Citation
Beaver Creek

Material Information

Title:
Beaver Creek thesis research document
Creator:
Wallick, Steve ( author )
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 electronic file (2 volumes illustrations (some color), charts, maps (some folded), plans) : ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Ski resorts -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Beaver Creek ( lcsh )
Ski resorts ( fast )
Colorado -- Beaver Creek ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of Colorado at Denver, 1978.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: Adobe Reader.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Steve Wallick.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
on10115 ( NOTIS )
1011523240 ( OCLC )
on1011523240

Full Text
Thesis Res^i^...
£ u its
steve vvaliick
University of Colorado/Denver




Table of Contents
Chapter Page
PREFACE Z,
HISTORY OF AVON, COLORADO ................................. 4
INTRODUCTION TO BEAVER CREEK .............................. fe
P. U. D. SKETCH PLAN ...................................... 9
SITE ANALYSIS ............................................ ai
ARCHITECTURAL GUIDELINES AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ______
THESIS PROPOSAL ........................................... bZ
CASE STUDIES .............................................. $6
DIARY .....................................................|2|
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PERSONAL CONTACTS ........................Jt4
BUILDING PROGRAM ..........................................127
PROGRAM SUMMARY AND SPACE PROXIMITY MATRIX ............... |4&
FINAL THESIS DESIGN SOLUTION
PRESENTATION DRAWINGS .............................
PRESENTATION MODEL SLIDES .......................... |£2


Preface
T
The challenge to design functionally and aesthetically a key structure in the proposed Beaver Creek ski resort village, located eight miles west of Vail in virgin mountain territory, was.offered
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to me by professor G. K. Vetter thru Vail Associates Inc. I accepted this opportunity for a thesis, Sept. 20, 1978 with the anticipation of learning more about the "ski resort experience and develop a sensitive building-site relationship from a mpuntain environment. The following document is a collection of all pertinent data, observations and assumptions to date regarding a base lodge/conference center in the planned Beaver Creek ski resort, Eagle County, Colorado.
My present philosophy of design is never conquer a site with a design solution but attempt to compliment the natural design environment thru compromising both the man made and natural elements. The combination of a high-country site and the architectural guidelines given by Vail Assoc. Inc., allows for this opportunity to unite the building with the site while creating an exciting people space year round.
After our first conference with Jack Zahran architect for Vail Assoc. Inc., the general impression was how much potential Beaver Creek has as a future ski resort soon to be accepted with Colorado's finest, Vail, Aspen, Steamboat, etc. It was mentioned that the architects had already been chosen to begin designing the eight building types needed in phase one of the Beaver Creek P.U.D. Ground is scheduled to be broken on May 15th, 1979 for the center village development. The combination of the project potential and witnessing the architectural process from the ground floor up filled me with excitement to tackle a "real problem" thesis. Kurt Wilson and Olag Strand also share this enthusiasm


thus leading them to each choosing a lodge facility for their thesis project. Therefore since much of our basic background information overlapped pertaining to the site and history of Beaver Creek we decided to document this portion of our thesis research books as a group. The remaining material defines my goals, objectives and proposed approach to designing a base lodge/con-ference facility for the Beaver Creek ski resort. As a last note I want to mention that my goals and objectives although they will not change entirely may become more specific as the project continues. I feel this document only reflects my accomplishments to date with the potential for it to grow in the final semester.


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A HISTORICAL LOOK AT AVON, COLORADO
Beginning first as a game reserve for the Ute Indians, later to be founded by a white settler George Townsend from England. Once Townsend settled the Beaver Creek valley as a cattle ranch and stagecoach stop, he named this sometime frequent station Avon, after his hometown in England. With the rush of progress came the railroad which served the Rock Creek to Glenwood Springs line, providing Avon with a link to the rest of the world. After being alluded to in an occasional and incidental fashion for many years, Avon was officially established as a post office on November 26, 1900, after Townsend' departure.
A brief look at the current life style in Avon, Colorado, one gains the impression particularly from interviews that life for most of the residents at Beaver Creek down through the years has been something less than affluent and leisurely. In addition to the daily threat of illness or accident in a remote location, there was the constant possibility of business failure due to circumstances beyond local control.,, weather or the available market.
But leave it to the kids to find the fun and point to the future. In the winter time they would skate and sled down log-packed roads. More importantly, they went skiing on "boards", literally taken from barns. They skied to school, to their afternoon trap lines and skied in the moonlight just for enjoyment. Some of their children and grandchildren may well be skiing along their invisible pioneer tracks along Beaver Creek tomorrow.



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DESCRIPTION OF BEAVER CREEK DEVELOPMENT PLAN
Situated in the heart of Colorado ski country, 10 miles west of Vail, the proposed Beaver Creek development is located just south of the 1-70 Interstate highway corridor, approximately one half mile from the Avon interchange. The 2, 126 acres of private land contained in the project essentially control the lower reaches of the Beaver Creek Valley. They are supplemented by 2,775 acres of public land leased from the U. S. Forest Service for purpose of developing a major ski area having a design capacity of 7, 500 skiers.
Exhibit 1 includes a special feature from Ski Magazine which deals with some interesting facts about public forested lands vs. ski area development.
The Village is planned for 2, 163 living units taking the form of closely clustered apartments and lodges. This arrangement will provide an easy walking Situation from living accommodations to skier lift terminals. An important feature of the plan has been to minimize the need for automotive transportation once the resident or guest has arrived from the lower valley. Advocating this concept is a pedestrian shopping mall integrated into a Village core.
Skiing will be the major sport attraction at Beaver Creek, although development will also include many recreation opportunities in the summer, such as golf, tennis, horseback riding, fishing and hiking.
A key ingredient to the success of a recreation community is its accessibility to major population centers. Situated on the 1-70 corridor, 114 miles from Denver and 144 miles from Grand Junction, Beaver Creek


seems to be prime location. In addition, air transportation to and from Stapleton Airport will be Initiated when the Avon Stolport facility will be activated by Rocky Mountain Airways. This air strip is very close to the Beaver Creek entrance and is viewed as a great ammenity to the development.
Vail Associates, having past experience in developing alpine resorts communities, such as Vail and Lions Head will also be the developer at Beaver Creek.



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A P.U.D. SKETCH PLAN FOR THE 2,126 ACRE BEAVER CREEK PROPERTY
I. Justification of the P.U.D, Approach:
Following a concept of designing a close-knit cluster of buildings for the Beaver Creek village plan led to the P.U.D. approach. With a P.U.D. plan, the flexibility of clustered buildings can be closely supervised to permit the realization for a true pedestrian village while at the same time maximizing open space surrounding the village for scenery and recreation.
II. Land Use, Building Locations and Housing Unit Densities:
The Beaver Creek Master Plan seeks to create a year round resort village with sufficient accommodations to support a major alpine skiing complex having a carrying capacity of 7,500 skiers. This is achieved with a 263 dwelling unit cluster of lodges and apartments featuring a 277,000 square foot commercial shopping area around a pedestrian mall. With less than 50% of overnight guests bringing their own cars, as recorded in Vail, parking will be located in future dispersed parking garage structures. Apart from the village core, the remaining development planned for Beaver Creek will provide single family, duplex and townhouse home sites which will capitalize on views, golf, horseback riding and bicycling, all within walking distance to the village core.
For zoning purposes, six classifications of land use have been established:
o Resort Commercial RC
o Residential High Density RHD
o Residential Medium Density RMD


o Residential Low Density RLD
o Resort Services RS
o Open Space Recreation OSR
o
RC Resort Commercial
Purposes: To provide accommodations, commercial space,
recreation amenities, and parking consistent with the needs of a year round resort village.
Uses; Lodge room and apartment accommodations. Com-
mercial space consistent with the needs of a recreation resort, including but not limited to retail sales, restaurants, offices and indoor recreation.
Outdoor recreation amenities consistent with the needs of a year round resort, including but not limited to tennis, swimming, volley ball, picnic facilities, ice skating, etc.
Resort services space necessary for the support of the resort function, including but not limited to convention space, meeting rooms, receiving and delivery space and recreation administration.
Set Back: No minimum except sufficient to accommodate util-
ities, drainage, access, fire code regulations and flood plain of live streams, except where noted on plans.

