eTTntal de$im auraria library
A NATIONAL SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER
Architectural Thesis 1979-80 Michael Orin Winters University of Colorado Denver
I - PROGRAM
II - SITE ANALYSIS
General Land Use
Zoning and Codes
III - DESIGN
I chose to design a facility for solar energy research because of the extreme challenge it presented. I felt the final project should be something special. It should relate the student's architectural interests and, hopefully, become a stepping stone toward the career each individual will follow. The unique character of the chosen site, the national recognition and importance of developing alternative energies, and the incorporation of solar technology and energy conscious architecture into a large scale design solution combine to make this a highly desirable thesis.
Through this project, I hope to organize and continue my education in energy conscious design principles. The knowledge gained will be necessary to solve the existing and future problems confronting architecture in times of limited energy resources. As a result, I hope this project will allow me to become a professional more capable of solving my clients' needs.
"The sun supplies the life-giving heat in animals and plants; and it is also possible that the heat of our earthly burning arises through the sun's agency."
Theophrastus 300 B.C.
The Greeks had no air conditioning and no adequate heating systems. The only sources of heat were the wood-fueled kitchen stove and portable
charcoal braziers for the rest of the house.
Over the millennia in which civilizations
flourished in ancient Greece, the constant use of wood - practically the only source of energy led to
massive deforestation. In addition to residential heating, the development of trades, manufacture, mining and smelting made heavy demands upon the timberlands of the Greek world....
These demands were met at heavy cost. By the
fifth century B.C., the first signs of coming fuel shortages began to appear. Faced with a growing fuel crisis, the Greeks resorted to the importation of wood from overseas.... As the distance of the fuel sources increased, the price also rose. Originally rich in primeval forests, Greece soon became a land poor in wood....
Shortages and rising costs of imported wood and
charcoal forced the Greeks to think of substitutes and alternatives....
For domestic heating, the Greeks turned to the sun... .
From Borimir Jordan and John Perlin
"Solar Energy Use and Litigation in Ancient Times" Solar Law Reporter, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 583-594.
The analogies of the fifth century B.C. Greek world and our society of today are quite clear. Compare/ for example, the Greek energy source of wood with our energy source of oil. Each was in demand for the continued growth of its respective civilization. In each case, as demands became too great for local supply, the fuel was brought in from "overseas", and at a much higher price. Increasing fuel shortages and rising costs strain societies and economies. Out of necessity, new sources of energy become desperately needed.
The problem of energy shortages is not new. Time and again throughout history the problem has repeated itself. (The fuel shortages which the Greeks suffered also plagued the later Roman Empire.) It is inevitable that a growing society will increase demands on its local energy sources and, unless alternate supplies can be utilized, shortages will develop.
In the past, the sun was turned to for this alternate energy source. It provided energy which was available to even the poorest, and it was
inexhaustible. Today, our society has fallen into this historic cycle of energy shortages, and is also looking to the sun to supply us with our added energy demands.
Our hopes for ending this energy cycle lie in developing new technologies which will efficiently utilize the great abundance and wealth of the sun's energy, our only unexhaustible resource. It is in this respect that we look to the National Solar Energy Research Center as the beginning of a new energy cycle.
INTRODUCTION TO THE PROGRAM
The program that I have developed is an interpretation and an adaptation of two different programs for the design of a permanent facility for the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The two programs for the SERI project were prepared by the Carl Worthington Partnership and by the joint venture team, CRS+3. These programs deal with a real project, to be built on South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado.
The intention of this project will not be to deal with the SERI project per se, but will be to solve the design problems confronting the SERI project. Therefore, I have reduced the scale of the SERI program to insure a high quality design solution in the given thesis semester, and I will use the two SERI programs only as a basis for establishing design criteria and requirements, to program a new facility for solar energy research; not another SERI. My program will retain the South Table Mountain site in Golden, Colorado. To avoid confusion between the SERI project and my thesis project, I will refer to my project as the National Solar Energy Research Center (NSERC) .
Note: The background information pertaining to the
SERI project will be assumed to be analogous to the background information establishing the National Solar Energy Research Center.
SERI was established by Congress to provide significant support to the national program of research, demonstration, and development of solar energy technologies. The Congressional mandate also directs SERI to contribute to the creation of a solar energy industrial base that will hasten the widespread commercial use of the technologies. In accordance with this mandate, SERI has been established to provide the nation with a center of excellence
dedicated to serving the needs of the public and
industry in the development of solar energy to the status of a major alternative energy source.
SERI serves as a much needed focal point for the national solar energy effort. It has established continuing programs in research in the fields of Photovoltaics, Bio-Mass, Wind Energy Systems, Process Heat, Passive Solar, Ocean Systems, Active Heating, and advanced Solar Energy Research; as well as
programs in Analysis and Planning, Social Science,
Adacemic and University Research, International Programs, Information Systems, and Commercialization in cooperation with other efforts on a national and international basis. This facility is necessary to
accommodate these continuing programs by physically providing the environment for such research, data accumulation, and dissemination and interaction of management, scientific researchers, and staff.
The climate of the Denver/Golden area is generally sunny, semi-arid and mild. Weather extremes are infrequent and of short duration. The Eastern slope is subject to the Chinook effect. In this effect, eastward moving airmasses lose their moisture on the Western slope as they rise to an altitude of at least 13,000 feet. Compression due to rapid altitude loss from 13,000 to 5,000 feet causes the air to warm as it descends over the front range. High winds, with gusts up to 120 m.p.h., are coincidental with this pattern, although the Rocky Mountains tend to block long-duration steady winds from impacting the region.
