Plaza Lodge building, Beaver Creek, Colorado

Material Information

Plaza Lodge building, Beaver Creek, Colorado
Wilson, Kurt Andrew ( author )
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
1 electronic file (70 leaves) illustrations, maps) : ;


Subjects / Keywords:
Winter resorts -- Colorado -- Beaver Creek ( lcsh )
Lodging-houses -- Designs and plans -- Colorado -- Beaver Creek ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Thesis (M.A.)--University of Colorado at Denver, 1978.
Includes bibliographical references.
System Details:
System requirements: Adobe Reader.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Design and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
prepared by Kurt Andrew Wilson.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
on10115 ( NOTIS )
1011523560 ( OCLC )

Full Text
En Des Thesis Arch 1978
W45 c. 2

Initiated' as a final thesis project towards fulfillment of a Masters in Architecture from the University of Colorado, School of Environmental Design
December, 1978
Prepared by Kurt Andrew Wilson Graduate Architecture Student

By 1980, Colorado skiers will find another mountain resort for their winter recreational entertainment, known as Beaver Creek.
Beaver Creek Ski Resort, a planned unit development was introduced to me by Jack Zehrem of Vail Associates, at the beginning of the school year when most students were seeking thesis projects. Jack Zehrem was extremely helpful in assisting me to a specific building type to study as well as providing the required reference material.
Vail, established in 1963, currently has the capacity to accommodate 14, 000 skiers a day and lodge 12, 000 people. Historically, Vail received its village character by an Austrian developer known as Peppi Schwieinger who was brought to the U. S. by Vail developers. The Vail area is intended not to have any direct connection to the new Beaver Creek development. Vail Associates, the developer of Beaver Creek, has had previous experience in developing alpine resort communities, such as Vail and Lions Head. This experience will be invaluable in assuring that this new Beaver Creek resort be planned with regard to function and environmental compatibility.
After discussing the various building types to be included in the Village Center at Beaver Creek, it was my decision to study the Plaza Lodge Hotel for my architectural thesis project.
After several telephone conversations, meetings with Jack Zehrem and Fritz Glade at Vail Associates, A1 Morie of Carl A. Worthington Partnership, in addition to faculty consultation from G. K. Vetter, Gary Long and Dean Nuzem, I was able to obtain the necessary materials and input to generate a program for the Plaza Lodge.

Table of Contents
A HLstorical Look at Avon, Colorado The Problem
Introduction to Beaver Creek
P. U. D. Sketch Plan
Site Plan and Other Illustrations
Architectural Guidelines and Design Considerations Planning the Successful Resort Hotel Case Studies
Bibliography and Other References
Building Functions and Program

Beginning first as a game reserve for the Ute Indians, later to be founded by a white settler George Townsend from England. Once Townsend settled the Beaver Creek valley as a cattle ranch and stagecoach stop, he named this sometime frequent station Avon, after his hometown in England. With the rush of progress came the railroad which served the Rock Creek to Glenwood Springs line, providing Avon with a link to the rest of the world. After being alluded to in an occasional and incidental fashion for many years, Avon was officially established as a post office on November 26, 1900, after Townsend1
A brief look at the current life style in Avon, Colorado, one gains the impression particularly from interviews that life for most of the residents at Beaver Creek down through the years has been something less than affluent and leisurely. In addition to the daily threat of illness or accident in a remote location, there was the constant possibility of business failure due to circumstances beyond local control. weather or the available market.
But leave it to the kids to find the fun and point to the future. In the winter time they would skate and sled down log-packed roads. More importantly, they went skiing on "boards", literally taken from barns. They skied to school, to their afternoon trap lines and skied in the moonlight just for enjoyment. Some of their children and grandchildren may well be skiing along their invisible pioneer tracks along Beaver Creek tomorrow.

Project Goal;
The goal of this development is to create a recreation oriented resort community with facilities for residents, overnight guests, and day visitors who seek the year round sports opportunities characteristic of the Rocky Mountain area.
Problem Description:
To establish a workable program for the Plaza Lodge Building to be located in the Village Center at Beaver Creek. Program will be sensi-
tive to the needs and scope of activities required for the proposed Lodge Building. As a result, research and program will enforce the necessary guidelines to generate a functional design solution.
The objective of this project is to broaden my design sensitivity in addition to certain exposure to programming.
Resort hotels offer designers an extraordinary challenge in that it draws on reserves of imagination and creativity as few other building types do.
My resort hotel will be designed for longer stays and located next to nothing except whatever can be made of the mountain sides.

Situated in the heart of Colorado ski country, 10 miles west of Vail, the proposed Beaver Creek development is located just south of the 1-70 Interstate highway corridor, approximately one half mile from the Avon interchange. The 2, 126 acres of private land contained in the project essentially control the lower reaches of the Beaver Creek Valley. They are supplemented by 2, 775 acres of public land leased from the U. S. Forest Service for purpose of developing a major ski area having a design capacity of 7, 500 skiers.
Exhibit 1 includes a special feature from Ski Magazine which deals with some interesting facts about public forested lands vs. ski area development.
The Village is planned for 2, 163 living units taking the form of closely clustered apartments and lodges. This arrangement will provide an easy walking situation from living accommodations to skier lift terminals. An important feature of the plan has been to minimize the need for automotive transportation once the resident or guest has arrived from the lower valley. Advocating this concept is a pedestrian shopping mall integrated into a Village core.
Skiing will be the major sport attraction at Beaver Creek, although development will also include many recreation opportunities in the summer, such as golf, tennis, horseback riding, fishing and hiking.
A key ingredient to the success of a recreation community is its accessibility to major population centers. Situated on the 1-70 corridor, 114 miles from Denver and 144 miles from Grand Junction, Beaver Creek

seems to be prime location. In addition, air transportation to and from Stapleton Airport will be initiated when the Avon Stolport facility will be activated by Rocky Mountain Airways. This air strip is very close to the Beaver Creek entrance and is viewed as a great ammenity to the development.
Vail Associates, having past experience in developing alpine resorts communities, such as Vail and Lions Head will also be the developer at Beaver Creek.

Use-reassessment of public forested lands has put ski-area development in a holding patternand its future in doubt. The message: make yourself heard or forever stand in the lift line.
If you dont yell today, you may cry tomorrow.
In one sweeping move in June, the U.S. Forest Service tightened the perimeter on the future of skiing and began to reduce the salient. Where all those previous battles Mineral King, Beaver Creek, Independence Lake, Ski Yellowstone, Adams Ribhad focused on proposed new ski resorts, RARE II is taking dead aim at existing ski areas
as well, threatening to block long-existing expansion plans at perhaps a score of the nations major resorts.
RARE IIthe second effort at creating a Roadless Area Review and Evaluation packageis the most sweeping program in USFS history. Possibly in the history of all national resource management. The goal is laudable: trying to decide how much of the 187-million-acre National Forest preserve will be dedicated to forever wild wilderness. But as is all too common
in the land of marble monuments, the executiona most apt word where skiing has been concerned in recent yearsleaves much to be desired.
It was apparent, that D-Day in June, that anyone who uses or wants to use National Forest land was in deep trouble. Secretary of Agriculture Bob Bergland himself introduced the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) to a packed press conference, and he did it with flair. He came in early, took off his jacket,
SKI/October 1978/99

