equipped with doors conforming to Section 3304 thtor other equivalent protection.
F'ery apartment house three stories or more in height and containing more than 15 apartments and every hotel three stories or mote in height containing 20 or more guest rooms, shall have an approved fire alarm s>vtcm as specified in the Fire Code.
For Group R, Division I Occupancies with a Group B, Division I parkin it k wage in the basement or first floor, see Section 1102 (a).
For attic space partitions and draft stops see Section 3205.
Location on Property
1303. For fire-resistive protection of exterior walls and openings, c!crn>ined by location on properly, see Section 504 and Part V.
Facilities
Stairs, exits, and sinokeproof enclosures shall be as specified hjpicr 33.
j 'airs and exits in Group R, Division 1 Occupancies shall open v upon a street or alley or upon a yard or court not less than 4 feet in i i ircvtly connected to a street or alley by means of a passageway not
87
less in width than the stairway opening into such passageway and not less than 7 feet in height.
Buildings more than one story in height shall have no transoms or ventilating openings from guest rooms to public corridors.
Door openings from guest rooms to public corridors shall be protected as specified in Section 3304.
Every sleeping room below the fourth story shall have at least one operable window or exterior door approved for emergency egress or rescue. The units shall be operable from the inside to provide a full clear opening without the use of separate tools.
All egress or rescue windows from sleeping rooms shall have a minimum net clear opening of 5.7 square feet. The minimum net clear opening height dimension shall be 24 inches. The minimum net dear opening width dimension shall be 20 inches. Where windows arc provided as a means of egress or rescue they shall have a finished sill height not more than 44 inches above the floor.
Light, Ventilation and Sanitation
Sec. 1305. (a) Eight and Ventilation. All guest rooms, dormitories and habitable rooms within a dwelling unit shall be provided with natural light by means of exterior glazed openings with an area not less than one-tenth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 10 square feet. All bathrooms, water closet compartments, laundry rooms and similar rooms shall be provided with natural ventilation by means of opcnablc exterior openings with an area not less than one-twentieth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 1'/: square feet.
All guest rooms, dormitories and habitable rooms within a dwelling unit shall be provided with natural ventilation by means of openablc exterior openings with an area of not less than one-twentieth of the floor area of such rooms with a minimum of 5 square feel.
In lieu of required exterior openings for natural ventilation, a mechanical ventilating system may be provided. Such system shall be capable of providing two air changes per hour in all guest rooms, dormitories, habitable rooms, and in public corridors. One-fifth of the air supply shall be taken from the outside. In bathrooms, water closet compartments, laundry rooms, and similar rooms a mechanical ventilation system connected directly to the outside, capable of providing five air changes per hour, shall be provided.
For the purpose of determining light and ventilation requirements, any room may be considered as a portion of an adjoining room when one-half of the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and provides an opening of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room or 25 square feel, whichever is greater.
Required exterior openings for natural light and ventilation shall open directly onto a street or public alley or a yard or court located on the same lot as the building.
88