The area receives 15 to 20 inches of total precipitation annually, 70% to 80% falling during the period from April to September. All forms of frozen precipitation tend to disappear rapidly if exposed to the sun. The Chinook effects of low moisture and high winds combine with erratic precipitation patterns to dry out soils in the area, which further contribute to erosion and runoff problems.
Due to its low humidity, the Denver area rarely experiences fog, although air pollutants, primarily from automobiles, are trapped beneath low lying inversions during the fall and winter. These pollution levels have negative implications for solar experimentation. Corrosion of solar instruments may be a problem, and attenuation of solar radiation in traversing the smog layer may also be significant. The South Table Mountain site, however, may be high enough to rise above the effects of Denver area pollution.
The climate of the Denver/Golden area is mainly too cool for comfort. This is reflected in the 6,000 heating degree days per year compared to only 625 cooling degree days per year. In addition, winter winds averaging 9.5 m.p.h. and high velocity gusts from the northwest, steal energy from a building through infiltration and convective losses.
However, this region posesses an extremely high percentage of possible sunshine (70% yearly), a low relative humidity and low average precipitation; making solar energy an excellent alternative.
Special attention should be given to keeping heat in and cold temperatures out. Buildings in this climate should be protected from the cold winter winds. Earth berms, landscaping, vestibule entries, and auxiliary spaces placed on the cold side of the building, are examples which act as buffers to winter winds. Insulation and massive, heavy building materials should be used to temper outside temperature extremes and store internal heat gain. Winter sun should be allowed to penetrate into the building to take advantage of direct solar gain.
During the few hot months, June, July and August, sun should be prevented from directly entering into the building and effects of natural ventilation and cooling breezes should be maximized. (Prevailing winds are from the south yearly with high winds coming from the northwest.) The low relative humidity makes evaporative cooling a possiblity through the use of plants or water in the path of incoming winds. In addition, night temperatures are much lower than daytime temperatures (approximately 30 degrees lower) and can be used to cool the building at night and keep it cool into the next day.
According to ASHRAE standard 90-75, a building's major energy uses are lighting at 43% energy consumption and heating at 35% energy consumption. The logical starting point for reducing energy demands will deal with reducing these two uses.
Goals and Objectives: NSERC's direct relation to
developing solar energy as a major alternative energy, available to the public, establishes the building and its architecture as a symbol.
Solar architecture, inclusive of passive, active, or hybrid systems, should be readily identifiable to the building and the site.
The highest potential energy savings can be accomplished by passive solar techniques and basic energy conservation.
Major attention should focus on the greatest energy users, generally lighting and heating.
This map presents the average annual wind power (watts/square meter) which is available in the USA.
Average Annual Wind Power (watts/sq.metei
The following maps, based on mean daily insolation, present the relative suitability for winter and year-round solar energy collection.
Btus/sq.ft./day- Denver, Colorado
SOLAR TIME JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG! SEP!OCT NOV I DEC
AM PM 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21
alt 2 4 2
5 7 AZ1 115 117 115
6 alt 7 13 15 13 8
6 az; 99 106 108 106 100
ALT A 11 ie 24 26 24 19 11 5
7 5 72 30 9C 97 100 97 90 80 72
8 alt R 15 23 3C 35 37 36 31 23 15 9 m
4 62 70 79 87 91 88 ec 70 62 55 r 2
ALT 17 2* 35 41 47 49 47 42 33 25 17 14
9 3 AZI 44 50 *7 67 76 80 77 68 57 50 44 42
10 _ alt 2- 32 62 51 58 60 5e 52 42 32 24 21
2 31 35 42 S' 61 66 62 52 42 36 31 29
11 alt 28 37 49 : 66 69 67 59 48 38 29 25
1 AZI 16 10 23 37 42 78 30 23 19 16 15
12 alt 30 39 50 62 70 74 71 62 50 40 30 27
AZ! 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C
Meteorological l J<.a i-or 1 ne Current Year
Station- 0*NvE, COLORADO i 23062
ST APIE TOO IHTÂ£PNAT|0NAL AP Standard tlm< uwd:
longitude- 10* V '
f Irvalinfi ('fiMMMtl V*? (eel
6. A 6. A A. I 9.T
A.3 A.7 ?.3
A 0 6.0 3.1
Siwlr m Kim*!
IriMfM-iaiioa I Maximum
*4.1 A A A IA 4 All .1
Normals, Means, And Extremes
Temperature* F Normal Degree days Bam B5 *F Precipitation In Inc he* Relative humidity pet. Wind t Mean numlier ol day. Avarag*
Normal Extreme, Watar equivalent Snow, lea pallet. g l l X IT tlrnr J f atteit mile fi I Somite to mvl 5 ii l 1. Tem,era Man. tur m F Min. p, *,* mh.
I ll li 2- 1 jl c 1 II ft > r i r & l it 1 >- if ft >- ?! n ft >- If i >- ?! n ft > X n It X. II oca X IS 1 I ?s li J3 J O ft > l Â§ J ii 3 l\ s ll H (- if j: r j IM ll hi ll ll (lav. w mil.
