Citation
University of Denver Student Union

Material Information

Title:
University of Denver Student Union
Creator:
West, Robert S
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
49, [42] leaves : illustrations (1 color), chart, maps, plans (1 folded) ; 22 x 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Buildings ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 46).
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, 1978.
Statement of Responsibility:
Robert S. West.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
09411193 ( OCLC )
ocm09411193
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1978 .W427 ( lcc )

Full Text
Preface
The Thesis design project is the culmination of my college education at the University of Colorado. As a student in the Graduate School of Architecture, my Thesis design should offer the opportunity to utilize this knowledge to solve a set of complex issues in a complete and totally integrated solution.
In late January 1976, Vice Chancellor John C. Blackburn publically announced that the University of Denver had developed a master plan for the purpose of organizing the University's future growth patterns toward a more effecient and centralized campus plan. Through my association with Slater, Pauli, and Associates Architects and personal involvement with the University of Denver,
I learned that several controversies concerning the master plan have resulted. The focus of this controversy is the master plan's proposed location for the new University Center, which will cause the demolition of "old fraternity row". Although the arguments continue dealing with the location of the new building, the proposed function and desperate need of a new University Center has not been questioned by the University community. Because of this controversy, the variety of uses and spacial requirements of the program, and the potential of form exploration, I have chosen the University Center as the focus for my Thesis project. Through this project I hope to provide the University of Denver with an alternative design concept which could be used by the University to develop a more concordant solution for the new University Center.
Robert S, West November 7 1978
SSSSSST


Table of Contents
BACKGROUND
The University of Denver* A Short History 7
Location Map 8
The Master Plan
The Campus 9
Graphic no. 1 10
11
Traffic and Pedestrian Circulation, Parking Facilities 12
Graphic no. 2 13
Graphic no. 3 14
Graphic no. 4 15
The Master Plan Goals and Objectives 16
The Concepts 17
18
The Proposal 19
Graphic no. 5 20
Analysis of the Master Plan
What has been built? 20
Have there been conflicts? 20
What changes have been made? 21
THE SITE
The Site Analysis
Site Selection 23
Graphic no, 6 24
Graphic no. 7 25
Social Factors (Community Context, Campus Context) 26
Graphic no. 8 27
Economic Factors (Cost of Demolition) 28
Utilities, Geology 29
Graphic no. 9 30


Physical Factors (Topography, Vegetation) Physical Size, Climatological Data Graphic no. 10 Graphic no. 11 Legal Parameters
PROGRAMMING
The Student Union The Existing Union The Goals and Objectives
Activity Area Programming
The Proximity Chart Graphic no. 12
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX
Local Climatological Data
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49


Background

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the university of denver
The University of Denver originated, in 186^- when the Colorado Seminary incorporated as the state's first institution of higher education. The largest independent, nonsectarian university in the Rocky Mountain area, the University of Denver has been described as "a center of excellence" and has earned a national and international reputation. The University is located in an urban setting with close proximity to the many attractions of the Rocky Mountain region. Eighty percent of it's students come from throughout the United States and from more than forty foreign countries. The University's current student enrollment stands at approximately 8,000.
Denver University's academic program integrates undergraduate and graduate education in the humanities, sciences, and social sciences, with professional education and research in selected areas. The University consists of six major academic units: the College of Arts and Sciences, College of Business Administration, College of Law, Graduate School of International Studies, Graduate School of Librarianship, and the Graduate School of Social Work. In addition to the traditional academic departments, the College of Arts and Sciences contains the School of Art, the School of Education, and the Lamont School of Music.
Within the College of Business Administration are a range of business and management departments, the School of Hotel and Restaurant Management, and the School of Accountancy. All of the colleges and schools offer graduate and professional programs.
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I
8


the master plan
THE CAMPUS
The University of Denver Campus encompasses approximately 125 acres in the southeastern portion of the city. It is roughly hounded by Buchtel Boulevard on xhe north and Harvard Avenue on the south, and extends east of South University Boulevard and west of South High Street. A major four-lane thoroughfare, East Evans Avenue, bisects the campus in an east-west direction (see graphic no. 1).
The campus is located in a well established neighborhood of residential and commercial use, historically known as University Park. Although major University buildings are concentrated in the area between High Street and University Boulevard, a large percentage of existing facilities are scattered in temporary buildings on various nearby blocks. University owned facilities vary greatly as to their condition, size, style, and age. They range from old single-family residences and converted army barracks, through historic campus landmarks, recently renovated buildings, to new contemporary structures. All these facilities are intermingled throughout the campus, having been acquired and built on the basis of necessity and availability, in response to the demands of several growing and changing educational programs.
Due to this lack of architectural consistency, and the streets bisecting the center of campus, the University of Denver lacks important visual and physical unity. Some buildings are barely identifiable as University facilities and' relationships between University branches and departments are obscure. One positive aspect of these existing conditions is the creation of a "soft edge" between the University and surrounding community.


z
(graphic no. 1)
10


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THE CAMPUS
Centennial Halls Centennial Towers Sports Arena and Fieldhouse Shwayder Art Building
Business Administration/ General Classroom Building "Old Fraternity Row"
Penrose Library Student Union Johnson-McFarlane Halls Bookstore 11 Administration
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TRAFFIC AND PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION
The two largest streets in the complex are University Boulevard and Evans Avenue, both are four lane arterials. Evans Avenue bisects the campus in an east/west direction and causes major pedestrian circulation problems when students are traveling from one campus location to another. Both streets operate close to their maximum traffic load capasity accommodating daily traffic volumes of over
20,000 vehicles per day. Other significant streets in the area are Interstate 25 which travels in an east/west direction just north of campus, and Buchtel Boulevard which forms the University's northern boundry. Several other collector and arterial streets travel through campus and can be observed on the approach distribution map (graphic no. 2).
Major campus circulation generally follows straight paths between classroom buildings and other campus functions. The "commons area" located between old fraternity row and the G.C.B. is a major social interaction area.
Small groups of students meet in front of major classroom buildings during breaks from classroom activities. (see graphic no. 3) Campus circulation information was obtained from D.U.'s Master Plan Study and amended by personal observation of campus activities.
PARKING FACILITIES
Parking facilities for students, faculty/staff, and visitors consist of on-street parking spaces within and adjacent to the campus plus many off street parking lots owned and operated by the University. The on-street parking spaces are also utilized by residents and private businesses in the area. The present demand for off-street parking spaces near the D.U. campus amounts to about 1600 spaces; 975 to student use and 625 allocated for faculty and staff use (graphic no. 4). 1700 on street spaces are available throughout
the campus general area.


