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Denver, a concept of viability

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Title:
Denver, a concept of viability
Creator:
Smith, Wiley E
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Language:
English
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iv, 59 leaves : illustrations, maps ; 28 cm

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Subjects / Keywords:
City planning -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
City planning -- Colorado ( lcsh )
Transportation -- Planning -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
City planning ( fast )
Transportation -- Planning ( fast )
Colorado ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 58-59).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master's degree in Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Wiley E. Smith.

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Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09230970 ( OCLC )
ocm09230970
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1980 .S638 ( lcc )

Full Text
D E N V E R
A CONCEPT OF VIABILITY


DENVER
mro
- A CONCEPT OF VIABILITY
Wiley E. Smith September 1980


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Chapter I:
DENVER A CONCEPT OF VIABILITY: INTRODUCTION................I
Thesis Description ...................................... .1
Preface.................................................. .IV
Introduction: The Downtown ................................ 1
Chapter II:
DENVER A CONCEPT OF VIABILITY: THE CHANGING DOWNTOWN...........5
Description ................................................ 5
Chapter III:
DENVER A CONCEPT OF VIABILITY: ANALYSIS..................8
What has been Understood and Done About the Trends...........8
Specific Examples of Working and Conceptual
Redevelopment Programs...................................8
Evaluation..................................................12
Mixed-Use Clusters ................................. ... .12
Evaluation..................................................14
Transportation as an Answer.................................15
Chapter IV:
DENVER A CONCEPT OF VIABILITY:
ELEMENTS OF THE SOLUTION TO A VIABLE DOWNTOWN..........16
Introduction .............................................. 16
Historical Denver...........................................16
Socio-Economic Projections..................................17
Combining Mixed-Use and Transportation .................... 23
"The Wedge," An Urban Design of Mixed-Use..............2.k
Defining the Downtown.......................................25
Existing Traffic Patterns...................................26
Pedestrian Traffic ........................................ 27
"The Access Tree:" A Functional Approach to the CBD. .28


Page
The Transportation Concept ................................. 31
Community Goals and Needs....................................kO
Applying the Transportation Concept to Denver ...............4l
Conclusion...................................................^5
Chapter V:
DENVER A CONCEPT OF VIABILITY: AN INVENTORY AND SUMMARY. A7
Introduction............................................... ^7
What's Available to Denver ................................. ^8
CBD Activity Centers ....................................... 50
A Basic Transportation Scheme................................5^
The Pedestrian Problem................................... ..5^
Conclusion...................................................55
58
Bibliography .




I
Chapter I
DENVER A CONCEPT OF VIABILITY:
INTRODUCTION
Thesis Description
Dispersal and migration out of the downtown has occurred on a large scale for *f0 or more years. This has changed the structure of the downtown and taken away from the central city some of the original life it once had.
The downtown requires a new look regarding its roles and responsibilities, its connections to the rest of the metropolitan region and to its structure. Since the 1950's, the dynamics of growth has been out and away from the city at a rate that has been faster than previous decades. By 195^ the amount of retail trade outside the CBD surpassed the downtown for the first time in all cities with more than a million people, and by 1958, it was nearly 20 percent higher than the CBD in 9^ of the major metropolitan areas.
This inclusion of Denver in the statistics is more dramatic. Denver's city population has remained static at about a halfmillion while the metropolitan growth has proceeded at a rate that has exceeded the national growth trends by a wide margin.
In the context of this change, the downtown has shifted from diversification to specialization. The result is high density commercial activity, that being office, retail and financial high-rise skyscrapers. Parking lots have replaced housing units which have declined within the central city.


II
Integration of planning and redevelopment from the CBD outward could restore some of the quality of the central city. By studying development in other cities, trends could be seen. Applying the successes to Denver's development a concept of viability was formed. The actions required to achieve this redevelopment would include major transit planning, emphasizing two important elements. First, the development of greater circulation capability within the CBD and second, a connection between the communities, providing a high degree of mobility within the metro region. This clearly involves dealing with transportation in a more creative way.
Transportation affects urban development and should be planned simultaneously with long range land use plans and should be a concept developed with regional and downtown growth so it supports and encourages the future pattern of development.
The first step would require development of major transit programs including future growth activity. The second step would produce a level of circulation, automobile, mass transit, pedestrian that would perpetuate this development. The third step would initiate mixed-use developments combining residential, retail, office, commercial and other amenities into the downtown.
Regional growth could be structured so that it can efficiently be serviced by diverse technologies such as PRT, CRT, TACV, bus and express bus routes. Downtown distribution service would provide for facilities that can be used in creating a fully developed downtown for moving people by skybridge, people mover links incorporating automated vehicles or shuttle buses. A combined mixed-use development would connect with the internal circulation of the


Ill
downtown and major traffic generators providing access to and integrating with the CBD.
For Denver to plan and develop these policies, a responsible attitude and outlook in preserving the city must be followed. The future of Denver 's growth will depend on combining several principles and technologies and linking them with regional and downtown activities. If transportation is to provide effective solutions for Denver, planning must be consistent in controlling urban growth and in the decisions responding to future land use.




IV
Preface
A city tells is things, and our body responds to the perception of whether it is a place of good or bad air, hot or cold, comfortable or uncomfortable. But these responses must be supplemented by
an understanding rooted in knowledge as well as in experience. The organic relations of the city -- the interaction of its transportation and its land use no less than of its people and their
recreation areas must be known.
The city speaks to us more directly as a place where opportunity is extended or denied, where the common good is recognized or ignored. The city is also directly apprehended as a place of exhaltation or of seclusion, of restlessness or repose, of boring monotony or exciting variety. The city, in short, declares whether it is true or false to life. Thus, in aesthetic terms, it provides what Bernard Berenson has called "ideated satisfactions." We realize its entity and live its life.
Perception of the city is more than rude contact with its physical solids and voids. It requires a new kind of insight. I speak not of maps and abstractions but of unifying personal experiences. When we leave a central city hotel early in the morning to drive to an outlying airport, we can see the entire city a twenty-mile cross section of it-come to life. Time and space are equated in experience.1
^Melvin M. Webber, et al., Explorations into Urban Structure. (Philadelphia, Penn.: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1968), pp. 110-111.


, \


Introduction: The Downtown
There is a need to see the urban transportation problem as an integral part of the total urban problem.
The federal aid transportation program perpetuated the erroneous view that moving in cities can be treated independently of living in cities. Yet the urban transportation problems are heavily affected by central city decay, the planless sprawl of the suburbs and by poverty, crime, and racial tensions. The task is to address the total problem, making transportation part of the general
strategy.2
Cities have not yet reached the stage of crowding and congestion present laws permit, and yet they are already pitifully overcrowded and congested. These legal limits have induced a state of anarchy in city building. An inspiring projection of the City of Tomorrow by Le Corbusier, a studied group like Radio City, a well-planned subdivision like River Oaks, and the Parkways of New York and Chicago have pointed the way. We should plan our cities to provide a rational density of population, and from these plans we will lay foundations of laws that prohibit crowding and congestion of people and buildings.3
These changes now taking place in American society may well be compatible with metropolitan forms that are neither concentrated nor concentric contained. We might see the emergence of a pragmatic, problem-solving approach in which the spatial aspects of the metropolis are viewed as continuous with and defined by the processes of urban society -- in which space is distinguished from place, in which human interaction rather than land is seen as the fruitful focus of attention, and in which plans limited to the physical form of the urban settlement are no longer put forth as synoptic statements of our goals. Metropolitan planning, then would become the task of mutually accommodation changes in the spatial environment and changes in the social environment.^
It would be folly on the part of the city planner to continue in the tradition of the 1950's and 60's when so
^Wilfred Owen, Transportation for Cities. (Washington, D.C. Brookings Institute, 1976),p.69
^Gallion-Eisner, The Urban Pattern. (New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1975), p* ^5^*
^Webber, Explorations, p. 25*


2
many planning schemes ignored these demands by sweeping everything in the path. It does not need much imagination to see that completely different approaches to city planning will be necessary in order'to integrate the past with the present while planning for the future.5
Efforts to develop effective concepts and criteria for modern urban organization, and to create new public images of the desirable metropolitan community, have come from various sources. Utopian ideas have had considerable influence, from the old Garden City movement which produced the British New Towns to the reaction reflected in the current zeal to "save the central cities," by local renewal and community action programs. Effective metropolitan planning is finally focusing attention on the questions of living environments, economics, transportation and communication in the urban form and structure. The practical requirements of planning, specifically in transportation and communication have brought scientific methods of systems analysis and computer techniques into the development of alternative models for metropolitan growth and change.
These alternative models are more a matter of pursuing a fairly consistent course toward a certain set of goals than of achieving any particular kind of community in neat pure form. The development of an entirely new urban agglomeration of major proportions is unlikely, but not impossible. So the conflicts between the old pattern and new directions have to be resolved gradually along the way, with considerable flexibility.
The optimum land use pattern incorporating the old with the
5C. Tunnard and B. Pushkariev, Man-Made America; The City of Man. (Nev; Haven: Yale University, 1970), pT


