Citation
Thesis proposal

Material Information

Title:
Thesis proposal College of Environmental Design, University of Colorado
Alternate title:
Marina hotel/casino research book
Alternate title:
Lagoona hotel/casino research book
Creator:
Salerno, William
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
2 volumes : illustrations, charts, maps, plans (1 color) ; 22 x 36 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Hotels -- Designs and plans -- New Jersey -- Atlantic City ( lcsh )
Resorts -- Designs and plans -- New Jersey -- Atlantic City ( lcsh )
Hotels ( fast )
Resorts ( fast )
New Jersey -- Atlantic City ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
General Note:
Contents: [v. 1] Marina hotel/casino research book.--[v.2] Lagoona hotel/casino research book.
Statement of Responsibility:
by William Salerno.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09459156 ( OCLC )
ocm09459156
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1978 .S364 ( lcc )

Full Text
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Date Due
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INTRODUCTION
This book is intended to be a source of information having a broad base of facts which includes the building program. It is designed in this manner so that remains a useful document even after the thesis project, and is written in such a way that a layman may understand it.


,V' .
Acknowlege merits
The complexity of any large design project demands the participation of outside agents whether there be one designer or ten: In this case there was one designer which makes the selection of consultants even more critical. I'm happy to have chosen what seems to have been the perfect compliment of consultants in time sequence who artfully guided me and my ideas to a very successful and fulfilling project completion. In order of there participation these people are:
Gary Sawhill S Mike Miller-Introduced me to casino design and supplied background data.
Bob Hughey & Ben Herman-Introduced me to the specific project and supplied background data.
John Filkins-Keenly guided me through the whole process recognizing and suppling whatever I needed whenever I needed.
Bob Utzinger gave confidence to the project and also guided me very skillfully through the design process.
Alfy-Supplied great aerial photos.
Anthony-Skillfully applied "Press On" letters.
Kate, my parents and Ann supplied the emotional support necessary to get through 2 years of graduate school.


Table of Contents
THESIS RESEARCH OUTLINE
LOCATION/SITE
PEOPLE
SUN
AIR/WATER
LAND
PROGRAM
DESIGN
BIBLIOGRAPHY


Thesis Research Book Outline
: Acknowledgement Statement
: Authors Intro Statement
: Schematic of Process w/ Statement
: Table of Contents
History of Atlantic City
: Statement of where
: Eastern States Map
: Vicinity Map
: Site Map
: People
Why
Who
From Where How Many
How Do They Come \
: Land Data
Soil Analysis Grasses/Fertility Location of Fill Bearing Capacity
Water Analysis
Location of Water Bodies Location of Water Table
Topography
Contours
Slope
View Direction Access
Climate
Variation in Temp.
Avg. Humidity Precipitation Solar Angle/Orientation Wind Direction & Force Storm Info. & Flooding
Ecology
Location of Plant and Animal Communiti Sensitivity to Change
Man Made Structures
Existing Bldg's.
Streets and Utilities


/
Casino
Hotels Marina's
Master Plan Analysis Code Check
Functions/Sq. Footages/Relations Goal s
Problem Statement
Hypothesis




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ABSCCON INLET
Atlantic City is located in southern New Jersey immediately on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. The site lies north east of the city just outside the central business district.
Major arterioles connect the site with incomming traffic from the mainland providing unusually good access for cars and buses. Rhode Island Avenue and Brigantine Blvd. border the site on the west and south sides respectively; Absecon Inlet borders the north and east side.
While water access is available most clients will be arriving by ground transportation via Brigantine Blvd. This street originally provided access to the old Brigantine Bridge, but has since been dead-ended with the completion of the new bridge and access road. Brigantine Blvd. now provides unusually wide and unused access to the site with a posted speed limit of 50 miles per hour.
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The total area of the site is eleven acres. Located at the tip of Absecon Inlet. It is borded on two sides by streets, the remaining parimeter is borded by water. Views are good in all directions, especially north, the direction of the water.
The soil is mostly marsh and landfill covered with marsh grasses. The water table obviously is high and flooding is probable.


PROPOSED INTERCEPT PARKING
ATLANTIC OCEAN
ARKANSi
CHARTER BUS LOT
MARINA DISTRICT


With the advent of gambling both the city and the casino's have the responsibility of providing easy access and egress to the city as well as maintaining efficient systems and services within it's boundaries. To best provide these systems and services an analysis of the people who will use them is necessary.
The data which follows is a description of the people cominq to Atlantic City casino's, who they are, why and how they are coming.


why
Traditionaly Atlantic City has been treated as a summer resort town. Each Memorial Day the city's population swells three times greater than its normal winter size. Atlantic City is in a unique location to provide a multitude of summer entertainment and recreational facilities for activities such as swimming, boating, sailing, surfing, bike riding and fishing. The town also provides pleasant environments for more passive activities such as sun bathing or walking on the Boardwalk, the beach or by the ocean's edge. All participants have the advantage of the cooling effect of continuous ocean breezes providing clean, fresh, slightly salty air.
This coastal location also provides unique building opportunities where structures, supported by pilings, may span out over the ocean and bay. Such structures have provided Atlantic City with entertainment "Piers" supporting amusement rides, concert halls and commercial shops, allowing many night time activities.
The peak months for tourism are June through September. From October to May Atlantic City has relied heavily on a convention industry to support it's many hotels, restaurants and shops.
The large convention facilities attracts many large conventions throughout the winter months.
However economic success is somewhat limited due to adverse climatic conditions in winter. Casino's are expected to attract between 160% to 270% more people per year, increasing business year round thus minimizing this winter recession. The success of the casino's then will lie in part on their ability to provide recreational activities for gamblers and non-gamblers during winter months as well as summer months.


1990 ANNUAL VISITOR TRAVEL FORECAST
Visitor Category Percent Distribution'
Casino Gamblinq t
Overnight Visitors 35%
Day Visitors 27
Subtotal: 62%
Non-Gambling
Overnight Visitors
Tourists 8%
Convention 12
Subtotal: 20%
Day Visitors 18
GRAND TOTAL 100%
(1)
Economic
Research Associates,
Inc.
Source: Estimated by Barton-Aschman Associates
who
Visitors coming to the casino can be classified in three catagories: Casino gamblers, non-gamblers and day visitors.
Gamblers may stay in the hotel overnight (35%) or some may drive to Atlantic City only for the day to gamble not taking a room in the hotel (27%). Non-gamblers may be overnight visitors (8%) or conventioners, not wanting to gamble (12%). The last catagory of people come not to use any gambling or hotel facilities but, arrive and leave in a single day taking advantage of daylight recreactional activities such as boating or swimming.
Casino's clearly have a responsibility to provide entertainment during daylight hours as well as evening hours for gamblers and nongamblers alike. Facilities and activities should also be designed for use by children during their stay at the hotel.


how many
1990 ANNUAL VISITOR TRAVEL FORECAST
Visitor Category Percent Distribution'*' Range of Annual Visitors (Mill ions)
Casino Gamblinq t
Overnight Visitors 35% 2.0 2.9
Day Visitors 27 1.4 2.1
Subtotal: 62% 3.4 5.0
Non-Gamblinq
Overnight Visitors
Tourists 8% 0.6 0.8
Convention 12 0.7 1.0
Subtotal: 20% V.3 -1.8
Day Visitors 18 1.3 1.7
GRAND TOTAL 100% 6.0 8.5
(1)
Economic Research Associates,
Inc.
Economic Research Associates developed estimates of the distribution of annual visitation to Atlantic City by dividing visitors into three major catagories. They are gamblers and nongamblers and day visitors. The statistics of this distribution are shown on the adjacent chart.
Generally Economic Research Associates estimated that visitation for gambling purposes will constitute more than 60% of the total population and will represent 3.4 to 5 million visitors per year to Atlantic City. Nongambling, overnight visitors represent 1.3 to 1.8 million persons per year. Non-gambling day visitors who come for beach and sight seeing purposes will range from 1.3 to 1.7 million visitors per year. This totals an average annual visitation of 6.0 to 8.5 million people representing an increase of between 160 and 270 percent over the current annual visitation of 2.3 million visitors.
Source: Estimated by Barton-Aschman Associates, Inc.


from where
Atlantic City has historically derived a major portion of vacationers and guests from the area within a one-way driving distance of 150 miles. With the addition of gambling, the primary market is anticipated to extend to a 300 mile semicircle bordering on the north by Boston on the south by mid-north Carolina and on the west by Pittsburgh which contains 25% of the Nations population. This means that Atlantic City is within a ten hour driving dis-ance of more than 60 million people. Travel time by automobile to some major east coast urban areas are noted below.
Philadelphia New York City Washington D.C. Pi ttsburgh Boston
70 minutes 120 minutes 240 minutes 370 minutes 420 minutes
Visitors to Atlantic City will generally be inhabitants of the north east section of the United States. They will generally be aware of the climate of Atlantic City and the adverse conditions of a seacoast town as well as the advantages. The majority of vistors will also have been previously exposed to the culture and systems specific to the north east.
The milage guides tends to indicate that a large portion of the market will be arriving by ground transportation, primarily by auto from surrounding eastern states. This potential problem of parking these vehicals supports the proposed "intercept" transportation concept.


