Citation
The new Denver Childrens Museum

Material Information

Title:
The new Denver Childrens Museum
Creator:
Reingold, Dana L
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
34, [17] leaves : illustrations, maps (some color) ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Children's museums -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Children's museums ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 50-51).
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Dana L. Reingold.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
10058074 ( OCLC )
ocm10058074
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1979 .R446 ( lcc )

Full Text

ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN
NAURARIA LIBRARY

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CONTENTS
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE CHILDREN'S MUSEUM.
BUILDING AND SITE ANALYSIS SPATIAL NEEDS RESEARCH ON CHILDREN CODES, REQUIREMENTS AND ZONING RESEARCH SUMMATION}
BIBLIOGRAPHY
i i jj Date Due




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I


I.
INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE MUSEUM FOR CHILDREN IN DENVER
A. HISTORY
The museum began in 1973 as a "traveling show" going to various shopping centers. The museum had received a grant from HEW "to test the feasibility of developing a public cultural institution primarily for children". With these funds a series of "hands-on" exhibits were constructed. The HEW grant was renewed for a
i
second year and the group began to find a home lor the museum.
In early 1975, the museum leased 10,000 square feet of the first level of a brick structure at 931 Bannock Street. The renovation was designed by the A-B-R Partnership, Architects.
B. PHILOSOPHY
All around the country, children's museums have been very successful. They are "experience oriented" rather than "object oriented". The museum stimulates self-discovery and creativity, and makes learning a pleasure. It encourages the natural integration and cultural understanding of children from all ethnic groups and economic classes.
The museum also fills an educational gap, particularly for young children and creates a cultural institution which will benefit the entire state. It's a participatory museum, but more importantly the objective is to have a child come away feeling good about him or herself.


C. WHO IS SERVED ?
The museum serves children primarily between the ages of 2 and 12 from all ethnic groups and economic classes. They also want to develop techniques for serving handicapped children. The community has shown its support (10,000 visitors a month). Depending upon the quality of the visit, 500 to 3,000 children could visit the museum. Seventy-six percent of all Colorado children live within easy commuting distance from Denver. If all those children want to visit the museum
i
(and they do!), it would have to be many times larger than it is now.
For the last lour years the museum has been housed at the Bannock Street location. During this "experimental" time the museum has demonstrated its legitimacy as an important cultural institution for the community. The facilities are much too small for the changes and growth it has experienced. The staff has grown from two paid employees to nearly 30. Space used for exhibits has grown from 1600 square feet (housing remnants of the traveling experiment) to 5,000; and more space is neede for several major exhibits. Other services and programs could be offered if only THEY HAD MORE SPACE!
D. CHOOSING AN APPROPRIATE SITE
Preliminary guidelines for site selection:
Urban rather than suburban location is preferred; no special neighborhood.
Easy access by the general public with adequate parking; near freeway or public transportation.
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outdoor space use
In Denver (76% of Children in Colorado live within a 75 mile radius of Denver).
The Chosen Site Denver's Union Station
I am proposing a long term lease of the underutilized space in the General Waiting Room Area of the station. The terminal would continue to serve the trains but passenger service would be re-routed. The trains aid the experience of the train station would become an exhibit in itself (as well as an experience for the travelers!) The height of this space would allow multi-level structure for exhibition area and the adjacent spaces off the Waiting Room would serve the other functions of the Museum (leaving the perimeter spaces for the railroad).
II. BUILDING AND SITE ANALYSIS
SITE ANALYSIS LOWER DOWNTOWN
A. SITE ANALYSIS CRITERIA 1 . Transportation
Bus lines and future RTD corridors Roads and highways Pedestrian access Bicycle access
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2.
Land Use
Residential (varied densities)
Business
Industrial
Public and semi-public
3. Neighborhood Defined
Urban forms neighborhood buildings
i
Social and economic arrangements the nature of the neighborhood and the impact of the museum on this neighborhood.
B. LOWER DOWNTOWN SITE ANALYSIS 1 . Transportation
The street system as it now exists in lower downtown creates a problem. Both internal circulation and external access are made complex and difficult by the combination of one and two way streets. This is further complicated by the barriers of Cherry Creek and the viaducts. The recent analysis of downtown traffic and the 16th Street Mall propose that minor revisions would be required in lower dowrtown traffic patterns to serve a northwest transfer point downtown. An alternate traffic re-routing should be


proposed so that 17th and 18th Streets become two way at the Blake Street intersection. The 17th Street approach to Union Station (as well as the exit) can make it a focal point at the end of 17th Street (rot Just something in the rear view mirror). SEE MAP ON TRAFFIC FLOW. Presently 15th, 16th and 19th Streets begin to be two-way starting at Blake. This will also help to eliminate some of the confusion as well as make lower downtown more accessible.
i
Lower downtown is excellently served by RTD local buses -yet not well served by the DART-Free Ride. The Free Ride should be extended from the downtown to lower downtown and especially to the train station. With the event of the 16th Street shuttle, inbound buses would discharge passengers at these terminals. There should be an additional shuttle service or bus stop incorporated that would serve 17th Street possibly coming from 16th Street to Blake then down 17th to Wynkoop.
Pedestrian environment is in need of improvement. Sidewalks need repair and dont exist in some places. Redevelopment should provide a streetscape and conform with overall concept of the historical character. Bicycle access could be improved


as well and could be connected to Cherry Creek and Platte River Parks.
2. Land Use
The B-7 zone allows a wide range of land uses so there is no clear grouping of land uses within lower downtown.
Industry, manufacturing, and warehousing (old, established uses) arefound in cbse proximity to newer retail, office, and even residential uses. The Generalized Land Use map attempts to show the land use pattern of this area, but changes are happening fast, in general, most recent renovations and adaptive use of older structures to commercial and office uses. The corner of 17th and Market has become one of the centers of the skid row- subculture. As with Larimer Square, increasing renovation in the area will eventually force these people to refocate. This problem is a serious one, but needs to be addressed on a metropolitan-wide basis if there is to be a solution.
SEE LAND MAPS FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.
C. NEIGHBORHOOD DEFINED
This area has been negliected for many years due to its declining image and industrial image. As a result, the streets are in poor condition and the sewer system has {ust recently been repaired and reconstructed.
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Again, "Skid Row" (17th and Market Street) is a continuing problem.
There are programs (public and private) designed to attack these conditions will begin to have lasting effects. Meanwhile as economic and social conditions improve, the derelicts will have to move somewhere else.
Although there are many architecturally interesting older structures, only a few are genuinely "key" buildings that define the character and image of the area. Obviously Union Station as well as Constitution Hall, the Oxford Hotel and the cast iron storefronts between 15th and 16th on Blake and Market Streets are among these. These buildings and a few others are the nucleus of the "old" quality remaining in lower downtown and create the historical aura to the area and would maintain its individual expression without destroying the existing historic character.
See Maps for additional site and neighborhood information.
B. BUILDING ANALYSIS THE UNION STATION
1 . Finding new lives for train stations is no longer just a "good
cause" but a movement to "conserve" not preserve the splendors of their architecture while also being put to use while being enjoyed. Many smaller stations are now private shops, homes or studios.
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Bigger stations require a "big approach" before anything can be done for them. The biggest boost to the reuse of stations was when Congress enacted legislation to fund urban stations listed on the Historic Register which could still be used as a rail transportation center with connections to airports. There is a wide interest into converting these once "centers" of the city back into a "center" for commercial and cultural use.
1
2. Because Amtrac and Rio Grande Passenger service is still
active, the Station has not completely died The train companies have offices and snack and services are offered to the passengers. But what a waste! There is virtually no other activity on this once very active space. The architecture, interior and exterior is dynamic expressing the "movement" of the trains yet the excitement is gone (to the airport).
The space should still be respected for its use yet vitality and energy need to flow thru the general waifing room so the proposed shared use facility should exist. Children love trains and the excitement of trains going by (I know it was one of my thrills). But everyone enjoys the interaction and intrigue of travel. From a traveler's view it would be very positive for a Denver welcome to be a space with the activity of a Children's Museum. Nbt only to mention the excitement it could add to those one-hour stop-overs.
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3.
Information on Building
Architects: Aaron M. Gove Thomas F. Walsh
Date on Plans: July 1, 1914
Fort Collins Hard Red Sandstone Tooled bush hammered face Terra Cotta
Art marble floor and base Composition floor and base Plaster and marble on walls Wood trim and plaster molding
Roof Steel truss Floors Concrete Tees
More information on Union Station is being compiled for the Design Development Phase.
Exterior Material:
Interior Finishes:
Structure:
III. SPATIAL NEEDS
Square Foot Requirements Type of Space Current Use Current Need 1990 Desired
Exhibit Area 5,000 SF 8,000 SF 12,000 SF
C1 assroo m/Labs/Wo rksho p 0 1,000 2,500
Theater 1,600 2,500 4,000
Office Space 600 1,800 2,500
Audio/Visual Lab 0 0 1,500
Gift Shop 200 600 600
Meeting Room 0 300 300
Shop (Exhibit Construct.) 400 1,200 2,000
Cafeteria (Public) 0 0 2,000
Library/ftesource Center 0 0 600
Lobby/Entry-Reception 100 300 500
Volunteer & Staff Lounge 0 0 300
Sub Total 7,900 15,700 28,800
Net To Gross 600 3,000 5,000
(Circulation,. Assembly, Toilet Rooms, etc.)
Storage (for various 1,400 3,000 4,500
functions)
TOTAL AREA 9,900 SF -9- 21,700 SF 38,300 SF