la) AA - 44 44 44 44 44 44 19 It 19 10 o 15 19 ft * 10 44 44 44 44 44 44 96 P p i* P 1
J f N A N J A3.> 46.2 50.1 61.g 70.1 0.1 16.2 19.4 21.4 11.9 1.6 31.9 29.9 32.1 J7.0 47.5 37.0 66.0 72 76 4 5 46 104 1936 196 J 1971 i960 1942 191A 23 i-30 M 2 22 10 1961 1916 1943 1973 1934 193J I0 902 161 575 231 o 0 0 0 0 0 no 0.61 0.67 1.21 1.93 2.64 1.91 1.44 1.66 2.19 4,17 7.11 4.69 194* I960 1944 1942 193 7 1967 0.01 0,01 0.13 o.oi 0.06 0.10 1932 1970 1943 1961 1974 140 1.0* 1.01 1.41 3.23 3.33 1.16 1962 1933 1959 1967 1971 1970 23.7 10.3 29.2 20.1 13.6 0.1 1949 1960 1961 1933 1950 1931 12.4 9.3 16,2 17.3 10.7 0.1 1*67 1*53 1932 1*37 1*30 1951 61 66 47 61 70 71 45 41 1 16 It * 2 40 35 16 61 64 63 39 60 o 9.1 9.3 10.0 10.4 9.6 9.1 S 3 3 S 3 5 1 49 9) 06 94 49 M MW MW MW IE S 19T6 93! PJ* I960 1979 1634 71 71 70 67 61 71 9*9 If* 6,1 4.1 A. I 9.1 10 t 1 7 6 A 9 9 10 10 12 P 1? 11 11 P 19 6 6 I 9 10 a 2 2 4 1 a 0 0 a a 1 6 10 l X 1 1 1 a 0 0 0 0 a 6 6 4 4 A 0 ft 10 27 2* It t ft 4 1 a 0 0 6, 014, U. 012. 14.1 16,:
J A S Q N 0 7.3 9.1 77.7 66. 51.2 46.1 31. 57.A 7.1 17.2 73.3 Hat 71.0 71.6 62.1 2.0 39.4 92.6 104 101 97 1 79 74 1919 1 9 1R i960 P 1941 1919 A1 41 20 1 .1 P 1972 1964 1971 196 1930 1972 0 0 1*0 40 76 1004 * 20 4 3 0 0 I.7S 1.29 1.11 l.ll 0.76 0.93 6.41 4.47 4.67 4.17 2.97 2.94 1963 1931 1961 196V 1946 197J 0.17 0,06 T 0,03 0.01 0.0> 1939 i960 1944 196* 1949 1977 2.41 1.41 2.44 1.71 1 a 19 1.3S 1963 1931 1916 1947 1973 1973 0.0 0.0 21.1 11.2 19.1 30.0 1916 1969 1946 1971 0.0 0.0 19.4 12.4 11.3 11*9 19J6 1969 1946 l*7 70 69 69 64 61 63 36 16 1* 15 44 44 13 >3 *3 13 49 Jo 37 )l 60 3 66 64 0.3 0.2 0.2 2 7 9.0 3 S 3 3 S 3 96 *2 *7 43 II 91 9W N MM MM W Ml )963 P7I 1*35 P J 1*62 P31 71 7* 73 71 63 69 A.* 4,9 4.1 4.4 9.4 9.1 9 10 P P 11 11 16 P 10 a 9 10 6 7 7 t 10 10 9 I 6 3 3 3 0 0 a I I 7 U I 1 a 0 a 1 1 1 1 1 19 10 t 0 0 0 0 0 ft a t 9 0 0 1 9 29 90 0 0 0 0 a 9 019.1 011. i 10. >* 019.1 019.'
vR 64, V 16.2 30.1 104 !, 10 p|9 1916 6016 615 13.31 7.31 *AY 1937 T SIR 1944 1.93 MAY 1971 19.1 NOV 1946 19,4 Iff 1*16 67 40 o 1 9.0 3 6 IM fVk, 70 9.1 It* 111 116 t P 41 10 33 21 !> 9 19.1
Manns and axtremoa abova are from existing and comparable exposures. Annual extremes have been exceeded at other sites in the locality *s followai Highest temperature 10S In August 1701 maximum monthly preclpltstIon .57 In May 1I7C| minimum s*onthly precipitation 0.00 In December lBBli maximum precipitation In 24 hour# 6.53 In May 17 maximum monthly anowfall 37.4 in December 1913| maximum anowfall in 24 hours 23.0 In April 1885* fastest mile of wind 65 from Heat In May 1333.
() length of record, yeert. through the current year unless otherwise noted, bated on January data.
(b) 70 and above at Alatkan stations.
* Lets than one half.
M0SHA11 Rased on record for the 1941-1970 prr^od.
DAf( or AN fXIRCMF Ihe most recent fa cates of multiple occurrence.
PREVAILING WIND DIRECTION Record through 1963.
WIND DIRECTION Numerals Indicate tent of degrees clockwise from true north. 00 Indicates calm.
FAS7F5T MILE WIND Speed Is fastest observed t-mlnute value when the direction Is In tens of degrees.
To design a facility for the National Solar Energy Research Center (NSERC) on South Table Mountain, in Golden, Colorado.
Goals and Objectives: To establish a national center
for research, development, and demonstration of solar technology.
The building should serve as a national prototype, optimizing the use of natural energy sources for passive heating and cooling, while it minimizes the use of non-renewable energy resources.
The facilities should reflect and provide a working atmosphere conducive to concentration and creativity.
Interaction between the public and the facilities will be of major importance.
When NSERC's facility is built and operational, it will become an important part of the west Denver and Jefferson County community. It will contribute significantly to the employment base, generate a considerable amount of activity, and bring into the community a large number of people. Most of these people will be highly educated, have high incomes, and be technically oriented. Impacts will be felt on surrounding housing markets and school districts, community services and on utility services. Simultaneous to this impact on the community will be the immediate effects of construction activities on and near South Table Mountain.
The site for the National Solar Energy Research Center is located on a 300 acre tract of undeveloped land on South Table Mountain near Golden, Colorado. The Rocky Mountain front range rises one and one half miles to the west of South Table Mountain, with Golden between the two. The great plains region extends from the edge of the mesa eastward.