In the crucial battle to reserve some portion of the RARE II inventoried land for skiing, you can take several positive steps.
Write for the draft environmental impact statement and the supplemental book for any state in which you ski often.
In the white book," the critical sections appear on pages 37-39. In the "black book, the pages vary, but the color map tells all. You can get these books from the following Forest Service regional offices:
New England and Northern Appalachian States, Lake States, Midland States: Eastern Region (R-9), 633 West Wisconsin Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 53203.
Southern Appalachian and Atlantic Coast States, Ozark and Ouachita Highlands States: Southern Region (R-8), 1720 Peachtree Rd., NW., Atlanta, Ga. 30309.
Central Plains States, Colorado, Wyoming: Rocky Mountain Region (R-2), 11177 West 8th Ave., P.O. Box 25127, Lakewood, Colo. 80225.
Idaho, Montana, North Dakota: Northern Region (R-l), Federal Building, Missoula, Mont. 59807.
Idaho, Nevada, Utah: Intermountain Region (R-4), 324 25th St., Ogden, Utah 84401.
Arizona, New Mexico: Southwestern Region (R-3), Federal Building, 517 Gold Ave., SW., Albuquerque, N.M. 87102.
California: California Region (R-5), 630 Sansome St., San Francisco, Calif. 94111.
Oregon, Washington: Pacific Northwest Region (R-6), 319 SW. Pine St., P.O. Box 3623, Portland, Ore. 97208.
Write your congressman in support of Sen. Frank Churchs bill (see page 156), using the following example if you wish.
"Dear Senator (or Rep.).....:
I strongly support Sen. Frank Church's bill to allow all lands removed from RARE II inventory in the final environmental impact statement to be transferred back immediately to Forest Service administrative procedures.
I feel that to delay the use of this land for purposes other than wilderness until Congress acts on RARE II deprives me, and all American citizens, of our rights to use our land for other valid purposes. As a skier, I feel we need a portion of the national land for recreation, to allow both expansions of existing ski areas and development of future resorts."
Send copies to Sen. Church (245 Russell Senate Office Bldg., Washington, D.C. 20510) and the U.S. Ski Association (1726 Champa St., Suite 300, Denver, Colo. 80202).
Write to Chief Forester John McGuire in support of alternatives C and D (see box, page 156), using the following example if you wish.
Dear Chief McGuire:
I firmly support Alternatives C and D in the draft environmental impact statement for RARE II as best meeting the target goals for developed recreation.
Although they both involve some decrease in maximum pos--sible availability for recreation, and although I feel that a sizable amount of Forest land should be set aside for permanent wilderness designation, I strongly feel these are the fairest possible alternatives of the ten offered. As a citizen of the United States and of the state of I have as much of a voice in how my national lands are used as does any citizen of a state or locality that borders a proposed wilderness area. And as a skier, I feel that some small part of U.S. Forest land should be set aside for developed recreation.
Send copies to Agriculture Secretary Bob Bergland, Assistant Secretary Cutler, your Congressman and the USSA.
rolled up his sleeves, and hailed the document as a breakthrough; then he rolled down his sleeves, put on his jacket, picked up his briefcase and left, turning over the chore of selling the DEIS to his subordinates.
The result of this little sideshow was that every experienced Washington hand instantly started thumbing through the DEIS to see where the curves, sliders and spitballs were hidden while the junior pitchmen started moving the pea around under the shells. And once warned, you could spot the weaknesses easily.
Still, at least on one level, you have to give the Forest Service credit for drafting the perfect document. It created instant accord among all the warring parties, including the rival timber and wilderness interests, who never agree on anything. What they agreed on this time was that the document was a disaster. Timber, which has opposed the whole process since the initial RARE II hearings were held in the summer of 1977, said simply, T told .you so. But the wilderness team, led by the ubiquitous Sierra Club, reacted like the proverbial woman scorned. To quote the Public Lands News:
Upset at what it sees as large blocks of non wilderness coming from the draft EIS. the Sierra Club said, We will have to turn from a primary focus of being supportive and cooperative to a determined effort to attack the draft EIS for what it is a biased, inadequate, flimsy, loaded document .
To find out what a Sierra Club shift in focus means you can ask the Disney Co., which got that treatment at Independence Lake in California. But to sum it up: in comparison to what the DEIS will face. Fort Sumpter was a model of peaceful coexistence. Overall, the kindest description of the DEIS offered by less fiery observers was copout. What had gone wrong? What had provoked this anger? The breakthrough wasnt such a terrific thing. In the past, a DEIS by the Forest Service, or any federal agency, identified the land, described the project, and recommended a specific program. Berglands innovation was that the Forest Service decided not to recommend a specific program. Instead, it chose simply to allocate one-third of its land, 62 million acres, to RARE II inventory meaning that the land cant be used for any other purpose until the RARE study for possible inclusion in the national wilderness system is completed. Then it made zero recommendations about how the land should
be split up into wilderness, multiple-use (which includes development for skiing) or further study.
And lest anyone misunderstand what that means. Assistant Secretary of Agriculture M. Rupert Cutler told the press conference: "Political more than physical criteria will determine how much acreage gets which designation. Which translates into that old American tradition: he who gets the most bodies into the polling place wins. Problem is, no ones yet decided exactly how theyre going to
count the votes.
The Forest Service, it appears, has gotten tired, in the decade since Mineral King, of being the greatest moving target since the Japanese air force in World War II. So it has decided, instead, to stand on the sidelines and toss 62 million acres worth of red meat in front of the hungry tigers whove been slashing at the Forest Service all these years. And where did this leave the ski industry, a veritable pussycat in this jungle? Out of its league.
continued on page 154
100/October 1978/SKI

I. Justification of the P. U. D. Approach:
Following a concept of designing a close-knit cluster of buildings for the Beaver Creek village plan led to the P. U. D. approach. With a P. U. D. plan, the flexibility of clustered buildings can be closely supervised to permit the realization for a true pedestrian village while at the same time maximizing open space surrounding the village for scener and recreation.
n. Land Use, Building Locations and Housing Unit Densities:
The Beaver Creek Master Plan seeks to create a year round resort village with sufficient accommodations to support a major alpine skiing complex having a carrying capacity of 7, 500 skiers. This is achieved with a 263 dwelling unit cluster of lodges and apartments featuring a 277,000 square foot commercial shopping area around a pedestrian mall. With less than 50% of overnight guests bringing their own cars, as recorded in Vail, parking will be located in future dispersed parking garage structures. Apart from the village core, the remaining development planned for Beaver Creek will provide single family, duplex and townhouse homesites which will capitalize on views, golf, horseback riding and bicycling, all within walking distance to the village core.
For zoning purposes, six classifications of land use have been established:
o Resort Commercial RC
o Residential High Density RHD
Residential Medium Density RMD

o Residential Low Density RLD
o Resort Services RS
o Open Space Recreation OSR
Resort Commercial
Purposes: To provide accommodations, commercial space,
recreation amenities, and parking consistent with the needs of a year round resort village.
Uses: Lodge room and apartment accommodations. Com-
mercial space consistent with the needs of a recreation resort, including but not limited to retail sales, restaurants, offices and indoor recreation.
Outdoor recreation amenities consistent with the needs of a year round resort, including but not limited to tennis, swimming, volley ball, picnic facilities, ice skating, etc.
Resort services space necessary for the support of the resort function, including but not limited to convention space, meeting rooms, receiving and delivery space and recreation administration.
Set Back: No minimum except sufficient to accommodate util-
ities, drainage, access, fire code regulations and flood plain of live streams, except where noted on plans.
Maximum Building Height: 55 feet except for architectural features such as towers, steeples, etc., (as judged to be appropriate by the Design Review Committee) and except where noted on plans.
Sufficient parking to satisfy demand based on the demographics of the resort guest and service requirements of the resort operation. One-half parking space per dwelling unit plus building requirements is established as a base requirement subject to Forest Service annual review as required by the Beaver Creek Development Plan dated March, 1977, revised June, 1977.