B. Definition of Spaces
1 . Exhibit Area -
Size of space is very important (gymnasium size is best). Division exhibits into separate rooms is not desirable. A single open space is better. An out-of-doors location is not really practical unless exhibits can withstand rain and don't need supervision. Storage is needed near for supplies and repair. Also an exhibit/gallery area should be provided for
4
the children's creations.
2. Classroom/Labs/Workshop -
Workshops and learning areas should become an intrinsic part of the museum so that children can get an intensive exposure to a particular exhibit or craft. The spaces should be located in a section connected to the main exhibit area. Workshop leaders could conduct workshops in various fields (video, computer, ceramics, weaving, etc.). Classrooms and labs should interconnect with workshop program and should be easily accessible from the teacher resource center.
Adequate storage is needed.
3. Theater -
The theater should accommodate 150 people. There should be a public access as well as access from exhibit space. It should
_in_


be multi-functional flexible for all types of theatre functions (plays, storytelling, movies, magic shows, and even adult use at night) The theater group now (The Storytellers) is the largest moneymaker for the museum. During the week they travel to the schools and at the theater should be adjacent or related to a workshop for the community and children for set design and make up.
Dressing'rooms, storage, and workshop spaces should be provided.
4. Office Space -
Staff breakdown is under staff section. The directors need private offices but the rest of the office can be an open plan. The staff would need a separate conference space and a lunch/ kitchen space (See Meeting Space and Staff lounge).
This should be accessible to all parts of the museum. There is a full time staff, but also volunteers have been used effectively and it is anticipated that they will continue to play an important part in the museum's operation. There should be space allocation for the \olunteers.
5. Audio/Visual Lab -
This area would be mainly a production studio. Radio and video programs could be produced not only for the museum but
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mainly for the community. This service would be most valuable. This space should be a "hands-off" area primarily, yet an adjacent area should be provided for children with radio, t.v. and multi-media exhibit.
6. Gift Shop -
Fifty percent of this museum's operating funds are internally generated from such sources as admission fees, the gift shop, and the theater. The museum is a non-profit organization yet it is being run by all the profit-oriented marketing and management rules so as to be self-sufficient by 1981 The Gift Shop (called the Shopping Plazce) is stocked with unique children's toys, games and inexpensive gifts. There is also a "Traveling Gift Shop" which reaches out to those who cannot make a trip to the museum (nursing homes, jails, industrial centers and even fairs and festivals around the city. The Gift Shop should be located near the entrance/exit. It should be an enclosed space so that it can be securely locked when not open. Yet the exterior should be "open" and visually accessible with sufficient window display at children's eye level.
7. Meeting Room -
This area's function would primarily be used as a meeting/conference room for the museum staff. It should be adjacent to the offices and
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to the offices and lunch space. It is important that this space be off the main fbw of the museum activities and be acoustically sound. A quiet space is needed so that it can be a room free of distractions. There is no such space in the existing museum and it was the most requested space by the staff.
8. Shop (Exhibit Construction) -
This space is sued as a workshop for exhibits, storage for traveling exhibits, repair, and shipping and receiving of exhibits and materials. Storage also needs to be provided for construction supplies (paint, lumber, tools, etc.) Minimum height for the space should be 20 feet. A dock should be directly adjacent as the service access since most of the large deliveries are exhibits or materials for exhibit construction.
9. Cafeteria (Public) -
This would be the one major space that would be totally public serving the museum, train station's staff and travelers, and lower downtown. The present dining facilities are existing and operating and would require some renovation and proper space planning and good food. It should still relate to the children yet provide a sophistication for the adults. It aould also serve as a great "after theater" spot or a relaxing space for those weary travelers.
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10. Library/)?esource Center -
This service would be available to both teachers and parents. It would also loan teaching kits based on exhibits to school and teachers around the states. The Denver Public Schools has applied for funds for a teacher resource center, which would be run by two elementary school teachers. This should be located near the classrooms, labs and workshops.
J
11 . Lobby/Entry Reception -
These spaces are to be directly accessible from the Wynkoop side (Main Entrance now). Because there is an admission fee, then one of the two main entrances should be used as the entrance only (exit also) and the other used only as an exit. A coat check and personal belongings counter should be provided near both entrance and exit. The entrance should begin to bring the large scale of the building down to the scale for the child. The children should be made aware of where he or she is. It should say "Train Station and Museum" and should begin the experience.
The exit should again bring the child back to the scale of the "real world", yet express what a good time it was and create the desire to come backl
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12. Volunteer and Staff Lounge -
A well deserved space! It should be located near the offices yet be accessible from the exhibit area. Kitchenette, tables, chair and lounge furniture should be provided and a relaxing/ quiet atmosphere.
C. PROGRAMS OF ACTIVITIES 1 . Outreach Program
It is important that an outreach program is provided to serve the individuals and groups that traditionally are not museum-goers and to reach the geographic areas that are generally inaccessible to a central museum. There are three major ways to accomplish this:
Hiring a community coordinator (Marketing Outreach -unfilled position) whose job would be to develop exhibits and training programs that would be meaningful to Inner city1 children and minority groups.
Developing a teacher resource center, available to both parents and teachers.
Outfitting a mobile unit which could travel at certain times of the year to outlying rural areas and school systems. CSensorium" and "One of a Kind")
2. Inside Programs
Classes after school, weekends, and during summer for pre-
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school and other ages.
Curriculum coordinated demonstrations and presentations for the school systems using objects to explain what children are studying in their classrooms.
Reserved Group Hours each month, 3,000 children from schools, day care centers, community and youth organizations visit the museum.
City Games A book developed by the Museum as a revenue generating product. The city becomes a giant, living game board of games that reveal cultures, architecture, history and the present.
Boing Relatively new addition the museum's newspaper by and for kids. It is to be distributed free of charge to many of the metro area schools and libraries.
3. Staff See xerox diagram
4. Exhibits
a. Guidelines
The exhibits should be multi-sensory, using many of the modern learning techniques developed in the last few years, including film, t.v., audio tapes, records. Advantage for multi-sensory approach is that deaf children can see, blind children can hear, and all children can touch. All exhibits must be accessible to children in wheelchairs. All exhibits should have immediate positive feedback.
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Asst Floor Manager Carmen Hernandez
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Assistant -School programs -Wortshops
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Director of p'j:'.ications_ '>)' ) /
Storytellers
-Schorl group performance' -Keekend shows -F.-aily entertainment Kathy Fucetoty(Director)
Mary f a .axk( General Director)
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b. Environmental Requirements for Exhibits
Given size of exhibits and numbers of children attending, 23 feet width of exhibit area is really too narrow.
High ceilings are good so as not to feel claustrophobic (especially for staff and volunteers) and seems to cut down noise level.
, Small spaces are also good for some need to be closed
off from other areas (reading area and quiet space with few distractions).
Locked storage area easily accessible for extra supplies and broken exhibits absolutely essential.
Variable lighting and lots of electrical outlets necessary Polarized light exhibit needed for dcrk effect.
Tunnels very popular with all age children.
Exhibit areas should be bright and colorful or a neutral contrasting area to set off exhibits (no institutional colors).
Child scale (ceiling heights, size of furnishings)can make clear the place is primarily for children not adults.
Exhibits should be separated so they don't compete with each other.
Equipment/devices and space should be available for kids to display products they have created at the exhibit.
Exhibits space should be carpeted to cut down noise and make exhibit area look nice.