EXCEPTION: Required windows may open into a roofed porch where the porch:
1. Abuts a street, yard, or court; and
2. Has a ceiling height of not less than 7 feel; and
3. Has the longer side at least 65 percent open and unobstructed.
(b) Sanitation. Every building shall be provided with at least one water closet. Every hotel and each subdivision thereof where both sexes arc accommodated shall be provided with al least two water closets located in such building, which shall be conspicuously marked, one for each sex.
Additional water closets shall be provided on each floor for each sex at the rate of one for every additional 10 guests, or fractional part thereof, in excess of 10.
Every dwelling unit shall be provided with a kitchen equipped with a kitchen sink and with bathroom facilities consisting of a water closet, lavatory and either a bathtub or shower. Each plumbing fixture shall be equipped with running water necessary for its normal operation.
F or other requirements on water closets, see Sections 510 and 1711. Yards and Courts
Sec. 1306. (a) Scope. This Section shall apply to yards and courts having required windows opening therein.
(b) Yards. Every yard shall be not less than 3 feet in width for one-story and two-story buildings. For buildings more than two stories in height the minimum width of the yard shall be increased at the rate of I foot for each additional story. For buildings exceeding 14 stories in height, the required width of yard shall be computed on the basis of 14 stories.
(c) Courts. Every court shall be not less than 3 feet in width. Courts having windows opening on opposite sides shall be not less than 6 feet in width. Courts bounded on three or more sides by the walls of the building shall be not less than 10 feet in length unless bounded on one end by a street or yard. For buildings more than two stories in height the court shall be increased I foot in width and 2 feet in length for each additional story. For buildings exceeding 14 stories in height, the required dimensions shall be computed on the basis of 14 stories.
Adequate access shall be provided to the bottom of all courts for cleaning purposes. Every court more than two stories in height shall be provided with a horizontal air intake at the bottom not less than 10 square feet in area and leading to the exterior of the building unless abutting a yard or public space. The construction of the air intake shall be as required for the court walls of the building, but in no case shall be less than one-hour fire-resistive.
(d) Projection into Yards. Eaves and cornices may project into any required yard not more than 2 inches for each foot of yard width. Unroofed landings, porches and stairs may project into any reouired yard provided no portion except for guardrails extends above the floor level of a
89
habitable room and provided further that no such projection shall obstruct a required exitway.
Room Dimensions
See. 1307. (a) Ceiling Heights. Habitable rooms or areas shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches except as otherwise permitted in this Section. Other rooms or areas may have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling.
If any room in a building has a sloping ceiling,the prescribed ceiling height for the room is required in only one-half the area thereof. No portion of the room measuring less than 5 feet from the finished floor to the finished ceiling shall be included in any compulation of the minimum area thereof.
If any room has a furred ceiling, the prescribed ceiling height is required in two-thirds the area thereof, but in no case shall the height of the furred ceiling be less than 7 feet.
(b) Floor Area. Every dwelling unit shall have at least one room which shall have not less than 150 square feet of floor area. Other habitable rooms except kitchens shall have an area of not less than 70 square feet.
(c) Width. No habitable room other than a kitchen shall be less than 7 feet in any dimension.
Efficiency Dwelling Units
See. 1308. An efficiency dwelling unit shall conform to the requirements of the Code except as herein provided;
1. The unit shall have a living room of not less than 220 square feet o( superficial floor area. An additional 100 square feel of superficial lloor area shall be provided for each occupant of such unit in excess of two.
2. fhe unit shall be provided with a separate closet.
3. The unit shall be provided with a kitchen sink, cooking appliance and refrigeration facilities each having a clear working space of not less than 30 inches in front. Light and ventilation conforming to this Code shall be provided.
4. The unit shall be provided with a separate bathroom containing a water closet, lavatory, and bathtub or shower.
Shaft Enclosures
See. 1309. Exits shall be enclosed as specified in Chapter 33.
Elevator shafts, vent shafts, and other vertical openings shall be enclosed and the enclosure shall be as specified in Section 1706.
Fire Warning and Fire-extinguishing Systems
See. 1310. (a) Fire Warning Systems. Every dwelling unit within an apartment house and every guest room in a hotel used for sleeping purposes shall be provided with smoke detectors conforming to U.B.C. Standard No. 43-6. in dwelling units, detectors shall be mounted on the ceiling or wall at a point centrally located in the corridor or area giving access to
90


