URBAN DESIGN study
for the development of
University of Colorado at Denver College of Environmental Design
prepared by Mario Yoshinaga
and more business to the shopping centers, the "convenient" places to shop.
4) Lack of market perception; many merchants in the CBD area compete with each other but let relatively rich, undeveloped markets go begging.
New markets should be encouraged to grow so that merchants do not shut off the possibility of making money with a new line of goods and services. Rather than competing with themselves in proven, but limited markets, merchants should explore new possibilities and seek to establish their firms as vanguards in the emerging market.
5) The presence of vacant stores; vacant stores contribute to the image of Golden as a dead or dying town. The proposed galeria concept may help land-owners and municipality.
Many of Golden's potentials need to be explored and developed; but such development must not be allowed to wreck the downtown area and destroy the small town life that most residents enjoy and cherish.
Washington Street looking from north to south in the downtown area.
At an elevation of 5,675 feet above sea level, Golden is located approximately 16 miles west of downtown Denver in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. It comprises an area of approximately 3,530 acres, or approximately 5,5 square miles. Having a semi-arid climate, Golden receives only 15 inches of rainfall annually; its average temperature ranges from 32 degrees F in the winter to 71 degrees F in the summer.
This Urban Design Study presents a proposal for the development of downtown Golden; the study is comprised of the writen report, maps and drawings, and a project model. The report is divided into four sections: 1) The Problem Analysis, 2) The Concepts, 3) Sequence of Implementation, and 4) Recommendations .
A description of Golden's current situation is to be found in" The Problem Analysis" section of this report; the big picture is described through the presentation of various aspects the social aspect, the economic aspect, the transportation aspect, the touristic aspect and the historical aspect.
This paper has been prepared to satisfy the requirements for a Program of Master of Architecture in Urban Design offered by the University of Colorado, College of Environmental Desigh, Department of Urban Design.
This work concerns the development of a comprehensive proposal to restore and renovate downtown Golden. Downtown Golden has been selected as the object of this study for two basic reasons: 1) its merchants are willing to develop their city center, and 2) the writer presently lives near Golden and thus had had the opportunity to familiarize himself with the style and pattern of life to be found there.
Although this work has specific reference to Golden, the writer hopes that it evidence certain design objectives and methods of procedure that are of general significance and that can be applied to the design problems of other small towns whose current circumstances resemble those of Golden's.
Limitations of this study
Limitations have been imposed upon this study by one principal fact: its being primarily a one-man production. This has
impacted upon two areas of concern :
1) the collection and development of data, and 2) the elucidation and "testing" of presumptions that underpin the work.
No one person has the time or the facilities to develop sophisticated data that small municipalities like Golden do not keep. In the present case, data like traffic volume statistics, aerial photos and blueprints of historical buildings were either unavailable, or cost too much for the writer to obtain. Whenever possible the writer has developed his own pictures and draw his own maps. He does not pretend, however, that he has been able to develop all of the data he would have liked to have had before drafting his design proposal. In some instances, lack of certain kinds of data has forced the writer to base some of his conclusions upon impressions, rather than facts. Certainly, the writer does not doubt his own impressions, but he does realize that conclusions based upon them are less likely to impress the reader.
That not all the writer's conclusions are based upon existing data may be considered a limitation of this study.
The other limitation, one that has nothing to do with the lack of data, is the possibility that the writer has not adequately questioned or "tested" his working assumptions. These assumptions, being so much a part of the way the writer sees things, may never even come forward in his mind for review. Whether this circumstance has resulted in a significant limitation of this study, the writer being himself in no position to resolve the issue -
must let the reader decide.
A note in passing:
The writer is well aware that the resources and skills of an individual are insufficient to meet the requirements of a top-notch, comprehensive study, which is usually the product of a team. Conseauentlv, he expects some desagreements to arise when the study is analysed by those affected by land-developers, urban planners, landscape architects, community movers and association leaders. Such analysis needs to be done, if the final proposal is to reflect the concern and outlooks of a diverse group of interests.
Increased cooperation between private and public sectors will be needed to implement a design plan that addresses the requirements of Golden as a whole. Such cooperation is vital if Golden is to solve its basic urban problems. The writer hopes that Golden's community leaders will recognize the development potentials herein presented, improve upon the writer's proposals and work to implement a final package.
Partly because of the lack of data, and partly because of the writer's need to think like a resident, the writer has observed different areas at different hours on different days of the week, during different weather conditions and in the midst of all kinds of popular activities.
As the main street may appear to be, Golden is not a pass-through town.
12th Street is the main linkage of Golden's core area to Coors Brewery.