c. Needs of Handicapped Considered for Exhibit Design
Wheelchair or crutch patrons
1 Step-ups to exhibits (such as the step-up to multiple light exhibit this summer) should be avoided.
2. Tables for exhibits should allow room for v.'heelchair to fit between leg supports (height of normal adult table is supposedly needed for child in wheelchair).
3. Doorways into exhibits (such as into planetarium) should be wide enough for wheelchiar to pass through and should not have floor ledge to cross.
4. Switches and other activating devices should be placed at a height reachable from a wheelchair.
Neuromuscular problems especially involving the hands
i Containers of liquid and other spillable materials should be weighted.
2. Containers need to be large enough to be dipped or reached into without tipping and with some accuracy-probably at least 2 inches in diameter.
3. Syringes or basters available for exhibits contemplating eye droppers. Loop-type handles on any wire-type dippers.
4. Dress-up items wherever possible the substitution of tape, large buttons and button-holes and long-handled shoe horns for fastening. We might be able to get some special equipment loanded if needed for this.
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5. Anything small which needs to be picked up or
placed accurately (such as beans or small buttons, etc.) needs either to be enlarged, aided by volunteer or specially equipped. For example, a piece of putty on a stick can pick up many items provided the stick is grasp-able.
Blind or Partially-Sighted
;
1 Instructions and directions in braille might be obtained.
2. Sharp,pointed edges need to be avoided or padded.
3. Inclusion of texture wherever possible would be desirable. Example: Mock-up of geological cut of a mountain
with geological features made 3-dimensional.
4. Placement of materials, switches, etc. should be close enough for these children to easily find them, but far enough apart so that the children neuromuscularly involved do not accidentally trip them.
Deaf or Partially-Hearing
1 If exhibit is accompanied by sound track (as in the planetarium), the background music must be subdued enough so as not to interfere with the speaker's voice.
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2. Exhibits requiring hearing will be usable by the partially hearing if:
a. Placed at a great enough distance from other noisy exhibits (i.e. musical instruments separated from t.v. and balance boards);
b. Persons making sound tapes have well-modulated well-pitched voices without speech impediments or geographical accents.
c. Touch can be used to feel vibrations of sound.
d. Number of people at exhibit is limited .
Perceptually Handicapped
These children will frustrate easily if faced with complex visual or auditory exhibits guidelines for deaf, blind and neuromuscular handicapps would apply to these children. Simplified versions of any complex exhibits would be helpful for these children as well as for the very young normal child and the retarded child.
Emotionally Handicapped
Very individual in their problems. Probably the only design problem would be overly-frustrating exhibits and this could be solved by aware volunteers.
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d. Exhibits
1 . Kinetic electronics
Oscilator controls are manipulated by participants so that the amplitude and magnitude of wave farms are altered.
2. Computer terminal
The following "games" are expected to be available:
i
a. Tic-tac-toe
b. Maze generation
c. Computer "art" - Snoopy, etc.
d. One-armed bandit
e. Lunar landing
3. Theramin
An electronic musical instrument in which the volume and pitch are controlled by proximity of the participant's hands.
4. Talking tree
Tree lights are activated by sounds: the greater the volume, the more lights.
5. Make-Up Table "Make-a-Face"
A series of five mirrors on a long table at which children can "make-up" using professional quality theatrical paint.
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Clay Cubes
Children work with clay. Clay is within giant plexiglas cubes and accessible to children by rubber gloves inserted through openings.
Giant Guisenaire Rods
Rods are standard cuisenaire rods but to a
much larger scale. Color to match.
Puppetry
Children construct and play with puppets. Solar energy exhibit Transistor radio plays with energy from a light source.
Flashlight Communicator
Voice travels on a flashlight beam.
Polarizing filters
Using light from an overhead projector, participants can see "stress" patterns in cellophane and otherwise experience the influences of polarized light.
Ho lograms
3-D effect of holograms enables participants
to see around corners.


13. Insides
A walk-in full size kitchen with everything exposed (wiring, plumbing & structure)
14. Harmonograph
Children "draw" geometric designs.
15. Moire Patterns
"Pop Art" relying on interference patterns
1
between geometric designs.
16. Periscope
A box with periscope mounted.
17. Giant tangrams
This popular puzzle is made to large scale.
18. Giant Suma Cube
The popular 3-D puzzle is 3' x 3'.
19. Cultures
A Polish mountain cabin, Hong Kong home, Nigerian Village.
20. Dilution Trays
Trays filled with water and colors 21 . Probability
Dice are rolled and entries made to show normal curve.
22. Illusions
Optical illusions are depicted.
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23.
Folded Mirror
Three mirrors are set up so that multiple images are seen.
24. Two-way Field Phones with Oscilloscope Voice pattern is visible on oscilloscope.
25. Put-On
Costumes and cbthing of various historical and ethnic groups available for children to
J
try on. Mirrors also.
26. Dentist
Fully functioning dentist's office Help overcome fears by familiarization of equipment.
27. Movies
Understand how movies are made by making them.
28. Foam Room
Completed padded room structures to jump, slide and climb on.
RESEARCH ON CHILDREN
A. SCALE
The scale of the museum is probably the most critical issue especially since the space chosen is a very large one. Division of that space into multi-levels will create an intimate scale needed as well as creating a variety of spaces that encourage exploration. Levels and structures should be built to accommodate and intrigue a child, for the child recognizes the environment being tailored to his or her height, reach,


and energies.
B. EDUCATION
This aoncern for education is no accident. The museum was founded by parents and teachers concerned with the quality of education. They found that the typical classroom experience is no substitute for live animals, real artifacts, actual demonstrations and field trips.
The museum should hot duplicate schools. The museum should automatically include such subjects as exhibits: math, music, art, theater, the natural and physical sciences, urban technology, computer technology, architecture and design. The museum should not focus on any single subject, but try to examine the interrelations between subjects; i.e. between math and music.
Also, the environment is not to be exclusively a child's world, but also give the teacher the same challenging new educational dimension.
Whenever they (the teachers) choose, they can bring their program into the environment, and adapt it to the program. As the environment (exhibits) suggest many different settings and uses to the children, it should also be creatively stimulating to the teachers.
C. PERCEPTIONS OF WORLD, SPACE AND SELF
The right kind of space creates activity. A child sees a space and his imagination begins to soar. If ift a place to climb, crawl into, or explore fantasy run wild, and in their minds they make things out of
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that space.
Paths and Catwalks again children will invent fantasies and games and will go out of their way to use them (not only a way to get from one place to anothei).
D. COLOR
Children prefer that the hue is at full intensity -Boys prefer blue.
Girls prefer red.
Yellow rates lower the older they get.
Single color preferences are orange, red-violet, and blue.
Complimentary colors yellow and violet are the favorites. Children prefer near compliments to true compliments i.e. blue and orange combination.
Children also prefer analogous colors to monochromatic.
Favoriate triad isorange, greenand violet with yellow, red and blue as second.
V. CODE REQUIREMENTS AND ZONING A. MUSEUM CODE
The museum requires a B-type occupancy classification. This classification basically makes some fairly heavy demands in regards to fire regulations and area requirements. The museum falls into either the B-2 or B-3 division.
o/