(graphic no. 2)



(graphic no. 3)
14


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The master plan decisions reported in the Priority and Strategy Committee planning document are based upon the University's goals, educational programs, and site considerations as outlined by University officials and planning consultants. The master plan is to be implemented in phases over a twenty year period (I976-I996). In order to function effectively as a guide for future development, the master plan should (according to the planners) be monitered and periodically updated. Certain key objectives guided the development of the master plan:
1. To create a definite campus image which reflects the unity of the University and shows concern for persons. The campus should provide a stimulating and inspiring environment for students, faculty, administrators, and the associated community.
2. To establish a unified, efficient, and flexible campus plan, which will facilitate the overall University mission of preparing men and women for professional life. To this end, land use patterns the interrelationship of buildings, open space, parking, and circulation systemsmust be planned and organized, with provisions for future requirements. Related buildings and departments should be grouped together logically and a central "core" area of common-use facilities established.
3. To organize vehicular and pedestrian circulation within the campus and in the approaches to it. Access points should be limited and clearly defined, with a distinct separation of pedestrian and vehicular trafficways. Parking should be convenient and adequate, without intruding upon the integrity of the campus proper.
k. To identify optimum sites for new construction, based on the priorities
established by the University for new buildings. This includes recommendations concerning land acquisition and demolition of existing structures.
5. To identify existing buildings which should be renovated for greater effeciency in the present capasity or for new and/ or consolidated uses.
6. To set forth architectural guidelines for renovation and new construction to ensure compatibility with the overall design objectives.
1
16


The planning concepts of the master plan are:
Consolidation of the Campus-
In order to enhance the functional relationships and to make circulation within the campus more efficient, all facilities are consolidated in the area between South High Street and South University Boulevard. Three major "super" blocks encompassing most of the campus are established, through changes in the existing street patterns.
Functional Relationships-
Based upon the existing framework, campus buildings (academic, administrative, residential) are grouped geographically in order to more clearly define functions and sevices. Basic zones are established for the three major disciplines fine and performing arts, social sciences, and physical sciences.
Campus Identity-
Campus identity will be developed by the definition of campus boundaries through the use of a landscaped edge, so that the University takes on a specific image within the community.. It will also be enhanced by designing such buildings as the Performing Arts Center and the University Center with "faces" towards the surrounding neighborhood, encouraging all members of the community to come and benefit from the University's resources.
Campus Commons-
The "Campus Commons" is created by building a new Fine and Performing Arts Complex, University Center, and Faculty Club between the Penrose Library and the Field House. Easily accessible for both student activities and community use, the Commons functions as the major focal point of the campus.
Vehicular Circulation-
The circulation system is planned so that vehicular traffic within the campus is significantly reduced. Certain streets are closed and access points are clarified to establish efficient, non-disruptive vehicular movement. Parking is consolidated in a series of lots placed along the perimeter of campus, with the total number of spaces redistributed to provide additional parking in proximity to high-use campus facilities.


Pedestrian Circulation-
A strong north-south pedestrian spine is established linking the various functional units of the campus. Secondary walkways connect individual building and areas to the major spine.
IMMUNITY
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.18


THE MASTER PLAN
1 Centennial Halls
2 Centennial Towers
3 Playing Fields
4 Tennis Courts
5 "Fine Arts
6 "Fieldhouse and Sports Arena Addition
7 Fieldhouse and Sports Arena
8 "Performing Arts
9 '"'Music
10 "University Center/Student Union
11 Campus Commons
12 G.C.B. (General Classroom Building) and "Addition
13 Business Administration
14 Johnson-McFarlane Halls
15 Dormitory Complex
16 University Service Center
17 Penrose Library and "Addition
18 Buchtel Chapel
19 Administration (Mary Reed Building)
20 Cherrington Hall
21 Boettcher Center
22 "Social and Physical Sciences
23 Space Sciences
24 Speech and Hearing
25 "Physical Plant
26 DRI Metallurgy
27 Mass Communication
" is new construction


analysis of the master plan
WHAT HAS BEEN BUILT?
One structure has been under construction during the first two years of the master plan's implementation. It is the new Shwayder Art Building, designed by Slater, Pauli, and Associates, which is scheduled to be completed for the winter quarter of 1979* The new building will house all of the present functions of the existing School of Art; including the photography, painting, sculpture, and history departments. The facility will include faculty offices, lecture halls, lab and studio spaces, and a viewing gallery. It's location on campus corresponds directly with the location designated for a fine arts building in the 1976 Master Plan. However, the building will not be physically connected to the University Center complex as described in the master plan document.
HAVE THERE BEEN CONFLICTS?
Similar to many other master plan proposals dealing with the location of new buildings and subsequent demolition of old buildings, D.U.'s master plan is not alone in causing controversy within a university community. The conflicts seem to stem from the proposed location of the new University Center. If the new building is located on the site proposed by the master plan, subsequent demolition of"old fraternity row" would be necessary. Although the vast majority of the students support the University's goals for a new University Center, surveys compiled by the University's student government show that approximately 707S of the student body feel that the building should be located elsewhere.
Through personal contact and research in the University's student newspaper, certain issues of the conflict could be examined. Students in favor of the demolition of the fraternities have offered several functional reasons (consolidation of campus, student access, more available parking, etc.) in their support for the master plan's location of the University Center.
In the Denver Clarion's editorial section on April 27, I978 one student writes:
"You're (the students against the Center's proposed location) like a bunch of old ladies crying because the city tore down a dead tree to build a park."
Student reaction against the demolition of "old fraternity row" has been vocal, offering several arguments ranging from emotional issues to the realistic