No sales tax is collected for local Government. From the existing 4% Sales Tax, 1% goes to the State, 1.5% to the Jefferson County and 1.5% to the Regional Transportation District (RTD).
The purchasing power estimated by the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) for downtown Golden is $40,000,000.00 for 1977 and $60,000,000.00 for 1980.
The Sales Tax collected in the neighboring municipalities are:
Wheat Ridge 6,0%
The retail trade is the most representative of the Golden economy and the automotive business, with 36.8% of the total Retail Trade, is the most significant item. In Jefferson County, Golden holds 12.5% of the Automotive Business.
Golden Circle Apartments
In 1859, one year after the beginning of Denver, the City of Golden was founded at the mouth of Clear Creek Canyon by three prospectors drawn to the gold in Colorado's Rocky Mountains. It was for one of the miners, Thomas Golden, that the new town was named. During the gold rush days, Golden prospered and indeed rivaled Denver as a trade center.
In 1862, Golden was named the capital of the Colorado territory.
The same railroad that gave to Golden the prosperity in the early seventies (23 trains a day passing through its switching facilities), stopped its growth when in about 1880 the railroad headquarters moved to Denver.
Adolph Herman Joseph Coors, a german immigrant, started a new brewery in Golden in 1873. It flourished until Prohibition hit Colorado in 1916, when it turned to the production of malted milk, sweet butter and double rich cream, products which were well received.
Total park area is considered good, requiring only 2 additional acres to meet the standard of 10.5 acres per 1,000 people of population recommended by the DRCOG.
At the present time no public areas exist in the CBD area of Golden.
A shortage of suitable houses existis in Golden. In 1970 about 10% of the occupied units in Golden were found to be structurally deficient by the survey conducted for the Comprehensive Plan of Golden.
Renter-occupied units compose a higher percentage of total housing than is common in neighboring districts:
Golden 44 4%
Two large groups of people seek rental housing in Golden students and low-income workers.
Age Structures built more than:
39 years ago (in 1939 or earlier) 27%
30 years ago (in 1948 or earlier) 41%
10 years ago (in 1968 or earlier) 95%
New and old detached houses are predominant in Golden. Two sizeable condominiums have been constructed within Golden's city limits, the Lunnonhaus Village on the Old Golden
Road just south of town, and the Golden Ridge Apartments on Highway 93, just south of Highway 6. Both are about 1.5 miles from the Colorado School of Mines, have their own clubhouse and recreational facilities and are located near open, grassy land-areas. At Golden Ridge there are some buildings designated exclusively for adult use.
The two condominium complexes, though, do not offer enough diversity of living quarters to serve all ages of people. Comdominium complexes could be designed to include different kinds of quarters and need not be limited to the 2 or 3 bedroom, side by side format.
Row, semi-detached and even fully detached housing all have a part to play in a fully integrated, community-styled comdominium.
Such a complex may become a part of Golden's future, but for now, the standard comdominium appears to be adequate.
The positive aspects of the condominiums are:
1) Isolation from automobile traffic
2) The presence of more defensible space, and
3) The availability of open land-areas for children to play in.
Hear the Core area and the CSM campus there are several apartment complexes. These offer residents the advantage of proximity to the downtown area (most destination are within walking distance), but the lack of enough grassy areas and enough public spaces in the donwtown area make these housing alternatives somewhat less attractive to tenants
than they might be.
If not by the mountains, the residential areas of Golden would not be distinguished from the rest of the surrounding suburbs.
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THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT
The CBD area of Golden is located in the space between the Coors Brewery and the Colorado School of Mines, but it predates both of these more modern facilities.
The Coors Brewery was founded 14 years after the CBD started up; the Colorado School of Mines opened its doors one year later. Since 1874 these 3 elements have existed side by side.
The CBD areais limited on the north by Clear Creek, on the south by 14th Street, on the east by East Street and on the West by an imaginary line 150 feet west of Arapahoe Street.
It has a gross area of 2,210,000 sqft of which if 30% is discounted for streets, alleys and part of Clear Creek approximately 1,547,000 sqft is usable for construction.
The building capacity of the CBD area is: 2,578,000 sqft for Offices and Retail Stores, and 3,610,000 sqft for off-street parking structures.
The CBD area is in the C2 Zoning District of "General Commercial". All kinds of shops are permitted, provided they comply with the following restrictions:
Minimum front setback from centerline of the street 35 ft
Minimum rear setback from centerline of alley 15 ft
Minimum side yard NR
Rental and length of occupation
About 70% of the downtown businessman do not own the building they presently occupy.
