Citation
Local governments and air quality

Material Information

Title:
Local governments and air quality Denver metropolitan area |cby Jeffrey L. Lyman
Uncontrolled:
Denver metropolitan area
Creator:
Lyman, Jeffrey L. ( author )
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 electronic file (vi, 130 pages) : ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Air quality management -- Colorado -- Denver Metropolitan Area ( lcsh )
Air -- Pollution -- Colorado -- Denver Metropolitan Area ( lcsh )
Transportation -- Planning -- Colorado -- Denver Metropolitan Area ( lcsh )
Air -- Pollution ( fast )
Air quality management ( fast )
Transportation -- Planning ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver Metropolitan Area ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of Colorado at Denver, 1978.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (pages 127-130).
System Details:
System equirements: Adobe Reader.
General Note:
Submitted for completion of the requirements of Planning Studio 3, UPCD 790 (Master of Planning and Community Development, College of Design and Planning).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
on10115 ( NOTIS )
1011524077 ( OCLC )
on1011524077

Full Text
t

i

LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AND AIR QUALITY DENVER METROPOLITAN AREA
Submitted for Completion of the Requirements of Planning Studio 3 UPCD 790

by
Jeffrey L. Iyman May 1978




TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION .................................................... iv
SECTION I: COMMUNITY AIR QUALITY PROFILES
1.1 ADAMS COUNTY 3
1.2 ARAPAHOE COUNTY 6
1.3 CITY OF ARVADA 9
1.4 CITY OF AURORA 14
1.5 CITY OF BOULDER 17
1.6 BOULDER COUNTY 25
1.7 COMMERCE CITY 30
1.8 CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER 33
1.9 DOUGLAS COUNTY 54
1.10 CITY OF ENGLEWOOD 57
1.11 JEFFERSON COUNTY 60
1.12 CITY OF LAKEWOOD 63
1.13 CITY OF LITTLETON 73
1.14 CITY OF LONGMONT 77
1.15 CITY OF NORTHGLENN 80
1.16 CITY OF THORNTON 83
1.17 CITY OF WESTMINSTER 89
1.18 CITY OF WHEAT RIDGE..................................92
SECTION II: AIR QUALITY EVALUATION OF COMMUNITY PROFILES ... 97
Table 2.1 AIR QUALITY GOALS AND POLICIES...................101
Table 2.2 AIR QUALITY STRATEGIES
IMPLEMENTEO BY LOCAL GOVERNMENTS ............... 102
l


TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont.)
Page
SECTION III: AIR QUALITY STRATEGY OPTIONS
3.1 STREET SWEEPING......................................104
3.2 TRAFFIC LIGHT SYNCHRONIZATION ......................... 105
3.3 "OFF-HOUR" FLASHING SIGNAL CONTROL .................... 106
3.4 ONE-WAY STREETS.........................................107
3.5 "THROUGH MOVEMENT ONLY" STREETS ....................... 108
3.6 VISIBLE EMISSION REGULATION (SMOKING VEHICLES) ... 109
3.7 DECREASE PARKING AVAILABILITY ......................... 110
3.8 RESTRICT ON-STREET PARKING...........................HI
3.9 STRICT ENFORCEMENT OF EXISTING
PARKING AND TRAFFIC REGULATIONS ....................... 112
3.10 TRAFFIC FREE ZONES......................................113
3.11 BIKEWAYS................................................114
3.12 IMPROVED MASS TRANSIT...................................115
3.13 PARK AND RIDE FACILITIES............................... 116
3.14 FREE PUBLIC TRANSIT.....................................117
3.15 PARA TRANSIT............................................118
3.16 PREFERENTIAL TREATMENT OF
HIGH OCCUPANCY VEHICLES ............................... 119
3.17 EXPANDED CARPOOL LOCATOR SERVICE ...................... 120
3.18 PROMOTE HIGH DENSITY DEVELOPMENT
ON OR NEAR MASS TRANSIT SERVICE........................ 121
3.19 PRESERVATION OF OPEN SPACE BUFFER
AREAS FOR AIR POLLUTION DISPERSAL ......... ..... 122
3.20 STREET PAVING.......................................... 123
3.21 CONTROL OF CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS .................... 124
ii


TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont.)
Page
SECTION IV: CONCLUSIONS ......................................... 125
SECTION V: REFERENCES CITED
SECTION I......................................................127
SECTION III.................................................. 130
iii


INTRODUCTION
The Denver Metropolitan Area has been the focus of regional and national concern in the past few years because of its severe air pollution problem. With the increasing severity of the problem, air pollution planning has been initiated on a metropolitan and statewide scale to attempt to identify and solve Denver's air pollution problem. It is the intent of this report to provide to those parties and government agencies involved in the air quality planning process an evaluation of the present patterns and trends found in the air quality programs employed by Denver area local governments. This report also provides background information on air pollution abatement measures presently being employed by local governments in tbe Denver Metropolitan Area.
Denver's air pollution problem stems from two major characteristics of the city itself: its urba- form and its geographic location. Denver's urban form, like so many other major western cities, is based almost exclusively on the use of the automobile. The suburban sprawl which has moved into the counties surrounding Denver is a direct result of the automobile and the personal mobility which it provides. This dependence on the automobile is reflected in the fact that there are more cars registered per capita in Denver than in any other city in the nation; and it is this factor, the automobile, that is almost solely responsible for the majority of air pollutants found in the Denver Metropolitan Area.
The major pollutants of concern in the air quality planning process in Denver include carbon monoxide and particulates. A third major pollutant, ozone, is a result of a chemical combination of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, both largely produced by the automobile. The majority of gaseous pollutants, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, are produced by the engines of automobiles. Portions of the particulate component of Denver's air pollution can be attributed to the pulverizing action of the automobile tires on the dirt found on all road surfaces. These fine particles of dust are then thrown into the air by the movement of automobiles. Particulate generation greatly increases on unpaved roads and under sanded street conditions.
The second major feature of Denver's air pollution problem, its geographical location, tends to concentrate the air pollutants in a wide band which follows the Platte River Valley. This is due -to the fact that Denver lies in a basin formed by the Platte River Valley and the Rocky Mountains. The overall topography of this basin often prevents cleansing winds to enter the Metropolitan area and blow the pollutants out. This situation is particularly
IV


noticeable during,the winter months, when intense temperature inversions can trap the pollutants in a cold layer of air that settles into the low areas of the Platte River Valley.
With these two major factors at the root of Denver's air pollution problem, air quality planners have several options open to them to attempt to solve the problem. First, they can try to direct growth of the metropolitan area to areas which are "zones of noncontribution", areas whose generated pollution will not add to the pollutant concentration problem in the Dnever area. Second, planners can attempt to alter the future form of the urban area toward a higher density pattern of housing and employment based on public transportation rather than the automobile. Third, the planners can look at more immediate air quality planning strategies which are available presently, and attempt to implement them throughout the Denver Metropolitan Area. All three of these major areas of air quality planning attempt to control the major source of the problem, the automobile. The first and second options are long range planning approaches, the effects of which, if they are successful, won't be realized for some time to come. The third category is oriented toward present implementation, and, hopefully, major short term results.
It is toward this third option which this report is oriented. There are presently two major governmental agencies coordinating their efforts in attempting to solve Denver's air pollution problem. These are the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, and the State Air Pollution Control Division. Noticeably absent are significant efforts by the local governments in the Denver Metropolitan Area, and it is those entities which this report focuses on. Through the coordinated planning effort by the EPA and the Air Pollution Control Division, these agencies have tended to look at the overall, broad solutions to the air pollution problem. More often than not, successful consideration and implementation of these solutions seems to be undermined by bureaucratic, jurisdictional, budgetary, and political conflicts which lead to inaction. Left out of this process, and therefore left quite uninformed, are the local governments. Neither they nor the upper level government agencies have given much consideration to what air quality planning strategies the local governments could implement on their own, nor does anyone have an adequate inventory of what the locals are actually doing to curb air pollution presently.
The purpose of this report is to attempt to provide information to fill this informational gap at both the federal and state level, as well as the local level. The report presents several air quality control strategies which the local government could implement on their own initiative, with little or no outside coordination necessary with upper level agencies. It also presents an inventory and analysis of the major air quality control
v


strategies which Denver area local governments are presently using in their communities. This information will provide state and federal agencies with a basis for determining areas of concentration for future planning efforts, and it allows the local governments to compare their efforts to those undertaken in other communities, as well as allowing exposure to new ideas.
It is hoped that the information provided in this report will prompt concientious local communities to take advantage of these air quality control strategies to form a basis for an active role in attempting to solve the Denver region's air pollution problem. The information should also provide an accurate gauge of present local government activity for federal and state agencies who see the need for local government involvement and committment, but do not know how to approach or program these activities.


SECTION I
COMMUNITY AIR QUALITY PROFILES


The community profiles section presents two main areas of air quality planning within the community:
1. the community air quality goals and policies; and
2. the air quality control strategies which are presently being implemented by the community.
The air quality goals and policies presented in the profiles (in italics) not only represent those adopted or drafted air quality goals and policies labeled as such, but also include more specific adopted or drafted goals and policies concerning air quality which are more directly related to the areas of transportation, transportation alternatives, and land use. Regardless of their direct intent, the goals and policies presented were felt to have a direct relation to air quality and were presented in that manner. The major sources for the community goals and policies were the community comprehensive plan, zoning regulations, subdivision regulations, and any other goals and policies which related to the planning process within the community.
The air quality control strategies presently being utilized by the communities are presented in four categories:
A. (II.), Transportation Oriented Strategies, presents those air quality planning strategies which directly relate to the accommodation of automobile traffic within the community. These include strategies such as street sweeping, traffic light synchronization, one-way streets, and others.
B. (III.), Transportation Alternative Strategies, takes a look at what the community is doing to promote alternatives to the automobile. These strategies include such things as bikeways and pedestrian trails, mass transit coordination with RTD, carpooling, and others.
C. (IV.), Land Use Strategies, presents what strategies the community is taking in terms of cluster or high density development, provisions for open space buffer areas, etc.
D. (V), Miscellaneous Strategies, were seen as applicable air quality control strategies which didn't seem to fit into any of the other categories.
-1-


Information on the air quality control strategies presently in use in local communities came primarily through contacting the local Departments of Public Works, Traffic Engineering, Parks and Recreation, Planning, and Environmental Health within the respective communities.
The information presented in no way represents the full complement of air quality goals and policies or control strategies which the community is currently utilizing. What these community profiles do investigate are those areas of air quality activity which can be initiated and controlled solely by the local governments .
-2-


1.1 ADAMS COUNTY
INTRODUCTION
Adams County comprises an area of 5,045 square miles which is north and east of the Denver Metropolitan Area. The County lies exclusively on the high plains region extending east from the Rocky Mountains. Adams County contains five major urban concentrations which are a part of the Denver Metropolitan area: Commerce City, Northglenn, Thornton, Westminster, and the small community of Brighton to the north of Denver. The population of the County at this time is approximately 210,000 people, mainly located in these five major urban centers. The urban centers provide housing and employment for the Denver Metropolitan area, while the eastern three-fourths of the county is almost exclusively agricultural.
Adams County has been recently classified as being in nonattainment of the federal standards for carbon monoxide and ozone. In addition, western portions of the County have been classified non-attainment for particulates and nitrogen dioxide.
-3-


I. GOALS AND POLICIES
A. AIR QUALITY GOALS1
"In summary, it is obviously important that air pollution
be a major consideration in future development of the
County."
AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS1
"Major concentrations of pollutants normally lie to the north or downstream of the major source."
"Pollutants tend to be highest during the fall and winter."
Because of the sloshing effect of air in the Platte River Valley, the most auspicious areas for development are to the east."
9 "Industrial areas should be located downwind from the Metropolitan area."
m "Corridors of open space paralleling the river would help to disperse pollutants downstream."
II.- TRANSPORTATION ORIENTED
A. STREET SWEEPING
Adams County has three street sweeping units, two of which are used on the county roads each day. The County sweeps roads every day, weather permitting, and cleans sanded roads as soon as possible after every storm. There is no set program for street sweeping, with no plans or routes for sweeping.
B. STREET SANDING
The criteria for sanding in Adams County is a Sheriff's Department notice or icy conditions on bridges and roads.
The County street sanding program covers the major arterials, bridges, and hills in the County. The County insures that all roads used by emergency vehicles are sanded as soon as possible, as well as steep hills in the residential sections of the County. Adams County uses a 14% salt-sand mixture on their roads.
-4-


C. TRAFFIC LIGHT SYNCHRONIZATION
Adams County presently has no section of their traffic light system synchronized.
Ill. TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATIVES
Adams County has no bikeway- plan and the mass transit program is presently coordinated by RTD. There is no indication of a change in this situation.
IV. LAND USE
V. MISCELLANEOUS
-5-


1.2 ARAPAHOE COUNTY
INTRODUCTION
Arapahoe County is a rapidly developing area of about 800 square miles lying on the southern edge of the Denver Metropolitan area. The population of Arapahoe County is presently about 230,000 people, with the majority of the people concentrated in three major cities in the County: Aurora, Englewood, and Littleton. The major land use in the County is agriculture, with residential housing and some commercial and industrial activity centered in the Englewood/Littleton area.
The entire County is currently classified as being in nonattainment of the federal primary standards for carbon monoxide and ozone. Western portions of the County also exceed the federal primary and secondary standards for particulate and nitrogen dioxide.
-6-


I. GOALS AND POLICIES
A. TRANSPORTATION POLICIES2
"The plan shall provide for a safe, efficient transportation system for the movement of people and goods, with attention to the relationships between land use and transportation. Arapahoe County will also profit by fully cooperating in metropolitan mass-transportation planning. Pedestrians and bicycle riders should receive full attention in the provision of safe, convenient trails for their use."
II. TRANSPORTATION ORIENTED
A. STREET SWEEPING
Arapahoe County uses three street sweeping machines in its sweeping program. The sweepers do not follow regular patterns, but are used to clean trouble spots on the paved roads in the County. It is estimated that most of the roads are swept at least twice a year, usually once in the Spring and once in the Fall. The County makes an effort to sweep the main roads after every major winter storm.
B. STREET SANDING
Street sanding in Arapahoe County is prompted by ice conditions or by Sheriff's Department request. The sanding program concentrates on stop signs, intersections, hills and subdivision areas. Arapahoe County uses a 16% salt-sand material in its sanding program.
C. TRAFFIC LIGHT SYNCHRONIZATION
There are almost no traffic lights located in the unincorporated areas of Arapahoe County. There are two lights, at University and Arapahoe Road, which are synchronized to improve traffic flow.
D. ONE-WAY STREETS
There is only one street in Arapahoe County designated one-way, and it is of little significance. Its one-way designation was prompted for safety reasons, to alleviate a pedestrian-auto conflict area.
-7-


III. TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATIVES
A. BIKEWAYS
Arapahoe County presently has no bikeway system. The County, in the past, has left implementation of bike routes to the incorporated cities and the recreation districts in the County.
B. MASS TRANSIT
At present, Arapahoe County is working with RTD on bus service in the County; but, as with bikeways, the County is leaving most of the mass transit arrangements to the incorporated cities.
IV. LAND USE
V. MISCELLANEOUS
-8-


1.3 CITY OF ARVADA
INTRODUCTION
The City of Arvada encompasses over 12 square miles and contains about 60,000 residents. It lies on the northwest edge of the Denver Metropolitan area, at an elevation of 5,337 feet, serving mainly as a residential bedroom community for Denver.
Arvada is presently in a designated area of non-attainment for both the primary and secondary standards for total suspended particulates. The City is also in non-attainment of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone standards.
-9-


I.
GOALS AND POLICIES
A. TRANSPORTATION GOALS3
"To develop a plan which will incorporate the circulation and transportation needs of the City without destroying its 'sense of community.' Encourage neighborhood development which substantially reduces automobile use and encourages pedestrian and bicycle travel."
TRANSPORTATION POLICIES3
"Improve signalization and turning movements to improve traffic flow."
"Better synchronization of traffic signals."
"Elimination of unnecessary signal heads and traffic signs."
"Develop a comprehensive, long range circulation plan based on a variety of inner-community modes and regional transit modes."
0 "Integrate mass transit planning with Regional Transportation District plans."
0 "Develop community pedestrian and bicycle circulation plans to serve schools, public buildings, shopping, transit terminals, residential areas, and recreational needs "
0 "Expand Arvada's bus service through inter-city cooperation with Wheat Ridge, Lakewood, and other nearby cities "
0 "Expand commuter bus and transit services to downtown Denver and other major employment centers."
0 "Reduce off-street parking requirements in areas well served by public transportation to encourage transit use and community renewal."
0 "Provide neighborhood interceptor parking, especially in north and west, and pedestrian facilities for autos and bicycles to encourage commuter transit use."
"Provide auto-pedestrian separation systems." "Provide bicycle-auto separation routes."
-10-


"Encourage planning to reduce the need for automobile use within neighborhood areas."
"Re-examine auto, pedestrian, in downtown Arvada.
and mass transit access
0 "Develop a downtown transportation terminal facility south of Grandview Drive utilizing the existing railroad to incorporate auto parking, mass transit station, bus terminal, shops, offices,and apartments.
0 "Investigate feasibility of mini-bus circulation throughout downtown and linking shopping centers and adjacent communities "
"Provide auto-pedestrian separation in the downtown shopping areas."
"The formulation and implementation of a comprehensive bicycle and pedestrian path plan shall include the following:
0 All futur e si de wa
str eets s ha 11 be
the curb li ne
0 All bike pa th s sh
pos sible. ii
"Suppo rt the pi an s an d
Transport at ion Di St ri ct
area :
Tha t s uffici en t 1 a nd
or purchased at a site to be chosen on the corner of 80th Avenue and Wadsworth Boulevard.
B. LAND USE POLICIES3
"Develop and mai ntai n a
way s . Es tabl i sh des ign
tha t th es e ar eas bee ome
ima ge. P edes tri an , bik
gro und, a nd 1 and sea p in g
des ign s t anda rds ft
11 streams and major drainage-standards which would assure an asset to Arvada's physical e, bridleways, lift dams, play-should be included in these
"Establish and maintain an active relationship to other Denver metropolitan communities with special regard for and interest in programs pertaining to sign and billboard control; highway, stream and utility design; natural historic landmarks; and pollution control.
-11-


"Plans for future development should be consistent with the local and regional transportation policy."
"Re-establish the downtown business district as a viable commercial, professional, and high density residential focus point in conjunction with a regional rapid transit system line."
"Incorporate a wide range of recreational facilities within the greenbelt areas such as: a minimum of thirty (30) miles of walking, bike, and bridle trails, slide runs, tennis courts, and athletic fields."
0 "Design standards of streets should include land to be developed as a buffer between traffic and adjoining land uses "
m "Pedestrian ways independent of streets should be
encouraged wherever possible, and particularly within the greenbelt system.
II. TRANSPORTATION ORIENTED
A. STREET SWEEPING
The City of Arvada has four street sweepers, with an average of three being used on a given day. They are in operation every day that sweeping is possible, and the street sweeping program usually covers the entire City every 17 days. The City estimates an average of 58 tons of material is picked up for each day of normal sweeping activity. This rate would naturally be higher for days of sweeping following a winter storm due to the heavy sand pickup.
B. STREET SANDING
Arvada begins sanding operations with the onset of icy streets and sticking snow. The City sands all the streets in the City, with the exception of Highway 121. Arvada uses a 7%% sand/salt mixture on their roads, usually averaging between 250-300 tons of sanding material applied during each storm.
C. TRAFFIC LIGHT SYNCHRONIZATION
More than 50% of the traffic lights in Arvada are equipped for synchronization, although until recently it has been difficult to keep the entire synchronization system in
-12-


repair. All traffic signals on the arterials in Arvada are synchronized, with 60% of all the signals in the City being sidestreet actuated. This figure will rise to 907 with improvements planned for the future.
An added element of Arvada's traffic control system is the use of flashing street lights during the "off-hours" of automobile traffic. This reduces waiting times for cars at controlled intersections, and reduces the idling time of autos at an intersection. This technique is presently in use on Ralston Road between midnight and 6:00 a.m., and on 64th Street between 10:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m.
D. ONE-WAY STREETS
Arvada has two one-way streets in the older section of the City, both located near schools for safety reasons.
III. TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATIVES
A. BIKEWAYS
The City of Arvada presently maintains close to 13 miles of off-street bicycle paths, with about twice that amount in on-street bicycle paths which are marked with signs or striped bike lanes.
B. MASS TRANSIT
The City of Arvada is presently coordinating efforts with RTD to improve and expand mass transit service to Arvada.
IV. LAND USE
V. MISCELLANEOUS
-13-


1.4 CITY OF AURORA
INTRODUCTION
The City of Aurora contains an area of over 55.5 square miles, bordering the City of Denver on the east, at an elevation of 5,375 feet. The current population of Aurora is about 134,000 people, and it is expected to grow to a city of 353,000 people by the year 1990.5 Geographically, the City of Aurora lies on the high plains of Colorado, which extend east from the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains. Aurora forms the eastern edge of the Denver Metropolitan area, and is bounded by Denver on the west and north, with Arapahoe County forming its southern and eastern borders.
Presently, the City of Aurora is in violation of both the primary and secondary standards for total suspended particulates. The City has been designated non-attainment for carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulates.
-14-


I. GOALS AND POLICIES
A. AIR QUALITY POLICIES6
"Enforce existing laws concerning emissions."
0 "The City should cooperate with metropolitan and regional efforts t automobile for tra to mass transit. tion spending away transportation sys
0 "Encourage plannin allow pollutant di
0 "Planning should r in the placement o pollutant sources tial areas."
B TRANSPORTATION POLICIES **
"Dependence on the automobile shall be reduced by encouraging the utilization of alternative transportation modes."
0 "The transportation system shall support and be compatible with stated land use objectives and policies."
"Activity and employment centers shall be reinforced
by the location of arterial streets and mass transportation facilities in close proximity."
0 "The plan shall reduce the need for automobile travel to places of residence, work, shopping, and recreation."
0 "Availability of transportation for all Aurora citizens shall be insured, especially for those dependent on public transportation, such as the elderly and those without automobiles."
0 "The transportation system shall support and be coordinated with plans generated by the Regional Transportation District and the Joint Regional Planning Program."
0 Commercial land uses other than highway-thoroughfare shall be located near mass transportation routes and shall be designed so that both accessibility to the site and traffic circulation within the site include provisions for non-vehicular travel.
o develop alternatives to the nsportation, from walking to bicyles This includes a change in transporta-from highways to urban mass public terns."
g that includes large open areas to spersal "
ecognize prevailing wind directions f busy streets, freeways, or other relative to the location of residen-
-15-


II.
C. LAND USE POLICIES1*
"Residential densities shall be determined by natural amenities, environmental factors, the efficient provision of public facilities, and support for a mass trans portation system."
"Neighborhoods shall be protected from traffic congestion, air and noise pollution, incompatible land uses, visual clutter, and flooding.
"The location of all housing except low and very low density shall be limited to activity centers and areas accessible to mass transportation."
"The location of high-density housing shall be limited to rapid transit corridors and activity centers."
"Commercial land uses shall be so located, grouped, and designed as to minimize dependence on the automobile for accessibility."
"Neighborhood commercial centers shall be located adjacent to a collector street and/or secondary street and have significant orientation to non-vehicular modes of travel."
"Land use development shall be regulated to minimum interference with the environmental and natural amenities."
"Environmental quality shall be preserved through controls on the development and arrangement of land uses which cause air, water, noise, and visual pollution. "
"Industrial performance standards shall be developed to regulate disruptive effects on other land uses such as emissions of light, noise, air pollution, and odors.
TRANSPORTATION ORIENTED
A. STREET SWEEPING
The City of Aurora presently uses seven street sweeping machines in their sweeping program. Aurora's street sweep ing program attempts to cover the main arterials and thoroughfares once a week, and the residential areas on a frequency of once a month. The City's sweeping program is coordinated with their street sanding operations, sweeping the sanded streets as soon as possible after every storm.
-16-


B.
STREET SANDING
Street sanding in Aurora is prompted by slick road conditions or by police department notification. The regular sanding schedule for Aurora covers between 100-150 miles of paved roads, depending on the severity of the storm. Street sanding is performed on a priority basis, with the main arterials and areas around schools having top priority, and secondary and residential streets having lower priority, with sanding only at intersections and on hills. The City of Aurora uses a 1U salt-sand mixture, and usually uses between 1,000 to 1,200 tons of sanding material per storm.
C. TRAFFIC LIGHT SYNCHRONIZATION
All major arterials in the old section of Aurora and Havana Avenue are almost totally linked to a synchronization system. There are still a few intersections within these areas which have not been equipped for synchronization, making the totally interconnected system not yet functional. The City of Aurora plans to have the entire interconnect system totally operable by early 1978.
D. ONE-WAY STREETS
There are no one-way streets presently in existence in the City of Aurora.
III. TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATIVES
A. BIKEWAYS7
The City of Aurora has a well developed bikeway plan utilizing three classes of bikeways. Class I bikeways are bike trails totally separated from a motor vehicle roadway.
Aurora plans close to 125 miles of Class I bikeways. Class II bikeways share a paved roadway but are separated from vehicular traffic by a separate bike lane on the right side of the roadway, designated by a solid white line. There are 55 miles of Class II bikeways planned in the City of Aurora. Class III bikeways share a paved roadway with motor vehicles and are designated only by signs. There are about 20 miles of Class III bikeways in the Aurora Bikeway Plan.
Due to limited funds, the completion of the Aurora Bikeway Plan will not be accomplished any time soon. The City is also making an effort to ensure that the bikeways in Aurora are coordinated with those in the City of Denver, which borders Aurora on the west.
-17-


B. MASS TRANSIT
The City of Aurora offers a variety of mass transit services to its residents, including express and metro-wide bus service, and a local circulator connecting activity centers in Aurora. These services are provided by the Regional Transportation District.
There is a constant effort by the City of Aurora to coordinate their ideas with RTD to provide better service and facilities for Aurora citizens.
IV. LAND USE
V. MISCELLANEOUS
-18-


1.5 CITY OF BOULDER
INTRODUCTION
The City of Boulder lies at the mouth of Boulder Canyon, at the base of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, at an elevation of 5,430 feet. The population of Boulder is approximately 70,000 people. Boulder is the location of the University of Colorado, the largest university in the state, and also contains several prominent federal research centers, including the National Bureau of Standards, National Center for Atmospheric Research, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
In recent years, with growth pressures increasing in Boulder, the City of Boulder has instituted innovative growth control measures to prevent unlimited and uncontrolled growth, backed up by strong land use and open space regulations. In the past year, Boulder has completed a downtown pedestrian mall, which eliminates auto traffic in a four block area, and creates a successful combination of commercial activity and pedestrian access.
Past high volume particulate samples taken at two locations in Boulder show that the city is within the federal standards for suspended particulates. Boulder is classified as being in non-attainment of the federal primalry standard for carbon monoxide and ozone.
-19-


I. GOALS AND POLICIES
A. AIR QUALITY POLICIES8
"The Boulder Valley is to be planned in a manner which recognizes air quality as a critical concern. In light of this, logical land use relationships, expanded use of public transportation, use of pollutant control devices, stabilization of soils through use of vegetation, appropriate monitoring of urban development and mining operations, and such other means as may be feasible, shall be implemented."
0 "The environmental impact of public and private projects shall, where legally necessary, be determined and the statement made available for public inspection and considered by governmental agencies before any discretionary decisions are made."
B. TRANSPORTATION POLICIES8
"All transportation systems and circulation throughout the Boulder Valley shall be safe, efficient, and reasonably compatible with abutting land uses and environment."
0 "The established transportation plan must be reinforced through a policy of land use and development control."
0 "Progressive concepts of road capacity optimization must be explored and implemented."
1. BIKEWAYS
The stated goals of the bikeway plan are:
m "To provide a functional and user-desirable system."
0 "To create a safe operating environment."
0 "To create a healthy operating environment."
0 "To create a secure operating environment.
C LAND USE POLICIES9
"The City and County shall take all reasonable steps to ensure that new development, public as well as private, be designed in a manner which is sensitive to meeting the social, physical, and emotional needs of the community. Broadly defined, this shall include factors
-20-


such as accessibility to the elderly, handicapped, and other less mobile individuals; provision of coordinated facilities for pedestrians, bicyclists, and bus-riders; provision of functional landscaping and open space; and the appropriate scale and missing of buildings."
0 "One of the most important objectives of the Boulder Valley Comprehensive Plan is the reduction, if not elimination, of urban sprawl."
m "The City and County will preserve lands with unique natural features and characteristics as permanent open space by purchase of development rights, fee simple gifts and/or purchases, and other measures as appropriate and financially feasible."
0 "The City and County will, by implementing the Boulder Valley Comprehensive Plan, ensure that development will take place in an orderly fashion which will take advantage of existing urban services and shall avoid, insofar as possible, patterns of leapfrog, noncontiguous, scattered development within the Valley."
II. TRANSPORTATION ORIENTED
A. STREET SWEEPING
The City of Boulder utilizes five street sweepers to cover all streets in the City of Boulder. The frequency of street sweeping is dependent on the road type:
Residential once every six weeks
Major Thoroughfare once a week
Downtown Commercial two to three times a week
No parking lots are swept by the city, although the parks department sweeps some of their own lots.
B. STREET SANDING
The criteria for sanding of streets in the City of Boulder is a continuous snowfall, with certainty of accumulation. Sanding is regularly limited to major thoroughfares and major collectors throughout the City, although other sanding is done as needed. The amount of the sand-salt mixture applied to road is unknown since there is no calibration
-21-


on the sanding units. Street sweeping is coordinated with sanding, and sweeping in the sanded areas is done as soon as the streets are dry.
C. TRAFFIC LIGHT SYNCHRONIZATION
Synchronization of traffic signals in the City of Boulder, until recently, had not been applied to a large part of their signal system. But they have recently installed equipment to permit 507<> of the system to operate in synchronization. This 50% will control the major thoroughfares such as Broadway, Canyon, and the downtown commercial loop.
D. ONE-WAY STREETS
The City of Boulder currently has about 57 of their road system designated as one-way streets. These are mainly located in the downtown commercial loop and are utilized more for creating a logical traffic pattern than for improving vehicle speed.
III. TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATIVES
A. BIKEWAYS8
The bicycle element of the transportation plan of the Boulder Valley comprehensive plan provides for bike linkages among the major activity centers in the Boulder Valley.
The recommended network in the transportation plan consists of 77 miles of new bikeways:
50 miles of bike paths (separate path for exclusive use of bicycles)
19 miles of bike lanes (an exclusive or preferential lane bordering a roadway)
8 miles of bikeway (a shared facility with motor vehicles)
The priorities for the construction sequencing plan are:
Upgrading of existing bikeways to design standards
Elimination of existing discontinuities
-22-