aspects of the cost of building new "equivalent" housing for the displaced fraternities. Several students feel that the structures actually help to integrate the "old style" of the Administration Buildings accross Evans Avenue into the northern (more contemporary) area of campus. One student writes s
"The houses of old fraternity row are some of the last bastions of tradition on campus. They play a major role in making D.U. look like a campus. Obviously, when most people remember D.U. with any positive emotions, they are far more likely to remember the stately beauty of the older buildings; Mary Reed,
Margery Reed, and the fraternity houses, than the stark, impersonal architecture of Penrose, the G.C.B. or the proposed student center."
One point of all this controversy is apparent, if the large majority of student reaction toward the location of the new University Center is negative, then the University planners and administrators must re-evaluate the student imput used in their planning process. The Student Center, more than any other building on campus, should have the total support of the University's students to ensure a successful venture.
WHAT CHANGES HAVE BEEN MADE?
The proposed Music School and Performing Arts Complex are not included in the present 80 million dollar funding drive. The University planners also feel that the parcel designated for the complex is not large enough to accomodate the entire center. Therefore, the Student Center will include a 500 seat auditorium/theater, while future consideration should be given to the location of a Music School building somewhere in the "super" block.
University planners also feel that the city will not allow Asbury Avenue to be closed to through traffic.
.21


The Site

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the site analysis
SITE SELECTION
Site availability at the University is limited. Through personal investigations and discussions with University officials, only one site offered compliance with the master plan concepts and contained enough land area for the projected need of the University Center (see graphic no. 6).
hi
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H O W EH >h O K Ph h
SITE DETERMINANTS
VALUE FACTOR
RATING
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H M S K o o S eh o o o < W FH
m hI K < O H EH
o o o <
in Ph
Cost of demolition (existing structures)
Cost of sewer connection
Cost of steam/chilled water connection
Cost of water connection
Cost of electrical connection
Cost of excavations
Imagability
Promote inter-campus movement Time/distance to major functions Proximity to existing movement patterns Character Visibility
Opportunity to interact w/ off site activity Views from site
Compliance with master plan goals Growth potential Natural features Noise
Solar orientation Vehicular access Air quality
Increase traffic on feeder roads
The only areas of c cost of demolition.
medium poor*
medium good
medium good
medium good
medium good
medium good
high good
high good
high good
high good
high poor*
high good
high good
medium average
high good
high good
low
medium average
high good
high good
medium average
medium good
character (loss), and the
Overall the site rated average to good on all other determinants
23


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SOCIAL FACTORS
The Community Context-(see graphic no. 8)
A large variety of single family dwellings, apartments, and commercial areas surround the University of Denver campus. The site location, in relation to the community, offers potential for high visibility and transition. The site's eastern boundries are defined by a commercial area on Evans and University Avenues. Commercial activities include assorted eateries, clothing stores, a bowling alley, post office, travel agency, laundry, branch bank, and insurance company. The northern boundry is defined by Asbury Avenue and small apartment buildings. The southern boundry is defined by Evans Avenue. From this boundry the site becomes highly visible to the community and passersby. The western edge is limited by the commons area.
The Campus Context-
The site location, in relation to the rest of campus, is excellent. The site has potential for high visibility and is located on or near major pedestrian circulation patterns. The Arena/Sports Complex to the north, the library to the south, and the G.C,B./Business Administration Building to the west, all support the sites potential for high usage. The commons area, directly west of the site, will promote expansion of student activities (displays, outdoor concerts, speeches, etc.) from the new University Center.
S
26


(graphic no. 8)


ECONOMIC FACTORS
Cost of Demolition-
Several buildings exist on the site (see graphic no. 7). The Psychology Department's labs and offices are to be transferred to the new Social and Physical Sciences Complex. Due to the lack of usable space, physical value, and aesthetic qualities these buildings are to be removed. The Clarion, Student Radio KFCR,
Open Clinic, and K-book activities are to be housed in the new University Center.
The Physical Education offices will be transferred to the Fieldhouse Addition.
Five fraternity houses are located on the site. (Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Beta Theta Pi, Kappa Sigma, Lambda Chi Alpha, and Alpha Tau Omega)
Date_____Original Cost Present Value* Maintenance Needs
Sigma Alpha Epsilon 1931 $Vl,000 $^70,000 -------
Physical Attributes include ornate woodwork and leaded glass.
Beta Theta Pi 1928 $50,000 $620,000 Plumbing, Roof Work
Physical attributes include ornate woodwork, leaded glass, and a marble fireplace.
Kappa Sigma 1929 $67,000 $590,000 Plumbing, Electrical
Physical attributes include a carved wood ceiling, marble Minor Structural
staircase, marble fireplace, and leaded glass.
Lambda Chi Alpha 1931 $^5000 -$690,000 Plumbing
Physical attributes include ornate woodwork, light fixtures, and leaded glass.
4*
Alpha Tau Omega 19o0's ------ $^00,000 Mechanical
Physical attributes include a reinforced concrete dome ceiling which clearspans the two story living room.
^Present value was derived from the cost involved to build an "equivalent" structure and does not include cost of demolition.
V
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"28