new is likely to be highly diversified. The external economies such as transportation costs associated with clustering of similar and dissimilar establishments will continue to induce certain types of establishments to seek centers and sub-centers of many types.
The revival of skyscraper office development in many downtown districts reflects the continued demand among certain types of business interprise for face-to-face contacts and adjacent services within "walking districts," or merely for the prestige value of a particular location. This is clearly a conscious choice, despite the increased ease of long-distance communication, the increased burden of commuting, and it is therefore a centralizing factor which is likely to endure in some form.
The business and professional people who continue to work in central cities have been willing to pay a high price for their home environment, in transportation time, trouble and expense. But as their journey to work increases, or requires both a private car and one or more public conveyances, other solutions may be sought. If the offices move out to accommodate them, this can mean more dispersal. But if they settle for higher density housing, whether in the city or near a mass transit stop, it would have the opposite effect.
Those who voluntarily select a tight city environment for homes or business have something in common. They all value private space and the freedom from automobiles far less than the attraction of convenience to work, the opportunity for specialized contacts and facilities within a small area, the stimulation of diversity, or the sense of being part of a cosmopolitan community in direct
touch with world affairs


k
These are traditional urban values, and it could be possible that more would choose them if they could be had without a heavy sacrifice in private living conditions. Yet, the half-worlds of the City and Suburb rarely offer such a choice.
This is the background situation, there is a rising push to "save" the central cities which is taking two positive forms: urban renewal programs with federal aid, and efforts to create or improve mass transit systems for commuting. These movements stem from the increasingly desparate desire of economic and political interests in the central cities to protect values and the tax base, with a variable intermingling of other forces, such as the need to provide better housing for slum dwellers and the new wave of intellectual concern for urban historical and cultural values, which also tends to be anti-suburbia and anti-automobile.
Central city traffic conditions have been worsened by the tremendous expenditures in freeway construction since World War II, and it is now widely recognized that large-scale concentration is incompatable with universal dependence on private automobiles.
It is necessary in discussing solutions to the conditions of urban dilemmas in center city to include such problems as traffic congestion into and out of the CBD, quality of housing, and quality of life.
By looking at the national circumstances of what has happened in several cities in the past 20 years these examples can then be applied to Denver and then be helped to determine what has happened and what might be done to enhance the viability of the downtown.




Chapter II
DENVER A CONCEPT OF VIABILITY:
THE CHANGING DOWNTOWN
Description
The downtown requires a new look regarding its roles and responsibilities, its connections to the rest of the metropolitan region and its structure. In the context of this change, the growth out and away from the city, the downtown has shifted from diversification to specialization. The result is high density commercial activity, that being office, retail, and financial high rise skyscrapers. Parking lots have replaced housing units which have declined with the central city.
In general, cities have not responded and as a result we have traffic congestion, slow redevelopment and aesthetic blight from acres of parking lots. Denver's problem is not unlike the other cities around the world -- disjointed, single purpose planning that has failed to shape the CBD into a functional, efficient and viable entity.
During the initial stages of ray work, I studied metropolitan development trends and examples of those trends in several North American cities. I was curious to know how these cities handled and incorporated change into the downtown CBD. I was more interested in the cities that combined mass transit with mixed-use in the central city.
People still identify with the downtown by its culture, enter tainment and shopping functions. These functions have been lost.


6
There are not clearly new roles and opportunities for the downtown, but this will require adapting to change and more specifically re-evaluating and reshaping its structure to correspond to a highly technical society.
The virtue of the CBD is its compact form. It becomes a natural area for ready access by pedestrian communication. The spearheads of commercial expansion spreading outward over-extend these lines of communication and drain the internal energy rather than buttress the economy of the core.
The future of downtown demands more than piecemeal rehabilitation. The occasional bright new building, replacing some old and worn out structure, is attractive.
But the impact of increasing intensity of land use, without change in the street system and parking accommodations, only aggrevated an already over-burdened circulation system. Business enterprise thus exercises its option to use land more productively, but the public responsibility has not been exercised to up-date the circulation system and germinal facilities.6
Vehicular and pedestrian circulation are not rehabilitation measures, nor is parking. Rebuilding the broad fringe of slums and blight encircling the city center could attract a multitude of those who have fled to the outskirts. Integrated replanning from within the central district outward and across the wide twilight zone surrounding it, may restore an enriched quality to this critical area.?
The integration of transportation planning and redevelopment of mixed-use from the CBD outward could restore some of the quality of the central city. Some cities, like San Francisco, Toronto, Chicago, New York and New Orleans control development so that they do not destroy that part of the city from which it was created. On
6
Gallion-Eisner,
Patterns ,
p. 315-
^Martin Meyerson, Metropolis. (New York: Random House, 1963 ), p. 23^.


7
the contrary, other cities such as Atlanta, Houston, Dallas and Denver are concerned with uncontrolled growth, over-building and unnecessary development.




8
Chapter III
DENVER A CONCEPT OF VIABILITY:
ANALYSIS
What has been Understood and Done About the Trends
Decentralization has occurred on a large scale in most cities across the country for four or more decades. In response, there had been a rising push to "save" the central cities. Contingency plans to revitalize the downtown and the CBD were developed from the increasingly desparate desire of economic and political interests in the core to protect property values and the tax base. Some early justifications were for replacing worn-out areas of the CBD or peripheral sections with a "scrape-clean" attitude. This policy was later found to alter the downtown's social, economic and physical fabric.
Today, most every city has good examples of effective urban renewal and restoration of the best of the old buildings and downtown neighborhoods, reintegrating the social and urban functions.
A positive reaction to this move is an incorporation of several systems supporting a mixed-use development that combines the elements and services concentrated in the downtown within walking distance of commuter railroad stations.
Specific Examples of Working and Conceptual Redevelopment Programs
The cases that follow indicate the changes that are taking place in the downtown area and the CBD. They are intended to give insights into evolving ways of dealing with central city functions. The


9
final focus of this section will be studying in more detail Denver's development and trends and what efforts have been made by the downtown to retain its viability.
Downtown Plan, Fort Worth, Texas. This plan, never implemented, proposed that downtown be surrounded by automobile approach, with a limited access route leading directly to one of six four-story garages, each with 10,000 car capacity. The garages were to be located at the periphery of the central area, within walking distance to the CBD or easy access to the personal transit lines.
The designers estimated that the city would accommodate about 152,000 care a day, 30,000 of them (20 percent) at rush hour. It would be set up similar to the exists from suburban shopping centers.
The downtown plan was not to remove any major buildings in the development area, but use them for a framework, adding to new commercial space and cultural and civic buildings. With traffic eliminated from the downtown surface, buildings could be laid out freely in an attractive manner appealing to the pedestrian. The basic assumption of the Downtown Plan was that a pedestrian precinct would have commercial value.
City Center, Edmonton, Alberta. This is a well developed transit system expending to complete a light rapid rail system complete with two major underground stations downtown, including a large mall. The first mall was conventional in nature running under two large business towers. The second mall has connected to a leading hotel and underneath the main street to another office complex. It serves as the starting point for a network of planned,


10
underground pedestrian walkways linking rapid transit stations with major commercial and cultural modes.
Houston Center, Houston, Texas. The master plan calls for a complex a third the size of the present downtown office area, into a center of shops, homes, hotels, office buildings, restaurants, theatres and sports facilities.
Houston Center is open off the street instead of off a six-level platform. Originally proposed in the master plan, covering all streets in the area (except at intersections, where the platform would be open to let in light and air) and hold parking for the structures that would arise from it.
Within the Center, pedestrians will be separated from automobiles just as effectively as if the entire area were covered by a platform. The Center does not yet entirely realize William L. Pereira's dream, the man that initiated the concept, of a city where "citizens may stroll at will without competing with their own vehicles for space and, some times, survival," it is at least relating to the street and the rest of downtown Houston.
Metro Center, Baltimore, Maryland. There will be close to a billion dollars invested in the city core in the next decade with more to come by the end of the century. The Metro Center area stretches about 1,000 acres and will embrace the central business district, a dozen urban renewal areas, two university campuses and numerous other institutions, two historic districts, local and state office complexes and about 10,000 residents and 120,000 employees.
Baltimore envisions the future Metro Center like this: employees come to work via the automated, computerized rail rapid


11
transit, which has vertical connections to elevator buildings.
Many employees live downtown due to the availability of new high-rise residential towers and renovated, century old row houses.
They walk to the mechanized, climate-controlled pedestrian movement system which connects all employment centers, transit stops and
g
car storage areas in the downtown district.
Center City, Calgary, Alberta. The downtown core of 700 acres is formed by the natural barrier of the Bow River, and the man-made barrier of the Canadian Pacific rail tracks along the Southern boundary.
The downtown employs 60,000 people but only 8,000 people live there. However, a turnaround is taking place. Calgary is trying to reverse the evening retreat to the suburbs like so many other cities by complementing the economic vigor with leisure-time diversity.
There are plans for a $15 million center for the performing arts. There is a street-level mall which opened in 1970 with an attempt to break up the grid road pattern and the obsession with catering to the motorists. With the mall is a growing network of elevated, enclosed walkways to link office, commercial and institutional facilities and to offer shelter from Calgary's winters and an extensive program of tree-planting.
In 1978, work started on a light rail transit (LRT) system, with the first leg covering eight miles to the southern limits and costing $82 million. The downtown route will have five stations,
g
What's New in Downtown Planning, Jonathan Barnett, Urban Design" Spring, 1977, Volume 8, No. 1, p. 22.