Technically a mesa, South Table Mountain was formed along with North Table Mountain about 63
ago. They are the only volcanic great wide slope which once rose the plains east of Colorado to the This lava flow probably originated neck at Ralston dike four miles north of Golden. Much later, Clear Creek cut a channel through the original Table Mountain creating the two mesas.
million years remnants of a gradually from mountain tops, from a volcanic
At a mean elevation of 6,100 feet, the mesa rises above the surrounding land, providing a degree of isolation from atmospheric pollution. There are no natural or man-made obstructions to the attractive weather conditions necessary for outdoor experiment conditions. The site is typical of the temperature spreads, insolation rates, wind patterns, and occasional cloud cover that make the Colorado front range area ideal for the NSERC experimental program.
Currently Table Mountain Energy, free of
owned by the State of Colorado, South is optioned to the Department of any and all encumbrances.
Goals and Objectives:
The prominent exposure of South Table Mountain will be used to amplify the importance of public accessibility and the visibility of a national research center.
South Table Mountain has an identity which can establish an image of national recognition while it maintains a profile which blends with surrounding communities.
The facil sensitive preserve presence of
ity shall remain
to the site,
and enhance the Table Mountain.
Office space will be the largest user of space. It will provide spaces for executive, managerial, professional, technical, administrative and clerical positions.
Conference space related to office area shall
Three types of space have been
Accommodate 10-20 people and have capabilities for various forms of presentation.
Accommodate 5-10 people for inter-office meetings.
Because of the nature of the NSERC organization,
interaction will take place among the staff in many forms. The building design should encourage the informal exchange which takes place at unscheduled times.
Information Systems Center
The Information Systems Center is comprised of a solar data bank and the library.
The Center should be centrally located. All divisions will utilize its resources and the library will promote public access.
be provided, considered.
The Conference Center is a place which will be scheduled for large groups, including a large share of people outside of NSERC. The image of this facility is, therefore, very important.
The Center will include a 250 seat auditorium, flexible seminar rooms for small groups, a communications center, a workshop, and storage.
Laboratories will be the second largest user of space. Two types of users are defined, the professional and technical support staff.
Open space planning will be desirable to accommodate the changing needs of a laboratory and encourage staff interaction.
Seven areas of research are expected which will require similar space needs.
5. Public Interface
The Public Interface area is where visitors to
NSERC will enter.
It will include reception and lobby area, display of the scope of NSERC's work, and a gallery type space for community exhibits which can provide an additional link with the surrounding communities.
6. Food Service
Dining and limited kitchen facilities will be available for employees.
Food service for conferences and large groups will be handled on a catered basis.
7. Support Facilities
Support Facilities include storage, stock room, shipping and receiving, maintenance, shop, and printing.
Non-assignable space is space allowed for circulation, toilets, mechanical, janitors, etc. This will be considered as approximately 40% of the total gross floor area.
Types of Spaces
1. Office Space
G. Conference Rooms
2. Information Systems Center
A. Data Bank
3. Conference Center
B. Communications/Media Center
A. Biological and Chemical Conversion
C. Standards and Measurements
D. Resource Assessment
E. Systems Analysis
F. Thermal Conversion
G. Materials Research
5. Public Interface
C. Display Area
D. Manufacturer's Information
6. Food Service
A. Food Preparation
B. Food Handling
C. Dining Area
D. Vending Machine Area
7. Support Facilities
A. Locked Storage
B. Open Stock Room
C. Shipping and Receiving
D. Printing and Binding
E. Drafting and Graphics
F. Phone/PBX Area
A. Corridors, Stairs, Elevators
B. Lobbies, Mechanical, Toilets,
NSERC Population 300
Type of Space Area (sq.ft.)
1. Office Space* 30,000
2. Research Laboratories 17,325
3. Information Systems Center 3,000
4. Conference Center 4,000
5. Public Interface 1,500
6. Food Service 3,000
7. Support Facilities 5,000
net sq. ft. non-assignable space 63,825 42,550
gross sq. ft. 106,375
Office space includes related conference areas
Type of Space____________________________________Stalls
1. Employee 100
a. tourist 30
b. business 25
3. Federal Personnel 15
4. Commercial Delivery 2
total stalls 172
Since NSERC's mission is to research and promote
alternative energy re will actively promote bicycles, motorbikes, transportation to and
sources, it i carpooling, and mopeds from work.
s assumed NSERC public transit, as a means of
Type of Space Area
1. Experimental Fields 20 acres
Position Standard (sq.ft.) Number Area (sq.ft.)
A. Director 300 1 300
B. Deputy Director 300 1 300
C. Assistant Director 100 6 600
D. Branch Chiefs 100 21 2,100
E. Principal Scientist 100 8 800
F. Senior Scientist 100 65 6,500
G. Staff Scientist 100 70 7,000
H. Research Scientist 75 49 3,675
I. Research Assistant 75 24 1,800
J. Executive Secretary 75 12 900
K. Secretary 75 24 1,800
L. Typist/Receptionist 75 5 375
M. Clerk 75 14 1,050
Office Conference Room Space
Division Standard Number Area
A. Executive a. director b. administrative 500 2 1,000
B. Divisional 300 6 1,800
Employee Standard Number Area
A. Professional 225 48 10,800
B. Technical 225 29 6,525
The NSERC site has an excellent location with respect to the regional and metropolitan highway system. The site is located in a "loop" of four-lane arterials and freeways, with Interstate 70 to the south and east, U.S. 6 to the west and south, Colorado Highway 58 to the north, and Colfax Avenue (U.S. 40) to the south.
The Jefferson County Board of County Commissioners has passed a resolution requesting a full diamond interchange be constructed at 1-70 where the existing overpass near the southeast corner of the site is located. For this project, the diamond interchange will be assumed to exist.