Sigma Alpha Epsilon


All five fraternities are privately owned. The costs involved with maintenance are the responsibility of each individual house. The land on which the houses rest is owned by the University and leased to the fraternities for a period of 99 years. If the University condemns this land for other use, during this period, then the University is bound by contract to supply each fraternity with "equivalent" structures. This could cost the University approximately 3 million dollars (not including demolition and land acquisition costs). Due to these additional costs, the student/administration conflicts, and the historic and aesthetic value of the structures, the houses should be maintained in their present locations.
Utilities-(see graphic no. 9)
Sewer, water, gas, and electric lines are available from Asbury. Steam and chilled water can be supplied from the mechanical plant in the G,C.B./Business Administration Complex, if so desired.
Although exploratory test hole information is not available for the site, data is available for the site north of Asbury Street (Shwayder Art Building). The results show:
I- 7 feet below the ground surface-
stiff, sandy clay w/ a 10.7$ water content
7-9 feet below the ground surface-
stiff, weathered bedrock
II- ? feet below the ground surface-
hard, claystone/sandstone bedrock Free water occured 15 feet below the ground surface.
Geology-
29
V.
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(graphic no. 9)
^vri^rir4^ UTILITY


PHYSICAL FACTORS
Vehicular Circulation-(see graphic no. 2)
Topography-(see graphic no. 7)
The site is described as flat. There is a 2-3^ slope from an elevation of 5370.0' on the southeast corner to an elevation of 5350.0' on the site's northwest corner.
Vegetation-(see graphic no. 10)
Several trees exist on the site. Approximate heights and locations are shown on graphic no. 10. Descriptions of the species are as follows:
Ulmus americana American Elm
Deciduous
Reliable vase shape Mature height-80' Spread-80'
Good shade tree with variable fall color
Diseases and insectssEuropean elm scale, aphids, Dutch elm disease The species on the site should be saved if possible.
Populus sargenti Plains Cottonwood/Western Broadleaf Cottonwood
Deciduous
Form is variable Mature height-150-200' (unrestricted)
Spreading tree with good fall color Relatively disease free
The species on the site should be saved if possible.
Acer saccharinum Silver Maple/Soft Maple
Deciduous
Full spreading tree Mature height-135'
Good, clears shade tree with yellow fall color Sensitive to akaline soils, shallow rooted
Acer platanoides Norway Maple
Deciduous
Slow growing Mature height-50' Spread-^0'
Good spring and fall color
The species on the site should be saved if possible.


Picea pungens Colorado Spruce
C oniferous/Evergreen
Stiff and symmetrical Mature height-80' Spread-40'
Blue or green in color
Some insect problems: tusic moth and spruce bud worm The species on the site should be saved if possible.
Juniperus communis saxitalia Rocky Mountain Common Juniper Variable in shape Sometimes turns brown
The species on the site should be saved if the form is appropriate.
Physical Size-(see graphic no. 11)
369.000 gross sq. ft.
- 95400 fraternity house parcels
289.000 usable sq. ft.
Climatological Data-(see appendix)
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(graphic no. 11)
34


LEGAL PARAMETERS
Z oning-
R-3 (University functions)
Group F Occupancy Division 2
Setbacks-
10 foot front setback 20 foot rear setback 5 foot side setback
Fire Zone-
F3
Building Codes-
All new structures at the University of Denver conform to the Denver Building Code and/or the Uniform Building Code.
Parking Requirements-Class 2
1 parking space/600 sq.ft.
2 loading docks are required
Type of Construction-
Type I allows no height limit and an unlimited floor area.
Type II allows a maximum of 60,000 sq.ft, of floor area.


Programming


the student union
Institutions of higher learning have always had some places where students met, discussed, ate or drank, and developed a sense of being part of an academic community. The first student unions (Oxford and Cambridge Universities) were mainly debating societies. The facilities included reading rooms and lounge areas where members could research and discuss the issues of the day, dining service, bar, committee rooms, smoking room, writing room, and billard room for relaxation. With the development of general community and city recreation centers in the 1930's, stimulated leaders of the student union movement visualized the union as the college version of the community center. This brought into focus the social and recreational aspects of the unions. Student unions began to develop activity programs of their own rather than the union becoming an accidental ty-product of the activity of student clubs.
The basic concept of today's union is interaction. Students and faculty need informal contact outside of the classroom. They move in separate orbits and usually do not make contact very frequently unless the things they respectively need are brought together at a common local. Although student center's spacial concepts vary greatly (due to diverse student needs) from campus to campus, many activities are common to most student unionsi
-a place for meeting informally for conversation, browsing, sitting, housed in spaces like lounges, patios, terraces, outdoor courtyards, and amphitheaters
-a place to eat with a variety of choices (fast snacks, dining, etc.)
-a social and recreation center
-goods and services (mini-bank, bookstore, post office)
-housing for student offices
-cultural, political, and civic development center (music rooms, concert halls, theaters, meeting rooms, etc.)
-a tie between community students and the university community


The Existing Union-
The existing Student Union at the University of Denver includes a food service area, dining area, ballroom, travel agency, student organization offices, the Office of Student Life, and a vending and pinball machine area. Many of these existing spaces are inadequate for the needs of the University. Several interior spaces do not have natural light. Several spaces have heating and electrical problems. There are no exterior spaces or lounge areas to promote social interaction between students. As a consequence of these inadequacies many of the students, faculty, and staff leave the campus after their classroom activities are completed. The existing building is scheduled to become the University Service Center housing the major supply and distribtion functions for the University.
Through interviews with students and administration officials, and analysis of previous student center studies, certain goals and objectives could be developed for the new building.
The Objectives-
The new center should create a greater feeling of University community interaction through the development of various types of mixing areas for students, administration, and faculty.
The center should compliment the educational goals of the University by providing badly needed facilities to promote educational and cultural interaction with the surrounding community.
The Image and Values-
"open invitation" a locale in which University personnel can entertain quests on campus which will provide for visitors a feeling of the nature of the University.
"high visibility" the building should serve as the information and activity center of the University.
"bright and cheerful" not like the studious calm of a library.
"comfortable" a place where students, faculty, and administrators can gather informally and which is conducive to conversation and the exchange of ideas.
"student image" a gathering point where people stop by for no reason other