12
probably at surface level, and eventually continue into the northwest Calgary, in a single Ik mile line.
Evaluation
Everyone remembers the success of the Nicolet Mall in Minneapolis, but not everyone understands that there were many other factors besides the design and construction of the mall which make downtown shopping in Minneapolis so successful. For one thing, action in Minneapolis was taken before it was too late, and the city's parking policy and the location of major new office centers provided important reinforcement. In Fargo,
North Dakota, or Louisville, or Greensboro, the malls are there, but the shopping is not. There are vacant stores or low-rent uses. This is not to say that a mall or a transit-way is not useful as a method of improving downtown business centers, but that this requires either a strong existing retail situation or a lot of other measures coordinated with it.9
There are two major arguments for preserving downtown. One is 'because it is there' and represents too large an investment in property development and government services to be written off. A second reason is that a city's official boundaries seldom conform to the size and scope of today's boundaries, the municipality must do what it can to preserve its tax base.l
Most other cities are finding that they cannot take a wait and see
attitude, so they continue to intervene actively to save their CBD.
Mixed Use Clusters
Because most downtown projects are built to replace worn-out sections of blocks of buildings, they are generally peripheral to the downtown's actual core. Even so they alter the core considerably. One form which a downtown projects can assume is that of
o
What's New in Downtown Planning, Jonathan Barnett, Urban Design"j Spring, 1977, Volume ft, No. 1, p. 22.
10
Ibid, pp. 19-20


13
an anchor, a function more than a form. The major projects in Boston are anchors. The Government Center, itself a key center of the city, forms a nucleus of activity that stops the movement away from Boston's old center. And the Prudential Center, a mile away, complements the city's center by creating a boomerang-shaped swath bending around the central Common and Public Gardens.
Another project which extends the city's center is Hartford's Constitution Plaza, lying off the main shopping street toward the Connecticut River. Philadelphia's Penn Center is also an extension of the city's center. A project can bridge a void in the central city between cluster, such as the Baltimore's Charles Center.
The clusters of the changing central city have many degrees of strength and permanence. The most solid are the financial districts. The reasons for this include the solidity of the construction of bank and financial buildings and the prestige and enduring importance which results from an early established locale of quality.
There have been many other successful urban development clusters throughout the United States, that incorporated new constructions with older buildings and using what was available within the urban environment.
(1) The Gallery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1977
(2) Water Tower Place Atrium Malls, Chicago, Illinois, 1977
(3) I.D.S. Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1973
(4) Fountain Square, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1967
(5) New Market at Head House Square, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1975-76
(6) Faneuil Hall Marketplace, Boston, Massachusetts, 1976


(7) Underground Network, Montreal, Canada, 1962
(8) Mellon Square, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1965
(9) Renaissance Center, Detroit, Michigan, 1976
(10) Peachtree Center, Atlanta, Georgia, 1965
There are many other clusters in the central city, such as the institutional clusters particularly hospital and university groups. Most of these institutions need more space for the growth of plant facilities; Parking, and providing for residences nearby. The decay around institutions provides more fresh ground for future expansion, and if planned well, can affect new continuities with activity centers nearby.
Another major type of cluster in the central city is the residential group. The main element of liveliness in the central city is people moving about, the more people who live close by, the more vital and alive the central city becomes. Functional continuity with nearby clusters can be achieved by introducing other uses. Zoning laws today are outdated. Mixed zones and multiple use areas far outweighs the segregation and separation of land use from a century ago. A careful, conscientious plan can do more for the central city by combining a total activity, living and working environment than can inducements and public relations.
Evaluation
The improvement or creation of metropolitan city centers using mixed-use is a lively issue with several entirely new schemes either being built, approved, or under discussion. The actions required to achieve this pattern of development would include major transit planning, emphasizing two important elements. First, the


15
development of greater circulation capability within the CBD and second, connection between the communities, providing a high degree of mobility within the metro region. Clearly, a major aspect of responding to the problem involves dealing with transportation in a more creative way.
Transportation as an Answer
Transportation affects urban development and should be planned simultaneously with long-range land use plans. It should be a concept development with regional and downtown growth, so it supports and encourages the future pattern of development.
Considering the future of Denver's growth, a transportation network system, combining several technologies linking the regional activity centers, would provide a high level of service from the suburbs to the high density areas of the downtown and CBD.
Once downtown, attention would be paid to distribution of people within the CBD and tributary sectors. Efficient circulation downtown would not only include traffic solutions but pedestrian circulation.
Transportation will play a lead role in reintegrating the social and urban structure of Denver. The first step requires a development of a major transit program that includes future growth activity. The second step would produce a level of circulation, automobile, mass transit, pedestrian, that would perpetuate this type of development. And the third step would initiate mixed-use developments that would combine residential, retail, office, commercial and other amenities
into the downtown



X'
. w I
CEO FROM THE EAST /


16
Chapter IV
DENVER A CONCEPT OF VIABILITY ELEMENTS OF THE SOLUTION TO A VIABLE DOWNTOWN
Introduction
If we are to maintain an economically and socially viable downtown, we should begin to look at the principles of transportation as more than a means of travel. Transportation could be seen as a series of interconnecting networks bringing the region and downtown together to provide an effective solution for Denver in response to rebuilding the downtown.
Historical Denver
To accomplish this we need to understand more about Denver and its history. The Denver region is one of various amenities, and the growth mirrors the cycles of discovery and exploitation of these amenities that have taken place throughout the region's history. Denver had its origin with the discovery of gold in the mid-Nineteenth Century. The development of this and other mineral resources in Colorado was a primary attraction that brought people to the area. Late in the Nineteenth Century, there was an increased interest in making the region agriculturally productive, despite the dryness of the climate. The development of transcontinental and regional railroads brought service through Denver and assured its future as a transportation center during the rail-dominated era. These factors resulted in periodic growth in the region, from its beginning through the First World War. Each mineral discovery and agricultural development, such as improvement


17
of irrigation, brought new stages of growth. Following this period, the area experienced a new phenomenon, which was a period of slow growth due to the decline of the mining industry and the economic uncertainty of the depressed agricultural industry.
The Second World War brought increased growth as the prime industries expanded. Federal installations were developed in the area. At the end of the war, new residents were attracted by the amenities of the area. Denver had become a major distribution center for the region and offered a variety of outdoor recreation activities to attract new residents. The mining attraction had been replaced as the major influence of the growth of the region.
An accelerated rate of population growth occurred during the mid-Twentieth Century. The growth was characterized by indefinite direction, in distribution and environmental quality. The increase in population and demand for new land uses caused the area to grow primarily by peripheral additions around the skirt of the existing urban area. The overruling characteristic of the region is still its low growth density and scattered growth pattern. It skips across the landscape in an outward direction, with gaps of undeveloped sprawl. This is, in economic and social costs of utilities and transportation, extremely inefficient. The environmental degradation and inconvenience of this sort of urban growth can be seen in cities like Los Angeles.
Socio-Economic Projections
The following are statistical projections compiled from Regional Transportation District figures. It shows growth in areas
T'l c\ '
of population, employment and housing for Denver to the year 2000.


Growth Projections for Denver:
1980-1990 Period. Population is projected to increase at an average annual rate of 2.27 percent, reaching a 1990 population of
2.105.000 persons.
1990-2000 Period. Population is a projected increase of an average annual rate of 2.16 percent, resulting in a total of
2.560.000 persons by the year 2000.
Employment Projections for Denver:
The projected slow-down to the region's future population growth rate will restrain future employment rate. The region's employment growth rate is projected to range to 2.5 percent per year for the decade of the 1990's. Employment growth projected for the next two decades indicates another doubling, reaching the level of 1,25^,000 persons employed in the year 2000.
Housing Projections for Denver:
If the future population of 2.6 million people is to be housed, between 110 and 225 thousand net housing units will have to be added to the existing housing stock each decade to the year 2000.
1980-1990 Period. This decade should see some slight changes in construction pattern from the previous decade. Total net additions required to house the projected population will be an estimated 111,000 units.
1990-2000 Period. This decade will witness a continuation of housing trends set during the previous decade. Total net new housing units required, to shelter the increased population, will rise to 125,000 units.
Because of the projected growth of Denver, certain planning


19
directives must be acknowledged and begun. The expanses of open space are slowly yielding to growth and urbanization. "The rapidly developing urban culture is alien to the character of the territory," says Evan Vlochos of Colorado State University. "It's not compatable with the natural environment."
Included in the rapid growth is the entire front range of Colorado which is a strip roughly ^0 miles wide that stretches from Ft. Collins in the north, through Greeley, Boulder, Denver and Colorado Springs to Pueblo in the south. The 13 counties of the front range already hold most of Colorado 's people and by the year 2000, the population along the front range is expected to grow by M percent, compared to b'j percent for the nation as a whole.
All or parts of 10 front range counties are rated "nonattainment" areas because they violate one or more national ambient air quality standard(s).
Colorado is in the midst of an energy boom cycle. Although the front range itself is not the focus of much production, Denver is at a national crossroads. Energy company offices are headquartered in the city. (Ten downtown skyscrapers under construction are owned by such companies.)
Events beyond our control have created a Colorado in crisis, in the sense of a state of transition.
Whether we face a crisis in the tragic sense depends upon our decisions today or decisions for which the next generation will hold us accountable.il
To deal with these issues, Denver's leaders must make a responsible shift in their attitude and outlook.
They must change from promoting the city to preserving
^Colorado in Crises; ed., Sunday, March 9i 1980, The Denver Post, p. 27*


20
it. Denver's population is static at about a halfmillion. Yet the suburban communities and other parts of the state are growing at a very fast rate. Denver is different from the rest of the region. There is more of a heterogeneous population in Denver. Ironically, the population density, the congestion, the pollution and the sheer size of Denver is alien to most other westerners.^
As a major transportation and commercial center for Colorado and much of the Rocky Mountain West, the Denver area is reaping considerable benefits. Employment is the highest in the city's history, with 826,900 working in the metro area as of November 1,
19791 an increase of 2,k00 jobs over the previous month and far above the total of 775*300 at the same time in 1978.13
A challenge for the 1980's and beyond is to realize that the energy boom means a surge of business and financial strength, but it also means that when the boom passes, many of the advantages will end too.
The high-rise office tower boom in Denver is to a large extent financed by Canadian investors and in many cases are occupied by Canadian clients. Some experts estimate Canadian investment in the U.S. commercial real estate is about SI billion for the past year. The chief attractions of U.S. involvement for Canadian companies, regardless of size, include high crude oil and natural gas wellhead prices and instant marketing opportunities.!^
A survey recently released by the Frederick. R. Ross Company, a commercial reality firm, showed that a record 3*^- million square feet of prime office space was absorbed in 1979 in downtown Denver and nearby suburbs.
12Penver: A City Mile-High and Isolated; Kenneth T. Walsh,
The Denver Post, Sunday, October 1^+, 1979* P* 24.
^Denver's Booming Economy, Is the Bubble About to Burst?, Gary Kimsey, Denver Monthly^ February, 19^0, Volume No. 10, p.33
^Canadian Oil Money Looks for a Home; Tom Kennedy, The Christian Science Monitor, Thursday, February 28, 1980, p. 11.