Maximum Building Height: 55 feet except for architectural features such as towers, steeples, etc., (as judged to be appropriate by the Design Review Committee) and except where noted on plans.
Parking: Sufficient parking to satisfy demand based on the
demographics of the resort guest and service requirements of the resort operation. One-half parking space per dwelling unit plus building requirements is established as a base requirement subject to Forest Service annual review as required by the Beaver Creek Development Plan dated March, 1977, revised June, 1977.
II


o
RHP Residential, High Density
Purpose: To provide housing for employees subject to need as stated in the Beaver Creek Development Plan.
Uses: Apartments, rooming houses and dormitories. Accommodations suitable for the employee from the standpoint of demand and economics. Density not to exceed 30 units per developable acre. Com-
mercial space will be provided for convenience shopping and eating. Off season use may be expanded to include short term guest rental when lack of employee housing demand creates vacancies.
Set Back: No minimums except to accommodate utilities, drainage, access, fire code regulations and flood plain of live streams.
Maximum Building Height: 35 feet
Parking: One half parking space per dwelling unit plus one tenth of a space per 100 square feet of gross residential area. Maximum of 2 spaces per dwelling unit.
o RMD Residential, Medium Density
Purpose: To provide townhouse type residential development of medium density.
Uses: Townhouse type accommodations up to 12 units per developable acre.
Set Back: No minimums except sufficient to accommodate utilities, drainage, access, fire code regulations and flood plain of live streams.
Maximum Building Height: 35 feet
Parking: One half parking space per dwelling unit plus one tenth of a space per 100 square feet of gross residential area. Maximum of 2 spaces per dwelling unit.
1
12


o
RLD Residential, Low Density
PurpoBe: To provide low density neighborhoods which are protected from conflicting uses.
Uses: Single family and duplex development up to 6 dwelling units per acre.
Set Back: Approximate construction envelope for each lot shown on land use drawings. Final building location determined by Beaver Creek Design Review Committee.
Maximum Building Height: 35 feet
Parking: Minimum of 2 parking spaces per dwelling unit,
o RS Resort Services
Purpose: To provide support functions for resort operations.
Uses; Uses include but are not limited to parking, vehicle maintenance, building and grounds maintenance, offices, warehousing, central kitchen facilities, guest reception and reservations, residential units, transportation terminal and other related retail commercial activities.
Set Back: No minimums except to accommodate utilities, drainage, access, fire code regulations and flood plain of live streams.
Maximum Building Height: 35 feet, except for architectural features, such as towers, steeples, etc. as judged appropriate by the Design Review Committee.
Parking: Sufficient to satisfy resort demand. Subject to annual review by the Forest Service as per the Beaver Creek Development Plan.
o OSR Open Space Recreation
Purpose: To promote scenic and recreation qualities of the natural environment.
1


Uses:
All winter and summer recreation activities compatible with the valley's environment. This includes but is not limited to facilities relating to skiing, golf, tennis, fishing, horseback riding, hiking and outdoor entertainment.
Set Back: No minimum except to accommodate utilities, drain-
age, fire code regulations and flood plain of live streams.
Maximum Building Height: 35 feet
Parking: Sufficient to satisfy demand of individual uses
where applicable.
Ill Circulation Pattern:
Five circulation types have been defined in the Master Plan, all having right-of-ways owned and maintained by the Beaver Creek Metropolitan District. They are as follows:
a. Roads
b. Parking
c. Bicycle paths
d. Pedestrian paths
e. Equestrian trails
o Roads: The main collector from Avon to the village will be two
asphalt 12'-0" running lanes with 4'-0" paved shoulders for bicycles, all within a 70'-0" R.O.W. All other minor roads will be ll'-O" asphalt travel lanes with 2'-0" gravel shoulders in 50'-0" R.O.W. The majority of traffic, day skiers, will park at designated surface lots adjacent to the entry to Beaver Creek just off Highway 6. Bus shuttles and rental cars will taxi guests to the village.


o Parking: The remaining users, primarily overnight resort guests,
will be served with a "parking center" approach with the help of a central parking garage located under the village plan. With village population growth will come the need for the previously mentioned dispersed parking structures. All parking capacity calculations are derived from case studies taken at the Vail Village.
o Bicycle paths: As seen on the land use plans, bicycle paths will
be adjacent to the main collector roads, with the exception of an 8'-0" "bicycles only" path to alleviate conjestion on the roads.
o Pedestrian paths: All walkways within the village core are pro-
vided for easy access to connecting facilities, i.e. shops, lodges, restaurants, gondola building, etc. Separate footpaths for hikers are provided to Beaver Lake in the White River National Forest.
o Equestrian trails: Located on the land use plans also, the eques-
trian trails will link highway 6 to the Forest Service land above Beaver Creek Village, while providing a trail to the south central part of the village for tours to east or west.
IV. Open Space Uses:
Open Space uses will seek to optimize the scenic and recreation opportunities in the Beaver Creek development. In some areas, highly structured recreation, such as golf, tennis and skiing will be maximized, while in others, the natural environment will be emphasized for hiking and equestrian trails. Uses include but are not limited to the following:
o Alpine skiing facilities, including lifts, trails, utilities, mountain
restaurants and other support facilities.
Ice rirtk.
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o Cross country skiing facilities, including warming shelters,
o Golf course, including club house, starter's building, mid-
course snack facilities.
o Tennis courts, including support facilities,
o Hiking trails,
o. Bicycle paths.
o Equestrian facilities, such as trails, stables and livery,
and other horse oriented activities as appropriate, o Picnic facilities
o Volleyball courts,
o Swimming pools,
o Alpine slide,
o Children's play areas,
o Utility, road and drainage easements,
o Outdoor entertainment.
V. Grading and Drainage: Plans D1 D8
The grading and drainage pattern is illustrated by drawings D1 through D8 and supplemented by a drainage report prepared by Gingery Associates, Inc. of Glenwood Springs.
VI. Water Supply and Sewage Disposal Plans U1 U7
The domestic water supply system will use Beaver Creek as its primary source, with the Eagle River serving as a back-up supply. A metropolitan district will be formed to install, operate and maintain an adequate domestic and fire protection water system for the Beaver Creek Development. As for sewage treatment, the UEVSD treatment plant, approximately one half mile west of Avon on the Eagle River will proces all Beaver Creek wastes.