how
Tobte 5
ATLANTIC CITY MASTER PLAN TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT
Intercity Trove! Estlmotcs
Poy Visitors Overnight Visitors Totofs
Number of Visitors Intercity Mode Number of Visitors Intercity Modo Number of Visitors Auto Dus Air & Roll
Auto Dus Air Roll Auto Dus Air d Roll
Combllng 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1.4 2.1 1.05 1 .58 .21 .31 .14 .21 2.0 2.5 1.30 1 .85 0.40 - .58 0.30 .43 3.4 5.0 2.35 3.47 .<1 .82 .44 .64
- 75% 15% 10% - 65% 20% 15% - <3% 18% 13%
Convention 0 0 0 0 0.50M 0.45 0.03 0.02 0.5 0.45 0.03 0.02
. - . . 50% 6% 4% 90% 6% 4%
0 0 0 0 0.7 1.0 .52 .84 .04 .0 ,07 .10 .07 1.0 .59 .84 .04 .0 .07 .10
- - - - - 84% 6% 10% 84% % 10%
Tourist I.20M 1.3 I 1.7 1.10 22% 1.11- 1.45 8SX 0.10 8% .19 .25 15% 0 0% 0 -0% 0 0.60M 0.6 0.8 0.57 95% .53 .71 89% 0.03 5% .06 .08 10% 0 0% .01 .01 1% 1.8 1.9 I 2.5 1.67 93% 1.64 2.16 90% 0.13 7% .25 -9% .33 0 0% .01 -1% .01
Tolol I.20M 1.10 0.10 0 1.1 1.02 0.06 0.02 2.3 2.12 0.16 0.02
. 92% 8% 0% . 93% 5% 2% . 92% 7% 1%
2.7 3.8 2.16 3.03 .40 .56 .14 , .21 3.3 4.7 2.42 3.44 .50 .72 .38 .54 5.0 8.5 4.58 6.47 .90 | .28 .52 - .75
* 80% 15% 5% 73% 15% 12% * 77% 14% 9%
Keyt xx Current Number of Annual Visitors In Millions
x% Percent Distribution by Mode xx xx Forecast (1990) Number of Visitors (Range) Percent Distribution by Mode
The choice of mode of transportation to the city is represented in the adjacent table. The most significant figures of the chart indicate that in 1990, 77% of all visitors will be arriving to Atlantic City by auto; 14% by bus and 9% by air and rail. This projects that 91% of all visitors to Atlantic City will arrive on common vehicular roads.
Oddly enough these percentages are inversely related to existing statistics. Auto use now represents 92% of all incoming visitors and will show the most dramatic drop in 1990 to 77%. Bus travel will double from 7% to 14% over the 12 year forecast period. The greatest increase in intercity travel will occur in the air and rail modes which combined will go from less than one percent of total intercity travel today to about 9% in 1990.
The fact remains that auto use will dominate in 1990. Presently 92% of the visitors come to Atlantic City by car, this represents 2.12 million people, or close to 1 million autos. In 1990 77% of 4.58 to 6.47 million people will be coming by car. This represents approximately 1.7 to 2.5 million autos, in summary then, although visitation to Atlantic City will increase by 1990 the number of autos will remain approximately the same.
Despite the fact that auto's alone will bring 77% of the people to Atlantic City in 1990 trends indicate a move toward increased usage of common carriers.


how
Toble 5
ATLANTIC CITY MASTER PLAN TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT Intercity Trovet Estimotes_______._________________
Doy Visitors Ovemlqht Visitors Totols
Number Intercity Mode Number Intercity Modo Number
of Visitors Auto Bus Air & Roll of Visitors Auto Bus Air & Roll of Visitors Auto Bus Air & Roll
Combllng 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1.4 2.1 1.05 1.50 .21 .31 75% 15% .14 .21 10% 2.0 2.2 1.30 1.02 0.40 .50 5% 20% . 0.30 .43 15% 3.4 5.0 2.35 3.47 .(I .02 69% 10% f .44 .<4 13%
Convention 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.50M 0.7 I 1.0 0.45 20% .52 .04 04% 0.03 6% .04 .04 6% 0.02 4% ,07 -10% .10 6.5 .07 1.0 0.45 20% .52 .84 84% 0.03 6% .04 .06 6% 0.02 4% .07 -10% .10
Tourist I.20M 1.10 0.10 0 0.60M 0.57 0.03 0 1.8 1.67 0.13 0
22% 8% 0% . 25% 5% 0% 23% 7% 0%
1.3 1.7 1.11- 1.45 .12 .25 0 - 0 0.4 0.8 .53 .71 .06 .00 .01 - .01 1.9 2.5 1.64 2.16 .25 .33 .01 - .01
* 05X 15% 0% * 02% 10% 1% - 90% 9% 1%
Totol I.20M 1.10 0.10 0 1.1 1.02 0.06 0.02 2.3 2.12 0.16 0.02
- 22% 8% 0% . 23% 5% 2% 92% 7% 1%
2.7 3.0 2.16 3.03 .40 .56 .14 - .21 3.3 4.7 2.42 3.44 .50 .72 .30 - .54 3.0 0.5 4.58 4.47 .90 1.20 .52 - .75
80% 15% 5% 73% 15% 12% 77% 14% 2%
Keys xx Current Number of Annual Visitors In Millions
x% Percent Distribution by Mode ** ** Forecost 11990) Number of Visitors (Range) Percent Distribution by Mode
The choice of mode of transportation to the city is represented in the adjacent table. The most significant figures of the chart indicate that in 1990, 77% of all visitors will be arriving to Atlantic City by auto; 14% by bus and 9% by air and rail. This projects that 91% of all visitors to Atlantic City will arrive on common vehicular roads.
Oddly enough these percentages are inversely related to existing statistics. Auto use now represents 92% of all incoming visitors and will show the most dramatic drop in 1990 to 77%. Bus travel will double from 7% to 14% over the 12 year forecast period. The greatest increase in intercity travel will occur in the air and rail modes which combined will go from less than one percent of total intercity travel today to about 9% in 1990.
The fact remains that auto use will dominate in 1990. Presently 92% of the visitors come to Atlantic City by car, this represents 2.12 million people, or close to 1 million autos. In 1990 77% of 4.58 to 6.47 million people will be coming by car. This represents approximately 1.7 to 2.5 million autos, in summary then, although visitation to Atlantic City will increase by 1990 the number of autos will remain approximately the same.
Despite the fact that auto's alone will bring 77% of the people to Atlantic City in 1990 trends indicate a move toward increased usage of common carriers.


HoCidaij Inn Hotel/CaiXno T AampoAtatXon Aiizamznt AutcmobXlzi Ge.mA.atzd, Szaionalltj Adjuitzd
Source Summer June/July/August 261 Fall Sept/Oct/Nov 265 Winter Dec/Jan/Feb 17%
Casino 299,439 235,921 154,256
Hotel 11,902 9,377 6,131
Show 6,745 5,314 3,475
Employees 47,450 47,450 47,450
TOTAL 365,536 298,062 211,312
Average Day 3,995 3,258 2,309
Source: R. E. Hughey Associates
I
Holiday Inn Hotzl/CaiXno TAampoAtatXon Aiizumnt EitXmatcd Peak Impact
Spring March/April/May 24% Auto Taxi
Casino Peak
217,774 10-11 P.M. 320 35
8,656 L
4,906 V !\
47,450 Secondary Casino Peak
278,786 5-6 P.M. 260 28
3,047 I Source: R. E. Hughey Associates


future access
i
Transportation element describes several alternatives for future movement systems. The foremost criteria for selection of a particular system requires that it have adequate capacity to serve the forecast travel demands. Atlantic City represents a unique problem in that it is located on an island. Access roads and bridges are limited in number and space on the island is finite. The present arteriol capacity to the island (9,000 vehicles/hour) exceed the capacity of city's street network to accept this incoming traffic (5,000 vehicles/hour).
Three concepts involve expanding the present street system to accept more private auto's and provide parking at the point of destination.
These concepts were rejected on the basis that the potential capacity of these systems is finite and would pose a constraint to potential potential development.
The chosen solution, called "intercept parking directs visitors in their cars to outlining parking areas, and then transfering them to public transit into the city. This system would be part of a heirarchical local transit system which would eliminate the need for auto's on the island. Emphasis would be placed on a high quality system of transfering guests and baggage from their auto's parked outside the city to their hotel rooms.
Parking terminals would be constructed at "intercept parking locations". Each casino would be represented by receptionists who would transfer baggage and check vistors into the hotel.
At these outlying transit centers, receptionists would then assist visitors to an automated guideway transit car which would move visitors swiftly to their hotel.
Designed incentives would encourage use of this system as opposed to the alternative of driving and parking at premium parking lots located at the hotel. Employees working on the island would also be encouraged to use the park and ride facility. The whole system would be financed by the city government and privately owned casino/hotels.


parking
The Atlantic City, master plan transportation component provides a specific outline for parking capacities at casino's. This requirement is based on a study of casino development in the Las Vegas Valley.
One parking space per hotel room for the first 500 rooms.
One parking space per two hotel rooms beyond 500 rooms.
In addition, 20 parking spaces per 1,000 ft.2 of gross floor area for non-hotel space. This applies to the first 40,000 ft.2. The next 60,000 ft.2 must have ten spaces per 1,000 ft.2; and five spaces per 1,000 ft.2; are required for square footages over 100,000.
It should be noted here that the author feels the above parking outline is excessive and conflicts with the citys goals of making Atlantic City a pedistrian place. Further, to comply with these parking standards requires a parking structure 20 30% the size of the casino and supporting facilities. This presents a waste of capitol and valuable real estate on the island.
A better solution would be to implement "the intercept plan" immediatly and reduce the size of the on site parking facilities.
If necessary the intercept plan could be phased to ease the transition and allow for some design testing.


A building's location, orientation and shape should attempt to take advantage of the sun's thermal, hygenic, and psychological benifits.
Solar radiation, a primary scource of heat gain, is more advantageous in Atlantic City during winter months as opposed to summer. For this reason control of solar radiation is a critical factor. The sun's rays should be allowed to penetrate and be absorbed by a building when it is beneficial and blocked when undesirable.
As the source of natural light, the sun also affects the layout and orientation of interior spaces and the size and placement of window openings.
The sun's path through the sky varies with the seasons and latitude. A short description of the suns path over Atlantic City and effect is described on the following pages.


AUT;[>'. I
f
c/>
sun path
Atlantic City is located in the Northern Hemisphere at 40 latitude 75 longitude.
At the Vernal and Autumnal Equinox (March 21, and September 31) the sun appears to rise due east at 6AM, reaching it's highest point at 12 noon. At this time, the sun is due south of the observer. It's altitude at this position is approximately 50 (90 less the latitude; ie.
90 40 latitude = 50). The sun sets due west at 6PM on these days.
In Winter solstice (December 21) the sun has a much shorter path. Rising 30 south of east at 7:20 AM and setting 30 south of west at 4:40 PM, reaching it's highest altitude of 26 at 12 noon.
The summer soltice (June 21) day is longer rising 30 north of east at 5:40 AM (DST) and setting 30 north of west at 8:20 PM. The sun reaches it's highest altitude of 73 due south at 12 noon.
An analysis of the effect of the sun angles can be read on the following page, insolation.