rooms used for sleeping purposes. In an efficiency dwelling unit, hotel sleeping room and in hotel suites, the detector shall be centrally located on the ceiling of the main room or hotel sleeping room. Where sleeping rooms are on an upper level, the detector shall be placed at the center of the ceiling directly above the stairway. All detectors shall be located within 12 inches of the ceiling. Care shall be exercised to insure that the installation will not interfere with the operating characteristics of the detector. When actuated, the detector shall provide an alarm in the dwelling unit or guest room.
(b) Fire-exIinRuishing Systems. When required by other provisions of this Code, automatic fire-extinguishing systems and standpipes shall be installed as specified in Chapter 38.
Heating
Sec. 1311. Every dwelling unit and guest room shall be provided with heating facilities capable of maintaining a room temperature of 70F. at a point 3 feet above the floor in all habitable rooms.
Special Hazards
Sec. 1312. Chimneys and heating apparatus shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 37 of this Code and the Mechanical Code.
The storage and handling of gasoline, fuel oil, and other flammable liquids shall be in accordance with U.13.C. Standard No. 10-1.
Doors leading into rooms in which volatile flammable liquids arc stored or used shall be protected by a fire assembly having a one-hour fire-protection rating. Such fire assembly shall be self-closing and shall be posted with a sign on each side of the door in l-inch block letters stating: FIRE DOORKEEP CLOSED.
Every room containing a boiler or central heating plant shall be separated from the rest of the building by not less than a One-hour Fire-resistive Occupancy Separation.
EXCEPTION: A separation shall not be required for such rooms with equipment serving only one dwelling unit.
Existing Buildings
Sec. 1313. For existing buildings see Appendix, Section 1313.
91


Professional Reports



BOULDER, COLORADO 80302
444-1951
MfweEP
2305 CANYON BOULEVARD
JOHNSO N VO I LAN D ARCHULETA, INC.
Consulting Engineers
March 23, 1978
Mr. Peter Remmen Gage Davis and Associates 1215 Spruce Street Boulder, Colorado 80302
Dear Peter:
At your request, we have investigated three existing buildings on Thirteenth Street, between Spruce and Pine Streets in Boulder, for general structural soundness, and with consideration for potential problems which may be caused by certain occupancies anticipated in the future.
This report is necessarily superficial, since we had insufficient access to most framing elements. To gain the necessary information for a more detailed report, we would need to remove portions of wall and ceiling surfaces, which is not practical while the buildings are occupied. Also, future, more specific plans, regarding building occupancy and partition relocation, will allow a response having detailed structural alternatives.
We hope that this report will satisfy your present needs.
Building Location: 2129 13th Street, Boulder
Building Description:
The building has two stories over a crawl space and partial basement. The exterior walls are solid brick with stone headers over large openings, and with stone foundation walls. A wood-frame porch with roof is attached to the east side and a small enclosed wood frame porch is attached at the rear entry. Interior walls are wood frame throughout. An interior brick bearing wall exists below the first floor. The roof is steeply pitched with hips and with at least one gable.


Peter Remmen
March 23, 1978
Page Two
Occupancy:
The present occupancy is restaurant and kitchen at the first floor and residential at second level. Possible future occupancies include residential, office, and/or restaurant.
Existing Structural Appearance:
Some cracking of the masonry is visible on the south, west, and north exterior walls. The crack pattern indicates differential settlement between the northeast corner and southwest corner of the building relative to the remainder of the foundation, but should pose no threat to the structural safety of the building.
The wood frame porches have settled considerably, relative to the building. This settlement has pulled the north end of the front porch 1" or more away from the masonry.
The roof rafters bear entirely on the exterior masonry walls and the horizontal attic floor joists provide the resistance to thrust caused by the roof rafters.
The stud wall at the north side of the second floor hallway supports the attic floor joists.
Based on the location of the interior masonry wall in the basement and the joist direction observed in two locations, we assume both first and second floor joists span north-south. It appears that some remodeling has been done involving interior bearing walls at the first floor sometime in the past.
Recommendations:
It is probable that today's standards for floor loading and deflection (vibration) exceed those of the designers of this building. A general walk through the building discloses some "bounciness", and our calculations, which compare joist requirements to joist size and spacing as observed, indicate moderate to severe undersizing of joists.
Work required to upgrade the interior framing to today's standards vary with the occupancy anticipated. For residential use, only minor additions are probably required, such as adding headers to shorten joist spans at two or three locations at each floor.