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Justification of Commercial and Service Elements:
Data recorded from Vail Village users shows that approximately 110 square feet of commercial space is appropriate per dwelling unit in a resort situation. With this assumption, Beaver Creek's 3,233 dwelling units will support 380,000 square feet of commercial space allowing a 10% margin for contingencies.
VIII. Relationship to Surrounding Area and Eagle County:
The overall vicinity relationship of Beaver Creek to the surrounding area is illustrated on drawing no. P-1. Supporting facilities in the area will be Benchmark to the north, a residential shopping community center, and Arrowhead to the west, a planned ski resort independent of Beaver Creek to serve as an alternative ski experience. Wi th respect to the county scale vinity location, Beaver Creek is just south of the Avon interchange off 1-70, 10 miles west of Vail and 20 miles east of
Eagle.
IX. Phasing Schedule;
The latest revised estimate for a completion date is to open the resort by December, 1980. To be prepared for an 1980 opening, the tentative valley construction schedule would have to proceed roughly as follows, subject to final design and scheduling:
o The summer of 1978 would be devoted to correction of drainage
problems at the village core site; installation of some of the deep utilities at the village site; grading, graveling and revegetation of the main access road from Highway 6 to the village; architectural and engineering design work relating to other improvements needed for the December, 1980 opening;


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The wr.r-r oi 19 v/: - t f,
the r -i s r .<- v:l; c* , i A, vivi C vji 0 7 C < #.
- I 1979; and, i th -:v. art closed in, Sy beg I. f
The sunurtr of ir Ttu id r;. 1 C . tan of the
v*.r fc a c 1 dv in 3 5f rpt phc ze as .wcli C -A."."
t?c a;, t .f. ; r n t; '$ .A , and other cleah~ ' O c! 1C *'< lv?
c. ' . 1-0.2
An the .ncun ,:.n, a rt i cone ia*ed u. a tc- ' i i l<: flag. p ;;
i > i. ard t a he summers i 1980 would 1 a
devoted to slope and tr il .clearing 3 . . : r\ 1 e
cu ti g, lift installation c ti u-ctspn oi 'on-mo < ttt e
aar and her i ' :o zac . ,
At opining, tfcu village expected to i?;clude approximately 30'0
to 330 dwoiUng unit. ar.d .. ,00 sq A4* J, .4. - of CC mmcrch'i.
tai r. -id : au r .t nr-. c-' Some ai 51 ur; it'
the fotm of commercial 5*.-ace used \a jinppra.ri.ly'. for i
h-out eg. Ar a core auea gj ows rad as ree C
tv.'.ome < a\ I.e re tn . bat a of v- n A. A. ty. Benphr v? rk, 1
wv : ] r e tployee bousing in the village core *
K-, r -- verted iCK o rcynxner- ia and x ice .si-
Assuming a December, 1980 opening, the mountain i- projected
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pi< i of ; other cn-mount C nid-rru sapper irxtaio t fa c A ve ?!. 3 i. xh s' i patreo
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Stimsris of J 98 i f : .9A . Dependiitsj' upc.-tt v v rlo , >jr#j
side r al- ions. '*'e w.ould. J v. 0 : ( eq; -. e
and n plan io r.y of the leisure a, the summer of 1 -g 3 own oi jtuc t
If demand for the gar! OU2 * t ate products 1
that approximately 250 dwelling ; n
year to t: ic:j the next t ar y e sips s ub b e pu e 1
Atter year 1 .: rs e of growl h Oi 3 e 1
should drop, nr 1 f; to an a 3 . { 1 u~


Our current projections Indicate complete build-out of the resort by 1992; however, we can make no assurances to the accuracy of that projection, since so much depends on the health of the national economy, consistency of snowfall, and demand for the specific real estate products offered for sale and lease at Beaver Creek.
X. Covenants and Restrictions:
1. Declaration Purposes
To perform certain functions and hold and manage certain
property for the common benefit of all Owners and Lessees within Beaver Creek.
2. Definition
a. Declarant Vail Associates, Inc., its successors or assigns.
b. Beaver Creek The 2, 126 acres of fee land area presently owned by Declarant, less that portion of the 2, 126 acres devoted to alpine skiing and related act ivities.
c. Association The Beaver Creek Resort Association, Inc. a Colorado non-profit service corporation, formed to carry out the obligations of the Association as specified in this declaration.
d. Owner The person or persons who own fee simple title to any real property in Beaver Creek, according to real property records of Eagle County, Colorado.
e. Common Area Real property owned by the Association for the benefit of all Members.
f. Member Person or entity holding membership in the Association.
20


3
Certain Obligations and Rights of Association
a. Maintenance of all Common Areas
b. Security-
Association plans to provide an unarmed,
private security force. Facilities at Beaver Creek for deputies of the Eagle County Sheriff shall be by agreement to be reached with Eagle County. 'The Association security force shall work in full cooperation with the County Sheriff.
c. Parking and Transportation
Association plans to operate and maintain
all public parking and transportation systems.
d. Recreation Facilities
Association plans to operate and maintain
certain common recreation facilities not otherwise operated by Vail Associates, Inc. its successors or assigns, or a Metropolitan Service District yet to be formed by Declarant. The list of these facilities is yet to be determined.
e. Central Reservations and Reception
Association plans to operate a central reservations system and reception facility for the Beaver Creek resort.
f. Marketing and Promotion
All central resort marketing and promotion
would be planned and implemented by the Association.
g. Solid Waste Collection
Association plans to provide this service or cause it to be provided by contract with an independent contractor. Association shall control and specify the hours of the day when solid waste collection shall occur in medium and high density areas of Beaver Creek.
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Dog Control
Association shall provide realistic regulations, facilities, manpower, and funds for strict dog controls to the satisfaction of the State of Colorado, Division of Wildlife.
Environmental Monitoring and Enforcement
Association shall monitor air and water quality in Beaver Creek, and develop legal means of fine and enforcement for violations of established regulations.
Other Functions
Association may undertake other functions on a self-supporting or Special Assessment basis, including but not limited to centralized purchasing and central warehousing.
Right to Make Rules and Regulations
Association shall be authorized and empowered through the Land Use Covenants to establish regulations relating but not limited to fire hazards, disturbances of the peace, traffic control, animal control, use of facilities, promotion of general health and welfare of persons in Beaver Creek, protection and preservation of property rights, and architectural control. Association may provide for enforcement of such regulations through reasonable and uniformly applied fines and penalties, through exclusion of violators from facilities or otherwise. Each Owner, Lessee and Guest shall be obligated to abide by all such regulations and pay such fines upon failure to do so.
Charges for Services and/or Use of Facilities
Association may establish reasonable charges for various services and facilities provided through the Association.
Right to Assessment
Association shall have the right to raise operating and capital funds through equitable assessment of the Members, whether through Regular (periodic) or Special Assessments.


n. Government Successor
Any facilities and any function may be turned over to a governmental entity which is willing to accept and assume the same upon such terms and conditions as the Association shall deem to be appropriate with the consent of the Owners and Lessees by a majority of the votes that may be cast at a meeting of the combined classes of Members of the Association (as defined, below), and with the consent of Declarant. In the event of the transfer of any facilities or functions to any governmental entity, the Declarant may, at its option, amend or cancel any section(s) of this Declaration affected by such transfer.
4. Association Membership
a. Regular Memberships
There shall be one Regular Membership attributable to each parcel of real property in Beaver Creek, as evidenced by fee simple title to that property. Each such Regular Membership shall automatically pass with the fee simple title to the property. If fee simple title is held by more than one person or entity, the Regular Membership shall be apportioned among those persons according to the percentage ownership of each.
Also, one Regular Membership shall accrue to each leased premises within Beaver Creek, with the Lessee automatically being the holder of that membership.
A party may hold more than one Regular Membership in the Association.
b. Special Memberships
Declarant shall hold at all times a Special Membership, whether or not Declarant is an Owner or a Lessee. Declarant shall hold no Regular Memberships.
23


c
Voting Rights
(1) Classes of memberships for the purpose of voting rights shall be:
(a) Class s ite s. A; Owners of residential home-
(b) Class s ite s. B: Owners of non-res idential
(c) Class C: Owners /operators of lodges.
(d) Class D: Owners/operators of retail
shops and services, except lodges.
(e) Class ship. E: Declarant Special Member-
(2) Each class of membership shall entitle one vote to each member.
d. Election of Board of Directors
(1) There shall be nine members of the Board of Directors, with staggered terms of office.
(2) Classes A through D shall each elect one Director from within their respective classes of membership.
(3) The Class E membership shall elect five Directors from within its class of membership, except that the Declarant may, at its option, distribute up to two or more of its positions on the Board to any other class of membership.
Assessment and Other Charges
a. Assessments shall include, but not be limited to, the following types:
(1) Common Assessment A periodic charge levied on the assessed valuation of all property in Beaver Creek, such valuation as established by the Eagle County Assessor.
(2) Civic Assessment A charge levied on the gross income of all commercial businesses in Beaver Creek. As with all other assessments, this charge may be changed from time