Correction of hazardous areas
Provision of a continuous arterial bikeway network
The transportation plan is dependent on the use of mass transit and bicycles to provide for reduction of traffic congestion and improved mobility, reflecting the stated policy that "bicycle, pedestrian, and transit potential must be fully exploited."
B. MASS TRANSIT
The City of Boulder attempts to coordinate their transportation planning with the Regional Transportation District (RTD), to help optimize the placement of mass transit routes and associated park-and-ride facilities.
IV. LAND USE
A. GROWTH CONTROL
"Danish Amendment"
City of Boulder ordinance No. 4208; Article VIII Building Permit Limitation
This ordinance amending the revised code of the City of Boulder limits the number of building permits issued by the City to 450 per year. This allocation of 450 permits will be determined on a merit system, taking into account the economic, social, land use, and environmental effects of the project. In regard to air pollution and air quality, the merit system addresses these in Section III, Environmental Elements:
1 Project Impacts10
"Project reduces or minimizes, over and above applicable city, state, and federal standards, negative impacts created by the project or existing prior to development on the quality of water, air pollution, fugitive dust, minimized site disturbance."
V. MISCELLANEOUS
A. BOULDER ORDINANCE 3835 VEHICLE EMISSION CONTROL STANDARDS9
This ordinance parallels Colorado State law regarding vehicle emissions. The penalty for violation of the ordinance
-23-


is up to 90 days in jail, a 300 dollar fine, or both.
The Environmental Health Officer is responsible for enforcing the ordinance with the assistance of other law officers of the City. Upon citing a vehicle violating the ordinance, the owner has 15 days to achieve compliance, with a possible 15 day extension. All reasonable corrective efforts are encouraged since the purpose of the ordinance is to cut down the number of polluting vehicles and clean up the air. The Environmental Health Officer provides compliance inspections during regular hours every week, allowing persons with violating vehicles to prove attainment, thus nullifying the citation. Variances due to unnecessary hardship may be granted by the Boulder Air Pollution Variance Board.
B. REGULATION NO. 9 PROGRAMS
At present, the City of Boulder is included in the carpool locator service through a computer service provided by NOAA. The City is attempting to expand this carpooling service by initiating the use of the City's computer, coupled with an advertising campaign, to expand the effectiveness of the present system. The ad campaign will focus on the air pollution abatement, energy savings, and convenience of carpooling. The City is also trying to introduce the idea of a shoppers carpool service, to hopefully attract those people who might not carpool on a regular basis. As a constant reminder of the program, the City has arranged with the local supermarkets to put up "city information boards" in their buildings. This will provide a forum for the City to promote their carpool services, as well as present other public information.
The City is also involved in the initial phase of producing a short movie (30-60 seconds) to promote carpooling and their carpool service. If the project is completed, preliminary agreements have been made with local theatre owners to show the movie "short" before every showing of a feature film.
-24-


1.6 BOULDER COUNTY
INTRODUCTION
Boulder County lies in North Central Colorado, encompassing a variety of geographic areas, from the mountainous areas in the western portion to the grassy plains covering the eastern section of the County. Boulder County covers an area of 748 square miles, with a population of about 160,000 people, the majority of which are located in the four major population centers: Boulder, Longmont, Lafayette, and Broomfield. Agriculture is the major activity in the eastern portion of the County, while the mountain areas are sparsely settled and used primarily for recreation and low density residences.
Presently, Boulder County is in a designated area of nonattainment for the federal standards for suspended particulates and carbon monoxide. Boulder County is also within the designated non-attainment area for nitrogen dioxide and ozone.
PLEASE NOTE
Due to the fact that the Boulder Valley comprehensive plan was jointly produced and adopted by both the City of Boulder and Boulder County, the policies and goals concerning air pollution presented in the comprehensive plan represent the common position of the City and the County. Since the goals and policies contained in the plan have already been presented in the City of Boulder summary, they will not be duplicated in this Boulder County report.
The goals and policies represented in this Boulder County report are those which were not contained in the common comprehensive plan, but exist as general goals and policies recognized by the County.
-25-


I. GOALS AND POLICIES
A AIR QUALITY GOALS
"It is the intent of the following policy to minimize or prevent emissions potentially harmful to life or health to achieve a maximum practical degree of air purity. To achieve the Environmental Management goal of reducing or eliminating air pollution and to insure that Boulder County attains and maintains EPA and State air quality standards, the following policy is set forth."
AIR QUALITY POLICIES11
"It shall be County policy to evaluate planned activities within Boulder County relative to their cumulative impacts and compliance with air quality standards."
9 "Land use proposals shall be evaluated as to their potential air quality degradation utilizing criteria, as established by the City/County Health Department, set forth in the Boulder County Land Use Regulations."
m "Boulder ^ounty shall investigate the possibility of
enacting local air pollution laws, pursuant to State Law, for the purpose of attaining and maintaining air quality standards."
B. TRANSPORTATION GOALS12
"An efficient, coordinated,', multi-mode transportation system, which will provide adequate and safe movement of people and goods, should be promoted while avoiding undesirable environmental impacts."
TRANSPORTATION POLICIES12
9 "Energy efficiency shall be increased by encouraging the use of public transit, encouraging higher vehicle occupancy rates, maintenance of optimal levels of service, and encouraging the use of other energy effective means of transport." 9
9 "The transit system shall be so designed as to encourage travel diversion to the public transit system by providing higher convenience access points and by integration of transit services with other modes by incorporating such facilities as busways, bicycle facilities, fringe parking, and terminal facilities."
-26-


"Bikeways and pedestrian walkways shall be an integral part of the transportation system. Bikeways and sidewalks shall be provided in new developments where warranted Trails shall be provided to link residential areas, shopping centers, recreational areas, and educational facilities."
II. TRANSPORTATION ORIENTED
A. STREET SANDING
The road and street sanding program in Boulder County is divided into three districts,.a mountain district and two districts covering the rest of the County. The criteria for sanding in the County is a storm with assured accumulation of snow or upon request. In bad storms with continued snowfall and hazardous conditions, the County generally tries to sand all roads. Only sand is used for application to the County roads, although a sand-salt mixture is used on spots with persistent ice. Cleanup of the sand following the storm is not a general procedure in the County, mainly because most of the roads are gravel and the sand is added to the road base.
III. TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATIVES
A BIKEWAYS 1 2 3 **
"Trail or walkway systems or links are to be provided where feasible to schools, shopping areas, parks, greenbelts, and other facilities as necessary. Trail systems and walkways through open space areas are encouraged as an alternate to pedestrian sidewalk requirements and may be used upon approval by the County, providing the following criteria are met:
1. The system provides at least the same level of service as would be applicable sidewalk requirement.
2. Easements or open ways are platted for the system.
3. Facilities closely paralleling major roadways shall be avoided."
IV. LAND USE
A SUBDIVISION REGULATIONS 1 **
"All subdivision pians.shall be reviewed for conformance with the County master plan. In addition, decisions will be based on, but not confined to:
-27-


Environmental Considerations
"The Planni shall revie influences regulations sioners sha cant the s agencies in shall be ba
ng Commission and the County Commissioners w the proposal on the basis of environmental related to the intent and purposes of these The Planning Commission and County Commis-11 consider evidence submitted by the appli-taff, interested persons, and other appropriate arriving at their decisions. Their decisions sed on, but not confined to, the following:
Air
"Will not cause air pollu requirements of the Color Commission. In making th tion of land above sea le vailing winds, or the abs regional airsheds, increa of emissions, as well as considered."
ti on i n exc ess of the
ad o A i r Pol lution Con t ro 1
i s d e t ermin ation, the el eva
ve / 1 a nd to pography, pre -
en ce t he reo f, local a n d
se i n so urc es of quan t i t y
qu al i t y of such, shal 1 b e
B PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENT1 **
Reviewing Criteria
"The Planning Commission and County Commissioners shall consider evidence submitted by the applicant, the planning staff, and other appropriate agencies, in arriving at their decisions. Criteria to be addressed includes :
9 5.
That the proposed use will not create significant water, air, noise, or visual pollution."
V. MISCELLANEOUS
A ATMOSPHERIC RESOURCES13 Air Quality
"Until such time as emission control regulations are adopted at the State and/or County level, it is the recommendation of the planning staff and the Division of Environmental Health that criteria be built into County land-use regulations to deal with emission control, paying particular attention to indirect sources. These criteria, to be developed for the purpose of reviewing developmental applications, should be of such a nature as to respect the applicant's use by right, yet also stipulate alternative modes of transportation or more realistic arrangement of land uses to minimize potential air pollution."
-28-


B. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
1 3
"Air, water, and noise pollution; inappropriate development in natural hazard areas; and overall environmental degradation should be reduced as much as possible or eliminated, in order to prevent potential harm to life, health, and property."
C. FUGITIVE DUST
"The Boulder City-County Health Department has a fugitive dust emission permit process for all applicants who propose projects which would result in the following occurrences:
0 New unpaved road or parking count over 165 vehicles per
m New unpaved road or parking family dwelling units
area demonstrating a traffic day
area servicing over seven
0 New unpaved road or parking area surface for more than six months
to remain without hard
0 Disturbance of over five acres in land development
0 Demolition of structure or explosive detonation activities
0 Disturbance of over one acre in open mining activities."
"At the present time, the County Engineering Department on a yearly basis identifies those unpaved roads at 165 ADT and outlines strategies for dust control. The Health Department deals with fugitive dust on roads at less than 265 ADT on a complaint basis only."
"In the future, the Division of Environmental Health plans to deal with fugitive dust as it applies to project referrals on a more comprehensive basis. With the aid of computer modeling technique's, it is anticipated that the impacts specific projects will have on unpaved roads and other sources of fugitive dust can be predicted and the project altered as necessary."
-29-


1.7 COMMERCE CITY
INTRODUCTION
Commerce City comprises an area of six square miles, with a population of about 18,000 people. It lies on the northern edge of the Denver Metropolitan area, and contains a large portion of Denver's industrial activity. Commerce City is bordered by Adams County on the west, north, and east, with the City of Denver bordering on the south.
Commerce City has been designated as a non-attainment area for the standards for carbon monoxide, ozone, particulates, and nitrogen dioxide.
-30-


I.
GOALS AND POLICIES
II. TRANSPORTATION ORIENTED
A. STREET SWEEPING
Commerce City uses three street sweeping machines to sweep the residential areas of the city lying to the east of Highway 85 and in the Adams County High School area. The City provides complete coverage of these residential areas, and infrequent sweeping of the older industrial sections of the City.
The street sweeping program in Commerce City is coordinated with street sanding, providing sweeping of the sanded streets as soon as road conditions and warmer temperatures permit.
B. STREET SANDING
The criteria for sanding in Commerce City is police request, or snowy and icy street conditions. Commerce City has a priority system for its sanding program, with bridges and main streets sanded first, collector streets second, and residential intersections and bad spots as last priority.
The composition of the sanding material is 7% salt-sand mixture.
C. TRAFFIC LIGHT SYNCHRONIZATION
Commerce City has no light synchronization program at this time.
D. ONE-WAY STREETS
Commerce City has several one-way streets in the residential areas of the city. These one-way designations were provided mainly for safety due to the narrowness of the designated streets.
III. TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATIVES
A. BIKEWAYS
Commerce City, at this time, has no system of bikeways or any plans for a future bikeway system.
-31-


B. BUS INCENTIVES
Presently, Commerce City is included in the Metropolitan Bus Service provided by RTD, but has no immediate plans for expansion of its mass transit service and facilities.
IV. LAND USE15
A. AIR POLLUTION
"Activities performed in the Industrial Performance District shall conform with applicable federal and state air pollution standards."
"Emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere must comply with acceptable limits as prescribed in the Federal Clean Air Act, as amended, which is enforced by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Emission of air pollutants must also comply with the State of Colorado Air Pollution Control Act of 1970."
"The applicant requesting zoning under these performance standards shall provide proper documentation justifying that all operations will be in compliance with the aforementioned federal and state air pollution standards.
Said documentation will be provided to the Planning Commission upon submitting the application."
V. MISCELLANEOUS
-32-


1.8 CITY AND COUNTY OF DENVER
INTRODUCTION
The City and County of Denver covers an area of 95 square miles and has a population of about 540,000 people. Denver provides the central focus of the Metropolitan area, containing the central business district, major cultural and sport facilities, the Colorado State Capital, and the Auraria Higher Education Complex. The location of Stapleton International Airport within Denver also makes it the major transportation.center for the Metropolitan area, as well as Colorado.
Denver is presently in violation of both state and federal standards for all air pollutants except sulphur dioxide. These violations include carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulates.
-33-


I. GOALS AND POLICIES
A. AIR QUALITY
0 "To conserve air, water, energy, and the land."
AIR QUALITY POLICIES17
m "EFFORTS TO INSURE AIR QUALITY COMPATIBLE WITH HEALTH AND WELL-BEING AND TO PREVENT AIR POLLUTION DAMAGE TO VEGETATION, PROPERTY, AND AESTHETIC VALUES SHOULD BE VIGOROUSLY PURSUED AT THE FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL LEVELS."
"At the national level, Denver should be a strong proponent for requiring auto manufacturers to reduce emissions of their vehicles. At the state level, programs to control areawide pollution should be expanded as needed. At the local level, high priority should be given to the prevention and elimination of air pollution."
"The basic types of air pollution control strategies available for local use are primarily directed at transportation, land use and planning, and other strategies. Among the many transportation strategies are expanded and improved bikeway systems, improved public transportation, and traffic-free zones."
"Land use and planning strategies include proper zoning and location of land activities in consideration of potential air pollution impacts, and pollution-sensitive policies and programs related to public investments, taxes, and fuel use. Other strategies include energy conservation, air-borne dust controls, four-day work weeks, and other work-hour changes."
"Denver should determine which of these or other control strategies would benefit the city and the region from a comprehensive perspective, and incorporate them into operational and capital improvement programs, or support them if other governmental agencies are responsible for their enforcement."
AIR QUALITY POLICY IMPACTS17
"There are many advantages to be derived from the timely implementation of these policies. Air pollution emissions should be reduced due to federal vehicle controls, state inspections, shorter vehicle trips, and de-emphasis of auto dependency. This should have a positive influence upon health."
-34-


AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS
1 6
m "Air Quality Control.
"The quality of the air available to Denver residents is of great concern because poor quality air is harmful to health, lowers the quality of life, and has adverse economic effects. People historically have been attracted to Denver's clean mountain air, but the city's air quality has deteriorated significantly during the past two decades."
"There are six air quality monitoring stations in the Denver Metropolitan area. These stations report that the main sources of air pollution in the Denver region are automobiles. Other major sources of air pollution include power plants and factories. Occasionally, airborne dust is a serious problem in the Denver area."
"Temperature inversions (cold air trapped at ground level by overlaying warm air) contribute to the Denver regional air pollution problem. These inversions occur for periods of up to two days, but are fewer and of shorter duration during the summer than the winter because of summers armer and longer days. Temperature inversions not only affect visibility, but also result in increased concentrations of foul-smelling air pollutants consistently in violation of air quality standards."
"In general, the types of strategies available to control air pollution relate to the principal sources of air pollu tion: automotive, area sources, and point sources. Automotive strategies are aimed at reducing carbon monoxide, ozone, particulates, and nitrogen dioxide emissions. These strategies include vehicle movement controls, reductions in vehicle travel, and the use of alternate transportation modes. Area source strategies are directed at reducing airborne dust and include street cleaning, paving, and water spraying. Point source strategies are directed at controlling nitrogen dioxide, particulates, and hydrocarbon emissions principally from smoke stacks. Strategies include strict performance standards, fuel conversion, phaseout of emission sources, retrofit of existing control devices, and special operating restrictions."
"Some of these major air pollution reducing strategies are the responsibility of the Air Pollution Control Division of the Colorado Department of Health. Since many strategies can be implemented only at the local level, the state has delegated significant responsibilities in air pollution control to the Denver Environmental Health Office of the Department of Health and Hospitals."
-35-


B. TRANSPORTATION GOALS16
"To provide a transportation system that preserves and improves the physical environment and condition of the city "
0 "To appropriately relate local planning and development concerns to regional and state planning and development concerns "
0 "To provide a transportation system that offers a variety of modes, including increased use of public transportation, as well as pedestrian and bicycle movement, to supplement the motor vehicle system."
0 "To provide adequate accessibility for all segments of the city's population to residential, service, health, educational, employment, shopping and recreational areas."
0 "To improve air quality by decreasing the dependence on private automobiles, especially during peak hours."
TRANSPORTATION POLICIES 1 6
0 "THE CITY SHOULD SELECT, LOCATE, AND DESIGN TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES WHICH MINIMIZE OR REDUCE POLLUTION OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AND DISRUPTION OF THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT."
"In the past, transportation facilities or improvements were selected, designed, and located on the basis of available transportation criteria that generally did not recognize negative impacts on the physical and human environments. In providing future transportation elements potential increases in air and water pollution, noise, visual blight, neighborhood disruption, and unsafe conditions must be seriously analyzed and alleviated. Transportation modes that are less polluting and more energy efficient, such as mass transit, should be selected and emphasized in the transportation system. Also, vehicles and facilities should be modified to result in less pollution. Facilities should be located in areas where they are less disruptive. For example, major arterials may be less disruptive if they are located on the periphery of residential areas. Where choice of mode or location is restricted, design measures should be taken to offset transportation impacts. Landscaping, fencing, barriers or the depressing of highways would lower noise levels and present more pleasing visual impressions. Finally, efforts must be made to mitigate negative impacts of existing and new street, transit, or rail facilities."
-36-


"CLEAR AND UNIFORMLY DISPLAYED TRAVEL INFORMATION
SHOULD BE PROVIDED AND TRANSFER BETWEEN VARIOUS MODES OF TRAVEL SHOULD BE FACILITATED."
"Transportation agencies should provide signs, maps, and informational kiosks to guide movement within the city. In addition, better connections should be provided between transportation modes. Park-n-Ride" lots, piggy-back' bicycle transport, and shuttle bus service are examples of ways to link together the various travel modes walking, bicycling, auto travel, buses, trains, airplances, and mass transit."
"THE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM SHOULD BE USED TO ENCOURAGE DESIRABLE PATTERNS OF LAND USE DEVELOPMENT."
"A transportation system influences the direction, intensity, and timing of land development. For example, the provision of roads to previously inaccessible areas often accelerates new development. Likewise, within developed areas, significant transportation changes that improve ease of access may result in increased development pressures."
"VARIED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES AND SERVICES SHOULD BE SUPPORTED AND ENCOURAGED\"
"In addition to mass transit, the public transportation system must include recognition of private transportation services (taxis, vans, limousines) that convey the public. Since these services and facilities provide transportation for those who have no private automobile or convenient mass transit service, they are a necessary part of a total transportation system. In high-density areas, such as Denver's downtown, and in areas with high concentrations of elderly people, special loading zones should be considered. Competition should be encouraged for improved service and affordable fares, but not to the detriment of the public investment in the RTD. Also, innovative, privately-operated services should be encouraged to provide underserved locations or groups with convenient, reasonably-prices transportation."
0 "ACTIONS THAT MAKE EFFICIENT USE OF EXISTING TRANSPORTATION RESOURCES AND THAT MOVE PEOPLE IN AN EFFICIENT MANNER SHOULD BE PROMOTED AND SUPPORTED.
"Attention is now focused on developing new strategies for conserving energy and improving air quality,
-37-


transportation efficiency and mobility through better management of the existing transportation system. This reflects a shift of emphasis from vehicle movement to people movement in recognition of limited resources and the effects on the environment. For example, action may be taken to insure the efficient use of existing road space by metering access to freeways, by reserving lanes on city streets for transit and other high-occupancy vehicles, and by changes in work schedules (staggered work hours or four-day work weeks) to reduce peak-period travel."
1. Mass Transit16
"THE CITY SHOULD PLACE A HIGH PRIORITY ON PUBLIC TRANSIT AS A DESIRABLE ALTERNATIVE TO AUTOMOBILE USE "
"Mass transit service can help alleviate several of the major problems resulting from ever-increasing automobile usage air pollution, energy depletion, too much land consumed by streets and parking, traffic congestion and neighborhood disruption -provided that the system is efficient and attracts a substantial r idership. Although transit service in Denver over the past several years has been expanding and improving, further efforts must be made to increase patronage during off-peak hours, as well as to attract more commuters during peak hours. The city should pursue the following actions to place priority on public transit. First, the city should support the transit improvement activities undertaken by the RTD, such as the transit mall in Downtown Denver. Second, the city should guide the development or redevelopment of employment and residential areas, as well as public facilities so that land use intensities and travel desires will encourage efficient, well-used transit service. For instance, high-density multi-family dwellings and transit lines should be located in close proximity to each other. Third, facilities such as bus loading areas, drop-off areas, and turn-ins for major commercial areas should be provided on streets to assist in transit service.
Fourth, the city should strive to limit street improvements that increase capacity to those necessary for safety or access to adjacent land uses, and those that encourage traffic away from residential areas or improve transit service."
-38-


"THE CITY SHOULD WORK WITH THE REGIONAL TRANS-
PORTATION DISTRICT TO PROVIDE A STRONG PROGRAM OF TRANSIT IMPROVEMENTS."
n t r an s i t ser vi ce
ete mo r e e ffe ct i v e
ce, fl e xi b Hi ty / a
a u t omo bi 1 es . Tr a
att rac t i v e ac ce ss
an d P u bl i c fac il i
es , by se r vin 9 cro
by a VO i di n g u nn ec e
fers . To ser ve a r
are no t s u ffi ci en t
Transit routes
ctive acce public fac y serving oiding unn
trips and transfers, tial densities are m
lar. transit service, efforts should be made by the RTD to explore opportunities for flexible routes, special subscription service, or shared-ride service with taxi operators.
be clear and readily available, and bus shelters should be provided to encourage rider ship in incle-weather. Incent and expansion o on weekends) to trips should b d continue to be ated-fare struct should be considered, imized by providing p. streets and highways, should be increased.
ping
men t fares ially men t
ervi ce , or s
rs. Us er in
vail abl e, an
enco ura ge ri
ves for off-
ho u rs of op
enco ura ge 1 a
1 pro vi d ed.
affo rdable /
re b ase d o n
Tra vel ti me
eferent ial t
and the fr eg
Cons tru cti on
tin u e, and s
blis h c los er
park ing 1 o ts
era tio n (espec-
te- nit e ente rtain
rra nsi t fare s
and a si mple
dis tan ce tra veled
s s ho u Id be min-
rea tment on major
uen c y of ser vice
of pi anned park-
tro ng effort s
-in ft lo ts a t shop-
2 Bikeways 1 6
"THE ADOPTED BIKEWAY PLAN SHOULD BE COMPLETED AND EXPANDED TO PROVIDE CITY-WIDE BICYCLING OPPORTUNIr TIES."
"The Denver Bikeway Plan, prepared with city council involvement, established city policy support for a bikeway system that emphasizes connections between major recreation areas, residential areas, and concentrated work centers. The 164 mile system recommended in the plan should be reassessed, modified as appropriate, and completed to create a safe, well maintained, functional, well posted, and continuous bikeway system. In the future, routes should be extended to underserved and developing areas of the city. Further, linkages with bikeway facilities of neighboring jurisdictions should be established."
-39-


"BIKEWAY AMENITIES AND SUPPORTING FACILITIES SHOULD BE PROVIDED AS INCENTIVES TO INCREASED COMMUTER BICYCLING."
"Because of its favorable climate and generally level topography, Denver has a unique opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of widespread bicycle commuting. Bikeway design should minimize bicycle/pedestrian and auto/bicycle conflicts through construction of exclusive on-street bike lanes on low- and medium-volume streets, and other lanes in parks and along watercourses where possible. Bikeways should provide relatively direct routes, especially for commuting purposes. At bicycle route destination points, secure storage facilities should be provided. Further, the city and private businesses should install bike racks or lockers at employment and shopping locations to encourage increased bicycle use."
"The generally accepted average maximum bicycle commuting trip is five miles. To increase this range, the city should encourage the RTD to selectively install facilities which would permit bicycle transfers to buses. These facilities, like all bikeways and related facilities, should be well publicized by means of signs, maps, special bulletins, or other ways of alerting people to bicycling facilities and opportunities in the city and region."
3. PEDESTRIAN 1 6
SAFE AND ATTRACTIVE SPACE AND FACILITIES FOR PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENT SHOULD BE DEVELOPED THAT EMPHASIZE REDUCED CONFLICT BETWEEN PEDESTRIANS AND OTHER MODES OF TRAVEL."
"While sidewalks are the most basic pedestrian facility, they are still not provided in some areas of Denver. Particularly in areas of high pedestrian activity, sidewalks may be too narrow and too close to streets to allow people to move safely and freely. Further, there is often a tendency to give priority to vehicular travel where pedestrian and other travel modes must cross, especially on streets designed for high volumes of traffic. Sidewalks should be maintained and deficiencies should be corrected in all areas of the city. In addition, emphasis should be placed on providing a safe and pleasing pedestrian experience Where barriers exist, bridges, tunnels or other
-40-


grade-separat estrian ameni ers, signaliz informational age pedestria in parking lo walking areas that connect facilities sh
ed walkways should be ties, such as benches, ed crossings, covered signing should be pro n use. Lighting shoul ts, at bus stops and a Finally, landscaped various land uses and ould be developed."
provided. Ped-trash contain-walkways, and vided to encour-d be provided t hazardous pedestrianways community
''NONESSENTIAL STREET SPACE SHOULD BE CONVERTED INTO PEDESTRIAN OR PARK AREAS WHERE PRACTICAL."
"Nearly 20% of Denver's total land area is devoted to streets and highways. Not all of the streets are necessary to the circulation system, and some streets and alleys have been vacated for other uses when ownership patterns allow it. Street alterations for pedestrian activity and travel should be encouraged. In shopping and residential areas where alternative traffic routes and access can be made available, efforts should be made to partially or totally close some streets to motor vehicles and to develop pedestrian malls where appropriate. Special attention should be given to landscaping newly-created pedestrian space and to providing linkages with open space and other pedestrian areas. In addition, consideration should be given to the closing of some streets to automobile traffic in some parks. Closures should be made only after careful study of the potential effects of closures on adjacent streets and residential areas as well as on the parks themselves."
4 PARKING 16
"THE CITY SHOULD REQUIRE THE PROVISION OF PARKING FACILITIES IN A MANNER THAT WILL ENCOURAGE TRANSIT USE WHILE SUPPORTING THE ECONOMIC VITALITY OF LAND USES SERVED."
"As 1 ong as a utomob iles
mod e of tran sport at ion ,
will be used for parkin
nece s sary bu t rela t ivel
and i s often unsigh tl y .
ince n tives t o encou rage
park i ng lots and in tens
tu re s , and t o empha size
tha t some pa r king a reas
o the r develop ment . Con
continue to be the prima substantial amounts of 1 g purposes. Parking is a y unproductive use of lan The city should devise alternative use of exist ification of parking stru increased transit use so can be made available fo sistent with the need to
ry
and
d
ing
c-
r
-41-


maintain 'the economic vitality of the land uses that parking serves, requirements established by zoning regulations should permit flexible evaluation of the demand for on-street and off-street parking in consideration of transit use. Factors that should be considered in determining parking requirements include transit opportunities, residential densities and dwelling-unit sizes, auto ownership, and use of existing parking. In congested areas, emphasis should be placed on shortterm parking to encourage commuter use of transit opportunities."
WHILE RECOGNIZING EXISTING AND PLANNED PUBLIC TRANSIT, ADEQUATE SUPPORTIVE PARKING FOR PUBLIC FACILITIES SHOULD BE PROVIDED AND PROPERLY LOCATED."
"Many of Denver's public facilities are regional in nature and attract substantial numbers of people, usually by auto. With these public facilities, the city has the freedom to explore incentives that encourage higher vehicle occupancy, and thus reduce the demand for parking. For example, priority treatment at entrance and exit points and close-in parking for vehicles carrying three or more passengers might' prove effective for events at the sports arena stadium/complex or performing arts center. Parking rates for public facilities should be set at levels that will encourage the use of public transit. The city and state should continue to encourage the use of public transit. The city and state should continue to encourage their employees to use transit by not providing long-term parking in the Civic Center area where transit is available. Further, the city should continue to work cooperatively with the RTD in establishing routes and special services that provide convenient public transportation to various public facilities."
5. AIRPORT 1 6
"DENVER SHOULD OPERATE AND IMPROVE STAPLETON INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT IN A MANNER THAT CURTAILS POLLUTION OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT AND DISRUPTION OF THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT."
"Major emphasis should be placed on public transportation service that will minimize the number of highway lanes and parking facilities needed to support the airport. Efforts should be made to develop new outlying vehicular parking areas in
-42-