than to meet friends or find something to do.
"cultural exchange" an area conducive for cultural exchange between students, faculty, and the community.
activity area programming
The program for the new University Center must meet all of the current needs of the students and recognize the future requirements of the University as well.
The essential components needed for a successful design are the usefulness and effeciency of the building, the attitude of the University population toward the facility, and the philosophy in which the building is administered. The University Center must be a multi-purpose facility. It must be a restaurant, an office building, a shopping center, a theater, and more all at the same time.
It must be open long hours to accommodate the diverse schedules of college students. It is essential that the Student Center, unlike other buildings with other purposes, be approached with the attitude of the "students first". The Center has to have flexibility; a University Center must be designed to accommodate the changing needs and wants of the people who use it.
ACTIVITY AREA PROGRAMMING
To help offset the cost of operation, a Student Center producing activities.
Activity Use: Fast food/ snack bar/ delicatessen Primary Function! -A self-service snack bar
(hamburgers, sandwiches, etc.) Userss-Students, faculty visitors 750 person capasity Design Requirements : 17,000 sq. ft.
Variable seating for 750 -Kitchen facilities including a grill, food preparation, dry storage, cold storage, and a dishwashing area Service area Cashiers area (3)
Exterior eating area
contains certain revenue

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38



Activity Use: Pub
Primary Function: A 3.2 beer garden Users: Students, faculty, vistors 60 person capasity Design Requirements: 1000 sq. ft.
0 Bar and service area Seating for 60 Exterior lounge area


vocsy^
Activity Use: Bookstore
Primary Function:* To provide all texts for
classes offered by the University
To provide general reading and reference books
Stationery and school supplies School souvenirs
Sundries
Users: Students, faculty, visitors Design Requirements: 11,000 Sq. ft. (total)
Display area
Cashier area (6)
Sales area 7500 sq. ft.
Storage 2500 sq. ft.
Office 1000 sq. ft.
The Bookstore should be located in an area of high



visibility.
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The University Center is also a cultural center with areas available for the exchange of ideas.
Activity Use: Theater/ Auditorium Primary Function: Movies, lectures, and plays Users: Students, faculty, administrators, visitors 500 person capasity Design Requirements: 6500 sq. ft.
Seating for 500 Stage area 400 sq. ft.
Green room Dressing areas (2)
.Sloped floor area Multi-media projection room
This space must allow flexibility of use. Area must be provided for student observation allowing the passerby an option of activity participation.
Activity Use: Outdoor Amphitheater
Primary Function: Debate, lectures, social expression
Users: Students, visitors
Design Requirements:'Speakers platform
Seating


:40


HUUTV
Activity Use: Multi-use Ballroom Primary Function: Banquets, lectures, special exhibitions Users: Students, faculty, administrators, visitors
Design Requirements:*5000 sq. ft.
Divisible space 2 0 ft. high ceiling Food service accessibility
This space must allow flexibility of use. Area must be provided for student observation allowing the passerby an option of activity participation.

The University Center should include areas for relaxation and recreation. Activity Use: Media Lounge
Primary Function: TV room and listening lounge Users: Students
40 person capasity Design Requirements: 1000 sq. ft.
Variable seating for 40 Acoustical separation
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41


Activity Uses Recreational Lounge
Primary Function: Recreational games area for
pinball, pool tables, foosball, and pingpong
Design Requirements: 3000 sq* ft.
Equipment check-out area Acoustical separation
Activity Use: Vending Machine Area Primary Function: Snack service Design Requirements; 1000 sq. ft.
Seating for 15


Activity Use: Quiet Lounge
Primary Function: Reading, sleeping, studying,
Users: Students, faculty
Design requirements:1000 sq. ft.'
Variable seating for 25 Fireplace
Acoustical separation
thinking
The University Center is also an office building.
Activity Use: Student Activity Offices Primary Function: Administrative office space Users: Students
Design Requirements: Office suites 5@500
Offices 20§>100
Clarion Office K-Book Open Clinic KCFR Radio Station General Activity Space (work room)
Dark Room
2500 sq. ft.
2 000 sq. ft.
1000 sq. ft.
1000 sq. ft.
1000 sq. ft.
3000 sq. ft.
1000 sq. ft.
0 0 sq. ft.

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42


Activity Use: Student Administration Offices Primary Function: Administrative office space Users: Students, administrators Design Requirements: Student Life Offices
Dean 250 sq.
Offices 7@125 875 sq.
Reception 600 sq.
Duplication & Storage 300 sq.
ft.
ft.
ft.
ft.
Career Service & Placements Offices 7@ 125 875 sq. ft.
Reception-Clerical 1500 sq. ft.
Interview Cubicles 1500 sq. ft.
Duplication & Storage 300 sq. ft.
Food Service Coordinator Private Office 200 sq. ft.
Reception 200 sq. ft.
Conference Rooms (2)
Large 600 sq. ft.
-Small 300 sq. ft.
Activity Use: General Meeting Rooms
Primary Function: Small group meeting rooms, seminars Users: Students, faculty, administrators
Design Requirements: 7 rooms located throughout the complex
2@600
2@450
2@300
1@800
All meeting rooms should be available for study rooms while not in use.