21
The price tag for this mass in-migration to the central city is a half-billion dollars in new construction and redevelopment projects such as the skyline area. Denver's newest skyscraper will be the controversial 50-story tower planned by a Houston developer on United Bank of Denver Property*
Phillip Milstein, who headed Downtown Denver, Inc., until last July, feels this way about the central city; "Downtown has got to be more than a one or two street area, we need to have other streets that have life in them." Bob Cameron, executive director of the DUPA envisions a place where 24 hour living is a way of life and the key is not a mall but people: "People living right in the core city."
Housing projects are already underway in the core city. Among the condominiums and apartments going up are Writer Square, The Windsor, Barclay Towers, Larimer Place and Sunset Towers. Proposed and completed residential projects in the skyline area will provide about 1,500 housing units, according to DURA statistics.
Bob Cameron says, 'Denverites will begin to see real efforts toward developments of more middle-income housing near downtown. '15
The following is a list of new developments in downtown Denver's changing skyline:
Stories $ Million
Amoco Bldg, at Columbia 36 40
Arco Tower k2 100
Barclay Towers 34 20
Denver National Bank Plaza (office ) 28 38
D & F Tower (conversion to office condo) 16 2.7
Geomex Plaza (office) 14 5.7
Great West Plaza (office) 29 50
Larimer Place (condo) 32 25
One Cosmopolitan Place (office-parking) 34 & 24 28
1^The Sky's The Limit; Marjie Lundstrom, Denver Monthly, Volume 8, No. 10, February, 19&0, pp. 56-57*


22
Stories $ Million
One Denver Place Twin Towers
(office-retail) # 37 70
Sunset Towers (apartment for elderly) 15 4
Tabor Center (hotel-retail) 13 78
Trinity Place (office) 18 13
United Bank (office) 50 98
The Windsor (condo) , ,16 condo) 23 22
Writer Square (office-retail- 12 20
Until the 1950's, the major shopping and entertainment place
downtown. Now there are 15 regional centers and 11 in develop-
ment -- more than twice the number needed for our present population.
1\\ flyj
Today, 75 percent of all retail dollars are spent outside downtown.
Except in the two downtown locations, the numbers of housing units is declining substantially, mostly because of parking lot demands. Such projects as the Burlington's Northern New Town plan need to be revived with modifications. It would take at least 10,000 residents to support a primary school or a supermarket, which are necessary for the establishment of a neighborhood center.
Seventy years ago Mayor Pobert Speer began the Civic Center urban renewal project. Long before then, the intersection of Colfax and Broadway was an important focal point in the core. Today, it is still the main intersection for traffic originating in the south and east Denver. Besides construction of the primary RTD bus terminal at this location, the first 40 mile phase of a light rail system must connect here, too. It is also necessary that a close-in park-/ and-walk facility be built at the Civic Center such as those at Mellon Square, Grant Square, Union Square or the Vail Transporta-
l6Powntown Denver's Changing Skyline What's Going Up; Denver Monthly^ Volume 8, No. 10, February, 1980, p. 57*


23
tion Center. Presently, the area lacks at least 10,000 parking spaces.
The entire CBD is built around the core area of high density commercial activity, which is office, retail, and financial sectors The federal offices and Civic Center contains the governmental units. Larimer Square and Lower Downtown offer an historic atmosphere supporting office, retail, and entertainment outlets that work well with the CBD area activities.
The Auraria Higher Education Center provides a wide range of educational facilities with evening and weekend activities. The Art Museum, The Denver Center for the Performing Arts, and the Currigan Hall Convention Center adds social aspects of the CBD.
Improvements in existing cities and towns will be needed, and satisfying these needs will keep the planning professionals active. Most every city now has good examples of effective urban renewal and restoration of the best of the old buildings, and downtown neighborhoods.
Combining Mixed-Use and Transportation
Public transportation systems everywhere, in the coming years, must be improved. As people change their life-styles and learn how to commute by train and by bus, many will want to live within walking distance of rapid transit or commuter railroad stations.
The logical response will be a desire to live near areas of existing stations and most of the areas will be redeveloped as the need becomes stronger.
A mixed-use development, combining residential, retail, office




2k
commercial, and other amenities, can be bridged over or tunneled under the transit station and high speed rail lines, providing direct access from both directions. Apartment towers, hotels and offices can rise above a multi-level base that integrates the restaurants, light industry, services and community facilities along the pedestrian routes. A new complex can include some existing structures, with townhouses that relate well to lower density residential areas.
A good example of such a mix is Sheppard Centre in suburban Toronto, which combines offices, apartment, townhouses and stores near a transit station. Here, development occurred simultaneously with a new transit station.
"The Wedge," An Urban Design of Mixed-Use
A mixed-use development which utilized the principle of microzoning in conjunction with "macrostructure" which is an effective way of humanizing by means of opposition and confrontation rather than fusion and subordination, and it produces architectural units based on the human scale to which man is able to relate. This process, best described as the "democratization" of planning by means of "inner proportions," is being proposed by Eugene Benda, Professor of Urban Design at the University of Colorado at Denver. His proposal is taking approximately 5& acres of urban CBD1 and create a homogeneous mix of residential, retail, commercial, and office space for a population of 10,000 or 2,600 units. The area of the proposed development is in a redeveloped part of the downtown. "The Wedge" as it is called, is bounded by Colfax, Ikth Street, Stout Avenue, and Speer Boulevard. Included in the


14th ST.
inois


25
proposal will be the direct use of solar energy. The energy used would feed into the power grid from the panels and reduce the energy consumed. Adding to the technology of solar energy development, the architecture will also contain energy saving construction. The units will combine in a cellular agglomerate structure.
The "Wedge" will offer as much amenity as the suburban community. It will have open space, private space, communal public space, pedestrian circulation, and recreation space. The services provided by the "Wedge" will include recreation facilities, such as playgrounds, bike paths, access to Cherry Creek and other parks. There will also be private patios, courtyards, and plazas connecting to other areas of the "Wedge" and pedestrian walkways throughout the downtown.
Retail, financial, cultural and other activities will tie into the "Wedge" from within the downtown. The Denver Center for the Performing Arts is located adjacent to the development. The Transit-way/Mall is two blocks east on 16th Street. The financial district is an easy five minute walk. Transportation access will be located at each end of the Transitway/Mall on 16th Street which will connect with the proposed PRT rail line to the outlying activity centers.
Defining the Downtown
Denver's CBD is the nucleus of the region's financial, commercial, and cultural activities. It is also the focus of transit service throughout the region. Major office development already underway in the CBD is expected to increase employment by about 25 percent or 20,000 jobs over the next five years. Therefore, the quality of transit service will deteriorate unless




_JI_II_Jl_,Jl_Jl Jl Jl '! J1--JL_JL Jl IL L II . *!{ \
mixoaGDuiu ^
I I I I I l I L I I 1 I 1 I 1
CEII]
tDcoma:


in---1 r in rir 1 r inr- 1 i r i r i Kvk ( if u if n if 11 irir ir n
central area Neighborhoods
i
800 0* 1000* r'*' i
JANUARY 1077
J


26
dramatic changes are developed by offering better transit operating efficiency within the CBD.
area of downtown bounded by Cherry Creek, 13th Avenue, Grant Street, 20th Street, and a line one-half block northwest of Wynkoop Street. It encompasses and contains the financial, retail, service, and government centers of the Rocky Mountain region. It is the historic center of Denver, and includes the Larimer Square Historic District and the Civic Center area, containing the State Capitol and City and County Buildings. In the northwestern portion of the study area are the skyline Urban Renewal Area and Lov/er Downtown, both of which have been considerably revitalized in the past five years.
There are seven identifiable, cohesive neighborhoods surrounding and contiguous to the Denver CBD. These neighborhoods are among the oldest developed areas of the city, and include: Civic Center, North Capitol Hill, Union Station, Five Points, Capitol Hill, Auraria, and Lincoln Park. Portions of the first three lie within the study area.
Existing Traffic Patterns
All streets in the study area are classified as major urban arterials, with the exception of Market, Blake, Wazee, and Wynkoop, which are collectors. The majority of streets are one-way. The typical north-south grid system is replaced in the CBD with a diagonal grid system running northwest-southwest and paralleling the South Platte River.
The street system provides good access to and within the study
known as the Denver CBD, is defined as that