locations where they, and accessing vehicles, will not be disruptive to neighborhoods near the airport. The use of these parking areas should be strongly encouraged by the provision of convenient shuttle service between them and the terminal, and by the establishment of parking fees for the outlying areas and the terminal facilities at levels that will make parking at outlying areas extremely attractive."
"Maximum use should be made of effective new and modified equipment to help curb noise, air and other environmentally damaging effects of both airside and groundside airport operations. On the groundside, architectural devices and landscaping should be used as sound baffles. In the air, takeoff and landing patterns should avoid developed portions of the city to the fullest extent possible.
TRANSPORTATION POLICY AIR QUALITY IMPACTS17
"One of the most obvious areas in need of improvement in Denver's physical environment is that of air quality. It is a well documented fact that the major contributor to Denver's air pollution problem is the automobile. Major policy categories geared toward decreasing the dependence on private automobiles and the accompanying air pollution include:
"Provision of safe and attractive space and facilities for pedestrian movement. A tendency exists to give priority to vehicles where pedestrian and other travel modes must cross, especially on streets designed for high volumes of traffic.
A set of policies is therefore aimed at improving the pedestrian experience through the provision of proper sidewalks, the removal of pedestrian barriers, and the provision of amenities such as benches, trash receptacles, covered walkways, signalized crossings, information signing, landscaping and lighting. In addition, the practical conversion of non-essential street space to pedestrian space is encouraged."
/
"Expansion of bicycling amenities and opportunities. The 164 mile bicycle system recommended in the Denver Bikeway Plan should be reassessed, modified as appropriate, and completed to create a safe, well maintained and functional bikeway system. Underserved and developing areas need route extensions and new routes to link major facilities. Storage facilities should be installed at employment, shopping, and recreational centers to promote increased bicycle commuting.
It
"Expansion of public mass transit. Policies seek to convenient and equitable service for current transit
insure
users
-43-


and an increase in ridership among current nonusers. The Regional Transportation District's plans and transit development programs must be approved by the Denver Regional Council of Governments, which is the official metropolitan planning organization. Although the city does not have direct legal authority over the provision of public transportation, it does have a vital interest in participating in the regional decision-making process.
"Air pollution is one of the central concerns of both the regional and state planning processes and the city's continued participation in these processes is encouraged. Reduction of air pollution is also one of the main intents of a policy seeking proper selection, location and design of transportation facilities. In the older sections of Denver, improvements have been made in the street and highway system that did not aniticipate or recognize the direct impacts of traffic volume, air and noise pollution, and crossing hazards on adjacent residential uses. Therefore, the livability of both existing and future residential streets is a priority. Actions are urged to reduce traffic volumes along existing residential streets, and to encourage trip makers to use either other transportation modes or arterial streets on the edges of residential areas. Such actions, if successful, should reduce the localized air pollution on the residential streets, but may increase it on the major streets which may have increased congestion.
"Other policies which should have positive impacts on air quality deal with the management and function of the citys streets and highways. The city maintains a functionally ranked system of streets and highways including freeways, arterials, collectors, and local streets Design and traffic control measures must be applied to assure that streets function as they are intended to. Such measures may range from synchronized signalization to encourage unimpeded flow, to traffic diverters, and other traffic control devices to discourage traffic on local streets. Improved traffic flow would be beneficial for drivers, less polluting, and more fuel efficient.
"Other policies that will have a positive impact on Denver's air quality deal with the provision of parking spaces. As long as the automobile continues to be the primary mode of transportation, substantial amounts of land will be used for parking purposes. Parking that supports the economic vitality of land uses served is encouraged, but not to a degree where automobile use is encouraged. Transit use should be encouraged and considered when parking requirements established by zoning regulations are being determined."
-44-


C LAND USE GOALS16
"To achieve and maintain a balance between all land uses and the natural environment.
"To preserve physically sound residential shopping, and employment areas, and to protect them from intrusion by incompatible land uses and activities. To encourage land use patterns which will reduce dependence on private automobiles for transportation needs, and which conserve and make the efficient use of energy.
LAND USE POLICIES16
1. RESIDENTIAL
"NEW HIGH-DENSITY RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS SHOULD BE WELL SERVED BY PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION AND SHOULD BE IN CLOSE PROXIMITY TO EMPLOYMENT CENTERS AND SHOPPING FACILITIES"
"High-density residential developments need not be concentrated in any one part of the city. They should be considered for areas near high-employment locations, such as Downtown Denver and regional activity centers, as well as for areas where citizens particularly desire this type of residential development. Locational criteria for new high-density residential areas should include consideration of traffic impacts on adjacent neighborhoods, increased demands on public facilities, the need for adequate open space and the availability of mass transit "
"NEW RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT SHOULD GIVE PRIORITY CONSIDERATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS AND ENERGY AND RESOURCE CONSERVATION"
"New residential development should be located to minimize problems created by flood plains, adverse soil conditions, and noise and air pollution." 2 *
2. BUSINESS
"THE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM SHOULD PROVIDE PEOPLE WITH
GOOD ACCESS TO DOWNTOWN LOCATIONS, BUT NOT UNLIMITED
MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES WITHIN THE DOWNTOWN AREA"
-45-


"Downtown access should be provided by several means: express bus service to downtown transfer points at both ends of the core area coupled with internal transit shuttle to final destination; regular local bus service primarily along major streets with most routes having stops at downtown transfer points; auto movement from arterials at the periphery of downtown to long-term parking facilities at the edge of the core, or short-term smaller parking facilities within the core area; and bicycle routes to and within the core area. Additionally, efforts to explore the feasibility of rapid transit should continue."
"ADEQUATELY SIZED AND APPROPRIATELY LOCATED SHOPPING AREAS SHOULD BE DEVELOPED IN A TIMELY MANNER TO ACCOMMODATE ALL TYPES OF BUSINESS USES"
"Zoning change requests for major new general commercial development shall be supported by economic analyses that justify the need for additional regional community, or neighborhood shopping facilities. The development of major new shopping facilities should be staged to meet the needs of the marketing area and to permit the timely provision of public improvements and services. In addition larger commercial developments should be oriented toward multiple forms of transit to facilitate access not only for the consumers but for the employees as well. Dispersed commercial centers permit shorter work-trip distances by allowing more people to live closer to their place of employment."
LAND USE POLICY AIR QUALITY IMPACTS17 Residential Impacts
"Several residential land use policies may indirectly have both negative and positive impacts on air quality in the city. These policies propose methods of preserving the older residential neighborhoods of the city.
Such action may result in increased multi-family development on the fringes of the developed portions of the city. This could increase automobile commuting by greater numbers of households than would occur if extensive multi-family redevelopment were to occur in the older residential neighborhoods of the city."
-46-


"The possible air quality impacts of these policies, however, are balanced by the positive impacts that could occur as the result of several other policies.
These include the encouragement of residential development close to downtown Denver and selective redevelopment to multi-family use in portions of the older residential neighborhoods of the city. These policies will tend to shorten commuting distances to downtown Denver and thus assist in lessening air pollution from automobiles "
"The policies dealing with new residential development may also have positive air quality impacts. These policies emphasize that high priority should be given to ne residential development on vacant sites within develope portions of Denver. In outlying parts of the city, emphasis is given to new residential development that occurs continguous to already developed areas. These policies will thus assist in lessening air pollution impacts from large volumes of automobile commuting."
"Since large volumes of commuting traffic pass through many of Denver's neighborhoods, policies in the comprehensive plan propose methods to lessen this impact. Among those is the provision of more public transportation.
Such a policy will have a positive effect on air quality."
Housing Impacts
"The housing policies of the comprehensive plan, while not directly impacting on air quality, will have an indirect environmental impact by affecting automobile commuting patterns. Two of the four areas of concern addressed in the housing policies will affect commuting patterns."
"In the area of housing conservation, the policies stressing the need to preserve existing single-family homes and reversing overly permissive zoning will have the affect of maintaining low-density patterns in many neighborhoods close to downtown Denver. This will have the indirect effect guiding multi-family development to vacant land on the finges of Denver, thereby increasing the commuting distance of employees who work in downtown Denver."
"This adverse impact will be balanced in part by the policy of preserving older homes for rehabilitation by families who wish to own older single-family homes close to downtown Denver, and who will use means other than the automobile to commute to their jobs downtown."
-47-
a s


"Another balancing effect will be the policy that addresses improving the condition of existing multifamily housing. Most of the deteriorating apartment buildings are located near the downtown area. Improving the condition of these units will assist in providing multi-family housing close to downtown."
"In the area of new housing construction the policies emphasize the need to provide both multi-family and single-family housing close to employment centers .
These policies will assist to alleviate long commuting distances and reduce air pollution in the city."
Business Impacts
"While the business policies encourage mass transit and a more efficient transportation system, this does not mean that individuals will use their vehicles less. Air guality in the Denver region is now, and for the immediate future, chiefly related to the emission of pollutants by vehicles. More efficient use of the existing infrastructure through more intensive development and a structured system of commercial areas should help reduce the need to travel for both shoppers and the employees. Centers of mixed land use, including residential, can reduce the need to drive for everyday activities. These developments should result in a reduction in vehicle emissions. This positive impact could be balanced out by the increase of vehicles resulting from an increase in population. Another source of pollutants, especially particulates, could increase if there is a turn from natural gas and oil to coal. Increased needs due to expanded development and population will probably be larger than the savings from conservation methods. Unless solar technology advances to fill the gap, new development may force more reliance on coal "
"Overall, the air quality in Denver should improve. Technology in the manner of emission controls will help to meet local, state, and federal regulations. However, there will continue to be localized areas that will occasionally exceed standards because of special circumstances. "
Industrial Impacts
"New industrial activity will have an impact upon the level, composition, and distribution of air pollution. However, it cannot be determined at this time if the net impact will be adverse or positive. Although relatively
-48-


non-pollutive industries will be encouraged, possible air pollution may result from emissions from certain types of new industries. These emissions, however, will be restricted to levels permitted by federal, state, and local regulations. Air pollution may also be affected indirectly by emissions from the motor vehicles of employees, customers, and clients that will be attracted to new industrial sites."
II. TRANSPORTATION ORIENTED A. STREET SWEEPING
The City of Denver uses 35 street sweepers in their program. Street sweeping is performed in two 8-hour shifts, five days a week, allowing sweeping coverage of Denver's 1700 miles of paved streets and alleys on the average of once every six weeks. Denver uses wet sweeping exclusively. This normal sweeping pattern is altered in the winter due to a concentrated effort on salt-sand cleanup after winter storms. The winter sweeping program averages a coverage of every six to ten days, with a limited coverage of major arter-ials and secondary streets.
B. STREET SANDING
Sanding operations in the City and County of Denver begin with notification of a member of the Public Works Staff by the Weather Service at Stapleton International Airport. Denver concentrates initially on sanding the major arter-ials, hills, intersections, and hospital and school areas. Depending on the length and intensity of the storm, the City sands the secondary streets, but rarely has the opportunity to fully sand the local residential streets. Denver uses a 16% salt-sand material in their sanding program.
C. TRAFFIC LIGHT SYNCHRONIZATION
All traffic lights in Denver are controlled by an interconnected synchronized control system.
D. ONE-WAY STREETS
Approximately 35% of the street system in the City and County of Denver is designated one-way. Almost all of the designated one-way streets are major arterials. This designation is primarily for increased traffic flow purposes .
-49-


E. SMOKING VEHICLE ORDINANCE
1 9
The City and County of Denver maintains a strict ordinance controlling excessive emissions from automobiles. Any authorized City employee can report a vehicle in violation of the ordinance which contains the following provisions:
"5-2. EMISSIONS FROM GASOLINE-POWERED ENGINES.
No persons shall emit from any gasoline-powered engine any visible air contaminant(s) for a period greater than five (5) seconds.
"5.3. EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL-POWERED ENGINES. No person shall emit from any diesel-powered engine (s) any visible air contaminants which exceed twenty percent f'20%) opacity for a period greater than ten (10) seconds; provided, howeverfthat the percentage opacity standard of Section 710.5-3 shall not apply to diesel-powered locomotives engaged in switching or railroad yard activities. Emissions from these locomotives shall not exceed forty percent (40%) opacity for longer than ten (10) seconds .
"5.4. When a gasoline or diesel-powered engine is found to be emitting air contaminants in violation of this article, written notification of said violation will be given to the owner thereof, who, within fifteen (15) days thereafter, shall either repair the engine to comply with the standards of this Article or cease operating the engine within the City and County of Denver. If repairs of an engine are made by a licensed repair garage, the Department must be presented a written statement within the fifteen (15) day period which fully describes the work performed and certifies that the engine meets the air pollution standards of this Article. In the event that repairs are not made by a licensed repair garage, the owner shall, within the fifteen (15) day period, request and allow the Department to inspect and test the engine for compliance.
"5.5. It shall be unlawful for any owner to operate or to permit operation of any gasoline or diesel-powered engine found to be in violation of the standards set forth in Section 710.5-2 and 710.5-3 after expiration of the fifteen (15) day violation notice."
"5.6. It shall be unlawful for any person to misrepresent or give any false or inaccurate information or in any way attempt to deceive a licensed repair garage or the Department in order to avoid compliance with the provisions of this Article."
-50-