RHP Residential, High Density
Purpose: To provide housing for employees subject to need as stated in the Beaver Creek Development Plan.
Uses: Apartments, rooming houses and dormitories. Accommodations suitable for the employee from the standpoint of demand and economics. Density not to exceed 30 units per developable acre. Commercial space will be provided for convenience shopping and eating. Off season use may be expanded to include short term guest rental when lack of employee housing demand creates vacancies.
Set Back: No minimums except to accommodate utilities, drainage, access, fire code regulations and flood plain of live streams.
Maximum Building Height: 35 feet
Parking: One half parking space per dwelling unit plus one tenth of a space per 100 square feet of gross residential area. Maximum of 2 spaces per dwelling unit.
o RMD Residential, Medium Density
Purpose: To provide townhouse type residential development of medium density.
Uses; Townhouse type accommodations up to 12 units per developable acre.
Set Back: No minimums except sufficient to accommodate utilities, drainage, access, fire code regulations and flood plain of live streams.
Maximum Building Height: 35 feet
Parking: One half parking space per dwelling unit plus one tenth of a space per 100 square feet of gross residential area. Maximum of 2 spaces per dwelling unit.

RLD Residential, Low Density
Purpose: To provide low density neighborhoods which are protected from conflicting uses.
Uses: Single family and duplex development up to 6 dwelling units per acre.
Set Back: Approximate construction envelope for each lot shown on land use drawings. Final building location determined by Beaver Creek Design Review Committee.
Maximum Building Height: 35 feet
Parking: Minimum of 2 parking spaces per dwelling unit.
RS Resort Services
Purpose: To provide support functions for resort operations.
Uses: Uses include but are not limited to parking, vehicle maintenance, building and grounds maintenance, offices, warehousing, central kitchen facilities, guest reception and reservations, residential units, transportation terminal and other related retail commercial activities.
Set Back: No minimums except to accommodate utilities, drainage, access, fire code regulations and flood plain of live streams.
Maximum Building Height: 35 feet, except for architectural features, such as towers, steeples, etc. as judged appropriate by the Design Review Committee.
Parking: Sufficient to satisfy resort demand. Subject to annual review by the Forest Service as per the Beaver Creek Development Plan.
OSR Open Space Recreation
To promote scenic and recreation qualities of the natural environment.

All winter and summer recreation activities compatible with the valley's environment. This includes but is not limited to facilities relating to skiing, golf, tennis, fishing, horseback riding, hiking and outdoor entertainment.
Set Back: No minimum except to accommodate utilities, drain-
age, fire code regulations and flood plain of live streams.
Maximum Building Height: 35 feet
Parking: Sufficient to satisfy demand of individual uses
where applicable.
Ill Circulation Pattern:
Five circulation types have been defined in right-of-ways owned and maintained by the District. They are as follows:
a. Roads
b. Parking
c. Bicycle paths
d. Pedestrian paths
e. Equestrian trails
the Master Plan, all having Beaver Creek Metropolitan
o Roads: The main collector from Avon to the village will be two
asphalt 12'-0" running lanes with 4'-0" paved shoulders for bicycles, all within a 70'-0" R.O.W. All other minor roads will be ll'-O" asphalt travel lanes with 2'-0" gravel shoulders in 50'-0" R.O.W. The majority of traffic, day skiers, will park at designated surface lots adjacent to the entry to Beaver Creek just off Highway 6. Bus shuttles and rental cars will taxi guests to the village.

Parking: The remaining users, primarily overnight resort guests, will be served with a "parking center" approach with the help of a central parking garage located under the village plan. With village population growth will come the need for the previously mentioned dispersed parking structures. All parking capacity calculations are derived from case studies taken at the Vail Village.
o Bicycle paths; As seen on the land use plans, bicycle paths will
be adjacent to the main collector roads, with the exception of an 8'-0" "bicycles only" path to alleviate conjestion on the roads.
o Pedestrian paths: All walkways within the village core are pro-
vided for easy access to connecting facilities, i. e. shops, lodges, restaurants, gondola building, etc. Separate footpaths for hikers are provided to Beaver Lake in the White River National Forest.
o Equestrian trails: Located on the land use plans also, the eques-
trian trails will link highway 6 to the Forest Service land above Beaver Creek Village, while providing a trail to the south central part of the village for tours to east or west.
IV. Open Space Uses:
Open space uses will seek to optimize the scenic and recreation opportunities in the Beaver Creek development. In some areas, highly structured recreation, such as golf, tennis and skiing will be maximized, while in others, the natural environment will be emphasized for hiking and equestrian trails. Uses include but are not limited to the following:
o Alpine skiing facilities, including lifts, trails, utilities, mountain
restaurants and other support facilities, o Ice rink.

o Cross country skiing facilities, including warming shelters,
o Golf course, including club house, starter's building, mid-
course snack facilities.
o Tennis courts, including support facilities,
o Hiking trails,
o. Bicycle paths.
o Equestrian facilities, such as trails, stables and livery,
and other horse oriented activities as appropriate, o Picnic facilities
o Volleyball courts,
o Swimming pools,
o Alpine slide,
o Children's play areas,
o Utility, road and drainage easements,
o Outdoor entertainment.
V. Grading and Drainage: Plans D1 D8
The grading and drainage pattern is illustrated by drawings D1 through D8 and supplemented by a drainage report prepared by Gingery Associates, Inc. of Glenwood Springs.
VI. Water Supply and Sewage Disposal Plans U1 U7
The domestic water supply system will use Beaver Creek as its primary source, with the Eagle River serving as a back-up supply. A metropolitan district will be formed to install, operate and maintain an adequate domestic and fire protection water system for the Beaver Creek Development. As for sewage treatment, the UEVSD treatment plant, approximately one half mile west of Avon on the Eagle River will process all Beaver Creek wastes.

Justification of Commercial and Service Elements:
Data recorded from Vail Village users shows that approximately 110 square feet of commercial space is appropriate per dwelling unit in a resort situation. With this assumption, Beaver Creek's 3, 233 dwelling units will support 380, 000 square feet of commercial space allowing a 10% margin for contingencies.
VIII. Relationship to Surrounding Area and Eagle County:
The overall vicinity relationship of Beaver Creek to the surrounding area is illustrated on drawing no. P-1. Supporting facilities in the area will be Benchmark to the north, a residential shopping community center, and Arrowhead to the west, a planned ski resort independent of Beaver Creek to serve as an alternative ski experience. Wi th respect to the county scale vinity location, Beaver Creek is just south of the Avon interchange off 1-70, 10 miles west of Vail and 20 miles east of Eagle.
IX. Phasing Schedule;
The latest revised estimate for a completion date is to open the resort by December, 1980. To be prepared for an 1980 opening, the tentative valley construction schedule would have to proceed roughly as follows, subject to final design and scheduling:
o The summer of 1978 would be devoted to correction of drainage
problems at the village core site; installation of some of the deep utilities at the village site; grading, graveling and revegetation of the main access road from Highway 6 to the village; architectural and engineering design work relating to other improvements needed for the December, 1980 opening;