Denver CBD


Xmu Depsity Mixed Use
\'C11 a
Generalized Land Use A^r
m i r ir^i n irni mi ir" a I Ilil


area. However, problems are experienced in Lower Downtown, where both internal circulation and external access are complex and difficult because of the barriers formed by 1-25, Cherry Creek, and the Central Valley rail yards. The 15th and 16th Street viaducts provides the only access across the rail yards in the study area. Limited access across the barriers has contributed to the isolation of Lower Downtown, and in particular the western quarter which is bridged and bypassed by the 15th and 16th Streets viaduc ts.
Peak hour traffic counts were made in the study area in 1977, by Barton-Aschman Associates, Inc. Traffic traveling into the study area in the morning is heaviest on 15th Street (coming over the viaduct), Lawrence Street, and Stout Street. Large traffic volumes also occur along the edge of the study area on Colfax Avenue, Broadway, Lincoln, and Speer. In the afternoon, the highest traffic volumes occur on the major streets leading out of the study area, i.e., 16th Street, Larimer, Arapahoe, and Champa.
Pedestrian Traffic
Because of the large number of individuals employed in the CBD, and the variety of shopping opportunities, pedestrian traffic is an important component of the overall transportation aspect of the study area.
"It is estimated that the downtown daytime population
17
(excluding residents) is 165,000." Most of these are pedestrians for part of the day, primarily morning, lunch and afternoon.
^Economic Impact and Implications of the Transitway/Mall. (Gladstone Assoc., 1978).


Peak Hour Traffic f Delivery Routes
WSSBUk Public & Private Parking
< > Existing Traffic Flow


28
"An estimate of 1980 pedestrian traffic indicated that noon hour trips would number between 80,000 and 90,000." Noon hour volumes are typically 80 percent higher than afternoon peak hour volumes. Studies have shown that pedestrian trips are typically four blocks long or less during the noon hour, and even less in the afternoon peak hour. After normal business hours, pedestrian traffic rapidly decreases, and at night the study area is deserted.
Carrying a proposal like this to the downtown, completes the total economic-transportation problem. Our dependence on the private automobile has changed the cultural life style of the western society, especially the United States. By placing the urban residential development within the proximity of every service and facility that supports the city, breaks up the cultural pattern of automobile-oriented living.
Urban quality in the central city is dependent upon a substantial economic and social mix of housing, generally built with the amenities as average housing elsewhere. With Amsterdam, Vienna and Venice as examples of planned pre-industrialized cities, and San Francisco, Canberra and Disney World as outstanding examples of well-planned contemporary cities, this is really the only choice*^
Regional growth could be structured so that it can be efficiently serviced by diverse technologies such as Personal Rapid Transit, Conventional Rail Transit, Tracked Air Cushion Vehicles, Bus and bus express routes. Downtown distribution service would provide for facilities that can be used in creating a fully developed downtown for moving people by skybridges, people mover
-1 O
Downtown Circulation Study. (Barton-Aschman Assoc., 1978).
^Designing a New Downtown Denver; John M. Prosser, The Denver Post, Sunday, February 17, 1980, p. 28.


29
links incorporating automated vehicles or shuttle buses. A combined mixed-use development would connect with the internal circulation of the downtown and major traffic generators providing access to and integrating with the CBD.
These solutions reflect the transportation concept for the Denver downtown and the CBD will have to be designed with two purposes in mind. First, intensive service such as rapid rail transit would perform a collection and distribution function for service to other areas in the region. Second, many internal trips could be made by transit similar to shuttle buses of by walking.
Within a mixed-use community and the CBD, may range a variety of transportation improvements such as exclusive transit way streets, pedestrian corridors, and automated people movers.
By giving the pedestrian convenient access to the downtown amenities, the need for parking and automobile circulation space in the downtown can be reduced.
"The Access Tree:"
A Functional Approach to the CBD
The first step in supporting this pattern of development would be a modified transportation planning principle called the "Access Tree," which is a principle for dealing with several functional problems of the CBD. In general, it is planning for efficient circulation including pedestrian movement to interconnect mixed-use developments, demonstrating the linkages between the transportation system and various functions of the downtown and CBD.
The Access Tree is a functional response to the problem of office clustering that provides both a


Existing Grain & Built Form I 7


30
framework for a determinant of visual form principles
for the CBD. The need to improve visual coherence and
understand the area, and to increase the sense of
identity of parts of the CBD.20
The Access Tree is built from several components that show at each stage the movement systems serving the various functions of the CBD; (l) Basic Delivery, (2) Pedestrian Interconnections,
(3) Movement Systems Superimposed, (k) Mass Movement System,
(5) Individual Movement Systems, and (6) Composite Movement Systems-This concern for better movement systems grows out of the compactness of the CBD office activity. The expected concentration of office affects transportation planning. It will require new transit capacity and solutions be established.
Consideration must be given to all forms of transportation, both public and private in reference to the expected future economic and social development of the urban area. The transportation planning process represents the integration of many interacting and characteristic components of the urban environment.
I. Inventory of Existing Conditions
A. Land Use
B. Population
C. Vehicle Ownership
D. Vehicular and Personal Travel
E. Economic Activities
F. Transportation Facilities
G. Available Monetary Resources
H. Trip Generation
20Rai Y. Okamoto, Urban Design: Manhattan. (New York: Viking Press, 1969), P 31*


31
II. Future Public Decisions
A. Legal controls of public policies toward future land development
B. Characteristics of the future transportation network
III. Estimates of Future Urban Area Growth
A. Population Forecast
B. Economic Activity
C. Land Use
D. Vehicle Ownership
E. Future Transportation Network
IV. Estimates of Future Travel
A. Future Trip Generation
B. Future Modal Split (the use of mass transportation and other transportation types)
C. Interzonal Transfers to Transportation
D. Assignment of Interzonal Transfers to Transportation
E. Evaluation of the Loaded Network
The Transportation Concept
W. H. O'Connell in the book Hide Free, Drive Free, gives six concepts that consideration be given to the alternatives, both public and private, in applying today's technology to transportation systems and the moving of people.
Transit Concept One The Personal Express System: A tremendous amount of study, experimentation, and effort has been made in order to perfect personal transit or activity center transportation which would permit individuals or small groups of people to call for a small vehicle by pushing a "destination" button at a boarding station. Sometimes described as a "horizontal elevator," such


32
systems would promptly deliver the car requested, the doors would part, and the person or persons would step inside.
It is also "personal express" service, in the sense that, once on the main line, all intermediate stations are bypassed; the run to where you want to go is made nonstop, just as you would travel in a car. Yet it remains a public service.
Transit Concept Two The Fixed Kail Main Line System: In this system, cars are moving steadily on the main line, each earmarked for a given destination. As the car approaches the station, it will switch off the main line, stop at the proper point, open doors to permit passengers to enter, and so forth. After merging back in the main-line traffic, this car -- if it has a reasonable and full load -- will bypass all stations until it arrives at the one designated by its passengers.
The future of push-button, reserved seat transit can be very good. In a large, concentrated population, heavy congestion in the CBD can find or afford to create an off-street trackway and it could prove to be a very satisfactory solution. It is less wasteful of car capacity than personal transit; yet comes close to offering the same advantages. It would cut waiting time to the point of extinction, and the buildup of crowds at boarding platforms would be rare.
Transit Concept Three The Fixed Pail Commuter System: The classic rail answer to good transit service is the one used in New York City and Boston: express tracks and local tracks in the most congested parts of the city, with the express tracks merging with the local tracks in the outlying areas. Continuous loops of track
or reversible cars achieve the turn-around


This concept has proved its validity for a long time. Transit experts point out that any city that has grown wide as well as long, a rectangle, a circle, or a fat oval, can profit by using a "grid" system for its transport services.
Transit Concept Four The Pneumatic-Tire Support System:
The pneumatic-tire support/center-rail guidance system has these advantages:
(1) A string of cars at zero headway -- therefore more economic utilization of the guideway and a higher capacity.
(2) A safe headway between trains controlled by train separation hardware and techniques proven in rail rapid transit.
(3) A drastically reduced cost per passenger carried.
There's a relationship between the cost of providing automated operation for a number of small cars and the cost of supplying a motor-man for every car. Short, automated trains are obviously right when traffic is heavy, but no system patronage exists 2k-hours per day. It is customary to lengthen or shorten the train to accommodate fluctuations in traffic. This is a way to enjoy the advantage of automated trains when passenger traffic is heavy and to keep from moving a ridiculous number of empty seats back and forth when passengers are scarce.
Transit Concept Five The High Speed Rail System: The dream of getting quickly from the CBD, where most of the best jobs are found, out to the suburbs where there is room to enjoy life, is a persistent one, and it has fathered some very imaginative transit proposals. High speed brings on some brand new problems, though, and there are pitfalls in assuming that the Sunday supplement