B. LOWER DOWNTOWN ZONE B-7
In response to the newly demonstrated potential of the area, and the interest in preservation and adaptive reuse, the City of Denver, in cooperation with the property owners in the area and the downtown business community, created the new B-7 zone in lower downtown, previously zoned 1-1 to encourage reuse of the existing structures to maintain the scale and character of the area. The B-7 zone was adapted by City Council in Navember, 1974. A wide variety of land uses
are permitted in order to promote and facilitate the adaptive reuse
%
of the existing structures.
The adoption of the B-7 zone allows a much wider range of land uses than previously permitted.
Maps, copies of the Code and Zones are found in the following pages.
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LLSl I ^aenuBf
DNINOZ


CHAPTER 7
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP B OCCUPANCIES
Section 701. Group B Occupancies Defined. Division 1.
Group B Occupancies shall be:
Any assembly building with a stage and an occupant load of less than 1000 in the building.
Division 2.
Any assembly building without a stage and having an occupant load of 300 or more in the building.
Division 3.
Any assembly building without a stage and having an occupant load of less than 300 in the building, including such buildings used for school purposes less than eight hours per week.
Division 4.
Stadiums, reviewing stands, and amusement park structures not included within Group A nor Group B Divisions 1, 2 and 3 occupancies.
For occupancy separations see Table No. 5-B.
For occupant load see Chapter 33.
Section 702. Construction, Height and Area Allowable.
(a) General.
Buildings or parts of buildings classed in Group B because of the use or character of the occupancy shall be of Type I, II, III, IV or V construction and shall not exceed, in height or area, the limits set forth in Chapter 5.
Exception: Division 4 structures of open skeleton frame type shall not be limited in height or area.
(b) Special Provisions.
1. Stages and enclosed platforms as defined in Chapter 4 shall be constructed in accordance with Chapter 39.
2. The slope of the main floor of the assembly room shall not exceed one in eight.
3. Divisions 1 and 2 occupancies shall be of at least one-hour fire-resistive construction throughout, except that a fire-resistive ceiling shall not be required in one-story buildings of Type III, IV or V construction having an open frame roof. Division 2 occupancies with an occupant load of 1000 or more shall be of Type I, II or III construction.
Exception: Gymnasiums which have not more than two balconies, each with an occupant load not to exceed 300, and which are not located over usable spaces, need not have one-hour fire-resistive protection.
4. Division 3 occupancies located in a basement or above the first story shall be of at least one-hour fire-resistive construction.
5. Group B assembly rooms having an occupant load of 1000 or more shall not be located in the basement.
6. Division 3 occupancies with an occupant load of 50 or more, which are located over usable space, shall be separated from such space by at least one-hour fire-resistive construction.
7. For attic space partitions and draft stops see Chapter 31.
(c) Division 4 Provisions.
1. Erection and structural maintenance of structures housing Division 4 occupancies shall conform to the requirements of this Code, and where there are no such specific requirements, shall provide adequate safety for the loads to which they may be subjected.
2. Structures housing Division 4 occupancies, other than those of open skeleton frame type, when more than one story in height or four hundred (400) square feet in area, shall be of at least one-hour fire-resistive construction.
3. When the space under a Division 4 occupancy is'used for any purpose, it shall be separated from all parts of such Division 4 occupancy, including exits, by walls, floors and ceilings of at least one-hour fire-resistive construction.
Section 703. Location.
\
(a) In City
For restrictions based on location in Fire Zones, see Chapter 16.
(b) On Property.
,A!t buildings housing Group B Occupancies shall front directly upon or have access to a public street at least twenty feet (20') in width. The access to the public street shall be a minimum twenty-foot (20') wide right-of-way unobstructed and maintained only as access to the public street. The main entrance to the building shall be located on the public street or on the access way. (For property setbacks, see Zoning Regulations).
7-1


I
xterior Well end Opening Profaction.
For fire-resistive protection of exterior walls and -ntngs, as determined by location on property, ihopfer 5 and Chapters 17 through 22 inclusive, guloting adjacent buildings on the same prop-/, see Chapter 5.
m 704. Exit Facilities.
General.
sirs and exits shall be provided as set forth in .r.er 33.
Amusement Structures.
sirs and exits for Division 4 amusement struc-s shall be provided as set forth in Chapter 33, ect to the approval of the Building Official. Exit shall be installed as set forth in Chapter 33 here required by the Building Official.
ion 705. Light, Ventilation and Sanitation,
jht.
Ml portions of Group B Occupancies customarily y human beings and all dressing rooms shall ivided with natural or artificial light as set in Chapter 6.
ntiicfion.
requirements in Group 'B Occupancies, see iter 52.
station. Csee Chapter 50 )
705. Enclosure of Vertical Openings, cits.
snail be enclosed as set forth in Chapter 33. lefts.
itor shafts, vent shafts, and other vertical shall be enclosed separately end the en-; sha1! be as set forth in Tcbls No. 17-4 and
3C.
707. Fire Protection 5ystems.
Section 703. Special Hazards.
(a) Chimneys end Heating Apparatus.
Chimneys and heating apparatus shall conform to the requirements of Chapters 37, 51 and 52.
(b) Motion Picture Machine booths.
Motion picture machine booths shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 40.
(c) Flammable Liquids.
Flammable liquids shall not be placed or stored in a Group B Occupancy.
{d) Boiler Rooms.
All exterior openings in a boiler room or rooms containing central heating equipment shall be protected by a fire assembly having a three-faurths-hour fire-resistive rating. Such fire assemblies shall be fixed, automatic, or self-closing.
Every room containing a boiler or a centra! heating plant which burns liquid or solid fuel shall be separated from the rest of the building by a "Three-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separation" with oil openings protected as set forth in Table No. 33-B. Every room containing a boiler or a central heating plant which burns gas as fuel shall be separated from the rest of the building by at least a "One-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separation" with all openings protected as set forth in Table No. 33-B.
Exception: Where boilers or central heating plants burning liquid or solid fuel are located at grade level they may be separated from the remainder of the building by a "One-Hour Fire-Resistive Occupancy Separation" with all openings protected by a fire cssembly having a one-hour fire-resi%tive rating, mounted within the boiler room and having dosing devices as set forth in Table No. 33-B.
Section 7C9. Exceptions and Deviations.
Gymnasiums and similar occupancies may have running tracks constructed of wood or unprotected steel or iron.
In gymnasiums and in multi-purpose schoolrooms having an area not greater than thirty-two hundred (3203) square feet, one U) inch nominal tight tor.gue-and-grooved cr three-fourths inch plyweed wall covering may be used on the inner side in lieu of fire-resistive piaster. .See Chapter 42 for Interior Finishes.)
nafic fire extinguishing systems, standpipes, :fion systems, and fire alarm systems, shall be os set forth in Chapter 33.
j
: I S
j i
i l
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it
I
r
7-2