CLEAR DAY INSOLATION FOR 40N LATITUDE
TOTAL INSOLATION, Btu/ftJ
21st ofi Normal Surface lloriz. Surface South Facing Surface at Tilt Angle of:
30 40 50 c\ o o 90
January 2182 948 1660 1810 1906 1944 1726
February 2640 1414 2060 2162 2202 2176 1730
March 2916 1852 2308 2330 2284 2174 1484
April 3092 2274 2412 2320 2168 1956 1022
May 3160 2552 2442 2264 2040 1760 724
June 3180 2648 2434 2224 1974 1670 610
July 3062 2534 2409 2230 2006 1728 702
August 2916 2244 2354 2258 2104 1894 978
September 2708 1788 2210 2228 2182 2074 1416
October 2454 1348 1962 2060 2098 2074 1654
November 2128 942 1636 1778 1870 1908 1686
December 1978 782 1480 1634 1740 1796 1646
SOURCE: ASIIRAE, Handbook and Product Directory: 1974 Applications.
insolation
Insolation is a measure of the solar radiation striking a surface described in units of BTU's. This quantity however is subject to many local variables effecting the true quantity, therefore, exact numbers cannot be taken literally Fortunetly important trends of the suns radiation are described by insolation as shown in the follow ing example.
The clear day insolation table gives BTU's/ ft. of sun regardless of atmospheric conditions.
If this is multiplied by the "percentage of possible sunshine" for an area, we can get the general insolation value for a particular plane. In the charts provided you will note that the clear day insolation on a verticle south facing wall in Atlantic City (40 N) is 610 BTU/ft.2 on June 21 and 1726 BTU/ft.2 on January 21, or almost three time greater in winter. Multiplied by the percentage of possible sunshine (65% in June 49% in January). The total insolation becomes 396 BTU/ft.2 in June and 846 in January or still a factor of z greater. On the other hand the clear day insolation on a horizontal roof is 2648 BTU/ ft.2 in June and only 948 BTU/ftT^ in January.
For average days the insolation is 1721 BTU/ft.2 in June and 464 BTU/ft.2 in January or almost a factor of four smaller. Clearly then, we can conclude that the roof is taking the heat in the summer and the south walls are receiving it in the winter.


building orientation & shape
Atlantic City is located in the temperate zone characterized by hot humid summers and cold humid winters. Control of the suns rays becomes important to take advantage of the low winter sun and block out the hot summer sun. Tools to accomplish this includes building shape, orientation, vegetation roof form and choice of materials.
Building orientation in the temperate zone requires a balance between under heated periods when the sun is benifical and overheated periods when radiation should be avoided. It is recomen-ded that the building be rectangular in shape with its long axis oriented about 18 east of south. This allows the longer wall to accept low winter sun while projecting only a small area of the building to the undesireable, low, evening sun.




STATION LOCATION
Narrative Climatological Summary
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The Atlantic City National Weather Service Office is located at the National Aviation Facilities Experimental Center, Pomona, which is about ten miles west-northwest of Atlantic City and the Atlantic Ocean. The surrounding terrain is fairly flat at an elevation of 50 60 feet above mean sea level. Vegetation in the area consists of scrub pine and low underbrush, but clearing for the air facility has been quite extensive. Bays and salt marshes are as near as six miles east of the airport. Atlantic City is located on Abescon Island on the southeast coast of New Jersey. Surrounding terrain, composed of tidal marshes and beach sand, is flat and lies slightly above sea level. The climate is principally continental in ch racter; however, the moderating influence of the Atlantic Ocean is apparent throughout the ye r, being more marked in the City than at the airport. As a result, summers are relatively cooler and winters milder than elsewhere at the same latitude.
Land and sea breezes, local circulations resulting from the differential heating and cooling of the land and sea, often prevail. These winds occur when moderate or intense storms are not present in the area, thus enabling the local circulation to overcome the general wind pattern. During the warm season sea breezes in the late morning and afternoon hours prevent excessive heating. Frequently, the temperature at Atlantic City during the afternoon hours during the summer averages several degrees lower than at the airport and the airport averages several degrees lower than localities farther inland. On occasions, sea breezes have lowered the temperature as much as 15 to 20 within a half hour. However, the major effect of the sea breeze at the airport is to prevent the temperature from rising above the eighties. Consequently, temperatures of 90 or higher normally are recorded about three times per year at Atlantic City, 18 times per year at the airport, and about twice the latter figure at more inland locations. Because the change in ocean temperature lags behind the air temperature from season to season, the weather tends to remain comparatively mild late into the fall, but on the other hand, warming is retarded in the spring. Normal ocean temperatures (Coast and Geodetic Survey figures) range from an average near 37 in January to near 72 in August. With respect to normal air temperatures, February is the coldest month, with January a close second, and warmest temperatures are normally experienced in July.
Precipitation, on the average, is moderate and well distributed throughout the year, with June the driest month and August the wettest. However, great year to year variation in amounts is evidenced In August, September, and October, with some greater amounts and higher averages resulting from storms of tropical origin passing northward near or offshore. Thunderstorms are mostly a warm season phenomena. The bulk of winter precipitation results from storms which move northeastward along, or in close proximity to, the east coast of the United States. Snowfall, at about 15 inches per year, is considerably less than elsewhere at the same latitude and does not remain long on the ground. Here again the moderating influence of the ocean plays an important role. Precipitation, often beginning as snow, will frequently become mixed with or change to rain while continuing as snow over more interior sections. In addition, ice storms and resultant glaze are relatively infrequent.