Peter Penmen
March 23, 1978
Page Three
For office use, a number of alternatives exist:
a. All joists may be stiffened, requiring removal and replacement of all ceilings. Interior bearing walls may require bolstering.
b. Miscellaneous additional beams and columns may be provided as required, without regard to overall order in arrangement.
c. Two new lines of beams and columns may be added throughout, at each floor.
d. Non-bearing partitions may be removed at the first floor, and all partitions may be removed at the second floor as long as support for attic floor joists is provided.
For restaurant use, all joist spans need to be shortened by introducing two lines of beams and columns at each floor, or by adding new, deeper joists throughout. Again, the subsequent benefit of the former action is that virtually all interior walls may be removed.
Cracks in masonry should be filled, and the conditions monitored periodically.
Porches should be jacked to proper elevation and should receive new foundations bearing below frost depth, or should be removed.
The roof framing appears sound structurally.
Building Location: 2133 13th Street
1240 and 1244 Pine Street Boulder
Building Description:
The building has two stories over a crawl space and partial basement. The exterior walls are solid brick with stone foundation walls. The building is actually two separate structures connected at the east exterior wall and at the roof. A narrow on-grade passageway


Peter Remmen
March 23, 1978
Page Four
penetrates the east wall and separates the 13th Street portion from the Pine Street portion. A wood frame porch with roof is attached to the street entrances at each address. Interior walls are wood frame throughout. Two interior brick bearing walls exist below the first floor. The roof is steeply pitched with hips and with some gables.
Occupancy:
The present occupancy is residential throughout.
Possible future occupancies are residential and/or office.
Existing Structural Appearance:
Some separation of masonry has occurred on the north exterior wall of the 13th Street structure. All other masonry appears uncracked and differential settlement has apparently been negligible.
The wood frame porch facing north has settled and consequently has pulled away from the masonry as much as one inch.
The roof rafters bear entirely on the exterior masonry walls and the horizontal attic floor joists provide the resistance to thrust caused by the roof rafters.
The stud walls paralleling the second floor hallway support the attic floor joists.
Joists span east-west in the 13th Street structure, and north-south in the Pine Street structure.
One occupant reported air infiltration at a joint between the second floor and masonry wall. This suggests slight movement of the wall away from the floor, but no other signs of distress were noted in that wall. Commercially available foamed-in-place insulations can seal up such air leaks.
Recommendations:
Generally, the existing floor framing is adequate for residential or office floor loading. The joists occurring adjacent to the rear stair need further study, since the span appears excessive. If the transverse walls (bearing walls) in each unit are to be removed, joists will, of course, have to receive their support by new beams and columns.


Peter Remmen
March 23, 1978
Page Five
Porches should be jacked to proper elevation and should receive new foundations bearing below frost depth, or should be removed.
The roof framing appears sound structurally.
If you should require more information from us at this time, or if you have questions concerning this report, please be sure to call us.
Very truly yours,
JOHNSON-VOILAND-ARCHULETA, INC.
Jon X. Giltner, P.E.
JXG:fw


MCFALL AND KONKEL
CONSULTING ENGINEERS. INC.
JAMES H KONKEL. PRESIDENT JAMES D MCPALL. EXEC. VP WILLIAM R KIMBALL. SR. VP
DENVER. COLORADO 602!
2160 SOUTH CLERMONT
JOHN E PARKS. VP AND WYO MGR
NORMAN G. ALMOUIST. VP LEROY SAMUELSON. VP ROBERT E. SIDWELL. VP
March 27, 1978
CHEYENNE. WYOMING 621 3001 HENDERSON DR. SU 307-63A-76A7
STUART D MONICAL. ASSOC.
Mr. Peter Remmen Gage Davis & Associates 1215 Spruce
Boulder, Colorado 80302
RE: 13th Pine Street Project Our Job No. All00186
Dear Mr. Remmen:
The following is a report of my visit to the subject project to evaluate the heating and plumbing systems.
The existing heating and plumbing systems are of no value for reuse in a renovation effort. Utility services to the building are adequate and could be reconnected, i.e., gas, water and sewer.
Construction cost estimates for the mechanical renovation can be budgeted as follows:
Heat, Vent, Air Conditioning $ 5.50/ft^
Plumbing $ 700.00/fixture office
The above cost estimate for MVAC would use packaged type equipment. There would be a separate piece of equipment for each tenant space.
I've enclosed some manufacturers literature that suggests some options.
Please call if we can be of additional service.
$ 600.00/fixture residence
JDMC/sm