The summer of 1979 would include pouring the foundations for the buildings in the village core area and exterior construction on those buildings so that they are closed in by beginning of winter, 1979; and,
The summer of 1980 would be devoted to the completion of the various buildings included in the first phase as well as installation of the pedestrian mall surface, and other clean-up and landscaping projects.
On the mountain, the first phase of the mountain road would be completed in the summer of 1978 along with detailed flagging of lift lines and trails. The summers of 1979 and 1980 would be devoted to slope and trail clearing and re vegetation, lift line cutting, lift installation, and construction of on-mountain restaurants and other skier support facilities.
At opening, the village is expected to include approximately 300 to 350 dwelling units and 40, 000 square footage of commercial, retail and restaurant space. Some of the above units will take the form of commercial space used temporarily for employee housing. As the village core area grows and as resident housing becomes available at the base of valley, Benchmark, and elsewhere, this temporary employee housing in the village core will be converted back to commercial and office uses.
Assuming a December, 1980 opening, the mountain is projected to have 6 lifts in operation with a holding capacity of approximately 2900 skiers. The opening of the mountain would also include phase I of the mid-mountain restaurant, various ski patrol and other on-mountain support facilities.
In addition, phase I of the village core would see completion of a convention center/base lodge and a golf course playable by the summer of 1981 or 1982. Depending upon various financial considerations, we would also hope to provide the equestrian center and many of the leisure and hiking trails shown on the master plan for the summer of 1981.
If demand for the various real estate products is strong, we expect that approximately 250 dwelling units will be added on average each year to the resort for the next ten years subsequent to opening. After year 10, the rate of growth of dwelling units in the valley should drop significantly to an average of 100 units per year.

Our current projections indicate complete build-out of the resort by 1992; however, we can make no assurances to the accuracy of that projection, since so much depends on the health of the national economy, consistency of snowfall, and demand for the specific real estate products offered for sale and lease at Beaver Creek.
Covenants and Restrictions:
1. Declaration - Purposes
To perform certain functions and hold and manage certain
property for the common benefit of all Owners and Lessees within Beaver Creek.
2. Definition
a. Declarant Vail Associates, Inc., its successors or assigns.
b. Beaver Creek The 2, 126 acres of fee land area presently owned by Declarant, less that portion of the 2, 126 acres devoted to alpine skiing and related activities.
c. Association The Beaver Creek Resort Association, Inc. a Colorado non-profit service corporation, formed to carry out the obligations of the Association as specified in this declaration.
d. Owner The person or persons who own fee simple title to any real property in Beaver Creek, according to real property records of Eagle County, Colorado.
e. Common Area Real property owned by the Association for the benefit of all Members.
f. Member Person or entity holding membership in the Association.

Certain Obligations and Rights of Association
a. Maintenance of all Common Areas
b. Security
Association plans to provide an unarmed,
private security force. Facilities at Beaver Creek for deputies of the Eagle County Sheriff shall be by agreement to be reached with Eagle County. The Association security force shall work in full cooperation with the County Sheriff.
c. Parking and Transportation
Association plans to operate and maintain
all public parking and transportation systems.
d. Recreation Facilities
Association plans to operate and maintain
certain common recreation facilities not otherwise operated by Vail Associates, Inc. its successors or assigns, or a Metropolitan Service District yet to be formed by Declarant. The list of these facilities is yet to be determined.
e. Central Reservations and Reception
Association plans to operate a central reservations system and reception facility for the Beaver Creek resort.
f. Marketing and Promotion
All central resort marketing and promotion
would be planned and implemented by the Association.
g. Solid Waste Collection
Association plans to provide this service or cause it to be provided by contract with an independent contractor. Association shall control and specify the hours of the day when solid waste collection shall occur in medium and high density areas of Beaver Creek.

Dog Control
Association shall provide realistic regulations, facilities, manpower, and funds for strict dog controls to the satisfaction of the State of Colorado, Division of Wildlife.
Environmental Monitoring and Enforcement
Association shall monitor air and water quality in Beaver Creek, and develop legal means of fine and enforcement for violations of established regulations.
Other Functions
Association may undertake other functions on a self-supporting or Special Assessment basis, including but not limited to centralized purchasing and central warehousing.
Right to Make Rules and Regulations
Association shall be authorized and empowered through the Land Use Covenants to establish regulations relating but not limited to fire hazards, disturbances of the peace, traffic control, animal control, use of facilities, promotion of general health and welfare of persons in Beaver Creek, protection and preservation of property rights, and architectural control. Association may provide for enforcement of such regulations through reasonable and uniformly applied fines and penalties, through exclusion of violators from facilities or otherwise. Each Owner, Lessee and Guest shall be obligated to abide by all such regulations and pay such fines upon failure to do so.
Charges for Services and/or Use of Facilities
Association may establish reasonable charges for various services and facilities provided through the Association.
Right to Assessment
Association shall have the right to raise operating and capital funds through equitable assessment of the Members, whether through Regular (periodic) or Special Assessments.

n. Government Successor
Any facilities and any function may be turned over to a governmental entity which is willing to accept and assume the same upon such terms and conditions as the Association shall deem to be appropriate with the consent of the Owners and Lessees by a majority of the votes that may be cast at a meeting of the combined classes of Members of the Association (as defined below), and with the consent of Declarant. In the event of the transfer of any facilities or functions to any governmental entity, the Declarant may, at its option, amend or cancel any section(s) of this Declaration affected by such transfer.
Association Membership
a. Regular Memberships
There shall be one Regular Membership attributable to each parcel of real property in Beaver Creek, as evidenced by fee simple title to that property. Each such Regular Membership shall automatically pass with the fee simple title to the property. If fee simple title is held by more than one person or entity, the Regular Membership shall be apportioned among those persons according to the percentage ownership of each.
Also, one Regular Membership shall accrue to each leased premises within Beaver Creek, with the Lessee automatically being the holder of that membership.
A party may hold more than one Regular Membership in the Association.
b. Special Memberships
Declarant shall hold at all times a Special Membership, whether or not Declarant is an Owner or a Lessee. Declarant shall hold no Regular Memberships.

c. Voting Rights
(1) Classes of memberships for the purpose of voting rights shall be:
(a) Class s ites. A: Owners of residential home-
(b) Class s ites. B: Owners of non-residential
(c) Class C: Owners/operators of lodges.
(d) Class D: Owners/operators of retail
shops and services, except lodges.
(e) Class ship. E: Declarant Special Member-
(2) Each class of membership shall entitle one vote to each member.
d. Election of Board of Directors
(1) There shall be nine members of the Board of Directors, with staggered terms of office.
(2) Classes A through D shall each elect one Director from within their respective classes of membership.
(3) The Class E membership shall elect five Directors from within its class of membership, except that the Declarant may, at its option, distribute up to two or more of its positions on the Board to any other class of membership.
Assessment and Other Charges
a. Assessments shall include, but not be limited to,
the following types;
(1) Common Assessment A periodic charge levied on the assessed valuation of all property in Beaver Creek, such valuation as established by the Eagle County Assessor.
(2) Civic Assessment A charge levied on the gross income of all commercial businesses in Beaver Creek. As with all other assessments, this charge may be changed from time

to time by the Association Board of Directors to reflect a fair distribution of the assessment burden among various types of bus inesses.
(3) New Construction Documentary Fee All new construction shall be assessed a fee equal to a percentage of construction costs excluding land, which fee shall be payable to the Association prior to issuance of a certificate of occupancy.
(4) Special Assessments As established by the Association, based on the assessed valuation of all real property in Beaver Creek.
b. Assessments shall be the automatic obligations of all Owners.
c. Association has right to file liens for collection of Assessments.
Certain Rights of Declarant, Owners and Lessors
Declarant, Owners and Lessors may assign rights and obligations to Sub-owners or Lessees.
Restrictions Applicable to Property
a. Land Use Restrictions
In addition to restrictions on property use found in this Section 7, use of the Property shall be further restricted by a Supplemental Declaration of Land Use Restrictions to be recorded with the Clerk and Recorder of Eagle County, Colorado, prior to the conveyance of any Property by Declarant to Association or to any third party.
b. Occupancy Limitations
No room(s) shall be used as a residence or for sleeping unless designed for such purposes.