to time by the Association Board of Directors to reflect a fair distribution of the assessment burden among various types of bus inesses.
(3) New Construction Documentary Fee All new construction shall be assessed a fee equal to a percentage of construction costs excluding land, which fee shall be payable to the Association prior to issuance of a certificate of occupancy.
(4) Special Assessments As established by the Association, based on the assessed valuation of all real property in Beaver Creek.
b. Assessments shall be the automatic obligations of all Owners.
c. Association has right to file liens for collection of Assessments.
6, Certain Rights of Declarant, Owners and Lessors
Declarant, Owners and Lessors may assign rights and obligations to Sub-owners or Lessees.
7. Restrictions Applicable to Property
a. Land Use Restrictions
In addition to restrictions on property use found in this Section 7, use of the Property shall be further restricted by a Supplemental Declaration of Land Use Restrictions to be recorded with the Clerk and Recorder of Eagle County, Colorado, prior to the conveyance of any Property by Declarant to Association or to any third party.
Occupancy Limitations
No room(s) shall be used as a residence or for sleeping unless designed for such purposes.
b.


c
Maintenance of Property
d. No Noxious or Offensive Activity
e. No Hazardous Activity
f. No Unsightliness
g. No Annoying Lights, Sounds or Odors
h. No Temporary Structures
i. Restrictions on Animals
No animals shall be kept on any Property except cats or any other animals which do not reasonably constitute a nuisance to others, and except dogs as specified in Section III above. Livestock is specifically prohibited. Horses may be kept in designated areas shown on the Land Use Plans and as specifically authorized by the Design Review Committee.
j. Restrictions on Signs
k. Restrictions on Parking
1. Parking on Property must be covered unless approved by the Design Review Committee.
2. Association may designate areas of street parking.
l. Recreation Vehicles
No motorcycles, ski mobiles, golf carts, etc., without written approval of the Assocl-at ion.
m. Fireplaces
1. Lodges, hotels and other dwelling units will be restricted through the Design Review Committee.
2. Restrictions on operation under adverse air conditions.
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n. No Drainage Into Sewer System
o. No Wells
p. Restrictions on Tree Removal
q. No Mining or Drilling
r. No Cesspools or Septic Tanks
8. Design Review Committee (PRC)
a. All members appointed by Declarant.
b. All exterior building modifications and construction must first be approved by the DRC.
c. Resolution of disputes by binding arbitration.
9. Miscellaneous
a. Amendment
Any provision in this Declaration may be amended by a vote of two-thirds of the area . of the real property, excluding open space,
provided such proposed amendment shall have the written consent of Declarant.
b. Arbitration of Disputes
c. Enforcement and Remedies XI. County Service Requirements:
Although the Resort Association may employ an inspector as part of its architectural control provisions, the responsibility for building inspection, building code compliance, permits, police protection and subdivision approval should remain with Eagle County.


XII.
Fire Protection:
Project fire protection will be the responsibility of the Beaver Creek Metropolitan District, Tract R is the planned location for the fire station which will be operational prior to occupancy of new dwelling units.






















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EXHIBIT 2
BEAVER CREEK VALLEY
Looking South




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TOPOGRAPHY
The topography of the Beaver Creek Development generally slopes to the north. The area is deeply divided along the north-south axis by the Beaver Creek drainage. The southern end of the Beaver Creek drainage is a typical glacial valley having a flat floor and steep side walls. The land mass to the east of this glacial valley is further divided into three distinct sections, middle mountain, the upper mountain and the lower mountain.
Middle Mountain lies between Beaver Creek and the unnamed tributary to the east. For convenience, this tributary will be referred to as West-fall Creek. Middle Mountain falls away steeply toward the northwest into Beaver Creek and to the northeast into Westfall Creek.
The Upper Mountains topography is characterized by the gently sloping northfacing Drink-a-Water area which falls away steeply into deep drainages. On the east lies the Stone Creek drainage, on the north, the west branch of Stone Creek and on the west the aforementioned Westfall Creek.
The Lower Mountain's topography is typified by a north facing mountain of intermediate steepness grading into a gentle wide valley on the
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north, and falling away more steeply to the west into the Beaver Creek drainage. The lower Mountain has been sculpted by the Meadow Creek Tributary of Beaver Creek which rises in the Horseshoe Park area flowing northward between the Haymeadow and Gypsum Sink thence westward to Beaver Creek. The terrain lying west of Beaver Creek within the development area is called McCoy Park Ridge. Its slopes face generally from north to east. Sculpting by the action of intermittent drainages, small stream courses and landslide activity has left localized spaces aspected, to the southeast between the Border's Place and Strawberry Park and Elk Track Park. The slopes facing into the Beaver Creek drainage are moderate to steep. McCoy Park Ridge terminates on the north in a broad amphitheatre like bowl formed by the Bachelor Gulch drainage which has northfacing gentle to moderate slopes.


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GEOLOGY
The permit area is underlain by two distinctly different geologic formation which effect both the form of the land and the surface geology. The bedrock under the southern 20% of the project area is made up of pre-cambrian igneous and metamorphic gneiss, schlists and quartzites while the northern 80%, of the prject area is underlain by sedimentory rock formations.
There is a long inactive fault lying roughly in the line of contact of these bedrock types.
The surface geology is typified by slopewash, residual soils, and talus derived from the parent materials. Glaciationand erosion have deposited outwash and alluvium in the valley floors. Black and surficial landslides are evident at several sites throughout the area.
There is little evidence of mineralization in the area. A review of Eagle County records revealed no mining claims within the development boundaries.


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Creek
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Geology
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____ Sedimentary


VEGETATION
The area's vegetative cover is easily divided into four categories, evergreen, aspen, meadow and other. The distribution of cover types follows a general pattern.
Evergreen canopy prevails above 10,200 feet elevation. Below this elevation on other than north facing slopes and in less stable soils, aspen predominate. At lower elevations on very harsh sites, the aspen give way to mountain shrubs and sagebrush plant communities.
Ripation habitats exist along the stream banks and in boggy or spring fed areas.
Natural meadows occur throughout the area. An especially prominent meadow system occurs in association with the line of contact of geologic bedrock types and the associated fault. This system runs both east and west from the top of the proposed gondola and east from McCoy Peak. Much of the more level ground below 9,000 feet elevation has been cleared by man for agriculture.


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FISH AND WILDLIFE
The Beaver Creek valley supports 265 species of birds, fish and small and large mammals for at least part of each year. Some of the more significant of important species are of the prairie falcon, bald and golden eagles, blue grouse, white tailed ptarmigan, elk, mule dee black bear, beaver and brown trout.


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WATER QUALITY
Water quality in Beaver Creek is excellent with few pollution problems except naturally occuring sediment loads and occasional turbid ity resulting from mass movement caused by agricultureal irrigation Since this land will no longer be used for agricultural purposes, turbidity will terminate, but new impacts on the water quality will occur with the new development.
Water quality in the Eagle river is some what lower than than of Beaver Creek. This is due to run off from upstream development, activities, irrigation, mining and effluent from Vail sewage treatment plant.


CLIMATE
The climate is typical of the interior mountain ranges of the central Colorado rockies with short summers and cold winters. The rugged topography, general northern aspect and proximity to the surrounding mountain massiffs generally influence the climate. Average annual precipitation varies from 18 inches near Avon to over 45 inches in the higher ele-
vations. Snowfall accounts for 2/3 to 3/4 of this precipitation. The average annual water production (runoff) varies -from 0.45 to 1.78 core feet of water per acre.