The periods that each CBD businessman has occupied his present building have been estimated by DRC0G, as follows:
Period of time (%)
less than 1 year 4.2
1 to 5 years 33.4
6 to 10 years 8.3
10 to 20 years 20.8
Over 20 years 33.3
Denver Regional Council of
According to studies made by the DRC0G,for the CBD of Golden in January 1978,the purchasing power of the region could support 136,000 sqft of leasable space for convenience goods and services, and 101,800 sqft for primary goods and services totaling 237,800 sqft of leasable business space. Modest capture rates were considered in these estimates: 30 percent of present
Maximum height of buildings
household expenditures in the primary trade area (5 to 10 minutes driving time) and 10 percent in the secondary area (driving time exceeds 10 minutes). The increase in the capture percentage will depend on downtown Golden's ability to improve its competitive situation.
The DRCOG main conclusion was:
"... downtown Golden businesses need to improve their merchandising to be competitive with other shopping areas. Other public improvements involving parking, traffic circulation, and general aesthetics, will not by themselves significantly draw more consumer business into the downtown area. "
CBD of Golden is facing a difficult problem of attracting shoppers to the area due to a lack of variety of goods and services. It is especially acute for businesses selling primary goods (clothing, sporting goods, jewerly, etc. ). This problem tends to increase as more shopping centers are built outside the city limits. The one that is to be built near the intersection of Old Golden Road and 1-70 will certainly impact negatively on CBD commerce.
TRADE AREA AND COMPETING COMMERCIAL AREAS
DRCOG Market Analysis of Golden Downtown Business, 1978.
The site of Golden is geographically attractive. It is at the convergence of two valleys: the one that cuts through the front range of the Rockies on an east=west axis; the other,that has the Tab}e Mountains for its eastern side, runs on a north-south axis parallel to the front range.The two mesas, North and South Table Top, make for notable landmarks and serve to set Golden anart from other small towns that lie at the foot of the Rockies. Clear Creek, which runs through downtown Golden, passes between these two mesas on its way to the Platte, about 16 miles to the east.
The city of Golden appears to be a one-street town, and the lay-out of the CBD area certainly reinforces this impression.
In contrast with the front facades, all aligned and mostly of facing brick finishings, the view from the alley presents a variety of forms, heights and building materials.
Washington Street, west side buildings between 11th and 12th Streets.
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Even though historical restoration can take place in Golden, and might be desirable, it may not be conducive to business purposes.
A few historical builkings mixed with Golden's existing modernistic structures will not give downtown Golden a historical atmosphere. The present mixture of old and new is one of the architectural characteristics to be considered in any urban design proposal.
Free and easy parking is a positive characteristic of Golden to be maintained. It reinforces the idea of shopping convenience in a small town.
Parking is near limits of capacity, as new developments take place and more people are brought downtown, a new parking structure will be required.
From a design perspective, municipal and private parking lots are currently contributing to the image of downtown as a"hard" area, with asphalt dominated surfaces and few green spaces.
8 Open spaces
The actual park acreage in Golden is sufficient to meet the town's needs, but at the present time only about 20% of the total park area is usable by people of all ages.
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associated with maintenance of the status quo namely, Golden's relative isolation from Denver's urban sprawl is no longer in effect.
Presently, to do little or nothing to change the looks of downtown Golden means to invite eventual assimilation by that same urban sprawl.
6 Increase of options
The lack of options and the surplus of options both seem undesirable/ the first limits an individual's number of choices and the second causes indecision.
Golden is potentially an option-rich city; it could develop this potential by promoting itself while preserving its small town character.
It can accommodate activities related to both the mountains and the plains.
It may eventually combine the life opportunities to be found in a metropolitan city with the easy-going, quiet life-style of a small town.
By doing this Golden could become the option for those who wish to live in a place other than the big, flat residential suburbs of Denver, yet who still desire proximity to Denver's manu business and cultural activities.
The option to circulate by car, motorcycle, bus, railroad, by horse or' by foot, and the ability to combine these means will also contribute to Golden's attractiveness. May be the most valuable option Golden offers its residents is the choice to
work within the city limits. Golden's industry, the Coors plant, its educational facility, CSM, and the new SERI offer more than 9,000 jobs to qualified workers in the Golden area. Since there are but approximately 5,500 families living in the Golden area, one can see that the average resident is likely to have a real chance of working near his home.
7 Art from the public for the public
8 Coors workers participation
Downtown Golden loses thousands of potential customers every day by failing to attract Coors workers to spend some few minutes downtown before going home. And for that matter,more of therse workers could be living in Golden itself.
By phasing out the Mitchell Elementary School and turning it into a Community Center, and by programing some interesting activities there for the workers, such as adult education programs, Golden could draw in former passer-bys and enrich its commerce.