Meteorological Data^For The Current Year
tUIOT (HT, ( JtMT ITIOT (ACIllTItS (Win CMIB Si-*-. {AStt9 ImIl.J. H II' Ion*!.* M N tl..ti.n Ironnrfl lt y ,,,,
_________f 9 3130 ______________________________ . ____ ' T
Monitl Tempce iva P Opt** Saw 1 dtn Precipitation In inch** Relative humidity, pet. Wind fl t t Ii ; n Number 0* d.yi Avt-rw rat:n r C'j-'e tro
t 5 *r Wate equivalent Snea, Ire pelteti il u. 1 0, lota. ? 17 lima | X 19 Rr-ultent i h Fettetl mile Sunrljt to lunift E ii 1! Ii f Ii lmnu:u*t *f
Vatimum V.nirr-jrp
ii ii 1 i a ! J r 1 r 3 3 O H t !* a r J S b- s It (* oR 3 1 i d l! n 1 t o J 3 ii I O 11 ii>i u hi ii I'-v 47 f-t rri t |
JIN IM .... ... *0 74 19 1120 o 4.92 1.41 7-0 4.0 1.4 20-21 73 72 40 70 29 4.9 0.0 70 to 21 40 4.1 10 9 14 14 i 9 7 10 10(3.0
Ml 33.0 :..i > 10 77 3 733 0 2.70 1.70 1*2 1.0 0.7 2 73 75 3| 43 23 9.0 11.1 J? 21 1 66 3.0 0 12 0 0 0 1 14 0 1C 1 2
Ml 17. 3.1 > 9 1 * 19 * 0 1.24 0.30 u 1.3 1.2 4 7 1 71 93 64 24 2.9 17.0 32 70 11 61 6.4 4 7 10 12 1 4 0 14 1014.3
i>< A*. 1 30.0 31.9 M 17 73 12 04 Tl 0.0* 0.17 1 0.0 0.0 72 74 N 4 34 2 A ** 10.0 73 91 11 67 9.2 9 12 9 1 0 1 0 0 0 1013.2
n*r i.t 4.4 31.4 > 13 17 9 747 13 1.41 1.30 1-2 0.0 0.0 3 73 3* 47 12 4.3 10.7 74 14 11 30 4.7 4 0 14 11 0 4 0 0 1 0 loic.o
JIN .... 49.0 91 77 40 9 99 201 0.97 0.40 1-2 0.0 0.0 IN 74 32 49 20 4.0 9.4 22 10 10 60 6.0 9 10 19 9 0 9 t 0 0 0 11019.*
JUl 1.1 ... 17.9 97 II 49 74 0 219 2.11 0.90 20 *.o - 04 70 3) 49 24 4.0 I.t 74 11 20 40 4.7 1 12 14 9 0 4 I 0 0 o lion .o
AtC 11.7 40.9 71.4 97 77 40 91 17 221 4.70 2.44 V 7 92 34 71 29 2.1 7.4 24 11 0 71 4.1 11 12 4 4 0 9 2 0 0 0 1016.9
III 74.1 91.0 44.9 41 4 31 71 71 7N 1.04 1.03 30 0.0 V. V 06 04 33 74 21 2.4 7.4 14 1> 14 *7 9.9 12 7 11 7 0 2 0 0 0 0 101 ,2
CCf 40.0 41.9 91.1 70 4 79 71 424 1 0.40 2.20 70 f .0 0.0 ID 74 37 73 14 1.1 10.0 19 14 t 44 4.2 10 4 11 19 0 1 0 0 4 0 1014.A
*c o 09.0 *. 19.0 ON 14 11 30 797 0 0.4 0.43 70-29 7 7 19 M 71 4] 43 27 1.5 10.4 71 24 1* 91 9.0 11 10 9 4 0 I 1 21
DIC 49.9 19.1 10.> 39 7 1* 1079 0 1.12 1.10 0-7 4.0 1.0 20-24 AO 70 40 42 20 4.7 10.4 91 10 11 14 9.4 II 7 11 9 t 0 0 7 20 0 1011.f
US J*H AUC MAS oic
Of AO 9t.l 41.9 91.9 91 tl 19 Jf 70 761 11.90 1.44 0 He 2 1.2 4 70 77 92 4? u B.O 4.4 19 10 11 40 1.9 104 | 104 194 107 4 tl 19 7 20 127 0 10|4.4
Normals, Means, And Extremes
i Tamprri turn h'jrmal D0- day* lata 01 *0 Precipitation In Inehea X Relative humidity pcV Wind ! I i I I o £ t $ 1! 1 Mean nvrbee d days Av-'aq* rai-wt P'mu't mb.
Nor-nal f lift 1 Water equivalent Snow, lea peMett i X 01 1 ) 07 M* ? 11 tm 1 X II 1 1 It n Fetet1 mile Sun.ii* to PinMt s| ii j > 3 1 ;! ii Ter*p*e Va. rnt *c h*n.
li ii 1 JJ 1 II 1 > f J I ii t > jf if 1 > U 9 ~ 5 1 1 > If il l U is i > ii I! o ! >- l !? I Ibl l\ ?! u U b 8 lw fee*1 m el.
lei II >1 11 n 11 92 12 12 12 12 12 11 9 17 17 1* 10 II 10 10 11 It It 10 12 12 12 12 4
J 1.4 14.0 12.7 * Ml 0 1069 1001 0 1.94 T.ll 19*1 0.14 1033 2.46 10*4 13.9 1061 14.4 1964 79 13 37 61 11.7 WK* 7 19 1971 40 6.1 0 7 1 9 II I 4 7 I;
t 2.9 IN.9 11.0 r* SMI -7 1067 1 7 I 0 1.17 1.00 130 1 .*6 1046 2.39 1064 13.1 1*67 11.1 1067 7n 77 36 e 12.2 w if 27 1760 30 6.4 7 7 1* 1C 1 4 9
R 90.7 91.9 l.l 7 l*9 7 1067 74 0 4.11 6.10 1931 0.61 1*43 2.J7 1069 17.6 1061 U.3 H60 76 7 7 33 66 12.3 WNU 0 24 1173 37 6.4 0 15 ii 1 4 1 li
A 42.1 4|.o 91.7 * IM. 12 1060 170 0 1.17 7.13 1*32 0.44 1076 9.17 1052 1.2 1169 1.2 1165 77 76 30 64 12.2 s *6 07 1161 9* 6.1 7 10 11 li a 1 a 7
A n-: 30-7 41.4 77 1060 23 1 066 IH 29 1.34 IS.1l 10*0 0. *0 1037 4.13 1030 0.0 0.0 4 71 37 70 10.7 s 99 91 1173 3* 6.4 4 12 11 1C 0 1 4 0
J 00.1 97.7 70.3 1,4 fM' 17 1067 9 144 1.11 4.36 1070 0.10 1034 7.01 1932 0.0 o.o 09 1 In 31 74 0.7 s 17 29 1164 90 6.2 1 11 12 0 0 9 9 1 0 0 9 1014.2
4 73.1 ICN 1*46 *6 1063 0 111 4.16 II.00 1 7 3 9 1.10 1037 4.46 1939 0.0 0.0 .. 3 31 79 9.0 s 17 26 1070 6C 6.1 7 lo 14 0 4
i 71.4 301 40*1 *0 1076 0 240 4.00 II. 74 1967 0.14 19-1 4.40 1066 0.0 0.0 19 07 17 76 0.7 s 19 12 1171 63 9.0 1 10 11 9 0 9 4 9
S n.i 4?.| J7|l 12 1060 19 74 2.77 4.27 1 964 0.41 1070 1.91 1934 0.0 0.0 0 17 34 00 9.2 l At 60 12 116 D 30 9.7 13 12 0 2 4 0 a C 1013.9
0 AT.9 9-9 94.7 00 |7}0 11 1060 241 0 1.46 7.30 I0*| 0.19 1061 2.93 1931 T 1172 T H72 6 07 16 74 1.7 N 1 29 1161 97 9.1 l| 12 7 0 t 0 4 10.7.1
N 99.9 14.1 44.0 '* 1*90 11 1964 970 0 4.21 7.43 1072 0.41 1076 1.91 1933 7.1 1067 7.0 1167 11 2 36 79 11.1 M 40 27 I960 91 6.1 1 0 11 9 a 1 1 a1
44.2 74.0 19.1 T1 ,M. -7 1030 917 0 4.01 7.11 1069 0.62 1039 2.79 IM| 1.4 1060 1.9 H60 73 77 90 71 II.1 SAW 19 96 I960 41 6.4 19 9 I a 4 0 l 12 a 1019.4
/un J ah rttl JON JUl Ffl JIN IIP
Tl 1.4 49.4 11.7 p* |M 0 I96S 4944 44 49.46 11.09 1939 0.10 1054 4.44 1990 3.1 1*67 14.4 H64 02 11 97 72 10.7 s 40 It 1060 19 B.l Of 101 141 III 4 <9 47 16 I 111 1 1014.0
*nd titrtMi above arc from aulatln? and coppartbli (iipoiuri. Annual eitrmi have been exceeded at etKer altaa In tha
locality aa followat Loveat ter-perature -9 in February I9)4i *.ajt*um monthly precipitation 14.97 In Au () tfroth ( record, riu, tlrwgl lh Current >r vnlett othervlte noted, lated on January date.
(4) 70* and above t IUiIm Italians.
* leii than one half.
I trace.
90WIS 0trd on record for the 1441-1970 period.
Mil Of AR UTAIAI The moit recent In ciiet of mittfpW
occurrence.
NlfAlltRC Uino 0IWCTI04 Accord threvqh 1HI.
Olio DlOtcnOi Nurf-als Indicate teni of denreei cTocbHso Iron true north. 00 Indicate! C4?e.
FASTIS? Nllf *1*0 Speed It fatten observed 1-nlnvts value when the direction tl In tens of deyreel.
1 Baaed on U.S. Naval Air Station and Weather bureau Airport Station record#.