Activity Use: Office of Scheduling and Events Primary Function: Information center Users: Students, faculty, visitors Design Requirements: 200 sq. ft.
This space should be located in a high visibility area.
Necessary support facilities will also be included throughout the building as required. These facilities are elevators, stairs, restrooms, loading docks, mechanical spaces, and general storage.
These activity areas can be applied to a proximity matrix chart. Certain spacial relationships can be examined at this time (see graphic no. 12). Several design decisions concerning materials, lighting, acoustics, and structure for each activity area must be determined in the next phase of this project.
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45


Bibliography
^Information concerning the University of Denver's existing campus, student activities, master plan, and future goals developed from:
The University of Denver Master Plan, a planning study for the University by Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum Planners in 1977-
Personal observation on the University of Denver campus.
Information from the Office of Facilities Planning (Jerry Shillinger), at the University of Denver.
Information from Slater-Paull and Associates, Architects in Denver.
^Information concerning University Center planning were developed from:
Association of College Unions International, Planning College Union Facilities for Multi-use, Madison, Wisconsin: 1966.
A Report from Educational Facilities Laboratories, Actions, Ob.jectives and Concerns- Human Parameters for Architectural Design (A Planning Study at California State College, Los Angeles), I969
A Report from Educational Facilities Laboratories, A College in the City: An Alternative, New York: 19&9-
A Report from Educational Facilities Laboratories, New Building on Campus-Six Designs for a College Communications Center, New York: Astoria Press,
Sternberg, Eugene and Barbara, Community Centers and Student Unions, New York: Van-Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1971.


Appendix


Narrative Climatological Summary
Denver enjoys the mild, sunny, semi-arid climate that prevails over much of the central Rocky Mountain region, without the extremely cold mornings of the high elevations and restricted mountain valleys during the cold part of the year, or the hot afternoons of summer at lower altitudes. Extremely warm or cold weather is usually of short duration.
Air masses from at least four different sources influence Denver's weather: arctic air from Canada and Alaska; warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico; warm dry air from Mexico and the southwest; and Pacific air modified by its passage over coastal ranges and other mountains to the west.
The good climate results largely from Denver's location at the foot of the east slope of the Rocky Mountains in the belt of the prevailing westerlies. During most summer afternoons cumuliform clouds so shace the City that temperatures of 90 or over are reached on an average of only thirty-five days of the year, and in only one year in five does the mercury very briefly reach the 100 mark.
In the cold season the high altitude and the location of the mountains to the west combine to moderate temperatures. Invasions of cold air from the north, intensified by the high altitude, can be abrupt and severe. On the other hand, many of the cold air masses that spread southward out of Canada over the plains never reach Denver's altitude and move off over the lower plains to the east. Surges of cold air from the west are usually moderated in their descent down the east face of the s mountains, and Chinooks resulting from some of these westerly flows often raise the temperature far above that normally to be expected at this latitude in the cold season. These conditions result in a tempering of winter cold to an average temperature above that of other cities situated at the same latitude.
In spring when outbreaks of polar air are waning, they are often met by moist currents from the Gulf of Mexico. The juxtaposition of these two currents produces the rainy season in Denver, which reaches its peak in May.
Situated a long distance from any moisture source, and separated from the Pacific source by several high mountain barriers, Denver enjoys a low relative humidity, low average precipitation, and considerable sunshine.
Spring is the wettest, cloudiest, and windiest season. Much of the 39 percent of the annual total precipitation that occurs in spring falls as snow during the colder, earlier period of that season. Stormy periods are often interspersed by stretches of mild sunny weather that remove previous snow cover.
Summer precipitation (about 31 percent of the annual total), particularly in July and August, usually falls mainly from scattered local thundershowers during the afternoon and evening. Mornings are usually clear and sunny. Clouds often form during early afternoon and cut off the sunshine at what would otherwise be the hottest part of the day. Many afternoons have a cooling shower.
Autumn is the most pleasant season. I.ocal summer thunderstorms .ire mostly over and invasions of cold air and severe weather are infrequent, so that there is less cloudiness and a greater percent of possible sunshine than at any other time of the year. Periods of unpleasant weather are generally brief. Precipitat ion amounts to about 19 percent of the annual total.
'.'inter has least precipitation accumulation, only about 11 percent of the annual total, and almost all of it snow. Precipitation frequency, however* is higher than in autumn. there ;s also more i leu. line ;;s and the relative humidity averages higher than in the autumn. Vc a filer can he quite 'u.vcre, but as a general rule the severity doesnt last long.