Climate Data


SNOW DISTRIBUTION
The Vail Associates, Inc. Beaver Creek Study of 1973 describes the snow cover in Beaver Creek and relates it to Vail Mountain. The study indicates that the two mountains accumulate essentially the same amounts of snow at selected sites of similar elevation and slope aspect. The study also established the relative snow accumulation on north, east and west facing slopes through a range of elevations.


Standard Snow Stake
All of the snow distribution analysis describee r
spot on Beaver Creek Mountain as the standard. 7;e: 10,000 feet elevation on north sloping terrain rn be i
For the purpose of the following analysis, that sere of 1.0. Figure 1 shows the relationship between snew for north slopes.
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Figure 2 shows an analysis of the expected relative snow depth through a range of slope aspects holding the elevation as a constant.
SLOPE ASPECTS (azimuth)
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Snow Distribution Analysis
By combining the factors represented in figures 1 & 2 figure 3 has been derived showing the proportional snow depth over a range of elevations and slope aspects relative to the standard snow stake
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Wind
The factor effecting snow distribution not yet considered is wind.
The snow study of 1973 demonstrates that localized wind scour occurs on ridges and other prominent breakovers. Commensurate increase in deposition occurs in the lee of such land forms. Experience at Vail shows that trails facing into the wind tend to funnel the wind. thus inducing wind scour.
Settled Snow Ease
The snow study of 1973 showed that at similar sites the snow accumulation was nearly identical at Beaver Creek and Vail throughout the study winter.
A statistical analysis on Vail's settled snow base records taken at patrol headquarters was done. From this analysis, the mean and standard deviation of settled snow base at five day intervals throughout the normal operating season was derived for Vail's Patrol Headquarters. The expected valves.for Beaver Creek's standard snow stake (10,000 feet elevation-north facing terrain) were then derived from the snow study's comparative data and the snow distribution analysis discribed above. Figure 4 shows the range of expected snow depths at the Beaver Creek standard snow stake throughout the season.


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Micro Climatic Factors
It is desirable to work with, not against the forces of nature and to make use of their potentialities to create better living conditions.
We should strive for a'climatically balanced' design, one which within a given environmental setting reduced undesirable stresses and at the same time utilizes all natural resources favorable to human comfort. The macro-climate and the micro-climate must be determined with the design responding accordingly. Deviations in climate play an important part in architectural land utilization. First in site selection, favorable locations should be considered. Second, a less favorable site may be improved by wind breaks and surrounding surfaces that induce an advantageous reaction to temperature and radiation impacts.
EFFECT OF TOPOGRAPHY
The temperature drop in the mountains can be approximated as one degree Farenheit for each 330 foot rise in the summer and for each 400 foot rise in the winter. As mountains affect the macro-climate, small differences in terrain can create remarkably large modifications in the micro-climate. Cool air is heavier than warm air and at night the outgoing radiation causes a cold air layer near the ground surface. The


cold air behaves somewhat like water, flowing towards the lowest points. This flood of cold air causes 'cold islands' or 'cold air puddles'.
So at night, the air flow will occur towards the valley floor. The site of Beaver Creek village is located in the Beaver Creek drainage. This drainage is sheltered on the east, south and west sides by mountain peaks and ridges ranging in elevation from 1216 ft. to 8920 ft.
The site elevation is approximately 8070 ft. On the north side, the drainage drops off 430 ft. over a distance of 2 1/2 miles to the Eagle River Valley. Cold air movement at night, then would be expected to flow down from the mountains north to the Eagle River Valley. The reverse would occur during the day with warm air movement moving south, up the valley. So even though the regional winds are predominately from the west, we will be more concerned with providing on-site protection from the north and south localized breezes, especially the cold south breeze.
RADIATION EFFECTS
A hillside receives radiation impact depending on the inclination and direction of slope. This radiation varies, of course, depending on the season and the degree of cloudiness. This means that a site with a


sloped southern exposure will receive more heat gain or BTU's/day than a flat site. Our site has approximately a 16% or 9 degree slope to the north, which means that it will receive even less radiation than a flat site.
NATURAL AND BUILT-UP SURROUNDINGS
Water, having a higher specific heat than land, is normally warmer in winter and cooler in summer, and usually cooler during the day and warmer at night, than the terrain. This indicates there will be some slight temperature differentials near Beaver Creek.
To natural cover of the terrain tends to moderate extreme temperatures and stabilize conditions through the reflective qualities of various surfaces. Plant and grassy covers reduce temperatures by absorption of insulation, and cool by evaporation. Other verdure may further reduce high temperaturs. Conversely, cities and man-made surfaces tend to elevate temperatures, as the material used are usually of absorptive character.
With the cool winter climate of the Beaver Creek area, we would want to take advantage of the elevated temperatures induced by man-made materials. This would indicate a tight clustering of the village. In the summer,
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we would want to take advantage of the natural surroundings for cooling.
SOLAR ORIENTATION
The orientation of a building effects the quantities of solar radiation falling on different sides at different times. In winter, at our latitude of 39 36'N, a southern exposure receives nearly three times as much total sun energy as the east or west exposures. While in the summer, the radiation falling on the south plus north exposures is only one-half of that absorbed by the cast plus west exposures. This would indicate that for the best solar orientation we would want to stack our buildings side by side primarily along the east-west axis. This would give us maximum exposure to the south while reducing our:east and west exposures to a minimum, thus giving us maximum radiation in the underheated period while simultaneously reducing insulation to a minimum in the overheated period.
For optimum orientation in a cool climate such as Beaver Creek, the optimum exposure is actually 12 degrees to the east pf south. In this way we take advantage of the early morning sun as heat gain.


WIND EFFECTS
Desirable air movements should be utilized for cooling during the overheated periods. Conversly, air movements should be blocked during the underheated periods. One method of blocking unwanted winds is with vegetation. Their value lies in their ability to reduce wind velocity, as well as their shade giving properties. Buildings can also be used to protect open spaces or other buildings. Building orientation as well as height and size is critical.
In Beaver Creek village, we want to protect the public open spaces from the wind by the use of orientation and building mass.' We especially want to block the cold breezes from the south during the winter and take advantage of the warmer breezes blowing up the valley from the north. We
want to make sure that within the pedestrian areas we do not create any
tunnels. The protection of the public spaces from the wind seem to also dictate a tight compaction of the village with the built elements protecting the central open spaces.
REGIONAL EFFECTS ON BUILDING SHAPE
Winter optimum shape is received with a form of 1:1.1 (east-west to
north-south), summer optimum 1: 1.4. As the stresses in wintertime
are about twice as large as in summer, and the duration of the overheated


period of the year is only 20%, the winter index should be adopted. The reason the building form is more efficient as a square, or cube rather, is that in this configuration there is less exposure per sq. ft. of space contained. This efficiency overrules the sun's effort to elongate the structure in the east-west axis.
OTHER MICRO-CLIMATIC SUGGESTIONS
Public Spaces should be wind sheltered, but open enough to collect sunlight. Provision for periodic shaded area..
Vegetation use evergreen windbreaks in the NE-SW direction at a distance of 20 times the tree height. Deciduous shade trees should be used next to the buildings and open spaces.
Color sun exposed surfaces in medium colors, recessed surfaces can be of dark absorbent colors if shade in the summer can be provided.
Town Structure the layout of the town shall provide a sheltering effect against winds. Larger building units may be grouped close together but spaced to utilize the sun's heating effects The buildings should tend to join to expose less surface to heat loss. The town structure is an isolated dense layout.