Maintenance of Property-
No Noxious or Offensive Activity
No Hazardous Activity-
No Unsightliness
No Annoying Lights, Sounds or Odors
No Temporary Structures
Restrictions on Animals
No animals shall be kept on any Property except cats or any other animals which do not reasonably constitute a nuisance to others, and except dogs as specified in Section III above. Livestock is specifically prohibited. Horses may be kept in designated areas shown on the Land Use Plans and as specifically authorized by the Design Review Committee.
Restrictions on Signs
Restrictions on Parking
1. Parking on Property must be covered unless
approved by the Design Review Committee.
2. Association may designate areas of street parking.
Recreation Vehicles
No motorcycles, ski mobiles, golf carts, etc., without written approval of the Association.
1. Lodges, hotels and other dwelling units will
be restricted through the Design Review Committee.
Restrictions on operation under adverse air conditions.

No Drainage Into Sewer System
o. No Wells
p. Restrictions on Tree Removal
q. No Mining or Drilling
r. No Cesspools or Septic Tanks
8. Design Review Committee (PRC)
a. All members appointed by Declarant.
b. All exterior building modifications and construction must first be approved by the DRC.
c. Resolution of disputes by binding arbitration.
9. Miscellaneous
a. Amendment
Any provision in this Declaration may be amended by a vote of two-thirds of the area of the real property, excluding open space, provided such proposed amendment shall have the written consent of Declarant.
b. Arbitration of Disputes
c. Enforcement and Remedies XI. County Service Requirements:
Although the Resort Association may employ an inspector as part of its architectural control provisions, the responsibility for building inspection, building code compliance, permits, police protection and subdivision approval should remain with Eagle County.

Fire Protection:
Project fire protection will be the responsibility of the Beaver Creek Metropolitan District, Tract R is the planned location for the fire station which will be operational prior to occupancy of new dwelling units.

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MARCH 1978

MARCH 1978

Zone Description Units Area (Ac.)
RC Resort Commercial 2163 79.5
RHD Employee Housing 547 26.9
RMD Townhouse 87 13.3
RLD Single Family-/Duplex 426 255.8
RS Resort Services 36.5
OSR Open Space / Recreation 1714.0

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The architectural theme for Beaver Creek has been directed at establishing a compatibility with the natural site and climate, fulfilling the expectations of visitors as a retreat to the mountains, and respecting the historic precedent of mountain buildings and communities in both Colorado and Southern Europe. The overriding philosophy of Beaver Creek design is to establish a remote village with its own identity. As seen from a distance, the village should be understated and uncomplicated, made up of simple forms and consistent roof lines. In contract to this, the central pedestrian area of the village should have an exciting vitality and broad individual expression. In order to more clearly interpret these design principles for Beaver Creek architecture,, three levels of perception have been identified and included in this document.
Perception Level I The Village Within the Landscape
At a distance, the village is seen either from the mountain looking down or from the entry road upon arrival. Due to vegetation masses, as well as site lines created by terrain of the area, the roots will become the dominant element at this level of perception. At this scale, the village should be composed of simple understated forms with an overall consistency of materials and color. Variety can be achieved through horizontal and vertical alignment of these consistent forms. This variety should be a response to changes in topography and exterior spaces. *
Materials and colors should be relatively subdued with nonreflection surfaces. Aspen and Spruce, the dominant connifers to this area, will tend to fuse the edges of the village into the landscape.
* Beaver Creek Architectural Guidelines

Perception Level II Building and Public Spaces
The second level of perception of Beaver Creek village will occur within the streets and public spaces of the project. At this level of perception the building walls become the dominant element defining the exterior spaces and establishing the overall scale within the village. Existing vegetation should be retained to define exterior spaces. It is important that the flow of public spaces be continuous within the village, enhanced by minor angular changes in walls and streets plus an avoidance of rigid 90 patterns. The subtle changes within wall and street alignments will provide constantly changing view of building forms and wall surfaces with the maximum unbroken wall plane to be ninety feet.
The expression of the walls should be of dominantly a mass at the pedestrian scale, punctuated by window and door openings. These openings should be no more than 20% of the exposed wall area. The height should equal or exceed the width of all openings with a maximum allowable width of four feet per opening. The south walls at the mountain edge should respond to sun and views while maintaining the established mass-void relationships.
There should be a rational expression of structural elements such as bearing wall mass or timber framing elements, with an avoidance of visually contradicting mass void relationships.
At this level of perception, the roof forms become less dominant than at the overall village scale and roofs should meet the walls generally in a clean sharp edge with minimum expression of facia or soffit. Roof height shall not exceed 40% of total building height. Roofs shall be simple hip and gable forms with pitches between six-in-twelve and

twelve-in-twelve pitch at secondary roofs. Dormers should not exceed 5% of roof area. Chimneys should penetrate roofs in dormer area and be similar to roof color to minimize visual impact. The use of materials becomes increasingly important at this level of perception and materials should respond to the following uses:
Mass; Lower levels of the building near the pedestrian areas should be expressive of mass and structural strength. Materials such as rock or stucco should have irregular surfaces with no modular patterns and no precision lines or flat surfaces. Windows and door openings should have depths, minimum 14 inches, allowing room for interior nooks and recesses within the walls. Thermal insulation and solar heat systems should be considered through design schematics.
Framing: Heavy timber and glu-lam beams and trusses are encouraged as exposed framing elements. Also connections should be made visible where possible for detail expression.
Perception Level III Details
The third level of perception within the village seems to offer the most opportunity for individual expression, elements such as windows and door openings, balconies, trim, graphics, signs, street furniture, water, paving patterns, surface textures and color selections. It is intended that maximum individual expression be retained to allow a richness and vitality within the village and building details.
Along with the subtheme studies, there are technical systems and considerations which have visual and theme implications, such as the use of cold roofs, snow guards, passive solar application, and potential for active domestic hot water solar systems.

Upon making certain decisions about the Plaza Lodge program, the following article became a useful manual.
In this article, Alan H. Lapidus discusses the "back of the house" concept in resort hotel design with two paramount objectives, control and efficiency.
Exhibit Two includes this article from Architectural Record, July, 1968.