The predominant types of minor art existing in Golden are the facades of some of the old buildings constructed at the beginning of the century. Their characteristic are: few ornaments, no refinements but some good workmanship.
The only building in Golden of true historical note is the Armory building, the biggest cobblestone building in the U.S.
Since refinements are not at issue, many of the elements of the Shopping Mall of Golden, when implemented, could be designed by local artists or artisans and executed step-by-step, in accordance with the slow rythm of a small town.
Gateway and Civic Area
This area should become the gateway area to downtown: its arch should welcome visitors and impress them that Golden is a receptive city waiting to serve them.
Just before the arch, two symmetrical water fountains will be constructed to reinforce the status of Washington Street as the main entrance and axis of the downtown area.
The city hall building should contribute to the positive first impression of the downtown area and should be designed attract-ivelly for the use by the public. (1)
(1) See examples of open-styled public
buildings in Police Memorial Building, Jacksonville,Fla., and Fort Lauderdale's Federal Court, both by William Morgan.
The axis formed by the two symmetrical fountains terminates at its west end with the city hall building, and at its east end with the railroad terminal, whose track will connect to the Colorado Railroad Museum. The shuttle train, an old steam engine should run by to emphasize the train's destination and to recall the past, when Golden was an important railroad terminal.
The axis should be designed with a historical theme; elements of historical value such as old sculptures, old lighting poles, old telephone booths, old mining wagons and other historical elements should be displayed along its length, specially located for picture taking purposes.
The Parfect Park will lose some of its grassy area but will gain in activity. Evergreens should be used to isolate the Park from the noise of the streets and deciduous trees planted to provide shade for about 70% of the area in the summer.
Some picnic tables should be placed near the railroad terminal. The existing rest rooms are to be torn down and replaced with the ones located inside the terminal.
The tennis court is to be preserved. Another tennis court should be added to the one existing and both should be equiped with lights for night use.(this will quadruple potential use-time).
The Plaza Area
The entire area by high and low lighting should area.
of Zone 1 will be illuminated lighting sources. Special be made for the fountain
This area intends to emphasize the recreational possibilities of Golden, and at the same time define a territoriality for young people. It should be designed to be attractive to CSM students, high school students, hang-gliding practitioners, motorcyclists, bikers and hikers.
Basically Zone 2 will consist of parking structures with shops on their roofs and special areas set aside for a hang-glider landing zone and for a flea market.
Zone 2 will be directly connected to the shopping mall and the community center, and it will be to the axis of the gateway.
Thus, after crossing through the gateway, visitors will proceed down the Washington Street axis and into this active area, predominantly used by young people. Tourists may wish to see it better after visiting the Coors Brewery.
(See also Plaza, in this section, in Design Elements).
Zone 3 Semi Mali
Small changes are proposed for this area. The widening of the sidewalks is necessary
to link the pedestrian mall with Zone 2 and Zone 4, but some parking on-street will be m maintained, and a one-way traffic for private cars.
Zone 3 will preserve the parking convenience of Golden, by retaining on-street parking in front of many of the stores which is part of its small town heritage although it is not economically interesting for the commerce.
" A typical shopping center parking space is valued at about $10,000 in annual retail sales volume. This contrasts with a typical downtown situation in which a shopkeeper might park his or her car at the closest meter in front of the store. In this case the value to the municipality is only $200 per space per year the retail sales potential is zero! "
( Ekistics 256, March 1977)
Zone 3A Community Center
Located next to Zone 3, on the east, Zone 3A is intended for predominant use by residents and Coors workers. The Elementary School is to be transformed into a Community Center and a continuing educational facility. Outdoor and indoor facilities are to be provided for people of all ages.
A totally enclosed multi-use area is to serve the residents especially during agressive weather, when they need space and protection for the practice of sports or just to make some exercises.
The concept of the Community Center is to be an extension of the residents house; an ex-
link the Complex to the downtown shopping area and separate the complex from the factory buildings.
Between the Beer Complex and the factory a continuous row of trees is suggested, not only to help reinforce the separation of commercial from industrial buildings, but to provide a shaded area for a bicycle and pedestrian trail, and eventually, for a bridle path as wel1.
Zone 4 Pedestrian Mall
The idea of providing residents with a public area downtown in order to improve the environment of the commercial area, was first thought just to entail a widening of the sidewalks to allow some installation of street furniture, a project that could be entirely funded with private money.(see Recommendations Section, item 1)
A more complete analysis showed a need to create new functions in the city. To accomodate the people attracted downtown by these new functions, a pedestrian mall should be built in the principal commercial sector between 13th and 12th Streets on Washington. The sidewalk should also be widened between 12th and 11th Streets on Washington Street to help people pass to and from on foot.