3^
articles have all the answers. When engineers reviewed the technical requirements of 150-mph vehicles negotiating freeway curvature to be much too sharp, and had to choose between the need to obtain a right of way covering considerably more land and accepting speed restrictions at a number of points along the route.
Transit Concept Six The Moving Sidewalk System: The moving sidewalk idea is at least as enduring as the monorail concept. It is a concept that is hard to beat when a great many people share the need to get from point A to point B when the distance is not great.
Estimates of future trip generation and the provisional future transportation network are determined from the basic inventory data and from tbe estimated urban area growth patterns. These estimates of future trip generation and the proposed network, derive the
estimates of future travel that are determined and
21

assigned to specific facilities.'
)
*3
ZU
Table One lists the specific modes or types of transportation with patterns of travel associated with that mode. Table Two divides vehicle travel into person trips and vehicle trips, and compares the mode with the number of trips per day, the percent of
total trips, and the amount of travel per day. For example, one can see the average number of trips per day increases from Commuter railroad to Automobile driver, therefore, the automobile driver used that mode more often during the day than the person who used the Commuter railroad on that day.
A determination can be made regarding future transportation plans by matching the characteristics shown in Table Three, with
P 1
Brian V. Martin, Frederick W. Bone, and J. Alexander. Principles and Techniques of Predicting Future Demand for Urban Area Transportation (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1961)i PP* 5-7*


35
Table one Modal Travel Patterns
Mode Patterns of Travel
1. Suburban Railroad la. Located along corridors of intense land usage, with one terminus located within the CBD b. Usage mainly for trips between CBD and suburbs c. Most trips made during peak hours d. Average trip relatively long
2. Subway or Elevated Rail Rapid Transit 2a. Located along corridors of intense land usage, with the system focusing on the CBD b. Usage restricted mainly to trips within the central city c. Most trips made during peak hours (but not to quite the same extent as above) d. Average trip still relatively long
3. Buses 3a. Mainly located within the central city limits and between the older more densely settled suburban communities b. Distribution of trips throughout the urban area without any strong directional pattern of origins or destinations c. A more even usage throughout the day than above d. Average trip relatively short
4. Internal Automobile Drivers 4a. Distributed throughout the urban area, conforming the closest of any mode to the pattern of land development b. No strong directional pattern of origins and destinations c. Most even time usage throughout the day d. Average trip relatively short
22
Ibid., p. 21


36
Table one Modal Travel Patterns (cont'd)
Mode Patterns of Travel
5. Internal Automobile Passengers 5a. Distributed throughout the urban area in a pattern similar to that for automobile drivers, except slightly more concentrated in the suburbs b. No strong directional pattern of origins and destinations, but travel slightly less orientated towards the CBD c. Time usage approximately the same as for automobile drivers d. Average trip relatively short
6. Walk 6a. Distributed throughout the urban area, with heaviest concentration in the intensely developed areas b. No strong directional patterns c. Time usage throughout the day d. Average trip very short. In the past transportation studies have not considered walking trips to be very important
7. Internal Truck 7a. Distributed throughout the urban area, with the heaviest concentration in zones where non residential land uses predominate and towards the center of the urban area b. No strong directional patterns c. Time usage concentrated between 6am and 6pm d. Average trip quite short
8. Taxi 8a. Distributed mainly in the CBD portion of the urban area b. No strong directional pattern within the CBD, however, there may be some radial patterns, such as between the CBD and an airport c. Most even usage of any form of vehicle transportation d. Average trip length very short
22
Ibid., p. 22


)
Table two Importance of Different Types of Person and Vehicle Trips
Average No. of Trips Per Day Percent of Total Trips Average Am't of Travel Per Day (Miles)
Person Trips Automobile Drivers Resident, Internal Resident, External Non-Resident 0.8 1.0 .03 .07 41 53 1-4 1-8 2.6 3.6 0.2 0.6
Automobile Passengers Resident, Internal Resident, External Non-Resident .45 .55 .02 .07 22 26 1-4 1-4 1.2 1.8 0.1 0.6
Bus 0.3 0.4 15 20 1.0 1.2
Subway-Elevated Rail Rapid Transit .09 5 0.7
Commuter Railroad .05 3 0.6
Walk Unknown Unknown Unknown
Vehicle Trips Automobiles Resident, Internal Resident, External Non-Resident 3.1 3.6 0.1 0.3 74 82 2-6 2-9 9.0 14.0 0.4 2.1
Buses Unknown Unknown Unknown
Trucks Internal External Thru 4.7 6.1 0.1 0.2 10 13 1-2 0-1 7.1 16.5 0.3 1.2
Taxis 23 31 1-3 43 60
^Based on Origin and Destination Surveys in Chicago, Washington, and Detroit.
23
Ibid., p. 23


SOCIAL-ECCNCWC
CHARACTERISTICS
PHTSICAL
CHARACTERISTICS
78
TIME
CHARACTERISTICS
HOUR
DAT OP VEEK
MONTH OP TEAR
TEAR
Leppnd
Poreon Travel | | Peru on and Vehicular Travel
CZH Vehicular Travel
Figure 3 Stratification of Pernon and Vehicular Travel
24
Ibid., p. 38


39
social-economic, physical, and time, that a pattern can develop with reference to trip-destination-origin travel. This pattern shows the most efficient way to forecast transportation use with growth trend, and choose the right travel mode for the circumstance and need.
In Denver, projected growth is physically accommodated in a continuing pattern of low-density, auto-oriented, suburban development. However, there are economic, social, environmental and ecological implications in continuing the trend. As urban areas grow larger, the residential, employment and retail opportunities spread further apart, and daily travel requirements of each person increases. As a result, total travel grows faster than population. The 1972 Interstate Cost Estimate for Colorado is shown in Table Four below.
Table Four
Denver Urbanized Area 1970 1990 2000
Per Capita Vehicle 12.3 15.9 18.0
Population (millions) 1.0 1.60 1.80
Daily Vehicle Miles (millions) 12.3 25.^ 32.
Higher travel time costs, higher air pollution due to auto emmissions, traf f ic and more fatalities, greater tax expenditures, for
highway construction and maintenance, transportation costs have become a way of life. As the system expands and trip length increases, inner links become overloads and these are the most disruptive and costly to expand.


40
Community Goals and Needs
Since transportation is the major potential land use control variable under consideration, the application of these goals indicates transportation implications of these goals which will be used to determine transportation services for the community's needs.
Goals and Objectives of Community Needs:
(l) Concentration of development to make maximum use
of existing cities and towns, to maximize existing capital improvement, to minimize dispersal and unrelated growth.
(2) Compact commercial and industrial development within each town to avoid disruption of residential areas, to discourage strip commercial development, to improve aesthetics, to improve access to employment and services, to avoid as much disruption of the natural environment as possible.
(3) To create residential areas v/ith minimal or no through traffic and to implement a neighborhood concept within each zone with a nearby elementary school as the focus.
(4) To establish a functional hierarchy of business and service centers and a similar structure for parks and recreation areas located to serve the intended population on the neighborhood, community and regional scales.
(5) To encourage the stability and further development of existing downtown areas as important and useful activity centers.
(6) To protect and preserve the natural environment of the community; to allow sufficient open space for present and future generations.
(7) To maintain diversity in the environment by protecting against encroachment of agricultural and farm lands.
(8) To maintain and improve desirable features of civic design.
(9) To maintain and reinforce the individual identities of the communities while coordinating on a larger scale the transportation and public utility system.


(10) To strive for a balanced community which can provide residents with a wide variety of opportunities.25
Meeting the needs of the community should be a transportation concept that achieves three basic objectives:
(1) Provide desirable accessibility in order to encourage efficient use of resources, social interaction and desirable growth patterns.
(2) Con tribute to the regional goals, in terms of impacts on the transportation system in the social, economic and environmental resources of the region.
(3) Distribute the costs and benefits of the transportation system affects equatably through
the region.26
Applying the Transportation Concept to Denver__________
Today, transportation has the capability of supporting any conceivable size or shape of city, but the urban community can no longer afford to settle for growth patterns merely because technology happens to make them possible. Urbanites must decide what kinds of communities they want to live in and then must use transportation technology to help achieve it.
Obviously rapid transit has a specific function and cannot meet every need. Just as the automobile is inadequate for dense urban corridor travel, so rail rapid transit often is ill-suited for short journeys and cross town trips. The supply of good transportation in urban areas calls for a mix of different
^Regional Transportation District, "Phase One-A Concept," Interim Report, January, 1972, p. 21.
pC
The Denver Regional Council of Governments, and Regional Transportation District. Transportation System Report: Joint Regional Planning Program, December, 1973, p* V-l.




services, both public and private. The question is where and under what circumstances a commitment to rail facilities is warranted.
If rapid transit makes possible large cost reductions through high-density land uses and substantial benefits in the organization of economic activity, then the system may be warranted. In other words, it may not be the high cost of rail transportation relative to other transportation solutions that is critical, but rather a comparison of the total costs and benefits of alternative urban settlements that can be supported by various transportation s olutions.
If rapid transit is to provide effective solutions, however, the effect on urban development cannot be left to chance. Measures must be taken to control location decisions that are made in response to the supply of additional transport capacity. Unless land-use plans conform to transport solutions, excessive high-rise office construction downtown and rising rents are apt to push the residential use of land farther out from the central city. The management of urban growth must be consistent with transportation policy if rapid transit is to avoid being underutilized by new traffic generators .27
Acceptable urban living conditions in the future suggest something more efficient than streets clogged with individually operated cars. An alternative might be planned clustering of urban activity, with built-in transport facilities that combine elevators with people movers and PRT's. The clusters micht b" '.' rconne cted by fast guideway transport, with 4 ,ate car supplying energy
efficient local movement under conditions of moderate density.
Table Five lists the major traffic generators in the Denver Metro Region. Table Six lists the Major Activity Centers and
27
Owen, Transportation, p. 29*