"5.7. It shall be unlawful for any licensed repair garage or its agent to misrepresent any fact, falsely certify any repair, or in any other way attempt to mislead the Department into believing that air pollution standards are being met.
(Ord. 531, Series 1971)"
III. TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATIVES
A. BIKEWAYS18
The City of Denver adopted a plan in 1972 to eventually provide 164 miles of bike trails, divided between 64 different bike routes. Denver has completed close to 100 miles of off-street by-pass and 36 miles of on-street bike lanes.
This plan is presently in the initial stages of revision, with the major goal of providing close to 200 miles of commuter oriented bikeways in Denver. The major impetus for this revision was provided by the Mayor's Air Quality Task Force and is being given direction by the Mayor. The bikeway plan revision is dependent on three City Departments: Planning, Public Works, and Parks and Recreation. The emphasis of this initial phase of revision is towards completion of the plan through the development of specific projects. These projects will deal with three areas of bikeway development: bikeway funding, bicycle parking and storage facilities, and the identification and acquisition of bikeway corridor right-of-ways.
B. MASS TRANSIT
The City of Denver is heaviiy involved in the coorination of routing and expansion of service and facilities with the Regional Transportation District. Denver has specifically been involved in two major programs to improve mass transit service. These are:
Installation and enforcement of exclusive express bus lanes on commuter routes serving the downtown area.
Installation and enforcement of exclusive bus and right-turn-only lanes in downtown Denver.
C. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL COMMISSION REGULATION NO. 9
The City of Denver and Downtown Denver Incorporated (DDI) have made a concerted effort to support the state regulation
-51-


to promote van/carpooling in both the public and private sector. The City of Denver contributes 1/2 ($44,000) of the total funding ($88,000) for the DRCOG Carpool Locator Service, and the City's Division of Health and Hospitals provides educational backup for the van/carpool program.
D. DART
Downtown Denver Incorporated (DDI) and RTD jointly fund the Downtown Circulator Service which provides short-distance service to downtown shoppers and businesses within the Central Business District.
IV. MISCELLANEOUS
A. MAYOR'S AIR QUALITY TASK FORCE RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Semi-annual Inspection/Maintenance of City Owned Vehicles
This policy would include all vehicles owned and operated by the City, including public works vehicles, police and fire vehicles. This policy would also be applied to all vehicles owned by city employees who utilize free parking provided by the City.
2. Personal Vehicle Use
Those city employees which have a city vehicle assigned to them permanently will be requested to initiate a carpool using the city vehicle. Incentive for this is the City's policy to lower the charges assessed the employee for personal use of the vehicle.
3. Bicycle Incentives
The City intends to increase their efforts to expand and maintain the present bikeway system. The City will also begin to provide secure lock-up facilities inside municipal buildings as an incentive for commuter biking by city employees.
B. STATIONARY SOURCE EMISSION CONTROL19
The City of Denver maintains municipal regulations and enforcement of stationary source emissions which, with
-52-


several exceptions, parallel those regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. The City of Denver Division of Health and Hospitals has an Air Pollution Control office which employs three air pollution inspectors and one supervisor. This office is charged with the enforcement of the City air quality emission ordinances and for the coordination of new and existing air quality programs with the State Air Pollution Control Division.
C. 16th STREET MALL
The City of Denver and RTD have coordinated efforts on the 16th Street Mall, which will be undertaken in the near future. The City of Denver has been instrumental in keeping the mall concept alive over the past decade, as well as being a major factor in the potential success of the present 16th Street Downtown Mall.
-53-


1.9 DOUGLAS COUNTY
INTRODUCTION
Douglas County covers an area of 843 square miles and forms the southern edge of the Denver Metropolitan Area. The population of the County is about 20,000, scattered throughout the County, with a small concentration centered around Castle Rock. The County is divided into two geographic areas -- a mountainous section on the west and a grassy plains region on the east.
Douglas County is in violation of the air quality standards for total suspended particulates. Douglas County has also been designated for non-attainment of carbon monoxide and ozone standards, and the northwest corner of the County lies in the nonattainment area for nitrogen dioxide.
-54-


I.. GOALS AND POLICIES
20
A. LAND USE GOALS
"To minimize adverse environmental, social, and
economic impacts in such site and in such impacted areas "
LAND USE POLICIES
"All environmental impacts, to the extent that the
same are determined by the Board and Planning Commission to be adverse, will be mitigated or compensated for."
"Submission Requirements"
"A description, including maps at an acceptable scale, of the characteristics of the natural environment of the site and impact area to include the following:
Topography; climatological conditions; geomorphology, geology, and soils by type and suitability; potential natural hazards; plant communities; all water bodies, including all major surficial waters, groundwater aquifers, and groundwater recharge areas; air quality; archeological and historical sites; and scenic qualities "
m "Analysis of environmental impacts of the new community on the following:
Ambient air quality, including indirect sources.
II. TRANSPORTATION ORIENTED
A. STREET SWEEPING
Douglas County has no street sweeping program at this time. They expect to have one machine in operation within two to five months.
B. STREET SANDING
Street sanding in Douglas County is initiated by the County sanding foreman. Sanding crews work during the day and early evening to sand bridges, hills, curves, and intersections throughout the county. Douglas County uses a 257o salt-sand mixture in their sanding program.
-55-


C. TRAFFIC LIGHT SYNCHRONIZATION
There are presently no traffic lights in Douglas County.
D. ONE-WAY STREETS
There are no major one-way streets in Douglas County at this time.
III. TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATIVES A. BIKEWAYS
Douglas County does not have any bikeways or a planned bikeway system.
B. MASS TRANSIT
Presently, RTD serves only the northeast corner of Douglas County. Douglas County is not involved with coordinating present or future RTD service, but leaves these functions to the communities or areas desiring RTD service.
IV. LAND USE
V. MISCELLANEOUS
-56-


1.10 CITY OF ENGLEWOOD
INTRODUCTION
The City of Englewood, at an elevation of 5,300 feet, borders the City of Denver on the south. The population of Englewood is about 40,000 people. Englewood is composed mainly of residential housing, with a sizeable business community located in the Cinderella City Shopping Center and in a commercial strip along South Broadway. Englewood also contains a well developed industrial zone, located along South Santa Fe Drive and in the Platte River Valley on the western border of the City.
The City of Englewood is in violation of both the primary and secondary standards for total suspended particulate. Englewood is also designated to be in non-attainment of carbon monoxide and ozone standards, and is in the designated area of nonattainment for nitrogen dioxide.
-57-


I. GOALS AND POLICIES
II. TRANSPORTATION ORIENTED A. STREET SWEEPING
The City of Englewood employs three street-sweeping machines, eight hours a day, throughout the year. This sweeping program enables Englewood to cover 114 miles of paved streets every two and one half weeks.
The City makes an effort to sweep the sanded streets after every snow storm. The program follows its regular pattern after light storms, and doubles the coverage following a heavy snowfall.
B. STREET SANDING
Sanding in the City of Englewood is prompted by slick road conditions or by police request. The sanding program covers all the controlled intersections and hills on the major arterials during a normal storm. During a heavy storm, sanding operations are expanded to cover stop signs and hills on local streets.
The composition of the sanding material is 257. salt, with the remainder being squeegy gravel.
C. TRAFFIC LIGHT SYNCHRONIZATION
The City of Englewood presently has traffic light synchronization in effect on the two major arterials in the City, Hampden and Broadway. The City is in the process of updating its master controller and should be completed sometime this year (1978) .
D. ONE-WAY STREETS
The City of Englewood presently has one local one-way street which was designated primarily for improved traffic movement.
-58-


III.
TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATIVES
A. BIKEWAYS
At present, the City of Englewood has not adopted a bikeway program.
B. MASS TRANSIT
The City of Englewood has not officially adopted a comprehensive policy toward mass transit. They are presently working with RTD to improve and expand the present mass transit service in the City.
IV. LAND USE
V. MISCELLANEOUS
-59-


1.11 JEFFERSON COUNTY
INTRODUCTION
Jefferson County covers the western portion of the Denver Metropolitan Area, encompassing 783 square miles. Geography of the County ranges from mountainous sections on the west to lower areas of rolling grasslands to the east. Jefferson County has a population of about 300,000 people, mostly located in the major suburban towns of Lakewood, Wheat Ridge, Arvada, and Golden. Jefferson County is almost totally composed of residential or agricultural areas, widely scattered throughout the County.
Jefferson County has been designated as being in non-attainment of the standards for carbon monoxide, ozone, and suspended particulate. The eastern portion of Jefferson County has been included in the designated non-attainment area for nitrogen dioxide.
-60-


I.
GOALS AND POLICIES
II. TRANSPORTATION ORIENTED
A. STREET SWEEPING
Jefferson County uses two street sweeping machines on a full time basis to sweep the county roads. The normal sweeping program divides the County into small divisions which are totally swept in succession. This allows a frequency of sweeping of once every two months for the lower elevations of the County and only twice a year for the mountainous areas.
The normal sweeping pattern is dropped during winter storms when the County concentrates on sweeping the major roads after a storm.
B. STREET SANDING
Street sanding in Jefferson County is prompted by sheriff's department notification. The amount of sanding coverage is dictated by the intensity of the storm, with major roads and intersections being sanded first, and secondary roads leading to subdivisions sanded if necessary. Jefferson County uses a 12% salt-sand material in their sanding program.
C. TRAFFIC LIGHT SYNCHRONIZATION
There are no traffic lights controlled by Jefferson County which are synchronized. This is due to their scattered distribution throughout the County. All of the signals are actuated.
D. ONE-WAY STREETS
Jefferson County has no one-way streets at present.
III. TRANSPORTATION ORIENTED
A. BIKEWAYS
There are no bikeways in Jefferson County at this time. The County has no immediate plans to initiate a bikeway
-61-


system, preferring instead to allow the incorporated cities within the County to initiate bikeway programs.
B. MASS TRANSIT
Jefferson County has not been involved in mass transit routing or scheduling. The County is leaving mass transit coordination up to the cities within the County.
IV. LAND USE
V. MISCELLANEOUS
-62-


1.12 CITY OF LAKEWOOD
INTRODUCTION
The City of Lakewood covers an area of 14.5 square miles at an elevation of 5,440 feet, and presently has a population close to 130,000 people. Lakewood is a suburban community within the Denver Metropolitan Area, containing a sizeable amount of commercial activity, as well as some light industrial activity. A major feature of Lakewood is the Federal Center, located in the center of the community. Lakewood is located on the western border of the Metro area, with Wheat Ridge bordering on the north, and Denver bordering on both the east and south.
The City of Lakewood has been designated as a non-attainment area for the air quality standards for carbon monoxide, ozone, particulates, and nitrogen dioxide.
-63-


I. GOALS AND POLICIES
A AIR QUALITY GOALS21
0 "To encourage the preservation of the environment by enacting regulations among which would be the requirement of an assessment of the environmental impact of all public and private development and redevelopment within the city."
0 "To enact regulations, adopt practices, or otherwise undertake those actions which the City can pursue to guarantee the provision of clean air and clean water as necessary commodities for living."
AIR QUALITY POLICIES21
0 "The City shall adopt as a local ordinance the appropriate portions of the new Colorado State law dealing with visible emission control for motor vehicles."
0 "The City shall encourage a region-wide transportation plan which emphasizes alternative forms of travel other than the automobile."
0 "The City shall support both regional and local planning which de-emphasizes the need for private auto use in particular. It should work closely with the State Department of Health and regional governmental agencies to study and implement the applicable portions of the State of Colorado Air Quality Implementation Plan."
AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS21
"From the standpoint of air quality, the Denver Metropolitan region is located in the wrong place; the same natural geographic conditions which produce the dry, mild climate for the region also magnify the problem of air quality maintenance. This should not justify air pollution, but should emphasize the need for air quality considerations to accommodate our unique conditions.
"Three factors: localized meteorological conditions, the high number of automobiles, and the high altitude location of the Denver Metropolitan area, together create a visibly unpleasant and physically dangerous air pollution situation.
"The problem does not stop at the Denver City Limits, although there is an identifiable "air shed" in the Platte River Valley. Rather, air pollution is democratic in its impact, spreading almost evenly over the metropolitan area and into the mountain valleys."
-64-


"The Lakewood Development Plan makes a number of recommendations which will affect air quality under the Environment and Transportation sections of the Plan. The Plan recommends, for example, that by clustering into activity centers a blend of commercial business, governmental, residential and recreational land uses, a reduction of vehicular motor trips may be accomplished. The policy of discouraging the stripping of commercial activities (strip commercial) also complements the need to reduce travel. Through a policy of increasing the transportation system to include mass transit and bicycle and pedestrian paths, air quality standards may be met. Lakewood has begun to address itself to air quality. However, a gread deal of additional study into the costs and compromises involved needs to be accomplished before the requirements of the Federal Clean Air Act are met."
B. TRANSPORTATION GOALS21
"To create new, alternate transportation systems as a means of reversing the present emphasis on the private automobile as the major means of transport."
"To use future transportation improvements, whatever their nature, as a positive factor in the shaping of urban growth."
TRANSPORTATION POLICIES21
"The City shall develop short range and long range goals in regard to the transportation system and the Urban Form."
"For the short range, to increase the capacity of the transportation system, and to emphasize the strong points of each type of transportation system, i.e., bikeways, pedestrian paths, bus lanes, automobile facilities etc."
"For the long range, to encourage the land use pattern and of a transportat would reduce the need for a great amo
"In order to accomplish the immediate ing the capacity of the total system.
"The City shall support an advanced t transit network in Lakewood as part o system."
deve ion s unt o
goal
n
echno
fat
1 o ys f
s
lo o t
pment of a tern that travel."
of increas-
gy mass al regional
-65-


"The City shall promote a reduction in both fuel consumption and emissions of motor vehicles with a continuing program of improving traffic circulation by increas ing the efficiency of its traffic signal control network
"A system of designated bikeways shall be created so the bicycle may function as both a transport alternative and as a form of recreation."
0 "Encourage the development of pedestrian facilities when ever feasible and desirable to accommodate the needs of the working public."
m "In order to achieve_ the long range goals, the City shall :
0 Resist all development that tends to increase the need for vehicular travel by scattering goods and services throughout the city without regard to their intended markets.
0 Provide a total movement system that reinforces the adopted Urban Form."
TRANSPORTATION ANALYSIS21
"There is a recognized need for improvement in the transportation system in Lakewood, but if those improvements are made only with the purpose of moving more cars, future generations of Lakewood citizens will face problems similar to those we have today. Improvement of the transportation system demands a reexamination of the function of transportation, its relationship to other activities within the community, and a commitment to provide true access rather than simply movement.
"The relationship between land use and the demands on the transportation system has demonstrated that transit must be considered on a service system designed to serve major centers of activity. Indeed, this relationship is required if the City is to successfully modify its present Urban Form. Any future improvements to the transportation system should be accomplished in such a way as to reinforce the proposed Activity Center Urban Form Concept."
1. Mass Transit21
"Mass transit is a means of increasing the system capacity by appealing directly to a large segment of the travel demand -- those commuter-type trips between well defined targets such as to and from work, or one-stop shopping."
-66-