The full pedestrian capacity of the street is 1,600 persons per minute at a walking speed of .8 m/sec. not considering reduct -ions in speed caused by obstructions. (1)
A busy impression would result, but a very comfortable circulation of 432 persons/mi-nute at a walking speed of 1,0 m/sec. could be easily achieved. At the moment,
Washington Street can be used by a maximum of 30 persons/minute; the design proposal plans for a 300% increase, allowing for a comfortable circulation of 110 persons/minute.
The above estimates are more valuable in helping the designer plan the mall in such a way as to avoid giving it a deserted impres-
Tl) See Peter Tregenza, "Design of Interior Circulation".
sion than they are in predicting actual pedestrian flows. A low density of pedestrians in the mall can be compensated for by "furnishings" (moveable elements, such as exhibits panels, book stalls, planters, sales kiosks, etc); as pedestrian density increases, the street furniture, or in this case, the "furnishings" would be removed from the mal1.
Down the center of the mall would run an emergency access lane that would be void of all obstructions. When not in use, this lane itself would be able to handle today's current maximum pedestrian densities.
The pedestrian mall is not intended to function as a recreational area, but the current design plan is not restrictive. Children, for example, are expected to play near the fountain; a miniaturized creek with some children's drinking fountains nearby have been included in the design plan to anticipate and to encourage this eventuality. Near the creek some rocks and sculptures will be provided for children to play on.
Adults will also be able to enjoy the mall as a rest and relaxation area. It will be a place to lunch, a place to play chess or checkers, and if programed for such, a place to watch street artists perform or to view local association promotions in short, a place in which to be a part of the town's social life.
The fountain and the tower area will define a reference point, for the tower is to the city's major landmark. It will be a good place to meet new people or to rendez-vous with old friends, a place filled with life
and encounters, a place to see people passing, a place to watch children playing and water flowing a place for being with others or for being alone.
The pedestrian mall should be active at night as well, since the appropriate illumination will be provided. Two outoddor dining areas are to be located near the tower one tavern, the other a sandwich place.
A small hotel, pens ion-type, should be encouraged to start-up near the tower area.
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Presently, the hotel area tends to be centered around the intersection of Washington and 14th Streets.
Located in this area are the Holland House and the D&N Motel.
Following this tendency, the proposal suggests that Zone 5 remain Golden's principal hotel area.
Other reasons for this suggestion are:
1) The hotel area will define the south end of the Pedestrian Mall.
2) The hotel area offers a good panorama of the city, the Coors Brewery and the Rocky Mountains an important asset for tourists who 'have come to Golden for the. first'time.
3) The area is approximately equidistant from Golden's two main attractions, the Coors Brewery and The Colorado School of Mines.
At the same time, it is close to the __________
Pedestrian Mall, where the "night life Q3 Wum*. area" will be.
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d) it will give the observer a variety of impressions; while mirrored fronts will give people walking towards them from the opposite side of the street an impression of depth, they along with the pedestrian canopies will actually narrow the streets.
People at the end of the street will see this, but as they progress up the street this image will change. These changing perspectives and impressions, all occurring within a 100 feet walking distance, are highly desirable to pedestrians and will attract them back later for another look.
e) The space behind the false front can be used by the store owner or tenant. Because the city owns the sidewalk, this space must be regulated by the building department, but some uses could be encouraged such as:
If the right glass is used, this area could easily act as a greenhouse; even if the area were not used for growing plants,
the captured heat could be used to warm the store when necessary or it could be vented to the store's air conditioner to provide a heat sink for the machine, thus making it more efficient.
Terrace or display area The area could be used as an extension of an apartment or a store, a place to entertain friends or to show one's wares.
Bases for solar collectors The top of the false fronts could be used to support solar collectors, as the store behind the corresponding front decides to install a solar heating system.
Some other factors to be considered in relation
to the use of false fronts are:
a) Although variations of design should be encouraged to help it fit in the given area, the basic design of the false front should be kept simple and as uniform as possible. This will not only keep costs down, but will add to the cohesiveness of style of the downtown area.
The design of the false front should
take into account:
1) the proportion of the openings (doors, windows )
2) the rhythm of spaces the relationship existing between the closed and open spaces ( the walls and the windows...)
3) the predominant horizontal lines of the buildings facades
4) the predominant vertical lines of the buildings facades.
5) the proportion of curved and straight lines of the facades
b) The false front should not have priority over historical restoration. In fact, the false front can be used but as a temporary expedient to beautify Golden before restoration and renovation gets underway. Work can be carried out behind the front itself; as one floor is renovated, say the upstairs, the surface hiding this area can be removed, and later, when the ground floor is renovated, the canopy can be also removed.