Table 5
MAJOR TRAFFIC GENERATORS
1970 Trip Ends 2000 Trip Ends
1. Buckingham Square Shopping Center 0 31,600
2. Lowry Air Force Base 58,400 55,000
3. Fitzsimmons Hospital 30,000 21,300
4. Montbello 40,800 126,200
5. Stapleton International Airport 30,800 71,400
6, Denver University 35,000 35,000
7. Littleton CBD 33,100 89,500
8. Fort Logan Hospital 8,300 20,000
9. Bear Valley Shopping Center 8,700 22,800
10. Lakeside Shopping Center 18,600 22,800
11. Westminster Plaza 16,200 35,800
12. Southglenn Shopping Center 7,100 18,700
13. Gates Industrial Park 900 20,000
14. Martin Marietta 24,800 42,800
15. Golden CBD/Coors 35,900 39,700
16. Longmont CBD 17,700 26,800
17. IBM at Niwot 14,200 35,000
18. Broomfield CBD 25,600 49,400
19. Sheridan & 88th Shopping Center 14,000 47,100
20. Brighton CBD 8,900 20,000
21. North Valley Shopping Center/Valley View Hospital 13,800 52,500
29
DRCOG-RTD, Transportation System Report, p. IV-5


fTlflJOR STREETS & HIGHLURYS
....... FBUJftrS
nTfBIOLS
COUCCTOtS
r' \\
A ^
Activity Centers & Corridors
nORiH
1 --'-A- VW-^,
Dlllvtw*KMIIIiinC OfUii


Table 6
Current Current 2000
Activity Centers Popu- Employ- Employ-
and Corridors Primary Functions lation 2000 ment ment
1. Tech Center Employment/shopping/housing 2,000 33,000 2,000 36,000
2. Writers Manor-University Hills Employment/shopping/housing 35,000 49,000 11,000 32,000
3. Cherry Creek Shopping/employment/housing 12,000 24,000 8,000 14,000
4. Aurora Shopping/employment/institutional/ housing 10,000 16,000 500 5,000
5. East Colfax Corridor Employment/shopping/housing 47,000 81,000 15,000 39,000
6. C.U. Medical Center Institutional/employment/housing 25,000 42,000 14,000 25,000
7. Denver-CBD- Auraria Employment/shopping/educational/ cultural/institutional/housing 27,000 40,000 78,000 85,000
8. West Colfax Corridor Employment/shopping/housing 29,000 64,000 12,000 30,000
9. Arvada Shopping/employment/housing 28,000 47,000 5,000 16,000
10. Federal Center-Westland Employment/shopping/housing/ institutional 14,000 27,000 13,000 20,000
11. Villa Italia Shopping/employment/housing 15,000 26,000 4,000 16,000
12. South Broadway Corridor Employment/shopping/housing 45,000 64,000 18,000 23,000
13. Englewood Shopping/employment/institutional/ housing 16,000 27,000 10,000 19,000
28
DRCOG-RTD., Transportation System Report, p. IV-3


Activity Corridors in the Denver Metro Region. Plotting the traffic counts and projecting that count to the year 2000, an increase is seen between the traffic generators and activity centers. Without building more highways, a solution can be reached, by utilizing different transportation modes to meet the community needs, an efficient system can work to bring people into the CBD and out to the suburbs.
Conclusion
The purpose of transportation planning is to design systems that allow for the efficient transport of people and goods. In designing transportation facilities for the future, such factors as choice of travel mode and spatial distribution of population have long been considered external factors that are determinants of future transportation needs. Traditionally, this has meant that automobile travel was assumed to be the dominant model choice and at that a relatively low-density suburbanization was the desired growth trend. These assumptions proved to be true when the planned systems were built. This problem-response approach to transportation planning only came to be questioned when the entire urban scene was examined. Upon realization that more and more of our central cities were dying while the country-side was being exhausted by low density suburban and exurban sprawl, attention turned to the causes of urban decay.
If we are to begin reshaping our cities and save them from self-destruction, we must begin to look at transportation as more than a means of travel. Transportation should be viewed within the total environmental planning framework as a critical factor in


determining life style and land use.
Transportation affects urban development and therefore must be planned simultaneously with long-range land use plans. It should be a concept developed along with a regional growth concept so it supports and encourages the future pattern of growth.


\ *


47
Chapter V
DENVER A CONCEPT OF VIABILITY:
AN INVENTORY AND SUMMARY
Introduction
Denver's problem of decentralization is not much different from most large cities. The skyscraper development in the CBD reflects a specialization that is office, retail and financial.
The expected concentration of offices affects transportation planning. It will require that new transit capacity and solutions be established, and such substantial transportation investment will be needed to relieve overcrowding, increase speed and eliminate the inefficient services we already have and increase the capacity to accommodate more job-destined users to and from the CBD.
The success of the Denver CBD will depend on people's ability to move more freely and comfortably within it and to enjoy the experience of being there. In order to do this requires the application of good planning and urban design principles to integrate activities and transportation.
The loss of services in the central city because of a decline of housing units for parking lot demands is a natural evolution of urban expansion. There is a need today to bring back the vitality and viability of the downtown. The success of the Denver CBD will depend on an increase of population connecting with migration in from the suburbs.
The actions required to achieve this pattern of development would include major transit planning, that would emphasize two


k8
important elements:
(1) Development of greater circulation capability with suburban communities into the central city.
(2) Connection between the communities in the city providing a higher degree of mobility within the metropolitan area.
The two step process is needed to reunite the social and urban structures of the inner city. The first step would require a major transit program including future regional growth development. The second step would integrate circulation of automobiles, mass transit and pedestrian movement, with mixed-use residential, commercial, service, community facilities and other amenities into the downtown.
What's Available to Denver
To understand more about what is available in transportation services a list of transportation concepts and technological improvement must be considered under six categories of service.
(1) Pedestrian and Pedestrian Aids: Characterized by short trips, using the pedestrian's own foot travel capacity or aids such as pedestrian plazas and bridges, moving sidewalk and escalators, bicycles and related facilities.
(2) Small Transit: Characterized by moderated speeds and intermediated trip lengths, which include major activity centers. Using PRT's (Personal Rapid Transit), would accomplish this by small vehicles at higher speeds over a more complex network of guideways.
(3) Medium Speed Transit: Characterized by high capacity and higher speeds including rail rapid transit or CRT (Conventional Rail Transit).


(k) Automobile: Characterized by smaller individually controlled vehicles on streets and highways but also including a dualmode system by which the automobile-like vehicle can be operated using a centralized automatic control on a separate guideway.
(5) Buses: Characterized by large individually operated vehicles on streets and highways or in the dual concept mentioned earlier, automatically controlled on a separate busway. This also includes the dial-a-bus concept in which bus service is provided on demand, combining some qualities of both para-transit and buses.
(6) High Speed Transit: Characterized by very high speeds for intercity corridors, and including the advanced rail systems of TACV (Tracked Air Cushion Vehicles).
The transportation concept provides for areas of intensive service, designed for two purposes. First, such intensive service would perform a collection and distribution function for service to other areas in the region. Second, many internal trips could be made by transit or by walking, thus lessening the dependence on the automobile for short trips. Within these communities, there may be a wide variety of transportation improvements that range from pedestrian corridors to automatic people movers.
For example, by giving the pedestrian comfortable and convenient access to more variety and opportunities, whether by walkways, skybridge, or people movers, the need for parking and automobile circulation space in the central city and CBD can be reduced.


50
CBD Activity Centers
fe The following is a partial listing of probable technological
and operational elements of activity-community center service facilities that can be used in creating a fully developed, viable downtown. The list is taken from the Regional Transportation District, Phase One-A Concept, for moving people within the central city.
Dial-A-Bus:
Operational scheduled or demand basis
Supplement to regular bus service within a major activity center service area
Interface with other modes of transit
Pedestrian Links
Sky bridges and pedestrian walkways
Bicycle related facilities
Pedestrian facilities designed to maximize ease of mode change
People Mover Links
Small vehicles (4-12 passengers)
Exclusive guideway (no interference from auto or other traffic)
Medium average speed (15-25 mph)
Environmentally controlled vehicles and stations
Fully automated operation
Operation can be scheduled or on demand
Destination selection can be direct (no intermediate stops)
High frequency of service
In order to link major activity centers and to provide a high level of urban area service, an exclusive guideway network is a


Regional Concept


51
vital part of the regional transportation concept. The system would be anchored to transportation centers and would provide service to high density areas. It would also be used to intercept automobiles at the fringe parking facilities located outside the areas of greatest congestion. Lastly, special attention would be paid to distributing people to the downtown areas, so that convenience of access to destination can be maximized.
The features of the components in the major urban transportation network are Transportation Centers that would include fringe parking garage facilities to stopping automobiles outside the areas of greatest congestion:
(1) Easy access from arterials and freeways
(2) Facilities for network access and interchange
(3) Regional and local bus intercept points
Also important is a Downtown Distribution System that would provide close station spacing (minimum walking distance to ultimate destination ) !
(1) Wide service to maximize ease of circulation
(2) Attractive, efficient and environmentally controlled stations
(3) Retail, restaurant facilities integrated with recreational facilities within the downtown stations.
The features of the Regional Transportation Network are: the regional network system will provide total demand response service during peak periods and off-peak periods.
(1) It will use auto-sized vehicles
(2) It will travel non-stop from origin to destination resulting in high speed travel and reduced travel time-