Preceding Studies


Envirotecture
an alternative approach to design Philip thiel
a term paper
design theory olaus sellgman arch 460 fall *76
dave lee


Over the course of human evolution, man's condition has developed from that of a transient nomad hunter and forager to his present condition of technology and industrialism. During this evolution, man's relationship to his environment varied from that of the nomad, whose life was subject to and dominated by his environment and whose physical intervention upon his environment was extremely minimal, to that of modern man whose relationship to his natural environment is a vague, unanswered question and whose intervention has begun to overwhelm his natural environment. "As architects and designers we are professionally involved with this relationship between the human species and the biosphere of our planet earth. It is our responsibility and concern that this relationship be optimal, in the sense that our interventions in the physical environment should be both ecologically benign and socially beneficial. We hope to do more than just insure the continued existence of planet earth, and thus the human species: we are interested also in the condition and quality of life as experienced by the members of human society now and in the future."
The issue thus arises, by what means or methods can we as designers insure socially beneficial physical environment and improve or preserve the quality of experience of our physical environment? This issue portrays the present state of the design profession and represents the largest gap in man's understanding of his relationship to his environment. It has been simplified as "a gap between the behaviora sciences and design". The concern over this gap can be observed throughout the profession but expecially in the schools of design where psychologists and behaviorists are becoming permanent faculty members. In relation to other professions, this gap can be seen as a gap between the theorists and the practitioners. In other professions, such as medicine, there exists a pyramid of the


various fields contributing to the profession. At the top of the pyramid are the theoreticians and the philosophers who ideally/ develop and contribute to progress and development of the effectiveness of the profession by contributing new ideas and theories. Below them exist the methodologists and researchists who develop the methods for these theories to be put into practice. And below this group is the practitioners who implement these methods and form the bridge between the profession and the public. However, in the architectural profession there are no methodologists who bridge the gap between the theoreticians and the practitioners. The organization of the profession is such that the architect is often the theoretician and the practitioner. As a result of this dual responsibility, the gap is now a gap for the individual, between his ideal design and how effectively it fits the socio-cultural and functional situation. He has little methodology or supportive data to base his design upon and so he depends upon his personal intuition or experience of the relationship of man and his environment.
If this gap is to be filled, or attempted to be filled, it is essential that the designer recognize the means-end relationship that exists in the process of design. The confusion has been (perhaps more typical in the past than in the present) that the architect's created design has been the "end", and the blueprints, working drawings, renderings, and structural computations are the "means" to that "end". Alternatively, the ultimate "end" should be the individual's experience, and what use they will have for this space: their experience and relationships to their environment and the activities and functions occurring within that space. The building is merely a "means" to that end, and the blueprints are merely a means to a
means.


As the profession has become more aware of the existing gap and concerned over the theory underlying the design process, there have been individual attempts at filling this gap and updating the state of the art.
One such attempt and perhaps one of the most direct is Philip Thiel's concept of "Envirotecture", It is defined as "a neologism intended to combine the transprofessional sense of 'environment' with the expressive and constructional implications of 'architecture'", Rriefly, it is an attempt to develop a discursive notation or language of how humans experience their environments, As a result, the architect can gather data and form a foundation upon which design assumptions can be made. It is assumed that if the designer can effectively describe how the user experiences his environment, he can then apply this language to describe an appropriate environment for his particular client and the characteristic needs of the particular situation. As Thiel states, "we architects are in desperate need of a language which can describe and respond to these complexities of human use,"
This method of design underlies Thiel's concept of Envirotecture and is the "real" issue inherent in his extensive attempt to develop this notation system. He describes this design process as the "Envirotec-tural Process" and can be noted most succinctly as,
EXup = ft(UPrc, ENtpo)
where:
EXup: the experience of the user-participant
UPrc: the user-participant playing a given role in a given circumstance