Meteorological Data For The Current Year
tClPMDO ST APIE TUN INTERN# T tCNAL A* Imw uaed MOUNTAIN latitude 19 A 5 N Lor|ifil 104 u 5? W Elevation (ground) : 3283 teet Y tar |9"&
Itetem
Temperaiufe F Precipitation n Inch** humidity, pet. Wind £ fc Number o! da /s
t ( Hate 65 F 5 is Temprran.rt * p**vir*
4 1 |u te Jte i l I i a i 5 s I 1 f £ Maximum Minimum
Mo"th , > s 3 ? u.... . 7 if r J s % Q r I 3 3 £ it o * 1 o 7* 5 L 5 c o R a o I 05 z 11 Loca I 17 time z 23 s s d I! 1 > d < 6 It 5 i o a |l 8! a. d > a o s? i $ < a * o * n e 3 it 3 r. § f £ -£ q t l t 5f 3 f i u n (Id l. al u hi ?! hi 1 lev 3332 tt
.AN -6.1 - 18.1 .i 66! 29 - A 3 1006 0 0.19 0.30 31-1 3.2 4.2 31-1 65 43 49 65 21 1.9 9.8 53 N 30 72 5.4 11 7 13 3 1 0 0 0 4 30 5 IJ7.I
s..\ 2* .* jo.3 tel 28 1 6 7 A 0 0 0.54 0.4* 20 6.4 4.7 20 52 31 30 51 24 2.9 12.0 41 N 20 00 3.6 12 4 1 3 3 1 0 0 0 3 26 0 03*. 1
-a* 31." 2 2 1 33.11 7? 25 -2 3 839 0 1.34 0.53 28-29 18.7 5.3 28-29 59 36 35 53 26 2.4 11.9 30 NW 19 79 5.1 10 13 0 0 2 0 29 2 831 .*
AM e:, 33.*! *9.2 79, l? 23 3 *69 0 1.27 0.52 ?9-30 1 .2 1.0 17 69 39 35 58 19 1.9 11.7 41 S 23 66 6.5 6 11 13 12 1 2 2 0 0 3 0
A V *?.i 36. 8 5 j 18 35 17 234 3 1.34 0.89 21-22 0.0 0.0 69 38 39 61 14 1 .0 10.2 33 s 3 65 7.0 17 0 0 8 J 6 4
JLN K.n 30,6 66.3 *1 11 37 19 64 112 0.63 0.24 17-18 n.o 0.0 58 27 25 43 20 3.1 10.9 36 SW 22 77 4.7 12 13 3 0 A 0 0 0 3 33.8
89.1 *i. 73.3 { 98 10 33 3 324 2.31 1.30 25-26 1 0.0 0.0 59 31 30 49 10 1.9 8.3 33 NW 14 75 4.8 11 13 3 6 0 12 0 16 0 O 0 810.8
8* 6 55.1 70.2 91 26 *9 27 7 176 2.30 1.71 0.0 0.0 64 34 34 53 18 3.0 8.4 33 s 7 73 3.2 1C 12 9 12 11 0 * 0 8 :. 2
SF e ?, 3 4.9.2 61.01 92! 5 36 28 142 32 i.ee 0.44 26-27 0.0 0.0 70 45 40 62 17 i.e 7.8 34 NW 14 65 3.0 11 4 13 10 0 6 1 1 3 0 0
jr t 63.1 33.6 * 9 * 821 10 19 19 309 0 0.93 0.62 26-27 7.2 6.3 26 63 36 31 50 17 2.4 8.3 30 17 70 3.3 17 6 8 0 0 0
NCV 5J.- 26.0 39.3 1\\ 8 63, 16 -3 20 759 0 0.3? 0.26 26 4.3 3.5 26 62 30 40 59 18 1.9 8.3 31 26 70 5.6 12 0 0 0 21 2
op; 20.0 13.5 3 31 907 0 0.16 o.oe 9-10 3.1 1.2 9-10 59 34 36 35 21 2.7 8.6 41 NW 27 87 4.4 14 9 8 2 0 0 0 0 31 0 033.4
JUL JAN AUC OCT JAN 157 836.6
VM4 i t.i 31.0 911 10 -4 1 3716 667 11.41 1.71 1 44.1 6.3 26 62 36 35 36 70 2.0 9.7 33 N 30 74 5.3 128 112 126 19 11 47 6 29 14 7
Normals,
Means, And Extremes
Means and extremes above are from existin'] and comparable expoource. Annual extremes hove been exceeded at other sites in the io'isiit/ a follower Highest temperature 105 in August 1B78; maximum monthly precipitation 8.57 in May 1876; minimum monthly pi ec. p i at i on O.CO in December .881; maximum precipitation in 24 hours 6.53 in May 1876; maximum monthly snowfall 57.4 in December 1913; maximum snowfall in 24 hours 23.0 in April 1885; fastost mile of wind 65 from West in May 1933.
T) len-jtn of record, years, through the current year unless otherwise noted, bated on January data, fh) 7U" end above At Alaskan stations.
* Less than one half.
T Trace.
NORMALS Based on record for the 1941-1970 period.
DATE. OF AN EXTRLME The most recent In cases of multiple occurrence.
PREVAILING WIND DIRECTION Record through 1963.
WIND DIRECTION Numerals Indicate tens of degrees clockwise from true north. 00 Indicates calm.
FASTEST MILE WIND Speed Is fastest observed l-mlnutd value when .the direction 1s In tens of degrees.
48