Regional Concept


52
(j) It will link up to CPT that will form the backbone to the
transportation system.
Linking the regional network to the urban network system will create an efficient workable concept that will bring people into and out of the CBD and Activity Centers throughout the metro region.
As it is now, each weekday over 70,000 transit riders enter and leave the CBD. This is an percent increase since 1970.
Most of the increase has occurred during rush hours. Since 1970, the daily modal split to downtown has grown from 9 percent transit to 16 percent transit, and the morning (A.M.) peak hour has grown from 15 percent to 26 percent. This increase has overburdened the bus system. It is currently at capacity for ridership.
The private automobile has remained the most prominent mode of travel to-from and within the Denver CBD. The most recent count revealed that approximately 290,000 vehicles enter and leave downtown between 6 A.M. and 7 P.M. Similar traffic counts in 1962 and 1970 show that this volume has not changed substantially in the last 15 years. This means that more people are using mass transportation taking into account the increased population of the metro area.
However, transit ridership increased dramatically and most of the increased travel demand to and from the CBD has been accommodated by transit; the importance of mass transit cannot be stressed enough by looking at the inadequacies in parking spaces. There are approximately 33500 spaces in the downtown area. Occupancy presently averages around 80 percent at mid-morning and again at


Regional Concept
V


53
mid-afternoon, and generally varies between 70 and 100 percent during the day. CBD parking has not increased since 1970.
A 20 percent increase in auto traffic downtown will create an unbalance between parking supply and demand. The present long term parking areas are being eliminated with the building of new offices.
These in turn will create additional demand for parking and strain the available facilities. By 1985, there will be a deficit of 6,300 parking spaces, so transit improvements must be ready and accessible to
the CBD.30
Over $125 million in public investment has been made in the Denver core in the past five years. The Denver Metropolitan area has the largest concentration of federal employees in the United States, outside of Washington, D.C. Many of these federal employees work in the federal employment centers, the principal offices of the State of Colorado and the City and County of Denver. Specific locations where public investment in the CBD would be reinforced and preserved by providing transit and pedestrian service would include:
Colorado State Capital Denver City and County Building Colorado State Offices Denver Art Museum
Colorado State Judicial/Heritage Complex Currigan Exhibition Hall Denver Convention Arena Denver Center for the Performing Arts Federal District Court Offices
^Regional Transportation District, Amendment to Pro.ject Number C0-03-0015, April 26, 1979, p. 21.




Jl 'l Jl IIJ l -H Jl_ i L ji t
Dtiuol.......................
mnirr cm im
DcmmaLpcim
r if if n n if if ir~ir if if
CENTRAL AREATransit Movement System
_ - Major Trans. Corridors
!
M*# cuvm .NO PX. MTI
500- O' rwu-
JANUARY 1077
111111111111111 CRT Route ^. -. PRT Route
Exclusive Express Bus Lane
100CT 2000


&/,
Proposed Movement System
88888888888% 16th st. Transitway/ Ped. Mall
Exclusive Express Bus Lane
Pedestrian Access Routes
! i


5^
U. S. Mint
Denver Police Building A Basic Transportation Scheme
The basic transportation scheme of the downtown consists of five components:
(1) A transitway/pedestrian mall
(2) Two transfer facilities
(3) Renovation of buildings for RTD offices (A-) A shuttle vehicle system
(5) Traffic circulation modifications
The five components listed are currently planned by the RTD to be implemented within the next five years.
The Pedestrian Problem
One major question that arises from this study is the form of the pedestrian area. In some projects, the street, in its traditional form as a corridor, such as the 16th Street Transitway/ Pedestrian Mall, does not exist. The whole area should be treated as a complete part, a block, whose interior is the pedestrian movement itselfo Within the study area, such an arrangement is particularly important to effect a strong connection to neighboring pedestrian streets. This arrangement gives rise to the serious question of liveliness in an area where automobiles are excluded entirely. However, it may be better to have automobile streets visible, if not actually penetrating the central open spaces of a project, rather than to exclude them entirely. Automobile and people in the city can exist side-by-side in harmony when they do
not conflict with each other's movements.


Proposed Movement System\2r
Ped.
Access
Express Bus Route \ tiiiiiiiiiaiiiin CRT Route ''''PRT Route Collector


55
Lawrence Halprin has been developing thoughts on what he calls "Urban Choreography." A proper pedestrian circulation plan would knit the movement of the pedestrian into a city wide network. It would connect to the major generators of pedestrian traffic and parking garages, bus stations and rail stations. This plan would also be based on the principles of artful procession movements as was done in Renaissance buildings and baroque towns. It could be based as well on the more casual movement sequences found in medieval towns. Designed as formal or informal walks, city streets could be furnished with artful accents, events, pauses, transitions, intersections, and points of arrival. A pedestrian circulation plan would guide developers in locating certain types of shops, garages, and train stations as well as the functional and symbolic centers.51
Conclusion
The functioning of the CBD depends on the integration of various systems of supporting facilities -- its physical infrastructure. For the most part, these systems are publicly provided such as transit, streets, water and waste. The primary supporting facilities provided by the public can help to shape the CBD; the infrastructure is the key to the physical form of the CBD.
What is needed now is to complete the downtown urban transpor-tation/pedestrian problem, that is, a new development which will reintegrate our social and urban structures and reunite the different social groups and activities. Consequently, future town planning must be synthetic; it must establish a new unity between architecture, economics, communications, and social contact. For this reason contemporary planners are recommending that megastructures or enormous compactness should be built: instead of
^L. B. Holland, Who Designs America. Press, 1969)i P* 223.
(New York: Viking


56
being spread out over a wide area, the different social spheres
be "packed" one on top of the other. But these interlocking structures which are indispensable if we are to have a healthy urban society and ensure the full development of social activities, are inconceivable unless we are prepared to rethink our urban communications systems.
There is a need to see the urban transportation problem as an integral part of the total urban problem. The current federal aid transportation programs perpetuate the erroneous view that moving in cities can be treated independently of living in cities. Yet urban transportation problems are heavily affected by central city decay, the planless sprawl of the suburbs, and by poverty, crime, and racial tensions.
The isolation of transportation from other elements of the urban problem applies to energy. The issues of how to cope with petroleum costs and supplies have generally failed to focus on the many possibilities of reducing fuel consumption in the transport sector or on the importance to the economy of maintaining essential urban transportation services.
The reality of the fact is that most urban areas of the United States are totally dependent on highway-oriented transportation, and in particular on the private automobile. The idea that there can be a return to rail transportation or other public transit on a scale that will make a decisive change in transport patterns is an illusion. Changes in urban transportation are most likely going to come from changes in urban life-styles.
For Denver to plan and develop these policies, a responsible


57
attitude and outlook in preserving the city must be followed. The future of Denver's growth will depend on combining several principles and technologies and linking them with regional and downtown activities. If transportation is to provide effective solutions for a viable Denver, planning must be consistent in controlling urban growth and in the decisions responding to future land use.


58
Bibliography-
Books
Dahinden, Justus. Urban Structures for the Future.
Gallion-Eisner. The Urban Pattern. New York: D. Van Nostrand and Company, 1975*
Holland, L. B. Who Designs America. New York: Doubleday, 1966.
Martin, Brian V., Frederick W. Memmott and Alexander J. Bone. Principles and Techniques of Predicting Future Demand for Urban Area Transportation. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1967.
Meyerson, Martin. Metropolis. New York: Random House, 1963*
O'Connell, W. H. Ride Free, Drive Free Or The Transit Fund and the Robin Hood Principle. New York: The John Day Company,
1973.
Okamoto, Rai Y. Urban Design: Manhattan. New York: Viking Press, 1969*
Owen, Wilfred. Transportation for Cities. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institute, 1976.
Sheldon, Nancy W. and Robert Brandwein. The Economic and Social Impact of Investments in Public Transit. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1973
Tunnard, C. and B. Pushkariev. Man-Made America: The City of Man. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970.
Webber, Melvin M., et al. Explorations Into Urban Structure.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press,
1968.
Zube, E. H. (editor). Environmental Design Evaluation. Amhurst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press, 1968.
Periodicals
Barnett, Jonathan. "Urban Design." Urban Design, Summer, 1978.
Barnett, Jonathan. "What's New in Downtown Planning." Urban Design, Spring, 1977.
"Colorado in Crises." The Denver Post, March 9, 1980, p. 27*
"Colorado Seems Helpless in the Face of Growth." The Denver Post, May 27, 1979, p. 20.


"Downtown Denver's Changing Skyline What's Going Up." Denver Monthly February, 1980.
Kennedy, Tom. "Canadian Oil Money Looks for a Home." The Christian Science Monitor, February 28, 1980, p. 11.
Kimsey, Gary. "Denver's Booming Economy, Is the Bubble About to Burst?" Denver Monthly, February, 1980, p. 33*
Lundstrom, Marjie. "The Sky's the Limit." Denver Monthly, February, 1980, pp. 36-37.
Prosser, John M. "Designing a New Downtown Denver." The Denver Post, February 17, 1980, p. 29.
Ray, Genevieve. "Dateline: Baltimore 1990." Urban Design, Spring, 1978.
Government Publications
Regional Transportation District. "Amendment to Project Number CO-O3-OOI5." April, 1979.
Regional Transportation District. "Downtown Denver Circulation Plan." September, 1977*
Regional Transportation District. "North-South Rapid Transit Project: Value Capture Opportunities." May, 1976.
Regional Transportation District. "Phase One-A Concept." January, 1972.
Regional Transportation District. "Transportation Analysis of Automated Demand Responsive Transit (ADRT) System and its Network Design Requirements." January, 1973*
The Denver Regional Council of Governments, The Regional Transportation District. "Transportation System Report: Joint Regional Planning Program." December, 1973*
U. S. Department of Transportation. "Metropolitan Transportation Planning Seminars." December, 1971*