By Alan H. Lapidus, architect Morris Lapidus Associates, Architects
The resort hotel, like Janus, wears two faces. The paying customer sees only the "front of the house", and this must be all that he desiresa wish fulfillment, an ego builder, a status symbol, and the promise (and perhaps fulfillment) of great delight. The "front of the house" comprises every area that he will see: lobbies, dining spaces, rest rooms, bathers' passages, passenger elevators, hotel rooms, etc. These spaces must be handled and laid out with one thought in mind, the convenience and continued approbation of the guest.
But the "back of the house" is where all that makes this happen takes place. These are the areas of burnishing, butchering, baking; of boilers and many other functions. The guest never sees this but these unseen spaces will precisely determine his degree of contentment. These are the areas that will ultimately dictate whether the hotel will run at a profit or a loss.
Let us presuppose a hotel located in a thriving but not overdeveloped resort area, an architecture suitably superbor suitably ghastlyto attract the clientele (either extreme will generally succeed; it is mediocrity that founders) and a competent top echelon management.
The "back of the house" must be laid out with two paramount objectives: control and efficiency. Control is crucial because pilfering is a real problem and improper design resulting in incomplete control can cripple or kill the operation. Take the case of a large chain that opened the first sizable hotel on a little Caribbean island several years ago. The building was finished, the employees had had several weeks of pre-opening training, but the hotel could not open on schedule: there simply was not enough of the new silverware left. Several changes in service area layout were made, the local constabulary called on employees at their homes and requested return of the "borrowed" flatwareand the situation was corrected. Liquor, meats, dry goods, linens and housekeeping supplies are all items that most people have need of in their homes; and maids, dishwashers, busboys, laundresses etc. are not the best compensated people in the labor market. The pilferage problem in hotel operation should never be underestimated.
The second objective is efficiency. Inefficiency results in two people doing a job that could be done by one person, thereby increasing the operating overhead of the hotel by the yearly salary of that person. It also results in the delay of or detriment to service to a guest. An employee that has to travel a maze of passages to accomplish his job is being paid for spending a lot of time walking. A poor layout results in lost time, effort, tempers and customers.
What is the flow diagram for a typical "back of the house"? First, the service entrance is located out of the view of the main entrance to the hotel but with direct access onto a road capable of handling truck traffic. It should have a loading dockcovered, to protect it from the weather. (Food, laundry and sup-
plies will be off-loaded and stored on this dock and should not get rain-soaked while waiting to be checked in.)
All personnel will enter the hotel at this point. At least two small offices should be located here, for the steward (or receiving) and the timekeeper. Outside the steward's office is a floor scale to check the weights of the produce as it enters. If the food storage and preparation kitchens are located on a different level, a sidewalk lift or conveyor belts should be provided here. The timekeeper checks the employees in and out and makes certain that everyone stays honest. Immediately past the timekeeper, the employees should be separated into two different traffic flows: one for food service personnel, the other for everyone else. (It is advisable to provide separate locker facilities for these two types of personnel.) Once food service personnel enter their traffic flow they have no contact (with the obvious exception of waiters) with either guests or other house personnel. The reason is simply security. If there is any deep dark secret of successful hotel service design, it is a built-in security system. Uniform issue is related to the housekeeper, the housekeeper to the laundry room (and the laundry room to the soiled linen room; the soiled linen room, connected by vertical linen chute, to a service room on every typical floor; and every typical floor connected by service elevators) that open to the aforementioned service rooms and also to the service entrance, convenient to the scrutinizing gaze of the steward and the timekeeper).
For convenience, the trash chute from the typical floor service area is located next to the linen chute. The trash room must therefore be located next to the soiled linen room and, for ease of pick-up, near the service entrance. Depending on the size of the hotel and the frequency of trash pick-up, this room may be equipped with a trash compactor or some other such implement of destruction. The garbage room should be located somewhere near the trash room (ideally, opening directly onto the loading dock). It should be refrigerated and either have space for, or be in immediate proximity to, a can wash area with floor drain and hose bib.
The boiler room usually has a direct escape to the outside and, for ease of maintenance and repair, should be located near the service entrance. The boiler flue, extending to the top of the hotel tower, is usually located in the main vertical circulation core and its location, therefore, is important at the earliest stages of design. If there is enough height in the service floor to breach the flue horizontally, the problem is somewhat mitigated, but usually not without objections from the structural and mechanical engineers.
Telephone equipment, electrical and air-conditioning equipment rooms can be handled more flexibly than the other service areas, but their size and locations vary according to the size and location of the hotel.
The employees' cafeteria, generally a steam table-grill operation, should be located near the kitchen and as close to the employees' locker room as possible. Access should preclude passing through the food service area.
Before delving into the intricacies of the workings of the food service and laundry, let me comment on the services of the specialists who will actually lay out and design the equipment in these areas. They don't really need that much space. They will swear a mighty oath that they do, and will conjure up visions of irate chefs stalking off the premises and laundresses working overtime shifts, but they can really do with less. Believe me. However, before one can hope to cope with

the specialist, it is necessary to understand how these spaces operate.
After comestibles have been weighed in, checked, and signed for, they are sent to either dry storage or liquor storage (a room with a big lock on it) or to one of the various cold holding rooms or boxes. If the hotel does its own butchering it is necessary to know what size cuts it buys (halves, quarters, etc.) and it may be necessary to provide ceiling rails to transport them. Meats, fish, dairy, bakery products, frozen foods etc. all require different cold facilities. Since these boxes require heavy insulation, slab sinkages will be required in these areas. If these are not provided, the floor of the box will have to be rampedbut the person who has to push a heavy cart up this ramp will curse the architect for all the days of his life. An alternate method, if the exact sizes will not be known until later, is to depress the entire slab and build up the rest of the floor with lightweight fill.
Any resort worthy of its credit cards will have one main restaurant, at least one specialty restaurant, a night club with a dinner show, and a bar where sandwiches and/or snacks will be available. It will also have that servicebeloved of guest and hated by managerroom service. Most resort hotels these days also have convention facilities which entail feeding large numbers of people the same meal at the same time. If that meal turns out to be semi-congealed chicken-a-la-king the hotel has lost that convention group forever.
From kitchen storage, food goes to the prep kitchen to be prepared for final cooking in the main kitchen. The main kitchen actually consists of several kitchens (and must have a flue extending to the top of the building lest the guest get an odoriferous foretaste of his next meal). The specialty restaurants) and the main restaurant will have their own kitchens and their own chefs but these should all be located within the same general area. ("Kitchen" refers to a cooking line with its back storage tables, reach-in boxes, work areas etc.) The "common" areas that all of the kitchens can use are the dishwash, pot wash, salad set-ups and dessert set-up (waiters usually set up desserts such as ice cream, cakes, etc.). The dishwashing area should be located near the door of the kitchen so that the waiter or busboy can enter, drop off the dirty dishes, and get out again without walking through the cooking area. This is, however, a noisy area and it should be sound-baffled.
Cooking for banquets is usually done in the main kitchen and then brought to a banquet or "holding kitchen", equipped with banks of ovens where food is kept hot until served. Depending on the size of the operation, this kitchen may also have its own dishwashing equipment. Other facilities include reach-in boxes, set-up areas, and storage areas. Hot and cold carts are another means of servicing a smaller banquet facility. Both methods require direct access between main kitchen and banquet area.
There is usually a service bar for alcoholic beverages in the general area of the kitchen. As the waiter leaves the kitchen he must pass a checker who verifies that what has been billed is being served and that only food that has been billed is walking out of the kitchen. The checker's station is always located immediately inside the door between kitchen and dining area. The head chef should have his office in the main kitchen area, in an office with enough glass to permit visual control over the kitchen operation. In addition, silver storage and burnishing room must be under his visual control.
Room service should work from the main kitchen area, with direct access to the service elevator. It has its own checker and it may have its own "kitchen" usually consisting of a generous amount of grill. (Breakfast is the most popular room service meal.) Storage and setting up room service cartsthese take up considerable spacemust be provided.
It is evident from this cursory survey that all the food facilities of the hotel, from the coffee shop to Old Watashi's Polynesian Luau Room, must feed directly from the main kitchen without going through tortuous service corridors or across public areas. With this flow line, food can be requisitioned from storage to the kitchen and go through just one control.
The laundry size will depend upon such diverse factors as the number of people who will use the pool or water facilities (beach towels); whether tablecloths are used for lunch and breakfast; whether there is a health club (towels again); and how many employees there are (uniforms). The main concerns in allocating space for this facility are the enormous amount of ventilation required, the large headroom required over items such as a ten roll ironer, and the fact that circulation within the laundry is by means of large heavy carts. (No ramps here; avoid columns in the aisles.)
The principal items in a laundry are the washers, extractors, dryers, ironers, sorting rooms and the folding areas. There must also be linen and uniform storage, a sewing area, a dry cleaning area and a spot cleaning area. The housekeeper's office is always located in this area and, like the head chef, she should be situated so as to maintain visual control.
There are other areas in the back of the house, repair shops, locksmith, administration, miscellaneous storage and so forth but the items set forth above are the prime space determinants. They must be set up in a certain pattern and that pattern will set the plan for the front of the house.
Service area for a large resort hotelParadise Island Hotel on Paradise Island, Bahamas (Morris Lapidus Associates, architects). 1. Loading dock. 1. Receiving steward. 3. Garbage, refrigerator and can wash. 4. Trash. 5. Purchasing agent. 6. Steward. 7. Liquor storage. 8. Cold boxes. 9. Prep kitchens. 10. Employees' cafeteria. 11. Toilets. 12. Lockers. 13. Lockers (upper echelon). 14. Transformer room. 15. Switch gear. 16. Bakery. 17. Mechanical equipment. 18. Boiler. 19. Storage. 20. Maintenance shop. 21. Locksmith. 22. Switch gear. 23. Laundry. 24. Housekeeper. 5. Uniform issue. 26. Timekeeper. 27. Soiled linen. 28. Trash collection.