Mass Transit Policies21
m "Through increased subsidies, expand the commuter bus system as a part of the Regional Transportation District's Early Action Program."
0 "Develop an internal, all-day bus system for Lake-wood interconnecting tne points of activity in the community."
0 "Support the Regional Transportation District proposed programs by supplemental local financing and favorable community vote. Emphasize early completion of the Colfax Avenue route for fixed line transit, terminating at the Federal Center."
0 "Explore the development of an internal neighborhood transit system."
2 Bikeways21
"The bicycle, like the automobile offers the personal freedom to go one's way independently of other users of the system. Also, like the auto, a bicycle is usually available to the user at the point of trip origin, and within its effective range the bicycle will take the rider to his final point of destination.
"The designated bicycle routes in the Lakewood transportation system will establish the bicycle as a rational alternative for short trips between well defined areas. The plan shows bicycle paths along existing streets and in some of the natural drainageway parks which are proposed to connect Lakewood neighborhoods. Bike paths in the natural drainageways offer the possibility of a bicycle system from the Platte River Valley to the foothills .
"Bicycle paths might be included within the right-of-way of a dedicated street or they may be located on their own separate easement through a public area.
The street standards discussed earlier are flexible enough to allow bicycle paths or lanes on those streets designated by the Bikeway Plan. Any given bicycle route is flexible enough to take a number of different design solutions -- in a park at one location, in a path within a major street right-of-way in another, or along a low volume minor street in a residential neighborhood. It will require considerable attention over the next several years to work bicycle ways into existing areas and provide for them from the outset in developing areas."
-67-


Bikeway Policies
21
m "Develop a bikeway system interconnecting the major employment centers and activity centers of the community "
"Establish an adequate network of bikeways covering all major areas of the community."
m "Develop a neighborhood or local bikeway program emphasizing areas where pedestrian facilities are lacking."
3. Pedestrian21
"The present urban form has made walking a forgotten mode of transportation That situation probably cannot be remedied in the immediate future. However, attention to future development will make beneficial changes.
Higher residential densities with attendant open space, distinct community focal points planned into large developments, and closer attention to a desirable pedestrian environment in existing developments, all encourage more
pede St r ian act ivit y Wal ki n 9 sho u Id be CO nsi d ere d a nd
enco ur a ged as a wo rka bl e tra n s port ati on mo de for sho rt
dist an c es . Th e pe des tria n s y s tern wil 1 foe us on d esi rabl e'
dest in a tion po ints fo r th e i n d ivid ual a nd wil 1 be de signed
to a 11 o w a pi e asan t t ri p by t h is mode a
C. LAND USE GOALS21
"To utilize development techniques which provide for the clustering of structures to promote open space and achieve a compatible relationship between different community areas."
"To direct growth so that it occurs as a logical and contiguous addition to the existing community rather than
in a scattered "leapfrog" development giving first priority to the vacant lands within the developed portion of the City so that a more economic use can be made of the existing and future public and private facilities."
LAND USE POLICIES21
"The City shall join with other j udrisdictions within the metropolitan area in the adoption and implementation of
a regional growth plan which emphasizes land use compatible with the land's capability to support development."
-68-


"The City shall adopt 'The Community Activity Center Concept' as the urban form which is presented in this report as the conceptual foundation to accommodate and direct future growth within Lakewood."
"The City shall recognize the need for cluster development in and near the designated activity centers.
LAND USE ANALYSIS21
"Urban development patterns along the Denver Front Range have historically been dictated by economic considerations, often to the detriment of the natural environment. Continuing urbanization alone is not the major problem, rather the form which urbanization imposes on the land and its subsequent impact have now been recognized as major problems confronting man's urban environment.
"Urban development patterns in the Lakewood area have generally held that the most attractive parcels of land be developed first, leaving less attractive parcels temporarily vacant. The term "leapfrog" development has been applied to this kind of urbanization, which has left almost 30 percent of Lakewood in an unimproved state. This compares to an average metropolitan-wide figure for vacant land of 20 percent.
"The consequences of "leapfrog" development in Lakewood has been a low-density sprawl continuing today to the south and west of the city. The by-products of this sprawl-increased travel, excess energy use, increased costs for city services, and other all diminish the quality of man's urban environment."
II. TRANSPORTATION ORIENTED
A. STREET SWEEPING
The City of Lakewood has a thorough street sweeping program using six machines to clean the paved streets in their community. Two of the six machines are vacuum-type units which may be more efficient and effective than the regular brush units.
Lakewood has divided their sweeping program into a Summer and Winter program. The Summer program utilizes two shifts of sweeper operators to cover the 1600 sweeping miles in the program. This allows Lakewood to sweep their streets with the following frequency:
-69-


Major Arterials -- once every 5-8 days
Secondary Streets -- once every 10 days
Local Streets -- once every month or month
and a half
The Winter program concentrates on storm cleanup and is, therefore, dependent on the number and intensity of snow storms which hit Lakewood. The sweeping priority in the Winter program consists of the following:
1st Priority Major arterials with greater than
10,000 vehicle volume. These are covered immediately after a storm.
2nd Priority Secondary streets up to 10,000 vehicle volume. Swept between storms, usually averaging once every two storms.
3rd Priority Local streets, covered whenever
possible.
B. STREET SANDING
The City of Lakewood uses police notification and public works supervisors discretion as their regular criteria to begin sanding operations. The Lakewood sanding operation consists of 14 sanding routes, nine of which are devoted to major and secondary streets. The remaining routes cover local residential streets in Lakewood. Priorities for sanding consist of the following:
1st Priority Major and secondary streets.
2nd Priority Emergency routes, areas around fire
stations, hospitals, schools.
3rd Priority Local residential streets.
Lakewood uses a 15% salt-sand material in their sanding program.
C. TRAFFIC LIGHT SYNCHRONIZATION
The City of Lakewood presently has about 50% of their traffic lights equipped for synchronization. The City is upgrading the remainder of the traffic lights in the City, and expects to have them all equipped and tied into a
-70-


synchronized system by August or September 1978. Most of these lights will also be equipped with side street actuation, provided by the loop induction method.
III. TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATIVES
A. BIKEWAYS23
Lakewood presently has about 40 miles of bikeways throughout the City. These consist of about 13 miles of off-street bikeways, with the remainder being onstreet bikeways. The on-street bikeways are designated by lane striping and signs. The City plans to continue the expansion and upgrading of the present bikeway system.
B. MASS TRANSIT21
"The City of Lakewood has recommended several changes to the original RTD Plan. The City's alternate proposal recommends that the Colfax rapid transit line be located in the block between Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue rather than further to the south along 13th Avenue as envisioned by RTD. This recommendation is made in recognition of the impact the rapid transit line is expected to have on adjacent land. A transit line near Colfax would encourage the economic redevelopment of the Colfax strip. Densities would increase on either side of the transit line. A series of secondary activity centers will be encouraged to develop at station points. Bus systems, bikeways, and pedestrian paths will feed into the activity centers from the surrounding high density development; this redevelopment activity will afford the best possible patterns for this part of the City.
"The proposed transit system includes two park-n-ride locations one in the vicinity of the Federal Center and the other just south of Hampden Avenue on Wadsworth Boulevard. These "auto intercept" points are designed to encourage workers living in outlying areas to leave their cars at this relatively uncongested location and continue to their destination by transit."
-71-


IV. LAND USE
A. PLANNED DEVELOPMENT DISTRICT: SUBMITTAL REQUIREMENTS22
"The developer shall provide an analysis of the impact of the development on the following factors and an analysis of the impact of the following factors on the develop-ment."
"Air quality as affected by stationary and mobile sources."
m "Transportation patterns, including vehicle, bicycle, pedestrian, and transit circulation routes."
B. ZONING REQUIREMENTS21
Single Family Residential
"Public transportation be reasonably close to the proposed development."
High Density Multi-Family
"On or very near some form of public mass transit facility station."
Medium Density Multi-Family
"Close to major transportation routes, preferably mass transit routes."
Commercial
"In areas that are on or very close to public transportation facilities."
V. MISCELLANEOUS FUGITIVE DUST
The City of Lakewood is actively pursuing the paving of all roads in the City in an effort to cut down on the fugitive dust problem. This includes requiring the paving of all new streets and a program to pave those streets in Lakewood which are presently unpaved.
-72-


1.13 CITY OF LITTLETON
INTRODUCTION
The City of Littleton lies on the southern edge of the Denver Metropolitan Area at an elevation of 5,360 feet. Littleton is mainly composed of residential neighborhoods, with extensive commercial activity bordering its major arterials, including South Broadway, Littleton Boulevard, and South Santa Fe Drive. There is a small, centrally located business area in downtown Littleton which constitutes the commercial core of Littleton.
There are presently about 35,000 people living in the City of Littleton, an area of about 7.5 square miles.
The City of Littleton is in violation of both the primary and secondary total suspended particulate standards, and has been designated as an area of non-attainment for carbon monoxide, ozone, particulates, and nitrogen dioxide.


I. GOALS AND POLICIES
The goals and policies presented below represent those found in the separate neighborhood plans for the City of Littleton. The intention is for a synthesis of these neighborhood goals and policies to represent the comprehensive plan for the City of Littleton.
A. TRANSPORTATION POLICIESlh
"Improve transportation facilities and traffic controls only to the extent necessary to improve safety and to provide good traffic circulation within the neighborhood.
0 "Improve traffic circulation throughout the central area.
0 "Provide adequate public transportation, both within Littleton itself and as links to other communities in the Metropolitan area."
0 "That a 'lineal park' with emphasis on bicycle and pedestrian use, be an integral part of the planning and completion of Sterne Parkway to assure compatability of uses and provide adequate separation of pedestrian and bicycle trails from the automobile traffic."
0 "Provide a safe and interconnected system of bike paths that will facilitate bicycle traffic as an alternative to automobile traffic for local trips."
0 "Encourage the Regional Transportation District to provide adequate mass transit facilities and equipment to allow potential employers and/or residents adequate access to mass transportation."
0 "The use of alternatives to the private automobile should be encouraged by safe and convenient mass transit facilities and bike paths."
0 "Encourage the Regional Transportation District to provide adequate mass transit facilities and equipment to allow potential employers and/or residents adequate access to mass transportation."
0 "That separate pedestrian linkages be provided connecting the residential and recreational areas with industrial and commercial uses."
0 "That the Regional Transportation District be encouraged to acquire land in the neighborhood in anticipation of providing future mass transit service to the area."
-74-


"Acquire and develop additional open space land for the central area to provide exclusive pedestrian ways connecting Arapahoe Community College and Main Street."
"Support the Regional Transportation District in its efforts to locate a regional bus park and ride facility in the central area."
m "That an exclusive pedestrian and bicycle way be provided connecting the residential areas west of the South Platte River with business uses and the college east of South Santa Fe Drive. This pedestrian and bicycle way should provide a separate and safe crossing of South Santa Fe.
"That an exclusive pedestrian and bicycle way'be provided in the neighborhood from Arapahoe Community College to Main Street, and, additionally, from Arapahoe Community College north to Berry Avenue along the railroad tracks."
0 "That the site originally proposed by RTD for a rapid transit facility in the central area along South Rio Grande Street be recommended as a Regional RTD bus and park and ride station.
II. TRANSPORTATION ORIENTED
A. STREET SWEEPING
The City of Littleton employs three street sweepers, working eight hours a day, to sweep the Littleton streets. The program calls for sweeping each day the temperature is above freezing and there is no wind. The street sweeping program enables Littleton to be able to clean most of the city streets an average of once every ten days. Street sweeping covers about 60% of the streets in Littleton.
The City of Littleton makes it a point to sweep the sanded streets as soon as possible after every storm.
B. STREET SANDING
Littleton uses three sanding units to cover the major Littleton streets during a storm. The sanding criteria in Littleton is police notification or the creation of icy conditions. The sanding program concentrates on the major arterials in Littleton, school zones, hills, and bad intersections. Secondary emphasis is placed on local streets only during extremely bad storms. Littleton uses a 6% salt-sand material in their sanding program.
-75-


C. TRAFFIC LIGHT SYNCHRONIZATION
The City of Littleton utilizes a synchronization system on South Broadway and Littleton Boulevard. There are thriteen intersections linked to the master controller, achieving a progressive traffic flow through synchronization. The City uses loop inductor systems to achieve side street actuation on 90% of the traffic light system on these two major arterials.
D. ONE-WAY STREETS
Littleton has two one-way streets in operation presently. These two major arterials, Main Street and Alamo Street, were designated as one-ways for traffic movement reasons.
III. TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATIVES
A. BIKEWAYS25
"On Ma y 18 th / I 9 7 1 / Li t t 1 e t on C i ty Co u n c il U na n i mo u s l y
pa s s e d an o r d i n a n c e cr e a ti n 9 a b ik ewa y s ys t em i n t h e City
of Li t t let o n . P u bl i c s t re e ts a n d righ t s -o f - wa y or a n y
por t i o n th e r e o f a r e ma rk ed by P a in t s t r i Pi n 9 r b u 11 o n s /
sign s r or o t h e r t r a ffi c de vi c es / a nd s h a 11 n O t b e u s e d by
mot o r i z ed V e h i cl e s of a n y k in d; an d b i c y cl e s o P e ra t e d on
the d e s i gn a t e d s t r e ets s ha 1 l be op era t e d o n 1 y wi th i n the
por t i o n so d e s i gn a t ed . The Ci ty Admi n i s t ra t i on s ha 1 1 deter
min e t h e 1 o ca t i o n o f t h e b i ke wa y a nd t h e a PP ropr i a t e type
of m a rk ings / on e a ch s t r ee t / ba s ed up o n go o d t T a ff i c eng in
eer i n 9 pra c t i c e / a n d t h e b i ke wa y s hal 1 b e o f n O gr e a t er
wid t h t han s i X fe e t if 1 oca te d o n the P a ve d po r t io n o f any
str e e t and s h a 1 1 b e ad j a ce n t to th e s h o u Id e r o r cu r b
"Th e Li ttl e t on B i k e wa y s ys t em o ffe rs t h e c y c li n 9 e n th u -
sia s t o r t he o c c a s i ona 1 ri d er a n oppo r t u ni t y t o us e t he
bic y c 1 e as a n a 1 t e mat e fo r m of tr ans P o r ta t i on a 1 o n 9 20
mil e s o f we 1 1 - ma rk e d ro u te s t ha t h ave b e en c ar e f ul 1 y
cho s e n for s a f e t y / con V e ni e nc e , an d n a t u ra l be a u ty . n
B. MASS TRANSIT
The City of Littleton is presently working with RTD to improve and expand present bus service in the Littleton area.
IV. LAND USE
V. MISCELLANEOUS
-76-


1.14 CITY OF LONGMONT
INTRODUCTION
The City of Longmont has a population of about 35,000 people, residing in an area of 7.9 square miles. In the past, Longmont served as the agricultural hub of Boulder County, but it has recently shared that function with providing a residential community for people who commute to work in Denver and Boulder. Longmont lies on the northwest edge of the Denver Metropolitan Area, at an elevation of 4,980 feet.
The City of Longmont is in violation of the State and Federal particulate standard. Longmont has also been designated an area of non-attainment of standards for carbon monoxide, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide.
-77-