Surrounding Property Ownership
1. Public Ownership: There are three adjacent
parcels of land under three separate public
owners. The first is an 80-acre parcel at the northwest corner owned by the City and County of Denver and used for its mineral resources. The
second publicly owned tract is located on the northeast side of the site. It is comprised of approximately 83 acres and is owned by the
Jefferson County Open Space Department. The
third tract under public ownership is the Camp George West facility to the south, which is owned by the State of Colorado Department of Military Affairs.
2. Large Private Holdings: Two large private
ownerships are located adjacent to the site. The Bradley-Coors interests comprise almost all of the remainder of the top of South Table
Mountain. The second major private ownership is the Denver West Development to the east and
3. Small Private Holdings: The remainder of the
perimeter of the site is comprised of small land ownerships, mostly residential (single-family
lots, multiple-family, and trailer park) .
1. Water Supply; Water will be supplied to the site by the Consolidated Mutual Water Company of Lakewood, Colorado. They anticipate sufficient supply and treatment capacity to service NSERC. The site will be serviced directly from a 1.9 million gallon storage tank located 1/4 mile east of the site. The elevation of the tank is 5,800 feet, approximately 200 feet below the rim of South Table Mountain, so water will have to be pumped to the site. In addition, NSERC will need to provide sufficient storage capacity on site to meet the requirements for fire fighting (750 gpm with 40 lbs. residual pressure) as well as its on-site consumption.
2. Sanitary Sewer; Sanitary sewer service will be provided by the Pleasant View Water and Sanitation District.
The site has two nearby points at which
sanitary sewers from the site may connect. The
first is an 8 inch line located at the head of Quaker Street. The second alternative would be to run the sewer line down a gulch about 3/4 mile east of Quaker Street. This alternative would
connect to a proposed 15 inch trunk line.
Engineers for the district feel this second alternative may be a better line to tap into
because of its greater capacity. Sewage treatment is provided by the Metropolitan Denver Sewage District #1. It is collected by the Clear Creek collector, a 24 inch to 54 inch line
running Denver. to the treatment plant in northeast
Natural Gas and Electric Power: The Public
Service Company of Colorado, will provide natural gas and electric power to the site. The company presently has a 20 inch high-pressure gas main which crosses the northeast corner of the site on top of the mesa. This gas main may be tapped directly with a pressure reducing valve.
Electrical power is available from any one of several 13 K.V. distribution lines surrounding the site.
Zoning and Codes
Contained in a State Bill are provisions specifically exempting the SERI site from state or local requirements, permits, or restrictions on use. However, the Bill states that
"...insofar as feasible, the facility shall conform to the substantive standards of any state or local building, fire safety, health and environmental control code or any other requirement which would otherwise be applicable." Thus, while the site is exempt from county zoning, the remainder of South Table Mountain, being zoned A-2, is restricted to agricultural uses.
Jefferson County uses the Uniform Building Code as a basis for local control. The following analysis pertains to NSERC.
Fire Zone Designation: Zone 3
Occupancy Classification: F-2, office building
Construction Type: I
Exterior Wall Fire Ratings: 2 hr.
Exterior Wall Opening Limitations: None Partition Fire Rating: 1 hr., 2 hr. if part of exit
Structural Frame Fire Rating: 2 hr.
Maximum Floor Area: Unlimited if building is
Number of Exits Required: Minimum 2/area 3 if more
than 500 people/floor
Number of Stairs Required: 2 if floor area is greater
than 2,000 sq.ft, or if more than 10 people are served
Door Width Requirements: 3 ft. at exits (6'-8" height) Stair Width Requirements: Min. 44 inches (50 people)
36 inches (less than 50) Corridor Width Requirements: Min. 44 inches Stairway landing Requirements: At least equal to stair
width not more than 12 ft. vertical rise between landings
Travel Distance/Deadend Corridor Limits: 200 ft.
sprinklered 300 ft. if sprinklered under UBC
#38-1 20 ft. deadend
Door Swing Requirements: Min. 90 degree opening in the
direction of exit
Stair Rail Requirements: Rail on both sides of stairs,
intermediate rails at each 88 inches width. 30-34 inches above stair nosing
Ramp Requirements: Max. slope 1 in 10 landing/5 ft.
of rise; top landing = 5 ft. min. -bottom = 6 ft. min.
Riser/Tread Limits: Max. rise 7.5 inches min. tread
Vertical Opening Limits and Fire Ratings: No enclosure
if serving only one
Ceiling Height Minimum: 7'-0".
Mezzanine Restrictions: May be wood or unprotected
steel must be less than 33% of the floor area
Light and Ventilation Requirements: Either 1/8 of
floor area (1/2 must be openable) or artificial light with mech. system providing 2 changes of air/hr.
Penthouse Limitations: 28 ft. max. ht. for elevators -
12 ft. all others
Toilet Room Fixture Requirements: 1 handicapped stall/
South Table Mountain is comprised of two major geologic units. The underlying Denver formation and, above that, two layers of lava flows. One flow covers the entire top of South Table Mountain while the other flow covers only a small section of the northwest corner. They are massive, extremely dense units broken by columnar joints occurring every 3-20 feet running the vertical distance of the latite. Overlying this bedrock is a variety of residual soils, colluvium and landslides, especially on the north and east slopes. The colluvium ranges in depth from a few inches to 20 ft. In addition, a very thin layer of weathered bedrock and wind transported material overlays the latite flow.
The geological character of South Table Mountain has many implications for development. First, the small amount of soil and colluvium overlaying the extremely hard bedrock present problems in blasting for foundations and utility lines. At the same time, the bedrock provides excellent foundation stability.
Drainage patterns are significantly affected by the geology. The latite is not permeable, except through the vertical joints. As a result, water drains through these joints until it hits the Denver formation. (See "Hydrology".)
Many rock formations have clay compositions that, under normal variations in amount of moisture content, shrink and swell enough to exert considerable pressure on materials surrounding them.