Average Temperature
Vc.7"] Jan | fcb | M.r | Apr ~| May1~Jung]~July j Aug |~Scpt~| dct~]~ Nov | D.c~|Annu.l
17)7 4).) i*.d 40,01 49.61 40.) 67.y 79. i 74.W 43.9 36.0 47.0 17. f 34.6
17M jj.a i*.* 44. C 3 7.1 57,4 67.1 71,0 73.0 47. h 37.6 90.0 )9.4 1* ,*
|t JV JC.C* 4.) *2,0 49.0 40.1 67.) 72.) 76.* 4A.6 >.4 49.9 )9,1 34,1
19*0 )4.> )7.,| 43.4 ff*4j 37.2 73.4: 71,) 1 i 44.4 47.4 41.6 SI *9
1741 )4,1 t 2.2 ).J i 37.) 62.9 67.0 72.1 7).) 4*. 1 62.7 31.0 41.0* 4.7
14*2 )I.T 12.2 4>.4 )l 7. 12 70.* 76.) 7).* 49.4 39.6 49,4 19.2 J4.4
| 94 J )4.i 1*. o *1.0 46.4 37.6 7).a 7).a 72.1. 49.1 >6.* 46.2. ) 6.0 M.4
17*4 ) 6.0 13.) *7,6. 47.1 41.2 67.* 7).) 71.9 44.T >7.2 46.6 )9.2 9).7
|74) 27.J -j n.i ), 67.) i 74.) 77,6; 7o. i: *1 49.6 1 13,4 ),
| 94 9 1 13.3 16. J 47.) 1 10.4 60.3 46.a 72.s! 71.9 61.2 n.i1 71,7 33,3
1747 41.2 21.3 17.6 47.1 JT. 66.a 72.) 74.6 69.4 63.0: 43.9. )6.2 33.7
1 94 27.) 14,4, 42. C 47.0 17.r 6t.a 74.0 7).7 44.2 36.6] 92*6- 40, t )).
1949 41.7 41,0. )l.4 31.4 *.r 7i.a 77.4 76.11 64.0 62.6 44.2 40.6 56.)
17)0 44.) 17,1 i #,4. 54,A )7,T 7).l 72.7. 1 43.2 39.6 7.2 i 36.7 IM
1731 I 91.2] 1 )7,J i 42 . I SI .3 61.Q )3.2 76.? 7). J 44.J 60.7! 43. AI.L S3,2
1732 ).) 17,7 40.t! 32.) 10.0 71.) 77.31 74.61 49. |l 35.4i 44.4 40.J 33.7
173) 40.3 40. i' 44.9t 1.3 61.6 61.2 7).9 74,;! 49.6i 39,4. c.i! 42.) ).
}934 )4.) 40,71 42,c, 31.3. ) 7. 67,0 71.9* 72.) 69.0 61*6. 6.4 37.1 .
1733 )),2. -s M.4j 60.4j 67.2 76.9 76.; 66. *> 60.9, 44.11 32.T | 2
179) 17.2- 40.0 47,1- 4.0 )t.l 72.4: 7).l! 66. )l 64. *\ 47.)' 4S,t 34,0
17)7 >1.* ). 42.1 11.7 40.0 67.9 7) 4* 70.6. 69.4 34. )i 30.6! 41. >; )4.4
#17)1 )).) 27.7 40.) 31.2 97.6 69.) 76.4! 72.) 66.0 3).3 47.6! 24.) M.2
17)7 11.3 )4, 40,9' 32.4 6*.i; 71.4 74.0 76.lj 69.7, >9.) 43.) 39.) ,9
)7)0 . D.r, ll.i )S.*j )1*Q 70.7 n.ij t... 47.9 ,6.)j I 30.1 1 11,1
1761 2).3 16. J 4>.0 47. J 17.2! 47.4 76.J 74.9 11. J 3l.ll 47.7, 33. l 34.4
1762 )). 2 ) 4,1 40,1 11.1 63.2 70.6 72.91 73.0 64.) 37.1; 43.T, 32.) 33.1
176) 11.9 27.2 4.r 12. > )C.> 70.9 76.11 72,9 69.) 39.9- 30.1 30.9 13.9
V1964 75.2 13.2 4).l; 49,7 6*.0 73.7 76.0 72. T- 67.) 91.9 47.0 36.4 J4.1
17)3 27.) is.a M )4.Ij )7.4 7,.2 72.lj M.6 | )3.1j ** 9l | 36.) Slat
17)) 1 11.9 I0.j 41, J J 94.) 70.] 64.11 St. T 47.t| 12.0
1767 13.3 27.2 ).) 11.4 14.11 67.Q 7).*i 71.3. 61.2 31.)' l.3i 39.1 31*2
(76) 26.1 27.1 6).O' 31.0 J7.7 70.1 74. Z 7).Â¥ 66.)' 35.0 41.1 31.3 31.1
1747 >3.) 1.3 |7,4j 11.* 62.0 )7,3 71.2. 7).) 63.) >3.9 4).9: 34.9. lla*
1770 .... >1.9 ,l-*| 49> 41.3 44.1 7,.5 is.; 64.41 34.2, 34**1 33*3
1771 23.9 1 13.? |7,0l 47. J 17.) 47.7 72.01 70.J )T.j 60.7< 4.3; 41,1 31.9
1972 13.3 12.3 |7,4 44.) 37. 1 46.1 73.) *1.9 41.1 31.) 44,). 42.) 12,7
177) 16,2 ) 4.7 ).c; SI.2 f4.A 72.9 7) ll 7 3.9 66.) 37.4 47.4 13.) S3aS
1774 |3,! 11.1 44,4 34.3 40,) 64.0 79.0 74.1. 61.4. 32.2. 46.) 19.0 1 4 J
177 )7.2 M.3 40, It 43.3 43.1. 47.4 74,3, 7).A 62.1 37.* .... 33,3, 93.7
177) ,.J ,J 4).lj 31.)j J7.*j 47.6 Tf.ll 11.J 66.9 91.2 M|| 31,4
MCGA0 i rftN i 12.0 ! ii,* ...3 1 50.) 40.3 47.7 n.i WJ ...J 99.4 .J 33*3. SS.l
RAX 41.3 *2.1 JC.2 61.2 70.9 77.1 II.) 12.9 76.) 66.1: SS.Ji 44.) 61.f
AIN 22. l*,Z 21.4* 17.7 47.T )7,4 69.U 4).fc 56.) 49. 13.9 24.t Sat
Cooling Degree Days
Heating Degree Days
AH.ANTI* riTY. N.l
Ya.r Jan Feb Mar Apr | May June| July Aug !Sept j Oct Nov D.c Totl
i* 0 0 0 17 ) 1 70I 264 242 in! n! o 0 94)
1970 0 e 0 0 )) 134 279 26) 1171 20 0 970
l9l 0 0 0 0 ) 176 224 191 Ito! 17 12 i 0 741
197J c 0 0 0 11 1) IM 212 1)2, * 0 0 IS)
197) 0 0 o 10 21 2)) >21 >43 ll)1 20 0 0 106)
1974 0 0 0 19 44 121 11 9 232 10): 2 6 0 90)
197) 0 0 0 0 74 164 39) 212 4|j 10 0 e III
197) 0 0 0 > IS 101 231 221 1 ' 0 e 7)9
Season) Jutyj Aug]Sept| OciJnov] Dec | Jan | Feb"| Mar| Apr J May jjune, Total
1999-57 1 oj Td i,>! | ov 1019 mi 701- 3941 ml , *J0
1977.51! P ll *c 2 5*1 4.-7, 6191 962 911 *1* 4C6| 22ll 41 4793
1999-9* O li 6J >06! )10. ID? l C / 9 )?' 7*0 >67 nil 2) 9191
I979-6C c l ** 3 0*| 600| 914 16 100 j 140 12 4690
1940-41 p ?a 2|7 30)' 1C14| ||74 10J 47T 471^ m it 9211
1961-62 Of O' 21 226 52 5' V iO 77 6C 7*> 592. 1>*' 1? 4*14
1942-6.* 0 ?! 9 130 6 JC 1007 10*0 916 596 375, 171 13 9360
1945-44 P 11 102; 170 4 > 1059 916 91) 67a *61 l?l )l 4ite
1964-69 O 1 *! "j ... 1192 ,,0i >e 4,,| 109} 77 3)46
1949-6* 2*1 7C >66 >fc 479) 1129 971: 726 3 ?9| 27)i 4) )609
1966-67 0 0. t )7> 31); 01 996 1 ) *11 1*1, 21 57*4
1947-66 0 3 1** >9* m , 1195 109*| 74 *17, 196, 1)1 1*1*
1961-691 0 *1 11* 4?9, 1C J l 1061 926 47 >5* DC, 29 9411
1969-7C * i3 .0, m, 1174 j 20 *! 166- 1) 9341
1970-71 a ol .1 m JtJ yJ 1117 t* 79) 314 2 24- 291 9164
1971-72 4| y 1 14) 420 7)6! 951 9)6! 16 3 3 Ol 1 7 44 3034
1972-7? 3 * ?l 41P 412- 6 V 1. 65 142 32) 414 297, ) 4424
197J-74 0 * 24) 319: 77): 726 6)2 529 l4l 27, 4**6
1974.79, 0 1 *4 I4 9371 1001 97 790* 76) *! 111. 17 49)1
1973-76 0 J 104 231 SO)' 904! 1121 mi M *09, 242 Sf 9001
1976-77 0 1 1 1 7)>j 107)| 1 1 1 1
Precipitation
Year
PH
1*1*
PH
\**0
19*1
1992
1**1
1*49
P*J
144*
14*7
IM
!**
14)0
1*11
1*12
149)
1*1*
14)3
IMS
1437
41454
X*1*
mo
mi
1**2
i**i
i**i
m*
m?
i***
i***
1**0
H71
1771
1777
\*1*
1**1
1373
ccm
Man
Jan | Feb j Mgr j Apr j May j June | July j Aug j Sept | Oct j Nov | Dtc jAnnual
Snowfall __________________________
Season! July j Aug jsepti Qct j Nov | Dec 1 Jan j Feb ; Mari Apr I MayiJuncIlotai
4.46 1.09 3.0C 4,22 l.l 3.4 S 0,9) 6.1) i.or 3.43 3.or 1.21
1.2) 1.1? l.9 1.20 ).)) 4.61! 7.Cl 3.91 11.76 #.19 3.39 1.12
).6 6.SI 4.0* ).7 C.49 1.40 1.60 4.99 1.50 3.11 2.1T 1.3)
1.7) i 3.9L 4.60 I 3,1 4 1 *.6* 1.3? | .... 4.1) 1.33 1.44 4.42, 2.3)
),9I- 3.0? 2.99i l.J 4.12 1 3.9? 2. ** 0.01 1.37 1.91 1.4)
2.92 2.22 5.22 1.2* ids' 1.4) 5.43, 6.95 1.62 4.39 1.21 3.14
J.3) 2.11 4 S- 4.00 2.42 1.75 l 64* C.44; 3.61 7.9) 2.9) 1.39
4,43 1.44 S.*2 3.74 1*91 4.21 1.30 2.91 3.7* 4,01 9.06 2.36
t.tt 3.64, 0.99 | 2.79 3.09 **1 10.2 2j 4.0) 2.21 2.69 3.21 7.1)
2.7? 1.1? Ml 1.1? 4.7* ).4l ,.r! 2.91! l 1.9) . 1.37 I.is
4,SO 1.71* 2M? 4.|) 4.10 1.7? 1.71 3*31 1.37 1.29 3.1* 2.1*
1.14 ).)) 3.4* I.D I.IO * 2 L 4.0) 4.2> C.6* 3.D 4.47 6. or
4.26 4.9* ) 91! 2.3* *.01 0.36 3.0? ).)? l. *T S.S7, 3.49 2.1)
2.4) Ml 1 l *9( i ,.>z 3.1L 3.2. ).77| 9.4) 1 S.6T. 3.0*
2.3? 1 4.60 1 3.29 I.IO* I..J 6.tJ 1.3) 1.15 1 1.40 2.49 7.3J 1.17
3.4) 1.17 S.4) 6.9* 6,01 1.2* 1.4* 7.4*' 1.20 0.90 4.21 4.51
3.1Z 4.53 J .60 1.92 4.7? 2.76 3.60 9.4? 0.3* 2.61 7.46 3.29
J.04 1.)) 2.72 1.11 2.4* 0.21 1. ) *.7> 9.C* 1.47. 4.04 3.63
0,3 *1 4.1? | 2.7? 1 0.6? 1 6.2* I 2.2* 3.90 | 1.99 | 3.70 | 2.90 1 0.90
2.lJ 3.34 4.47 1.71 1 2.16 1 12 4.7) 1.0) 3.61 2.4*- 1 4.1!
l.H 4.CL 4 )0 2.2* C.3* 2.76 0.31* ).)t 2.14 1.61 4.3* ) 7)
3,2*. 6.a* 7. ST. 4.3) 4,42 .) 9.72 9.46 3.71 9. )L i.?r M*
1.3* 1 0 3.44 3.)> 9.0) 1.29 1).0 3.3? 1.44 4.IT 1.1); 1.1)
3.69 S.7L I 2.3- *'2| 0.7? 5.3) 2 )6i 1 4,0) | 3.04 1.7*i 3.40
4,0) 4. Jl 6*3) s.U 3.IT* l.oJ 1 3.40 l.?J 1.3) .? 2.4> i.n
4.21 3.47 S.4Z 3.33 1.77 .20 1.7* 3.2* 3.C* 2.0*4 4.44, 3.14
1.9*, M3 3.2L 1.3? l.J 3.07 2.60 2.** 4, J9 0.19 4.4* 2.3)
),)) *.1l I.IO 7.3* 1.46 0.4* 2.7) 1.6) 1.91| 2.4?, 1.1) 3.47
1.1 2.4* 1 1.7? 2.0U 1 2.39 l.4 2.41) 2.40 1.60 1.14, .T 1.0*
S.4J S.l? i 0.79 I.S l.lf' iJ ,.,J 9.oJ ). 2? I.Tl! l.tu ).!>
1.1) 3.2* 3.7) 2.7* ).6f 1.1* .l) 11.9) 1.30 2.4) 1.7? 3.3?
2.77 1.4* 6.99 1.30 Ml 2.4) 1.7) 2.20 0.** 2.7) S. 10 s.a*
!. t.ll ) 1? 3.3? 1.4) 1.4a 12.6* 2.3) 1.4) 2.0 4.24 7.))
1.3d 3.0) | I.U 1 4,6* 1 61; 6.34 2.41 1 2.7^ 0.4L* I .7t 3.7) ). 0*.
2.6? S.2) I 1.6* 1.2? 1.6.' o.*4 1.41 10.4Q I 4 39 4.10 S.02 l.oe
2.91 4.11 3.39 *62 3.3L 4.41 2.It C44i 3. 3.1L 9.63 3.4)
3.2) 3.6 1 3.0) *.J* 3.0 4.3) 3.24 2.CS 4.71 2.7* !. 3. *
S.*^ 2.-0 4.6? 1.4 2.61 2.91 1.9* 3.9a 2.95 l.to 1.06 4.7*
*.J1
.21 1.41
I
I.7|
I.fcl
>70 ltM |.|<| A,01
01 N I.Mj
I.U l.ol 2.31
3,0V 3.1) 1.7. 1.7) 3.33
4.71 Ml *< laM 2.31
4*91 3.21 1.31 3.11
*2.1* im-11 o.oj o.c ! 0.0 1 0.0 1 c.oi c.o j T C.I 1.6 ! 0.0 0.0 ! o.c 2.4
49,1* 1131-39 c.o 0.0 o.o, o.o 3.9 7 4.1 1.: 7 c.o 0.0 12.0
*4.6) 1939-40 c.o. 0.0 1 o.c | 0.0 7 9.4 1 13.6 ... 0.! 0.4 c.o: 0.0 29.4
41.*2 i 1 I
19*0-41 0.0: 0.0- o.c 7 1 o.c 0.1- 0.2 19.) 3.' : c.o c.o 0.0 21.0
32.C6 19*1-42' 0.0| C.Ol O.o1 0.0! 0,0 t 1 i.i T T 0.0 c.c c.o ).)
*4.23 19*2-*) 0.01 0.0 ; c.oi 0.0 ' T 0.2 l.ll I.I ; 0.0 o.c 0.0 4.)
3 7.9) !,*>-** o.ci 0.0 1 0.0. O.o: T T 1 3.2 l.ll 9.4 1 c.o 0.01 9.1
*9.C2 19**-*3 0.0* 0.0. 0.0 0.0 7 0.4 f 0.1 2.9 7 i 0.0 0.0 0.0 i..
*6,27 !
0.0! o.c 0.0 0.0 1.1 12.* 3.1 ). 7 O.C 0.0 c.o 0.0 22.9
31.17 I9*6-*7 0.3I 0.01 0.3 0.0 0.01 0.) 2.9110.1 2.) C.O 0.9 9.0! 13.6
33.70 19*7-* 0.0 0,0 0.0 0.0 0.01 6.5 .) 7.1 T c.o c.o 9.0 22.1
62.23 19*l-*9 0.0 o.c o.c 0.0, 0.0 C.6 T 2.9 T ? 0.0 0.0 3.0
41.34 19*9-30 C.Ol 0.0 0.0 0.0 T c.o 0.9 T O.J 7 c.c 0.0 0.7
34.*6 i |
1950-31 0.01 o.c o.c O.o' T 7 0.7 2.0 7 1 f .0 e.o 0.0 2.7
11.6) 1951-32 0.0, 0.0 o.c 0.0 7 1.6 T T 7.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.)
46.93 1952-3) c.o 0.0 o.c 0.0 2.6 T 0.1 1.6 ).! e.o 0.0 0.0 7.4
55.91 193 >-3*l 0.0! 0.01 C.Ol O.o T T 11. T 7 7 c.o 0.0; 11.4
l*.C2 199*-33 0.0, 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 1.0 7.4 T c.o c.o 0.0 .i
34.72
1953-36 0.0 0.0 0.0 C.O T 1 6.6 0.4 10.2 c.9 0.0 0.01 17.4
4).94 1916-37 0.0 0.0! o.o' 0,01 0.0 1 7.9 l.C 0.2 1.0 0.0 0.0 10.1
34.32 1997-34: 0.0- o.oj 0.0 0.0 T 4.6 12.7 13.) 2.4 0.0 0.01 0.0 11.*
67.17 195-39 0.01 o.c o.c 0.0 0.0 9.1 2.7 7 7 7.0 0.0 0.0 9.4
47.7 5 1499-40 0.0, 0.0 0.0 0.0 7 1.9 0.6 > 1).*! 7 0.0 0.0 19.1
17.90
1940-61 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 0.0 .6 13.4 7.6 0.2 0.0 c.o O.o 32.)
41.43 1961-42 o.o' 0.0 o.c 0.0 0.0 I.C 1.1 *.6 3.4. 7 c.o 0.0 16.6
41.*) 1462-61 0.01 0.0 0.01 T 1 >.1 *.4 0.) T 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.4
36.90 1443-6* 0.01 0.0 0.0 C.o 0.0 7.4 19.1 12.0 ).* 7 c.o 0.0 34.)
41.01 1 46*-6 5 0.0; 0.0 0.0 o.o 1 1.0 1.2 2.1 3.2 0.0 0.0 14.)
23.27
1463-66 C.Ol 0.01 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 13.1 I.U T o.c 0.0 0.0 M.l
63,19 1966-67 0.0| 0. ol o.c 0.0 t a.) 1.1 n.j 1.1 i o.oj 0.0 66.9
41.1 17H-.I C.Ol 0.0| 0.0 0.0 7.4 1.9 u.a 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 14.9
)).* 14et-*4 0.0 o.oi 0.0 0,0 1 9.3 O.J 7.0 17.6 0.9 c.c 0.0 29,4
*4.*3 l4f4-70 0.01 0.0 0.0 0.0 7 0.* 10.) 3.4 7 0.0 c.o 0.0 16.4
) 94
1970-71 0.01 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 l. 7.2 1.4 0.? 7 0.0 0.0 11.*
41.17 1971-72 0.0 o.o; 0.0 0.0 0.0 c.i 2.4 7 1 c.o 0.0 4.9
tt.CI 1972-71 0.0> 0.0 0.0 T T 7 0.0 0.* i 0.0 0.0 0.4
41.47 1471-7* c.o, 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 T 0.4 4.4 7 j T c.o 0.0 10.4
>6.*6 147*-73 0.0( 0.0 0.0] O.o 0.2 1 >.l 1.6 2.o! 7 0.0 0.0 7.1
90.10
197)-7e 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 c.* 4.9 1.0 I.J 0.0 c.o 0.0 10.4
3),42 1976-77 0.0 o.o e.o 0,0 T 4.0
ccoo
41.33 Rf 6h o.oj 0.0 0.8 T 0.4 2.4 .1 3.0 3.2 0.3 0.0 OaO Dal
# lndlrataa ititlm rove or relocation of IniiruMiit*. Station Location table.
Record value* above arr r*n* through tla current year for the period brr.lminR In
June 13'.8 fur fi-ep-tatiirr and precipitation, I94J for anowfall, lN|a an- Iron City Office location* through Joh- Ivi*.