I. GOALS AND POLICIES
A. LAND USE POLICIES26
Gre enway Deve lopment - Greenwa y s a re intended to be rela -
tiv el y narrow corrid ors of eit h er P u blicly or privately
own ed open sp ace des ignated fo r P a ss ive, scenic and self -
pro pel led tra nsporta tion modes wh i ch provide linkage or
con nec tions b etween community a ct i vi ty generators and re si -
den tia 1 livin g units . Two typ e s o f greenways are charac -
ter ize d --a primary and a sec o nda ry type. (The specifi c
locati ons, si zes, an d other co n di t io ns of these greenway s
sho u Id be det ermined through n e go t ia tions between the
dev el o per and the pi anning dep a rt m en t )
1 . Pr imary greenway s within n e wl y d eveloped areas are
in tended to serv e various o pen space and self-propel 1 e d
tr ansport ation f unctions. Th e y should provide for
bi cycle a nd pede strian move me n t , as well as open spa ce
to meet positive human nee d s . P rimary greenways sho u 1 d
be locate d in su ch a manne r t o t ake advantage of nat ur al
fe atures compati ble with b i cy c 1 e and pedestrian move -
me nts and be des igned in a n e ffi cient and interest in 9
ma nner to safely move bicy c 1 e an d pedestrian traffic
wi thin an d betwe en neighbo r ho o ds
2 . Se condary greenways are de s ign a t ed as optional open
space and transportation r o ut e s situated within sub-
di visions to pro vide open s pa c e connections between
li ving ar eas and activity 9 en e ra tors as well as othe r
pr imary g reenway s Second a ry gr eenways should exist
wh ere a n eed for safe and e ffi ci ent pedestrian move-
ment has been determined."
II. TRANSPORTATION ORIENTED A. STREET SWEEPING
The City of Longmont presently uses two street sweepers on a full time basis, with a third unit reserved as a backup. Under normal conditions, Longmont's sweeping program covers the 131 miles of streets in the City once a month. This normal sweeping pattern is disrupted in winter due to snow storms and the City's efforts to sweep the sanded streets as soon as possible after every storm.
B. STREET SANDING
Street sanding in Longmont is initiated by the onset of snowy and icy conditions and/or police department notificatio
-78-


Sand is first applied to the main arterials, then is applied to school crossings, intersections, and hills. The City of Longmont uses a 7% salt-sand material in their street sanding program.
C. TRAFFIC LIGHT SYNCHRONIZATION
The City of Longmont has 15 blocks of main street controlled by 12 synchronized traffic lights. This represents about 50% of Longmont's traffic control system. The City has plans to update this synchronization system by linking the synchronized lights with a central computer system, but these plans are dependent on Federal funding.
D. ONE-WAY STREETS
The City of Longmont has no one-way streets at this time.
III. TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATIVES A. BIKEWAYS27
The City of Longmont is in the process of formulating a comprehensive bike plan for the community. The proposed bikeway system will contain about 45 miles of bike paths, incorporating both on-street and separate bikeway designs.
B. MASS TRANSIT
The City of Longmont is presently served by a mini-bus circulator system throughout Longmont, and by a regional service linking the city to Denver and Boulder. Both of these bus services are provided by the Regional Transportation District.
IV. LAND USE
V. MISCELLANEOUS
-79-


1.15 CITY OF NORTHGLENN
INTRODUCTION
The City of Northglenn lies on the northern edge of the Denver Metropolitan Area at an elevation of 5,460 feet. The City has an approximate population of 35,000 people, living in the City's 4.4 square mile area. The community presently serves as a suburban bedroom community for the Denver Metro area, containing a variety of commercial activities centered around the Northglenn Mall, and a negligible industrial element.
The City of Northglenn has been designated as an area of non-attainment of standards for carbon monoxide, ozone, particulate, and nitrogen dioxide.
-80-


I.
GOALS AND POLICIES
II. TRANSPORTATION ORIENTED
A. STREET SWEEPING
The City of Northglenn uses two sweepers to sweep their streets, with one used full time and both used immediately after a storm. The street sweeping program covers all the paved streets once a month, removing about 30 tons/month from the streets. The City coordinates their street sweeping operation with street sanding, and sweeps the streets immediately after a storm.
B. STREET SANDING
The criteria for street sanding is police request or an accumulation of snow and icy conditions. The street sanding program gives the major arterials first priority, with collectors and local streets sanded at intersections and hills. Northglenn uses a 77 salt-sand mixture on their streets.
C. TRAFFIC LIGHT SYNCHRONIZATION
The City of Northglenn presently has one interconnect system in operation, connecting six lights on 104th Street. There are plans for an expansion of the system in the future, dependent on availability of federal funds.
D. ONE-WAY STREETS
There are no one-way streets in Northglenn at present.
III. TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATIVES
A. BIKEWAYS
The City of Northglenn has a very comprehensive plan for a bikeway system providing access to the entire community. It incorporates close to 28 miles of hike/bike trails divided into three categories:
1. Trail through public and private land on separate hike/bike path (11.59 miles)
-81-


2. Trail along public right-of-way on hike/bike path physically separated from roadway (13.64 miles)
3. Hike/bike path along sides of public street roadways (2.7 miles)
The bikeway system is incorporated into the overall greenway trail program, aimed at connecting all sections of the City with alternative transportation links. Northglenn presently has about 1/2 of this trail system completed, with the remainder to be completed in the next few years.
B. MASS TRANSIT
The City of Northglenn has coordinated efforts with RTD to provide better service to their residents, but has experienced private resistance to efforts of expanding present service and facilities. The City has increased the radius of their streets and has allowed RTD bus turnes from through lanes on the major arterials in the City. There is one park and ride facility presently under construction at 120th and Huron, with a second regional facility located at the Northglenn Mall, near the center of Northglenn.
IV. LAND USE
V. MISCELLANEOUS
-82-


1.16 CITY OF THORNTON
INTRODUCTION
The City of Thornton, covers an area of ten square miles and contains a population of about 25,000 people. Thornton lies on the high plains east of the Rocky Mountains, at al elevation of 5,268 feet. Thornton is a suburban bedroom community serving the Denver Metro area, with little industrial or commercial activity within the community. It is bordered on the east and north by Adams County, and by the cities of Federal Heights, Northglenn, and Westminster on the south and west.
The City of Thornton has been designated as an area of non-attainment of standards for carbon monoxide, ozone, particulate ,. and nitrogen dioxide.
-83-


I. GOALS AND POLICIES
A. AIR QUALITY GOALS26
"To establish within the framework of Thornton's development a respect and concern for the natural resources and to predicate planning on sound environmental policy."
AIR QUALITY OBJECTIVES28
"Support the air, water, and land quality management programs."
AIR QUALITY POLICIES26
0 "The city shall support air and water quality standards to prevent further degradation to the region;s natural resources."
0 "Development shall be restricted from major regional air pollution corridors."
0 "All land use and development proposals shall be accompanied by an environmental impact statement.
B. TRANSPORTATION GOALS28
"To work with jurisdictions and agencies at all levels to develop a multi-faceted transportation system that provides adequate transportation for the city and the region."
TRANSPORTATION OBJECTIVES28
0 "Promote a complementary and supplementary system of local transit."
0 "Promote the development of other systems of transportation which are beneficial to the city."
m "Insure that transportation systems are provided at a pace in accord with developmental needs.
TRANSPORTATION POLICIES29
"The city shall participate fully with the Regional Transportation District in developing mass transit."
-84-


"There shall be supported an areawide bus shuttle service to provide localized convenience transportation to supplement the demand currently placed upon the automobile."
m "The city shall establish a comprehensive hike-bicycle network with linear trails incorporated into both the floodway and greenbelt system as well as an integral part of the arterial street system."
0 "All land use and development proposals shall be accompanied by a statement which relates to the transportation impact of the proposal."
C. LAND USE GOALS28
LAND USE OBJECTIVES29
0 "Promote clustering of activities."
0 "Promote land use arrangements which encourage the
reliance upon transportation other than the automobile.
0 "Provide intensified land uses adjacent to transportation corridors."
0 "Encourage contiguous development, if possible."
II. TRANSPORTATION ORIENTED A. STREET SWEEPING
The City of Thornton uses three street sweeping machines in their street sweeping program. The sweeping routes cover all the paved streets in the City, with a frequency of once a week on the main streets and arterials, and once a month for streets in residential areas. The City uses a chemical additive in the water used in their street sweeping program to help cut down on fugitive dust.
Thornton's street sweeping program coordinates clean up efforts with their street sanding program, sweeping the sanded streets immediately after a storm.
B. STREET SANDING
The criteria for sanding in Thornton is either freezing conditions or accumulation of two or more inches of snow.
-85-


III.
The street sanding program is divided into five sanding routes, covering 148.3 miles of major arterials, collectors, and high-use local streets. Sanding breakdown:
Principle Arterials and Collectors Local Streets
87.5 miles 60.8 miles
The City of Thornton applies an average of .75 tons of sanding material per mile. The composition of the sanding material is 7% salt-sand mixture.
C. TRAFFIC LIGHT SYNCHRONIZATION
Thornton presently has no traffic light synchronization but has plans for three interconnect systems on the major arterials of Washington Avenue, 84th Street, and Huron Street.
D. ONE-WAY STREETS
The City of Thornton presently has one local one-way street, which was designated for movement and safety reasons.
E. TRANSPORTATION IMPACT29
"The last, and the most important, Transportation is the requirement ment proposal be accompanied by a impact. This provides the City wi the impact of any given developmen costs to it if the development wou transit systems."
proposal by that each and statement of th a tool t and to Id o
the Concept-every develop transportation wei gh
to properly assess proper vertax the existing
TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATIVES
A BIKEWAYS29
"The first alternative is that designed to promote commuter u With a land use structure as d bility of "traveling" by foot alternative. These trails are part of each designated greenb to be developed as a part of e the collector classification. these trails to be wide and we as far as possible from traffi arterial right-of-way. Where
o f h ike and bike t rail s
s e as well as recreational .
efine d previously, the pos s i -
or bi cycle becomes a very r ea 1
t o b e developed as an int e gral
el t . Additionally, they a r e
ac h s treet and high way abo V e
I t i s highly desir able fo r
11 de fined and to b e locat e d
c, wh He remaining within t he
th i s is not possibl e, the
-86-


trails are to be developed within the street and to be as well defined and protected as possible.
"The City must begin an immediate program to provide bicycle/pedestrian pathways in order to meet the growing demand for these services and in order to provide viable transportation alternatives. Bike/hike routes have been designated for 1980 on map 6.8-2. The majority of the routes are within existing rights-of-way with the remaining interspersed in greenbelts and open spaces.
At the present time, Thornton has no bikeways in existence. The City does have a detailed bikeway plan which lays out proposed routes and design for future bike/hike trails in Thornton. The plan presents four classifications of proposed bike/hike configurations:
Class I Independent Bikeway: Independent path for exclusive use of bicyclists.
Class II on Sidewalk: Located within the street right-of-way and shared with pedestrians.
Class III Striped on Street: Located on street and designated with signing, striping, and possibly reflector buttons.
Class IV Bike Route: On-street bikeway designated by signing only. Should be restricted to local or collector streets where possible.29
B. MASS TRANSIT28
"The Concept Plan requires the City to fully support and participate in the planning and development of mass transit systems as being proposed by the Regional Transportation District. The principal component of their proposed system is a high volume "tracked" facility. This facility is to run in a north-south direction along the 1-25 corridor. Presently, RTD plans call for the alignment of this facility within the 1-25 R.O.W.
"To support the mass transit, RTD plans to expand regional and metropolitan bus systems. Within the Thornton area, the Concept calls for these bus systems to operate in the designated land use corridors and to provide a direct linkage with the RTD facility in the 1-25 corridor. These buses will operate on the principal, major and minor arterials, yet will also provide more immediate passenger service by selective routing onto collector streets."
-87-


"Concept plans also include a full program of support for the provision of local shuttle' bus service. This level of transportation would be designed specifically to meet the local needs of the citizens Provision of this mode of transportation will be through a combination of local, private and RTD funds.
"The total RTD system needs to promote wider service to the suburban areas, including Thornton. In turn, Thornton myst emphasize that new land development must remain close to the transit corridors, helping to avoid the need for auto commuter trips."
Recently, the City of Thornton has met with RTD and requested that a local town rider system be instituted in Thornton, with the elimination of the larger cross-town metropolitan bus service. At this time, nothing more has been done on the request.
C. RAIL SYSTEM28
"Rail systems are the next transportation alternatives. Concept-Transportation calls for the City to aid in whatever ways possible to make the present railroad lines as safe as possible and to provide more access to that line."
IV. LAND USE
V. MISCELLANEOUS
-88-


1.17 CITY OF WESTMINSTER
INTRODUCTION
The City of Westminster covers an area of 4.5 square miles on the high plains east of the Rocky Mountains, at an elevation of 5,480 feet. The population of Westminster, which is predominantly residential, is close to 25,000 people. Westminster lies on the north-west edge of the Denver Metropolitan Area, and is bordered by Adams County, Arvada, and Federal Heights.
The City of Westminster has been designed as an area of non-attainment of standards for carbon monoxide, ozone, particulate, and nitrogen dioxide.
-89-


I. GOALS AND POLICIES
II. TRANSPORTATION ORIENTED A. STREET SWEEPING
The City of Westminster uses three sweeping machines and one flushing unit to clean their streets. The street program covers all the paved streets in the City, normally on a seven to ten day rotation. During the winter months, the streets are swept every day -that the temperature is over 30F.
The steet sweeping program is coordinated with street sanding in Westminster, with the sweeping operation concentrating on cleanup of the major arterials as soon as possible after a storm.
B. STREET SANDING
The sanding program in Westminster is initiated by slick road conditions or by police request. The street sanding operation covers about 30% of the paved streets in Westminster, concentrating almost exclusively on the major arterials and secondary streets in the City. Westminster uses straight salt on 1/3 of the city streets in the older section of town, which is more expensive than a salt-sand mixture, but is cheaper than the frequent repairs on the sweeping machines if they were to sweep the area. The remainder of the sanded streets are sanded with a 20% salt-sand mixture.
C. TRAFFIC LIGHT SYNCHRONIZATION
The City of Westminster has one street in the City equipped with light synchronization. Another system is proposed, but this future expansion is dependent on federal funding.
D. ONE-WAY STREETS
At present, there is only one street in Westminster with a one-way designation, and is of little significance. This designation is for safety purposes.
-90-


III.
TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATIVES
A. BIKEWAYS
The City of Westminster presently has no bikeway system or bikeway policies. There are no bikeway proposals under consideration at present.
B. BUS INCENTIVES
The City of Westminster works in cooperation with RTD on local municipal bus service in the City. The City is also working closely with RTD on a proposed Park and Ride to be located at 88th and Sheridan, adjacent to the Boulder Turnpike.
IV. LAND USE
A. SUBDIVISION PLAT REQUREMENTS30
"If applicable, environmental and public facilities studies will be required prior to submittal of preliminary/final plat: storm sewarage/drainage, water, sanitary sewerage, traffic engineering, geologic, ecologic systems."
V. MISCELLANEOUS
-91-