The maximum pressure that normal concrete will accept is 3,000 pounds per square foot. When pressures from swelling clays exceed this amount, problems can result for normal concrete.
The map above defines three distinct areas of swelling clay:
1. Non-swelling surfaces
2. None or slight swelling
3. High swelling
Hydrology is the study of water movement both on the surface of the land and in the ground.
A. Groundwater Hydrology:
The groundwater of South Table Mountain seeps down from the surface through vertical fractures in the lava caprock. It then travels horizontally above the Denver formation until it reaches the slope surface where it collects in several draws along the south and east slopes. This pattern is extremely sensitive to the increased infiltration which may result from additional runoff caused by development and could cause slope instability.
On-site retention ponds may be necessary. (See "Regional Drainage".)
B. Surface Hydrology:
Surface drainage flows generally southward across the top of the site. The runoff then flows down the sides of the mountain, concentrating in a number of swales, as indicated on the map above.
Permeability is the rate at which liquids move into and through materials.
The majority of the South Table Mountain site has a low permeability with scattered small areas of medium and high permeability. There are not enough areas of medium or high permeability to adequately remove potential runoff from the development of South Table Mountain.
On-site retention ponds for potential runoff should be considered. (See "Regional Drainage".)
Most of South Table Mountain and virtually all of the site falls within the 138 square mile drainage basin of Lena Gulch. In the "Lena Gulch Master Drainage Plan" prepared in 1975, sub basin 4 was to accommodate no further urbanization. Thus, the increase in impermeable surface area by the NSERC development will substantially increase the overall runoff.
On-site retention of runoff on the site is a complex interrelationship between excessive runoff down the mountain side, with resultant increase in gully erosion, and excessive on-site percolation, which may result in an over-concentration of groundwater in the geological strata under the lava caprock and a danger to the slope stability.
A combination of impervious on-site retention on the mesa top and additional retention at the mesa base with long duration outflow may be necessary to control runoff.
South Table Mountain has a low point of 5,730 feet above sea level and a high point of 6,330 feet above sea level, a variation of 600 feet. The majority of the site is an almost flat terrace, which tilts slightly southeast, with steeply rising sides. Cliffs occur on the north side, while the southern and eastern sides are shallower, fanning out to gently
sloping areas in the southeast corner of the site.
Gravity effect on waste removal
Natural drainage removes runoff
Climatalogical exposure for experiments,
heating and cooling
Visual exposure to and away from the site Disadvantages
Water must be pumped to the site
Weather exposure at mesa top
Determination of the slope gradient for all portions of a site is important in locating various types of development.
Roads are best suited for slopes less than 8%
Across Parking Areas - 3%
Natural Repose - 67%
About 300 acres on top of the mesa and approximately 60 acres in the southeast corner of the site are less than an 8% slope.
Slope Aspect is the direction in which a slope faces. The aspect can create a variety of micro-climates all over the site. The amount of solar radiation reaching a slope is important for experimentation, heating, cooling, access, etc.
A southwest aspect receives the most solar radiation, followed in turn by southeast slopes, northwest and northeast slopes.
Wind protection can occur on the leeward side of slopes.
A landslide is the downward movement and outward movement of rock and earth materials that form a slope. Landslides occur when the natural forces that hold the slope in place are overcome.
Slope stability can be disrupted in natural or artificial removal of support, changing the angle of the introducing excess water to the slope landsliding.
many ways; downslope slope, or can affect
Dry, shallow areas, such as the south slope, are not zones of heavy landslide activity.
Primary landslide locations the north and east slopes
Rockfalls are also present on this site. Primary locations are also generally the north and the east slopes.
The units mapped represent the present and possible future vegetative communities and, hence, the visual landscape character of the site. (Numbers refer to numbers on the map.)
Shrubs and grasses
Tall and dense vegetation as the result of an increased water supply and a greater soil depth.
2. Grasslands Shallow Soils/Mesa Top
Extremely low growing heights 1 to 24 inches
Sparseness or bare soil areas between plants
Thorny growth for protection
Plants have adopted to a harsh environment of shallow soils, extreme wind and sun exposure.
3a. Grasslands Deep Soils/Steep Slopes 3b. Grasslands Deep Soils/Flat Slopes
Taller growing heights 6 to 30 inches
Denser growth with extensive root systems These plants retain storm water runoff and, hence, help prevent soil erosion.
4. Urbanized Vegetation
Bluegrass lawns, trees, shrubs and groundcover.
Complete alterations to the native plants of the region by man.
5a. Shrub Masses Scattered
Scattered groups 2 to 12 feet apart
Low shrubs 1 to 4 feet high
5b. Shrub Masses Dense
Dense growths similar to 5a.
Relatively high water availability here.
6. Trees (indicated by the symbol except for #4)
Trees have established themselves in zones of extreme water concentrations.
7. No Vegetation
8. Areas Under Revegetation
Revegetation of grasses, herbs and shrubs of recently disturbed areas.
South Table Mountain is in a relatively undeveloped condition. The Colorado State Patrol track, a two-lane asphalt-covered road spans the west half of the site, high-tension electric lines and a gas easement cross the northeast portion of the site and various dirt roads, an amphitheater and a shooting range belonging to Camp George West are the only forms of development directly part of the NSERC site. Other existing alterations surrounding the site have been indicated above.
South Table Mountain, because of its unique
topography, presents some unusual visual opportunities.
The eastern portion of the site provides
360o panoramic views of the Denver area and the Front Range. Specific views of interest include Lookout Mountain, the Flatirons,
Green Mountain, and downtown Denver.
The western portion of the site restricts
views to the east and to the north because of the sloping mesa top.
On-site elements which are visible include
powerlines, the shooting range facility and the State Patrol practice track.