Opening and Windows sun windows will provide a good auxiliary heat source. Except onthe south side and partly on the east, the windows should be small to reduce heat loss. Windows should be shade during overheated periods. Heavy draperies or shutters are desirable to reduce heat loss during underheated periods. Double glazing is essential. Controlled ventilation is a primary requirement (20 fpm air movement). Weatherstripping is recommended. At overheated times, cross ventilation is desirable.
Walls exterior, surfaces of smooth non-absorbent materials are preferable. Low thermal capacity insulation should be used.
Roof snow loads are expected to range from 200 to 250 psf. Cold roofs or approved heavily insulated roofs that have no heat loss will be mandatory to retain snow and, therefore eliminate ice build-up. Roofs exceding a 5:12 pitch require safeguards to insure snow retention, such as snow guards near the eave. Roofs ranging from a 5:12 pitch to a 8:12 pitch will be permitted as long as dormers are intended and safeguards are provided to ensure safe occupancy of the street below. Roofs of a steeper pitch than 8:12 will only be permitted for the construction of extraordinary features such as towers and dormers where these features are only a very small percentage of the roof area. In most cases, it is


intended to retain the snow on roofs as much as possible. But, any roof steeper than an 8:12 pitch must be steep enough to shed snow immediately so that no build-up occurs. These steep roofs will be designed so that the snow that they shed will be deposited on another, flatter roof that will retain it or on ground below that is not occupied by pedestrians. Material low thermal capacity insulation should be designed to resist a winter thermal gradiet of 88F; required insulation value relative to south is East 1.2; West 1.3; North 1.3: roof 1.4. High heat capacity mass in the interior to balance extreme heat variations is desirable; a west wall with a six hour time lag will balance the internal heat distribution. A vapor seal on the interior side of the outer walls is important. Extreme temperature ranges create necessity for avaoiding materials subject to stress from expansion, contraction and excessive dryness.
Shading shading in the summer is desirable, but should not interfere with the solar impact during the underheated period.
So, the general objectives are to increase heat production, to increase radiation absorption and decrease radiation loss and to reduce conduction and evaporation loss.


Of course, energy efficient design goes hand in hand with micro-climate responsive design. In order for the man-made environment to use the natural energy available to it most efficiently, it must be planned and designed with consideration given to materials selection, site and building orientation, micro-climatic conditions, landscaping and many other factors. The environmentally responsive building should have minimal negative impact on its site, maximize efficient use of all energy, maximize human comfort and effort, and promote human talents by providing a pleasing atmosphere in which to live and work.
SITE AND CLIMATE
To properly consider the placement and orientation of any building on a site, its regional and micro-climate conditions must be evaluated. The micro-climate is peculiar to each individual site and results from the influences of surrounding buildings and landscaping, topography, soil structure, and ground cover as well as regional geographic influences.
Trees and landscaping are very important. Not only do they provide protection from wind and sun, they also help purify the air. The earth can be used to minimize the amount of exposed surface area of a building.


Earth berms on the North side can considerably reduce the heat loss in that area. See micro-climate factors for further discussion.
ENTRANCES
1. Weatherstrip around all doors to decrease infiltration. Continuity is important, especially at corners.
2. Storm doors can serve as additional insulation panels. Be certain these fit tightly enough to create a dead air space.
3. A porch can act as an airlock.
4. Wing walls can shelter entrances from prevailing winds.
5. A dark colored South facing door will absorb winter heat, but may be too hot in the summer unless sheltered by overhangs from higher sun altitudes .
WALLS AND ROOF
1. Earth or sod on a roof helps to moderate heat loss and gain while sustaining natural vegetation. This minimizes the negative impact of the building on the environment.
2. Increase the insulation in the ceiling. A minimum value of R.30.
3. Increase the insulation in floors above basements and crawl spaces, value R.19.
4. Insulation in walls, R.13. Insulation in upper portion of walls is most important.


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5. Increase the mass of outer walls. An application of masonry veneer would increase the thermal inertia and time lag of the wall.
6. Place vapor barriers between the drywall and study. This will decrease infiltration. In cold climates, near interior surface -- in warm climates, near exterior surface.
WINDOWS
1. Have overhangs of wing walls to block out the summer sun.
2. Allow the winter sun to penetrate and warm interior spaces.
3. Allow the heating of floors and walls which can retain and reradiate heat.
4. Be recessed, to trap heat and recude convective losses.
5. Prevent heat loss at night and during days of limited sunshine.
6. Provide natural lighting for interior spaces.
7. A greenhouse area on the South will act not only as an insulation buffer but as a source of heat for the building.
8. "Skyshafts" (skylights with insulating air chambers) can be used to prevent heat loss.
VENTILATION
Natural ventilation of a building will initiate passive cooling during the


summer. The exhause of excess warm air and the intake of cool air help to lower interior temperatures. Buildings themselves act as large scale ducts, and should be designed with options for unobstructed movement of air Openings should be sized to permit natural ventilation to occur. Air contained in Southern rooms can be heated by the sun, producing a positive pressure area within the building. If the building has been designed to function as an air duct, natural upward air flows will thence be initiated, inducing compensation ventilation from low-level wall or floor aperatures.
1. Solar plenums are most effective onthe West exposure.
2. Air which surrounds trees, shrubs, or ground cover is cooler than air away from vegetation and should be used for cooling summer ventilation.
3. Insulating batts are available with foil vapor barrier backing. These can be used to decrease heat losses and infiltration.
4. Install recirculating fans with charcoal or citrus base filters in kitchens and bathrooms, as they decrease the amount of heater air piped direct ly out of the building in winter.
5. Modify the fireplace to deliver more heat to the building.
6. Install controllable vents between the various levels of a building. Basement temperatures can be drawn up for cooling. Vents can be closed and heat retained at the level where activities are being performed.


7. Install a turbine vent at the highest point of any pitched attic roof to draw hot air out of the attic during summer.
8. In the summer, use the fireplace flue as a vertical stack to initiate passive ventilation.
9. Provide vents and a stack to allow natural ventilation of hot air in greenhouses.
MECHANICAL
1. Insulate all ducts which carry heated air and pipes which carry heated air.
2. Insulate all ducts used to distribute cool air.
3. Use wind-powered roof ventilator along the roof ridge.
A. Keep the temperature control on the hot water heater set no higher than 60C (1A0F).
5. Make sure hot water tanks and pipes are well insulated to decrease heat loss.
APPLIANCES
1. One potential use of off-peak electricity is as an auxiliary heating source in solar heated buildings.
2. Check the Energy Efficient Ratios (EER's) of appliances before buying.


3. Match appliance size to the size of the job.
4. Select a water heater matching its size to the needs it serves.
FIVE BASIC SYSTEM TYPES BY WHICH SOLAR ENERGY IS USED FOR HEATING
1. Solar Windows windows oriented to trap the sun's winter heat directly in the interior, the window is the collector.
2. Collector/Sotrage Building Elements the sun's rays warm the absorbers (such as a masonry wall or a water container) and heat thus stored radiates directly to the interior space. The natural movement of air in the building also may help distribute the heat to other areas.
3. Active Collector, Storage and Distribution System the sun's heat is trapped within a collector, usually glass or plastic covered metal absorber pan. The heat is drawn from the collector by liquid or by air passing through it and is transferred to a storage device. When the building requires heating, the stored heat then is distributed throughout the interior via air ducts or water pipes and radiators.
4. Active Systems with Special Heating (or cooling) Equipment.
5. Photovoltaic Cells for Electric Conversion.
The first two methods are passive solar devices. These should be actively encouraged for use at Beaver Creek. The third method, an active system is more costly, but should also be encouraged.