612 Revised Municipal Code of the City and County of Denver
.31. B-7 District.*
.31-1: Description of District. This district is intended to provide for and encourage the preservation and vitality of older areas that are significant because of their architectural, historical and economic value. A variety of land uses will be permitted in order to facilitate the re-use of existing structures without jeopardizing or reducing zoning standards promoting the public safety, convenience, health, general welfare and the preservation of the Comprehensive Plan. To preserve the existing scale of buildings in the area, the floor area ratio is minimized. Premiums for additional floor area are provided to encourage new buildings to conform to the style and character of the area.
.31-2. Limitations on External Effects of Uses. All uses established or placed into operation after the effective date of this ordinance shall comply forthwith with the following limitations. All uses actually established and in operation on the ef/ective date of this ordinance shall be made to comply with the followjng limitations within not more than three years from the date on which the following provisions become effective.
.31-2(1). Enclosure of Uses. Every Use, unless expressly exempted by this ordinance, shall be operated in its entirety within a completely enclosed structure; the exemption of use from the requirement of enclosure will be indicated by the phrase need not be enclosed appearing after any use exempted.
.31-2(2). Volume of Sound Generated. Every Use, unless expressly exempted by this ordinance, shall be so operated that the volume of sound inherently and recurrently generated does not exceed seventy decibles at any point of any boundary line of the Zone Lot on which the use is located.
.31-2(3). Vibration Generated. Every Use, shall be so operated that the ground vibration inherently and recurrently generated is not perceptible, without instruments, at any point of any boundary line of the Zone Lot on which the use is located.
.31-2(4). Emission of Heat, Glare, Radiation and Fumes. Every Use shall be so operated that it does not emit an obnoxious or dangerous degree of heat, glare, radiation or fumes beyond any boundary line of the Zone Lot on which the use is located.
.31-2(5). Outdoor Storage and Waste Disposal.
.31-2(5)(a). No highly flammable or explosive liquids, solids or gases shall be stored in bulk above ground. Tanks or drums of fuel directly connecting with heating devices or appliances located on the same Zone Lot as the tanks or drums of fuel are excluded from this provision.
.31-2(5)(b). All outdoor storage facilities for fuel, raw materials and products shall be enclosed by a fence or wall adequate to conceal such facilities from adjacent property.
.31-2(5)(c). No materials or wastes shall be deposited upon a Zone Lot in such form or manner that they may be transferred off the Zone Lot by natural causes or forces.
.31-2(5) (d). All materials or wastes which might cause fumes or dust or which constitute a fire hazard or which may be edible by or otherwise be attractive to rodents or insects shall be stored outdoors only in closed containers.
Source: Ord. J83. Series 1974. except where otherwise Indicated.
397.81
1971 Rev.


B-7 District
612
.31-3. Permitted Uses. No land shall be used or occupied and no structure shall he designed, erected, altered, used or occupied except for either one or more of the,following Uses by Right or for one or more of the following Uses by Temporary Permit: provided, however, that a Use by Right may be accompanied bv lawful Accessory Uses and/or one or more of the following Uses by Temporary Permit.
.31-3(1). Uses by Right. The following uses may be operated as Uses by Right:
.31-3(1)(a). Manufacturing, processing and/or fabrication: The manufacturing. processing and/or fabrication, as enumerated and limited herein of any commodity except the following: abrasives, basic manufacture: alcor holic distillation: animal by-products, basic manufacture or processing; bone black, basic manufacture: brewery: carbon black and lamp black, basic manufacture: charcoal, basic manufacture: chemicals, heavy or industrial, basic manufacture or processing: cinder and cinder blocks, basic manufacture or fabrication: clay and clay products, basic manufacture or fabrication; coal or coke, manufacture or processing; concrete and concrete products, manufacture or fabrication; detergents, soaps and by-products, using animal fat, basic manufacture: electric power generator station: fermented fruits and vegetable products, manufacture; fertilizers, manufacture or processing; fungicides, manufacture: gases, other than nitrpgen and oxygen, manufacture; glass, manufacture: glue and size, manufacture; grain milling; graphite, manufacture; gypsum and other forms of plaster base, manufacture: insecticides, manufacture; insulation, flammable types, manufacture or fabrication: junk processing: junkyards; matches, manufacture: meat slaughtering or packing: metals, extraction or smelting; metal ingots, pigs, castings, sheets or bars, manufacture; oils and fats animal and vegetabe, manufacture: paints, pigments, enamels; japans, lacquers, putty, varnishes, whiting and wood fillers, manufacture or fabrication, paper pulp and cellulose, basic manufacture; paraffin, manufacture; petroleum and petroleum products, manufacture or processing; portland and similar cements, manufacture; rubber, manufacture, processing or reclaiming: sawmill or planing mill: serums, toxins, viruses, manufacture; sugars and starches, manufacture; tannery, turpentine, manufacture; wax and wax products, manufacture: wood preserving by creosoting or other pressure impregnation of wood by preservatives; provided, however, that any manufacturing process hereby excluded may be operated as and subject to the limitations of an accessory use.
.31-3(l)(b). Sale at Wholesale or Storage: The sale at wholesale, the warehousing and/or storage of any commodity except the following: (1) Live animals: (2) commercial explosives: (3) above-ground bulk storage of flammable liquids or gases, unless and only to the extent that the storage of such liquids or gases is directly connected with energy or heating devices on the premises or to service railroad locomotives.
.31-3(1) (c). Assaying office and laboratory.
.31-3(1)(d). Assembly, without fabrication: The assembly without fabrication of completely fabricated parts, excluding, however, the assembly of automobile, trucks, trailers, and mobile homes.
.31-3 (1) (e). Office.
.31-3(l)(f). Repair, rental and servicing: The repair, rental and servicing of any article the sale, warehousing, fabrication or assembly of which article is permitted in this district.
397.82
1974 Rev.


612 Revised Municipal Code of the City and County of Denver .31-3(l)(xxx). Meat, fish or seafood store.
.31-3(l)(yyy). Metal sharpening.
.31-3(l)(zzz). Mirror silvering.
.31-3(lXaaaa). Mortuary.
.31-3(l)(bbbb). Motel (not including a trailer camp or trailer court). .31-3(l)(cccc). Museum.
,31-3(l)(dddd). Music store.
,31-3(l)(eeee). Music, musical instruments and phonographic record store. .31-3(l)(ffff). Newspaper Distribution Station.
.31-3(l)(gggg). Book store, adult. (Ord. 692, Series 1976)
,31-3(l)(hhhh). Eating place with adult amusement or entertainment. (Ord.
692, Series 1976)
,31-3(l)(iiii). Optician.
,31-3(l)(jjjj)- Paint and wallpaper store.
,31-3(l)(kkkk). Painting and decorating contractor.
. 31-3(1)(1111). Parking and/or commercial storage of vehicles; need not be enclosed, provided that any part of such use conducted outside a completely enclosed structure shall comply with all specifications for maintenance hereinafter required for off-street parking space.
.31-3(l)(mmmm). Pet store.
.31-3(l)(nnnn). Picture framing.
.31-3(l)(oooo). Photographic studio or picture processing, or both.
,31-3(l)(pppp). Photostating.
,31-3(l)(qqqq). Police station.
,31-3(l)(rrrr). Post office.
.31-3(l)(ssss). Pressing, altering and repairing of wearing apparel.
,31-l(l)(tttt). Printing, publishing and allied industries.
,31-3(lXuuuu). Private club or lodge.
.31-3(l)(vvw). Public baths.
,31-l(l)(wwww). Radio and television broadcasting (including transmitter).
,31-3(l)(xxxx). Radio and television store and repair shop.
31-3(l)(yyyy). Railway right-of-way; any railway right-of-way existing on the date this ordinance became effective, but not including railway yards, maintenance or fueling facilities; need not be enclosed.
,31-3(l)(zzzz). Savings and loan association, state or federally chartered.
,31-3(l)(aaaaa). School of any type.
,31-3(l)(bbbbb). Shoe repair shop.
,31-3(l)(ccccc). Shoe store.
.31-3(l)(ddddd). Sign contractor.
.31-3(l)(eeeee). Special trades contractor. A contractor specializing in one or more trades of which the following are examples; plumbing, heating, refrigeration and air conditioning; painting, paper hanging and decorating; wiring and electrical work; glass and glazing work; damp proofing; fireproofing; tile, linoleum, floor laying and other floor work; insulation, asbestos and acoustical work; carpentry and cabinet making; excavating; well drilling; masonry and store work; ornamental iron work. Trucks having a manufacturers capacity of more than two tons shall not remain on the premises except as necessary to load and discharge contents.
.31-3(l)(fffff). Sporting goods store.
.31-3(1 )(ggggg)- Stationery store.
.31.3(l)(hhhhh). Swimming pool; need not be enclosed.
397.85
1976 Rev 2