In order to see short-range views of the surrounding areas, it is necessary to be close to the edge of the mesa.
The suitability of land for transportation access was derived from three categories of applicable information: Slope Analysis, Landslide and Rockfall Zones, and areas of Swelling Clay.
Suitability levels for access range from a numerical value of 2 to 10.
2 = most suitable
10 = least suitable
Most suitable access areas:
Existing Quaker Street
The top of the mesa
The gulch directly north of Camp George
slope analysis landslide zones rockfall zones
Momson Quadrangle slope analysis landslide zones areas of swelling
*0 I tow potential for accessibility
Suitability for development of NSERC was derived from four categories of applicable information: Slope
Analysis, Landslide and Rockfall Zones, Swelling Clay, and Slope Aspect. The addition of Slope Aspect was important, not only for general facility siting but, in order to take full advantage of solar radiation for experimentation and the heating and cooling of the facilities.
Suitability levels for development range from a numerical value of 2 to 14.
2 = most suitable
14 least suitable
It is important to realize that these values do not take into account the views to and away from the site, vegetation, winds, or the existing man-made alterations to the site. Final analysis will also take into consideration these important f ac tor s.
ANTICIPATED LEVELS OF IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Assessment Order of Magnitude Level of Impact Assessment Category Required (based on possible influence, impor-_____________________________________tance, effect_______________________
Low . Moderate
Ai r Quali ty o
Water Qua 1i ty Sub-surface Hydrology Geology/Soi1s o
Noi se/Vi brat ion o
Climatic Conditions o
Adjacent Land Uses Public Services and Utilities Access/Traffic Transportation o
Energy Resources Solid/Sanitary Waste o
Commun ica t ions/Secur i ty o
Soc i a 1-economi cs o
Aestheti c/Vi sua1 o
H i s tor i c/Cu1tura1/Anthropolog i ca1 Facilities Requirements o
ooooo oooo ooooaoobooooooo
OOOOOOQPPjPOOOOOOO OOOOOO 0013 0 0 000000
1 ^ Â£.4
O OO OO
SfftviCf /*NUTTL mnking
< \v x
L!^ III! IJ^V
/ -//' X
\ v. /
/T 1 1 L_LJ n l X LX,
- V A
ill M rH rr IV
_J U U-J lX
/ v /, : ! 'wv Fv A
a i i t f
f -~~f ..X
: 1. > \ / ^
* r i 1 i i / y *' K X
4> . i 1 P 2
Dn c n d*
* > -
E ' I (
<1 nfic ODD nnO<>
CONTACTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL/PLANNING ASSESSMENTS
Federal Weather Bureau
2520 Galena Tel. 398-3964
Aurora, Colo. Contact: Mr. Pautz
State Department of Climatology Department of Atmospheric Science Colorado State University
Fort Collins, Colo. 80523 Tel. 491-8545
State Climatologist: Tom McKee
Colorado School of Mines
Golden, Colo. 80401 Tel. 279-0300
Contact: Dr. Matthews
National Center for Atmospheric Research 1850 Table Mesa Dr. Tel. 494-5151
Boulder, Colo. Contact: Mel Shapiro
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Geophysical and Solar Terrestrial Data Center Boulder, Colo. 80302 Tel.
Contact: Herbert W. Kroel
Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research University of Colorado Tel. 4926389
Boulder, Colo. Contact: Roger Barry
United States Geological Survey: Federal Center Denver, Colo. 80225 Chief,
Engineering Geology Branch:
Robert Schuster Denver West #3. Km* 259 Tel. 234-3721
Geologist: Howard Simpson
Denver West #3, Rm. 303 Tel. 23^-3426 Geologist: Wally Hanson
Denver West #2,
Geologist: Richard Van Horn .
Denver West #3, Rm. 321 Tel. 23^-3385 Geologist: Glenn Scott
Bldg 25, Fed. Center, Rm. 1866 Tel. 23^-35^5
Tel. 892-2611 David Shelton, Rm. 5
Colorado Geological Survey 1313 Sherman Denver, Colo.
Colorado Energy Research Institute P.0. Box 386
Golden, Colo. 80A01 Tel. 279-0308
Contact: Thomas J. Vogenthaler
Division of Wildlife 6060 N. Broadway
Denver, Colo. Tel. 825-1192
Wildlife Conservation Officer Wildlife Conservation Officer Raptor Biologist Wildlife Inventory Coord.
Ken Yoder Mel De Pray Jerry Craig Don Schnapp
Wm. G. Purdy Tel. 211-2122
Golden, Colo. 80A01
Betty McFarron, Citizen's Coalition to Preserve South Table Mountain Golden, Colo. 80**01 Tel. 279-26**!
DeMuth & Eiberger, Legal Councel for Citizens Coalition Preserve South Table Mountain
Western Federal Savings Building
Denver, Colo. Tel. 629-1800
Soil Conservation Service 15200 W. 6th Ave.
Golden, Colo. Tel. 279-1632
District Conservationist: Roy D. Bell
F. LAND USE PLANNING AND REGULATIONS
Jefferson County Planning Department 1700 Arapahoe
Golden, Colo. 80*401 Tel. 279
Planning Di rector: Current Planning : *Advanced Planning: County Geologist : transportation :
Jefferson County Open Space Department Hines Park
Golden, Colo. 80*401 Tel. 279-0230
Director: Ray Prince
*Planner : Ken Foelske
Jefferson County Building Department Mines Park
Golden, Colo. 80*401 Tel. 278-3500
Contact: Bob Jackson
Jefferson County Health Department Environmental Health Division 260 S. Ki pii ng
Lakewood, Colo. Tel. 2386301
Contact: Richard Bell
-6511 ext. 386 Michael Davidson David Steinmetz Paul Gesso Paul Banks Zeke Zebauers
G. WATER SUPPLY
Consolidated Mutual Water Company 10075 W. Colfax
Lakewood, Colo. 80215 Tel. 238-0*451
*Superintendent: Virgil Hill Chief Engineer: Charles Zahn
H. SANITARY SEWER
Pleasant View Water and Sanitation District 17025 S. Golden Rd.