Table 4
Solar Position and Intensity; Solar Hect Gain Factors11 for 40 Deg North Latitude
Date 1 Solar Time AM. Solar Position Direct Normal Solar Heat Cain Fcctors, Btuh/sq ft Solar Time PM.
Alt. Azimuth Btuh/sq ft ME E SE s sw w NW Hor.
Jan 21 8 8.1 55.3 141 5 17 111 133 75 5 5 5 13 4
9 16.8 44.0 238 11 12 154 224 160 13 11 11 54 3
10 23.8 30.9 274 16 16 123 241 213 51 16 16 96 2
11 28.4 16.0 289 IB 18 61 222 244 118 18 18 123 1
12 30.0 0.0 293 19 19 20 179 254 179 20 19 133 12
Kail Day Totals 53 68 449 903 513 271 59 59 353
feb 21 7 4.3 72T 53 I 22 50 ' 77 13 1 1 1 3 5
8 14.8 61.6 219 10 50 183 199 94 10 10 10 43 4
9 24.3 49.7 271 16 22 186 245 157 17 16 16 98 3
10 32.1 35.4 293 20 21 142 247 203 38 20 20 143 2
11 37.3 18.6 303 33 23 71 219 231 103 23 23 171 1
12 39.2 0.0 306 24 24 25 170 241 170 25 24 3 80 12
Half Dav Totals 81 144 634 1635 8i3 230 61 61 546
Kir" 21 7 ~ir.i - 8u.2 171 S'" 93 To3 135 21 6 8 8 26 5
8 22.5 69.6 250 15 91 218 211 73 15 15 15 85 4
9 32.8 57.3 281 21 46 203 236 128 21 21 21 143 3
10 41.6 41.9 297 25 26 153 229 171 28 25 25 186 2
11 47.7 22.6 304 28 28 78 198 197 77 28 28 213 1
12 50.0 0.0 306 28 28 30 145 206 145 30 28 223 12
Half Day Totals lT2 3T5 849 llOo 692 ZTb 112 112 764
Apr 21 5 7.4 58.9 . S9 11 72 88 52 5 4 4 4 11 6
7 18.9 89.5 207 16 141 201 143 16 14 14 14 61 5
8 30.3 79.3 253 22 128 225 189 41 21 21 21 124 4
9 41.3 67.2 275 26 80 203 204 83 26 26 26 177 3
10 51.2 51.4 286 30 37 153 194 121 32 30 30 218 2
11 58.7 29.2 292 33 34 81 161 146 52 33 33 244 1
12 61.6 0.0 294 33 33 36 108 155 108 36 33 253 12
Half Dav Totals 153 509 969 1003 469 195 146 145 963
Hay 21 5 re m77 I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7
6 12.7 105.6 143 35 128 141 71 10 10 10 10 30 6
7 24.0 96.6 216 28 165 209 131 20 18 18 18 87 5
8 35.4 87.2 249 27 149 220 164 29 25 25 25 146 4
9 46.8 76.0 267 31 105 197 175 53 30 30 30 196 3
10 57.5 60.9 277 34 54 148 163 S3 35 34 34 234 2
11 66.2 37.1 282 36 38 81 130 105 42 36 36 258 1
12 70.0 0.0 284 37 37 40 82 112 82 40 37 265 12
Half Dav Totals 253 643 "T5D2 874 356 197 171 170 1083
~ June 21 5 4T2 '117.3 ' -21" " 10 21 " 20 6 1 1 1 1 2 7
6 14.8 108.4 154 47 142 151 70 12 12 12 12 39 6
7 26.0 99.7 215 37 172 207 122 21 20 20 20 97 5
8 37.4 90.7 246 29 156 215 152 29 26 26 26 153 4
9 48.8 80.2 262 33 113 192 161 45 31 31 31 201 3
10 59.8 65.8 272 35 62 145 148 69 36 35 35 237 2
11 69.2 41.9 276 37 40 80 116 88 41 37 37 260 1
12 73.5 0.0 278 38 38 41 71 95 71 41 33 257 12
Half Day Totals 114 1019 5T5 311 197 181 180 1151
July 21 5 273 113.2 2 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 7
6 13.1 106.1 137 37 125 137 68 10 10 10 10 31 6
7 24.3 97.2 208 30 163 204 127 20 19 19 19 88 5
8 35.8 87.8 241 28 148 216 160 29 26 26 26 145 4
9 47.2 76.7 259 32 106 194 170 52 31 31 31 194 3
10 57.9 61.7 269 35 56 146 159 80 36 35 35 231 2
11 66.7 37.9 274 37 39 81 127 102 42 37 37 255 1
12 70.6 0.0 276 38 38 41 80 109 80 41 38 262 12
Ha if D3v Totals ' 2Tl 64 5 ~553 550 347 T57 177 176 1074 1
Aug 21 5 775 9975 so 12 67 82 7a 5 5 5 5 11 6
7 19.3 90.0 191 17 135 191 135 17 15 15 15 62 5
8 30.7 79.9 236 23 126 216 180 40 22 22 22 122 4
9 41.8 67.9 259 28 82 197 196 79 28 28 28 174 3
10 51.7 52.1 271 32 40 149 187 116 34 32 32 213 2
11 59.3 29.7 277 34 35 81 156 140 52 34 34 238 1
12 62.3 0.0 279 35 35 38 105 149 105 38 35 247 12
!b!f Cav Totals T5T 503 936 961 4?1 retni 154 153 945
Sep 21 7 TO 5572 175 8 84 146 12! 21 8 8 8 25 5
8 22.5 69.6 230 16 87 205 199 71 16 16 16 82 4
9 32.8 57.3 263 22 47 195 226 124 23 22 22 133 3
10 41.6 41 .9 279 26 28 148 221 165 30 26 26 180 2
11 47.7 22.6 287 29 29 77 192 191 77 29 29 206 1
12 50.0 0.0 290 30 30 32 141 200 141 32 30 215 12
Bimiv Totals 116 350 E53 1045 672 22! 117 ns 73S
Oct 21 7 4.5 7T.3 TS 1 20 ' 45 41 12 1 1 1 3 5
8 15.0 61.9 203 10 49 173 187 88 10 10 10 43 4
9 24.5 49.8 257 17 23 180 235 151 18 17 17 96 3
10 32.4 35.6 280 21 22 139 238 196 38 21 21 140 2
11 37.6 18.7 290 23 23 70 212 224 100 23 23 167 1
12 39.5 0.0 293 24 24 26 165 234 165 2fi 24 177 12
naif Dav' Totals 53~1 173 CIO 555 783 275 84 63 535
Kov 21 8 872~ 55.4 136 5 17 107 128 72 5 5 5 14 4
9 17.0 44.1 232 12 13 151 219 156 13 12 12 54 3
ro 24.0 31.0 267 16 16 122 237 209 50 16 16 96 2
a 28.6 16.1 283 19 19 61 218 240 116 19 19 123 1
12 30.2 0.0 287 19 19 21 176 250 176 21 19 132 12
Half Day Totals 61 71 442 ~557 798 267 62 61 3 53
Tec 21 8 575 53.0 85 2 T ' 67 S3 79 3 2 2 6 4
9 14.0 41 .9 217 9 10 135 205 131 12 9 9 39 3
10 20.7 29.4 261 14 14 113 232 210 55 14 14 77 > 2
11 25.0 15.2 279 16 16 56 217 242 120 16 16 103 1
12 26 6 0.0 284 17 17 18 177 253 177 . 18 17 113 12
5bIf Day Totals 75 54 350 531 r 7Af 273 50 49 £S3 t
. N NV V SV S SE E NE i HOR. 1 #-P M.
Total Molar heat gains for I).S (1 in.) sheet glass. Based on a ground reflectance of 0.20 and values in ables 1 and 9.
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