Arrc.HDi-"& {?! (
J Hi story of Hoods and Storms:
Wind:
Wind data available from observations made by the U. S. Weather Bureau at Atlantic City, show that the_j>re-vaillng winds are from the south and west ind range from 14 iTo~2iriiTtTas berBoui-. Winds f romlii greaffesUavefago vc loc i ty,_about _Z-Q_Jtli 1 c.s per hour, and a 1 so
occur more than twice as often as winds fr5m_any._Ptber_jLkr11.cr tToTTwIiefTThe wind VLelocityf exceeds. 28 mi les_per_h.QUr. The
maximum wind volocity of____5minute duration was_82 miles pet
jidiTr Ifurihg ti^e September 119^ hurricane and "fastest mile vclociLv was 91 niflcspor hourduring the same storm.
Tides:
Tidal height measurements have been made at Atlantic City since 1911, except for the period January 1.920 through November 1921 and for the month of September 1938. .The mean tidal range is 4.1 feet. The highest tide experienced occurred Tn September 1944 and was reported by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey to be 7.6 feet above mean sea level. The recording tide gage did not register during 1.3 hours at the peak of the tide, and the maximum value is based on an inferred portion of the tide curve. The lowest tide recorded was 5.5 feet below mcan_sca._lqve.l_ in March 1932. Heights of storm tides of record are given in the Table below:
Waves:
The characteristics of waves were derived from periodic observations made at the end of Steel Pier in Atlantic City during the period Novermber 1935 to May 1937, and July 1947 to March 1948. The observed wave heights ranged up to 12.9 feet, and the wave speeds ranged up to 25 feet per second, The average time period between crests was approximately 7 seconds. The wave lengths ranged from 10 feet to more than 300 feet.
The characteristics of deep water waves off the North Atlantic coast have been investigated by the Beach Erosion Board and published as Techinical Memorandum No. 55. Data in that report was utilized to develop :i double wave rose for New York Bay and Delaware Bay. It will be noted that there is a very close correlation between the wave conditions at the two locations. Waves of the greatest magnitude approach most frequently from the east-northeast. Magnitude and frequency decrease in a clockwise direction. Relatively few waves come from directions counter-clockwise to east-north-east.
Hurricanes and Other Storms of Record (see Plates 23 and 24 ) Hurricanes:
HEIGHT OE STORM TIDES AT ATLANTIC CITY, N.J.
Elevation in feet above mean sea level (Sandy Hook, 1929 adjustment)
Jan. 1933 Aug. 1933 Sep. 1936 Sep. 1944 Nov. 1944 Nov. 1947 Nov. 1950 Oct. 1953 Nov. 1953 Sep. I960 Mar. 1962
5.6 5.0 4.7 7.6 5.8 1 5,9 7.0 6.1 5.0 6.1 7.2
y
While the records from tide gage stations are of neces-
sity those used for statistical analysis, the following information is pertinent. It has been noted, particularly during the two storms which occurred in September 1944 and March 1962, that high water marks at numerous locations along the shore areas were as much as T~feet higher than that recorded at the Steel Pier gage at Atlantic ETty. This can be attributed to the accumulation of water from wind-driven waves, breaking over the shore front and shore structures, that i: unable to rapidly return to the ocean. These storm water elevations are variable along the shore and apparently are dependent oh the degree of confinement into which the tide surge and waves push
Generally, the most .severe storms which affect the Atlantic coast are the hurricanes. These storms develop in the tropics and, although frequently reduced in intensity because of their long travel from their point of origin, they have often resulted in loss of life and severe property damage along the At lanti'c1., coast. Records indicate that Lhc normal path of this type storm is east of the Delaware and New Jersey coasts and that it has a general northeasterly direction when opposite this regio of Lhc coast. None of the relatively recent hurricanes have passed inland directly over the study area, although they have materially affected the coasLline by causing high winds, waves an tides. Paths of selected storms of hurricane intensity are shown on Tlate 23. The closer the path of the storm to the coast, the greater Lhc damage caused. Records show that prior to 1933, stori of this type occurred as follows: September 1930, two in August 1893, October 1878, September 1869, September 1821, September 181 August 1788 and August 1635. Even though the above list of hurricanes is undoubtedly incomplete, the data secured therefrom are o some value as an indicator of long-term trends in certain characti istics. It is apparent that there has been no change in the .gene: path of hurricanes during the past 140 years. Information on all hurricanes and other major storms which have significantly affect< the New Jersey coastal areas since 1933 is presented in Table 20. Statistics therein are official U. S. Weather Bureau readings take at Lhc Steel Pier at Atlantic City.
1 y;, mi 1^6 3 Hi rrir-Tic Study Atlantic Coast of Southern New Jersey Tv 1 aware prepared by U.S. Army Corps ot Engineers.