ENtpo: an environment as a specific time-place-occasion ft: a time function
and can be verbally expressed as,. the experience of the user-participant is a time function of the individual user-participant given a specific role situation and the environment composed of its given time, place, nnd occasion4
As it relates more directly to the actual design and implementation of a structure or space within the environment. Thiel organizes the "Envirotecture Process" into the following steps:
^1 propose EX for given UP #2 Hypothes ize supporting and evocative EN
given UP,- role, situation,, and activity circuit,, write intended EX as pattern of Actions,. Feelings,.and Thoughts write environmental score in several sensory modes: coordinate with prosthetic reauirements and local constraints
*3 simulate
hypothetical EN #4 elicit UP's responses *5 match proposed
EX ?
laboratory simulation in dynamic iconic mode
with user-group analogs, in time-place-occasion context: in
terms of direct observation, instrumentation, and introspection
*
compare responses with intentions reformulate environment
r t
until satisfactory or acceptable match results


^6 intervene in environment ^7 operate-manage environment ^8 monitor UP's responses ^9 match proposed EX ?
implementation of the environment at specific site by means of construction plans, specifications, and management operate and manage environment to maintain intended experience
continuous or periodic response-sampling in the built environment
compare responses with intentions: modify mangement, or or remodel environment to maintain current intentions
^10 realized if intentions, conditions, or user-group(s) change, return
EX to step ^7, or if necessary to step ^1
The design process, which is actually described in total, in the first five steps of the "Envirotecture Process", is therefore initially dependent upon the designer determining for a given activity, and social setting, what an appropriate experience for the user would be. The designer then proceeds to write or describe this proposed experience as a pattern in time, composed of actions, feelings, and thoughts, broken down elaborately according to Thiel's notation system. The designer, after describing this performance specification (step ^1), proceeds to step two, whereby an apriori relationship between physical environment and the experience is applied. A hypothetical environment is set up that will theoretically elicit or support (an important semantic distinction) the proposed experience based upon the apriori relationship that certain physical qualities or attributes are directly related to certain


feelings and thoughts on the part of the person experiencing them. The hypothetical environment is not conceptualized or created in its Gestalt form (based upon the designers imagination), rather it is composed of its individual constituents, which individually, and perhaps collectively, contribute to certain responses on the part of the user, based upon the apriori relationships which are derived from previous data. The evocative environment is therefore described by an "environmental score" in terms of our senses and perceptions. The hypothetical environment is then simulated in a laboratory condition to directly measure the effectiveness of the physical environment to support or elicit the desired experience (step ^3). This is achieved with user-group analogs, measuring their experience of the simulated environment and comparing that with the desired experience (step ^4). If a match occurs, then the hypothetical environment is then actualized in the real environment (step ^5). If a match does not occur then the "environmental score" is rewritten and a new physical environment is hypothesized and is then recycled until there is a "fit" between the proposed experience and the user-group analogs experience.
Thiel's design process is therefore contingent upon a few processes that are unique to the more typical design methods. Often the designer will (consciously, or subconsciously) determine a desired experience and design accordingly, hoping that in actuality, it will support that proposed experience. Thiel's model however, describes that experience in great detail, broken down according to physical attributes, or qualities, implying that it is easier to relate the experience and the environment when each is broken down into its respective constituents. The use of the laboratory simulation is another fairly unique technique and is the essential step in measuring the effectiveness of the design before it is


implemented in the actual environment.
After having had defined the "Envirotecture Process" and explained its procedure, it is important to describe the notation system that is involved in using the process. Because of the degree of complexity involved in Thiel's notation system, and the intricacy inherent in the subject it attempts to describe (the total environment), this paper will limit itself to a simplified discussion of the notation system.
The notation system is best introduced in terms of an analgous notation system that is more familiar. Music, and its notation system was derived to explain and describe its component parts and relationships, is analgous to Thiel's attempt to describe the environment and the manner in which we experience our environment. As in architecture, music originated as an unwritten art and at some point a need was felt to be able to note or describe the elements in music and their relationships, for the purpose of creating or recreating musico The gap between the music theoreticians and practioners was filled as a methodology was developed. In the same sense, Thiel is attempting to develop a notation system that will fill the methodology gap in the design process, by describing the environment and human experience in a shorthand form.
Thiel's notation can be divided into two main streams (the experience and the environment), which in turn are made up of many tributaries. These tributaries are continually broken down into their components or catagories until the total environment is described. Generally, this paper will deal with the main streams and larger tributaries as it would require a complete course in order to deal with all the details of such a system,