Selected from Architectural Record Magazine are the following case studies which are representative of my building study type.
After studying several resort hotels and condominium projects, I was able to interpret jury feedback and other comments from articles to further evaluate program.
Resort Hotels and Condominiums
These four projects celebrate their environments from sea to snow and thus create enjoyable ambiances for the associated sports and leisure activities. (November, 1971)
The Ski Resort in Avoriaz, France
This was designed by Atelier d' Architecture, and will ultimately accommodate 15, 000 units, hotels, condominiums, chalets and hostels which architecturally echo the nearby rock formations. (November, 1977)
Granada Del Mar
Located in St. Croix, designed by Robert L. Ratver, Architect and Dennis P. McGrath, project architect, has open stairways and broad trellises relating in scale to the local village architecture. (November, 1977)
Resort Hotels
Sites for resort hotels are chosen for beauty as well as for profitability. How the designer and the developer make initial use of the site is of primary importance in the further development of the area; how they respect an existing situation determines whether a new structure will

or will not be compatible in scale and character with what surrounds it. That sensitive site use and profitable operation are not incompatible is shown in some of the following articles. (November, 1972)
Kah-Nee-tz Lodge, Warm Springs, Oregon
Wolff Zimmer Gunsul Fresca Ritter, Architects, Pietro Bellusetti, Design Consultant. (November, 1972)
Lodge in Mountain Resort
The Applejack Inn, Aspen, Colorado. Architect, Donald R. Roark. (July, 1968)
International Resorts
Flaine Haute Savoie, France
Marcel Breuer & Associates, Architects

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Flaine is a new resort town nestled in a high valley in the French Alps (an hour's drive from Chamonix) and it has been under more or less constant development since the early 1960s. The force behind its planning and growth since its inception has been Parisian businessman Eric Boissonnas who saw the extraordinary recreation potential of the undisturbed sitethe Desert Blanc as it is calledafter flying over it several times. Boissonnas' vision and Marcel Breuer & Associates' design and planning skills combined to create the resort's nucleus as reported in record, August 1969. This nucleus included a tourist office, ski center and lifts, several hotels and apartment buildings, access roads and parking, a power plant and various support facilities. Most of these structures were built in precast (from a
nearby batching and precasting plant) and were sited on the valley floor in a design that enclosed an attractive town center that excluded automobiles.
In the decade that has followed record's earlier coverage, considerable new work has extended the resort's capacity and broadened its recreational options. Most conspicuous among this new work is an expansion of residential and commercial structures around the around the town center and the development of an upper tier of hotels and apartments facing south and overlooking the whole building complex.
One of these is the 3-star hotel Les Cradins Gris with 51 rooms and a terrace restaurant facing south (see photos next pages). North, across the town center, are

Yves Guillemaut photos

The Applejack Inn is a downtown motor hotel in the resort town of Aspen, Colorado, a skier's paradise in winter and a cultural mecca in summer. The Inn is designed to attract and cater to both kinds of patrons. An enclosed court or mall separates the two buildings of which it consists, and walkways overlooking the mall give access to all rooms. The skylighted mall with its all-year swimming pool creates an environment as conducive to after-ski parties as to post-session discussions. The exterior walls are of rough-sawn redwood siding. Exterior expression of floors and major partitions recalls similar details on nearby Victorian buildings. Cost was $181,000.
THE APPLEjACK INN, Aspen, Colorado. Architect: Donald R. Roark; structural consultants: Robert Voiland & Assoc.; electrical consultants: Sol Flax & Assoc.; contractor: Newstrom-Davis Construction Company.
Tubular steel railings painted white a sophisticated treatment of turn-of-the-century bannister railsaccent the three levels of the mall area and define the "conversation areas.'-Twenty-seven skylights flood the interior with daylight.
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T i marvelous place is one of the few v ks of modern town planning which appears to be truly a part of its physical e ironment. Granted of course that the e ironment itself is spectacular and that tne resort is a happy community of skiers, the successful ambiance of this village is c ;fly the result of an unsurpassed archi-t ural performance. Everywhere the profiles of the buildings echo the nearby rock f~ mations or the fir trees. The silhouettes ( he large groupings follow or are juxta-p^ed against the forms of the mountains. The forms are witty and capricious, but t 1 function quite well and have an over-a unity through consistency in structure and materials.
S RESORT, Avoriaz, France. Architects: Atelier e chitecture administrators: lacques Labro. lean-lacques Orzoni: architects: I. Hatala, P. Lom-

The structure shown in the plans (left) and in the drawings (opposite and below) and on the cover is the Hotel des Dromonts. Its neogothic character is typical of all the hotels and condominiums in the village. Avoriaz will ultimately accommodate 15,000 people in hotels, condominiums, individual chalets, and hostels. Automobiles are parked at the base of the mountain and skiers reach Avoriaz by plane or cable car.
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First the site, then the scale, then the character: in this order the architect's primary decisions on a resort have to be made. The site is usually a place of unusual beauty and exceptional assets for recreation. How they are used and preserved becomes the architect's responsibility as well as the developer's. "Site use" and "land use" become more than academic terms when so much is at stake. Creative and respectful site use can be the keys to a successful resort operation. Here are shown seven resorts designed on these principles: bold forms in an alfnost dimensionless open desert landscape; four overseas hotels on beach sites in exotic locations, from the Caribbean to the Caspian Seas; floating hotels on man-made sites which permit the needed density while preserving the limited land and its fragile ecology; and a resort which accepts the challenge of growth in a village and finds a solution which, in scale, character and design of spaces between buildings, changes only density, not the town.