612
Revised Municipal Code ok the City and County ok Denver
within the same district, of the permitted operation, no part of which area shall be a distance of more than two miles from the building or yard. Each such permit shall be valid for a period of not more than six calendar months and shall not be renewed for more than four successive periods at the same location; need not be enclosed.
.31-3(3). Accessory Uses. Incidental only to a Use by Right, any use which complies with all of the following conditions may be operated as an Accessory Use and need not be enclosed.
.31-3(3)(b). Is operated and maintained under the same ownership or by lessees or concessionaires thereof, and on the same Zone Uot as the Use by Right.
31.-3(3). Is operated and maintained under the same ownership or by lessees or concessionaires thereof, and on the same Zone Uot as the Use by Right.
.31-3(3)(c). Does not include structures or structural features inconsistent with the Use by Right.
.31-3(3)(d). Does not include residential occupancy in conjunction with uses other than hotels, motels, tourist homes and like transient housing accommodations. except by owners and employees employed on the premises and the immediate families of such owners and employees.
.31-3(3)(e). The gross floor area utilized by all Accessor.' Uses of all Uses by Right in the same structure shall not be in excess of lC/U of the gross floor area utilized by all of the Uses by Right, provided, however,
.31-3(3)(e)(e-l). There shall be no limitation on the area occupied by garages, loading docks and company dining rooms.
,31-3(3)(e)(e-2). Every Accessory Use of a residential nature not located in a hotel, motel, tourist home or like transient housing accommodation shall contain at least 400 square feet of gross floor area and no such Accessory Use located in a structure having a gross floor area of 6,000 square feet or more shall contain more than l(/7c of the gross floor area of the structures.
.31-3(4). Separation of Certain Uses.
.31-3(4)(a). N'one of the following permitted uses may be established, operated or maintained within 500 feet of a residential district, a Church and/or a school meeting all requirements of the compulsory education laws of the State of Colorado: (Ord. 693. Series 1976)
.31-3(4)(a-l). Book Store, adult:
.31-3(4)(a-2). Eating Place with adult amusement or entertainment; ,31-3(4)(a-3). Photo Studio, adult;
.31-3(4)0-4). Theater, adult;
.3l-3(4)(a-5). Any use intended to provide adult amusement or entertainment on payment of a fee or admission charge. (Ord. 693, Series 1976)
.31-3(4)(b). Not more than 2 of the following permitted uses may be established, operated or maintained within 1.000 feet of each other: (Ord. 693. Series 1976)
.31-3(4)(b-1). Book Store, adult;
.31-3(4)(b-2). Eating Place with adult amusement or entertainment; .31-3(4)(b-3). Photo Studio, adult:
.31-3(4)(b-4). Billiard Parlor;
.31-3(4)(b-5). Theater, adult;
.31-3(4)(b-6). Tattoo Studio;
.31-3(4)(b-7). Any use intended to provide adult amusement or entertainment on payment of a fee or admission charge. (Ord. 693, Series 1976)
397.87
1978 Rev,


612
Revised Municipal Code ok the City and County ok Denver
within the same district, of the permitted operation, no part of which area shall be a distance of more than two miles from the building or yard. Each such permit shall be valid for a period of not more than six calendar months and shall not be renewed for more than four successive periods at the same location; need not be enclosed.
.31-3(3). Accessory Uses. Incidental only to a Use by Right, any use which complies with all of the following conditions may be operated as an Accessory Use and need not be enclosed.
.31-3(3)(b). Is operated and maintained under the same ownership or by lessees or concessionaires thereof, and on the same Zone Uot as the Use by Right.
31.-3(31. Is operated and maintained under the same ownership or by lessees or concessionaires thereof, and on the same Zone Uot as the Use by Right.
.31-3(3)(c). Does not include structures or structural features inconsistent with the Use by Right.
.31-3(3)(d). Does not include residential occupancy in conjunction with uses other than hotels, motels, tourist homes and like transient housing accommodations, except by owners and employees employed on the premises and the immediate families of such owners and employees.
,31-3(3)(e). The gross floor area utilized by all Accessory Uses of all Uses by Right in the same structure shall not be in excess of \CTc of the gross floor area utilized by all of the Uses by Right, provided, however,
.31-3(3He)(e-1). There shall be no limitation on the area occupied by garages. loading docks and company dining rooms.
.31-3(3)(e)(e-2). Every Accessory Use of a residential nature not located in a hotel, motel, tourist home or like transient housing accommodation shall contain at least 400 square feet of gross floor area and no such Accessory Use located in a structure having a gross floor area of 6,000 square feet or more shall contain more than \fflc of the gross floor area of the structures.
.31-3(4). Separation of Certain Uses.
,31-3(4)(a). None of the following permitted uses may be established, operated or maintained within 500 feet of a residential district, a Church and/or a school meeting all requirements of the compulsory education laws of the State of Colorado: (Ord. 693. Series 1976)
.31 -3(4 )(a-1). Book Store, adult;
.31-3(4)(a-2). Eating Place with adult amusement or entertainment;
,31-3(4)(a-3). Photo Studio, adult;
,31-3(4)(a-4). Theater, adult;
.31-3(4)(a-5). Any use intended to provide adult amusement or entertainment on payment of a fee or admission charge. (Ord. 693, Series 1976)
.31-3(4)(b). Not more than 2 of the following permitted uses may be established. operated or maintained within 1.000 feet of each other; (Ord. 693. Series 1976)
,31-3(4)(b-l). Book Store, adult;
.31-3(4)(b-2). Eating Place with adult amusement or entertainment;
.31 -3(4)(b-3). Photo Studio, adult;
.31-3(4)(b-4). Billiard Parlor;
.31-3(4)(b-5). Theater, adult;
.31-3(4)(b-6). Tattoo Studio;
.31-3(4)(b-7). Any use intended to provide adult amusement or entertainment on payment of a fee or admission charge. (Ord. 693, Series 1976)
397.87
1978 Rev