Renovation and restoration should have priority over all kinds of temporary expedients.
c) False fronts should not be located opposite one another, as an impression of infinite depth would be created by successive reflections. False fronts should be located on southern and western surfaces; northern and eastern surfaces should
Such an area would also be attractive to tourists, who would probably enjoy the area's ambience and who might wander there to see a special exhibit promoted by the SERI, the Foothills Art Center, the Lions Club,the Colorado School of Mines, Coors Brewery or the Golden Chamber of Commerce.
The plaza area is to be nature-oriented because young people usually like sports and enjoy outdoor living. The west plaza will emphasize sports; it will provide area for hang-glider landings, for motorcycle and bike parking and for a drive-in luncheonette. The hang-glider landing circle could also be used for ballooning, for playing fifisbee and for emergency helicopter services. Near the plaza would be a meeting point for bikers, hikers and horse-back riders (if the problem of cleaning up after the horses can be solved); a special trail for motorcycles, a motocross track might be considered for one of the banks of Clear Creek.
The Galleria System
Nature of the galleria system
As conceived, the galleria system is to be flexi ble; it is not meant to be a static system that, once instituted, allows for no change. No store owner should be forced to participate in the system, or to continue his participation if he perceives it to be detrimental to his private interests; nor should he be excluded from
future participation on the basis of current doubts.
The galleria system is to be extensive. To be effective as a customer attraction, it must interlink most of the stores in the CBD area.
The system is to maintain, throughout changes, its appearance as a single, coherent whole.
The system is to serve as a public area.
At first glance, a number of these points appear to conflict; it is hoped that the following suggestions will sketch the broad lines of a social arrangement that will be able to deal with actual con-i: flicts and that will minimize the ap*-v-pearance of illusory ones.
Tips for implementing and for maintaining the Galleria System.
Decisions concerning individual aspects of the system should be made by as few p people as possible, ideally by those alone that would be directly affected.
Basically, there are four ways to implement and to maintain a galeria system:
1) through the private sector alone,
2) through the public sector alone,
3) through the private and public sectors working together, and
4) through the public sector offering incentives for the private sector to act on.
The first three ways share a debilitating feature: they require the concurrence of too
" Important design criteria for seating include orientation toward the sun, view, weather protection, and dimension and form. View is perhaps the most important factor affecting the use of a seating. If a bench is not facing anything, it will either remain empty or be used only in case of necessity. Sitters want to see as much as possible of the activity around them."
... in North America, the rims of planters and fountains, or fire hydrants are the casual coices for seating."
Brambila/Longo -"Pedestrian Action"
Several benches, grouped or isolated should be distributed in the mall area, in Zones 1, 2, 3, 3A and 4. A large number of benches are preferrable to a small number. Although undesirable people may become users of some benches, it is usually better to have enough places so that they cannot monopolize the area.
Seating should be provided for all kinds of people ( children, teenagers, adults, elderly people and disabled people) and design arrangements made for different social units (groups of adults, families, young couples, single persons). In the shopping mall, as elsewhere, seating should be placed so as to be easily found and convenient to use.
Outdoor displays should be encouraged in the shopping mall to call attention to the merchandise sold by the inner stores of the galenas. Such displays would serve two ends:
1) they would increase display area without requiring the enlargement of store front windows; this end is most attractive to owners of stores with narrow fronts, and
2) they would serve as new light sources for the pedestrian mall; this end is most attractive to people who like to window-shop after hours, but fear poorly lit areas.
The displays should be regulated by the mun' nicipality; they should meet requirements regarding:
a) maximum size and minimum transparency
b) lighting output, lamp intensity, size, piacement
c) finishing materials and color
d) signs inside and outside the display case
e) location and arrangement
f) lease terms for the mall area on which the case will be erected.
but during special events the mall itself should be highlighted.
b) Existing restaurants ( and luncheonettes) should be encouraged to stay open till late at night. New, (fast service) eating places, such as bistros should be encouraged to open in the area.
c) A small hotel, pension-type, before mentioned would help to increase the activity in the area.
d) The bus terminal and the Community Center, near the area would help to bring people to the area.
In the case of Golden, a tourist receiving town, two kinds of information must be provided: information for tourists (those looting for basic information about the city) and information for residents
(those looking for what is changing). Tourists may find all they need at the information kiosk or at their hotel. Resident's information may be more complex. It should be communicated through contacts with other residents, through small notices found in laundry and grocery stores, in schools and through other informal means.
For instance, many clubs and associations like the Golden Chamber of Commerce and the Golden Lions Club, distribute pamphlets that keep people abreast of current special events.