The first major stream is the Experience. It is composed of actions, feelings, and thoughts. Actions can them be subdivided in terms of whole body actions, interpersonal actions, and manipulative actions. Each of these are in turn, broken down into their respective categories. For example, interpersonal actions are composed of attentive acts, vocal acts, gestural acts, and contact acts. An example of an attentive act might be perking one's head up or focusing one's attention on something specific. Whole body actions are subdivided into passive acts, transitional acts, and active acts. Manipulative actions are composed of operative acts, transport acts, waiting acts, and inspection acts.
Feelings are described in terms of eight primary emotions, which are; anger, joy acceptance, surprise, fear, sorrow, rejection, and anticipation. These eight primary emotions are combined in terms of dyads, and further described in terms of the level of intensity or arousal. For example, one might feel despair, which can be described as a dyad combination of fear and sorrow. Fear in turn, can range from diffidence ( a low level of intensity) to terror (the highest level of intensity). Using this model, one can describe any feeling or emotion, supposedly.
Thoughts are identified as being either designative (identifying, orienting, categorizing, discriminating) or appraisive (association, value, use, relevance, import) or prescriptive (intentions, plans, necessity, prospects, purposes).
Another factor related to our experience is the role-situation we are in at that given time. Thiel describes the role situation in terms of six catagories. They are as follows: the role requirement (responsibility implied in performing a given role), role familiarity, scene familiarity, status,


affiliation, and role multiplicity. We can also describe our role situation in terms of what is called the zones of penetration. For instance, are we a passive onlooker, or are we actively leading or involved in the situation? There are six such zones, graded from the "onlooker" to the "single leader".
The second main stream is the environment. It is composed of three main subheadings; space, place, and occasion.
Space is distinguished by surface screens, and objects. They designate or establish a space. Space itself can be described in terms of subspaces, primary spaces, and secondary spaces. There are two main types of space; O-type spaces which are rectilinear and regular, and X-type spaces which are curved and irregular.
Place is qualified by the following agents; props, finishes, and effects. Props are two or three dimensioned entities in space. Finishes are color, texture, patterns, and scale. Effects are described as perceptual effects such as, luminous, sonic, olfaction, thermal, tactile, and kinetic.
Occasion is conditioned by men, women, and children. These occasion-conditioning elements are then categorized or described in terms of temporal-spatial relationships (event, duration, position, distance, pattern), demographies (number, age, sex, social condition), activity (mode, posture, expression) and interpersonal relationships (role, body distance, orientation).
These are the components or descriptive elements that comprise Thiel's notation system. These elements, broken down in their prime state, or collectively, make up our environment and the manner


in which we experience it. In order that we may represent these elements in written form, Thiel has developed a scale to note the elements as they are experienced over time and distance. The visual elements are notated according to their position or orientation within our field of view. This vehicle for notating our visual world is called the "Hemispherical Projection" and simplifies our field of view into a 180 cone of vision. This technique essentially projects the environment and all the individual objects within the environment as it would appear through a fish-eye lens.
To contribute to a more complete understanding of the notation system, it seems of value to exemplify its use as it would be employed in a design process. Assume that a client comes to us, the designer, and wishes to build a private medical office. For our purposes, we will focus upon the design of the waiting lobby for the patients. The client expresses the desire that the space should express a certain atmosphere that should help calm the patient, relax him or her and relieve his or her anxiety.
Given the specific needs and proposed or desired experience of the user-participant, the designer proceeds to notate the experience according to a time function of action, feelings, and thoughts. The designer writes the proposed experience more specifically in terms of the feeling of relaxation or calmness according to the emotional model discussed in Thiel's notation on feelings.
The designer then relies on past data or past experience in search of existing environments that when experienced, support or elicit a feeling of relaxation and serenity. After determining a number of them, the designer then scores or notates these environments in detail, according to Thiel's notation system on environments. For an example, the designer maps the position and orientation of objects, surfaces.