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if lee-Ta is the latest and largest de-lopment of the Confederated Tribes of Springs Indians on their reservation tral Oregon. Funded in part by low-U.vit loans based on creation of new job tportunities in an underdeveloped area, e odge is a major investment of the f The clear air and brilliant year-round inshine of the desert location make it an l^'ing attraction to coastal residents ;< to much fog and rain. The handsome il. sophisticated lodge with its 90 rooms, /o restaurants and meeting rooms is im-a nt both for vacations and for small ): rences and conventions. In the vast aenness of this region, scale is difficult to 5fnnine, and a building needs to be both is live and at the same time visually and :< igically unobtrusive. The architects for le lodge managed to achieve both objects The bold forms are, at a distance, i of the landscape; only on arrival in le court is their strength and boldness to e pxperienced. The rough wood exterior inted earthy brown yellow so that the u ing fits into the landscape with com-ete composure. The triangular building i icts the court from prevailing winds.
NEE-TA LODGE, Warm Springs, Oregon, wners: Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs irrvation. Architects: Wolff Zimmer Cunsul i RitterBrooks Cunsul, partner-in-charge;
3 t Frasca, partner-in-charge of design; I. B. irnett, associate-in-charge; Gary Larson, associate design. Pietro Belluschi, design consultant. Engi-! : Nortec, Inc., structural, mechanical and elec-
i Shannon & Wilson, Inc., foundation. Consult-i>. Heinz landers, interior design; Arvid Orbeck, aphics. Landscape architect: Robert Perron. Con-i r: Lawson Construction, Inc.
Ed and Carol Hershberger photos
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side a covered walk that leads to the entrance (top, left). A few steps below and opening off the desk lobby is the lounge (below, right) with its massive fireplace and flying truss. From the lounge a corridor leads to the shop and the long open trestle (center, left) which is one access route to guest rooms; another route is through the pool terrace (lop right). The Juniper Room (bottom, left) with an extensive view to the west is for dining. Round concrete columns support the platform on which rests the wood frame and heavy timber structure. Exterior walls are stained resawn cedar, columns along guest wing balconies are treated peeler logs, and trim is painted orange and yellow. Throughout the lodge are Indian motifs designed by non-Indian artists, since the Warm Springs tribes did not develop an art of their own. The sculptured panels ovei the fireplace are by Spokane sculptor Harold Balasz.
1 Pool
2 Guest rooms
3 Lower dining
4 Employee dining
5 Mechanical
6 Fireplace lounge
7 Dining
8 Bar
9 Kitchen
10 Deliveries
11 First floor lobby
12 Administrative
13 Gift shop
14 Conference/banquet
15 Second floor lobby
16 Council room
17 Meeting

Architectural Record
A McGraw Hill Publication; Issues:
November, 1971 (Resort Hotels)
August, 1966 (Hotels, Motels and Resorts) July, 1968 (Hotels and Resort Hotels) November, 1972 (Resort Hotels)
September, 1978 (Resort Hotels)
Places for People, edited by Jeannie M. Pavern, ALA, an Architectural Record book, McGraw Hill, 1976
Ski Magazine
By Times Mirror Magazines, Inc., Yol 43 #2, October, 1976 Feature The Great Wilderness Grab
Vail Book, by Sandra Dallas, Prevett Publisher, Inc.
1969 Boulder, Colorado
Master Plan Revision, Beaver Creek Planned Unit Development February 1, 1978, prepared by Vail Associates, Inc.
Beaver Creek Metropolitan District Service Plan Prepared by Vail Associates, Inc. March, 1978
Beaver Creek Architectural Guidelines and Design Considerations, prepared by Vail Associates, Inc., 1978

September 27 Meeting with Jack Zehrem of Vail Associates. Topic: Thesis Project and General Discussion.
October 10 Meeting with Jack Zehrem of Vail Associates. Topic; Plaza Lodge Building and Program.
November 21 Meeting with A1 Morie of Carl A. Worthington Partnership. Topic: Plaza Lodge Building and Program.
November 23 Meeting with William S. Wilson, Architect. Topic: Building Program and Reference Materials
Several Phone Conversations: Jack Zehrem, Project Architect, Vail Associates, Inc. Fritz Glade, Staff Architect Vail Associates, Inc.
Russ Coney, Carl Worthington Partnership A1 Morie, Carl Worthington Partnership Building Department
Colorado Ski Association

Project Title: Beaver Creek
Plaza Lodge Building (Parcel P-11, . 369 acres)
Upon meeting with Jack Zehrem of Vail Associates on October 18, a preliminary program for Plaza Lodge Building was established. This information determined the type of functions and activities that will be incorporated in the Building space. Specific sizes for each function were not finalized at this point, although location of functions are indicated.
Building Area: 66,400 square feet
Maximum Building Height to be 4 to 5 stories or no more than 55'-0" in vertical dimension.
Grade Level:
Flexible Level:
Upper Level
Top Level:
(Orientation East) Commercial spaces, shops, retail including specialty restaurant to accommodate 80 to 100 people.
(Orientation West) Commercial spaces,
4 to 5 retail spaces.
Meeting space (one large room with possible movable partition to accommodate 50 to 60 people)
Lodging Accommodations (40 to 46, 1, 2, and
3 bedroom units. Each to contain living area, bathroom, kitchen, dining, bedroom, and storage.
4 to 6 condominiums (consisting of 2 to 3 luxury units)

Meeting with A1 Morie of Carl A. Worthington Partnership, (Architectural firm designing the Plaza Lodge Building), I was able to finalize building program with revisions and specific sizes to each function.
Plaza Lodge Summary
o Building Area 66, 400 sf
o Lodge with Accommodations for 104 beds 18,000 sf
o 4-6 "penthouse" condominiums 9, 000 - 12,000 sf
o Meeting Room space 1, 500 - 2,000 sf
o Total commercial space including restaurant
Retail space with two types of functions
1. Old "craft-guild" type of spaces 30,000 sf
2. Standard retail
Restaurant w/bar and outdoor facilities
150 person capacity
o Manager's Apartment 1,200 - 1, 500 sf
o Lobby Area and Public Space 5, 000 sf
o Support Spaces 5, 000 sf
Lodging: 40 "sleeping rooms" 104 beds
To begin assume average of 400 sf per room. Rooms should have variety to them.
Parlor concept, 4 or 5 with the following functions. Studio Unit
With adjacent units creating "suite" situation. Back parlor has fireplace device.
Lobby and Observation Area (Assume 5, 000 sf)
Office for Lodge Operators.

Other considerations
Laundry facilities Se rvice
Circulation System Balconies (minimal amount)
Condos: "Penthouse" upper level
1 or 2 story spaces
"Luxury class" lots of interesting spaces.
Flexibility in layout and access (private)
Assume size of each unit 1, 500 to 2,000 sf
Retail Space:
Type One "Craft Guild" type Blacksmith shop, assume 2, 000 sf Woodworking shop (furniture, frames, etc.) assume 2, 000 sf
Sitting parlor (coffee area, observation)
Other possibilities include: Bakery, stained glass, jeweler, leather products.
Type Two "Standard Retail" type Small spaces (800 sf, 4 or 5)
Diversity of sizes and shapes possible, creating interesting special relationships to one another.
Service Access
Meeting Rooms
1, 500 to 2, 000 sf total

2 large rooms, possible use of movable partition.
Should have proximity to restaurant for banquet facilities Orientation to creek area.
Other possibilities include: Vestibule area, public restrooms, bar relationship.
Restaurant Bar;
Up to 500 person capacity Outdoor facilities (orientation plaza)
Orientation to climatic conditions.
Proximity for service access and supply.
Assume following area allocations.
Entry and waiting area 400
Restroom and coatrooms 550
Lounge 850
Dining 1,600
Bar and support spaces 400
Cooking and support spaces 500
Investigate various level changes within restaurant area. Manager's Apartment:
Assume 1, 500 sf architecturally interesting spaces Control space
Assume same requirements as lodge rooms.
Maybe fireplace
Other Support Spaces
Circulation and vertical circulation Mechanical space 3, 000 sf Storage types (ski and other)