To facilitate information exchange and distribution, a kiosk should be built to display poster-sized notices. One wall of the information kiosk would be reserved for small notices that announce swaps, garage sales and such like; these announcements would be printed on standard-sized cards available from the information clerk, who would check to see that the notices are fit for public display. For the multipurpose area, a wall-sized blackboard is proposed.
A sophisticated use of this blackboard would involve a "Free University" concept: (see Christopher Alexander, "The Oregon Experience") a volunteer teacher could schedule the board on a "first come, first use"basis; classes would be open to the general public. Monetary contributions might be solicited by the teacher, but no teaching fee would be mandated, though a small facility-use fee -to discourage hecklers and their like -might be charged.
The area might even become another Hyde Park
Square, though on a smaller level, where controversialists of all kinds could gather to pontificate on the burning issues of the day.
In addition to the two information walls, electronic displays are proposed for the tower so that passers-by might be informed of present weather conditions and current happenings. Temperature, humidity, wind velocity, the name of the hang-glider pilot then in flight, information concerning future events, such as next Saturday's Sidewalk sale or tomorrow's concert at the Green Center of CSM all such news could be flashed at regular intervals on the ele-tronic display.
The third phase consists of widening the sidewalks between 12th and 13th Streets, but retains two-way traffic on the street.
All on-street parking between 12th and 13th Streets will be supressed and replaced by sidewalks approximately 25 feet wide. From this stage on, one scheduling principle should become established: whenever possible, improvements in the downtown area should take place first in the sector between 12th and 13th Street.
At this point some may argue why not widen the corner at 11th and Washington Streets instead of proceeding with the recommended sidewalk widening between 12th and 13th Streets? Why give priority to construction in the latter sector, The answer is simple: this sector has always been the town's principal commercial area, and the designer intends to preserve it as such. By setting it off from the rest of downtown, he hopes to prepare the sector for its ultimate role as a pedestrian mall and information center. It is hoped that residents' involvement by this time will be significant and positive. Suggestions from residents may even bring about a need to reformulate the master plan. At this time plan should be finalized, however, so that its cohesiveness will remain intact throughout implementation.
The most important part of this phase is the experience that will have been gained in financing construction. Construction should be funded by means to be determined jointly by the private and public sectors. Bonds could be issued, raffles held, etc.
Experimentation in financing this phase should cement the bond of cooperation between the public and private sectors and reveal the most practical means for financing the more expensive projects yet to come. The experience gained in this phase will help determine the feasibility of continuing with construction of the entire project.
" Designing for and with a client means successfully negotiating between what is in the client's mind and what the designer actually does. To respond successfully to a client's needs it is essential for both designer and client to have a shared and clear picture of what is in each other's mind"
John Zeisel *
By this phase the decision-making process will probably be well defined. It is expected that at this point:
a) A Downtown Development Commission will have been formed.
b) The Design Proposal will have been changed to accommodate different inputs from the contribution of community leaders.
1 "Negotiating a shared community image" Ekistics 251, October 1976, pg.224
c) A more detailed design program including a complete cost estimate, will have been made. The program should include sections covering:l) budget and scheduled) methods of funding ; 3) phasing of the work.
d) Laws and Ordinances concerning the new project will have been written, pertaining to:
. the definition of a Special Tax Assessment District the definition of the rights of use for the space behind the new false fronts, and the lease terms for outdoor windows and kiosks on the pedestrian mall.
. the payment plan for shared maintenance costs of the shopping mall.
. pedestrian zone ordinances galerias ordinances
e) Subsurface improvements, which are very expensive (about 65% of the total cost of renovation), will have been targeted and agreed upon. At this time it would be wise to investigate whether these costs can be shared with the utility company, which might need to replace, repair or modernize its subsurface equipment.
f) Cooperation will have been secured from the merchants, the hotel complex developers, the Coors Brewery and the municipality; all segments will have agreed
a) Circulation of cars
More viaducts should be made over Highway 58, connecting the Lions Park area to the northwest residential area, (see item 7, land development)
The central bus terminal at 12th Street should be the main connection between local and metro buses. Local buses should run different routes from those of the metro buses, and should remain within the city limits and the area west of Golden. The transfer point from local to metro buses should be made at the central terminal. Local buses connecting to Heritage Square and Lookout Mountain are desirable.
Local bus routes should be studied and reorganized so as to be more serviceable to Golden's residents; certain characteristics of the buses could be made more attractive to residents and to tourists. For example, buses could be smaller or could have space reserved for bicycles; some seats could be attached to the roof to be used in the summer; post-office stamp machines and local newspaper boxes could be put on board these are but some of the things that could be done to make bus travel more appealing.
The use of bicycles should be encouraged by the construction of bike paths that will converge in the downtown area. If bicycles could be transported by bus, re-
sidents could ride their bikes to the nearest bus stop, ride the bus, and then proceed again by bike.