Site Reconnaissance
The village site is at the head of the Beaver Creek drainage, 2-1/2 miles south of Interstate 70 and the town of Avon. It sits approximately 800 ft. higher in elevation than the Eagle River Valley. The site drops over 300 ft. from south to north with a 10 percent slope overall. The site of the village core drops 20 ft. with a five percent slope overall
There are numerous small creeks running through the site with Beaver Creek being their terminus and consequently the largest. The site was previously cleared for ranching and agricultural purposes, and at present, is a grassy meadow. There are numerous clumps of aspen and pine throughout the site with a majority occuring along the stream courses.
From the village site, there are views of the adjacent ridges and peaks to the east, south and west. There are distant views occuring to the northwest and north. Views are also opened up to the southwest along the Beaver Creek drainage. A visual inventory follows with views to the site and views from the site included.


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ARCHITECTURAL GUIDELINES AND DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS OVERVIEW
The architectural theme for Beaver Creek has been directed at establishing a compatibility with the natural site and climate, fulfilling the expectations of visitors as a retreat to the mountains, and respecting the historic precedent of mountain buildings and communities in both Colorado and Southern Europe. The overriding philosophy of Beaver Creek design is to establish a remote village with its own identity. As seen from a distance, the village should be understated and uncomplicated, made up of simple forms and consistent roof lines. In contract to this, the central pedestrian area of the village should have an exciting vitality and broad individual expression. In order to more clearly interpret these design principles for Beaver Creek architecture, three levels of perception have been identified and included in this document.
Perception Level I The Village Within the Landscape
At a distance, the village is seen either from the mountain looking down or from the entry road upon arrival. Due to vegetation masses, as well as site lines created by terrain of the area, the roots will become the dominant element at this level of perception. At this scale, the village should be composed of simple understated forms with an overall consistency of materials and color. Variety can be achieved through horizontal and vertical alignment of these consistent forms. This variety should be a response to changes in topography and exterior spaces. *
Materials and colors should be relatively subdued with nonreflection surfaces. Aspen and Spruce, the dominant connifers to this area, will tend to fuse the edges of the village into the landscape.
* Beaver Creek Architectural Guidelines
71


Perception Level II Building and Public Spaces
The second level of perception of Beaver Creek village will occur within the streets and public spaces of the project. At this level of perception the building walls become the dominant element defining the exterior spaces and establishing the overall scale within the village. Existing vegetation should be retained to define exterior spaces. It is important that the flow of public spaces be continuous within the village, enhanced by minor angular changes in walls and streets plus an avoidance of rigid 90 patterns. The subtle changes within wall and street alignments will provide constantly changing view of building forms and wall surfaces with the maximum unbroken wall plane to be ninety feet.
The expression of the walls should be of dominantly a mass at the pedestrian scale, punctuated by window and door openings. These openings should be no more than 20% of the exposed wall area. The height should equal or exceed the width of all openings with a maximum allowable width of four feet per opening. The south walls at the mountain edge should respond to sun and views while maintaining the established mass-void relationships.
There should be a rational expression of structural elements such as bearing wall mass or timber framing elements, with an avoidance of visually contradicting mass void relationships.
At this level of perception, the roof forms become less dominant than at the overall village scale and roofs should meet the walls generally in a clean sharp edge with minimum expression of facia or soffit. Roof height shall not exceed 40% of total building height. Roofs shall be simple hip and gable forms with pitches between six-in-twelve and


twelve-Ln-twelve pitch at secondary roofs. Dormers should not exceed 5% of roof area. Chimneys should penetrate roofs in dormer area and be similar to roof color to minimize visual impact. The use of materials becomes increasingly important at this level of perception and materials should respond to the following uses:
Mass: Lower levels of the building near the pedestrian areas should be
expressive of mass and structural strength. Materials such as rock or stucco should have irregular surfaces with no modular patterns and no precision lines or flat surfaces. Windows and door openings should have depths, minimum 14 inches, allowing room for interior nooks and recesses within the walls. Thermal insulation and solar heat systems should be considered through design schematics.
Framing: Heavy timber and glu-lam beams and trusses are encouraged as exposed framing elements. Also connections should be made visible where possible for detail expression.
Perception Level III Details
The third level of perception within the village seems to offer the most opportunity for individual expression, elements such as windows and door openings, balconies, trim, graphics, signs, street furniture, water, paving patterhs, surface textures and color selections. It is intended that maximum individual expression be retained to allow a richness and vitality within the village and building details.
Along with the subtheme studies, there are technical systems and considerations which have visual and theme implications, such as the use of cold roofs, snow guards, passive solar application, and potential for active domestic hot water solar systems.






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32


Thesis Proposal
I. Project Description:
My project is to design a base lodge/conference center for the planned Beaver Creek Ski Resort. The center will include large and small scale meeting space, office space, retail space, restaurant/bar space, support facilities and mountain operations space. Special emphasis will be put on the restaurant/bar, ski school, and retail space for my final project solution.
II. Some Issues Addressed:
-Provide a year round use facility.
-Provide a structure that compliments the surrounding natural environment.
-Follow the existing Master Plan and Architectural Design Guidelines and Considerations established by Vail Assoc. Inc.
-Provide a flexible design, allowing for temporary uses during construction, later to become a permanent base lodge facility.
-Provide a dtrong emphasis for the day skier allowing this to be the facility's primary identity.
-Provide an emphasis to pedestrian circulation in and around facility.
-Provide easy access from plaza to ski slopes visa versa.
-Provide the opportunity for future connection to adjacent structures, ie. the gondola building and the hotel A.
III. Goals and Objectives:
-To provide a base lodge facility that creates an identity as a general village center gathering place.
-To provide a structure that uses natural materials native to the area.
-To maximize individual expressions in building details to


enhance richness and vitality within the village.
-Provide spaces for the conference/food service and office space to a scale of the functional shell, giving final design detail to the restaurant/bar, ski school, and plaza commercial space.
IV. Scope and Limits of the Problem:
The total proposed square footage for the Beaver Creek base facility is 82,480. My approach will be to design the overall massing of the base lodge complex, while concentrating with more design detail on three areas of use, retail space with a speciality restaurant, ski school, and apres ski restaurant/bar.
The breakdown of proposed space required is:
Retail
retail space Approx. 12,420 sq.
speciality restaurant ft 4,000 ii
Ski School
ticket sales/rentals it 4,000 !
nursery(day care center) ti 3,500 it
employee facilities ii 4,200 it
Apres Ski Restaurant/Bar
bar n 1,600 ii
restaurant ii 1,300 ii
food service ii 2,000 ii
The rest of the base lodge complex will include conference space(large, small), support facility space, ski lift operations storage space, and office space. These spaces will be intergrated in the final design with detail given to their exterior relationship to the plaza, gondola building, and ski slopes.
V. Approach Proposed:
I plan to approach the problem by first becoming sensitive to what makes a mountain village a* different people space. I will


become familiar with the other activities functioning in a resort village to develop a character that will be reflected in the base lodge center. As previously mentioned above I will concentrated on the apres ski restaurant/bar, ski school and plaza retail space in the design development stage with minor emphasis on the other base functions to a point of massing and functional space relationships. Close contact will be kept with Jack Zahran and Fritz Glade of Vail Associates, Inc. to insure a firm understanding of the Beaver Creek goals and objectives.
VI. Personal Goals:
I want to learn how to adapt my present design philosophy/ capabilities to a virgin mountain environment. I am very interested in the mountain village design, especially of Europe, and I want to learn what makes the essence of an exciting mountain village. Also I'm interested in designing for an energy effective environment, and turning towards the natural surroundings instead of making the building-site marriage an after thought.
VII. Product of Project:
The product will be a completed physical solution solving the functional and aesthetic needs of the Beaver Creek Master Plan for a base lodge/conference center facility. Presentation will include:
-model
-all pertinent drawings and plans
VIII. Thesis Advisors:
Bob Utzinger
G. K. Vetter Chester Nagel
Jeff Pecka
Ed McMechen(my employer)
9$