g-7
Other Storms;
Will It- Lhc primary concern of this report, is the reduction of personal hazard and property damage from hurricanes, any structural or other measures taken to effect such reduction would, of course, also reduce the effects of other types of storms. Ordinarily, Lhe "northeaster" type of storm has neither the exLent of influence nor the intensity of a hurricane, but some storms of this type have been very severe in the New Jersey southern coastal areas. Northeasters often affect the weather of the area for several days because of their characteristic slow movement. A storm of that type in November 1950 caused the third highest tide of record at Atlantic City. A similar type storm in March 19f>2 caused the second highest tide of record at Atlantic City. There was an unusual combination of climatological events which contributed to the devastating effect of the March 1962 storm, details of which .arc presented in a subsequent paragraph. Characteristics and adjusted damage data for these storms are given in Tabltui_20_ai)d. 2 J respect ive 1 y.
Significant Storms of Recent Years:
Hurricanes and other severe storms which have caused significant damage in the southern New Jersey coastal areas in recent years are discussed in the following sub-paragraphs.
Due to the erratic nature of the hurricanes, both as to severity and exact course, it is considered that they are, and will continue to be the major threat to the New Jersey coastal areas.
a. Hurricane of August 1933. The center of the hurricane of August 1933 crossed inland over the Middle Atlantic coast and passed close to Norfolk, Va. on the morning of the 23rd. The storm passed about 125 miles west of southern New Jersey coastal area on the 24th. The coast was subjected to onshore winds from the northern portion of the storm pattern.
The comparatively unusual path of this hurricane increased the fetch and duration of the onshore winds. Atlantic City reported a wind of one-minute duration of 76 miles per hour from the cast, and velocities at Cape llenlopen were estimated to be as great as 75 miles per hour. The greatest damage from this storm in Lhe New Jersey area was on Lhe Delaware coast and at the tip of Cape 'May.
b. Hurricane of September 1944. Larly on the morning
of the T4th the storm was centered about 100 miles south of Beaufort, North Carolina, and hurricane warnings were raised from.the Virginia Capes to Portland, Maine. The course of the storm was parallel to the coastline from Cape Hatteras to eastern Long Island, passing about 30 miles east of the southern New Jersey coast area at a speed of about 36 miles per hour. The storm nassod the New Jersey coast near the time of astronomic high tide.
F'8
Hurricane of September 1944 (cent.)
Wind velocities during this disturbance equalled or exceeded those of previous record at Cape Hatteras, Cape Henry, Atlantic City,
New York City, and Block Island. Gusts of 92 miles per hour and a high tide of 8 feet above mean sea level were reported at Lhe Nava] Air Station, Cape May, New Jersey. This hurricane caused the second greatest damage of record along the New Jersey coastal areas, the greatest damages occurring on Long Beach Island and Absecon Island.
c. Storm of November 1950. lhe New Jersey area received the fulT impact of sti'ong easterly winds on the 25th. The winds were accompanied by heavy precipitation. On the bay front at Absecon Island the high water was recorded at elevation 8.3 feet above mean sea level. This storm resulted in extreme damage to southern New Jersey, particularly along Delaware Bay, and caused the second highest tide of recoi'd, 7,2 feet above mean sea level at the BrcakwaLer gage. 7.0 feet above mean sea level was recorder at Atlantic City.
d. Storm of November 1953. lhe center of the northeasterly storm that occurred from the 5th to the 7th passed approximately 100 miles off the Cape May coast near the time of astronomic low tide. The low pressure area comprising the center of the storm moved northward toward a ridge of high pressure resulting in strong onshore winds. During Lhc storm's passage, winds at Atlantic City attained a maximum one-minute velocity of 69 miles per hour. High tides at Atlantic City were approximately 2 feet lower than Lhe high tides accompanying the stonrfof November 1950, but at Sandy Hook, about 25 miles north of Manasquan Inlet, the record tide of
9.1 feet above mean sea level was established. Because of the time of the storm's passage with relation to the phase of astronomic tide and Lhe distance of the center of the storm from shore, tides were less severe farther to the south.
e. Hurricane of September 1960. Hurricane "Donna" passed northeastward off the coasts of Delaware and New Jersey on Lhe 12th. The center of the storm was located about 80 to 100 miles east of Atlantic City at noon, moving at 40 miles per hour. Atlantic City reported a wind of one-minute duration of 60 miles per hour from Lhe northwest, and gusts up to 83 miles per hour. Along the Delaware coast low tide occurred during Lhe peak of the storm and there was no appreciable damage from flooding. There was considerable damage from medium to heavy wave action and flooding of low areas along the New Jersey coast. Tides at ALlantic CiLy, New Jersey, ranged up to
6.1 feet above mean sea level.
f. Storm of March 1962. lhc storm of 6-8 March 1962 was classified as an unusually severe extratropical cyclone. It consisted of a series of low pressure areas along the Atlantic coast,


Storm of March 1962 (cont.)
extending from southern New England to Florida, moving very slowly in aneast northeasterly direction. The gale to hurricane force norLhcast winds pushed the ocean waters on-shore during five successive high tides in a three-day period in an unprecedented manner. On top of near record tides, there was repeated wave action of heights between 20 and 30 feet. Tremendous damage was done to barrier dunes, beaches, shore installations, commercial, residential and public properties. The ci'osive effect of wave and tidal action changed the face of Lhe immediate coastline and caused extreme losses of beach. New channels and inlets were cut in the shoreline: five on long Beach Island and several on the Delaware coastline from Dewey Beach to Indian River Inlet. The uninterrupted wind, wave and Lidc action raised tide levels in the inland bay areas to heights never before attained since tide measurements were made. large inland areas along the barrier beach islands wore inundated. The total damages to the Atlantic coast areas, excluding the damages to Atlantic City, approximated $99,000,000, of which about $16,600,000 was incurred in Delaware, and about $82,400,000 in New Jersey. In addition, approximately $3 million damage was incurred in New Jersey at eight communitics located on Lhe mainland west of Lhe barrier beaches. The grcaLest damage was at TuckcrLon Beach where 617 homes suffered flood damage estimated to be 1 million dollars. It was reported that 22 deaths were attributed Lo Lhe sLonn; 7 in Delaware and 15 in New Jersey. Many of the stricken communities were evacuated by police, guardsmen and civil defense units using helicopters, boats, trucks and amphibious equipment. High tides at Atlantic City, New Jersey and Lewes, Delaware, ranged up to 7.2 feet and 7.9 feet, respectively, above mean sea level.
Storm Surge
De f ini t ion:
The storm surge is considered as a temporary change in sea level. It should not be confused with Lhe ordinary and more visible wind-driven waves and swells. The waves and swells, with a frequency normally greater than 5 to 12 per minute, may reach amplitudes much greater than that of the sLorin surge, and may do tremendous damage near Lhe shoreline, but they have a relatively short wave lengLh and cannot extend very far inland. However, the storm surge has a period measured in hours, and rarely goes through*more than two or three significant cycles during a single storm. Frequently only one cycle occurs. This disturbance has a wave length of many miles, and in low-lying and swampy land it may. penetrate several miles beyond the normal shoreline and produce flood damage in regions normally considered Lo be safe.

tf-IO
0
Effeet: To illustrate the effects of a storm surge, the observed and astronomic tide curves for Atlantic City during the hurricane of 14-15 September 1944 are presented on Plate 25.
From the plot of the differential between the tide curves, astronomic and observed, the maximum effect of Lhe storm can be seen.
In the given example the maximum storm surge was 5.3 feet. It can also be seen from the example that the maximum storm surge occurred approximately at the time of the astronomic high tide. It was this coincidence of maximum surge and maximum astronomic tide which contributed to the severity of damage resulting from that storm. If the timing of the surge with respect to the astronomic tide were different, maximum surge might not produce Lhe maximum stage, at any given location.
The maximum surge experienced during the March 1962 storm was 4.7 feet, but the surge was continuously high, above 3 feet, through three tidal cycles. The maximum surge of 4.7 feet occurred just prior to the predicted time of low water, but surges of about 4 feet occurred at the predicted time of two high waters. The tide stages were abnormally high during five consecutive high waters, which prompted the name of "Five-High" assigned to the emergency operations following that storm. The observed and astronomic tide curves for Atlantic City, New Jersey, and Breakwater Harbor, Delaware, during Lhe storm of 6-8 March 1962 are presented on Plates 26 and 27 respectively.