Bike trails should be separated from the streets.
When this is impossible, barriers should be constructed to separate bike from auto traffic.
Whenever possible, the bike trails should be located in areas with trees, for the biker's comfort, and near to populated buildings or frequently used streets, for the sake of his security.
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d) Horses and pedestrians
The general bicycle trail route could be used by horse-back riders,by pedestrians as well as by bikers. In this case, the pedestrians walkway should run under the shaded areas, and if possible, should be set higher on the hillside than the bike and the horse trails (supposedly all of them runing paralel). Pedestrian or hiking trails should be made as straight as possible, linking the most attractive noints.
5 Compactness of the Central Business District of Golden
" Where the store in the open market reckoned to keep costs down by an extreme simplicity of plant, the big retailer keeps them down by "the advantages of scale" (3)
With cooperation between the local government, merchants and landlords of Golden, it is possible to implement the proposed galeria system to provide the downtown area with more shops of a smaller size, (see galerias in the section of The Concept, design elements.)
6 Include Golden in a SERI Program
As the Solar Energy Research Institute is close to Golden ( in fact, the closest city downtown from the SERI), it seems appropriate that Golden become an experimental town
(1) Michael L. Cunningham "Can downtown be reinvented?" Ekistiks 256, March 1977, pag. 160.
(2) William S. Kowinski -"The mailing of America"- New Times, may 1, 1978.
(3) Lance Wright "Shopping the environment", Ekistiks 219,Feb.1974,pg.119.
for programs on the use of solar energy for urban centers.
7 Land development
The development of Golden should be controlled. An urban land development policy for Golden must be written, taking into consideration two important factors-:
a) The encouragement of land development to the northwest side of downtown.
b) The discouragement of land development to the east.
The first stipulation is meant to increase the numbers of shoppers in downtown Golden; for according to the Brennan's Law (4), shoppers are more likely to use the shopping center located in the direction of the downtown area of the nearest metropolis (in this case Denver), than they are to use a closer shopping center located in the opposite direction.
By zoning most of Golden's residents northwest of the CBD area, downtown Golden will be on a line between the predominant residential area and downtown Denver.
The second stipulation is meant to separate urban Golden from the suburbs of Denver by creating a physical barrier of undeveloped lands and parks.(see also the item 3 of this section).
A land development policy should also:
a) Make new developments conform to the architectural character of the local area.
b) Require new land developments to be designed in such a way as to minimize street maintenance
c) oversee the creation through architectural design, of defensible spaces so as to minimize police patrolling.
It is desirable to have as different types of residences as possible, to accommodate different needs. But the haphazard mixture of these types in a town like Golden may create an image of chaos.
An architectural characterization is to be determined, may be something different from the flat areas covered with detached houses found around Denver.
(4) J. Douglas Porteous Environment and Behavior pg. 123
ANNEX 1 PUBLIC ART
Some art could be brought to the Pedestrian Mall but less abstract than this mosaic done by Miro
The Park areas could receive some sculptures like those done by Richard Fleischner or Alice Aycock, using raw materials, but scaled to be used by children or adults for outdoor activities.
A mosaic designed by Mira on die Ramblu de les Hors
Richard Fleischner Tufa Maze 1972-3, Westchester, New York
ANNEX 3 Some design guidelines for pedestrian areas
Paving 1 Colors (1) (2)
In Parks In Streets Plants (i) Flints Paving Street Furniture Lighting
Pedestrian light traffic (used by pedestrians to connect two areas of activity) Gravel, Asphalt or Natural Stones. Concrete w/ joints 5'x5 brushed Only trees Existing or just for. shade Gray concrete Pay phone Normal Street 1ighting
Pedestrian moderate traffic (areas close to activity areas, or in the activity area but not the best route) N A Concrete and brick combined Trees Trees w/ colored leaves Brown brick (2) and gray concrete Pay phone Overhead diffuse
Pedestrian heavy traffic (preferred route in the activity areas) N A Mostly brick (2) TRees with flowers and plant pots East,blue and green. West, re, orange and yellow Brown brick (2) Pay phone, information kiosk, pool, benches Overhead diffuse
Pedestrian oriented areas (the core of the activity areas, where some crowds are intended) N A Brick, Coblestone, Mosaic, stones and wood Flowering trees and flower pots All colors All colors All sorts necessary Overhead diffuse, downlighting and peripheral
Free circulation areas for Service and Emergency use. N A Brick and concrete No trees N A Predominant red brick N A Overhead diffuse
(1) Not valid for Park areas
(2) East area in predominant light colors West area in predominant dark colors