Work To 3e Done MONTH
Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. March April May
Problem Identification
Programming H
Research and Data Collection
Refinement of Data 1
Data Organized and Bound
Development and Decision Making
Alternative Designs
Selection of Prefered Alternate 4
Preparation of Presentation 1
Preliminary Presentation 4
Final Presentation





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Case Study Summary
The following three case studies were chosen from approximately 120 periodical references from 1960-1978, on ski resort/ base lodge facilities. Though only one of the three selected examples is a ski lodge, I noticed a general character all three studies shared. The common design principles were for example, using native site building materials, ie. coniferous wood, and stone, blending the building to the natural scale of site and surroundings, preserving natural views to and from the site, developing in building form transitional spaces from indoors to outdoors, etc.
Northstar Ski Resort, Lake Tahoe, Nevada
Northstar gives an example of a base lodge on page ( ).
Locating the lodge itself requires the use of column sinage, as seen also on page ( ). Placed adjacent to major pedestrian
paths, these wood carved columns not only direct the resort users but seem to blend with the vertically massed pines along the path. Day skiers congregate in open spaces around the base lodge.
Plenty of room is given for skiers to manuver in and around on or off skies. Light plays an important part in the lodge. Large glass openings are used to accentuate the entrance and provide natural light to the large multi-purpose space seen on page £?'") Another element of Northstar is seen on page (3? ) the village Plaza. Wood decks above the plaza level provide an arcade for the resort shops and restaurants. Narrow pedestrian malls along with the irregular storefront textures give a European character to the resort village. Again, existing pines are kept where at all possible to preserve the naturaj. character of the site, and by doing so they enhance the pedestrian shopper's experience. Finally scale was used here as the primary design guideline. No structure


stands above the existing pines, and natural views were preserved throughout the site. Looking to the village site, not more than three buildings can be seen, ski runs are only visible from the air and nowhere can the whole project be seen at once. This building orientation was planned so as to preserve the natural site scale and provide a visual low density impact to the resort user.
Ski Resort, Avoriaz, France
The reason I chose the Ski Resort in Avoriaz France on page ($5), was because of the strong consistency the building forms had with the surrounding mountain range. Verticallity was definitely a strong form determinant along with the natural sloping contours of the site. Again wood and stone were the primary building materials giving a natural texture to the building forms. And finally, I noticed the indoor-outdoor relationship in the multiple use of decks.
The Gosenjaku Lodge, Japan
The last case study, the Gosenjaku Lodge, on pages .. ),
is primarily an interior analysis. First impressions focus on the use of heavy timber open frame construction, and the amount of openness created by cathedral ceilings, Clerestory windows, and loft spaces. Stones form the lower story supports while tall natural "tree shaped" poles provide the upstairs and roof supports. The overall rough finish texture gives a rugged character to the interior complimenting the exterior texture of the building form, and the site. Decks are also expressed on the south side of the building creating a covered outdoor space below, along with frequent glass openings exploiting natural light and views.
One element I did not come accross in any of the case studies reviewed was a concern for using solar energy as primary heat/


energy source. This is one area I wish to pursue in the Beaver Creek base lodge design. After retreiving many periodicals on ski resorts, villages, base lodges, etc., I learned that there is no apparant single element that distinguishes a base lodge facility as a unique building type. The actual function of a base lodge is a large shell which contains like uses common to the general ski resort user. Activities such, as, ski school, ticket sales, restaurant, multi-use auditorium, shops, lockers, etc.
My approach noV over Christmas will be to examine in particular each separate Use further and learn the specifics of each function With continued research will come more information on case studies to be included in the research document.


Northstar Ski Resort
Lake Tahoe, Nevada


tea lure oi the dig /'.n I odge, i>.irl m.iv' up Ilulo is its hluetnanielt'd alu-root designed to take care oi ohlems through its iorms. On it is so steep that snosv can Id up on it; this is the "iron!," teople gather. On the other pili h allows snow to slide ott a ne\er used l>\ fH'ople. deli ails w ere selected, studies oi nsit\- tor ?very month were imputer printout, left).


sible aspects of the ecology were developed into criteria for physical planning. Visual impact studies proved that buildings could be fitted into the environment without altering it and, indeed, so that they would be invisible from anywhere outside the property. Ski trails and runs r an be seen only from the air. Even within the property, no more than three buildings can be seen at a time, and nowhere is an over-all view obtainable. The sense of seclusion belies the density of development (11 units per acre in the condominium area, 48.4 units per acre in the Village). "It is not quite true that no trees were cut down," points out architect Henrik Bull, "but it looks that way." Even eight-inch trees growing beside a doorway's location were saved.
One of the primary design goals was to create a completely pedestrian place and, with remarkable success, the architects have done this. Cars are parked away from the village and condominiums, and everyone walks (or takes one of the two minibuses which run through the area and also meet planes and Amtrak at Truckee, six miles away). Six hundred cars can be parked in a large lot just outside the village, laid out to follow the c ontours of the site, and well planted with trees that will eventually hide it.
Some 400 condominium units have been built, but the master plan provides for an eventual 3100 units and 585 houses by 1980, and a population of 13,000. Even thenif the original standards of design and planning are maintainedwith only 359 of Northstar's 2,560 acres in development and well over 86 per cent of its land in open space, the character of the place is expected to be much as it is today. Since skiing is (and will be) limited to the c apacity of lifts, slopes will never be crowded. Condominium owners (or their tenants) have priority over the public in use of the ski slopes, so the present 600-car parking lot outside the village will not be expanded, and parking for the future condominiums will be at their sites. Summer recreation facilitiesfor swimming and tennis are under the trees outside the village center. An 18-hole golf course, part of the* resort's open space, is in the individual house section.
SECTION
Summer or winter, the Vill.nie (enter ol ,Mtnil\ lor \ortl the w//age hmldunis ione ot tin i ompleted ,md in use* w ith .in i to shelter access to them V fi/ro/xun-sti/e. .ire two floors ol dominium units whit h double .is .iceoiiiniod.itions studios on tin ond door studios with loll on third The grow ol trees in the o ol the \i7/age set the height linn buildinfis in this area. < hil\ toot t> ism enter the \i'll.ige; .ill t.irs mu-11.irked outside A ski lilt .uni sc-tr.iils st.irt .it the \ ill.ige. It is desi) is .i In ch, intense pl.u e. definei the Iniildinns .ind semi-enclosed.
14-4 ARC IIITFC TUKAI KKOKI) /,im/,iri I>17-1


Ski Resort, Avorlaz, France


Photos opposite and above by Lee English Biel
, NEW SKI VILLAGE THE FRENCH ALPS ESIGNED TO LOOK IF IT GREW THERE
marvelous place is one of the few 3rks of modem town planning which oears to be truly a part of its physical pnment. Granted of course that the onment itself is spectacular and that e resort is a happy community of skiers, successful ambiance of this village is fly the result of an unsurpassed archi-^ural performance. Everywhere the props nf rha hnilHir^c tho mnrhy r^lr
rations or the fir trees. The silhouettes ie large groupings follow or are juxta->sed against the forms of the mountains, forms are witty and capricious, but function quite well and have an overunity through consistency in structure id materials.
RESORT, Avoriaz, France. Architects: Atelier architecture administrators: lacques Labro. an-lacques Orzoni: architects: I. Hatala, P. Lom-I, C. Rado-Orzoni, A. Wujeck: collaborators: lahus, I. L. Brahem, Ngo Manh Due, A. Lar- e.
ARCHITECTURAL RECORD November 1971


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