Golden, Colo. 80*01 Tel. 279*3391
Superintendent: John Asher Consulting Eng.: Ken Fenwick (Tel. 279~7522)
Metropolitan Denver Sewage Disposal District #1.
Commerce City, Colo. 80022 Tel. 289~59*1
Contact: John Van Royen
I. NATURAL GAS AND ELECTRIC POWER
Public Service Company of Colorado 550 15th Street
Denver, Colo. Tel. 57W734
*Contact: Neil Allen
Mountain Bel 1 1005 17th St. Denver, Colo.
Tel 624-2424 District Manager,
Gov't. Service : Ed Campbell
Gov't. Service : Bob Karlin
^Accounts Repr., Gov't. Service
(.tel 624-1551) (tel. 624-1535)
K. FIRE AND POLICE PROTECTION
Pleasant View Fire Department 1600 Arapahoe
Golden, Colo. 80401 Tel. 279-2571
Current Fire Chief: Bill Disney (Home Tel. 278-1281) *Former Fire Chief : Jim Bennett (Home Tel. 279-4361)
Jefferson County Manager 1700 Arapahoe
Golden, Colo. 80401 Tel. 279-6511
County Manager: Carl Williams
L. REFUSE COLLECTION
Jefferson County Sanitary Landfill
Golden, Colo. 80401
Walt Lloyd (Tel. 421-3801)
SERI Solar Energy Research Institute Facilities Program Plan Carl Worthington Partnership Boulder, Colorado
SERI Solar Energy Research Institute Permanent Facilities Master Plan CRS+3
Caudill, Rowlett, Scott, Sizemore/CRS Dublin-Bloome Associates, P.C. Rogers-Nagel-Langhart, Inc.
John Anderson Associates
Ramsey, C.G., and Sleeper, H.R. Architectural Graphic Standards McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1970
Time Saver Standards for Building Types ed. by Joseph De Chiara and J.H Calender, McGraw-Hill Book Conpany, 1973
Bradtke, Joel H., "Successfull Meetings:
A Practical Application", Training and Development, Jan. 1974, p.6 -
This, Leslie, E. The Small Meeting Planner, Houston, Texas, Gulf Publishing Company, 1972
Knowles, Ralph C. Energy and Form, Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, 1974
AIA Research Corporation, Regional Guidelines for Building Pasive Energy Conserving Homes, Washington, D.C.
Mazria, Edward, The Passive Solar Energy Book, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1979
Crowther, Richard L. Sun Earth, Denver, Colorado, A.B. Hirschfeld Press, 1976
Watson, Donald, Designing and Building a Solar House, Charlotte, Vermont, Garden Way Publishing, 1977.
Willecco, M. Selkowitz, S. and Griffith, J.W., "Strategies of Daylight Design, "AIA Journal, Sept. 1977, pp. 68 -
Matthews, S., and Calthorpe, P. "Daylight as a Central Determinant of Design", AIA Journal, Sept. 1977, pp. 86-93
"Daylighting in Architecture", Design Process Handouts, School of Architecture, University of Wise.-Milwaukee, 1974
Libbey-Owens-Ford Company, How to Predict Interior Daylight Illumination, Toledo, Ohio 19 76 -------------------
8/16/79 Victor Langhart Rogers-Nagel-La: ghart, Inc. Denver, Colorado Introduction to the SERI project by a member of the CRS+3 joint venture team.
8/24/79 Max Ruppeck Carl Worthington Partnership Boulder, Colorado Much of the initial planning for the SERI project was done by this office. Received a program for the SERI project.
9/4/79 Visit to the proposed NSERC site, South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. Photograph session.
9/19/79 SERI Public Meeting. Denver West Office Park. Golden, Colorado Public meeting on the permanent facility proposal by CRS+3. Speakers include Hank Rase SERI Greg Cavanagh SERI Project Manager Bob Carington CRS Project Director Dr. Ken Touryan SERI research Dave Bailly Dames and Moore environmental analysis
9/21/79 John Anderson John Anderson Associates Denver, Colorado Project discussion and clarification. Mr. Anderson, a member of the CRS+3 design team, agrees to act as an advisor to this thesis.
9/21/79 Fall equinox site visit. Winds from S-SE (late afternoon). Warm, sunny day.
10/3/79 John Anderson Lecture University of Colorado at Denver Presentation of the CRS+3 conceptual design process for the SERI project, to the College of Environmental Design.
Reuben Hechanova Skidmore, Owings & Merrill Denver, Colorado
Initial review of thesis preparation content and scheduling.
SERI Permanent Facilities Project Manager Golden, Colorado
"SERI will not support a competitive design." Refused an information
gathering meeting. (Changed the name of this thesis.)
Received additional programming material and contour map of South Table Mountain.
Planning and Design Department at the National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado
Mr. Harvey provided a guided tour of this research institute and provided pros and cons on the building design and function.
Similarities of NCAR and NSERC
population = 500 people/350 cars
gross sq. ft. = 209,000
efficiency = 60%
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill Denver, Colorado
Soils and topographic review for structural alternatives.
Contacted RNL to acquire the use of the CRS+3 preliminary site model. It was unavailable at this time.
Brooks Waldman Associates
Mr. Waldman participated in an AIA research project for energy conservative design. He will serve as an advisor for this thesis.
Parking requirements standards energy conservative attitude facilities.
set by of the