B-7 District
612
.31-4. Permitted Structures.
.31-4(1). Zone Lot for Structures. A separate ground area, herein called the Zone Lot. shall be designated, provided and continuously maintained for all structures containing a Use by Right. Each Zone Lot shall have at least one front line and shall be occupied only l>y one or more structures each containing a Use by Right and an equal number of subordinate structures containing only Accessory Uses. Upon application to and approval by the Department of Zoning Administration, the boundaries and area of a designated Zone Lot may be amended if full compliance with all requirements of this ordinance can be maintained.
.31-4(2). Maximum Gross Floor Area in Structures.
,31-4(2)(a). Basic Maximum Gross Floor Area. The sum total of the gross floor area of all structures on a Zone Lot, excluding parking space included within the structure and excluding any floor area where the ceiling thereover is less than 4 feet above grade at the nearest building line shall not be greater than two times the area of the Zone Lot on which the structures are located. Also excluded is any floor area devoted to mechanical equipment serving the building, provided that the floor area of such use constitutes not less than 75% of the floor area of the to*tal story on which located.
.31-4(2)(b). Floor Area Premiums. In addition to the basic maximum gross floor area permitted under Section 612.31-4(2)(a)., a premium of additional floor area not to exceed two times the Zone Lot area, with the total floor area ration not to exceed four times the Zone Lot area, may be constructed under the following circumstances:
.31-4(2)(b)(b-1). Any structure lawfully erected or altered in conformity with applicable municipal ordinances prior to the effective date of this ordinance.
.31-4(2)(b)(b-2). Premium for Unenclosed Plaza. Six square feet of floor area for each square foot of unenclosed plaza area continuously open to a street.
,31-4(2)(b)(b-3). Premium for Enclosed Plaza. Six square feet of floor area for each square foot of enclosed plaza area if at least one entrance has a width not less than 15 feet. No premium of all entrances are less than 15 feet wide. The entrance may be directly upon a street or through an arcade of at least 10 feet clear height, opening directly upon the street, but if the latter is the case, the dimension for the width of the entrance shall be the minimum distance between the bounding building walls.
. 31-4(2)(b)(b-4). Premium for Unenclosed Arcade. Three square feet of floor area for each square foot of unenclosed arcade area continuously open to the street, provided that the following requirements are met: (1) if the arcade has a depth of 10 feet or less, average height is not less than 10 feet; (2) if the arcade is deeper than 10 feet but not more than 20 feet, the average height equals or exceeds the depth and (3) if the arcade is deeper than 20 feet, the average height is 20 feet or more. One and one-half square feet of floor area for each square foot of unenclosed arcade area not meeting these requirements.
.31-4(2)(b)(b-5). Premium for Enclosed Arcade. Two square feet of floor space for each square foot of enclosed arcade area, provided that all of the following requirements are met: (1) it has at least two entrances opening directly to the street or to a plaza at two different locations; (2) the minimum width of each of at least two entrances is 10 feet; (3) the minimum width between all bounding walls is 10 feet and (4) the average minimum height is 10 feet. If any one of these requirements is not met, no premium shall be given.
.31-4(2Xb)(b-6). Premium for Underground Parking. A premium of five hundred (500) square feet of floor area for each underground parking space for one vehicle, such space designed in accordance with one of the formulae set out
197? Rev
397.88


612 Revised Municipal Code of the City and County of Denv er in Off-Street Parking Chart #1.
.31-4(2)(b)(b-7). Premium for Structure Containing Multiple Unit Dwelling. For each square foot of gross floor area provided for residential use an additional one-half square foot of floor area for any other use permitted in the district or an additional one square foot of residential floor area.
.31-4(2)(b)(b-8). Premium for Atrium. Three square feet of floor area for each square foot of atrium. Premium area shall be based on the smallest horizontal area of the light well. (Ord. 73, Series 1977)
.31-4(3). Outside Area of Window Exposure, (a) Every window of a habitable room shall have not less than the following amount of outside exposure determined in the following manner: From a reference point located at the bottom center of the window, extend outward (at right angles to the window plane, a horizontal sector of 140 degrees, centered on the window, with a radius of twenty-five feet. Within this sector the minimum required outside area of exposure for the window shall be any open sector or combination of sectors totalling 70 degrees. Applied in the direction of adjoining Zone Lots, the area which may be credited as outside area of window exposure, extends to required setback lines, regardless of the actual location of structure, (b) Every legally required window of a nonhabitable room shall have the same minimum amount of outside exposure as described in (a) above, except that the radius of the sector for this type of window shall be 10 feet.
.31-4(4). Minimum Size of Dwellings. Each unit in a multiple unit dwelling and any other structure occupied in whole or in part for residential purposes shall contain a gross floor area of not less than four hundred (400) square feet.
.31-5. Permitted Signs. The provisions of Article 613., Permitted Signs, shall be in full force and effect in this district.
.31-6. Off-Street Parking Requirements. The provisions of Section 614.5. (Use and Maintenance of Off-Street Parking Space) of Article 614. (Off-Street Parking Requirements) shall be in full force and effect in this district for any structure lawfully erected or altered in conformity with applicable municipal ordinances prior to the effective date of this ordinance. Any structure lawfully erected or any additions to structures in conformity with applicable municipal ordinances after the effective date of this ordinance shall comply with the provisions of Article 614. (Off-Street Parking Requirements).
.31-7. Off-Street Loading Requirements. The provisions of Article 615. (Off-Street Loading Requirements) shall be in full force and effect in this district.
397.89
1977 Rev


TABLE NO. 5-E
MINIMUM PLUMBING FACILITIES
[
\jSTLfLJL JL JCiJtV O
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUP A OCCUPANC
SECTION 601. GROUP A OCCUPANCIES DEFINED. Gr
pancy shall be an assembly building with a stage and an occu
1000 or more.
SECTION 602. CONSTRUCTION, HEIGHT, ALLOWABLE
(a) General. Buildings or portions of buildings classified i because of the use or character of the occupancy shall con types of construction, area, and height requirements i Chapter 5.
(b) Special Provisions.
1. Stages and enclosed platforms shall be constructed in with the requirements of Chapter 39.
2. The slope of the main floor of the assembly room shall one foot in eight.
3. See Chapters 17, 25, and 32 for attic space partitions and
(c) Occupancy Loads and Separations. See Chapter 33 f( loads. See Chapter 5 for occupancy separation requirement;
SECTION 603. LOCATION.
(a) In City. Buildings shall not be limited in location within fi
(b) On Property. Buildings shall front directly upon or have public street at least 20 feet in width. The access to a public be a 20 foot minimum width right-of-way maintained solely the public street. The main entrance to the building shall b< the public street or the access. See Chapter 17 and Zoning 1 for property setbacks.
(c) Exterior Walls and Opening Protection. See Chapters 1' fire resistive protection of exterior walls and openings, as det location on the property. See Chapter 5 for regulating adjacei on the same property.
SECTION 604. EXIT FACILITIES. See Chapter 33.
SECTION 605. LIGHT, VENTILATION, TOILET ROOM FACILITIES.
(a) Light. All portions of the building used by human occupar provided with either natural or artificial light. Lighting in all the building used by human occupants shall be on a circuit sep the stage lighting, and shall be controlled from the box offic
(b) Ventilation. See Chapter 52.
(c) Toilet Room Facilities. See Chapter 5.
SECTION 606. ENCLOSURE OF VERTICAL OPENINGS.
(a) Exits. See Chapter 33.
(b) Shafts. See Chapter 17.
SECTION 607. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS. See Chapte


VI. RESEARCH SUMMATION
A. Agencies
Denver Planning Office
Education Facilities Laboratories
(See bibliography for obtained information)
B. People (Interviews and Experiences)
Russell Seacat
Robin Simons Tamiko and Reiko Pat Dawe
C. Russell Seacat (Architect involved with existing and new museum;
Board Member) Interviewed: September 29, 1978.
Russ briefed me on basic facts of the Children's Museum Where they have been, are now and are going. We discussed possible sites now being considered:
Evans School (Acoma)
Old Bredan Cremery (1125 South Broadway)
901 Wazee
Denver's Union Station
Of course, Union Station was chosen to be the most ideal site because:
1.
Large wonderful, underutilized space of General Waiting Room.
2.
Good opportunity to revitalize the building and lower downtown. Trains and train stations have always thrilled children -
-28-
3.