HEIGHT OF STOKM TIDES AT ATLANTIC CITY, N.J.
Elevation in feet above mean sea level



Storm HURRICANE AND STORM DATA Minimum Distance of Center from Atlantic City Maximum Wind Highest Tide
Location Time y Atlantic City / Atlantic City Break- water
Date Name Distance Direction Direction Velocity
(mi) (hr) (mph) (ft above : msl)
Aug 1933 125 V H+4.5 E 76 5.0 6.1
Nov 1935 3/ NA KA KA NE 66 5.3 -
Sep 1936 100 E 4/ NE 90 4.7 -
Sep 1933 75 E H+6 W 72 4.1 ' -
Sep 1944 30 E H NE 91(G) 7.6 -
N 82(V)
Nov 1950 3/ KA NA NA E 72 7.0 7.2 Est.
Oct 1953 3/ NA NA NA N 29 6.1 6.0
Nov 1953 3/ NA NA NA NE 69(G) ;65(V) 5.0 5.4
Aug 1954 Carol 50 E H-3 NE 57 4.4 3.7
Sep iy54 Edna 150 E H-2 NE 65 4.6
Oct 1954 Hazel 125 V H SE 80(G) 4.6 4.6
SE 66
Aug 1955 Connie 125 W H S 65 4.0 4.4
Aug 1955 . Diane 65 N sw 49 3.6 4.1
Oct 1955 E 60 5.0 5.1
Sep 1956 Flossy E 54 4.9 5.6
Sep 1960 Donna 80 E H-l WNW 83(G) 6.1 5.2
VNW 60 .
Mar 1962 3/ NA NA NA E 58(G) 7.2 7.9
E 44
1/ Hours before (-) or after (+) time of predicted high tide (H).
2/ Generally fastest mile or highest one-minute value. (G) denotes gust and (V) five-minute value.
2/ Not of tropical origin.




Soil
Presently the 10.88 acre site consists predominately of sparse vegetal cover on fill materials. The surface materials of the project area consist primarily of gravelly sand. This material, which is sporadically overgrown with successional vegetation, makes up the majority of the site. There is slight compaction due to vehicular traffic and the small percentage of fine sand and silt on the surface is subject to erosion by wind and water action. Large portions of the site have been destroyed by the previous use as a dumping site for broken concrete, asphalt and other waste materials. The soils of the project area consist of fill over tidal marsh (see boring details). These soils are typified by coarse sandy material, low available water capacity, low fertility and rapid permeability. The area is extremely flat with few contours.


Depth
10-----
IS
20-----
Depth
is----
30
35
40
4 5
50
Typical Tenting Honing Repout
[adapted inom 1Z boning ctanni&icationn penfionmed by Cnaig Tenting Labonatonien, Inc.)
G.W. Da ta: -2.5 Depth: 0 to 102'
G.S. Elev: 7.30 Date: October (>, 1978
Damp med-dense dk brn C/F sand, concrete, brick, wood (filll;wet at 2.5'
Med wet gray silt 5 veg; some F sand tr shells; same
loose wet gray silty fine sand trace shells
Loose wet gray silt sand trace shells
Loose wet gray fine sand; some silt trace shells
Some shells
Silty sand tr to some fine sand, tr organics
Same
Very dense wet light br C/F sand M/F gravel; tr silt
Depth
55---- Same
60
65---- Very dense wet whitish gray M/F sand tr silt
70---- Very dense wet whitish gray C/F sand tr silt tr fine gravel
75
B0--- Same
Depth
85---- Very dense wet whitish gray M/F sand G M/F gravel tr silt
90---- Same
95----
100---- Very dense wet whitish gray C/F sand tr silt
Grading to M/F sand
105----




PROBLEM STATEMENT.
Any design project calling for 500,000 ft.2 of structure obviously has many problems to be solved. This statement deals with the conceptual problems of the project and how they may insure or jeopardize the success of the project.
Elements in the design to facilitate gambling are most important, however a large amount of facilities must be available to entertain guests during daylight hours as well occupying the time for guests who never gamble. The unique water location of the site allows many non-gambling activities during the summer. The most difficult and critical situation occurs in winter with those people not wishing to gamble. The combination of high humidity, strong winds and low temperatures creates very undesireable climate for vacationers.
A large part of the problem then involves attract-ing/entertaining non-gambling guests during winter months.
Water frontage is a valuble design element and should be maximized. Being situated so close to a body of water, however, eliminates the possibility providing underground levels for parking and service. A conflict occurs then with the desire to utilize the ground level for people activities and the need for service access and parking for 1,000 cars.
There exists an undesireable relation between the land, water and sun. The land is on the southern perimeter of the body of water. Any structure on the site will create shade and shadows along the waters edge and on the water facing the side of the building. A more desire-able site would be on the north shore where the sun would shine on the water and the water facing
side of the building.
Another difficult area envolves the physical appearance of the casino/hotel at night. Normally this type of building has greater usage after sunset placing great importance on lighting. An inter-' esting problem in design technique arises, in visualizing, testing and presenting lighting-designs .
The magnitude of the program is excessive in comparison to the size of the site. The total area of the site is 479,160 ft2. The program calls for a 500,000 ft.2 building, requiring 350,000 ft.2 for parking. A high water table prevents subterrainien development and the city limits all buildings to a maximum of six stories.
The solutions to these surface problems will greatly influence the success of the site.
OBJECTIVES.
Provide entertainment faculties for both gamblers and non-gamblers for all months and times of the year.
Maximize usage of the water frontage.
Create an attractive appearance during daylight as well as night-time hours.
Minimize people/vehicle intersections.
TENATIVE HYPOTHESIS
In order to provide entertainment/recre-tion activities for gamblers and non-gamblers year round', regardless of the weather, a casino/ hotel health spa is proposed. Having no need for day light the casino would be located below


I
the hotel at grade level providing easy access for gamblers. The more private hotel would be above with good exposure to sun and views. A large sloped glass area would provide outdoor activities protected from the weather during winter months. Activities under the glassed in area would include tennis, badminton, volleyball and jogging. Inside the structure courts for squash handball and racket ball would be provided as well as bathing sauna and message facilities.
While all casinos provide the rich activities of good eating, drinking, gambling and night entertainment, none provide any physical activities which would be desireable for clients staying more than three days. The idea compliments well the marina during the summer and is consis-tant with todays physical fitness trends as well as contributing to Atlantic City's history of being a city of therapy and rehabilitation.


Casino Floor
Public Areas
M/W Lobby Coat RM Slot FI Table Games Bar/Stor. Bar/Lounge Service Bar
Private Areas
Baccarat Gen. Off.
Bacc. Cash Credit Mgr. Off. Cage Mgr. Off. Boxmans Lounge
FT^ rp ZV\Z | l&Of
IbLE.
330
17, 500
H, loo Coo
6
(6foo
7?0O Z>o I *?c
I4 ^ 4?o
Currency
Casino Cashier Control Cred. Off.
Bank
Vault
14 5*0
6> 50 '2.00

I
Currency (cont'd) fT"
M/N
Soft Count 4 30
Coin Count 1 300
Cage Lobby 1 oO
Guest Credit / 30
Coin Bank 1 30
Service/Security
Security Off. 300
Survell. Monitor 'b'zO
Slot Repair COO
Janitor ZOO
Eating Facilities Public Areas />
Restaurant Zo&O
Cafeteria I
Bar/Lounge Z 700
M/W &3~0
Private Areas
Employee Dining w/Caf.
Main Kitchen z yoo
Room Service 1 ooo
Dishwash I 3 CO
£>30


Private Areas (cont'd)
Bakery and Storage Employee Lockers
Storage
Dairy Fefrig. Freezer
Produce Holding Produce Refrig.
Dry Storage Liquor Storage Wine Storage Ice House
Entertainment Facilities
Public
Show Rm.
Seating M/W Rm.
Private
Stage
Dressing
Storage
/ &OO
lO
7^2-
^20
JL5~C>
3 (3>
OOcj
Convention Space Shops
Hotel .
Public
Lobby
M/W
Private
Desk
Off.
Linen Storage Mechanical/Service/Admin.
Mechanical
Central Control l*?o
Fire Pump 230
Emerg. Gen. 220
Boiler 1 00 0
Chi Her ISO
Service
Ship & Rec. Service Off.
200
WO


'
Service (cont'd)
Equip. Storage \OC>
Admin.
Payroll 200
Personnel * 2 7^
Time Keep / 0O
I
\


r




Linen
Second Level


Third Level



Deck Level





Ca beret
conv.
service
Mech
Hotel
Casino
scale 1-20'




Sun Angle




w


STRUCTURE
F REI OTTO TENSION STRUCTURES by Conrad Roland Praeger Publishers 1970
A CRACK IN THE REAR VIEW MIRROR by Richard Bender
Van Nostrand Renhold Co. 1973
HANDBOOK OF HOUSING SYSTEMS FOR DESIGNERS & DEVELOPERS L S Cutler 1974
PRECAST CONCRETE IN ARCH by A E V Morris
Watson Guptill Publications 1978 THE NEW BUILDING BLOCK
OPERATION BREAKTHROUGH
DESIGN
THEATRES AND AUDITORIUMS by Harold Burris Meyers Reinhold Publishing Co. 1964
PERCEPTION AND LIGHTING AS FORM GIVERS by William M. C. Lam McGraw-Hill Book Company 1968
BEYOND HABITAT ,
by Moshe Safdie Mit Press
FOR EVERYONE A GARDEN by Moshe Safdie Mit Pres s
INTERIORS-SECOND BOOK OF HOTELS by Henry End
Whitney Library of Design
MOTELS-HOTELS, RESTRAUNTS AND BARS Architectural Record McGraw-Hill Book Company 1960
MECHANICAL SYSTEMS
HEATING VENTILATING & AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS ESTIMATING MANUEL by A.M. Khashab
McGraw-Hill Book Company 1977
BUILDING MECHANICAL SYSTEMS by F.T. Andrews
McGraw-Hill Book Company 1977