young and o Id.
4. Trains and people arriving and departing a major exhibit.
I received the A*B*R Partnership's architectural programs that were used in renovating the site that is now the Children's Museum.
I also received plans of Union Station.
i
Excellent Start!
D. Robin Simons (Program Director of the Children's Museum of Denver) Interview: November 10, 1978.
Client Goals
Robyn expressed the museum's goal is to provide a participatory learning environment that would allow a child to come away feeling good about himself. She feels exhibits should create an experience rather than exhibit what only require a child to push a button and watch.... "Learning through Doing".
Philosophies of Museum
1 . De-mystification" expose children to the "inside story"
of very ordinary things that they deal with every day.
We try to answer questions and arouse curiosity about other things so they begin to look more questioningly around them. The cultivation of that attitude the curious mind-
-29-


is what all education is about.
2. Children's fears Overcome these fears (i.e. the dentist exhibit and cycle of life).
3. Exposure to new ideas Help children grow up open-minded, flexible and respectful of people's differences. Expose to other cultures which come alive, freed from static isolation of conventional museum display.
Improvements and Expansion
1 . Staff need private meeting, office and lucn space (now just
one space).
Now have 8 desks.
Robin gave me a layout of staff.
2. Workshop Space
Storage Height needs to be 20 feet, (twice size now)
Moving storage
Lumber storage need access to street Tables
Equipment and paint storage
3. Theater
Need public access.
Seating 150 people (now 75)
Multi-functional (adult use at night)
Storage wings
4. Library and Teacher Resource Center (2 teachers)
5. Video-Radio Center - Production Studio - Also incorporate it


as an exhibit as well.
6. Art Ftogram Workshops (Summer, Holidays and weekends)
7. Day Care Center is a question.
8. Party Room (workshop)
9. Two kitchen facilities one for floor and one for staff
10. Children's art exhibit area Gallery
11. Handicapped
The desired square footage by 1990 is 40,000 SF.
Impact of Change or Growth The morale would go sky high
Permanent and temporary exhibits grow-out expand New exhibits for handicap
Union Station would like to see multi-level exhibits and space Financial
Doesn't rely upon grants and donations The museum is working toward financial self-sufficiency by marketing goods and outreach services, a'jorofitability approach".
Services
Sensorium traveling component fee-rental to shopping centers and plazas free to public.
City Games A book on Denver with games on Denver's culture, architecture, history and now. Sold wholesale.
-31-


One of a Kind Mobile exhibit dealing with human identity, rented for use in public places.
Other Revenue Producing Projects Admission Fees Memberships The Gift Shop
Storytellers (museum's theater company)
Private and corporate contributions
Site Union Station "A Dream come true" -
The primary function of the museum would be housed within 10,000 square feet of the General Waiting Room of the terminal.
This would allow a multi-level structure, meeting the floor area needs without disruption of current railroad related uses around the perimeter.
E. A snow Sunday at the Children's Museum of Denver with Tamilco and Reiko Abo.
Tamiko and Reiko are part of my thesis advisory board. They are 6 and 8 years old and are active supporters of the museum. They took me through the museum.
Spaces observed:
Entry Coat rack
-32-


Gift Shop
Storytelling
Dentist
Try on old clothes Chinese Room Kitchen Foam Room Movies
i
Put On A Face Animals
Life Cycle (to be opened)
Mirrors
Observations:
The children liked the foam room the best. It is a room completed padded. There are structures to jomp on, climb up, down and around and through, and slide down. It's very noisy and lots of energy. Needs to be a larger space with more things to play on. Very crowded. Shoes must be removed shoe storage needed.
The "Make your Face" three carrels could use more. Need place to clean up nearby. Another favorite of the children.
Rooms and spaces flowed nicely.
Scale of everything for children.
-33-


Comments from Tamiko and Reiko:
I asked them if they would like the train station to be the new Children's Museum.
Reply: "Yes, Yes!" They like trains and would want to watch them.
(I was convinced)
Their favorite exhibits Foam Room and Make Your Face.
Conclusions:
Need a large open space for exhibit area, yet need to relate in scale.
E. Pat Dawe Urban Designer
Pat is presently working on the Urban Design of Lower Downtown. He is concerned with mainly developing that area into an "Urban Neighborhood ".
He is also concerned with the future of Union Station. Because it is on the fringe of Lower Downtown, he feels it may be the last area to be developed. Because it is an Historic Landmark the building is not in danger but is being ignored.
He feels that the station should still be considered a transportation center yet tied to transportation of today mainly RTD. He is proposing to develop a "Hinge Block" between Blake and Market and 16th and 17th to transfer people to and from the 16th Street Mall and the Station.
-34-




DEFINITIONS
The Downtown District boundaries are on the street lines shown. This area Is a commonly held definition of Denver's Central Business District, overlapping zone districts and neighborhood boundaries. This defined area Includes the blocks with high Intensity of land use and provides a statistical area for employment, floorspace, and transportation Inventories. The terms "Cefftral Business District", "CBD", and "Downtown" are used Interchangeably. Lower Downtown and the Aurarla Campus are Included In all Downtown data as of Jan., 1977.
The term "Downtown Core" refers to the area within the CBD having the most Intense commercial activity, bounded by 14th Street, the alley line between Larimer and Market Streets, 18th Street, 18th Avenue, Lincoln Street, and Colfax Avenue.
The term "Central Area" refers generally to the Central Business District and those neighborhoods Immediately adjacent to the Downtown, based upon the neighborhood boundaries as defined by the Denver Planning Office.
i
FIVE POINT3
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CENTRAL AREA NEIGHBORHOODS AND CENSUS TRACTS
CENSUS TRACTS
NEIGHBORHOODS
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LAND USE PUBLIC AND SEMI-PUBLIC
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TRAFFIC FLOW
GENERALIZED LAND USE
SPEER BO/D
PARKING
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DOWNTOWN TRAFFIC VOLUMES
1975 AVERAGE ANNUAL WEEKDAY TRAFFIC
o
12.200
41,500




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OFF STREET PARKING INVENTORY
Public Lot Private Lot Private Garage Public Garage
Block Total
TOTAL 14,090
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VII. BIBLIOGRAPHY

A. BOOKS & PUBLICATIONS
HANDS ON MUSEUMS: PARTNERS IN LEARNING, A Report from Educational Facilities Laboratories, 1975.
CAREER EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES, A Report from Educational Facilities Laboratories, 1973.
RE-USING RAILROAD STATIONS: BOOK TWO, A Report from Educational Facilities Laboratories, 1975.
Gale, A.V.N.,CHILDREN'S PREFERENCE FOR COLORS, COLOR COMBINATIONS~AND COLOR ARRANGEMENTS, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, t933.
BROOKLYN CHILDREN'S MUSEUM, Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, 1975.
DOWNTOWN DENVER PLANNING DATA: CENTRAL SECTION,
Denver Planning Office, 1977.
LOWER DOWNTOWN DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES, Denver Planning Office, 1978.
B. MAGAZINE ARTICLES
"Children's Museum", FORUM, September, 1971, pp 32-33.
"Chidren are Sensitive to Space", INTERIOR DESIGN, John Holt.
"Museum Architecture New Children's Museum in Florida", MUSEUM NEWS, Miachel Webb, March, 1971.
"Museum Goes Underground, Brooklyn Children's Museum", CONTRACT INTERIORS, June, 1978, pp 114-119.
"Esprit Grows in Brooklyn", PROGRESSIVE ARCHITECTURE, May, 1978, pp. 62 67.
"Designing a Learning Environment for Children", ARCHITECTURAL RECORD, October, 1974, pp 113-118.
"Three Successful Program Do Not A Museum Make", MUSEUM NEWS, April, 1974, pp. 14 19.